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Sample records for hydraulically forming components

  1. Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morman, J.A.; Wei, T.Y.C.; Reifman, J.

    1999-07-27

    A process management expert system where following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced. 5 figs.

  2. Process management using component thermal-hydraulic function classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morman, James A.; Wei, Thomas Y. C.; Reifman, Jaques

    1999-01-01

    A process management expert system where following malfunctioning of a component, such as a pump, for determining system realignment procedures such as for by-passing the malfunctioning component with on-line speeds to maintain operation of the process at full or partial capacity or to provide safe shut down of the system while isolating the malfunctioning component. The expert system uses thermal-hydraulic function classes at the component level for analyzing unanticipated as well as anticipated component malfunctions to provide recommended sequences of operator actions. Each component is classified according to its thermal-hydraulic function, and the generic and component-specific characteristics for that function. Using the diagnosis of the malfunctioning component and its thermal hydraulic class, the expert system analysis is carried out using generic thermal-hydraulic first principles. One aspect of the invention employs a qualitative physics-based forward search directed primarily downstream from the malfunctioning component in combination with a subsequent backward search directed primarily upstream from the serviced component. Generic classes of components are defined in the knowledge base according to the three thermal-hydraulic functions of mass, momentum and energy transfer and are used to determine possible realignment of component configurations in response to thermal-hydraulic function imbalance caused by the malfunctioning component. Each realignment to a new configuration produces the accompanying sequence of recommended operator actions. All possible new configurations are examined and a prioritized list of acceptable solutions is produced.

  3. Containment wells to form hydraulic barriers along site boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, D.; Ramamurthy, A.S.; Qu, J.; Zhao, X.P.

    2008-01-01

    In the field, aquifer remediation methods include pump and treat procedures based on hydraulic control systems. They are used to reduce the level of residual contamination present in the soil and soil pores of aquifers. Often, physical barriers are erected along the boundaries of the target (aquifer) site to reduce the leakage of the released soil contaminant to the surrounding regions. Physical barriers are expensive to build and dismantle. Alternatively, based on simple hydraulic principles, containment wells or image wells injecting clear water can be designed and built to provide hydraulic barriers along the contaminated site boundaries. For brevity, only one pattern of containment well system that is very effective is presented in detail. The study briefly reports about the method of erecting a hydraulic barrier around a contaminated region based on the simple hydraulic principle of images. During the clean-up period, hydraulic barriers can considerably reduce the leakage of the released contaminant from the target site to surrounding pristine regions. Containment wells facilitate the formation of hydraulic barriers. Hence, they control the movement of contaminants away from the site that is being remedied. However, these wells come into play, only when the pumping operation for cleaning up the site is active. After operation, they can be filled with soil to permit the natural ground water movement. They can also be used as monitoring wells

  4. Building 65 Hydraulic Systems Handbook: Components, Systems, and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Dump Buttons OVERVIEW Pump Dump Buttons...hydraulic system? There are different types of dump buttons that control a hierarchy of flow paths. Some dump buttons are used to shut down a pump ...that branch. The use of this dump button is preferred over the Pump Dump Button when possible. Test Site Dump

  5. Report on the thermal-hydraulics computational component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughton, T.; Jones, B.G.

    1996-01-01

    The nodal methods computer code utilizing hexagonal geometry, which is being developed as part of this DOE contract, is called THMZ. The computational objective of the code is to calculate the steady-state thermal-hydraulic conditions in a hexagonal geometry reactor core given the appropriate initial conditions and the axial neutron flux profile. The latter is given by a companion nodal neutronics code which was developed in an earlier part of the contact. The joining of these two codes to provide a coupled analysis tool for hexagonal lattice cores is the ultimate objective of the contract and its follow-on work. The remaining part of this report presents the current status of the development and the results which have been obtained to date. These will appear in the MS thesis of Mr. Terrill Laughton in the Department of Nuclear Engineering which is currently in preparation

  6. Forming of Polymeric Tubular Micro-components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Yi; Zhao, Jie; Anyasodor, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    platform for the production of functional polymeric tubular micro-components. The chapter gives background on the current market and process development trends, followed by description of materials, process configuration, tool design and machine development for each processing technology as well......This chapter is intended to provide an overview of three nontraditional shaping technologies for the forming of polymeric micro-tubes, which are hot embossing, blow molding, and cross rolling, as well as realization of a process chain and the integration of a modular machine-based manufacturing...... as strategy for integration of the technologies and equipment into a common platform. Finally, potential applications of the technologies and facilities developed are highlighted....

  7. Servo-hydraulic actuator in controllable canonical form: Identification and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghareh, Amin; Silva, Christian E.; Dyke, Shirley J.

    2018-02-01

    Hydraulic actuators have been widely used to experimentally examine structural behavior at multiple scales. Real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) is one innovative testing method that largely relies on such servo-hydraulic actuators. In RTHS, interface conditions must be enforced in real time, and controllers are often used to achieve tracking of the desired displacements. Thus, neglecting the dynamics of hydraulic transfer system may result either in system instability or sub-optimal performance. Herein, we propose a nonlinear dynamical model for a servo-hydraulic actuator (a.k.a. hydraulic transfer system) coupled with a nonlinear physical specimen. The nonlinear dynamical model is transformed into controllable canonical form for further tracking control design purposes. Through a number of experiments, the controllable canonical model is validated.

  8. FFTF thermal-hydraulic testing results affecting piping and vessel component design in LMFBR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, R.L.; Beaver, T.R.; Chang, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Fast Flux Test Facility completed four years of pre-operational testing in April 1982. This paper describes thermal-hydraulic testing results from this period which impact piping and vessel component design in LMFBRs. Data discussed are piping flow oscillations, piping thermal stratification and vessel upper plenum stratification. Results from testing verified that plant design limits were met

  9. The measurement of the vertical component of hydraulic conductivity in single cased and uncased boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.H.; Noy, D.J.; Brightman, M.A.

    1986-11-01

    The project summarised in the paper aimed to assess the different existing methods of measuring vertical hydraulic conductivity in single boreholes by carrying out some actual field testing. The measurements are relevant to the disposal of radioactive waste into argillaceous rocks, where the primary geological barrier to potential leachate migration is the mudrock. Also the prime parameter of interest in the assessment of mudrocks is the vertical component of hydraulic conductivity. A description of the methods of test analysis and interpretation is given. The experimental programme for open borehole testing and cased borehole testing is described, along with the practical and theoretical considerations. (U.K.)

  10. Manufacturing Hydraulic Components for the Primary Double Entry S-Pump Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Iu. Kuptsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a new design of the primary pump to run in powerful units (more than 1 GW of power plants. The new construction has some advantages such as compactness, theoretical lack of radial and axial forces, and high efficiency in a wide range of flow. The abovementioned advantages can be possible owing to applying an innovative shape of the pump flow path. An impeller with the guide vanes forms the three-row single stage in the each row axial double entry blade system. The inlet and outlet parts have a shape of the involute that can ensure (according to calculated data the efficiency and stability in a wide range of flow because of a lack of the spiral parts. The results of numerical calculations of the pump working flow theoretically confirm that demanding parameters of the pump (H=286 m; Q=1,15 m3 /s can be obtained with competitive efficiency. To verify the proposed advantages of the construction, there was decision made to conduct the real physical experiment. For this purpose the small model of a real pump was designed with parameters H=14 m, Q=13 l/s. Construction of the pump model has a cartridge conception. In addition, there is a possibility for quick replacement of the some parts of the blade system in case of operational development of the pump. In order to obtain hydraulic characteristics of the pump to say nothing of the electromotor the torque gauge coupling is used. Numerical calculations for the pump model were also performed which confirm the operability. For manufacturing of the blade system the new perspective technology is applied. The main hydraulic components (impellers and guide vanes are made of ABS plastic by using 3D-printer. According to this technology parts are made layer by layer by means of welded plastic filament. Using this method the satisfactory tolerance (approximately ±0,3 mm of the parts was obtained. At that moment, it is possible to create the parts with the maximum size no higher than 150 mm

  11. Development of active-X component for use in web based thermal hydraulic data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. J.; Chung, B. D.

    2003-01-01

    An active-X component to use as the engine for the web-based thermal hydraulic data bank has been developed. The development of the active-X component was carried out primarily for employment in the web-based thermal-hydraulic databank. The active-X component was developed with the objective to minimize the size of the component and the data traffic while maximizing the functionality. For this end, the data is downloaded in a compressed format to minimize the downloading time, and Delphi language is used in the efforts to minimize the size of the active-X component as well as for fast execution time. The functionality of active-X component was tested on ENCOUNTER data package by embedding the component in a prototype web-page under a server-client environment. The test demonstrated that the active-X component functions as intended and that it is capable of very easy data retrieval and display

  12. Thermal conductivity of multibarrier waste form components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lokken, R.O.

    1981-01-01

    The multiple barrier concept of radioactive waste immobilization under investigation at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) uses composite waste forms which exhibit enhanced inertness through improvements in thermal stability, mechanical strength, and leachability by the use of coatings and metal matrices. Since excessive heat may be generated by radioactive decay of the waste, the thermal conductivity of the various barriers, and more importantly of the composite, becomes an important parameter in design criteria. This report presents results of thermal conductivity measurements on 21 various glass, ceramic, metal and composite materials used in multibarrier waste forms development

  13. The influence of thermodynamic state of mineral hydraulic oil on flow rate through radial clearance at zero overlap inside the hydraulic components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Darko M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In control hydraulic components (servo valves, LS regulators, etc. there is a need for precise mathematical description of fluid flow through radial clearances between the control piston and body of component at zero overlap, small valve opening and small lengths of overlap. Such a mathematical description would allow for a better dynamic analysis and stability analysis of hydraulic systems. The existing formulas in the literature do not take into account the change of the physical properties of the fluid with a change of thermodynamic state of the fluid to determine the flow rate through radial clearances in hydraulic components at zero overlap, a small opening, and a small overlap lengths, which leads to the formation of insufficiently precise mathematical models. In this paper model description of fluid flow through radial clearances at zero overlap is developed, taking into account the changes of physical properties of hydraulic fluid as a function of pressure and temperature. In addition, the experimental verification of the mathematical model is performed.

  14. Hydraulic integration and shrub growth form linked across continental aridity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Jochen Schenk; Susana Espino; Christine M. Goedhart; Marisa Nordenstahl; Hugo I. Martinez Cabrera; Cynthia S. Jones

    2009-01-01

    Both engineered hydraulic systems and plant hydraulic systems are protected against failure by resistance, reparability, and redundancy. A basic rule of reliability engineering is that the level of...

  15. Novel Repair Technique for Life-Extension of Hydraulic Turbine Components in Hydroelectric Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Yoichi; Ishii, Jun; Funato, Kazuhiro

    A significant number of hydraulic turbines operated in Japan were installed in the first half of the 20th century. Today, aging degradation and flaws are observed in these turbine equipments. So far, Japanese engineers have applied NDI technology of Ultrasonic Testing (UT) to detect the flaws, and after empirical evaluation of the remaining life they decided an adequate moment to replace the equipments. Since the replacement requires a large-scale field site works and high-cost, one of the solutions for life-extension of the equipments is introduction of repair services. We have been working in order to enhance the accuracy of results during the detection of flaws and flaws dimensioning, in particular focusing on the techniques of Tip-echo, TOFD and Phased-Array UT, accompanied by the conventional UT. These NDI methods made possible to recognize the entire image of surface and embedded flaws with complicated geometry. Then, we have developed an evaluation system of these flaws based on the theory of crack propagation, of the logic of crack growth driven by the stress-intensity factor of the crack tip front. The sophisticated evaluation system is constituted by a hand-made software and database of stress-intensity factor. Based on these elemental technologies, we propose a technique of repair welding to provide a life-extension of hydraulic turbine components.

  16. Thermal-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical design of plasma facing components for SST-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Paritosh; Santra, P.; Chenna Reddy, D.; Parashar, S.K.S.

    2014-01-01

    The Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) are one of the major sub-systems of ssT-1 tokamak. PFC of ssT-1 consisting of divertors, passive stabilizers, baffles and limiters are designed to be compatible for steady state operation. The main consideration in the design of the PFC cooling is the steady state heat removal of up to 1 MW/m 2 . The PFC has been designed to withstand the peak heat fluxes and also without significant erosion such that frequent replacement of the armor is not necessary. Design considerations included 2-D steady state and transient tile temperature distribution and resulting thermal loads in PFC during baking, and cooling, coolant parameters necessary to maintain optimum thermal-hydraulic design, and tile fitting mechanism. Finite Element (FE) models using ANSYS have been developed to carry out the heat transfer and stress analyses of the PFC to understand its thermal and mechanical behaviors. The results of the calculation led to a good understanding of the coolant flow behavior and the temperature distribution in the tube wall and the different parts of the PFC. Thermal analysis of the PFC is carried out with the purpose of evaluating the thermal mechanical behavior of PFCs. The detailed thermal-hydraulic and thermo-mechanical designs of PFCs of ssT-1 are discussed in this paper. (authors)

  17. Problems of the Starting and Operating of Hydraulic Components and Systems in Low Ambient Temperature (Part IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasiński Ryszard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Designers of hydraulically driven machines and devices are obliged to ensure during design process their high service life with taking into account their operational conditions. Some of the machines may be started in low ambient temperature and even in thermal shock conditions (due to delivering hot working medium to cold components. In order to put such devices into operation appropriate investigations, including experimental ones - usually very expensive and time-consuming, are carried out. For this reason numerical calculations can be used to determine serviceability of a hydraulic component or system operating in thermal shock conditions. Application of numerical calculation methods is much less expensive in comparison to experimental ones. This paper presents a numerical calculation method which makes it possible to solve issues of heat exchange in elements of investigated hydraulic components by using finite elements method. For performing the simulations the following data are necessary: ambient temperature, oil temperature, heat transfer coefficient between oil and surfaces of elements, as well as areas of surfaces being in contact with oil. By means of computer simulation method values of clearance between cooperating elements as well as ranges of parameters of correct and incorrect operation of hydraulic components have been determined. In this paper results of computer simulation of some experimentally tested hydraulic components such as axial piston pump and proportional spool valve, are presented. The computer simulation results were compared with the experimental ones and high conformity was obtained.

  18. Design concept of a pump stage with replaceable hydraulic components and prediction of its performance curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugova, S O; Knyazeva, E G; Tverdokhleb, I B; Kochevsky, A N

    2010-01-01

    In many cases, centrifugal pump units are expected to deliver the required performance under varying operating conditions. In particular, the pumps for oil extraction and transportation should deliver a constant head, although their capacity often changes during the life cycle. In order to keep the efficiency at a high level and not to replace a whole pump, the authors suggest to replace in such cases only hydraulic components of the pump (impellers and stationary sections of diffuser channels) that are to be installed in the same casing. The paper describes an approach for designing of radial-flow impellers and sections of diffuser channels to be used as replaceable. It allows for delivering a required head and providing a high efficiency in a wide range of capacities. The components intended for smaller capacities are featured with narrower flow passages. However, the dimensions of replaceable components are the same. The paper describes also a numerical simulation of fluid flow in a pump stage with two sets of replaceable radial-flow impellers and sections of diffuser channels. The CFD software used in this research is ANSYS CFX 11. Good correspondence of results is observed. Difference in flow pattern at various capacities and its influence on the performance curves delivered with replaceable components is demonstrated. Basing on the obtained results, the analysis of energy losses is presented.

  19. Pre-form ceramic matrix composite cavity and method of forming and method of forming a ceramic matrix composite component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Philip Harold; Delvaux, John McConnell; Taxacher, Glenn Curtis

    2015-06-09

    A pre-form CMC cavity and method of forming pre-form CMC cavity for a ceramic matrix component includes providing a mandrel, applying a base ply to the mandrel, laying-up at least one CMC ply on the base ply, removing the mandrel, and densifying the base ply and the at least one CMC ply. The remaining densified base ply and at least one CMC ply form a ceramic matrix component having a desired geometry and a cavity formed therein. Also provided is a method of forming a CMC component.

  20. Integrated Manufacturing of Aerospace Components by Superplastic Forming Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Min Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerospace vehicle requires lightweight structures to obtain weight saving and fuel efficiency. It is known that superplastic characteristics of some materials provide significant opportunity for forming complicated, lightweight components of aerospace structure. One of the most important advantages of using superplastic forming process is its simplicity to form integral parts and economy in tooling[1]. For instance, it can be applied to blow-forming, in which a metal sheet is deformed due to the pressure difference of hydrostatic gas on both sides of the sheet. Since the loading medium is gas pressure difference, this forming is different from conventional sheet metal forming technique in that this is stress-controlled rather than strain and strain rate controlled. This method is especially advantageous when several sheet metals are formed into complex shapes. In this study, it is demonstrated that superplastic forming process with titanium and steel alloy can be applied to manufacturing lightweight integral structures of aerospace structural parts and rocket propulsion components. The result shows that the technology to design and develop the forming process of superplastic forming can be applied for near net shape forming of a complex contour of a thrust chamber and a toroidal fuel tank.

  1. Production Equipment and Processes for Bulk Formed Micro Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paldan, Nikolas Aulin; Arentoft, Mogens; Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer

    2007-01-01

    Manufacturing techniques for production of small precise metallic parts has gained interest during recent years, an interest led by an industrial demand for components for integrated products like mobile phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), mp3-players and in the future for spare parts...... has been developed and used to form a number of industrial micro parts in aluminium and silver, with ongoing work on forming of titanium. Manufacture of billets by cropping has been examined using a simple test rig and an automatic cropping device has been designed, manufactured and tested....... for the human body. Micro components have also found several applications within the medical, audiological and dental industry, applications that impose increased demands for biocompatible and corrosion-resistant materials and cleanness. So far these micro components have mainly been manufactured by traditional...

  2. Engineering design and thermal hydraulics of plasma facing components of SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pragash, N. Ravi; Chaudhuri, P.; Santra, P.; Chenna Reddy, D.; Khirwadkar, S.; Saxena, Y.C.

    2001-01-01

    SST-1 is a medium size tokamak with super conducting magnetic field coils. All the subsystems of SST-1 are designed for quasi steady state (∼1000 s) operation. Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) of SST-1 consisting of divertors, passive stabilizers, baffles and poloidal limiters are also designed to be compatible for steady state operation. As SST-1 is designed to run double null divertor plasmas, these components also have up-down symmetry. A closed divertor configuration is chosen to produce high recycling and high pumping speed in the divertor region. All the PFC are made of copper alloys (CuCrZr and CuZr) on which graphite tiles are mechanically attached. These copper alloy back plates are actively cooled with water flowing in the channels grooved on them with the main consideration in the design of PFCs as the steady state heat removal of about 1.0 MW/m 2 . In addition to be able to remove high heat fluxes, the PFCs are also designed to be compatible for baking at 350 degree sign C. Extensive studies, involving different flow parameters and various cooling layouts, have been done to select the final cooling parameters and layout. Thermal response of the PFCs and vacuum vessel during baking, has been calculated using a FORTRAN code and a 2-D finite element analysis. The PFCs and their supports are also designed to withstand large electro-magnetic forces. Finite element analysis using ANSYS software package is used in this and other PFCs design. The engineering design including thermal hydraulics for cooling and baking of all the PFCs is completed. Poloidal limiters are being fabricated. The remaining PFCs, viz. divertors, stabilizers and baffles are likely to go for fabrication in the next few months. The detailed engineering design, the finite element calculations in the structural and thermal designs are presented in this paper

  3. Stackable Form-Factor Peripheral Component Interconnect Device and Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somervill, Kevin M. (Inventor); Ng, Tak-kwong (Inventor); Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo (Inventor); Malekpour, Mahyar R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A stackable form-factor Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) device can be configured as a host controller or a master/target for use on a PCI assembly. PCI device may comprise a multiple-input switch coupled to a PCI bus, a multiplexor coupled to the switch, and a reconfigurable device coupled to one of the switch and multiplexor. The PCI device is configured to support functionality from power-up, and either control function or add-in card function.

  4. Hydraulic efficiency and safety of vascular and non-vascular components in Pinus pinaster leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charra-Vaskou, Katline; Badel, Eric; Burlett, Régis; Cochard, Hervé; Delzon, Sylvain; Mayr, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    Leaves, the distal section of the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, exhibit the lowest water potentials in a plant. In contrast to angiosperm leaves, knowledge of the hydraulic architecture of conifer needles is scant. We investigated the hydraulic efficiency and safety of Pinus pinaster needles, comparing different techniques. The xylem hydraulic conductivity (k(s)) and embolism vulnerability (P(50)) of both needle and stem were measured using the cavitron technique. The conductance and vulnerability of whole needles were measured via rehydration kinetics, and Cryo-SEM and 3D X-ray microtomographic observations were used as reference tools to validate physical measurements. The needle xylem of P. pinaster had lower hydraulic efficiency (k(s) = 2.0 × 10(-4) m(2) MPa(-1) s(-1)) and safety (P(50) = - 1.5 MPa) than stem xylem (k(s) = 7.7 × 10(-4) m(2) MPa(-1) s(-1); P(50) = - 3.6 to - 3.2 MPa). P(50) of whole needles (both extra-vascular and vascular pathways) was - 0.5 MPa, suggesting that non-vascular tissues were more vulnerable than the xylem. During dehydration to - 3.5 MPa, collapse and embolism in xylem tracheids, and gap formation in surrounding tissues were observed. However, a discrepancy in hydraulic and acoustic results appeared compared with visualizations, arguing for greater caution with these techniques when applied to needles. Our results indicate that the most distal parts of the water transport pathway are limiting for hydraulics of P. pinaster. Needle tissues exhibit a low hydraulic efficiency and low hydraulic safety, but may also act to buffer short-term water deficits, thus preventing xylem embolism.

  5. Article, component, and method of forming an article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Itzel, Gary Michael; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Dutta, Sandip; Schick, David Edward

    2018-05-22

    An article and method of forming an article are provided. The article includes a body portion separating an inner region and an outer region, an aperture in the body portion, the aperture fluidly connecting the inner region to the outer region, and a conduit extending from an outer surface of the body portion at the aperture and being arranged and disposed to controllably direct fluid from the inner region to the outer region. The method includes providing a body portion separating an inner region and an outer region, providing an aperture in the body portion, and forming a conduit over the aperture, the conduit extending from an outer surface of the body portion and being arranged and disposed to controllably direct fluid from the inner region to the outer region. The article is arranged and disposed for insertion within a hot gas path component.

  6. Steady state and transient thermal-hydraulic characterization of full-scale ITER divertor plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tincani, A.; Malavasi, A.; Ricapito, I.; Riccardi, B.; Di Maio, P.A.; Vella, G.

    2007-01-01

    In the frame of the activities related to ITER divertor R and D, ENEA CR Brasimone was charged by EFDA (European Fusion Design Agreement) to investigate the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the full-scale divertor plasma facing components, i.e. Inner Vertical Target, Dome Liner and Outer Vertical Target, both in steady state and during draining and drying transient. More in detail, for each PFC, the first phase of the work is the steady state hydraulic characterization which consists of: - measurements of pressure drops at different temperatures; - determination of the velocity distribution in the internal channels; - check the possible insurgence of cavitation. The subsequent phase of the thermal-hydraulic characterization foresees a testing campaign of draining and drying procedure by means of a suitable gas flow. The objective of this experimental procedure is to eliminate in the most efficient way the residual amount of water after gravity discharge. In order to accomplish this experimental campaign a significant modification of CEF1 loop has been designed and realized. This paper presents, first of all, the experimental set-up, the agreed test matrix and the achieved results for both steady state and transient tests. Moreover, the level of the implementation of a predictive hydraulic model, based on RELAP 5 code, as well as its results are described, discussed and compared with the experimental ones. (orig.)

  7. Thermal hydraulic considerations in liquid-metal-cooled components of tokamak fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picologlou, B.F.; Reed, C.B.; Hua, T.Q.

    1989-01-01

    The basic considerations of MHD thermal hydraulics for liquid-metal-cooled blankets and first walls of tokamak fusion reactors are discussed. The liquid-metal MHD program of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) dedicated to analytical and experimental investigations of reactor relevant MHD flows and development of relevant thermal hydraulic design tools is presented. The status of the experimental program and examples of local velocity measurements are given. An account of the MHD codes developed to date at ANL is also presented as is an example of a 3-D thermal hydraulic analysis carried out with such codes. Finally, near term plans for experimental investigations and code development are outlined. 20 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  8. Sheet-bulk metal formingforming of functional components from sheet metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merklein Marion

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an overview on the application of sheet-bulk metal forming operations in both scientific and industrial environment. Beginning with the need for an innovative forming technology, the definition of this new process class is introduced. The rising challenges of the application of bulk metal forming operations on sheet metals are presented and the demand on a holistic investigation of this topic is motivated. With the help of examples from established production processes, the latest state of technology and the lack on fundamental knowledge is shown. Furthermore, perspectives regarding new research topics within sheet-bulk metal forming are presented. These focus on processing strategies to improve the quality of functional components by the application of process-adapted semi-finished products as well as the local adaption of the tribological system.

  9. The measurement of the vertical component of hydraulic conductivity in single-cased and uncased boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.H.; Noy, D.J.; Brightman, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The project aimed to assess the different existing methods of measuring vertical hydraulic conductivity in single boreholes by carrying out some actual field testing. A review of existing techniques for both field practice and analysis of the results is reported. After consideration of the various techniques a combination method of testing is proposed. A set of equipment to carry out this combination of tests was designed and built. The uncased testing revealed that it was possible to derive a value for vertical hydraulic conductivity. The doublet method, however, was not particularly successful and numerical simulation was cumbersome. The type-curve approach of appraising whether or not analysis concepts were appropriate proved the most robust method. It is clear that reconnaissance measurements of environmental pressure are very useful in defining where detailed testing should take place. The second phase of testing through perforations proved very difficult. There were many problems associated with location both of the wireline testing system within the borehole and especially of the previous measurements. However, analysis of the results in terms of skin indicated that the perforations produced a negative skin. The measurement of vertical hydraulic conductivity cannot at the moment be regarded as routine

  10. Three-component hydraulic penile prosthesis malfunction due to penile fibrolipoma secondary to augmentative phalloplasty: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Antonini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibrolipomas are an infrequent type of lipomas. We describe a case of a man suffering from subcutaneous penile fibrolipoma, who twelve months earlier has been submitted to augmentative phalloplasty due to aesthetic dysmorphophobia. The same patient three years earlier has been submitted to three-component hydraulic penile prostheses implantation due to erectile dysfunction. After six months from removing of the mass, the penile elongation and penile enlargement were stable, the prostheses were correctly functioning and the patient was satisfied with his sexual intercourse and life. The diagnostics and surgical characteristics of this case are reported.

  11. Dual phase magnetic material component and method of forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Laura Cerully; DiDomizio, Richard; Johnson, Francis

    2017-04-25

    A magnetic component having intermixed first and second regions, and a method of preparing that magnetic component are disclosed. The first region includes a magnetic phase and the second region includes a non-magnetic phase. The method includes mechanically masking pre-selected sections of a surface portion of the component by using a nitrogen stop-off material and heat-treating the component in a nitrogen-rich atmosphere at a temperature greater than about 900.degree. C. Both the first and second regions are substantially free of carbon, or contain only limited amounts of carbon; and the second region includes greater than about 0.1 weight % of nitrogen.

  12. The Thermal-hydraulic Analysis for the Aging Effect of the Component in CANDU-6 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Jun Ho; Jung, Jong Yeob

    2014-01-01

    CANDU reactor consists of a lot of components, including pressure tube, reactor pump, steam generator, feeder pipe, and so on. These components become to have the aging characteristics as the reactor operates for a long time. The aging phenomena of these components lead to the change of operating parameters, and it finally results to the decrease of the operating safety margin. Actually, due to the aging characteristics of components, CANDU reactor power plant has the operating license for the duration of 30 years and the plant regularly check the plant operating state in the overhaul period. As the reactor experiences the aging, the reactor operators should reduce the reactor power level in order to keep the minimum safety margin, and it results to the deficit of economical profit. Therefore, in order to establish the safety margin for the aged reactor, the aging characteristics for components should be analyzed and the effect of aging of components on the operating parameter should be studied. In this study, the aging characteristics of components are analyzed and revealed how the aging of components affects to the operating parameter by using NUCIRC code. Finally, by scrutinizing the effect of operating parameter on the operating safety margin, the effect of aging of components on the safety margin has been revealed

  13. Research and Development (R&D) on Advanced Nonstructural Materials. Delivery Order 0001: Study of Hydraulic System Component Storage With Operational and Rust-Inhibited Hydraulic Fluids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gschwender, Lois J; Snyder Jr, Carl E; Sharma, Shashi K; Jenney, Tim; Campo, Angela

    2004-01-01

    .... Jars, containing bearings and pistons, as well as hydraulic pumps were stored for up to 3 years in a laboratory environment to determine if operational fluids would protect them from rusting during storage...

  14. Conversion of the thermal hydraulics components of Almaraz NPP model from RELAP5 into TRAC-M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queral, C.; Mulas, J.; Collazo, I.; Concejal, A.; Burbano, N.; Gallego, I.; Lopez Lechas, A.

    2002-01-01

    In the scope of a joint project between the Spanish Nuclear Regulatory Commission (CSN) and the electric energy industry of Spain (UNESA) on the USNRC state-of-the-art thermal hydraulic code, TRAC-M, there is a task relating to the translation of the Spanish NPP models from other TH codes to the new one. As part of this project, our team is working on the translation of Almaraz NPP model from RELAP5/MOD3.2 to TRAC-M. At present, several portions of the input deck have been converted to TRAC-M, and the output data have also been compared with RELAP5 data. This paper refers to the translation of the following thermal hydraulic models: pressurizer, hot and cold legs (including the pumps and the injection systems), and steam generators. The comparison of the results obtained with both codes shows a good agreement. However, some difficulties have been found in the translation of some code components, like pipes, heat structures, pumps, branchs, valves and boundary conditions. In this paper, these translation problems and their solutions are described.(author)

  15. The hydraulic wheel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Cardona, A.

    1985-01-01

    The present article this dedicated to recover a technology that key in disuse for the appearance of other techniques. It is the hydraulic wheel with their multiple possibilities to use their energy mechanical rotational in direct form or to generate electricity directly in the fields in the place and to avoid the high cost of transport and transformation. The basic theory is described that consists in: the power of the currents of water and the hydraulic receivers. The power of the currents is determined knowing the flow and east knowing the section of the flow and its speed; they are given you formulate to know these and direct mensuration methods by means of floodgates, drains and jumps of water. The hydraulic receivers or properly this hydraulic wheels that are the machines in those that the water acts like main force and they are designed to transmit the biggest proportion possible of absolute work of the water, the hydraulic wheels of horizontal axis are the common and they are divided in: you rotate with water for under, you rotate with side water and wheels with water for above. It is analyzed each one of them, their components are described; the conditions that should complete to produce a certain power and formulate them to calculate it. There are 25 descriptive figures of the different hydraulic wheels

  16. Cavitation Erosion in Hydraulic Turbine Components and Mitigation by Coatings: Current Status and Future Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raghuvir; Tiwari, S. K.; Mishra, Suman K.

    2012-07-01

    Cavitation erosion is a frequently observed phenomenon in underwater engineering materials and is the primary reason for component failure. The damage due to cavitation erosion is not yet fully understood, as it is influenced by several parameters, such as hydrodynamics, component design, environment, and material chemistry. This article gives an overview of the current state of understanding of cavitation erosion of materials used in hydroturbines, coatings and coating methodologies for combating cavitation erosion, and methods to characterize cavitation erosion. No single material property fully characterizes the resistance to cavitation erosion. The combination of ultimate resilience, hardness, and toughness rather may be useful to estimate the cavitation erosion resistance of material. Improved hydrodynamic design and appropriate surface engineering practices reduce damage due to cavitation erosion. The coatings suggested for combating the cavitation erosion encompasses carbides (WC Cr2C3, Cr3C2, 20CrC-80WC), cermets of different compositions (e.g., 56W2C/Ni/Cr, 41WC/Ni/Cr/Co), intermetallic composites, intermetallic matrix composites with TiC reinforcement, composite nitrides such as TiAlN and elastomers. A few of them have also been used commercially. Thermal spraying, arc plasma spraying, and high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) processes have been used commercially to apply the coatings. Boronizing, laser surface hardening and cladding, chemical vapor deposition, physical vapor deposition, and plasma nitriding have been tried for surface treatments at laboratory levels and have shown promise to be used on actual components.

  17. Thermal-hydraulic limitations on water-cooled fusion reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Y.S.; Misra, B.

    1986-01-01

    An assessment of the cooling requirements for fusion reactor components, such as the first wall and limiter/divertor, was carried out using pressurized water as the coolant. In order to establish the coolant operating conditions, a survey of the literature on departure from nucleate boiling, critical heat flux, asymmetrical heating and heat transfer augmentation techniques was carried out. The experimental data and the empirical correlations indicate that thermal protection for the fusion reactor components based on conventional design concepts can be provided with an adequate margin of safety without resorting to either high coolant velocities, excessive coolant pressures, or heat transfer augmentation techniques. If, however, the future designs require unconventional shapes or heat transfer enhancement techniques, experimental verification would be necessary since no data on heat transfer augmentation techniques exist for complex geometries, especially under asymmetrically heated conditions. Since the data presented herein are concerned primarily with thermal protection of the reactor components, the final design should consider other factors such as thermal stresses, temperature limits, and fatigue

  18. Developmental assessment of the multidimensional component in RELAP5 for Savannah River Site thermal hydraulic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, R.G.; Johnson, E.C.; Carlson, K.E.; Chou, C.Y.; Davis, C.B.; Martin, R.P.; Riemke, R.A.; Wagner, R.J.

    1992-07-01

    This report documents ten developmental assessment problems which were used to test the multidimensional component in RELAP5/MOD2.5, Version 3w. The problems chosen were a rigid body rotation problem, a pure radial symmetric flow problem, an r-θ symmetric flow problem, a fall problem, a rest problem, a basic one-dimensional flow test problem, a gravity wave problem, a tank draining problem, a flow through the center problem, and coverage analysis using PIXIE. The multidimensional code calculations are compared to analytical solutions and one-dimensional code calculations. The discussion section of each problem contains information relative to the code's ability to simulate these problems

  19. Laser/fluorescent dye flow visualization technique developed for system component thermal hydraulic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oras, J.J.; Kasza, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    A novel laser flow visualization technique is presented together with examples of its use in visualizing complex flow patterns and plans for its further development. This technique has been successfully used to study (1) the flow in a horizontal pipe subject to temperature transients, to view the formation and breakup of thermally stratified flow and to determine instantaneous velocity distributions in the same flow at various axial locations; (2) the discharge of a stratified pipe flow into a plenum exhibiting a periodic vortex pattern; and (3) the thermal-buoyancy-induced flow channeling on the shell side of a heat exchanger with glass tubes and shell. This application of the technique to heat exchangers is unique. The flow patterns deep within a large tube bundle can be studied under steady or transient conditions. This laser flow visualization technique constitutes a very powerful tool for studying single or multiphase flows in complex thermal system components

  20. Hydraulic Yaw System for Wind Turbines with New Compact Hydraulic Motor Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rasmus Mørk; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new hydraulic yaw system for wind turbines. The basic component is a new type of hydraulic motor characterized by an extraordinary high specific displacement yielding high output torque in a compact form. The focus in the paper is the volumetric efficiency of the motor, which...

  1. Precision reconstruction of manufactured free-form components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristic, Mihailo; Brujic, Djordje; Ainsworth, Iain

    2000-03-01

    Manufacturing needs in many industries, especially the aerospace and the automotive, involve CAD remodeling of manufactured free-form parts using NURBS. This is typically performed as part of 'first article inspection' or 'closing the design loop.' The reconstructed model must satisfy requirements such as accuracy, compatibility with the original CAD model and adherence to various constraints. The paper outlines a methodology for realizing this task. Efficiency and quality of the results are achieved by utilizing the nominal CAD model. It is argued that measurement and remodeling steps are equally important. We explain how the measurement was optimized in terms of accuracy, point distribution and measuring speed using a CMM. Remodeling steps include registration, data segmentation, parameterization and surface fitting. Enforcement of constraints such as continuity was performed as part of the surface fitting process. It was found necessary that the relevant algorithms are able to perform in the presence of measurement noise, while making no special assumptions about regularity of data distribution. In order to deal with real life situations, a number of supporting functions for geometric modeling were required and these are described. The presented methodology was applied using real aeroengine parts and the experimental results are presented.

  2. Consideration of a design optimization method for advanced nuclear power plant thermal-hydraulic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridluan, Artit; Tokuhiro, Akira; Manic, Milos; Patterson, Michael; Danchus, William

    2009-01-01

    In order to meet the global energy demand and also mitigate climate change, we anticipate a significant resurgence of nuclear power in the next 50 years. Globally, Generation III plants (ABWR) have been built; Gen' III+ plants (EPR, AP1000 others) are anticipated in the near term. The U.S. DOE and Japan are respectively pursuing the NGNP and MSFR. There is renewed interest in closing the fuel cycle and gradually introducing the fast reactor into the LWR-dominated global fleet. In order to meet Generation IV criteria, i.e. thermal efficiency, inherent safety, proliferation resistance and economic competitiveness, plant and energy conversion system engineering design have to increasingly meet strict design criteria with reduced margin for reliable safety and uncertainties. Here, we considered a design optimization approach using an anticipated NGNP thermal system component as a Case Study. A systematic, efficient methodology is needed to reduce time consuming trial-and-error and computationally-intensive analyses. We thus developed a design optimization method linking three elements; that is, benchmarked CFD used as a 'design tool', artificial neural networks (ANN) to accommodate non-linear system behavior and enhancement of the 'design space', and finally, response surface methodology (RSM) to optimize the design solution with targeted constraints. The paper presents the methodology including guiding principles, an integration of CFD into design theory and practice, consideration of system non-linearities (such as fluctuating operating conditions) and systematic enhancement of the design space via application of ANN, and a stochastic optimization approach (RSM) with targeted constraints. Results from a Case Study optimizing the printed circuit heat exchanger for the NGNP energy conversion system will be presented. (author)

  3. Substantiation of the hydrodynamic disintegration of hydraulic fluid’s mineral component of high-clay sand in precious metals placers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.P. Khrunina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available General regularities and theoretical approaches determining hydroimpulsive effects on the mineral component of the hydraulic fluid are analyzed, with reference to the disintegration of high-clay sands of gold-bearing placers. Theoretical conclusions on the hydrodynamic effect on the solid component of the hydraulic fluid give insight into emerging processes in multicomponent media under hydrodynamic influences initiated by various sources of physical and mechanical influence. It is noted that the theoretical justification of the structurally complex hydrodynamic effect on the hydraulic fluid with the formation of phenomena arising from the collision of solid components with each other and obstacles includes the consideration of changes in such force characteristics as speed, pressure, flow power, and also changes in design parameters and characteristics of the environment. A conceptual approach is given to the theoretical substantiation of the disintegration of the hydraulic fluid’s mineral component using the example of the proposed installation. Calculation of economic indicators for the use of a hydrodynamic generator in comparison with processes based on known technologies has shown significant advantages of using the proposed installation, which can increase productivity and quality production indicators.

  4. Method of forming a ceramic matrix composite and a ceramic matrix component

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Diego, Peter; Zhang, James

    2017-05-30

    A method of forming a ceramic matrix composite component includes providing a formed ceramic member having a cavity, filling at least a portion of the cavity with a ceramic foam. The ceramic foam is deposited on a barrier layer covering at least one internal passage of the cavity. The method includes processing the formed ceramic member and ceramic foam to obtain a ceramic matrix composite component. Also provided is a method of forming a ceramic matrix composite blade and a ceramic matrix composite component.

  5. Turbine component having surface cooling channels and method of forming same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Carlos Miguel; Trimmer, Andrew Lee; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu

    2017-09-05

    A component for a turbine engine includes a substrate that includes a first surface, and an insert coupled to the substrate proximate the substrate first surface. The component also includes a channel. The channel is defined by a first channel wall formed in the substrate and a second channel wall formed by at least one coating disposed on the substrate first surface. The component further includes an inlet opening defined in flow communication with the channel. The inlet opening is defined by a first inlet wall formed in the substrate and a second inlet wall defined by the insert.

  6. Method of forming components for a high-temperature secondary electrochemical cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrazek, Franklin C.; Battles, James E.

    1983-01-01

    A method of forming a component for a high-temperature secondary electrochemical cell having a positive electrode including a sulfide selected from the group consisting of iron sulfides, nickel sulfides, copper sulfides and cobalt sulfides, a negative electrode including an alloy of aluminum and an electrically insulating porous separator between said electrodes. The improvement comprises forming a slurry of solid particles dispersed in a liquid electrolyte such as the lithium chloride-potassium chloride eutetic, casting the slurry into a form having the shape of one of the components and smoothing the exposed surface of the slurry, cooling the cast slurry to form the solid component, and removing same. Electrodes and separators can be thus formed.

  7. Divergences in hydraulic architecture form an important basis for niche differentiation between diploid and polyploid Betula species in NE China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Wei; Song, Jia; Wang, Miao; Liu, Yan-Yan; Li, Na; Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Holbrook, N Michele; Hao, Guang-You

    2017-05-01

    Habitat differentiation between polyploid and diploid plants are frequently observed, with polyploids usually occupying more stressed environments. In woody plants, polyploidization can greatly affect wood characteristics but knowledge of its influences on xylem hydraulics is scarce. The four Betula species in NE China, representing two diploids and two polyploids with obvious habitat differentiation, provide an exceptional study system for investigating the impact of polyploidization on environmental adaptation of trees from the point view of xylem hydraulics. To test the hypothesis that changes in hydraulic architecture play an important role in determining their niche differentiation, we measured wood structural traits at both the tissue and pit levels and quantified xylem water transport efficiency and safety in these species. The two polyploids had significantly larger hydraulic weighted mean vessel diameters than the two diploids (45.1 and 45.5 vs 25.9 and 24.5 μm) although the polyploids are occupying more stressed environments. As indicated by more negative water potentials corresponding to 50% loss of stem hydraulic conductivities, the two polyploids exhibited significantly higher resistance to drought-induced embolism than the two diploids (-5.23 and -5.05 vs -3.86 and -3.13 MPa) despite their larger vessel diameters. This seeming discrepancy is reconciled by distinct characteristics favoring greater embolism resistance at the pit level in the two polyploid species. Our results showed clearly that the two polyploid species have remarkably different pit-level anatomical traits favoring greater hydraulic safety than their congeneric diploid species, which have likely contributed to the abundance of polyploid birches in more stressed habitats; however, less porous inter-conduit pits together with a reduced leaf to sapwood area may have compromised their competitiveness under more favorable conditions. Contrasts in hydraulic architecture between diploid and

  8. Computer Simulation of Material Flow in Warm-forming Bimetallic Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, T. F.; Chan, L. C.; Lee, T. C.

    2007-05-01

    Bimetallic components take advantage of two different metals or alloys so that their applicable performance, weight and cost can be optimized. However, since each material has its own flow properties and mechanical behaviour, heterogeneous material flows will occur during the bimetal forming process. Those controls of process parameters are relatively more complicated than forming single metals. Most previous studies in bimetal forming have focused mainly on cold forming, and less relevant information about the warm forming has been provided. Indeed, changes of temperature and heat transfer between two materials are the significant factors which can highly influence the success of the process. Therefore, this paper presents a study of the material flow in warm-forming bimetallic components using finite-element (FE) simulation in order to determine the suitable process parameters for attaining the complete die filling. A watch-case-like component made of stainless steel (AISI-316L) and aluminium alloy (AL-6063) was used as the example. The warm-forming processes were simulated with the punch speeds V of 40, 80, and 120 mm/s and the initial temperatures of the stainless steel TiSS of 625, 675, 725, 775, 825, 875, 925, 975, and 1025 °C. The results showed that the AL-6063 flowed faster than the AISI-316L and so the incomplete die filling was only found in the AISI-316L region. A higher TiSS was recommended to avoid incomplete die filling. The reduction of V is also suggested because this can save the forming energy and prevent the damage of tooling. Eventually, with the experimental verification, the results from the simulation were in agreement with those of the experiments. On the basis of the results of this study, engineers can gain a better understanding of the material flow in warm-forming bimetallic components, and be able to determine more efficiently the punch speed and initial material temperature for the process.

  9. Turbomachine combustor nozzle including a monolithic nozzle component and method of forming the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoia, Lucas John; Melton, Patrick Benedict; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Stevenson, Christian Xavier; Vanselow, John Drake; Westmoreland, James Harold

    2016-02-23

    A turbomachine combustor nozzle includes a monolithic nozzle component having a plate element and a plurality of nozzle elements. Each of the plurality of nozzle elements includes a first end extending from the plate element to a second end. The plate element and plurality of nozzle elements are formed as a unitary component. A plate member is joined with the nozzle component. The plate member includes an outer edge that defines first and second surfaces and a plurality of openings extending between the first and second surfaces. The plurality of openings are configured and disposed to register with and receive the second end of corresponding ones of the plurality of nozzle elements.

  10. Adsorption of hydraulic fracturing fluid components 2-butoxyethanol and furfural onto granular activated carbon and shale rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, Katherine E; Haerr, Gregory; Lucchesi, Jessica; Carter, Kimberly E

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the adsorption ability of a surfactant and a non-surfactant chemical additive used in hydraulic fracturing onto shale and GAC. Experiments were performed at varying temperatures and sodium chloride concentrations to establish these impacts on the adsorption of the furfural (a non-surfactant) and 2-Butoxyethanol (2-BE) (a surfactant). Experiments were carried out in continuously mixed batch experiments with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm modeling. The results of the experiments showed that adsorption of these compounds onto shale does not occur, which may allow these compounds to return to the surface in flowback and produced waters. The adsorption potential for these chemicals onto GAC follows the assumptions of the Langmuir model more strongly than those of the Freundlich model. The results show uptake of furfural and 2-BE occurs within 23 h in the presence of DI water, 0.1 mol L -1 sodium chloride, and in lab synthesized hydraulic fracturing brine. Based on the data, 83% of the furfural and 62% of the 2-BE was adsorbed using GAC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Laser rapid forming technology of high-performance dense metal components with complex structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weidong; Chen, Jing; Li, Yanming; Lin, Xin

    2005-01-01

    Laser rapid forming (LRF) is a new and advanced manufacturing technology that has been developed on the basis of combining high power laser cladding technology with rapid prototyping (RP) to realize net shape forming of high performance dense metal components without dies. Recently we have developed a set of LRF equipment. LRF experiments were carried out on the equipment to investigate the influences of processing parameters on forming characterizations systematically with the cladding powder materials as titanium alloys, superalloys, stainless steel, and copper alloys. The microstructure of laser formed components is made up of columnar grains or columnar dendrites which grow epitaxially from the substrate since the solid components were prepared layer by layer additionally. The result of mechanical testing proved that the mechanical properties of laser formed samples are similar to or even over that of forging and much better than that of casting. It is shown in this paper that LRF technology is providing a new solution for some difficult processing problems in the high tech field of aviation, spaceflight and automobile industries.

  12. Statistically based uncertainty analysis for ranking of component importance in the thermal-hydraulic safety analysis of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.E.

    1992-01-01

    The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) has been used to help determine the importance of components and phenomena in thermal-hydraulic safety analyses of nuclear reactors. The AHP results are based, in part on expert opinion. Therefore, it is prudent to evaluate the uncertainty of the AHP ranks of importance. Prior applications have addressed uncertainty with experimental data comparisons and bounding sensitivity calculations. These methods work well when a sufficient experimental data base exists to justify the comparisons. However, in the case of limited or no experimental data the size of the uncertainty is normally made conservatively large. Accordingly, the author has taken another approach, that of performing a statistically based uncertainty analysis. The new work is based on prior evaluations of the importance of components and phenomena in the thermal-hydraulic safety analysis of the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR), a new facility now in the design phase. The uncertainty during large break loss of coolant, and decay heat removal scenarios is estimated by assigning a probability distribution function (pdf) to the potential error in the initial expert estimates of pair-wise importance between the components. Using a Monte Carlo sampling technique, the error pdfs are propagated through the AHP software solutions to determine a pdf of uncertainty in the system wide importance of each component. To enhance the generality of the results, study of one other problem having different number of elements is reported, as are the effects of a larger assumed pdf error in the expert ranks. Validation of the Monte Carlo sample size and repeatability are also documented

  13. Manufacture of a four-sheet complex component from different titanium alloys by superplastic forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allazadeh, M. R.; Zuelli, N.

    2017-10-01

    A superplastic forming (SPF) technology process was deployed to form a complex component with eight-pocket from a four-sheet sandwich panel sheetstock. Six sheetstock packs were composed of two core sheets made of Ti-6Al-4V or Ti-5Al-4Cr-4Mo-2Sn-2Zr titanium alloy and two skin sheets made of Ti-6Al-4V or Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo titanium alloy in three different combinations. The sheets were welded with two subsequent welding patterns over the core and skin sheets to meet the required component's details. The applied welding methods were intermittent and continuous resistance seam welding for bonding the core sheets to each other and the skin sheets over the core panel, respectively. The final component configuration was predicted based on the die drawings and finite element method (FEM) simulations for the sandwich panels. An SPF system set-up with two inlet gas pipe feeding facilitated the trials to deliver two pressure-time load cycles acting simultaneously which were extracted from FEM analysis for specific forming temperature and strain rate. The SPF pressure-time cycles were optimized via GOM scanning and visually inspecting some sections of the packs in order to assess the levels of core panel formation during the inflation process of the sheetstock. Two sets of GOM scan results were compared via GOM software to inspect the surface and internal features of the inflated multisheet packs. The results highlighted the capability of the tested SPF process to form complex components from a flat multisheet pack made of different titanium alloys.

  14. Argonne Liquid-Metal Advanced Burner Reactor : components and in-vessel system thermal-hydraulic research and testing experience - pathway forward.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasza, K.; Grandy, C.; Chang, Y.; Khalil, H.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-06-30

    This white paper provides an overview and status report of the thermal-hydraulic nuclear research and development, both experimental and computational, conducted predominantly at Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne from the early 1970s through the early 1990s was the Department of Energy's (DOE's) lead lab for thermal-hydraulic development of Liquid Metal Reactors (LMRs). During the 1970s and into the mid-1980s, Argonne conducted thermal-hydraulic studies and experiments on individual reactor components supporting the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR). From the mid-1980s and into the early 1990s, Argonne conducted studies on phenomena related to forced- and natural-convection thermal buoyancy in complete in-vessel models of the General Electric (GE) Prototype Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM) and Rockwell International (RI) Sodium Advanced Fast Reactor (SAFR). These two reactor initiatives involved Argonne working closely with U.S. industry and DOE. This paper describes the very important impact of thermal hydraulics dominated by thermal buoyancy forces on reactor global operation and on the behavior/performance of individual components during postulated off-normal accident events with low flow. Utilizing Argonne's LMR expertise and design knowledge is vital to the further development of safe, reliable, and high-performance LMRs. Argonne believes there remains an important need for continued research and development on thermal-hydraulic design in support of DOE's and the international community's renewed thrust for developing and demonstrating the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) reactor(s) and the associated Argonne Liquid Metal-Advanced Burner Reactor (LM-ABR). This white paper highlights that further understanding is needed regarding reactor design under coolant low-flow events. These safety-related events are associated with the transition

  15. Influence of disintegrants in different substrate physical form on dimensional recovery of multi-component tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Srimanta; Ooi, Shing Ming; Liew, Celine Valeria; Tan, Bing Xun; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2014-11-20

    This study investigated the influence of different disintegrants, present in different substrate physical forms, on dimensional recovery of multi-component tablets prepared at different compression pressures. Formulations containing model drug, metformin, (10%, w/w), different disintegrants (10%, w/w), and lactose (80%, w/w) were compressed directly or after granulation using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (1%, w/w) as binder, into tablets (350 mg, 10mm diameter) at 150, 200, and 250 N/mm(2) compression pressures. Tablets were characterized for immediate dimensional recovery (IR) after ejection from the die, latent dimensional recovery (LR) over 24 h, tensile strength, and disintegration. The IR was predominantly contributed by crystalline components whereas LR was brought about by polymeric materials. With increased compression pressure, higher degree of plastic deformation of the polymeric disintegrants resulted in tablet with lower LR and higher tensile strength. Presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidone in the granules contributed considerably to plastic deformation, and the tablets produced had lower LR, higher tensile strength, and longer disintegration time. This study indicated that use of granules as the feed substrate physical form and a prudent selection of components may enable the coating of resultant tablets immediately after compression without the risk of coat damage due to LR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydraulic elements in reduction of vibrations in mechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białas, K.; Buchacz, A.

    2017-08-01

    This work presents non-classical method of design of mechanic systems with subsystem reducing vibrations. The purpose of this paper is also introduces synthesis of mechanic system with reducing vibrations understand as design of this type of systems. The synthesis may be applied to modify the already existing systems in order to achieve a desired result. Elements which reduce vibrations can be constructed with passive, semi-active or active components. These considerations systems have selected active items. A hallmark of active elements it is possible to change the parameters on time of these elements and their power from an external source. The implementation of active elements is very broad. These elements can be implemented through the use of components of electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic, etc. The system was consisted from mechanical and hydraulic elements. Hydraulic elements were used as subsystem reducing unwanted vibration of mechanical system. Hydraulic elements can be realized in the form of hydraulic cylinder. In the case of an active vibration reduction in the form of hydraulic cylinder it is very important to find the corresponding values of hydraulic components. The values of these elements affect the frequency of vibrations of this sub-system which is related to the effective vibration reduction [7,11].

  17. Asymptotic form of the classical one-component plasma fluid equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeWitt, H.E.

    1976-01-01

    The Monte Carlo data of Hansen for the internal energy of the classical one-component plasma in the fluid state is found to satisfy accurately a simple functional form, U/NkT = aGAMMA + bGAMMA/sup 1;4/ + c, for GAMMA > 1. The fluid static energy is very close to the bcc lattice energy of the solid, and the fluid thermal energy varies as T/sup 3;4/. Simple and accurate expressions for other thermodynamic functions for the plasma fluid are given

  18. The forming process of magnesium alloy for Japanese home electric components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takara, A. [Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Kadoma, Osaka (Japan); Higashi, K. [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Magnesium alloys have replaced resins as a material for the components of electronic products such as cell phone and notebook personal computer mainly, because of their lightness and rigidity. Thin walls, a complicated shape, and high appearance quality are all needed in the external parts. Die-casting and injection molding are the main method of manufacturing magnesium alloy parts. The optimal cast conditions and mold design have been investigated in order that a few defects such as surface cracks and mold cavities in casting parts would be reduced. Instead of cast, plastic forming technologies such as warm drawing and hot forging have been developed to form thinner walls and less defects. Plastic formability of magnesium alloy in hot working is dependent on a grain size of material. The material with fine grains has advantage of being formed at high strain rate. The characteristics of forming processes of magnesium parts for Japanese home electric appliances are compared in the viewpoint of quality, cost, and productivity. (orig.)

  19. Microstructures, Forming Limit and Failure Analyses of Inconel 718 Sheets for Fabrication of Aerospace Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajun Prasad, K.; Panda, Sushanta Kumar; Kar, Sujoy Kumar; Sen, Mainak; Murty, S. V. S. Naryana; Sharma, Sharad Chandra

    2017-04-01

    Recently, aerospace industries have shown increasing interest in forming limits of Inconel 718 sheet metals, which can be utilised in designing tools and selection of process parameters for successful fabrication of components. In the present work, stress-strain response with failure strains was evaluated by uniaxial tensile tests in different orientations, and two-stage work-hardening behavior was observed. In spite of highly preferred texture, tensile properties showed minor variations in different orientations due to the random distribution of nanoprecipitates. The forming limit strains were evaluated by deforming specimens in seven different strain paths using limiting dome height (LDH) test facility. Mostly, the specimens failed without prior indication of localized necking. Thus, fracture forming limit diagram (FFLD) was evaluated, and bending correction was imposed due to the use of sub-size hemispherical punch. The failure strains of FFLD were converted into major-minor stress space ( σ-FFLD) and effective plastic strain-stress triaxiality space ( ηEPS-FFLD) as failure criteria to avoid the strain path dependence. Moreover, FE model was developed, and the LDH, strain distribution and failure location were predicted successfully using above-mentioned failure criteria with two stages of work hardening. Fractographs were correlated with the fracture behavior and formability of sheet metal.

  20. Implementation of wall film condensation model to two-fluid model in component thermal hydraulic analysis code CUPID - 15237

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Park, G.C.; Cho, H.K.

    2015-01-01

    In the containment of a nuclear reactor, the wall condensation occurs when containment cooling system and structures remove the mass and energy release and this phenomenon is of great importance to ensure containment integrity. If the phenomenon occurs in the presence of non-condensable gases, their accumulation near the condensate film leads to significant reduction in heat transfer during the condensation. This study aims at simulating the wall film condensation in the presence of non-condensable gas using CUPID, a computational multi-fluid dynamics code, which is developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for the analysis of transient two-phase flows in nuclear reactor components. In order to simulate the wall film condensation in containment, the code requires a proper wall condensation model and liquid film model applicable to the analysis of the large scale system. In the present study, the liquid film model and wall film condensation model were implemented in the two-fluid model of CUPID. For the condensation simulation, a wall function approach with heat and mass transfer analogy was applied in order to save computational time without considerable refinement for the boundary layer. This paper presents the implemented wall film condensation model and then, introduces the simulation result using CUPID with the model for a conceptual condensation problem in a large system. (authors)

  1. A Robot Trajectory Optimization Approach for Thermal Barrier Coatings Used for Free-Form Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhenhua; Qi, Beichun; Tao, Chongyuan; Luo, Jie; Chen, Yuepeng; Xie, Changjun

    2017-10-01

    This paper is concerned with a robot trajectory optimization approach for thermal barrier coatings. As the requirements of high reproducibility of complex workpieces increase, an optimal thermal spraying trajectory should not only guarantee an accurate control of spray parameters defined by users (e.g., scanning speed, spray distance, scanning step, etc.) to achieve coating thickness homogeneity but also help to homogenize the heat transfer distribution on the coating surface. A mesh-based trajectory generation approach is introduced in this work to generate path curves on a free-form component. Then, two types of meander trajectories are generated by performing a different connection method. Additionally, this paper presents a research approach for introducing the heat transfer analysis into the trajectory planning process. Combining heat transfer analysis with trajectory planning overcomes the defects of traditional trajectory planning methods (e.g., local over-heating), which helps form the uniform temperature field by optimizing the time sequence of path curves. The influence of two different robot trajectories on the process of heat transfer is estimated by coupled FEM models which demonstrates the effectiveness of the presented optimization approach.

  2. Aging and service wear of hydraulic and mechanical snubbers used on safety-related piping and components of nuclear power plants. Phase I study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, S H; Heasler, P G; Dodge, R E

    1986-02-01

    This report presents an overview of hydraulic and mechanical snubbers used on nuclear piping systems and components, based on information from the literature and other sources. The functions and functional requirements of snubbers are discussed. The real versus perceived need for snubbers is reviewed, based primarily on studies conducted by a Pressure Vessel Research Committee. Tests conducted to qualify snubbers, to accept them on a case-by-case basis, and to establish their fitness for continued operation are reviewed. This report had two primary purposes. The first was to assess the effects of various aging mechanisms on snubber operation. The second was to determine the efficacy of existing tests in determining the effects of aging and degradation mechanisms. These tests include breakaway force, drag force, velocity/ acceleration range for activation in tension or compression, release rates within specified tension/compression limits, and restricted thermal movement. The snubber operating experience was reviewed using licensee event reports and other historical data for a period of more than 10 years. Data were statistically analyzed using arbitrary snubber populations. Value-impact was considered in terms of exposure to a radioactive environment for examination/ testing and the influence of lost snubber function and subsequent testing program expansion on the costs and operation of a nuclear power plant. The implications of the observed trends were assessed; recommendations include modifying or improving examination and testing procedures to enhance snubber reliability. Optimization of snubber populations by selective removal of unnecessary snubbers was also considered. (author)

  3. Hydraulic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sheng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the planning, design, construction and management of hydraulic structures, covering dams, spillways, tunnels, cut slopes, sluices, water intake and measuring works, ship locks and lifts, as well as fish ways. Particular attention is paid to considerations concerning the environment, hydrology, geology and materials etc. in the planning and design of hydraulic projects. It also considers the type selection, profile configuration, stress/stability calibration and engineering countermeasures, flood releasing arrangements and scouring protection, operation and maintenance etc. for a variety of specific hydraulic structures. The book is primarily intended for engineers, undergraduate and graduate students in the field of civil and hydraulic engineering who are faced with the challenges of extending our understanding of hydraulic structures ranging from traditional to groundbreaking, as well as designing, constructing and managing safe, durable hydraulic structures that are economical ...

  4. Hydraulic Yaw System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Mørkholt, M.

    a hydraulic soft yaw system, which is able to reduce the loads on the wind turbine significantly. A full scale hydraulic yaw test rig is available for experiments and tests. The test rig is presented as well as the system schematics of the hydraulic yaw system....... the HAWC2 aeroelastic code and an extended model of the NREL 5MW turbine combined with a simplified linear model of the turbine, the parameters of the soft yaw system are optimized to reduce loading in critical components. Results shows that a significant reduction in fatigue and extreme loads to the yaw...... system and rotor shaft when utilizing the soft yaw drive concept compared to the original stiff yaw system. The physical demands of the hydraulic yaw system are furthermore examined for a life time of 20 years. Based on the extrapolated loads, the duty cycles show that it is possible to construct...

  5. Development of software for computing forming information using a component based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang Hee Ko

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In shipbuilding industry, the manufacturing technology has advanced at an unprecedented pace for the last decade. As a result, many automatic systems for cutting, welding, etc. have been developed and employed in the manufacturing process and accordingly the productivity has been increased drastically. Despite such improvement in the manufacturing technology, however, development of an automatic system for fabricating a curved hull plate remains at the beginning stage since hardware and software for the automation of the curved hull fabrication process should be developed differently depending on the dimensions of plates, forming methods and manufacturing processes of each shipyard. To deal with this problem, it is necessary to create a “plug-in” framework, which can adopt various kinds of hardware and software to construct a full automatic fabrication system. In this paper, a framework for automatic fabrication of curved hull plates is proposed, which consists of four components and related software. In particular the software module for computing fabrication information is developed by using the ooCBD development methodology, which can interface with other hardware and software with minimum effort. Examples of the proposed framework applied to medium and large shipyards are presented.

  6. Research of performance prediction to energy on hydraulic turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, H; Li, R N; Li, Q F; Han, W; Su, Q M

    2012-01-01

    Refer to the low specific speed Francis turbine blade design principle and double-suction pump structure. Then, design a horizontal double-channel hydraulic turbine Francis. Through adding different guide vane airfoil and and no guide vane airfoil on the hydraulic conductivity components to predict hydraulic turbine energy and using Fluent software to numerical simulation that the operating conditions and point. The results show that the blade pressure surface and suction surface pressure is low when the hydraulic turbine installation is added standard positive curvature of the guide vane and modified positive curvature of guide vane. Therefore, the efficiency of energy recovery is low. However, the pressure of negative curvature guide vane and symmetric guide vane added on hydraulic turbine installations is larger than that of the former ones, and it is conducive to working of runner. With the decreasing of guide vane opening, increasing of inlet angle, flow state gets significantly worse. Then, others obvious phenomena are that the reflux and horizontal flow appeared in blade pressure surface. At the same time, the vortex was formed in Leaf Road, leading to the loss of energy. Through analyzing the distribution of pressure, velocity, flow lines of over-current flow in the the back hydraulic conductivity components in above programs we can known that the hydraulic turbine installation added guide vane is more reasonable than without guide vanes, it is conducive to improve efficiency of energy conversion.

  7. Hydraulic turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meluk O, G.

    1998-01-01

    The hydraulic turbines are defined according to the specific speed, in impulse turbines and in reaction turbines. Currently, the Pelton turbines (of impulse) and the Francis and Kaplan turbines (of reaction), they are the most important machines in the hydroelectric generation. The hydraulic turbines are capable of generating in short times, large powers, from its loads zero until the total load and reject the load instantly without producing damages in the operation. When the hydraulic resources are important, the hydraulic turbines are converted in the axle of the electric system. Its combination with thermoelectric generation systems, it allow the continuing supply of the variations in demand of energy system. The available hydraulic resource in Colombia is of 93085 MW, of which solely 9% is exploited, become 79% of all the electrical country generation, 21% remaining is provided by means of the thermoelectric generation

  8. CATEGORICAL IMAGE COMPONENTS IN THE FORMING SYSTEM OF A MARKETING TECHNIQUES MANAGER’S IMAGE CULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Borisovna Cherednyakova

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Based on the understanding of the image culture formation of managers of marketing techniques, as a representative of the social and communication interaction of public structures, categorical apparatus of image culture with an emphasis on the etymology of the image, as an integral component of image culture was analyzed. Categorical components of the image are presented from the standpoint of image culture, as personal new formation, an integral part of the professional activity of the marketing techniques manager: object-communicative categorical component, subject-activity categorical component of image, personality-oriented categorical component, value-acmeological categorical component of image.The aim is to identify and justify the image categorical components as a component of image culture of the marketing techniques manager.Method and methodology of work – a general scientific research approach reflecting scientific apparatus of research.Results. Categorical components of the image, as an image culture component of manager of marketing techniques were defined.Practical implication of the results. The theoretical part of «Imageology» course, special course «Image culture of manager of marketing techniques», the theoretical and methodological study and the formation of image culture.

  9. Effect of component substitution on the atomic dynamics in glass-forming binary metallic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, B.; Holland-Moritz, D.; Yang, F.; Voigtmann, Th.; Evenson, Z.; Hansen, T. C.; Meyer, A.

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the substitution of early transition metals (Zr, Hf, and Nb) in Ni-based binary glass-forming metallic melts and the impact on structural and dynamical properties by using a combination of neutron scattering, electrostatic levitation (ESL), and isotopic substitution. The self-diffusion coefficients measured by quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) identify a sluggish diffusion as well as an increased activation energy by almost a factor of 2 for Hf35Ni65 compared to Zr36Ni64 . This finding can be explained by the locally higher packing density of Hf atoms in Hf35Ni65 compared to Zr atoms in Zr36Ni64 , which has been derived from interatomic distances by analyzing the measured partial structure factors. Furthermore, QENS measurements of liquid Hf35Ni65 prepared with 60Ni , which has a vanishing incoherent scattering cross section, have demonstrated that self-diffusion of Hf is slowed down compared to the concentration weighted self-diffusion of Hf and Ni. This implies a dynamical decoupling between larger Hf and smaller Ni atoms, which can be related to a saturation effect of unequal atomic nearest-neighbor pairs, that was observed recently for Ni-rich compositions in Zr-Ni metallic melts. In order to establish a structure-dynamics relation, measured partial structure factors have been used as an input for mode-coupling theory (MCT) of the glass transition to calculate self-diffusion coefficients for the different atomic components. Remarkably, MCT can reproduce the increased activation energy for Hf35Ni65 as well as the dynamical decoupling between Hf and Ni atoms.

  10. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  11. Storytelling Leadership: A Semiotics Theories Qualitative Inquiry into the Components Forming an Oral Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Earl F.

    2015-01-01

    Using semiotics theories as a guide, the qualitative examination of storytelling literature and current storytelling practitioners provides research support for a list of storytelling components. Analysis of story building components discovered from literature in comparison to the results from research questionnaire responses by current…

  12. Partitioning washoff of manure-borne fecal indicators (Escherichia coli and stanols) into splash and hydraulic components: field rainfall simulations in a tropical agro-ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribolzi, Olivier; Rochelle-Newall, Emma J.; Janeau, Jean-Louis; Viguier, Marion; Jardé, Emilie; Latsachack, Keooudone; Henri-Des-Tureaux, Thierry; Thammahacksac, Chanthamousone; Mugler, Claude; Valentin, Christian; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth

    2017-04-01

    Overland flow from manured fields and pastures is known to be an important mechanism by which organisms of faecal origin are transferred to streams in rural watersheds. In the tropical montane areas of South-East Asia, recent changes in land use have induced increased runoff, soil erosion, in-stream suspended sediment loads resulting in increased microbial pathogen dissemination and contamination of stream waters. The majority of enteric and environmental bacteria in aquatic systems are associated with particles such as sediments which can strongly influence their survival and transport characteristics. Escherichia coli (E. coli) has emerged as one of the most appropriate microbial indicators of faecal contamination of natural waters, with the presence of E. coli indicating that faecal contamination is present. In association with E. coli, faecal stanols can also be used as microbial source tracking tool for the identification of the origin of the faecal contamination (e.g. livestock, human, etc). Field rain simulations were used to examine how E.coli and stanols are exported from the surface of upland, agricultural soils during overland flow events. The objectives were to characterize the loss dynamics of these indicators from agricultural soils contaminated with livestock waste, and to partition total detachment into the splash and hydraulic components. Nine 1m2 microplots were divided in triplicated treatment groups: (a) controls with no amendments, (b) amended with pig manure or (c) poultry manure. Each plot was divided into two 0.5m2 rectangular subplots. For each simulation, one subplot was designated as a rain splash treatment; the other was covered with 2-mm grid size wire screen 10 cm above the soil surface to break the raindrops into fine droplets, thus drastically reducing their kinetic energy. E. coli concentrations in overland flow were estimated for both the attached and free living fractions and stanols were measured on the particulate matter washed

  13. Hydraulic Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required whenever hydraulic structures are shown in the flood profile. It is also required if levees are shown on the FIRM, channels containing the...

  14. CATEGORICAL IMAGE COMPONENTS IN THE FORMING SYSTEM OF A MARKETING TECHNIQUES MANAGER’S IMAGE CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Borisovna Cherednyakova

    2015-01-01

    Based on the understanding of the image culture formation of managers of marketing techniques, as a representative of the social and communication interaction of public structures, categorical apparatus of image culture with an emphasis on the etymology of the image, as an integral component of image culture was analyzed. Categorical components of the image are presented from the standpoint of image culture, as personal new formation, an integral part of the professional activity of the marke...

  15. Water hydraulic applications in hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siuko, M.; Koskinen, K.T.; Vilenius, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Water hydraulic technology provides several advantages for devices operating in critical environment. Though water hydraulics has traditionally been used in very rough applications, gives recent strong development of components possibility to build more sophisticated applications and devices with similar capacity and control properties than those of oil hydraulics without the disadvantages of oil hydraulic systems. In this paper, the basic principles, possibilities and advantages of water hydraulics are highlighted, some of the most important design considerations are presented and recent developments of water hydraulic technology are presented. Also one interesting application area, ITER fusion reactor remote handling devices, are discussed. (Author)

  16. Hydraulics and pneumatics

    CERN Document Server

    Parr, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Nearly all industrial processes require objects to be moved, manipulated or subjected to some sort of force. This is frequently accomplished by means of electrical equipment (such as motors or solenoids), or via devices driven by air (pneumatics) or liquids (hydraulics).This book has been written by a process control engineer as a guide to the operation of hydraulic and pneumatic systems for all engineers and technicians who wish to have an insight into the components and operation of such a system.This second edition has been fully updated to include all recent developments su

  17. The Components of Smile Design: New York University Smile Evaluation Form Revisited, Update 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamia, John R; Wolff, Mark S

    2015-07-01

    This article updates a simple checklist of foundational knowledge in aesthetic dental concepts that allows clinicians to organize their thoughts, to record the concerns of the patient, and to map out those improvements that must be addressed. This adjunct is called a Smile Evaluation Form. Along with other adjuncts such as radiographs, study casts, and diagnostic wax-ups, the Smile Evaluation Form allows clinicians to form a conceptual visualization of the expected end point. It provides a checklist for discussions with other disciplines in the team, to provide a logical sequence of treatment with a mutually agreed-on end point. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydraulic System Design of Hydraulic Actuators for Large Butterfly Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye HUANG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic control systems of butterfly valves are presently valve-controlled and pump-controlled. Valve-controlled hydraulic systems have serious power loss and generate much heat during throttling. Pump-controlled hydraulic systems have no overflow or throttling losses but are limited in the speed adjustment of the variable-displacement pump, generate much noise, pollute the environment, and have motor power that does not match load requirements, resulting in low efficiency under light loads and wearing of the variable-displacement pump. To overcome these shortcomings, this article designs a closed hydraulic control system in which an AC servo motor drives a quantitative pump that controls a spiral swinging hydraulic cylinder, and analyzes and calculates the structure and parameters of a spiral swinging hydraulic cylinder. The hydraulic system adjusts the servo motor’s speed according to the requirements of the control system, and the motor power matches the power provided to components, thus eliminating the throttling loss of hydraulic circuits. The system is compact, produces a large output force, provides stable transmission, has a quick response, and is suitable as a hydraulic control system of a large butterfly valve.

  19. The Use of Explosive Forming for Fastening and Joining Structural and Pressure Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Explosive expansion of tubes into tubesheets has been used for over 20 years in the fabrication and repair of shell and tube heat exchangers. The use of explosives to perform these expansions has offered several distinct advantages over other methods. First, the process is fast and economical and can be performed with minimal training of personnel. Secondly, explosive forming does not cause the deleterious metallurgical effects which often result from other forming operations. In addition, the process can be performed remotely without the need for sophisticated handling equipment. The expansion of tubes into tubesheets is only one of many possible fastening and joining applications for which explosive forming can be used to achieve highly successful results. The explosive forming process and where it has been used are described. In addition, some possible adaptations to other joining applications are identified and discussed.

  20. Bulk forming of industrial micro components in conventional metals and bulk metallic glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arentoft, Mogens; Paldan, Nikolas Aulin; Eriksen, Rasmus Solmer

    2007-01-01

    For production of micro components in large numbers, forging is an interesting and challenging process. The conventional metals like silver, steel and aluminum often require multi-step processes, but high productivity and increased strength justify the investment. As an alternative, bulk metallic...

  1. Fabricating nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Activities of the Nuclear Engineering Division of Vickers Ltd., particularly fabrication of long slim tubular components for power reactors and the construction of irradiation loops and rigs, are outlined. The processes include hydraulic forming for fabrication of various types of tubes and outer cases of fuel transfer buckets, various specialised welding operations including some applications of the TIG process, and induction brazing of specialised assemblies. (U.K.)

  2. Trypanin, a component of the flagellar Dynein regulatory complex, is essential in bloodstream form African trypanosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine S Ralston

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The Trypanosoma brucei flagellum is a multifunctional organelle with critical roles in motility, cellular morphogenesis, and cell division. Although motility is thought to be important throughout the trypanosome lifecycle, most studies of flagellum structure and function have been restricted to the procyclic lifecycle stage, and our knowledge of the bloodstream form flagellum is limited. We have previously shown that trypanin functions as part of a flagellar dynein regulatory system that transmits regulatory signals from the central pair apparatus and radial spokes to axonemal dyneins. Here we investigate the requirement for this dynein regulatory system in bloodstream form trypanosomes. We demonstrate that trypanin is localized to the flagellum of bloodstream form trypanosomes, in a pattern identical to that seen in procyclic cells. Surprisingly, trypanin RNA interference is lethal in the bloodstream form. These knockdown mutants fail to initiate cytokinesis, but undergo multiple rounds of organelle replication, accumulating multiple flagella, nuclei, kinetoplasts, mitochondria, and flagellum attachment zone structures. These findings suggest that normal flagellar beat is essential in bloodstream form trypanosomes and underscore the emerging concept that there is a dichotomy between trypanosome lifecycle stages with respect to factors that contribute to cell division and cell morphogenesis. This is the first time that a defined dynein regulatory complex has been shown to be essential in any organism and implicates the dynein regulatory complex and other enzymatic regulators of flagellar motility as candidate drug targets for the treatment of African sleeping sickness.

  3. Chapter 12. Pure Tap Water Hydraulic Systems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications.......Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications....

  4. Ferroic properties in bi-component perovskites: artificial superlattices and naturally forming compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha-Dasgupta, T

    2014-01-01

    The use of four different metal cations in a bi-component perovskite ABO 3 structure with 50 : 50 substitution at A sublattice as well as B sublattice, opens up the door for materials designing, with the aim to improve ferroic properties. This can be achieved following two different routes; one using the concept of artificially grown superlattices with alternating layers of ABO 3 and A′B′O 3 perovskites in a periodic set-up and another, through synthesis of naturally grown bulk double perovskites with ordered arrangement of A and A′ cations, simultaneously with that of B and B′ cations. The tremendous progress in layered deposition techniques as well as advances in solid state chemistry methods, has made both routes equally plausible and an area of much activity. This review summarizes some of the recent progress in this field, with a special emphasis on two computational studies, (i) one on ultra-thin 1–1 superlattices built out of paraelectric and ferroelectric components, showing tunable piezoelectric properties, and (ii) another on CrOs-based double perovskites which show multiferroic behavior, achieved through layered ordering of A and A′ cations. (topical review)

  5. Analysis of Hydrogen Cyanide Hyperfine Spectral Components towards Star Forming Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loughnane R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Although hydrogen cyanide has become quite a common molecular tracing species for a variety of astrophysical sources, it, however, exhibits dramatic non-LTE behaviour in its hyperfine line structure. Individual hyperfine components can be strongly boosted or suppressed. If these so-called hyperfine line anomalies are present in the HCN rotational spectra towards low or high mass cores, this will affect the interpretation of various physical properties such as the line opacity and excitation temperature in the case of low mass objects and infall velocities in the case of their higher mass counterparts. Anomalous line ratios are present either through the relative strengths of neighboring hyperfine lines or through the varying widths of hyperfine lines belonging to a particular rotational line. This work involves the first observational investigation of these anomalies in two HCN rotational transitions, J=1→0 and J=3→2, towards both low mass starless cores and high mass protostellar objects. The degree of anomaly in these two rotational transitions is considered by computing the ratios of neighboring hyperfine lines in individual spectra. Results indicate some degree of anomaly is present in all cores considered in our survey, the most likely cause being line overlap effects among hyperfine components in higher rotational transitions.

  6. BIOMECHANICAL JUSTIFICATION OF THE THREADED ELEMENT’S FORM OF THE TOTAL HIP ENDOPROSTHESIS’ ACETABULAR COMPONENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PANCHENKO S. P.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Formulation of the problem. Total hip replacement (THR remains to be responsible for the markable clinical achievements of contemporal orthopaedic surgery [1; 2; 4]. It should be noted, that numerous efforts to create an “ideal” uncemented hip endoprosthesis’ construction were failed, but led into wide diversity of implants. Such a diversity allowes to individualize implant type selection and to improve implant’s survival and total THR’s clinical outcomes [1; 4]. Outcomes mentioned above determine successful application of total hip replacement as a treatment method. Consequently, development of new and improvement of existing hip endoprosthesis’ constructions seems to be of current interest for contemporal orthopaedic surgery. Purpose. To determine optimal parametres of threaded element’s geometry of total hip endoprosthesis’ threaded acetabular component. Conclusion. There were revealed that threaded element model with right-angled triangle transverse section shape seems to be the most effective considering hardness, while the triangle is leaned on the bone massive with its cathetus. At the same time, results of calculations represent pelvic bone stress-strain state during THR quantitavely and stipulate further research.

  7. Measuring volitional competences: psychometric properties of a short form of the Volitional Components Questionnaire (VCQ) in a clinical sample

    OpenAIRE

    Forstmeier, Simon; Rüddel, H

    2008-01-01

    Volitional competences (skills of will), including self-regulation skills such as self-motivation and emotion regulation and self-control skills such as impulse control, are particularly necessary for patients with psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders. The Volitional Components Questionnaire (VCQ) is an instrument designed to measure volitional competences. However, its length of 190 items prevents its routine application in clinical settings. This study evaluates a new 36-item short form ...

  8. Classification of distribution coefficient data by mineral components and chemical forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Seiji; Kimura, Hideo; Matsuzuru, Hideo

    1996-01-01

    The use of distribution coefficient (Kd) in radionuclide transport model has been reported in a number of papers. However, Kd data cover a wide range even for a specific element. In this study the Kd data of neptunium, uranium and selenium, which are included in sorption database (SDB, OECD/NEA) of radionuclides, were classified by a solid phase and a dominant species in a solution. The aqueous species of these elements were estimated by a geochemical model. The Kd data classified by the analyzed speciation were tested by a nonparametric statistical method. The results of tests proved that the Kd data of neptunium or uranium, which covered a wide range, were influenced by the supersaturation of Np(OH) 4 (s) or schoepite. The Kd data of neptunium could be classified by the dominant aqueous species, NpO 2 + , NpO 2 CO 3 - , NpO 2 OH(aq) and Np(OH) 4 (aq). The Kd data of these four dominant species which are not equilibrated with supersaturated Np(OH) 4 (s) are less than 100 ml/g. The analyzed aqueous species of uranium were UO 2 (OH) 2 (aq) and UO 2 (CO 3 ) n 2-2n (n=2,3) in hexavalent state. It is suggested that the distribution coefficient of neptunium and uranium depends on dominant aqueous species or charged species, i.e., cationic, anionic and nonionic forms. The dominant aqueous species of selenium are HSe - , HSeO 3 - , SeO 3 2- and SeO 4 2- . The result of the nonparametric statistical test shows that the Kd value of HSeO 3 - is higher than of other anionic forms. However, the influence of the species, HSe - , SeO 3 2- and SeO 4 2- , on Kd values is not clearly identified. Considering the dominant species, the Kd of elements are in ranges of 1 to 2 orders of magnitude being in general narrower than those classified by mineral and rock types. (author)

  9. Efficacy of various chemical disinfectants on biofilms formed in spacecraft potable water system components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wing C; Dudinsky, Lynn A; Garcia, Veronica M; Ott, Charlie M; Castro, Victoria A

    2010-07-01

    As the provision of potable water is critical for successful habitation of the International Space Station (ISS), life support systems were installed in December 2008 to recycle both humidity from the atmosphere and urine to conserve available water in the Station. In-flight pre-consumption testing from the dispensing needle at the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) indicated that bacterial concentrations exceeded the current ISS specifications of 50 colony-forming units (CFU) ml(-1). Subsequent investigations revealed that a corrugated stainless steel flex hose upstream of the dispensing needle in the PWD was filled with nonsterile water and left at room temperature for more than 1 month before launch. To simulate biofilm formation that was suspected in the flight system, sterile flex hoses were seeded with a consortium of bacterial isolates previously recovered from other ISS water systems, including Ralstonia pickettii, Burkholderia multivorans, Caulobacter vibrioides, and Cupriavidus pauculus. After incubation for 5 days, the hoses were challenged with various chemical disinfectants including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), colloidal silver, and buffered pH solutions to determine the ability of the disinfectants to decrease and maintain bacterial concentrations below ISS specifications. The disinfection efficacy over time was measured by collecting daily heterotrophic plate counts after exposure to the disinfectants. A single flush with either 6% H2O2 solution or a mixture of 3% H2O2 and 400 ppb colloidal silver effectively reduced the bacterial concentrations to <1 CFU ml(-1) for a period of up to 3 months.

  10. Efficacy of Various Chemical Disinfectants on Biofilms Formed in Spacecraft Potable Water System Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Willy; Garcia, Veronica; Castro, Victoria; Ott, Mark; Duane

    2009-01-01

    As the provision of potable water is critical for successful habitation of the International Space Station (ISS), life support systems were installed in December 2008 to recycle both humidity from the atmosphere and urine to conserve available water in the vehicle. Pre-consumption testing from the dispensing needle at the Potable Water Dispenser (PWD) indicated that bacterial concentrations exceeded the current ISS specifications of 50 colony forming units (CFU) per ml. Subsequent investigations revealed that a corrugated stainless steel flex hose upstream of the dispensing needle in the PWD was filled with non-sterile water and left at room temperature for over one month before launch. To simulate biofilm formation that was suspected in the flight system, sterile flex hoses were seeded with a consortium of bacterial isolates previously recovered from other ISS water systems, which included Ralstonia pickettii, Burkholderia multivorans, Caulobacter vibrioides., and Cupriavidus pauculus. After 5 days of incubation, these hoses were challenged with various chemical disinfectants including hydrogen peroxide, colloidal silver, and buffered pH solutions to determine the ability of the disinfectants to decrease and maintain bacterial concentrations below ISS specifications. Disinfection efficacy over time was measured by collecting daily heterotrophic plate counts following exposure to the disinfectants. A single flush with either 6% hydrogen peroxide solution or a mixture of 3% hydrogen peroxide and 400 ppb colloidal silver effectively reduced the bacterial concentrations to less than 1 CFU/ml for a period of up to 2 months. Testing results indicated that hydrogen peroxide and mixtures of hydrogen peroxide and colloidal silver have tremendous potential as alternative disinfectants for ISS water systems.

  11. Hydraulic design development of Xiluodu Francis turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y L; Li, G Y; Shi, Q H; Wang, Z N

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic optimization design with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) method, hydraulic optimization measures and model test results in the hydraulic development of Xiluodu hydropower station by DFEM (Dongfang Electric Machinery) of DEC (Dongfang Electric Corporation) of China were analyzed in this paper. The hydraulic development conditions of turbine, selection of design parameter, comparison of geometric parameters and optimization measure of turbine flow components were expatiated. And the measures of improving turbine hydraulic performance and the results of model turbine acceptance experiment were discussed in details.

  12. Low cost, small form factor, and integration as the key features for the optical component industry takeoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiattone, Francesco; Bonino, Stefano; Gobbi, Luigi; Groppi, Angelamaria; Marazzi, Marco; Musio, Maurizio

    2003-04-01

    In the past the optical component market has been mainly driven by performances. Today, as the number of competitors has drastically increased, the system integrators have a wide range of possible suppliers and solutions giving them the possibility to be more focused on cost and also on footprint reduction. So, if performances are still essential, low cost and Small Form Factor issues are becoming more and more crucial in selecting components. Another evolution in the market is the current request of the optical system companies to simplify the supply chain in order to reduce the assembling and testing steps at system level. This corresponds to a growing demand in providing subassemblies, modules or hybrid integrated components: that means also Integration will be an issue in which all the optical component companies will compete to gain market shares. As we can see looking several examples offered by electronic market, to combine low cost and SFF is a very challenging task but Integration can help in achieving both features. In this work we present how these issues could be approached giving examples of some advanced solutions applied to LiNbO3 modulators. In particular we describe the progress made on automation, new materials and low cost fabrication methods for the parts. We also introduce an approach in integrating optical and electrical functionality on LiNbO3 modulators including RF driver, bias control loop, attenuator and photodiode integrated in a single device.

  13. Synthesis of Servo Pneumatic/Hydraulic Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K D. Efremova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Servo pneumatic and / or hydraulic drives are widely used in modern engineering and process control. The efficiency of using pneumatic / hydraulic drives depends on their parameters and characteristics. To select the optimal drive parameters, various methods are used, based on finding the minimum of the target (target or criteria function.The objective of this paper was to apply one crucial criterion (target function that provides determination of optimal parameters of the pneumatic / hydraulic drive with the translational motion of the end-effector as well as its use in the synthesis of the servo pneumatic cylinder. The article shows the form of the target function representing a set of drive parameters that do not have direct relationships with each other in a dimensionless form for the pneumatic / hydraulic drive with the translational motion of the end-effector. To calculate the parameters of the servo drive close to the optimal ones, a two-criteria LPτ search was used. As criteria, were used the decisive criterion - the proposed target function, and the power developed by the actuator of the pneumatic / hydraulic drive, which were presented in a dimensionless form. It is shown that the criterion for solution optimality is the minimum distance of the selected point in the space of the normalized criteria from the origin. This point was determined. In addition to the proposed criteria, non-formalised requirements were taken into account: actual and mass-produced components of drive, in terms of which its parameters close to the optimal ones were determined, and the maximum relative error of the obtained useful power value of the servo pneumatic drive was estimated. The paper presents design features of two types of the servo pneumatic drive created, taking into account the proposed target function, implemented according to the schemes "hidden" and "spaced apart". The experimental static characteristic of the servo pneumatic drive is

  14. Simple Analytical Forms of the Perpendicular Diffusion Coefficient for Two-component Turbulence. III. Damping Model of Dynamical Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammon, M.; Shalchi, A., E-mail: andreasm4@yahoo.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)

    2017-10-01

    In several astrophysical applications one needs analytical forms of cosmic-ray diffusion parameters. Some examples are studies of diffusive shock acceleration and solar modulation. In the current article we explore perpendicular diffusion based on the unified nonlinear transport theory. While we focused on magnetostatic turbulence in Paper I, we included the effect of dynamical turbulence in Paper II of the series. In the latter paper we assumed that the temporal correlation time does not depend on the wavenumber. More realistic models have been proposed in the past, such as the so-called damping model of dynamical turbulence. In the present paper we derive analytical forms for the perpendicular diffusion coefficient of energetic particles in two-component turbulence for this type of time-dependent turbulence. We present new formulas for the perpendicular diffusion coefficient and we derive a condition for which the magnetostatic result is recovered.

  15. Study of the contamination of components of the marine environment by soluble and insoluble forms of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraizier, A.; Ancellin, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    The experimental contamination of various physical components and organisms of the marine environment was carried out using radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 51 Cr, 60 Co, 106 Ru and 59 Fe. The relationships between the physico-chemical states of the radionuclides, the variations in the environmental conditions, and the properties of the experimental samples were clarified. Marine organisms were more readily contaminated by the insoluble forms of 106 Ru and 59 Fe than by the soluble forms. It appears that the physiology of the marine organisms can have a bearing on the degree and evolution of the contamination whatever the physico-chemical state of the radionuclides may be, but in certain circumstances the contamination level is independent of the variations in environmental conditions and the related variations in the physiology of the organism. (author)

  16. Orphan receptor GPR179 forms macromolecular complexes with components of metabotropic signaling cascade in retina ON-bipolar neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, Cesare; Cao, Yan; Martemyanov, Kirill A

    2013-10-29

    In the mammalian retina, synaptic transmission between light-excited rod photoreceptors and downstream ON-bipolar neurons is indispensable for dim vision, and disruption of this process leads to congenital stationary night blindness in human patients. The ON-bipolar neurons use the metabotropic signaling cascade, initiated by the mGluR6 receptor, to generate depolarizing responses to light-induced changes in neurotransmitter glutamate release from the photoreceptor axonal terminals. Evidence for the identity of the components involved in transducing these signals is growing rapidly. Recently, the orphan receptor, GPR179, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, has been shown to be indispensable for the synaptic responses of ON-bipolar cells. In our study, we investigated the interaction of GPR179 with principle components of the signal transduction cascade. We used immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays in transfected cells and native retinas to characterize the protein-protein interactions involving GPR179. The influence of cascade components on GPR179 localization was examined through immunohistochemical staining of the retinas from genetic mouse models. We demonstrated that, in mouse retinas, GPR179 forms physical complexes with the main components of the metabotropic cascade, recruiting mGluR6, TRPM1, and the RGS proteins. Elimination of mGluR6 or RGS proteins, but not TRPM1, detrimentally affects postsynaptic targeting or GPR179 expression. These observations suggest that the mGluR6 signaling cascade is scaffolded as a macromolecular complex in which the interactions between the components ensure the optimal spatiotemporal characteristics of signal transduction.

  17. Hydraulic manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, A.K.; Srikrishnamurty, G.

    1990-01-01

    Successful operation of nuclear plant is largely dependent on safe handling of radio-active material. In order to reduce this handling problem and minimise the exposure of radiation, various handling equipment and manipulators have been developed according to the requirements. Manufacture of nuclear fuel, which is the most important part of the nuclear industry, involves handling of uranium ingots weighing approximately 250 kg. This paper describes a specially designed hydraulic manipulator for handling of the ingots in a limited space. It was designed to grab and handle the ingots in any position. This has following drive motions: (1)gripping and releasing, (2)lifting and lowering (z-motion), (3)rotation about the horizontal axis (azimuth drive), (4)rotation about the job axis, and (5)rotation about the vertical axis. For horizontal motion (X and Y axis motion) this equipment is mounted on a motorised trolley, so that it can move inside the workshop. For all drives except the rotation about the job axis, hydraulic cylinders have been used with a battery operated power pack. Trolley drive is also given power from same battery. This paper describes the design aspects of this manipulator. (author). 4 figs

  18. Coincidence of features of emitted THz electromagnetic wave power form a single Josephson junction and different current components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdipour, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    By applying a voltage to a Josephson junction, the charge in superconducting layers (S-layers) will oscillate. Wavelength of the charge oscillations in S-layers is related to external current in junction, by increasing the external current, the wavelength will decrease which cause in some currents the wavelength be incommensurate with width of junction, so the CVC shows Fiske like steps. External current throwing along junction has some components, resistive, capacitive and superconducting current, beside these currents there is a current in lateral direction of junction, (x direction). On the other hand, the emitted electromagnetic wave power in THz region is related to AC component of electric field in junction, which itself is related to charge density in S-layers, which is related to currents in the system. So we expect that features of variation of current components reflect the features of emitted THz power form junction. Here we study in detail the superconductive current in a long Josephson junction (JJ), the current voltage characteristics (CVC) of junction and emitted THz power from the system. Then we compare the results. Comparing the results we see that there is a good qualitative coincidence in features of emitted THz power and supercurrent in junction.

  19. The quadratic-form identity for constructing Hamiltonian structures of the NLS-MKdV hierarchy and multi-component Levi hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Huanhe; Wang Xiangrong

    2008-01-01

    The trace identity is extended to the quadratic-form identity. The Hamiltonian structures of the NLS-MKdV hierarchy, and integrable coupling of multi-component Levi hierarchy are obtained by the quadratic-form identity. The method can be used to produce the Hamiltonian structures of the other integrable couplings or multi-component hierarchies

  20. Peatlands as Filters for Polluted Mine Water?—A Case Study from an Uranium-Contaminated Karst System in South Africa—Part III: Quantifying the Hydraulic Filter Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Winde

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available As Part III of a four-part series on the filter function of peat for uranium (U, this paper focuses on the hydraulic component of a conceptual filter model introduced in Part II. This includes the quantification of water flow through the wetland as a whole, which was largely unknown and found to be significantly higher that anticipated. Apart from subaquatic artesian springs associated with the underlying karst aquifer the higher flow volumes were also caused by plumes of polluted groundwater moving laterally into the wetland. Real-time, quasi-continuous in situ measurements of porewater in peat and non-peat sediments indicate that rising stream levels (e.g., during flood conditions lead to the infiltration of stream water into adjacent peat deposits and thus allow for a certain proportion of flood water to be filtered. However, changes in porewater quality triggered by spring rains may promote the remobilization of possibly sorbed U.

  1. Experience of usage of forming rings and protective caps made of PTFE on the single-component implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Chertov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Relevance. The main reason that limits the usage of single-component implants, as compared with collapsible (two-component implants is the high risk of infectious and inflammatory complications in the postoperative period and problems in prosthetics in the esthetically important areas. Therefore, the usage of elements that contribute to healing of the mucous membrane in the early stages of implantation is particularly up-to-date. Work objective is to determine the clinical effectiveness of usage of forming rings and protective caps made of PTFE on the single-component implants in the prevention of peri-implant pathology on a one-step surgical implantation. Materials and methods of the investigation. For this work we used the treatment results of 24 patients with various dentition defects. According to the single-component implant procedure 52 single-component implants were mounted. The head of monolithic implants (38 p. were isolated by rings or caps made of PTFE. For comparison, 14 implants remained bare for 2-6 weeks before the temporary prosthesis. Postoperatively, subjective feelings were noted in patients, the presence or absence of pain complaints during the examination and palpation, the nature and extent of edema, the phenomena of inflammation around the implant neck were checked. At the stage of sutures removal the degree of soft plaque deposits on the healing elements and titanium implant heads was assessed. Results of the investigation and their discussion. No effects of mucosal hyperemia around the supporting elements made of PTFE were revealed, there was no soft and hard plaque on the rings and caps in most patients of the main group. In patients of the control group, on the contrary, the appearance of the biofilm that covered the head and the implant shoulder on all abutments, which were not protected by a ring or cap, was noted. The healing period of mucous membrane in patients of the control group was longer, the quality of

  2. Hydraulic nuts (HydraNuts) for reactor vessel tensioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwell, Steve

    2008-01-01

    The paper will present how the introduction of hydraulic nuts - HydraNuts, has reduced critical path times, dose exposure for workers and improved working safety conditions around the reactor vessel during tensioning or de-tensioning operations. It will focus upon detailing the advantages realized by utilities that have introduced the technology and providing examples of the improvements made to the process as well as discussing the engineering design change packages required to make the conversion to the new system. HydraNuts replace the traditional mechanical nut/stud tensioning equipment, combining the two functions into a single system, designed for easy installation and operation by one individual. The primary components of the HydraNut can be assembled without the need for external crane or hoist support and are designed so that each sub assembly can be fitted separately. Once all HydraNuts are fitted to the Rx vessel studs and are sitting on the main Rx vessel head flange, then a system of flexible hydraulic hoses is connected to them, forming a closed loop hydraulic harness, which will allow for simultaneous pressurization of all HydraNuts. Hydraulic pressure is obtained by the use of a hydraulic pumping unit and the resultant load generated in each HydraNut is transferred to the stud and main flange closure is obtained. While maintaining hydraulic pressure, a locking ring is rotated into place on the HydraNut assembly that will support the tensioned load mechanically when the hydraulic pressure is released from the hose harness assembly. The hose harness is removed and the HydraNut is now functioning as a mechanical nut retaining the tensioned load. The HydraNut system for Rx vessel applications was first introduced into a plant in the U.S. in October 2006 and based upon the benefits realized subsequent projects are under way within the Asian and U.S. operating fleet. (author)

  3. Undular Hydraulic Jump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Castro-Orgaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition from subcritical to supercritical flow when the inflow Froude number Fo is close to unity appears in the form of steady state waves called undular hydraulic jump. The characterization of the undular hydraulic jump is complex due to the existence of a non-hydrostatic pressure distribution that invalidates the gradually-varied flow theory, and supercritical shock waves. The objective of this work is to present a mathematical model for the undular hydraulic jump obtained from an approximate integration of the Reynolds equations for turbulent flow assuming that the Reynolds number R is high. Simple analytical solutions are presented to reveal the physics of the theory, and a numerical model is used to integrate the complete equations. The limit of application of the theory is discussed using a wave breaking condition for the inception of a surface roller. The validity of the mathematical predictions is critically assessed using physical data, thereby revealing aspects on which more research is needed

  4. Unsaturated hydraulic properties of xerophilous mosses: towards implementation of moss covered soils in hydrological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voortman, B.R.; Bartholomeus, R.P.; Bodegom, van P.M.; Gooren, H.P.A.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Witte, J.P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Evaporation from mosses and lichens can form a major component of the water balance, especially in ecosystems where mosses and lichens often grow abundantly, such as tundra, deserts and bogs. To facilitate moss representation in hydrological models, we parameterized the unsaturated hydraulic

  5. Hydraulic Actuators with Autonomous Hydraulic Supply for the Mainline Aircrafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shumilov

    2014-01-01

    pipelines, as well as their increasing reliability. It is also possible, in addition, in addition to increase reliability of the remained pipelines, having applied the last developments, e.g. introduction of one-piece connections (thermo-mechanical ones, high-strength steels for pipelines with σв˃85 кг/мм 2 σ to increase control of residual assembly tension, and so on;- to eliminate essentially all the shortcomings of hydraulic actuators, which constrain their introduction in aircraft industry;- to simplify essentially steering drive structures and designs, which allow to apply the tried and tested components and principles;- to simplify essentially a solution for cooling of working liquid;- to simplify essentially a solution for the steering drive configuration in a zone of control vanes;- to simplify essentially a solution for meeting requirements for dynamic rigidity and dynamic sensitivity of hydraulic actuators;- to simplify essentially a solution for the aircraft fire safety, etc.

  6. Hydrodynamics and heat transfer in reactor components cooled by liquid metal coolants in single/two phase. 11. meeting of the International Association for Hydraulic Research (IAHR) Working Group. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Working Material includes the papers presented at the International Meeting 'Hydrodynamics and heat transfer in reactor components cooled by liquid metal coolants in single/two-phase', which was held 5-9 July 2004 at the State Scientific Center of Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering named after A.I. Leypunsky, in Obninsk near Moscow. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss new results obtained in the field of liquid metal coolant and to recommend the lines of further general physics and applied investigations, with the purpose of validating existing and codes under development for liquid metal cooled advanced and new generation nuclear reactors. Most of the contributions present results of experimental and numerical investigations into velocity, temperature and heat transfer in fuel subassemblies of fast reactors cooled by sodium or lead. In the frame of the meeting a benchmark problem devoted to heat transfer in the model subassembly of the fast reactor BREST-OD-300 was proposed. Experts from 5 countries (Japan, Netherlands, Spain, Republic of Korea, and Russia) took part in this benchmark exercise. The results of the benchmark calculations are summarized in the Working Material. The results of hydrodynamic studies of pressure head chambers and collector systems of liquid metal cooled reactors are presented in a number of papers. Also attention was given to the generalization of experimental data on hydraulic losses in the pipelines in case of mutual influence of local pressure drops, and to the modeling of natural convection in the fuel subassemblies and circuits with liquid metal cooling. Special emphasis at the meeting was placed on thermal hydraulics issues related to the development and design of target systems, such as heat removal in the target unit of the cascade subcritical reactor cooled by liquid salt; the target complex MK-1 for accelerator driven systems cooled by eutectic lead-bismuth alloy; and the test

  7. Hydrodynamics and heat transfer in reactor components cooled by liquid metal coolants in single/two phase. 11. meeting of the International Association for Hydraulic Research (IAHR) Working Group. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This Working Material includes the papers presented at the International Meeting 'Hydrodynamics and heat transfer in reactor components cooled by liquid metal coolants in single/two-phase', which was held 5-9 July 2004 at the State Scientific Center of Russian Federation - Institute for Physics and Power Engineering named after A.I. Leypunsky, in Obninsk near Moscow. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss new results obtained in the field of liquid metal coolant and to recommend the lines of further general physics and applied investigations, with the purpose of validating existing and codes under development for liquid metal cooled advanced and new generation nuclear reactors. Most of the contributions present results of experimental and numerical investigations into velocity, temperature and heat transfer in fuel subassemblies of fast reactors cooled by sodium or lead. In the frame of the meeting a benchmark problem devoted to heat transfer in the model subassembly of the fast reactor BREST-OD-300 was proposed. Experts from 5 countries (Japan, Netherlands, Spain, Republic of Korea, and Russia) took part in this benchmark exercise. The results of the benchmark calculations are summarized in the Working Material. The results of hydrodynamic studies of pressure head chambers and collector systems of liquid metal cooled reactors are presented in a number of papers. Also attention was given to the generalization of experimental data on hydraulic losses in the pipelines in case of mutual influence of local pressure drops, and to the modeling of natural convection in the fuel subassemblies and circuits with liquid metal cooling. Special emphasis at the meeting was placed on thermal hydraulics issues related to the development and design of target systems, such as heat removal in the target unit of the cascade subcritical reactor cooled by liquid salt; the target complex MK-1 for accelerator driven systems cooled by eutectic lead-bismuth alloy; and the test

  8. Hydraulic nuts (hydranuts) for critical bolted joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwell, S.

    2008-01-01

    HydraNuts replace the original nut and torquing equipment, combining the two functions into one system. Designed for simple installation and operation, HydraNuts are fitted to the stud bolts. Once all HydraNuts are fitted to the application, flexible hydraulic hoses are connected, forming a closed loop hydraulic harness, allowing simultaneous pressurization of all HydraNuts. Hydraulic pressure is obtained by the use of a pumping unit and the resultant load generated is transferred to the studs and flange closure is obtained. Locking rings are rotated into place, supporting the tensioned load mechanically after hydraulic pressure is released. The hose harness is removed. (author)

  9. Birth of a hydraulic jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Alexis; Bohr, Tomas; Andersen, Anders

    2017-11-01

    The hydraulic jump, i.e., the sharp transition between a supercritical and a subcritical free-surface flow, has been extensively studied in the past centuries. However, ever since Leonardo da Vinci asked it for the first time, an important question has been left unanswered: How does a hydraulic jump form? We present an experimental and theoretical study of the formation of stationary hydraulic jumps in centimeter wide channels. Two starting situations are considered: The channel is, respectively, empty or filled with liquid, the liquid level being fixed by the wetting properties and the boundary conditions. We then change the flow-rate abruptly from zero to a constant value. In an empty channel, we observe the formation of a stationary hydraulic jump in a two-stage process: First, the channel fills by the advancing liquid front, which undergoes a transition from supercritical to subcritical at some position in the channel. Later the influence of the downstream boundary conditions makes the jump move slowly upstream to its final position. In the pre-filled channel, the hydraulic jump forms at the injector edge and then moves downstream to its final position.

  10. HYDRAULIC CONCRETE COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Scientific work aims at the development and testing of information system to meet the challenges of concrete composition design and control (for railway structures and buildings based on the physico-analytical method algorithm for hydraulic concrete composition calculation. Methodology. The proposed algorithm of hydraulic concrete composition calculation is based on the physicochemical mechanics and in particular on the rheology of elastic–viscous–plastic bodies. The system of canonical equations consists of the equations for concrete strength, absolute volume, concrete mix consistency as well as the equation for optimal concrete saturation with aggregates while minimizing cement content. The joint solution of these four equations related to composition allows determining for the materials the concrete composition of required strength, concrete workability with minimum cement content. The procedure for calculation of hydraulic concrete composition according to the physico-analytical method consists of two parts: 1 physical, which is laboratory testing of concrete mix components in different concrete compositions; 2 analytical, which represents the calculation algorithm for concrete compositions equivalent in concrete strength and workability that comply with the specific conditions of concrete placing. Findings. To solve the problem of designing the concrete composition with the desired properties for railway structures and buildings it was proposed to use the information technology in the form of a developed computer program whose algorithm includes the physico-analytical method for hydraulic concrete composition determination. Originality. The developed concrete composition design method takes into account the basic properties of raw materials, concrete mix and concrete, which are pre-determined. The distinctive feature of physico-analytical method is obtaining of a set of equivalent compositions with a certain concrete mix

  11. Hydraulic jett mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Efficient mixing of reactants into a waste stream has always been a problem in that there has been no mixer capable of combining all the elements of enhanced mixing into a single piece of equipment. Through the development of a mixing system for the mining industry to treat acid mine water containing heavy metals, a versatile new hydraulic jetting static mixer has been developed that has no moving parts and a clean bore with no internal components. This paper reports that the main goal of the development of the hydraulic jett mixer was to reduce the size of the tankage required for an acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment plant through development of a static mixing device that could coincidentally aerate the treatment flow. This process equipment being developed would simultaneously adjust the pH and oxidize the metals allowing formation of the hydroxide sludges required for sedimentation and removal of the metals from the treatment stream. In effect, the device eliminates two reaction tanks, the neutralization/mixing tank and the aeration tank

  12. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  13. Analysis of Hydraulic Conductance Components in Field Grown, Mature Sweet Cherry Trees Análisis de los Componentes de Conductancia Hidráulica en Árboles Maduros de Cerezo Dulce en Condiciones de Campo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Oyarzún

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available As a necessary step towards understanding soil water extraction and plant water relationships, the components of hydraulic conductance (K of mature sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. trees were evaluated in situ based on a Ohm´s law analog method. In June 2004, K was determined for 10-yr-old ‘Bing’/‘Gisela® 5’ trees, from simultaneous measurements of whole canopy gas exchange and leaf (sunlit and shaded and stem water potentials (Ψ. Leaf water potential of sunlit leaves was lower than shaded leaves, reaching minimum values of ca. -2.3 MPa around 14:00 h (solar time. Average total hydraulic conductance was 60 ± 6 mmol s-1 MPa-1, presenting a slight decreasing trend as the season progressed. The analysis of tree K components showed that it was higher on the stem-leaf pathway (150 ± 50 mmol s-1 MPa-1, compared to the root-stem component (100 ± 20 mmol s-1 MPa-1, which is in agreement with literature reports for other fruit trees. A weak hysteresis pattern in the daily relationship between whole-canopy transpiration (weighted sunlit and shaded leaves vs. Ψ was observed, suggesting that water storage within the tree is not a significant component of sweet cherry water balance.Como un paso necesario para la comprensión de la extracción de agua desde el suelo y las relaciones suelo-agua-planta, los componentes de la conductancia hidráulica (K en árboles adultos de cerezo (Prunus avium L. fue evaluada in situ con un método basado en una analogía de la Ley de Ohm. En Junio de 2004, K fue determinada para árboles ‘Bing’/‘Gisela® 5’ de 10 años de edad, a partir de mediciones simultáneas de intercambio gaseoso del follaje en forma integrada y potenciales hídricos (Ψ de hojas individuales (soleadas y sombreadas y del xilema. Los potenciales hídricos de las hojas soleadas fueron menores que los de las hojas sombreadas, alcanzando valores mínimos de ca. -2.3 MPa alrededor de 14:00 h (hora solar. La conductancia hidr

  14. Linalool, a Piper aduncum essential oil component, has selective activity against Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigote forms at 4°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamizar, Luz Helena; Cardoso, Maria das Graças; Andrade, Juliana de; Teixeira, Maria Luisa; Soares, Maurilio José

    2017-02-01

    Recent studies showed that essential oils from different pepper species (Piper spp.) have promising leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities. In search for natural compounds against Trypanosoma cruzi, different forms of the parasite were incubated for 24 h at 28ºC or 4ºC with Piper aduncum essential oil (PaEO) or its main constituents linalool and nerolidol. PaEO chemical composition was obtained by GC-MS. Drug activity assays were based on cell counting, MTT data or infection index values. The effect of PaEO on the T. cruzi cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated by flow cytometry. PaEO was effective against cell-derived (IC50/24 h: 2.8 μg/mL) and metacyclic (IC50/24 h: 12.1 μg/mL) trypomastigotes, as well as intracellular amastigotes (IC50/24 h: 9 μg/mL). At 4ºC - the temperature of red blood cells (RBCs) storage in blood banks - cell-derived trypomastigotes were more sensitive to PaEO (IC50/24 h = 3.8 μg/mL) than to gentian violet (IC50/24 h = 24.7 mg/mL). Cytotoxicity assays using Vero cells (37ºC) and RBCs (4ºC) showed that PaEO has increased selectivity for cell-derived trypomastigotes. Flow cytometry analysis showed that PaEO does not affect the cell cycle of T. cruzi epimastigotes, but decreases their mitochondrial membrane potential. GC-MS data identified nerolidol and linalool as major components of PaEO, and linalool had trypanocidal effect (IC50/24 h: 306 ng/mL) at 4ºC. The trypanocidal effect of PaEO is likely due to the presence of linalool, which may represent an interesting candidate for use in the treatment of potentially contaminated RBCs bags at low temperature.

  15. Linalool, a Piper aduncum essential oil component, has selective activity against Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigote forms at 4°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Helena Villamizar

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Recent studies showed that essential oils from different pepper species (Piper spp. have promising leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activities. OBJECTIVES In search for natural compounds against Trypanosoma cruzi, different forms of the parasite were incubated for 24 h at 28ºC or 4ºC with Piper aduncum essential oil (PaEO or its main constituents linalool and nerolidol. METHODS PaEO chemical composition was obtained by GC-MS. Drug activity assays were based on cell counting, MTT data or infection index values. The effect of PaEO on the T. cruzi cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential was evaluated by flow cytometry. FINDINGS PaEO was effective against cell-derived (IC50/24 h: 2.8 μg/mL and metacyclic (IC50/24 h: 12.1 μg/mL trypomastigotes, as well as intracellular amastigotes (IC50/24 h: 9 μg/mL. At 4ºC - the temperature of red blood cells (RBCs storage in blood banks - cell-derived trypomastigotes were more sensitive to PaEO (IC50/24 h = 3.8 μg/mL than to gentian violet (IC50/24 h = 24.7 mg/mL. Cytotoxicity assays using Vero cells (37ºC and RBCs (4ºC showed that PaEO has increased selectivity for cell-derived trypomastigotes. Flow cytometry analysis showed that PaEO does not affect the cell cycle of T. cruzi epimastigotes, but decreases their mitochondrial membrane potential. GC-MS data identified nerolidol and linalool as major components of PaEO, and linalool had trypanocidal effect (IC50/24 h: 306 ng/mL at 4ºC. MAIN CONCLUSION The trypanocidal effect of PaEO is likely due to the presence of linalool, which may represent an interesting candidate for use in the treatment of potentially contaminated RBCs bags at low temperature.

  16. Hydraulic loop: practices using open control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, J.A.; Alonso, L.; Sanchez, F.

    1998-01-01

    The Tecnatom Hydraulic Loop is a dynamic training platform. It has been designed with the purpose of improving the work in teams. With this system, the student can obtain a full scope vision of a system. The hydraulic Loop is a part of the Tecnatom Maintenance Centre. The first objective of the hydraulic Loop is the instruction in components, process and process control using open control system. All the personal of an electric power plant can be trained in the Hydraulic Loop with specific courses. The development of a dynamic tool for tests previous to plant installations has been an additional objective of the Hydraulic Loop. The use of this platform is complementary to the use of full-scope simulators in order to debug and to analyse advanced control strategies. (Author)

  17. Equipment for hydraulic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, L.; Norlander, H.

    1981-07-01

    Hydraulic testing in boreholes is one major task of the hydrogeological program in the Stripa Project. A new testing equipment for this purpose was constructed. It consists of a downhole part and a surface part. The downhole part consists of two packers enclosing two test-sections when inflated; one between the packers and one between the bottom packer and the bottom of the borehole. A probe for downhole electronics is also included in the downhole equipment together with electrical cable and nylon tubing. In order to perform shut-in and pulse tests with high accuracy a surface controlled downhole valve was constructed. The surface equipment consists of the data acquisition system, transducer amplifier and surface gauges. In the report detailed descriptions of each component in the whole testing equipment are given. (Auth.)

  18. Characteristics of Air Entrainment in Hydraulic Jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarkani, M. S. S.; Tan, L. W.; Al-Gheethi, A.

    2018-04-01

    The characteristics of hydraulic jump, especially the air entrainment within jump is still not properly understood. Therefore, the current work aimed to determine the size and number of air entrainment formed in hydraulic jump at three different Froude numbers and to obtain the relationship between Froude number with the size and number of air entrainment in hydraulic jump. Experiments of hydraulic jump were conducted in a 10 m long and 0.3 m wide Armfield S6MKII glass-sided tilting flume. Hydraulic jumps were produced by flow under sluice gate with varying Froude number. The air entrainment of the hydraulic jump was captured with a Canon Power Shot SX40 HS digital camera in video format at 24 frames per second. Three discharges have been considered, i.e. 0.010 m3/s, 0.011 m3/s, and 0.013 m3/s. For hydraulic jump formed in each discharge, 32 frames were selected for the purpose of analysing the size and number of air entrainment in hydraulic jump. The results revealed that that there is a tendency to have greater range in sizes of air bubbles as Fr1 increases. Experiments with Fr1 = 7.547. 7.707, and 7.924 shown that the number of air bubbles increases exponentially with Fr1 at a relationship of N = 1.3814 e 0.9795Fr1.

  19. Power Management in Mobile Hydraulic Applications - An Approach for Designing Hydraulic Power Supply Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the last three decades energy consumption has become one of the primary design aspects in hydraulic systems, especially for mobile hydraulic systems, as power and cooling capacity here is at limited disposal. Considering the energy usage, this is dependent on component efficiency, but ...... the hydraulic power supply in the most energy efficient way, when considering a number of load situations. Finally an example of the approach is shown to prove its validity.}......Throughout the last three decades energy consumption has become one of the primary design aspects in hydraulic systems, especially for mobile hydraulic systems, as power and cooling capacity here is at limited disposal. Considering the energy usage, this is dependent on component efficiency...

  20. Physical simulation study on the hydraulic fracture propagation of coalbed methane well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Caifang; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Longgang; Jiang, Wei

    2018-03-01

    As the most widely used technique to modify reservoirs in the exploitation of unconventional natural gas, hydraulic fracturing could effectively raise the production of CBM wells. To study the propagation rules of hydraulic fractures, analyze the fracture morphology, and obtain the controlling factors, a physical simulation experiment was conducted with a tri-axial hydraulic fracturing test system. In this experiment, the fracturing sample - including the roof, the floor, and the surrounding rock - was prepared from coal and similar materials, and the whole fracturing process was monitored by an acoustic emission instrument. The results demonstrated that the number of hydraulic fractures in coal is considerably higher than that observed in other parts, and the fracture morphology was complex. Vertical fractures were interwoven with horizontal fractures, forming a connected network. With the injection of fracturing fluid, a new hydraulic fracture was produced and it extended along the preexisting fractures. The fracture propagation was a discontinuous, dynamic process. Furthermore, in-situ stress plays a key role in fracture propagation, causing the fractures to extend in a direction perpendicular to the minimum principal stress. To a certain extent, the different mechanical properties of the coal and the other components inhibited the vertical propagation of hydraulic fractures. Nonetheless, the vertical stress and the interfacial property are the major factors to influence the formation of the "T" shaped and "工" shaped fractures.

  1. Experimental thermal hydraulics in support of FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmakumar, G.; Anand Babu, C.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Vaidyanathan, G.

    2009-01-01

    The thermal hydraulic design plays a crucial role for the safe and economical deployment of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR). Robust experimental programmes are required in support of LMFBR thermal hydraulics design. The philosophy of testing has been to construct small scale models to understand the physical behaviour and to build larger scale models to optimize the component design. The experiments are conducted either in sodium or using a simulant like water/air. The paper gives a brief account of the various thermal hydraulic experiments carried out in support of the design of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR). (author)

  2. Hydraulically centered control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlacher, W.R.; Sampson, W.T.; Schukei, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    A control rod suspended to reciprocate in a guide tube of a nuclear fuel assembly has a hydraulic bearing formed at its lower tip. The bearing includes a plurality of discrete pockets on its outer surface into which a flow of liquid is continuously provided. In one embodiment the flow is induced by the pressure head in a downward facing chamber at the end of the bearing. In another embodiment the flow originates outside the guide tube. In both embodiments the flow into the pockets produces pressure differences across the bearing which counteract forces tending to drive the rod against the guide tube wall. Thus contact of the rod against the guide tube is avoided

  3. Hydraulics and pneumatics a technician's and engineer's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Parr, Andrew

    1991-01-01

    Hydraulics and Pneumatics: A Technician's and Engineer's Guide provides an introduction to the components and operation of a hydraulic or pneumatic system. This book discusses the main advantages and disadvantages of pneumatic or hydraulic systems.Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of industrial prime movers. This text then examines the three different types of positive displacement pump used in hydraulic systems, namely, gear pumps, vane pumps, and piston pumps. Other chapters consider the pressure in a hydraulic system, which can be quickly and easily controlled

  4. 12 CFR 502.28 - How does OTS determine the organizational form component for a savings and loan holding company?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... component for a savings and loan holding company? 502.28 Section 502.28 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Assessments Savings and Loan Holding Companies... savings and loan holding company that OTS regulates under section 10(l) of the HOLA. OTS will compute your...

  5. The Influence of the Tool Surface Texture on Friction and the Surface Layers Properties of Formed Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Šugárová

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphological texturing of forming tool surfaces has high potential to reduce friction and tool wear and also has impact on the surface layers properties of formed material. In order to understand the effect of different types of tool textures, produced by nanosecond fibre laser, on the tribological conditions at the interface tool-formed material and on the integrity of formed part surface layers, the series of experimental investigations have been carried out. The coefficient of friction for different texture parameters (individual feature shape, including the depth profile of the cavities and orientation of the features relative to the material flow was evaluated via a Ring Test and the surface layers integrity of formed material (surface roughness and subsurface micro hardness was also experimentally analysed. The results showed a positive effect of surface texturing on the friction coefficients and the strain hardening of test samples material. Application of surface texture consisting of dimple-like depressions arranged in radial layout contributed to the most significant friction reduction of about 40%. On the other hand, this surface texture contributed to the increase of surface roughness parameters, Ra parameter increased from 0.49 μm to 2.19 μm and the Rz parameter increased from 0.99 μm to 16.79 μm.

  6. Spectrophotometric methods for the determination of benazepril hydrochloride in its single and multi-component dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Yazbi, F A; Abdine, H H; Shaalan, R A

    1999-06-01

    Three sensitive and accurate methods are presented for the determination of benazepril in its dosage forms. The first method uses derivative spectrophotometry to resolve the interference due to formulation matrix. The second method depends on the color formed by the reaction of the drug with bromocresol green (BCG). The third one utilizes the reaction of benazepril, after alkaline hydrolysis, with 3-methylbenzothialozone (MBTH) hydrazone where the produced color is measured at 593 nm. The latter method was extended to develop a stability-indicating method for this drug. Moreover, the derivative method was applied for the determination of benazepril in its combination with hydrochlorothiazide. The proposed methods were applied for the analysis of benazepril in the pure form and in tablets. The coefficient of variation was less than 2%.

  7. Visual and intelligent transients and accidents analyzer based on thermal-hydraulic system code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Lin; Rui Hu; Yun Su; Ronghua Zhang; Yanhua Yang

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Many thermal-hydraulic system codes were developed in the past twenty years, such as RELAP5, RETRAN, ATHLET, etc. Because of their general and advanced features in thermal-hydraulic computation, they are widely used in the world to analyze transients and accidents. But there are following disadvantages for most of these original thermal-hydraulic system codes. Firstly, because models are built through input decks, so the input files are complex and non-figurative, and the style of input decks is various for different users and models. Secondly, results are shown in off-line data file form. It is not convenient for analysts who may pay more attention to dynamic parameters trend and changing. Thirdly, there are few interfaces with other program in these original thermal-hydraulic system codes. This restricts the codes expanding. The subject of this paper is to develop a powerful analyzer based on these thermal-hydraulic system codes to analyze transients and accidents more simply, accurately and fleetly. Firstly, modeling is visual and intelligent. Users build the thermalhydraulic system model using component objects according to their needs, and it is not necessary for them to face bald input decks. The style of input decks created automatically by the analyzer is unified and can be accepted easily by other people. Secondly, parameters concerned by analyst can be dynamically communicated to show or even change. Thirdly, the analyzer provide interface with other programs for the thermal-hydraulic system code. Thus parallel computation between thermal-hydraulic system code and other programs become possible. In conclusion, through visual and intelligent method, the analyzer based on general and advanced thermal-hydraulic system codes can be used to analysis transients and accidents more effectively. The main purpose of this paper is to present developmental activities, assessment and application results of the visual and intelligent

  8. Proposed measurement of the imaginary component of atomic form factor for medium Z-elements in regions exhibiting significant discrepancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jonge, M.; Dhal, B.B.; Tran, C.Q.; Barnea, Z.; Chantler, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Discrepancies in measurements of the complex atomic form factor in regions of medium Z are alarmingly high for such a fundamental problem. The consequence of this is that any experiment reliant on the Beer-Lambert absorption law that uses the tabulated absorption coefficients assumes an immediate experimental uncertainty of 2-10%, depending on the element and the energy under consideration. We have begun to address this state of affairs in the medium Z-region through a series of precise determinations of attenuation coefficients. We will elaborate on a proposed method of measuring the atomic form factor to 0.2% absolute accuracy

  9. Dynamic DNA devices and assemblies formed by shape-complementary, non-base pairing 3D components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerling, Thomas; Wagenbauer, Klaus F.; Neuner, Andrea M.; Dietz, Hendrik

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate that discrete three-dimensional (3D) DNA components can specifically self-assemble in solution on the basis of shape-complementarity and without base pairing. Using this principle, we produced homo- and heteromultimeric objects, including micrometer-scale one- and two-stranded filaments and lattices, as well as reconfigurable devices, including an actuator, a switchable gear, an unfoldable nanobook, and a nanorobot. These multidomain assemblies were stabilized via short-ranged nucleobase stacking bonds that compete against electrostatic repulsion between the components’ interfaces. Using imaging by electron microscopy, ensemble and single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer spectroscopy, and electrophoretic mobility analysis, we show that the balance between attractive and repulsive interactions, and thus the conformation of the assemblies, may be finely controlled by global parameters such as cation concentration or temperature and by an allosteric mechanism based on strand-displacement reactions.

  10. Usefulness of radiatively obtained acrylamide polymers for production of drug forms with controlled release of the therapeutic component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosiniak, T.; Switek, W.

    1988-01-01

    Using 60 Co gamma radiation as a factor initiating polymerization and cross-linking of polymers, polyacrylamide matrices were formed with the following therapeutic agents: aspirin, amidopyrin, sodium salicylate. Gamma radiation doses ranged from 3.5 to 22.5 kGy, dose rate was 0.138 Gy x s -1 . Kinetics of the therapeutic agent release from the matrix polymers was determined by measurement of per cent of the drug release in the course of time and calculations of release rate constants. The preparations containing slowly released drugs were obtained. 12 figs., 2 tabs., 11 refs. (author)

  11. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  12. SAF-A forms a complex with BRG1 and both components are required for RNA polymerase II mediated transcription.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzeneta Vizlin-Hodzic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scaffold attachment factor A (SAF-A participates in the regulation of gene expression by organizing chromatin into transcriptionally active domains and by interacting directly with RNA polymerase II. METHODOLOGY: Here we use co-localization, co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP and in situ proximity ligation assay (PLA to identify Brahma Related Gene 1 (BRG1, the ATP-driven motor of the human SWI-SNF chromatin remodeling complex, as another SAF-A interaction partner in mouse embryonic stem (mES cells. We also employ RNA interference to investigate functional aspects of the SAF-A/BRG1 interaction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We find that endogenous SAF-A protein interacts with endogenous BRG1 protein in mES cells, and that the interaction does not solely depend on the presence of mRNA. Moreover the interaction remains intact when cells are induced to differentiate. Functional analyses reveal that dual depletion of SAF-A and BRG1 abolishes global transcription by RNA polymerase II, while the nucleolar RNA polymerase I transcription machinery remains unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate that SAF-A interacts with BRG1 and that both components are required for RNA Polymerase II Mediated Transcription.

  13. Digital switched hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min; Plummer, Andrew

    2018-06-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in digital switched hydraulics particularly the switched inertance hydraulic systems (SIHSs). The performance of SIHSs is presented in brief with a discussion of several possible configurations and control strategies. The soft switching technology and high-speed switching valve design techniques are discussed. Challenges and recommendations are given based on the current research achievements.

  14. Hydraulic Structures : Caissons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorendt, M.Z.; Molenaar, W.F.; Bezuyen, K.G.

    These lecture notes on caissons are part of the study material belonging to the course 'Hydraulic Structures 1' (code CTB3355), part of the Bachelor of Science education and the Hydraulic Engineering track of the Master of Science education for civil engineering students at Delft University of

  15. Hydraulic characterization of " Furcraea andina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Velasquez, M. F.; Fallico, C.; Molinari, A.; Santillan, P.; Salazar, M.

    2012-04-01

    The present level of pollution, increasingly involving groundwaters, constitutes a serious risk for environment and human health. Therefore the remediation of saturated and unsaturated soils, removing pollutant materials through innovative and economic bio-remediation techniques is more frequently required. Recent studies on natural fiber development have shown the effectiveness of these fibers for removal of some heavy metals, due to the lignin content in the natural fibers which plays an important role in the adsorption of metal cations (Lee et al., 2004; Troisi et al., 2008; C. Fallico, 2010). In the context of remediation techniques for unsaturated and/or saturated zone, an experimental approach for the hydraulic characterization of the "Furcraea andina" (i.e., Cabuya Blanca) fiber was carried out. This fiber is native to Andean regions and grows easily in wild or cultivated form in the valleys and hillsides of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Fibers of "Furcraea andina" were characterized by experimental tests to determine their hydraulic conductivity or permeability and porosity in order to use this medium for bioremediation of contaminated aquifer exploiting the physical, chemical and microbial capacity of natural fiber in heavy metal adsorption. To evaluate empirically the hydraulic conductivity, laboratory tests were carried out at constant head specifically on the fibers manually extracted. For these tests we used a flow cell (used as permeameter), containing the "Furcraea andina" fibers to be characterized, suitably connected by a tygon pipe to a Marriott's bottle, which had a plastic tube that allow the adjustment of the hydraulic head for different tests to a constant value. By this experiment it was also possible to identify relationships that enable the estimation of permeability as a function of density, i.e. of the compaction degree of the fibers. Our study was carried out for three values of hydraulic head (H), namely 10, 18, and 25 cm and for each

  16. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  17. Hydraulic release oil tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mims, M.G.; Mueller, M.D.; Ehlinger, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a hydraulic release tool. It comprises a setting assembly; a coupling member for coupling to drill string or petroleum production components, the coupling member being a plurality of sockets for receiving the dogs in the extended position and attaching the coupling member the setting assembly; whereby the setting assembly couples to the coupling member by engagement of the dogs in the sockets of releases from and disengages the coupling member in movement of the piston from its setting to its reposition in response to a pressure in the body in exceeding the predetermined pressure; and a relief port from outside the body into its bore and means to prevent communication between the relief port and the bore of the body axially of the piston when the piston is in the setting position and to establish such communication upon movement of the piston from the setting position to the release position and reduce the pressure in the body bore axially of the piston, whereby the reduction of the pressure signals that the tool has released the coupling member

  18. Handbook of hydraulic fluid technology

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, George E

    2011-01-01

    ""The Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology"" serves as the foremost resource for designing hydraulic systems and for selecting hydraulic fluids used in engineering applications. Featuring new illustrations, data tables, as well as practical examples, this second edition is updated with essential information on the latest hydraulic fluids and testing methods. The detailed text facilitates unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including important hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants. Written by worldwide experts, the book also offers a rigorous overview of h

  19. Operating Experience Insights into Pipe Failures for Electro-Hydraulic Control and Instrument Air Systems in Nuclear Power Plant. A Topical Report from the Component Operational Experience, Degradation and Ageing Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Structural integrity of piping systems is important for plant safety and operability. In recognition of this, information on degradation and failure of piping components and systems is collected and evaluated by regulatory agencies, international organisations (e.g. OECD/NEA and IAEA) and industry organisations worldwide to provide systematic feedback for example to reactor regulation and research and development programmes associated with non-destructive examination (NDE) technology, in-service inspection (ISI) programmes, leak-before-break evaluations, risk-informed ISI, and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) applications involving passive component reliability. Several OECD member countries have agreed to establish the OECD/NEA 'Component Operational Experience, Degradation and Ageing Programme' (CODAP) to encourage multilateral co-operation in the collection and analysis of data relating to degradation and failure of metallic piping and non-piping metallic passive components in commercial nuclear power plants. The scope of the data collection includes service-induced wall thinning, part through-wall cracks, through-wall cracks with and without active leakage, and instances of significant degradation of metallic passive components, including piping pressure boundary integrity. The OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) acts as an umbrella committee of the Project. CODAP is the continuation of the 2002-2011 'OECD/NEA Pipe Failure Data Exchange Project' (OPDE) and the Stress Corrosion Cracking Working Group of the 2006-2010 'OECD/NEA Stress Corrosion Cracking and Cable Ageing Project' (SCAP). OPDE was formally launched in May 2002. Upon completion of the third term (May 2011), the OPDE project was officially closed to be succeeded by CODAP. SCAP was enabled by a voluntary contribution from Japan. It was formally launched in June 2006 and officially closed with an international workshop held in Tokyo in May

  20. Hydraulic Geometry Analysis of the Lower Mississippi River

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soar, Philip J; Thorne, Colin R; Harmar, Oliver P

    2005-01-01

    The hydraulic geometry of the Lower Mississippi River is primarily the product of the action of natural flows acting on the floodplain materials over centuries and millennia to form an alluvial forming a channel...

  1. Several new thermo-hydraulic test facilities in NPIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Shurong; Sun Yufa; Ji Fuyun; Zong Guifang; Guo Zhongchuan

    1997-01-01

    Several new thermo-hydraulic test facilities are under construction in Nuclear Power Institute of Chinese (NPIC) at Chengdu. These facilities include: 1. Nuclear Power Component Comprehensive Test Facility. 2. Reactor Hydraulic Modeling Test Facility. 3. Control Rod Drive Line Hydraulic Test Facility. 4. Large Scale Thermo-Hydraulic Test Facility. The construction of these facilities will make huge progress in the research and development capability of nuclear power technology in CHINA. The author will present a brief description of the design parameters flowchart and test program of these facilities

  2. THE ANALYSIS OF EFFECTIVENESS OF CORRECTIVE PROGRAM OF FORMING OF COMPONENTS OF PROFESSIONAL SELF-DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Smoliuk

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of effectiveness of corrective program of forming of components of professional self-development of future primary school teachers is made in the article. The methodological base of design of corrective program was the principles of systematic and genetic, personal and active, action approaches to the professional self-development, humanist theory of self- actualization and self-realization of the personality. The program, designed by author consisted of: diagnostic, forming and recovering, psychical and preventive and correctional, control blocks. In the psychical and preventive and correctional process the gaming technologies, which consist of numerous exercises and performed both individually and within groups, psychological actions and role games and quests, personality-oriented technologies of professional development were used. The conducted justification of effectiveness of corrective program showed, that the specially arranged events allowed to increase levels of such components of professional self-development of future primary school teachers as: need and motivational, reflexive and value and social-communicative. During the conducting of pedagogical correction the specially organized training as the addition to traditional educational forms were used. The objectives of such education are the following: the promotion of forming of subjective position of the personality about the professional promotion; the supporting of personal-professional development; the stimulating of upward professional mobility and career growth in the pedagogical activity; optimization of attitude to oneself as to the professional; the expansion of oriental level in the professional field; the actualization of personal resources in the professional self-development; help in passing of new professional status of future pedagogue; the prognostication of possible difficulties, which are related to the future pedagogical activity. Thus proved, that the

  3. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on......-going research projects on fluid power and mechatronics based on tap water hydraulic servovalves and linear servo actuators and rotary vane actuators for motion control and power transmission. Development and design a novel water hydraulic rotary vane actuator for robot manipulators. Proposed mathematical...... modelling, control and simulation of a water hydraulic rotary vane actuator applied to power and control a two-links manipulator and evaluate performance. The results include engineering design and test of the proposed simulation models compared with IHA Tampere University’s presentation of research...

  4. Hydraulic hoisting and backfilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauermann, H. B.

    In a country such as South Africa, with its large deep level mining industry, improvements in mining and hoisting techniques could result in substantial savings. Hoisting techniques, for example, may be improved by the introduction of hydraulic hoisting. The following are some of the advantages of hydraulic hoisting as against conventional skip hoisting: (1) smaller shafts are required because the pipes to hoist the same quantity of ore hydraulically require less space in the shaft than does skip hoisting equipment; (2) the hoisting capacity of a mine can easily be increased without the necessity of sinking new shafts. Large savings in capital costs can thus be made; (3) fully automatic control is possible with hydraulic hoisting and therefore less manpower is required; and (4) health and safety conditions will be improved.

  5. Hydraulic efficiency of a Rushton turbine impeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chara, Z.; Kysela, B.; Fort, I.

    2017-07-01

    Based on CFD simulations hydraulic efficiency of a standard Rushton turbine impeller in a baffled tank was determined at a Reynolds number of ReM=33330. Instantaneous values of pressure and velocity components were used to draw up the macroscopic balance of the mechanical energy. It was shown that the hydraulic efficiency of the Rushton turbine impeller (energy dissipated in a bulk volume) is about 57%. Using this result we estimated a length scale in a non-dimensional equation of kinetic energy dissipation rate in the bulk volume as L=D/2.62.

  6. CagI is an essential component of the Helicobacter pylori Cag type IV secretion system and forms a complex with CagL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieu Thuy Pham

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori, the causative agent of type B gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma, uses the Cag type IV secretion system to induce a strong proinflammatory response in the gastric mucosa and to inject its effector protein CagA into gastric cells. CagA translocation results in altered host cell gene expression profiles and cytoskeletal rearrangements, and it is considered as a major bacterial virulence trait. Recently, it has been shown that binding of the type IV secretion apparatus to integrin receptors on target cells is a crucial step in the translocation process. Several bacterial proteins, including the Cag-specific components CagL and CagI, have been involved in this interaction. Here, we have examined the localization and interactions of CagI in the bacterial cell. Since the cagI gene overlaps and is co-transcribed with the cagL gene, the role of CagI for type IV secretion system function has been difficult to assess, and conflicting results have been reported regarding its involvement in the proinflammatory response. Using a marker-free gene deletion approach and genetic complementation, we show now that CagI is an essential component of the Cag type IV secretion apparatus for both CagA translocation and interleukin-8 induction. CagI is distributed over soluble and membrane-associated pools and seems to be partly surface-exposed. Deletion of several genes encoding essential Cag components has an impact on protein levels of CagI and CagL, suggesting that both proteins require partial assembly of the secretion apparatus. Finally, we show by co-immunoprecipitation that CagI and CagL interact with each other. Taken together, our results indicate that CagI and CagL form a functional complex which is formed at a late stage of secretion apparatus assembly.

  7. Horizontal steam generator thermal-hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubra, O. [SKODA Praha Company, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Doubek, M. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-09-01

    Horizontal steam generators are typical components of nuclear power plants with pressure water reactor type VVER. Thermal-hydraulic behavior of horizontal steam generators is very different from the vertical U-tube steam generator, which has been extensively studied for several years. To contribute to the understanding of the horizontal steam generator thermal-hydraulics a computer program for 3-D steady state analysis of the PGV-1000 steam generator has been developed. By means of this computer program, a detailed thermal-hydraulic and thermodynamic study of the horizontal steam generator PGV-1000 has been carried out and a set of important steam generator characteristics has been obtained. The 3-D distribution of the void fraction and 3-D level profile as functions of load and secondary side pressure have been investigated and secondary side volumes and masses as functions of load and pressure have been evaluated. Some of the interesting results of calculations are presented in the paper.

  8. Library thermohydraulic components for training simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelao Caruana, M. J.; Di Benedetto, A.; Pierini, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    The thermohydraulic components Library was modeled in MatLab/Simulink®. This library owns Pipe type components (pump, control valve and / or heaters), storage tanks (Open, Closed and Equilibrium Water Vapor-Air) and Heat Exchangers (Co-Current, Counter-Current and U-tubes). Each component can be attached to other components through the component library Header, in order to create a more complex thermal-hydraulic system which in turn can interact with other thermal-hydraulic systems. (author)

  9. Cavitation in Hydraulic Machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, M.

    1996-11-01

    The main purpose of this doctoral thesis on cavitation in hydraulic machinery is to change focus towards the coupling of non-stationary flow phenomena and cavitation. It is argued that, in addition to turbulence, superimposed sound pressure fluctuations can have a major impact on cavitation and lead to particularly severe erosion. For the design of hydraulic devices this finding may indicate how to further limit the cavitation problems. Chapter 1 reviews cavitation in general in the context of hydraulic machinery, emphasizing the initial cavitation event and the role of the water quality. Chapter 2 discusses the existence of pressure fluctuations for situations common in such machinery. Chapter 3 on cavitation dynamics presents an algorithm for calculating the nucleation of a cavity cluster. Chapter 4 describes the equipment used in this work. 53 refs., 55 figs.,10 tabs.

  10. HYDRAULIC SERVO CONTROL MECHANISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, R.B.; Gottsche, M.J. Jr.

    1963-09-17

    A hydraulic servo control mechanism of compact construction and low fluid requirements is described. The mechanism consists of a main hydraulic piston, comprising the drive output, which is connected mechanically for feedback purposes to a servo control piston. A control sleeve having control slots for the system encloses the servo piston, which acts to cover or uncover the slots as a means of controlling the operation of the system. This operation permits only a small amount of fluid to regulate the operation of the mechanism, which, as a result, is compact and relatively light. This mechanism is particuiarly adaptable to the drive and control of control rods in nuclear reactors. (auth)

  11. A hydraulic device for unloading coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kretinin, M.V.; Abizgildin, U.M.; Kirillov, T.S.; Makarov, M.I.; Prokopov, O.I.; Solov' ev, A.M.

    1979-07-15

    A hydraulic device for unloading petroleum coke from slow carbonization chambers is characterized by an arrangement whereby in order to increase the output of large size coke by controlling the increment of the cutting line of the coke, the mechanism used to move the rod in the hydraulic cutter is built in the form of a rod rotation rotor; a gear wheel is mounted on the immobile section of this rotor, and on the mobile section a multi-stage regulator is installed. The drive gear of the regulator is engaged with the gear wheel, while the driven gear is connected to the rack, which is fastened to the rod.

  12. Hydraulic Arm Modeling via Matlab SimHydraulics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Věchet, Stanislav; Krejsa, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 4 (2009), s. 287-296 ISSN 1802-1484 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : simulatin modeling * hydraulics * SimHydraulics Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  13. Energy Efficiency Comparison between Hydraulic Hybrid and Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiun Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conventional vehicles tend to consume considerable amounts of fuel, which generates exhaust gases and environmental pollution during intermittent driving cycles. Therefore, prospective vehicle designs favor improved exhaust emissions and energy consumption without compromising vehicle performance. Although pure electric vehicles feature high performance and low pollution characteristics, their limitations are their short driving range and high battery costs. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs are comparatively environmentally friendly and energy efficient, but cost substantially more compared with conventional vehicles. Hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs are mainly operated using engines, or using alternate combinations of engine and hydraulic power sources while vehicles accelerate. When the hydraulic system accumulator is depleted, the conventional engine reengages; concurrently, brake-regenerated power is recycled and reused by employing hydraulic motor–pump modules in circulation patterns to conserve fuel and recycle brake energy. This study adopted MATLAB Simulink to construct complete HHV and HEV models for backward simulations. New European Driving Cycles were used to determine the changes in fuel economy. The output of power components and the state-of-charge of energy could be retrieved. Varying power component models, energy storage component models, and series or parallel configurations were combined into seven different vehicle configurations: the conventional manual transmission vehicle, series hybrid electric vehicle, series hydraulic hybrid vehicle, parallel hybrid electric vehicle, parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle, purely electric vehicle, and hydraulic-electric hybrid vehicle. The simulation results show that fuel consumption was 21.80% lower in the series hydraulic hybrid vehicle compared to the series hybrid electric vehicle; additionally, fuel consumption was 3.80% lower in the parallel hybrid electric vehicle compared to the

  14. Hydraulic Soft Yaw System for Multi MW Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren

    energy and an increase in the loading of the wind turbine structure and components. This dissertation examines the hypothesis that there are advantages of basing a yaw system on hydraulic components instead of normal electrical components. This is done through a state of the art analysis followed...... in the wind turbine yaw system along with minor reductions in the blades and main shaft. Optimization of the damping and stiffness of the hydraulic soft yaw system have been conducted and an optimum found for load reduction. Linear control algorithms for control of damping pressure peaks have been developed...... the full turbine code in FAST, and the mathematical model of the hydraulic yaw system in Matlab/Simulink and Amesim is developed in order to analyze a full scale model of the hydraulic yaw system in combination with the implemented friction model for the yaw system. These results are also promising...

  15. Mine drivage in hydraulic mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehkber, B Ya

    1983-09-01

    From 20 to 25% of labor cost in hydraulic coal mines falls on mine drivage. Range of mine drivage is high due to the large number of shortwalls mined by hydraulic monitors. Reducing mining cost in hydraulic mines depends on lowering drivage cost by use of new drivage systems or by increasing efficiency of drivage systems used at present. The following drivage methods used in hydraulic mines are compared: heading machines with hydraulic haulage of cut rocks and coal, hydraulic monitors with hydraulic haulage, drilling and blasting with hydraulic haulage of blasted rocks. Mining and geologic conditions which influence selection of the optimum mine drivage system are analyzed. Standardized cross sections of mine roadways driven by the 3 methods are shown in schemes. Support systems used in mine roadways are compared: timber supports, roof bolts, roof bolts with steel elements, and roadways driven in rocks without a support system. Heading machines (K-56MG, GPKG, 4PU, PK-3M) and hydraulic monitors (GMDTs-3M, 12GD-2) used for mine drivage are described. Data on mine drivage in hydraulic coal mines in the Kuzbass are discussed. From 40 to 46% of roadways are driven by heading machines with hydraulic haulage and from 12 to 15% by hydraulic monitors with hydraulic haulage.

  16. Hydraulic shock absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, G.; Davidson, D. F.

    1984-01-01

    A hydraulic shock absorber of the dash pot kind for use with electrically conducting liquid such as sodium, has magnet means for electro magnetically braking a stream of liquid discharged from the cylinder. The shock absorber finds use in a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor for arresting control rods

  17. Preparation of hydraulic cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-08-28

    A process for the preparation of hydraulic cement by the use of oil-shale residues is characterized in that the oil-shale refuse is mixed with granular basic blast-furnace slag and a small amount of portland cement and ground together.

  18. Small hydraulic turbine drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostafinski, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    Turbine, driven by the fluid being pumped, requires no external controls, is completely integrated into the flow system, and has bearings which utilize the main fluid for lubrication and cooling. Torque capabilities compare favorably with those developed by positive displacement hydraulic motors.

  19. Modelling of Hydraulic Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Zhou, Jianjun; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of identifying the physical model (or the grey box model) of a hydraulic test robot. The obtained model is intended to provide a basis for model-based control of the robot. The physical model is formulated in continuous time and is derived by application...

  20. Manual Hydraulic Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, W.F.; Voorendt, M.Z.

    This manual is the result of group work and origins in Dutch lecture notes that have been used since long time. Amongst the employees of the Hydraulic Engineering Department that contributed to this work are dr.ir. S. van Baars, ir.K.G.Bezuijen, ir.G.P.Bourguignon, prof.ir.A.Glerum,

  1. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  2. Cradle modification for hydraulic ram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koons, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of the cradle hydraulic system considers stress, weld strength, and hydraulic forces required to lift and support the cradle/pump assembly. The stress and weld strength of the cradle modifications is evaluated to ensure that they meet the requirements of the American Institute for Steel Construction (AISC 1989). The hydraulic forces are evaluated to ensure that the hydraulic system is capable of rotating the cradle and pump assembly to the vertical position (between 70 degrees and 90 degrees)

  3. Hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Gaorong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants

    1995-07-01

    This document presents a general overview on hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment, emphasizing the turbine classification, in accordance with the different types of turbines, standard turbine series in China, turbine selection based on the basic data required for the preliminary design, general hill model curves, chart of turbine series and the arrangement of application for hydraulic turbines, hydraulic turbine testing, and speed regulating device.

  4. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications The following technical papers and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hydraulic hybrid fleet vehicle evaluations . Refuse Trucks Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles. Bob

  5. Tap Water Hydraulic Control Systems - Design and Industrial Applications. Chapter 7 in Advances in Hydraulic Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    Deals with development and design of modern tap water hydraulic components and systems, in particalar the Danfoss Nessie-family of components and systems working with pure tap water without any kind of additives. Typical industrial applications are presented and the perspectives of new industrial...... applications and the environmental benefits are in focus, in particular in the food processing industry and in fire-fighting systems.......Deals with development and design of modern tap water hydraulic components and systems, in particalar the Danfoss Nessie-family of components and systems working with pure tap water without any kind of additives. Typical industrial applications are presented and the perspectives of new industrial...

  6. Unequal-thickness billet optimization in transitional region during isothermal local loading forming of Ti-alloy rib-web component using response surface method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke WEI

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Avoiding the folding defect and improving the die filling capability in the transitional region are desired in isothermal local loading forming of a large-scale Ti-alloy rib-web component (LTRC. To achieve a high-precision LTRC, the folding evolution and die filling process in the transitional region were investigated by 3D finite element simulation and experiment using an equal-thickness billet (ETB. It is found that the initial volume distribution in the second-loading region can greatly affect the amount of material transferred into the first-loading region during the second-loading step, and thus lead to the folding defect. Besides, an improper initial volume distribution results in non-concurrent die filling in the cavities of ribs after the second-loading step, and then causes die underfilling. To this end, an unequal-thickness billet (UTB was employed with the initial volume distribution optimized by the response surface method (RSM. For a certain eigenstructure, the critical value of the percentage of transferred material determined by the ETB was taken as a constraint condition for avoiding the folding defect in the UTB optimization process, and the die underfilling rate was considered as the optimization objective. Then, based on the RSM models of the percentage of transferred material and the die underfilling rate, non-folding parameter combinations and optimum die filling were achieved. Lastly, an optimized UTB was obtained and verified by the simulation and experiment. Keywords: Die filling, Folding defect, Isothermal local loading forming, Transitional region, Unequal-thickness billet optimization

  7. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Love, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL's flexible/prismatic test stand

  8. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  9. Mechanics of Hydraulic Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detournay, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic fractures represent a particular class of tensile fractures that propagate in solid media under pre-existing compressive stresses as a result of internal pressurization by an injected viscous fluid. The main application of engineered hydraulic fractures is the stimulation of oil and gas wells to increase production. Several physical processes affect the propagation of these fractures, including the flow of viscous fluid, creation of solid surfaces, and leak-off of fracturing fluid. The interplay and the competition between these processes lead to multiple length scales and timescales in the system, which reveal the shifting influence of the far-field stress, viscous dissipation, fracture energy, and leak-off as the fracture propagates.

  10. Hydraulically actuated artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, M. A.; Tiwari, R.; Wajcs, K. B.; Moses, C.; Reveles, I.; Garcia, E.

    2012-04-01

    Hydraulic Artificial Muscles (HAMs) consisting of a polymer tube constrained by a nylon mesh are presented in this paper. Despite the actuation mechanism being similar to its popular counterpart, which are pneumatically actuated (PAM), HAMs have not been studied in depth. HAMs offer the advantage of compliance, large force to weight ratio, low maintenance, and low cost over traditional hydraulic cylinders. Muscle characterization for isometric and isobaric tests are discussed and compared to PAMs. A model incorporating the effect of mesh angle and friction have also been developed. In addition, differential swelling of the muscle on actuation has also been included in the model. An application of lab fabricated HAMs for a meso-scale robotic system is also presented.

  11. System Design and Performance Test of Hydraulic Intensifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyoung Eui; Lee, Gi Chun [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Hoon [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-07-15

    Components such as pressure vessel, hydraulic hose assembly, accumulator, hydraulic cylinder, hydraulic valve, pipe, etc., are tested under the impulse-pressure conditions prescribed in ISO and SAE standards. The impulse pressure test machine needs to have a high pressure, a precise control system and a long life. It should satisfy the requirements for fabrication of the impulse tester to generate ultra high pressure in the hydraulic system. In the impulse tester, a servo-valve control system is adopted; although the control application is convenient, it is expensive owing to the cost of developing the system. The type of the control system determines the pressure wave, which affects the components that are tested. In this study, the manufacturing process and the intensifier system design related to the flow, pressure, and the increasing rate of pressure are investigated. The results indicate the ultra high pressure waves in the system.

  12. Hydraulic jumps in a channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonn, D.; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of hydraulic jumps with flow predominantly in one direction, created either by confining the flow to a narrow channel with parallel walls or by providing an inflow in the form of a narrow sheet. In the channel flow, we find a linear height profile upstream of the jump as expected......'s mixing-length theory with a mixing length that is proportional to the height of the fluid layer. Using averaged boundary-layer equations, taking into account the friction with the channel walls and the eddy viscosity, the flow both upstream and downstream of the jump can be understood. For the downstream...... subcritical flow, we assume that the critical height is attained close to the channel outlet. We use mass and momentum conservation to determine the position of the jump and obtain an estimate which is in rough agreement with our experiment. We show that the averaging method with a varying velocity profile...

  13. Effect of Foliar Application of Chelate Iron in Common and Nanoparticles Forms on Yield and Yield Components of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. under Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nasiri Dehsorkhi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cumin is a member of Apiaceae family and annual plant which is widely cultivated in arid and semi-arid zone. Iran is one of the main producers of this plant. Water deficit is the major limiting factor in crops production. Proper nutrition management under stress conditions could partly help the plant to tolerate different stresses. Various studies were carried out to understand the effect of nanoparticles on the growth of plants. For example, Hong et al. (2005 and Yang et al. (2006 reported that a proper concentration of nano-TiO2 was found to improve the growth of spinach by promoting photosynthesis and nitrogen metabolism. Iran a country with arid and semi-arid climate, always face water deficiency. Thus the aim of this research was investigate the effect of foliar application of chelate iron in common and nanoparticles forms on yield and yield components of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. under drought stress conditions. Materials and Methods A field experiment was conducted as a split plot in complete randomized block design with three replications in Esfahan city, during the growing season of 2015-2016. Treatments were included three irrigation intervals (5, 10 and 15 days as main plots and Fe foliar application in four levels (control, 2 g L-1 iron chelate, 2 g L-1 Nano-iron chelate, 4 g L-1 iron chelate, 4 g L-1 nano-iron chelate. Foliar application of Fe chelate on leaves was done two times at before and after flowering stage. The plots were 16 m2 with 4 sowing rows, 4 m long. Seeds were placed at 2 to 4 cm depth in each row. All data collected were subjected of analysis of variance (ANOVA using MSTATC software. Significant differences between means refer to the probability level of 0.05 by LSD test. Results and Discussion The results indicated that drought stress decreased the investigated traits significantly but the effect of irrigation by 15 days interval was more than 10 days. Plots which irrigated by 15 days interval showed

  14. Servoarm: a water hydraulic master-slave manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.B.

    1975-01-01

    A water-hydraulic-powered servomanipulator that minimizes inertia, weighs only 17 lb/arm, has a 22-lb capacity, provides a compact package, and is available at a relatively low cost has been developed. Because of the water hydraulic system and miniature sizes required, all components have been specially designed and developed. Programming is easily added, because a microcomputer and A/D conversion hardware are used for counterbalancing

  15. Hydraulic conductivity of compacted clay frozen and thawed in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, C.H.; Othman, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    A large specimen of compacted clay (diameter = 298 mm; thickness = 914 mm) was subjected to freeze-thaw in the field for 60 days. Afterward, the hydraulic conductivity was measured. The hydraulic conductivity of the entire specimen remained essentially unchanged, but increases in hydraulic conductivity of 1.5-2 orders of magnitude were observed above the freezing plane. The increase in hydraulic conductivity was highest at the top of the specimen and decreased with depth. Changes in hydraulic conductivity also occurred at depths 150 mm below the freezing plane, where desiccation occurred because of water redistribution. Numerous horizontal and vertical cracks formed in the soil mass. Dissection of the sample after permeation revealed that the cracks were laden with water. Cracking was greatest at the surface and became less frequent with depth. For depths greater than 150 mm below the freezing plane, cracking was absent. The frequency of cracks is consistent with principles of mechanistic models of soil freezing. The results of laboratory tests were used to predict the hydraulic conductivity of the large specimen. Tests were conducted on specimens subjected to various freeze-thaw cycles, temperature gradients, and states of stress. It was found that the predicted hydraulic conductivities were lower than those measured on the large specimen, but they closely resembled the trend in hydraulic conductivity with depth

  16. Extended Analytic Linear Model of Hydraulic Cylinder With Respect Different Piston Areas and Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr KOŇAŘÍK

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Standard analytic linear model of hydraulic cylinder usually comes from assumptions of identical action piston areas on both sides of hydraulic cylinder (double piston rod and suitable operation point, which is usually chosen in the middle of piston. By reason of that volumes inside of cylinder are than same. Moreover for control of that arrangement of hydraulic cylinder, usually controlled by 4/3 servovalve, the same mount of flows comes in and comes out to each of chambers of hydraulic cylinder. Presented paper deal with development of extended form of analytic linear model of single piston rod hydraulic cylinder which respects different action piston areas and volumes inside of chambers of hydraulic cylinder and also two different input flows of hydraulic cylinder. In extended model are also considered possibilities of different dead volumes in hoses and intake parts of hydraulic cylinder. Dead volume has impact on damping of hydraulic cylinder. Because the system of hydraulic cylinder is generally presented as a integrative system with inertia of second order: eq , we can than obtain time constants and damping of hydraulic cylinder for each of analytic form model. The model has arisen for needs of model fractionation on two parts. Part of behaviour of chamber A and part of behaviour of chamber B of cylinder. It was created for the reason of analysis and synthesis of control parameters of regulation circuit of multivalve control concept of hydraulic drive with separately controlled chamber A and B which could be then used for.

  17. System diagnostics using qualitative analysis and component functional classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reifman, J.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1993-01-01

    A method for detecting and identifying faulty component candidates during off-normal operations of nuclear power plants involves the qualitative analysis of macroscopic imbalances in the conservation equations of mass, energy and momentum in thermal-hydraulic control volumes associated with one or more plant components and the functional classification of components. The qualitative analysis of mass and energy is performed through the associated equations of state, while imbalances in momentum are obtained by tracking mass flow rates which are incorporated into a first knowledge base. The plant components are functionally classified, according to their type, as sources or sinks of mass, energy and momentum, depending upon which of the three balance equations is most strongly affected by a faulty component which is incorporated into a second knowledge base. Information describing the connections among the components of the system forms a third knowledge base. The method is particularly adapted for use in a diagnostic expert system to detect and identify faulty component candidates in the presence of component failures and is not limited to use in a nuclear power plant, but may be used with virtually any type of thermal-hydraulic operating system. 5 figures

  18. A General Model for Thermal, Hydraulic and Electric Analysis of Superconducting Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Bottura, L; Rosso, C

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we describe a generic, multi-component and multi-channel model for the analysis of superconducting cables. The aim of the model is to treat in a general and consistent manner simultaneous thermal, electric and hydraulic transients in cables. The model is devised for most general situations, but reduces in limiting cases to most common approximations without loss of efficiency. We discuss here the governing equations, and we write them in a matrix form that is well adapted to numerical treatment. We finally demonstrate the model capability by comparison with published experimental data on current distribution in a two-strand cable.

  19. A 6-DOF vibration isolation system for hydraulic hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, The; Elahinia, Mohammad; Olson, Walter W.; Fontaine, Paul

    2006-03-01

    This paper presents the results of vibration isolation analysis for the pump/motor component of hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHVs). The HHVs are designed to combine gasoline/diesel engine and hydraulic power in order to improve the fuel efficiency and reduce the pollution. Electric hybrid technology is being applied to passenger cars with small and medium engines to improve the fuel economy. However, for heavy duty vehicles such as large SUVs, trucks, and buses, which require more power, the hydraulic hybridization is a more efficient choice. In function, the hydraulic hybrid subsystem improves the fuel efficiency of the vehicle by recovering some of the energy that is otherwise wasted in friction brakes. Since the operation of the main component of HHVs involves with rotating parts and moving fluid, noise and vibration are an issue that affects both passengers (ride comfort) as well as surrounding people (drive-by noise). This study looks into the possibility of reducing the transmitted noise and vibration from the hydraulic subsystem to the vehicle's chassis by using magnetorheological (MR) fluid mounts. To this end, the hydraulic subsystem is modeled as a six degree of freedom (6-DOF) rigid body. A 6-DOF isolation system, consisting of five mounts connected to the pump/motor at five different locations, is modeled and simulated. The mounts are designed by combining regular elastomer components with MR fluids. In the simulation, the real loading and working conditions of the hydraulic subsystem are considered and the effects of both shock and vibration are analyzed. The transmissibility of the isolation system is monitored in a wide range of frequencies. The geometry of the isolation system is considered in order to sustain the weight of the hydraulic system without affecting the design of the chassis and the effectiveness of the vibration isolating ability. The simulation results shows reduction in the transmitted vibration force for different working cycles of

  20. Effect of Hydraulic Pressure on Warm Hydro Mechanical Deep Drawing of Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wu, Linzhi; Yuan, Shijian

    The uniaxial tensile test and hydraulic bulging test of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets were applied to study the influence of temperature on the material properties and obtain the forming limit curves at different temperatures. Numerical simulations of warm hydro mechanical deep drawing were carried out to investigate the effect of hydraulic pressure on the formability of a cylindrical cup, and the simplified hydraulic pressure profiles were used to simulate the loading procedure of hydraulic pressure. The optimal hydraulic pressure at different temperatures were given and verified by experimental studies at temperature 100°C and 170V.

  1. Hydraulic Stability of Accropode Armour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.; Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    The present report describes the hydraulic model tests of Accropode armour layers carried out at the Hydraulics Laboratory at Aalborg University from November 1995 through March 1996. The objective of the model tests was to investigate the hydraulic stability of Accropode armour layers...... with permeable core (crushed granite with a gradation of 5-8 mm). The outcome of this study is described in "Hydraulic Stability of Single-Layer Dolos and Accropode Armour Layers" by Christensen & Burcharth (1995). In January/February 1996, Research Assistant Thomas Jensen carried out a similar study...

  2. Influence factors of sand-bentonite mixtures on hydraulic conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yonggui; Ye Weimin; Chen Bao; Wan Min; Wang Qiong

    2008-01-01

    Buffer material is a very important part of the engineering barrier for geological disposal of high-level radioactive nuclear waste. Compacted bentonite is attracting greater attention as buffer and backfill material because it offer impermeability and swelling properties, but the pure compacted bentonite strength decreases with increasing hydration and these will reduce the buffer capability. To solve this problem, sand is often used to form compacted sand-bentonite mixtures (SBMs) providing high thermal conductivity, excellent compaction capacity, long-time stability, and low engineering cost. As to SBMs, hydraulic conductivity is a important index for evaluation barrier capability. Based on the review of research results, the factors affecting the hydraulic conductivity of SBMs were put forward including bentonite content, grain size distribution, moisture content, dry density, compacting method and energy, and bentonite type. The studies show that the hydraulic conductivity of SBMs is controlled by the hydraulic conductivity of the bentonite, it also decreases as dry density and bentonite content increase, but when the bentonite content reach a critical point, the influence of increasing bentonite to decrease the hydraulic conductivity is limited. A fine and well-graded SBMs is likely to have a lower hydraulic conductivity than a coarse and poorly graded material. The internal erosion or erodibility based on the grain size distribution of the SBMs has a negative effect on the final hydraulic conductivity. The lowest hydraulic conductivity is gained when the mixtures are compacted close to optimum moisture content. Also, the mixtures compacted at moisture contents slightly above optimum values give lower hydraulic conductivity than when compacted at slightly under the optimum moisture content. Finally, discussion was brought to importance of compaction method, compacting energy, and bentonite type to the hydraulic conductivity of SBMs. (authors)

  3. Trends in Design of Water Hydraulics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    ordinary tap water and the range of application areas are illustrated with examples, in particular within the food processing industry, humidification operations, water mist systems for fire fighting, high water pressure cleaners, water moisturising systems for wood processing, lumber drying process...... operate with pure water from the tap without additives of any kind. Hence water hydraulics takes the benefit of pure water as fluid being environmentally friendly, easy to clean sanitary design, non-toxic, non-flammable, inexpensive, readily available and easily disposable. The low-pressure tap water...... and accessories running with sea-water as fluid are available. A unique solution is to use reverse osmosis to generate drinking water from sea-water, and furthermore for several off-shore applications. Furthermore, tap water hydraulic components of the Nessie® family and examples of measured performance...

  4. New parameters influencing hydraulic runner lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabourin, M; Bouffard, D A; Thibault, D; Levesque, M

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally, hydraulic runner mechanical design is based on calculation of static stresses. Today, validation of hydraulic runner design in terms of reliability requires taking into account the fatigue effect of dynamics loads. A damage tolerant approach based on fracture mechanics is the method chosen by Alstom and Hydro-Quebec to study fatigue damage in runners. This requires a careful examination of all factors influencing material fatigue behavior. Such material behavior depends mainly on the chemical composition, microstructure and thermal history of the component, and on the resulting residual stresses. Measurement of fracture mechanics properties of various steels have demonstrated that runner lifetime can be significantly altered by differences in the manufacturing process, although remaining in accordance with agreed practices and standards such as ASTM. Carbon content and heat treatment are suspected to influence fatigue lifetime. This will have to be investigated by continuing the current research.

  5. New parameters influencing hydraulic runner lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, M; Bouffard, D A [Alstom Hydro Canada Inc, Hydraulic Engineering, 1350 chemin St-Roch, Sorel-Tracy (Quebec), J3P 5P9 (Canada); Thibault, D [Hydro-Quebec, Institut de Recherche d' Hydro-Quebec 1800 boul. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes (Quebec), J3X 1S1 (Canada); Levesque, M, E-mail: michel.sabourin@power.alstom.co [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, Departement de genie mecanique C.P.6079, succ. Centre-ville, Montreal (Quebec), H3C 3A7 (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    Traditionally, hydraulic runner mechanical design is based on calculation of static stresses. Today, validation of hydraulic runner design in terms of reliability requires taking into account the fatigue effect of dynamics loads. A damage tolerant approach based on fracture mechanics is the method chosen by Alstom and Hydro-Quebec to study fatigue damage in runners. This requires a careful examination of all factors influencing material fatigue behavior. Such material behavior depends mainly on the chemical composition, microstructure and thermal history of the component, and on the resulting residual stresses. Measurement of fracture mechanics properties of various steels have demonstrated that runner lifetime can be significantly altered by differences in the manufacturing process, although remaining in accordance with agreed practices and standards such as ASTM. Carbon content and heat treatment are suspected to influence fatigue lifetime. This will have to be investigated by continuing the current research.

  6. Analysis of an controller design for an electro-hydraulic servo pressure regulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Madsen, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Mobile hydraulics is in a transition phase, where electronic sensors and digital signal processors are starting to become standard on a high number of machines, hereby replacing hydraulic pilot lines and oering new possibilities with regard to both control and feasibility. For controlling some...... of the existing hydraulic components there are, however, still a need for being able to generate a hydraulic pilot pressure, as e.g. almost all open-circuit pumps are hydraulically controlled. The focus of the current paper is therefore on the analysis and controller design an electro-hydraulic servo pressure...... regulator, which generates a hydraulic LS-pressure based on an electrical reference, hereby synergistically integrating knowledge from all parts of the mechatronics area. The servo pressure regulator is used to generate the LS-signal for a variable displacement pump, and the paper rst presents...

  7. A Distributed Algorithm for Energy Optimization in Hydraulic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten; Wisniewski, Rafal; Jensen, Tom Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    An industrial case study in the form of a large-scale hydraulic network underlying a district heating system is considered. A distributed control is developed that minimizes the aggregated electrical energy consumption of the pumps in the network without violating the control demands. The algorithm...... a Plug & Play control system as most commissioning can be done during the manufacture of the pumps. Only information on the graph-structure of the hydraulic network is needed during installation....

  8. Hydraulic fracturing proppants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. P. de Campos

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydrocarbon reservoirs can be classified as unconventional or conventional depending on the oil and gas extraction difficulty, such as the need for high-cost technology and techniques. The hydrocarbon extraction from bituminous shale, commonly known as shale gas/oil, is performed by using the hydraulic fracturing technique in unconventional reservoirs where 95% water, 0.5% of additives and 4.5% of proppants are used. Environmental problems related to hydraulic fracturing technique and better performance/development of proppants are the current challenge faced by companies, researchers, regulatory agencies, environmentalists, governments and society. Shale gas is expected to increase USA fuel production, which triggers the development of new proppants and technologies of exploration. This paper presents a review of the definition of proppants, their types, characteristics and situation in the world market and information about manufacturers. The production of nanoscale materials such as anticorrosive and intelligent proppants besides proppants with carbon nanotubes is already carried out on a scale of tonnes per year in Belgium, Germany and Asia countries.

  9. Applied hydraulic transients

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Hanif

    2014-01-01

    This book covers hydraulic transients in a comprehensive and systematic manner from introduction to advanced level and presents various methods of analysis for computer solution. The field of application of the book is very broad and diverse and covers areas such as hydroelectric projects, pumped storage schemes, water-supply systems, cooling-water systems, oil pipelines and industrial piping systems. Strong emphasis is given to practical applications, including several case studies, problems of applied nature, and design criteria. This will help design engineers and introduce students to real-life projects. This book also: ·         Presents modern methods of analysis suitable for computer analysis, such as the method of characteristics, explicit and implicit finite-difference methods and matrix methods ·         Includes case studies of actual projects ·         Provides extensive and complete treatment of governed hydraulic turbines ·         Presents design charts, desi...

  10. Thermal hydraulics analysis of the Advanced High Temperature Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Dean, E-mail: Dean_Wang@uml.edu [University of Massachusetts Lowell, One University Avenue, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States); Yoder, Graydon L.; Pointer, David W.; Holcomb, David E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley RD #6167, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • The TRACE AHTR model was developed and used to define and size the DRACS and the PHX. • A LOFF transient was simulated to evaluate the reactor performance during the transient. • Some recommendations for modifying FHR reactor system component designs are discussed. - Abstract: The Advanced High Temperature Reactor (AHTR) is a liquid salt-cooled nuclear reactor design concept, featuring low-pressure molten fluoride salt coolant, a carbon composite fuel form with embedded coated particle fuel, passively triggered negative reactivity insertion mechanisms, and fully passive decay heat rejection. This paper describes an AHTR system model developed using the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) thermal hydraulic transient code TRAC/RELAP Advanced Computational Engine (TRACE). The TRACE model includes all of the primary components: the core, downcomer, hot legs, cold legs, pumps, direct reactor auxiliary cooling system (DRACS), the primary heat exchangers (PHXs), etc. The TRACE model was used to help define and size systems such as the DRACS and the PHX. A loss of flow transient was also simulated to evaluate the performance of the reactor during an anticipated transient event. Some initial recommendations for modifying system component designs are also discussed. The TRACE model will be used as the basis for developing more detailed designs and ultimately will be used to perform transient safety analysis for the reactor.

  11. Study of the use of a micro hydro in knockdown container completed with a cylindrical form housing of francis hydraulic turbine to support the development program of energy self-sustainability for remote and isolated areas in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Samsul

    2017-01-01

    It shows that the implementation of the unit in a remote area has reduced the total site construction time by 1/3 compared to the predicted one with conventional unit. The performance of the Francis turbine with cylindrical form housing has shown comparable with the conventional one which has volute form housing. The superiority was even more pronounced by introducing a deflection insert in its input flow channel. The insertion was capable to create more distributed flow into the runner. Efficiency of the turbine up to 80% was performed in this research. Local manufacture for turbine usually use many craft work and welding to built a volute form housing for the Francis turbine. The cylindrical form housing here has also proven significantly in reducing the time and price for the turbine manufacturing process.

  12. Process of preparing hydraulic cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1919-12-11

    A process of preparing hydraulic cement from oil shale or shale coke is characterized in that the oil shale or shale coke after the distillation is burned long and hot to liberate the usual amount of carbonic acid and then is fine ground to obtain a slow hardening hydraulic cement.

  13. Control rod drive hydraulic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takekawa, Toru.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention can reliably prevent a possible erroneous withdrawal of control rod driving mechanism when the pressure of a coolant line is increased by isolation operation of hydraulic control units upon periodical inspection for a BWR type reactor. That is, a coolant line is connected to the downstream of a hydraulic supply device. The coolant line is connected to a hydraulic control unit. A coolant hydraulic detection device and a pressure setting device are disposed to the coolant line. A closing signal line and a returning signal line are disposed, which connect the hydraulic supply device and a flow rate control valve for the hydraulic setting device. In the device of the present invention, even if pressure of supplied coolants is elevated due to isolation of hydraulic control units, the elevation of the hydraulic pressure can be prevented. Accordingly, reliability upon periodical reactor inspection can be improved. Further, the facility is simplified and the installation to an existent facility is easy. (I.S.)

  14. The Criteria for the Selection of Wells for Hydraulic Fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Salimov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Various methods of selection of wells for hydraulic fracturing are analyzed. It is established that all methods can be divided into three large groups: criteria in the table form of boundary values of parameters, statistical methods of pattern recognition, methods of engineering calculation. The complication or use of additional parameters only leads to a reduction in the number of wells at which hydraulic fracturing is possible. It is shown that the use of reservoir properties of rocks, which are already used by hydraulic fracturing simulators, is not practicable as selection criteria. It is required to include in the selection criteria only those additional factors on which the effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing depends directly.

  15. Soil hydraulic properties near saturation, an improved conductivity model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, Christen Duus; Jacobsen, Ole Hørbye; Hansen, Søren

    2006-01-01

    of commonly used hydraulic conductivity models and give suggestions for improved models. Water retention and near saturated and saturated hydraulic conductivity were measured for a variety of 81 top and subsoils. The hydraulic conductivity models by van Genuchten [van Genuchten, 1980. A closed-form equation...... for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44, 892–898.] (vGM) and Brooks and Corey, modified by Jarvis [Jarvis, 1991. MACRO—A Model of Water Movement and Solute Transport in Macroporous Soils. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Department of Soil Sciences....... Optimising a matching factor (k0) improved the fit considerably whereas optimising the l-parameter in the vGM model improved the fit only slightly. The vGM was improved with an empirical scaling function to account for the rapid increase in conductivity near saturation. Using the improved models...

  16. The Utility of Job Dimensions Based on Form B of the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) in a Job Component Validation Model. Report No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Lloyd D.; McCormick, Ernest J.

    The study involved the use of a structured job analysis instrument called the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) as the direct basis for the establishment of the job component validity of aptitude tests (that is, a procedure for estimating the aptitude requirements for jobs strictly on the basis of job analysis data). The sample of jobs used…

  17. Synthesis of viral DNA forms in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia protoplasts inoculated with cassava latent virus (CLV); evidence for the independent replication of one component of the CLV genome.

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, R; Watts, J; Stanley, J

    1986-01-01

    Totipotent leaf mesophyll protoplasts of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, Viviani were inoculated with cassava latent virus (CLV) or with full length copies of CLV genomic DNAs 1 and 2 excised from replicative forms of M13 clones. Virus specific DNAs began to appear 48-72h after inoculation with virus or cloned DNAs, coincident with the onset of host cell division. Infected cells accumulated supercoiled forms of DNAs 1 and 2 as well as progeny single-stranded (ss) virion (+) sense DNAs representing...

  18. Hydraulic characteristics of HANARO fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S.; Chung, H. J.; Chun, S. Y.; Yang, S. K.; Chung, M. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the hydraulic characteristics measured by using LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) in subchannels of HANARO, KAERI research reactor, fuel bundle. The fuel bundle consists of 18 axially finned rods with 3 spacer grids, which are arranged in cylindrical configuration. The effects of the spacer grids on the turbulent flow were investigated by the experimental results. Pressure drops for each component of the fuel bundle were measured, and the friction factors of fuel bundle and loss coefficients for the spacer grids were estimated from the measured pressure drops. Implications regarding the turbulent thermal mixing were discussed. Vibration test results measured by using laser vibrometer were presented. 9 refs., 12 figs. (Author)

  19. Hydraulic characteristics of HANARO fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S; Chung, H J; Chun, S Y; Yang, S K; Chung, M K [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the hydraulic characteristics measured by using LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) in subchannels of HANARO, KAERI research reactor, fuel bundle. The fuel bundle consists of 18 axially finned rods with 3 spacer grids, which are arranged in cylindrical configuration. The effects of the spacer grids on the turbulent flow were investigated by the experimental results. Pressure drops for each component of the fuel bundle were measured, and the friction factors of fuel bundle and loss coefficients for the spacer grids were estimated from the measured pressure drops. Implications regarding the turbulent thermal mixing were discussed. Vibration test results measured by using laser vibrometer were presented. 9 refs., 12 figs. (Author)

  20. Experimental Investigation of Crack Extension Patterns in Hydraulic Fracturing with Shale, Sandstone and Granite Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming He

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is an important method of reservoir stimulation in the exploitation of geothermal resources, and conventional and unconventional oil and gas resources. In this article, hydraulic fracturing experiments with shale, sandstone cores (from southern Sichuan Basin, and granite cores (from Inner Mongolia were conducted to investigate the different hydraulic fracture extension patterns in these three reservoir rocks. The different reactions between reservoir lithology and pump pressure can be reflected by the pump pressure monitoring curves of hydraulic fracture experiments. An X-ray computer tomography (CT scanner was employed to obtain the spatial distribution of hydraulic fractures in fractured shale, sandstone, and granite cores. From the microscopic and macroscopic observation of hydraulic fractures, different extension patterns of the hydraulic fracture can be analyzed. In fractured sandstone, symmetrical hydraulic fracture morphology could be formed, while some micro cracks were also induced near the injection hole. Although the macroscopic cracks in fractured granite cores are barely observed by naked eye, the results of X-ray CT scanning obviously show the morphology of hydraulic fractures. It is indicated that the typical bedding planes well developed in shale formation play an important role in the propagation of hydraulic fractures in shale cores. The results also demonstrated that heterogeneity influenced the pathway of the hydraulic fracture in granite cores.

  1. Study of the use of a micro hydro in knockdown container completed with a cylindrical form housing of francis hydraulic turbine to support the development program of energy self-sustainability for remote and isolated areas in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Samsul; Prajitno; Pardadi, Janu

    2017-11-01

    With an intention to reduce the consumption of energy from fossil fuels and the CO2 emission in relation with the climate change solution, Indonesian Government has targeted that the role of the New and Renewable Energy (NRE) resources reaches at least 23% , or about 27 GW , in 2025 and it is expected to increase to the extent of about 134 GW in 2050 within the scenario of mixed energy supply. Geographically Indonesia has many remote and isolated areas with lack of appropriate infrastructure supports. But in the most of the areas, huge potential of new and renewable energy are available such as hydro energy is about 75 GW, biomass energy is about 32 GW and bio fuel is about 32 GW. The total utilization of the energy from small hydro energy up to this year for example is only about 300 MW. The significant obstacle in optimizing the utilization of small hydro energy in the areas is mainly on the infrastructure conditions and the local manufacture capabilities. Difficulties in mobilization of experts, skill worker , parts and constructions material result in very time consuming and costly for site construction. In this research a hydro turbine built in knock down container completed with a Francis turbine in cylindrical form housing is proposed and reported its performance on implementation. The hydro in a knock down container concept comes from the idea to manufacture hydro power solutions in a knock down container, readymade to be transported to installation sites. It can be easily manufactured in a quality controlled and cost effective environment, transported and installed in remote areas, to operate and maintain with minimal amount of equipment. It shows that the implementation of the unit in a remote area has reduced the total site construction time by 1/3 compared to the predicted one with conventional unit. The performance of the Francis turbine with cylindrical form housing has shown comparable with the conventional one which has volute form housing. The

  2. Environmental deterioration of ancient and modern hydraulic mortars (EDAMM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Balen, K.; Toumbakari, E.E.; Blanco-Varela, M.T. (and others) (eds.)

    2002-07-01

    Environmental damage to ancient and modern mortars (EDAMM) is a European Commission funded project in which three European research institutes from Belgium, Spain and Italy have been collaborating. The project has provided a better understanding of the role of environmental pollution on the deterioration of ancient and modern hydraulic mortars. Recent monuments built in the 19th and 20th century, were constructed using these types of hydraulic mortars. Increasing numbers of these monuments need restoration all over Europe. Similar hydraulic mortars have been widely used in treatments carried out during last and the present century. Tests have been carried out on the identification of historic hydraulic mortars, on the evaluation of damage on samples taken from historic buildings and on the laboratory simulations carried out to investigate damage mechanisms. Among pollutants, SO{sub 2} is the main component of pollution causing damage to hydraulic mortars. Hydraulic mortars have been identified as the most sensitive building materials because of the formation of primary and secondary damage products, such as ettringite and thaumasite. Although the important implications of these results are for the development of conservation strategies for monuments and historic buildings, they are also of great relevance to the development of sustainable construction methods as the building industry still uses these materials today.

  3. Combination of a fast white-light interferometer with a phase shifting interferometric line sensor for form measurements of precision components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Sören; Ehret, Gerd; Riebling, Jörg; Lehmann, Peter

    2017-06-01

    By means of an interferometric line sensor system, the form of a specimen can be measured by stitching several overlapping circular subapertures to form one 3D topography. This concept is very flexible and can be adapted to many different specimen geometries. The sensor is based on a Michelson interferometer configuration that consists of a rapidly oscillating reference mirror in combination with a high-speed line-scan camera. Due to the overlapping areas, movement errors of the scan axes can be corrected. In order to automatically adjust the line sensor in such a way that it is perpendicular to the measurement surface at a fixed working distance, a white-light interferometer was included in the line-based form-measuring system. By means of a fast white-light scan, the optimum angle of the sensor (with respect to the surface of the specimen) is determined in advance, before scanning the specimen using the line-based sinusoidal phase shifting interferometer. This produces accurate measurement results and makes it possible to also measure non-rotational specimens. In this paper, the setup of the line-based form-measuring system is introduced and the measurement strategy of the sensor adjustment using an additional white-light interferometer is presented. Furthermore, the traceability chain of the system and the main error influences are discussed. Examples of form measurement results are shown.

  4. Hydraulic design of Three Gorges right bank powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Q

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the hydraulic design of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability. The technical challenges faced in the hydraulic design of the turbine are given. The method of hydraulic design for improving the hydraulic stability and particularly for eliminating the upper part load pressure pulsations is clarified. The final hydraulic design results of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine based on modern hydraulic design techniques are presented.

  5. Hydraulic design of Three Gorges right bank powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Q, E-mail: qhshi@dfem.com.c [Dong Fang Electrical Machinery Co., Ltd., DEC 188, Huanghe West Road, Deyang, 618000 (China)

    2010-08-15

    This paper presents the hydraulic design of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability. The technical challenges faced in the hydraulic design of the turbine are given. The method of hydraulic design for improving the hydraulic stability and particularly for eliminating the upper part load pressure pulsations is clarified. The final hydraulic design results of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine based on modern hydraulic design techniques are presented.

  6. Modeling hydraulic regenerative hybrid vehicles using AMESim and Matlab/Simulink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Alfred; Smid, Edzko; Eshraghi, Moji; Caldwell, Niall; Woody, Dan

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the overview of the simulation modeling of a hydraulic system with regenerative braking used to improve vehicle emissions and fuel economy. Two simulation software packages were used together to enhance the simulation capability for fuel economy results and development of vehicle and hybrid control strategy. AMESim, a hydraulic simulation software package modeled the complex hydraulic circuit and component hardware and was interlinked with a Matlab/Simulink model of the vehicle, engine and the control strategy required to operate the vehicle and the hydraulic hybrid system through various North American and European drive cycles.

  7. Effect of biocrust: study of mechanical and hydraulic properties and erodibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavík, Martin; Bruthans, Jiří; Schweigstillová, Jana

    2016-04-01

    It is well-known that lichens and other organisms forming crust on soil or rock surface play important role in weathering but may also protect underlying material from fast erosion. So far, there have been only few measurements comparing mechanical or hydraulic properties of biocrust with its subsurface on locked sand and friable sandstones, so the overall effect of the biocrust is not well-understood. Objective of our study is to quantify the effect of the biocrust on mechanical and hydraulic properties of friable sandstone and locked sand of Cretaceous age in six different localities with varying aspect and inclination and age of exposure in sandpit Strelec (Czech Rep.). On the artificial exposures, biocrust developed within last 10-30 years. Beside measurements of mechanical and hydraulic properties, SEM and mercury intrusion porosimetry in crust and subsurface was performed. Drilling resistance technique was found an excellent method to distinguish the biocrust from its subsurface (~3 mm thick biocrust has up to 12 times higher drilling resistance than underlying material). Surface zone with the biocrust has 3 - 25 times higher tensile strength than the subsurface material (1 - 25 kPa). In comparison with the subsurface, the biocrust is considerably less erodible (based on water jet testing). Biocrust saturated hydraulic conductivity is 15 - 240 times lower than the subsurface (6*10 -5 - 1*10 -4 m/s) and its permeability for water vapor is 4 - 9 times lower than subsurface. Presence of the biocrust slows down capillary absorption of water 4 - 25 times. The biocrust is thus forming firm surface which protects underlying material from rain and flowing water erosion and which considerably modifies its hydraulic properties. Material with crust exposed to calcination, leaching by concentrated peroxide and experiments with zymoliase enzyme strongly indicate that major contribution to crust hardening is provided by organic matter. Based on DNA sequencing the crust is

  8. HYDRAULICS, SHELBY COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. HYDRAULICS, MEADE COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. The Process of Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing, know as fracking or hydrofracking, produces fractures in a rock formation by pumping fluids (water, proppant, and chemical additives) at high pressure down a wellbore. These fractures stimulate the flow of natural gas or oil.

  11. Steam generator thermal-hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inch, W.W.; Scott, D.A.; Carver, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses a code for detailed numerical modelling of steam generator thermal-hydraulics, and describes related experimental programs designed to promote in-depth understanding of three-dimensional two-phase flow. (auth)

  12. Control of a hydraulically actuated continuously variable transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pesgens, M.F.M.; Vroemen, B.G.; Stouten, B.; Veldpaus, F.E.; Steinbuch, M.

    2006-01-01

    Vehicular drivelines with hierarchical powertrain control require good component controller tracking, enabling the main controller to reach the desired goals. This paper focuses on the development of a transmission ratio controller for a hydraulically actuated metal push-belt continuously variable

  13. Interstitial hydraulic conductivity and interstitial fluid pressure for avascular or poorly vascularized tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L J; Schlesinger, M

    2015-09-07

    A correct description of the hydraulic conductivity is essential for determining the actual tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) distribution. Traditionally, it has been assumed that the hydraulic conductivities both in a tumor and normal tissue are constant, and that a tumor has a much larger interstitial hydraulic conductivity than normal tissue. The abrupt transition of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface leads to non-physical results (the hydraulic conductivity and the slope of the TIFP are not continuous at tumor surface). For the sake of simplicity and the need to represent reality, we focus our analysis on avascular or poorly vascularized tumors, which have a necrosis that is mostly in the center and vascularization that is mostly on the periphery. We suggest that there is an intermediary region between the tumor surface and normal tissue. Through this region, the interstitium (including the structure and composition of solid components and interstitial fluid) transitions from tumor to normal tissue. This process also causes the hydraulic conductivity to do the same. We introduce a continuous variation of the hydraulic conductivity, and show that the interstitial hydraulic conductivity in the intermediary region should be monotonically increasing up to the value of hydraulic conductivity in the normal tissue in order for the model to correspond to the actual TIFP distribution. The value of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface should be the lowest in value. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Advanced Performance Hydraulic Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lam, Adrienne S.

    2013-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, has developed a novel advanced hydraulic wind energy design, which has up to 23% performance improvement over conventional wind turbine and conventional hydraulic wind energy systems with 5 m/sec winds. It also has significant cost advantages with levelized costs equal to coal (after carbon tax rebate). The design is equally applicable to tidal energy systems and has passed preliminary laboratory proof-of-performance tests, as funded by the Department of Energy.

  15. Robust Prediction of Hydraulic Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Manning’s n were required as input for further hydraulic analyses with HEC - RAS . HYDROCAL was applied to compare different estimates of resistance... River Restoration Science Synthesis (NRRSS) demonstrated that, in 2007, river and stream restoration projects and funding were at an all time high...behavior makes this parameter very difficult to quan- tify repeatedly and accurately. A fundamental concept of hydraulic theory in the context of river

  16. Economic and hydraulic divergences underpin ecological differentiation in the Bromeliaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, Jamie; Griffiths, Howard

    2018-01-01

    Leaf economic and hydraulic theories have rarely been applied to the ecological differentiation of speciose herbaceous plant radiations. The role of character trait divergences and network reorganization in the differentiation of the functional types in the megadiverse Neotropical Bromeliaceae was explored by quantifying a range of leaf economic and hydraulic traits in 50 diverse species. Functional types, which are defined by combinations of C 3 or Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) photosynthesis, terrestrial or epiphytic habits, and non-specialized, tank-forming or atmospheric morphologies, segregated clearly in trait space. Most classical leaf economic relationships were supported, but they were weakened by the presence of succulence. Functional types differed in trait-network architecture, suggesting that rewiring of trait-networks caused by innovations in habit and photosynthetic pathway is an important aspect of ecological differentiation. The hydraulic data supported the coupling of leaf hydraulics and gas exchange, but not the hydraulic safety versus efficiency hypothesis, and hinted at an important role for the extra-xylary compartment in the control of bromeliad leaf hydraulics. Overall, our findings highlight the fundamental importance of structure-function relationships in the generation and maintenance of ecological diversity. © 2017 The Authors Plant, Cell & Environment Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Aldosterone synthase gene polymorphism in alimentary obesity, metabolic syndrome components, some secondary forms of arterial hypertension, pathology of the adrenals glands core (literature review)

    OpenAIRE

    Koval, S.N.; Miloslavsky, D.K.; Snegurskaya, I.A.; Mysnichenko, O.V.; Penkova, M.Yu.

    2017-01-01

    Hormonal factors of adrenal origin belong to the pathophysiological mechanisms of the formation and progression of arterial hypertension (AH) and should be consi­dered while developing differentiated approaches to the treatment and prevention of hypertensive states, their primary, secondary and resistant forms. The first thing we should point up is aldosterone (AL), enzyme aldosterone synthase (AS), which takes a direct part in the formation of this hormone, as well as gene polymorphisms of A...

  18. Setting and Stiffening of Cementitious Components in Cast Stone Waste Form for Disposal of Secondary Wastes from the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chul-Woo; Chun, Jaehun; Um, Wooyong; Sundaram, S. K.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2013-04-01

    Cast stone is a cementitious waste form, a viable option to immobilize secondary nuclear liquid wastes generated from Hanford vitrification plant. While the strength and radioactive technetium leaching of different waste form candidates have been reported, no study has been performed to understand the flow and stiffening behavior of Cast Stone, which is essential to ensure the proper workability, especially considering necessary safety as a nuclear waste form in a field scale application. The rheological and ultrasonic wave reflection (UWR) measurements were used to understand the setting and stiffening Cast Stone batches. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to find the correlation between specific phase formation and the stiffening of the paste. Our results showed good correlation between rheological properties of the fresh Cast Stone mixture and phase formation during hydration of Cast Stone. Secondary gypsum formation originating from blast furnace slag was observed in Cast Stone made with low concentration simulants. The formation of gypsum was suppressed in high concentration simulants. It was found that the stiffening of Cast Stone was strongly dependent on the concentration of simulant. A threshold concentration for the drastic change in stiffening was found at 1.56 M Na concentration.

  19. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    was molded into a polytechnic institute focusing on engineering in the nationwide restructuring of universities and colleges undertaken in 1952. At present, the university has 14 schools and 56 departments with faculties in science, engineering, humanities, law, medicine, history, philosophy, economics, management, education and art. The University now has over 25 900 students, including 13 100 undergraduates and 12 800 graduate students. As one of China's most renowned universities, Tsinghua has become an important institution for fostering talents and scientific research. The International Association of Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research (IAHR) particularly promotes the advancement and exchange of knowledge through working groups, specialty symposia, congresses, and publications on water resources, river and coastal hydraulics, risk analysis, energy, environment, disaster prevention, and industrial processes. The IAHR Committee on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems deals with the advancement of technology associated with the understanding of steady and unsteady flow characteristics in hydraulic machinery and conduit systems connected to the machinery. The technology elements include the fluid behaviour within machine components, hydro-elastic behaviour of machine components, cavitation and two phase flow in turbines and pumps, hydraulic machine and plant control systems, the use of hydraulic machines to improve water quality, and even considerations to improve fish survival in their passage through hydro plants. The main emphases of the IAHR Committee on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are to stimulate research and understanding of the technologies associated with hydraulic machinery and to promote interaction between the machine designers, machine users, the academic community, and the community as a whole. Hydraulic machinery is both cost effective and environmentally friendly. The goals of the IAHR Committee on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are to improve

  20. Calcination and solid state reaction of ceramic-forming components to provide single-phase superconducting materials having fine particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Poeppel, Roger B.; Emerson, James E.; Johnson, Stanley A.

    1992-01-01

    An improved method for the preparation of single phase, fine grained ceramic materials from precursor powder mixtures where at least one of the components of the mixture is an alkali earth carbonate. The process consists of heating the precursor powders in a partial vacuum under flowing oxygen and under conditions where the partial pressure of CO.sub.2 evolved during the calcination is kept to a very low level relative to the oxygen. The process has been found particularly suitable for the preparation of high temperature copper oxide superconducting materials such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.x "123" and YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.4 O.sub.8 "124".

  1. Asparagus IRX9, IRX10, and IRX14A Are Components of an Active Xylan Backbone Synthase Complex that Forms in the Golgi Apparatus1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Picard, Kelsey L.; Song, Lili; Wu, Ai-Min; Farion, Isabela M.; Zhao, Jia; Ford, Kris; Bacic, Antony

    2016-01-01

    Heteroxylans are abundant components of plant cell walls and provide important raw materials for the food, pharmaceutical, and biofuel industries. A number of studies in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have suggested that the IRREGULAR XYLEM9 (IRX9), IRX10, and IRX14 proteins, as well as their homologs, are involved in xylan synthesis via a Golgi-localized complex termed the xylan synthase complex (XSC). However, both the biochemical and cell biological research lags the genetic and molecular evidence. In this study, we characterized garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) stem xylan biosynthesis genes (AoIRX9, AoIRX9L, AoIRX10, AoIRX14A, and AoIRX14B) by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. We reconstituted and partially purified an active XSC and showed that three proteins, AoIRX9, AoIRX10, and AoIRX14A, are necessary for xylan xylosyltranferase activity in planta. To better understand the XSC structure and its composition, we carried out coimmunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis to show the molecular interactions between these three IRX proteins. Using a site-directed mutagenesis approach, we showed that the DxD motifs of AoIRX10 and AoIRX14A are crucial for the catalytic activity. These data provide, to our knowledge, the first lines of biochemical and cell biological evidence that AoIRX9, AoIRX10, and AoIRX14A are core components of a Golgi-localized XSC, each with distinct roles for effective heteroxylan biosynthesis. PMID:26951434

  2. Asparagus IRX9, IRX10, and IRX14A Are Components of an Active Xylan Backbone Synthase Complex that Forms in the Golgi Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Lampugnani, Edwin R; Picard, Kelsey L; Song, Lili; Wu, Ai-Min; Farion, Isabela M; Zhao, Jia; Ford, Kris; Doblin, Monika S; Bacic, Antony

    2016-05-01

    Heteroxylans are abundant components of plant cell walls and provide important raw materials for the food, pharmaceutical, and biofuel industries. A number of studies in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) have suggested that the IRREGULAR XYLEM9 (IRX9), IRX10, and IRX14 proteins, as well as their homologs, are involved in xylan synthesis via a Golgi-localized complex termed the xylan synthase complex (XSC). However, both the biochemical and cell biological research lags the genetic and molecular evidence. In this study, we characterized garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) stem xylan biosynthesis genes (AoIRX9, AoIRX9L, AoIRX10, AoIRX14A, and AoIRX14B) by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana We reconstituted and partially purified an active XSC and showed that three proteins, AoIRX9, AoIRX10, and AoIRX14A, are necessary for xylan xylosyltranferase activity in planta. To better understand the XSC structure and its composition, we carried out coimmunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis to show the molecular interactions between these three IRX proteins. Using a site-directed mutagenesis approach, we showed that the DxD motifs of AoIRX10 and AoIRX14A are crucial for the catalytic activity. These data provide, to our knowledge, the first lines of biochemical and cell biological evidence that AoIRX9, AoIRX10, and AoIRX14A are core components of a Golgi-localized XSC, each with distinct roles for effective heteroxylan biosynthesis. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Hydraulic shock damper for fuel assemblies of nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jabson, F.S.

    1978-01-01

    A typical embodiment of this invention provides a hydraulic mechanism for alleviating the effect of seismic forces and other stresses that are applied to a fuel assembly in a nuclear reactor. Illustratively, hollow guide posts potrude into a fuel assembly end fitting grid from biased spring pads. Plungers that move with the spring pads plug one end of each of the respective guide posts. Plates on the end fitting grid that have individual holes for fluid discharge partially plug the other ends of the respective guide posts, thereby providing a hydraulic means for absorbing the longitudinal component of seismic shocks and other anticipated forces. (Auth.)

  4. Turbine hydraulic assessment and optimization in rehabilitation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornard, L; Debeissat, F; Labrecque, Y; Sabourin, M; Tomas, L

    2014-01-01

    As turbines age after years of operation, a major rehabilitation is needed to give new life. The owner has two choices: resetting the turbine to the original state or an upgrade with new hydraulic components designed and optimized using state of the art technology. The second solution is by far a more interesting option which can maximize the efficiency gain, increase the turbine capacity and revenues, eliminate cavitation erosion and the needs for repair, reduce the turbine instabilities and smooth unit regulation, and adapt the design to new operation conditions. This paper shows some aspects of the turbine hydraulic assessment and possible solutions to improve existing water passages

  5. Hydraulic testing in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, K.E.; Andersson, J.E.; Carlsson, L.; Hansson, K.; Larsson, N.A.

    1986-12-01

    Swedish Geolocical Company (SGAB) conducted and carried out single-hole hydraulic testing in borehole Fi 6 in the Finnsjoen area of central Sweden. The purpose was to make a comprehensive evaluation of different methods applicable in crystalline rocks and to recommend methods for use in current and scheduled investigations in a range of low hydraulic conductivity rocks. A total of eight different methods of testing were compared using the same equipment. This equipment was thoroughly tested as regards the elasticity of the packers and change in volume of the test section. The use of a hydraulically operated down-hole valve enabled all the tests to be conducted. Twelve different 3-m long sections were tested. The hydraulic conductivity calculated ranged from about 5x10 -14 m/s to 1x10 -6 m/s. The methods used were water injection under constant head and then at a constant rate-of-flow, each of which was followed by a pressure fall-off period. Water loss, pressure pulse, slug and drill stem tests were also performed. Interpretation was carried out using standard transient evaluation methods for flow in porous media. The methods used showed themselves to be best suited to specific conductivity ranges. Among the less time-consuming methods, water loss, slug and drill stem tests usually gave somewhat higher hydraulic conductivity values but still comparable to those obtained using the more time-consuming tests. These latter tests, however, provided supplementary information on hydraulic and physical properties and flow conditions, together with hydraulic conductivity values representing a larger volume of rock. (orig./HP)

  6. Hydraulic Power Plant Machine Dynamic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Günther Poll

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method how to perform an entire structural and hydraulic diagnosis of prototype Francis power machines is presented and discussed in this report. Machine diagnosis of Francis units consists on a proper evaluation of acquired mechanical, thermal and hydraulic data obtained in different operating conditions of several rotary and non rotary machine components. Many different physical quantities of a Francis machine such as pressure, strains, vibration related data, water flow, air flow, position of regulating devices and displacements are measured in a synchronized way so that a relation of cause an effect can be developed for each operating condition and help one to understand all phenomena that are involved with such kind of machine. This amount of data needs to be adequately post processed in order to allow correct interpretation of the machine dynamics and finally these data must be compared with the expected calculated data not only to fine tuning the calculation methods but also to accomplish fully understanding of the influence of the water passages on such machines. The way how the power plant owner has to operate its Francis machines, many times also determined by a central dispatcher, has a high influence on the fatigue life time of the machine components. The diagnostic method presented in this report helps one to understand the importance of adequate operation to allow a low maintenance cost for the entire power plant. The method how to acquire these quantities is discussed in details together with the importance of correct sensor balancing, calibration and adequate correlation with the physical quantities. Typical results of the dynamic machine behavior, with adequate interpretation, obtained in recent measurement campaigns of some important hydraulic turbines were presented. The paper highlights the investigation focus of the hydraulic machine behavior and how to tailor the measurement strategy to accomplish all goals. Finally some

  7. Identification of optimal soil hydraulic functions and parameters for predicting soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the accuracy of several commonly used soil hydraulic functions and associated parameters for predicting observed soil moisture data. We used six combined methods formed by three commonly used soil hydraulic functions – i.e., Brooks and Corey (1964) (BC), Campbell (19...

  8. A Low-Cost Auto-Stop Hydraulic Press for Making KBr Disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Ping-Kay

    1998-05-01

    A hydraulic press fitted with an adjustable torque wrench, together with a stand made of iron bars will form an auto-stop hydraulic press for making KBr disc in IR studies. Total material cost is about $100. All parts are readily available from the local hardware stores. The modified torque wrench is also useful to replace the lever in the standard laboratory press.

  9. Hydraulic gradients in rock aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlblom, P.

    1992-05-01

    This report deals with fractured rock as a host for deposits of hazardous waste. In this context the rock, with its fractures containing moving groundwater, is called the geological barrier. The desired properties of the geological barrier are low permeability to water, low hydraulic gradients and ability to retain matter dissolved in the water. The hydraulic gradient together with the permeability and the porosity determines the migration velocity. Mathematical modelling of the migration involves calculation of the water flow and the hydrodynamic dispersion of the contaminant. The porous medium approach can be used to calculate mean flow velocities and hydrodynamic dispersion of a large number of fractures are connected, which means that a large volume have to be considered. It is assumed that the porous medium approach can be applied, and a number of idealized examples are shown. It is assumed that the groundwater table is replenished by percolation at a constant rate. One-dimensional analytical calculations show that zero hydraulic gradients may exist at relatively large distance from the coast. Two-dimensional numerical calculations show that it may be possible to find areas with low hydraulic gradients and flow velocities within blocks surrounded by areas with high hydraulic conductivity. (au)

  10. Inherent Limitations of Hydraulic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohling, Geoffrey C.; Butler, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    We offer a cautionary note in response to an increasing level of enthusiasm regarding high-resolution aquifer characterization with hydraulic tomography. We use synthetic examples based on two recent field experiments to demonstrate that a high degree of nonuniqueness remains in estimates of hydraulic parameter fields even when those estimates are based on simultaneous analysis of a number of carefully controlled hydraulic tests. We must, therefore, be careful not to oversell the technique to the community of practicing hydrogeologists, promising a degree of accuracy and resolution that, in many settings, will remain unattainable, regardless of the amount of effort invested in the field investigation. No practically feasible amount of hydraulic tomography data will ever remove the need to regularize or bias the inverse problem in some fashion in order to obtain a unique solution. Thus, along with improving the resolution of hydraulic tomography techniques, we must also strive to couple those techniques with procedures for experimental design and uncertainty assessment and with other more cost-effective field methods, such as geophysical surveying and, in unconsolidated formations, direct-push profiling, in order to develop methods for subsurface characterization with the resolution and accuracy needed for practical field applications. Copyright ?? 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  11. Selective perceptions of hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarge, Melanie A; VanDyke, Matthew S; King, Andy J; White, Shawna R

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) is a focal topic in discussions about domestic energy production, yet the American public is largely unfamiliar and undecided about the practice. This study sheds light on how individuals may come to understand hydraulic fracturing as this unconventional production technology becomes more prominent in the United States. For the study, a thorough search of HF photographs was performed, and a systematic evaluation of 40 images using an online experimental design involving N = 250 participants was conducted. Key indicators of hydraulic fracturing support and beliefs were identified. Participants showed diversity in their support for the practice, with 47 percent expressing low support, 22 percent high support, and 31 percent undecided. Support for HF was positively associated with beliefs that hydraulic fracturing is primarily an economic issue and negatively associated with beliefs that it is an environmental issue. Level of support was also investigated as a perceptual filter that facilitates biased issue perceptions and affective evaluations of economic benefit and environmental cost frames presented in visual content of hydraulic fracturing. Results suggested an interactive relationship between visual framing and level of support, pointing to a substantial barrier to common understanding about the issue that strategic communicators should consider.

  12. Concept Design of Movable Beam of Hydraulic Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yancong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydraulic press movable beam is one of the key components of the hydraulic press; its design quality impacts the accuracy of the workpiece that the press suppressed. In this paper, first, with maximum deflection and material strength as constraints, mechanical model of the movable beam is established; next, the concept design model of the moveable beam structure is established; the relationship among the force of the side cylinder, the thickness of the inclined plate, outer plate is established also. Taking movable beam of the 100MN type THP10-10000 isothermal forging hydraulic press as an example, the conceptual design result is given. This concept design method mentoned in the paper has general meaning and can apply to other similar product design.

  13. Empirical flow parameters : a tool for hydraulic model validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asquith, William H.; Burley, Thomas E.; Cleveland, Theodore G.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this project were (1) To determine and present from existing data in Texas, relations between observed stream flow, topographic slope, mean section velocity, and other hydraulic factors, to produce charts such as Figure 1 and to produce empirical distributions of the various flow parameters to provide a methodology to "check if model results are way off!"; (2) To produce a statistical regional tool to estimate mean velocity or other selected parameters for storm flows or other conditional discharges at ungauged locations (most bridge crossings) in Texas to provide a secondary way to compare such values to a conventional hydraulic modeling approach. (3.) To present ancillary values such as Froude number, stream power, Rosgen channel classification, sinuosity, and other selected characteristics (readily determinable from existing data) to provide additional information to engineers concerned with the hydraulic-soil-foundation component of transportation infrastructure.

  14. Research on Component Items of the Form of Business Strategy%经营战略形态的组成项目研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪斌

    2012-01-01

    经营战略强调的是多元化企业中的各SBU或单一业务的企业在特定产业领域中的生存、竞争与发展之道,因此在战略层级中处于承上启下的关键位置。但当前对经营战略分析过于偏重于工具如SWOT分析或偏重于针对某个特定公司和产业来进行,缺乏整体性。分析经营战略应立足于其本质即描述特定业务当前的经营战略形态和未来某一时间点该经营战略形态的变化情况,战略形态则通过一些项目来共同描述,这样的分析不但思路简明清晰,而且考虑全面,能有助于提升企业经营战略管理的有效性。%In each SBU of diversified company or a single business enterprise, business strategy emphasizes the road of survival, competition and development in the field of specific industry, so it stands at the nexus of key position in the strategic level. But currently, the analysis of business strategy emphasizes too much on tools, for example SWOT analysis, or on specific enterprise and industry, so it is short of integrity. The analysis of business strategy should be based on its essence, that means describing the current forms of business strategy in the particular industry and the situation of its changing at sometime in the future,and the form of strategy can be described through some items. This kind of thinking is simple and clear as well as considering overall, further more, it can contribute to enhancing the effectiveness of business strategy management in enterprises.

  15. Setting and stiffening of cementitious components in Cast Stone waste form for disposal of secondary wastes from the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chul-Woo; Chun, Jaehun, E-mail: jaehun.chun@pnnl.gov; Um, Wooyong; Sundaram, S.K.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2013-04-01

    Cast Stone is a cementitious waste form, a viable option to immobilize secondary nuclear liquid wastes generated from the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant. However, no study has been performed to understand the flow and stiffening behavior, which is essential to ensure proper workability and is important to safety in a nuclear waste field-scale application. X-ray diffraction, rheology, and ultrasonic wave reflection methods were used to understand the specific phase formation and stiffening of Cast Stone. Our results showed a good correlation between rheological properties of the fresh mixture and phase formation in Cast Stone. Secondary gypsum formation was observed with low concentration simulants, and the formation of gypsum was suppressed in high concentration simulants. A threshold concentration for the drastic change in stiffening was found at 1.56 M Na concentration. It was found that the stiffening of Cast Stone was strongly dependent on the concentration of simulant. Highlights: • A combination of XRD, UWR, and rheology gives a better understanding of Cast Stone. • Stiffening of Cast Stone was strongly dependent on the concentration of simulant. • A drastic change in stiffening of Cast Stone was found at 1.56 M Na concentration.

  16. Aldosterone synthase gene polymorphism in alimentary obesity, metabolic syndrome components, some secondary forms of arterial hypertension, pathology of the adrenals glands core (literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Koval

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal factors of adrenal origin belong to the pathophysiological mechanisms of the formation and progression of arterial hypertension (AH and should be consi­dered while developing differentiated approaches to the treatment and prevention of hypertensive states, their primary, secondary and resistant forms. The first thing we should point up is aldosterone (AL, enzyme aldosterone synthase (AS, which takes a direct part in the formation of this hormone, as well as gene polymorphisms of AS, which have not only molecular genetic, but also differential diagnostic and therapeutic significance for secondary forms of arterial hypertension, abdominal obesity (AO, metabolic syndrome (MS, adrenal pathology and other endocrine disorders. AL is a steroid (mineralocorticoid hormone of the adrenal cortex, which is synthesized from cholesterol (CH, mainly in the glomerular zone of the adrenal glands, is released under the action of angiotensin II (A II and potassium ions (K+. AL acti­vity is mediated through the corresponding mineralocorticoid receptors (MKR. The particular importance in AH and MS development belongs to AL activation and MKR density in adipocytes, this phenomenon is accompanied by increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, leptin, an adipogenic effect, and the inhibition of MCR activity is accompanied by increased production of adiponectin, which is more pronounced in patients with AH. Aldosterone synthase, a mitochondrial human enzyme encoded by the CYP11B2 gene (cytochrome P450, family 11, subfamily B, polypeptide 2 is located on the 8th chromosome. AS belongs to the superfamily of cytochrome P450 and regulates the synthesis of AL hormone. The CYP11B2 gene encodes the key enzyme for the synthesis of AL 18-hydroxylase. In scientific papers, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP of AS gene is often studied, such as 5312T, Intron 2, Lys-173/Arg; T-344C, 3097 C/A. 227 SNP of the AS gene were identified in different

  17. HYDRAULIC AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MCU SALTSTONE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K; Mark Phifer, M

    2008-01-01

    The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF), located in the Z-Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), is used for the disposal of low-level radioactive salt solution. The SDF currently contains two vaults: Vault 1 (6 cells) and Vault 4 (12 cells). Additional disposal cells are currently in the design phase. The individual cells of the saltstone facility are filled with saltstone., Saltstone is produced by mixing the low-level radioactive salt solution, with blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement or lime to form a dense, micro-porous, monolithic, low-level radioactive waste form. The saltstone is pumped into the disposal cells where it subsequently solidifies. Significant effort has been undertaken to accurately model the movement of water and contaminants through the facility. Key to this effort is an accurate understanding of the hydraulic and physical properties of the solidified saltstone. To date, limited testing has been conducted to characterize the saltstone. The primary focus of this task was to estimate the hydraulic and physical properties of MCU (Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit) saltstone relative to two permeating fluids. These fluids included simulated groundwater equilibrated with vault concrete and simulated saltstone pore fluid. Samples of the MCU saltstone were prepared by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and allowed to cure for twenty eight days prior to testing. These samples included two three-inch diameter by six inch long mold samples and three one-inch diameter by twelve inch long mold samples

  18. HYDRAULIC AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MCU SALTSTONE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, K; Mark Phifer, M

    2008-03-19

    The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF), located in the Z-Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), is used for the disposal of low-level radioactive salt solution. The SDF currently contains two vaults: Vault 1 (6 cells) and Vault 4 (12 cells). Additional disposal cells are currently in the design phase. The individual cells of the saltstone facility are filled with saltstone., Saltstone is produced by mixing the low-level radioactive salt solution, with blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement or lime to form a dense, micro-porous, monolithic, low-level radioactive waste form. The saltstone is pumped into the disposal cells where it subsequently solidifies. Significant effort has been undertaken to accurately model the movement of water and contaminants through the facility. Key to this effort is an accurate understanding of the hydraulic and physical properties of the solidified saltstone. To date, limited testing has been conducted to characterize the saltstone. The primary focus of this task was to estimate the hydraulic and physical properties of MCU (Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit) saltstone relative to two permeating fluids. These fluids included simulated groundwater equilibrated with vault concrete and simulated saltstone pore fluid. Samples of the MCU saltstone were prepared by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and allowed to cure for twenty eight days prior to testing. These samples included two three-inch diameter by six inch long mold samples and three one-inch diameter by twelve inch long mold samples.

  19. Contribution to the experimental study of the hydraulic jump in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to study experimentally the hydraulic jump evolving in a symmetric trapezoidal channel with a positive slope, requires the use of an experimental protocol, and to find experimental relations linking the characteristics of the formed projection. The experimental study investigated the variation of the ...

  20. Thermal Hydraulic Integral Effect Tests for Pressurized Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, W. P.; Song, C. H.; Kim, Y. S. and others

    2005-02-15

    The objectives of the project are to construct a thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility and to perform various integral effect tests for design, operation, and safety regulation of pressurized water reactors. During the first phase of this project (1997.8{approx}2002.3), the basic technology for thermal-hydraulic integral effect tests was established and the basic design of the test facility was accomplished: a full-height, 1/300-volume-scaled full pressure facility for APR1400, an evolutionary pressurized water reactor that was developed by Korean industry. Main objectives of the present phase (2002.4{approx}2005.2), was to optimize the facility design and to construct the experimental facility. We have performed following researches: 1) Optimization of the basic design of the thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility for PWRs - ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation) - Reduced height design for APR1400 (+ specific design features of KSNP safety injection systems) - Thermal-hydraulic scaling based on three-level scaling methodology by Ishii et al. 2) Construction of the ATLAS facility - Detailed design of the test facility - Manufacturing and procurement of components - Installation of the facility 3) Development of supporting technology for integral effect tests - Development and application of advanced instrumentation technology - Preliminary analysis of test scenarios - Development of experimental procedures - Establishment and implementation of QA system/procedure.

  1. Hydraulic resistance of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.

    2013-02-01

    Biofilms may interfere with membrane performance in at least three ways: (i) increase of the transmembrane pressure drop, (ii) increase of feed channel (feed-concentrate) pressure drop, and (iii) increase of transmembrane passage. Given the relevance of biofouling, it is surprising how few data exist about the hydraulic resistance of biofilms that may affect the transmembrane pressure drop and membrane passage. In this study, biofilms were generated in a lab scale cross flow microfiltration system at two fluxes (20 and 100Lm-2h-1) and constant cross flow (0.1ms-1). As a nutrient source, acetate was added (1.0mgL-1 acetate C) besides a control without nutrient supply. A microfiltration (MF) membrane was chosen because the MF membrane resistance is very low compared to the expected biofilm resistance and, thus, biofilm resistance can be determined accurately. Transmembrane pressure drop was monitored. As biofilm parameters, thickness, total cell number, TOC, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were determined, it was demonstrated that no internal membrane fouling occurred and that the fouling layer actually consisted of a grown biofilm and was not a filter cake of accumulated bacterial cells. At 20Lm-2h-1 flux with a nutrient dosage of 1mgL-1 acetate C, the resistance after 4 days reached a value of 6×1012m-1. At 100Lm-2h-1 flux under the same conditions, the resistance was 5×1013m-1. No correlation of biofilm resistance to biofilm thickness was found; Biofilms with similar thickness could have different resistance depending on the applied flux. The cell number in biofilms was between 4×107 and 5×108 cellscm-2. At this number, bacterial cells make up less than a half percent of the overall biofilm volume and therefore did not hamper the water flow through the biofilm significantly. A flux of 100Lm-2h-1 with nutrient supply caused higher cell numbers, more biomass, and higher biofilm resistance than a flux of 20Lm-2h-1. However, the biofilm thickness

  2. Components of the Bond Energy in Polar Diatomic Molecules, Radicals, and Ions Formed by Group-1 and Group-2 Metal Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haoyu; Truhlar, Donald G

    2015-07-14

    Although many transition metal complexes are known to have high multireference character, the multireference character of main-group closed-shell singlet diatomic molecules like BeF, CaO, and MgO has been less studied. However, many group-1 and group-2 diatomic molecules do have multireference character, and they provide informative systems for studying multireference character because they are simpler than transition metal compounds. The goal of the present work is to understand these multireference systems better so that, ultimately, we can apply what we learn to more complicated multireference systems and to the design of new exchange-correlation functionals for treating multireference systems more adequately. Fourteen main-group diatomic molecules and one triatomic molecule (including radicals, cations, and anions, as well as neutral closed-shell species) have been studied for this article. Eight of these molecules contain a group-1 element, and six contain a group-2 element. Seven of these molecules are multireference systems, and eight of them are single-reference systems. Fifty-three exchange-correlation functionals of 11 types [local spin-density approximation (LSDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA), nonseparable gradient approximation (NGA), global-hybrid GGA, meta-GGA, meta-NGA, global-hybrid meta GGA, range-separated hybrid GGA, range-separated hybrid meta-GGA, range-separated hybrid meta-NGA, and DFT augmented with molecular mechanics damped dispersion (DFT-D)] and the Hartree-Fock method have been applied to calculate the bond distance, bond dissociation energy (BDE), and dipole moment of these molecules. All of the calculations are converged to a stable solution by allowing the symmetry of the Slater determinant to be broken. A reliable functional should not only predict an accurate BDE but also predict accurate components of the BDE, so each bond dissociation energy has been decomposed into ionization potential (IP) of the electropositive

  3. Advantages of Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitanidis, P. K.; Bakhos, T.; Cardiff, M. A.; Barrash, W.

    2012-12-01

    Characterizing the subsurface is significant for most hydrogeologic studies, such as those involving site remediation and groundwater resource explo¬ration. A variety of hydraulic and geophysical methods have been developed to estimate hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. Hydraulic methods based on the analysis of conventional pumping tests allow the estimation of conductivity and storage without need for approximate petrophysical relations, which is an advantage over most geophysical methods that first estimate other properties and then infer values of hydraulic parameters. However, hydraulic methods have the disadvantage that the head-change signal decays with distance from the pumping well and thus becomes difficult to separate from noise except in close proximity to the source. Oscillatory hydraulic tomography (OHT) is an emerging technology to im¬age the subsurface. This method utilizes the idea of imposing sinusoidally varying pressure or discharge signals at several points, collecting head observations at several other points, and then processing these data in a tomographic fashion to estimate conductivity and storage coefficients. After an overview of the methodology, including a description of the most important potential advantages and challenges associated with this approach, two key promising features of the approach will be discussed. First, the signal at an observation point is orthogonal to and thus can be separated from nuisance inputs like head fluctuation from production wells, evapotranspiration, irrigation, and changes in the level of adjacent streams. Second, although the signal amplitude may be weak, one can extract the phase and amplitude of the os¬cillatory signal by collecting measurements over a longer time, thus compensating for the effect of large distance through longer sampling period.

  4. Teaching Form as Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    2012-01-01

    understanding of form per se, or, to use an expression from this text, of form as form. This challenge can be reduced to one question: how can design teaching support students in achieving not only the ability to recognize and describe different form-related concepts in existing design (i.e. analytical...

  5. Hydraulic lifter for an underwater drilling rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garan' ko, Yu L

    1981-01-15

    A hydraulic lifter is suggested for an underwater drilling rig. It includes a base, hydraulic cylinders for lifting the drilling pipes connected to the clamp holder and hydraulic distributor. In order to simplify the design of the device, the base is made with a hollow chamber connected to the rod cavities and through the hydraulic distributor to the cavities of the hydraulic cylinders for lifting the drilling pipes. The hydraulic distributor is connected to the hydrosphere through the supply valve with control in time or by remote control. The base is equipped with reverse valves whose outlets are on the support surface of the base.

  6. Hydraulic lifter of a drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikovskiy, L S; Demin, A V; Shadchinov, L M

    1979-01-08

    The invention refers to drilling equipment, in particular, devices for lowering and lifting operations during drilling. A hydraulic lifter of the drilling unit is suggested which contains a hydraulic cylinder, pressure line and hollow plunger whose cavities are hydraulically connected. In order to improve the reliability of the hydraulic lifter by balancing the forces of compression in the plunger of the hydraulic cylinder, a closed vessel is installed inside the plunger and rigidly connected to its ends. Its cavity is hydraulically connected to the pressure line.

  7. Controls of Hydraulic Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hydraulic wind turbine generator system was proposed based on analysis the current wind turbines technologies. The construction and principles were introduced. The mathematical model was verified using MATLAB and AMsim. A displacement closed loop of swash plate of motor and a speed closed loop of generator were setup, a PID control is introduced to maintain a constant speed and fixed frequency at wind turbine generator. Simulation and experiment demonstrated that the system can connect grid to generate electric and enhance reliability. The control system demonstrates a high performance speed regulation and effectiveness. The results are great significant to design a new type hydraulic wind turbine system.

  8. Role of the two-component regulatory system arlRS in ica operon and aap positive but non-biofilm-forming Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates from hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Liu, Jingran; Jiang, Juan; Hu, Jian; Xu, Tao; Wang, Jiaxue; Qu, Di

    2014-11-01

    The ica operon and aap gene are important factors for Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm formation. However, we found 15 out of 101 S. epidermidis strains isolated from patients had both the ica operon and the aap gene in the genome but could not form biofilms (ica(+)aap(+)/BF(-) isolates). Compared with standard strain RP62A, the 15 ica(+)aap(+)/BF(-) isolates had similar growth curves and initial attachment abilities, but had much lower apparent transcription levels of the icaA gene and significantly less production of polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA). Furthermore, the expression of accumulation-associated protein in ica(+)aap(+)/BF(-) isolates was much weaker than in RP62A. The mRNA levels of icaADBC transcription-related regulatory genes, including icaR, sarA, rsbU, srrA, arlRS and luxS, were measured in the 15 ica(+)aap(+)/BF(-) clinical isolates. The mRNA levels of arlR and rsbU in all of the ica(+)aap(+)/BF(-) isolates were lower than in RP62A at 4 h. At 10 h, 14/15 of the isolates showed lower mRNA levels of arlR and rsbU than shown by RP62A. However, expression of sarA, luxS, srrA and icaR varied in different ica(+)aap(+)/BF(-) isolates. To further investigate the role of arlRS in biofilm formation, we analyzed icaA, sarA and rsbU transcription, PIA synthesis, Aap expression and biofilm formation in an arlRS deletion mutant of S. epidermidis strain 1457 and all were much less than in the wild type strain. This is consistent with the hypothesis that ArlRS may play an important role in regulating biofilm formation by the ica(+)aap(+)/BF(-)S. epidermidis clinical isolates and operate via both ica-dependent and Aap-dependent pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of hydraulic characteristics for stream diversion in small stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sang-Jin; Jun, Kye-Won [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju(Korea)

    2001-10-31

    This study is the analysis of hydraulic characteristics for stream diversion reach by numerical model test. Through it we can provide the basis data in flood, and in grasping stream flow characteristics. Analysis of hydraulic characteristics in Seoknam stream were implemented by using computer model HEC-RAS(one-dimensional model) and RMA2(two-dimensional finite element model). As a result we became to know that RMA2 to simulate left, main channel, right in stream is more effective method in analysing flow in channel bends, steep slope, complex bed form effect stream flow characteristics, than HEC-RAS. (author). 13 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  10. Hydraulic Conductivity of Residual Soil-Cement Mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindasamy, P.; Taha, M. R.

    2016-07-01

    In Malaysia, although there are several researches on engineering properties of residual soils, however study on the hydraulic conductivity properties of metasedimentary residual soils is still lacking. Construction of containment walls like slurry wall techniques can be achieved with hydraulic conductivity of approximately 5 x 10-7cm/sec. The objectives of the study were to determine the physical properties of metasedimentary residual soils and to determine the influence of 1%, 3%, 5% and 10% of cement on hydraulic conductivity parameters. The coefficient of hydraulic conductivity of the soil naturally and soil-cement mixtures were determined by using the falling head test. According to the test, the hydraulic conductivity of the original soil was 4.16 x 10-8 m/s. The value decreases to 3.89 x 10-8 m/s, 2.78 x 10-8 m/s then 6.83 x 10-9 m/s with the addition of 1%, 3% and 5% of cement additives, respectively. During the hydration process, cement hydrates is formed followed by the increase in pH value and Ca(OH)2 which will alter the modification of pores size and distribution. When the quantity of cement increases, the pores size decrease. But, the addition of 10% cement gives an increased hydraulic conductivity value to 2.78 x 10-8 m/s. With 10%, the pore size increase might due to flocculation and agglomeration reaction. The generated hydraulic conductivity values will indirectly become a guide in the preliminary soil cement stabilization to modify the properties of the soil to become more like the properties of a soft rock.1. Introduction

  11. Disposal of waste by hydraulic fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, T.; Weeren, H.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid radioactive waste solutions at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been disposed of for nearly 20 years by preparing a slurry, injecting it into bedding plane fractures formed in low-permeability shale, and allowing the slurry to set into a solid. Three major considerations are required for this method: a rock formation that forms horizontal or bedding plane fractures and is highly impermeable, a plant facility that can develop sufficient hydraulic pressure to fracture the rock and to inject the slurry, and a slurry that can be pumped into the fracture and that will set, preferably, into a low-leaching solid. The requirements and desirable conditions of the formation, the process and facility as used for radioactive waste disposal, and the mix formulation and slurry properties that were required for injection and solidification are described. The intent of this paper is to stimulate interest in this technique for possible application to nonnuclear wastes

  12. Monitoring hydraulic stimulation using telluric sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Nigel; Heinson, Graham; Conway, Dennis

    2018-01-01

    The telluric sounding (TS) method is introduced as a potential tool for monitoring hydraulic fracturing at depth. The advantage of this technique is that it requires only the measurement of electric fields, which are cheap and easy when compared with magnetotelluric measurements. Additionally, the transfer function between electric fields from two locations is essentially the identity matrix for a 1D Earth no matter what the vertical structure. Therefore, changes in the earth resulting from the introduction of conductive bodies underneath one of these sites can be associated with deviations away from the identity matrix, with static shift appearing as a galvanic multiplier at all periods. Singular value decomposition and eigenvalue analysis can reduce the complexity of the resulting telluric distortion matrix to simpler parameters that can be visualised in the form of Mohr circles. This technique would be useful in constraining the lateral extent of resistivity changes. We test the viability of utilising the TS method for monitoring on both a synthetic dataset and for a hydraulic stimulation of an enhanced geothermal system case study conducted in Paralana, South Australia. The synthetic data example shows small but consistent changes in the transfer functions associated with hydraulic stimulation, with grids of Mohr circles introduced as a useful diagnostic tool for visualising the extent of fluid movement. The Paralana electric field data were relatively noisy and affected by the dead band making the analysis of transfer functions difficult. However, changes in the order of 5% were observed from 5 s to longer periods. We conclude that deep monitoring using the TS method is marginal at depths in the order of 4 km and that in order to have meaningful interpretations, electric field data need to be of a high quality with low levels of site noise.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Review of computational thermal-hydraulic modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefer, R.H.; Keeton, L.W.

    1995-01-01

    Corrosion of heat transfer tubing in nuclear steam generators has been a persistent problem in the power generation industry, assuming many different forms over the years depending on chemistry and operating conditions. Whatever the corrosion mechanism, a fundamental understanding of the process is essential to establish effective management strategies. To gain this fundamental understanding requires an integrated investigative approach that merges technology from many diverse scientific disciplines. An important aspect of an integrated approach is characterization of the corrosive environment at high temperature. This begins with a thorough understanding of local thermal-hydraulic conditions, since they affect deposit formation, chemical concentration, and ultimately corrosion. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can and should play an important role in characterizing the thermal-hydraulic environment and in predicting the consequences of that environment,. The evolution of CFD technology now allows accurate calculation of steam generator thermal-hydraulic conditions and the resulting sludge deposit profiles. Similar calculations are also possible for model boilers, so that tests can be designed to be prototypic of the heat exchanger environment they are supposed to simulate. This paper illustrates the utility of CFD technology by way of examples in each of these two areas. This technology can be further extended to produce more detailed local calculations of the chemical environment in support plate crevices, beneath thick deposits on tubes, and deep in tubesheet sludge piles. Knowledge of this local chemical environment will provide the foundation for development of mechanistic corrosion models, which can be used to optimize inspection and cleaning schedules and focus the search for a viable fix

  14. Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdoch, L.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the use of hydraulic fracturing to increase permeability in geologic formations where in-situ remedial action of contaminant plumes will be performed. Several in-situ treatment strategies are discussed including the use of hydraulic fracturing to create in situ redox zones for treatment of organics and inorganics. Hydraulic fracturing methods offer a mechanism for the in-situ treatment of gently dipping layers of reactive compounds. Specialized methods using real-time monitoring and a high-energy jet during fracturing allow the form of the fracture to be influenced, such as creation of assymmetric fractures beneath potential sources (i.e. tanks, pits, buildings) that should not be penetrated by boring. Some examples of field applications of this technique such as creating fractures filled with zero-valent iron to reductively dechlorinate halogenated hydrocarbons, and the use of granular activated carbon to adsorb compounds are discussed

  15. Design of hydraulic recuperation unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandourek Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with design and measurement of hydraulic recuperation unit. Recuperation unit consist of radial turbine and axial pump, which are coupled on the same shaft. Speed of shaft with impellers are 6000 1/min. For economic reasons, is design of recuperation unit performed using commercially manufactured propellers.

  16. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  17. Tubing Cutter is Activated Hydraulically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsmith, D. G.; Richardson, J. I.

    1983-01-01

    Hydraulically-actuated tubing cutter severs tubing when operator squeezes handle grip. "Gooseneck" extension enables cutter to be used in areas where accessiblity is limited. Cutter has potential as flight-line tool and is useful in automobile and fire rescue work.

  18. Hydraulics calculation in drilling simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyugin, Aleksey A.; Kazunin, Dmitry V.

    2018-05-01

    The modeling of drilling hydraulics in the simulator system is discussed. This model is based on the previously developed quasi-steady model of an incompressible fluid flow. The model simulates the operation of all parts of the hydraulic drilling system. Based on the principles of creating a common hydraulic model, a set of new elements for well hydraulics was developed. It includes elements that correspond to the in-drillstring and annular space. There are elements controlling the inflow from the reservoir into the well and simulating the lift of gas along the annulus. New elements of the hydrosystem take into account the changing geometry of the well, loss in the bit, characteristics of the fluids including viscoplasticity. There is an opportunity specify the complications, the main one of which is gas, oil and water inflow. Correct work of models in cases of complications makes it possible to work out various methods for their elimination. The coefficients of the model are adjusted on the basis of incomplete experimental data provided by operators of drilling platforms. At the end of the article the results of modeling the elimination of gas inflow by a continuous method are presented. The values displayed in the simulator (drill pipe pressure, annulus pressure, input and output flow rates) are in good agreement with the experimental data. This exercise took one hour, which is less than the time on a real rig with the same configuration of equipment and well.

  19. Hydraulics submission for Middlesex County, NJ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for estimating base flood elevation for a flood insurance...

  20. DCS Hydraulics Submittal, Bullock County, Alabama, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...

  1. DCS Hydraulics Submittal, Butler County, Alabama, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...

  2. DCS Hydraulics Submittal, Covington County, Alabama, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...

  3. CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WITTEKIND WD

    2007-01-01

    This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% 239 Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: (sm b ullet)bare, (sm b ullet)1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or (sm b ullet)12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection

  4. Hydraulics submission for Gloucester County, NJ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for estimating base flood elevation for a flood insurance...

  5. Hydraulic conductivity of rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1994-10-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada contains numerous geological units that are highly fractured. A clear understanding of the hydraulic conductivity of fractures has been identified as an important scientific problem that must be addressed during the site characterization process. The problem of the flow of a single-phase fluid through a rough-walled rock fracture is discussed within the context of rigorous fluid mechanics. The derivation of the cubic law is given as the solution to the Navier-Stokes equations for flow between smooth, parallel plates, the only fracture geometry that is amenable to exact treatment. The various geometric and kinetic conditions that are necessary in order for the Navier-Stokes equations to be replaced by the more tractable lubrication or Hele-Shaw equations are studied and quantified. Various analytical and numerical results are reviewed pertaining to the problem of relating the effective hydraulic aperture to the statistics of the aperture distribution. These studies all lead to the conclusion that the effective hydraulic aperture is always less than the mean aperture, by a factor that depends on the ratio of the mean value of the aperture to its standard deviation. The tortuosity effect caused by regions where the rock walls are in contact with each other is studied using the Hele-Shaw equations, leading to a simple correction factor that depends on the area fraction occupied by the contact regions. Finally, the predicted hydraulic apertures are compared to measured values for eight data sets from the literature for which aperture and conductivity data were available on the same fracture. It is found that reasonably accurate predictions of hydraulic conductivity can be made based solely on the first two moments of the aperture distribution function, and the proportion of contact area. 68 refs

  6. Subsea Hydraulic Leakage Detection and Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stavenes, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The motivation for this thesis is reduction of hydraulic emissions, minimizing of process emergency shutdowns, exploitation of intervention capacity, and reduction of costs. Today, monitoring of hydraulic leakages is scarce and the main way to detect leakage is the constant need for filling of hydraulic fluid to the Hydraulic Power Unit (HPU). Leakage detection and diagnosis has potential, which would be adressed in this thesis. A strategy towards leakage detection and diagnosis is given....

  7. Design and Optimization of Fast Switching Valves for Large Scale Digital Hydraulic Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roemer, Daniel Beck

    The present thesis is on the design, analysis and optimization of fast switching valves for digital hydraulic motors with high power ratings. The need for such high power motors origins in the potential use of hydrostatic transmissions in wind turbine drive trains, as digital hydraulic machines...... have been shown to improve the overall efficiency and efficient operation range compared to traditional hydraulic machines. Digital hydraulic motors uses electronically controlled independent seat valves connected to the pressure chambers, which must be fast acting and exhibit low pressure losses...... to enable efficient operation. These valves are complex components to design, as multiple design aspects are present in these integrated valve units, with conflicting objectives and interdependencies. A preliminary study on a small scale single-cylinder digital hydraulic pump has initially been conducted...

  8. Discussion on Stochastic Analysis of Hydraulic Vibration in Pressurized Water Diversion and Hydropower Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxu Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic vibration exists in various water conveyance projects and has resulted in different operating problems, but its obvious effects on system’s pressure head and stable operation have not been definitively addressed in the issued codes for engineering design, especially considering the uncertainties of hydraulic vibration. After detailed analysis of the randomness in hydraulic vibration and the commonly used stochastic approaches, in the basic equations for hydraulic vibration analysis, the random parameters and the formed stochastic equations were discussed for further probabilistic characteristic analysis of the random variables. Furthermore, preliminary investigation of the stochastic analysis of hydraulic vibration in pressurized pipelines and possible self-excited vibration in pumped-storage systems was presented for further consideration. The detailed discussion indicates that it is necessary to conduct further and systematic stochastic analysis of hydraulic vibration. Further, with the obtained frequencies and amplitudes in the form of a probability statement, the stochastic characteristics of various hydraulic vibrations can be investigated in detail and these solutions will be more reasonable for practical applications. Eventually, the stochastic analysis of hydraulic vibration will provide a basic premise to introduce its effect into the engineering design of water diversion and hydropower systems.

  9. Thermo-Hydraulic Modelling of Buffer and Backfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pintado, X.; Rautioaho, E.

    2013-09-01

    The temporal evolution of saturation, liquid pressure and temperature in the components of the engineered barrier system was studied using numerical methods. A set of laboratory tests was conducted to calibrate the parameters employed in the models. The modelling consisted of thermal, hydraulic and thermo-hydraulic analysis in which the significant thermo-hydraulic processes, parameters and features were identified. CODE B RIGHT was used for the finite element modelling and supplementary calculations were conducted with analytical methods. The main objective in this report is to improve understanding of the thermo-hydraulic processes and material properties that affect buffer behaviour in the Olkiluoto repository and to determine the parametric requirements of models for the accurate prediction of this behaviour. The analyses consisted of evaluating the influence of initial canister temperature and gaps in the buffer, and the role played by fractures and the rock mass located between fractures in supplying water for buffer and backfill saturation. In the thermo-hydraulic analysis, the primary processes examined were the effects of buffer drying near the canister on temperature evolution and the manner in which heat flow affects the buffer saturation process. Uncertainties in parameters and variations in the boundary conditions, modelling geometry and thermo-hydraulic phenomena were assessed with a sensitivity analysis. The material parameters, constitutive models, and assumptions made were carefully selected for all the modelling cases. The reference parameters selected for the simulations were compared and evaluated against laboratory measurements. The modelling results highlight the importance of understanding groundwater flow through the rock mass and from fractures in the rock in order to achieve reliable predictions regarding buffer saturation, since saturation times could range from a few years to tens of thousands of years depending on the hydrogeological

  10. Synthetical optimization of hydraulic radius and acoustic field for thermoacoustic cooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Huifang; Li Qing; Zhou Gang

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the acoustic field and the hydraulic radius of the regenerator play key roles in thermoacoustic processes. The optimization of hydraulic radius strongly depends on the acoustic field in the regenerator. This paper investigates the synthetical optimization of hydraulic radius and acoustic field which is characterized by the ratio of the traveling wave component to the standing wave component. In this paper, we discussed the heat flux, cooling power, temperature gradient and coefficient of performance of thermoacoustic cooler with different combinations of hydraulic radiuses and acoustic fields. The calculation results show that, in the cooler's regenerator, due to the acoustic wave, the heat is transferred towards the pressure antinodes in the pure standing wave, while the heat is transferred in the opposite direction of the wave propagation in the pure traveling wave. The better working condition for the regenerator appears in the traveling wave phase region of the like-standing wave, where the directions of the heat transfer by traveling wave component and standing wave component are the same. Otherwise, the small hydraulic radius is not a good choice for acoustic field with excessively high ratio of traveling wave, and the small hydraulic radius is only needed by the traveling wave phase region of like-standing wave.

  11. Prediction of potential failures in hydraulic gear pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lisowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic gear pumps are used in many machines and devices. In hydraulic systems of machines gear pumps are main component ofsupply unit or perform auxiliary function. Gear pumps opposite to vane pumps are less complicated. They consists of such components as:housing, gear wheels, bearings, shaft, seal for rotation motion which are not very sensitive for damage and that is why they are using veryoften. However, gear pumps are break down from time to time. Usually damage of pump cause shutting down of machines and devices.One of the way for identifying potential failures and foreseeing their effects is a quality method. On the basis of these methods apreventing action might be undertaken before failure appear. In this paper potential failures and damages of a gear pump were presented bythe usage of matrix FMEA analysis.

  12. Nonlinear Dynamical Analysis of Hydraulic Turbine Governing Systems with Nonelastic Water Hammer Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear mathematical model for hydroturbine governing system (HTGS has been proposed. All essential components of HTGS, that is, conduit system, turbine, generator, and hydraulic servo system, are considered in the model. Using the proposed model, the existence and stability of Hopf bifurcation of an example HTGS are investigated. In addition, chaotic characteristics of the system with different system parameters are studied extensively and presented in the form of bifurcation diagrams, time waveforms, phase space trajectories, Lyapunov exponent, chaotic attractors, and Poincare maps. Good correlation can be found between the model predictions and theoretical analysis. The simulation results provide a reasonable explanation for the sustained oscillation phenomenon commonly seen in operation of hydroelectric generating set.

  13. The hydraulic permeability of blood clots as a function of fibrin and platelet density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wufsus, A R; Macera, N E; Neeves, K B

    2013-04-16

    Interstitial fluid flow within blood clots is a biophysical mechanism that regulates clot growth and dissolution. Assuming that a clot can be modeled as a porous medium, the physical property that dictates interstitial fluid flow is the hydraulic permeability. The objective of this study was to bound the possible values of the hydraulic permeability in clots formed in vivo and present relationships that can be used to estimate clot permeability as a function of composition. A series of clots with known densities of fibrin and platelets, the two major components of a clot, were formed under static conditions. The permeability was calculated by measuring the interstitial fluid velocity through the clots at a constant pressure gradient. Fibrin gels formed with a fiber volume fraction of 0.02-0.54 had permeabilities of 1.2 × 10(-1)-1.5 × 10(-4)μm(2). Platelet-rich clots with a platelet volume fraction of 0.01-0.61 and a fibrin volume fraction of 0.03 had permeabilities over a range of 1.1 × 10(-2)-1.5 × 10(-5)μm(2). The permeability of fibrin gels and of clots with platelet volume fraction of platelet volume fraction of >0.2 were modeled as a Brinkman medium of coarse solids (platelets) embedded in a mesh of fine fibers (fibrin). Our data suggest that the permeability of clots formed in vivo can vary by up to five orders of magnitude, with pore sizes that range from 4 to 350 nm. These findings have important implications for the transport of coagulation zymogens/enzymes in the interstitial spaces during clot formation, as well as the design of fibrinolytic drug delivery strategies. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Advanced energy saving hydraulic elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido, A.; Sevilleja, J.; Servia, A.

    1993-08-24

    An hydraulic elevator is described comprising: a counterweighted elevator comprising a car, a counterweight, and a rope connecting the car and the counterweight; a ram having a first reaction surface for driving one of the car or the counterweight upwardly and a second reaction surface for driving one of the car or the counterweight downwardly; multiplier means for moving the car a distance greater than a stroke of the ram, the multiplier means connecting the ram to the counterweighted elevator, the multiplier means comprising: a first pulley; a second pulley; means for rigidly connecting the first and second pulley, the means having a length corresponding to a rise of the hydraulic elevator, the means attaching to the ram; and a pulley rope which: has a first end attaching to a first fixed point, extends about the first pulley, extends about the second pulley, and has a second end attaching to a second fixed point.

  15. Model for polygonal hydraulic jumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Watanabe, Shinya; Bohr, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    We propose a phenomenological model for the polygonal hydraulic jumps discovered by Ellegaard and co-workers [Nature (London) 392, 767 (1998); Nonlinearity 12, 1 (1999); Physica B 228, 1 (1996)], based on the known flow structure for the type-II hydraulic jumps with a "roller" (separation eddy...... nonhydrostatic pressure contributions from surface tension in light of recent observations by Bush and co-workers [J. Fluid Mech. 558, 33 (2006); Phys. Fluids 16, S4 (2004)]. The model can be analyzed by linearization around the circular state, resulting in a parameter relationship for nearly circular polygonal...... states. A truncated but fully nonlinear version of the model can be solved analytically. This simpler model gives rise to polygonal shapes that are very similar to those observed in experiments, even though surface tension is neglected, and the condition for the existence of a polygon with N corners...

  16. GCFR thermal-hydraulic experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, G.; Baxi, C.B.; Dalle Donne, M.; Gat, U.; Fenech, H.; Hanson, D.; Hudina, M.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal-hydraulic experimental studies performed and planned for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) core assemblies are described. The experiments consist of basic studies performed to obtain correlations, and bundle experiments which provide input for code validation and design verification. These studies have been performed and are planned at European laboratories, US national laboratories, Universities in the US, and at General Atomic Company

  17. Hysteresis phenomena in hydraulic measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran, H J; Farhat, M; Luo, X W; Chen, Y L; Xu, H Y

    2012-01-01

    Hysteresis phenomena demonstrate the lag between the generation and the removal of some physical phenomena. This paper studies the hysteresis phenomena of the head-drop in a scaled model pump turbine using experiment test and CFD methods. These lag is induced by complicated flow patterns, which influenced the reliability of rotating machine. Keeping the same measurement procedure is concluded for the hydraulic machine measurement.

  18. UIO-based Fault Diagnosis for Hydraulic Automatic Gauge Control System of Magnesium Sheet Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ping FAN

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic automatic gauge control system of magnesium sheet mill is a complex integrated control system, which including mechanical, hydraulic and electrical comprehensive information. The failure rate of AGC system always is high, and its fault reasons are always complex. Based on analyzing the fault of main components of the automatic gauge control system, unknown input observer is used to realize fault diagnosis and isolation. Simulation results show that the fault diagnosis method based on the unknown input observer for the hydraulic automatic gauge control system of magnesium sheet mill is effective.

  19. Modeling, Optimization & Control of Hydraulic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahavori, Maryamsadat

    2014-01-01

    . The nonlinear network model is derived based on the circuit theory. A suitable projection is used to reduce the state vector and to express the model in standard state-space form. Then, the controllability of nonlinear nonaffine hydraulic networks is studied. The Lie algebra-based controllability matrix is used......Water supply systems consist of a number of pumping stations, which deliver water to the customers via pipeline networks and elevated reservoirs. A huge amount of drinking water is lost before it reaches to end-users due to the leakage in pipe networks. A cost effective solution to reduce leakage...... in water network is pressure management. By reducing the pressure in the water network, the leakage can be reduced significantly. Also it reduces the amount of energy consumption in water networks. The primary purpose of this work is to develop control algorithms for pressure control in water supply...

  20. Thermal hydraulic reactor safety analyses and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmstroem, H.; Eerikaeinen, L.; Kervinen, T.; Kilpi, K.; Mattila, L.; Miettinen, J.; Yrjoelae, V.

    1989-04-01

    The report introduces the results of the thermal hydraulic reactor safety research performed in the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) during the years 1972-1987. Also practical applications i.e. analyses for the safety authorities and power companies are presented. The emphasis is on description of the state-of-the-art know how. The report describes VTT's most important computer codes, both those of foreign origin and those developed at VTT, and their assessment work, VTT's own experimental research, as well as international experimental projects and other forms of cooperation VTT has participated in. Appendix 8 contains a comprehensive list of the most important publications and technical reports produced. They present the content and results of the research in detail.(orig.)

  1. Development of an integrated thermal-hydraulics capability incorporating RELAP5 and PANTHER neutronics code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, R.; Jones, J.R.

    1997-07-01

    Ensuring that safety analysis needs are met in the future is likely to lead to the development of new codes and the further development of existing codes. It is therefore advantageous to define standards for data interfaces and to develop software interfacing techniques which can readily accommodate changes when they are made. Defining interface standards is beneficial but is necessarily restricted in application if future requirements are not known in detail. Code interfacing methods are of particular relevance with the move towards automatic grid frequency response operation where the integration of plant dynamic, core follow and fault study calculation tools is considered advantageous. This paper describes the background and features of a new code TALINK (Transient Analysis code LINKage program) used to provide a flexible interface to link the RELAP5 thermal hydraulics code with the PANTHER neutron kinetics and the SIBDYM whole plant dynamic modelling codes used by Nuclear Electric. The complete package enables the codes to be executed in parallel and provides an integrated whole plant thermal-hydraulics and neutron kinetics model. In addition the paper discusses the capabilities and pedigree of the component codes used to form the integrated transient analysis package and the details of the calculation of a postulated Sizewell `B` Loss of offsite power fault transient.

  2. Development of an integrated thermal-hydraulics capability incorporating RELAP5 and PANTHER neutronics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, R.; Jones, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Ensuring that safety analysis needs are met in the future is likely to lead to the development of new codes and the further development of existing codes. It is therefore advantageous to define standards for data interfaces and to develop software interfacing techniques which can readily accommodate changes when they are made. Defining interface standards is beneficial but is necessarily restricted in application if future requirements are not known in detail. Code interfacing methods are of particular relevance with the move towards automatic grid frequency response operation where the integration of plant dynamic, core follow and fault study calculation tools is considered advantageous. This paper describes the background and features of a new code TALINK (Transient Analysis code LINKage program) used to provide a flexible interface to link the RELAP5 thermal hydraulics code with the PANTHER neutron kinetics and the SIBDYM whole plant dynamic modelling codes used by Nuclear Electric. The complete package enables the codes to be executed in parallel and provides an integrated whole plant thermal-hydraulics and neutron kinetics model. In addition the paper discusses the capabilities and pedigree of the component codes used to form the integrated transient analysis package and the details of the calculation of a postulated Sizewell 'B' Loss of offsite power fault transient

  3. Computing in Hydraulic Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Civil engineers, pioneers of our civilization, are rarely perceived as leaders and innovators in modern society because of retardations in technology innovation. This crisis has resulted in the decline of the prestige of civil engineering profession, reduction of federal funding on deteriorating infrastructures, and problems with attracting the most talented high-school students. Infusion of cutting-edge computer technology and stimulating creativity and innovation therefore are the critical challenge to civil engineering education. To better prepare our graduates to innovate, this paper discussed the adaption of problem-based collaborative learning technique and integration of civil engineering computing into a traditional civil engineering curriculum. Three interconnected courses: Open Channel Flow, Computational Hydraulics, and Sedimentation Engineering, were developed with emphasis on computational simulations. In Open Channel flow, the focuses are principles of free surface flow and the application of computational models. This prepares students to the 2nd course, Computational Hydraulics, that introduce the fundamental principles of computational hydraulics, including finite difference and finite element methods. This course complements the Open Channel Flow class to provide students with in-depth understandings of computational methods. The 3rd course, Sedimentation Engineering, covers the fundamentals of sediment transport and river engineering, so students can apply the knowledge and programming skills gained from previous courses to develop computational models for simulating sediment transport. These courses effectively equipped students with important skills and knowledge to complete thesis and dissertation research.

  4. Control rod driving hydraulic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Hiroshi.

    1993-01-01

    In a control rod driving hydraulic device for an improved BWR type reactor, a bypass pipeline is disposed being branched from a scram pipeline, and a control orifice and a throttle valve are interposed to the bypass pipeline for restricting pressure. Upon occurrence of scram, about 1/2 of water quantity flowing from an accumulator of a hydraulic control unit to the lower surface of a piston of control rod drives by way of a scram pipeline is controlled by the restricting orifice and the throttle valve, by which the water is discharged to a pump suction pipeline or other pipelines by way of the bypass pipeline. With such procedures, a function capable of simultaneously conducting scram for two control rod drives can be attained by one hydraulic control unit. Further, an excessive peak pressure generated by a water hammer phenomenon in the scram pipeline or the control rod drives upon occurrence of scram can be reduced. Deformation and failure due to the excessive peak pressure can be prevented, as well as vibrations and degradation of performance of relevant portions can be prevented. (N.H.)

  5. Hydraulic Shearing and Hydraulic Jacking Observed during Hydraulic Stimulations in Fractured Geothermal Reservoir in Pohang, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, K. B.; Park, S.; Xie, L.; Kim, K. I.; Yoo, H.; Kim, K. Y.; Choi, J.; Yoon, K. S.; Yoon, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Song, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) relies on sufficient and irreversible enhancement of reservoir permeability through hydraulic stimulation and possibility of such desirable change of permeability is an open question that can undermine the universality of EGS concept. We report results of first hydraulic stimulation campaign conducted in two deep boreholes in fractured granodiorite geothermal reservoir in Pohang, Korea. Borehole PX-1, located at 4.22 km, was subjected to the injection of 3,907 m3 with flow rate of up to 18 kg/s followed by bleeding off of 1,207 m3. The borehole PX-2, located at 4.35 km, was subjected to the injection of 1,970 m3 with flow rate of up to 46 kg/sIn PX-1, a sharp distinct decline of wellhead pressure was observed at around 16 MPa of wellhead pressure which was similar to the predicted injection pressure to induce hydraulic shearing. Injectivity interpretation before and after the hydraulic shearing indicates that permanent increase of permeability was achieved by a factor of a few. In PX-2, however, injectivity was very small and hydraulic shearing was not observed due possibly to the near wellbore damage made by the remedying process of lost circulation such as using lost circulation material during drilling. Flow rate of larger than 40 kg/s was achieved at very high well head pressure of nearly 90 MPa. Hydraulic jacking, that is reversible opening and closure of fracture with change of injection pressure, was clearly observed. Although sharp increase of permeability due to fracture opening was achieved with elevated injection pressure, the increased permeability was reversed with decreased injection pressure.Two contrasting response observed in the same reservoir at two different boreholes which is apart only 600 m apart provide important implication that can be used for the stimulation strategy for EGS.This work was supported by the New and Renewable Energy Technology Development Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology

  6. Research on a Novel Hydraulic/Electric Synergy Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kegang Zhao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, increasing concerns regarding environmental pollution and requirements for lower fossil fuel consumption have increased interest in alternative hybrid powertrains. As a result, this paper presents a novel hydraulic/electric synergy powertrain with multiple working modes. The three energy sources (i.e., engine, battery, and hydraulic accumulator in this configuration are regulated by a dual planetary gear set to achieve optimal performances. This paper selects the component sizes of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV, a hydraulic hybrid vehicle (HHV, and a hydraulic/electric synergy vehicle (HESV, based on the dynamic performance of a target vehicle (TV. In addition, this paper develops the forward simulation models of the four aforementioned vehicles in the MATLAB/Simulink/Driveline platform, in which the fuel economy simulations are carried out in relation to the Chinese urban bus cycle. The simulation results show that the fuel consumption of the three hybrid vehicles is similar, but much better than, that of the TV. Finally, based on the operating cost calculations over a five-year working period, the lowest cost ranges of the three hybrid vehicles are determined, which provides a method for choosing the optimal hybrid scheme.

  7. Charging valve of the full hydraulic braking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshi Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the full hydraulic braking system has excellent braking performance. As the key component of the full hydraulic braking system, the parameters of the accumulator charging valve have a significant effect on the braking performance. In this article, the key parameters of the charging valve are analyzed through the static theoretical and an Advanced Modeling Environment for performing Simulation of engineering systems (AMESim simulation model of the dual-circuit accumulator charging valve is established based on the real structure parameters first. Second, according to the results of the dynamic simulation, the dynamic characteristics of the charging pressure, the flow rate, and the frequency of the charging valve are studied. The key parameters affecting the serial production are proposed and some technical advices for improving the performance of the full hydraulic system are provided. Finally, the theoretical analysis is validated by the simulation results. The comparison between the simulation results and the experimental results indicates that the simulated AMESim model of the charging valve is accurate and credible with the error rate inside 0.5% compared with the experimental result. Hence, the performance of the charging valve meets the request of the full hydraulic braking system exactly.

  8. Automated software for hydraulic simulation of pipeline operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hurgin Roman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Design of modern water supply systems of large cities as well as their management via renovation of hydraulic models poses time-consuming tasks to researchers, and coping with this task requires specific approaches. When tackling these tasks, water services companies come across a lot of information about various objects of water infrastructure, the majority of which is located underground. In those cases, modern computer-aided design systems containing various components come to help. These systems help to solve a wide array of problems using existing information regarding pipelines, analysis and optimization of their basic parameters. CAD software is becoming an integral part of water supply systems management in large cities, and its capabilities allow engineering and operating companies to not only collect all the necessary data concerning water supply systems in any given city, but also to conduct research aimed at improving various parameters of these systems, including optimization of their hydraulic properties which directly determine the quality of water. This paper contains the analysis of automated CAD software for hydraulic design and management of city water supply systems in order to provide safe and efficient operation of these water supply systems. Authors select the most suitable software that might be used to provide hydraulic compatibility of old and new sections of water supply ring mains after selective or continuous draw-in renovation and decrease in diameter of distribution networks against the background of water consumption decrease in the cities.

  9. VIPRE-01. a thermal-hydraulic analysis code for reactor cores. Volume 1. Mathematical modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, C.W.; Cuta, J.M.; Koontz, A.S.; Kelly, J.M.; Basehore, K.L.; George, T.L.; Rowe, D.S.

    1983-04-01

    VIPRE (Versatile Internals and Component Program for Reactors; EPRI) has been developed for nuclear power utility thermal-hydraulic analysis applications. It is designed to help evaluate nuclear reactor core safety limits including minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio (MDNBR), critical power ratio (CPR), fuel and clad temperatures, and coolant state in normal operation and assumed accident conditions. This volume (Volume 1: Mathematical Modeling) explains the major thermal hydraulic models and supporting correlations in detail

  10. Developed hydraulic simulation model for water pipeline networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ayad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method that uses linear graph theory is presented for both steady state, and extended period simulation in a pipe network including its hydraulic components (pumps, valves, junctions, etc.. The developed model is based on the Extended Linear Graph Theory (ELGT technique. This technique is modified to include new network components such as flow control valves and tanks. The technique also expanded for extended period simulation (EPS. A newly modified method for the calculation of updated flows improving the convergence rate is being introduced. Both benchmarks, ad Actual networks are analyzed to check the reliability of the proposed method. The results reveal the finer performance of the proposed method.

  11. Thermal-hydraulic considerations for particle bed reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benenati, R.; Araj, K. J.; Horn, F.

    In the design of particle bed reactor (PBR) cores, consideration must be given to the gas coolant channels and their configuration. Neutronics analysis provides the relative volume fractions of the component materials, but these must be arranged in such a manner as to allow proper cooling of all components by the gas flow at relatively low pressure drops. The thermal hydraulic aspects of this problem are addressed. A description of the computer model used in the analysis of the steady state condition is also included. Blowdown tests on hot particle bed fuel elements were carried out and are described.

  12. Characteristics and management of flowback/produced water from hydraulically fractured wells in California - findings from the California SB 4 assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadharajan, C.; Cooley, H.; Heberger, M. G.; Stringfellow, W. T.; Domen, J. K.; Sandelin, W.; Camarillo, M. K.; Jordan, P. D.; Reagan, M. T.; Donnelly, K.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Long, J. C. S.

    2015-12-01

    As part of a recent assessment of well stimulation in California, we analyzed the hazards and potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing (the primary form of well stimulation in California) on water resources, which included an analysis of the quantity and quality of flowback/produced water generated, current management and disposal practices, associated potential release mechanisms and transport pathways that can lead to contaminants being released into the environment, and practices to mitigate or avoid impacts from produced water on water resources. The wastewater returned after stimulation includes "recovered fluids" (flowback fluids collected into tanks following stimulation, but before the start of production) and "produced water" (water extracted with oil and gas during production). In contrast to hydraulic fracturing in regions with primarily gas production, the quantities of recovered fluids from hydraulically fractured wells in California are small in comparison to the fluids injected (typically analysis indicates some fraction of returning fracturing fluids is likely present in produced water from wells that have been hydraulically fractured. Chemical measurements of recovered fluids show that some samples can contain high levels of some contaminants, including total carbohydrates (indicating the presence of guar, a component of fracturing fluid), total dissolved solids (TDS), trace elements and naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Data on produced water chemistry are more limited. In California, produced water is typically managed via pipelines and disposed or reused in many ways. A majority of produced water from hydraulically fractured wells in California is disposed in percolation pits, many of which may lie in areas with good groundwater quality. Some of the remaining produced water is injected into Class II wells; although a few of the wells are under review or have been shut down since they were injecting into aquifers. Other methods of

  13. HYDRAULIC AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SALTSTONE GROUTS AND VAULT CONCRETES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.; Harbour, J.; Phifer, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF), located in the Z-Area of the Savannah River Site (SRS), is used for the disposal of low-level radioactive salt solution. The SDF currently contains two vaults: Vault 1 (6 cells) and Vault 4 (12 cells). Additional disposal cells are currently in the design phase. The individual cells of the saltstone facility are filled with saltstone. Saltstone is produced by mixing the low-level radioactive salt solution, with blast furnace slag, fly ash, and cement (dry premix) to form a dense, micro-porous, monolithic, low-level radioactive waste form. The saltstone is pumped into the disposal cells where it subsequently solidifies. Significant effort has been undertaken to accurately model the movement of water and contaminants through the facility. Key to this effort is an accurate understanding of the hydraulic and physical properties of the solidified saltstone. To date, limited testing has been conducted to characterize the saltstone. The primary focus of this task was to estimate the hydraulic and physical properties of three types of saltstone and two vault concretes. The saltstone formulations included saltstone premix batched with (1) Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60), (2) Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60), and (3) Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) salt simulant (w/pm 0.60). The vault concrete formulations tested included the Vault 1/4 concrete and two variations of the Vault 2 concrete (Mix 1 and Mix 2). Wet properties measured for the saltstone formulations included yield stress, plastic viscosity, wet unit weight, bleed water volume, gel time, set time, and heat of hydration. Hydraulic and physical properties measured on the cured saltstone and concrete samples included saturated hydraulic conductivity, moisture retention, compressive strength, porosity, particle density, and dry bulk density. These properties

  14. Compatibility between Hydraulic and Mechanical Properties of Ceramic Water Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riyadh Z. Al Zubaidy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, ceramic water filters were produced by using ten mixtures of different ratios of red clay and sawdust under different production conditions. The physical properties of these filters were tested. The production conditions include five press pressures ranged from 10 to 50MPa and a firing schedule having three different final temperatures of 1000, 1070, and 1100˚C. The tests results of the physical properties were used to obtain best compatibility between the hydraulic and the mechanical properties of these filters. Results showed that as the press pressure and the firing temperature are increased, the bulk density and the compressive and bending strengths of the produced filters are increased, while, the porosity and absorption are decreased. As the sawdust content is increased the bulk density and the compressive and bending strengths are decreased, while, the porosity and absorption are increased. High hydraulic conductivity is obtained at a firing temperature of 1070˚C when the sawdust content is less than 10%. Otherwise, it is increased as sawdust content and the firing temperature are increased. Filters made of mixture 92.5% red clay and 7.5% sawdust formed . under a press pressure of 20MPa and a firing temperature of 1070˚C gave the best compatibility between hydraulic and mechanical properties. In this case, the hydraulic conductivity was 50mm/day, the compressive strength was 14MPa, and the bending strength was 10.8MPa.

  15. Hydraulic testing in granite using the sinusoidal variation of pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.H.; Holmes, D.C.; Noy, D.J.

    1982-09-01

    Access to two boreholes at the Carwynnen test site in Cornwall enabled the trial of a number of innovative approaches to the hydrogeology of fractured crystalline rock. These methods ranged from the use of seisviewer data to measure the orientation of fractures to the use of the sinusoidal pressure technique to measure directional hydraulic diffusivity. The testing began with a short programme of site investigation consisting of borehole caliper and seisviewer logging followed by some single borehole hydraulic tests. The single borehole hydraulic testing was designed to assess whether the available boreholes and adjacent rock were suitable for testing using the sinusoidal method. The main testing methods were slug and pulse tests and were analysed using the fissured porous medium analysis proposed in Barker and Black (1983). Derived hydraulic conductivity (K) ranged from 2 x 10 -12 m/sec to 5 x 10 -7 m/sec with one near-surface zone of high K being perceived in both boreholes. The results were of the form which is typical of fractured rock and indicated a combination of high fracture frequency and permeable granite matrix. The results are described and discussed. (author)

  16. Combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataperumal, R.R.; Mericle, G.E.

    1979-08-09

    A combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system and method for an electric vehicle is disclosed. The braking system is responsive to the applied hydraulic pressure in a brake line to control the braking of the vehicle to be completely hydraulic up to a first level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a constant braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly increasing braking force from the first level of applied brake line pressure to a higher second level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly decreasing braking force from the second level of applied line pressure to a third and higher level of applied line pressure, and to be completely hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force from the third level to all higher applied levels of line pressure.

  17. Magnetic Field and Torque Output of Packaged Hydraulic Torque Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic torque motors are one key component in electro-hydraulic servo valves that convert the electrical signal into mechanical motions. The systematic characteristics analysis of the hydraulic torque motor has not been found in the previous research, including the distribution of the electromagnetic field and torque output, and particularly the relationship between them. In addition, conventional studies of hydraulic torque motors generally assume an evenly distributed magnetic flux field and ignore the influence of special mechanical geometry in the air gaps, which may compromise the accuracy of analyzing the result and the high-precision motion control performance. Therefore, the objective of this study is to conduct a detailed analysis of the distribution of the magnetic field and torque output; the influence of limiting holes in the air gaps is considered to improve the accuracy of both numerical computation and analytical modeling. The structure and working principle of the torque motor are presented first. The magnetic field distribution in the air gaps and the magnetic saturation in the iron blocks are analyzed by using a numerical approach. Subsequently, the torque generation with respect to the current input and assembly errors is analyzed in detail. This shows that the influence of limiting holes on the magnetic field is consistent with that on torque generation. Following this, a novel modified equivalent magnetic circuit is proposed to formulate the torque output of the hydraulic torque motor analytically. The comparison among the modified equivalent magnetic circuit, the conventional modeling approach and the numerical computation is conducted, and it is found that the proposed method helps to improve the modeling accuracy by taking into account the effect of special geometry inside the air gaps.

  18. Parametric model of servo-hydraulic actuator coupled with a nonlinear system: Experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghareh, Amin; Silva, Christian E.; Dyke, Shirley J.

    2018-05-01

    Hydraulic actuators play a key role in experimental structural dynamics. In a previous study, a physics-based model for a servo-hydraulic actuator coupled with a nonlinear physical system was developed. Later, this dynamical model was transformed into controllable canonical form for position tracking control purposes. For this study, a nonlinear device is designed and fabricated to exhibit various nonlinear force-displacement profiles depending on the initial condition and the type of materials used as replaceable coupons. Using this nonlinear system, the controllable canonical dynamical model is experimentally validated for a servo-hydraulic actuator coupled with a nonlinear physical system.

  19. Optimization of hydraulic turbine diffuser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moravec Prokop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic turbine diffuser recovers pressure energy from residual kinetic energy on turbine runner outlet. Efficiency of this process is especially important for high specific speed turbines, where almost 50% of available head is utilized within diffuser. Magnitude of the coefficient of pressure recovery can be significantly influenced by designing its proper shape. Present paper focuses on mathematical shape optimization method coupled with CFD. First method is based on direct search Nelder-Mead algorithm, while the second method employs adjoint solver and morphing. Results obtained with both methods are discussed and their advantages/disadvantages summarized.

  20. A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF NUCLEAR THERMAL HYDRAULICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Auria, F; Rohatgi, Upendra S.

    2017-01-12

    The nuclear thermal-hydraulics discipline was developed following the needs for nuclear power plants (NPPs) and, to a more limited extent, research reactors (RR) design and safety. As in all other fields where analytical methods are involved, nuclear thermal-hydraulics took benefit of the development of computers. Thermodynamics, rather than fluid dynamics, is at the basis of the development of nuclear thermal-hydraulics together with the experiments in complex two-phase situations, namely, geometry, high thermal density, and pressure.

  1. Calculation of saturated hydraulic conductivity of bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jun

    2006-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivity test has some defects such as weak repeatability, time-consuming. Taking bentonite as dual porous media, the calculation formula of the distance, d 2 , between montmorillonite in intraparticle pores is deduced. Improved calculated method of hydraulic conductivity is obtained using d 2 and Poiseuille law. The method is valid through the comparison with results of test and other methods. The method is very convenient to calculate hydraulic conductivity of bentonite of certain montmorillonite content and void ratio. (authors)

  2. Reactor Thermal Hydraulic Numerical Calculation And Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Ngoc Hai; Dang The Ba

    2008-01-01

    In the paper the results of analysis of thermal hydraulic state models using the numerical codes such as COOLOD, EUREKA and RELAP5 for simulation of the reactor thermal hydraulic states are presented. The calculations, analyses of reactor thermal hydraulic state and safety were implemented using different codes. The received numerical results, which were compared each to other, to experiment measurement of Dalat (Vietnam) research reactor and published results, show their appropriateness and capacity for analyses of different appropriate cases. (author)

  3. Dynamic Characteristics of Communication Lines with Distributed Parameters to Control the Throttle-controlled Hydraulic Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Popov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a mathematical model of the hydraulic line for remote control of electro-hydraulic servo drive (EHSD with throttle control. This type of hydraulic lines is designed as a backup to replace the electrical connections, which are used to control EHSD being remote from the site with devices located to form the control signals of any object. A disadvantage of electric connections is that they are sensitive to magnetic fields and thereby do not provide the required reliability of the remote control. Hydraulic lines have no this disadvantage and therefore are used in aircraft and other industrial systems. However, dynamic characteristics of hydraulic systems still have been investigated insufficiently in the case of transmitting control signals at a distance at which the signal may be distorted when emerging the wave processes.The article results of mathematical simulation, which are verified through physical experimentation, largely eliminate the shortcomings of said information.The mathematical model described in the paper is based on the theory of unsteady pressure compressible fluids. In the model there are formulas that provide calculation of frequency characteristics of the hydraulic lines under hydraulic oscillations of the laminar flow parameters of viscous fluid.A real mock-up of the system under consideration and an experimental ad hoc unit are used to verify the results of mathematically simulated hydraulic systems.Calculated logarithmic amplitude and phase frequency characteristics compared with those obtained experimentally prove, under certain conditions, the proposed theoretical method of calculation. These conditions have to ensure compliance with initial parameters of fluid defined under stationary conditions. The applied theory takes into consideration a non-stationary hydraulic resistance of the line when calculating frequency characteristics.The scientific novelty in the article material is presented in

  4. Calculation of dynamic hydraulic forces in nuclear plant piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, D.K.

    1982-01-01

    A computer code was developed as one of the tools needed for analysis of piping dynamic loading on nuclear power plant high energy piping systems, including reactor safety and relief value upstream and discharge piping systems. The code calculates the transient hydraulic data and dynamic forces within the one-dimensional system, caused by a pipe rupture or sudden value motion, using a fixed space and varying time grid-method of characteristics. Subcooled, superheated, homogeneous two-phase and transition flow regimes are considered. A non-equilibrium effect is also considered in computing the fluid specific volume and fluid local sonic velocity in the two-phase mixture. Various hydraulic components such as a spring loaded or power operated value, enlarger, orifice, pressurized tank, multiple pipe junction (tee), etc. are considered as boundary conditions. Comparisons of calculated results with available experimental data shows a good agreement. (Author)

  5. Observer-Based Robust Control for Hydraulic Velocity Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the problems of robust stabilization and robust control for the secondary component speed control system with parameters uncertainty and load disturbance. The aim is to enhance the control performance of hydraulic system based on Common Pressure Rail (CPR. Firstly, a mathematical model is presented to describe the hydraulic control system. Then a novel observer is proposed, and an observed-based control strategy is designed such that the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable and satisfies the disturbance attenuation level. The condition for the existence of the developed controller can by efficiently solved by using the MATLAB software. Finally, simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. Grinding efficiency improvement of hydraulic cylinders parts for mining equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkov Aleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to find out ways to improve parts treatment and components of mining equipment on the example of hydraulic cylinders parts, used as pillars for mine roof supports, and other actuator mechanisms. In the course of the research work methods of machine retaining devices design were used, the scientific approaches for the selection of progressive grinding schemes were applied; theoretical and practical experience in the design and production of new constructions of grinding tools was used. As a result of this work it became possible to create a progressive construction of a machine retaining device for grinding of large parts of hydraulic cylinders, to apply an effective scheme of rotary abrasive treatment, to create and implement new design of grinding tools by means of grains with controllable shape and orientation. Implementation of the results obtained in practice will improve the quality and performance of repairing and manufacturing of mining equipment.

  7. Modeling and stability of electro-hydraulic servo of hydraulic excavator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wenhua; Yin, Chenbo; Li, Guo; Sun, Menghui

    2017-11-01

    The condition of the hydraulic excavator is complicated and the working environment is bad. The safety and stability of the control system is influenced by the external factors. This paper selects hydraulic excavator electro-hydraulic servo system as the research object. A mathematical model and simulation model using AMESIM of servo system is established. Then the pressure and flow characteristics are analyzed. The design and optimization of electro-hydraulic servo system and its application in engineering machinery is provided.

  8. The relationship between reference canopy conductance and simplified hydraulic architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Kimberly; Oren, Ram; Stoy, Paul; Juang, Jehn-Yih; Siqueira, Mario; Katul, Gabriel

    2009-06-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are dominated by vascular plants that form a mosaic of hydraulic conduits to water movement from the soil to the atmosphere. Together with canopy leaf area, canopy stomatal conductance regulates plant water use and thereby photosynthesis and growth. Although stomatal conductance is coordinated with plant hydraulic conductance, governing relationships across species has not yet been formulated at a practical level that can be employed in large-scale models. Here, combinations of published conductance measurements obtained with several methodologies across boreal to tropical climates were used to explore relationships between canopy conductance rates and hydraulic constraints. A parsimonious hydraulic model requiring sapwood-to-leaf area ratio and canopy height generated acceptable agreement with measurements across a range of biomes (r2=0.75). The results suggest that, at long time scales, the functional convergence among ecosystems in the relationship between water-use and hydraulic architecture eclipses inter-specific variation in physiology and anatomy of the transport system. Prognostic applicability of this model requires independent knowledge of sapwood-to-leaf area. In this study, we did not find a strong relationship between sapwood-to-leaf area and physical or climatic variables that are readily determinable at coarse scales, though the results suggest that climate may have a mediating influence on the relationship between sapwood-to-leaf area and height. Within temperate forests, canopy height alone explained a large amount of the variance in reference canopy conductance (r2=0.68) and this relationship may be more immediately applicable in the terrestrial ecosystem models.

  9. Common hydraulic fracturing fluid additives alter the structure and function of anaerobic microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Adam C.; Akob, Denise M.; Klinges, J. Grace; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2018-01-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) resources results in the production of large volumes of wastewater containing a complex mixture of hydraulic fracturing chemical additives and components from the formation. The release of these wastewaters into the environment poses potential risks that are poorly understood. Microbial communities in stream sediments form the base of the food chain and may serve as sentinels for changes in stream health. Iron-reducing organisms have been shown to play a role in the biodegradation of a wide range of organic compounds, and so to evaluate their response to UOG wastewater, we enriched anaerobic microbial communities from sediments collected upstream (background) and downstream (impacted) of an UOG wastewater injection disposal facility in the presence of hydraulic fracturing fluid (HFF) additives: guar gum, ethylene glycol, and two biocides, 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA) and bronopol (C3H6BrNO4). Iron reduction was significantly inhibited early in the incubations with the addition of biocides, whereas amendment with guar gum and ethylene glycol stimulated iron reduction relative to levels in the unamended controls. Changes in the microbial community structure were observed across all treatments, indicating the potential for even small amounts of UOG wastewater components to influence natural microbial processes. The microbial community structure differed between enrichments with background and impacted sediments, suggesting that impacted sediments may have been preconditioned by exposure to wastewater. These experiments demonstrated the potential for biocides to significantly decrease iron reduction rates immediately following a spill and demonstrated how microbial communities previously exposed to UOG wastewater may be more resilient to additional spills.

  10. Other components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter includes descriptions of electronic and mechanical components which do not merit a chapter to themselves. Other hardware requires mention because of particularly high tolerance or intolerance of exposure to radiation. A more systematic analysis of radiation responses of structures which are definable by material was given in section 3.8. The components discussed here are field effect transistors, transducers, temperature sensors, magnetic components, superconductors, mechanical sensors, and miscellaneous electronic components

  11. Hydraulic jumps in ''viscous'' accretion disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    We propose that the dissipative process necessary for rapid accretion disk evolution is driven by hydraulic jump waves on the surface of the disk. These waves are excited by the asymmetric nature of the central rotator (e.g., neutron star magnetosphere) and spiral out into the disk to form a pattern corotating with the central object. Disk matter in turn is slowed slightly at each encounter with the jump and spirals inward. In this process, the disk is heated by true turbulence produced in the jumps. Additional effects, such as a systematic misalignment of the magnetic moment of the neutron star until it is nearly orthogonal, and systematic distortion of the magnetosphere in such a way as to form an even more asymmetric central ''paddle wheel'' may enhance the interaction with inflowing matter. The application to X-ray sources corresponds to the ''slow'' solutions of Ghosh and Lamb, and therefore to rms magnetic fields of about 4 x 10 10 gauss. Analogous phenomena have been proposed to act in the formation of galactic spiral structure

  12. Components of Sexual Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, Michael G.; DeCecco, John P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper examines the four components of sexual identity: biological sex, gender identity, social sex-role, and sexual orientation. Theories about the development of each component and how they combine and conflict to form the individual's sexual identity are discussed. (Author)

  13. Nanocoatings for High-Efficiency Industrial Hydraulic and Tooling Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifton B. Higdon III

    2011-01-07

    Industrial manufacturing in the U.S. accounts for roughly one third of the 98 quadrillion Btu total energy consumption. Motor system losses amount to 1.3 quadrillion Btu, which represents the largest proportional loss of any end-use category, while pumps alone represent over 574 trillion BTU (TBTU) of energy loss each year. The efficiency of machines with moving components is a function of the amount of energy lost to heat because of friction between contacting surfaces. The friction between these interfaces also contributes to downtime and the loss of productivity through component wear and subsequent repair. The production of new replacement parts requires additional energy. Among efforts to reduce energy losses, wear-resistant, low-friction coatings on rotating and sliding components offer a promising approach that is fully compatible with existing equipment and processes. In addition to lubrication, one of the most desirable solutions is to apply a protective coating or surface treatment to rotating or sliding components to reduce their friction coefficients, thereby leading to reduced wear. Historically, a number of materials such as diamond-like carbon (DLC), titanium nitride (TiN), titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN), and tungsten carbide (WC) have been examined as tribological coatings. The primary objective of this project was the development of a variety of thin film nanocoatings, derived from the AlMgB14 system, with a focus on reducing wear and friction in both industrial hydraulics and cutting tool applications. Proof-of-concept studies leading up to this project had shown that the constituent phases, AlMgB14 and TiB2, were capable of producing low-friction coatings by pulsed laser deposition. These coatings combine high hardness with a low friction coefficient, and were shown to substantially reduce wear in laboratory tribology tests. Selection of the two applications was based largely on the concept of improved mechanical interface efficiencies for

  14. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis on Containment Filtered Venting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Young Suk; Park, Tong Kyu; Lee, Doo Yong; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Technology Co. Ltd., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Won; Kim, Hyeong Taek [KHNP-Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this study, the thermal hydraulic conditions (e. g. pressure and flow rate) at each component have been examined and the sensitivity analysis on CFVS design parameters (e. g. water inventory, volumetric flow rate). The purpose is to know the possible range of flow conditions at each component to determine the optimum size of filtration system. GOTHIC code has been used to simulate the thermal-hydraulic behavior inside of CFVS. The behavior of flows in the CFVS has been investigated. The vessel water level and the flow rates during the CFVS operation are examined. It was observed that the vessel water level would be changed significantly due to steam condensation/thermal expansion and steam evaporation. Therefore, the vessel size and the initial water inventory should be carefully determined to keep the minimum water level required for filtration components and not to flood the components in the upper side of the vessel. It has been also observed that the volumetric flow rate is maintained during the CFVS operation, which is beneficial for pool scrubbing units. However, regarding the significant variations at the orifice downstream, careful design would be necessary.

  15. Liquid metal thermal-hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottowski-Duemenil, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    This textbook is a report of the 26 years activity of the Liquid Metal Boiling Working Group (LMBWG). It summarizes the state of the art of liquid metal thermo-hydraulics achieved through the collaboration of scientists concerned with the development of the Fast Breeder Reactor. The first chapter entitled ''Liquid Metal Boiling Behaviour'', presents the background and boiling mechanisms. This section gives the reader a brief but thorough survey on the superheat phenomena in liquid metals. The second chapter of the text, ''A Review of Single and Two-Phase Flow Pressure Drop Studies and Application to Flow Stability Analysis of Boiling Liquid Metal Systems'' summarizes the difficulty of pressure drop simulation of boiling sodium in core bundles. The third chapter ''Liquid Metal Dry-Out Data for Flow in Tubes and Bundles'' describes the conditions of critical heat flux which limits the coolability of the reactor core. The fourth chapter dealing with the LMFBR specific topic of ''Natural Convection Cooling of Liquid Metal Systems''. This chapter gives a review of both plant experiments and out-of-pile experiments and shows the advances in the development of computing power over the past decade of mathematical modelling ''Subassembly Blockages Suties'' are discussed in chapter five. Chapter six is entitled ''A Review of the Methods and Codes Available for the Calculation on Thermal-Hydraulics in Rod-Cluster and other Geometries, Steady state and Transient Boiling Flow Regimes, and the Validation achieves''. Codes available for the calculation of thermal-hydraulics in rod-clusters and other geometries are reviewed. Chapter seven, ''Comparative Studies of Thermohydraulic Computer Code Simulations of Sodium Boiling under Loss of Flow Conditions'', represents one of the key activities of the LMBWG. Several benchmark exercises were performed with the aim of transient sodium boiling simulation in single channels and bundle blockages under steady state conditions and loss of

  16. Failure Mode of the Water-filled Fractures under Hydraulic Pressure in Karst Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Water-filled fractures continue to grow after the excavation of karst tunnels, and the hydraulic pressure in these fractures changes along with such growth. This paper simplifies the fractures in the surrounding rock as flat ellipses and then identifies the critical hydraulic pressure values required for the occurrence of tensile-shear and compression-shear failures in water-filled fractures in the case of plane stress. The occurrence of tensile-shear fracture requires a larger critical hydraulic pressure than compression-shear failure in the same fracture. This paper examines the effects of fracture strike and lateral pressure coefficient on critical hydraulic pressure, and identifies compression-shear failure as the main failure mode of water-filled fractures. This paper also analyses the hydraulic pressure distribution in fractures with different extensions, and reveals that hydraulic pressure decreases along with the continuous growth of fractures and cannot completely fill a newly formed fracture with water. Fracture growth may be interrupted under the effect of hydraulic tensile shear.

  17. Evaluation of Fish Passage at Whitewater Parks Using 2D and 3D Hydraulic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, T.; Nelson, P. A.; Kondratieff, M.; Bledsoe, B. P.

    2016-12-01

    In-stream whitewater parks (WWPs) are increasingly popular recreational amenities that typically create waves by constricting flow through a chute to increase velocities and form a hydraulic jump. However, the hydraulic conditions these structures create can limit longitudinal habitat connectivity and potentially inhibit upstream fish migration, especially of native fishes. An improved understanding of the fundamental hydraulic processes and potential environmental effects of whitewater parks is needed to inform management decisions about Recreational In-Channel Diversions (RICDs). Here, we use hydraulic models to compute a continuous and spatially explicit description of velocity and depth along potential fish swimming paths in the flow field, and the ensemble of potential paths are compared to fish swimming performance data to predict fish passage via logistic regression analysis. While 3d models have been shown to accurately predict trout movement through WWP structures, 2d methods can provide a more cost-effective and manager-friendly approach to assessing the effects of similar hydraulic structures on fish passage when 3d analysis in not feasible. Here, we use 2d models to examine the hydraulics in several WWP structures on the North Fork of the St. Vrain River at Lyons, Colorado, and we compare these model results to fish passage predictions from a 3d model. Our analysis establishes a foundation for a practical, transferable and physically-rigorous 2d modeling approach for mechanistically evaluating the effects of hydraulic structures on fish passage.

  18. Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Olsen, Stefan; Bech, Thomas Nørgaard

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid.......KEYWORDS: water, pump, design, vane, gear....

  19. Uncertainty in hydraulic tests in fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Sung-Hoon; Koh, Yong-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of hydraulic tests in fractured rock has uncertainty because of the different hydraulic properties of a fractured rock to a porous medium. In this study, we reviewed several interesting phenomena which show uncertainty in a hydraulic test at a fractured rock and discussed their origins and the how they should be considered during site characterisation. Our results show that the estimated hydraulic parameters of a fractured rock from a hydraulic test are associated with uncertainty due to the changed aperture and non-linear groundwater flow during the test. Although the magnitude of these two uncertainties is site-dependent, the results suggest that it is recommended to conduct a hydraulic test with a little disturbance from the natural groundwater flow to consider their uncertainty. Other effects reported from laboratory and numerical experiments such as the trapping zone effect (Boutt, 2006) and the slip condition effect (Lee, 2014) can also introduce uncertainty to a hydraulic test, which should be evaluated in a field test. It is necessary to consider the way how to evaluate the uncertainty in the hydraulic property during the site characterisation and how to apply it to the safety assessment of a subsurface repository. (authors)

  20. Hydraulically powered dissimilar teleoperated system controller design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper will address two issues associated with the implementation of a hydraulically powered dissimilar master-slave teleoperated system. These issues are the overall system control architecture and the design of robust hydraulic servo controllers for the position control problem. Finally, a discussion of overall system performance on an actual teleoperated system will be presented

  1. Thermal hydraulic feasibility assessment for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heard, F.J.; Cramer, E.R.; Beaver, T.R.; Thurgood, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    A series of scoping analyses have been completed investigating the thermal-hydraulic performance and feasibility of the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project (SNFP) Integrated Process Strategy (IPS). The SNFP was established to develop engineered solutions for the expedited removal, stabilization, and storage of spent nuclear fuel from the K Basins at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. The subject efforts focused on independently investigating, quantifying, and establishing the governing heat production and removal mechanisms for each of the IPS operations and configurations, obtaining preliminary results for comparison with and verification of other analyses, and providing technology-based recommendations for consideration and incorporation into the design bases for the SNFP. The goal was to develop a series fo thermal-hydraulic models that could respond to all process and safety-related issues that may arise pertaining to the SNFP. A series of sensitivity analyses were also performed to help identify those parameters that have the greatest impact on energy transfer and hence, temperature control. It is anticipated that the subject thermal-hydraulic models will form the basis for a series of advanced and more detailed models that will more accurately reflect the thermal performance of the IPS and alleviate the necessity for some of the more conservative assumptions and oversimplifications, as well as form the basis for the final process and safety analyses

  2. On hydraulics of capillary tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Aloyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the laws of motion of water in the capillary tubes, taken as a model for flowing well, on the analogical net count device. For capillary tube the lower limit value of flow rate is empirically determined above which the total hydraulic resistance of the capillary is practically constant. The specificity of the phenomenon is that the regime of motion, by a Reynolds number, for a given flow rate still remains laminar. This circumstance can perplex the specialists, so the author invites them to the scientific debate on the subject of study. Obviously, to identify the resulting puzzle it is necessary to conduct a series of experiments using capillaries of different lengths and diameters and with different values of overpressure. The article states that in tubes with very small diameter the preliminary magnitude of capillary rise of water in the presence of flow plays no role and can be neglected.

  3. HANARO thermal hydraulic accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chul; Kim, Heon Il; Lee, Bo Yook; Lee, Sang Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    For the safety assessment of HANARO, accident analyses for the anticipated operational transients, accident scenarios and limiting accident scenarios were conducted. To do this, the commercial nuclear reactor system code. RELAP5/MOD2 was modified to RELAP5/KMRR; the thermal hydraulic correlations and the heat exchanger model was changed to incorporate HANARO characteristics. This report summarizes the RELAP/KMRR calculation results and the subchannel analyses results based on the RELAP/KMRR results. During the calculation, major concern was placed on the integrity of the fuel. For all the scenarios, the important accident analysis parameters, i.e., fuel centerline temperatures and the minimum critical heat flux ratio(MCHFR), satisfied safe design limits. It was verified, therefore, that the HANARO was safely designed. 21 tabs., 89 figs., 39 refs. (Author) .new.

  4. Hydraulically amplified PZT mems actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R.

    2004-11-02

    A hydraulically amplified microelectromechanical systems actuator. A piece of piezoelectric material or stacked piezo bimorph is bonded or deposited as a thin film. The piece is operatively connected to a primary membrane. A reservoir is operatively connected to the primary membrane. The reservoir contains a fluid. A membrane is operatively connected to the reservoir. In operation, energizing the piezoelectric material causing the piezoelectric material to bow. Bowing of the piezoelectric material causes movement of the primary membrane. Movement of the primary membrane results in a force in being transmitted to the liquid in the reservoir. The force in the liquid causes movement of the membrane. Movement of the membrane results in an operating actuator.

  5. Dolomitic lime containing hydraulic additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagzdina, S.; Sedmalis, U.; Bidermanis, L.; Liepins, J.; Grosvalds, I.

    1997-01-01

    To obtain qualitative dolomitic lime the optimum calcination temperature of dolomite containing about 9 % of clayey substances is 900 deg C. The mechanical strength of dolomitic lime containing 30 % of brick waste additive after 6-9 months of hardening is 1.4-1.5 times higher than that of samples without hydraulic additive, for calcium lime - 2.2-2.6 times higher. Generally the mechanical strength of dolomitic lime is higher than that one of calcium lime. It can be explained by the active role of MgO in the hydration and hardening processes of dolomitic lime. Xray diffraction phase analysis was performed by X-ray diffractometer DPON-3M with Cu-K α emission filter

  6. effective hydraulic conductivity for a soil of variable pore size

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: hydraulic conductivity, soil, infiltration, permeability, water. 1. INTRODUCTION. INTRODUCTION. INTRODUCTION. Accurate determination of hydraulic conductivity is very crucial for infiltration and runoff estimation. Factors which affect water infiltration in the soil include hydraulic conductivity, wetting front and soil.

  7. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of porous bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araj, K.J.; Nourbakhsh, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    Optimum design of nuclear reactor core requires an iterative approach between the thermal-hydraulic, neutronic and operational analysis. This paper concentrates on the thermal-hydraulic behavior of a hydrogen cooled, small particle bed reactor (PBR). The PBR core, modeled here, consists of a hexagonal array of fuel elements embedded in a moderator matrix. The fuel elements are annular packed beds of fuel particles held between two porous cylindrical frits. These particles, 500 to 600 μm in diameter, have a uranium carbide core, which is coated by two layers of graphite and an outer coating of zirconium carbide. Coolant flow, radially inward, from the cold frit through the packed bed and hot frit and axially out the channel, formed by the hot frit, to a common plenum. 5 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  8. Efficient numerical method for district heating system hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevanovic, Vladimir D.; Prica, Sanja; Maslovaric, Blazenka; Zivkovic, Branislav; Nikodijevic, Srdjan

    2007-01-01

    An efficient method for numerical simulation and analyses of the steady state hydraulics of complex pipeline networks is presented. It is based on the loop model of the network and the method of square roots for solving the system of linear equations. The procedure is presented in the comprehensive mathematical form that could be straightforwardly programmed into a computer code. An application of the method to energy efficiency analyses of a real complex district heating system is demonstrated. The obtained results show a potential for electricity savings in pumps operation. It is shown that the method is considerably more effective than the standard Hardy Cross method still widely used in engineering practice. Because of the ease of implementation and high efficiency, the method presented in this paper is recommended for hydraulic steady state calculations of complex networks

  9. A phase I dose escalation trial of AXP107-11, a novel multi-component crystalline form of genistein, in combination with gemcitabine in chemotherapy-naive patients with unresectable pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhr, Johannes-Matthias; Karimi, Masoud; Omazic, Brigitta; Kartalis, Nikolaos; Verbeke, Caroline Sabine; Berkenstam, Anders; Frödin, Jan-Erik

    2016-01-01

    AXP107-11 is a novel, multi-component crystalline form of the naturally occurring compound genistein. AXP107-11 has improved physiochemical properties and oral bioavailability compared to the natural form of genistein, and it is possible that combining AXP107-11 with chemotherapy may increase the effect and reduce chemoresistance. The purpose of this dose escalation phase Ib study was to assess the safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and pharmacokinetics (PK) of AXP107-11 in combination with gemcitabine in treatment-naïve patients with inoperable pancreatic carcinoma. AXP107-11 was given orally in escalating doses (400 mg-1600 mg daily) in combination with standard gemcitabine treatment (1000 mg/m(2)/week) for the first seven of eight weeks and thereafter for a maximum of four × four-week treatment cycles. PK, safety, MTD and efficacy of AXP107-11 in combination with gemcitabine were evaluated. Sixteen patients were enrolled and received AXP107-11. The maximum concentration in serum of unconjugated (free) genistein was 1 μM. Neither dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) nor signs of hematological or non-hematological toxicities related to AXP107-11 were observed over a period ranging from 0.7 to 13.2 months. The median overall survival time was 4.9 months (range 1.5-19.5 months). Seven patients (44%) survived longer than six months and 19% were alive at the one-year follow-up. Treatment of pancreatic cancer patients with AXP107-11 in combination with gemcitabine resulted in a favorable PK-profile with high serum levels without signs of either hematological or non-hematological toxicity. Accordingly, we suggest further studies with AXP107-11 in pancreatic cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Scaling for integral simulation of thermal-hydraulic phenomena in SBWR during LOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, M.; Revankar, S.T.; Dowlati, R [Purdue Univ., West Layfayette, IN (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    A scaling study has been conducted for simulation of thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) during a loss of coolant accident. The scaling method consists of a three-level scaling approach. The integral system scaling (global scaling or top down approach) consists of two levels, the integral response function scaling which forms the first level, and the control volume and boundary flow scaling which forms the second level. The bottom up approach is carried out by local phenomena scaling which forms the third level scaling. Based on this scaling study the design of the model facility called Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA) has been carried out. The PUMA facility has 1/4 height and 1/100 area ratio scaling, corresponding to the volume scaling of 1/400. The PUMA power scaling based on the integral scaling is 1/200. The present scaling method predicts that PUMA time scale will be one-half that of the SBWR. The system pressure for PUMA is full scale, therefore, a prototypic pressure is maintained. PUMA is designed to operate at and below 1.03 MPa (150 psi), which allows it to simulate the prototypic SBWR accident conditions below 1.03 MPa (150 psi). The facility includes models for all components of importance.

  11. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  12. Coupled 3D neutronics/thermal hydraulics modeling of the SAFARI-1 MTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenkrantz, Adam; Avramova, Maria; Ivanov, Kostadin; Prinsloo, Rian; Botes, Danniëll; Elsakhawy, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of 3D coupled neutronics/thermal–hydraulic model of SAFARI-1. • Verification of 3D steady-state NEM based neutronics model for SAFARI-1. • Verification of 3D COBRA-TF based thermal–hydraulic model of SAFARI-1. • Quantification of the effect of correct modeling of thermal–hydraulic feedback. - Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop a coupled accurate multi-physics model of the SAFARI-1 Material Testing Reactor (MTR), a facility that is used for both research and the production of medical isotopes. The model was developed as part of the SAFARI-1 benchmarking project as a cooperative effort between the Pennsylvania State University (PSU) and the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa). It was created using a multi-physics coupling of state of the art nuclear reactor simulation tools, consisting of a neutronics code and a thermal hydraulics code. The neutronics tool used was the PSU code NEM, and the results from this component were verified using the Necsa neutronics code OSCAR-4, which is utilized for SAFARI-1 core design and fuel management. On average, the multiplication factors of the neutronics models agreed to within 5 pcm and the radial assembly-averaged powers agreed to within 0.2%. The thermal hydraulics tool used was the PSU version of COBRA-TF (CTF) sub-channel code, and the results of this component were verified against another thermal hydraulics code, the RELAP5-3D system code, used at Necsa for thermal–hydraulics analysis of SAFARI-1. Although only assembly-averaged results from RELAP5-3D were available, they fell within the range of values for the corresponding assemblies in the comprehensive CTF solution. This comparison allows for the first time to perform a quantification of steady-state errors for a low-powered MTR with an advanced thermal–hydraulic code such as CTF on a per-channel basis as compared to simpler and coarser-mesh RELAP5-3D modeling. Additionally, a new cross section

  13. Measurement of the x-ray mass attenuation coefficient and determination of the imaginary component of the atomic form factor of molybdenum over the 13.5-41.5-keV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonge, Martin D. de; Tran, Chanh Q.; Chantler, Christopher T.; Barnea, Zwi; Dhal, Bipin B.; Cookson, David J.; Lee, Wah-Keat; Mashayekhi, Ali

    2005-01-01

    We use the x-ray extended-range technique (XERT) [Chantler et al., Phys. Rev. A 64, 062506 (2001)] to measure the mass attenuation coefficients of molybdenum in the x-ray energy range of 13.5-41.5 keV to 0.02-0.15 % accuracy. Measurements made over an extended range of the measurement parameter space are critically examined to identify, quantify, and correct where necessary a number of experimental systematic errors. These results represent the most extensive experimental data set for molybdenum and include absolute mass attenuation coefficients in the regions of the x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and x-ray-absorption near-edge structure (XANES). The imaginary component of the atomic form-factor f 2 is derived from the photoelectric absorption after subtracting calculated Rayleigh and Compton scattering cross sections from the total attenuation. Comparison of the result with tabulations of calculated photoelectric absorption coefficients indicates that differences of 1-15 % persist between the calculated and observed values

  14. Thermal-hydraulic characteristics of double flat core HCLWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Jun; Iwamura, Takamichi; Okubo, Tsutomu; Murao, Yoshio

    1989-02-01

    A thermal-hydraulic characteristics of double flat core high conversion light water reactor (HCLWR) is described. The concept of flat core proposed by Ishiguro et al. is to achieve negative void reactivity coefficient in tight lattice core, and at the same time, high conversion ratio and high burnup can be obtainable. The proposed double flat core HCLWR, based on these physical advantages and the consideration of safety assurance, aims at efficient use of the pressure vessel space to produce comparable thermal output as current 3-loop PWRs. The present work revealed the following items concerning the thermalhydraulic feasibility of the double flat core HCLWR: (1) Main thermal-hydraulic parameters of the plant can be almost the same as current PWRs, showing the use of PWR standard components without major modifications except in core region. (2) Heat removal from the fuel rod in a steady operational condition has enough margin to the critical heat flux (CHF) limit, which is evaluated with the existing CHF correlations. (3) The calculation by REFLA code shows that the maximum cladding temperature in LOCA-reflood is estimated to be far lower than the licensing criteria. It is therefore considered that the proposed double flat core HCLWR is feasible from the point of thermal-hydraulics. Since the available data base has certain applicational limit to the very short core as the present double flat core HCLWR, further detailed assessment is required. (author)

  15. Primary system thermal hydraulics of future Indian fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velusamy, K., E-mail: kvelu@igcar.gov.in [Thermal Hydraulics Section, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Natesan, K.; Maity, Ram Kumar; Asokkumar, M.; Baskar, R. Arul; Rajendrakumar, M.; Sarathy, U. Partha; Selvaraj, P.; Chellapandi, P. [Thermal Hydraulics Section, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Kumar, G. Senthil; Jebaraj, C. [AU-FRG Centre for CAD/CAM, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • We present innovative design options proposed for future Indian fast reactor. • These options have been validated by extensive CFD simulations. • Hotspot factors in fuel subassembly are predicted by parallel CFD simulations. • Significant safety improvement in the thermal hydraulic design is quantified. - Abstract: As a follow-up to PFBR (Indian prototype fast breeder reactor), many FBRs of 500 MWe capacity are planned. The focus of these future FBRs is improved economy and enhanced safety. They are envisaged to have a twin-unit concept. Design and construction experiences gained from PFBR project have provided motivation to achieve an optimized design for future FBRs with significant design changes for many critical components. Some of the design changes include, (i) provision of four primary pipes per primary sodium pump, (ii) inner vessel with single torus lower part, (iii) dome shape roof slab supported on reactor vault, (iv) machined thick plate rotating plugs, (v) reduced main vessel diameter with narrow-gap cooling baffles and (vi) safety vessel integrated with reactor vault. This paper covers thermal hydraulic design validation of the chosen options with respect to hot and cold pool thermal hydraulics, flow requirement for main vessel cooling, inner vessel temperature distribution, safety analysis of primary pipe rupture event, adequacy of decay heat removal capacity by natural convection cooling, cold pool transient thermal loads and thermal management of top shield and reactor vault.

  16. Numerical simulation of the two-phase flows in a hydraulic coupling by solving VOF model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y; Zuo, Z G; Liu, S H; Fan, H G; Zhuge, W L

    2013-01-01

    The flow in a partially filled hydraulic coupling is essentially a gas-liquid two-phase flow, in which the distribution of two phases has significant influence on its characteristics. The interfaces between the air and the liquid, and the circulating flows inside the hydraulic coupling can be simulated by solving the VOF two-phase model. In this paper, PISO algorithm and RNG k–ε turbulence model were employed to simulate the phase distribution and the flow field in a hydraulic coupling with 80% liquid fill. The results indicate that the flow forms a circulating movement on the torus section with decreasing speed ratio. In the pump impeller, the air phase mostly accumulates on the suction side of the blades, while liquid on the pressure side; in turbine runner, air locates in the middle of the flow passage. Flow separations appear near the blades and the enclosing boundaries of the hydraulic coupling

  17. 1st International Conference on Hydraulic Design in Water Resources Engineering : Channels and Channel Control Structures

    CERN Document Server

    1984-01-01

    The development of water resources has proceeded at an amazing speed around the world in the last few decades. The hydraulic engineer has played his part: in constructing much larger artificial channels than ever before, larger and more sophisticated control structures, and systems of irrigation, drainage and water supply channels in which the flow by its nature is complex and unsteady requiring computer-based techniques at both the design and operation stage. It seemed appropriate to look briefly at some of the developments in hydraulic design resulting from this situation. Hence the idea of the Conference was formed. The Proceedings of the Conference show that hydraulic engineers have been able to acquire a very substantial base of design capability from the experience of the period referred to. The most outstanding development to have occurred is in the combination of physical and mathematical modelling, which in hydraulic engineering has followed a parallel path to that in other branches of engineering sc...

  18. Hot gas path component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Porter, Christopher Donald; Schick, David Edward

    2017-09-12

    Various embodiments of the disclosure include a turbomachine component. and methods of forming such a component. Some embodiments include a turbomachine component including: a first portion including at least one of a stainless steel or an alloy steel; and a second portion joined with the first portion, the second portion including a nickel alloy including an arced cooling feature extending therethrough, the second portion having a thermal expansion coefficient substantially similar to a thermal expansion coefficient of the first portion, wherein the arced cooling feature is located within the second portion to direct a portion of a coolant to a leakage area of the turbomachine component.

  19. Using Pneumatics to Perform Laboratory Hydraulic Conductivity Tests on Gravel with Underdamped Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, A. I.

    2011-12-01

    setup was also verified by performing tests without soil. The friction coefficient of the cylinder base below the specimen where the water enters and exits throughout the test has a minor loss which is determined by analyzing these results. The hydraulic conductivity is then calculated by calculating the friction of the system and subtracting the friction loss from the frictional component of the damping frequency calibrated to the measured data for each test. This allows for a very precise and accurate calculation of the hydraulic conductivity of the soil tested because the closed form analytical model developed and used considers the underdamped responses which fit to the measured data unique to every test more easily than any other method. The average error in predicting the head values for preliminary results is 1 mm, or about 4% of the initial displacement for all tests.

  20. Performance and efficiency of a hydraulic hybrid powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karbaschian, Mohammad Ali [Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Faculty of Engineering

    2012-11-01

    Hydraulic hybrid powertrains are considered to be a promising technology to save energy and reduce emission in specific automotive fields because of their high power density, components lifetime, and long lasting experience in industries compared to electric hybrid powertrains. Within the first part of the paper, a very brief literature survey on hydraulic hybrid vehicle systems (HHVS) and the related dynamical behaviour is given. No specific activities to improve the efficiency of these systems were detected. Related literature with respect to optimization mainly deals with the management of the system's energy flows trying to control the engine operation point and the high pressure in the system. In the second part, a small simulation study is presented. Therefore, hybrid systems are generally assumed as a Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) system. The effect of key variables (i.e. accumulator size and pressure, pump/motor displacement and efficiency, valve dynamics) on the system is discussed. The results show that the volume displacement of pump and motor, the performance of the engine, and the state of charge of the accumulator are the most important parameters to specify the efficiency and performance of the hydraulic hybrid powertrain. Additionally, a hybrid hydraulic powertrain with an adjustable state of charge accumulator is compared with one whose state of charge is constant. The result shows the improvement of braking performance and fuel savings. The goal is to optimize the parameters of the system based on the simultaneous consideration of the three (or more) variables for a given load profile with respect to given objectives. (orig.)

  1. Thermal-hydraulic unreliability of passive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzanos, C.P.; Saltos, N.T.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced light water reactor designs like AP600 and the simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR) use passive safety systems for accident prevention and mitigation. Because these systems rely on natural forces for their operation, their unavailability due to hardware failures and human error is significantly smaller than that of active systems. However, the coolant flows predicted to be delivered by these systems can be subject to significant uncertainties, which in turn can lead to a significant uncertainty in the predicted thermal-hydraulic performance of the plant under accident conditions. Because of these uncertainties, there is a probability that an accident sequence for which a best estimate thermal-hydraulic analysis predicts no core damage (success sequence) may actually lead to core damage. For brevity, this probability will be called thermal-hydraulic unreliability. The assessment of this unreliability for all the success sequences requires very expensive computations. Moreover, the computational cost increases drastically as the required thermal-hydraulic reliability increases. The required computational effort can be greatly reduced if a bounding approach can be used that either eliminates the need to compute thermal-hydraulic unreliabilities, or it leads to the analysis of a few bounding sequences for which the required thermal-hydraulic reliability is relatively small. The objective of this paper is to present such an approach and determine the order of magnitude of the thermal-hydraulic unreliabilities that may have to be computed

  2. Linear hydraulic drive system for a Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Michael M.

    1984-02-21

    A hydraulic drive system operating from the periodic pressure wave produced by a Stirling engine along a first axis thereof and effecting transfer of power from the Stirling engine to a load apparatus therefor and wherein the movable, or working member of the load apparatus is reciprocatingly driven along an axis substantially at right angles to the first axis to achieve an arrangement of a Stirling engine and load apparatus assembly which is much shorter and the components of the load apparatus more readily accessible.

  3. Electro-Pneumatic Control System with Hydraulically Positioning Actuator Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pilgunov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A compressibility of the actuating fluid of a pneumatic drive (compressed air leads to significant landing of the pneumatic cylinder piston at the time of stop and hold of the load, a constant component of which can fluctuate significantly for the holding period.There are a lot of factors, which have a significant impact on the landing value of piston. Those are: an initial position of the piston at its stop, which determines the volume of the an active area of the piston, a value of the constant load component at the time of stop and its variation for the holding period, a transfer coefficient of the position component of the load, an active area of the pneumatic cylinder piston, as well as reduction in atmospheric pressure, which can significantly affect the operation of the control systems of small aircrafts flying at high altitudes.To reduce the landing value of piston due to changing value of the constant load component for its holding period, it is proposed to use a hydraulic positioner, which comprises a hydraulic cylinder the rod of which is rigidly connected to the rod of the pneumatic cylinder through the traverse, a cross-feed valve of the hydro-cylinder cavities with discrete electro-magnetic control, and adjustable chokes.A programmable logic controller provides the hydraulic positioner control. At the moment the piston stops and the load is held the cross-feed valve overlaps the hydro-cylinder cavities thereby locking the pneumatic cylinder piston and preventing its landing. With available pneumatic cylinder-controlled signal the cross-feed valve connects the piston and rod cavities of the positioner hydro-cylinder, the pneumatic cylinder piston is released and becomes capable of moving.A numerical estimate of landing of the pneumatic cylinder piston and its positioning quality is of essential interest. For this purpose, a technique to calculate the landing of piston has been developed taking into consideration that different

  4. Hydraulic Fracturing and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahy Tafti, T.; Aminzadeh, F.; Jafarpour, B.; de Barros, F.

    2013-12-01

    In this presentation, we highlight two key environmental concerns of hydraulic fracturing (HF), namely induced seismicity and groundwater contamination (GC). We examine the induced seismicity (IS) associated with different subsurface fluid injection and production (SFIP) operations and the key operational parameters of SFIP impacting it. In addition we review the key potential sources for possible water contamination. Both in the case of IS and GC we propose modeling and data analysis methods to quantify the risk factors to be used for monitoring and risk reduction. SFIP include presents a risk in hydraulic fracturing, waste water injection, enhanced oil recovery as well as geothermal energy operations. Although a recent report (NRC 2012) documents that HF is not responsible for most of the induced seismicities, we primarily focus on HF here. We look into vaious operational parameters such as volume and rate of water injection, the direction of the well versus the natural fracture network, the depth of the target and the local stress field and fault system, as well as other geological features. The latter would determine the potential for triggering tectonic related events by small induced seismicity events. We provide the building blocks for IS risk assessment and monitoring. The system we propose will involve adequate layers of complexity based on mapped seismic attributes as well as results from ANN and probabilistic predictive modeling workflows. This leads to a set of guidelines which further defines 'safe operating conditions' and 'safe operating zones' which will be a valuable reference for future SFIP operations. We also illustrate how HF can lead to groundwater aquifer contamination. The source of aquifer contamination can be the hydrocarbon gas or the chemicals used in the injected liquid in the formation. We explore possible pathways of contamination within and discuss the likelihood of contamination from each source. Many of the chemical compounds used

  5. Hydraulic fracturing of rock-fill dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie WANG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The condition in which hydraulic fracturing in core of earth-rock fill dam maybe induced, the mechanism by which the reason of hydraulic fracturing canbe explained, and the failure criterion by which the occurrence of hydraulicfracturing can be determined, were investigated. The condition dependson material properties such as, cracks in the core and low permeability ofcore soil, and “water wedging” action in cracks. An unsaturated core soiland fast impounding are the prerequisites for the formation of “waterwedging” action. The mechanism of hydraulic fracturing can be explainedby fracture mechanics. The crack propagation induced by water pressuremay follow any of mode I, mode II and mixed mode I-II. Based on testingresults of a core soil, a new criterion for hydraulic fracturing was suggested,from which mechanisms of hydraulic fracturing in the core of rock-fill damwere discussed. The results indicated that factors such as angle betweencrack surface and direction of principal stress, local stress state at thecrack, and fracture toughness KIC of core soil may largely affect theinduction of hydraulic fracturing and the mode of the propagation of thecrack.The condition in which hydraulic fracturing in core of earth-rock fill dam maybe induced, the mechanism by which the reason of hydraulic fracturing canbe explained, and the failure criterion by which the occurrence of hydraulicfracturing can be determined, were investigated. The condition dependson material properties such as, cracks in the core and low permeability ofcore soil, and “water wedging” action in cracks. An unsaturated core soiland fast impounding are the prerequisites for the formation of “waterwedging” action. The mechanism of hydraulic fracturing can be explainedby fracture mechanics. The crack propagation induced by water pressuremay follow any of mode I, mode II and mixed mode I-II. Based on testingresults of a core soil, a new criterion for hydraulic fracturing

  6. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A HYDRAULIC PISTON

    OpenAIRE

    Santos De la Cruz, Eulogio; Rojas Lazo, Oswaldo; Yenque Dedios, Julio; Lavado Soto, Aurelio

    2014-01-01

    A hydraulic system project includes the design, materials selection and construction of the hydraulic piston, hydraulic circuit and the joint with the pump and its accesories. This equiment will be driven by the force of moving fluid, whose application is in the devices of machines, tools, printing, perforation, packing and others. El proyecto de un sistema hidráulico, comprende el diseño, selección de materiales y construcción del pistón hidráulico, circuito hidráulico y el ensamble con l...

  7. Locking mechanism for in-vessel components of tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, S.; Shimizu, K.; Koizumi, K.; Tada, E.

    1992-01-01

    The locking and unlocking mechanism for in-vessel replaceable components such as blanket modules, is one of the most critical issues of the tokamak fusion reactor, since the sufficient stiffness against the enormous electromagnetic loads and the easy replaceability are required. In this paper, the authors decide that a caulking cotter joint is worth initiating the R and D from veiwpoints of an effective use of space, a replaceability, a removability of nuclear heating, and a reliability. In this approach, the cotter driving (thrusting and plucking) mechanism is a critical technology. A flexible tube concept has been developed as the driving mechanism, where the stroke and driving force are obtained by a fat shape by the hydraulic pressure. The original normal tube is subjected to the working percentage of more than several hundreds percentage (from thickness of 1.2 mm to 0.2 mm) for plastically forming the flexible tube

  8. Highly-Integrated Hydraulic Smart Actuators and Smart Manifolds for High-Bandwidth Force Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Barasuol

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic actuation is the most widely used alternative to electric motors for legged robots and manipulators. It is often selected for its high power density, robustness and high-bandwidth control performance that allows the implementation of force/impedance control. Force control is crucial for robots that are in contact with the environment, since it enables the implementation of active impedance and whole body control that can lead to a better performance in known and unknown environments. This paper presents the hydraulic Integrated Smart Actuator (ISA developed by Moog in collaboration with IIT, as well as smart manifolds for rotary hydraulic actuators. The ISA consists of an additive-manufactured body containing a hydraulic cylinder, servo valve, pressure/position/load/temperature sensing, overload protection and electronics for control and communication. The ISA v2 and ISA v5 have been specifically designed to fit into the legs of IIT’s hydraulic quadruped robots HyQ and HyQ-REAL, respectively. The key features of these components tackle 3 of today’s main challenges of hydraulic actuation for legged robots through: (1 built-in controllers running inside integrated electronics for high-performance control, (2 low-leakage servo valves for reduced energy losses, and (3 compactness thanks to metal additive manufacturing. The main contributions of this paper are the derivation of the representative dynamic models of these highly integrated hydraulic servo actuators, a control architecture that allows for high-bandwidth force control and their experimental validation with application-specific trajectories and tests. We believe that this is the first work that presents additive-manufactured, highly integrated hydraulic smart actuators for robotics.

  9. Results From a Channel Restoration Project: Hydraulic Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karle, K.F.; Densmore, R.V.; ,

    2001-01-01

    Techniques for the hydraulic restoration of placer-mined streams and floodplains were developed in Denali National Park and Preserve, Alaska. The two-year study at Glen Creek focused on a design of stream and floodplain geometry using hydraulic capacity and shear stress equations. Slope and sinuosity values were based on regional relationships. Design requirements included a channel capacity for a bankfull discharge and a floodplain capacity for a 1.5- to 100-year discharge. Several bio-engineering techniques using alder and willow, including anchored brush bars, streambank hedge layering, seedlings, and cuttings, were tested to dissipate floodwater energy and encourage sediment deposition until natural revegetation stabilized the new floodplains. Permanently monumented cross-sections installed throughout the project site were surveyed every one to three years. Nine years after the project began, a summer flood caused substantial damage to the channel form, including a change in width/depth ratio, slope, and thalweg location. Many of the alder brush bars were heavily damaged or destroyed, resulting in significant bank erosion. This paper reviews the original hydraulic design process, and describes changes to the channel and floodplain geometry over time, based on nine years of cross-section surveys.

  10. The influence of hydraulic conditions on coagulation process effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambor Aleksandra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the impact that small changes in the hydraulic installation between the flocculation chamber and the sedimentation tanks have on coagulation process effectiveness. This study has shown significant improvements in the parameters of the treated water. The research was conducted in two treatment systems: reference and test, in order to compare the changes that were introduced in the time period between January and May 2016. The hydraulic conditions between the flocculation chamber and the sedimentation tank were changed in the test system, leaving the reference system unchanged for comparative purposes. The height-wise positioning of the sedimentation tank relative to the flocculation chamber resulted in a formation of a cascade at the flocculation chamber drain at a height of 0.60m. Air was therefore introduced into the water, forming an air-water mixture, which disturbed the flow between the devices. It was found that floc transported by the pipeline was broken down, which hampered sedimentation in the sedimentation tank. This was confirmed by the analysis of chosen parameters from treated water. After changes in the hydraulic system, changes in water turbidity were noticed, indicating an increase in post-coagulation suspension separation effectiveness. Consequently, an increase in organic carbon removal was found relative to the reference system. This change influenced changes in UV254 absorbance to a much lesser extent.

  11. The influence of hydraulic conditions on coagulation process effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambor, Aleksandra; Ferenc, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the impact that small changes in the hydraulic installation between the flocculation chamber and the sedimentation tanks have on coagulation process effectiveness. This study has shown significant improvements in the parameters of the treated water. The research was conducted in two treatment systems: reference and test, in order to compare the changes that were introduced in the time period between January and May 2016. The hydraulic conditions between the flocculation chamber and the sedimentation tank were changed in the test system, leaving the reference system unchanged for comparative purposes. The height-wise positioning of the sedimentation tank relative to the flocculation chamber resulted in a formation of a cascade at the flocculation chamber drain at a height of 0.60m. Air was therefore introduced into the water, forming an air-water mixture, which disturbed the flow between the devices. It was found that floc transported by the pipeline was broken down, which hampered sedimentation in the sedimentation tank. This was confirmed by the analysis of chosen parameters from treated water. After changes in the hydraulic system, changes in water turbidity were noticed, indicating an increase in post-coagulation suspension separation effectiveness. Consequently, an increase in organic carbon removal was found relative to the reference system. This change influenced changes in UV254 absorbance to a much lesser extent.

  12. Parker Hybrid Hydraulic Drivetrain Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Raymond [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Howland, James [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Venkiteswaran, Prasad [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-03-31

    This report examines the benefits of Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid brake energy recovery systems used in commercial applications for vocational purposes. A detailed background on the problem statement being addressed as well as the solution set specific for parcel delivery will be provided. Objectives of the demonstration performed in high start & stop applications included opportunities in fuel usage reduction, emissions reduction, vehicle productivity, and vehicle maintenance. Completed findings during the demonstration period and parallel investigations with NREL, CALSTART, along with a literature review will be provided herein on this research area. Lastly, results identified in the study by third parties validated the savings potential in fuel reduction of on average of 19% to 52% over the baseline in terms of mpg (Lammert, 2014, p11), Parker data for parcel delivery vehicles in the field parallels this at a range of 35% - 50%, emissions reduction of 17.4% lower CO2 per mile and 30.4% lower NOx per mile (Gallo, 2014, p15), with maintenance improvement in the areas of brake and starter replacement, while leaving room for further study in the area of productivity in terms of specific metrics that can be applied and studied.

  13. Cavitation instabilities in hydraulic machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Y

    2013-01-01

    Cavitation instabilities in hydraulic machines, hydro turbines and turbopump inducers, are reviewed focusing on the cause of instabilities. One-dimensional model of hydro turbine system shows that the overload surge is caused by the diffuser effect of the draft tube. Experiments show that this effect also causes the surge mode oscillations at part load. One dimensional model of a cavitating turbopump inducer shows that the mass flow gain factor, representing the cavity volume increase caused by the incidence angle increase is the cause of cavitation surge and rotating cavitation. Two dimensional model of a cavitating turbopump inducer shows that various modes of cavitation instabilities start to occur when the cavity length becomes about 65% of the blade spacing. This is caused by the interaction of the local flow near the cavity trailing edge with the leading edge of the next blade. It was shown by a 3D CFD that this is true also for real cases with tip cavitation. In all cases, it was shown that cavitation instabilities are caused by the fundamental characteristics of cavities that the cavity volume increases with the decrease of ambient pressure or the increase of the incidence angle

  14. Kuala Kemaman hydraulic model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2005-01-01

    There The problems facing the area of Kuala Kemaman are siltation and erosion at shoreline. The objectives of study are to assess the best alignment of the groyne alignment, to ascertain the most stable shoreline regime and to investigate structural measures to overcome the erosion. The scope of study are data collection, wave analysis, hydrodynamic simulation and sediment transport simulation. Numerical models MIKE 21 are used - MIKE 21 NSW, for wind-wave model, which describes the growth, decay and transformation of wind-generated waves and swell in nearshore areas. The study takes into account effects of refraction and shoaling due to varying depth, energy dissipation due to bottom friction and wave breaking, MIKE 21 HD - modelling system for 2D free-surface flow which to stimulate the hydraulics phenomena in estuaries, coastal areas and seas. Predicted tidal elevation and waves (radiation stresses) are considered into study while wind is not considered. MIKE 21 ST - the system that calculates the rates of non-cohesive (sand) sediment transport for both pure content and combined waves and current situation

  15. The Water Risks of Hydraulic Fracturing (Fracking): Key Issues from the New California Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.

    2015-12-01

    A key component of the Water-Energy Nexus is the effort over the past decade or so to quantify the volumes and form of water required for the energy fuel cycle from extraction to generation to waste disposal. The vast majority of the effort in this area has focused on the water needs of electricity generation, but other fuel-cycle components also entail significant water demands and threats to water quality. Recent work for the State of California (managed by the California Council on Science and Technology - CCST) has produced a new state-of-the-art assessment of a range of potential water risks associated with hydraulic fracturing and related oil and gas extraction, including volumetric water demands, methods of disposal of produced water, and aquifer contamination. For example, this assessment produced new information on the disposal of produced water in surface percolation pits and the potential for contamination of local groundwater (see Figure). Understanding these risks raises questions about current production and future plans to expand production, as well as tools used by state and federal agencies to manage these risks. This talk will summarize the science behind the CCST assessment and related policy recommendations for both water and energy managers.

  16. Study on Characteristics of Hydraulic Servo System for Force Control of Hydraulic Robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo-gon; Han, Changsoo; Lee, Jong-won; Park, Sangdeok

    2015-01-01

    Because a hydraulic actuator has high power and force densities, this allows the weight of the robot's limbs to be reduced. This allows for good dynamic characteristics and high energy efficiency. Thus, hydraulic actuators are used in some exoskeleton robots and quadrupedal robots that require high torque. Force control is useful for robot compliance with a user or environment. However, force control of a hydraulic robot is difficult because a hydraulic servo system is highly nonlinear from a control perspective. In this study, a nonlinear model was used to develop a simulation program for a hydraulic servo system consisting of a servo valve, transmission lines, and a cylinder. The problems and considerations with regard to the force control performance for a hydraulic servo system were investigated. A force control method using the nonlinear model was proposed, and its effect was evaluated with the simulation program

  17. Study on Characteristics of Hydraulic Servo System for Force Control of Hydraulic Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo-gon; Han, Changsoo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-won [Korea University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sangdeok [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Because a hydraulic actuator has high power and force densities, this allows the weight of the robot's limbs to be reduced. This allows for good dynamic characteristics and high energy efficiency. Thus, hydraulic actuators are used in some exoskeleton robots and quadrupedal robots that require high torque. Force control is useful for robot compliance with a user or environment. However, force control of a hydraulic robot is difficult because a hydraulic servo system is highly nonlinear from a control perspective. In this study, a nonlinear model was used to develop a simulation program for a hydraulic servo system consisting of a servo valve, transmission lines, and a cylinder. The problems and considerations with regard to the force control performance for a hydraulic servo system were investigated. A force control method using the nonlinear model was proposed, and its effect was evaluated with the simulation program.

  18. Advanced Hydraulic Studies on Enhancing Particle Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Cheng

    clarifier. The inlet zone of an existing rectangular storm water clarifier was redesigned to improve the fluid flow conditions and reduce the hydraulic head loss in order to remove the lamellar plates and adapt the clarifier to the needs of high-rate clarification of storm water with flocculant addition...... excessive local head losses and helped to select structural changes to reduce such losses. The analysis of the facility showed that with respect to hydraulic operation, the facility is a complex, highly non-linear hydraulic system. Within the existing constraints, a few structural changes examined......The removal of suspended solids and attached pollutants is one of the main treatment processes in wastewater treatment. This thesis presents studies on the hydraulic conditions of various particle removal facilities for possible ways to increase their treatment capacity and performance by utilizing...

  19. Lower Monumental Spillway Hydraulic Model Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilhelms, Steven

    2003-01-01

    A 1:40 Froudian Scale model was used to investigate the hydraulic performance of the Lower Monumental Dam spillway, stilling basin, and tailrace for dissolved gas reduction and stilling basin apron scour...

  20. Toxicity Assessment for EPA's Hydraulic Fracturing Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains data used to develop multiple manuscripts on the toxicity of chemicals associated with the hydraulic fracturing industry. These manuscripts...

  1. Hydraulic fracturing chemicals and fluids technology

    CERN Document Server

    Fink, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    When classifying fracturing fluids and their additives, it is important that production, operation, and completion engineers understand which chemical should be utilized in different well environments. A user's guide to the many chemicals and chemical additives used in hydraulic fracturing operations, Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Fluids Technology provides an easy-to-use manual to create fluid formulations that will meet project-specific needs while protecting the environment and the life of the well. Fink creates a concise and comprehensive reference that enables the engineer to logically select and use the appropriate chemicals on any hydraulic fracturing job. The first book devoted entirely to hydraulic fracturing chemicals, Fink eliminates the guesswork so the engineer can select the best chemicals needed on the job while providing the best protection for the well, workers and environment. Pinpoints the specific compounds used in any given fracturing operation Provides a systematic approach to class...

  2. Pneumatic and hydraulic microactuators: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Volder, Michaël; Reynaerts, Dominiek

    2010-01-01

    The development of MEMS actuators is rapidly evolving and continuously new progress in terms of efficiency, power and force output is reported. Pneumatic and hydraulic are an interesting class of microactuators that are easily overlooked. Despite the 20 years of research, and hundreds of publications on this topic, these actuators are only popular in microfluidic systems. In other MEMS applications, pneumatic and hydraulic actuators are rare in comparison with electrostatic, thermal or piezo-electric actuators. However, several studies have shown that hydraulic and pneumatic actuators deliver among the highest force and power densities at microscale. It is believed that this asset is particularly important in modern industrial and medical microsystems, and therefore, pneumatic and hydraulic actuators could start playing an increasingly important role. This paper shows an in-depth overview of the developments in this field ranging from the classic inflatable membrane actuators to more complex piston–cylinder and drag-based microdevices. (topical review)

  3. National Laboratory of Hydraulics. 1996 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This progress report of the National Laboratory of Hydraulics (LNH) of Electricite de France (EdF) summarizes, first, the research and development studies carried out in 1996 for the development of research tools for industrial fluid mechanics and environmental hydraulics and for the development of computer tools (computer codes and softwares for fluid mechanics modeling, modeling of reactive, compressible, two-phase and turbulent flows and of complex chemical kinetics using finite elements and finite volume methods). A second parts describes the research studies performed for other services of EdF, concerning: the functioning of nuclear reactors (thermohydraulic studies of the reactor vessel and of the primary coolant circuit, gas flows following severe accidents, fluid-structure thermal coupling etc...), fossil fuel power plants, the equipment and operation of thermal power plants and hydraulic power plants, the use of electric power. A third part summarizes the river and marine hydraulic studies carried out for other companies. (J.S.)

  4. Transputer Control of Hydraulic Actuators and Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1996-01-01

    Results from a Danish mechatronics research program entitled IMCIA - Intelligent Control and Intelligent Actuators. The objective is development of intelligent actuators for intelligent motion control. A mechatronics test facility with a transputer controlled hydraulic robot suiteable for real...

  5. Hydraulic cylinder simulates parameters of a free piston engine; Hydraulikzylinder simuliert Groessen fuer einen Freikolbenmotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinderknecht, Frank [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Fahrzeugkonzepte

    2011-01-10

    Important data are obtained in the development of a free piston engine by a test stand with a hydraulic cylinder which first simulates the power curves and motion of the individual components, then induces the motion of the system piston, and finally ensures safety against undesired forces. (orig.)

  6. Hydraulic concrete composition and properties control system

    OpenAIRE

    PSHINKO O.M.; KRASNYUK A.V.; HROMOVA O.V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Scientific work aims at the development and testing of information system to meet the challenges of concrete composition design and control (for railway structures and buildings) based on the physico-analytical method algorithm for hydraulic concrete composition calculation. Methodology. The proposed algorithm of hydraulic concrete composition calculation is based on the physicochemical mechanics and in particular on the rheology of elastic–viscous–plastic bodies. The system of canon...

  7. Multimodel Robust Control for Hydraulic Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Osuský, Jakub; Števo, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the multimodel and robust control system design and their combination based on M-Δ structure. Controller design will be done in the frequency domain with nominal performance specified by phase margin. Hydraulic turbine model is analyzed as system with unstructured uncertainty, and robust stability condition is included in controller design. Multimodel and robust control approaches are presented in detail on hydraulic turbine model. Control design approaches are compared a...

  8. Data Analytics of Hydraulic Fracturing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jovan Yang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Viswanathan, Hari [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffery [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Middleton, Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    These are a set of slides on the data analytics of hydraulic fracturing data. The conclusions from this research are the following: they proposed a permeability evolution as a new mechanism to explain hydraulic fracturing trends; they created a model to include this mechanism and it showed promising results; the paper from this research is ready for submission; they devised a way to identify and sort refractures in order to study their effects, and this paper is currently being written.

  9. FEEDBACK LINEARISATION APPLIED ON A HYDRAULIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2005-01-01

    is on developing and applying several different feedback linearisation (FL) controllers to the individual servo actuators in a hydraulically driven servo robot to evaluate and compare their possiblities and limitations. This is done based on both simulation and experimental results.......Generally most hydraulic systems are intrensically non-linear, why applying linear control techniques typically results in conservatively dimensioned controllers to obtain stable performance. Non-linear control techniques have the potential of overcoming these problems, and in this paper the focus...

  10. Thermal hydraulics and mechanics core design programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinecke, J.

    1992-10-01

    The report documents the work performed within the Research and Development Task T hermal hydraulics and mechanics core design programs , funded by the German government. It contains the development of new codes, the extension of existing codes, the qualification and verification of codes and the development of a code library. The overall goal of this work was to adapt the system of thermal hydraulics and mechanics codes to the permanently growing requirements of the status of science and technology

  11. Development of realistic thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes ; development of thermal hydraulic test requirements for multidimensional flow modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Kune Yull; Yoon, Sang Hyuk; Noh, Sang Woo; Lee, Il Suk [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    This study is concerned with developing a multidimensional flow model required for the system analysis code MARS to more mechanistically simulate a variety of thermal hydraulic phenomena in the nuclear stem supply system. The capability of the MARS code as a thermal hydraulic analysis tool for optimized system design can be expanded by improving the current calculational methods and adding new models. In this study the relevant literature was surveyed on the multidimensional flow models that may potentially be applied to the multidimensional analysis code. Research items were critically reviewed and suggested to better predict the multidimensional thermal hydraulic behavior and to identify test requirements. A small-scale preliminary test was performed in the downcomer formed by two vertical plates to analyze multidimensional flow pattern in a simple geometry. The experimental result may be applied to the code for analysis of the fluid impingement to the reactor downcomer wall. Also, data were collected to find out the controlling parameters for the one-dimensional and multidimensional flow behavior. 22 refs., 40 figs., 7 tabs. (Author)

  12. BWR 9 X 9 Fuel Assembly Thermal-Hydraulic Tests (2): Hydraulic Vibration Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiaki Tsukuda; Katsuichiro Kamimura; Toshiitsu Hattori; Akira Tanabe; Noboru Saito; Masahiko Warashina; Yuji Nishino

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) conducted thermal-hydraulic projects for verification of thermal-hydraulic design reliability for BWR high-burnup 8 x 8 and 9 x 9 fuel assemblies, entrusted by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). As a part of the NUPEC thermal-hydraulic projects, hydraulic vibration tests using full-scale test assemblies simulating 9 x 9 fuel assemblies were carried out to evaluate BWR fuel integrity. The test data were applied to development of a new correlation for the estimation of fuel rod vibration amplitude. (authors)

  13. Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Testing | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Evaluations Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Evaluations How Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles Work Hydraulic hybrid systems can capture up to 70% of the kinetic energy that would -pressure reservoir to a high-pressure accumulator. When the vehicle accelerates, fluid in the high-pressure

  14. 46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting. A hydraulic starting system must meet the following: (a) The hydraulic starting system must be a... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic starting. 112.50-3 Section 112.50-3 Shipping...

  15. A low order adaptive control scheme for hydraulic servo systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Bech, Michael Møller

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with high-performance position control of hydraulics servo systems in general. The hydraulic servo system used is a two link robotic manipulator actuated by two hydraulic servo cylinders. A non-linear model of the hydraulic system and a Newton-Euler based model of the mechanical...

  16. Moss and peat hydraulic properties are optimized to maximise peatland water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettridge, Nicholas; Tilak, Amey; Devito, Kevin; Petrone, Rich; Mendoza, Carl; Waddington, Mike

    2016-04-01

    Peatland ecosystems are globally important carbon and terrestrial surface water stores that have formed over millennia. These ecosystems have likely optimised their ecohydrological function over the long-term development of their soil hydraulic properties. Through a theoretical ecosystem approach, applying hydrological modelling integrated with known ecological thresholds and concepts, the optimisation of peat hydraulic properties is examined to determine which of the following conditions peatland ecosystems target during this development: i) maximise carbon accumulation, ii) maximise water storage, or iii) balance carbon profit across hydrological disturbances. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and empirical van Genuchten water retention parameter α are shown to provide a first order control on simulated water tensions. Across parameter space, peat profiles with hypothetical combinations of Ks and α show a strong binary tendency towards targeting either water or carbon storage. Actual hydraulic properties from five northern peatlands fall at the interface between these goals, balancing the competing demands of carbon accumulation and water storage. We argue that peat hydraulic properties are thus optimized to maximise water use efficiency and that this optimisation occurs over a centennial to millennial timescale as the peatland develops. This provides a new conceptual framework to characterise peat hydraulic properties across climate zones and between a range of different disturbances, and which can be used to provide benchmarks for peatland design and reclamation.

  17. Extensive use of computational fluid dynamics in the upgrading of hydraulic turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, M.; Eremeef, R.; De Henau, V.

    1995-12-31

    Computational fluid dynamics codes, based on turbulent Navier-Stokes equations, allow evaluation of the hydraulic losses of each turbine component with precision. Using those codes with the new generation of computers enables a wide variety of component geometries to be modelled and compared to the original designs under flow conditions obtained from testing, at a reasonable cost and in a relatively short time. This paper reviews the actual method used in the design of a solution to a turbine rehabilitation project involving runner replacement, redesign of upstream components (stay vanes and wicket gates), and downstream components (draft tubes and runner outlets). The paper shows how computational fluid dynamics can help hydraulic engineers to obtain valuable information not only on performance enhancement but also on the phenomena that produce the enhancement, and to reduce the variety of modifications to be tested.

  18. Impacts of bedding directions of shale gas reservoirs on hydraulically induced crack propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keming Sun

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Shale gas reservoirs are different from conventional ones in terms of their bedding architectures, so their hydraulic fracturing rules are somewhat different. In this paper, shale hydraulic fracturing tests were carried out by using the triaxial hydraulic fracturing test system to identify the effects of natural bedding directions on the crack propagation in the process of hydraulic fracturing. Then, the fracture initiation criterion of hydraulic fracturing was prepared using the extended finite element method. On this basis, a 3D hydraulic fracturing computation model was established for shale gas reservoirs. And finally, a series of studies were performed about the effects of bedding directions on the crack propagation created by hydraulic fracturing in shale reservoirs. It is shown that the propagation rules of hydraulically induced fractures in shale gas reservoirs are jointly controlled by the in-situ stress and the bedding plane architecture and strength, with the bedding direction as the main factor controlling the crack propagation directions. If the normal tensile stress of bedding surface reaches its tensile strength after the fracturing, cracks will propagate along the bedding direction, and otherwise vertical to the minimum in-situ stress direction. With the propagating of cracks along bedding surfaces, the included angle between the bedding normal direction and the minimum in-situ stress direction increases, the fracture initiation and propagation pressures increase and the crack areas decrease. Generally, cracks propagate in the form of non-plane ellipsoids. With the injection of fracturing fluids, crack areas and total formation filtration increase and crack propagation velocity decreases. The test results agree well with the calculated crack propagation rules, which demonstrate the validity of the above-mentioned model.

  19. Proceedings of the 1991 national conference on hydraulic engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shane, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1991 National Conference of Hydraulic Engineering. The conference was held in conjunction with the International Symposium on Ground Water and a Software Exchange that facilitated exchange of information on recent software developments of interest to hydraulic engineers. Also included in the program were three mini-symposia on the Exclusive Economic Zone, Data Acquisition, and Appropriate Technology. Topics include sedimentation; appropriate technology; exclusive economic zone hydraulics; hydraulic data acquisition and display; innovative hydraulic structures and water quality applications of hydraulic research, including the hydraulics of aerating turbines; wetlands; hydraulic and hydrologic extremes; highway drainage; overtopping protection of dams; spillway design; coastal and estuarine hydraulics; scale models; computation hydraulics; GIS and expert system applications; watershed response to rainfall; probabilistic approaches; and flood control investigations

  20. Experimental perforation of tubing with a hydraulic sand jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, Yu V

    1970-01-01

    A series of field tests has shown that perforation with a hydraulic sand jet improves the quality of well completion. The sand jet does not crack the cement sheath or the casing, and the perforations are larger and deeper than perforations formed by explosive charges. Fluid circulation during sand jet perforation can safely be stopped for at least 10 min. Water containing a surfactant can be used as a sand carrier. Sand jet perforation allows successful completion of wells cased by 2 tubing strings. Sand jet perforation can be used to clean the borehole well and to remove foreign objects from the well.

  1. MAESTRO, a hydraulic manipulator for maintenance and decommissioning applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier David; Yvan Measson; Catherine Bidard; Christine Libersa

    2006-01-01

    Compared to electric technology payload of hydraulic manipulators is very high with respect to their volume and mass. However, due to their force control limitations they were usually disqualified for precise manipulation. CEA, in collaboration with CYBERNETIX developed a complete remote handling system around the advanced hydraulic robotic arm MAESTRO. Requirements and specifications of the system were defined according to the needs of decommissioning activities in existing nuclear facilities and maintenance scenarios of the next step fusion reactor ITER. Using TAO2000 CEA controller, CEA developed specific force control loops to improve the performances of the manipulator and reach a level where the MAESTRO can be used like a traditional tele-operation master/slave system with force feedback. The complete system is composed of a 2 m long 100 kg payload 6 degrees of freedom slave hydraulic manipulator. The manipulator is mounted on an embedded unit made of a 210 bars hydraulic power pack and a 10 kGy rad hardened slave controller. The master station is made of the new generation Virtuose V6D-40-40 master arm with its TAO2000 controller. The graphical supervisor Magritte gives the operator an additional interface to manage and monitor the system. Repetitive tasks like tool picking can therefore be left to the system while the operator keeps his concentration on the main task. Thanks to the collision detection algorithm, Magritte warns the operator when the tool or any part of the Maestro arm comes too close to a delicate unit. Operational experience gained through test campaigns was gathered in an upgrade study to propose a new version of the manipulator that successfully ran through a 1000 hour endurance test. Rad-hardened components were selected and tested in nuclear facilities. Attention was paid to provide a design in which contamination is easily removed and to ease the maintenance when performed by an operator in suit. To be quickly adapted to new tasks, the

  2. Contaminant monitoring of hydraulic systems. The need for reliable data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, M.J. Rinkinen, J. [Pall Europe Ltd., Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The need for both reliable operation of hydraulic and lubrication systems and long component lives has focused users to the benefits of controlling the contamination in the hydraulic fluid. Maximum operating (target) levels are being implemented as part of a condition based maintenance regime. If these are exceeded, maintenance effort is directed to correcting the rise in consummation level, and so make optimum use of resources as maintenance effort is only affected when it is necessary to do so. Fundamental to ibis aspect of condition based monitoring is the provision of accurate and reliable data in the shortest possible time. This way, corrective actions can be implemented immediately so minimising the damage to components. On-line monitoring devices are a way of achieving this and are seeing increased use, but some are affected by the condition of the fluid. Hence, there is a potential for giving incorrect data which will waste time and effort by initiating unnecessary corrective actions. A more disturbing aspect is the effect on the user of continual errors. The most likely effect would be a loss of confidence in the technique or even complete rejection of it and hence the potential benefits will be lost. This presentation explains how contaminant monitoring techniques are applied to ensure that the potential benefits of operating with clean fluids is realised. It examines the sources of error and shows how the user can interrogate the data and satisfy himself of its authenticity. (orig.) 14 refs.

  3. Contaminant monitoring of hydraulic systems. The need for reliable data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, M.J. [Pall Europe Ltd., Portsmouth (United Kingdom)] Rinkinen, J. [Tampere University of Technology, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The need for both reliable operation of hydraulic and lubrication systems and long component lives has focused users to the benefits of controlling the contamination in the hydraulic fluid. Maximum operating (target) levels are being implemented as part of a condition based maintenance regime. If these are exceeded, maintenance effort is directed to correcting the rise in consummation level, and so make optimum use of resources as maintenance effort is only affected when it is necessary to do so. Fundamental to ibis aspect of condition based monitoring is the provision of accurate and reliable data in the shortest possible time. This way, corrective actions can be implemented immediately so minimising the damage to components. On-line monitoring devices are a way of achieving this and are seeing increased use, but some are affected by the condition of the fluid. Hence, there is a potential for giving incorrect data which will waste time and effort by initiating unnecessary corrective actions. A more disturbing aspect is the effect on the user of continual errors. The most likely effect would be a loss of confidence in the technique or even complete rejection of it and hence the potential benefits will be lost. This presentation explains how contaminant monitoring techniques are applied to ensure that the potential benefits of operating with clean fluids is realised. It examines the sources of error and shows how the user can interrogate the data and satisfy himself of its authenticity. (orig.) 14 refs.

  4. Impact of soil texture and water availability on the hydraulic control of plant and grape-berry development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara Tramontini; Cornelis van Leeuwen; Jean-Christophe Domec; Agnès Destrac-Irvine; Cyril Basteau; Marco Vitali; Olaf Mosbach-Schulz; Claudio Lovisolo

    2013-01-01

    All components of the soil-plant-atmosphere (s-p-a) continuum are known to control berry quality in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) via ecophysiological interactions between water uptake by roots and water loss by leaves. The scope of the present work was to explore how the main hydraulic components of grapevine influence fruit quality through changes...

  5. Achieving Minimum Clinically Important Difference in Oxford Knee Score and Short Form-36 Physical Component Summary Is Less Likely with Single-Radius Compared with Multiradius Total Knee Arthroplasty in Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wu Chean; Bin Abd Razak, Hamid Rahmatullah; Allen, John Carson; Chong, Hwei Chi; Tan, Hwee Chye Andrew

    2018-04-10

    Single-radius (SR) and multiradius (MR) total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) have produced similar outcomes, albeit most studies originate from Western nations. There are known knee kinematic differences between Western and Asian patients after TKA. The aim of this study is to compare the short-term patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) of SR-TKA versus MR-TKA in Asians. Registry data of 133 SR-TKA versus 363 MR-TKA by a single surgeon were analyzed. Preoperative and 2-year postoperative range of motion (ROM) and PROMs were compared with Student's t -test and Mann-Whitney U-test. Logistic regression model was used to evaluate the odds of SR-TKA or MR-TKA achieving the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) of studied outcomes. Patients in both groups had similar age (65.7 ± 7.6 vs. 65.8 ± 8.2 years; p  = 0.317), gender proportion (71% females vs. 79% females; p  = 0.119), and ethnic distribution (80% Chinese vs. 84% Chinese; p  = 0.258). Preoperatively, there were no statistically significant differences between both groups for ROM, Knee Society Score (KSS), Oxford Knee Score (OKS), and Short Form (SF)-36 scores. At 2 years, all outcomes were statistically similar or failed to achieve a difference of MCID. Controlling for all preoperative variables, SR-TKA has significantly lower odds of achieving MCID for OKS (odds ratio [OR]: 0.275, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.114-0.663; p  = 0.004) and SF-36 Physical Component Summary (PCS) (OR: 0.547; 95% CI: 0.316-0.946; p  = 0.031) compared with MR-TKA. In conclusion, there are no significant differences in the absolute PROMs between SR-TKA and MR-TKA at 2 years following TKA in Asians. However, SR-TKA has significantly lower odds of achieving the MCID for OKS and SF-36 PCS. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Common Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Additives Alter the Structure and Function of Anaerobic Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Adam C; Akob, Denise M; Klinges, J Grace; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M

    2018-04-15

    The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) resources results in the production of large volumes of wastewater containing a complex mixture of hydraulic fracturing chemical additives and components from the formation. The release of these wastewaters into the environment poses potential risks that are poorly understood. Microbial communities in stream sediments form the base of the food chain and may serve as sentinels for changes in stream health. Iron-reducing organisms have been shown to play a role in the biodegradation of a wide range of organic compounds, and so to evaluate their response to UOG wastewater, we enriched anaerobic microbial communities from sediments collected upstream (background) and downstream (impacted) of an UOG wastewater injection disposal facility in the presence of hydraulic fracturing fluid (HFF) additives: guar gum, ethylene glycol, and two biocides, 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA) and bronopol (C 3 H 6 BrNO 4 ). Iron reduction was significantly inhibited early in the incubations with the addition of biocides, whereas amendment with guar gum and ethylene glycol stimulated iron reduction relative to levels in the unamended controls. Changes in the microbial community structure were observed across all treatments, indicating the potential for even small amounts of UOG wastewater components to influence natural microbial processes. The microbial community structure differed between enrichments with background and impacted sediments, suggesting that impacted sediments may have been preconditioned by exposure to wastewater. These experiments demonstrated the potential for biocides to significantly decrease iron reduction rates immediately following a spill and demonstrated how microbial communities previously exposed to UOG wastewater may be more resilient to additional spills. IMPORTANCE Organic components of UOG wastewater can alter microbial communities and biogeochemical processes, which could alter the rates of

  7. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of PWR core including intermediate flow mixers with the THYC code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mur, J.; Meignin, J.C.

    1997-07-01

    Departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) is one of the major limiting factors of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Safety requires that occurrence of DNB should be precluded under normal or incidental operating conditions. The thermal-hydraulic THYC code developed by EDF is described. The code is devoted to heat and mass transfer in nuclear components. Critical Heat Flux (CHF) is predicted from local thermal-hydraulic parameters such as pressure, mass flow rate, and quality. A three stage methodology to evaluate thermal margins in order to perform standard core design is described. (K.A.)

  8. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of PWR core including intermediate flow mixers with the THYC code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mur, J. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France); Meignin, J.C. [Electricite de France (EDF), 69 - Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-07-01

    Departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) is one of the major limiting factors of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Safety requires that occurrence of DNB should be precluded under normal or incidental operating conditions. The thermal-hydraulic THYC code developed by EDF is described. The code is devoted to heat and mass transfer in nuclear components. Critical Heat Flux (CHF) is predicted from local thermal-hydraulic parameters such as pressure, mass flow rate, and quality. A three stage methodology to evaluate thermal margins in order to perform standard core design is described. (K.A.) 8 refs.

  9. Real-time dynamic hydraulic model for water distribution networks: steady state modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osman, Mohammad S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available equipment (pipes, reservoirs, pumps, valves, etc.) was used as a pilot WDN. Further information of the various other DHM components has been published [1]. The steady-state hydraulic model calculates the network hydraulic variables at a particular... from the abstraction point to the two low-level concrete reservoirs. On this pipeline there is a 2” tie-off to an alternate consumer as well as another 2” tie-off (5 m length) to the pump station sump. Water from the pump station is pumped to two...

  10. Principal components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hallin, M.; Hörmann, S.; Piegorsch, W.; El Shaarawi, A.

    2012-01-01

    Principal Components are probably the best known and most widely used of all multivariate analysis techniques. The essential idea consists in performing a linear transformation of the observed k-dimensional variables in such a way that the new variables are vectors of k mutually orthogonal

  11. EFFECT FOR A SINGLE ROUGHNESS E=5,63mm OF EXPERIMENTAL TO STUDY HYDRAULIC JUMP PROFILE IN A CHANNEL IN U A ROUGH BOTTOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghomri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to study the hydraulic jump controlled by threshold, moving in a channel profile 'U' bottomed rough for a single roughness E=5,63mm. Functional relations in dimensionless terms, linking the different characteristics of the projection, showing the effect of roughness of the bottom of the channel are obtained. The hydraulic jump is the primary means used by hydraulic structures to dissipate energy. This hydraulic jump is formed at the sharp transition from a supercritical flow a stream flow.

  12. EFFECT FOR A SINGLE ROUGHNESS E=5,63mm OF EXPERIMENTAL TO STUDY HYDRAULIC JUMP PROFILE IN A CHANNEL IN U A ROUGH BOTTOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghomri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to study the hydraulic jump controlled by threshold, moving in a channel profile 'U' bottomed rough for a single roughness E=5,63mm. Functional relations in dimensionless terms, linking the different characteristics of the projection, showing the effect of roughness of the bottom of the channel are obtained. The hydraulic jump is the primary means used by hydraulic structures to dissipate energy. This hydraulic jump is formed at the sharp transition from a supercritical flow a stream flow.

  13. Comparative study of methods to estimate hydraulic parameters in the hydraulically undisturbed Opalinus Clay (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.; Matray, J.-M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses, (France); Yu, C.; Gonçalvès, J. [Aix Marseille Université UMR 6635 CEREGE Technopôle Environnement Arbois-Méditerranée Aix-en-Provence, Cedex 4 (France); and others

    2017-04-15

    The deep borehole (DB) experiment gave the opportunity to acquire hydraulic parameters in a hydraulically undisturbed zone of the Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland). Three methods were used to estimate hydraulic conductivity and specific storage values of the Opalinus Clay formation and its bounding formations through the 248 m deep borehole BDB-1: application of a Poiseuille-type law involving petrophysical measurements, spectral analysis of pressure time series and in situ hydraulic tests. The hydraulic conductivity range in the Opalinus Clay given by the first method is 2 × 10{sup -14}-6 × 10{sup -13} m s{sup -1} for a cementation factor ranging between 2 and 3. These results show low vertical variability whereas in situ hydraulic tests suggest higher values up to 7 × 10{sup -12} m s{sup -1}. Core analysis provides economical estimates of the homogeneous matrix hydraulic properties but do not account for heterogeneities at larger scale such as potential tectonic conductive features. Specific storage values obtained by spectral analysis are consistent and in the order of 10{sup -6} m{sup -1}, while formulations using phase shift and gain between pore pressure signals were found to be inappropriate to evaluate hydraulic conductivity in the Opalinus Clay. The values obtained are globally in good agreement with the ones obtained previously at the rock laboratory. (authors)

  14. Seismic characteristics of tensile fracture growth induced by hydraulic fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, D. W. S.; Van der Baan, M.; Boroumand, N.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a process of injecting high-pressure slurry into a rockmass to enhance its permeability. Variants of this process are used for unconventional oil and gas development, engineered geothermal systems and block-cave mining; similar processes occur within volcanic systems. Opening of hydraulic fractures is well documented by mineback trials and tiltmeter monitoring and is a physical requirement to accommodate the volume of injected fluid. Numerous microseismic monitoring investigations acquired in the audio-frequency band are interpreted to show a prevalence of shear-dominated failure mechanisms surrounding the tensile fracture. Moreover, the radiated seismic energy in the audio-frequency band appears to be a miniscule fraction (<< 1%) of the net injected energy, i.e., the integral of the product of fluid pressure and injection rate. We use a simple penny-shaped crack model as a predictive framework to describe seismic characteristics of tensile opening during hydraulic fracturing. This model provides a useful scaling relation that links seismic moment to effective fluid pressure within the crack. Based on downhole recordings corrected for attenuation, a significant fraction of observed microseismic events are characterized by S/P amplitude ratio < 5. Despite the relatively small aperture of the monitoring arrays, which precludes both full moment-tensor analysis and definitive identification of nodal planes or axes, this ratio provides a strong indication that observed microseismic source mechanisms have a component of tensile failure. In addition, we find some instances of periodic spectral notches that can be explained by an opening/closing failure mechanism, in which fracture propagation outpaces fluid velocity within the crack. Finally, aseismic growth of tensile fractures may be indicative of a scenario in which injected energy is consumed to create new fracture surfaces. Taken together, our observations and modeling provide evidence that

  15. Uncertainty in the determination of soil hydraulic parameters and its influence on the performance of two hydrological models of different complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baroni, G.; Facchi, A.; Gandolfi, C.; Ortuani, B.; Horeschi, D.; Dam, van J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Data of soil hydraulic properties forms often a limiting factor in unsaturated zone modelling, especially at the larger scales. Investigations for the hydraulic characterization of soils are time-consuming and costly, and the accuracy of the results obtained by the different methodologies is still

  16. Monitoring hydraulic fractures: state estimation using an extended Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochinha, Fernando Alves; Peirce, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in using remote elastostatic deformations to identify the evolving geometry of underground fractures that are forced to propagate by the injection of high pressure viscous fluids. These so-called hydraulic fractures are used to increase the permeability in oil and gas reservoirs as well as to pre-fracture ore-bodies for enhanced mineral extraction. The undesirable intrusion of these hydraulic fractures into environmentally sensitive areas or into regions in mines which might pose safety hazards has stimulated the search for techniques to enable the evolving hydraulic fracture geometries to be monitored. Previous approaches to this problem have involved the inversion of the elastostatic data at isolated time steps in the time series provided by tiltmeter measurements of the displacement gradient field at selected points in the elastic medium. At each time step, parameters in simple static models of the fracture (e.g. a single displacement discontinuity) are identified. The approach adopted in this paper is not to regard the sequence of sampled elastostatic data as independent, but rather to treat the data as linked by the coupled elastic-lubrication equations that govern the propagation of the evolving hydraulic fracture. We combine the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with features of a recently developed implicit numerical scheme to solve the coupled free boundary problem in order to form a novel algorithm to identify the evolving fracture geometry. Numerical experiments demonstrate that, despite excluding significant physical processes in the forward numerical model, the EKF-numerical algorithm is able to compensate for the un-modeled dynamics by using the information fed back from tiltmeter data. Indeed the proposed algorithm is able to provide reasonably faithful estimates of the fracture geometry, which are shown to converge to the actual hydraulic fracture geometry as the number of tiltmeters is increased. Since the location of

  17. Thermal modeling of a hydraulic hybrid vehicle transmission based on thermodynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyukjoon; Sprengel, Michael; Ivantysynova, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid vehicles have become a popular alternative to conventional powertrain architectures by offering improved fuel efficiency along with a range of environmental benefits. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles (HHV) offer one approach to hybridization with many benefits over competing technologies. Among these benefits are lower component costs, more environmentally friendly construction materials, and the ability to recover a greater quantity of energy during regenerative braking which make HHVs partially well suited to urban environments. In order to further the knowledge base regarding HHVs, this paper explores the thermodynamic characteristics of such a system. A system model is detailed for both the hydraulic and thermal components of a closed circuit hydraulic hybrid transmission following the FTP-72 driving cycle. Among the new techniques proposed in this paper is a novel method for capturing rapid thermal transients. This paper concludes by comparing the results of this model with experimental data gathered on a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) transmission dynamometer possessing the same architecture, components, and driving cycle used within the simulation model. This approach can be used for several applications such as thermal stability analysis of HHVs, optimal thermal management, and analysis of the system's thermodynamic efficiency. - Highlights: • Thermal modeling for HHVs is introduced. • A model for the hydraulic and thermal system is developed for HHVs. • A novel method for capturing rapid thermal transients is proposed. • The thermodynamic system diagram of a series HHV is predicted.

  18. Discussion on sealing performance required in disposal system. Hydraulic analysis of tunnel intersections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Yutaka; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Uragami, Manabu; Kitayama, Kazumi; Fujita, Tomoo; Kawakami, Susumu; Yui, Mikazu; Umeki, Hiroyuki; Miyamoto, Yoichi

    2005-09-01

    The sealing performance of a repository must be considered in the safety assessment of the geological disposal system of the high-level radioactive waste. NUMO and JNC established 'Technical Commission on Sealing Technology of Repository' based on the cooperation agreement. The objectives of this commission are to present the concept on the sealing performance required in the disposal system and to develop the direction for future R and D programme for design requirements of closure components (backfilling material, clay plug, etc.) in the presented concept. In the first phase of this commission, the current status of domestic and international sealing technologies were reviewed; and repository components and repository environments were summarized subsequently, the hydraulic analysis of tunnel intersections, where a main tunnel and a disposal tunnel in a disposal panel meet, were performed, considering components in and around the engineered barrier system (EBS). Since all tunnels are connected in the underground facility, understanding the hydraulic behaviour of tunnel intersections is an important issue to estimate migration of radionuclides from the EBS and to evaluate the required sealing performance in the disposal system. In the analytical results, it was found that the direction of hydraulic gradient, hydraulic conductivities of concrete and backfilling materials and the position of clay plug had impact on flow condition around the EBS. (author)

  19. FOREWORD: The XXV IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems marks half a century tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan-Resiga, Romeo

    2010-05-01

    far from the best efficiency regime. The traditional partnership with the Romanian Academy - Timisoara Branch, Laboratory for Hydrodynamics and Cavitation, led to complex projects that combine both basic theoretical developments with advanced experimental investigations leading to practical engineering solutions for modern hydraulic machines. The International Association of Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research (IAHR) celebrates its 75th anniversary this year. IAHR particularly promotes the advancement and exchange of knowledge through working groups, specialty symposia, congresses, and publications on water resources, river and coastal hydraulics, risk analysis, energy, environment, disaster prevention, industrial processes. The IAHR - Committee on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems deals with the advancement of technology associated with the understanding of steady and unsteady flow characteristics in hydraulic machinery and conduit systems connected to the machinery. The technology elements include the fluid behaviour within machine components, hydro-elastic behaviour of machine components, cavitation, and two phase flow in turbines and pumps, hydraulic machine and plant control systems, the use of hydraulic machines to improve water quality, and even considerations to improve fish survival in their passage through hydro plants. The main emphases of the IAHR Committee on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems are to stimulate research and understanding of the technologies associated with hydraulic machinery and to promote interaction between the machine designers, machine users, the academic community, and the community at large. Hydraulic machinery is both cost effective and environmentally responsible. The increasing atmospheric content of carbon dioxide related to pollution from thermal power plants, is one of the most significant threats to our global ecology. The problem is exacerbated by the need for increased energy production in third world countries. This

  20. Modular core component support for nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, L.M.; Anthony, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    The core of a nuclear reactor is made up of a plurality of support modules for containing components such as fuel elements, reflectors and control rods. Each module includes a component support portion located above a grid plate in a low-pressure coolant zone and a coolant inlet portion disposed within a module receptacle which depends from the grid plate into a zone of high-pressure coolant. Coolant enters the module through aligned openings within the receptacle and module inlet portion and flows upward into contact with the core components. The modules are hydraulically balanced within the receptacles to prevent expulsion by the upward coolant forces. (U.S.)

  1. Tipping device for large components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guigon, J.P.; Beraudier, D.

    1984-01-01

    For large components machining as components of a pressurized water reactor, it is necessary to have means allowing to present them in a position determined with regard to the machine tool used. The aim of the invention is a tipping device which consists of a base resting on the ground, a support-table mounted on this base, moving in rotation with the aid of at least a pivot joint of which axis is horizontal and parallel to the table and a gear pivot allowing to get a very good precision for the orientation of the piece and a very good stability whatever the orientation may be. The output shaft pinion of the base meshes with a gear wheel segment fixed to the table structure. Safety straps fasten the table structure to the base, as they are secured by horizontal pins. The toe pins run in straight slot holes incorporated in base jaws. The table rotation may be controlled by a spring-loaded braking mechanism which acts on the pivot axis and can be released by a hydraulic jack. The hydraulic pressure is used to prevent motor operation, unless the brakes have been released [fr

  2. The hydraulic capacity of deteriorating sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollert, J; Ugarelli, R; Saegrov, S; Schilling, W; Di Federico, V

    2005-01-01

    Sewer and wastewater systems suffer from insufficient capacity, construction flaws and pipe deterioration. Consequences are structural failures, local floods, surface erosion and pollution of receiving waters bodies. European cities spend in the order of five billion Euro per year for wastewater network rehabilitation. This amount is estimated to increase due to network ageing. The project CARE-S (Computer Aided RE-habilitation of Sewer Networks) deals with sewer and storm water networks. The final project goal is to develop integrated software, which provides the most cost-efficient system of maintenance, repair and rehabilitation of sewer networks. Decisions on investments in rehabilitation often have to be made with uncertain information about the structural condition and the hydraulic performance of a sewer system. Because of this, decision-making involves considerable risks. This paper presents the results of research focused on the study of hydraulic effects caused by failures due to temporal decline of sewer systems. Hydraulic simulations are usually carried out by running commercial models that apply, as input, default values of parameters that strongly influence results. Using CCTV inspections information as dataset to catalogue principal types of failures affecting pipes, a 3D model was used to evaluate their hydraulic consequences. The translation of failures effects in parameters values producing the same hydraulic conditions caused by failures was carried out through the comparison of laboratory experiences and 3D simulations results. Those parameters could be the input of 1D commercial models instead of the default values commonly inserted.

  3. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The M. Nguyen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technology has been found effective for heavy duty vehicle because of its high power density. The mechanical batteries used in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV can be charged and discharged remarkably faster than chemical batteries. This feature is essential for heavy vehicle hybridization. One of the main problems that should be solved for the successful commercialization of HHV is the excessive noise and vibration involving with the hydraulic systems. This study focuses on using magnetorheological (MR technology to reduce the noise and vibration transmissibility from the hydraulic system to the vehicle body. In order to study the noise and vibration of HHV, a hydraulic hybrid subsystem in parallel design is analyzed. This research shows that the MR elements play an important role in reducing the transmitted noise and vibration to the vehicle body. Additionally, locations and orientations of the isolation system also affect the efficiency of the noise and vibration mitigation. In simulations, a skyhook control algorithm is used to achieve the highest possible effectiveness of the MR isolation system.

  4. Energy Efficient Hydraulic Hybrid Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Rydberg, Karl-Erik

    2009-01-01

    Energy efficiency of propulsion systems for cars, trucks and construction machineries has become one of the most important topics in today’s mobile system design, mainly because of increased fuel costs and new regulations about engine emissions, which is needed to save the environment. To meet the increased requirements on higher efficiency and better functionality, components and systems have been developed over the years. For the last ten years the development of hybrid systems can be divid...

  5. Virtual prototype simulation of hydraulic shovel kinematics for spatial characterization in surface mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Frimpong; Y. Li [University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO (United States). Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering

    2005-12-15

    Hydraulic shovels are large-capacity equipment for excavating and loading dump trucks in constrained surface mining environments. Kinematics simulation of such equipment allows mine planning engineers to plan, design and control their spatial environments to achieve operating safety and efficiency. In this study, a hydraulic shovel was modelled as a mechanical manipulator with five degrees of freedom comprising the crawler, upper, boom, stick, bucket and bucket door components. The model was captured in a schematic diagram consisting of a six-bar linkage using the symbolic notation of Denavit and Hartenberg (Ho and Sriwattanathmma 1989). Homogeneous transformation matrices were used to capture the spatial configuration between adjacent links. The forward kinematics method was used to formulate the kinematics equations by attaching Cartesian coordinates to the schematic shovel diagram. Based on the kinematics model, a 3D virtual prototype of the hydraulic shovel was built in the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) environment to simulate the motions of the hydraulic shovel with selected time steps. The simulator was validated using real-world data with animation and numerical analysis of the digging, swinging and dumping motions of the shovel machinery. The superimposed display of the deployment of the hydraulic shovel in three phases allows a detailed motion examination of the system. The numerical results of linear and angular displacements of the bucket tip and bucket door can be used to analyse the kinematics motion of the hydraulic shovel for its optimization. This simulator provides a solid foundation for further dynamics modelling and dynamic hydraulic shovel performance studies.

  6. Development of a water hydraulic servovalve; Suiatsu servo ben no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, E.; Nakao, Y. [Kanagawa University, Kanagawa (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Yamashina, C.; Miyagawa, S.; Usami, Y.; Shinoda, M. [Ebara Research Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-06-25

    An electrohydraulic servovalve that uses clear water as a pressure medium (water hydraulic servovalve) is developed. A conventional electrohydraulic servovalve cannot work with this hostile fluid. This paper explains the structure and functions of components, and the relationship between them, as well as development procedure of the water hydraulic servovalve. The basic idea for the development is to support the spool of the valve with hydrostatic bearings and to lead the water from the bearings to the flapper-nozzle system, which, in this valve contains a laminar restriction upstream from the nozzle instead of the turbulent restriction in the conventional flapper-nozzle system. This paper also explains the design procedure of the hydrostatic bearing in the valve and the connection of electromagnetic elements and the fluidic elements. The manufactured water hydraulic servovalves show good characteristics in their smooth motion, endurance and controllability, including dynamic characteristics. 25 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Regenerative Braking Control Strategy of Electric-Hydraulic Hybrid (EHH Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel electric-hydraulic hybrid drivetrain incorporating a set of hydraulic systems is proposed for application in a pure electric vehicle. Models of the electric and hydraulic components are constructed. Two control strategies, which are based on two separate rules, are developed; the maximum energy recovery rate strategy adheres to the rule of the maximization of the braking energy recovery rate, while the minimum current impact strategy adheres to the rule of the minimization of the charge current to the battery. The simulation models were established to verify the effects of these two control strategies. An ABS (Anti-lock Braking System fuzzy control strategy is also developed and simulated. The simulation results demonstrate that the developed control strategy can effectively absorb the braking energy, suppress the current impact, and assure braking safety.

  8. Fault Diagnosis of Hydraulic Servo Valve Based on Genetic Optimization RBF-BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ping FAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Electro-hydraulic servo valves are core components of the hydraulic servo system of rolling mills. It is necessary to adopt an effective fault diagnosis method to keep the hydraulic servo valve in a good work state. In this paper, RBF and BP neural network are integrated effectively to build a double hidden layers RBF-BP neural network for fault diagnosis. In the process of training the neural network, genetic algorithm (GA is used to initialize and optimize the connection weights and thresholds of the network. Several typical fault states are detected by the constructed GA-optimized fault diagnosis scheme. Simulation results shown that the proposed fault diagnosis scheme can give satisfactory effect.

  9. Nonlinear, Adaptive and Fault-tolerant Control for Electro-hydraulic Servo Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choux, Martin

    is designed and implemented on the test bed that successfully diagnoses internal or external leakages, friction variations in the actuator or fault related to pressure sensors. The presented algorithm uses the position and pressure measurements to detect and isolate faults, avoiding missed detection and false...... numerous attractive properties, hydraulic systems are always subject to potential leakages in their components, friction variation in their hydraulic actuators and deciency in their sensors. These violations of normal behaviour reduce the system performances and can lead to system failure...... if they are not detected early and handled. Moreover, the task of controlling electro hydraulic systems for high performance operations is challenging due to the highly nonlinear behaviour of such systems and the large amount of uncertainties present in their models. This thesis focuses on nonlinear adaptive fault...

  10. Disposal of coal combustion wastes in the hydraulic backfill process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierzyna, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    This article presents the results of studies regarding the physical properties of selected combustion by-products (CCPs) currently produced in the energy production industry. These properties have been compared with the requirements of the technologies applied in the Polish underground mines. The article gives special consideration to the application of the products in the hydraulic backfill technology. The possibility of using bottom-ashes and slags was considered. The amount of CCPs disposed in Polish hard coal mines is approximately 1.1 million Mg and the tendency is decreasing. In the past two years, approximately 100-150 thousand Mg of CCPs was used in the hydraulic backfill technology. The percentage of the fraction smaller than 0.1 mm is determining for the possibility of using a given type of CCPs in the backfill material. This practically excludes the possibility of using any fly ashes in that technology. In slags from conventional boilers and bottom ashes from fluidized bed boilers the fraction below 0.1 mm constitutes 25% of the total at maximum, which allows for their use in the materials used in hydraulic backfill as a component comprising from 30% to 60%, respectively. Slags (10 01 01) are characterized by the lack of bonding properties, which, in case of open backfill systems that are exposed to atmospheric conditions, constitutes an advantage in comparison to bottom ashes (10 01 24), which in turn definitely exhibit bonding properties. The solution of the problem of using bottom ashes is their supply and application on a current basis.

  11. Comparative hydraulic architecture of tropical tree species representing a range of successional stages and wood density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine A. McCulloh; Frederick C. Meinzer; John S. Sperry; Barbara Lachenbruch; Steven L. Voelker; David R. Woodruff; Jean-Christophe Domec

    2011-01-01

    Plant hydraulic architecture (PHA) has been linked to water transport sufficiency, photosynthetic rates, growth form and attendant carbon allocation. Despite its influence on traits central to conferring an overall competitive advantage in a given environment, few studies have examined whether key aspects of PHA are indicative of successional stage, especially within...

  12. Analysis of the steady state hydraulic behaviour of the ITER blanket cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Maio, P.A., E-mail: pietroalessandro.dimaio@unipa.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Dell’Orco, G.; Furmanek, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Garitta, S. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Merola, M.; Mitteau, R.; Raffray, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Spagnuolo, G.A.; Vallone, E. [Dipartimento di Energia, Ingegneria dell’Informazione e Modelli Matematici, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Nominal steady state hydraulic behaviour of ITER blanket standard sector cooling system has been investigated. • Numerical simulations have been run adopting a qualified thermal-hydraulic system code. • Hydraulic characteristic functions and coolant mass flow rates, velocities and pressure drops have been assessed. • Most of the considered circuits are able to effectively cool blanket modules, meeting ITER requirements. - Abstract: The blanket system is the ITER reactor component devoted to providing a physical boundary for plasma transients and contributing to thermal and nuclear shielding of vacuum vessel, magnets and external components. It is expected to be subjected to significant heat loads under nominal conditions and its cooling system has to ensure an adequate cooling, preventing any risk of critical heat flux occurrence while complying with pressure drop limits. At the University of Palermo a study has been performed, in cooperation with the ITER Organization, to investigate the steady state hydraulic behaviour of the ITER blanket standard sector cooling system. A theoretical–computational approach based on the finite volume method has been followed, adopting the RELAP5 system code. Finite volume models of the most critical blanket cooling circuits have been set-up, realistically simulating the coolant flow domain. The steady state hydraulic behaviour of each cooling circuit has been investigated, determining its hydraulic characteristic function and assessing the spatial distribution of coolant mass flow rates, velocities and pressure drops under reference nominal conditions. Results obtained have indicated that the investigated cooling circuits are able to provide an effective cooling to blanket modules, generally meeting ITER requirements in term of pressure drop and velocity distribution, except for a couple of circuits that are being revised.

  13. Hydraulic servo control spool valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Donald M.

    1983-01-01

    A servo operated spool valve having a fixed sleeve and axially movable spool. The sleeve is machined in two halves to form a long, narrow tapered orifice slot across which a transverse wall of the spool is positioned. The axial position of the spool wall along the slot regulates the open orifice area with extreme precision.

  14. The 25 kWe solar thermal Stirling hydraulic engine system: Conceptual design

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Maurice; Emigh, Grant; Noble, Jack; Riggle, Peter; Sorenson, Torvald

    1988-01-01

    The conceptual design and analysis of a solar thermal free-piston Stirling hydraulic engine system designed to deliver 25 kWe when coupled to a 11 meter test bed concentrator is documented. A manufacturing cost assessment for 10,000 units per year was made. The design meets all program objectives including a 60,000 hr design life, dynamic balancing, fully automated control, more than 33.3 percent overall system efficiency, properly conditioned power, maximum utilization of annualized insolation, and projected production costs. The system incorporates a simple, rugged, reliable pool boiler reflux heat pipe to transfer heat from the solar receiver to the Stirling engine. The free-piston engine produces high pressure hydraulic flow which powers a commercial hydraulic motor that, in turn, drives a commercial rotary induction generator. The Stirling hydraulic engine uses hermetic bellows seals to separate helium working gas from hydraulic fluid which provides hydrodynamic lubrication to all moving parts. Maximum utilization of highly refined, field proven commercial components for electric power generation minimizes development cost and risk.

  15. Research on the Robustness of the Constant Speed Control of Hydraulic Energy Storage Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengguang Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage plays a major role in solving the fluctuation and intermittence problem of wind and the effective use of wind power. The application of the hydraulic accumulator is the most efficient and convenient way to store wind energy in hydraulic wind turbines. A hydraulic energy storage generation system (HESGS can transform hydraulic energy stored in the hydraulic accumulator into stable and constant electrical energy by controlling the variable motor, regardless of wind changes. The aim of the present study is to design a constant speed control method for the variable motor in the HESGS and investigate the influence of the controller’s main parameters on the resistance of the HESGS to external load power disturbances. Mathematical equations of all components in this system are introduced and an entire system simulation model is built. A double closed-loop control method of the variable motor is presented within this paper, which keeps the motor speed constant for the fixed frequency of electrical power generated by the HESGS. Ultimately, a series of simulations with different proportional gains and integral gains under the environment of changeless load power step are conducted. At the same time, comparison analyses of the experiment and simulation under variable load power step are performed. The results verify the correctness and the usability of the simulation model, and also indicate that the proposed control method is robust to the disturbances of changing load power.

  16. Experimental evaluation of the hydraulic resistance of compacted bentonite/boom clay interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Anh-Minh; Cui, Yu-Jun; Delage, Pierre; Munoz, Juan Jorge; Li, Xiang-Ling

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the in-situ PRACLAY Heater experiment to be performed in the HADES URF in Mol (Belgium), the feasibility of a hydraulic cut-off of the Excavation Damaged Zone (EDZ) and the Repository Components (RC) of the disposal galleries by using a horizontal seal will be examined. It has been planned to install an annular seal composed of compacted bentonite between the heated zone and the access gallery (PRACLAY seal test), so that to avoid any hydraulic shortcut towards the access gallery. According to numerical scoping calculations, heating until 80 deg C will induce a pore pressure of the order of 3.0 MPa. In order to verify the effects of this water pressure on the performance of the annular seal system and more specifically on the hydraulic resistance of the interface between the compacted bentonite and the host rock (Boom clay), laboratory percolation tests at 20 and 80 deg C were performed. The results confirm the performance of the compacted bentonite seal to avoid the hydraulic shortcut to the access gallery under the foreseen hydraulic and thermal conditions. (author)

  17. Inducement of Design Parameters for Reliability Improvement of Servo Actuator for Hydraulic Valve Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Baek Ju; Kim, Do Sik [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The precision hydraulic valve is widely used in various industrial field like aircraft, automobile, and general machinery. Servo actuator is the most important device for driving the precise hydraulic valve. The reliable operation of servo actuator effects on the overall hydraulic system. The performance of servo actuator relies on frequency response and step response according to arbitrary input signal. In this paper, we performed the analysis for the components of servo actuator to satisfy the reliable operation and response characteristics through the reliability analysis, and also induced the design parameters to realize the reliable operation and fast response characteristics of servo actuator for hydraulic valve operation through the empirical knowledge of experts and electromagnetic theories. We suggested the design equations to determine the values of design parameters of servo actuator as like bobbin size, length of yoke and plunger and turn number of coil, and verified the achieved design values through FEM analysis and performance tests using some prototypes of servo actuators adapted in hydraulic valve.

  18. A Computational Model of Hydraulic Volume Displacement Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pil'gunov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a computational model of industrial-purpose hydraulic drive with two hydraulic volume adjustable working chamber machines (pump and motor. Adjustable pump equipped with the pressure control unit can be run together with several adjustable hydraulic motors on the principle of three-phase hydraulic socket-outlet with high-pressure lines, drain, and drainage system. The paper considers the pressure-controlled hydrostatic transmission with hydraulic motor as an output link. It shows a possibility to create a saving hydraulic drive using a functional tie between the adjusting parameters of the pump and hydraulic motor through the pressure difference, torque, and angular rate of the hydraulic motor shaft rotation. The programmable logic controller can implement such tie. The Coulomb and viscous frictions are taken into consideration when developing a computational model of the hydraulic volume displacement drive. Discharge balance considers external and internal leakages in equivalent clearances of hydraulic machines, as well as compression loss volume caused by hydraulic fluid compressibility and deformation of pipe walls. To correct dynamic properties of hydraulic drive, the paper offers that in discharge balance are included the additional regulated external leakages in the open circuit of hydraulic drive and regulated internal leakages in the closed-loop circuit. Generalized differential equations having functional multipliers and multilinked nature have been obtained to describe the operation of hydraulic positioning and speed drive with two hydraulic volume adjustable working chamber machines. It is shown that a proposed computational model of hydraulic drive can be taken into consideration in development of LS («Load-Sensing» drives, in which the pumping pressure is tuned to the value required for the most loaded slave motor to overcome the load. Results attained can be used both in designing the industrial-purpose heavy

  19. Effect of Subsoil Compaction on Hydraulic Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Berisso, Feto Esimo; Schjønning, Per

    Soil compaction is a major threat to sustainable soil quality and is increasing since agricultural machinery is becoming heavier and is used more intensively. Compaction not only reduces pore volume, but also modifies the pore connectivity. The inter-Nordic research project POSEIDON (Persistent...... effects of subsoil compaction on soil ecological services and functions) put forward the hypothesis that due to a decrease in the hydraulic conductivity in the soil matrix, compaction increases the frequency of preferential flow events in macropores and therefore increases the leaching of otherwise....... In the field the near-saturated hydraulic conductivity was measured with a tension infiltrometer in the same treatments at a depth of 30 cm. In the laboratory saturated and near-saturated hydraulic conductivity and the bulk density were measured as well. Also, macropores in the large soil cores were made...

  20. Hydraulic characterization of hydrothermally altered Nopal tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R.T.; Meyer-James, K.A. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Rice, G. [George Rice and Associates, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Understanding the mechanics of variably saturated flow in fractured-porous media is of fundamental importance to evaluating the isolation performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository for the Yucca Mountain site. Developing that understanding must be founded on the analysis and interpretation of laboratory and field data. This report presents an analysis of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of tuff cores from the Pena Blanca natural analog site in Mexico. The basic intent of the analysis was to examine possible trends and relationships between the hydraulic properties and the degree of hydrothermal alteration exhibited by the tuff samples. These data were used in flow simulations to evaluate the significance of a particular conceptual (composite) model and of distinct hydraulic properties on the rate and nature of water flow.

  1. Design of a hydraulic ash transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirgorodskii, V.G.; Mova, M.E.; Korenev, V.E.; Grechikhin, Yu.A. (Donetskii Politekhnicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1990-04-01

    Discusses general design of a hydraulic ash removal system to be employed at the reconstructed six 225 MW blocks of the Mironov State Regional Power Plant in the USSR. The blocks burn low-grade solid fuel with an ash content of up to 40.5%. Large quantities of ash have to be moved from the plant (total ash production 60 t/h, using 570 t/h of water for cooling and moistening). An optimum hydraulic ash transportation system would include a two-section airlift pumping system, shown in a diagram. Technological advantages of using this airlift system are enumerated, including short pipes, reduction in required water quantity and the possibility of siting hydraulic pumps at zero level.

  2. Hydraulic characterization of hydrothermally altered Nopal tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.T.; Meyer-James, K.A.; Rice, G.

    1995-07-01

    Understanding the mechanics of variably saturated flow in fractured-porous media is of fundamental importance to evaluating the isolation performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository for the Yucca Mountain site. Developing that understanding must be founded on the analysis and interpretation of laboratory and field data. This report presents an analysis of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of tuff cores from the Pena Blanca natural analog site in Mexico. The basic intent of the analysis was to examine possible trends and relationships between the hydraulic properties and the degree of hydrothermal alteration exhibited by the tuff samples. These data were used in flow simulations to evaluate the significance of a particular conceptual (composite) model and of distinct hydraulic properties on the rate and nature of water flow

  3. Hydraulics of embankment-dam breaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walder, J. S.; Iverson, R. M.; Logan, M.; Godt, J. W.; Solovitz, S.

    2012-12-01

    Constructed or natural earthen dams can pose hazards to downstream communities. Experiments to date on earthen-dam breaching have focused on dam geometries relevant to engineering practice. We have begun experiments with dam geometries more like those of natural dams. Water was impounded behind dams constructed at the downstream end of the USGS debris-flow flume. Dams were made of compacted, well-sorted, moist beach sand (D50=0.21 mm), 3.5 m from toe to toe, but varying in height from 0.5 to 1 m; the lower the dam, the smaller the reservoir volume and the broader the initially flat crest. Breaching was started by cutting a slot 30-40 mm wide and deep in the dam crest after filling the reservoir. Water level and pore pressure within the dam were monitored. Experiments were also recorded by an array of still- and video cameras above the flume and a submerged video camera pointed at the upstream dam face. Photogrammetric software was used to create DEMs from stereo pairs, and particle-image velocimetry was used to compute the surface-velocity field from the motion of tracers scattered on the water surface. As noted by others, breaching involves formation and migration of a knickpoint (or several). Once the knickpoint reaches the upstream dam face, it takes on an arcuate form whose continued migration we determined by measuring the onset of motion of colored markers on the dam face. The arcuate feature, which can be considered the head of the "breach channel", is nearly coincident with the transition from subcritical to supercritical flow; that is, it acts as a weir that hydraulically controls reservoir emptying. Photogenic slope failures farther downstream, although the morphologically dominant process at work, play no role at all in hydraulic control aside from rare instances in which they extend upstream so far as to perturb the weir, where the flow cross section is nearly self-similar through time. The domain downstream of the critical-flow section does influence

  4. (EOI) Form

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Dorine Odongo

    COLLABORATING TECHNICAL AGENCIES: EXPRESSION OF INTEREST FORM. • Please read the information provided about the initiative and the eligibility requirements in the Prospectus before completing this application form. • Ensure all the sections of the form are accurately completed and saved in PDF format.

  5. Modular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.; Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modular forms are functions with an enormous amount of symmetry that play a central role in number theory, connecting it with analysis and geometry. They have played a prominent role in mathematics since the 19th century and their study continues to flourish today. Modular forms formed the

  6. Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

    2007-09-13

    The self-potential (SP) response during hydraulic fracturing of intact Sierra granite was investigated in the laboratory. Excellent correlation of pressure drop and SP suggests that the SP response is created primarily by electrokinetic coupling. For low pressures, the variation of SP with pressure drop is linear, indicating a constant coupling coefficient (Cc) of -200 mV/MPa. However for pressure drops >2 MPa, the magnitude of the Cc increases by 80% in an exponential trend. This increasing Cc is related to increasing permeability at high pore pressures caused by dilatancy of micro-cracks, and is explained by a decrease in the hydraulic tortuosity. Resistivity measurements reveal a decrease of 2% prior to hydraulic fracturing and a decrease of {approx}35% after fracturing. An asymmetric spatial SP response created by injectate diffusion into dilatant zones is observed prior to hydraulic fracturing, and in most cases this SP variation revealed the impending crack geometry seconds before failure. At rupture, injectate rushes into the new fracture area where the zeta potential is different than in the rock porosity, and an anomalous SP spike is observed. After fracturing, the spatial SP distribution reveals the direction of fracture propagation. Finally, during tensile cracking in a point load device with no water flow, a SP spike is observed that is caused by contact electrification. However, the time constant of this event is much less than that for transients observed during hydraulic fracturing, suggesting that SP created solely from material fracture does not contribute to the SP response during hydraulic fracturing.

  7. Hydraulic Properties related to Stream Reaeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsivoglou, E. C.; Wallace, J. R. [School of Civil Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1970-09-15

    The paper reports the results of recent and current field tracer experiments designed to investigate the relationships between the reaeration capacity of a flowing stream and the stream's hydraulic properties. The purpose of the studies is to develop models for the accurate prediction of stream reaeration capacity on the basis of observation of the associated hydraulic properties. The ability of a flowing stream to absorb oxygen from the overlying atmosphere is the principal process by which the stream is able to recover its dissolved oxygen resources once they have been depleted by bacterial degradation of organic wastes. Accurate knowledge of stream reaeration capacity is therefore a necessity in determining the required degree of waste treatment, and the associated costs, in any specific case. Oxygen absorption can only occur at the air-water interface, hence reaeration is a direct function of the rate of surface water replacement due to turbulent mixing. The latter is not directly observable, and so reaeration capacity has not been observable before the quite recent development of a gaseous radiotracer technique for field measurement of reaeration. This procedure involves the simultaneous use of three tracers, namely a fluorescent dye for time of flow, tritiated water for accurate dispersion measurement, and dissolved krypton-85 for measurement of gas transfer. Field results obtained by this technique are highly reproducible. Field tracer studies of the reaeration capacities of three medium-sized streams have been conducted over a total of about fifty river miles. Associated hydraulic properties such as stream flow, cross-sectional area, depth, velocity, hydraulic gradient and dispersion have also been measured. Features such as waterfalls, rapids and pools are included, and more than eighty observations of the reaeration capacities of individual stream reaches have been made. The paper reports the observed relationships between stream reaeration capacity and

  8. Hydraulic properties related to stream reaeration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsivoglou, E C; Wallace, J R [School of Civil Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1970-09-15

    The paper reports the results of recent and current field tracer experiments designed to investigate the relationships between the reaeration capacity of a flowing stream and the stream's hydraulic properties. The purpose of the studies is to develop models for the accurate prediction of stream reaeration capacity on the basis of observation of the associated hydraulic properties. The ability of a flowing stream to absorb oxygen from the overlying atmosphere is the principal process by which the stream is able to recover its dissolved oxygen resources once they have been depleted by bacterial degradation of organic wastes. Accurate knowledge of stream reaeration capacity is therefore a necessity in determining the required degree of waste treatment, and the associated costs, in any specific case. Oxygen absorption can only occur at the air-water interface, hence reaeration is a direct function of the rate of surface water replacement due to turbulent mixing. The latter is not directly observable, and so reaeration capacity has not been observable before the quite recent development of a gaseous radiotracer technique for field measurement of reaeration. This procedure involves the simultaneous use of three tracers, namely a fluorescent dye for time of flow, tritiated water for accurate dispersion measurement, and dissolved krypton-85 for measurement of gas transfer. Field results obtained by this technique are highly reproducible. Field tracer studies of the reaeration capacities of three medium-sized streams have been conducted over a total of about fifty river miles. Associated hydraulic properties such as stream flow, cross-sectional area, depth, velocity, hydraulic gradient and dispersion have also been measured. Features such as waterfalls, rapids and pools are included, and more than eighty observations of the reaeration capacities of individual stream reaches have been made. The paper reports the observed relationships between stream reaeration capacity and

  9. Promoting water hydraulics in Malaysia: A green educational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Ahmad Anas; Zaili, Zarin Syukri; Hassan, Siti Nor Habibah; Tuan, Tee Boon; Saadun, Mohd Noor Asril; Ibrahim, Mohd Qadafie

    2014-10-01

    In promoting water hydraulics in Malaysia, this paper presents research development of water hydraulics educational training system for secondary and tertiary levels in Malaysia. Water hydraulics trainer with robotic attachment has been studied in order to promote the usefulness of such educational tools in promoting sustainability and green technology in the country. The trainer is being developed in order to allow constructive curriculum development and continuous marketing research for the effectiveness and usefulness of using water in hydraulic power trainer. The research on water-based hydraulic trainer is now possible with the current development in water hydraulics technology.

  10. A Thermo-Hydraulic Tool for Automatic Virtual Hazop Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pugi L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of complex lubrication systems in the Oil&Gas industry has reached high levels of competitiveness in terms of requested performances and reliability. In particular, the use of HazOp (acronym of Hazard and Operability analysis represents a decisive factor to evaluate safety and reliability of plants. The HazOp analysis is a structured and systematic examination of a planned or existing operation in order to identify and evaluate problems that may represent risks to personnel or equipment. In particular, P&ID schemes (acronym of Piping and Instrument Diagram according to regulation in force ISO 14617 are used to evaluate the design of the plant in order to increase its safety and reliability in different operating conditions. The use of a simulation tool can drastically increase speed, efficiency and reliability of the design process. In this work, a tool, called TTH lib (acronym of Transient Thermal Hydraulic Library for the 1-D simulation of thermal hydraulic plants is presented. The proposed tool is applied to the analysis of safety relevant components of compressor and pumping units, such as lubrication circuits. Opposed to the known commercial products, TTH lib has been customized in order to ease simulation of complex interactions with digital logic components and plant controllers including their sensors and measurement systems. In particular, the proposed tool is optimized for fixed step execution and fast prototyping of Real Time code both for testing and production purposes. TTH lib can be used as a standard SimScape-Simulink library of components optimized and specifically designed in accordance with the P&ID definitions. Finally, an automatic code generation procedure has been developed, so TTH simulation models can be directly assembled from the P&ID schemes and technical documentation including detailed informations of sensor and measurement system.

  11. Verifying the prevalence, properties, and congruent hydraulics of at-many-stations hydraulic geometry (AMHG) for rivers in the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Caitline A.; Gleason, Colin J.

    2018-01-01

    Hydraulic geometry (HG) has long enabled daily discharge estimates, flood risk monitoring, and water resource and habitat assessments, among other applications. At-many-stations HG (AMHG) is a newly discovered form of HG with an evolving understanding. AMHG holds that there are temporally and spatially invariant ('congruent') depth, width, velocity, and discharge values that are shared by all stations of a river. Furthermore, these river-wide congruent hydraulics have been shown to link at-a-station HG (AHG) in space, contrary to previous expectation of AHG as spatially unpredictable. To date, AMHG has only been thoroughly examined on six rivers, and its congruent hydraulics are not well understood. To address the limited understanding of AMHG, we calculated AMHG for 191 rivers in the United States using USGS field-measured data from over 1900 gauging stations. These rivers represent nearly all geologic and climatic settings found in the continental U.S. and allow for a robust assessment of AMHG across scales. Over 60% of rivers were found to have AMHG with strong explanatory power to predict AHG across space (defined as r2 > 0.6, 118/191 rivers). We also found that derived congruent hydraulics bear little relation to their observed time-varying counterparts, and the strength of AMHG did not correlate with any available observed or congruent hydraulic parameters. We also found that AMHG is expressed at all fluvial scales in this study. Some statistically significant spatial clusters of rivers with strong and weak AMHG were identified, but further research is needed to identify why these clusters exist. Thus, this first widespread empirical investigation of AMHG leads us to conclude that AMHG is indeed a widely prevalent natural fluvial phenomenon, and we have identified linkages between known fluvial parameters and AMHG. Our work should give confidence to future researchers seeking to perform the necessary detailed hydraulic analysis of AMHG.

  12. Hydraulic modelling of the CARA Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasnarof, Daniel O.; Juanico, Luis; Giorgi, M.; Ghiselli, Alberto M.; Zampach, Ruben; Fiori, Jose M.; Yedros, Pablo A.

    2004-01-01

    The CARA fuel element is been developing by the National Atomic Energy Commission for both Argentinean PHWRs. In order to keep the hydraulic restriction in their fuel channels, one of CARA's goals is to keep its similarity with both present fuel elements. In this paper is presented pressure drop test performed at a low-pressure facility (Reynolds numbers between 5x10 4 and 1,5x10 5 ) and rational base models for their spacer grid and rod assembly. Using these models, we could estimate the CARA hydraulic performance in reactor conditions that have shown to be satisfactory. (author) [es

  13. Plug & Play Control of Hydraulic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tom Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    Process Control research program, which the work presented here is a part of. An industrial case study involving a large-scale hydraulic network with non-linear dynamics is studied. The hydraulic network underlies a district heating system, which provides heating water to a number of end-users in a city...... district. The case study considers a novel approach to the design of district heating systems in which the diameter of the pipes used in the system is reduced in order to reduce the heat losses in the system, thereby making it profitable to provide district heating to areas with low energy demands. The new...

  14. Mineral resource of the month: hydraulic cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic cements are the binders in concrete and most mortars and stuccos. Concrete, particularly the reinforced variety, is the most versatile of all construction materials, and most of the hydraulic cement produced worldwide is portland cement or similar cements that have portland cement as a basis, such as blended cements and masonry cements. Cement typically makes up less than 15 percent of the concrete mix; most of the rest is aggregates. Not counting the weight of reinforcing media, 1 ton of cement will typically yield about 8 tons of concrete.

  15. The hydraulics of the pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchter, J.C.; Barbier, D.; Caruso, A.

    1999-01-01

    The SFEN organized, the 10 june 1999 at Paris, a meeting in the domain of the PWR hydraulics and in particular the hydraulic phenomena concerning the vessel and the vapor generators. The papers presented showed the importance of the industrial stakes with their associated phenomena: cores performance and safety with the more homogenous cooling system, the rods and the control rods wear, the temperature control, the fluid-structure interactions. A great part was also devoted to the progresses in the domain of the numerical simulation and the models and algorithms qualification. (A.L.B.)

  16. Hydraulic regenerative system for a light vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Orpella Aceret, Jordi; Guinart Trayter, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    The thesis is based in a constructed light vehicle that must be improved by adding a hydraulic energy recovery system. This vehicle named as TrecoLiTH, participated in the Formula Electric and Hybrid competition (Formula EHI) 2009 in Italy -Rome- and won several awards. This system consists in two hydraulic motors hub mounted which are used to store fluid at high pressure in an accumulator when braking. Through a valve the pressure will flow from the high pressure accumulator to the low press...

  17. Fire Resistant Aircraft Hydraulic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    Chemical Division "Fluorinert" FC-48 - Fluorinated Hydrocarbon "Fluorinert" FC-70 - Fluorinated Hydrocarbon Montedison S. p. A. "Fomblin" Z-04...forming substances such as varnish which could seize a spool valve or other small-clearance sliding surfaces. The test setup is pictorially described in...breakdown products such as solid particles, gels, and sludge’can plug system filters and even small fluid passages, nozzles, and orifices. Varnish -like

  18. Characteristic Length Scales in Fracture Networks: Hydraulic Connectivity through Periodic Hydraulic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M.; Bour, O.; Le Borgne, T.; Longuevergne, L.; Lavenant, N.; Cole, M. C.; Guiheneuf, N.

    2017-12-01

    Determining hydraulic and transport connectivity in fractured bedrock has long been an important objective in contaminant hydrogeology, petroleum engineering, and geothermal operations. A persistent obstacle to making this determination is that the characteristic length scale is nearly impossible to determine in sparsely fractured networks. Both flow and transport occur through an unknown structure of interconnected fracture and/or fracture zones making the actual length that water or solutes travel undetermined. This poses difficulties for flow and transport models. For, example, hydraulic equations require a separation distance between pumping and observation well to determine hydraulic parameters. When wells pairs are close, the structure of the network can influence the interpretation of well separation and the flow dimension of the tested system. This issue is explored using hydraulic tests conducted in a shallow fractured crystalline rock. Periodic (oscillatory) slug tests were performed at the Ploemeur fractured rock test site located in Brittany, France. Hydraulic connectivity was examined between three zones in one well and four zones in another, located 6 m apart in map view. The wells are sufficiently close, however, that the tangential distance between the tested zones ranges between 6 and 30 m. Using standard periodic formulations of radial flow, estimates of storativity scale inversely with the square of the separation distance and hydraulic diffusivity directly with the square of the separation distance. Uncertainty in the connection paths between the two wells leads to an order of magnitude uncertainty in estimates of storativity and hydraulic diffusivity, although estimates of transmissivity are unaffected. The assumed flow dimension results in alternative estimates of hydraulic parameters. In general, one is faced with the prospect of assuming the hydraulic parameter and inverting the separation distance, or vice versa. Similar uncertainties exist

  19. Forming of superplastic ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesuer, D.R.; Wadsworth, J.; Nieh, T.G.

    1994-05-01

    Superplasticity in ceramics has now advanced to the stage that technologically viable superplastic deformation processing can be performed. In this paper, examples of superplastic forming and diffusion bonding of ceramic components are given. Recent work in biaxial gas-pressure forming of several ceramics is provided. These include yttria-stabilized, tetragonal zirconia (YTZP), a 20% alumina/YTZP composite, and silicon. In addition, the concurrent superplastic forming and diffusion bonding of a hybrid ceramic-metal structure are presented. These forming processes offer technological advantages of greater dimensional control and increased variety and complexity of shapes than is possible with conventional ceramic shaping technology.

  20. Thermal hydraulics analysis of LIBRA-SP target chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogahed, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    LIBRA-SP is a conceptual design study of an inertially confined 1000 MWe fusion power reactor utilizing self-pinched light ion beams. There are 24 ion beams which are arranged around the reactor cavity. The reaction chamber is an upright cylinder with an inverted conical roof resembling a mushroom, and a pool floor. The vertical sides of the cylinder are occupied by a blanket zone consisting of many perforated rigid HT-9 ferritic steel tubes called PERITs (PEr-forated RIgid Tube). The breeding/cooling material, liquid lead-lithium, flows through the PERITs, providing protection to the reflector/vacuum chamber so as to make it a lifetime component. The neutronics analysis and cavity hydrodynamics calculations are performed to account for the neutron heating and also to determine the effects of vaporization/condensation processes on the surface heat flux. The steady state nuclear heating distribution at the midplane is used for thermal hydraulics calculations. The maximum surface temperature of the HT-9 is chosen to not exceed 625 degree C to avoid drastic deterioration of the metal's mechanical properties. This choice restricts the thermal hydraulics performance of the reaction cavity. The inlet first surface coolant bulk temperature is 370 degree C, and the heat exchanger inlet coolant bulk temperature is 502 degree C. 4 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Hydraulic bilateral construction robot; Yuatsushiki bilateral kensetsu robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehata, K.; Mori, N. [Kayaba Industry Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-05-15

    Concerning a hydraulic bilateral construction robot, its system constitution, structures and functions of important components, and the results of some tests are explained, and the researches conducted at Gifu University are described. The construction robot in this report is a servo controlled system of a version developed from the mini-shovel now available in the market. It is equipped, in addition to an electrohydraulic servo control system, with various sensors for detecting the robot attitude, vibration, and load state, and with a camera for visualizing the surrounding landscape. It is also provided with a bilateral joy stick which is a remote control actuator capable of working sensation feedback and with a rocking unit that creates robot movements of rolling, pitching, and heaving. The construction robot discussed here, with output increased and response faster thanks to the employment of a hydraulic driving system for the aim of building a robot system superior in performance to the conventional model designed primarily for heavy duty, proves after tests to be a highly sophisticated remotely controlled robot control system. (NEDO)

  2. Thermal-hydraulic experiments and analyses on cold moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aso, Tomokazu; Kaminaga, Masanori; Terada, Atsushi; Hino, Ryutaro

    2001-01-01

    A cold moderator using supercritical hydrogen is one of the key components in a MW-scale spallation target system, which directly affects the neutronic performance both in intensity and resolution. Since a hydrogen temperature rise in the moderator vessel affects the neutronic performance, it is necessary to suppress the local temperature rise within 3 K. In order to develop the conceptual design of the moderator structure in progress, the flow patterns were measured using a PIV (Particle Image Velocimeter) system under water flow conditions using a flat model that simulated a moderator vessel. From these results, the flow patterns (such as recirculation flows, stagnant flows etc.) were clarified. The hydraulic analytical results obtained using the STAR-CD code agreed well with experimental results. Thermal-hydraulic analyses in the moderator vessel were carried out using the STAR-CD code. Based on these results, we clarified the possibility of suppressing the local temperature rise to within 3 K under 2 MW operating conditions. In order to achieve the cost decreasing of the hydrogen loop, it is necessary to operate it reducing the hydrogen flow rate and the whole hydrogen mass. Then improved moderator concept using blowholes and a twisted tape was proposed, and we have tried to examine the effect of the blowing flow from the inlet pipe. From the experimental and analytical results, the blowing flow could be feasible for the suppression of the stagnant region. (author)

  3. Hydraulic pitch control system for wind turbines: Advanced modeling and verification of an hydraulic accumulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irizar, Victor; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe

    2017-01-01

    Hydraulic pitch systems provide robust and reliable control of power and speed of modern wind turbines. During emergency stops, where the pitch of the blades has to be taken to a full stop position to avoid over speed situations, hydraulic accumulators play a crucial role. Their efficiency...... and capability of providing enough energy to rotate the blades is affected by thermal processes due to the compression and decompression of the gas chamber. This paper presents an in depth study of the thermodynamical processes involved in an hydraulic accumulator during operation, and how they affect the energy...

  4. A multi-packer completion to measure hydraulic heads in a lightly fractured area in the Oxfordian limestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, E.; Cruchaudet, M.; Delay, J.; Piedevache, M.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Andra has designed a new type of borehole completion in order to monitor simultaneously hydraulic heads. This completion is installed in a 420 m deep borehole drilled in the Oxfordian limestone formation. The borehole is located in the South-West of Andra's Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in a lightly fractured area. The multi-packer completion is built and installed by Solexperts. This device is composed of five measurement intervals isolated with rubber expandable packers and supported by stainless steel tubing. The packers are inflated with water at a pressure of 10 bars above the water pressure at that depth. Each measurement interval comprises an interval module embedding a pressure / temperature gauge connected to the interval through a filter. The gauges are connected through one cable to a data acquisition system on surface. This completion is removable. The packers can be deflated and the completion can be installed in another borehole. The packers are positioned in the EST461 borehole according to the caliper logging and the results of permeability tests. The hydraulic head measurements are compared with the local rainfall. Interval 1 (the deepest) shows a stable hydraulic head whereas intervals 2 to 5 show hydraulic head variations. The amplitude of the hydraulic head variations are closely related to the interval depth: the deepest the interval, the lowest the hydraulic head variation. Hydraulic heads in intervals 4 and 5 are similar. These intervals are probably connected. (authors)

  5. Neutronic / thermal-hydraulic coupling with the code system Trace / Parcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia S, D. M.; Del Valle G, E.

    2015-09-01

    The developed models for Parcs and Trace codes corresponding for the cycle 15 of the Unit 1 of the Laguna Verde nuclear power plant are described. The first focused to the neutronic simulation and the second to thermal hydraulics. The model developed for Parcs consists of a core of 444 fuel assemblies wrapped in a radial reflective layer and two layers, a superior and another inferior, of axial reflector. The core consists of 27 total axial planes. The model for Trace includes the vessel and its internal components as well as various safety systems. The coupling between the two codes is through two maps that allow its intercommunication. Both codes are used in coupled form performing a dynamic simulation that allows obtaining acceptably a stable state from which is carried out the closure of all the main steam isolation valves (MSIVs) followed by the performance of safety relief valves (SRVs) and ECCS. The results for the power and reactivities introduced by the moderator density, the fuel temperature and total temperature are shown. Data are also provided like: the behavior of the pressure in the steam dome, the water level in the downcomer, the flow through the MSIVs and SRVs. The results are explained for the power, the pressure in the steam dome and the water level in the downcomer which show agreement with the actions of the MSIVs, SRVs and ECCS. (Author)

  6. Computer Simulation of Hydraulic Systems with Typical Nonlinear Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Popov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The task was to synthesise an adjustable hydraulic system structure, the mathematical model of which takes into account its inherent nonlinearity. Its solution suggests using a successive computer simulations starting with a structure of the linearized stable hydraulic system, which is then complicated by including the essentially non-linear elements. The hydraulic system thus obtained may be unable to meet the Lyapunov stability criterion and be unstable. This can be eliminated through correcting elements. Control of correction results is provided according to the form of transition processes due to stepwise variation of the control signal.Computer simulation of a throttle-controlled electrohydraulic servo drive with the rotary output element illustrates the proposed method application. A constant pressure power source provides fluid feed for the drive under pressure.For drive simulation the following models were involved: the linear model, the model taking into consideration a non-linearity of the flow-dynamic characteristics of a spool-type valve, and the non-linear models that take into account the dry friction in the spool-type valve, the backlash in the steering angle sensor of the motor shaft.The paper shows possibility of damping oscillation caused by variable hydrodynamic forces through introducing a correction device.The list of references attached contains 16 sources, which were used to justify and explain certain factors of the automatic control theory and the fluid mechanics of unsteady flows.The article presents 6 block-diagrams of the electrohydraulic servo drive and their appropriate transition processes, which have been studied.

  7. Reliability of Source Mechanisms for a Hydraulic Fracturing Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, T.; Van der Baan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Non-double-couple components have been inferred for induced seismicity due to fluid injection, yet these components are often poorly constrained due to the acquisition geometry. Likewise non-double-couple components in microseismic recordings are not uncommon. Microseismic source mechanisms provide an insight into the fracturing behaviour of a hydraulically stimulated reservoir. However, source inversion in a hydraulic fracturing environment is complicated by the likelihood of volumetric contributions to the source due to the presence of high pressure fluids, which greatly increases the possible solution space and therefore the non-uniqueness of the solutions. Microseismic data is usually recorded on either 2D surface or borehole arrays of sensors. In many cases, surface arrays appear to constrain source mechanisms with high shear components, whereas borehole arrays tend to constrain more variable mechanisms including those with high tensile components. The abilities of each geometry to constrain the true source mechanisms are therefore called into question.The ability to distinguish between shear and tensile source mechanisms with different acquisition geometries is investigated using synthetic data. For both inversions, both P- and S- wave amplitudes recorded on three component sensors need to be included to obtain reliable solutions. Surface arrays appear to give more reliable solutions due to a greater sampling of the focal sphere, but in reality tend to record signals with a low signal to noise ratio. Borehole arrays can produce acceptable results, however the reliability is much more affected by relative source-receiver locations and source orientation, with biases produced in many of the solutions. Therefore more care must be taken when interpreting results.These findings are taken into account when interpreting a microseismic dataset of 470 events recorded by two vertical borehole arrays monitoring a horizontal treatment well. Source locations and

  8. Micro-hydromechanical deep drawing of metal cups with hydraulic pressure effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Liang; Jiang, Zhengyi; Wei, Dongbin; Wang, Xiaogang; Zhou, Cunlong; Huang, Qingxue

    2018-03-01

    Micro-metal products have recently enjoyed high demand. In addition, metal microforming has drawn increasing attention due to its net-forming capability, batch manufacturing potential, high product quality, and relatively low equipment cost. Micro-hydromechanical deep drawing (MHDD), a typical microforming method, has been developed to take advantage of hydraulic force. With reduced dimensions, the hydraulic pressure development changes; accordingly, the lubrication condition changes from the macroscale to the microscale. A Voronoi-based finite element model is proposed in this paper to consider the change in lubrication in MHDD according to open and closed lubricant pocket theory. Simulation results agree with experimental results concerning drawing force. Changes in friction significantly affect the drawing process and the drawn cups. Moreover, defined wrinkle indexes have been shown to have a complex relationship with hydraulic pressure. High hydraulic pressure can increase the maximum drawing ratio (drawn cup height), whereas the surface finish represented by the wear is not linearly dependent on the hydraulic pressure due to the wrinkles.

  9. Nonlinear dynamic modeling for smart material electro-hydraulic actuator development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, John P.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2013-03-01

    Smart material electro-hydraulic actuators use hydraulic rectification by one-way check valves to amplify the motion of smart materials, such as magnetostrictives and piezoelectrics, in order to create compact, lightweight actuators. A piston pump driven by a smart material is combined with a hydraulic cylinder to form a self-contained, power-by-wire actuator that can be used in place of a conventional hydraulic system without the need for hydraulic lines and a centralized pump. The performance of an experimental actuator driven by a 12.7 mm diameter, 114 mm length Terfenol-D rod is evaluated over a range of applied input frequencies, loads, and currents. The peak performance achieved is 37 W, moving a 220 N load at a rate of 17 cm/s and producing a blocked pressure of 12.5 MPa. Additional tests are conducted to quantify the dynamic behavior of the one-way reed valves using a scanning laser vibrometer to identify the frequency response of the reeds and the effect of the valve seat and fluid mass loading. A lumped-parameter model is developed for the system that includes valve inertia and fluid response nonlinearities, and the model results are compared with the experimental data.

  10. Structural stability and hydraulic conductivity of Nkpologu sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vincent

    observed in many self-pollinated crop species ... environments are important. .... components used in determining grain yield. ... Table 1: Form of Analysis of variance showing sources of Variation, Degrees of Freedom and Mean Square ...

  11. Hydraulic Modular Dosaging Systems for Machine Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Kotlobai

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The justified principle of making modular dosaging systems for positive-displacement multimotor hydraulic drives used in running gear and technological equipment of mobile construction, road and agricultural machines makes it possible to synchronize motion of running parts. The examples of the realization of modular dosaging systems and an algorithm of their operation are given in the paper.

  12. Effect of Poroelasticity on Hydraulic Fracture Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usui, Tomoya; Salimzadeh, Saeed; Paluszny, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates, by performing finite element-based simulations, the influence of fluid leak-off and poroelasticity on growth of multiple hydraulic fractures that initiate from a single horizontal well. In this research, poroelastic deformation of the matrix is coupled with fluid flow in ...

  13. Control rod driving hydraulic pressure device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Kazuo.

    1990-01-01

    Discharged water after actuating control rod drives in a BWR type reactor is once discharged to a discharging header, then returned to a master control unit and, subsequently, discharged to a reactor by way of a cooling water header. The radioactive level in the discharging header and the master control unit is increased by the reactor water to increase the operator's exposure. In view of the above, a riser is disposed for connecting a hydraulic pressure control unit incorporating a directional control valve and the cooling water head. When a certain control rod is inserted, the pressurized driving water is supplied through a hydraulic pressure control unit to the control rod drives. The discharged water from the control rod drives is entered by way of the hydraulic pressure control unit into the cooling water header and then returned to the reactor by way of other hydraulic pressure control unit and the control rod drives. Thus, the reactor water is no more recycled to the master control unit to reduce the radioactive exposure. (N.H.)

  14. Elevator and hydraulics; Elevator to yuatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, I. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-15

    A hydraulic type elevator is installed in relatively lower buildings as compared with a rope type elevator, but the ratio in the number of installation of the former elevator is increasing. This paper explains from its construction and features to especially various control systems for the riding comfort and safety. A direct push-up system with hydraulic jacks arranged beneath a car, and an indirect push-up system that has hydraulic jacks arranged on flank of a car and transmits the movement of a plunger via a rope are available. The latter system eliminates the need of large holes to embed hydraulic jacks. While the speed is controlled by controlling flow rates of high-pressure oil, the speed, position, acceleration and even time differential calculus of the acceleration must be controlled severely. The system uses two-step control for the through-speed and the landing speed. Different systems that have been realized may include compensation for temperatures in flow rate control valves, load pressures, and oil viscosity, from learning control to fuzzy control for psychological effects, or control of inverters in motors. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Operation of a hydraulic elevator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarev, G.A.; Li, Yu.V.; Bezuglov, N.N.

    1983-03-01

    The paper describes the hydraulic elevator system in the im. 50-letiya Oktyabr'skoi Revolutsii mine in the Karaganda basin. The system removes water and coal from the sump of a skip mine shaft. Water influx rate per day to the sump does not exceed 120 m/sup 3/, weight of coal falling from the skip is about 5,000 kg per day. The sump, 85 m deep, is closed by a screen. The elevator system consists of two pumps (one is used as a reserve pump) with a capacity of 300 m/sup 3/h. When water level exceeds the maximum permissive limit the pump is activated by an automatic control system. The coal and water mixture pumped from the sump bottom is directed to a screen which separates coal from water. Coal is fed to a coal hopper and water is pumped to a water tank. The hydraulic elevator has a capacity of 80 m/sup 3/ of mixture per hour. The slurry is tranported by a pipe of 175 mm diameter. Specifications of the pumps and pipelines are given. A scheme of the hydraulic elevator system is also shown. Economic aspects of hydraulic elevator use for removal of water and coal from deep sumps of skip shafts in the Karaganda basin also are discussed.

  16. Hydraulic brake-system for a bicycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Frankenhuyzen, J.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a hydraulic brake system for a bicycle which may or may not be provided with an auxiliary motor, comprising a brake disc and brake claws cooperating with the brake disc, as well as fluid-containing channels (4,6) that extend between an operating organ (1) and the brake

  17. Analyses of hydraulic performance of velocity caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Degn Eskesen, Mark Chr.; Buhrkall, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    The hydraulic performance of a velocity cap has been investigated. Velocity caps are often used in connection with offshore intakes. CFD (computational fluid dynamics) examined the flow through the cap openings and further down into the intake pipes. This was combined with dimension analyses...

  18. Hydraulic urethral dilatation after optical internal urethrotomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the rate of early recurrence of urethral stricture in the first six months in patients who perform hydraulic urethral dilatation(HUD) after optical internal urethrotomy (OIU) and compare the early recurrence Fate in patients who perform HUD after OIU with the recurrence rates in patients reported in the ...

  19. Separation and pattern formation in hydraulic jumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Tomas; Ellegaard, C.; Hansen, A. Espe

    1998-01-01

    We present theory and experiments on the circular hydraulic jump in the stationary regime. The theory can handle the situation in which the fluid flows over an edge far away from the jump. In the experiments the external height is controlled, and a series of transitions in the flow structure appe...

  20. Towards Autonomous Control of Hydraulic Actuator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Conrad, Finn

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of new developed control algorithms to increase autonomy and intelligence of hydraulic control systems. A refinement of relaytuning method is used to determine the control parameters of a lag/lead controller and a poleplacement controller. Further, a fail-safe function is developed...

  1. Highly reliable electro-hydraulic control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mande, Morima; Hiyama, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Makoto

    1984-01-01

    The unscheduled shutdown of nuclear power stations disturbs power system, and exerts large influence on power generation cost due to the lowering of capacity ratio; therefore, high reliability is required for the control system of nuclear power stations. Toshiba Corp. has exerted effort to improve the reliability of the control system of power stations, and in this report, the electro-hydraulic control system for the turbines of nuclear power stations is described. The main functions of the electro-hydraulic control system are the control of main steam pressure with steam regulation valves and turbine bypass valves, the control of turbine speed and load, the prevention of turbine overspeed, the protection of turbines and so on. The system is composed of pressure sensors and a speed sensor, the control board containing the electronic circuits for control computation and protective sequence, the oil cylinders, servo valves and opening detectors of the valves for control, a high pressure oil hydraulic machine and piping, the operating panel and so on. The main features are the adoption of tripling intermediate value selection method, the multiplying of protection sensors and the adoption of 2 out of 3 trip logic, the multiplying of power sources, the improvement of the reliability of electronic circuit hardware and oil hydraulic system. (Kako, I.)

  2. Spiral groove seal. [for hydraulic rotating shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, L. P. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Mating flat surfaces inhibit leakage of a fluid around a stationary shaft. A spiral groove pattern produces a pumping action toward the fluid when the shaft rotates which prevents leakage while a generated hydraulic lifting force separates the mating surfaces to minimize wear.

  3. Hydraulic and hydrochemical characteristics of the phreatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydraulic and hydrochemical characteristics of the phreatic basement aquifers in parts of southwestern Nigeria. OA Idowu, O Martins, AM Gbadebo. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol. 43 (1) 2007: pp. 71-78. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  4. Energy harvesting from hydraulic pressure fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunefare, K A; Skow, E A; Erturk, A; Savor, J; Verma, N; Cacan, M R

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art hydraulic hose and piping systems employ integral sensor nodes for structural health monitoring to avoid catastrophic failures. Energy harvesting in hydraulic systems could enable self-powered wireless sensor nodes for applications such as energy-autonomous structural health monitoring and prognosis. Hydraulic systems inherently have a high energy intensity associated with the mean pressure and flow. Accompanying the mean pressure is the dynamic pressure ripple, which is caused by the action of pumps and actuators. Pressure ripple is a deterministic source with a periodic time-domain behavior conducive to energy harvesting. An energy harvester prototype was designed for generating low-power electricity from pressure ripples. The prototype employed an axially-poled off-the-shelf piezoelectric stack. A housing isolated the stack from the hydraulic fluid while maintaining a mechanical coupling allowing for dynamic-pressure-induced deflection of the stack. The prototype exhibited an off-resonance energy harvesting problem since the fundamental resonance of the piezoelectric stack was much higher than the frequency content of the pressure ripple. The prototype was designed to provide a suitable power output for powering sensors with a maximum output of 1.2 mW. This work also presents electromechanical model simulations and experimental characterization of the piezoelectric power output from the pressure ripple in terms of the force transmitted into the harvester. (paper)

  5. Sustainable hydraulic engineering through building with nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vriend, Huib J.; van Koningsveld, M.; Aarninkhof, S.G.J.; de Vries, Mindert; Baptist, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic engineering infrastructures are of concern to many people and are likely to interfere with the environment. Moreover, they are supposed to keep on functioning for many years. In times of rapid societal and environmental change this implies that sustainability and adaptability are important

  6. Power management in hydraulically actuated mobile equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2008-01-01

    The focus of the current paper is on the control of hydraulic systems when utilizing the advances that electronic control may bring with regard to power management, prioritized flow sharing and anti-stall, arising from being able to control both pump, valves and engine electronically. A simple mo...

  7. Hydraulic fracturing in anisotropic and heterogeneous rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valliappan, V.; Remmers, J.J.C.; Barnhoorn, A.; Smeulders, D.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a two dimensional model for modelling the hydraulic fracture process in anisotropic and heterogeneous rocks. The model is formulated using extended finite elements (XFEM) in combination with Newton-Raphson method for spatial and Euler's implicit scheme for time. The

  8. Hydraulic adjustment of Scots pine across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Vilalta, J.; Cochard, H.; Mencuccini, M.; Sterck, F.J.; Herrero, A.; Korhonen, J.F.J.; Llorens, P.; Nikinmaa, E.; Nolè, A.; Poyatos, R.; Ripullone, F.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Zweifel, R.

    2009-01-01

    The variability of branch-level hydraulic properties was assessed across 12 Scots pine populations covering a wide range of environmental conditions, including some of the southernmost populations of the species. The aims were to relate this variability to differences in climate, and to study the

  9. Massive hydraulic fracturing gas stimulation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appledorn, C.R.; Mann, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The Rio Blanco Massive Hydraulic Fracturing Project was fielded in 1974 as a joint Industry/ERDA demonstration to test the relative formations that were stimulated by the Rio Blanco Nuclear fracturing experiment. The project is a companion effort to and a continuation of the preceding nuclear stimulation project, which took place in May 1973. 8 figures

  10. Proceedings of the third nuclear thermal hydraulics meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the Thermal Hydraulics Division of the American Nuclear Society. The papers presented include: Simulator qualification using engineering codes and Development of thermal hydraulic analysis capabilities for Oyster Creek

  11. DCS Hydraulics Submittal, Otero County, New Mexico, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...

  12. Analysis of INDOT current hydraulic policies : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Hydraulic design often tends to be on a conservative side for safety reasons. Hydraulic structures are typically oversized with the goal being reduced future maintenance costs, and to reduce the risk of property owner complaints. This approach leads ...

  13. Applicability estimation of flowmeter logging for detecting hydraulic pass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, Kimio; Tanaka, Yasuji; Tanaka, Kazuhiro

    1997-01-01

    Estimation of the hydraulic pass governing hydrogeological structure contributes significantly to the siting HLW repository. Flowmeter logging can detect hydraulic passes by measuring vertical flow velocity of groundwater in the borehole. We reviewed application of this logging in situ. The hydraulic pass was detected with combination of ambient flow logging, with pumping and/or injecting induced flow logging. This application showed that the flowmeter logging detected hydraulic passes conveniently and accurately compared with other hydraulic tests. Hydraulic conductivity by using flowmeter logging was assessed above 10 -6 m/sec and within one order from comparison with injection packer tests. We suggest that appropriate application of the flowmeter logging for the siting is conducted before hydraulic tests because test sections and monitoring sections are decided rationally for procurement of quantitative hydraulic data. (author)

  14. CFD based draft tube hydraulic design optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNabb, J; Murry, N; Mullins, B F; Devals, C; Kyriacou, S A

    2014-01-01

    The draft tube design of a hydraulic turbine, particularly in low to medium head applications, plays an important role in determining the efficiency and power characteristics of the overall machine, since an important proportion of the available energy, being in kinetic form leaving the runner, needs to be recovered by the draft tube into static head. For large units, these efficiency and power characteristics can equate to large sums of money when considering the anticipated selling price of the energy produced over the machine's life-cycle. This same draft tube design is also a key factor in determining the overall civil costs of the powerhouse, primarily in excavation and concreting, which can amount to similar orders of magnitude as the price of the energy produced. Therefore, there is a need to find the optimum compromise between these two conflicting requirements. In this paper, an elaborate approach is described for dealing with this optimization problem. First, the draft tube's detailed geometry is defined as a function of a comprehensive set of design parameters (about 20 of which a subset is allowed to vary during the optimization process) and are then used in a non-uniform rational B-spline based geometric modeller to fully define the wetted surfaces geometry. Since the performance of the draft tube is largely governed by 3D viscous effects, such as boundary layer separation from the walls and swirling flow characteristics, which in turn governs the portion of the available kinetic energy which will be converted into pressure, a full 3D meshing and Navier-Stokes analysis is performed for each design. What makes this even more challenging is the fact that the inlet velocity distribution to the draft tube is governed by the runner at each of the various operating conditions that are of interest for the exploitation of the powerhouse. In order to determine these inlet conditions, a combined steady-state runner and an initial draft tube analysis

  15. CFD based draft tube hydraulic design optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNabb, J.; Devals, C.; Kyriacou, S. A.; Murry, N.; Mullins, B. F.

    2014-03-01

    The draft tube design of a hydraulic turbine, particularly in low to medium head applications, plays an important role in determining the efficiency and power characteristics of the overall machine, since an important proportion of the available energy, being in kinetic form leaving the runner, needs to be recovered by the draft tube into static head. For large units, these efficiency and power characteristics can equate to large sums of money when considering the anticipated selling price of the energy produced over the machine's life-cycle. This same draft tube design is also a key factor in determining the overall civil costs of the powerhouse, primarily in excavation and concreting, which can amount to similar orders of magnitude as the price of the energy produced. Therefore, there is a need to find the optimum compromise between these two conflicting requirements. In this paper, an elaborate approach is described for dealing with this optimization problem. First, the draft tube's detailed geometry is defined as a function of a comprehensive set of design parameters (about 20 of which a subset is allowed to vary during the optimization process) and are then used in a non-uniform rational B-spline based geometric modeller to fully define the wetted surfaces geometry. Since the performance of the draft tube is largely governed by 3D viscous effects, such as boundary layer separation from the walls and swirling flow characteristics, which in turn governs the portion of the available kinetic energy which will be converted into pressure, a full 3D meshing and Navier-Stokes analysis is performed for each design. What makes this even more challenging is the fact that the inlet velocity distribution to the draft tube is governed by the runner at each of the various operating conditions that are of interest for the exploitation of the powerhouse. In order to determine these inlet conditions, a combined steady-state runner and an initial draft tube analysis, using a

  16. The advantages of hydraulic packing extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    Today's competitive environment, coupled with industry's desire to improve the efficiency of plant maintenance and operations, has management continually seeking ways to save time, money, and, at nuclear plants, radiation exposure. One area where a tremendous improvement in efficiency can be realized is valve packing removal. For example, industry experience indicates that up to 70% of the time it takes to repack a valve can be spent just removing the old packing. In some case, the bonnets of small valves are removed to facilitate packing removal and prevent stem and stuffing box damage that can occur when using packing removal picks. In other cases, small valves are simply removed and discarded because it costs less to replace the valves than to remove the packing using conventional methods. Hydraulic packing extraction greatly reduces packing removal time and will not damage the stem nor stuffing box, thus eliminating the need for bonnet removal or valve replacement. This paper will review some of the more common problems associated with manual packing extraction techniques. It will explain how hydraulic packing extraction eliminates or greatly reduces the impact of each of the problem areas. A discussion will be provided of some actual industry operating experiences related to success stories using hydraulic packing extraction. The paper will also briefly describe the operating parameters associated with hydraulic packing extraction tools. Throughout the paper, actual operating experiences from the nuclear power, fossil power, petrochemical, and refinery industries will be used to support the conclusion that hydraulic packing extraction is an alternative that can save time, money, and exposure

  17. Understanding, Classifying, and Selecting Environmentally Acceptable Hydraulic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    traditional mineral oil; therefore, the life cycle costs over time may be reduced . REPLACEMENT OF EXISTING HYDRAULIC FLUIDS: Hydraulic fluids in existing...properly maintaining the fluid can extend the time interval between fluid changes, thus reducing the overall operating cost of the EA hydraulic fluid. It...Environmentally Acceptable Hydraulic Fluids by Timothy J. Keyser, Robert N. Samuel, and Timothy L. Welp INTRODUCTION: On a daily basis, the United States Army

  18. Review of fluid and control technology of hydraulic wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Maolin; Wang, Yixuan; Jiao, Zongxia; Shi, Yan

    2017-09-01

    This study examines the development of the fluid and control technology of hydraulic wind turbines. The current state of hydraulic wind turbines as a new technology is described, and its basic fluid model and typical control method are expounded by comparing various study results. Finally, the advantages of hydraulic wind turbines are enumerated. Hydraulic wind turbines are expected to become the main development direction of wind turbines.

  19. Review of fluid and control technology of hydraulic wind turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maolin CAI; Yixuan WANG; Zongxia JIAO; Yan SHI

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the development of the fluid and control technology of hydraulic wind turbines.The current state of hydraulic wind turbines as a new technology is described,and its basic fluid model and typical control method are expounded by comparing various study results.Finally,the advantages of hydraulic wind turbines are enumerated.Hydraulic wind turbines are expected to become the main development direction of wind turbines.

  20. Critical review of hydraulic modeling on atmospheric heat dissipation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Brown, S.M.

    1977-01-01

    Objectives of this study were: to define the useful roles of hydraulic modeling in understanding the predicting atmospheric effects of heat dissipation systems; to assess the state-of-the-art of hydraulic modeling of atmospheric phenomena; to inventory potentially useful existing hydraulic modeling facilities both in the United States and abroad; and to scope hydraulic model studies to assist the assessment of atmospheric effects of nuclear energy centers

  1. Sprayed skin turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David B

    2013-06-04

    Fabricating a turbine component (50) by casting a core structure (30), forming an array of pits (24) in an outer surface (32) of the core structure, depositing a transient liquid phase (TLP) material (40) on the outer surface of the core structure, the TLP containing a melting-point depressant, depositing a skin (42) on the outer surface of the core structure over the TLP material, and heating the assembly, thus forming both a diffusion bond and a mechanical interlock between the skin and the core structure. The heating diffuses the melting-point depressant away from the interface. Subsurface cooling channels (35) may be formed by forming grooves (34) in the outer surface of the core structure, filling the grooves with a fugitive filler (36), depositing and bonding the skin (42), then removing the fugitive material.

  2. Mechanic- and hydraulic shock-absorbers - layout, construction, operation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, M.

    1981-01-01

    The problem lies in the protection of the flexible supported power plant components against undesired sudden movements. Various shock absorbing systems are at disposal in this case: Mechanical and hydraulic shock absorbers, whose functioning systems are shown in figures. The operation experience showed a series of deficiencies, as demonstrated on various figures. In order to avoid them, some important recommendations are given. Requirements and layout are demonstrated according to todays' state-of-the-art. The admissible stresses, resulting from the summary of various specifications for the analytical evidence will be described. Development and construction will be explained in detail by means of pictures with cross sections of original shock absorbers. Todays' construction characteristics will be summarized. The final remark includes a request for generally valid guidelines. (orig.) [de

  3. 14 CFR 33.72 - Hydraulic actuating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.72 Hydraulic actuating systems. Each hydraulic actuating system must function properly under all conditions in which the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic actuating systems. 33.72 Section...

  4. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of porous bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araj, K.J.; Nourbakhsh, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    Optimum design of nuclear reactor cores requires an iterative approach between the thermal-hydraulic, neutronic, and operational analysis. This paper will concentrate on the thermal-hydraulic behavior of a hydrogen-cooled small particle bed reactor (PBR). The PBR core modeled here consists of a hexagonal array of fuel elements embedded in a moderator matrix. The fuel elements are annular packed beds of fuel particles held between two porous cylindrical frits. These particles, 500 to 600 μm in diameter, have a uranium carbide core, which is coated by two layers of graphite and an outer coating of zirconium carbide. Coolant flows, radially inward, from the cold frit through the packed bed and hot frit and axially out the channel, formed by the hot frit to a common plenum. A fast running one-dimensional lumped-parameter steady-state code (FTHP) was developed to evaluate the effects of design changes in fuel assembly and power distribution. Another objective for the code was to investigate various methods of coolant control to minimize hot channel effects and maximize outlet temperatures

  5. The successful use of transverse hydraulic fractures from horizontal wellbores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, D. G.; Yang, Z.; Rahman, S. S. [New South Wales Univ., NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    Since a significant proportion of the world`s recoverable hydrocarbon resources exist in reservoirs possessing permeabilities of less than one milli-Darcy (mD), some form of permeability enhancement or stimulation is necessary if the hydrocarbons are to be exploited economically. Multi-stage, transversely fractured horizontal wellbores are shown to have the potential to greatly increase production from low permeability formations. To overcome the problems caused by near-wellbore tortuosity, common to wells with multiple fracturing from the same perforated interval, a criterion was devised which predicts the wellbore pressures to initiate secondary multiple transverse hydraulic fractures in close proximity to primary fractures. The criterion, confirmed by laboratory experiments, demonstrates that transversely fractured horizontal wellbores have limited capacities to resist the initiation of multiple fractures from adjacent perforations. This characteristic can be used in designing hydraulic fracture treatments to establish injection pressure limits or threshold pressures, above which additional multiple fractures will initiate and propagate from the wellbore. 23 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  6. Hydraulics of subaqueous ash flows as deduced from their deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronzo, Domenico M.; Dellino, Pierfrancesco

    2012-09-01

    Subaqueous ash flows are gravity currents consisting of a mixture of sea water and ash particles. Also called volcaniclastic turbidity currents (VTCs), they can be generated because of remobilization of pyroclastic fall deposits, which are emplaced into the sea around a volcanic island, as well as far away, during an explosive eruption. The VTC upper part is the turbulent transport system for the flow, whereas the viscous basal one is the depositional system. Typical sequences of VTC deposits are characterized by cross-laminations, planar and convolute laminations, and massive beds, which reflect the stratified nature of the flow. Here, the analysis of some VTC hydraulic parameters is presented in order to depict flow behavior and sedimentation during deposition. A reverse engineering approach is proposed, which consists of calculating hydraulic parameters by starting from deposit features. The calculated values show that a VTC is homogeneously-turbulent for most of the thickness, but is viscous at its base. First, cross-laminations are directly acquired over the rough pre-existing seafloor, then planar or convolute laminations aggrade over the newly formed substrate. Finally, fine-grained suspended particles gently settle and cap the flow deposit.

  7. Advanced modelling and numerical strategies in nuclear thermal-hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staedtke, H.

    2001-01-01

    The first part of the lecture gives a brief review of the current status of nuclear thermal hydraulics as it forms the basis of established system codes like TRAC, RELAP5, CATHARE or ATHLET. Specific emphasis is given to the capabilities and limitations of the underlying physical modelling and numerical solution strategies with regard to the description of complex transient two-phase flow and heat transfer conditions as expected to occur in PWR reactors during off-normal and accident conditions. The second part of the lecture focuses on new challenges and future needs in nuclear thermal-hydraulics which might arise with regard to re-licensing of old plants using bestestimate methodologies or the design and safety analysis of Advanced Light Water Reactors relying largely on passive safety systems. In order to meet these new requirements various advanced modelling and numerical techniques will be discussed including extended wellposed (hyperbolic) two-fluid models, explicit modelling of interfacial area transport or higher order numerical schemes allowing a high resolution of local multi-dimensional flow processes.(author)

  8. Giro form reading machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh Ha, Thien; Niggeler, Dieter; Bunke, Horst; Clarinval, Jose

    1995-08-01

    Although giro forms are used by many people in daily life for money remittance in Switzerland, the processing of these forms at banks and post offices is only partly automated. We describe an ongoing project for building an automatic system that is able to recognize various items printed or written on a giro form. The system comprises three main components, namely, an automatic form feeder, a camera system, and a computer. These components are connected in such a way that the system is able to process a bunch of forms without any human interactions. We present two real applications of our system in the field of payment services, which require the reading of both machine printed and handwritten information that may appear on a giro form. One particular feature of giro forms is their flexible layout, i.e., information items are located differently from one form to another, thus requiring an additional analysis step to localize them before recognition. A commercial optical character recognition software package is used for recognition of machine-printed information, whereas handwritten information is read by our own algorithms, the details of which are presented. The system is implemented by using a client/server architecture providing a high degree of flexibility to change. Preliminary results are reported supporting our claim that the system is usable in practice.

  9. Transient flow analysis of the single cylinder for the control rod hydraulic driving system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xinming; Qin, Benke; Bo, Hanliang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The control rod hydraulic driving system(CRHDS) is a new type of built-in control rod drive technology. The hydraulic cylinder is the main component of the CRHDS. • Transient flow phenomenon in the CRHDS is studied by experiments under different working conditions. • The working mechanism of the hydraulic cylinder step motion and the key characteristic parameters are analyzed based on the experimental results. - Abstract: The control rod hydraulic driving system (CRHDS) is a new type of built-in control rod drive technology. In the CRHDS the pulse flow from the pump into the hydraulic cylinder of the control rod hydraulic drive mechanism (CRHDM) is regulated by the integrated valve to perform the step motion of the reactor control rod. Transient flow occurs in the CRHDS during control rod step motion process which is studied by experiments. The time-history curves of flow rate, pressure and inner cylinder displacement were analyzed, and the results show that the water hammer pressure peak during the step-up motion is high, while there are no obvious pressure fluctuations in the corresponding step-down motion. In the step-up process, the pressure fluctuation amplitude increases with the increase of CRHDS driving pressure. The step-up time and the pressure increasing time before step-up decreases with the driving pressure. The step-up pressure increases with the driving pressure. In the step-down process, the step-down time, the step-down pressure and the pressure decreasing time before step-down do not change with the increase of the driving pressure. The experimental results lay the base for the working principle and vibration reduction analysis of the CRHDS and it’s also helpful for improvement of the working performance of the key facilities and instruments of the CRHDS loop.

  10. Using boosted regression trees to predict the near-saturated hydraulic conductivity of undisturbed soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestel, John; Bechtold, Michel; Jorda, Helena; Jarvis, Nicholas

    2015-04-01

    The saturated and near-saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil is of key importance for modelling water and solute fluxes in the vadose zone. Hydraulic conductivity measurements are cumbersome at the Darcy scale and practically impossible at larger scales where water and solute transport models are mostly applied. Hydraulic conductivity must therefore be estimated from proxy variables. Such pedotransfer functions are known to work decently well for e.g. water retention curves but rather poorly for near-saturated and saturated hydraulic conductivities. Recently, Weynants et al. (2009, Revisiting Vereecken pedotransfer functions: Introducing a closed-form hydraulic model. Vadose Zone Journal, 8, 86-95) reported a coefficients of determination of 0.25 (validation with an independent data set) for the saturated hydraulic conductivity from lab-measurements of Belgian soil samples. In our study, we trained boosted regression trees on a global meta-database containing tension-disk infiltrometer data (see Jarvis et al. 2013. Influence of soil, land use and climatic factors on the hydraulic conductivity of soil. Hydrology & Earth System Sciences, 17, 5185-5195) to predict the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) and the conductivity at a tension of 10 cm (K10). We found coefficients of determination of 0.39 and 0.62 under a simple 10-fold cross-validation for Ks and K10. When carrying out the validation folded over the data-sources, i.e. the source publications, we found that the corresponding coefficients of determination reduced to 0.15 and 0.36, respectively. We conclude that the stricter source-wise cross-validation should be applied in future pedotransfer studies to prevent overly optimistic validation results. The boosted regression trees also allowed for an investigation of relevant predictors for estimating the near-saturated hydraulic conductivity. We found that land use and bulk density were most important to predict Ks. We also observed that Ks is large in fine

  11. Component fragility research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, N.C.; Mochizuki, G.L.; Holman, G.S.

    1989-11-01

    To demonstrate how ''high-level'' qualification test data can be used to estimate the ultimate seismic capacity of nuclear power plant equipment, we assessed in detail various electrical components tested by the Pacific Gas ampersand Electric Company for its Diablo Canyon plant. As part of our Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, we evaluated seismic fragility for five Diablo Canyon components: medium-voltage (4kV) switchgear; safeguard relay board; emergency light battery pack; potential transformer; and station battery and racks. This report discusses our Phase II fragility evaluation of a single Westinghouse Type W motor control center column, a fan cooler motor controller, and three local starters at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. These components were seismically qualified by means of biaxial random motion tests on a shaker table, and the test response spectra formed the basis for the estimate of the seismic capacity of the components. The seismic capacity of each component is referenced to the zero period acceleration (ZPA) and, in our Phase II study only, to the average spectral acceleration (ASA) of the motion at its base. For the motor control center, the seismic capacity was compared to the capacity of a Westinghouse Five-Star MCC subjected to actual fragility tests by LLNL during the Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, and to generic capacities developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory for motor control center. Except for the medium-voltage switchgear, all of the components considered in both our Phase I and Phase II evaluations were qualified in their standard commercial configurations or with only relatively minor modifications such as top bracing of cabinets. 8 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs

  12. Determination of minimum sample size for fault diagnosis of automobile hydraulic brake system using power analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Indira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic brake in automobile engineering is considered to be one of the important components. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of such a component is very essential for safety of passengers, vehicles and to minimize the unexpected maintenance time. Vibration based machine learning approach for condition monitoring of hydraulic brake system is gaining momentum. Training and testing the classifier are two important activities in the process of feature classification. This study proposes a systematic statistical method called power analysis to find the minimum number of samples required to train the classifier with statistical stability so as to get good classification accuracy. Descriptive statistical features have been used and the more contributing features have been selected by using C4.5 decision tree algorithm. The results of power analysis have also been verified using a decision tree algorithm namely, C4.5.

  13. Assimilation of temperature and hydraulic gradients for quantifying the spatial variability of streambed hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiang; Andrews, Charles B.; Liu, Jie; Yao, Yingying; Liu, Chuankun; Tyler, Scott W.; Selker, John S.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the spatial and temporal characteristics of water flux into or out of shallow aquifers is imperative for water resources management and eco-environmental conservation. In this study, the spatial variability in the vertical specific fluxes and hydraulic conductivities in a streambed were evaluated by integrating distributed temperature sensing (DTS) data and vertical hydraulic gradients into an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and smoother (EnKS) and an empirical thermal-mixing model. The formulation of the EnKF/EnKS assimilation scheme is based on a discretized 1D advection-conduction equation of heat transfer in the streambed. We first systematically tested a synthetic case and performed quantitative and statistical analyses to evaluate the performance of the assimilation schemes. Then a real-world case was evaluated to calculate assimilated specific flux. An initial estimate of the spatial distributions of the vertical hydraulic gradients was obtained from an empirical thermal-mixing model under steady-state conditions using a constant vertical hydraulic conductivity. Then, this initial estimate was updated by repeatedly dividing the assimilated specific flux by estimates of the vertical hydraulic gradients to obtain a refined spatial distribution of vertical hydraulic gradients and vertical hydraulic conductivities. Our results indicate that optimal parameters can be derived with fewer iterations but greater simulation effort using the EnKS compared with the EnKF. For the field application in a stream segment of the Heihe River Basin in northwest China, the average vertical hydraulic conductivities in the streambed varied over three orders of magnitude (5 × 10-1 to 5 × 102 m/d). The specific fluxes ranged from near zero (qz < ±0.05 m/d) to ±1.0 m/d, while the vertical hydraulic gradients were within the range of -0.2 to 0.15 m/m. The highest and most variable fluxes occurred adjacent to a debris-dam and bridge pier. This phenomenon is very likely

  14. Hydraulic Limits on Maximum Plant Transpiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoni, S.; Vico, G.; Katul, G. G.; Palmroth, S.; Jackson, R. B.; Porporato, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    Photosynthesis occurs at the expense of water losses through transpiration. As a consequence of this basic carbon-water interaction at the leaf level, plant growth and ecosystem carbon exchanges are tightly coupled to transpiration. In this contribution, the hydraulic constraints that limit transpiration rates under well-watered conditions are examined across plant functional types and climates. The potential water flow through plants is proportional to both xylem hydraulic conductivity (which depends on plant carbon economy) and the difference in water potential between the soil and the atmosphere (the driving force that pulls water from the soil). Differently from previous works, we study how this potential flux changes with the amplitude of the driving force (i.e., we focus on xylem properties and not on stomatal regulation). Xylem hydraulic conductivity decreases as the driving force increases due to cavitation of the tissues. As a result of this negative feedback, more negative leaf (and xylem) water potentials would provide a stronger driving force for water transport, while at the same time limiting xylem hydraulic conductivity due to cavitation. Here, the leaf water potential value that allows an optimum balance between driving force and xylem conductivity is quantified, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate that can be sustained by the soil-to-leaf hydraulic system. To apply the proposed framework at the global scale, a novel database of xylem conductivity and cavitation vulnerability across plant types and biomes is developed. Conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation are shown to be complementary (in particular between angiosperms and conifers), suggesting a tradeoff between transport efficiency and hydraulic safety. Plants from warmer and drier biomes tend to achieve larger maximum transpiration than plants growing in environments with lower atmospheric water demand. The predicted maximum transpiration and the corresponding leaf water

  15. Active components in food supplements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siemelink M; Jansen EHJM; Piersma AH; Opperhuizen A; LEO

    2000-01-01

    The growing food supplement market, where supplements are both more diverse and more easily available (e.g. through Internet) formed the backdrop to the inventory of the active components in food supplements. The safety of an increased intake of food components via supplements was also at issue

  16. Investigations into the use of water glycol as the hydraulic fluid in a servo system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, G.V.

    1984-07-01

    The effects of water glycol on the performance of a hydraulic system and on the life of the system components have been investigated and a guide to the design of systems using water glycol is given. The dynamic performance of the system using water-glycol was compared with that using mineral oil, then the system was endurance tested to determine its service life. (author)

  17. Summary of several hydraulic tests in support of the light water breeder reactor design (LWBR development program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McWilliams, K.D.; Turner, J.R.

    1979-05-01

    As part of the Light Water Breeder Reactor development program, hydraulic tests of reactor components were performed. This report presents the results of several of those tests performed for components which are somewhat unique in their application to a pressurized water reactor design. The components tested include: triplate orifices used for flow distribution purposes, multiventuri type flowmeters, tight lattice triangular pitch rod support grids, fuel rod end support plates, and the balance piston which is a major component of the movable fuel balancing system. Test results include component pressure loss coefficients, flowmeter coefficients and fuel rod region pressure drop characteristics

  18. Are lianas more drought-tolerant than trees? A test for the role of hydraulic architecture and other stem and leaf traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sande, Masha T; Poorter, Lourens; Schnitzer, Stefan A; Markesteijn, Lars

    2013-08-01

    Lianas are an important component of neotropical forests, where evidence suggests that they are increasing in abundance and biomass. Lianas are especially abundant in seasonally dry tropical forests, and as such it has been hypothesized that they are better adapted to drought, or that they are at an advantage under the higher light conditions in these forests. However, the physiological and morphological characteristics that allow lianas to capitalize more on seasonal forest conditions compared to trees are poorly understood. Here, we evaluate how saplings of 21 tree and liana species from a seasonal tropical forest in Panama differ in cavitation resistance (P50) and maximum hydraulic conductivity (K(h)), and how saplings of 24 tree and liana species differ in four photosynthetic leaf traits (e.g., maximum assimilation and stomatal conductance) and six morphological leaf and stem traits (e.g., wood density, maximum vessel length, and specific leaf area). At the sapling stage, lianas had a lower cavitation resistance than trees, implying lower drought tolerance, and they tended to have a higher potential hydraulic conductivity. In contrast to studies focusing on adult trees and lianas, we found no clear differences in morphological and photosynthetic traits between the life forms. Possibly, lianas and trees are functionally different at later ontogenetic stages, with lianas having deeper root systems than trees, or experience their main growth advantage during wet periods, when they are less vulnerable to cavitation and can achieve high conductivity. This study shows, however, that the hydraulic characteristics and functional traits that we examined do not explain differences in liana and tree distributions in seasonal forests.

  19. Quantifying Local and Cooperative Components in the Ferroelectric Distortion of BaTiO3: Learning from the Off-Center Motion in the MnCl65– Complex Formed in KCl:Mn+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García Lastra, Juan Maria; García-Fernández, P.; Calle-Vallejo, F.

    2014-01-01

    → C4v → Oh local transformations occurring in the 10–50 K temperature range for the MnCl65– complex formed in KCl:Mn+ that mimic the behavior of BaTiO3. From Boltzmann analysis of the vibronic levels derived from ab initio calculations and considering decoherence introduced by random strains......, the present calculations reproduce the experimental phase sequence and transition temperatures. Furthermore, our calculations show that the off-center instability in KCl:Mn+ would be suppressed by reducing by only 1% the lattice parameter, a situation that then becomes comparable to that found for BaTiO3...

  20. TG 220 MW hydraulic control system diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svabcik, A.

    1996-01-01

    The TG power output control system comprises a hydraulic and an electronic part. TG speed, power output or the main steam header pressure (HPK) depend on the steam flow at the turbine inlet. The steam admission into the turbine is controlled by four control valves and one by-pass valve in case of the HP part and by four capture flap valves in case of the LP part. The task of the SKODA K-220 MW turbine protection and control systems is to provide both the turbine speed and power output control to the setpoint value. Diagnostic measurements were aimed at getting an overview of both technical and functional states of all power output control elements. Principally, it can be stated that some deficiencies of a design nature originating from the manufacturer's factory were revealed and some other deficiencies related to hydraulic control elements functionality were identified more closely by the new method. 5 figs