WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydraulic turbine equipment

  1. Controls of Hydraulic Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hydraulic wind turbine generator system was proposed based on analysis the current wind turbines technologies. The construction and principles were introduced. The mathematical model was verified using MATLAB and AMsim. A displacement closed loop of swash plate of motor and a speed closed loop of generator were setup, a PID control is introduced to maintain a constant speed and fixed frequency at wind turbine generator. Simulation and experiment demonstrated that the system can connect grid to generate electric and enhance reliability. The control system demonstrates a high performance speed regulation and effectiveness. The results are great significant to design a new type hydraulic wind turbine system.

  2. Mechanical (turbines and auxiliary equipment)

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2013-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Volume 3: Mechanical (Turbines and Auxiliary Equipment) focuses on the development of turbines and auxiliary equipment used in power stations in Great Britain. Topics covered include thermodynamics and steam turbine theory; turbine auxiliary systems such as lubrication systems, feed water heating systems, and the condenser and cooling water plants. Miscellaneous station services, and pipework in power plants are also described. This book is comprised of five chapters and begins with an overview of thermodynamics and steam turbine theory, paying particular attenti

  3. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hydraulic equipment and the adjacent work area. Protection shall be afforded to the operator of hydraulic... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.880 Section 28.880 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.880 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system must...

  4. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.405 Section 28.405 Shipping... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.405 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system... than four times the system maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped...

  5. Turbine efficiency test on a large hydraulic turbine unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN ZongGuo; ZHOU LingJiu; WANG ZhengWei

    2012-01-01

    The flow rate measurements are the most difficult part of efficiency tests on prototype hydraulic turbines.Among the numerous flow rate measurement methods,the Winter Kennedy method is preferred for measuring turbine flow rates,since it is convenient,practical and economical.This paper describes efficiency tests on a large 300 MW Francis turbine,with the flow rate measured using the Winter Kennedy method and the Winter Kennedy flow rate coefficient calibrated using the Gibson method.The measured turbine efficiency curve is then compared with the curve provided by the manufacturer.The CFD calculations including the spiral case are then used to analyze the influence with the coefficient K and index n in the Winter Kennedy flow rate formula on the flow rate measurement.The uncertainty values of n and K are a key reason for the differences between the curves obtained from the efficiency test and the curves provided by the manufacturer.

  6. Development of a hydraulic turbine design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassanos, Ioannis; Anagnostopoulos, John; Papantonis, Dimitris

    2013-10-01

    In this paper a hydraulic turbine parametric design method is presented which is based on the combination of traditional methods and parametric surface modeling techniques. The blade of the turbine runner is described using Bezier surfaces for the definition of the meridional plane as well as the blade angle distribution, and a thickness distribution applied normal to the mean blade surface. In this way, it is possible to define parametrically the whole runner using a relatively small number of design parameters, compared to conventional methods. The above definition is then combined with a commercial CFD software and a stochastic optimization algorithm towards the development of an automated design optimization procedure. The process is demonstrated with the design of a Francis turbine runner.

  7. Pump Application as Hydraulic Turbine – Pump as Turbine (PaT)

    OpenAIRE

    Rusovs, D

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers pump operation as hydraulic turbine with purpose to produce mechanical power from liquid flow. The Francis hydraulic turbine was selected for comparison with centrifugal pump in reverse operation. Turbine and centrifugal pump velocity triangles were considered with purpose to evaluate PaT efficiency. Shape of impeller blades for turbine and pumps was analysed. Specific speed calculation is carried out with purpose to obtain similarity in pump and turbine description. For ...

  8. Mechanization of hydraulic testing of chemical equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannikov, M.T.; Fridman, R.N.; Petrovnin, A.I.

    1982-09-01

    The Institute VNIIPTKhimmash has worked out a comprehensive list of equipment for testing for strength and tightness containers and heat exchangers with jackets, with mixers, also of individual parts and subassemblies for this equipment. Points out that in the test stands developed for hydraulic testing of vessels both individual and centralized recirculating water supply can be used. Concludes that a reduction in labor consumption in hydraulic testing and in servicing of all the equipment used, an increase in the mechanization of this kind of chemical equipment, and the solution of the problem of standardization not only with regard to dimensions and parameters, but also with regard to the makes and types of the materials used, will make possible a considerable increase in labor productivity and product quality.

  9. Mobile platform for hydraulic turbine blade repair robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The wall-climbing mobile platform (MP) of a robot for repairing a hydraulic turbine blade onsite is developed.The MP is equipped with ferromagnetic adhesive devices and can work on a spatial curved surface.The contradiction between mobility and load-bearing ability is analyzed,and the problem of self-adaptation to the curved face is solved using differential-driven wheeled locomotion with ferromagnetic adhesive devices.The platform adheres to the blade surface through the force provided by the ferromagnetic devices,and a certain gap exists between the magnetic devices and the blade's surface.A mechanism of three revolution degrees of freedom,which connects the magnetic devices with the platform's chassis,is developed to make the platform self-adapt to the complex curved surface of the turbine blade.A proofof-principle prototype has been manufactured,and experiments prove the success of the MP.The payload of the zero-turn-radius MP with excellent maneuverability exceeds 80 kg.The platform can automatically adapt to complex spatial surfaces,which satisfy the requirements of a hydraulic turbine blade in-situ repair robot.

  10. Efficiency limit factor analysis for the Francis-99 hydraulic turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y.; Zhang, L. X.; Guo, J. P.; Guo, Y. K.; Pan, Q. L.; Qian, J.

    2017-01-01

    The energy loss in hydraulic turbine is the most direct factor that affects the efficiency of the hydraulic turbine. Based on the analysis theory of inner energy loss of hydraulic turbine, combining the measurement data of the Francis-99, this paper calculates characteristic parameters of inner energy loss of the hydraulic turbine, and establishes the calculation model of the hydraulic turbine power. Taken the start-up test conditions given by Francis-99 as case, characteristics of the inner energy of the hydraulic turbine in transient and transformation law are researched. Further, analyzing mechanical friction in hydraulic turbine, we think that main ingredients of mechanical friction loss is the rotation friction loss between rotating runner and water body, and defined as the inner mechanical friction loss. The calculation method of the inner mechanical friction loss is given roughly. Our purpose is that explore and research the method and way increasing transformation efficiency of water flow by means of analysis energy losses in hydraulic turbine.

  11. ANALYSIS AND ESTIMATION OF HYDRAULIC STABILITY OF FRANCIS HYDRO TURBINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Xi-de

    2004-01-01

    With the development of large-capacity hydro turbines, the hydraulic instability of bydro turbines has become one of the most important problems that affect the stable operation of the hydro-electric units. The hydraulic vibration and unstable operation of Francis hydro turbines are primarily caused by the unsteady pressure pulsations inside draft tubes.The forced rotating vortex core at the runner exit and the channel vortices inside Francis turbine runners are origins of the unsteady pressure pulsations when operating at partial load. This paper briefly analyzes the hydraulic instability of operation caused by the vortex core and channel vortices at partial load, then, presents a way to estimate the hydraulic stability by calculation of the flow behavior at the runner exit.The validity of estimation is examined by comparison with experimental data. This will be helpful to evaluate the alternative design and predict the hydraulic stability for both the prototype and model hydro turbines.

  12. Hydraulic Soft Yaw System for Multi MW Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren

    Horizontal axis wind turbines utilize a yaw system to keep the rotor plane of the wind turbine perpendicular to the main wind direction. If the wind direction changes, the wind turbine follows the direction change by yawing. If the wind turbine does not yaw, there will be a reduction in produced...... of nine concepts for hydraulic yaw systems and shown that the loading of the turbine structure may be damped if the yaw system is allowed to deflect under loading. An extensions of the open source wind turbine code FAST of a state of the art wind turbine including the yaw degree of freedom and friction...

  13. Mesh convergence study for hydraulic turbine draft-tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devals, C.; Vu, T. C.; Zhang, Y.; Dompierre, J.; Guibault, F.

    2016-11-01

    Computational flow analysis is an essential tool for hydraulic turbine designers. Grid generation is the first step in the flow analysis process. Grid quality and solution accuracy are strongly linked. Even though many studies have addressed the issue of mesh independence, there is still no definitive consensus on mesh best practices, and research on that topic is still needed. This paper presents a mesh convergence study for turbulence flow in hydraulic turbine draft- tubes which represents the most challenging turbine component for CFD predictions. The findings from this parametric study will be incorporated as mesh control rules in an in-house automatic mesh generator for turbine components.

  14. The numerical simulation based on CFD of hydraulic turbine pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, X. H.; Kong, F. Y.; Liu, Y. Y.; Zhao, R. J.; Hu, Q. L.

    2016-05-01

    As the functions of hydraulic turbine pump including self-adjusting and compensation with each other, it is far-reaching to analyze its internal flow by the numerical simulation based on CFD, mainly including the pressure field and the velocity field in hydraulic turbine and pump.The three-dimensional models of hydraulic turbine pump are made by Pro/Engineer software;the internal flow fields in hydraulic turbine and pump are simulated numerically by CFX ANSYS software. According to the results of the numerical simulation in design condition, the pressure field and the velocity field in hydraulic turbine and pump are analyzed respectively .The findings show that the static pressure decreases systematically and the pressure gradient is obvious in flow area of hydraulic turbine; the static pressure increases gradually in pump. The flow trace is regular in suction chamber and flume without spiral trace. However, there are irregular traces in the turbine runner channels which contrary to that in flow area of impeller. Most of traces in the flow area of draft tube are spiral.

  15. Hydraulic Motor Driving Variable-Pitch System for Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye HUANG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism of wind turbine uses three hydraulic cylinders to drive three crank and connecting rod mechanisms respectively; the blades are moved with the cranks. The hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism has complex structure, occupies a lot of space and its maintenance is trouble. In order to make up for the shortcomings of hydraulic cylinder variable-pitch system, the present hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism should be changed as follows: hydraulic motors are used to drive gears; gears drive blades; the electro-hydraulic proportional valves are used to control hydraulic motors. The hydraulic control part and electrical control part of variable-pitch system is redesigned. The new variable-pitch system is called hydraulic motor driving variable-pitch system. The new variable-pitch system meets the control requirements of blade pitch, makes the structure simple and its application effect is perfect.    

  16. Tidal current turbine based on hydraulic transmission system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-wei LIU; Wei LI; Yong-gang LIN; Shun MA

    2011-01-01

    Tidal current turbines (TCTs) are newly developed electricity generating devices.Aiming at the stabilization of the power output of TCTs,this paper introduces the hydraulic transmission technologies into TCTs.The hydrodynamics of the turbine was analyzed at first and its power output characteristics were predicted.A hydraulic power transmission system and a hydraulic pitch-controlled system were designed.Then related simulations were conducted.Finally,a TCT prototype was manufactured and tested in the workshop.The test results have confirmed the correctness of the current design and availability of installation of the hydraulic system in TCTs.

  17. 7 CFR 2902.10 - Mobile equipment hydraulic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.11. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mobile equipment hydraulic fluids. 2902.10 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.10 Mobile equipment hydraulic fluids. (a) Definition. Hydraulic...

  18. Performance of nano-hydraulic turbine utilizing waterfalls

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Toshihiko; Iio, Shouichiro; Tatsuno, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop an environmentally friendly nano-hydraulic turbine utilizing waterfalls. A model of an impulse type hydraulic turbine constructed and tested with an indoor type waterfall to arrive at an optimum installation condition. Effects of an installation parameter, namely distance between the rotor and the waterfall on the power performance were studied. The flow field around the rotor was examined visually to clarify influences of installation conditions o...

  19. Hydraulic Lifting Mechanisms for the Erection Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. M. Novozhilov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In erection equipment of space launch complexes the hydraulic lifting mechanisms (HLM are solely and exclusively used to accomplish changing the space-mission vehicle (SMV position from horizontal to the vertical one. Existing designs of lifting mechanisms are diverse, but all of them basically contain a basic mechanism comprising one hydro-cylinder. With increasing SMV size and weight a task to design the more complicated lifting mechanisms, comprising more kinematic links and using several hydro-cylinders becomes urgent.The article conducts a detailed analysis of the basic HLM schemes and defines the features of their arrangement in erection equipment. Gives basic calculation relationships, allowing us to determine design parameters of mechanisms for stationary and transport units. Via examples of available erection equipment shows the embodiment of lifting mechanisms using basic schemes.The ways for development of HLM schemes to erect a SMV of the large size and weight are shown. Two options of the double-cylinder HLM are described. Both schemes are based on dividing a lift cycle into two parts, in each of which only one of the cylinders is in operation. The first option contains an additional, intermediate boom, with respect to which the main boom is erected. In such a mechanism the cylinders start running sequentially: at first, one of the cylinders erects the intermediate boom, then the other cylinder does the main one. The second HLM embodiment comprises a single carrier boom with the swing arm, which allows to swing the boom at a certain angle of less than 90 ° using one of the cylinders, also sequentially operating. The second cylinder allows the boom to fall into vertical position. Such schemes can reduce a stroke length of used hydraulic cylinders, which are the most expensive devices of the lifting mechanism.The analysis results are of interest to designers of erection equipment for the space launch complexes.

  20. Application study of magnetic fluid seal in hydraulic turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Z. Y.; Zhang, W.

    2012-11-01

    The waterpower resources of our country are abundant, and the hydroelectric power is developed, but at present the main shaft sealing device of hydraulic turbine is easy to wear and tear and the leakage is great. The magnetic fluid seal has the advantages of no contact, no wear, self-healing, long life and so on. In this paper, the magnetic fluid seal would be used in the main shaft of hydraulic turbine, the sealing structure was built the model, meshed the geometry, applied loads and solved by using MULTIPHYSICS in ANSYS software, the influence of the various sealing structural parameters such as tooth width, height, slot width, sealing gap on the sealing property were analyzed, the magnetic fluid sealing device suitable for large-diameter shaft and sealing water was designed, the sealing problem of the hydraulic turbine main shaft was solved effectively which will bring huge economic benefits.

  1. Creating new life for hydraulic turbines by upgrading and rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachter, G.F.

    1998-12-01

    Methods by which to extend the life of aging hydraulic turbines which are still in operation today are discussed. Upgrading some of these turbines which were built as far back as 80 years ago may be feasible with current rehabilitation technology and advanced computer aided hydraulic mechanical design analysis techniques. The benefits achieved with many hydraulic turbine upgrade and rehabilitation programs include: (1) increased performance, (2) extended service life, (3) stopping accelerated deterioration due to cavitation, (4) reducing detrimental symptoms such as unit vibration, component cracking and excessive wearing ring clearances, (5) reducing the possibility of major failures, and (6) reducing unscheduled forced outages. Increased usage of a non-polluting, renewable energy source is an additional benefit of rehabilitation and upgrading of hydro power generating units.2 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  2. Performance of Savonius Rotor for Environmentally Friendly Hydraulic Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Miyoshi; Iio, Shouichiro; Ikeda, Toshihiko

    The aim of this investigation was to develop an environmentally friendly nano-hydraulic turbine. A model of a two-bucket Savonius type hydraulic turbine was constructed and tested in a water tunnel to arrive at an optimum installation condition. Effects of two installation parameters, namely a distance between a rotor and a bottom wall of the tunnel, a rotation direction of the rotor, on the power performance were studied. A flow field around the rotor was examined visually to clarify influences of installation conditions on the flow field. The flow visualization showed differences of flow pattern around the rotor by the change of these parameters. From this study it was found that the power performances of Savonius hydraulic turbine were changed with the distance between the rotor and the bottom wall of the tunnel and with a rotation direction of the rotor.

  3. Straight-flow hydraulic turbine-generator for ultralow-head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushimoto, Masakazu; Ujiie, Ryuichi (Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-01-10

    This report introduces features and structures of the straight-flow hydraulic turbine-generator considered for ultralow-head hydropower generation. Largest feature of straight flow(S/F) is that the generator rotor is fitted so as to surround the periphery of runner. This fundamental structure is classified to overhang type, downstream stay-column type and others dependent on the arrangement of main bearing which supports the rotor weight. The essential part of the hydraulic turbine is the sealing equipment for the center part of the rotor. Special attention must be paid to the selection of material and structure of this equipment. The maximum point to determine the structure is the countermeasure for the radial and axial rigidity reduction in the S/F hydro-generator. It is also necessary to conduct moisture prevention for the generator and to insulate to prevent axial current. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Dynamic extending nonlinear H∞ control and its application to hydraulic turbine governor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    There exists a large class of nonlinear systems with uncertainties, such as hydraulic turbine governors, whose robust control problem is hard to solve by means of the existing robust control approaches. For this class of systems, this work presents a dynamic extending H∞ controller via both differential geometry and H∞ theory. Furthermore, based on differential game theory, it has been verified that the proposed control strategy has robustness in the sense that the disturbance can be attenuated effectively because the L2-gain from the disturbance input to the regulation output signal could be reduced to any given level. Thirdly, a robust control strategy for hydraulic turbine governor is designed according to the proposed extending H∞ control method, and has been developed into a real control equipment. Finally the field experiments are carried out which show clearly that the developed control equipment can enhance transient stability of power systems more effectively than the conventional controller.

  5. Functional Problems and Maintenance Operations of Hydraulic Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Topliceanu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation in good conditions of the hydroelectric power plant imposes a rigorous maintenance of equipment and operating facilities, primarily of the turbine. The efficiency of the turbine is strongly affected by any defects which could occur during the operation. The paper makes a synthesis of the most frequent failures which have occurred during the functioning of Kaplan turbines plant and the required maintenance plan that has to be adopted. The maintenance rules for the optimal working of these turbines are also emphasized.

  6. Grinding efficiency improvement of hydraulic cylinders parts for mining equipment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aleksandr Korotkov; Vitaliy Korotkov; Leonid Mametyev; Lidia Korotkova; Tatiana Terjaeva

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the article is to find out ways to improve parts treatment and components of mining equipment on the example of hydraulic cylinders parts, used as pillars for mine roof supports, and other actuator mechanisms...

  7. 7 CFR 2902.28 - Stationary equipment hydraulic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... formulated for use in stationary hydraulic equipment systems that have various mechanical parts, such as cylinders, pumps, valves, pistons, and gears, that are used for the transmission of power (and also...

  8. The determination of the operation parameters at the axial hydraulic turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simedru, A. I.

    2016-08-01

    In the operating point of the monitoring moment there are assumed from process the monitoring measured parameters: the active and reactive power, upstream and downstream water levels (after the intake trash rake and at the outlet of the turbine draft tube), wicket gate and runner opening blades, the differential pressure in the spiral chamber and the hydrounit speed. So, there was established the characteristic curves obtained on analytic basis and similitude and compared with the curves measured experimentally on the hydraulic machines from the power plant. The cavitational coefficient of the machine and the cavitational coefficient of the equipment are in function of the system parameters between them especially the suction head, the runner and wicket gates blades angles of opening. The solution proposed is a method of determining the operating turbine parameters and of the cavitation, by reducing the error caused by the similitude phenomenon, using an accurate estimation of the turbine operating parameters according to the universal diagram of the turbine. The numerical obtained values permit the necessary correlation through a complex function which is able to reduce or eliminate the unwished effects of the cavitation phenomena on the hydraulic turbines of the Iron Gates power plant.

  9. Power management in hydraulically actuated mobile equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2008-01-01

    The focus of the current paper is on the control of hydraulic systems when utilizing the advances that electronic control may bring with regard to power management, prioritized flow sharing and anti-stall, arising from being able to control both pump, valves and engine electronically. A simple mo...

  10. 3D numerical simulation of transient processes in hydraulic turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherny, S; Chirkov, D; Lapin, V; Eshkunova, I [Institute of Computational Technologies SB RAS Acad. Lavrentjev avenue 6, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Bannikov, D; Avdushenko, A [Department of Mechanics and Mathematics, Novosibirsk State University Pirogov st. 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Skorospelov, V, E-mail: chirkov@ict.nsc.r [Institute of Mathematics SB RAS Acad. Koptug avenue 4, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2010-08-15

    An approach for numerical simulation of 3D hydraulic turbine flows in transient operating regimes is presented. The method is based on a coupled solution of incompressible RANS equations, runner rotation equation, and water hammer equations. The issue of setting appropriate boundary conditions is considered in detail. As an illustration, the simulation results for runaway process are presented. The evolution of vortex structure and its effect on computed runaway traces are analyzed.

  11. 3D numerical simulation of transient processes in hydraulic turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherny, S.; Chirkov, D.; Bannikov, D.; Lapin, V.; Skorospelov, V.; Eshkunova, I.; Avdushenko, A.

    2010-08-01

    An approach for numerical simulation of 3D hydraulic turbine flows in transient operating regimes is presented. The method is based on a coupled solution of incompressible RANS equations, runner rotation equation, and water hammer equations. The issue of setting appropriate boundary conditions is considered in detail. As an illustration, the simulation results for runaway process are presented. The evolution of vortex structure and its effect on computed runaway traces are analyzed.

  12. Hydro-abrasive erosion of hydraulic turbines caused by sediment - a century of research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, D.; Albayrak, I.; Abgottspon, A.; Boes, R. M.

    2016-11-01

    Hydro-abrasive erosion of hydraulic turbines is an economically important issue due to maintenance costs and production losses, in particular at high- and medium-head run-of- river hydropower plants (HPPs) on sediment laden rivers. In this paper, research and development in this field over the last century are reviewed. Facilities for sediment exclusion, typically sand traps, as well as turbine design and materials have been improved considerably. Since the 1980s, hard-coatings have been applied on Francis and Pelton turbine parts of erosion-prone HPPs and became state-of-the-art. These measures have led to increased times between overhauls and smaller efficiency reductions. Analytical, laboratory and field investigations have contributed to a better processes understanding and quantification of sediment-related effects on turbines. More recently, progress has been made in numerical modelling of turbine erosion. To calibrate, validate and further develop prediction models, more measurements from both physical model tests in laboratories and real-scale data from HPPs are required. Significant improvements to mitigate hydro-abrasive erosion have been achieved so far and development is ongoing. A good collaboration between turbine manufacturers, HPP operators, measuring equipment suppliers, engineering consultants, and research institutes is required. This contributes to the energy- and cost-efficient use of the worldwide hydropower potential.

  13. Development of Virtual Equipment for a Hydraulic Mechanics Experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAN Ying-Chieh; CHEN Ya-Hsin; KANG Shih-Chung; LEE Tim-Hau

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory class is very important in the education of hydraulic mechanics. However, it usually requires a high expenditure on equipment purchase and maintenance. Virtual equipment that renders the equipment in a virtual world and provides an interactive interface for users can be an ideal solution to reduce costs. In this research, we focus on developing virtual equipment for a Venturi tube experiment. We em-ployed multiple paper-prototypes to gather user feedback on the preliminary design. Following the final pro-totype, we then implemented the virtual equipment on computers. Interactive functions have been built into the virtual equipment. Users are able to manipulate the equipment and obtain real-time feedback as if they were using actual equipment. The results show that the development of the virtual equipment is technically feasible.

  14. Fatigue design of hydraulic turbine runners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huth, Hans-Joerg

    2005-07-01

    Turbine runners experience start-stop cycles and vibration cycles. Cracks initiated from service or manufacturing defects and propagated by start-stop cycles become critical when the stress intensity range due to vibrational loading exceeds the threshold for fatigue crack growth. In Francis turbine runners, semi-elliptical surface cracks tend to propagate from the quarter-circular transition of the welded T-joint transition between the blade and the band or crown. Assuming a crack to grow under a constant stress amplitude equal to that at the most highly loaded location at the welded joint between the blade and the band or crown of a Francis turbine runner yields a conservative estimate of the life of the runner. A more accurate prediction of fatigue life is obtained by considering the growth of a crack in the real, inhomogeneous stress field. For an idealised T-joint under pure bending, the stress field has been determined by means of plane strain finite element analysis. Finite element models of the entire Francis runner are built with respect to the calculation of fluid dynamic properties. Since in these models geometry transitions are modelled as a sharp notch, both a finite and a zero transition radius have been modelled, and the influence of the mesh size on the maximum stress has been investigated. For relatively small cracks, it is shown that the structural component geometry does not remarkably influence the stress intensity factor values, provided that the stress field in the vicinity of the crack is approximately the same. Therefore, in order to simplify the stress intensity factor retrieval and to generate a solution of extended applicability, a cracked finite-thickness plate is examined instead of the actual T-joint geometry. The stress intensity factors along the front of a semi-elliptical surface crack in such a plate are determined by means of an analysis using finite quarter-point wedge elements for different elementary loading conditions that can

  15. OPTIMAL HYDRAULIC DESIGN AND CAD APPLICATIONS OF AXIAL FLOW HYDRAULIC TURBINE'S RUNNER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A method of the optimal hydraulic design and CAD application of runner blades of axial-flow hydraulic turbines are discussed on the basis of optimization principle and CAD technique in this paper. Based on the theory of fluid dynamics, the blade′s main geometrical parameter, working parameters and performances index of the blades and the relationship between them are analysed, and the mathematical model of optimal hydraulic design of axial-flow runners has been established. Through nonlinear programming, the problems can be solved. By making use of the calculation geometry and computer graphics, the distribution method of the singular points, and an CAD applied software, an optimal hydraulic design are presented.

  16. HVOF on the Surface Strengthen Treatment to the flow Parts of Hydraulic Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI You-zhong; LU Jin-yu; TU Yang-wen; LI Cui-lin

    2004-01-01

    China has the most outstanding and serious problem of silt abrasion on hydraulic turbine, especially in the power station on mainstream of Yellow River and the upriver anabranch of Yangtze River. For many years, in order to find the destruction rules of silt to hydraulic turbine, and study how to slow down the destruction speed of sandiness stream to surface on flow parts of hydraulic turbine, various kinds of new technology, new material, new craftwork have been verified in lab and on spot. It is proved that using high velocity oxygen fuel to strengthen the surface on flow parts of hydraulic turbine can effectively prolong the service life of hydroelectric generating set.

  17. Detection of cavitation vortex in hydraulic turbines using acoustic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candel, I.; Bunea, F.; Dunca, G.; Bucur, D. M.; Ioana, C.; Reeb, B.; Ciocan, G. D.

    2014-03-01

    Cavitation phenomena are known for their destructive capacity in hydraulic machineries and are caused by the pressure decrease followed by an implosion when the cavitation bubbles find an adverse pressure gradient. A helical vortex appears in the turbine diffuser cone at partial flow rate operation and can be cavitating in its core. Cavity volumes and vortex frequencies vary with the under-pressure level. If the vortex frequency comes close to one of the eigen frequencies of the turbine, a resonance phenomenon may occur, the unsteady fluctuations can be amplified and lead to important turbine and hydraulic circuit damage. Conventional cavitation vortex detection techniques are based on passive devices (pressure sensors or accelerometers). Limited sensor bandwidths and low frequency response limit the vortex detection and characterization information provided by the passive techniques. In order to go beyond these techniques and develop a new active one that will remove these drawbacks, previous work in the field has shown that techniques based on acoustic signals using adapted signal content to a particular hydraulic situation, can be more robust and accurate. The cavitation vortex effects in the water flow profile downstream hydraulic turbines runner are responsible for signal content modifications. Basic signal techniques use narrow band signals traveling inside the flow from an emitting transducer to a receiving one (active sensors). Emissions of wide band signals in the flow during the apparition and development of the vortex embeds changes in the received signals. Signal processing methods are used to estimate the cavitation apparition and evolution. Tests done in a reduced scale facility showed that due to the increasing flow rate, the signal -- vortex interaction is seen as modifications on the received signal's high order statistics and bandwidth. Wide band acoustic transducers have a higher dynamic range over mechanical elements; the system's reaction time

  18. Reliable hydraulic turbine governor based on identification and adaptive filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, J.; Doraiswami, R.

    1986-01-01

    A scheme for improving reliable operation of a PID governor of a hydraulic turbine generating unit is proposed. The parameters of governor and actuators are identified on-line to, a) detect their anomalous behaviours, b) facilitate the calibration of the proportional integral and derivative gain settings. An adaptive filter is used to detect the lightly damped oscillations of the system. The proposed scheme was verified via simulation on the real data obtained from one of Mactaquac hydro-generating units of New Brunswick Electrical Power Commission. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme can indeed provide an accurate and rapid detection of the abnormal system operations.

  19. State of the art hydraulic turbine model test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, Violaine; Duparchy, Alexandre; Andre, Francois; Larroze, Pierre-Yves

    2016-11-01

    Model tests are essential in hydraulic turbine development and related fields. The methods and technologies used to perform these tests show constant progress and provide access to further information. In addition, due to its contractual nature, the test demand evolves continuously in terms of quantity and accuracy. Keeping in mind that the principal aim of model testing is the transposition of the model measurements to the real machine, the measurements should be performed accurately, and a critical analysis of the model test results is required to distinguish the transposable hydraulic phenomena from the test rig interactions. Although the resonances’ effects are known and described in the IEC standard, their identification is difficult. Leaning on a strong experience of model testing, we will illustrate with a few examples of how to identify the potential problems induced by the test rig. This paper contains some of our best practices to obtain the most accurate, relevant, and independent test-rig measurements.

  20. Development and industrial tests of the first LNG hydraulic turbine system in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The cryogenic hydraulic turbine can be used to replace the conventional J–T valve for LNG or mixed refrigerant throttling and depressurization in a natural gas liquefaction plant. This advanced technology is not only to enhance the efficiency of the liquefaction plant, but to usher a new trend in the development of global liquefaction technologies. China has over 136 liquefaction plants, but the cryogenic hydraulic turbines have not been deployed in industrial utilization. In addition, these turbines cannot be manufactured domestically. In this circumstance, through working on the key technologies for LNG hydraulic turbine process & control system development, hydraulic model optimization design, structure design and manufacturing, the first domestic cryogenic hydraulic turbine with a flow rate of 40 m3/h was developed to recover the pressure energy from the LNG of cold box. The turbine was installed in the CNOOC Zhuhai Natural Gas Liquefaction Plant for industrial tests under multiple working conditions, including start-stop, variable flow rates and variable rotation speeds. Test results show that the domestic LNG cryogenic hydraulic turbine has satisfactory mechanical and operational performances at low temperatures as specified in design. In addition, the process & control system and frequency-conversion power-generation system of the turbine system are designed properly to automatically and smoothly replace the existing LNG J–T valve. As a result, the domestic LNG cryogenic hydraulic turbine system can improve LNG production by an average of 2% and generate power of 8.3 kW.

  1. Numerical and experimental study of low-frequency pressure pulsations in hydraulic units with Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, D.; Minakov, A.; Dekterev, D.; Sentyabov, A.; Dekterev, A.

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents the numerical simulation method of three-dimensional turbulent flows in the hydraulic turbine. This technique was verified by means of experimental data obtained on a water model of the Francis turbines. An aerodynamic stand, which is a miniature copy of the real hydraulic turbine, was designed. A series of experiments have been carried out on this stand and the corresponding calculations were performed. The dependence of the velocity and pressure pulsations profiles for different operation regimes are presented.

  2. Grinding efficiency improvement of hydraulic cylinders parts for mining equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkov Aleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to find out ways to improve parts treatment and components of mining equipment on the example of hydraulic cylinders parts, used as pillars for mine roof supports, and other actuator mechanisms. In the course of the research work methods of machine retaining devices design were used, the scientific approaches for the selection of progressive grinding schemes were applied; theoretical and practical experience in the design and production of new constructions of grinding tools was used. As a result of this work it became possible to create a progressive construction of a machine retaining device for grinding of large parts of hydraulic cylinders, to apply an effective scheme of rotary abrasive treatment, to create and implement new design of grinding tools by means of grains with controllable shape and orientation. Implementation of the results obtained in practice will improve the quality and performance of repairing and manufacturing of mining equipment.

  3. A Feasibility Study of Power Generation from Sewage Using a Hollowed Pico-Hydraulic Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Uchiyama

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the feasibility of power generation using a pico-hydraulic turbine from sewage flowing in pipes. First, the sewage flow rate at two connection points to the Toyogawa River-Basin Sewerage, Japan, was explored for over a year to elucidate the hydraulic energy potential of the sewage. Second, the performance of the pico-hydraulic turbine was investigated via laboratory experiments that supposed the turbine to be installed in the sewage pipe at the connection points. This study indicates that the connection points have hydraulic potential that can be used for power generation throughout the year. It also demonstrates that the pico-hydraulic turbine can be usefully employed for power generation from sewage flowing in the pipe at the connection points.

  4. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF CHARACTERISTIC FREQUENCY IN UNSTEADY HYDRAULIC BEHAVIOUR OF A LARGE HYDRAULIC TURBINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fu-jun; LI Xiao-qin; MA Jia-mei; YANG Min; ZHU Yu-liang

    2009-01-01

    The features of unsteady flow such as pressure variation and fluctuation in a large hydraulic turbine usually lead to the instability of operation.This article reports the recent in site investigation concerning the characteristic frequencies in pressure fluctuation,shaft torsional oscillation and structural vibration of a prototype 700 MW Francis turbine unit.The investigation was carried out for a wide load range of 200 MW-700 MW in the condition of water head 57 m-90 m.An extensive analysis of both time-history and frequency data of these unsteady hydraulic behaviours was conducted.It was observed that the pressure fluctuation in a draft tube is stronger than that in upstream flow passage.The low frequency with about one third of rotation frequency is dominative for the pressure fluctuation in part load range.Also the unsteady features of vibration of head cover and torsional oscillation of shaft exhibited the similar features.Numerical analysis showed that the vibration and oscillation are caused by vortex rope in the draft tube.In addition,a strong vibration with special characteristic frequency was observed for the head cover in middle load range.The pressure fluctuation in the draft tube with the same frequency was also recorded.Because this special vibration has appeared in the designed normal running condition,it should be avoided by carefully allocating power load in the future operation.

  5. Strain gauge measurement uncertainties on hydraulic turbine runner blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpin-Pont, J.; Gagnon, M.; Tahan, S. A.; Coutu, A.; Thibault, D.

    2012-11-01

    Strains experimentally measured with strain gauges can differ from those evaluated using the Finite Element (FE) method. This difference is due mainly to the assumptions and uncertainties inherent to each method. To circumvent this difficulty, we developed a numerical method based on Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate measurement uncertainties produced by the behaviour of a unidirectional welded gauge, its position uncertainty and its integration effect. This numerical method uses the displacement fields of the studied part evaluated by an FE analysis. The paper presents a study case using in situ data measured on a hydraulic turbine runner. The FE analysis of the turbine runner blade was computed, and our numerical method used to evaluate uncertainties on strains measured at five locations with welded strain gauges. Then, measured strains and their uncertainty ranges are compared to the estimated strains. The uncertainty ranges obtained extended from 74 μepsilon to 165 μepsilon. Furthermore, the biases observed between the median of the uncertainty ranges and the FE strains varied from -36 to 36 μepsilon. Note that strain gauge measurement uncertainties depend mainly on displacement fields and gauge geometry.

  6. State of the art-hydraulic yaw systems for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole;

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the yawing systems of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines (HAWT’s). HAWT’s represents close to all of the commercial large wind turbines sold today and must be considered state-of-the art within wind turbine technology. Two choices exists when considering components for the active...... mounted with a reduction gear. This paper presents state-of-the art within; hydraulic yaw system design and control of yaw systems in general. Primary focus on the advantages and disadvantages of using a hydraulic system for controlling the yaw of a wind turbine with a soft yaw concept....

  7. An evaluation of a hubless inducer and a full flow hydraulic turbine driven inducer boost pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, B. K.; Martinson, A. R.

    1971-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the performance of several configurations of hubless inducers with a hydrodynamically similar conventional inducer and to demonstrate the performance of a full flow hydraulic turbine driven inducer boost pump using these inducers. A boost pump of this type consists of an inducer connected to a hydraulic turbine with a high speed rotor located in between. All the flow passes through the inducer, rotor, and hydraulic turbine, then into the main pump. The rotor, which is attached to the main pump shaft, provides the input power to drive the hydraulic turbine which, in turn, drives the inducer. The inducer, rotating at a lower speed, develops the necessary head to prevent rotor cavitation. The rotor speed is consistent with present main engine liquid hydrogen pump designs and the overall boost pump head rise is sufficient to provide adequate main pump suction head. This system would have the potential for operating at lower liquid hydrogen tank pressures.

  8. Wind tunnel experiments to prove a hydraulic passive torque control concept for variable speed wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, N.F.B.; Jarquin-Laguna, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the results are presented of experiments to prove an innovative concept for passive torque control of variable speed wind turbines using fluid power technology. It is demonstrated that by correctly configuring the hydraulic drive train, the wind turbine rotor operates at or near maximu

  9. Wind tunnel experiments to prove a hydraulic passive torque control concept for variable speed wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, N.F.B.; Jarquin-Laguna, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the results are presented of experiments to prove an innovative concept for passive torque control of variable speed wind turbines using fluid power technology. It is demonstrated that by correctly configuring the hydraulic drive train, the wind turbine rotor operates at or near maximu

  10. Development of the water-lubricated thrust bearing of the hydraulic turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K.; Deguchi, K.; Okude, K.; Fujimoto, R.

    2012-11-01

    In hydropower plant, a large quantities of turbine oil is used as machine control pressure oil and lubricating oil. If the oil leak out from hydropower plant, it flows into a river. And such oil spill has an adverse effect on natural environment because the oil does not degrade easily. Therefore the KANSAI and Hitachi Mitsubishi Hydro developed the water-lubricated thrust bearing for vertical type hydraulic turbine generator. The water-lubricated bearing has advantages in risk avoidance of river pollution because it does not need oil. For proceeding the development of the water-lubricated thrust bearing, we studied following items. The first is the examination of the trial products of water lubricating liquid. The second is the study of bearing structure which can satisfy bearing performance such as temperature characteristic and so on. The third is the mock-up testing for actual application in the future. As a result, it was found that the water-lubricated thrust bearing was technically applicable to actual equipments.

  11. optimal selection of hydraulic turbines for small hydro electric power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Results from the analysis showed that turbines that gave maximum and minimum power urbines that ..... turbine application range charts have been developed to assist with .... Results from the study shows that thorough technical knowledge ...

  12. Hydraulic Evaluation and Optimisation of T. Basses Wave Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    The present study investigates designs of the wing profiles and layouts of the wave turbine in order to optimize the design. Furthermore, the overall power production capability of the device has been estimated for the selected wing profiles and turbine layout.......The present study investigates designs of the wing profiles and layouts of the wave turbine in order to optimize the design. Furthermore, the overall power production capability of the device has been estimated for the selected wing profiles and turbine layout....

  13. Equipment for fully homologous bulb turbine model testing in Laval University

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, Fraser; D, Vallée; Y, Jean; C, Deschênes

    2014-03-01

    Within the context of liberalisation of the energy market, hydroelectricity remains a first class source of clean and renewable energy. Combining the growing demand of energy, its increasing value and the appreciation associated to the sustainable development, low head sites formerly considered as non-profitable are now exploitable. Bulb turbines likely to equip such sites are traditionally developed on model using right angle transmission leading to piers enlargement for power take off shaft passage, thus restricting possibilities to have fully homologous hydraulic passages. Aiming to sustain good quality development on fully homologous scale model of bulb turbines, the Hydraulic Machines Laboratory (LAMH) of Laval University has developed a brake with an enhanced power to weight ratio. This powerful brake is small enough to be located in the bulb shell while dissipating power without mandatory test head reduction. This paper first presents the basic technology of this brake and its application. Then both its main performance capabilities and dimensional characteristics will be detailed. The instrumentation used to perform accurate measurements will be finally presented.

  14. Field Demonstration of Military Bio-based Hydraulic Fluids Using Construction Equipment at Fort Leonard Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Committed to Excellence 4-7 May 2009 1 Field Demonstration of Military Bio -based Hydraulic Fluids Using Construction Equipment at Fort Leonard Wood...AND SUBTITLE Field Demonstration of Military Bio -based Hydraulic Fluids Using Construction Equipment at Fort Leonard Wood 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...4-7 May 2009 2 Outline  Background  Military Bio -based Hydraulic Fluid Specification  Field Demonstration and Results  Conclusions 4-7 May

  15. Design, Optimization and Analysis of Hydraulic Soft Yaw System for 5 MW Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2011-01-01

    presents work previous done on this subject with focus on hydraulic yaw systems. By utilizing the HAWC2 aeroelastic code and an extended model of the NREL 5MW turbine combined with a simplified linear model of the turbine, the parameters of the soft yaw system are optimized. Results show that a significant...... reduction in fatigue and extreme loads to the yaw system and rotor shaft are possible, when utilizing the soft yaw drive concept compared to the original stiff yaw system. The physical demands of the hydraulic yaw system are furthermore examined for a life time of 20 years. The duty cycles, based...... on the extrapolated loads, show that it is possible to construct a hydraulic soft yaw system, which is able to reduce the loads on the wind turbine significantly....

  16. DETERMINATION OF HYDRAULIC TURBINE EFFICIENCY BY MEANS OF THE CURRENT METER METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PURECE C.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents methodology used for determining the efficiency of a low head Kaplan hydraulic turbine with short converging intake. The measurement method used was the current meters method, the only measurement method recommended by the IEC 41standard for flow measurement in this case. The paper also presents the methodology used for measuring the flow by means of the current meters method and the various procedures for calculating the flow. In the last part the paper presents the flow measurements carried out on the Fughiu HPP hydraulic turbines for determining the actual operating efficiency.

  17. Design, analysis and control of hydraulic soft yaw system for 5MW wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2012-01-01

    by active control of a hydraulic yaw system. The control is based on a non-linear and linear model derived based on a concept yaw system for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The control strategies show a reduction in pressure pulsations under load and it is concluded that the strategie including high......As wind turbines increase in size and the demands for lifetime also increases, new methods of load reduction needs to be examined. One method is to make the yaw system of the turbine soft/flexible and wereby dampen the loads to the system. This paper presents work done on dampening of these loads...

  18. Assessing Hydraulic Conditions through Francis turbines using an autonomous sensor device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Tao; Deng, Zhiqun; Duncan, Joanne P.; Zhou, Daqing; Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Hou, Hongfei

    2016-08-18

    Downstream migratory fish, including some endangered species, can be injured or killed during turbine passage. In this study an autonomous Sensor Fish device was deployed at Arrowrock Dam, Cougar Dam, and Detroit Dam to evaluate the hydraulic conditions and physical stresses that fish experienced when passing through these Francis turbines. Pressure data was used to identify the location of the Sensor Fish and to calculate the nadir pressure and the magnitude and the rate of change in pressure during turbine passage. Acceleration data was used to identify events (collisions or shear) Sensor Fish experienced and to categorize the severity level (severe, medium, and slight) of each event. The results showed that Sensor Fish experienced severe events mostly in the stay vane/wicket gate region and the runner region. In the stay vane/wicket gate region, almost all severe events were collisions. In the runner region, Sensor fish experienced both severe collisions and severe shear events. Sensor Fish data at three wicket gate opening treatments at Cougar Dam indicated that the wicket gate opening of the Francis turbine can affect the hydraulic conditions in the turbine runner region. Fewer Sensor Fish experienced severe collisions in the turbine runner region at the peak efficiency than at the minimum opening and the maximum opening treatments. Comparisons between the Francis turbines at the three dams and the AHT Kaplan turbine at Wanapum Dam showed that higher percentage of Sensor Fish experienced severe events in the runner region when passing through Francis turbines than the AHT Kaplan turbine. The nadir pressures of the Francis turbines were lower than those of the AHT Kaplan turbine at Wanapum Dam. Both the magnitude and the rate of change in pressure were higher in Francis turbines than in the AHT Kaplan turbine at Wanapum Dam in the runner region. This study can be used to guide future laboratory studies of fish passing through Francis turbine and help the design

  19. Experiences with the hydraulic design of the high specific speed Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrovsky, J.; Zouhar, J.

    2014-03-01

    The high specific speed Francis turbine is still suitable alternative for refurbishment of older hydro power plants with lower heads and worse cavitation conditions. In the paper the design process of such kind of turbine together with the results comparison of homological model tests performed in hydraulic laboratory of ČKD Blansko Engineering is introduced. The turbine runner was designed using the optimization algorithm and considering the high specific speed hydraulic profile. It means that hydraulic profiles of the spiral case, the distributor and the draft tube were used from a Kaplan turbine. The optimization was done as the automatic cycle and was based on a simplex optimization method as well as on a genetic algorithm. The number of blades is shown as the parameter which changes the resulting specific speed of the turbine between ns=425 to 455 together with the cavitation characteristics. Minimizing of cavitation on the blade surface as well as on the inlet edge of the runner blade was taken into account during the design process. The results of CFD analyses as well as the model tests are mentioned in the paper.

  20. Design and Experimental Validation of Hydraulic Yaw System for Multi MW Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2013-01-01

    environment. The model and the test rig are tested up against different design load cases and the results are compared. The experiments show that the model is valid for comparing the overall dynamics of the hydraulic yaw system. Based on the results it is concluded that the model derived is suitable......To comply with the increasing demands for life time and reliability of wind turbines as these grow in size, new measures needs to be taken in the design of wind turbines and components hereof. One critical point is the initial testing of the components and systems before they are implemented...... market. A hydraulic yaw system is such a new technology, and so a mathematical model of the full scale system and test rig system is derived and compared to measurements from the system. This is done in order to have a validated model, which wind turbine manufacturers may use for test in their simulation...

  1. Computational fluid dynamics simulation and geometric design of hydraulic turbine draft tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JB Sosa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Any hydraulic reaction turbine is installed with a draft tube that impacts widely the entire turbine performance, on which its functions are as follows: drive the flux in appropriate manner after it releases its energy to the runner; recover the suction head by a suction effect; and improve the dynamic energy in the runner outlet. All these functions are strongly linked to the geometric definition of the draft tube. This article proposes a geometric parametrization and analysis of a Francis turbine draft tube. Based on the parametric definition, geometric changes in the draft tube are proposed and the turbine performance is modeled by computational fluid dynamics; the boundary conditions are set by measurements performed in a hydroelectric power plant. This modeling allows us to see the influence of the draft tube shape on the entire turbine performance. The numerical analysis is based on the steady-state solution of the turbine component flows for different guide vanes opening and multiple modified draft tubes. The computational fluid dynamics predictions are validated using hydroelectric plant measurements. The prediction of the turbine performance is successful and it is linked to the draft tube geometric features; therefore, it is possible to obtain a draft tube parameter value that results in a desired turbine performance.

  2. Numerical analysis of Coriolis effect on low-head hydraulic turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, S. H.; Xiao, Y. X.; Zhou, X. Z.; Zhang, J.; Zeng, C. J.; Luo, Y. Y.; Xu, W.; Wang, Z. W.

    2016-11-01

    For the low-head hydropower station, the operating head is low, and the turbine intake channel is relatively short. The turbine internal flow behaviour can be influenced by fluid flows in the upstream reservoir easily, then it would influence the turbine hydraulic performance. Water flows in the upstream reservoir can be influenced by the Coriolis force by the Earth rotation, and it differs at the different Rossby number. In this paper, the Coriolis effect on the approach flows and the turbine performances are investigated numerically for the low-head units. Firstly, the Coriolis effect (under the different latitudes and the same characteristic length scale) on reservoir flows was predicted. Secondly, the prototype performance of a bulb-type turbine was simulated including the reservoir flow with the Coriolis effect, and then the effect on the turbine performance is be discussed. Results show that the flow field in the upstream reservoir at the low Rossby number, the ratio of inertial force to Coriolis force, can sufficiently influence the turbine intake flows and the turbine performances. Adjusting the side-wall distance can reduce the Coriolis effects.

  3. Cost estimation 2012 for the electrical and mechanical equipment of the power house in hydropower projects and pumped storage projects. Equipment with Pelton turbines, Francis turbines, Kaplan Turbines, Kaplan tube turbines, bulb turbines and Francis pump-turbines; Kostenschaetzung 2012 fuer die elektrische und mechanische Ausruestung des Krafthauses in Wasserkraft- und Pumpspeicher-Projekten. Ausruestung mit Pelton-, Francis-, Kaplan-, Kaplan-Rohr-, Bulb-Turbinen oder Francis-Pumpturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado-Ancieta, Cesar Adolfo

    2012-07-01

    The compilation of statistical data on costs for the electrical and mechanical equipment of approximately 140 selected hydropower projects and pumped storage projects in 46 countries in America, Europe, Asia and Africa provides helpful diagrams with which the cost of the electrical and mechanical equipment of Pelton turbines, Francis turbines, Kaplan Turbines, Kaplan tube turbines, bulb turbines and Francis pump-turbines can be determined.

  4. Development of the helical reaction hydraulic turbine. Final technical report, July 1, 1996--June 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorlov, A.

    1998-08-01

    The present report contains the final results obtained during July 1996--July 1998. This report should be considered in association with the Annual Progress Report submitted in July 1997 due to the fact that not all of the intermediate results reflected in the Progress Report have been included in the Final Report. The aim of the project was to build a helical hydraulic turbine prototype and demonstrate its suitability and advantages as a novel apparatus to harness hydropower from ultra low-head rivers and other free water streams such as ocean currents or rivers without dams. The research objectives of the project are: Design, optimization and selection of the hydro foil section for the helical turbine; Design of the turbine for demonstration project; Construction and testing of the turbine module; Assessing test results and determining scale-up feasibility. The research conducted under this project has substantially exceeded the original goals including designing, constructing and testing of a scaled-up triple-helix turbine, as well as developing recommendations for application of the turbine for direct water pumping in irrigation systems and for future use in wind farms. Measurements collected during two years of turbine testing are kept in the PI files.

  5. Numerical study of rotor-stator interactions in a hydraulic turbine with Foam-extend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Cappato; Guibault, François; Devals, Christophe; Nennemann, Bernd

    2016-11-01

    In the development of high head hydraulic turbines, vibrations are one of the critical problems. In Francis turbines, pressure fluctuations occur at the interface between the blades of the runner and guide vanes. This rotor-stator interaction can be responsible for fatigue failures and cracks. Although the flow inside the turbomachinery is complex, and the unsteadiness makes it difficult to model, the choice of an appropriate setup enables the study of this phenomenon. This study validates a numerical setup of the Foam-extend open source software for rotor-stator simulations. Pressure fluctuations results show a good correspondence with data from experiments.

  6. Mixed-flow vertical tubular hydraulic turbine. Determination of proper design duty point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirok, B. [Ljubljana Univ. (Slovenia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering; Bergant, A. [Litostroj Power, d.o.o., Ljubljana (Slovenia); Hoefler, E.

    2011-12-15

    A new vertical single-regulated mixed-flow turbine with conical guide apparatus and without spiral casing is presented in this paper. Runner blades are fixed to the hub and runner band and resemble to the Francis type runner of extremely high specific speed. Due to lack of information and guidelines for the design of a new turbine, a theoretical model was developed in order to determinate the design duty point, i.e. to determine the optimum narrow operation range of the turbine. It is not necessary to know the kinematic conditions at the runner inlet, but only general information on the geometry of turbine flow-passage, meridional contour of the runner and blading, the number of blades and the turbine speed of rotation. The model is based on the integral tangential lift coefficient, which is the average value over the entire runner blading. The results are calculated for the lift coefficient 0.5 and 0.6, for the flow coefficient range from 0.2 to 0.36, for the number of the blades between 5 and 13, and are finally presented in the Cordier diagram (specific speed vs. specific diameter). Calculated results of the turbine optimum operation in Cordier diagram correspond very well to the adequate area of Kaplan turbines with medium and low specific speed and extends into the area of Francis turbines with high specific speed. Presented model clearly highlights the parameters that affect specific load of the runner blade row and therefore the optimum turbine operation (discharge - turbine head). The presented method is not limited to a specific reaction type of the hydraulic turbine. The method can therefore be applied to a wide range from mixed-flow (radial-axial) turbines to the axial turbines. Applicability of the method may be considered as a tool in the first stage of the turbine design i.e. when designing the meridional geometry and selecting the number of blades according to calculated operating point. Geometric and energy parameters are generally defined to an

  7. Studies of field test procedures in hydraulic turbines for SHP; Estudos de procedimentos de ensaios de campo em turbinas hidraulicas para PCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justino, Lucimary Aparecida

    2006-07-01

    A supply contract of equipment for Small Hydro Power, contain the power and turbine efficiency guarantees and can contain adds guarantees referring to a rotation and pressure variation, runaway speed and cavitations test. To the determination about the hydraulics turbines performance for contractual guarantees are realized the field acceptance test, that are methods quite a lot used for enterprises like tools to prove the contractual guarantees in substitution to model test, that showed a cost extremely high. In the field acceptance test are measures of some values that added to the others, possibility obtain the turbine efficiency. In the small hydro power, the turbine efficiency represents the hydraulic power percentage that is subject to be transformed in electrical power. In the turbine purchase, the manufacturer has to guarantee the efficiency specified if it is become down to expected, the damages are enormous, then the importance to exist precise methods and reliable for your measurement. The method accuracy of the discharge measurement that has, between another problems, the calibration and installation, that influence hard the value of the efficiency obtained. This work shows the different methodologies about discharge measurement in hydraulic turbines, that can be apply in Small Hydro Power field tests and shows too the procedures used that in specifics cases of small hydro, without quality damage, the site tests could be executed the form that the guarantees will be approve with compatible cots with the investment done. As an example for said above, are show two cases in small hydro where did realized field acceptance tests to assure the contractual guarantees. (author)

  8. Rotating Water Table for the Determination of Non-Steady Forces in a Turbine Stage Through Modified Hydraulic Analogy

    OpenAIRE

    J. S. Rao; E. Raghavacharyulu; Seshadri, V.; V.V.R. Rao

    1983-01-01

    Determination of non-steady forces in a real turbine stage is difficult due to the local flow conditions, for example high pressures, high temperatures and in-accessibility to the region etc. Experimentation in a real turbine is also prohibitive due to the costs involved. An alternate method of arriving at these non-steady forces through the use of modified hydraulic analogy is discussed. A rotating water table facility, developed and fabricated based on the principles of modified hydraulic a...

  9. Theoretical research of hydraulic turbine performance based on slip factor within centripetal impeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangtai Shi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The impeller of hydraulic turbine is a kind of centripetal impeller. The slip phenomenon within centripetal impeller is different with centrifugal impeller. In this study, the velocity distribution and the flow form of fluid within centripetal impeller are analyzed, the slip factor within centripetal impeller is calculated, and the basic energy equation of hydraulic turbine is deduced when the slip within centripetal impeller is considered. The results of theoretical calculation, the results of experiment, and the results of computational fluid dynamics calculation are compared. The formula of slip factor within centripetal impeller is obtained, and the relative error between the results of theoretical calculation using the formula and experimental data is less than 5%. The effect factors of slip factor have entrance diameter of centripetal impeller, blade numbers, entrance and outlet blade angles, rotating speed of centripetal impeller, and flow rate.

  10. Extensive use of computational fluid dynamics in the upgrading of hydraulic turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, M.; Eremeef, R.; De Henau, V.

    1995-12-31

    Computational fluid dynamics codes, based on turbulent Navier-Stokes equations, allow evaluation of the hydraulic losses of each turbine component with precision. Using those codes with the new generation of computers enables a wide variety of component geometries to be modelled and compared to the original designs under flow conditions obtained from testing, at a reasonable cost and in a relatively short time. This paper reviews the actual method used in the design of a solution to a turbine rehabilitation project involving runner replacement, redesign of upstream components (stay vanes and wicket gates), and downstream components (draft tubes and runner outlets). The paper shows how computational fluid dynamics can help hydraulic engineers to obtain valuable information not only on performance enhancement but also on the phenomena that produce the enhancement, and to reduce the variety of modifications to be tested.

  11. NUMERICAL PREDICTION OF VORTEX FLOW IN HYDRAULIC TURBINE DRAFT TUBE FOR LES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-bing; ZENG Yong-zhong; CAO Shu-you

    2005-01-01

    The three-dimensional unsteady turbulent flow is studied numerically in the whole flow passage of hydraulic turbine, and vortex flow in the draft tube is predicted accurately in this paper. The numerical prediction is based on the Navier-Stokes equations and Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) model. The SIMPLE algorithm with the body-fitted coordinate and tetrahedroid grid system is applied for the solution of the discretization governing equations.

  12. Hydraulic design and analysis of the saxo-type vertical axial turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofler, Edvard; Gale, Janez; Bergant, Anton

    2010-07-01

    The design of the blade geometry of a wind turbine is highly important as it influences the power generation. The aim of this study is to introduce a method for hydraulic design and analysis of the blade geometry of a highly specific speed runner of the Saxo-type double-regulated vertical axial turbine. The streamline curvature method (SCM) was used to develop four blade shapes which were analyzed with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools and the best one chosen in term of turbine efficiency and cavitational characteristics. Results demonstrated that the physical shape of the blade can be found for the design duty point in a rapid and transparent way by using the SCM method with no adjustments required to use the CFD methods. This study proved that the SCM design procedure developed herein can be used to accurately design runner blades.

  13. Wind tunnel experiments to prove a hydraulic passive rotor speed control concept for variable speed wind turbines (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, N.F.B.; Jarquin Laguna, A.

    2012-01-01

    As alternative to geared and direct drive solutions, fluid power drive trains are being developed by several institutions around the world. The common configuration is where the wind turbine rotor is coupled to a hydraulic pump. The pump is connected through a high pressure line to a hydraulic motor

  14. INTEGRATED MODEL OF A SOLAR CHIMNEY EQUIPPED WITH AXIAL TURBINES

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    An integrated model of solar chim??ney (solar collector; turbine; tower) is presented; validated against data of the Manzanares plant; extended to the case of a 1000m tower. The model includes off-design performance of collector/turbine.

  15. Investigation of Self Yaw and its Potential using a Hydraulic Soft Yaw System for 5 MW Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the current paper is on a hydraulic soft yaw system, designed to reduce the loading of the turbine structure, by absorbing wind guest via the hydraulic system, but which also enables the system to be used as a self-aligning yaw system. The system is analyzed with basis in the NREL 5-...... the behavior of the hydraulic system is analyzed and it is concluded that the hydraulic yaw system allows selfyaw under normal operating conditions for the turbine. Self-yaw control is possible in wind speeds above 12 m/s when yaw friction is kept below 1 MNm.......The focus of the current paper is on a hydraulic soft yaw system, designed to reduce the loading of the turbine structure, by absorbing wind guest via the hydraulic system, but which also enables the system to be used as a self-aligning yaw system. The system is analyzed with basis in the NREL 5-MW...... turbine, modeled in FAST, in which a new robust method for implementing Coulomb friction is utilized. Based on this model and a model of the hydraulic system, the influence of friction and wind speed is investigated in relation to the possibility to use the system as a self-aligning yaw system. Similarly...

  16. Hydraulic Turbines: The Pelton Turbine. Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to the Pelton turbine. A brief narrative on the subject is presented in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. Explanatory illustrations are appended. (JB)

  17. Hydraulic Turbines: The Francis Turbine. Technical Terminology Bulletin. Terminotech, Vol. 2, No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Electric Co. of Canada, Ltd., Montreal, Quebec.

    This issue of a bulletin of technological terminology is devoted to the Francis turbine. A brief narrative on the subject is presented in both French and English. An English-French dictionary of terms comprises the bulk of the document. An explanatory illustration is appended. (JB)

  18. Numerical Research on Flow Characteristics around a Hydraulic Turbine Runner at Small Opening of Cylindrical Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenwei Mo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We use the continuity equation and the Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations to study the flow-pattern characteristics around a turbine runner for the small-opening cylindrical valve of a hydraulic turbine. For closure, we adopt the renormalization-group k-ε two-equation turbulence model and use the computational fluid dynamics (CFD software FLUENT to numerically simulate the three-dimensional unsteady turbulent flow through the entire passage of the hydraulic turbine. The results show that a low-pressure zone develops around the runner blades when the cylindrical valve is closed in a small opening; cavitation occurs at the blades, and a vortex appears at the outlet of the runner. As the cylindrical valve is gradually closed, the flow velocity over the runner area increases, and the pressure gradient becomes more significant as the discharge decreases. In addition, the fluid flow velocity is relatively high between the lower end of the cylindrical valve and the base, so that a high-velocity jet is easily induced. The calculation and analysis provide a theoretical basis for improving the performance of cylindrical-valve operating systems.

  19. 30 CFR 75.1107-1 - Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on underground equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire...-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection Fire Suppression Devices and Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1107-1 Fire-resistant hydraulic fluids and fire suppression devices on...

  20. Application of entropy production theory to hydro-turbine hydraulic analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG; RuZhi; WANG; HongJie; CHEN; LiXia; LI; DeYou; ZHANG; HaoChun; WEI; XianZhu

    2013-01-01

    The understanding of hydraulic behavior in the hydro turbine requires the detailed study of fluid flow in the turbine. Previous methods of analyzing the numerical simulation results on the fluid machinery are short of intuitiveness on energy dissipation.In this paper, the energy dissipation was analyzed based on the entropy production theory. 3-D steady flow simulations and entropy production calculations of the reduced hydro turbine were carried out. The results indicated that the entropy production theory was suitable for evaluating the performance of the hydro turbine. The energy dissipation in the guide vanes area weighted nearly 25% of the whole flow passage, and mainly happened at the head and tail areas of the vanes. However, more than half the energy dissipation occurred in the runner, mostly at the leading edge of runner blade and the trailing edge of run-ner blade. Meanwhile, close to 20% of the energy dissipation occurred in the elbow. And it can be concluded that the method of entropy production analysis has the advantages of determining the quantity of energy dissipation and where the dissipation happens.

  1. Experimental and Numerical Simulations Predictions Comparison of Power and Efficiency in Hydraulic Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On-site power and mass flow rate measurements were conducted in a hydroelectric power plant (Mexico. Mass flow rate was obtained using Gibson's water hammer-based method. A numerical counterpart was carried out by using the commercial CFD software, and flow simulations were performed to principal components of a hydraulic turbine: runner and draft tube. Inlet boundary conditions for the runner were obtained from a previous simulation conducted in the spiral case. The computed results at the runner's outlet were used to conduct the subsequent draft tube simulation. The numerical results from the runner's flow simulation provided data to compute the torque and the turbine's power. Power-versus-efficiency curves were built, and very good agreement was found between experimental and numerical data.

  2. NUMERICAL CALCULATION OF SOLID-LIQUID TWO PHASE FLOW BETWEEN STAY VANES IN HYDRAULIC TURBINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, an energy equation of silt-laden water flow is educed based on the energy equation of continuum fluid flow. The dissipation functions of liquid phase and solid phase are presented respectively. Then the extremity law of energy dissipation rate is introduced for the research of the silt-laden water flow and a new mathematical model is developed. The corresponding procedure based on the finite difference method (FDM) is developed to calculate the two phase flow in hydraulic turbine. The method is applied to analyze the silt-laden water flow between stay vanes, and the numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental ones.

  3. HVDC Solution for Offshore Wind Park Comprising Turbines Equipped with Full-Range Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ranjan; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Jensen, Kim Høj

    2010-01-01

    of a HVDC transmission system. The power system under study includes an offshore wind farm comprising turbines equipped with full range converters. The collection network is a local AC grid. Power transmission is done through HVDC system. The grid side VSC (voltage source converter) controls the DC voltage...... a voltage drop is created at the collection grid, the wind turbines go into fault-ride-through mode. The power output from each of the wind turbines is thus reduced to balance the system power. The detailed explanation of the strategy is presented in the paper. Matlab simulation model was prepared and some...

  4. HYDRAULIC UNITS FOR DRIVING SYSTEMS OF RUNNING EQUIPMENT IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ja. Kotlobai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational efficiency of multi-functional road construction machines depends on number of working bodies which are simultaneously performing technological operations. Systems for propulsion pto to the running equipment drive and active working bodies of road construction machines are developing in the way of using three-axis hydraulic drives. When designing a hydraulic system for road construction machinery dividing of power flow from propulsion to the running equipment drive and active working bodies is considered as rather essential problem. Leading companies do not pay attention to the development of flow divider designs, preferring to produce more expensive multi-flow pumps. One of the ways to increase efficiency of multi-functional road construction machinery is an implementation of running equipment hydraulic driving system based on a mono-aggregate pump unit which consists of a pump and a volumetric divider of power fluid flow. A principle of volumetric division and summing-up of power fluid flows, technical realization and methodology for calculation of key parameters of discrete flow distributors has been developed on the basis of discrete hydraulics regulations. The paper presents results of mathematical modeling of hydraulic systems equipped with the discrete flow distributor. Analysis of a dual-motor hydraulic drive operation has shown the following results: a discrete flow distributor ensures independent load mode of the current consumer circuit operation from the load mode of the second consumer circuit within a wide range of loads; rational value of working fluid flow discretization parameter is the following value interval k = 4–6, maximum value of parameter efficiency is reached when an angular velocity of a distributor rotor coincides with the angular velocity of a pump shaft; discrete flow distributor provides a possibility to change parameters of hydraulic flow feeding in consumers’ pressure lines within a wide range

  5. DOE/NASA wind turbine data acquisition. Part 1: Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, O. J.

    1980-01-01

    Large quantities of data were collected, stored, and analyzed in connection with research and development programs on wind turbines. The hardware configuration of the wind energy remote data acquisition system is described along with its use on the NASA/DOE Wind Energy Program.

  6. Rotating water table for the determination of non-steady forces in a turbine stage through modified hydraulic analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, J. S.; Raghavacharyulu, E.; Seshadri, V.; Rao, V. V. R.

    1983-10-01

    Determination of non-steady forces in a real turbine stage is difficult due to the local flow conditions, for example high pressures, high temperatures and in-accessibility to the region etc. Experimentation in a real turbine is also prohibitive due to the costs involved. An alternate method of arriving at these non-steady forces through the use of modified hydraulic analogy is discussed. A rotating water table facility, developed and fabricated based on the principles of modified hydraulic analogy is described. A flat plate stage is simulated on the rotating water table, and the results obtained are presented.

  7. Rotating Water Table for the Determination of Non-Steady Forces in a Turbine Stage Through Modified Hydraulic Analogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Rao

    1983-10-01

    Full Text Available Determination of non-steady forces in a real turbine stage is difficult due to the local flow conditions, for example high pressures, high temperatures and in-accessibility to the region etc. Experimentation in a real turbine is also prohibitive due to the costs involved. An alternate method of arriving at these non-steady forces through the use of modified hydraulic analogy is discussed. A rotating water table facility, developed and fabricated based on the principles of modified hydraulic analogy ia described. A flat plate stage is simulated on the rotating water table, and the results obtalned are presented.

  8. Using genetic algorithm to define the governor parameters of a hydraulic turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, J G P; Ribeiro, L C L J [School of Technology, UNICAMP Rua Paschoal Marmo, 1888, Limeira, Postal Code:13484-332 (Brazil); Junior, E L, E-mail: josegeraldo@ft.unicamp.b [School of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urbanism, UNICAMP Avenida Albert Einstein, 951, Campinas, Postal Code: 13083-852 (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    There are several governor architectures, but in general, all of them are designed to maintain the controlled variable fluctuations within acceptable range. The Proportional, Integral and Derivative (PID) governor is one of the types used to regulate a hydraulic turbine, in which the deviation of the variable controlled is corrected through earnings proportional, integral and derivative. For a definition of the governor parameters and its stability analysis there are several methods that in general can be classified into a time domain and frequency domain. The frequency domain method, based on the control theory, have ease application, expeditious manner of obtaining the parameters, but the physical phenomena involved are linearized. However the time domain methods are more difficult to be applied, but have the advantage of being able to take into account the non-linearities presents in physical phenomena. Despite the time-domain method offers advantages, it does not provides a structured way to optimize the parameters of the governor, since the parameters are obtained through simulations with adopted values. This paper presents a methodology to obtain the turbine governor appropriate parameters through a hybrid model (simulation and optimization model), based on method of characteristic to the hydraulic simulation (time domain) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) to obtain appropriate values. Examples are presented showing the application of the proposed methodology.

  9. The production equipments needs the turbines manufacture; Les besoins en equipements de production dopent la construction de turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2007-03-15

    To cope with the increasing demands of electric power, the production investments prove to be urgent. In this framework, the future EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) plant of EDF in Flamanville will be fitted with a steam turbine (Arabelle) of an exceptional size. (O.M.)

  10. Analysis of load reduction possibilities using a hydraulic soft yaw system for a 5-MW turbine and its sensitivity to yaw-bearing friction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, S.; Pedersen, H. C.; Jonkman, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing size of wind turbines and with increasing lifetime demands, new methods for load reduction in the turbines need to be examined. One method is to make the yaw system of the turbine flexible, thereby dampening the loads to the system. This paper presents a hydraulic soft yaw...

  11. Kinematic and Dynamic Simulation Analysis of Hydraulic Excavator’s Working Equipment based on ADAMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Hong Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes the 3D excavator model according to the actual size in UG firstly. Then based on the virtual simulation software ADAMS, the virtual prototype of the working device is built by adding interrelated constraints(kinematic pair and hydraulic cylinder driving function and load secondly. This paper gets the main parameters of the excavator working scope and the pressure situation change curves of point of each hydraulic cylinder by making kinematic and dynamic simulation analysis of hydraulic excavator’s working equipment at last. The conclusion providing design theory and improvement for the excavator’s working device, which also play an important role in improving the level of China’s excavator design, enhancing excavator’s performance and promoting the rapid development of excavator industry.

  12. Computation and analysis of cavitating flow in Francis-class hydraulic turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Daniel J.

    can occur more abruptly in the model than the prototype, due to lack of Froude similitude between the two. When severe cavitation occurs, clear differences are observed in vapor content between the scales. A stage-by-stage performance decomposition is conducted to analyze the losses within individual components of each scale of the machine. As cavitation becomes more severe, the losses in the draft tube account for an increasing amount of the total losses in the machine. More losses occur in the model draft tube as cavitation formation in the prototype draft tube is prevented by the larger hydrostatic pressure gradient across the machine. Additionally, unsteady Detached Eddy Simulations of the fully-coupled cavitating hydroturbine are performed for both scales. Both mesh and temporal convergence studies are provided. The temporal and spectral content of fluctuations in torque and pressure are monitored and compared between single-phase, cavitating, model, and prototype cases. A shallow draft tube induced runner imbalance results in an asymmetric vapor distribution about the runner, leading to more extensive growth and collapse of vapor on any individual blade as it undergoes a revolution. Unique frequency components manifest and persist through the entire machine only when cavitation is present in the hub vortex. Large maximum pressure spikes, which result from vapor collapse, are observed on the blade surfaces in the multiphase simulations, and these may be a potential source of cavitation damage and erosion. Multiphase CFD is shown to be an accurate and effective technique for simulating and analyzing cavitating flow in Francis-class hydraulic turbines. It is recommended that it be used as an industrial tool to supplement model cavitation experiments for all types of hydraulic turbines. Moreover, multiphase CFD can be equally effective as a research tool, to investigate mechanisms of cavitating hydraulic turbines that are not understood, and to uncover unique new

  13. HydroHillChart – Pelton module. Software used to Calculate the Hill Chart of the Pelton Hydraulic Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Nedelcu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the HydroHillChart - Pelton module application, used to calculate the hill chart of the Pelton hydraulic turbine models, by processing the data measured on the stand. In addition, the tools offered by the application such as: interface, menu, input data, numerical and graphical results, etc. are described.

  14. New procedures for cavitation recovering in hydraulic turbines; Novos procedimentos em recuperacao de cavitacao em turbinas hidraulicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertazzi, A.; Dutra, J.; Guenther, R.; Martin, C.; Pereira, M.; Raposo, E.; Simas, H.; Stemmer, M. [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Kapp, W.; Manzolli, A.; Sousa, N.; Procopiak, L. [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LACTEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes the Roboturb Project jointly performed by the USFC and LACTEC, financed by the FINEP/PADCT and COPEL/ANEEL. This project aims the development of new procedures on small size hydraulic turbines recovering, by using welding, robotic and optical measurements advanced techniques. The main objective is the system hardware, with only the basic operation software and modules integration.

  15. Nonlinear Dynamical Analysis of Hydraulic Turbine Governing Systems with Nonelastic Water Hammer Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyi Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear mathematical model for hydroturbine governing system (HTGS has been proposed. All essential components of HTGS, that is, conduit system, turbine, generator, and hydraulic servo system, are considered in the model. Using the proposed model, the existence and stability of Hopf bifurcation of an example HTGS are investigated. In addition, chaotic characteristics of the system with different system parameters are studied extensively and presented in the form of bifurcation diagrams, time waveforms, phase space trajectories, Lyapunov exponent, chaotic attractors, and Poincare maps. Good correlation can be found between the model predictions and theoretical analysis. The simulation results provide a reasonable explanation for the sustained oscillation phenomenon commonly seen in operation of hydroelectric generating set.

  16. NUMERICAL SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE PULSATION IN FRANCIS HYDRAULIC TURBINE WITH AIR ADMISSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the three-dimensional unsteady multiphase flow is simulated in the whole passage of Francis hydraulic turbine. The pressure pulsation is predicted and compared with experimental data at positions in the draft tube, in front of runner, guide vanes and at the inlet of the spiral case. The relationship between pressure pulsation in the whole passage and air admission is analyzed. The computational results show: air admission from spindle hole decreases the pressure difference in the horizontal section of draft tube, which in turn decreases the amplitude of low-frequency pressure pulsation in the draft tube; the rotor-stator interaction between the air inlet and the runner increases the blade-frequency pressure pulsation in front of the runner.

  17. Influence of setting condition on characteristics of Savonius hydraulic turbine with a shield plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iio, Shouichiro; Katayama, Yusuke; Uchiyama, Fuminori; Sato, Eiichi; Ikeda, Toshihiko

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to improve power performance of Savonius hydraulic turbine utilizing small stream for electric generation. An attempt was made to increase the power coefficient of runner by the use of flat shield plate placed upstream of the runner. The difference of the power coefficient is discussed in relation to clearance between the runner and the bottom wall and the rotation direction of the runner. The flow field around the runner was also examined visually to clarify influences of setting conditions on the power performance. From this study it was found that the power coefficient is achieved for 0.47 by only using a flat shield plate, the increase is up to 80% over the runner without the plate. Moreover, it is the proper condition that clearance ratio is 0.73 in this study.

  18. Performance of Double-step Savonius Rotor for Environmentally Friendly Hydraulic Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Miyoshi; Iio, Shouichiro; Ikeda, Toshihiko

    The aim of this investigation is to develop an environmentally friendly nano-hydraulic turbine. Three type models of Savonius rotor are constructed and tested in a water tunnel to improve and clarify the power performance. Flow field around the rotor is examined visually to reveal the enhancement mechanisms of power coefficient using the double-step rotor. Flow visualization showed the difference of flow patterns at the central section between the standard (single-step) rotor and the double-step one. A meandering flow in the axial direction of the rotor was observed only for the double-step rotor. This flow had the pressure restoration effect at the returning blade's concave side and the torque strengthened effect at the advancing blade's convex side. As a consequence, the power coefficient was 10% improved.

  19. Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Robert L.; Kirby, Klane

    This curriculum guide contains a course in hydraulics to train entry-level workers for automotive mechanics and other fields that utilize hydraulics. The module contains 14 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to hydraulics; (2) fundamentals of hydraulics; (3) reservoirs; (4) lines, fittings, and couplers; (5)…

  20. Bridging the gap between metallurgy and fatigue reliability of hydraulic turbine runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, D.; Gagnon, M.; Godin, S.

    2014-03-01

    The failure of hydraulic turbine runners is a very rare event. Hence, in order to assess the reliability of these components, one cannot rely on statistical models based on the number of failures in a given population. However, as there is a limited number of degradation mechanisms involved, it is possible to use physically-based reliability models. Such models are more complicated but have the advantage of being able to account for physical parameters in the prediction of the evolution of runner degradation. They can therefore propose solutions to help improve reliability. With the use of such models, the effect of materials properties on runner reliability can easily be illustrated. This paper will present a brief review of the Kitagawa-Takahashi diagram that links the damage tolerance approach, based on fracture mechanics, to the stress or strain-life approaches. This diagram is at the centre of the reliability model used in this study. Using simplified response spectra obtained from on-site runner stress measurements, the paper will show how fatigue reliability is impacted by materials fatigue properties, namely fatigue crack propagation behaviour and fatigue limit obtained on S-N curves. It will also present a review of the most important microstructural features of 13%Cr- 4%Ni stainless steels used for runner manufacturing and will review how they influence fatigue properties in an effort to bridge the gap between metallurgy and turbine runners reliability.

  1. Characterization of a nine-meter sensor-equipped wind turbine blade using a laser measuring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    A nine-meter turbine blade was prepared for an experiment to examine the movement and fatigue patterns during operation on a 115 kW turbine. The blade, equipped with surface mounted fiber optic strain gauges, foil strain gauges, single, and triple axis accelerometers was placed on a calibration fixt...

  2. New JSME standard S008 “Performance Conversion Method for Hydraulic Turbines and Pump-Turbines”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Y.; Kitahora, T.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, T.; Sugishita, K.; Suzuki, R.; Tani, K.

    2016-11-01

    JSME Standard S008 “Performance Conversion Method for Hydraulic Turbines and Pump-Turbines” is now being revised and will be published in 2016. This new revision follows the main theory of previous version S008-1999. It enables us to convert the performance of each flow passage component of spiral case, stay vane, guide vane, runner and draft tube of model turbines and pump-turbines to that of prototypes with one-step calculation. The relevant values needed for the performance conversion, e.g. dimension factor, flow velocity factor, relative scalable loss of components δ ECO , etc. are newly organized as functions of specific speeds of turbines and pump-turbines using polynomial expressions. Additional data for high specific speed turbines are included. The resultant factors for conversion of the specific energy efficiency scale factor F E , the discharge efficiency scale factor F Q and the power efficiency scale factor F T are determined by considering friction coefficient ratio for prototype to the model.

  3. HydroHillChart – Francis module. Software used to Calculate the Hill Chart of the Francis Hydraulic Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Nedelcu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the Hydro Hill Chart - Francis module application, used to calculate the hill chart of the Pelton, Francis and Kaplan hydraulic turbine models, by processing the data measured on the stand. After describing the interface and menu, the input data is graphically presented and the universal characteristic for measuring scenarios ao=const. and n11=const is calculated. Finally, the two calculated hill charts are compared through a graphical superimposition of the isolines.

  4. Degradation of Phosphate Ester Hydraulic Fluid in Power Station Turbines Investigated by a Three-Magnet Unilateral Magnet Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Guo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A three-magnet array unilateral NMR sensor with a homogeneous sensitive spot was employed for assessing aging of the turbine oils used in two different power stations. The Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG sequence and Inversion Recovery-prepared CPMG were employed for measuring the 1H-NMR transverse and longitudinal relaxation times of turbine oils with different service status. Two signal components with different lifetimes were obtained by processing the transverse relaxation curves with a numeric program based on the Inverse Laplace Transformation. The long lifetime components of the transverse relaxation time T2eff and longitudinal relaxation time T1 were chosen to monitor the hydraulic fluid aging. The results demonstrate that an increase of the service time of the turbine oils clearly results in a decrease of T2eff,long and T1,long. This indicates that the T2eff,long and T1,long relaxation times, obtained from the unilateral magnetic resonance measurements, can be applied as indices for degradation of the hydraulic fluid in power station turbines.

  5. Control of Wind Turbine Equipped with DFIG after Fault in Power Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Shafafi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available grid connected wind turbine is daily increasing .a problem in power grid is grid faults.most problem is system stability after faults, also a probable problem of new energy sources in connection with grid is Islanding due to faults.in this condition loading mismatch between generation and load ‏consumption in isolated part of system can cause voltage and frequency cross it’s allowable limit.too in the case of over generation rotor will accelerate.so these lead to turbine interruption.in this paper wind turbine equipped with doubly fed induction generator is controlled for uninterrupted operation during fault to achieve more stability and rapid voltage recovery. Authority of DFIG grid side converter and Dstatcom effect after three phase short circuit fault are compared. results shows that with combination Dstatcom with grid side converter, voltage regulation in normal operation is beter.also after a fault more voltage stability and rather voltage recovery is achieved.too a suitable control will be presented for sake that wind turbine be able under Islanding operation to feeding local load at rated voltage and rated frequency.ability of control strategy in Islanding operation is investigated and simulation results Illustrate control strategy ability.

  6. Hydraulic development of high specific-speed pump-turbines by means of an inverse design method, numerical flow-simulation (CFD) and model testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschberger, P.; Gehrer, A.

    2010-08-01

    In recent years an increased interest in pump-turbines has been recognized in the market. The rapid availability of pumped storage schemes and the benefits to the power system by peak lopping, providing reserve and rapid response for frequency control are becoming of growing advantage. In that context it is requested to develop pump-turbines that reliably stand dynamic operation modes, fast changes of the discharge rate by adjusting the variable diffuser vanes as well as fast changes from pump to turbine operation. Within the present study various flow patterns linked to the operation of a pump-turbine system are discussed. In that context pump and turbine mode are presented separately and different load cases at both operation modes are shown. In order to achieve modern, competitive pump-turbine designs it is further explained which design challenges should be considered during the geometry definition of a pump-turbine impeller. Within the present study a runner-blade profile for a low head pump-turbine has been developed. For the initial hydraulic runner-blade design, an inverse design method has been applied. Within this design procedure, a first blade geometry is generated by imposing the pressure loading-distribution and by means of an inverse 3D potential-flow-solution. The hydraulic behavior of both, pump-mode and turbine-mode is then evaluated by solving the full 3D Navier-Stokes equations in combination with a robust turbulence model. Based on this initial design the blade profile has been further optimized and redesigned considering various hydraulic pump-turbine requirements. Finally, the progress in hydraulic design is demonstrated by model test results which show a significant improvement in hydraulic performance compared to an existing reference design.

  7. Hydraulic development of high specific-speed pump-turbines by means of an inverse design method, numerical flow-simulation (CFD) and model testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerschberger, P; Gehrer, A, E-mail: peter.kerschberger@andritz.co [Andritz Hydro Graz A-8045 Graz, Reichsstrasse 68B (Austria)

    2010-08-15

    In recent years an increased interest in pump-turbines has been recognized in the market. The rapid availability of pumped storage schemes and the benefits to the power system by peak lopping, providing reserve and rapid response for frequency control are becoming of growing advantage. In that context it is requested to develop pump-turbines that reliably stand dynamic operation modes, fast changes of the discharge rate by adjusting the variable diffuser vanes as well as fast changes from pump to turbine operation. Within the present study various flow patterns linked to the operation of a pump-turbine system are discussed. In that context pump and turbine mode are presented separately and different load cases at both operation modes are shown. In order to achieve modern, competitive pump-turbine designs it is further explained which design challenges should be considered during the geometry definition of a pump-turbine impeller. Within the present study a runner-blade profile for a low head pump-turbine has been developed. For the initial hydraulic runner-blade design, an inverse design method has been applied. Within this design procedure, a first blade geometry is generated by imposing the pressure loading-distribution and by means of an inverse 3D potential-flow-solution. The hydraulic behavior of both, pump-mode and turbine-mode is then evaluated by solving the full 3D Navier-Stokes equations in combination with a robust turbulence model. Based on this initial design the blade profile has been further optimized and redesigned considering various hydraulic pump-turbine requirements. Finally, the progress in hydraulic design is demonstrated by model test results which show a significant improvement in hydraulic performance compared to an existing reference design.

  8. Exposure to airborne organophosphates originating from hydraulic and turbine oils among aviation technicians and loaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbu, Kasper; Daae, Hanne Line; Thorud, Syvert; Ellingsen, Dag Gunnar; Lundanes, Elsa; Molander, Paal

    2010-12-01

    This study describes the potential for occupational exposure to organophosphates (OPs) originating from turbine and hydraulic oils, among ground personnel within the aviation industry. The OPs tri-n-butyl phosphate (TnBP), dibutyl phenyl phosphate (DBPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and tricresyl phosphate (TCP) have been emphasized due to their use in such oils. Oil aerosol/vapor and total volatile organic compounds (tVOCs) in air were also determined. In total, 228 and 182 OPs and oil aerosol/vapor samples from technician and loader work tasks during work on 42 and 21 aircrafts, respectively, were collected in pairs. In general, the measured exposure levels were below the limit of quantification (LOQ) for 84%/98% (oil aerosol) and 82%/90% (TCP) of the samples collected during technician/loader work tasks. The air concentration ranges for all samples related to technician work were work the corresponding air concentration ranges were jet engine aircrafts. Investigation of provoked exposure situations revealed substantially higher exposure levels of the contaminants when compared to regular conditions, illustrated by oil aerosol and TCP concentrations up to 240 and 31 mg m(-3), respectively. The tailored OP and the general oil aerosol sampling methods were compared, displaying the advantages of tailored OP sampling for such exposure assessments.

  9. Exposure of aircraft maintenance technicians to organophosphates from hydraulic fluids and turbine oils: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Birgit Karin; Koslitz, Stephan; Weiss, Tobias; Broding, Horst Christoph; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic fluids and turbine oils contain organophosphates like tricresyl phosphate isomers, triphenyl phosphate and tributyl phosphate from very small up to high percentages. The aim of this pilot study was to determine if aircraft maintenance technicians are exposed to relevant amounts of organophosphates. Dialkyl and diaryl phosphate metabolites of seven organophosphates were quantified in pre- and post-shift spot urine samples of technicians (N=5) by GC-MS/MS after solid phase extraction and derivatization. Pre- and post shift values of tributyl phosphate metabolites (dibutyl phosphate (DBP): median pre-shift: 12.5 μg/L, post-shift: 23.5 μg/L) and triphenyl phosphate metabolites (diphenyl phosphate (DPP): median pre-shift: 2.9 μg/L, post-shift: 3.5 μg/L) were statistically higher than in a control group from the general population (median DBP: aircraft maintenance technicians were occupationally exposed to tributyl and triphenyl phosphate but not to tricresyl phosphate, tri-(2-chloroethyl)- and tri-(2-chloropropyl)-phosphate. Further studies are necessary to collect information on sources, routes of uptake and varying exposures during different work tasks, evaluate possible health effects and to set up appropriate protective measures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Combustion and regulations. Impacts of new regulations on medium-power thermal equipment (boilers, engines, turbines, dryers and furnaces); Combustion et reglementation. Incidences des nouvelles reglementations sur les equipements thermiques de moyenne puissance (chaudieres, moteurs, turbines, secheurs et fours)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This conference is composed of 20 papers on the influence of French and European new pollution regulations on medium size thermal equipment such as boilers, engines, turbines, dryers and furnaces. It is discussed what is going to change with new regulations, how they will apply to existing plants, what will be the impact on future equipment costs. The evolution of energy suppliers and equipment manufacturers facing these new regulations is also examined: fuel substitution, improvements in turbines and engines with water injection and special chambers, diesel engine control, lean mixtures and electronic control for gas engines... Means for reducing SOx, NOx and ash emission levels in boilers are also examined

  11. Compensation of Reactive Power from Wind Turbines with Power Electronics Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Kaas

    1996-01-01

    that the supply line must deliver the reactive current with ensuing losses, the strong variation also will cause varying inductive voltage losses in the supply with flicker as a consequence. With power electronic equipment it is possible to produce the reactive power on location and reduce the losses and voltage...... fluctuations in the line. In the paper a description is being given of a 100 kvar power electronic reactive power compensator built by SILCON Ltd and Technical University of Denmark in cooperation with ELSAM and Nordkraft. The compensator was tested connected to three wind turbines in a windmill farm......Wind turbines with induction generators consume reactive power. Apart from the no load consumption, which is nearing constant and is being compensated for using capacitors, the consumption of reactive power varies almost proportional with the power production, which can vary immensely. Except...

  12. Effects of Wind Turbines Equipped with Doubly-fed Induction Generators on Distance Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays wind energy is the fastest growing renewable energy resource in the world. The problems of integrating wind farms are caused by changes of wind speed during a day. Moreover, the behaviors of wind turbines equipped with doubly-fed induction generators differ fundamentally from synchronous generators. Therefore, more considerations are needed to analyze the performances of the distance protection relays. The protection of a wind farm with distance relay is inspected. By changing the conditions of the wind farm, the characteristics of the distance relay are studied.

  13. Modeling and control of a variable-speed wind turbine equipped with permanent magnet synchronous generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliprantis, D.C.; Papathanassiou, S.A.; Papadopoulos, M.P.; Kladas, A.G. [Purdue University, Electrical and Computer Engineering, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2000-08-01

    In this paper the operation of a variable-speed, stall regulated wind turbine equipped with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is examined. The emphasis is placed on the analysis of the electric part of the system, i.e. the electrical generator, the power electronics converters and the control. The operational characteristics of the machine are investigated through a series of computer simulations and the speed control system is designed to maximize the power output and achieve a smooth torque and power profile. (orig.)

  14. Design optimization of axial flow hydraulic turbine runner: Part I - an improved Q3D inverse method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Guoyi; Cao, Shuliang; Ishizuka, Masaru; Hayama, Shinji

    2002-06-01

    With the aim of constructing a comprehensive design optimization procedure of axial flow hydraulic turbine, an improved quasi-three-dimensional inverse method has been proposed from the viewpoint of system and a set of rotational flow governing equations as well as a blade geometry design equation has been derived. The computation domain is firstly taken from the inlet of guide vane to the far outlet of runner blade in the inverse method and flows in different regions are solved simultaneously. So the influence of wicket gate parameters on the runner blade design can be considered and the difficulty to define the flow condition at the runner blade inlet is surmounted. As a pre-computation of initial blade design on S2m surface is newly adopted, the iteration of S1 and S2m surfaces has been reduced greatly and the convergence of inverse computation has been improved. The present model has been applied to the inverse computation of a Kaplan turbine runner. Experimental results and the direct flow analysis have proved the validation of inverse computation. Numerical investigations show that a proper enlargement of guide vane distribution diameter is advantageous to improve the performance of axial hydraulic turbine runner. Copyright

  15. Custo de bombas centrífugas funcionando como turbinas em microcentrais hidrelétricas Cost of pumps as hydraulic turbines for micro-scale hydropower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Balarim

    2004-04-01

    places where they should be implanted. Pumps As Turbines (PAT have been studied. These equipment costs were obtained by consulting directly the manufacturers, and also the Ponta Grossa - PR city, Brazil, market. The results have shown that, concerning the micro hydroelectric power plants, whenever the costs constitute the major aspect and always considering units until 50 kW power, the option to PAT must be considered instead of hydraulic turbines.

  16. Unsteady flow analysis of an axial flow hydraulic turbine with collection devices comprising a different number of blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Yasuyuki; Inagaki, Terumi; Li, Yanrong; Hirama, Sou; Kikuchi, Norio

    2015-06-01

    We previously devised a new type of portable hydraulic turbine that uses the kinetic energy of an open-channel flow to improve output power by catching and accelerating the flow. The turbine contains an axial flow runner with an appended collection device and a diffuser section that is not axisymmetric. The objective of this study is to determine how interference between the collection device and the runner influences performance characteristics of the turbine. We investigated the performance characteristics of the turbine and flow field for different numbers of blades during both unsteady and steady flow. During an unsteady flow, the maximum values of power coefficients for three and two blades increased by approximately 8.8% and 21.4%, respectively, compared to those during a steady flow. For the three-blade runner, the power coefficient showed small fluctuations, but for the two-blade runner, the power coefficient showed large fluctuations. These fluctuations in the power coefficient are attributed to fluctuations in the loading coefficient, which were generated by interference between the runner and the diffuser section of the collection device.

  17. Stability analysis of the governor-turbine-hydraulic system of pumped storage plant during small load variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, X. D.; Zhang, J.; Chen, S.; Liu, J. C.

    2016-11-01

    Governor-turbine-hydraulic (GTH) system is complex because of strong couplings of hydraulic, mechanical and electrical system. This paper presents a convenient mathematical model of the GTH system of a pumped storage plant (PSP) during small load variation. By using state space method and eigenvalue method, the stability of the GTH system is analyzed and the stable regions of the system can be given as well, which would help to optimize system design or the turning of governors. The proposed method is used to analyze the stability of a practical pumped storage plant during small load variation, which is also simulated in time domain on the basis of characteristics method. The theoretical analysis is in good agreement with numerical simulations. Based on the proposed method, the effect of the system parameters and operating conditions on the stable regions is investigated. These results are useful for the design of the GTH system of pumped storage plants.

  18. Operation of a T63 Turbine Engine Using F24 Contaminated Skydrol 5 Hydraulic Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    T. Edwards (AFRL/RQTF) Engine Mechanical Systems Branch (AFRL/RQTM) Fuels and Energy Branch (AFRL/RQTF) Turbine Engine Division Chris D...MALDONADO, Branch Chief Program Manager Fuels and Energy Branch Fuels and Energy Branch Turbine Engine Division Turbine Engine Division Aerospace...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBEREngine Mechanical Systems Branch (AFRL/RQTM) Fuels and Energy

  19. 3D Numerical Simulation versus Experimental Assessment of Pressure Pulsations Using a Passive Method for Swirling Flow Control in Conical Diffusers of Hydraulic Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    TANASA, C.; MUNTEAN, S.; CIOCAN, T.; SUSAN-RESIGA, R. F.

    2016-11-01

    The hydraulic turbines operated at partial discharge (especially hydraulic turbines with fixed blades, i.e. Francis turbine), developing a swirling flow in the conical diffuser of draft tube. As a result, the helical vortex breakdown, also known in the literature as “precessing vortex rope” is developed. A passive method to mitigate the pressure pulsations associated to the vortex rope in the draft tube cone of hydraulic turbines is presented in this paper. The method involves the development of a progressive and controlled throttling (shutter), of the flow cross section at the bottom of the conical diffuser. The adjustable cross section is made on the basis of the shutter-opening of circular diaphragms, while maintaining in all positions the circular cross-sectional shape, centred on the axis of the turbine. The stagnant region and the pressure pulsations associated to the vortex rope are mitigated when it is controlled with the turbine operating regime. Consequently, the severe flow deceleration and corresponding central stagnant are diminished with an efficient mitigation of the precessing helical vortex. Four cases (one without diaphragm and three with diaphragm), are numerically and experimentally investigated, respectively. The present paper focuses on a 3D turbulent swirling flow simulation in order to evaluate the control method. Numerical results are compared against measured pressure recovery coefficient and Fourier spectra. The results prove the vortex rope mitigation and its associated pressure pulsations when employing the diaphragm.

  20. Nonlinear dynamic analysis and robust controller design for Francis hydraulic turbine regulating system with a straight-tube surge tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ji; Yuan, Xiaohui; Yuan, Yanbin; Chen, Zhihuan; Li, Yuanzheng

    2017-02-01

    The safety and stability of hydraulic turbine regulating system (HTRS) in hydropower plants become increasingly important since the rapid development and the broad application of hydro energy technology. In this paper, a novel mathematical model of Francis hydraulic turbine regulating system with a straight-tube surge tank based on a few state-space equations is introduced to study the dynamic behaviors of the HTRS system, where the existence of possible unstable oscillations of this model is studied extensively and presented in the forms of the bifurcation diagram, time waveform plot, phase trajectories, and power spectrum. To eliminate these undesirable behaviors, a specified fuzzy sliding mode controller is designed. In this hybrid controller, the sliding mode control law makes full use of the proposed model to guarantee the robust control in the presence of system uncertainties, while the fuzzy system is applied to approximate the proper gains of the switching control in sliding mode technique to reduce the chattering effect, and particle swarm optimization is developed to search the optimal gains of the controller. Numerical simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness of the designed controller, and the results show that the performances of the nonlinear HTRS system assisted with the proposed controller is much better than that with the commonly used optimal PID controller.

  1. Economic Viability of Pumped-Storage Power Plants Equipped with Ternary Units and Considering Hydraulic Short-Circuit Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazarra, Manuel; Pérez-Díaz, Juan I.; García-González, Javier

    2017-04-01

    This paper analyses the economic viability of pumped-storage hydropower plants equipped with ternary units and considering hydraulic short-circuit operation. The analysed plant is assumed to participate in the day-ahead energy market and in the secondary regulation service of the Spanish power system. A deterministic day-ahead energy and reserve scheduling model is used to estimate the maximum theoretical income of the plant assuming perfect information of the next day prices and the residual demand curves of the secondary regulation reserve market. Results show that the pay-back periods with and without the hydraulic short-circuit operation are significantly lower than their expected lifetime and that the pay-back periods can be reduced with the inclusion of the hydraulic short-circuit operation.

  2. Analysis of the fault and malfunctioning of a 15 MW hydraulic turbine; Analisis de la falla y malfuncionamiento de una turbina hidraulica de 15 MW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia I, Rafael; Perez R, Norberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    An historical case of the rehabilitation process of three hydraulic turbines with capacity of 15 MW each is presented. These units are used for the electrical generation, mainly to supply part of the central zone of the Mexican Republic. The turbo-generator units had been practically destroyed by catastrophic floods and only part of the equipment was rescued and rehabilitated for its operation. One of the three turbines presented serious operational problems, preventing its reliable operation evidenced by the excessive mechanical vibrations and heating of the bearing zone. This article presents the diagnosis of the possible causes of fault and the remedial actions taken. Strong misalignment problems of the runner with respect to its bearings and to the scroll case of the turbine are observed. In addition, during the inspection of the turbine runner and of the bearings it is observed that important frictions have existed, which increased the vibrations. It is shown that these frictions are not the cause of the problem but only one manifestation of the same. Finally some conclusions of the problem and their solution are presented. [Spanish] Se presenta un caso historico del proceso de rehabilitacion de tres turbinas hidraulicas con capacidad de 15 MW cada una. Dichas unidades son empleadas en la generacion electrica, principalmente para abastecer parte de la zona centro de la Republica Mexicana. Las unidades turbogeneradores habian sido practicamente destruidas por inundaciones catastroficas y solo parte del equipo fue rescatado y rehabilitado para su operacion. Una de las tres turbinas presento graves problemas de funcionamiento, impidiendo su operacion confiable, lo cual se manifestaba mediante vibraciones mecanicas excesivas y calentamiento en zona de chumaceras. En este articulo se presenta el diagnostico de las posibles causas de falla y las acciones correctivas tomadas. Se observan problemas fuertes de desalineamiento del rotor respecto a sus chumaceras y al

  3. Analysis of the malfunctioning and failure of a 15 MW hydraulic turbine; Analisis de malfuncionamiento y de falla de una turbina hidraulica de 15 MW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Illescas, R.; Perez Rodriguez, N. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    A case history is presented of the rehabilitation process of three hydraulic turbines with a capacity of 15 MW each one. Such units are used for electric power generation, mainly to supply part of the center zone of the Mexican Republic. The turbo-generator units had been practically destroyed by catastrophic floods and only part of the equipment was recovered and reconditioned for its operation. One of the three turbines presented serious functioning problems preventing its reliable operation that was evidenced by excessive mechanical vibrations and heating in the bearing zone. This paper presents the diagnosis of the possible causes of failure and the corrective measures taken. Serious rotor misalignment problems were observed respect to its bearings and the turbine scroll. Additionally, during the inspection of the turbine runner and of the bearing it was observed that important friction have existed, which incremented the vibrations. It is shown that such rubbings are not the cause of the problem but only a manifestation of the same. Finally some of the conclusions and their solution are presented. [Spanish] Se presenta un caso historico del proceso de rehabilitacion de tres turbinas hidraulicas con capacidad de 15 MW cada una. Dichas unidades son empleadas en la generacion electrica, principalmente para abastecer parte de la zona centro de la republica mexicana. Las unidades turbogeneradores habian sido practicamente destruidas por inundaciones catastroficas y solo parte del equipo fue rescatado y rehabilitado para su operacion. Una de las tres turbinas presento graves problemas de funcionamiento, impidiendo su operacion confiable, lo cual se manifestaba mediante vibraciones mecanicas excesivas y calentamiento en zona de chumaceras. En este articulo se presenta el diagnostico de las posibles causas de falla y las acciones correctivas tomandas. Se observan problemas fuertes de desalineamiento del rotor respecto a sus chumaceras y al caracol de la turbina

  4. Effect of Entrance Section of Hydraulic Turbine on Hydraulic Loss and Velocity Torque%液力透平进口截面对水力损失及速度矩的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史广泰; 杨军虎

    2015-01-01

    The diffusion tube of volute outlet becomes the shrinkable tube of hydraulic turbine when centrifugal pump acts as hy-draulic turbine. The energy loss between the diffusion tube and shrinkable tube is different, as well as the effect of the shrinkable tube of different shrinkage rate on hydraulic loss and velocity torque of hydraulic turbine. In order to reduce hydraulic loss of each the flow components in hydraulic turbine and improve the efficiency of hydraulic turbine, the base circle of volute of a single stage hydraulic tur-bine is regarded as a loop line under the different entrance section. The tangential velocity along the loop line is calculated. Corre-spondingly, the velocity torque is work out with the radius of base circle. Four monitoring points in the loop are set up. At the points, the velocity torque varies with the flow rate. The varieties are analyzed with ANSYS software and effect of the entrance section of volute on hydraulic loss of each the flow components is studied. The results show that the optimum entrance diameter of volute of hydraulic turbine is equal to 65 mm. Compared to the original design, the efficiency of improved hydraulic turbine increases by 1. 83%. Fluctu-ant amplitude of velocity torque of impeller entrance is minimum in the volute entrance. With increasing volute entrance diameter, ve-locity torque of impeller entrance and the hydraulic loss is gradually decreased. Meanwhile the shrinkage rate of shrinkable tube in vo-lute gradually increases.%为减小液力透平各过流部件的水力损失,提高液力透平的效率,在不同蜗壳进口截面下将一单级液力透平蜗壳的基圆作为一环线,计算沿该环线的切向速度值,根据基圆半径计算出相应的速度矩,并在环线上分别设置4个监测点,利用ANSYS软件计算监测点处的速度矩随流量的变化规律,最后研究蜗壳进口截面对各过流部件水力损失的影响。结果表明:所选液力透平的

  5. Repair of Kaplan turbine shaft sealing based on evaluation of hydraulic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, K.; Szamosi, Z.; Bereczkei, S.

    2012-11-01

    This paper has been written to call attention to a potential danger what may occur in Kaplan turbine refurbishments. In Tiszalök hydropower plant, Hungary, the shaft sealing of the refurbished turbine was damaged. In searching for the reasons it was assumed that due to increased internal velocities in the turbine, the pressure at the hub clearance became lower than the atmospheric pressure, and therefore the sealing, which always operated satisfactorily before the refurbishment, had uncertain water supply, dry-running occurred, and after some time the sealing was burnt. First the flow conditions in the turbine and the pressure at the hub clearance were calculated by a one-dimensional flow model. Later this was refined by a two-dimensional approach. The above conclusion was also justified by the data acquisition system and by observing the operation of the small dewatering pump. When the turbine operated at a larger discharge than a certain limit value, then the dewatering pump remained standstill, indicating that no water passed through the shaft sealing. External water supply was then applied, and after this the turbine operated all right.

  6. 灯泡贯流式机组调速器的特点及应用%Characteristic of Bulb Hydraulic Turbine Governor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳; 李学礼

    2016-01-01

    Bulb hydraulic generating units are development very quickly in recent years in low water-head power station for its smaller volume, compact construction and high efficiency. Turbine governor as important control equipment in hydraulic power station provide high-quality, reliable power protection for the industrial production and people's daily lives, the regulation performance will affect the power quality and power plant safety and economic operation. A Special regulation model for bulb generating units has been introduced in this paper through the Thailand NARESUANA station on-site testing.%以泰国NARESUANA电站灯泡贯流式水轮发电机组及其调速器为例证,着重说明了灯泡贯流机组的特点,阐述了调速器的步进电机系统研制和应用:①采用适应式、变结构、变参数、并联 PID 调节模式,使机组在不同状态下均能稳定运行;②采用变参数导叶分段关闭装置,根据水头、负荷、频率等机组工况自动改变导叶分段关闭投入点,减少了快速关闭时造成水击压力的升高,并防止涌浪、低频及水锤的发生;③桨叶根据机组频率自动改变关闭速度,防止涌浪、低频及水锤的发生。

  7. Laboratory developments of a diagonal turbine for medium head small hydro power plants (25 - 100 m). Final report; Turbines diagonales. Programme de developpement d'une turbine hydraulique diagonale destinee a equiper les petites centrales a moyenne chute (25 a 100 m) - Rapport final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choulot, A.; Denis, V.

    2009-11-15

    The first result of the project was the mechanical design of the diagonal turbine and, in particular, the runner and the adjustable blade driving system. The system was designed for the 12-blade runner and is thus suitable for any lower number of blades. With a reference runner diameter of 329.4 mm, the laboratory test model corresponds approximately to the smallest size for a prototype of Diagonal turbine. The mechanical design is thus available for any larger prototype. The complementary use of numerical simulations and laboratory tests provided a deep understanding of the hydraulic behaviour of the Diagonal turbine. Based on this extensive knowledge, the mechanical set-up and hydraulic design was significantly improved. The developments showed that the effect of the gap between the discharge ring and the blades on both the efficiency and cavitation behaviour was significantly enhanced compared to Kaplan turbines. The optimization of this gap together with improvements of the geometry enabled to raise the maximum efficiency from 86.5% with the initial configuration to more than 92%, and to significantly reduce the development of cavitation. The first developed configuration was the 8-blade runner. Various guide vane configurations were tested. The analysis of numerical and experimental results led to the development of an optimal configuration with a maximum efficiency of 92% and a satisfactory cavitation behaviour suitable for heads up to 50 m. The development of the 12-blade runner fully profited from the knowledge gained with the 8 blade configuration. The improved blade design process significantly fastened the development phase necessary to obtain high performances. The maximum efficiency is above 92% and the cavitation behaviour allows 80 m heads. Based on these good results, a first demonstration project was launched to equip the Montsalvens site (Switzerland). The objective is to install a turbine at the foot of the Montsalvens dam of the existing hydro

  8. A finite element analysis of a large thrust elastic metal-plastics bearing bush for a hydraulic turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Presents the study on the pressure and friction fields of the lubricant film on the surface of a large thrust elastic metal-plastic bearing bush in a hydraulic turbine using the method of finite element analysis and the stress and displacement fields in the vertical direction of the bush surface obtained to provide a theoretical basis for the design of contour lines and investigation into the causes for destruction of bushes, and concludes with test results that 1 ) the stress on the surface of the bush is not uniform; 2) a tension stress tends to occur near the oil ingress and egress edges but it is minor; 3) the biggest displacement in the vertical direction appears where x = 84 and Y = 1 153 and has a value of 0.022 mm; 4) the deformation of the bearing bush is harmful to the maintenance of lubricant film.

  9. Methodology for fabrication of hydraulics mini turbines with composite materials; Metodologia para a fabricacao de mini turbinas hidraulicas com materiais compostos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, M.T.C. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEMEC/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email: mtcdf@uol.com.br; Martinez, C.B.; Viana, E.M.F. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (EHR-UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Hidraulica e Recursos Hidricos], Emails: martinez@cce.ufmg.br, ednamariafaria@bol.com.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the description of methodological procedure specially developed for manufacturing mini turbines. This procedure is used in the design of a Francis type mini turbine with 12.5 kW. The housing volute and the suction tube of this equipment are manufactured with using composed material based on glass fiber and its distributor system is manufactured with stainless steel and brass. At the end it is presented an estimate cost of design / manufacturing of such equipment and a comparison with other equipment in the market.

  10. Fundamental investigations for a OWC-tidal power plant with a conventional hydraulic turbine; Basisuntersuchungen fuer ein OWC-Wellenenergiekraftwerk mit konventioneller Hydroturbine. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graw, K.U.; Lengricht, J.; Schimmels, S.

    2001-07-01

    At the present the OWC-tidal power plant is the most forward-looking way of converting tidal energy into usable electric power. Current research works focus on the dimensions of the structures in terms of occurring loads, the minimisation of hydraulic losses and the development of new turbine-generator types. The development of all air-turbine systems, which have been investigated so far, is considered as problematic and the commercialisation is likely to be a hindrance. Based on international research results an inventory tata of available hydraulic turbines is supposed to be gathered and fundamental investigations are supposed to check, if the application of conventional hydraulic turbines are an energetic progress in the OWC-tidal power plant. In order to considerably increase the efficiency compared to current developments, small-scale investigations at a physical model are supposed to show if and how a hydraulic turbine can be realised in a OWC-tidal power plant and how a concept of flow rectification as well as a flow-optimised form of inflow and outflow chambers can be achieved. (orig.) [German] Das OWC-Wellenenergiekraftwerk ist der zur Zeit zukunftstraechtigste Typ zur Umwandlung von Wellenenergie in nutzbaren Strom. Die laufenden Forschungsarbeiten beschaeftigen sich insbesondere mit der Dimensionierung der Strukturen hinsichtlich auftretender Belastungen, der Minimierung der hydraulischen Verluste und der Entwicklung von neuartigen Turbinen-Generatoren-Typen. Die Entwicklung aller bisher untersuchten Luftturbinensysteme wird jedoch als problematisch und die Kommerzialisierung hindernd angesehen. Aufbauend auf den internationalen Forschungsergebnissen sollen eine Bestandaufnahme der verfuegbaren Hydroturbinen durchgefuehrt und mit Baisuntersuchungen geprueft werden, ob ein Einsatz konventionaller Hydroturbinen im OWC-Wellenenergiekraftwerk eine energetische Weiterentwicklung darstellen kann. Um den Wirkungsgrad gegenueber derzeitigen Entwicklungen

  11. Design of Hydraulic Protection Equipment Served the Disabled Weight-lifting%残疾人举重液压伺服保护装置设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪功明

    2015-01-01

    A kind of hydraulic protection equipment served the disabled weight⁃lifting was designed. The equipment consisted of guide rail, hydraulic following unit and hydraulic lifting unit. It mainly depended on hydraulic servo theory to work. The technical pro⁃posal and the model designs of the core structure of the equipment were stated.%设计一种残疾人举重保护装置,该装置由导轨、液压跟随单元、液压托举单元等三部分组成,主要依据液压伺服原理工作。阐述了该装置的技术方案,并对装置的核心结构做了选型设计。

  12. Hydraulic vs. Electric: A Review of Actuation Systems in Offshore Drilling Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Pawlus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a survey on actuation systems encountered in offshore drilling applications. Specifically, it focuses on giving a comparison of hydraulic and electric drivetrains along with detailed explanations of their advantages and drawbacks. A significant number of industrial case studies is examined in addition to the collection of academic publications, in order to accurately describe the current market situation. Some key directions of research and development required to satisfy increasing demands on powertrains operating offshore are identified. The impact of the literature and application surveys is further strengthened by benchmarking two designs of a full-scale pipe handling machine. Apart from other benefits, the electrically actuated machine reduces the total power consumption by 70% compared to its hydraulically driven counterpart. It is concluded that electric actuation systems, among other advantages, in general offer higher efficiency and flexibility, however, in some specific applications (such as energy accumulation or translational motion control hydraulic powertrains are favorable.

  13. Extensive use of computational fluid dynamics in the upgrading of hydraulic turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, M.; De Henau, V. [GEC Alsthom Electromechanical Inc., Tracy, PQ (Canada); Eremeef, R. [GEC Alsthom Neyrpic, Grenoble (France)

    1995-12-31

    The use of computational fluid flow dynamics (CFD) and the Navier Stokes equations by GEC Alsthom for turbine rehabilitation were discussed. The process of runner rehabilitation was discussed from a fluid flow perspective, which accounts for the spiral case-distributor set and draft tube. The Kootenay turbine rehabilitation was described with regard to it spiral case and stay vane. The numerical analysis used to model upstream components was explained. The influence of draft tube effects was emphasized as an important efficiency factor. The differences between draft tubes at Sir Adam Beck 2 and La Grande 2 were discussed. Computational fluid flow modelling was claimed to have produced global performance enhancements in a reasonably short time, and at a reasonable cost. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Prediction of pressure fluctuation of a hydraulic turbine at no-load condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T. J.; Wu, X. J.; Liu, J. T.; Wu, Y. L.

    2015-01-01

    In order to study characteristics of pressure fluctuation of a turbine during the starting period, a turbine with guide vanes device at no-load condition was investigated using RNG k-epsilon turbulence model. The inner flow distribution and pressure fluctuation characteristics were analyzed. Results show that the pressure fluctuations in the region between the runner and guide vanes are different around the runner inlet. The dominant frequency of pressure fluctuation in the vaneless space close to the casing outlet is the blade passing frequency, while the dominant frequency at the rest region is the twice of the blade passing frequency. The increase of amplitude of pressure fluctuation close to the casing outlet can be attribute to the large scale stall at suction side of the runner inlet.

  15. Hydraulic Turbine Cavitation Analysis Based on the Cordon Method%基于Cordon法的水轮机抗空蚀研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂家章; 梁兴

    2013-01-01

    水轮机空蚀与运行工况密切联系,其影响因素较多。为此针对国内某电站,采用cordon法预估电站空蚀破坏,并与电站实际空蚀破坏比较,进而分解cordon法,从水轮机转轮材料、吸出高度以及负荷利用系数等三方面,分析诱发水轮机空蚀的关键因素,提出相应抗空蚀措施,总结水轮机空蚀研究思路,为水电站设计、安全经济运行及技术改造提供具有实用价值的借鉴意见。%The hydraulic turbine cavitation is related with power station operation, and it is influenced by much reasons. Therefore, by comparison with actual cavitation damage, the estimate value which calculated by the cordon method is precise. Based on the cordon method, the cause of hydraulic turbine cavitation are analyzed from the aspects of runner material, suction height and load utilization coefficient, and the anti-measures of hydraulic turbine cavitation is researched. It is valuable for the safe and economic operation, and also useful for technical reformation in hydroelectric power station.

  16. Modeling of Wind Turbines Equipped with Induction Machines for Voltage Profile Studies Using PSCAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Abedinzadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of increasing environmental concern, more and more electricity is generated from wind turbines. Therefore, adequate models to study the impact of wind turbines on electrical power system behavior are needed. One of the most important considerations is the effect of wind turbines on the voltage profile, i.e. the induced slow voltage variations, which are the subject of this paper. The wind turbines can be operated in two modes: constant-speed and variable-speed. Each one of these cases has different impact on steady state voltage of distribution grids. For evaluation of these impacts, SCIG generator has been simulated that works in constant-speed operation and DFIG generator that is used in a variable-speed turbine. Variable-speed wind turbines can be controlled in two ways. They can produce power with constant power factor or they control magnitude of voltage of PCC. PSCAD/EMTDC simulation program is used to investigate the impact of these turbines on a distribution grid. The outcomes of the simulation demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed simulation and control schemes. Also, it is shown that voltage control scheme has better results and improves the voltage profile considerably.

  17. The Design Method of Axial Flow Runners Focusing on Axial Flow Velocity Uniformization and Its Application to an Ultra-Small Axial Flow Hydraulic Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Nishi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a portable and ultra-small axial flow hydraulic turbine that can generate electric power comparatively easily using the low head of open channels such as existing pipe conduits or small rivers. In addition, we proposed a simple design method for axial flow runners in combination with the conventional one-dimensional design method and the design method of axial flow velocity uniformization, with the support of three-dimensional flow analysis. Applying our design method to the runner of an ultra-small axial flow hydraulic turbine, the performance and internal flow of the designed runner were investigated using CFD analysis and experiment (performance test and PIV measurement. As a result, the runners designed with our design method were significantly improved in turbine efficiency compared to the original runner. Specifically, in the experiment, a new design of the runner achieved a turbine efficiency of 0.768. This reason was that the axial component of absolute velocity of the new design of the runner was relatively uniform at the runner outlet in comparison with that of the original runner, and as a result, the negative rotational flow was improved. Thus, the validity of our design method has been verified.

  18. Unsteady hydraulic simulation of the cavitating part load vortex rope in Francis turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brammer, J.; Segoufin, C.; Duparchy, F.; Lowys, P. Y.; Favrel, A.; Avellan, F.

    2017-04-01

    For Francis turbines at part load operation a helical vortex rope is formed due to the swirling nature of the flow exiting the runner. This vortex creates pressure fluctuations which can lead to power swings, and the unsteady loading can lead to fatigue damage of the runner. In the case that the vortex rope cavitates there is the additional risk that hydro-acoustic resonance can occur. It is therefore important to be able to accurately simulate this phenomenon to address these issues. In this paper an unsteady, multi-phase CFD model was used to simulate two part-load operating points, for two different cavitation conditions. The simulation results were validated with test-rig data, and showed very good agreement. These results also served as an input for FEA calculations and fatigue analysis, which are presented in a separate study.

  19. Numerical prediction for effects of guide vane blade numbers on hydraulic turbine performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, F. X.; Yang, J. H.; Wang, X. H.; Li, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    Using unstructured hybrid grid technique and SIMPLEC algorithm,a general three-dimensional simulation based on Reynolds Navier- stocks in multiple reference frames and the RNG k-ε turbulence model, is presented for the reversal centrifugal pump (PAT) with a guide vane. Four different schemes are designed by a change of the number of guide vane blade of PAT. The inner flow field in every scheme is simulated, accordingly, the external characteristic and static pressure distribution in flow field in PAT is obtained. The results obtained show that the efficiency can be improved by adding a guide vane for the PAT, besides, the high efficiency area is wider than before. Guide blade numbers changed, external characteristics of turbine changed, and the external characteristic changed. The optimal value is existent for the guide vane blade number, which has a great impact on the distribution of pressure in runner inlet.

  20. Behavior of the Blade Tip Vortices of a Wind Turbine Equipped with a Brimmed-Diffuser Shroud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takanori Uchida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the behavior of the blade tip vortices of a wind turbine equipped with a brimmed-diffuser shroud, called a “Wind-Lens turbine”, we conducted a three-dimensional numerical simulation using a large eddy simulation (LES. Since this unique wind turbine consists of not only rotating blades but also a diffuser shroud with a broad-ring brim at the exit periphery, the flow field around the turbine is highly complex and unsteady. Previously, our research group conducted numerical simulations using an actuator-disc approximation, in which the rotating blades were simply modeled as an external force on the fluid. Therefore, the detailed flow patterns around the rotating blades and the shroud, including the blade tip vortices, could not be simulated. Instead of an actuator-disc approximation, we used a moving boundary technique in the present CFD simulation to simulate the flow around a rotating blade in order to focus especially on blade tip vortices. The simulation results showed a pair of vortices consisting of a blade tip vortex and a counter-rotating vortex which was generated between the blade tip and the inner surface of the diffuser. Since these vortices interacted with each other, the blade tip vortex was weakened by the counter-rotating vortex. The results showed good agreement with past wind tunnel experiments.

  1. Statistical Safety Evaluation of BWR Turbine Trip Scenario Using Coupled Neutron Kinetics and Thermal Hydraulics Analysis Code SKETCH-INS/TRACE5.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Ryoko; Masuhara, Yasuhiro; Kasahara, Fumio

    The Best Estimate Plus Uncertainty (BEPU) method has been prepared for the regulatory cross-check analysis at Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) on base of the three-dimensional neutron-kinetics/thermal- hydraulics coupled code SKETCH-INS/TRACE5.0. In the preparation, TRACE5.0 is verified against the large-scale thermal-hydraulic tests carried out with NUPEC facility. These tests were focused on the pressure drop of steam-liquid two phase flow and void fraction distribution. From the comparison of the experimental data with other codes (RELAP5/MOD3.3 and TRAC-BF1), TRACE5.0 was judged better than other codes. It was confirmed that TRACE5.0 has high reliability for thermal hydraulics behavior and are used as a best-estimate code for the statistical safety evaluation. Next, the coupled code SKETCH-INS/TRACE5.0 was applied to turbine trip tests performed at the Peach Bottom-2 BWR4 Plant. The turbine trip event shows the rapid power peak due to the voids collapse with the pressure increase. The analyzed peak value of core power is better simulated than the previous version SKETCH-INS/TRAC-BF1. And the statistical safety evaluation using SKETCH-INS/TRACE5.0 was applied to the loss of load transient for examining the influence of the choice of sampling method.

  2. 风轮机液压制动控制系统的研究%Research on Hydraulic Braking Control System of Wind Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文亭

    2015-01-01

    该文分析了风轮机常用的制动系统和控制系统,设计了基于紧急情况下的风轮机液压制动系统,并通过实验进行了测试,最后进行了紧急情况下的数据仿真研究,指出本制动器在不同最大设置压力和初始转速条件下的制动性能。%This paper analyses common braking system and control system in wind turbine, designs the hydraulic brake system of wind tur-bine based on emergency cases,and verified by experiment, also studies on the data simulation in case of emergency, points out the brake performance at different maximum set pressure and initial speed conditions.

  3. Evaluation of advanced hydraulic turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. Part 1. Single-stage regulated pump turbines for operating heads of 500 to 1000 m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, A.A.; Blomquist, C.A.; Degnan, J.R.

    1979-10-01

    High-head, large-capacity turbomachinery is needed for the concept of underground pumped hydroelectric storage to be technically and economically attractive. Single-stage, reversible, Francis-type pump turbines with adjustable wicket gates appear to offer the most economically attractive option for heads between about 500 and 1000 m. The feasibility of developing these types of machines for capacities up to 500 MW and operating heads up to 1000 m has been evaluated. Preliminary designs have been generated for six single-stage pump turbines. The designs are for capacities of 350 and 500 MW and for operating heads of 500, 750, and 1000 m. The report contains drawings of the machines along with material specifications and hydraulic performance data. Mechanical, hydraulic, and economic analyses indicate that these machines will behave according to the criteria used to design them and that they can be built at a reasonable cost. The stress and deflection responses of the 500-MW, 100-m-head pump turbine, determined by detailed finite element analysis techniques, give solid evidence of the integrity of the conceptual designs of the six units and indicate no unsolvable problems. Results of a life expectancy analysis of the wicket gates indicate that a near infinite life can be expected for these components when they are subjected to normal design loads. Efficiencies of 90.7 and 91.4% in the generating and pumping modes, respectively, can be expected for the 500-MW, 1000-m-head unit. Performances of the other five machines are comparable. The specific costs of the pump turbines in mid-1978 US dollars per kW vary from 19.2 to 11.8 over a head range of from 500 to 1000 m for the 500-MW machines and from 20.0 to 12.3 for the 350-MW machines.

  4. Permanent deformation estimates of dynamic equipment foundations: Application to a gas turbine in granular soils

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo Aires, Rubén Ángel; Illueca Jové, Manuel; Jimenez Rodriguez, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Permanent displacements of a gas turbine founded on a fine, poorly graded, and medium density sand are studied. The amplitudes and modes of vibration are computed using Barkan´s formulation, and the “High-Cycle Accumulation” (HCA) model is employed to account for accumulated deformations due to the high number of cycles. The methodology is simple: it can be easily incorporated into standard mathematical software, and HCA model parameters can be estimated based on granulometry and index proper...

  5. 液压传动风力发电机的恒转速控制%Constant Speed Control of Hydraulic Transmission Wind Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏列江; 王栋梁; 胡晓敏

    2013-01-01

    Aiming at the shortcomings of the traditional wind turbine generator,such as large size,heavy weight,high failure rate and much cost for maintenance,a kind of technologies employing hydraulic drive for wind power generation was introduced.A plan that could fulfill this hydraulic drive for wind power generation as a whole was discussed as well as the operation principle.On basis of this,by using hydraulic drive control technology,the speed-governing program which turned un-steady rotating speed input from wind turbine into steady input from electric generator and realization method were described mainly.Among this technical program,a flexible hydraulic transmission was in substitution for a rigid mechanical one and reduced mechanical failure rate of the machine set.The costs of manufacturing and maintenance are lowered.%针对传统风力发电机体积和质量大,故障率及维护成本高的缺点,介绍了利用液压传动的风力发电技术.论述液压传动的风力发电的总体方案及工作原理,在此基础上,重点阐述了利用液压传动控制技术,将风机不稳定转速的输入变为稳定的发电机输入的调速方案和实现方法.在该技术方案中,用液压柔性传动代替了机械刚性传动,减少了机组的机械故障率,降低了制造和维护成本.

  6. 调压井水面面积对水轮机稳定运行的影响%Influence of Water Area of Surge Tank on Stable Operation of Hydraulic Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄顺礼

    2000-01-01

    利用汤姆计算调压井水位波动的方程,得到在这个波动过程中水轮机流量的振荡曲线,从而证明调压井水面面积的取值大小影响水轮机的稳定运行,当流量振荡严重时,水轮机就会发生振动。%Presents the oscillating curves for hydraulic turbine flow rate during fluctuation of surge tank water level obtained using Thoma equation, which proves that the effect of water area of surge tank on stable operation of hydraulic turbine is so that hydraulic turbine may vibrate when flow rate flucturates significantly.

  7. Low-pressure hydro turbines and control equipment for wave energy converters (Wave Dragon). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, H.C.; Hansen, R.

    2001-06-01

    The Wave Dragon is a 4 MW floating offshore wave energy converter of the overtopping type. Through performing tests on a scale 1:50 model of the Wave Dragon, real-time overtopping time series were provided. These allowed the development of a feasible turbine and regulation strategy for handling the varying heads and flows occurring in the reservoir. A model turbine with a runner diameter of 340 mm was designed, and tested in a conventional turbine test stand. The results revealed very high efficiencies (91.3% peak efficiency), and more importantly a very flat performance curve yielding high turbine efficiency for the complete range of heads available at the Wave Dragon. A suitable power take-off and grid connection system was developed, addressing power quality issues, as well as more practical issues of flexible cabling solutions. It was concluded that feasible solutions to the technical barriers envisioned prior to the project had been found. Also means for improving the overtopping characteristics of the device were put forward. The feasibility of the Wave Dragon at original 1st generation design was investigated and key performance figures were given as net annual power production of 5.1-3.1 GWh/year, 2,775-3,150 Euro/kW in construction costs and a power production price of 0.19-0.27 Euro/kWh. The figures includes availability losses, all losses in the power train, and losses from restricted freedom of movement for two of the scenarios, with a wave energy potential of 16 and 24 kW/m wave front respectively. Significant scope for improvement, especially from enhanced overtopping from improved design, mass production and learning effects were also identified. Through implementing the known technical improvements to the Wave Dragon design identified through the project an annual net power production of 8.9 GWh/year and a production price of 0.12 Euro/kWh is foreseen for a 24 kW/m wave potential. With additional technical improvements, mass production benefits and

  8. EVALUASI UNJUK KERJA TURBIN AIR PELTON TERBUAT DARI KAYU DAN BAMBU SEBAGAI PEMBANGKIT LISTRIK RAMAH LINGKUNGAN UNTUK PEDESAAN (Performance Evaluation of Hydraulic Pelton Turbine Made of Wood and Bamboo as Environmentally Friendly Electric Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsul Kamal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pemanfaatan energi air di Indonesia, khususnya untuk pembangkit listrik skala kecil di pedesaan masih perlu diprioritaskan untuk ditingkatkan dalam program memperoleh energi bersih yang ramah lingkungan. Pemanfaatan tersebut masih terkendala oleh biaya investasi yang relatif tinggi serta teknologi yang sesuai. Pemerintah mendorong pemanfaatan energi baru dan terbarukan melalui program Desa Mandiri Energi dengan menggunakan potensi dan sumber daya yang tersedia di pedesaan. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi unjuk kerja turbin air Pelton untuk pembangkit listrik skala kecil dengan sudu terbuat dari bambu dan roda turbin dari kayu. Data yang terkumpul menunjukkan bahwa efisiensi pembangkitan mampu mencapai sekitar 28% untuk debit aliran 28 liter/detik dan tinggi jatuh efektif 7 m menggunakan nosel berpenampang empat persegi panjang. Walaupun dari aspek teknik dan lingkungan penggunaan bambu sebagai sudu turbin adalah baik dan sesuai untuk digunakan di pedesaan, namun unjuk kerja yang diperoleh masih perlu ditingkatkan dibanding dengan umumnya turbin Pelton yang terbuat dari logam. Hal ini diperkirakan karena bentuk alamiah lengkung bambu yang tidak optimum untuk sudu serta bentuk penampang nosel yang masih harus disesuaikan.   ABSTRACT The use of hydroenergy in Indonesia, especially for small electric generation in rural areas is still to be priority increased in a program to find a clean and environmentally friendly energy.  The use is still limited by relatively high investation cost and appropriate technology. Government has pushed the use of new and renewable energy through the Village Self-Relliant Energy Supply Program by using potential and available resources in the village. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of a hydraulic Pelton turbine for small electric generation with the buckets are made of bamboo and the runner is made of wood. Data collected from the study show that the efficiency of the

  9. Thermodynamic Analysis of Beam down Solar Gas Turbine Power Plant equipped with Concentrating Receiver System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azharuddin; Santarelli, Massimo

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of a closed cycle, solar powered Brayton gas turbine power plant with Concentrating Receiver system has been studied. A Brayton cycle is simpler than a Rankine cycle and has an advantage where the water is scarce. With the normal Brayton cycle a Concentrating Receiver System has been analysed which has a dependence on field density and optical system. This study presents a method of optimization of design parameter, such as the receiver working temperature and the heliostats density. This method aims at maximizing the overall efficiency of the three major subsystem that constitute the entire plant, namely, the heliostat field and the tower, the receiver and the power block. The results of the optimization process are shown and analysed.

  10. Hydraulic conduction system for an underground mineral mining plant, particularly a sliding plough equipment. Hydraulisches Leitungssystem fuer eine untertaegige Mineralgewinnungsanlage, insbesondere Gleithobelanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettmers, M.; Weirich, W.

    1983-01-05

    A hydraulic conduction system for a sling plough equipment assuring an utmost uniform pressure of the inner conveying trace to the coal face is described. The high-pressure main has a pressure of 300 to 400 bar. The low-pressure main is dimensioned in such a way that it exhibits a pressure drop restricted to about 5 bar at a conveying quantity of about 60 l/min and a pressure level between 100 and 200 bar. (HGOE).

  11. Degradation of Phosphate Ester Hydraulic Fluid in Power Station Turbines Investigated by a Three-Magnet Unilateral Magnet Array

    OpenAIRE

    Pan Guo; Wei He; García-Naranjo, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    A three-magnet array unilateral NMR sensor with a homogeneous sensitive spot was employed for assessing aging of the turbine oils used in two different power stations. The Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence and Inversion Recovery-prepared CPMG were employed for measuring the 1H-NMR transverse and longitudinal relaxation times of turbine oils with different service status. Two signal components with different lifetimes were obtained by processing the transverse relaxation curves with a ...

  12. TACT1- TRANSIENT THERMAL ANALYSIS OF A COOLED TURBINE BLADE OR VANE EQUIPPED WITH A COOLANT INSERT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaugler, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    As turbine-engine core operating conditions become more severe, designers must develop more effective means of cooling blades and vanes. In order to design reliable, cooled turbine blades, advanced transient thermal calculation techniques are required. The TACT1 computer program was developed to perform transient and steady-state heat-transfer and coolant-flow analyses for cooled blades, given the outside hot-gas boundary condition, the coolant inlet conditions, the geometry of the blade shell, and the cooling configuration. TACT1 can analyze turbine blades, or vanes, equipped with a central coolant-plenum insert from which coolant-air impinges on the inner surface of the blade shell. Coolant-side heat-transfer coefficients are calculated with the heat transfer mode at each station being user specified as either impingement with crossflow, forced convection channel flow, or forced convection over pin fins. A limited capability to handle film cooling is also available in the program. The TACT1 program solves for the blade temperature distribution using a transient energy equation for each node. The nodal energy balances are linearized, one-dimensional, heat-conduction equations which are applied at the wall-outer-surface node, at the junction of the cladding and the metal node, and at the wall-inner-surface node. At the mid-metal node a linear, three-dimensional, heat-conduction equation is used. Similarly, the coolant pressure distribution is determined by solving the set of transfer momentum equations for the one-dimensional flow between adjacent fluid nodes. In the coolant channel, energy and momentum equations for one-dimensional compressible flow, including friction and heat transfer, are used for the elemental channel length between two coolant nodes. The TACT1 program first obtains a steady-state solution using iterative calculations to obtain convergence of stable temperatures, pressures, coolant-flow split, and overall coolant mass balance. Transient

  13. Energy Transfer and Dissipation in of Hydraulic Wind Turbines%液压型风力发电机组能量传递与耗散

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾超; 闫桂山; 孔祥东; 董彦武

    2015-01-01

    Taking a hydraulic wind turbine as the research object,the energy transfer and dissipa-tion were studied for energy conversion mechanism in hydraulic wind turbine.The entire unit was di-vided into several key sub-units.The energy transfer models were established,and the variation of energy transfer was analyzed.The energy dissipation was derived and analyzed based on energy trans-fer models,and mathematical models of energy dissipation were obtained.Using 30kVA hydraulic wind turbine simulation platform as the simulation and experimental foundation,simulation and ex-perimental researches of energy transfer and dissipation were carried out.The accuracy of theoretical analyses was verified.The results show that energy feature state is changed during operation,contai-ning a certain energy dissipation,and the overall efficiency is about 65.7%.%为分析液压型风力发电机机组能量转化机理,针对其能量传递与耗散问题展开了研究。将整个机组分解为若干个关键子单元,建立机组能量传递模型,分析机组能量传递变化规律;以能量传递模型为基础,对机组能量耗散进行推导分析,得到机组能量耗散数学模型。将30 kV·A液压型风力发电机组实验台作为仿真和实验基础,对机组能量传递与耗散进行仿真与实验研究,进而验证理论分析的准确性。研究结果表明:机组在工作过程中其能量特征状态发生改变,并存在一定的能耗,整机效率约为65.7%。

  14. Pelton turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhengji

    2016-01-01

    This book concerns the theoretical foundations of hydromechanics of Pelton turbines from the engineering viewpoint. For reference purposes, all relevant flow processes and hydraulic aspects in a Pelton turbine have been analyzed completely and systematically. The analyses especially include the quantification of all possible losses existing in the Pelton turbine and the indication of most available potential for further enhancing the system efficiency. As a guideline the book therefore supports further developments of Pelton turbines with regard to their hydraulic designs and optimizations. It is thus suitable for the development and design engineers as well as those working in the field of turbo machinery. Many laws described in the book can also be directly used to simplify aspects of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) or to develop new computational methods. The well-executed examples help better understand the related flow mechanics.

  15. Reviews Equipment: Vibration detector Equipment: SPARK Science Learning System PS-2008 Equipment: Pelton wheel water turbine Book: Atomic: The First War of Physics and the Secret History of the Atom Bomb 1939-49 Book: Outliers: The Story of Success Book: T-Minus: The Race to the Moon Equipment: Fridge Rover Equipment: Red Tide School Spectrophotometer Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    WE RECOMMEND Vibration detector SEP equipment measures minor tremors in the classroom SPARK Science Learning System PS-2008 Datalogger is easy to use and has lots of added possibilities Atomic: The First War of Physics and the Secret History of the Atom Bomb 1939-49 Book is crammed with the latest on the atom bomb T-Minus: The Race to the Moon Graphic novel depicts the politics as well as the science Fridge Rover Toy car can teach magnetics and energy, and is great fun Red Tide School Spectrophotometer Professional standard equipment for the classroom WORTH A LOOK Pelton wheel water turbine Classroom-sized version of the classic has advantages Outliers: The Story of Success Study of why maths is unpopular is relevant to physics teaching WEB WATCH IOP webcasts are improving but are still not as impressive as Jodrell Bank's Chromoscope website

  16. Hydraulic Mechanical and Electrical Equipment Installed Management%水利工程中机电设备的安装管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓裕

    2015-01-01

    The importance of electrical and mechanical equipment installation management starting from hydraulic engineering, analytical focus and difficult problems of the current management of mechanical and electrical equipment installed in the presence of water conservancy projects, and proposed to strengthen water conservancy project management of mechanical and electrical equipment installation coping strategies.%从水利工程中机电设备安装管理的重要性入手,分析了当前水利工程中机电设备安装管理方面存在的重点和难点问题,并提出了加强水利工程中机电设备安装管理的应对策略。

  17. 大型水电站福伊特水轮机模型试验研究%The Test and Study on the Voith Hydraulic Turbine Model of a Large Hydropower Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬亮

    2014-01-01

    为了检验某大型水电站水轮机的水力特性,进行了水轮机福伊特模型验收试验,包括尺寸检查、效率试验、出力试验、飞逸试验、空化试验、蜗壳差压试验、压力脉动试验、导叶水力矩试验、轴向水推力试验、筒阀下拉力试验等内容。试验结果表明:模型水轮机及换算得到的原型的效率、出力、空化、压力脉动、飞逸、轴向水推力、导叶水力矩、筒阀压力等性能指标均满足合同技术要求。%In order to test the hydraulic characteristics of the hydraulic turbines of a large hydropower plant the Yoith hydraulic turbine model acceptance tests were conducted ,including dimensions check ,efficiency test ,output test ,runaway test ,cavitation test ,spiral case differential pressure test ,pressure fluctuation test ,guide vane hydraulic torque test ,axial hydraulic thrust test and cylinder tensile test .T he test results show that the performance indexes of the model turbine and those converted from the prototype such as ef-ficiency ,pressure fluctuation ,runaway ,guide vane hydraulic torque ,axial hydraulic thrust and cylinder valve pressure all meet the technical requirements of the contract .

  18. Composition and Characteristics of Moduli for Automatic Analysis of Failures in Operation of Boiling and Turbine Equipment at Thermal Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Yanitsky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents composition and brief characteristics of diagnostic moduli applied in an automatic system for detection and analysis of failures iii operation of boiling and turbine equipment at thermal power stations. Realization of automatic analysis in respect of technological situations makes it possible to form messages for duty personnel. These messages contain data which is considered as an important one at the actual moment and the messages have such form that ensures the most favourable conditions in order to take a decision pertaining to on-line control of the equipment operation.

  19. Survey of industrial coal conversion equipment capabilities: rotating components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, W. R.; Horton, J. R.; Boudreau, W. F.; Siman-Tov, M.

    1978-04-01

    At the request of the Major Facilities Project Management Division of the Energy Research and Development Administration, Fossil Energy Division, a study was undertaken to determine the capabilities of U.S. industry to supply the rotating equipment needed for future coal conversion facilities. Furthermore, problem areas were to be identified and research and development needs determined for producing advanced designs of the required equipment: Pumps, compressors, hydraulic turbines, and gas expanders. It has been concluded that equipment for essentially all clean-stream applications likely to be encountered in coal conversion facilities is generally available except high-pressure oxygen compressors. These oxygen compressors as well as slurry pumps need to be developed or significantly upgraded. Also, fans and blower for dirty-gas streams need developmental work, as do expanders for high-temperature service. Hydraulic turbines, which were not specified but which might be used for slurry applications in future coal conversion plants, are not available.

  20. Water turbine technology for small power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salovaara, T.

    1980-02-01

    The paper examines hydro-power stations and the efficiency and costs of using water turbines to run them. Attention is given to different turbine types emphasizing the use of Kaplan-turbines and runners. Hydraulic characteristics and mechanical properties of low head turbines and small turbines, constructed of fully fabricated steel plate structures, are presented.

  1. Flow measurement in a 170-MW hydraulic turbine using the Gibson method; Medicion del flujo de una turbina hidraulica de 170 MW utilizando el metodo Gibson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urquiza, Gustavo [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos (Mexico); Adamkowski, Adam [The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery (Poland); Kubiak, Janusz; Sierra, Fernando [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos (Mexico); Janicki, Waldemar [The Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery (Poland); Fernandez, J. Manuel [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2007-07-15

    This paper describes the methodology applied for measuring water flow through a 170-MW hydraulic turbine. The flow rate was measured using the pressure-time method, also known as the Gibson method. This method uses the well-known water hammer phenomenon in pipelines; in turbine penstocks, for instance. The version of this method used here is based on measuring, during total stop of the water stream, the time-history of pressure change in one section of the turbine penstock and relate it to the pressure in the upper reservoir to which the penstock is connected. The volumetric flow rate is determined from the relevant integration of the measured temporary pressure rise. Flow measurement was possible this way because the influence of the penstock inlet was negligible as far as an error of the measurement is concerned. The length of the penstock was 300 m. Previous experience and a standard IEC-41-1991 were the criteria adopted and applied. A fast and efficient acquisition system, including a 16 bit card, was used. The flow rate was calculated using a computer program developed and tested on several cases. The results obtained with the Gibson method were used for calibration of the on-line flow measuring system based on the Winter-Kennedy method as one of the index methods. This method is very often used for continuous monitoring of the flow rate through hydraulic turbines, when the calibration has been done on site by using the results of measurements obtained by the absolute method. Having measured the flow rate and output power, the efficiency was calculated for any operating conditions. A curve showing the best operating conditions based on the highest efficiency is presented and discussed. The details of the instrumentation, its installation, and the results obtained are discussed in the paper. [Spanish] Este articulo describe la metodologia aplicada para la medicion del flujo en una turbina hidraulica de 170 MW. El flujo se midio utilizando el metodo de presion

  2. Thermal-hydraulics, physical chemistry, and technology at nuclear power stations equipped with fast-neutron sodium-cooled reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, V. V.; Efanov, A. D.; Kozlov, F. A.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2007-12-01

    Main results of investigations aimed at developing a verified system of computer codes that take into account the interrelation among nuclear-physical, thermal-hydraulic, physicochemical, thermal-mechanical, mass-transfer, and technological processes in nuclear power installations and at substantiating the models used as the core of these codes are presented together with the results of tests carried out to obtain data for verifying the codes.

  3. 西藏地区水轮机选型设计的几个主要问题探讨%Selection of Hydraulic Turbine for Hydropower Stations in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李修树

    2011-01-01

    介绍了在现有基础条件下西藏地区水电机组选型设计中需重视的几个问题,主要包括机组单机容量选择、机型确定、机组参数、现场加工等方面,并提出了相应的选型思路.%The selection of hydraulic turbine for the hydropower stations in Tibet need to be given close attention as the special conditions.The requirements on unit capacity, type, parameters and on-site processing of turbine are discussed and some ideas in turbine selection are suggested herein.

  4. Inverse Kinematics and Model Calibration Optimization of a Five-D.O.F. Robot for Repairing the Surface Profiles of Hydraulic Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Mauricio S.T. Motta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses the results of an ongoing R&D project aiming to design and build a fully automated prototype of a specialized spherical robotic welding system for repairing hydraulic turbine surfaces eroded by cavitation pitting and/or cracks produced by cyclic loading. The system has an embedded vision sensor built to acquire range images by laser scanning over the blade’s surface and produce 3D models to locate the damaged spots to be registered in a 3D coordinate system into the robot controller, enabling the robot to repair the flaws automatically by welding in layers. The paper is focused on the robot kinematic model and describes an iterative algorithm to process the inverse kinematics with only five degrees-of-freedom. The algorithm makes use of data collected from a vision sensor to ensure that the welding gun axis is perpendicular to the blade’s surface. Besides this, it proposes a modelling and optimization mathematical routine for more efficient robot calibration, which can be used with any type of robot. This robot calibration optimization scheme finds the optimal error parameter vector based on the condition number of the manipulator transformation composed from the partial derivatives of the error parameters. Experimental results proved both the iterative algorithm to perform the inverse kinematics and the technique to optimize robot calibration to be very efficient.

  5. Aeroelastic Design and LPV Modelling of an Experimental Wind Turbine Blade equipped with Free-floating Flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navalkar, S. T.; Bernhammer, L. O.; Sodja, J.; Slinkman, C. J.; van Wingerden, J. W.; van Kuik, G. A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Trailing edge flaps located outboard on wind turbine blades have recently shown considerable potential in the alleviation of turbine lifetime dynamic loads. The concept of the free-floating flap is specifically interesting for wind turbines, on account of its modularity and enhanced control authority. Such a flap is free to rotate about its axis; camberline control of the free-floating flap allows for aeroelastic control of blade loads. This paper describes the design of a scaled wind turbine blade instrumented with free-floating flaps, intended for use in wind tunnel experiments. The nature of the flap introduces a coupled form of flutter due to the aeroelastic coupling of flap rigid-body and blade out-of-plane modes; for maximal control authority it is desired to operate close to the flutter limit. Analytical and numerical methods are used to perform a flutter analysis of the turbine blade. It is shown that the potential flow aeroelastic model can be recast as a continuous-time Linear-Parameter-Varying (LPV) state space model of a low order, for which formal controller design methodologies are readily available.

  6. 超低水头水轮机流动数值模拟及水力性能研究%Research on Flow Numerical Simulation and Hydraulic Performance of Ultra Low-head Water Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖惠民

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop economical and practical ultra low-head turbine (the net head low than 5m),the internal flow of ultra low-head water turbine with utilization of water and wave energy for generation is simulated by using computational fluid dynamics technology.The efficiency of the entire turbine is predicted and the hydraulic characteristics of the ultra low-head water turbine are analyzed.In the 1.5-5m head range,numerical simulations show that the ultra low-head water turbine has relatively high and slowly changing efficiency,and its output power basically depends on the head.%为开发经济实用超低水头(净水头低于5 m)的水轮机,基于流体动力学理论对可应用于水能、波浪能发电的某超低水头水轮机进行了内部流动数值模拟及性能预测,并分析了水头和转速特性.结果表明,在1.5~5.0m水头范围内,水轮机效率较高,变化平稳,输出功率主要取决于水头.

  7. 海流发电液压传动系统设计及仿真验证%Design of Hydraulic Transmission Systems for Tidal Current Turbines and Its Simulation Validation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石茂顺; 刘宏伟; 李伟; 林勇刚; 丁金钟; 周宏宾

    2014-01-01

    In light of the problem of speed control for the tidal current turbine,the volume control method is adopted to control the impeller speed and the generator speed of the stand-alone tidal current turbine.Two similar hydraulic transmission systems for the tidal current turbine are designed,both adopting the pump-motor-generator direct connecting structure.To validate the hydraulic transmission systems,the mathematical models for the systems are analyzed and the MATLAB/Simulink models are developed to study the working characteristics of the hydraulic transmission systems.The results show that both hydraulic transmission topologies can realize constant-frequency control of the generator on the premise of meeting the requirement of maximum power point tracking control.%针对海流发电机组转速控制问题,采用容积调速方法控制离网型海流发电液压传动机组的叶轮转速和发电机转速。设计了两种类似的海流发电液压传动系统方案,均采用泵-马达-发电机直接连接的结构形式。为验证所设计的液压传动系统方案的有效性,对其进行数学模型分析,并建立系统的MATLAB/Simulink模型进行系统控制特性仿真研究。结果表明,两种液压传动拓扑结构在满足最大功率跟踪控制要求的前提下,均可以在液压传动系统环节同时实现发电机恒频输出控制。

  8. Analysis and Online Diagnosis on Plugging Fault of Servo Valve in Electro-hydraulic Regulating System of Steam Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuanyin; LI Xiaoxiao; LI Fushang

    2009-01-01

    Through the study on the output signals of the electro-hydraulic regulating system in the thermal power plant, a novel method for online diagnosis of the plugging fault in the servo valve is presented. With the use of the AMESIM software, the changes of the piston displacement, the oil pressure, the magnitude attenuation and the phase lag of the system under different plugging states are studied after simulation. Besides, the influences of the symmetrical and unsymmetrical plugging on the system are also compared and the characteristic table is given. The duo-neural network is put forward to achieve an online diagnosis on the plugging fault of the servo valve. The first level of network helps to make the qualitative diagnosis of the plugging position while the second level is for the quantitative diagnosis of the degree of the plugged position. The research results show that plugging at different positions exerts different influences on the performance of the system. The unsymmetrical plugging mainly affects the regulation time while the symmetrical plugging leads to great changes in the magnitude attenuation and the phase lag.

  9. Improving efficiency and increasing capacity of the hydraulic turbine in Daguangba Hydropower Plant%大广坝水电站水轮机提效增容改造研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钊宁; 罗兴锜; 郭鹏程; 程宦; 王亚林

    2015-01-01

    基于海南大广坝水电站水轮机改造项目,通过分析电站运行中存在的水力不稳定现象和水轮机效率水平偏低的原因,提出了水轮机的改造方案和目标;讨论了水力参数和设计理念;介绍了改造前后转轮流道的本质差异。通过全流道数值仿真计算,定性评估了改造后水轮机的稳定性,定量标定了水轮机的效率水平,预期了模型水轮机的综合特性曲线。结论认为,改造后模型水轮机最优效率大于93.8%,额定效率91%,加权平均效率89.3%;原型水轮机最优效率95.1%,额定效率92.4%,加权平均效率90.8%;与改造前相比,加权平均效率增幅可达2.0%。%A new retrofitting method and target are presented by means of analyzing the phenome‐non of hydraulic instability and the reason of relatively low turbine efficiency based on the trans‐formation project referring to Daguangba Hydropower station in Hainan ,meanwhile ,hydraulic parameters selection and design conception are discussed in details .Also ,this paper introduces the essential difference of runner channel between pre‐and‐post retrofit .According to the full passage numerical simulation computation ,the hydraulic stability of retrofitted Francis runner is qualitatively evaluated and the efficiency level is quantitatively indicated .Finally ,the paper has predicted the comprehensive feature curves of the model water‐turbine .The conclusions indicate that the model turbine optimum efficiency exceeds 93 .8% ,the rated efficiency and weighted aver‐age efficiency are respectively 91% and 89 .3% compared with 95 .1% optimum efficiency ,92 .4%rated efficiency ,and 90 .8% weighted average efficiency originating from the prototype turbine ;the weighted average efficiency of the model turbine significantly increases 2 .0% by contrast with the one of the prototype turbine .

  10. 风电叶片模具液压翻转机构参数化优化设计%Parameters Optimization Design of the Structure of the Hydraulic Turnover Mechanism for Wind Turbine's Blade Mold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐韵斐; 邬湘成; 刘长杰

    2011-01-01

    介绍了风电叶片模具液压翻转机构的工作原理,建立了一般的几何模型,通过Matlab优化工具箱对风电叶片模具液压翻转机构进行优化设计,利用LabView设计图形界面,并通过Matlab script专有程序接口调用Matlab优化程序,实现风电叶片模具液压翻转机构的参数化优化设计.%This article introduced the working principle of hydraulic turnover mechanism of wind turbine's blade mold, established a general model, and optimized the design of hydraulic turnover mechanism of wind power mold through Matlab optimization toolbox. Using LabView software to design graphical interface, and called Matlab optimization procedures through proprietary programming interface called the Matlab script, achieving parameterization design of the structure of the hydraulic turnover mechanism for the wind turbine's blade mold.

  11. Application of multi-objective controller to optimal tuning of PID gains for a hydraulic turbine regulating system using adaptive grid particle swam optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhihuan; Yuan, Yanbin; Yuan, Xiaohui; Huang, Yuehua; Li, Xianshan; Li, Wenwu

    2015-05-01

    A hydraulic turbine regulating system (HTRS) is one of the most important components of hydropower plant, which plays a key role in maintaining safety, stability and economical operation of hydro-electrical installations. At present, the conventional PID controller is widely applied in the HTRS system for its practicability and robustness, and the primary problem with respect to this control law is how to optimally tune the parameters, i.e. the determination of PID controller gains for satisfactory performance. In this paper, a kind of multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, named adaptive grid particle swarm optimization (AGPSO) is applied to solve the PID gains tuning problem of the HTRS system. This newly AGPSO optimized method, which differs from a traditional one-single objective optimization method, is designed to take care of settling time and overshoot level simultaneously, in which a set of non-inferior alternatives solutions (i.e. Pareto solution) is generated. Furthermore, a fuzzy-based membership value assignment method is employed to choose the best compromise solution from the obtained Pareto set. An illustrative example associated with the best compromise solution for parameter tuning of the nonlinear HTRS system is introduced to verify the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed AGPSO-based optimization approach, as compared with two another prominent multi-objective algorithms, i.e. Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGAII) and Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm II (SPEAII), for the quality and diversity of obtained Pareto solutions set. Consequently, simulation results show that this AGPSO optimized approach outperforms than compared methods with higher efficiency and better quality no matter whether the HTRS system works under unload or load conditions.

  12. 14 CFR 29.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 29.1435 Section 29.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each element of the hydraulic system...

  13. BP和RBF神经网络在水轮机非线性特性拟合中的应用比较%Application of BP Neural Network and RBF Neural Network in Extending Hydraulic Turbine Combined Characteristic Curve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张培; 陈光大; 张旭

    2011-01-01

    It is unnecessary to establish concrete function expression, the known discrete data can be fitted by using neural network to extend hydraulic turbine combined characteristic cure. And we can also add boundary conditions to predict unknown zones, so as to raise the work efficiency and data precision in data treatment concerning hydraulic turbine combined characteristics. This paper intro- duces the use of gP neural network and RBF neural network in extending hydraulic turbine combined characteristic curve. I.astly, the results of the two methods are compared and some conclusions are obtained.%利用神经网络对水轮机综合特性曲线进行数据处理和延伸,不必建立具体的函数关系表达式,就可对已知的离散数据进行拟合。并且还可以结合边界约束条件对未知区域内的数据进行预测,从而提高了水轮机综合特性曲线数据处理的工作效率和数据精度。分别介绍了用BP神经网络和RBF神经网络对水轮机综合特性曲线数据处理和延伸的方法。并采用一机组的样本数据进行训练,比较2种方法的训练结果得出结论。

  14. Numerical Simulation Investigation on Hydraulic Performance of the Horizontal-Axis Tidal Current Turbine%水平轴潮流水轮机水力性能的数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖惠民

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the hydraulic characteristics of the hori -zontal-axis tidal current turbine with speed-up tube .Effects of the dimension parameters of the speed-up tube , such as the length-diameter ratio and the area ratio , on the turbine's performance are also studied .Results show that the horizon-tal-axis tidal current turbine is of high energy utilization rate and great self-starting performance , while it is sensitive to the variation of the tidal current velocity .The speed-up tube can significantly improve the hydraulic performance , espe-cially the output power , of the tidal current turbine .The optimum length-diameter ratio of the speed-up tube is also de-termined .%采用数值模拟方法对一种带增速管的水平轴潮流水轮机的流量特性和转速特性进行了研究,并分析了增速管长径比、面积比对该水轮机水力性能的影响。计算结果表明:该潮流水轮机能量转换效率较高,同时自启动性能好,但对潮流流速变化较敏感;增速管可显著提高水轮机的水力性能,特别是输出功率;对于一定结构形式的潮流水轮机,增速管具有最佳的长径比。

  15. Calculations of an unsteady flow through a hydraulic axial turbine with reference to interaction between stator and rotor; Instationaere Berechnung einer hydraulischen Axialturbine unter Beruecksichtigung der Interaktion zwischen Leit- und Laufrad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, C.

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study is the development of an algorithm enabling coupling of nonmatching computational grids to carry out calculations of an unsteady flow through a hydraulic axial turbine with reference to interaction between stator and rotor. The algorithm should offer the possibility to operate the computational grids in a fixed position relative to each other as well as in relative movement. Furthermore, the calculation should be feasible with separate grids in parallel and different frames of reference. Employing selected examples this method is investigated in detail the results are compared with performed measurements. The unsteady numerical examination of the coupling process is carried out with different examples; especially the interaction effects between stator, rotor and draft tube of a hydraulic axial turbine are observed. In addition, the effect of tip clearance of the mean flow is described. Extensive model tests using the axial turbine have been performed at the Institute for Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machinery, IHS. Flow time dependent velocities have been measured with a Laser Doppler Velocimeter placed at midspan of the blading. Periodical changes in static pressure have been recorded at different locations near the wall of the turbine casing. These measurements serve as reference for the comparison with results derived from the unsteady calculations. The confrontation of the time-dependent fluctuations of the flow quantities and the calculation of the efficiency of the turbine resulting from the simulation results allow a comparison in absolute terms. (orig.) [German] Fuer die instationaere Berechnung einer hydraulischen Axialturbine unter Beruecksichtigung der Interaktion zwischen Leit- und Laufrad wird ein Algorithmus zum Koppeln von nichtpassenden Berechnungsnetzen entwickelt. Diese Berechnungsnetze sollen zueinander ortsfest sein oder auch eine Relativbewegung zueinander haben koennen. Sie sollen ausserdem und in unterschiedlichen

  16. 四轮转向挂装车液压系统的设计%The Design of Hydraulic System of a Four-wheel-steering Loading Truck for Equipment Hanging on Aircraft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪曼; 王志; 陈文科; 温琦; 杨力

    2016-01-01

    该文主要介绍了四轮驱动挂装车液压系统的设计原理,简要介绍了挂装车的结构设计。该挂装车采用后轮驱动、四轮转向的方式,其工作装置可以在6个自由度上进行调整,并在驻车制动、工作装置液压系统中设置应急系统,确保挂装车的作业安全。样机的研制成功证明了该挂装车液压系统的设计是合理、适用的。%This paper describes the design of the hydraulic system of the loading truck for equipment hanging on aircraft with four wheels steering. And the paper describes the design of the truck’s structure. The truck which with rear-wheel-drive and four-wheel-steering has a hanging structure which with 6-freedom. For the safety of the truck during hanging equipment on aircraft, there is an emergency hydraulic-circuit connecting to the parking hydraulic-circuit and the hanging hydraulic-circuit. The success of designing and producing the first truck proves that the design of hydraulic system of the truck is logical and useful.

  17. Representational Learning for Fault Diagnosis of Wind Turbine Equipment: A Multi-Layered Extreme Learning Machines Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Xin Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reliable and quick response fault diagnosis is crucial for the wind turbine generator system (WTGS to avoid unplanned interruption and to reduce the maintenance cost. However, the conditional data generated from WTGS operating in a tough environment is always dynamical and high-dimensional. To address these challenges, we propose a new fault diagnosis scheme which is composed of multiple extreme learning machines (ELM in a hierarchical structure, where a forwarding list of ELM layers is concatenated and each of them is processed independently for its corresponding role. The framework enables both representational feature learning and fault classification. The multi-layered ELM based representational learning covers functions including data preprocessing, feature extraction and dimension reduction. An ELM based autoencoder is trained to generate a hidden layer output weight matrix, which is then used to transform the input dataset into a new feature representation. Compared with the traditional feature extraction methods which may empirically wipe off some “insignificant’ feature information that in fact conveys certain undiscovered important knowledge, the introduced representational learning method could overcome the loss of information content. The computed output weight matrix projects the high dimensional input vector into a compressed and orthogonally weighted distribution. The last single layer of ELM is applied for fault classification. Unlike the greedy layer wise learning method adopted in back propagation based deep learning (DL, the proposed framework does not need iterative fine-tuning of parameters. To evaluate its experimental performance, comparison tests are carried out on a wind turbine generator simulator. The results show that the proposed diagnostic framework achieves the best performance among the compared approaches in terms of accuracy and efficiency in multiple faults detection of wind turbines.

  18. Experience in the design and adaptation of vibration control and vibromonitoring equipment for turbines installed at Sayano-Shushenskaya HPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmatov, E.; Yline, S.; Morkin, O.; Nikiforov, A.; Silakov, D.

    2012-11-01

    We consider the problems of measuring the vibration of the supporting parts in hydro-turbine manufacturing, for example of the Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydro Power Station (SS HPS). It was explore the concepts of vibration control system (VCS) of hydro units. The analysis of the main types of vibration sensors, as the most important elements of the vibration control system of the hydro units. The main results of comparative tests of sensors that measure absolute vibration are given. It is proposed the optimization of the algorithms VCS of the units, including taking into account the seismic area of the hydropower station.

  19. The impact research of control modes in steam turbine control system (digital electric hydraulic to the low-frequency oscillation of grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanghai Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of the control theory for steam turbine, the transfer function of the steam turbine control modes in the parallel operation was obtained. The frequency domain analysis indicated that different control modes of turbine control system have different influence on the damping characteristics of the power system. The comparative analysis shows the direction and the degree of the influence under the different oscillation frequency range. This can provide the theory for the suppression of the low-frequency oscillation from turbine side and has a guiding significance for the stability of power system. The results of simulation tests are consistent with the theoretic analysis.

  20. Analysis on hydraulic characteristics of micro Francis hydro-turbine with low specific speed%微型低比转速混流式水轮机的水力特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兰金; 王磊; 任岩; 陈德新

    2013-01-01

    A micro Francis hydro-turbine driven by the circulating cooling water in cooling tower is introduced herein; of which the flow rate is restricted to the circulating water discharge, the output power is confined to that of the cooling tower fan and the head is relied on both the discharge and the output power. It has a small dimension with a long and narrow flow path of the runner and without water guiding mechanism. In order to know the hydraulic characteristics of it, a study is made with the method of numerical simulation combined with the relevant experiment. The study result shows that similarities are presented by the characteristics of the flow field inside of it, while the hydraulic characteristics of energy, pressure fluctuation, etc. Also show similarities with the same hydraulic efficiency and loss. The hydraulic efficiency of the turbine is lower with a larger hydraulic loss; of which the hydro-energy is lost mainly from the water rliversion parts and secondly from the runner. Furthermore, the amplitude of the hydraulic vibration on the blade channel of stay vane is higher over 10% due to a less space between both the diversion parts and the runner.%本文介绍了一种由冷却塔中冷却循环水驱动的微型水轮机.该机流量限于循环水流量、功率限于风机功率、水头依赖流量与功率;其蜗壳平面尺寸小,不设导水机构,转轮流道狭长.为了解该水轮机的水力特性,采用数值模拟与试验相结合的方法对其进行研究.研究表明:对于同一水轮机,其内流场特性表现出相似性,能量和压力脉动等水力特性也表现出相似性,水力效率相等,水力损失相等.该水轮机的水力效率较低,水力损失较大,其水能主要损失于引水部件,其次是转轮;由于引水部件距离转轮近,其固定导叶叶道的水力振动幅度达到10%以上.

  1. 大型轴流式水轮机座环装配焊接工艺%Assembly and Welding Procedure for Seating Ring of Large-Size Axial Flow Hydraulic Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘洪丰

    2014-01-01

    座环是水轮机的重要部件,它既承载着机组的重量,又控制着水的流量与速度。轴流式水轮机座环通常为双环板,固定导叶采用中空结构,各瓣体经通用模具成型后组焊成一体。其成型和焊接面临很大的技术难题,文章着重讨论单环板焊接式座环的装配焊接工艺。%The seating ring was an important part of hydraulic turbine, which not only bore the weight of the whole unit but also controlled the water flow and speed. Double-ring plate were the conventional structure of axi-al flow hydraulic turbine seating ring. Usually, the fixed vane was of hollow construction while the steel plates were welded and integrated into a whole unit after shaping. But the welding and shaping encountered many technology problems, thus, the assembly and welding procedure of the single seating ring were discussed emphatically.

  2. System control model of a turbine for a BWR; Modelo del sistema de control de una turbina para un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas O, Y. [Universidad del Valle de Mexico, Campus Toluca, Av. Las Palmas No. 136, Col. San Jorge Pueblo Nuevo, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Amador G, R.; Ortiz V, J.; Castillo D, R.; Delfin L, A. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)], e-mail: rodolfo.amador@inin.gob.mx

    2009-10-15

    In this work is presented a design of a control system of a turbine for a nuclear power plant with a BWR like energy source. The model seeks to implement later on at thermal hydraulics code of better estimate RELAP/SCDAPSIM. The model is developed for control and protection of turbine, and the consequent protection to the BWR, considering that the turbine control could be employed for one or several turbines in series. The quality of present designs of control pattern of turbine it is that it considers the parameters more important in the operation of a turbine besides that is has incorporated at control the secondary parameters that will be activated originally as true when the turbine model is substituted by a model more detailed. The development of control model of a turbine will be good in short and medium term to realize analysis about the operation of turbine with different operation conditions, of vapor extraction specific steps of turbine to feed other equipment s, besides analyzing the separate effect and integrated effect. (Author)

  3. Hydraulic Yaw System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Mørkholt, M.

    As wind turbines increase in size, combined with increased lifetime demands, new methods for load reduction needs to be examined. One method is to make the yaw system of the turbine soft/flexible and hereby dampen the loads to the system, which is the focus of the current paper. By utilizing...... the HAWC2 aeroelastic code and an extended model of the NREL 5MW turbine combined with a simplified linear model of the turbine, the parameters of the soft yaw system are optimized to reduce loading in critical components. Results shows that a significant reduction in fatigue and extreme loads to the yaw...... system and rotor shaft when utilizing the soft yaw drive concept compared to the original stiff yaw system. The physical demands of the hydraulic yaw system are furthermore examined for a life time of 20 years. Based on the extrapolated loads, the duty cycles show that it is possible to construct...

  4. The discussion about the stability of the automobile hydraulic components detection equipment%汽车液压零件检测设备稳定性的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓉; 曾鑫

    2016-01-01

    Flow by changing the hydraulic test equipment, this paper discusses the different flow's influence on the stability of the testing equipment.And to find out whether the product is qualified for manufacturing enterprise to provide the reference and help.%文章通过改变液压检测设备的流量,讨论了不同流量对检测设备的稳定性的影响。从而为生产企业找出产品是否合格提供参考和帮助。

  5. 用“望、闻、问、切”法点检诊断液压设备故障%Hydraulic Equipment Fault Diagnosis by "Auscultation, Olfaction, Interrogation, and Palpation"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路荣杰

    2012-01-01

    The hydraulic equipment faults are diagnosed at the spot inspection by the "Chinese medical techniques of auscultation, olfaction, interrogation and palpation". This fault diagnosis method is feasible and practicable, and plays positive roles in the equipment management.%介绍了用中医诊断病症的“望、闻、问、切”方法点检诊断液压设备故障,具有很好的可行性和实用性,在设备管理中发挥了积极的作用。

  6. Fish-Friendly Hydropower Turbine Development & Deployment: Alden Turbine Preliminary Engineering and Model Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, J. [Voith Hydro, Inc., York, PA (USA); Hecker, G. [Alden Research Laboratory, Inc., Holden, MA (USA); Li, S. [Alden Research Laboratory, Inc., Holden, MA (USA); Allen, G. [Alden Research Laboratory, Inc., Holden, MA (USA)

    2011-10-01

    The Alden turbine was developed through the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) former Advanced Hydro Turbine Systems Program (1994-2006) and, more recently, through the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the DOE's Wind & Water Power Program. The primary goal of the engineering study described here was to provide a commercially competitive turbine design that would yield fish passage survival rates comparable to or better than the survival rates of bypassing or spilling flow. Although the turbine design was performed for site conditions corresponding to 92 ft (28 m) net head and a discharge of 1500 cfs (42.5 cms), the design can be modified for additional sites with differing operating conditions. During the turbine development, design modifications were identified for the spiral case, distributor (stay vanes and wicket gates), runner, and draft tube to improve turbine performance while maintaining features for high fish passage survival. Computational results for pressure change rates and shear within the runner passage were similar in the original and final turbine geometries, while predicted minimum pressures were higher for the final turbine. The final turbine geometry and resulting flow environments are expected to further enhance the fish passage characteristics of the turbine. Computational results for the final design were shown to improve turbine efficiencies by over 6% at the selected operating condition when compared to the original concept. Prior to the release of the hydraulic components for model fabrication, finite element analysis calculations were conducted for the stay vanes, wicket gates, and runner to verify that structural design criteria for stress and deflections were met. A physical model of the turbine was manufactured and tested with data collected for power and efficiency, cavitation limits, runaway speed, axial and radial thrust, pressure pulsations, and wicket gate torque. All parameters were observed to fall

  7. Analysis of Seismic Dynamic Response of HydraulicTurbines under Water Medium%地震作用下水轮机组在水介质中的动态响应计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于建华; 魏泳涛; 曹剑绵

    2001-01-01

    The seismic response of hydraulic turbines under water medium isthe typical coupled vibration of l iquid-elastic body. To begin with, this paper briefly introduces the theory bac kground and computation method about dynamic behavior of turbines in water, then focuses on discussing the dynamic governing equations of turbine-water system in consideration of the influence of 3 dimensional coupled vibration of liquid-turbine. The time-history analysis is adopted to resolve the equations. Finally ,an example of a practical case is given, with the computational result compared against the result obtained without considering the influence of water medium.%水轮机在水中受地震作用而引起的地震响应属于液体-弹性体的耦合振动问题。本文中首先简介求解机组在水中的动力特性的理论背景及计算方法,接着重点讨论在考虑机组-水体系的三维液-固耦合振动影响下,水轮机组受地震作用的动力学支配方程及用时程分析法求解的解法。最后介绍结合贯流式水轮机所得出的计算成果,并将其结果与不考虑水介质影响得出的结果进行了比较。

  8. 46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic starting. 112.50-3 Section 112.50-3 Shipping... POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting. A hydraulic starting system must meet the following: (a) The hydraulic starting system must be...

  9. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, will be held in Beijing, China, 19-23 August 2012. It is jointly organized by Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Hydraulic Engineering, China, Jiangsu University, Xi'an University of Technology, China Agricultural University, National Engineering Research Center of Hydropower Equipment and Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd. It is the second time that China hosts such a symposium. By the end of 2011, the China electrical power system had a total of 1 050 GW installed power, out of which 220 GW was in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was 662.6 TWh from a total of 4,720 TWh electrical energy production in 2011. Moreover, in 2020, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 180 GW installed power and an estimated 708 TWh/year energy production. And in 2011, the installed power of pumped storage stations was about 25GW. In 2020, the data will be 70GW. At the same time, the number of pumps used in China is increasing rapidly. China produces about 29,000,000 pumps with more than 220 series per year. By the end of 2011, the Chinese pumping system has a total of 950 GW installed power. The energy consumed in pumping facilities was 530 TWh in 2011. The pump energy consumption accounted for about 12% of the national electrical energy production. Therefore, there is a large market in the field of hydraulic machinery including water turbines, pump turbines and a variety of pumps in China. There are also many research projects in this field. For example, we have conducted National Key Research Projects on 1000 MW hydraulic turbine, and on the pump turbines with high head, as well as on the large capacity pumps for water supply. Tsinghua University of Beijing is proud to host the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Tsinghua University was established in 1911, after the founding of the People's Republic of China. It

  10. Erosion of wind turbine blade coatings - Design and analysis of jet-based laboratory equipment for performance evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shizhong; Dam-Johansen, Kim; Nørkjær, Sten

    2015-01-01

    of the blades in such equipment. To reduce expensive blade maintenance repairs and to avoid out-of-service periods, energy-absorbing blade coatings are required to protect rotor blades from rain erosion. In this work we describe the design, construction and evaluation of a laboratory setup for fast screening...... of up to 22 coating samples that is based on water jet slugs. Our objective is to study the effect of the parameters involved in the rain erosion process and to correlate our experimental results with data obtained with the complex and expensive whirling arm rig, which has become the industry standard...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 25.1435 Section 25.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Element design. Each element of the hydraulic system must be designed to: (1) Withstand the proof...

  12. 14 CFR 27.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 27.1435 Section 27.1435... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, any structural loads...

  13. 被动式钻柱升沉补偿装置气液控制系统的原理%Principle of Air-Hydraulic Control System of Passive Drill Pipe Heave Compensation Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王维旭; 于兴军; 贾秉彦; 张鹏

    2011-01-01

    The paper mainly presents the theme on passive drill pipe heave compensation equipment through the following aspects: system constitution, working principle, manipulation, control principle of air-hydraulic control system, etc.With the air-hydraulic control technology, the passive drill pipe heave compensation equipment has many functions,such as regulate of working pressure, hydroacoustic padlock, mechanical padlock, closedown of accumulator, and so on.The equipment can eliminate the molestation which the wave impact on the vertical position of drill pipe when the drilling work is doing on the floating platform.The drill pipe heave compensation equipment can maintain the normal production of floating platform.%重点介绍了一种被动式钻柱升沉补偿装置的组成、工作原理、操作、气液控制系统原理等.该装置采用气-液控制技术,可实现系统工作压力调节、液压锁紧、机械锁紧、储能器关闭等功能,利用该装置可有效地解决浮式钻井平台作业过程中波浪对钻井设备竖直方向的位置扰动问题,保障了正常的生产.

  14. Design and Application of Hydraulic Brake System for Mega-watt Graded Wind Turbine%兆瓦级风力发电机组液压制动系统的设计与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董连俊

    2015-01-01

    阐述了风力发电机组液压制动系统的工作原理,针对兆瓦级风力发电机组对液压制动系统的高集成化、高可靠性的要求,对液压制动系统进行深入研究探讨;针对现场实际应用中容易出现的问题进行了分析,并提出相应的解决方案。%For the purpose of high integration and high reliability, this paper introduces principle of hydraulic brake system for wind turbine, and conducts in-depth research of this system. According to problems during application, proposes corresponding resolving scheme.

  15. 液力透平非定常压力脉动的数值计算与分析%Simulation and analysis of unsteady pressure fluctuation in hydraulic turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨孙圣; 孔繁余; 张新鹏; 黄志攀; 成军

    2012-01-01

    液力透平内部流场的非定常压力脉动是影响机组运行稳定性的关键因素之一,为了研究液力透平内部压力脉动,采用流场分析软件CFX对液力透平内部流场进行了三维非定常数值模拟,通过设置监测点,得到了不同位置处的压力脉动结果,并对压力脉动进行了频域分析.结果表明,液力透平内部压力沿着流道逐渐减弱;蜗壳环形部分入口位置和割舍处压力脉动较小,割舍前端和蜗壳中部位置处压力脉动较大,压力脉动主频为转频的2倍;叶轮内部的压力脉动在液力透平各过流部件的脉动中最为强烈,最大压力脉动发生在叶轮中间位置,压力脉动主频为叶频的2倍;尾水管内的压力脉动沿着尾水管流道逐渐减弱,压力脉动主频与蜗壳内部的压力脉动主频相同,为转频的2倍.%Pressure pulsation of internal flow field within pump as turbine is one of the major factors affecting the stability of turbine unit. To research the unsteady pressure field in pump as turbine, computational fluid dynamics software CFX was adopted in the unsteady flow field analysis. Pressure pulsation results at various monitoring points were acquired and frequency analyses were performed based on these results. Results show that the pressure value decreases along the flow channel of hydraulic turbine. The pressure pulsations at volute cut water and the inlet of volute spiral development part are small. The main frequency of pressure pulsation in volute is two times of the impeller rotational frequency. The most intensive pressure pulsation of hydraulic part in hydraulic turbine is impeller and the most intensive location happens at the middle of impeller passage. The main frequency of impeller pressure pulsation is two times of the blade passing frequency. The pressure pulsation in outlet pipe gradually decreases along the pipe, and its main frequency of pressure pulsation is two times of the impeller rotational

  16. 基于模糊PID控制的水轮机调节系统应用与仿真研究%Application and simulation of hydraulic turbine regulation system based on fuzzy PID control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨科科; 王臻卓

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the nonlinear, time variable and great inertia characteristics of hydraulic turbine regulation system, a precise mathematical model is built to study the basic principles of fuzzy control and fuzzy control algorithm in the paper. Based on this, the fuzzy PID control model of hydraulic turbine regulation system is constructed and fuzzy controller suitable for hydro-generating set is designed. Finally, the simulation is done using Matlab. The research shows that compared with conventional PID control algorithm, the regulation characteristics of hydro-generating unit with the introduction of fuzzy PID control are improved remarkably and has a good dynamic quality.%针对水轮机调节系统的非线性、时变性及大惯性等特点,建立了其较为精确的数学模型,研究了模糊控制的基本原理,在此基础上构建了水轮机调节系统的模糊PID控制模型,并设计了适合水轮发电机组的模糊控制器,最后利用Matlab软件做了深入细致的仿真研究.研究表明,与常规的PID控制算法相比,引入模糊PID控制的水轮发电机组的调节特性得到了明显改善,并具有良好的动态品质.

  17. Graphene in turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, D. K.; Swain, P. K.; Sahoo, S.

    2016-07-01

    Graphene, the two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, draws interest of several researchers due to its many superior properties. It has extensive applications in numerous fields. A turbine is a hydraulic machine which extracts energy from a fluid and converts it into useful work. Recently, Gudukeya and Madanhire have tried to increase the efficiency of Pelton turbine. Beucher et al. have also tried the same by reducing friction between fluid and turbine blades. In this paper, we study the advantages of using graphene as a coating on Pelton turbine blades. It is found that the efficiency of turbines increases, running and maintenance cost is reduced with more power output. By the application of graphene in pipes, cavitation will be reduced, durability of pipes will increase, operation and maintenance cost of water power plants will be less.

  18. Hydraulic wind energy conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to design, build and test a hydraulic wind energy system. This design used a three bladed turbine, which drove a hydraulic pump. The energy is transmitted from the pump through a long hose and into a hydraulic motor, where the energy is used. This wind system was built and tested during the winter of 1980-1981. The power train included a five meter, three bladed wind turbine, a 9.8:1 ratio gearbox, a 1.44 cubic inch displacement pump with a small supercharge gear pump attached. The hydraulic fluid was pumped through a 70', 3/4'' I-D-high pressure flexhose, then through a volume control valve and into a 1.44 cubic inch displacement motor. The fluid was returned through a 70', 1'' I-D-flexhose.

  19. Evaluation of advanced hydraulic turbomachinery for underground pumped hydroelectric storage. Part 2. Two-stage regulated pump/turbines for operating heads of 1000 to 1500 m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomquist, C.A.; Frigo, A.A.; Degnan, J.R.

    1979-10-01

    This UPHS report applies to Francis-type, reversible pump/turbines regulated with gating systems. The first report, however, covered single-stage regulations; this report covers two-stage regulations. Development of a two-stage regulated pump/turbine appears to be attractive because the proposed single-drop UPHS concept requires turbomachinery with a head range of 1000 to 2000 m. With turbomachinery of this range available, the single-drop scheme offers a simple and economic UPHS option. Six different two-stage, top-gated pump/turbines have been analyzed: three that generate 500 MW and three that generate 350 MW. In each capacity, one machine has an operating head of 1000 m, another has a head of 1250 m, and the third has a head of 1500 m. The rated efficiencies of the machines vary from about 90% (1000-m head) to about 88% (1500-m head). Costs in 1978 $/kW for the three 500-MW units are: 20.5 (1000 m), 16.5 (1250 m), and 13.5 (1500 m). Corresponding costs for the three 350-MW units are 23, 18, and 14 $/kW. No major turbomachinery obstacles are foreseen that could hamper development of these pump/turbines. Further model testing and development are needed before building them.

  20. The impact of the utilization of digital technology in hydraulic turbines speed regulators; O impacto da utilizacao de tecnologia digital em reguladores de velocidade de turbinas hidraulicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiburcio, Solange Numeriano Nen; Viegas, Francisco Carlos Ferreira [Comapnhia Hidroeletrica do Sao Franciso, Recife, PE (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    The aim of this work which was performed based on the experience acquired during the implementation of digital speed regulators in Xingo hydroelectric power plant is to present the characteristics of the system implanted and analyses the technological impact caused to the hydroelectric turbines primary control by the utilization of such kind of regulators 6 figs., 3 refs.

  1. Logical model for the control of a BWR turbine;Modelo logico para el control de una turbina de un BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas O, Y. [Universidad del Valle de Mexico, Campus Toluca, Av. Las Palmas No. 136, Col. San Jorge Pueblo Nuevo, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Amador G, R.; Ortiz V, J.; Castillo D, R., E-mail: yonaeton@hotmail.co [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this work a design of a logical model is presented for the turbine control of a nuclear power plant with a BWR like energy source. The model is sought to implement later on inside the thermal hydraulics code of better estimate RELAP/SCDAPSIM. The logical model is developed for the control and protection of the turbine, and the consequent protection to the BWR, considering that the turbine control will be been able to use for one or several turbines in series. The quality of the present design of the logical model of the turbine control is that it considers the most important parameters in the operation of a turbine, besides that they have incorporated to the logical model the secondary parameters that will be activated originally as true when the turbine model is substituted by a detailed model. The development of the logical model of a turbine will be of utility in the short and medium term to carry out analysis on the turbine operation with different operation conditions, of vapor extraction, specific steps of the turbine to feed other equipment s, in addition to analyze the separate and the integrated effect. (Author)

  2. RESEARCH AND DESIGN OF THE STRAFLO-FRANCIS TURBINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new type of hydraulic turbine and its design theory is presentedThis turbine has the advantages of the most widely used Francis turbine and Straflo tubine,has its own specific theoretical basis,compact structure,small volume,low cost and steady operationAnd it is convenient to be transported,installed and maintained,and has good hydraulic and cavitation performanceIt is named StrafloFrancis turbine

  3. Design of large Francis turbine using optimal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, E.; Bornard, L.; Tomas, L.; Liu, J.; Couston, M.

    2012-11-01

    Among a high number of Francis turbine references all over the world, covering the whole market range of heads, Alstom has especially been involved in the development and equipment of the largest power plants in the world : Three Gorges (China -32×767 MW - 61 to 113 m), Itaipu (Brazil- 20x750 MW - 98.7m to 127m) and Xiangjiaba (China - 8x812 MW - 82.5m to 113.6m - in erection). Many new projects are under study to equip new power plants with Francis turbines in order to answer an increasing demand of renewable energy. In this context, Alstom Hydro is carrying out many developments to answer those needs, especially for jumbo units such the planned 1GW type units in China. The turbine design for such units requires specific care by using the state of the art in computation methods and the latest technologies in model testing as well as the maximum feedback from operation of Jumbo plants already in operation. We present in this paper how a large Francis turbine can be designed using specific design methods, including the global and local optimization methods. The design of the spiral case, the tandem cascade profiles, the runner and the draft tube are designed with optimization loops involving a blade design tool, an automatic meshing software and a Navier-Stokes solver, piloted by a genetic algorithm. These automated optimization methods, presented in different papers over the last decade, are nowadays widely used, thanks to the growing computation capacity of the HPC clusters: the intensive use of such optimization methods at the turbine design stage allows to reach very high level of performances, while the hydraulic flow characteristics are carefully studied over the whole water passage to avoid any unexpected hydraulic phenomena.

  4. 新型涡轮驱动水力振荡器设计与实验研究%Design and experimental study on a new type of turbine driven hydraulic oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王杰; 夏成宇; 冯定; 于长柏

    2016-01-01

    提出了一种新型的石油钻井用水力振荡器,可有效降低管柱摩阻,提高钻井效率.该水力振荡器采用涡轮驱动,并使用双偏心动定阀作为压力脉冲发生机构.通过建立双偏心动定阀的运动特性方程,结合实际工况得出阀盘的最优尺寸.通过选定阀型的水力振荡器性能测试实验,得出在模拟钻压为30 kN ,流量为28 L/s ,工作介质为清水时的振动冲击力约为15859 N ,振动位移约为4.1 mm ,振动频率约为11.4 Hz .该分析与实验结果对水力振荡器的设计与应用具有指导意义.%A new type of hydraulic oscillator for oil drilling is presented ,w hich can effectively re‐duce the frictional resistance and increase the drilling efficiency . The hydraulic oscillator was driven by a turbine ,and double eccentric valve was used as the pressure pulse generating mecha‐nism .By establishing the motion characteristic equation of the double eccentric valve ,the optimal size of the valve disc was obtained based on the actual working conditions .The performance test experiment of the hydraulic oscillator with selected valve was carried out ,the experimental re‐sults showed that the vibration impact force of the hydraulic oscillator was about 15 859 N ,the vibration displacement was about 4.1 mm ,and the vibration frequency was about 11.4 Hz when the drilling pressure was 30 kN ,the flow rate was 28 L/s ,and the working medium was water . The analysis and experimental results have guiding significance for the design and application of the hydraulic oscillator .

  5. Advanced Performance Hydraulic Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lam, Adrienne S.

    2013-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, has developed a novel advanced hydraulic wind energy design, which has up to 23% performance improvement over conventional wind turbine and conventional hydraulic wind energy systems with 5 m/sec winds. It also has significant cost advantages with levelized costs equal to coal (after carbon tax rebate). The design is equally applicable to tidal energy systems and has passed preliminary laboratory proof-of-performance tests, as funded by the Department of Energy.

  6. Some perspective decisions for the regeneration system equipment of the thermal and nuclear power plants decreasing the probability of water ingress into the turbine and rotor acceleration by return steam flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, N. N.; Svyatkin, F. A.; Sintsova, T. G.; Ukhanova, M. G.; Yesin, S. B.; Nikolayenkova, E. K.; Yurchenko, A. Yu.; Grigorieva, E. B.

    2016-03-01

    The regeneration system heaters are one of the sources of possible ingress of the water into the turbine. The water penetrates into the turbine either at the heaters overflow or with the return flow of steam generated when the water being in the heater boils up in the dynamic operation modes or at deenergization of the power-generating unit. The return flow of steam and water is dangerous to the turbine blades and can result in the rotor acceleration. The known protective devices used to prevent the overflow of the low-pressure and high-pressure heaters (LPH and HPH), of the horizontal and vertical heaters of heating-system water (HWH and VWH), as well as of the deaerators and low-pressure mixing heaters (LPMH) were considered. The main protective methods of the steam and water return flows supplied by the heaters in dynamic operation modes or at deenergization of the power-generating unit are described. Previous operating experience shows that the available protections do not fully prevent water ingress into the turbine and the rotor acceleration and, therefore, the development of measures to decrease the possibility of ingress of the water into the turbine is an actual problem. The measures allowing eliminating or reducing the water mass in the heaters are expounded; some of them were designed by the specialists of OAO Polzunov Scientific and Development Association on Research and Design of Power Equipment (NPO CKTI) and are efficiently introduced at heat power plants and nuclear power plants. The suggested technical solutions allow reducing the possibility of the water ingress into the turbine and rotor acceleration by return steam flow in the dynamic operation modes or in the case of power generating unit deenergization. Some of these solutions have been tested in experimental-industrial exploitation and can be used in industry.

  7. 兆瓦级风力机节能型电-液复合变桨距系统的设计与仿真研究%Design and Simulation Study of Energy-saving Electro-hydraulic Composite Pitch Control System for Megawatt-class Wind Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘军龙; 代晶辉; 吕凤池; 李阳; 赵进宝; 姜继海

    2013-01-01

    针对现有的电动变桨距系统和液压变桨距系统所存在的问题,将直驱式容控电液伺服技术与风力机变桨距系统结合,提出了一种节能型电-液复合变桨距系统.并以1.5 MW风力机为例,完成对其变桨距系统的设计、元件选型和Simulink仿真,分析了该节能型电-液复合变桨距系统在大功率风力机上应用的可行性.%Aimed at the existing problem of present electric pitch control system and hydraulic pitch control system,by combining the direct drive volume control electro-hydraulic servo technique and wind turbine pitch control system,a new kind of energy-saving electro-hydraulic composite pitch control system was proposed.By taking the 1.5 mega-watt wind turbine as an example,its pitch control system design,parts selection and Simulink Simulation were accomplished.The possibility of the application of this energy-saving electro-hydraulic composite pitch control system on high-power wind turbines was analyzed.

  8. Concept Evaluation for Hydraulic Yaw System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2013-01-01

    a suspension system on a car, leading the loads away from the turbine structure. However, to realize a soft hydraulic yaw system a new design concept must be found. As a part of the development of the new concept a preliminary concept evaluation has been conducted, evaluating seven different hydraulic yaw......The yaw system is the subsystem on a wind turbine which ensures that the rotor plane of the turbine always is facing the wind direction. Studies from [1] show that a soft yaw system may be utilized to dampen the loads in the wind turbine structure. The soft yaw system operates much like...... investigation. Loads and yaw demands are based on the IEC 61400-1 standard for wind turbine design, and the loads for this examination are extrapolated from the HAWC2 aeroelastic design code. The concepts are based on a 5 MW off-shore turbine....

  9. Operation of the counter-rotating type pump-turbine unit installed in the power stabilizing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanemoto, T.; Honda, H.; Kasahara, R.; Miyaji, T.

    2014-03-01

    This serial research intends to put a unique power stabilization system with a pumped storage into practical use. The pumped storage is equipped with a counter-rotating type pump-turbine unit whose operating mode can be shifted instantaneously in response to the fluctuation of power from renewable resources. This paper verifies that the system is reasonably effective to stabilize the fluctuating power. It is necessary to quickly increase the rotational speed when the operation is shifted from the turbine to the pumping modes, because the unit cannot pump-up water from a lower reservoir at a slow rotational speed while keeping gross/geodetic head constant. The maximum hydraulic efficiency at the turbine mode is close to the efficiency of the counter-rotating type hydroelectric unit designed exclusively for the turbine mode. The system is also provided for a pilot plant to be operated in the field.

  10. Cavitation in hydraulic turbines: the benefits of new processes and materials utilization; Cavitacao em turbinas hidraulicas: os beneficios da utilizacao de novos processos e novos materiais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Nelio Cesar de [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Politecnico

    1995-12-31

    Due to the introduction of new metallurgic technologies, this work proposes the substitution of the existing materials and processes used for the maintenance of electric turbines which present the cavitation effect. the methodology is presented. Considering the so far obtained results, it was concluded that by the utilization of the suggested techniques it is possible to obtain significant maintenance costs and time reduction 8 figs., 1 tab., 5 refs.

  11. Hydraulic behaviour of the floating wave energy converter Wave Dragon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The objective of the project is to establish a scale 1:4.5 test model of the floating offshore wave energy converter - Wave Dragon - for testing at 5 m water depth in the Inlet Nissum Bredning. The test model will be equipped with an existing diameter 340 mm model turbine plus additional outlet tubes simulating the resistance from 1 - 16 turbines. The model will be designed to stay afloat even with a total loss of air pressure in the open bottom buoyancy chambers. The test series will primarily focus on measurements of hydraulic response, forces in the mooring system and overtopping quantities. Also data such as head, rotational speed and power production from the turbine will be monitored during the whole test period. The project will verify the effect of the pressured air buoyancy system, which cannot be scaled correctly in laboratory scale models. The test results will allow for an evaluation of the Wave Dragon power production as a function of sea state and freeboard height, in order to calibrate the existing WD-power simulation software. The model can be utilized for further testing of turbine regulation and stress and strain in the structure, establishing the necessary knowledge base for deploying a full-scale demonstration plant. This CD-ROM contains various videos, reports, notes, conference papers and Power Point presentations on the making of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon. (BA)

  12. Gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ok Ryong

    2004-01-15

    This book introduces gas turbine cycle explaining general thing of gas turbine, full gas turbine cycle, Ericson cycle and Brayton cycle, practical gas turbine cycle without pressure loss, multiaxial type gas turbine cycle and special gas turbine cycle, application of basic theory on a study on suction-cooling gas turbine cycle with turbo-refrigerating machine using the bleed air, and general performance characteristics of the suction-cooling gas turbine cycle combined with absorption-type refrigerating machine.

  13. Design of hydraulic recuperation unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandourek Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with design and measurement of hydraulic recuperation unit. Recuperation unit consist of radial turbine and axial pump, which are coupled on the same shaft. Speed of shaft with impellers are 6000 1/min. For economic reasons, is design of recuperation unit performed using commercially manufactured propellers.

  14. Cause Analysis and Improvement of Mechanical Seal Leakage of Hydraulic Turbine%液力透平机械密封泄漏的原因分析及改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘强; 徐卫忠; 韩维涛; 雷涛

    2015-01-01

    某柴油加氢改质装置液力透平采用旋转式串联机械密封和基于API标准的PLAN 53B冲洗方案的辅助密封系统,在试运行时发现机械密封泄漏严重。通过对机械密封结构和辅助密封冲洗系统的分析,指出机械密封泄漏的主要原因是,泵送环扬程不足及换热器管路阻力过大,旋转式串联密封动环波动影响摩擦热和介质传导热的排出,高温下隔离液会气化等。通过对换热器和泵送环的改造,降低了隔离液腔和密封腔温度;将旋转式串联密封改为静止式双端面密封,提高了换热效率;采用高沸点隔离液,解决了隔离液的气化问题。机械密封改造后,取得了较好的密封效果,且降低了液力透平电机的负荷。%The serious mechanical seal leakage is found for the hydraulic turbine of a diesel hydrogenation modification device during the test run. The hydraulic turbine uses the rotating tandem mechanical seal and the auxiliary sealing system with PLAN 53B irrigation scheme based on API standard. Through the analysis on the mechanical seal structure and the auxiliary flushing system, the main causes of the mechanical seal leakage were pointed out, which was that the pump ring head of the mechanical seal was insufficient and the heat exchanger pipe resistance was too large, the fluctuation of the ro⁃tary series sealing ring affected the dynamic discharge of friction heat and medium transfer heat, and the spacer fluid was vaporized at high temperature. Through the transformation of heat exchanger and pump ring, the temperature in the liquid separation chamber and the sealing cavity is reduced. By transforming the rotary series sealing into double end face static seal, the heat exchange efficiency is improved. By using high boiling point spacer fluid, the problem of gasification of spacer fluid is solved. The transformed mechanical seal achieves a better sealing effect, and the load of hydraulic

  15. Rotor optimization of a Francis type hydraulic turbine through the computer flow analysis (CFD); Optimizacion del rodete de una turbina hidraulica tipo Francis a traves del analisis computacional del flujo (CFD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosado Tamariz, Erick

    2007-06-15

    In the analysis of fluid behavior through hydraulic turbines, two basic methodologies for flow analysis and optimization processes in turbines are used, which are: a) modeled of flow through the entire turbine (joint), or modeled one of each component separately, obtaining satisfactory results by both methodologies. The analysis of computational fluids dynamics (CFD) to geometries improved by means of finite volume method (FVM) with their corresponding initials and boundary conditions is made, to solve a system differential equations of second order that correspond to the flow around the dominion of runner blades; considering nonviscous flow and the implementation of the two equations models for the solution of the equations that govern the turbulent flow. Also, used parameterization techniques based in a parametric geometry an objective function and the diminution of cavitation. This work presents the optimization of a runner from a Francis hydro turbine for a 75 MW considering three different load conditions (75%, 85% and 100%) through CFD as a part of the hydraulic analysis for modernization of the actual condition of a power generation unit. Francis runner optimization is made, through a previous analysis of CFD by means of the FVM, considering the viscous effects of the fluid and the model of turbulence developed by Sparlart and Allmaras; modeling the wicket and runner separately. Later the generation of a parametric model of the runner is made and the simulation for the generation of data base is formed. Finally an objective function is considered to develop the optimal geometry of the runner blades. The results are presented in a graphic form in such a way, that it shows the distributions of pressure and speed around the blades runner, the geometrical and performance (efficiency and power) comparison between original and optimized model. [Spanish] En el analisis del comportamiento del fluido a traves de turbinas hidraulicas, se emplean dos metodologias

  16. 14 CFR 33.72 - Hydraulic actuating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic actuating systems. 33.72 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.72 Hydraulic actuating systems. Each hydraulic actuating system must function properly under all conditions in which...

  17. 水轮发电机转子系统磁悬浮承重装置散热研究%Study on heat dissipation of magnetic-levitation bearing device for rotor system of hydraulic turbine-generator unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马宏忠; 郭晓宁; 陈远俊

    2011-01-01

    由于水轮发电机轴向重力负荷电磁悬浮承重系统的励磁线圈密封在装置内部,无法与外界空气对流,从而会出现温升过高.为解决此问题,提出了分别在该系统电磁铁的上铁心和衔铁(推力盘)上设置一定数量的通风孔,以便使线圈表面形成对流散热.针对通风孔设计,选用适合此模型结构的对流散热数值模型,推导出对流散热系数的数值,并利用有限元分析软件Ansys进行了温度和磁场仿真分析.结果显示,在满足水轮机组承重要求的前提下,合理设计通风孔可以使电磁悬浮装置线圈温度大大降低,满足系统应用要求.%Since the excitation coils of electromagnetic-levitation bearing system for the axial load of hydraulic turbine-generator are sealed inside of the system, the heat inside is difficult to be dissipated, and then over-high temperature rise would occur therein.For solving this problem, it is put forward that a few vents are respectively arranged on both the electromagnet core and the armature ( thrust disc) of the system, so as to create a convection heat dissipation on the surface of coils.So far as the design of the vent is concerned, suitable numerical models are selected for this model along with the deduction of the coefficient of convection heat dissipation, and then the simulation analysis on the temperature and the magnetic field is made with the softwareAnsys.The results show that under the premise to satisfy the bearing requirement of hydraulic turbine-generator unit, the temperature of the coils can be greatly lowered with the reasonably designed vents, therefore, the application requirement of the system can be met as well.

  18. Research and Development of the Self-Tuning Hydraulic Shock Wave Energy Absorption Equipment%自整定式液压震动波能量吸收装置的研究与开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席建中; 韩成春

    2012-01-01

    研制开发在核心技术上具有自主知识产权的自整定式液压震动波能量吸收装置,利用对油缸活塞的结构设计和液压油路控制增加液体流动的行程,通过液体流动阻尼和压力降,以此吸收振动能量,达到减震的目的.从而实现机械设备、特别是以振动方式工作的机械设备,例如振动压路机、振动挖掘机等工作点之外的机件、主机等进行减震、消震.该能量吸收装置结构简单,吸收震动源效果好,将复杂不断变化的震动能使用独立机构吸收,并巧妙的利用波的传递特性自调整抵消,避免了震动能对震源的冲击.%Researching and developing the core technology with independent intellectual property rights of the hydraulic shock waves from the self-tuning energy absorption equipment, making use of the structure design of hydraulic cylinder piston and control of the flow of fluid increase trip of hydraulic oil, through the liquid flow damping and the pressure drop, to absorbs vibration energy, and to achieve the purpose of shock.So as to realize the mechanical equipment,especially the mechanical equipment working with vibration mode ,such as vibratory roller, vibration excavators which damping and absorbing shock using machine parts outside of working points. This energy absorption equipment is simple in structure,good in absorption of shock source , using independent agencies to absorb complex changing vibration,and the clever use of wave transmission characteristics of self-tuning offset avoids the impact vibrational energy to vibration source.

  19. Concept Evaluation for Hydraulic Yaw System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2013-01-01

    a suspension system on a car, leading the loads away from the turbine structure. However, to realize a soft hydraulic yaw system a new design concept must be found. As a part of the development of the new concept a preliminary concept evaluation has been conducted, evaluating seven different hydraulic yaw...... concepts, ranging from a one-to-one copy of the electrical drive (electrical drives replaced by hydraulic dittos), to floating suspension systems mounted on hydraulic cylinders. Rough calculations of size and consequences of the different systems are presented ending up with the final concept for further...... investigation. Loads and yaw demands are based on the IEC 61400-1 standard for wind turbine design, and the loads for this examination are extrapolated from the HAWC2 aeroelastic design code. The concepts are based on a 5 MW off-shore turbine....

  20. Hydraulic hoist-press

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babayev, Z.B.; Abashev, Z.V.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency expert of the Angrenskiy production-technological administration of the production association Sredazugol A. V. Bubnov has suggested a hydraulic hoist-press for repairing road equipment which is a device consisting of lifting mechanism, press and test stand for verifying the high pressure hoses and pumps.

  1. 水轮发电机组转动部分动力学分析%Rotor-dynamic Analysis of Hydraulic Turbine Rotor System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德亮

    2013-01-01

    本文根据水轮发电机组中的密封形式及其边界条件特征,选用Muszyska密封力模型近似水轮机上冠、下环间隙流体激振力,并加载到水轮发电机组转动部分中,采用New mark数值方法对包括发电机、主轴、上导轴承、下导轴承、水轮机转轮、上冠和下环密封在内的水轮发电组转动部分-密封系统进行数值仿真,得到了水轮发电机组转动部分动力学特性,并将其与水轮发电机组实际运行数据进行对比,结果证明所建立的密封力模型符合工程实际,对水轮发电机组转动部分的设计有一定的指导意义。%Based on the seal form of hydroelectric generating unit and its boundary conditions, Muszyska model is used to approximate the fluid exciting force in gap flow between the crown and band of Francis turbine, and is loaded into the rotor system. New mark numerical method is selected to simulate rotor-seal system including generator, main shaft, upper guide bearing, lower guide bearing, turbine runner and the seals of the crown and the band of the turbine. Rotor-dynamic characteristics of the hydrogenerator rotor system is obtained and compared with the actual operation data. The result shows that the selected sealing force model can accord with engineering practice, and it has a guiding value to the design of hydrogenerator rotor system.

  2. Study on Heat Treatment Process for Blade Castings of Hydraulic Turbine Set in Three Gorges Project%三峡水轮机组叶片铸件热处理工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高扬; 董晓亮

    2014-01-01

    以三峡水轮机组叶片铸件为研究对象,对其热处理工艺进行了研究。采用热膨胀仪进行特征相变点的测定,通过热处理试验确定热处理工艺参数对机械性能的影响关系,提出了叶片铸件最佳热处理工艺路线及工艺参数,并应用于实际生产,生产出的叶片铸件各项性能指标均满足设计要求。%The heat treatment process for the blade castings is studied by taking samples of these blade castings of hydraulic turbine in Three Gorges Project. The feature transition points are measured by thermal dilatometer and the effect of parameters of heat treatment process on me-chanical properties are confirmed by heat treatment test. After that the optimal heat treatment pro-cess and technological parameters for treating blade castings are proposed. When the new process and technological parameters are put into operation, all kinds of properties of the blade castings produced by application of the process and parameters can meet the design requirements.

  3. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  4. Turbinate surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbinectomy; Turbinoplasty; Turbinate reduction; Nasal airway surgery; Nasal obstruction - turbinate surgery ... There are several types of turbinate surgery: Turbinectomy: All or ... This can be done in several different ways, but sometimes a ...

  5. Experimental investigations of thermal-hydraulic processes arising during operation of the passive safety systems used in new projects of nuclear power plants equipped with VVER reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A. V.; Remizov, O. V.; Kalyakin, D. S.

    2014-05-01

    The results obtained from experimental investigations into thermal-hydraulic processes that take place during operation of the passive safety systems used in new-generation reactor plants constructed on the basis of VVER technology are presented. The experiments were carried out on the model rigs available at the Leipunskii Institute for Physics and Power Engineering. The processes through which interaction occurs between the opposite flows of saturated steam and cold water moving in the vertical steam line of the additional system for passively flooding the core from the second-stage hydro accumulators are studied. The specific features pertinent to undeveloped boiling of liquid on a single horizontal tube heated by steam and steam-gas mixture that is typical for of the condensing operating mode of a VVER reactor steam generator are investigated.

  6. Hydraulics and pneumatics

    CERN Document Server

    Parr, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Nearly all industrial processes require objects to be moved, manipulated or subjected to some sort of force. This is frequently accomplished by means of electrical equipment (such as motors or solenoids), or via devices driven by air (pneumatics) or liquids (hydraulics).This book has been written by a process control engineer as a guide to the operation of hydraulic and pneumatic systems for all engineers and technicians who wish to have an insight into the components and operation of such a system.This second edition has been fully updated to include all recent developments su

  7. 基于响应面法的离心泵作透平水力和声学性能优化%Hydraulic and acoustic property optimization for centrifugal pump as turbine based on response surface method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代翠; 孔繁余; 董亮; 汪家琼; 柏宇星

    2015-01-01

    为综合优化离心泵作透平的水力和声学性能,建立了一种基于响应面的离心泵作透平水力和声学性能多目标优化方法。首先在对比分析叶轮几何参数对透平水力和噪声影响的基础上,根据敏感度筛选出对噪声影响显著的关键参数;进而应用响应面方法构造显著变量与多目标函数的响应面多元回归模型,分析影响水力效率与噪声的参数间交互作用;最终以水力效率不降低和总声压级最小为响应目标,兼顾性能与噪声确定最优参数组合,即叶片进口安放角为19.5°,叶片出口安放角为20°,叶片出口宽度为16 mm,叶片包角为92°,叶轮进口直径为101 mm,叶片数为12。对某离心泵作透平多目标优化结果表明,叶轮进口直径、叶片出口宽度、叶片数及叶片包角对内场噪声总声压级影响显著;响应面模型能够反映参数与响应值之间的相关性;经试验验证优化后透平水力效率平均提高了1.98个百分点,总声压级降低了4.95 dBA,表明采用的响应面法能够在不影响透平原有水力性能的前提下改善声学性能。%As a way of energy saving by recovery of residual pressure, centrifugal pump as turbine (PAT) has been widely used in many fields. As PAT is gradually developed for high power, flow-induced noise becomes one of the most important issues that cause negative effect on reliability. In order to improve both hydraulic and acoustic performances of PAT, an optimization method combining sensitivity analysis and response surface was established. Firstly, through comparison of impeller parameter impact on hydraulic and noise performances, the geometric parameters with great influence on acoustic were filtered based on sensitivity analysis. Further more, with the efficiency and A-weighted overall sound pressure level (OASPL) as target, the multiple regression models connecting variables and multi-objective functions

  8. Boiler-turbine life extension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natzkov, S. [TOTEMA, Ltd., Sofia (Bulgaria); Nikolov, M. [CERB, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1995-12-01

    The design life of the main power equipment-boilers and turbines is about 105 working hours. The possibilities for life extension are after normatively regulated control tests. The diagnostics and methodology for Boilers and Turbines Elements Remaining Life Assessment using up to date computer programs, destructive and nondestructive control of metal of key elements of units equipment, metal creep and low cycle fatigue calculations. As well as data for most common damages and some technical decisions for elements life extension are presented.

  9. The helical turbine: A new idea for low-head hydro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorlov, A.M. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Substantial potential exists at small hydro sites where heads are too low for conventional hydraulic turbines. A spiral-bladed turbine may offer a new alternative for tapping that potential in a cost-efficient manner.

  10. Hydraulic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sheng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the planning, design, construction and management of hydraulic structures, covering dams, spillways, tunnels, cut slopes, sluices, water intake and measuring works, ship locks and lifts, as well as fish ways. Particular attention is paid to considerations concerning the environment, hydrology, geology and materials etc. in the planning and design of hydraulic projects. It also considers the type selection, profile configuration, stress/stability calibration and engineering countermeasures, flood releasing arrangements and scouring protection, operation and maintenance etc. for a variety of specific hydraulic structures. The book is primarily intended for engineers, undergraduate and graduate students in the field of civil and hydraulic engineering who are faced with the challenges of extending our understanding of hydraulic structures ranging from traditional to groundbreaking, as well as designing, constructing and managing safe, durable hydraulic structures that are economical ...

  11. HYDRAULIC SERVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, D.E.

    1962-05-01

    A hydraulic servo is designed in which a small pressure difference produced at two orifices by an electrically operated flapper arm in a constantly flowing hydraulic loop is hydraulically amplified by two constant flow pumps, two additional orifices, and three unconnected ball pistons. Two of the pistons are of one size and operate against the additional orifices, and the third piston is of a different size and operates between and against the first two pistons. (AEC)

  12. 风力发电机组液压变桨机构运动与强度分析%Analysis on kinematics and strength of the hydraulic pitch mechanism of a wind turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锁怀; 贾坤; 张平满

    2011-01-01

    After the Solidworks model being inputted into the ANSYS software, the file of mode is created,and the original rigid body is replaced with the flexible body to build a mixed rigid and flexible body model in ADAMS.Then kinematic accuracy of the pitch mechanism of a wind turbine is analyzed, which results show that the difference of the pitch angle and speed exist between the actual and theoretical value due to the elastic deformation of the parts and the hydraulic oil, therefore monitoring sensors are proposed to be fixed on the blade plate and used to control the hydraulic cylinder motion and compensate the moving errorA file related with loads information of the key parts is created after motion simulation. After the file being input in ANSYS,the strength of the key parts is analyzed Based on the results,the location, where the material was easy to yield or the maximum stress exist,is found,which should be protected during designing.%将各个构件的Solidworks实体模型导入ANSYS中,生成柔性体模态中性文件,将该柔性体导入ADAMS中替换原有的刚性体,建立变桨机构的刚柔混合体模型.利用ADAMS对风力发电机组变桨机构的模型进行变桨精度分析,发现实际变桨速度和角位移与理论值有一定误差,提出了在桨叶盘上增设位置传感器,利用传感器发出的信号控制液压缸动作,对变桨误差进行补偿;将运动仿真过程中产生的零件载荷文件,导入ANSYS中,对关键零件进行强度分析,指出了各零件易破坏位置与最大应力位置,设计时应注意保护.

  13. The technology of the bearings used in the nuclear power generation system turbine generator units; Technologie des paliers equipant les groupes turbo-alternateurs du parc nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vialettes, J.M.; Rossato, M. [Service Ensembles de Production, Departement Machines, Direction des Etudes et Recherches, Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France)

    1997-01-01

    A bearing consists of all the stationary part which allow the relative motion in rotation or in translation, of a shaft line. Inside the bearing there is a journal bearing with a metallic anti-friction coating (the babbitt metal). The high power turbine generator unit rotors are supported by smooth transversal journal bearings fed with oil which fills the empty space and runs along the shaft. The technologies used for the bearings and the thrust bearings of the turbine generator units and the various shaft lines of the French CP0/CP1- and CP2/1300 MW-type nuclear power plants are described. The experience feedback is then discussed in terms of the dynamics of the shaft line, i.e. vibrational problems, the influence of the alignment and the babbitt metal incidents. (author) 4 refs., 11 figs.

  14. Cogeneration steam turbines from Siemens: New solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasilov, V. F.; Kholodkov, S. V.

    2017-03-01

    The Enhanced Platform system intended for the design and manufacture of Siemens AG turbines is presented. It combines organizational and production measures allowing the production of various types of steam-turbine units with a power of up to 250 MWel from standard components. The Enhanced Platform designs feature higher efficiency, improved reliability, better flexibility, longer overhaul intervals, and lower production costs. The design features of SST-700 and SST-900 steam turbines are outlined. The SST-700 turbine is used in backpressure steam-turbine units (STU) or as a high-pressure cylinder in a two-cylinder condensing turbine with steam reheat. The design of an SST-700 single-cylinder turbine with a casing without horizontal split featuring better flexibility of the turbine unit is presented. An SST-900 turbine can be used as a combined IP and LP cylinder (IPLPC) in steam-turbine or combined-cycle power units with steam reheat. The arrangements of a turbine unit based on a combination of SST-700 and SST-900 turbines or SST-500 and SST-800 turbines are presented. Examples of this combination include, respectively, PGU-410 combinedcycle units (CCU) with a condensing turbine and PGU-420 CCUs with a cogeneration turbine. The main equipment items of a PGU-410 CCU comprise an SGT5-4000F gas-turbine unit (GTU) and STU consisting of SST-700 and SST-900RH steam turbines. The steam-turbine section of a PGU-420 cogeneration power unit has a single-shaft turbine unit with two SST-800 turbines and one SST-500 turbine giving a power output of N el. STU = 150 MW under condensing conditions.

  15. Cavitation in Hydraulic Machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, M.

    1996-11-01

    The main purpose of this doctoral thesis on cavitation in hydraulic machinery is to change focus towards the coupling of non-stationary flow phenomena and cavitation. It is argued that, in addition to turbulence, superimposed sound pressure fluctuations can have a major impact on cavitation and lead to particularly severe erosion. For the design of hydraulic devices this finding may indicate how to further limit the cavitation problems. Chapter 1 reviews cavitation in general in the context of hydraulic machinery, emphasizing the initial cavitation event and the role of the water quality. Chapter 2 discusses the existence of pressure fluctuations for situations common in such machinery. Chapter 3 on cavitation dynamics presents an algorithm for calculating the nucleation of a cavity cluster. Chapter 4 describes the equipment used in this work. 53 refs., 55 figs.,10 tabs.

  16. 叶片尾部形状对双向贯流式水轮机性能的影响%Effect of blade tail’s shape on hydraulic performance of bidirectional bulb turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑小波; 翁凯; 王玲军

    2015-01-01

    为了研究双向贯流式水轮机反向工况效率低下的问题,该文以某带有后置导叶的双向贯流式机组为对象,针对不同形状和不同厚度的叶片尾部,分析了反向工况下叶片尾部对机组性能的影响。采用 UG 建模软件对机组进行几何建模,基于CFX软件,采用SST k-ω湍流模型对不同形状和厚度的叶片尾部的转轮进行了数值模拟。结果表明:反向工况下采用圆形尾部的叶片其机组效率为59.55%,高于矩形尾部的58.4%和弧形尾部的58.01%,说明反向工况下矩形尾部和弧形尾部的冲击损失较大。增加叶片尾部厚度对机组反向工况的效率提高较为明显,其效率最高能抬高到79%,但叶片尾部厚度增加到一定程度后效率不再增加,叶片尾部厚度的增加使得反向工况下叶片尾部最低压力值降低了1.2×106 Pa,对其反向工况下的空化性能有较大影响,且增加了正向工况运行是出现卡门涡的概率。研究成果为双向贯流式水轮机反向工况下叶片尾部形状的优化设计提供了经验参考。%Tidal power is pollution-free renewable energy and an effective way to reduce coal consumption and guarantee normal social electricity consumption in China. Bidirectional bulb turbine is widely used in tidal power station. Scholars at home and abroad have carried out extensive researches in bidirectional tubular turbine in terms of internal blade clearance flow, the occurrence and location of cavitation and blade airfoil optimization .Scholars in China firstly put forward improving the operating efficiency of the bidirectional tubular turbine under the reverse working condition by means of setting rear guide vanes. In order to solve the low efficiency problem under the reverse condition in bidirectional bulb turbine, how blade tail affected the units' hydraulic performance under reverse working condition by studying bade tails of different shapes and different

  17. Experimental Equipment and Basic Technological Methods of Obtaining Cavitation Protective Coatings on Working Surfaces of Steam Turbine Blades Made of Titanium Alloy VT6 in Order to Replace Imports of Similar Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilous, V.A.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental equipment and basic technological methods of obtaining сavitation protective coatings on the working surfaces of blades of steam turbines from titanium alloy VT6 have been created. The selection and the basis of the composition and conditions of synthesis of optimal coating for hardening blades have been justified. The parameters of deposition process of coatings on the blade model have been worked, the experimental technological deposition process of hardening coatings has been created. The tests of titanium alloy VT6 samples with the preferred coatings in simulation conditions close to operational have been conducted. The coatings on the blade model of length up to 130 cm and weight up to 30 kg have been deposited. The velocity of the TiN coating depositing was 10 mkm/h.

  18. Development of New Micro Hydropower Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Dousith, Phommachanh; Kurokawa, Junichi; Matsui, Jun; Choi, Young-Do

    2005-01-01

    There is a huge of available hydropower potential in the water supply system (WSS) that has been abandoned.Each time when we use a water faucet, the power of 10 to 80 watts is dissipated.In fact, this dissipated energy can be converted to useful energy by hydraulic turbine. Presently, there is not suitable turbine to use in WSS. Therefore, the new type turbine is needed to explore. In this study, Positive Displacement Turbine (PDT) is proposed. The main objective of this study is to develop n...

  19. Hydraulic Soft Yaw System Load Reduction and Prototype Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Markussen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Introducing a hydraulic soft yaw concept for wind turbines leads to significant load reductions in the wind turbine structure. The soft yaw system operates as a shock absorption system on a car, hence absorbing the loading from turbulent wind conditions instead of leading them into the stiff wind...

  20. Measurement and evaluation of static characteristics of rotary hydraulic motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hružík Lumír

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes experimental equipment for measurement of static characteristics of rotary hydraulic motor. It is possible to measure flow, pressure, temperature, speed and torque by means of this equipment. It deals with measurement of static characteristics of a gear rotary hydraulic motor. Mineral oil is used as hydraulic liquid in this case. Flow, torque and speed characteristics are evaluated from measured parameters. Measured mechanical-hydraulic, flow and total efficiencies of the rotary hydraulic motor are adduced in the paper. It is possible to diagnose technical conditions of the hydraulic motor (eventually to recommend its exchange from the experimental measurements.

  1. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  2. Valve exploiting the principle of a side channel turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandourek Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a side channel turbine, which can be used as a suitable substitute for a pressure reducing valve. Reducing valves are a source of hydraulic losses. The aim is to replace them by a side channel turbine. With that in mind, hydraulic losses can be replaced by a production of electrical energy at comparable characteristics of the valve and the turbine. The basis for the design is the loss characteristics of the valve. Thereby creating a kind of turbine valve with speed-controlled flow in dependence of runner revolution.

  3. Hydraulic Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required whenever hydraulic structures are shown in the flood profile. It is also required if levees are shown on the FIRM, channels containing the...

  4. 基于短时傅里叶变换的水轮机涡带工况识别%Identification of vortex zone operation of hydraulic turbine based on short-time Fourier Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊玉林; 张飞; 付婧; 徐静

    2016-01-01

    在对水轮机运行区划分过程中存在着涡带负荷区识别问题,为此开展了专项研究。针对水轮机从空载至满负荷连续升负荷过程中的水导摆度信号,采用高斯窗口函数进行加窗傅里叶变换分析。分析结果表明,采用加窗傅里叶变换这一手段可以精确确定涡带运行区的运行范围,同时根据升负荷过程中主频涡带频率成分出现的先后顺序,将涡带负荷区划分为涡带生成区、强涡带区和涡带消亡区,并对不同区域内涡带影响下的轴心轨迹特点进行了分析。对分析背景、分析方法以及实例分析过程作了比较详细的介绍。%A research is conducted on the identification of the vortex zone in the demarcation of the operation zone of hydraulic turbine. Windowed Fourier Transform analysis with Gaussian window function is carried out for the water guide swing signal in the process of continuous load rise from no-load to full load. The results show that Windowed Fourier Transform is able to accurately identify the operation zone of vortex. The vortex load zone could be divided into vortex generation zone, strong vortex zone and vortex diminishing zone according to the occurrence order of the frequency component of the main vortex in the process of load rise, and the shaft orbits under the effect of vortex in different zones are analyzed. The background, method and process of the a-nalysis are introduced in details.

  5. Hydraulic Soft Yaw System Load Reduction and Prototype Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Markussen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Introducing a hydraulic soft yaw concept for wind turbines leads to significant load reductions in the wind turbine structure. The soft yaw system operates as a shock absorption system on a car, hence absorbing the loading from turbulent wind conditions instead of leading them into the stiff wind...... operates. Further it is analyzed how the soft yaw system influence the power production of the turbine. It is shown that the influence is minimal, but at larger yaw errors the effect is possitive. Due to the implemeted functions in the hydraulic soft yaw system such as even load distribution on the pinions...

  6. Model tests on a semi-axial pump turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmer, F.; Horacek, G.

    1984-03-01

    Due to their good hydraulic characteristic semi-axial pump turbines are used in the medium head range of pumped storage plants. This paper describes model tests performed on a semiaxial pump turbine model and shows the results of these tests. The aim of the model tests was the optimization of the hydraulic water passage, the measurement of the hydraulic characteristics over the whole operating range, the investigation of the cavitation behaviour, the investigation of the hydraulic forces and torques as well as the proof of the values guaranteed to the customer.

  7. Water hammer effect in the spiral case and penstock of Francis turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepa, D.; Ursoniu, C.; Gillich, R. N.; Campian, C. V.

    2017-01-01

    Sudden pressure increases in the penstock or spiral case of a hydraulic turbine are the effect of sudden flow variation that occur during transient processes of type opening / closing or load rejection of the hydro unit. The consequence of the pressure rise in the spiral case and penstock is the water hammer phenomenon, whose effects can be devastating in some cases, up to breaking pipes and calamities produced in the area. This paper aims to analyze the method of calculation of the maximum pressure values that might occur in load rejection situations to a hydraulic turbine, in spiral case and in penstock, conditioned by the limiting of the values of the over speed and measures of limiting the increase in pressure in conjunction with limiting the increase in speed in these specific processes. As an example, we studied and analyzed the situation of a hydroelectric power plant equipped with a 7.8 MW Francis turbine without pressure regulator and the inflow surge. The results of analytical calculation overlaid on the experimental measurements performed during the performance tests of the hydro unit lead to the conclusion that the calculation algorithm proposed has been chosen correctly and the 2-stage closing law of the wicket gate promoted in this case is effective in such situations.

  8. FOREWORD: The XXV IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems marks half a century tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan-Resiga, Romeo

    2010-05-01

    'Politehnica' of Timisoara in 1923 'It is not the walls that make a school, but the spirit living inside'. A particular trademark of the 'Politehnica' of Timisoara was the continuous effort to answer industrial problems by training the students not only on theoretical aspects but also in design and manufacturing, as well as in laboratory works. Developing modern laboratories, where students can observe and understand first hand the engineering applications along the years a priority for Timisoara 'Politehnica' University. The School of Hydraulic Machinery within the 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara was established in early 1930 by Professor Aurel Barglazan (1905-1960), and further developed by Professor Ioan Anton (born 1924), both members of the Romanian Academy. The Laboratory of Hydraulic Machines from Timisoara (LMHT) started back in 1928 in a small hut, with a test rig for Francis and Kaplan turbines manufactured by J M Voith. LMHT was continuously developed and was officially recognized in 1959 as being one of the leading research and developing laboratories in Romania. It was the foundation of the Romanian efforts of designing and manufacturing hydraulic turbines starting in 1960 at the Resita Machine Building Factory. Under the leadership of Professor Ioan Anton, the Timisoara School in Hydraulic Machinery has focused the basic and development research activities on the following main topics: (i) Turbine Hydrodynamics, (ii) Hydrofoil Cascade Hydrodynamics, (iii) Cavitation in Hydraulic Machines and Equipments, (iv) Scale-up Effects in Hydraulic Machines. With the establishment in the year 2000 of the National Center for Engineering of Systems with Complex Fluids, within the 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara, the research in turbomachinery hydrodynamics and cavitation included high performance computing for flows in hydraulic machines, as well as the development of novel technologies to mitigate the self-induced flow instabilities in hydraulic turbines operated

  9. Turbine imaging technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moursund, R. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2004-12-01

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging technologies for observing juvenile fish within a Kaplan turbine, and specifically that would enable scientists to determine mechanisms of fish injury within an operating turbine unit. This report documents the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. These observations were used to make modifications to dam structures and operations to improve conditions for fish passage while maintaining or improving hydropower production. The physical and hydraulic environment that fish experience as they pass through the hydroelectric plants were studied and the regions with the greatest potential for injury were defined. Biological response data were also studied to determine the probable types of injuries sustained in the turbine intake and what types of injuries are detectable with imaging technologies. The study grouped injury-causing mechanisms into two categories: fluid (pressure/cavitation, shear, turbulence) and mechanical (strike/collision, grinding/pinching, scraping). The physical constraints of the environment, together with the likely types of injuries to fish, provided the parameters needed for a rigorous imaging technology evaluation. Types of technology evaluated included both tracking and imaging systems using acoustic technologies (such as sonar and acoustic tags) and optic technologies (such as pulsed-laser videography, which is high-speed videography using a laser as the flash). Criteria for determining image data quality such as frame rate, target detectability, and resolution were used to quantify the minimum requirements of an imaging sensor.

  10. Power Product Equipment Technician: Equipment Systems. Teacher Edition. Student Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilley, Robert

    This packet contains teacher and student editions on the topic of equipment systems, intended for the preparation of power product equipment technicians. This publication contains seven units: (1) principles of power transmission; (2) mechanical drive systems; (3) principles of fluid power; (4) hydraulic and pneumatic drive systems; (5) wheel and…

  11. Application of AMESim and MATLAB on Modeling and Study of Megawatt Wind Turbine Brake System Hydraulic Locking Device%AMESim与MATLAB在兆瓦级风力发电机制动系统液压锁紧装置建模及研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫利文; 艾存金; 王福山; 谢辉

    2015-01-01

    作为一个兆瓦级风力发电机制动系统,除制动装置外,在适当的位置还应设有风轮的锁定装置,以确保在正常制动系统失效情况下风机在不会突发的再次启动。针对该问题文章设计了一套液压锁紧装置,并分别采用AMEsim和MATLAB软件对其进行了研究与分析,并比较了两种分析软件在液压系统研究中的不同。%As a megawatt wind turbine braking system,in addition to the braking device,there should also have a locking device in the ap-propriate position,In order to ensure not burst start again during normal braking system failure. Aiming at this problem, we designed a set of hydraulic locking device,used AMESim and MATLAB software to research and analysis the hydraulic locking device,compared the differ-ence between two of them in the research of hydraulic system.

  12. Characteristics analysis for different water heads on the efficiency hill chart of Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z. N.; Guo, P. C.; Luo, X. Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Sun, S. H.

    2016-05-01

    Based on the test results of Francis turbine, the causes and inevitability of various hydraulic phenomena in the model combined characteristic curve for typical water heads were analyzed in this paper. the difference of the model combined characteristic curve from the low water head to the high water head is compared, and the characteristics and commonness of the model combined characteristic curve about different water head are summarized. Further, hydraulic performance and geometric features of Francis turbine are revealed by particularly analyzing model combined characteristic curves, and to provide powerful theoretical basis and definite modification direction for the hydraulic design of hydraulic turbine.

  13. Applied hydraulic transients

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Hanif

    2014-01-01

    This book covers hydraulic transients in a comprehensive and systematic manner from introduction to advanced level and presents various methods of analysis for computer solution. The field of application of the book is very broad and diverse and covers areas such as hydroelectric projects, pumped storage schemes, water-supply systems, cooling-water systems, oil pipelines and industrial piping systems. Strong emphasis is given to practical applications, including several case studies, problems of applied nature, and design criteria. This will help design engineers and introduce students to real-life projects. This book also: ·         Presents modern methods of analysis suitable for computer analysis, such as the method of characteristics, explicit and implicit finite-difference methods and matrix methods ·         Includes case studies of actual projects ·         Provides extensive and complete treatment of governed hydraulic turbines ·         Presents design charts, desi...

  14. Appropriate technology for small turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmer, F.; Walch, E.

    1981-11-01

    The investment costs of small-scale hydro plants are relatively high; of these the electro-mechanical equipment is generally a high proportion. One way of reducing these costs is to use information and experience gained in the manufacture of equipment for large plants, avoiding expensive testing and assessment. To exploit this experience, a standard program has been developed which can be applied quickly and easily for the design of small turbines. In this way the best choice of turbines and configurations can be determined rapidly for any site.

  15. Steam Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Turbonetics Energy, Inc.'s steam turbines are used as power generating systems in the oil and gas, chemical, pharmaceuticals, metals and mining, and pulp and paper industries. The Turbonetics line benefited from use of NASA research data on radial inflow steam turbines and from company contact with personnel of Lewis Research Center, also use of Lewis-developed computer programs to determine performance characteristics of turbines.

  16. Turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson

    2016-05-03

    A turbine system is disclosed. The turbine system includes a transition duct having an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The turbine system further includes a turbine section connected to the transition duct. The turbine section includes a plurality of shroud blocks at least partially defining a hot gas path, a plurality of buckets at least partially disposed in the hot gas path, and a plurality of nozzles at least partially disposed in the hot gas path. At least one of a shroud block, a bucket, or a nozzle includes means for withstanding high temperatures.

  17. Rotating transformers in wind turbine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylander, J. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Engstroem, S. [Aegir konsult AB, Lidingoe (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The power consumption of rotating electrical components is often supplied via slip-rings in wind turbines. Slip-ring equipment is expensive and need maintenance and are prone to malfunction. If the slip-rings could be replaced with contact-less equipment better turbines could be designed. This paper presents the design, some FE calculations and some measurements on a prototype rotating transformer. The proposed transformer consists of a secondary rotating winding and a stationary exciting primary winding. The results indicate that this transformer could be used to replace slip-rings in wind turbines. 4 refs, 3 figs

  18. Mining equipment manufacturers; 17th ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The report analyses and compares the financial ratios of mining equipment manufacturers in the United Kingdom. It includes companies who produce equipment for the mining industry such as cutting tools, drilling equipment, crushers, screens, centrifuges, tunnelling equipment, conveyors and other materials handling equipment, hydraulic equipment, filtration, pumping, and mixing equipment and ventilation equipment. The report presents business ratios analysing profitability, efficiency, liquidity, employee-based ratios and a series of figures on growth rate. Accounting data for the individual companies are given, together with principal ratios, areas of activity, names of directors and company secretary, trading address and holding companies.

  19. Mining equipment manufacturers. 13th edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The report analyses and compares the financial ratios of mining equipment manufacturers in the United Kingdom. It includes companies who produce equipment for the mining industry such as cutting tools, drilling equipment, crushers, screens, centrifuges, tunnelling equipment, conveyors and other materials handling equipment, hydraulic equipment, filtration, pumping and mixing equipment and ventilation equipment. The report presents business ratios analysing profitability, efficiency, liquidity, employee-based ratios and a series of figures on growth rate. Accounting data for the individual companies are given, together with principal ratios, areas of activity, names of directors and company secretary, trading address and holding companies.

  20. Heat flow diagrams with and without a deaerator for steam turbine plants with T-250/300-23.5 turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Shibaev, T. L.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Stepanov, M. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    A T-250/300-240 turbine (currently known as T-250/300-23.5), which is operated at 31 steam turbine plants, is the largest in the world extraction turbine (by the heating extraction load) and one of the largest by the nominal capacity. All steam turbine plants equipped with T-250/300-23.5 turbines of different modifications are operated in large cities of Russia and the neighboring countries covering a significant part of the needs of cities for the electric power and almost fully supplying them with heat power. The design life of a significant part of the operated steam turbine plants of this family is either expired or almost expired. It refers to both the turbine unit (including a turbine and a generator) and the turbine plant equipment. For steam turbine plants equipped with T-250/300-23.5 turbines, which were initially designed and mounted for work with deaerators at electric power stations, the heat flow diagrams with and without a deaerator were compared. The main advantages and disadvantages of each scheme were shown. It was concluded that, for the newly constructed power units with supercritical steam parameters, it is preferable to use the heat flow diagram without a deaerator; for the upgraded blocks, if there are no objective reasons for the removal of a deaerator, it is recommended to keep the existing heat flow diagram of a turbine plant.

  1. For each head differences the corresponding turbine. Energy generating water wheels were already known by Greeks and Romans in the ancient world; Fuer jede Fallhoehe die richtige Turbine. Wasserraeder mit dem Vorteil, damit Energie zu erzeugen, kannten in der Antike schon Griechen und Roemer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, W.

    2006-07-01

    From simple water wheels, working in the Ancient World, to modern hydraulic turbines like Francis, Pelton and Kaplan turbine, the contribution shows the development of this engines generating clean power. Operating with small heads and high flow rates and velocities a new generation like the tube turbine and in special fields the flow rate turbine are able to generate power still more efficiently. (GL)

  2. Gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahan, E.; Eudaly, J.P.

    1978-10-01

    This evaluation provides performance and cost data for commercially available simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. Intercooled, reheat, and compound cycles are discussed from theoretical basis only, because actual units are not currently available, except on a special-order basis. Performance characteristics investigated include unit efficiency at full-load and off-design conditions, and at rated capacity. Costs are tabulated for both simple- and regenerative-cycle gas turbines. The output capacity of the gas turbines investigated ranges from 80 to 134,000 hp for simple units and from 12,000 to 50,000 hp for regenerative units.

  3. Flow characteristics on the blade channel vortex in the Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, P. C.; Wang, Z. N.; Luo, X. Q.; Wang, Y. L.; Zuo, J. L.

    2016-05-01

    Depending on the long-term hydraulic development of Francis turbine, the blade channel vortex phenomenon was investigated systematically from hydraulic design, experimental and numerical computation in this paper. The blade channel vortex difference between the high water head and low water head turbine was also analyzed. Meanwhile, the relationship between the blade channel vortex and the operating stability of hydraulic turbine was also investigated. The results show that the phenomenon of blade channel vortex is an intrinsic property for Francis turbine under small flow rate condition, the turning-point of the blade channel vortex inception curve appears at low unit speed region, and the variation trend of the blade channel vortex inception curve is closely related to the blade inlet edge profile. In addition to, the vortex of the high water head turbine can generally be excluded from the stable operation region, while which is more different for the one of the low water head turbine.

  4. Quantifying the Efficiency Advantages of High Viscosity Index Hydraulic Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian D. Neveu; Michael D. Zink; Alex Tsay

    2006-01-01

    By providing higher in- use viscosity at elevated operating temperatures, hydraulic fluids with high viscosity index improve the efficiency of the hydraulic system. For mobile hydraulic equipment this efficiency can be quantified as an increase in fuel economy. This paper reviews the research that demonstrates these efficiency advantages in gear, vane and piston pumps and presents a method for predicting the overall fuel economy for a fleet of hydraulic equipment in opquipment operator to easily improve the performance of the system and reduce fuel consumption.

  5. Wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeoman, J.C. Jr.

    1978-12-01

    This evaluation of wind turbines is part of a series of Technology Evaluations of possible components and subsystems of community energy systems. Wind turbines, ranging in size from 200 W to 10 MW, are discussed as candidates for prime movers in community systems. Estimates of performance characteristics and cost as a function of rated capacity and rated wind speed are presented. Data concerning material requirements, environmental effects, and operating procedures also are given and are represented empirically to aid computer simulation.

  6. On the Dynamic Measurements of Hydraulic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasmatuchi, Vlad; Bosioc, Alin; Münch-Alligné, Cécile

    2016-11-01

    The present work introduces the implementation and validation of a faster method to measure experimentally the efficiency characteristics of hydraulic turbomachines at a model scale on a test rig. The case study is represented by a laboratory prototype of an in-line axial microturbine for water supply networks. The 2.65 kW one-stage variable speed turbine, composed by one upstream 5-blade runner followed by one counter-rotating downstream 7-blade runner, has been installed on the HES-SO Valais/Wallis universal test rig dedicated to assess performances of small hydraulic machinery following the IEC standard recommendations. In addition to the existing acquisition/control system of the test rig used to measure the 3D hill-chart of a turbine by classical static point-by-point method, a second digitizer has been added to acquire synchronized dynamic signals of the employed sensors. The optimal acceleration/deceleration ramps of the electrical drives have been previously identified in order to cope with the purpose of a reduced measurement time while avoiding errors and hysteresis on the acquired hydraulic characteristics. Finally, the comparison between the turbine efficiency hill-charts obtained by dynamic and static point-by-point methods shows a very good agreement in terms of precision and repeatability. Moreover, the applied dynamic method reduces significantly (by a factor of up to ten) the time necessary to measure the efficiency characteristics on model testing.

  7. Fault ride-through and voltage support of permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalke, G.; Hartkopf, T. [Darmstadt Technical Univ., Dept. of Renewable Energies (Germany); Hansen, A.D. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, Wind Energy Dept. (Denmark)

    2007-11-15

    This paper presents a control strategy of direct driven multipole PMSG wind turbines, which enhances the fault ride-through and voltage support capability of such wind turbines during grid faults. A dynamic simulation model of the turbine is implemented in the simulation software DIgSILENT. Simulation results approve the effectiveness of the developed control strategy. It is shown that PMSG wind turbines equipped with such control even enable nearby connected conventional wind turbines to ride-through grid faults. (au)

  8. Mechatronic Hydraulic Drive with Regulator, Based on Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burennikov, Y.; Kozlov, L.; Pyliavets, V.; Piontkevych, O.

    2017-06-01

    Mechatronic hydraulic drives, based on variable pump, proportional hydraulics and controllers find wide application in technological machines and testing equipment. Mechatronic hydraulic drives provide necessary parameters of actuating elements motion with the possibility of their correction in case of external loads change. This enables to improve the quality of working operations, increase the capacity of machines. The scheme of mechatronic hydraulic drive, based on the pump, hydraulic cylinder, proportional valve with electrohydraulic control and programmable controller is suggested. Algorithm for the control of mechatronic hydraulic drive to provide necessary pressure change law in hydraulic cylinder is developed. For the realization of control algorithm in the controller artificial neural networks are used. Mathematical model of mechatronic hydraulic drive, enabling to create the training base for adjustment of artificial neural networks of the regulator is developed.

  9. Numerical simulation of turbulence flow in a Kaplan turbine -Evaluation on turbine performance prediction accuracy-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, P.; Kurosawa, S.

    2014-03-01

    The understanding and accurate prediction of the flow behaviour related to cavitation and pressure fluctuation in a Kaplan turbine are important to the design work enhancing the turbine performance including the elongation of the operation life span and the improvement of turbine efficiency. In this paper, high accuracy turbine and cavitation performance prediction method based on entire flow passage for a Kaplan turbine is presented and evaluated. Two-phase flow field is predicted by solving Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations expressed by volume of fluid method tracking the free surface and combined with Reynolds Stress model. The growth and collapse of cavitation bubbles are modelled by the modified Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The prediction accuracy is evaluated by comparing with the model test results of Ns 400 Kaplan model turbine. As a result that the experimentally measured data including turbine efficiency, cavitation performance, and pressure fluctuation are accurately predicted. Furthermore, the cavitation occurrence on the runner blade surface and the influence to the hydraulic loss of the flow passage are discussed. Evaluated prediction method for the turbine flow and performance is introduced to facilitate the future design and research works on Kaplan type turbine.

  10. Study on maximum power control of turbines in a tidal current power generation system based on hydraulic transmission%液压型潮流能发电系统叶轮最大功率控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林躜; 李磊; 陈俊华; 郑堤; 唐辰; 李浩

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of low energy capturing efficiency of the horizontal axis turbine in tidal current power generation system at low current speed, a variable pump counter torque reference value model was established. In this study, based on the maximum power tracking theory and the torque equilibrium equation of turbine versus variable pump, a control system with indirect speed control, pressure feedback, and torque control was designed to achieve the maximum power capture of the turbine by regulating the output of the variable pump in a small range. The performance of the designed control system was simulated by means of the Automation Studio software, and corresponding sea test was conducted. Test results showed that the control system ran steadily, the captured power coefficient of the turbine fluctuated near 0.35 and 0.33, respectively, in the simulation and sea trials; compared with the uncontrolled, these numbers increased by 0.03 and 0.05, respectively. The capture efficiency of the turbine was enhanced, and the effectiveness of the control system was verified.%文章为解决水平轴潮流能发电系统在低于设计流速下叶轮能量捕获效率低的问题,运用最大功率跟踪控制理论及叶轮与变量泵传动轴力矩平衡方程,建立了变量泵反力矩参考值模型,设计了间接速度控制的压力反馈加转矩控制系统,通过小范围内调节变量泵排量,实现叶轮最大功率捕获。整个系统的性能在自动化工作室(automation studio)中进行了仿真测试,实验样机也进行了海上试验。仿真测试和海试结果显示,该控制系统工作稳定性好,仿真和海试时叶轮的捕获功率系数分别在0.35和0.33附近波动,相比不加控制,分别增加了约0.03和0.05,提高了叶轮的捕获效率,验证了控制系统的有效性。

  11. Efisiensi Prototipe Turbin Savonius pada Kecepatan Angin Rendah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melda Latif

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy can be transformed into electrical energy using wind turbine. Based on rotation axis, there are two types of wind turbine, namely turbine with horizontal axis and the one with vertical axis. Turbine with vertical axis has been known with various names that are Darrieus turbine, Savonius turbine and H turbine. This research designed and implemented a prototype of simple Savonius turbine for small scale wind speed. Resistor with resistance of 200 ohm and LED are used as the load. Material of the prototype is alumunium plate, which is light and easy to find. The experiment was conducted at the beach. Permanent magnet synchronous generator was chosen for generating equipment. Voltage resulted by the generator increased as the wind speed increased. The prototype began rotating at wind speed 2.4 m/s. Average efficiency for Y and D connected load are 4.8% and 14.5% respectively.

  12. The calculation of fluid-structure interaction and fatigue analysis for Francis turbine runner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. F.; Li, H. L.; Zhu, F. W.

    2012-11-01

    Francis turbine, as a widely used hydro turbine, is especially suited for the hydropower station with high hydraulic head and higher hydraulic head. For such turbine generator units all around the world, the crack streaks usually come out after a long time use and the resulted accidents may cause huge losses. Hence, it is meaningful to refine the design assuring the stability and safety of the Francis turbine. In this paper, the stiffness and strength as well as the fatigue life of the Francis turbine are studied. Concerning on the turbine of one certain hydropower station, the flow field inside the turbine are first simulated and the pressure distribution around the blades are derived. Meanwhile, the stress distributions of the blades are also obtained. Based on these, the fatigue analyses are applied on the turbine. According to the results of fatigue analyses, some optimal designs on the turbine are verified. The results show that with the optimal designs, the hydraulic performances of the turbine do not change too much while the maximum stress on the turbine decrease and the fatigue life increase as well.

  13. A Computational Model of Hydraulic Volume Displacement Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pil'gunov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a computational model of industrial-purpose hydraulic drive with two hydraulic volume adjustable working chamber machines (pump and motor. Adjustable pump equipped with the pressure control unit can be run together with several adjustable hydraulic motors on the principle of three-phase hydraulic socket-outlet with high-pressure lines, drain, and drainage system. The paper considers the pressure-controlled hydrostatic transmission with hydraulic motor as an output link. It shows a possibility to create a saving hydraulic drive using a functional tie between the adjusting parameters of the pump and hydraulic motor through the pressure difference, torque, and angular rate of the hydraulic motor shaft rotation. The programmable logic controller can implement such tie. The Coulomb and viscous frictions are taken into consideration when developing a computational model of the hydraulic volume displacement drive. Discharge balance considers external and internal leakages in equivalent clearances of hydraulic machines, as well as compression loss volume caused by hydraulic fluid compressibility and deformation of pipe walls. To correct dynamic properties of hydraulic drive, the paper offers that in discharge balance are included the additional regulated external leakages in the open circuit of hydraulic drive and regulated internal leakages in the closed-loop circuit. Generalized differential equations having functional multipliers and multilinked nature have been obtained to describe the operation of hydraulic positioning and speed drive with two hydraulic volume adjustable working chamber machines. It is shown that a proposed computational model of hydraulic drive can be taken into consideration in development of LS («Load-Sensing» drives, in which the pumping pressure is tuned to the value required for the most loaded slave motor to overcome the load. Results attained can be used both in designing the industrial-purpose heavy

  14. Very Low Head Turbine Deployment in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, P.; Williams, C.; Sasseville, Remi; Anderson, N.

    2014-03-01

    The Very Low Head (VLH) turbine is a recent turbine technology developed in Europe for low head sites in the 1.4 - 4.2 m range. The VLH turbine is primarily targeted for installation at existing hydraulic structures to provide a low impact, low cost, yet highly efficient solution. Over 35 VLH turbines have been successfully installed in Europe and the first VLH deployment for North America is underway at Wasdell Falls in Ontario, Canada. Deployment opportunities abound in Canada with an estimated 80,000 existing structures within North America for possible low-head hydro development. There are several new considerations and challenges for the deployment of the VLH turbine technology in Canada in adapting to the hydraulic, environmental, electrical and social requirements. Several studies were completed to determine suitable approaches and design modifications to mitigate risk and confirm turbine performance. Diverse types of existing weirs and spillways pose certain hydraulic design challenges. Physical and numerical modelling of the VLH deployment alternatives provided for performance optimization. For this application, studies characterizing the influence of upstream obstacles using water tunnel model testing as well as full-scale prototype flow dynamics testing were completed. A Cold Climate Adaptation Package (CCA) was developed to allow year-round turbine operation in ice covered rivers. The CCA package facilitates turbine extraction and accommodates ice forces, frazil ice, ad-freezing and cold temperatures that are not present at the European sites. The Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) presents some unique challenges in meeting Canadian utility interconnection requirements. Specific attention to the frequency driver control and protection requirements resulted in a driver design with greater over-voltage capability for the PMG as well as other key attributes. Environmental studies in Europe included fish friendliness testing comprised of multiple in

  15. Land-based turbine casting initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, B.A.; Spicer, R.A. [Howmet Corp., Whitehall, MI (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program has set goals which include a large-scale utility turbine efficiency that exceeds 60 percent (LHV) on natural gas and an industrial turbine system heat rate improvement of 15 percent. To meet these goals, technological advances developed for aircraft gas turbine engines need to be applied to land based gas turbines. These technological advances include: directionally solidified and single crystal castings, alloys tailored to exploit these microstructures, complex internal cooling schemes, and coatings. Equiaxed and directionally solidified castings are employed in current land based power generation equipment. These castings do not possess the ability to meet the efficiency targets as outlined above. The production use of premium single crystal components with complex internal cooling schemes in the latest generation of alloys is necessary to meet the ATS goals. However, at present, the use of single crystal components with complex internal cooling schemes is restricted to industrial sized or aeroderivative engines, and prototype utility sized components.

  16. Prototype bucket foundation for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten

    The first full scale prototype bucket foundation for wind turbines has been installed in October 2002 at Aalborg University offshore test facility in Frederikshavn, Denmark. The suction caisson and the wind turbine have been equipped with an online monitoring system, consisting of 15 accelerometers...... and a real-time data-acquisition system. The report concerns the in service performance of the wind turbine, with focus on estimation of the natural frequencies of the structure/foundation. The natural frequencies are initially estimated by means of experimental Output-only Modal analysis. The experimental...... estimates are then compared with numerical simulations of the suction caisson foundation and the wind turbine. The numerical model consists of a finite element section for the wind turbine tower and nacelle. The soil-structure interaction of the soil-foundation section is modelled by lumped-parameter models...

  17. Valve exploiting the principle of a side channel turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandourek, Pavel; Pochylý, František; Haban, Vladimír

    2017-04-01

    The presented article deals with a side channel turbine, which can be used as a suitable substitute for a pressure reducing valve. Pressure reducing valves are a source of high hydraulic losses. The aim is to replace them by a side channel turbine. With that in mind, hydraulic losses can be replaced by a production of electrical energy at comparable characteristics of the reducing valve and the side channel turbine. The basis for the design is the loss characteristics of the pressure reducing valve. Thereby create a new kind of turbine valve with speed-controlled flow in dependence of the runner revolution. It is technical innovation and new renewable source of energy, which can be in future used in rehabilitation or projecting of pumped-storage power plants. It also increases the power of the power plant.

  18. Experiments on optimization and standardising of turbines for small-scale hydro-power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmer, F.

    1983-01-01

    The importance of small scale hydropower plants in the field of power generation increases worldwide. For an economic power generation a standard program for small scale turbines has been developed. Exhaustive test results were the basis for optimizing those turbines hydraulically. Simple, mature and well proven designs ensure troublefree and maintenancefree operation. The advantages of standardization in connection with available hydraulic test results and experience in design make the use of small and even smallest hydropower plants economically efficient.

  19. 井下工具拆装架主钳转矩测量方法及误差分析%Analysis of Torque Measurement Error and Method of Major Power Tongs for Downhole Tool Hydraulic Torque Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章发明; 温平; 杜青忠; 王东

    2013-01-01

    The downhole tools to making-up and breakout using hydraulic device and torque measurement and control are implemented with main tong.Force arm tong is driven by hydraulic torque,with the length of force arm changing with turning angle.The calculation of the force arm is done by using actual measurement of torque,which produces error.The gear rack is pushed by hydraulic cylinder in type of gear wheel and gear wheel tong.The torque is built when gear rack driving gear wheel.The force to turn gear wheel is by wheel radius,so the measurement error by the torque is something related to the instrument precision.The new type of gear-wheel-and-rack tong gives real-time measure and control,and the accurate measurement is obtained.%液压拆装架用于井下工具螺纹的上紧和卸扣,转矩的测量和控制是通过主钳来完成.力臂式主钳是由液缸推动传力杆产生转矩,力臂的长度随转角而变,实际测量转矩时是取定长力臂进行计算,因此误差较大.齿轮齿条式主钳是由液缸推动齿条,齿条带动拧扣大齿轮产生转矩,力臂是拧扣大齿轮的节园半径,因此转矩测量误差仅与仪表精度有关.齿轮齿条式主钳实现了转矩的实时测量和控制,测量精度高.

  20. Prototype bucket foundation for wind turbines:natural frequency estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten

    2006-01-01

    The first full scale prototype bucket foundation for wind turbines has been installed in October 2002 at Aalborg University offshore test facility in Frederikshavn, Denmark. The suction caisson and the wind turbine have been equipped with an online monitoring system, consisting of 15 accelerometers and a real-time data-acquisition system. The report concerns the in service performance of the wind turbine, with focus on estimation of the natural frequencies of the structure/foundation. The nat...

  1. Hydraulic connection and penstock chambers in the PSP Kops II. Direct crossing from pump- into turbine operation; Hydraulischer Kurzschluss und Druckluftwasserschlosskammern im PSW Kops II. Nahtloser Uebergang vom Pump- in den Turbinenbetrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puerer, E. [Vorarlberger Illwerke AG (VIW), Schruns (Austria)

    2007-04-16

    After a two years' design development phase including the implementation of the approval process and the award of contracts for all major components, the new building of Kopswerk II has been started on the 1st of September 2004. Kopswerk II is a pump storage scheme with an installed capacity of 450 to 510 MW in turbine mode and 450 MW in pumping operation. The conception of this power plant was substantially determined by the modified market conditions since the liberalization of the electricity market. Nowadays the plant is in the third year of construction. The installation of the first turbogenerator unit has advanced and will start-up in at the end of the year 2007. The completion of the total plant with full operation of the three turbogenerator units is planned in the middle of 2008. The erection cost at the end of construction shall be about 370 Mio Euro. (GL)

  2. Design of a hydraulic bending machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven G. Hankel; Marshall Begel

    2004-01-01

    To keep pace with customer demands while phasing out old and unserviceable test equipment, the staff of the Engineering Mechanics Laboratory (EML) at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, designed and assembled a hydraulic bending test machine. The EML built this machine to test dimension lumber, nominal 2 in. thick and up to 12 in. deep, at spans up to...

  3. Wind turbine improvements by wind-lidar-based preview and control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Wind turbines equipped with laser prevision hold potential for up to 6+ years lifetime extension. Forward looking wind lidars integrated within operational wind turbines providing feed-forward control can reduce the daily operation loads. The turbine lifetime may in this way be extended by up to 30...

  4. Feature Extraction Using Discrete Wavelet Transform for Gear Fault Diagnosis of Wind Turbine Gearbox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajric, Rusmir; Zuber, Ninoslav; Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Vibration diagnosis is one of the most common techniques in condition evaluation of wind turbine equipped with gearbox. On the other side, gearbox is one of the key components of wind turbine drivetrain. Due to the stochastic operation of wind turbines, the gearbox shaft rotating speed changes wi...

  5. HYDRAULICS, LOUISA COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic analysis for estimating flood stages for a flood insurance study. It...

  6. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  7. A THERMAL-HYDRAULIC SYSTEM FOR THE CONVERSION AND THE STORAGE OF ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MITRAN Tudor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the concept design of a thermal-hydraulic system that converts the thermal energy (from the geothermal water, from the cooling water of power equipment, from exhaust gasses, and so. in hydrostatic energy, that is stored in a hydraulic accumulator. The hydraulic energy can be converted into electrical energy when needed.

  8. Hydroelectric production, pump-turbines for high fall. The hydroelectric equipping of la Coche (Savoie). Dams life. Dams ecology and management. Activities of the control services. Hydroelectric statistics; Production hydroelectrique, turbines-pompes pour haute chute. L'amenagement hydroelectrique de la Coche (Savoie). La vie des barrages. L'ecologie et la gestion des barrages. Activites des services du controle. Statistiques hydroelectriques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-07-01

    This issue of Barrages newsletter comprises 5 articles. The first article deals with the pumped storage facility of la Coche (Savoie, France). This type of storage facility requires the use of specific reversible pump-turbines for high fall reservoirs (900 m). This paper describes the advantages and drawbacks of multi-stage reversible hydraulic machineries and the installation of the la Coche facility. The second article reports on the results of decennial and annual inspections of French dams for the second quarter of 1999: fissures propagation, water oozing, leaks, concrete swelling etc.. Only the observations requiring a special follow-up are reported. The third article is devoted to the degradation of the aquatic ecosystems during periods of dryness and periods of draining (water chemistry, biological and sedimentological surveys). The forth article reports on some important facts (accidents, reservoirs emptying, administrative instructions, technical meetings, planning of inspections etc.). The last article is just a graph and a table summarizing the status of reservoirs filling and power production during the second quarter of 1999. (J.S.)

  9. Numerical Study of Cavitation in Francis Turbine of a Small Hydro Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Gohil; Rajeshwer Saini

    2016-01-01

    Cavitation is undesirable phenomena and more prone in reaction turbines. It is one of the challenges in any hydro power plant which cause vibration, degradation of performance and the damage to the hydraulic turbine components. Under the present study, an attempt has been made to carry out a numerical analysis to investigate the cavitation effect in a Francis turbine. Three dimensional numerical study approach of unsteady and SST turbulence model are considered for the numerical a...

  10. Biological assessment of the advanced turbine design at Wanapum Dam, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dauble, D. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deng, Z. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richmond, M. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moursund, R. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rakowski, C. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Duncan, J. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the biological performance of an advanced design turbine installed at Unit 8 of Wanapum Dam on the Columbia River in 2005 versus a conventional Kaplan turbine, Unit 9. The studies included an evaluation of blade-strike using deterministic and probabilistic models, integrated analysis of the response of the Sensor Fish to sever hydraulic events within the turbine system, and a novel dye technique to measure injury to juvenile salmonids in the field.

  11. Wind turbines

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge, Clàudia; Stuer, Joris; Mahy, Philip; Hawksley, Will

    2013-01-01

    The European Project Semester is about much more than a period of study, it is an opportunity to explore new surroundings and embrace new cultures, all while studying in a unique environment with a blend of people from diff erent disciplines. Our project, put together with the help of our supervisor Gunther Steenackers fi nds three product developers and one ICT engineer coming together to work on a project for an urban wind turbine. Our Aim is as follows: “We wi...

  12. Engineering diagnostics for vortex-induced stay vanes cracks in a Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostini Neto, Alexandre; Gissoni, Humberto, Dr.; Gonçalves, Manuel, Dr.; Cardoso, Rogério; Jung, Alexander, Dr.; Meneghini, Julio, Prof.

    2016-11-01

    Despite the fact that vortex-induced vibration (VIV) in hydraulic turbines components (especially in stay vanes) is a well-known phenomenon, it still remains challenging for operation and maintenance teams in several power plants around the world. Since the first publication of a similar problem in 1967, literature shows that at least 27 other turbines witnessed strong stay vane vibrations associated with vortex shedding. Recurrent stay vane cracks in a 250 MW Francis turbine in Brazil motivated an engineering study involving prototype measurements, structural and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis in order to determine a proper geometry modification that could eliminate the periodic vortex wake generated at the stay vanes trailing edge. First cracks appeared in 1978 just after the machine was put into operation. A study published in 1982 associated these cracks with dynamic excitations caused by the water flow at high flow conditions. New stay vane profiles were proposed and executed as well as improved welding recommendations. Cracks however, continued to appear requiring welding repairs roughly every two years. Although Voith Hydro was not the original equipment manufacturer for these units, the necessary information was available to study the issue and propose and execute new stay vane profiles. This paper details the approach taken for the study. First, indirect vibration measurements were used to determine vibration frequencies to help to characterize the affected mode shapes. These results were compared to finite element (FE) calculations. Strain gage measurements performed afterwards confirmed the conclusions of this analysis. Next, transient CFD calculations were run to reproduce the measured phenomenon and to serve as a basis for a new stay vane geometry. This modification was then implemented in the actual turbine stay vanes. A new set of indirect vibration measurements indicated the effectiveness of the proposed solution. Final confirmation

  13. Flow calculation in a bulb turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goede, E.; Pestalozzi, J.

    1987-02-01

    In recent years remarkable progress has been made in the field of computational fluid dynamics. Sometimes the impression may arise when reading the relevant literature that most of the problems in this field have already been solved. Upon studying the matter more deeply, however, it is apparent that some questions still remain unanswered. The use of the quasi-3D (Q3D) computational method for calculating the flow in a fuel hydraulic turbine is described.

  14. Transient CFD simulation of a Francis turbine startup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, J.; Morissette, J. F.; Giroux, A. M.

    2012-11-01

    To assess the life expectancy of hydraulic turbines, it is essential to obtain the loading on the blades, especially during transient operations known to be the most damaging. This paper presents a simplified CFD setup to model the startup phase of a Francis turbine while it goes from rest to speed no-load condition. The fluid domain included one distributor sector coupled with one runner passage. The guide vane motion and change in the angular velocity were included in a commercial code with user functions. Comparisons between numerical results and measurements acquired on a full-size turbine showed that most of the flow physics occurring during startup were captured.

  15. Transient pressure measurements at part load operating condition of a high head model Francis turbine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAHUL GOYAL; CHIRAG TRIVEDI; B K GANDHI; MICHEL J CERVANTES; OLE G DAHLHAUG

    2016-11-01

    Hydraulic turbines are operating at part load conditions depending on availability of hydraulic energy or to meet the grid requirements. The turbine experiences more fatigue during the part load operating conditions due to flow phenomena such as vortex breakdown in the draft tube and flow instability in the runner.The present paper focuses on the investigation of a high head model Francis turbine operating at 50% load.Pressure measurements have been carried out experimentally on a model Francis turbine. Total six pressure sensors were mounted inside the turbine and other two pressure sensors were mounted at the turbine inlet pipe. It is observed that the turbine experiences significant pressure fluctuations at the vaneless space and the runner.Moreover, a standing wave is observed between the pressure tank outlet and the turbine inlet. Analysis of the data acquired by the pressure sensors mounted in the draft tube showed the presence of vortex breakdown corotating with the runner. The detailed analysis showed the rotating and plunging components of the vortex breakdown. The influence of the rotating component was observed in the entire hydraulic circuit includingdistributor and turbine inlet but not the plunging one.

  16. Bulb turbine operating at medium head: XIA JIANG case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiseau, F.; Desrats, C.; Petit, P.; Liu, J.

    2012-11-01

    With lots of references for 4-blade bulb turbines, such as these of Wu Jin Xia (4 units - 36.1 MW per unit - 9.2 m rated head), Chang Zhou (15 units - 46.7 MW per unit - 9.5 m rated head) and Tong Wan (4 units - 46.2 MW per unit - 11 m rated head), ALSTOM Power Hydro is one of the major suppliers of bulb turbines operating under medium head for the Chinese market. ALSTOM Power Hydro has been awarded in November 2010 a contract by Jiang Xi Province Xia Jiang Water Control Project Headquarters to equip Xia Jiang's new hydropower plant. The power dam is located on the Gan Jiang river, at about 160 km away from Nan Chang town in South Eastern China. The supply will consist in 5 bulb units including the furniture of both the turbine and its generator, for a total capacity of 200 MW, under a rated net head of 8.6 m. The prototype turbine is a 7.8 m diameter runner, rotating at 71.4 rpm speed. For this project, ALSTOM has proposed a fully new design of 4-blade bulb runner. This paper outlines the main steps of the hydraulic development. First of all, a fine tuning of the blade geometry was performed to enhance the runner behaviour at high loads and low heads, so that to fulfill the demanding requirements of efficiencies and maximum output. The challenge was also to keep an excellent cavitation behaviour, especially at the outer blade diameter in order to avoid cavitation erosion on the prototype. The shape of the blade was optimized by using the latest tools in computational fluid dynamics. Steady state simulations of the distributor and the runner were performed, in order to simulate more accurately the pressure fields on the blade and the velocity distribution at the outlet of the runner. Moreover, draft tube computations have been performed close to the design point and at higher loads. Then, a model fully homologous with the prototype was manufactured and tested at ALSTOM's laboratory in Grenoble (France). The model test results confirmed the predicted ones: the

  17. Clemson University Wind Turbine Drivetrain Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuten, James Maner [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Haque, Imtiaz [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Rigas, Nikolaos [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2016-03-30

    In November of 2009, Clemson University was awarded a competitive grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to design, build and operate a facility for full-scale, highly accelerated mechanical testing of next-generation wind turbine drivetrain technologies. The primary goal of the project was to design, construct, commission, and operate a state-of-the-art sustainable facility that permits full-scale highly accelerated testing of advanced drivetrain systems for large wind turbines. The secondary goal was to meet the objectives of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, especially in job creation, and provide a positive impact on economically distressed areas in the United States, and preservation and economic recovery in an expeditious manner. The project was executed according to a managed cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy and was an extraordinary success. The resultant new facility is located in North Charleston, SC, providing easy transportation access by rail, road or ship and operates on an open access model such that it is available to the U.S. Wind Industry for research, analysis, and evaluation activities. The 72 m by 97 m facility features two mechanical dynamometer test bays for evaluating the torque and blade dynamic forces experienced by the rotors of wind turbine drivetrains. The dynamometers are rated at 7.5 MW and 15 MW of low speed shaft power and are configured as independent test areas capable of simultaneous operation. All six degrees of freedom, three linear and three rotational, for blade and rotor dynamics are replicated through the combination of a drive motor, speed reduction gearbox and a controllable hydraulic load application unit (LAU). This new LAU setup readily supports accelerated lifetime mechanical testing and load analysis for the entire drivetrain system of the nacelle and easily simulates a wide variety of realistic operating scenarios in a controlled laboratory environment. The development of these

  18. Development of gas turbines simplified mathematical models; Desenvolvimento de modelos matematicos simplificados das turbinas a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Leonardo Vinicius; Mendes, Pedro Paulo C. [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Eletrotecnica; Ferreira, Claudio [Agencia Nacional de Energia Eletrica (ANEEL), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the development and analysis of various mathematical models for gas turbine which can be incorporated to dynamic stability or to electric power systems. The work provides answers for questions such as: the dynamic behaviour of gas turbine driven generator unities, the influence of those equipment in the other elements and the best operational conditions for the equipment.

  19. Mining equipment manufacturers: an industry sector analysis; 14th edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The report analyses and compares the financial ratios of mining equipment manufacturers in the United Kingdom. It includes companies who produce equipment for the mining industry such as cutting tools, drilling equipment, crushers, screens, centrifuges, tunnelling equipment, conveyors and other materials handling equipment, hydraulic equipment, filtration, pumping and mixing equipment and ventilation equipment. The report presents business ratios analysing profitability, efficiency, liquidity, employee-based ratios and a series of figures on growth rate. Accounting data for the individual companies are given, together with principal ratios, areas of activity, names of directors and company secretary, trading address and holding companies.

  20. Increasing turbine vendor competition in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, J.T. [Emerging Energy Research, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    An overview of the wind turbine market in Canada was presented. Canada is now experiencing increased turbine vendor competition. Trends in wind turbine OEM market shares in Canada have increased from 10 per cent in 2000 to over 70 per cent in 2007. Several major companies in Canada have signed large-scale orders for delivery in 2010. It is expected that future wind turbine demands in all areas of Canada will increase. However, projections for Canadian wind growth demonstrate the difficulties provinces are now facing in trying to attract manufacturing investment away from the United States. Growth in wind turbine investment is in the process of creating a more robust North American wind turbine generator chain. However, the majority of new facilities are located in the United States. It is not known if Quebec's wind turbine generators will be viable outside of fulfilling Hydro-Quebec's tendering process. Canada's wind industry must consider equipment transport costs as well as a shortage of operating and maintenance service infrastructure. It was concluded that growth in the United States is expected to have a positive impact on Canadian wind energy customers. tabs., figs.

  1. Turbine main engines

    CERN Document Server

    Main, John B; Herbert, C W; Bennett, A J S

    1965-01-01

    Turbine Main Engines deals with the principle of operation of turbine main engines. Topics covered include practical considerations that affect turbine design and efficiency; steam turbine rotors, blades, nozzles, and diaphragms; lubricating oil systems; and gas turbines for use with nuclear reactors. Gas turbines for naval boost propulsion, merchant ship propulsion, and naval main propulsion are also considered. This book is divided into three parts and begins with an overview of the basic mode of operation of the steam turbine engine and how it converts the pressure energy of the ingoing ste

  2. Dynamic behaviour of pump-turbine runner: From disk to prototype runner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, X. X.; Egusquiza, E.; Valero, C.; Presas, A.

    2013-12-01

    In recent decades, in order to increase output power of hydroelectric turbomachinery, the design head and the flow rate of the hydraulic turbines have been increased greatly. This has led to serious vibratory problems. The pump-turbines have to work at various operation conditions to satisfy the requirements of the power grid. However, larger hydraulic forces will result in high vibration levels on the turbines, especially, when the machines operate at off-design conditions. Due to the economic considerations, the pump-turbines are built as light as possible, which will change the dynamic response of the structures. According to industrial cases, the fatigue damage of the pump-turbine runner induced by hydraulic dynamic forces usually happens on the outer edge of the crown, which is near the leading edges of blades. To better understand the reasons for this kind of fatigue, it is extremely important to investigate the dynamic response behaviour of the hydraulic turbine, especially the runner, by experimental measurement and numerical simulation. The pump-turbine runner has a similar dynamic response behaviour of the circular disk. Therefore, in this paper the dynamic response analyses for circular disks with different dimensions and disk-blades-disk structures were carried out to better understand the fundamental dynamic behaviour for the complex turbomachinery. The influences of the pattern and number of blades were discussed in detail.

  3. Dynamic Stresses in a Francis Turbine Runner Based on Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Ruofu; WANG Zhengwei; LUO Yongyao

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue and cracks have occurred in many large hydraulic turbines after they were put into production.The cracks are thought to be due to dynamic stresses in the runner caused by hydraulic forces.Computational fluid dynamics(CFD)simulations that included the spiral case,stay vane,guide vane,runner vane.and draft tube were run at various operating points to analyze the pressure distribution on the runner surface and the stress characteristics in the runner due to the fluid-structure interactions(FSl).The dynamic stresses in the Francis turbine runner at the most dangerous operating point were then analyzed.The results show that the dynamic stresses caused by the hydraulic forces during off-design operating points are one of the main reasons for the fatigue and cracks in the runner blade.The results can be used to optimize the runner and to analyze other critical components in the hydraulic turbine.

  4. K-65-12.8 condensing steam turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Bilan, V. N.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Polyaeva, E. N.; Shekhter, M. V.; Shibaev, T. L.

    2016-11-01

    A new condensing steam turbine K-65-12.8 is considered, which is the continuation of the development of the steam turbine family of 50-70 MW and the fresh steam pressure of 12.8 MPa, such as twocylinder T-50-12.8 and T-60/65-12.8 turbines. The turbine was developed using the modular design. The design and the main distinctive features of the turbine are described, such as a single two-housing cylinder with the steam flow loop; the extraction from the blading section for the regeneration, the inner needs, and heating; and the unification of some assemblies of serial turbines with shorter time of manufacture. The turbine uses the throttling steam distribution; steam from a boiler is supplied to a turbine through a separate valve block consisting of a central shut-off valve and two side control valves. The blading section of a turbine consists of 23 stages: the left flow contains ten stages installed in the inner housing and the right flow contains 13 stages with diaphragm placed in holders installed in the outer housing. The disks of the first 16 stages are forged together with a rotor, and the disks of the rest stages are mounted. Before the two last stages, the uncontrolled steam extraction is performed for the heating of a plant with the heat output of 38-75 GJ/h. Also, a turbine has five regenerative extraction points for feed water heating and the additional steam extraction to a collector for the inner needs with the consumption of up to 10 t/h. The feasibility parameters of a turbine plant are given. The main solutions for the heat flow diagram and the layout of a turbine plant are presented. The main principles and features of the microprocessor electro hydraulic control and protection system are formulated.

  5. Rotating housing turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allouche, Erez; Jaganathan, Arun P.

    2016-10-11

    The invention is a new turbine structure having a housing that rotates. The housing has a sidewall, and turbine blades are attached to a sidewall portion. The turbine may be completely open in the center, allowing space for solids and debris to be directed out of the turbine without jamming the spinning blades/sidewall. The turbine may be placed in a generator for generation of electrical current.

  6. Turbine maintenance and modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unga, E. [Teollisuuden Voima Oy, Olkiluoto (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The disturbance-free operation of the turbine plant plays an important role in reaching good production results. In the turbine maintenance of the Olkiluoto nuclear power plant the lifetime and efficiency of turbine components and the lifetime costs are taken into account in determining the turbine maintenance and modernization/improvement program. The turbine maintenance program and improvement/modernization measures taken in the plant units are described in this presentation. (orig.)

  7. Wind Turbine Safety and Function Test Report for the Gaia-Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huskey, A.; Bowen, A.; Jager, D.

    2010-01-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers to wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small wind turbines (SWT). In total, four turbines were tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Safety and function testing is one of up to five tests performed on the turbines, including power performance, duration, noise, and power-quality tests. The results of the testing provide the manufacturers with reports that can be used for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment includes a Gaia-Wind 11-kW wind turbine mounted on an 18-m monopole tower. Gaia-Wind Ltd. manufactured the turbine in Denmark. The system was installed by the NWTC site operations group with guidance and assistance from Gaia-Wind.

  8. Experience gained from the development and results from tests of the equipment of the Kalinin NPP Unit 4 regeneration and intermediate steam separation and reheating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, N. N.; Sukhorukov, Yu. G.; Ermolov, V. F.; Svyatkin, F. A.; Nikolaenkova, E. K.; Sintsova, T. G.; Grigor'eva, E. B.; Esin, S. B.; Ukhanova, M. G.; Golubev, E. A.; Bik, S. P.; Tren'kin, V. B.

    2014-06-01

    The equipment of the Kalinin NPP Unit 4 regeneration, intermediate separation, and steam reheating (ISSR) systems is described and the results of their static and dynamic tests are presented. It was shown from an analysis of test results that the equipment of the regeneration and ISSR systems produce the design thermal and hydraulic characteristics in static and dynamic modes of its operation. Specialists of the Central boiler-Turbine Institute Research and Production Association have developed procedures and computer programs for calculating the system of direct-contact horizontal low-pressure heaters (connected according to the gravity circuit arrangement jointly with the second-stage electrically-driven condensate pumps) and the ISSR system, the results of which are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The drawbacks of the layout solutions due to which cavitation failure of the pumps may occur are considered. Technical solutions aimed at securing stable operation of the equipment of regeneration and ISSR systems are proposed. The process arrangement for heating the chamber-type high-pressure heaters adopted at the Kalinin NPP is analyzed. The version of this circuit developed at the Central Boiler-Turbine Institute Research and Production Association that allows the heating rate equal to 1°C/min to be obtained is proposed.

  9. Wind Turbine Manufacturing Process Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waseem Faidi; Chris Nafis; Shatil Sinha; Chandra Yerramalli; Anthony Waas; Suresh Advani; John Gangloff; Pavel Simacek

    2012-04-26

    To develop a practical inline inspection that could be used in combination with automated composite material placement equipment to economically manufacture high performance and reliable carbon composite wind turbine blade spar caps. The approach technical feasibility and cost benefit will be assessed to provide a solid basis for further development and implementation in the wind turbine industry. The program is focused on the following technology development: (1) Develop in-line monitoring methods, using optical metrology and ultrasound inspection, and perform a demonstration in the lab. This includes development of the approach and performing appropriate demonstration in the lab; (2) Develop methods to predict composite strength reduction due to defects; and (3) Develop process models to predict defects from leading indicators found in the uncured composites.

  10. Turbine oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eminov, E.A.; Bogdanov, Sh.K.; Dovgopolyi, E.E.; Gryaznov, B.V.; Ivanov, V.S.; Ivanova, Z.M.; Kozlova, E.K.; Nikolaeva, N.M.; Rozhdestvenskaya, A.A.

    1981-03-10

    In the known turbine oil (TO), for the purpose of improving the anticorrosion and demulsifying properties, a polyoxypropylene glycol ether, ethylenediamine or propylene glycol or an alkylphenol are additionally introduced, where the C/sub 8/-C/sub 12/ alkyl has a molecular weight of 2000-10,000. The proportions of the components are: 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol 0.2-1.0%, quinizarin 0.01-0.05%, an acid ester of an alkenylsuccinic acid 0.02-0.1%, a polyoxypropylene glycol ether 0.02-0.2%, polymethylsiloxane 0.003-0.005%, and petroleum oil the remainder. The TO is prepared by mixing the petroleum oil with the additives in any sequence at a temperature of 60-80/sup 0/ by mechanical stirring. On the five TO samples the antioxidative, demulsifying, and anticorrosion properties by comparison with the prototype were investigated. It was shown that the obtained TO possesses improved anticorrosion properties (time until the appearance of Kr (staining.), up to 60 h as against 35 on the prototype) and demulsifying properties (quantity of water separating on breaking the emulsion 10 mg/L as against 65 mg/L on the prototype) for an antioxidative stability equal to that of the analog. The TO is designated for use in various turbo-units, in the first place in marine steam turbine units, where there is the probability of contact of the TO with seawater. Use of the TO makes it possible to increase the service life of the mechanisms, to reduce the amount of oil mixable in the form of an emulsion (by a factor of 1.5 to 2), and to lower the operating expenses.

  11. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  12. 46 CFR 189.25-25 - Hull equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... equipment: (1) All watertight doors shall be operated locally by manual power and also by hydraulic or... control apparatus. (2) The remote controls of all valves shall be operated. (3) An examination of...

  13. Investigation and Development of the Thermal Preparation System of the Trailbuilder Machinery Hydraulic Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konev, V.; Polovnikov, E.; Krut, O.; Merdanov, Sh; Zakirzakov, G.

    2017-07-01

    It’s determined that the main part of trailbuilders operated in the North is the technology equipped by the hydraulic actuator. Further development of the northern territories will demand using of various means and ways machinery thermal preparation, and also the machinery of the northern fulfillment. On this basis problems in equipment operation are defined. One of the main is efficiency supplying of a hydraulic actuator. On the basis of the operating conditions’ analysis of trailbuilder hydraulic actuator operation it is determined, that under low negative temperatures the means of thermal preparation are necessary. The existing systems warm up only a hydraulic tank or warming up of the hydro equipment before the machinery operation is carried out under loading with intensive wears. Thus, with the purpose to raise the efficiency of thermal hydraulic actuator, operated far from stationary bases autonomous, energy saving, not expensive in creation and operation systems are necessary. In accordance with the analysis of means and ways of the thermal preparation of the hydraulic actuator and the thermal balance calculations of the (internal) combustion engine the system of the hydraulic actuator heating is offered and is being investigated. It contains a local hydraulic actuator warming up and the system of internal combustion engine heat utilization. Within research operation conditions of the local hydraulic actuator heating are viewed and determined, taking into account constructive changes to the local hydraulic actuator heating. Mathematical modelling of the heat technical process in the modernized hydraulic actuator is considered. As a result temperature changes of the heat-transfer and the hydraulic cylinder in time are determined. To check the theoretical researches and to define dependences on hydraulic actuator warming up, the experimental installation is made. It contains the measuring equipment, a small tank with the heat exchanger of the burnt gases

  14. Hydraulic manipulator design, analysis, and control at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Robotics and Process Systems Div.; Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Basher, A.M.H. [South Carolina State Univ., Orangeburg, SC (United States)

    1996-09-01

    To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned to hydraulics as a means of actuation. Hydraulics have always been the actuator of choice when designing heavy-life construction and mining equipment such as bulldozers, backhoes, and tunneling devices. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem) sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. To support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The hydraulics laboratory at ORNL has three different manipulators. First is a 6-Degree-of-Freedom (6-DoF), multi-planer, teleoperated, flexible controls test bed used for the development of waste tank clean-up manipulator controls, thermal studies, system characterization, and manipulator tracking. Finally, is a human amplifier test bed used for the development of an entire new class of teleoperated systems. To compliment the hardware in the hydraulics laboratory, ORNL has developed a hydraulics simulation capability including a custom package to model the hydraulic systems and manipulators for performance studies and control development. This paper outlines the history of hydraulic manipulator developments at ORNL, describes the hydraulics laboratory, discusses the use of the equipment within the laboratory, and presents some of the initial results from experiments and modeling associated with these hydraulic manipulators. Included are some of the results from the development of the human amplifier/de-amplifier concepts, the characterization of the thermal sensitivity of hydraulic systems, and end-point tracking accuracy studies. Experimental and analytical

  15. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  16. Handbook of hydraulic fluid technology

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, George E

    2011-01-01

    ""The Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology"" serves as the foremost resource for designing hydraulic systems and for selecting hydraulic fluids used in engineering applications. Featuring new illustrations, data tables, as well as practical examples, this second edition is updated with essential information on the latest hydraulic fluids and testing methods. The detailed text facilitates unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including important hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants. Written by worldwide experts, the book also offers a rigorous overview of h

  17. Investigation of Valve Plate in Water Hydraulic Axial Piston Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂松林; 李壮云; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper has introduced the developments of water hydraulic axial piston equipments.According to the effects of physicochemical properties of water on water hydraulic components,a novel valve plate for water hydraulic axial motor has been put forward,whose moment exerted by the fluid field between valve plate and bearing plate is balanced entirely.The material screening experiment of valve plate is done on the test rig.Through numerical simulation the effects of some geometry parameters on the performance of water hydraulic motor have been studied.The silencing grooves on the valve plate in water hydraulic motor can reduce the pressure shock and the occurrence of cavitation effectively.It is evident that the appropriate structure should change the wear status between matching paris and reduces the wear and specific pressure of the matching pairs.The specimen with the new type valve plate is used in a tool system.

  18. Probabilistic Modeling of Wind Turbine Drivetrain Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafsanjani, Hesam Mirzaei

    Wind energy is one of several energy sources in the world and a rapidly growing industry in the energy sector. When placed in offshore or onshore locations, wind turbines are exposed to wave excitations, highly dynamic wind loads and/or the wakes from other wind turbines. Therefore, most components....../nodules on fatigue life of cast iron samples. The cast iron samples scanned by 3D tomography equipment at the DTU Wind Energy (Risø campus), and the distribution of nodules are used to estimate the fatigue life....

  19. Aero-acoustic Computations of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Michelsen, Jess; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2002-01-01

    A numerical algorithm for acoustic noise generation is extended to 3D flows. The approach involves two parts comprising a viscous incompressible flow part and an inviscid acoustic part. In order to simulate noise generated from a wind turbine, the incompressible and acoustic equations are written...... in polar coordinates. The developed algorithm is combined with a so-called actuator-line technique in which the loading is distributed along lines representing the blade forces. Computations are carried out for the 500kW Nordtank wind turbine equipped with three LM19 blades. ©2001 The American Institute...

  20. Experimental vibration level analysis of a Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, D. M.; Dunca, G.; Cǎlinoiu, C.

    2012-11-01

    In this study the vibration level of a Francis turbine is investigated by experimental work in site. Measurements are carried out for different power output values, in order to highlight the influence of the operation regimes on the turbine behavior. The study focuses on the turbine shaft to identify the mechanical vibration sources and on the draft tube in order to identify the hydraulic vibration sources. Analyzing the vibration results, recommendations regarding the operation of the turbine, at partial load close to minimum values, in the middle of the operating domain or close to maximum values of electric power, can be made in order to keep relatively low levels of vibration. Finally, conclusions are drawn in order to present the real sources of the vibrations.

  1. Simulation of a flexible wind turbine response to a grid fault

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca D.; Cutululis, A. Nicolaos; Sørensen, Poul;

    2007-01-01

    in power system simulation tools applying simplified mechanical models of the drive train. This paper presents simulations of the wind turbine load response to grid faults with an advanced aeroelastic computer code (HAWC2). The core of this code is an advanced model for the flexible structure of the wind...... turbines, taking the flexibility of the tower, blades and other components of the wind turbines into account. The effect of a grid fault on the wind turbine flexible structure is assessed for a typical fixed speed wind turbine, equipped with an induction generator....

  2. Turbulence and wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....

  3. Turbine Aerothermal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    SONDERGAARD CHARLES W. STEVENS Project Engineer Branch Chief Turbomachinery Branch Turbomachinery Branch Turbine Engine Division Turbine Engine...distribution unlimited. APPENDIX: LIST OF PUBLICATIONS "Pulsed Film Cooling on a Turbine Blade Leading Edge," Captain James L. Rutledge , PhD...Turbine Blade Leading Edge," Rutledge , King & Rivir, AIAA-2009-5104, Proceedings of the 45th IAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference

  4. Sliding vane geometry turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R

    2014-12-30

    Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.

  5. Clemson University Wind Turbine Drivetrain Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuten, James Maner [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Haque, Imtiaz [Clemson Univ., SC (United States); Rigas, Nikolaos [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    2016-03-30

    In November of 2009, Clemson University was awarded a competitive grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to design, build and operate a facility for full-scale, highly accelerated mechanical testing of next-generation wind turbine drivetrain technologies. The primary goal of the project was to design, construct, commission, and operate a state-of-the-art sustainable facility that permits full-scale highly accelerated testing of advanced drivetrain systems for large wind turbines. The secondary goal was to meet the objectives of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, especially in job creation, and provide a positive impact on economically distressed areas in the United States, and preservation and economic recovery in an expeditious manner. The project was executed according to a managed cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy and was an extraordinary success. The resultant new facility is located in North Charleston, SC, providing easy transportation access by rail, road or ship and operates on an open access model such that it is available to the U.S. Wind Industry for research, analysis, and evaluation activities. The 72 m by 97 m facility features two mechanical dynamometer test bays for evaluating the torque and blade dynamic forces experienced by the rotors of wind turbine drivetrains. The dynamometers are rated at 7.5 MW and 15 MW of low speed shaft power and are configured as independent test areas capable of simultaneous operation. All six degrees of freedom, three linear and three rotational, for blade and rotor dynamics are replicated through the combination of a drive motor, speed reduction gearbox and a controllable hydraulic load application unit (LAU). This new LAU setup readily supports accelerated lifetime mechanical testing and load analysis for the entire drivetrain system of the nacelle and easily simulates a wide variety of realistic operating scenarios in a controlled laboratory environment. The development of these

  6. Experimental and Numerical Studies of a High-Head Francis Turbine: A Review of the Francis-99 Test Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Trivedi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic turbines are widely used to meet real-time electricity demands. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD techniques have played an important role in the design and development of such turbines. The simulation of a complete turbine requires substantial computational resources. A specific approach that is applied to investigate the flow field of one turbine may not work for another turbine. A series of Francis-99 workshops have been planned to discuss and explore the CFD techniques applied within the field of hydropower with application to high-head Francis turbines. The first workshop was held in December 2014 at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway. The steady-state measurements were conducted on a model Francis turbine. Three operating points, part load, best efficiency point, and high load, were investigated. The complete geometry, meshing, and experimental data concerning the hydraulic efficiency, pressure, and velocity were provided to the academic and industrial research groups. Various researchers have conducted extensive numerical studies on the high-head Francis turbine, and the obtained results were presented during the workshop. This paper discusses the presented numerical results and the important outcome of the extensive numerical studies on the Francis turbine. The use of a wall function assuming equilibrium between the production and dissipation of turbulence is widely used in the simulation of hydraulic turbines. The boundary layer of hydraulic turbines is not fully developed because of the continuously-changing geometry and large pressure gradients. There is a need to develop wall functions that enable the estimation of viscous losses under boundary development for accurate simulations. Improved simulations and results enable reliable estimation of the blade loading. Numerical investigations on leakage flow through the labyrinth seals were conducted. The volumetric efficiency and losses in the seals were

  7. Experiences and results from Elkraft 1 MW wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raben, N.; Jensen, F.V. [SEAS Distribution A.m.b.A., Wind Power Dept., Haslev (Denmark); Oeye, S. [DTU, Inst. for Energiteknik, Lyngby (Denmark); Markkilde Petersen, S.; Antoniou, I. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The Elkraft 1 MW Demonstration wind turbine was at the time of installation in 1993 the largest stall controlled wind turbine in the world. It was constructed to allow accurate comparison of two different forms of operation: pitch control and stall control. A comprehensive programme for the investigation of the two operation modes was established. This paper presents the main experiences from five years of operation and measurements. For a three-year period the wind turbine was in operation in stall controlled mode. During this period the turbine faced problems of various significance. Especially lightning strikes and unusually poor wind conditions caused delays of the project. In early 1997, the wind turbine was modified to enable pitch controlled operation. The gearbox ratio was changed in order to allow higher rotor speed, the hydraulic system was altered and new control software was installed. Tests were carried out successfully during the spring of 1997 and the wind turbine has since been operating as a pitch controlled wind turbine. The most significant events and problems are presented and commented in this paper along with results from the measurement programme. The results cover both stall and pitch controlled operation and include power curves, annual energy production, structural loads, fatigue loads etc. (au) 10 refs.

  8. FEMA DFIRM Hydraulic Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer and accompanying attribute table is required whenever hydraulic structures are shown in the flood profile. It is also required if levees are shown on the...

  9. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on......-going research projects on fluid power and mechatronics based on tap water hydraulic servovalves and linear servo actuators and rotary vane actuators for motion control and power transmission. Development and design a novel water hydraulic rotary vane actuator for robot manipulators. Proposed mathematical...... modelling, control and simulation of a water hydraulic rotary vane actuator applied to power and control a two-links manipulator and evaluate performance. The results include engineering design and test of the proposed simulation models compared with IHA Tampere University’s presentation of research...

  10. Constant-Pressure Hydraulic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    Constant output pressure in gas-driven hydraulic pump would be assured in new design for gas-to-hydraulic power converter. With a force-multiplying ring attached to gas piston, expanding gas would apply constant force on hydraulic piston even though gas pressure drops. As a result, pressure of hydraulic fluid remains steady, and power output of the pump does not vary.

  11. Turbine Imaging Technology Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moursund, Russell A.; Carlson, Thomas J.

    2004-12-31

    The goal of this project was to identify and evaluate imaging alternatives for observing the behavior of juvenile fish within an operating Kaplan turbine unit with a focus on methods to quantify fish injury mechanisms inside an operating turbine unit. Imaging methods are particularly needed to observe the approach and interaction of fish with turbine structural elements. This evaluation documents both the opportunities and constraints for observing juvenile fish at specific locations during turbine passage. The information may be used to acquire the scientific knowledge to make structural improvements and create opportunities for industry to modify turbines and improve fish passage conditions.

  12. Prototype bucket foundation for wind turbines - natural frequency estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.

    2006-12-15

    The first full scale prototype bucket foundation for wind turbines has been installed in October 2002 at Aalborg University offshore test facility in Frederikshavn, Denmark. The suction caisson and the wind turbine have been equipped with an online monitoring system, consisting of 15 accelerometers and a real-time data-acquisition system. The report concerns the in service performance of the wind turbine, with focus on estimation of the natural frequencies of the structure/foundation. The natural frequencies are initially estimated by means of experimental Output-only Modal analysis. The experimental estimates are then compared with numerical simulations of the suction caisson foundation and the wind turbine. The numerical model consists of a finite element section for the wind turbine tower and nacelle. The soil-structure interaction of the soil-foundation section is modelled by lumped-parameter models capable of simulating dynamic frequency dependent behaviour of the structure-foundation system. (au)

  13. Duration Test Report for the Ventera VT10 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2013-06-01

    This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small wind turbines. Five turbines were tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) as a part of round one of this project. Duration testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality. Test results will provide manufacturers with reports that can be used to fulfill part of the requirements for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment included a grid-connected Ventera Energy Corporation VT10 wind turbine mounted on an 18.3-m (60-ft) self-supporting lattice tower manufactured by Rohn.

  14. Grid faults' impact on wind turbine structural loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca D.; Cutululis, A. Nicolaos; Iov, Florin;

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work is to illustrate the impact of the grid faults on the wind turbine structural loads. Grid faults are typically simulated in detailed power system simulation tools, which by applying simplified mechanical models, are not able to provide a throughout insight...... on the structural loads caused by sudden disturbances on the grid. On the other hand, structural loads of the wind turbine are typically assessed in advanced aerolastic computer codes, which by applying simplified electrical models do not provide detailed electrical insight. This paper presents a simulation...... of the wind turbine during grid faults. The effect of a grid fault on the wind turbine flexible structure is assessed for a typical fixed speed wind turbine, equipped with an induction generator....

  15. Computer control for remote wind turbine operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manwell, J.F.; Rogers, A.L.; Abdulwahid, U.; Driscoll, J. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Light weight wind turbines located in harsh, remote sites require particularly capable controllers. Based on extensive operation of the original ESI-807 moved to such a location, a much more sophisticated controller than the original one has been developed. This paper describes the design, development and testing of that new controller. The complete control and monitoring system consists of sensor and control inputs, the control computer, control outputs, and additional equipment. The control code was written in Microsoft Visual Basic on a PC type computer. The control code monitors potential faults and allows the turbine to operate in one of eight states: off, start, run, freewheel, low wind shut down, normal wind shutdown, emergency shutdown, and blade parking. The controller also incorporates two {open_quotes}virtual wind turbines,{close_quotes} including a dynamic model of the machine, for code testing. The controller can handle numerous situations for which the original controller was unequipped.

  16. Energy production with a tubular propeller turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samora, I.; Hasmatuchi, V.; Münch-Alligné, C.; Franca, M. J.; Schleiss, A. J.; Ramos, H. M.

    2016-11-01

    Micro-hydropower is a way of improving the energetic efficiency of existent water systems. In the particular case of drinking water systems, several studies have showed that pressure reducing valves can be by-passed with turbines in order to recover the dissipated hydraulic energy to produce electricity. As conventional turbines are not always cost-effective for power under 20 kW, a new energy converter is studied. A five blade tubular propeller (5BTP), assessed through laboratorial tests on a reduced model with a diameter of 85 mm diameter and a maximal output power of 300 W, is addressed in this work. Having showed promising potential for further development, since global efficiencies of around 60% were observed, the turbine has been further used to estimate the potential for energy production in a real case study. A sub-grid of the drinking water system of the city of Lausanne, Switzerland, has been used to obtain an annual energy production through hourly simulations with several turbines.

  17. Failure analysis of a Francis turbine runner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frunzaverde, D; Campian, V [Research Center in Hydraulics, Automation and Heat Transfer, ' Eftimie Murgu' University of Resita P-ta Traian Vuia 1-4, RO-320085, Resita (Romania); Muntean, S [Centre of Advanced Research in Engineering Sciences, Romanian Academy - Timisoara Branch Bv. Mihai Viteazu 24, RO-300223, Timisoara (Romania); Marginean, G [University of Applied Sciences Gelsenkirchen, Neidenburger Str. 10, 45877 Gelsenkirchen (Germany); Marsavina, L [Department of Strength, ' Politehnica' University of Timisoara, Bv. Mihai Viteazu 1, RO-300222, Timisoara (Romania); Terzi, R; Serban, V, E-mail: gabriela.marginean@fh-gelsenkirchen.d, E-mail: d.frunzaverde@uem.r [Ramnicu Valcea Subsidiary, S.C. Hidroelectrica S.A., Str. Decebal 11, RO-240255, Ramnicu Valcea (Romania)

    2010-08-15

    The variable demand on the energy market requires great flexibility in operating hydraulic turbines. Therefore, turbines are frequently operated over an extended range of regimes. Francis turbines operating at partial load present pressure fluctuations due to the vortex rope in the draft tube cone. This phenomenon generates strong vibrations and noise that may produce failures on the mechanical elements of the machine. This paper presents the failure analysis of a broken Francis turbine runner blade. The failure appeared some months after the welding repair work realized in situ on fatigue cracks initiated near to the trailing edge at the junction with the crown, where stress concentration occurs. In order to determine the causes that led to the fracture of the runner blade, the metallographic investigations on a sample obtained from the blade is carried out. The metallographic investigations included macroscopic and microscopic examinations, both performed with light and scanning electron microscopy, as well as EDX - analyses. These investigations led to the conclusion, that the cracking of the blade was caused by fatigue, initiated by the surface unevenness of the welding seam. The failure was accelerated by the hydrogen embrittlement of the filling material, which appeared as a consequence of improper welding conditions. In addition to the metallographic investigations, numerical computations with finite element analysis are performed in order to evaluate the deformation and stress distribution on blade.

  18. Abyssal soil investigation equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, F.P.; Maggioni, W.; Mainardi, U. [ISMES, Bergamo (Italy)

    1994-12-31

    The present paper deals with the development of a testing device for quick offshore geotechnical investigations. The equipment, at present, consists of a penetrometer, mounted on a sea bed platform, a handling frame and a control cabin; a further development includes a drill rig and a geotechnical laboratory. All this is designed so as to be an autonomous unit that can be handled by various types of non-specialized ships which have the necessary deck space. The sea bed platform can operate in 2,000 m of waterdepth and is provided with a hydraulic penetrometer, with a thrust capacity of 400 kN, able to carry out cone penetration type testing until a depth of more than 100 m, as well as shallow depth continuous sampling. The penetrometer can be equipped with a series of probes (piezocone, pressiocone, total radial pressure transducer, seismic cone) allowing the execution of the wide range of direct geotechnical measurements normally performed during on-land penetration tests.

  19. Severe environment turbine powered steerable motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaynor, T.M. [Neyrfor-Weir Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom). Dept. of Operations

    1995-12-31

    Turbine powered downhole motors have advantages for high temperature, high pressure, sour gas or hard formation drilling which stem from turbodrill construction rather than metallurgy, and from their power characteristics. The first part of the paper will discuss this, and compare turbine and Moineau powered motors in this context. The introduction in the last three years of new bearing materials, hydraulic thrust balancing devices and high performance flexible couplings have extended turbodrill performance and reliability margins in severe environment drilling. It is perfecting feasible to build steerable motors capable of drilling for 250 hours in 6-in. hole at 200 degrees Celsius (392 degrees Fahrenheit) in a deviated high pressure well since the individual problems in this ``Well from Hell`` have successfully been overcome. The second part of the paper will illustrate this through field examples.

  20. Optimization Design and Performance Analysis of a Pit Turbine with Ultralow Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxia Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A developed pit turbine with ultralow head was optimization designed under the design head of about 2 meters to achieve the goal of improving the turbine unit's efficiency. At the same time, the turbine's synthetic characteristic curve was drawn to predict the turbine's overall performance. Navier-Stokes equations and SIMPLEC algorithm were used for pit turbine's whole flow passage numerical simulation of the 3D, steady, incompressible, turbulent flow field. Through the CFD numerical simulation, the influence to ultralow head turbine's performance was analyzed by runner blade's different setting angles and guide vane's different axes. Considering the hydraulic performance of various methods, the best blade's setting angle and guide vane's axis were chosen. The results show that, the turbine unit has the best performance on efficiency, hydraulic loss, and so forth, with the blade's setting angle 23° and the angle 72° between the guide vane and the centerline of unit, meeting the power station's design requirements. The development pit turbine with ultralow head shows the highest efficiency of 87.6% under condition of design head of 2.1 meters and design discharge of 10 m3/s. The energy performance of pit turbine with ultralow head was researched by the model test of GD-WS-35 turbine. The model turbine's characteristic curve was drawn. The model turbine's high efficiency area is wide and the efficiency changes mildly. The numerical simulation results are essentially consistent with the model test results, while the former one is slightly higher than the latter one. The error range is ±3%.

  1. Turbine component, turbine blade, and turbine component fabrication process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delvaux, John McConnell; Cairo, Ronald Ralph; Parolini, Jason Robert

    2017-05-30

    A turbine component, a turbine blade, and a turbine component fabrication process are disclosed. The turbine component includes ceramic matrix composite plies and a feature configured for preventing interlaminar tension of the ceramic matrix composite plies. The feature is selected from the group consisting of ceramic matrix composite tows or precast insert tows extending through at least a portion of the ceramic matrix composite plies, a woven fabric having fiber tows or a precast insert preventing contact between a first set of the ceramic matrix composite plies and a second set of the ceramic matrix composite plies, and combinations thereof. The process includes laying up ceramic matrix composite plies in a preselected arrangement and securing a feature configured for interlaminar tension.

  2. Analysis and Treatment on Thermal Resistance Manufacturing and Erection Technology Problems in Large Hydraulic Turbine Set%大型水轮机组热电阻制造和安装工艺问题分析及处理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦月梅

    2014-01-01

    ∶水力发电测温电阻的设置是为了动态监测水轮发电机组导轴承的受热以及定子铁芯、线圈的发热情况,从中判断机组是否处于正常受控状态。而由于热电阻制造、安装工艺造成温度信号误报一直困扰着电厂运行人员和检修维护人员,严重时可造成机组事故停机。文章首先论述了水轮机组轴承测温电阻制造安装时常见的问题,接着针对这些问题展开探讨,提出改进意见及处理对策。大化水电厂5号机组轴承、定子铁芯和线圈测温系统经改造后投运2年半,至今未出现过一例因热电阻问题而发生的故障,这对减少设备的维护工作量,降低设备故障率,确保机组的安全运行起到了关键的作用。%In hydropower projects, the thermal resistor is set for dynamic monitoring of the heated conditions of the guide bearing of hydro-generator unit and the heating conditions of the stator core and coil, so as to judge the opera-tion conditions of unit. However, the false temperature signals, caused by manufacturing and erection technologies of thermal resistor, always trouble the operators and the maintenance personnel, which even cause emergency shutdown in serious false alarms. The paper discusses the common problems encountered during manufacturing and erecting the thermal resistor for turbine generator unit bearing, and proposes some improvement suggestions and countermeasures. After improvement, no false signal had been received from the temperature measuring system of the bearing, stator core and coil of No. 5 unit of Dahua hydropower station since been put into operation in the past two and a half years, which played a key role in reducing equipment maintenance workload and equipment failure rate and in ensuring safe operation of unit.

  3. Wind Turbines on CO2 Neutral Luminaries in Urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the present work, an overview of three different wind turbines used in hybrid luminaries is presented. The turbines are: vertical-axis twisted Savonius, three-blade horizontal-axis, and vertical-axis three-blade helical H-rotor. The considered luminaries are also equipped with photovoltaic pan...... buildings. A new vertical-axis twisted Savonius rotor is proposed for a luminary being designed for such a district within the “Development of CO2 neutral urban luminary” project....

  4. Wind Turbines on CO2 Neutral Luminaries in Urban Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Bak, Christian; Beller, Christina

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, an overview of three different wind turbines used in hybrid luminaries is presented. The turbines are: vertical-axis twisted Savonius, three-blade horizontal-axis, and vertical-axis three-blade helical H-rotor. The considered luminaries are also equipped with photovoltaic pan...... buildings. A new vertical-axis twisted Savonius rotor is proposed for a luminary being designed for such a district within the “Development of CO2 neutral urban luminary” project....

  5. Bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahemey, R.; Warfield, A.T.; Ahmed, S.

    2016-01-01

    Osteomas are the most common benign osteoclastic tumours of the paranasal sinuses. However, nasal cavity and turbinate osteomas are extremely rare. Only nine middle turbinate, three inferior turbinate and one inferior turbinate osteoma cases have been reported to date. The present case report describes the management and follow-up of symptomatic bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma. A 60-year-old female presented with symptoms of bilateral nasal obstruction and right-sided epiphora. Radiological investigation found hypertrophic bony changes involving both inferior turbinates. The patient was managed successfully by endoscopic inferior turbinectomies in order to achieve a patent airway, with no further recurrence of tumour after 3 months postoperatively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma. We describe a safe and minimally invasive method of tumour resection, which has a better cosmetic outcome compared with other approaches. PMID:27534890

  6. Wind Turbine Gearbox Failure Modes - A Brief (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.; McDade, M.; Errichello, R.

    2011-10-01

    Wind turbine gearboxes are not always meeting 20-year design life. Premature failure of gearboxes increases cost of energy, turbine downtime, unplanned maintenance, gearbox replacement and rebuild, and increased warranty reserves. The problem is widespread, affects most Original Equipment Manufacturers, and is not caused by manufacturing practices. There is a need to improve gearbox reliability and reduce turbine downtime. The topics of this presentation are: GRC (Gearbox Reliability Collaborative) technical approach; Gearbox failure database; Recorded incidents summary; Top failure modes for bearings; Top failure modes for gears; GRC test gearbox; Bearing nomenclature; Test history; Real damage; Gear sets; Bearings; Observations; and Summary. 5 refs.

  7. Dan jiang kou hydropower station turbine refurbishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R. Y.; Nie, S. Q.; Bazin, D.; Cheng, J. H.

    2012-11-01

    Dan jiangkou hydropower station refurbished project, isan important project of Chinese refurbishment market. Tianjin Alstom Hydro Co., ltd won this contract by right of good performance and design technology,Its design took into account all the constraints linked to the existing frame. It results in a specific and highly advanced shape.The objective of this paper is to introduce the successful turbine hydraulic design, model test and mechanical design of Dan jiangkou project; and also analyze the cavitation phenomena occurred on runner band surface of Unit 4 after putting into commercial operation. These technology and feedback shall be a good reference and experience for other similar projects

  8. Turbine rehabilitation: CFD analysis of distributors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Henau, V. [GEC ALSTHOM Electromechanical, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    A methodology adopted to analyze the three-dimensional flow in turbine distributors is described. The particularity of this work lies in the approach used to account for the interaction casing/distributor in the specification of the boundary conditions for flow simulations on selected stay vane/wicket gate passages. The flexibility of the method is illustrated through its application to various problems. Preliminary comparisons between predictions and available experimental data for head losses and hydraulic torque on wicket gates demonstrate the validity of the procedure.

  9. Determination and generalization of the effects of design parameters on Francis turbine runner performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ece Ayli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The runner design is the most challenging part of the turbine design process. Several parameters determine the performance and cavitation characteristics of the runner: the metal angle (flow beta angle, the alpha angle, the blade beta angle, the runner inlet and outlet diameters, and the blade height. All of these geometrical parameters need to be optimized to ensure that the head, flow rate and power requirements of the system are met. A hydraulic designer has to allocate time to optimize these parameters and should be experienced in carrying out the iterative design process. In this article, the turbine runner parameters that affect the performance and cavitation characteristics of designed turbines are examined in detail. Furthermore, turbines are custom designed according to the properties of hydroelectric power plants; this makes the design process even more challenging, as the rotational speed, runner geometry, system head and flow rate vary for each turbine. The effects of the design parameters are examined for four different turbine runners specifically designed and used in actual power plants in order to obtain general results and generalizations applicable to turbine design aided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The flow behavior, flow angles, head losses, pressure distribution, and cavitation characteristics are computed, analyzed, and compared. To assist hydraulic designers, the general influences of these parameters on the performance of turbines are summarized and empirical formulations are derived for runner performance characterization.

  10. A superelement-based method for computing unsteady three-dimensional potential flows in hydraulic turbomachines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, N.P.; Esch, van B.P.M.; Jonker, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    A numerical method is presented for the computation of unsteady, three-dimensional potential flows in hydraulic pumps and turbines. The superelement method has been extended in order to eliminate slave degrees of freedom not only from the governing Laplace equation, but also from the Kutta condition

  11. Hydraulic Power Plant Machine Dynamic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Günther Poll

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method how to perform an entire structural and hydraulic diagnosis of prototype Francis power machines is presented and discussed in this report. Machine diagnosis of Francis units consists on a proper evaluation of acquired mechanical, thermal and hydraulic data obtained in different operating conditions of several rotary and non rotary machine components. Many different physical quantities of a Francis machine such as pressure, strains, vibration related data, water flow, air flow, position of regulating devices and displacements are measured in a synchronized way so that a relation of cause an effect can be developed for each operating condition and help one to understand all phenomena that are involved with such kind of machine. This amount of data needs to be adequately post processed in order to allow correct interpretation of the machine dynamics and finally these data must be compared with the expected calculated data not only to fine tuning the calculation methods but also to accomplish fully understanding of the influence of the water passages on such machines. The way how the power plant owner has to operate its Francis machines, many times also determined by a central dispatcher, has a high influence on the fatigue life time of the machine components. The diagnostic method presented in this report helps one to understand the importance of adequate operation to allow a low maintenance cost for the entire power plant. The method how to acquire these quantities is discussed in details together with the importance of correct sensor balancing, calibration and adequate correlation with the physical quantities. Typical results of the dynamic machine behavior, with adequate interpretation, obtained in recent measurement campaigns of some important hydraulic turbines were presented. The paper highlights the investigation focus of the hydraulic machine behavior and how to tailor the measurement strategy to accomplish all goals. Finally some

  12. Etude numérique et expérimentale des distributions équipées de poussoirs hydrauliques. Influence et comportement de l'aération de l'huile Numerical and Experimental Study of Valvetrains Equipped with Hydraulic Lash Adjusters. Influence and Behaviour of Oil Aeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porot P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Un code numérique de simulation des distributions équipées de poussoirs hydrauliques a été développé. Le code est basé sur trois sous-modèles couplés : mécanique, hydraulique et physique. Le premier étudie la distribution comme un assemblage masses ressorts, le deuxième étudie le poussoir comme un organe hydraulique à part entière et le dernier permet d'étudier l'aération de l'huile et en particulier les phénomènes de dissolution. Une validation expérimentale a été menée sur un banc culasse alimenté par une huile mélangée à de l'air en proportions mesurées. L'instrumentation permettait de mesurer l'accélération de la tête de soupape, son déplacement au voisinage du siège et la force entre poussoir et soupape. Cette validation a montré que la simulation reflétait bien la réalité, notamment en ce qui concerne les effets de l'aération. A model of valvetrain equipped with a direct acting hydraulic lash adjuster (HLA is presented. As it is the cause of many problems, a possible aeration is taken into account. The main model is made of three submodels:1. The first one is a mechanical one with masses, springs and dampers and needs the cam laws and the pressure of the chamber of the HLA as data. 2. The second submodel is an hydraulic one. It studies the HLA chamber through the check valve flows, the leakage flow and the mechanical strains on the chamber oil. This submodel gives the chamber pressure to the first submodel. 3. The third submodel is a physical one and evaluates the instantaneous amount of air present in the chamber oil. It takes into account the arrival of new bubbles through the check valve and the mass exchanges (diffusion, dissolution between the bubbles and the oil bulk. This amount of air has a direct influence on the chamber pressure calculation made in the second submodel. Experimental validation of the model was conducted on an engine head. This engine head was feeded by an oil circuit in which

  13. Simulation of Somatotype of Hydraulic Turbine Draft-Tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Ting-na; HUI Yuan

    2011-01-01

    Elbow draft-tubes are widely used in large- and medium-sized hydropower stations in many countries. During the application, handling the somatotype of elbow tubes has been found challenging: in order to maintain the designed shape of draft tube and to meet the requirement of construction lofting, the configuration of reinforcing bars and the fabrication of templates, the geometry of elbow tubes has to be accurately calculated to draw engineering graphics. Based on the derived equations in this paper, the motion of elbow tube curve envelope is simulated by using computers, which shows directly the smoothness of the curve and provides dynamic simulation for the study and optimization of the design and construction of elbow draft tubes, along with the front view and bottom view.

  14. Optimization on the System of Centrifugal Pump as Turbine to Generate Electricity%离心泵作透平的发电装置系统优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪旭; 吴明亮; 魏源; 李召宪

    2015-01-01

    As the demand for energy and awareness of energy saving is increasing,the hydraulic turbine energy recovery equipment is as the fluid pressure energy conversion into mechanical energy or electric energy equipment.It has a positive effect on reducing energy consumption in per unit of output.The liquid pressure can be recycled in all the presence of the liq-uid pressure which is in the industrial production.Based on the hydraulic turbine,pressure in chemical process can have effi-cient recovery effect.Analyze the advantage and disadvantage of several configurations about hydraulic turbine energy recov-ery of residual pressure.Propose a system that hydraulic turbine direct drive generators to achieve the residual pressure en-ergy recovery,and improvement measures about generator interconnection system based on PLC are raised.Achieve a PC turbine power generation monitoring system based on WinCC.Through practice,hydraulic turbine generator sets have high efficiency in residual pressure energy recovery with the stable and reliable state.%随着人们对能源的需求量不断上升和节能意识的不断提高,离心泵作透平回收余压能发电系统作为把液体液压能转化为电能的能量回收装置,对降低单位产量的耗能量有着积极的作用。而凡是工业生产中有流体压力差的设备中,都存在流体压力能可以回收利用。基于液力透平对化工流程中的余压能起到高效的回收作用,总结分析了液力透平余压能回收的几种配置方式的优缺点,提出了离心泵反转作透平直接驱动发电机发电实现系统余能回收,并提出了基于 PLC 的发电机并网控制系统的改进措施,实现了基于 WinCC 软件的上位透平和发电监控。通过实践证明,液力透平发电机组对余压能的回收量回收效率高,运行稳定、可靠。

  15. Design and Optimization of Fast Switching Valves for Large Scale Digital Hydraulic Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roemer, Daniel Beck

    of seat valves suitable for large scale digital hydraulic motors and detailed analysis methods for the pressure chambers of such machines. In addition, modeling methods of seat valves within this field have been developed, and a design method utilizing these models including optimization of subdomains has......The present thesis is on the design, analysis and optimization of fast switching valves for digital hydraulic motors with high power ratings. The need for such high power motors origins in the potential use of hydrostatic transmissions in wind turbine drive trains, as digital hydraulic machines...... have been shown to improve the overall efficiency and efficient operation range compared to traditional hydraulic machines. Digital hydraulic motors uses electronically controlled independent seat valves connected to the pressure chambers, which must be fast acting and exhibit low pressure losses...

  16. Coalescing Wind Turbine Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Churchfield, M.; Sirnivas, S.; Moriarty, P.; Nielsen, F. G.; Skaare, B.; Byklum, E.

    2015-06-01

    A team of researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Statoil used large-eddy simulations to numerically investigate the merging wakes from upstream offshore wind turbines. Merging wakes are typical phenomena in wind farm flows in which neighboring turbine wakes consolidate to form complex flow patterns that are as yet not well understood. In the present study, three 6-MW turbines in a row were subjected to a neutrally stable atmospheric boundary layer flow. As a result, the wake from the farthest upstream turbine conjoined the downstream wake, which significantly altered the subsequent velocity deficit structures, turbulence intensity, and the global meandering behavior. The complexity increased even more when the combined wakes from the two upstream turbines mixed with the wake generated by the last turbine, thereby forming a “triplet” structure. Although the influence of the wake generated by the first turbine decayed with downstream distance, the mutated wakes from the second turbine continued to influence the downstream wake. Two mirror-image angles of wind directions that yielded partial wakes impinging on the downstream turbines yielded asymmetric wake profiles that could be attributed to the changing flow directions in the rotor plane induced by the Coriolis force. The turbine wakes persisted for extended distances in the present study, which is a result of low aerodynamic surface roughness typically found in offshore conditions.

  17. Technology and means of a coal seam interval hydraulic fracturing for the seam degassing intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klishin, VI; Opruk, GY; Tatsienko, AL

    2017-02-01

    Interval hydraulic fracturing use for the seam degassing intensification actuality is explained. The known methods of degassing are reviewed. Technological scheme of the interval coal seam hydraulic fracturing implementation is worked out. The equipment to fulfill degassing intensification measures is suggested.

  18. Trend of hydraulic units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshimaru, Jun' ichi

    1988-11-01

    The gear, vane and piston pumps occupy a more then 90% share in the hydraulic pumps. Comparatively large pumps are mainly variable delivery piston pumps. The piston pumps are comparatively high in output density (output per unit weight), indicating the hydraulic pump in performance, and tend to become higher and higher in it. Though they are mainly 210 to 350kgf/cm/sup 2/ in rated pressure, some of them come to surpass 400kgf/cm/sup 3/ in it. While the progress in computation also requires the high speed operation, high accuracy and other severe conditions for the hydraulic units, which accordingly and increasingly intensify the requirement for hydraulic oil in abrasion resistibility, oxidation stability and response characteristics. While cavitation comes to easily occur, which considerably and disadvantageously influences hydraulic oil in life through degradation, noise level and respondingness. From now on, the development of high performance oil and study of mechanical structure are important. 19 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Theoretical and Experimental Research Performed on the Tesla Turbine - Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Nedelcu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the theoretical and experimental research performed on a Tesla turbine driven by compressed air and designed to equip a teaching laboratory [1], [2]. It introduces the operating principle of the Tesla turbine, which was invented by engineer Nikola Tesla, a turbine which uses discs instead of blades, mounted on a shaft at a small distance between them. The turbine geometry, results from stress and flow calculations performed on the turbine rotor and assembly, using the Simulation modules and SolidWorks Flow Simulation program are presented. After designing the turbine, it becomes the subject of experimental research to determine the curve of the speed depending on the pressure. Also, the experimental research focuses on the behaviour of the turbine from a dynamic point of view [3].

  20. Improvement of wells turbine performance by means of 3D guide vanes; Sanjigen annai hane ni yoru wells turbine seino no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, M.; Kim, T.H. [Saga University, Saga (Japan); Setoguchi, T. [Saga University, Saga (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering; Inoue, M. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    2000-02-25

    Performance of a Wells turbine was improved by equipping 3D guide vanes before and behind a rotor. For further improvement, 3D guide vanes have been proposed in this paper. The performance of the Wells turbine with 2D and 3D guide vanes have been investigated experimentally by model testing under steady flow conditions. Then, the running and starting characteristics in irregular ocean waves have been obtained by a computer simulation. As a result, it is found that both of the running and starting characteristics of the Wells turbine with 3D guide vanes are superior to those of the turbine with 2D guide vanes. (author)

  1. Study on an undershot cross-flow water turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishi, Yasuyuki; Inagaki, Terumi; Li, Yanrong; Omiya, Ryota; Fukutomi, Junichiro

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to develop a water turbine suitable for ultra-low heads in open channels, with the end goal being the effective utilization of unutilized hydroelectric energy in agricultural water channels. We performed tests by applying a cross-flow runner to an open channel as an undershot water turbine while attempting to simplify the structure and eliminate the casing. We experimentally investigated the flow fields and performance of water turbines in states where the flow rate was constant for the undershot cross-flow water turbine mentioned above. In addition, we compared existing undershot water turbines with our undershot cross-flow water turbine after attaching a bottom plate to the runner. From the results, we were able to clarify the following. Although the effective head for cross-flow runners with no bottom plate was lower than those found in existing runners equipped with a bottom plate, the power output is greater in the high rotational speed range because of the high turbine efficiency. Also, the runner with no bottom plate differed from runners that had a bottom plate in that no water was being wound up by the blades or retained between the blades, and the former received twice the flow due to the flow-through effect. As a result, the turbine efficiency was greater for runners with no bottom plate in the full rotational speed range compared with that found in runners that had a bottom plate.

  2. Multiple Lightning Discharges in Wind Turbines Associated with Nearby Cloud-to-Ground Lightning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Candela Garolera, Anna; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Madsen, Søren Find;

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of five events where simultaneous lightning currents were registered in different wind turbines of a wind farm with lightning monitoring equipment installed. Measurements from current monitoring devices installed at the wind turbines and observations from auto-tri...

  3. Biomass & Natural Gas Based Hydrogen Fuel For Gas Turbine (Power Generation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Significant progress has been made by major power generation equipment manufacturers in the development of market applications for hydrogen fuel use in gas turbines in recent years. Development of a new application using gas turbines for significant reduction of power plant CO2 e...

  4. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....

  5. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design...... a classical pitch and torque regulator to control rotational speed and power, while the section on structural dynamics has been extended with a simplified mechanical system explaining the phenomena of forward and backward whirling modes. Readers will also benefit from a new chapter on Vertical Axis Wind...... Turbines (VAWT). Topics covered include increasing mass flow through the turbine, performance at low and high wind speeds, assessment of the extreme conditions under which the turbine will perform and the theory for calculating the lifetime of the turbine. The classical Blade Element Momentum method...

  6. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....

  7. The Optimal Operation Criteria for a Gas Turbine Cogeneration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Akisawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The study demonstrated the optimal operation criteria of a gas turbine cogeneration system based on the analytical solution of a linear programming model. The optimal operation criteria gave the combination of equipment to supply electricity and steam with the minimum energy cost using the energy prices and the performance of equipment. By the comparison with a detailed optimization result of an existing cogeneration plant, it was shown that the optimal operation criteria successfully provided a direction for the system operation under the condition where the electric power output of the gas turbine was less than the capacity

  8. Evaluation of Biobased Hydraulic Fluids in Military Construction Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-10-31

    instead of the petroleum sources. Their biodegradability is comparable to vegetable oils and the lubrication properties are very similar to mineral ...Ni, Mg, Cu, and Zn) were analyzed. Unlike the petroleum based fluids, the BHFs evaluated did not contain organo - metal additives. However, field

  9. Virtual prototype simulation on underwater hydraulic impingement shovel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU He-ping; LUO A-ni; MENG Qing-xin

    2007-01-01

    The virtual prototype technology is applied to the design of the hydraulic impingement shovel,which is to increase the reliability of the design. The work principle of hydraulic impingement shovel is expatiated, and its dynamic equations are established. The 3D model of virtual prototype is built by PRO/E. Then the couple between the mechanical body of prototype and the hydraulic system is completed by virtue of ADAMS. Finally, the simulation is made on the virtual prototype. The simulation results show that the design of underwater hydraulic impingement shovel is rational. The virtual prototype technology could lay sound foundation of successful manufacturing of physical prototype for the first time and offer highly effective and feasible means for the design and production of underwater equipments.

  10. Popeye Project: Hydraulic umbilical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, K.G.; Williams, V.T.

    1996-12-31

    For the Popeye Project, the longest super-duplex hydraulic umbilical in the world was installed in the Gulf of Mexico. This paper reports on its selection and project implementation. Material selection addresses corrosion in seawater, water-based hydraulic fluid, and methanol. Five alternatives were considered: (1) carbon-steel with traditional coating and anodes, (2) carbon-steel coated with thermally sprayed aluminum, (3) carbon-steel sheathed in aluminum, (4) super-duplex, and (5) titanium. The merits and risks associated with each alternative are discussed. The manufacture and installation of the selected umbilical are also reported.

  11. Wind turbines acoustic measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trematerra, Amelia; Iannace, Gino

    2017-07-01

    The importance of wind turbines has increased over the last few years throughout the European Community. The European energy policy guidelines state that for the year 2020 20% of all energy must be produced by alternative energy sources. Wind turbines are an important type of energy production without petrol. A wind speed in a range from 2.5 m/s to 25.0 m/s is needed. One of the obstacles to the widespread diffusion of wind turbine is noise generation. This work presents some noise measurements of wind turbines in the South of Italy, and discusses the noise problems for the people living near wind farms.

  12. Wind Turbine Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2017-01-01

    , and with or without gearboxes, using the latest in power electronics, aerodynamics, and mechanical drive train designs [4]. The main differences between all wind turbine concepts developed over the years, concern their electrical design and control. Today, the wind turbines on the market mix and match a variety......, the design of wind turbines has changed from being convention driven to being optimized driven within the operating regime and market environment. Wind turbine designs have progressed from fixed speed, passive controlled and with drive trains with gearboxes, to become variable speed, active controlled......,6] and to implement modern control system strategies....

  13. Rampressor Turbine Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramgen Power Systems

    2003-09-30

    The design of a unique gas turbine engine is presented. The first Rampressor Turbine engine rig will be a configuration where the Rampressor rotor is integrated into an existing industrial gas turbine engine. The Rampressor rotor compresses air which is burned in a traditional stationary combustion system in order to increase the enthalpy of the compressed air. The combustion products are then expanded through a conventional gas turbine which provides both compressor and electrical power. This in turn produces shaft torque, which drives a generator to provide electricity. The design and the associated design process of such an engine are discussed in this report.

  14. Hydraulic Arm Modeling via Matlab SimHydraulics

    OpenAIRE

    Věchet, Stanislav; Krejsa, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    System modeling is a vital tool for cost reduction and design process speed up in most engineering fields. The paper is focused on modeling of hydraulic arm as a part of intelligent prosthesis project, in the form of 2DOF open kinematic chain. The arm model combines mechanical, hydraulic and electric subsystems and uses Matlab as modeling tool. SimMechanics Matlab extension is used for mechanical part modeling, SimHydraulics toolbox is used for modeling of hydraulic circuit used for actuating...

  15. Motion Planning Based Coordinated Control for Hydraulic Excavators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yingjie; JIN Yanchao; ZHANG Qin

    2009-01-01

    Hydraulic excavator is one type of the most widely applied construction equipment for various applications mainly because of its versatility and mobility. Among the tasks performed by a hydraulic excavator, repeatable level digging or flat surface finishing may take a large percentage. Using automated functions to perform such repeatable and tedious jobs will not only greatly increase the overall productivity but more importantly also improve the operation safety. For the purpose of investigating the technology without loss of generality, this research is conducted to create a coordinate control method for the boom, arm and bucket cylinders on a hydraulic excavator to perform accurate and effective works. On the basis of the kinematic analysis of the excavator linkage system, the tip trajectory of the end-effector can be determined in terms of three hydraulic cylinders coordinated motion with a visualized method. The coordination of those hydraulic cylinders is realized by controlling three electro-hydranlic proportional valves coordinately. Therefore,the complex control algorithm of a hydraulic excavator can be simplified into coordinated motion control of three individual systems.This coordinate control algorithm was validated on a wheeled hydraulic excavator, and the validation results indicated that this developed control method could satisfaetorily accomplish the auto-digging function for level digging or flat surface finishing.

  16. Interactions Between Channel Topography and Hydrokinetic Turbines: Sediment Transport, Turbine Performance, and Wake Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Craig Steven

    Accelerating marine hydrokinetic (MHK) renewable energy development towards commercial viability requires investigating interactions between the engineered environment and its surrounding physical and biological environments. Complex and energetic hydrodynamic and morphodynamic environments desired for such energy conversion installations present difficulties for designing efficient yet robust sustainable devices, while permitting agency uncertainties regarding MHK device environmental interactions result in lengthy and costly processes prior to installing and demonstrating emerging technologies. A research program at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL), University of Minnesota, utilized multi-scale physical experiments to study the interactions between axial-flow hydrokinetic turbines, turbulent open channel flow, sediment transport, turbulent turbine wakes, and complex hydro-morphodynamic processes in channels. Model axial-flow current-driven three-bladed turbines (rotor diameters, dT = 0.15m and 0.5m) were installed in open channel flumes with both erodible and non-erodible substrates. Device-induced local scour was monitored over several hydraulic conditions and material sizes. Synchronous velocity, bed elevation and turbine performance measurements provide an indication into the effect channel topography has on device performance. Complimentary experiments were performed in a realistic meandering outdoor research channel with active sediment transport to investigate device interactions with bedform migration and secondary turbulent flow patterns in asymmetric channel environments. The suite of experiments undertaken during this research program at SAFL in multiple channels with stationary and mobile substrates under a variety of turbine configurations provides an in-depth investigation into how axial-flow hydrokinetic devices respond to turbulent channel flow and topographic complexity, and how they impact local and far-field sediment transport characteristics

  17. Development of New, Low-Head Hydropower Turbine - Modeling & Laboratory Test DE-EE0005426

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krouse, Wayne [Hydro Green Energy, Westmont, IL (United States)

    2014-12-05

    Hydro Green Energy, LLC (HGE) will complete the design, fabrication and laboratory testing of a scaled, vertically stackable, low-head hydropower turbine called the Modular Bulb Turbine (MBT). HGE will also complete a summary report that includes the laboratory testing results and analysis of the tests. Project Goals: Design, model and test modular bulb turbine for installation in numerous HGE low-head hydropower projects at non-powered USACE dams. Project Results: The sub-scale prototype was tested successfully at a leading US hydraulic laboratory. Laboratory data results agreed well with predicted results from numerical modeling.

  18. CT demonstration of accessory nasal turbinates: secondary middle turbinate and bifid inferior turbinate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksungur, Erol H. [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Bicakci, Kenan [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Inal, Mehmet [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Akguel, Erol [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Binokay, Figen [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Aydogan, Barlas [Department of ENT, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey); Oguz, Mahmut [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cukurova University, Balcali Hospital, Adana, 01330 (Turkey)

    1999-09-01

    Normally, there are three pairs of nasal turbinates in the nasal cavity. Coronal computed tomographies of 253 cases of sinusitis were examined for the presence of additional turbinates and bilateral secondary middle turbinates were detected in two cases. Also, we describe another accessory turbinate, 'bifid inferior turbinate', in one of these cases. Existence of these accessory turbinates may occur during embryologic development of lateral nasal wall.

  19. HYDRAULICS, TUSCARAWAS COUNTY, OHIO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  20. Modeling and Finite Element Analysis of Load-Carrying Performance of a Wind Turbine Considering the Influence of Assembly Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmei Wang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a wind turbine shrink disk is used as the research object to investigate load-carrying performance of a multi-layer interference fit, and the theoretical model and finite element model are constructed. According to those models, a MW-level turbine shrink disk is designed, and a test device is developed to apply torque to this turbine shrink disk by hydraulic jack. Then, the circumferential slip between the contact surfaces is monitored and the slip of all contact surfaces is zero. This conclusion verifies the reasonability of the proposed models. The effect of the key influencing factors, such as machining deviation, assembly clearance and propel stroke, were analyzed. The contact pressure and load torque of the mating surfaces were obtained by building typical models with different parameters using finite element analysis (FEA. The results show that the minimum assembly clearance and the machining deviation within the machining range have little influence on load-carrying performance of multi-layer interference fit, while having a greater influence on the maximum assembly clearance and the propel stroke. The results also show that the load-carrying performance of a multiple-layer interference fit can be ensured only if the key factors are set within a reasonable design range. To avoid the abnormal operation of equipment caused by insufficient load torque, the propel stroke during practical assembly should be at least 0.95 times the designed propel stroke, which is significant in guiding the design and assembly of the multi-layer interference fit.

  1. Control of variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.D.; Soerensen, P. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F. [Aalborg Univ., Inst. of Energy Technology, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    draIn this paper, a Control method suitable for a variable speed grid connected pitch-controlled wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) is developed. The targets of the Control system are: 1) to Control the power drawn from the wind turbine in order to track the wind turbine optimum operation point 2) to limit the power in case of high wind speeds and 3) to Control the reactive power interchanged between the wind turbine generator and the grid. The considered configuration of DFIG is an induction generator with a wound rotor connected to the grid through a back-to-back power converter and a stator directly connected to the grid. The paper presents the overall Control system of the variable speed DFIG wind turbine, with focus on the Control strategies and algorithms applied at each hierarchical Control level of the wind turbine. There are two Control levels: a DFIG Control level and wind turbine Control level. The DFIG Control level contains a fast Control of the power converter and of the doubly-fed induction generator and it has as goal to Control the active and reactive power of the wind turbine independently. The wind turbine Control level supervises with Control signals both the DFIG Control level and the hydraulic pitch Control system of the wind turbine. The present Control method is designed for normal continuous operations. The variable speed/variable pitch wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator is implemented in the dynamic power system simulation tool DIgSILENT, which makes possible to investigate the dynamic performance of gid-connected wind turbines as a part of realistic electrical grid models. Several significant simulation results are performed With the overall Control-implemented algorithm applied on a variable speed, variable pitch wind turbine model. (au)

  2. Evaluation of Blade-Strike Models for Estimating the Biological Performance of Large Kaplan Hydro Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Ploskey, Gene R.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2005-11-30

    BioIndex testing of hydro-turbines is sought as an analog to the hydraulic index testing conducted on hydro-turbines to optimize their power production efficiency. In BioIndex testing the goal is to identify those operations within the range identified by Index testing where the survival of fish passing through the turbine is maximized. BioIndex testing includes the immediate tailrace region as well as the turbine environment between a turbine's intake trashracks and the exit of its draft tube. The US Army Corps of Engineers and the Department of Energy have been evaluating a variety of means, such as numerical and physical turbine models, to investigate the quality of flow through a hydro-turbine and other aspects of the turbine environment that determine its safety for fish. The goal is to use these tools to develop hypotheses identifying turbine operations and predictions of their biological performance that can be tested at prototype scales. Acceptance of hypotheses would be the means for validation of new operating rules for the turbine tested that would be in place when fish were passing through the turbines. The overall goal of this project is to evaluate the performance of numerical blade strike models as a tool to aid development of testable hypotheses for bioIndexing. Evaluation of the performance of numerical blade strike models is accomplished by comparing predictions of fish mortality resulting from strike by turbine runner blades with observations made using live test fish at mainstem Columbia River Dams and with other predictions of blade strike made using observations of beads passing through a 1:25 scale physical turbine model.

  3. Modelling of Hydraulic Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Zhou, Jianjun; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of identifying the physical model (or the grey box model) of a hydraulic test robot. The obtained model is intended to provide a basis for model-based control of the robot. The physical model is formulated in continuous time and is derived by application...

  4. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  5. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on-going...

  6. CFD Analysis of the Runaway Stability of a Model Pump-Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, L. S.; Cheng, Y. G.; You, J. F.; Jiang, Y. Q.

    2016-11-01

    The relations between the runaway stability characteristics and the flow patterns inside the runner of pump-turbine are supposed to be close and should be studied. The runaway processes of a model pump-turbine at four guide-vane openings (GVOs) were simulated by the three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics. The results show that the runaway stability characteristics for the pump-turbine are different at different GVOs. For the small GVOs, the turbine characteristic trajectory undergoes damped oscillations; however, for large GVOs, the turbine characteristic trajectory settles into an un-damping oscillation. The evolution features of the reverse flow vortex structures (RFVS) at the runner inlet during the runaway oscillations have distinct patterns between the small and large GVOs. For small GVOs, the RFVSs only locate at the mid-span; however, for the large GVOs, the location of the RFVSs switches back and forth between the mid-span section and the hub side when the turbine passes in and out the turbine braking mode. The changes of RFVS at the runner inlet dominate the energy transfer among the hydraulic, mechanical and dissipation energies during the transient processes, and therefore affect the stability of hydraulic system.

  7. Modeling and Simulation of a Counter-Rotating Turbine System for Underwater Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinping Wang; Jianjun Dang

    2016-01-01

    The structure of a counter-rotating turbine of an underwater vehicle is designed by adding the counter-rotating second-stage turbine disk to the conventional single-stage turbine. The available kinetic energy and the absorption power of the auxiliary system are calculated at different working conditions, and the results show that the power of the main engine and auxiliary system at the counter-rotating turbine system matches well with each other. The technology scheme of the counter-rotating turbine system is proposed, then the experimental simulation of the lubricating oil loop, fuel loop, and seawater loop is completed. The simulation results indicate that the hydraulic transmission system can satisfy the requirements for an underwater vehicle running at a steady sailing or variable working conditions.

  8. Modeling and simulation of a counter-rotating turbine system for underwater vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinping; Dang, Jianjun

    2016-12-01

    The structure of a counter-rotating turbine of an underwater vehicle is designed by adding the counter-rotating second-stage turbine disk after the conventional single-stage turbine. The available kinetic energy and the absorption power of the auxiliary system are calculated at different working conditions, and the results show that the power of the main engine and auxiliary system at the counter-rotating turbine system matches well with each other. The experimental simulation of the lubricating oil loop, fuel loop, and seawater loop are completed right before the technology scheme of the counter-rotating turbine system is proposed. The simulation results indicate that the hydraulic transmission system can satisfy the requirements for an underwater vehicle running at a steady sailing or variable working conditions.

  9. Evaluation of Impulse Unloading Efficiency Pertaining to APS Power Block Turbine for Higher Dynamic Steadiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Filipchik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the influence of impulse unloading of APS power block turbine on its dynamic steadiness. The performed calculations while simulating four various impulse turbine characteristics have shown that the highest effect is obtained while characteristics of APS power block turbine are close to the characteristics of a steam turbine K-300/240. It has been established that an application of standard time interval for emergency automation startup and existing delay in the operation of electro-hydraulic transformer do not allow to influence on acceleration area and the positive effect due to load shedding is reached only due to an increase of braking site. While decreasing time period for control signal supply from 0,2 sec to 0,1 sec it is possible to increase steadiness by 10 %  for impulse characteristics of APS power blocks and by 39,9–42,6 % – for characteristics of the turbine K-300/240.

  10. Digital Manufacture Techniques for Large Hydro Turbine's Blades

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Xide; ZHANG Qinghua; ZHOU Yunfei; YAN Sijie

    2006-01-01

    Blades are one of the vital components and most difficulty in manufacturing of large hydro turbines. In order to cost-effectively and productively manufacture these kinds of blades, a series of digital techniques in manufacturing have been developed, which includes digital design of hydro turbine blades based on manufacture' requirements, Computer-aided location and the machined error evaluation by using 3-dimensional digitized measuring, tool path generation strategy to meet requirements of enhancing machining efficiency and controlling deviation in NC machining, tool path generation and NC machining simulation by establishing a virtual NC machining environment for blades, and reasonable and feasible strategy and the systematic scheme for manufacturing of large blades by using 5-axis simultaneous CNC machining. The developed digital manufacture techniques have been successfully applied in manufacturing of both the large Kaplan and Francis hydraulic turbine blades; it shows that higher efficiency and the better surfaces finish accuracy can be achieved.

  11. Development of a more fish-tolerant turbine runner, advanced hydropower turbine project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, T.C.; Hecker, G.E. [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., Holden, MA (United States). Alden Research Lab.; Faulkner, H.B.; Jansen, W. [Northern Research and Engineering Corp., Woburn, MA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Alden Research Laboratory, Inc. (ARL) and Northern Research and Engineering Corporation (NREC) conducted a research program to develop a turbine runner which will minimize fish injury and mortality at hydroelectric projects. ARL?NREC have developed a runner shape which minimizes the number of blade leading edges, reduces the pressure versus time and the velocity versus distance gradients within the runner, minimizes or eliminates the clearance between the runner and runner housing, and maximizes the size of the flow passages, all with minimal penalty on turbine efficiency. An existing pump impeller provided the starting point for developing the fish tolerant turbine runner. The Hidrostal pump is a single bladed combined screw/centrifugal pump which has been proven to transport fish with minimal injury. The focus of the ARL/NREC research project was to develop a new runner geometry which is effective in downstream fish passage and hydroelectric power generation. A flow of 1,000 cfs and a head in the range of 75 ft to 100 ft were selected for conceptual design of the new runner. Conceptual design of the new runner began with a re-evaluation of studies which have been previously conducted to identify probable sources of injury to fish passing through hydraulic turbines. Criteria relative to hydraulic characteristics which are favorable for fish passage were prepared based on a reassessment of the available information. Important criteria used to develop the new runner design included low pressure change rates, minimum absolute pressures, and minimum shear. Other criteria which are reflected in the runner design are a minimum number of blades (only two), minimum total length of leading edges, and large flow passages. 86 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Drilling equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyevodin, Yu.M.; Kholosha, Ye.G.; Leshchenko, A.G.; Timchenko, A.I.

    1979-01-10

    The invention refers to units designed for extracting minerals by mechanical action on the face by a cutting tool. There is a known drills which includes a pulse device which contains a combustion chamber, cylinder, piston-percussion tool and cutting tool. The combustion chamber and the sub-piston cavity of the cylinder are connected by a channel in which there is a distributor. Its shortcoming is the fact that the pulse device does not guarantee the necessary motion of the actuating mechanism for its velocity and frequency of the shocks on the cutting tool. This reduces the efficiency of the operation and limits the area of application. The purpose of the proposed invention is to improve productivity of the device. This is achieved because the head of the drill is equipped with a 2-piston pulse device which contains 2-combustion chambers, 2 working cylinders, 2 piston percussion instruments, a rod with gas-conducting and connecting channels for interconnection of the sub-piston cavities and combustion chambers of both cylinders. The spent gases of one cylinder are used for closing the combustion chamber of the second cylinder.

  13. Hydraulic Yaw System for Wind Turbines with New Compact Hydraulic Motor Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rasmus Mørk; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2011-01-01

    is based on leakage flow. The most critical gaps in the motor, across the end faces of the rotor, are investigated both by a fluid structural interaction simulation model and by experimental prototype tests. The simulation model is the basis for the motor design and the manufacturing tolerances...... volumes is minimizing the deflections, the measured gap height is around ℎ = 10?m and the volumetric efficiency of the motor is around ?v = 0.85. By decreasing the initial gaps from the manufacturing process, this volumetric efficiency can be further increased....

  14. Army Equipment Modernization Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Intrusion System (BAIS) (14.6 percent of the Army Acquisition Objective (AAO) of 8,933). Provides early seismic /acoustic warning, intrusion detection...The advanced affordable Turbine engine (aaTe), S&T Program developed and demon- strated two new helicopter turbine engines that provide significant...improvements in engine power and operating efficiencies. In FY12, the program transitioned to the Army’s Improved Turbine Engine Program (ITEP) to

  15. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sy Ali

    2002-03-01

    The market for power generation equipment is undergoing a tremendous transformation. The traditional electric utility industry is restructuring, promising new opportunities and challenges for all facilities to meet their demands for electric and thermal energy. Now more than ever, facilities have a host of options to choose from, including new distributed generation (DG) technologies that are entering the market as well as existing DG options that are improving in cost and performance. The market is beginning to recognize that some of these users have needs beyond traditional grid-based power. Together, these changes are motivating commercial and industrial facilities to re-evaluate their current mix of energy services. One of the emerging generating options is a new breed of advanced fuel cells. While there are a variety of fuel cell technologies being developed, the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) are especially promising, with their electric efficiency expected around 50-60 percent and their ability to generate either hot water or high quality steam. In addition, they both have the attractive characteristics of all fuel cells--relatively small siting footprint, rapid response to changing loads, very low emissions, quiet operation, and an inherently modular design lending itself to capacity expansion at predictable unit cost with reasonably short lead times. The objectives of this project are to:(1) Estimate the market potential for high efficiency fuel cell hybrids in the U.S.;(2) Segment market size by commercial, industrial, and other key markets;(3) Identify and evaluate potential early adopters; and(4) Develop results that will help prioritize and target future R&D investments. The study focuses on high efficiency MCFC- and SOFC-based hybrids and competing systems such as gas turbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells and traditional grid service. Specific regions in the country have been identified where these

  16. Field study comparing the effect of hydraulic mixing on septic tank performance and sludge accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almomani, Fares

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of hydraulic mixing on anaerobic digestion and sludge accumulation in a septic tank. The performance of a septic tank equipped with a hydraulic mixer was compared with that of a similar standard septic tank over a period of 10 months. The study was conducted in two phases: Phase-I--from May to November 2013 (6 months); Phase-II--from January to May 2014 (4 months). Hydraulic mixing effectively reduced the effluent biological oxygen demand (BOD) and total suspended solids, and reduced the sludge accumulation rate in the septic tank. The BOD removal efficiencies during Phase-II were 65% and 75% in the standard septic tank and a septic tank equipped with hydraulic mixer (Smart Digester™), respectively. The effect of hydraulic mixing reduced the rate of sludge accumulation from 0.64 cm/day to 0.27 cm/day, and increased the pump-out interval by a factor of 3.

  17. PREFACE: Francis-99 Workshop 1: steady operation of Francis turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Michel; Hasmukhlal Trivedi, Chiragkumar; Dahlhaug, Ole-Gunnar; Nielsen, Torbjörn

    2015-01-01

    Francis-99 is a set of upcoming workshops jointly organized by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway and Luleå University of Technology (LTU), Sweden in the same spirit as the previous Turbine-99 workshops. The Francis-99 workshops aim during the coming years to determine the state of the art of high head Francis turbine simulations (flow and structure) under steady and transient operating conditions as well as promote their development and knowledge dissemination openly. Three workshops are initially planned: - Workshop 1: steady operation of Francis turbines (December 2014) - Workshop 2: transient operation of Francis turbines (December 2016) - Workshop 3: FSI of Francis turbines (December 2018) A high head Francis turbine model, named the Tokke model, has been designed and experimentally investigated at the Water Power Laboratory, NTNU. The complete geometry of the model and mesh are now freely available on the site www.francis-99.org together with a large set of experimental pressure and velocity measurements. The organisers expect this geometry to become with time a reference test case to the hydraulic community for research and development on high head Francis turbines and the workshops a meeting place to discuss developments, potentials, issues... on a common and open test case. The present proceeding contains the papers presented at the first workshop at NTNU the 15th and 16th of December 2014. 50 participants were present at the workshop and a total of 14 papers were presented. A large variety of codes and models were used highlighting different issues in the simulation of high Francis turbines. The editors: Prof. Michel J. Cervantes (LTU, NTNU) Dr. Chirag Trivedi (NTNU) Prof O.G. Dahlhaug (NTNU) Prof. T. Nielsen (NTNU)

  18. Pitched Blade Turbine Efficiency at Particle Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ceres

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixing suspensions is a very important hydraulic operation. The pitched six-blade turbine is a widely-used axial-flow impeller. This paper deals with effect relative impeller size and particle content on theefficiency of a pitched six-blade turbine at particle suspension. Two pitched six-blade turbines were used in model measurements of just suspension impeller speed. The ratios of the vessel to agitator diameter D/d were 3 and 4.5. The measurements were carried out in a dish-bottomed vessel 300 mm in diameter. The just suspension impeller speeds were measured using an electrochemical method, and were checked visually. A 2.5 % NaCl water solution was used as the liquid phase, and glass particles with four equivalent diameters between 0.18 and 0.89 mmand volumetric concentration from 2.5 % to 40% were usedasthesolid phase. The criterion values πs=Po√Fr'3(d/D7 were calculated from the particle suspension and power consumption measurements. The dependencies of πs on particle content cv show that larger agitators are more efficient for higher particle content.

  19. GAS TURBINE ENGINES CONSUMING BIOGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е. Ясиніцький

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A problem of implementation of biofuel for power plants of big capacity was considered in thisarticle. Up to date in the world practice a wide implementation of biogas plants of low and medialcapacity are integrated. It is explained by the big amount of enterprises in which relatively smallvolumes of organic sediment excrete in the process of its activity. An emphasis of article is on thatenterprises, which have big volumes of sediments for utilizing of which module system of medialcapacity biogas plants are non-effective. The possibility of using biogas and biomethane as a fuelfor gas turbine engine is described. The basic problems of this technology and ways of its solutionsare indicated. Approximate profitability of biogas due to example of compressor station locatednearby poultry factory was determined also. Such factors as process characteristics of engine withcapacity of 5 MW, approximate commercial price for natural gas and equipment costs due toofficial sources of “Zorg Ukraine” company was taken into consideration. The necessity forproviding researches on influence of biogas on the process characteristics of gas turbine engine andits reliability, constructing modern domestic purification system for biogas was shown.

  20. Numerical analysis of flow interaction of turbine system in two-stage turbocharger of internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. B.; Zhuge, W. L.; Zhang, Y. J.; Zhang, S. Y.

    2016-05-01

    To reach the goal of energy conservation and emission reduction, high intake pressure is needed to meet the demand of high power density and high EGR rate for internal combustion engine. Present power density of diesel engine has reached 90KW/L and intake pressure ratio needed is over 5. Two-stage turbocharging system is an effective way to realize high compression ratio. Because turbocharging system compression work derives from exhaust gas energy. Efficiency of exhaust gas energy influenced by design and matching of turbine system is important to performance of high supercharging engine. Conventional turbine system is assembled by single-stage turbocharger turbines and turbine matching is based on turbine MAP measured on test rig. Flow between turbine system is assumed uniform and value of outlet physical quantities of turbine are regarded as the same as ambient value. However, there are three-dimension flow field distortion and outlet physical quantities value change which will influence performance of turbine system as were demonstrated by some studies. For engine equipped with two-stage turbocharging system, optimization of turbine system design will increase efficiency of exhaust gas energy and thereby increase engine power density. However flow interaction of turbine system will change flow in turbine and influence turbine performance. To recognize the interaction characteristics between high pressure turbine and low pressure turbine, flow in turbine system is modeled and simulated numerically. The calculation results suggested that static pressure field at inlet to low pressure turbine increases back pressure of high pressure turbine, however efficiency of high pressure turbine changes little; distorted velocity field at outlet to high pressure turbine results in swirl at inlet to low pressure turbine. Clockwise swirl results in large negative angle of attack at inlet to rotor which causes flow loss in turbine impeller passages and decreases turbine

  1. A detection of the coarse water droplets in steam turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartoš Ondřej

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce a novel method for the detection of coarse water droplets in a low pressure part of steam turbines. The photogrammetry method has been applied for the measurement of coarse droplets in the low-pressure part of a steam turbine. A new probe based on this measurement technique was developed and tested in the laboratory and in a steam turbine in the Počerady power-plant. The probe was equipped with state-of-the-art instrumentation. The paper contains results from laboratory tests and the first preliminary measurements in a steam turbine. Possible applications of this method have been examined.

  2. Wind turbine reliability :understanding and minimizing wind turbine operation and maintenance costs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walford, Christopher A. (Global Energy Concepts. Kirkland, WA)

    2006-03-01

    Wind turbine system reliability is a critical factor in the success of a wind energy project. Poor reliability directly affects both the project's revenue stream through increased operation and maintenance (O&M) costs and reduced availability to generate power due to turbine downtime. Indirectly, the acceptance of wind-generated power by the financial and developer communities as a viable enterprise is influenced by the risk associated with the capital equipment reliability; increased risk, or at least the perception of increased risk, is generally accompanied by increased financing fees or interest rates. This paper outlines the issues relevant to wind turbine reliability for wind turbine power generation projects. The first sections describe the current state of the industry, identify the cost elements associated with wind farm O&M and availability and discuss the causes of uncertainty in estimating wind turbine component reliability. The latter sections discuss the means for reducing O&M costs and propose O&M related research and development efforts that could be pursued by the wind energy research community to reduce cost of energy.

  3. 10 MW Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchi, Craig

    2014-01-29

    The Supercritical CO2 Turbine Test project was to demonstrate the inherent efficiencies of a supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) power turbine and associated turbomachinery under conditions and at a scale relevant to commercial concentrating solar power (CSP) projects, thereby accelerating the commercial deployment of this new power generation technology. The project involved eight partnering organizations: NREL, Sandia National Laboratories, Echogen Power Systems, Abengoa Solar, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Electric Power Research Institute, Barber-Nichols, and the CSP Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The multi-year project planned to design, fabricate, and validate an s-CO2 power turbine of nominally 10 MWe that is capable of operation at up to 700°C and operates in a dry-cooled test loop. The project plan consisted of three phases: (1) system design and modeling, (2) fabrication, and (3) testing. The major accomplishments of Phase 1 included: Design of a multistage, axial-flow, s-CO2 power turbine; Design modifications to an existing turbocompressor to provide s-CO2 flow for the test system; Updated equipment and installation costs for the turbomachinery and associated support infrastructure; Development of simulation tools for the test loop itself and for more efficient cycle designs that are of greater commercial interest; Simulation of s-CO2 power cycle integration into molten-nitrate-salt CSP systems indicating a cost benefit of up to 8% in levelized cost of energy; Identification of recuperator cost as a key economic parameter; Corrosion data for multiple alloys at temperatures up to 650ºC in high-pressure CO2 and recommendations for materials-of-construction; and Revised test plan and preliminary operating conditions based on the ongoing tests of related equipment. Phase 1 established that the cost of the facility needed to test the power turbine at its full power and temperature would exceed the planned funding for Phases 2 and 3. Late

  4. Aquatic Equipment Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, Ruth

    Equipment usually used in water exercise programs is designed for variety, intensity, and program necessity. This guide discusses aquatic equipment under the following headings: (1) equipment design; (2) equipment principles; (3) precautions and contraindications; (4) population contraindications; and (5) choosing equipment. Equipment is used…

  5. Electrical and non-electrical environment of wind turbine main components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holboell, J.; Henriksen, M.; Olsen, R.S.;

    Focus on the development of offshore wind power, and expectations to turbines and substations to operate reliably under all conditions, causes interest in determining exactly what is unique about the wind turbine environment. If not properly dealt with, this environment can shorten the lifetime...... of the electrical components or even lead to catastrophic component failure. In the present paper, results are presented from investigations on existing standards which give detailed descriptions of the environmental and operational conditions of wind turbine components. It is found that there is currently a lack...... of application standards for wind turbine electrical equipment. Component-level environmental requirements as given in equipment-specific standards are compared with the environment described in the IEC's 61400 series concerning wind turbines. Based on methods defined in IEC 60721, the non-electrical environment...

  6. Model predictive control of trailing edge flaps on a wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaignet, Damien Bruno

    , in Roskilde, Denmark. One blade of the turbine was equipped with three independent trailing edge flaps. In spite of the failure of several sensors and actuators, the test of the trailing edge flaps controller described in this thesis showed a consistent flapwise blade root fatigue load reduction. An average......Trailing edge flaps on wind turbine blades have been investigated for several years. Aero-servoelastic simulations carried out with different simulation tools, trailing edge flaps configurations and controller designs proved that trailing edge flaps are a suitable solution for reducing some...... of the wind turbine fatigue and extreme loads. This potential was confirmed with wind tunnel tests made on blade sections with trailing edge flaps and on a scaled two-bladed wind turbine in a wind tunnel. The work presented in this thesis includes a full-scale test run on a Vestas V27 wind turbine equipped...

  7. Aero-Hydro-Elastic Simulation Platform for Wave Energy Systems and floating Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Bjarne Skovmose

    conversion platform, Poseidon, is own and operated by Floating Power Plant A/S. The platform has been operating for two test periods; one period where it was operating as a wave energy conversion platform only and one period where the three turbines was mounted and the platform operated as a combined wind...... and wave energy platform. The PSO project has equipped the platform with comprehensive measurements equipment for measuring platform motion, wave and wind conditions and turbine loads. Data from the first test period has been used for determine if the turbine could be mounted on the platform. Preliminary...... analysis of data from the second test period indicates that the platform is suitable as wind turbine foundation and that the turbines reduce the platform motion....

  8. Modelisation numerique et algebrique des joints labyrinthe des turbines francis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouderlique, Remi

    There are various types of hydraulic turbines. Regarding the operating conditions, geometries and technologies differ. Hydraulic seals are only used in Francis turbines, which are widely used. The role of hydraulic seals is not to be waterproof. Their main aim is to prevent contact between the rotating and static parts of the turbine. Although necessary, hydraulic seals create energetic losses : some fluid does not flow through the runner (leakage loss) and exerts a torque on the rotor (friction loss). In a context of constant progression towards still more efficient turbines, the optimization of each part of the turbine is necessary. Our study is a part of this research seeking to decrease the losses in turbines as much as possible. In order to understand fully the problem, and to ensure an optimal seal exists, an analytical study has been lead in the first place. It establishes the analytical expressions of the speeds, pressure, losses and optimal seal length for laminar flows in straight seals. Various tests were then lead with the ANSYS CFX solver in order to highlight aspects which necessitate a particular attention. For example, the issues of boundary conditions and dimensionless simulations were adressed. A CFD model has then been validated. The results of the experiences lead in the sixties by Dominion Engineering Works, which later became Andritz Hydro Limited, were used in this process. Even if all the tests were not useable, some of them were reproduced numerically. The CFD model which was used features SST turbulence modeling, 2D axisymmetric geometries, parabolic mesh distributions, smooth walls, and a outlet headloss based on the normal speed. For the various tests which were considered, the average discrepancy between numerical and experimental results is 6.5%. More than 60% of the discrepancies of those simulations are below the empirical uncertainty. That is why this model can be used for numerical experiences : as long as these experiences are in

  9. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  10. Design and manufacture of turbine runner blades using CAD/CAM technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohmer, F.; Winkler, S.

    1986-05-01

    Advances in hydraulic and mechanical design and manufacture of hydraulic turbines have occured over the last years. The turbines have reached a high level of performance. This is especially a result of a proper design and accurate manufacture of the turbine runner due to the application of the computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing systems combined with new computerized analysis techniques. The various steps of the modular numerical system - hydraulic computation, interactive blade design, fluid flow analysis, stress analysis and CNC-manufacture of the model blade - are shown on the example of a runner blade for axial turbines. For optimizing the manufacturing of the prototype blade the CAD/CAM-technology is applied. The data flow from the model blade, measured on an electronic coordinate measurement machine, via the CAD/CAM-system, which represents the blade surface in a mathematical form and calculates the tool paths, to the five axis CNC-milling machine is demonstrated. Through the application of the CAD/CAM-technology to hydraulic blades the time frame for designing and manufacturing has been reduced while improving quality and accuracy of the blades.

  11. Simulations of wind turbine rotor with vortex generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zahle, Frederik; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents simulations of the DTU 10MW wind turbine rotor equipped with vortex generators (VGs) on the inner part of the blades. The objective is to study the influence of different VG configurations on rotor performance and in particular to investigate the radial dependence of VGs, i...

  12. Undular Hydraulic Jump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Castro-Orgaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition from subcritical to supercritical flow when the inflow Froude number Fo is close to unity appears in the form of steady state waves called undular hydraulic jump. The characterization of the undular hydraulic jump is complex due to the existence of a non-hydrostatic pressure distribution that invalidates the gradually-varied flow theory, and supercritical shock waves. The objective of this work is to present a mathematical model for the undular hydraulic jump obtained from an approximate integration of the Reynolds equations for turbulent flow assuming that the Reynolds number R is high. Simple analytical solutions are presented to reveal the physics of the theory, and a numerical model is used to integrate the complete equations. The limit of application of the theory is discussed using a wave breaking condition for the inception of a surface roller. The validity of the mathematical predictions is critically assessed using physical data, thereby revealing aspects on which more research is needed

  13. Numerical simulation of the two-phase flows in a hydraulic coupling by solving VOF model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Y.; Zuo, Z. G.; Liu, S. H.; Fan, H. G.; Zhuge, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    The flow in a partially filled hydraulic coupling is essentially a gas-liquid two-phase flow, in which the distribution of two phases has significant influence on its characteristics. The interfaces between the air and the liquid, and the circulating flows inside the hydraulic coupling can be simulated by solving the VOF two-phase model. In this paper, PISO algorithm and RNG k-ɛ turbulence model were employed to simulate the phase distribution and the flow field in a hydraulic coupling with 80% liquid fill. The results indicate that the flow forms a circulating movement on the torus section with decreasing speed ratio. In the pump impeller, the air phase mostly accumulates on the suction side of the blades, while liquid on the pressure side; in turbine runner, air locates in the middle of the flow passage. Flow separations appear near the blades and the enclosing boundaries of the hydraulic coupling.

  14. Wind turbine acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    1990-01-01

    Available information on the physical characteristics of the noise generated by wind turbines is summarized, with example sound pressure time histories, narrow- and broadband frequency spectra, and noise radiation patterns. Reviewed are noise measurement standards, analysis technology, and a method of characterizing wind turbine noise. Prediction methods are given for both low-frequency rotational harmonics and broadband noise components. Also included are atmospheric propagation data showing the effects of distance and refraction by wind shear. Human perception thresholds, based on laboratory and field tests, are given. Building vibration analysis methods are summarized. The bibliography of this report lists technical publications on all aspects of wind turbine acoustics.

  15. Wind turbine acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    1990-12-01

    Available information on the physical characteristics of the noise generated by wind turbines is summarized, with example sound pressure time histories, narrow- and broadband frequency spectra, and noise radiation patterns. Reviewed are noise measurement standards, analysis technology, and a method of characterizing wind turbine noise. Prediction methods are given for both low-frequency rotational harmonics and broadband noise components. Also included are atmospheric propagation data showing the effects of distance and refraction by wind shear. Human perception thresholds, based on laboratory and field tests, are given. Building vibration analysis methods are summarized. The bibliography of this report lists technical publications on all aspects of wind turbine acoustics.

  16. Composite turbine bucket assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liotta, Gary Charles; Garcia-Crespo, Andres

    2014-05-20

    A composite turbine blade assembly includes a ceramic blade including an airfoil portion, a shank portion and an attachment portion; and a transition assembly adapted to attach the ceramic blade to a turbine disk or rotor, the transition assembly including first and second transition components clamped together, trapping said ceramic airfoil therebetween. Interior surfaces of the first and second transition portions are formed to mate with the shank portion and the attachment portion of the ceramic blade, and exterior surfaces of said first and second transition components are formed to include an attachment feature enabling the transition assembly to be attached to the turbine rotor or disk.

  17. General overview of the AxialT project: A partnership for low head turbine developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschenes, C; Ciocan, G D [Laval University, Quebec, QC (Canada); Henau, V De [Alstom Hydro Canada, Tracy, QC (Canada); Flemming, F; Qian, R [Voith Hydro, York, PA, USA and Montreal, Qc (Canada); Huang, J [CanmetENERGY of Natural Resources Canada (Canada); Koller, M; Vu, T [Andritz Hydro, Zuerich, Switzerland and Pointe-Claire, QC (Canada); Naime, F A [Edelca (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Page, M, E-mail: Felix.Flemming@Voith.co, E-mail: Marcel.Koller@andritz.co, E-mail: Claire.Deschenes@gmc.ulaval.c [Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, QC (Canada)

    2010-08-15

    An overview of the AxialT project is presented. Initiated in 2007 by the Consortium on Hydraulic Machines, the aim of this four years project is to contribute to the study of time-dependent hydraulic phenomena in a propeller turbine. The geometry of the entire turbine is generously shared by all partners. Numerical simulations carried out by all partners are confronted with experimental measurements carried out at the LAMH laboratory in Laval University. A mix of 2D LDA, 3D PIV and unsteady pressure measurements are adapted to yield precise measurements at eight strategic locations within the turbine and for nine operating points. Phase resolved analysis is performed wherever applicable. An illustration of potential analysis accessible with the database is shown for the identification of a vortex in the runner at part load.

  18. Hydraulic System Design of Hydraulic Actuators for Large Butterfly Valves

    OpenAIRE

    HUANG, Ye; Liu, Changsheng; Shiongur Bamed

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic control systems of butterfly valves are presently valve-controlled and pump-controlled. Valve-controlled hydraulic systems have serious power loss and generate much heat during throttling. Pump-controlled hydraulic systems have no overflow or throttling losses but are limited in the speed adjustment of the variable-displacement pump, generate much noise, pollute the environment, and have motor power that does not match load requirements, resulting in low efficiency under...

  19. Consequences of variations in spatial turbulence characteristics for fatigue life time of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.C.

    1998-09-01

    The fatigue loading of turbines situated in complex terrain is investigated in order to determine the crucial parameters in the spatial structure of the turbulence in such situations. The parameter study is performed by means of numerical calculations, and it embraces three different wind turbine types, representing a pitch controlled concept, a stall controlled concept, and a stall controlled concept with an extremely flexible tower. For each of the turbine concepts, the fatigue load sensibility to the selected turbulence characteristics are investigated for three different mean wind speeds at hub height. The selected mean wind speeds represent the linear-, the stall-, and the post stall aerodynamic region for the stall controlled turbines and analogously the unregulated-, the partly regulated-, and the fully regulated regime for the pitch controlled turbine. Denoting the turbulence component in the mean wind direction by u, the lateral turbulence component by v, and the vertical turbulence component by w, the selected turbulence characteristics comprise the u-turbulence length scale, the ratio between the v- and w-turbulence intensities and the u-turbulence intensity, the uu-coherence decay factor, and finally the u-v and u-w cross-correlations. The turbulence length scale in the mean wind direction gives rise to significant modification of the fatigue loading on all the investigated wind turbine concepts, but for the other selected parameter variations, large individual differences exists between the turbines. With respect to sensitivity to the performed parameter variations, the Vestas V39 wind turbine is the most robust of the investigated turbines. The Nordtank 500/37 turbine, equipped with the (artificial) soft tower, is by far the most sensitive of the investigated turbine concepts - also much more sensitive than the conventional Nordtank 500/37 turbine equipped with a traditional tower. (au) 2 tabs., 43 ills., 7 refs.

  20. Biomass fuelled indirect fired micro turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pritchard, D.

    2005-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project to further develop and improve a system based on the Bowman TG50 50kWe turbine and a C3(S) combustor with a high temperature heat exchanger for the production of electricity from biomass. Details are given of the specific aims of the project, the manufacture of a new larger biomass combustor, the development of startup and shutdown procedures, waste heat recuperation, adaption of a PC-based mathematical model, and capital equipment costs. The significant levels of carbon emission savings and the commercial prospects of the biomass generator gas turbine combined heat and power (CHP) system are considered, and recommendations are presented.

  1. Hydraulic System Design of Hydraulic Actuators for Large Butterfly Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye HUANG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic control systems of butterfly valves are presently valve-controlled and pump-controlled. Valve-controlled hydraulic systems have serious power loss and generate much heat during throttling. Pump-controlled hydraulic systems have no overflow or throttling losses but are limited in the speed adjustment of the variable-displacement pump, generate much noise, pollute the environment, and have motor power that does not match load requirements, resulting in low efficiency under light loads and wearing of the variable-displacement pump. To overcome these shortcomings, this article designs a closed hydraulic control system in which an AC servo motor drives a quantitative pump that controls a spiral swinging hydraulic cylinder, and analyzes and calculates the structure and parameters of a spiral swinging hydraulic cylinder. The hydraulic system adjusts the servo motor’s speed according to the requirements of the control system, and the motor power matches the power provided to components, thus eliminating the throttling loss of hydraulic circuits. The system is compact, produces a large output force, provides stable transmission, has a quick response, and is suitable as a hydraulic control system of a large butterfly valve.

  2. Simultaneous transient operation of a high head hydro power plant and a storage pumping station in the same hydraulic scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, D. M.; Dunca, G.; Cervantes, M. J.; Cǎlinoiu, C.; Isbǎşoiu, E. C.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents an on-site experimental analysis of a high head hydro power plant and a storage pumping station, in an interconnected complex hydraulic scheme during simultaneous transient operation. The investigated hydropower site has a unique structure as the pumping station discharges the water into the hydropower plant penstock. The operation regimes were chosen for critical scenarios such as sudden load rejections of the turbines as well as start-ups and stops with different combinations of the hydraulic turbines and pumps operation. Several parameters were simultaneously measured such as the pumped water discharge, the pressure at the inlet pump section, at the outlet of the pumps and at the vane house of the hydraulic power plant surge tank. The results showed the dependence of the turbines and the pumps operation. Simultaneous operation of the turbines and the pumps is possible in safe conditions, without endangering the machines or the structures. Furthermore, simultaneous operation of the pumping station together with the hydropower plant increases the overall hydraulic efficiency of the site since shortening the discharge circuit of the pumps.

  3. Aeroservoelasticity of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Bjarne Skovmose

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with the fundamental aeroelastic interaction between structural motion, Pitch action and control for a wind turbine blade. As wind turbines become larger, the interaction between pitch action, blade motion, aerodynamic forces, and control become even more important to understand...... to a 2D blade section model, and it can be used instead of this in many applications, giving a transparent connection to a real wind turbine blade. In this work the aeroelastic blade model is used to analyze interaction between pitch action, blade motion and wind speed variations. Furthermore the model...... conditions. So, a new aeroelastic blade model has been derived, which includes important features of large wind turbines, yet simple enough to be suitable for analytical analysis and control design....

  4. Gas turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawlor, Shawn P.; Roberts, II, William Byron

    2016-03-08

    A gas turbine engine with a compressor rotor having compressor impulse blades that delivers gas at supersonic conditions to a stator. The stator includes a one or more aerodynamic ducts that each have a converging portion and a diverging portion for deceleration of the selected gas to subsonic conditions and to deliver a high pressure oxidant containing gas to flameholders. The flameholders may be provided as trapped vortex combustors, for combustion of a fuel to produce hot pressurized combustion gases. The hot pressurized combustion gases are choked before passing out of an aerodynamic duct to a turbine. Work is recovered in a turbine by expanding the combustion gases through impulse blades. By balancing the axial loading on compressor impulse blades and turbine impulse blades, asymmetrical thrust is minimized or avoided.

  5. Wind turbine state estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic inflow is an effect which is normally not included in the models used for wind turbine control design. Therefore, potential improvement from including this effect exists. The objective in this project is to improve the methods previously developed for this and especially to verify...... the results using full-scale wind turbine data. The previously developed methods were based on extended Kalman filtering. This method has several drawback compared to unscented Kalman filtering which has therefore been developed. The unscented Kalman filter was first tested on linear and non-linear test cases...... which was successful. Then the estimation of a wind turbine state including dynamic inflow was tested on a simulated NREL 5MW turbine was performed. This worked perfectly with wind speeds from low to nominal wind speed as the output prediction errors where white. In high wind where the pitch actuator...

  6. Monitoring of wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jonathan R.; Adams, Douglas E.; Paquette, Josh

    2017-07-25

    Method and apparatus for determining the deflection or curvature of a rotating blade, such as a wind turbine blade or a helicopter blade. Also, methods and apparatus for establishing an inertial reference system on a rotating blade.

  7. Influence of the vibro-acoustic sensor position on cavitation detection in a Kaplan turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, H.; Kirschner, O.; Riedelbauch, S.; Necker, J.; Kopf, E.; Rieg, M.; Arantes, G.; Wessiak, M.; Mayrhuber, J.

    2014-03-01

    Hydraulic turbines can be operated close to the limits of the operating range to meet the demand of the grid. When operated close to the limits, the risk increases that cavitation phenomena may occur at the runner and / or at the guide vanes of the turbine. Cavitation in a hydraulic turbine can cause material erosion on the runner and other turbine parts and reduce the durability of the machine leading to required outage time and related repair costs. Therefore it is important to get reliable information about the appearance of cavitation during prototype operation. In this experimental investigation the high frequency acoustic emissions and vibrations were measured at 20 operating points with different cavitation behaviour at different positions in a large prototype Kaplan turbine. The main goal was a comparison of the measured signals at different sensor positions to identify the sensitivity of the location for cavitation detection. The measured signals were analysed statistically and specific values were derived. Based on the measured signals, it is possible to confirm the cavitation limit of the examined turbine. The result of the investigation shows that the position of the sensors has a significant influence on the detection of cavitation.

  8. Noise from wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fegeant, Olivier [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Building Sciences

    2002-02-01

    A rapid growth of installed wind power capacity is expected in the next few years. However, the siting of wind turbines on a large scale raises concerns about their environmental impact, notably with respect to noise. To this end, variable speed wind turbines offer a promising solution for applications in densely populated areas like the European countries, as this design would enable an efficient utilisation of the masking effect due to ambient noise. In rural and recreational areas where wind turbines are sited, the ambient noise originates from the action of wind on the vegetation and about the listener's ear (pseudo-noise). It shows a wind speed dependence similar to that of the noise from a variable speed wind turbine and can therefore mask the latter for a wide range of conditions. However, a problem inherent to the design of these machines is their proclivity to pure tone generation, because of the enhanced difficulty of avoiding structural resonances in the mechanical parts. Pure tones are deemed highly annoying and are severely regulated by most noise policies. In relation to this problem, the vibration transmission of structure-borne sound to the tower of the turbine is investigated, in particular when the tower is stiffened at its upper end. Furthermore, since noise annoyance due to wind turbine is mostly a masking issue, the wind-related sources of ambient noise are studied and their masking potentials assessed. With this aim, prediction models for wind-induced vegetation noise and pseudo-noise have been developed. Finally, closely related to the effect of masking, is the difficulty, regularly encountered by local authorities and wind farm developers, to measure noise immission from wind turbines. A new measurement technique has thus been developed in the course of this work. Through improving the signal-to-noise ratio between wind turbine noise and ambient noise, the new technique yields more accurate measurement results.

  9. Wind turbines and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rideout, K.; Copes, R.; Bos, C. [National Colaborating Centre for Environmental Health, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2010-01-15

    This document summarized the potential health hazards associated with wind turbines, such as noise and low frequency sound, vibration and infrasound; electromagnetic fields (EMF); shadow flicker; and ice throw and structural failure. Various symptoms can be attributed to wind turbines, including dizziness, sleep disruption, and headaches. A review of available research regarding potential health affects to residents living in close proximity to wind turbines showed that the sound level associated with wind turbines at common residential setbacks is not sufficient to damage hearing, but may lead to annoyance and sleep disturbance. Research has shown that wind turbines are not a significant source of EMF exposure, and although shadows caused by the blades may be annoying, they are not likely to cause epileptic seizures at normal operational speeds. The risk of injury from ice throw can be minimized with setbacks of 200 to 400 m. Examples of Canadian wind turbine setback guidelines and regulations were also offered. It was concluded that setbacks and operational guidelines can be utilized in combination to address safety hazards, sound levels, land use issues, and impacts on people. 46 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  10. Research in Aeroelasticity EFP-2006[Wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bak, C.

    2007-07-15

    This report contains the results from the Energy Research Project 'Program for Research in Applied Aeroelasticity, EFP-2006' covering the period from 1. April 2006 to 31. March 2007. A summary of the main results from the project is given in the following. The aerodynamics for rotors incl. spinner and winglets were clarified and the needed premises for an optimal rotor were explained. Also, the influence of viscous effects on rotor blades was investigated and the results indicated a range of optimum tip speed ratios. The use of winglets for wind turbine rotor was investigated and it was found that they can be used successfully, but that downwind and short winglets are most efficient. Investigating a strategy for reduction of loads and vibrations at extreme wind speeds showed that there are considerably uncertainties in the numerical models and that the main concluding remark is that measurements on a real blade or a real turbine are needed to further conclude the investigation. In the study of flutter and other torsional vibrations of blades at large deflections, modeling and analysis of the dynamics of a hydraulic pitch system for a 5 MW wind turbine was carried out. It was shown that the compressibility of the hydraulic oil introduced a dynamic mode in the pitch bearing degree of freedom. Also, investigating flutter for blades at large deflections showed that the flutter limit for a 5MW blade was moved significantly compared to blades without large deflections. The influence of modeling nacelle components was investigated by developing a generalized method to interface dynamic systems to the aeroelastic program HAWC2 and by exemplify by modeling the nacelle of an aeroelastic wind turbine model in a more detailed way by including a single planet stage of a gearbox. This simplified gearbox model captures in essence the splitting of the driving torque from the rotor shaft to the frame of the nacelle and to the generator. Investigating the influence of wind

  11. Modelling of Hydraulic Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Zhou, Jianjun; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of identifying the physical model (or the grey box model) of a hydraulic test robot. The obtained model is intended to provide a basis for model-based control of the robot. The physical model is formulated in continuous time and is derived by application...... of the laws of physics on the system. The unknown (or uncertain) parameters are estimated with Maximum Likelihood (ML) parameter estimation. The identified model has been evaluated by comparing the measurements with simulation of the model. The identified model was much more capable of describing the dynamics...... of the system than the deterministic model....

  12. Hydraulic mining method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Lester H.; Knoke, Gerald S.

    1985-08-20

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  13. Spinning hydraulic jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahmane, Hamid; Kasimov, Aslan

    2013-11-01

    We report an experimental observation of a new symmetry breaking of circular hydraulic jump into a self-organized structure that consists of a spinning polygonal jump and logarithmic-spiral waves of fluid elevation downstream. The waves are strikingly similar to spiral density waves in galaxies. The fluid flow exhibits counterparts of salient morphological features of galactic flows, in particular the outflow from the center, jets, circum-nuclear rings, gas inflows toward the galactic center, and vortices. The hydrodynamic instability revealed here may have a counterpart that plays a role in the formation and sustainability of spiral arms in galaxies.

  14. Servo-elastic dynamics of a hydraulic actuator pitching a blade with large deflections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Kallesøe, Bjarne Skovmose

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the servo-elastic dynamics of a hydraulic pitch actuator acting on a largely bend wind turbine blade. The compressibility of the oil and flexibility of the hoses introduce a dynamic mode in the pitch bearing degree of freedom. This mode may obtain negative damping...... if the proportional gain on the actuator position error is defined too large relative to the viscous forces in the hydraulic system and the total rotational inertia of the pitch bearing degree of freedom. A simple expression for the stability limit of this proportional gain is derived for tuning the gain based...

  15. Experimental Validation of Mathematical Framework for Fast Switching Valves used in Digital Hydraulic Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Christian; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Bech, Michael Møller;

    2015-01-01

    A prototype of a fast switching valve designed for a digital hydraulic transmission has been manufactured and experimentally tested. The valve is an annular seat valve composed of a plunger connected with a direct electromagnetic moving coil actuator as the force producing element. Based...... on an elaborate optimization method the valve is designed to maximize the efficiency of a digital hydraulic motor targeted to a wind turbine transmission system. The optimisation method comprises a mathematical framework which predicts a valve switching time of approximately 1 ms with a peak actuator input power...

  16. Next Generation Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheraghi, S. Hossein [Western New England Univ., Springfield, MA (United States); Madden, Frank [FloDesign Wind Turbine Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this collaborative effort between Western New England University's College of Engineering and FloDesign Wind Turbine (FDWT) Corporation to wok on a novel areodynamic concept that could potentially lead to the next generation of wind turbines. Analytical studies and early scale model tests of FDWT's Mixer/Ejector Wind Turbine (MEWT) concept, which exploits jet-age advanced fluid dynamics, indicate that the concept has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of electricity over conventional Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines while reducing land usage. This project involved the design, fabrication, and wind tunnel testing of components of MEWT to provide the research and engineering data necessary to validate the design iterations and optimize system performance. Based on these tests, a scale model prototype called Briza was designed, fabricated, installed and tested on a portable tower to investigate and improve the design system in real world conditions. The results of these scale prototype efforts were very promising and have contributed significantly to FDWT's ongoing development of a product scale wind turbine for deployment in multiple locations around the U.S. This research was mutually beneficial to Western New England University, FDWT, and the DOE by utilizing over 30 student interns and a number of faculty in all efforts. It brought real-world wind turbine experience into the classroom to further enhance the Green Engineering Program at WNEU. It also provided on-the-job training to many students, improving their future employment opportunities, while also providing valuable information to further advance FDWT's mixer-ejector wind turbine technology, creating opportunities for future project innovation and job creation.

  17. Next Generation Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheraghi, S. Hossein [Western New England University; Madden, Frank [FloDesign Wind Turbine Corp

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this collaborative effort between Western New England University's College of Engineering and FloDesign Wind Turbine (FDWT) Corporation to wok on a novel areodynamic concept that could potentially lead to the next generation of wind turbines. Analytical studies and early scale model tests of FDWT's Mixer/Ejector Wind Turbine (MEWT) concept, which exploits jet-age advanced fluid dynamics, indicate that the concept has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of electricity over conventional Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines while reducing land usage. This project involved the design, fabrication, and wind tunnel testing of components of MEWT to provide the research and engineering data necessary to validate the design iterations and optimize system performance. Based on these tests, a scale model prototype called Briza was designed, fabricated, installed and tested on a portable tower to investigate and improve the design system in real world conditions. The results of these scale prototype efforts were very promising and have contributed significantly to FDWT's ongoing development of a product scale wind turbine for deployment in multiple locations around the U.S. This research was mutually benficial to Western New England University, FDWT, and the DOE by utilizing over 30 student interns and a number of faculty in all efforts. It brought real-world wind turbine experience into the classroom to further enhance the Green Engineering Program at WNEU. It also provided on-the-job training to many students, improving their future employment opportunities, while also providing valuable information to further advance FDWT'w mixer-ejector wind turbine technology, creating opportunities for future project innovation and job creation.

  18. High load vortex oscillations developed in Francis turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, D.; Rivetti, A.; Lucino, C.

    2016-11-01

    Francis turbines operating at high load conditions produce a typical flow pattern in the draft tube cone characterized by the presence of an axisymmetric central vortex. This central cavity could become unstable, generating synchronic pressure pulsations, usually called self-excited oscillations, which propagate into the whole machine. The on-set and size of the central vortex cavity depend on the geometry of the runner and draft tube and on the operating point as well. Numerical flow simulations and model tests allow for the characterization of the different flow patterns induced by each particular Francis turbine design and, when studied in combination with the hydraulic system, including the intake and penstock, could predict the prototype hydraulic behavior for the complete operation zone. The present work focuses the CFD simulation on the development and dynamic behavior of the central axisymmetric vortex for a medium-head Francis turbine operating at high load conditions. The CFD simulations are based in two-phase transient calculations. Oscillation frequencies against its cavity volume development were obtained and good correlation was found with experimental results.

  19. Numerical Investigation of the Internal Flow in a Banki Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús De Andrade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the numerical analysis of the internal flow in a hydraulic cross-flow turbine type Banki. A 3D-CFD steady state flow simulation has been performed using ANSYS CFX codes. The simulation includes nozzle, runner, shaft, and casing. The turbine has a specific speed of 63 (metric units, an outside runner diameter of 294 mm. Simulations were carried out using a water-air free surface model and k-ε turbulence model. The objectives of this study were to analyze the velocity and pressure fields of the cross-flow within the runner and to characterize its performance for different runner speeds. Absolute flow velocity angles are obtained at runner entrance for simulations with and without the runner. Flow recirculation in the runner interblade passages and shocks of the internal cross-flow cause considerable hydraulic losses by which the efficiency of the turbine decreases significantly. The CFD simulations results were compared with experimental data and were consistent with global performance parameters.

  20. Feasibility of generating electricity for clinics using wind turbines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available of operating wind speeds. It has a stationary stator and permanent-magnet rotor. The decision regarding the size of the wind turbine of 300kW was influenced by research undertaken by Frost & Sullivan. Frost & Sullivan undertook a study entitled “African... Large- Scale Wind Turbine Market” and provided an in-depth analysis of the market drivers, equipment suppliers and industry challenges in the African wind-power market. In this research, Frost & Sullivan, examined the North Africa and Sub...

  1. Characterization of bead trajectories through the draft tube of a turbine physical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiland, M. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mueller, R. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carlson, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deng, Z. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McKinstry, C. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2005-02-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) makes extensive use of 1:25 scale Plexiglass models of hydroelectric turbines along the Columbia River to study turbine hydraulic performance and to identify potential hazards for fish passing through the turbines. Plastic beads are sent through the models and imaging has been done with laser Doppler velocimetry and high-speed videography to measure flow field variables and to study the probable paths of fish through the turbine units. Understanding has been limited by the lack of data showing actual bead trajectories in three dimensions (3-D) and the lack of quantified velocity, acceleration, and other kinematics describing the trajectories of beads as they pass through the physical models.

  2. Hydraulic rams; a comparative investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tacke, J.H.P.M.

    1988-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the essential features of hydraulic ram operation is developed in order to clarify the possibilities and limitations of the ram relative to its site and its adjustments. The model distinguishes three different periods in the pumping cycle of the hydraulic ram: acceler

  3. Hydraulics. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on hydraulics is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids for training in the servicing of agricultural and industrial machinery. Focus is on oil hydraulics. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The twelve chapters focus…

  4. Evolution of the Sensor Fish Device for Measuring Physical Conditions in Severe Hydraulic Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Duncan, Joanne P.

    2003-02-28

    To assist in deriving biological specifications for design of turbine rehabilitation measures, new ''fish-friendly'' turbines, and spillway designs and operations, scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have developed and tested an autonomous multi-sensor device called a Sensor Fish that can acquire pressure and tri-axial linear acceleration data during passage through severe hydraulic conditions. The purpose of the Sensor Fish is to characterize physical conditions fish experience during passage through hydro turbines, spill stilling basins, high-discharge outfalls, and other dam passage routes. The Sensor Fish was developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Advanced Hydropower Turbine System program. Field tests of the Sensor Fish at Rock Island, McNary, The Dalles, Bonneville, and Wanapum dams on the Columbia River and the Prosser Irrigation District on the Yakima River have shown that the device can withstand the severe environments of turbine, spill, and fish bypass passage and provide useful environmental data that can ultimately aid in the design and operation of new and existing turbines, spill, and dam fish bypass facilities.

  5. An Investigation into Wind Turbine Acoustic Noise Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Steven

    Wind turbine acoustic noise has been the subject of significant research in recent decades due to rapid growth in the wind energy industry. Available space with a reliable wind resource and that does not reside near populated areas is becoming extremely scarce, particularly in Europe. This decline in available space then results in a heightened need for wind turbine designs to be optimized for both acoustic emission and power-performance. Due to highly variable operating conditions, wind turbine acoustic noise emission may deviate from design levels, causing irritation to local residents and requiring reduced power production of the contributing turbines. The objective of this dissertation is to investigate two parameters that contribute to this variability--atmospheric turbulence in the inflow field, and aerodynamic flow separation--such that they may be more fully understood and properly accounted for in design. Results are achieved through an extensive experimental campaign on a full-scale turbine equipped with a thorough sensor network. Several novel flow characterization methods are developed, including a method of in-situ turbulence measurement using blade-mounted accelerometers. Turbulent inflow noise is shown to dominate the low frequency portion of the emitted spectrum for normal turbine operation and increases levels by as much as 6 dB for the conditions observed at the research facility. Experimental observations are typically within 2-3 dB of a commonly implemented noise prediction model. Finally, a study into the effects of high angle of attack operation shows that aerodynamic flow separation--detected using static pressure sensors along one blade of the turbine--can increase overall noise levels by more than 10 dB, thus dominating turbulent inflow noise at low frequencies. The studies of both turbulent inflow noise and flow separation noise represent the most thorough experimental observations and analysis of the respective noise mechanisms on a full

  6. Hydroscoop - Bulletin of the small-scale hydraulic laboratory MHyLab; Hydroscoop - Bulletin d'information MHyLab laboratoire de petite hydraulique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis, V.

    2009-07-01

    This is issue Nr. 5 of the news bulletin of MHyLab, the small-scale hydraulic laboratory in Montcherand, Switzerland. The history of MHyLab development is recalled. The objective of the laboratory is given: the laboratory development of efficient and reliable turbines for the entire small-scale hydraulic range (power: 10 to 2000 kW, flow rate: 0.01 to 10 m{sup 3}/s, hydraulic head: 1 m up to more than 700 m). The first period (1997-2001) was devoted to Pelton turbines for high heads (60 to 70 m) and the second (2001-2009) to Kaplan turbines for low and very low heads (1 to 30 m). In the third period (beginning 2008) diagonal turbines for medium heads (25 to 100 m) are being developed. MHyLab designed, modelled and tested all these different types. The small-scale hydraulic market developed unexpectedly quickly. The potential of small-scale hydraulics in the Canton of Vaud, western Switzerland is presented. Three implemented projects are reported on as examples for MHyLab activities on the market place. The MHyLab staff is presented.

  7. Hydraulic Stability of Accropode Armour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.; Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    , and to assess the influence of core permeability on the hydraulic stability of Accropodes. Two structures were examined, one with a relatively permeable core and one with a relatively impermeable core. In November/December 1995, Ph.D.-student Marten Christensen carried out the model tests on the structure...... with permeable core (crushed granite with a gradation of 5-8 mm). The outcome of this study is described in "Hydraulic Stability of Single-Layer Dolos and Accropode Armour Layers" by Christensen & Burcharth (1995). In January/February 1996, Research Assistant Thomas Jensen carried out a similar study......The present report describes the hydraulic model tests of Accropode armour layers carried out at the Hydraulics Laboratory at Aalborg University from November 1995 through March 1996. The objective of the model tests was to investigate the hydraulic stability of Accropode armour layers...

  8. Hydraulic Stability of Accropode Armour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.; Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    , and to assess the influence of core permeability on the hydraulic stability of Accropodes. Two structures were examined, one with a relatively permeable core and one with a relatively impermeable core. In November/December 1995, Ph.D.-student Marten Christensen carried out the model tests on the structure...... with permeable core (crushed granite with a gradation of 5-8 mm). The outcome of this study is described in "Hydraulic Stability of Single-Layer Dolos and Accropode Armour Layers" by Christensen & Burcharth (1995). In January/February 1996, Research Assistant Thomas Jensen carried out a similar study......The present report describes the hydraulic model tests of Accropode armour layers carried out at the Hydraulics Laboratory at Aalborg University from November 1995 through March 1996. The objective of the model tests was to investigate the hydraulic stability of Accropode armour layers...

  9. Wind turbine control and monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Ningsu; Acho, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the latest technical developments and trends involving wind turbine control and monitoring, fault diagnosis, and wind power systems, 'Wind Turbine Control and Monitoring' presents an accessible and straightforward introduction to wind turbines, but also includes an in-depth analysis incorporating illustrations, tables and examples on how to use wind turbine modeling and simulation software.   Featuring analysis from leading experts and researchers in the field, the book provides new understanding, methodologies and algorithms of control and monitoring, comput

  10. Improvement of automatic control systems of high-power turbines of PAO tubroatom for nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvetsov, V. L.; Babaev, I. N.

    2017-09-01

    The main technical solutions applied by PAO Turboatom used as the compensatory measures at the increase of the period of nonstop operation of nuclear power plants' (NPP) turbines with VVER-1000 type reactors up to 18 months are (1) replacing the standard hydraulic speed controller with an electronic one, (2) introduction of overclocking protection, (3) modernization of units of stop-control valves of high pressures, (4) installation of locking dampers on the receiver tubes of turbines of the first and second modification, and (5) improving the quality of repairs by reviewing the requirements for their implementation. The introduction of complex diagnostics of a control system on the basis of automatic treatment of results of registration of working parameters of the turbine is allocated as a separate prospective direction. Using an electronic controller of speed makes it possible to simplify the procedure of its inclusion in work at the failure of an electro-hydraulic system of control and vice versa. The regimes of maintaining the turbine rotor speed, steam pressure on the outlet of turbine, and the positions of main servomotors were introduced into the functions of the electronic controller. An electronic controller of speed includes its own electro-hydraulic transducer, turbine rotor speed sensor, and sensors of the position of main servomotors. Into the functions of electro- hydraulic control system and electronic speed controller, the function of overclocking protection, which determines the formation of commands for stopping the turbine at the exceeding of both the defined level of rotation speed and the defined combination of achieved rotation speed and angular acceleration of rotor, was introduced. To simplify the correction of forces acting on the control valve cups, the design of the cups was changed, and it has the profiled inserts. The solutions proposed were implemented on K-1100-60/1500-2M turbines of Rostov NPP. From the composition of control system

  11. Ceramic stationary gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roode, M. van [Solar Turbines Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The performance of current industrial gas turbines is limited by the temperature and strength capabilities of the metallic structural materials in the engine hot section. Because of their superior high-temperature strength and durability, ceramics can be used as structural materials for hot section components (blades, nozzles, combustor liners) in innovative designs at increased turbine firing temperatures. The benefits include the ability to increase the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) to about 1200{degrees}C ({approx}2200{degrees}F) or more with uncooled ceramics. It has been projected that fully optimized stationary gas turbines would have a {approx}20 percent gain in thermal efficiency and {approx}40 percent gain in output power in simple cycle compared to all metal-engines with air-cooled components. Annual fuel savings in cogeneration in the U.S. would be on the order of 0.2 Quad by 2010. Emissions reductions to under 10 ppmv NO{sub x} are also forecast. This paper describes the progress on a three-phase, 6-year program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to achieve significant performance improvements and emissions reductions in stationary gas turbines by replacing metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. Progress is being reported for the period September 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995.

  12. Floating wind turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A floating wind turbine system with a tower structure that includes at least one stability arm extending therefrom and that is anchored to the sea floor with a rotatable position retention device that facilitates deep water installations. Variable buoyancy for the wind turbine system is provided by buoyancy chambers that are integral to the tower itself as well as the stability arm. Pumps are included for adjusting the buoyancy as an aid in system transport, installation, repair and removal. The wind turbine rotor is located downwind of the tower structure to allow the wind turbine to follow the wind direction without an active yaw drive system. The support tower and stability arm structure is designed to balance tension in the tether with buoyancy, gravity and wind forces in such a way that the top of the support tower leans downwind, providing a large clearance between the support tower and the rotor blade tips. This large clearance facilitates the use of articulated rotor hubs to reduced damaging structural dynamic loads. Major components of the turbine can be assembled at the shore and transported to an offshore installation site.

  13. Ceramic stationary gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roode, M. van

    1995-12-31

    The performance of current industrial gas turbines is limited by the temperature and strength capabilities of the metallic structural materials in the engine hot section. Because of their superior high-temperature strength and durability, ceramics can be used as structural materials for hot section components (blades, nozzles, combustor liners) in innovative designs at increased turbine firing temperatures. The benefits include the ability to increase the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) to about 1200{degrees}C ({approx}2200{degrees}F) or more with uncooled ceramics. It has been projected that fully optimized stationary gas turbines would have a {approx}20 percent gain in thermal efficiency and {approx}40 percent gain in output power in simple cycle compared to all metal-engines with air-cooled components. Annual fuel savings in cogeneration in the U.S. would be on the order of 0.2 Quad by 2010. Emissions reductions to under 10 ppmv NO{sub x} are also forecast. This paper describes the progress on a three-phase, 6-year program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, to achieve significant performance improvements and emissions reductions in stationary gas turbines by replacing metallic hot section components with ceramic parts. Progress is being reported for the period September 1, 1994, through September 30, 1995.

  14. Improving hydraulic excavator performance through in line hydraulic oil contamination monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Felix; Harding, Jennifer A.; Glass, Jacqueline

    2017-01-01

    It is common for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) of high value products to provide maintenance or service packages to customers to ensure their products are maintained at peak efficiency throughout their life. To quickly and efficiently plan for maintenance requirements, OEMs require accurate information about the use and wear of their products. In recent decades, the aerospace industry in particular has become expert in using real time data for the purpose of product monitoring and maintenance scheduling. Significant quantities of real time usage data from product monitoring are commonly generated and transmitted back to the OEMs, where diagnostic and prognostic analysis will be carried out. More recently, other industries such as construction and automotive, are also starting to develop capabilities in these areas and condition based maintenance (CBM) is increasing in popularity as a means of satisfying customers' demands. CBM requires constant monitoring of real time product data by the OEMs, however the biggest challenge for these industries, in particular construction, is the lack of accurate and real time understanding of how their products are being used possibly because of the complex supply chains which exist in construction projects. This research focuses on current dynamic data acquisition techniques for mobile hydraulic systems, in this case the use of a mobile inline particle contamination sensor; the aim was to assess suitability to achieve both diagnostic and prognostic requirements of Condition Based Maintenance. It concludes that hydraulic oil contamination analysis, namely detection of metallic particulates, offers a reliable way to measure real time wear of hydraulic components.

  15. Electro Hydraulic Hitch Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M. R.; Andersen, T. O.; Nielsen, B.

    2003-01-01

    system for agricultural applications and driving for transportation. During tranport phases, the lack of suspension causes the vehicle to bounce and pitch, and makes it difficalt to control. Many systems have been proposed to cope with the oscillatory behavior, and different solutions exist. Common......This paper present and discusses R&D results on electro hydraulic hitch control for off-road vehicle, in particular active damping of oscillation occuring on tractors. The research deals with analysis and control of the oscillations occuring on tractors which are design without any susspection...... for most of the systems are that they operate on the hydrailc actuators generally providing the motive forces for moving the implement and/or attachment, typically a plough. The basic idea and physical working principle are to use the implement, moveable relative to the vehicle, as a damper mass. The paper...

  16. Banki turbines with power adjustment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darzan, Mihai; Dumitrache, Marius

    2010-09-15

    The paper presents features of the BANKI turbine realized by SC. Electra Total Consulting SA Bucharest, member of Energy Services Group, in consortium with STRAERO SA Bucharest. In this way is presented the prototype of this turbine and its performances which recommends it for the interior rivers of Romania compared with the Ossberger and/or Cink turbines.

  17. Predicting Noise From Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.

    1990-01-01

    Computer program WINDY predicts broadband noise spectra of horizontal-axis wind-turbine generators. Enables adequate assessment of impact of broadband wind-turbine noise. Effects of turbulence, trailing-edge wakes, and bluntness taken into account. Program has practical application in design and siting of wind-turbine machines acceptable to community. Written in GW-Basic.

  18. Demonstration of Enabling Spar-Shell Cooling Technology in Gas Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, James [Florida Turbine Technologies Inc., Jupiter, FL (United States)

    2014-12-29

    In this Advanced Turbine Program-funded Phase III project, Florida Turbine Technologies, Inc. (FTT) has developed and tested, at a pre-commercial prototypescale, spar-shell turbine airfoils in a commercial gas turbine. The airfoil development is based upon FTT’s research and development to date in Phases I and II of Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) grants. During this program, FTT has partnered with an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM), Siemens Energy, to produce sparshell turbine components for the first pre-commercial prototype test in an F-Class industrial gas turbine engine and has successfully completed validation testing. This project will further the commercialization of this new technology in F-frame and other highly cooled turbine airfoil applications. FTT, in cooperation with Siemens, intends to offer the spar-shell vane as a first-tier supplier for retrofit applications and new large frame industrial gas turbines. The market for the spar-shell vane for these machines is huge. According to Forecast International, 3,211 new gas turbines units (in the >50MW capacity size range) will be ordered in ten years from 2007 to 2016. FTT intends to enter the market in a low rate initial production. After one year of successful extended use, FTT will quickly ramp up production and sales, with a target to capture 1% of the market within the first year and 10% within 5 years (2020).

  19. Equipment. Out of order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, C

    2000-08-17

    The NHS has underinvested in equipment for more than 20 years. Most hospitals have inadequate equipment inventories. More than half the anaesthetic machines in use are more than five years old and should be replaced. Almost a fifth of the equipment used in cancer treatment is obsolete. Current accounting systems act as a disincentive to replacing old equipment.

  20. Adaptive Control System of Hydraulic Pressure Based on The Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, A. V.; Pilipenko, A. P.; Kanatnikov, N. V.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the authors highlight the problem of replacing an old heavy industrial equipment, and offer the replacement of obsolete control systems on the modern adaptive control system, which takes into account changes in the hydraulic system of the press and compensates them with a corrective action. The proposed system can reduce a water hammer and thereby increase the durability of the hydraulic system and tools.

  1. Substantiation of the cogeneration turbine unit selection for reconstruction of power units with a T-250/300-23.5 turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valamin, A. E.; Kultyshev, A. Yu.; Shibaev, T. L.; Gol'dberg, A. A.; Sakhnin, Yu. A.; Stepanov, M. Yu.; Bilan, V. N.; Kadkina, I. V.

    2016-11-01

    The selection of a cogeneration steam turbine unit (STU) for the reconstruction of power units with a T-250/300-23.5 turbine is substantiated by the example of power unit no. 9 at the cogeneration power station no. 22 (TETs-22) of Mosenergo Company. Series T-250 steam turbines have been developed for combined heat and power generation. A total of 31 turbines were manufactured. By the end of 2015, the total operation time of prototype power units with the T-250/300-23.5 turbine exceeded 290000 hours. Considering the expiry of the service life, the decision was made that the reconstruction of the power unit at st. no. 9 of TETs-22 should be the first priority. The main issues that arose in developing this project—the customer's requirements and the request for the reconstruction, the view on certain problems of Ural Turbine Works (UTZ) as the manufacturer of the main power unit equipment, and the opinions of other project parties—are examined. The decisions were made with account taken of the experience in operation of all Series T-250 turbines and the results of long-term discussions of pressing problems at scientific and technical councils, meetings, and negotiations. For the new power unit, the following parameters have been set: a live steam pressure of 23.5 MPa and live steam/reheat temperature of 565/565°C. Considering that the boiler equipment will be upgraded, the live steam flow is increased up to 1030 t/h. The reconstruction activities involving the replacement of the existing turbine with a new one will yield a service life of 250000 hours for turbine parts exposed to a temperature of 450°C or higher and 200000 hours for pipeline components. Hence, the decision has been made to reuse the arrangement of the existing turbine: a four-cylinder turbine unit comprising a high-pressure cylinder (HPC), two intermediate pressure cylinders (IPC-1 & 2), and a low-pressure cylinder (LPC). The flow path in the new turbine will have active blading in LPC and IPC-1

  2. Evaluation and application of data sources for assessing operating costs for mechanical drive gas turbines in pipeline service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smalley, A.J.; Mauney, D.A. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States); Ash, D.I. [Conoco Inc., Ponca City, OK (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The use of regression analysis of public domain data provided by interstate pipeline companies to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), combined with individual company equipment lists to generate information on cost of operations, maintenance, fuel gas used and the cost of fuel and power, is demonstrated. Methods of analysis and limitations are identified, and results of such regression analysis as average and variance of cost and fuel usage for industrial gas turbines and aeroderivative gas turbines are discussed. Comparison between gas turbine prime movers, reciprocating engine prime movers and electric motor drives are made, and annual costs per installed horsepower as a function of turbine size are calculated. 1 ref., 6 figs.

  3. Development of a more fish tolerant turbine runner advanced hydropower turbine project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, T.C.; Hecker, G.E. [Worcester Polytechnic Inst., Holden, MA (United States). Alden Research Lab.; Faulkner, H.B.; Jansen, W. [Northern Research and Engineering Corp., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The Hidrostal pump is a single bladed combined screw/centrifugal pump which has been proven to transport fish with minimal injury. The focus of the ARL/NREC research project was to develop a new runner geometry which is effective in downstream fish passage and hydroelectric power generation. A flow of 1,000 cfs and a head in the range of 75 ft to 100 ft were selected for conceptual design of the new runner. Criteria relative to hydraulic characteristics which are favorable for fish passage were prepared based on a reassessment of the available information. Important criteria used to develop the new runner design included low pressure change rates, minimum absolute pressures, and minimum shear. Other criteria which are reflected in the runner design are a minimum number of blades (only two), minimum total length of leading edges, and large flow passages. Flow characteristics of the new runner were analyzed using two- dimensional and three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models. The basic runner geometry was initially selected using the two-dimensional model. The three-dimensional model was used to investigate the flow characteristics in detail through the entire runner and to refine the design by eliminating potential problem areas at the leading and trailing edges. Results of the analyses indicated that the runner has characteristics which should provide safe fish passage with an overall power efficiency of approximately 90%. The size of the new runner, which is larger than conventional turbine runners with the same design flow and head, will provide engineering, fabrication, and installation.challenges related to the turbine components and the civil works. A small reduction in the overall efficiency would reduce the size of the runner considerably, would simplify the turbine manufacturing operations, and would allow installation of the new turbine at more hydroelectric sites.

  4. Turbine airfoil manufacturing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortovich, C. [PCC Airfoils, Inc., Beachwood, OH (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The efficiency and effectiveness of the gas turbine engine is directly related to the turbine inlet temperatures. The ability to increase these temperatures has occurred as a result of improvements in materials, design, and processing techniques. A generic sequence indicating the relationship of these factors to temperature capability is schematically shown in Figure 1 for aircraft engine and land based engine materials. A basic contribution that is not captured by the Figure is the significant improvement in process and manufacturing capability that has accompanied each of these innovations. It is this capability that has allowed the designs and innovations to be applied on a high volume, cost effective scale in the aircraft gas turbine market.

  5. Wind turbine spoiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, W.N.

    An aerodynamic spoiler system for a vertical axis wind turbine includes spoilers on the blades initially stored near the rotor axis to minimize drag. A solenoid latch adjacent the central support tower releases the spoilers and centrifugal force causes the spoilers to move up the turbine blades away from the rotor axis, thereby producing a braking effect and actual slowing of the associated wind turbine, if desired. The spoiler system can also be used as an infinitely variable power control by regulated movement of the spoilers on the blades over the range between the undeployed and fully deployed positions. This is done by the use of a suitable powered reel and cable located at the rotor tower to move the spoilers.

  6. Wind Turbine Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Harvey H.; Shepherd, Kevin P.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbine generators, ranging in size from a few kilowatts to several megawatts, are producing electricity both singly and in wind power stations that encompass hundreds of machines. Many installations are in uninhabited areas far from established residences, and therefore there are no apparent environmental impacts in terms of noise. There is, however, the potential for situations in which the radiated noise can be heard by residents of adjacent neighborhoods, particularly those neighborhoods with low ambient noise levels. A widely publicized incident of this nature occurred with the operation of the experimental Mod-1 2-MW wind turbine, which is described in detail elsewhere. Pioneering studies which were conducted at the Mod-1 site on the causes and remedies of noise from wind turbines form the foundation of much of the technology described in this chapter.

  7. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Seiler, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    , the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10...... offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However...... MW generator and it is concluded that the present production capacity of coated conductors must be increased by a factor of 36 by 2020, resulting in a ten times lower price of the tape in order to reach a realistic price level for the superconducting drive train....

  8. A Study on Control Strategy of Regenerative Braking in the Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Based on ECE Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a mathematic model of composite braking in the hydraulic hybrid vehicle and analyzes the constraint condition of parallel regenerative braking control algorithm. Based on regenerative braking system character and ECE (Economic Commission of Europe regulations, it introduces the control strategy of regenerative braking in parallel hydraulic hybrid vehicle (PHHV. Finally, the paper establishes the backward simulation model of the hydraulic hybrid vehicle in Matlab/simulink and makes a simulation analysis of the control strategy of regenerative braking. The results show that this strategy can equip the hydraulic hybrid vehicle with strong brake energy recovery power in typical urban drive state.

  9. Continuously variable transmission for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, P.

    1996-12-01

    Variable speed is seen as offering clear advantages for wind turbine operation. However, the provision of variable speed incurs additional cost, and the main issue is which, if any, of many alternative variable speed systems offer net cost benefit to the wind turbine. Numerous electrical variable-speed systems have been studied in previous work for the DTI. One mechanical system, the torque limiting gearbox (TLG) concept has also been investigated in a DTI funded project. It compares with a recently developed electrical option, the Vestas ``Opti-Slip`` system and is probably cost-effective. The work described by Bossanyi appears to be the basis of the Vestas Opti-Slip system. These systems are far too limited in speed range to affect noise or energy capture. An innovative system developed by Leyland-DAF for the automobile market, and now licensed to Ford and Toyota by Torotrak Ltd, a company of the British Technology Group (BTG), offers a continuously variable transmission (CVT) of a purely mechanical nature, hydraulically controlled to regulate drive torque as demanded. The Torotrak CVT concept offers wide range variable speed with all the associated advantages. (author)

  10. Torque model of hydro turbine with inner energy loss characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the result and analysis of the composition of energy loss occurring in the hydro turbine. Two new types of energy losses,namely the hydraulic loss in the flow channel and the impact loss,are defined. All losses within the hydro turbine are divided into four types and the loss coefficients are defined accordingly. Expressions or characteristic descriptions of these losses as well as the calibration method of the loss coefficients are presented. Furthermore,the torque model of the hydro turbine where the inner energy loss takes place is established. The developed model has been used to calculate the power loss due to the mechanical friction generated by the units’ rotation to solve the difficulty of measurements of the mechanical friction loss in the hydro turbine. The definition of the impact loss explains the phenomenon that the loss of no-load is greater than that of the rated operation. A set of conversion coefficients are defined using the characteristic parameters at the rated operation,which are used to transform the parameters in the torque model into those that are easily measured. Therefore,the expression of the hydro turbine power is converted into a function that has the main servomotor displacement as its single variable. This makes the proposed model be convenient to use. Finally,the proposed model and methods are calibrated and verified using the measured data of a hydropower plant. Good agreement between the modeled results and the measurements indicates that the proposed model can represent the inner energy loss characteristics of the hydro turbine.

  11. Comparative Study of Barotrauma Risk during Fish Passage through Kaplan Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Marshall C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Group; Romero-Gomez, Pedro [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Group; Serkowski, John A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Group; Rakowski, Cynthia L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Hydrology Group; Graf, Michael J. [Voith Hydro, York, PA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Rapid pressure changes in hydroelectric turbine flows can cause barotrauma that can be hazardous to the passage of fish, in particular migratory juvenile salmonids. Although numerous laboratory tests have evaluated the effect of rapid decompression in fish species of relevance, numerical modeling studies offer the advantage of predicting, for new turbine designs, the potential risks of mortality and injury from rapid pressure change during turbine passage. However, rapid pressure change is only one of several hydraulic risks encountered by fish during turbine passage in addition to blade strike, shear, and turbulence. To better understand the role of rapid pressure changes, the present work focuses on the application of a computational fluid dynamics based method for evaluating the risk of pressure-related mortality to fish passing through an early 1960s era original hydroelectric Kaplan turbine at Wanapum Dam (Columbia River, Washington), and a modern advanced Kaplan turbine installed in 2005. The results show that the modeling approach acceptably reproduced the nadir pressure distributions compared to field data previously collected at the site using an autonomous sensor. Our findings show that the new advanced-design unit performs better, in terms of reduced barotrauma risk to fish from exposure to low pressures, than the original turbine unit. The outcomes allow for comparative analyses of turbine designs and operations prior to installation, an advantage that can potentially be integrated in the process of designing new turbine units to achieve superior environmental performance. Overall, the results show that modern turbine designs can achieve the multiple objectives of increasing power generation, lowering cavitation potential, and reducing barotrauma risks to passing fish.

  12. Designing an H-rotor type Wind Turbine for Operation on Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station

    OpenAIRE

    Wahl, Mats

    2007-01-01

    This thesis focuses on designing the turbine, tower structure and generator for an H-rotor type wind turbine. The produced power will be used for heating of drilling equipment, stored in containers, on the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station. A 23 kW wind turbine producing 5 kW on average has been designed. Moreover, the design has been tested to be mounted on top of the container storing the drilling equipment. Climatological data have been processed to describe the wind regime in useful terms...

  13. Axial turbine with underwater generator for energy recovery; Axialturbine mit Unterwassergenerator zur Energierueckgewinnung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welzel, B. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Stroemungsmechanik und Hydraulische Stroemungsmaschinen

    1997-12-31

    Within the framework of a project sponsored by the Stiftung Energieforschung Baden-Wuerttemberg, an axial turbine was developed as a flash evaporator, which permits energy recovery in all sectors where liquids in piping undergoes pressure relaxation. A specific feature of this turbine is that it forms part, complete with generator, of a single pipeline and that it does not cause any pressure variations worth mentioning in case of mains failure. The report describes the turbine, its advantages, and a pilot operation carried out with a prototype. The turbine`s performance is compared with a return pump. Further, the optimization of the hydraulic design by computer and the results of a market analysis are dealt with. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen einer von der Stiftung Energieforschung Baden-Wuerttemberg gefoerderten Neuentwicklung wurde eine Axialturbine als Entspannungsturbine entwickelt, mit der eine Energierueckgewinnung in allen Bereichen erfolgen kann, in denen Fluessigkeiten in Rohrleitungssystemen entspannt werden. Die Turbine zeichnet sich unter anderem dadurch aus, dass sie komplett, inklusive Generator, innerhalb einer Rohrleitung angeordnet ist und bei Netzausfall keine nennenswerte Druckschwankung erzeugt. Es werden die Turbine, deren Vorteile sowie der mit einem Prototypen durchgefuehrte Betriebsversuch beschrieben. Weiterhin werden ein Vergleich des Betriebsverhaltens mit einer rueckwaertslaufenden Pumpe, die rechnerische Optimierung der hydraulischen Formgebung sowie die Ergebnisse einer Marktanalyse behandelt. (orig.)

  14. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEMS PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Gaul

    2004-04-21

    Natural gas combustion turbines are rapidly becoming the primary technology of choice for generating electricity. At least half of the new generating capacity added in the US over the next twenty years will be combustion turbine systems. The Department of Energy has cosponsored with Siemens Westinghouse, a program to maintain the technology lead in gas turbine systems. The very ambitious eight year program was designed to demonstrate a highly efficient and commercially acceptable power plant, with the ability to fire a wide range of fuels. The main goal of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program was to develop ultra-high efficiency, environmentally superior and cost effective competitive gas turbine systems for base load application in utility, independent power producer and industrial markets. Performance targets were focused on natural gas as a fuel and included: System efficiency that exceeds 60% (lower heating value basis); Less than 10 ppmv NO{sub x} emissions without the use of post combustion controls; Busbar electricity that are less than 10% of state of the art systems; Reliability-Availability-Maintainability (RAM) equivalent to current systems; Water consumption minimized to levels consistent with cost and efficiency goals; and Commercial systems by the year 2000. In a parallel effort, the program was to focus on adapting the ATS engine to coal-derived or biomass fuels. In Phase 1 of the ATS Program, preliminary investigators on different gas turbine cycles demonstrated that net plant LHV based efficiency greater than 60% was achievable. In Phase 2 the more promising cycles were evaluated in greater detail and the closed-loop steam-cooled combined cycle was selected for development because it offered the best solution with least risk for achieving the ATS Program goals for plant efficiency, emissions, cost of electricity and RAM. Phase 2 also involved conceptual ATS engine and plant design and technology developments in aerodynamics, sealing

  15. Vertical axis wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivcov, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Krivospitski, Vladimir [Miass, RU; Maksimov, Vasili [Miass, RU; Halstead, Richard [Rohnert Park, CA; Grahov, Jurij [Miass, RU

    2011-03-08

    A vertical axis wind turbine is described. The wind turbine can include a top ring, a middle ring and a lower ring, wherein a plurality of vertical airfoils are disposed between the rings. For example, three vertical airfoils can be attached between the upper ring and the middle ring. In addition, three more vertical airfoils can be attached between the lower ring and the middle ring. When wind contacts the vertically arranged airfoils the rings begin to spin. By connecting the rings to a center pole which spins an alternator, electricity can be generated from wind.

  16. Offshore Wind Turbine Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten; Hansen, Erik Asp; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2006-01-01

    Current offshore wind turbine design methods have matured to a 1st generation state, manifested in the draft of a possible standard, IEC 61400-3 (2005). It is now time to investigate the possibilities of improving existing methods. To do so in an efficient manner a clear identification of the most...... important uncertainty drivers specific for offshore wind turbine design loads is required. Describing the initial efforts in a Danish research project, the paper points to focal points for research and development. These are mainly: soil-structure interaction, improved modelling of wave loads from deep...

  17. Ceramic gas turbine shroud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jun; Green, Kevin E.

    2014-07-22

    An example gas turbine engine shroud includes a first annular ceramic wall having an inner side for resisting high temperature turbine engine gasses and an outer side with a plurality of radial slots. A second annular metallic wall is positioned radially outwardly of and enclosing the first annular ceramic wall and has a plurality of tabs in communication with the slot of the first annular ceramic wall. The tabs of the second annular metallic wall and slots of the first annular ceramic wall are in communication such that the first annular ceramic wall and second annular metallic wall are affixed.

  18. Aerodynamics of wind turbines

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Martin O L

    2015-01-01

    Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines is the established essential text for the fundamental solutions to efficient wind turbine design. Now in its third edition, it has been substantially updated with respect to structural dynamics and control. The new control chapter now includes details on how to design a classical pitch and torque regulator to control rotational speed and power, while the section on structural dynamics has been extended with a simplified mechanical system explaining the phenomena of forward and backward whirling modes. Readers will also benefit from a new chapter on Vertical Axis W

  19. In-situ stress from hydraulic fracture measurements in G Tunnel, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.; Vollendorf, W. C.; Warren, W. E.

    1981-04-01

    Hydraulic fracture work in G Tunnel, Nevada Test Site, performed to obtain the in-situ stress state is discussed. Field equipment and procedures are described; analysis is developed to relate the hydraulic fracture pressures to the in-situ stress state. Pressure data are analyzed to provide estimates of the stress state at a number of locations in the tunnel complex. A unique feature of the work is the mineback - a mining process in which the rock is cut away to reveal the actual plane of the fracture. Advantages, limitations, and problem areas associated with extracting in-situ stress fields from hydraulic fracture pressure records are discussed in detail.

  20. Hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, A Hakan; Ozdamar, Tuğçe

    2013-06-01

    Hydraulic conductivities of compacted zeolites were investigated as a function of compaction water content and zeolite particle size. Initially, the compaction characteristics of zeolites were determined. The compaction test results showed that maximum dry unit weight (γ(dmax)) of fine zeolite was greater than that of granular zeolites. The γ(dmax) of compacted zeolites was between 1.01 and 1.17 Mg m(-3) and optimum water content (w(opt)) was between 38% and 53%. Regardless of zeolite particle size, compacted zeolites had low γ(dmax) and high w(opt) when compared with compacted natural soils. Then, hydraulic conductivity tests were run on compacted zeolites. The hydraulic conductivity values were within the range of 2.0 × 10(-3) cm s(-1) to 1.1 × 10(-7) cm s(-1). Hydraulic conductivity of all compacted zeolites decreased almost 50 times as the water content increased. It is noteworthy that hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite was strongly dependent on the zeolite particle size. The hydraulic conductivity decreased almost three orders of magnitude up to 39% fine content; then, it remained almost unchanged beyond 39%. Only one report was found in the literature on the hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite, which is in agreement with the findings of this study.

  1. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Nihon University; Nihon Daigaku ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, M. [Nihon Univ., Chiba (Japan). Coll. of Industrial Technology

    2000-03-15

    Described herein is education of hydraulics and pneumatics in Nihon University. Department of Mechanical Engineering of Faculty of Production Engineering has been holding up the educational aims of bringing up engineers and researchers who have ability and intelligence to cope with internationalization and contribute to society, and of bringing about creativity, among others. Control equipment is an optional subject for the sophomore class in the second semester, and is centered by mechatronics, including hydraulic and pneumatic control systems and equipment. The related subjects include fluid dynamics, control engineering, system controlling, hydraulic machines, robotics and automobile engineering. The drill course includes disassembling and assembling gear pumps, drills on pneumatic devices, system behavior and mechatronics, experiments on fan and hydraulic control circuits and on servo mechanisms, and machinery designs and drawings. Seminars are led by full-time or part-time lecturers for the themes related to hydraulic power. Many students are interested in hydraulic and pneumatic themes for their graduation theses, because of their relations with control, environments, energy saving and so on. We are now in the age of composite technologies, and hydraulic power basics are prerequisite for engineers, and important for education of students. (NEDO)

  2. Doubly fed induction generator wind turbines with fuzzy controller: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyanarayanan, J S; Kumar, A Senthil

    2014-01-01

    Wind energy is one of the extraordinary sources of renewable energy due to its clean character and free availability. With the increasing wind power penetration, the wind farms are directly influencing the power systems. The majority of wind farms are using variable speed wind turbines equipped with doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) due to their advantages over other wind turbine generators (WTGs). Therefore, the analysis of wind power dynamics with the DFIG wind turbines has become a very important research issue, especially during transient faults. This paper presents fuzzy logic control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine in a sample power system. Fuzzy logic controller is applied to rotor side converter for active power control and voltage regulation of wind turbine.

  3. Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbines with Fuzzy Controller: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Sathiyanarayanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is one of the extraordinary sources of renewable energy due to its clean character and free availability. With the increasing wind power penetration, the wind farms are directly influencing the power systems. The majority of wind farms are using variable speed wind turbines equipped with doubly fed induction generators (DFIG due to their advantages over other wind turbine generators (WTGs. Therefore, the analysis of wind power dynamics with the DFIG wind turbines has become a very important research issue, especially during transient faults. This paper presents fuzzy logic control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG wind turbine in a sample power system. Fuzzy logic controller is applied to rotor side converter for active power control and voltage regulation of wind turbine.

  4. Dynamic Simulation of Carbonate Fuel Cell-Gas Turbine Hybrid Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R.A. (U. of California, Irvine, CA); Brouwer, J. (U. of California, Irvine, CA); Liese, E.A.; Gemmen, R.S.

    2006-04-01

    Hybrid fuel cell/gas turbine systems provide an efficient means of producing electricity from fossil fuels with ultra low emissions. However, there are many significant challenges involved in integrating the fuel cell with the gas turbine and other components of this type of system. The fuel cell and the gas turbine must maintain efficient operation and electricity production while protecting equipment during perturbations that may occur when the system is connected to the utility grid or in stand-alone mode. This paper presents recent dynamic simulation results from two laboratories focused on developing tools to aid in the design and dynamic analyses of hybrid fuel cell systems. The simulation results present the response of a carbonate fuel cell/gas turbine, or molten carbonate fuel cell/gas turbine, (MCFC/GT) hybrid system to a load demand perturbation. Initial results suggest that creative control strategies will be needed to ensure a flexible system with wide turndown and robust dynamic operation.

  5. Gearbox Fatigue Load Estimation for Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena; Pedersen, Bo Juul; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the paper is on a design of a fatigue load estimator for predictive condition monitoring systems (CMS) of wind turbines. In order to avoid high-price measurement equipment required for direct load measuring, an indirect approach is suggested using only measurements from supervisory...... for the real time application. This paper presents results of the estimation of the gearbox fatigue load, often called shaft torque, using simulated data of wind turbine. Noise sensitivity of the algorithm is investigated by assuming different levels of measurement noise. Shaft torque estimations are compared...... with simulated data and as the obtained results are promising, further work will be on a validation of the method using real wind turbine data....

  6. Design of gear systems for moving wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatesh, C.; Bhuvanesh, N.; Kumar, V.S.; Aravindh, M. [Jansons Institute of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamilnadu (India)

    2012-07-01

    Power generation from renewable energy resources has been a widespread approach in today's technology fields. One of the cheapest energies from which power can be generated may be through wind energy resource. Very known method of power generation from wind energy is wind turbine. The constraints experienced in power generation from wind turbine is inconsistent power generation according to blow of wind. In this study, to overcome the constraints, a small wind turbine can be equipped on the top of the moving vehicle through which the velocity of the wind can be enhanced. This paper describes the design of gear system which is required for the moving wind mill. Also the paper focuses on modeling of the entire setup. (Author)

  7. Gearbox Fatigue Load Estimation for Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena; Pedersen, Bo Juul; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    for the real time application. This paper presents results of the estimation of the gearbox fatigue load, often called shaft torque, using simulated data of wind turbine. Noise sensitivity of the algorithm is investigated by assuming different levels of measurement noise. Shaft torque estimations are compared......The focus of the paper is on a design of a fatigue load estimator for predictive condition monitoring systems (CMS) of wind turbines. In order to avoid high-price measurement equipment required for direct load measuring, an indirect approach is suggested using only measurements from supervisory...... with simulated data and as the obtained results are promising, further work will be on a validation of the method using real wind turbine data....

  8. Pumps as turbines for low cost micro hydro power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, A.A. [Nottingham Trent University (United Kingdom)

    1996-09-01

    Small centrifugal pumps are suitable for use as hydraulic turbines and have the advantage of being mass produced in many countries throughout the world. When used with an integral induction motor, they can be installed as a combined turbine and generator unit. Recent research and development work carried out at Nottingham Trent University in collaboration with the Intermediate Technology Development Group has concentrated on two aspects that had previously held back the wider application of this technology. A standard design of Induction Generator Controller (IGC), enabling these units to be used for isolated micro hydro schemes, has been proven, and is now being manufactured in five countries world-wide. Progress has also been made on the application of performance prediction methods which facilitate the selection of a pump unit for particular site conditions. Sites, suitable for the application of small centrifugal pumps as turbines are of two main types: firstly, as a low-cost alternative to crossflow turbines with an output of 5kW or less; secondly, for energy recovery in pipelines. These types of installation may be suitable for industrialized and developing countries. Three examples of different types of scheme are described in the paper and these show the favourable financial returns that are possible. (Author)

  9. Understanding casing flow in Pelton turbines by numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentschler, M.; Neuhauser, M.; Marongiu, J. C.; Parkinson, E.

    2016-11-01

    For rehabilitation projects of Pelton turbines, the flow in the casing may have an important influence on the overall performance of the machine. Water sheets returning on the jets or on the runner significantly reduce efficiency, and run-away speed depends on the flow in the casing. CFD simulations can provide a detailed insight into this type of flow, but these simulations are computationally intensive. As in general the volume of water in a Pelton turbine is small compared to the complete volume of the turbine housing, a single phase simulation greatly reduces the complexity of the simulation. In the present work a numerical tool based on the SPH-ALE meshless method is used to simulate the casing flow in a Pelton turbine. Using improved order schemes reduces the numerical viscosity. This is necessary to resolve the flow in the jet and on the casing wall, where the velocity differs by two orders of magnitude. The results are compared to flow visualizations and measurement in a hydraulic laboratory. Several rehabilitation projects proved the added value of understanding the flow in the Pelton casing. The flow simulation helps designing casing insert, not only to see their influence on the flow, but also to calculate the stress in the inserts. In some projects, the casing simulation leads to the understanding of unexpected behavior of the flow. One such example is presented where the backsplash of a deflector hit the runner, creating a reversed rotation of the runner.

  10. Development and demonstration of a vertical axis wind turbine POWERHOUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosburgh, P. N.

    1984-06-01

    A performance of reliable lower cost base assembly and controls was designed for the electricity generating wind energy conversion system of the VAWTPOWER 185 wind turbine. The base assembly includes low speed shaft and couplings, disc or drum brake, hydraulic or pneumatic brake control systems, speed increasing gear box, high speed shaft and couplings, induction motor/generator, bottom rotor bearings, lightning and ground fault protection, support structure, and environmental protection. VAWTPOWER 185 is a 200 kW capacity Vertical Axis Wind Turbine rated 185 kW at 37 mph. After system analysis, subsystem definition, detailed design and engineering, and development of a test plan, two versions of the powerhouse were fabricated and tested. Both appear ready for commercial production.

  11. Simulations of Steady Cavitating Flow in a Small Francis Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Laouari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The turbulent flow through a small horizontal Francis turbine is solved by means of Ansys-CFX at different operating points, with the determination of the hydrodynamic performance and the best efficiency point. The flow structures at different regimes reveal a large flow eddy in the runner and a swirl in the draft tube. The use of the mixture model for the cavity/liquid two-phase flow allowed studying the influence of cavitation on the hydrodynamic performance and revealed cavitation pockets near the trailing edge of the runner and a cavitation vortex rope in the draft tube. By maintaining a constant dimensionless head and a distributor vane opening while gradually increasing the cavitation number, the output power and efficiency reached a critical point and then had begun to stabilize. The cavitation number corresponding to the safety margin of cavitation is also predicted for this hydraulic turbine.

  12. Hydraulic Actuators with Autonomous Hydraulic Supply for the Mainline Aircrafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shumilov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Applied in the aircraft control systems, hydraulic servo actuators with autonomous hydraulic supply, so-called, hydraulic actuators of integrated configuration, i.e. combination of a source of hydraulic power and its load in the single unit, are aimed at increasing control system reliability both owing to elimination of the pipelines connecting the actuator to the hydraulic supply source, and owing to avoidance of influence of other loads failure on the actuator operability. Their purpose is also to raise control system survivability by eliminating the long pipeline communications and their replacing for the electro-conductive power supply system, thus reducing the vulnerability of systems. The main reason for a delayed application of the hydraulic actuators in the cutting-edge aircrafts was that such aircrafts require hydraulic actuators of considerably higher power with considerable heat releases, which caused an unacceptable overheat of the hydraulic actuators. Positive and negative sides of the hydraulic actuators, their alternative options of increased reliability and survivability, local hydraulic systems as an advanced alternative to independent hydraulic actuators are considered.Now to use hydraulic actuators in mainline aircrafts is inexpedient since there are the unfairly large number of the problems reducing, first and last, safety of flights, with no essential weight and operational advantages. Still works to create competitive hydraulic actuators ought to be continued.Application of local hydraulic systems (LHS will allow us to reduce length of pressure head and drain pipelines and mass of pipelines, as well as to raise their general fail-safety and survivability. Application of the LHS principle will allow us to use a majority of steering drive advantages. It is necessary to allocate especially the following:- ease of meeting requirements for the non-local spread of the engine weight;- essentially reducing length and weight of

  13. Hydraulic conductivity of organomodified soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, R.B.; Grant, J.M.; Voice, T.C.; Rakhshandehroo, G.; Xu, S.; Boyd, S.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The effects of organomodification on soil hydraulic conductivity were investigated. Hydraulic conductivity and porosity of treated and untreated samples of a sandy loam were measured as a function of effective stress. Batch treatment with hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium (HDTMA) and dry packing produced organomodified samples that were 79% less conducive than untreated samples prior to loading. Treated samples lost less hydraulic conductivity as a result of loading than untreated samples so that treated samples had higher conductivity at high loads. Observed differences in conductivity are explained in terms of the role of the treated and untreated clay in controlling initial effective pore size and its change during consolidation.

  14. Fish Passage though Hydropower Turbines: Simulating Blade Strike using the Discrete Element Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ

    2014-12-08

    mong the hazardous hydraulic conditions affecting anadromous and resident fish during their passage though turbine flows, two are believed to cause considerable injury and mortality: collision on moving blades and decompression. Several methods are currently available to evaluate these stressors in installed turbines, i.e. using live fish or autonomous sensor devices, and in reduced-scale physical models, i.e. registering collisions from plastic beads. However, a priori estimates with computational modeling approaches applied early in the process of turbine design can facilitate the development of fish-friendly turbines. In the present study, we evaluated the frequency of blade strike and nadir pressure environment by modeling potential fish trajectories with the Discrete Element Method (DEM) applied to fish-like composite particles. In the DEM approach, particles are subjected to realistic hydraulic conditions simulated with computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and particle-structure interactions—representing fish collisions with turbine blades—are explicitly recorded and accounted for in the calculation of particle trajectories. We conducted transient CFD simulations by setting the runner in motion and allowing for better turbulence resolution, a modeling improvement over the conventional practice of simulating the system in steady state which was also done here. While both schemes yielded comparable bulk hydraulic performance, transient conditions exhibited a visual improvement in describing flow variability. We released streamtraces (steady flow solution) and DEM particles (transient solution) at the same location from where sensor fish (SF) have been released in field studies of the modeled turbine unit. The streamtrace-based results showed a better agreement with SF data than the DEM-based nadir pressures did because the former accounted for the turbulent dispersion at the intake but the latter did not. However, the DEM-based strike frequency is more

  15. Hydrodynamic and performance of low power turbines: conception, modelling and experimental tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana. Simão, Helena M. Ramos

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work comprises a research about hydraulic machines with the aim of optimization and the selection of adequate turbines of low power for exploitation of an available energy still unexplored in water supply systems based on analyses of 3D hydrodynamic flows and on characteristic curves which lead to the best efficiency point. The analysis is carried out based on non-dimensional parameters (i.e., discharge, head, efficiency, runner speed and mechanical power in order to be possible comparisons. Mathematical models based on the physical principles, associated to the development of volumetric and rotordynamic machines, are developed. New turbines are suggested, which are based on similar theory among turbo machines based on applications in hydraulic systems with guarantee discharge and available head. The hydrodynamic fluid mechanical analysis requires the use of complex advanced models (CFD which apply the equations of Navier-Stokes by using mathematical models of conservation laws, for the study of the turbulent flow behaviour. To determine the correlation between the flow velocity and pressure fields, the k-? model, is used in this research. Many turbines are evaluated (i.e., positive displacement (PD, pump as turbine (PAT, propeller with volute at inlet, four and five blades tubular propellers and sensitivity analyses, to the best configurations, as well as comparisons between performance curves and experimental tests. Results are presented with the appropriate range variation for each turbine type and application.

  16. An investigation into computer simulation of the dynamic response of a gas turbine engine

    OpenAIRE

    Hendricks, Todd B

    1997-01-01

    Transient performance of gas turbines has a strong bearing on output and component life. For this reason, several articles have been written on the dynamic simulation of gas turbine systems in electrical generation, cogeneration, and marine applications. These models provide a basis for this present work. This paper describes a mathematical and computer model that was developed to investigate the dynamic response of a simple (no reheat, regeneration, or other auxiliary equipment) single-shaft...

  17. A method to combine hydrodynamics and constructive design in the optimization of the runner blades of Kaplan turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miclosina, C. O.; Balint, D. I.; Campian, C. V.; Frunzaverde, D.; Ion, I.

    2012-11-01

    This paper deals with the optimization of the axial hydraulic turbines of Kaplan type. The optimization of the runner blade is presented systematically from two points of view: hydrodynamic and constructive. Combining these aspects in order to gain a safer operation when unsteady effects occur in the runner of the turbine is attempted. The design and optimization of the runner blade is performed with QTurbo3D software developed at the Center for Research in Hydraulics, Automation and Thermal Processes (CCHAPT) from "Eftimie Murgu" University of Resita, Romania. QTurbo3D software offers possibilities to design the meridian channel of hydraulic turbines design the blades and optimize the runner blade. 3D modeling and motion analysis of the runner blade operating mechanism are accomplished using SolidWorks software. The purpose of motion study is to obtain forces, torques or stresses in the runner blade operating mechanism, necessary to estimate its lifetime. This paper clearly states the importance of combining the hydrodynamics with the structural design in the optimization procedure of the runner of hydraulic turbines.

  18. Pump used as a turbine (PAT) with flow control - Part 2: Selection of the pump to be transformed into a turbine; Petites centrales hydrauliques. Pompe fonctionnant en turbine avec reglage du debit (Pat-Francis). 2eme partie: selection de la pompe inversee pour fonctionnement en turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapallaz, J.-M.

    2007-02-15

    This second part of a final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the use of a pump equipped with variable guide vanes, similar to a Francis turbine. This second part of a four-part article deals with the preliminary selection of a pump to be transformed into a turbine. The statistical methods used in this process, which was developed by the author, are described. The method used for the determination of the optimal operating point is presented and discussed, as are the basic differences between pumps and turbines. Mechanical aspects and efficiencies are discussed and characteristic curves are presented, as are examples of the implementation of the concept.

  19. Grid Faults Impact on the Mechanical Loads of Active Stall Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Cutululis, Nicolaos A.; Hansen, Anca D.

    2008-01-01

    as the electrical design of the wind turbine response during grid faults. The two-step simulation procedure is assessed by means of a simulation example. The effect of a grid fault on the structural part of a typical fixed speed wind turbine, equipped with an induction generator, is assessed........ This paper presents a two-steps simulation procedure, where two complimentary tools are combined, i.e. power system simulation tool and advanced aeroelastic simulation code. The goal is to investigate the whole integrated wind turbine design and to provide insight both into the structural as well...

  20. Aeroelastic Optimization of a 10 MW Wind Turbine Blade with Active Trailing Edge Flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barlas, Athanasios; Tibaldi, Carlo; Zahle, Frederik;

    2016-01-01

    This article presents the aeroelastic optimization of a 10MW wind turbine ‘smart blade’ equipped with active trailing edge flaps. The multi-disciplinary wind turbine analysis and optimization tool HawtOpt2 is utilized, which is based on the open-source framework Open-MDAO. The tool interfaces...... to several state-of-the art simulation codes, allowing for a wide variety of problem formulations and combinations of models. A simultaneous aerodynamic and structural optimization of a 10 MW wind turbine rotor is carried out with respect to material layups and outer shape. Active trailing edge flaps...