WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydraulic shuttle irradiation

  1. Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) Recently Installed in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Joseph Palmer; Gerry L. McCormick; Shannon J. Corrigan

    2010-06-01

    2010 International Congress on Advances in Nuclear Power Plants (ICAPP’10) ANS Annual Meeting Imbedded Topical San Diego, CA June 13 – 17, 2010 Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) Recently Installed in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Author: A. Joseph Palmer, Mechanical Engineer, Irradiation Test Programs, 208-526-8700, Joe.Palmer@INL.gov Affiliation: Idaho National Laboratory P.O. Box 1625, MS-3840 Idaho Falls, ID 83415 INL/CON-10-17680 ABSTRACT Most test reactors are equipped with shuttle facilities (sometimes called rabbit tubes) whereby small capsules can be inserted into the reactor and retrieved during power operations. With the installation of Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) this capability has been restored to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The general design and operating principles of this system were patterned after the hydraulic rabbit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), which has operated successfully for many years. Using primary coolant as the motive medium the HSIS system is designed to simultaneously transport fourteen shuttle capsules, each 16 mm OD x 57 mm long, to and from the B-7 position of the reactor. The B-7 position is one of the higher flux positions in the reactor with typical thermal and fast (>1 Mev) fluxes of 2.8E+14 n/cm2/sec and 1.9E+14 n/cm2/sec respectively. The available space inside each shuttle is approximately 14 mm diameter x 50 mm long. The shuttle containers are made from titanium which was selected for its low neutron activation properties and durability. Shuttles can be irradiated for time periods ranging from a few minutes to several months. The Send and Receive Station (SRS) for the HSIS is located 2.5 m deep in the ATR canal which allows irradiated shuttles to be easily moved from the SRS to a wet loaded cask, or transport pig. The HSIS system first irradiated (empty) shuttles in September 2009 and has since completed

  2. A Simplified Shuttle Irradiation Facility for ATR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, Alma Joseph; Laflin, S. T.

    1999-09-01

    During the past fifteen years there has been a steady increase in the demand for radioisotopes in nuclear medicine and a corresponding decline in the number of reactors within the U.S. capable of producing them. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is the largest operating test reactor in the U.S., but its isotope production capabilities have been limited by the lack of an installed isotope shuttle irradiation system. A concept for a simple “low cost” shuttle irradiation facility for ATR has been developed. Costs were reduced (in comparison to previous ATR designs) by using a shielded trough of water installed in an occupiable cubicle as a shielding and contamination control barrier for the send and receive station. This shielding concept also allows all control valves to be operated by hand and thus the need for an automatic control system was eliminated. It was determined that 4 – 5 ft of water would be adequate to shield the isotopes of interest while shuttles are transferred to a small carrier. An additional feature of the current design is a non-isolatable by-pass line, which provides a minimum coolant flow to the test region regardless of which control valves are opened or closed. This by-pass line allows the shuttle facility to be operated without bringing reactor coolant water into the cubicle except for send and receive operations. The irradiation position selected for this concept is a 1.5 inch “B” hole (B-11). This position provides neutron fluxes of approximately: 1.6 x 1014 (<0.5 eV) and 4.0 x 1013 (>0.8 MeV) n/cm2*sec.

  3. Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV) Solar Spectral Irradiance V008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) level-2 irradiance data are available for eight space shuttle missions flown between 1989 and 1996. SSBUV, a...

  4. Apu/hydraulic/actuator Subsystem Computer Simulation. Space Shuttle Engineering and Operation Support, Engineering Systems Analysis. [for the space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Major developments are examined which have taken place to date in the analysis of the power and energy demands on the APU/Hydraulic/Actuator Subsystem for space shuttle during the entry-to-touchdown (not including rollout) flight regime. These developments are given in the form of two subroutines which were written for use with the Space Shuttle Functional Simulator. The first subroutine calculates the power and energy demand on each of the three hydraulic systems due to control surface (inboard/outboard elevons, rudder, speedbrake, and body flap) activity. The second subroutine incorporates the R. I. priority rate limiting logic which limits control surface deflection rates as a function of the number of failed hydraulic. Typical results of this analysis are included, and listings of the subroutines are presented in appendicies.

  5. The Thermal Hydraulic Test of SFR Irradiation Test Capsule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Yong; Park, Sung Jae; Choo, Kee Nam [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Irradiation test using a capsule has been performed for fuel or material performance test in the test reactor. Irradiation capsule for the HANARO reactor must satisfy the hydraulic conditions and structural integrity from a out-pile test. Items of a out-pile test are pressure drop, flow-induced vibration test and endurance test. The results of test must show that a test capsule satisfy the HANARO operational requirement with sufficient margin. This paper describes the devices of thermal hydraulic test and the results of SFR test capsule

  6. Space Shuttle Main Engine control system. [hydraulic actuator with digital control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, P. F.; Searle, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine is a reusable, high-performance rocket engine being developed by the Rocketdyne Div. of Rockwell International to satisfy the operational requirements of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Vehicle. The design incorporates a hydraulically actuated, closed-loop servosystem controlled and monitored by a programmable electronic digital controller. The controller accepts vehicle commands for the various engine operational phases, positions the appropriate valves, monitors the engine for the required performance precisions and conditions, and provides redundancy management.

  7. Servo Controlled Variable Pressure Modification to Space Shuttle Hydraulic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouns, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    Engineering drawings show modifications made to the constant pressure control of the model AP27V-7 hydraulic pump to an electrically controlled variable pressure setting compensator. A hanger position indicator was included for continuously monitoring hanger angle. A simplex servo driver was furnished for controlling the pressure setting servovalve. Calibration of the rotary variable displacement transducer is described as well as pump performance and response characteristics.

  8. Understanding the Space Shuttle Main Engine Hydraulic Actuation System and Reviewing Its Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWade, Robert J.; Minor, Robert B.; McNutt, Leslie M.

    2010-01-01

    The complex engine start and thrust control requirements of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) require unique valve, actuator and control system hardware. The Hydraulic Actuation System (HAS) was designed, developed, and now operates to meet tight engine control requirement limits to assure safe, reliable and correct engine thrust at all times. The actuator is designed to be fail safe and fail operate in the areas where redundancy is important. The HAS has an additional pneumatic operating capability that insures a safe sequential closure of all actuators and propellant valves in the event of the loss of hydraulic system pressure or loss of electrical closed loop control of the actuator. The objective of this paper is to provide a complete description of the actuator s internal operating system, along with its interaction with all SSME system interfaces. Additionally the paper addresses the challenges, problems identified, and corrected, and lessons learned, during the course of the almost 35 years of engine operation.

  9. Understanding the Space Shuttle Main Engine Hydraulic Actuation System and Reviewing Its Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWade, Robert J.; Minor, Robert B.; McNutt, Leslie M.

    2010-01-01

    The complex engine start and thrust control requirements of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) require unique valve, actuator and control system hardware. The Hydraulic Actuation System (HAS) was designed, developed, and now operates to meet tight engine control requirement limits to assure safe, reliable and correct engine thrust at all times. The actuator is designed to be fail safe and fail operate in the areas where redundancy is important. The HAS has an additional pneumatic operating capability that insures a safe sequential closure of all actuators and propellant valves in the event of the loss of hydraulic system pressure or loss of electrical closed loop control of the actuator. The objective of this paper is to provide a complete description of the actuator s internal operating system, along with its interaction with all SSME system interfaces. Additionally the paper addresses the challenges, problems identified, and corrected, and lessons learned, during the course of the almost 35 years of engine operation.

  10. Shuttling of the autoantigen La between nucleus and cell surface after uv irradiation of human keratinocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, M.; Chang, S.; Slor, H.; Kukulies, J.; Mueller, W.E. (Universitaet, Mainz (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-12-01

    During the past years we have established that the nuclear autoantigen La shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm in tumor cells after inhibition of transcription or virus infection. We reinvestigated this shuttling using primary human keratinocytes from both healthy donors and patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. Ultraviolet irradiation resulted in both an inhibition of transcription and a translocation of La protein from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. After a prolonged inhibition of transcription La protein relocated into the nucleus and assembled with nuclear storage regions. The uv-induced shuttling included a translocation to the cell surface, where La protein colocalized with epidermal growth factor receptors.

  11. Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Robert L.; Kirby, Klane

    This curriculum guide contains a course in hydraulics to train entry-level workers for automotive mechanics and other fields that utilize hydraulics. The module contains 14 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to hydraulics; (2) fundamentals of hydraulics; (3) reservoirs; (4) lines, fittings, and couplers; (5)…

  12. Thermal-hydraulic Analysis of New Zirconium Alloys Assembly Irradiated in CARR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN; Hao; ZHAO; Shou-zhi; LIU; Xing-min

    2013-01-01

    This article is mainly about the thermal-hydraulic analysis of the new zirconium alloys assembly on irradiation test of China Advanced Research Reactor(CARR),so as to provide security assessment throughout the design.CFD software was used for three-dimensional simulation.Firstly,the geometric model,mesh,specified boundary condition types and region types were constructed.Then importing the

  13. The Hydraulic Test Procedure for Non-instrumented Irradiation Test Rig of Annular Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Kang Hee; Shin, Chang Hwan; Park, Chan Kook

    2008-08-15

    This report presents the procedure of pressure drop test, vibration test and endurance test for the non-instrumented rig using the irradiation test in HANARO of advanced PWR annular fuel which were designed and fabricated by KAERI. From the out-pile thermal hydraulic tests, confirm the flow rate at the 200 kPa pressure drop and measure the RMS displacement at this time. And the endurance test is confirmed the wear and the integrity of the non-instrumented rig at the 110% design flow rate. This out-pile test perform the Flow-Induced Vibration and Pressure Drop Experimental Tester(FIVPET) facility. The instruments in FIVPET facility was calibrated in KAERI and the pump and the thermocouple were certified by manufacturer.

  14. Hydraulic testing of helium cooled irradiation rigs of the IFMIF High Flux Test Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Christine, E-mail: Christine.Klein@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, INR, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Arbeiter, Frederik; Jackowski, Thomas; Martin, Thomas; Schlindwein, Georg [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, INR, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Uniform perfusion of the multiple parallel minichannels of the rig model B by helium gas, which is of importance to obtain uniform and predictable temperatures, could be verified by measuring the mean velocity profiles of the rectangular jets are measured using hot-wire anemometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The pressure drop in the test section with rig model B was measured and delivers data for the validation of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling approach for application in the IFMIF High Flux Test Module. The pressure drop depends significantly on the pressure level; acceleration resulting from the volumetric expansion of helium gas has to be modeled carefully in simulations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Measurements with strain gage show the pressure depending deformation of the compartment container without the rig. The results agree well with simulations and approximation calculations. - Abstract: The hydraulic testing of a single 1:1 irradiation rig inside a mock-up container is part of the validation activities which support the engineering design of the High Flux Test Module. Uniform perfusion of the multiple parallel minichannels of the irradiation rigs by helium gas is of importance to obtain uniform and predictable temperatures. To evaluate the uniform distribution to the different parallel minichannels, the mean velocity profiles of the rectangular jets are measured using hot-wire anemometry. The velocity profiles show a symmetric and constant distribution of the mass flow to the parallel minichannels. The pressure drop in the test section with one of the candidate rig shapes is measured. The pressure drop depends significantly on the entrance pressure level; acceleration resulting from the volumetric expansion of helium gas has to be taken into account in simulations. Measurements with strain gage show the pressure depending deformation of the compartment container without the rig. The results agree

  15. Design and Construction of Experiment for Direct Electron Irradiation of Uranyl Sulfate Solution: Bubble Formation and Thermal Hydraulics Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, Roman [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakho [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heltemes, Thad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sun, Zaijing [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wardle, Kent E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bailey, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Quigley, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stepinski, Dominique [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Argonne is assisting SHINE Medical Technologies in developing SHINE, a system for producing fission-product 99Mo using a D/T-accelerator to produce fission in a non-critical target solution of aqueous uranyl sulfate. We have developed an experimental setup for studying thermal-hydraulics and bubble formation in the uranyl sulfate solution to simulate conditions expected in the SHINE target solution during irradiation. A direct electron beam from the linac accelerator will be used to irradiate a 20 L solution (sector of the solution vessel). Because the solution will undergo radiolytic decomposition, we will be able to study bubble formation and dynamics and effects of convection and temperature on bubble behavior. These experiments will serve as a verification/ validation tool for the thermal-hydraulic model. Utilization of the direct electron beam for irradiation allows homogeneous heating of a large solution volume and simplifies observation of the bubble dynamics simultaneously with thermal-hydraulic data collection, which will complement data collected during operation of the miniSHINE experiment. Irradiation will be conducted using a 30-40 MeV electron beam from the high-power linac accelerator. The total electron-beam power will be 20 kW, which will yield a power density on the order of 1 kW/L. The solution volume will be cooled on the front and back surfaces and central tube to mimic the geometry of the proposed SHINE solution vessel. Also, multiple thermocouples will be inserted into the solution vessel to map thermal profiles. The experimental design is now complete, and installation and testing are in progress.

  16. Hydraulic and thermal testing of different helium cooled irradiation rig models for the IFMIF High Flux Test Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Christine, E-mail: Christine.Klein@kit.edu; Arbeiter, Frederik; Martin, Thomas; Taubmann, Peter

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Two different single 1:1 irradiation rigs inside a mock-up container are presented. • Pressure drops in the single rig minichannels are measured. • Temperature fields are measured under different heater and flow conditions. • Predictability and reproducibility of the cooling flows can be shown. - Abstract: The hydraulic and thermal testing of two different irradiation rig models A and B, differing in the inlet nozzle design, bottom reflector length and steps inside a mock-up container is part of the HFTM validation activities which support the engineering design of the High Flux Test Module. The pressure drops for all models in the test section are measured for overall mass flow rates of 1–12 g/s and different absolute pressures of 1500 hPa and 2500 hPa at the pressure port at the inlet section. The pressure drops in different sections of the experiment and in the single rig minichannels are also measured with additional pressure ports on the surfaces of the rig models. Predictability and reproducibility of the cooling effects of the main cooling channels in the HFTM irradiation zone can be shown. Rig model B with a backward facing step is for high mass flow rates >∼7.5 g/s (this is the operation regime of the HFTM) superior to rig model A. Uniform perfusion of the multiple parallel minichannels of the irradiation rigs by helium gas is of importance to obtain uniform and predictable temperatures. Temperature fields under different heater and flow conditions have been measured.

  17. The Thermal-hydraulic Performance Test Report for the Non-instrumented Irradiation Test Rig of Annular Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Ho; Lee, Kang Hee; Shin, Chang Hwan

    2008-09-15

    This report presents the results of pressure drop test, vibration test and endurance test for the non-instrumented rig using the irradiation test in HANARO of the double cooled annular fuel which were designed and fabricated by KAERI. From the out-pile thermal hydraulic tests, corresponding to the pressure drop of 200 kPa is measured to be about 9.72 kg/sec. Vibration frequency for the non-instrumented rig ranges from 5.0 to 10.7 kg/s. RMS(Root Mean Square) displacement for non-instrumented rig is less than 11.73 m, and the maximum displacement is less than 54.87m. The flow rate for endurance test were 10.5 kg/s, which was 110% of 9.72 kg/s. And the endurance test was carried out for 3 days. The test results found not to the wear and satisfied to the limits of pressure drop, flow rate, vibration and wear in the non-instrumented rig. This test was performed at the FIVPET facility.

  18. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analysis of new irradiation channels inside the Moroccan TRIGA Mark II research reactor core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chham, E; El Bardouni, T; Benaalilou, K; Boukhal, H; El Bakkari, B; Boulaich, Y; El Younoussi, C; Nacir, B

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to improve the capacity of radioisotope production in the Moroccan TRIGA Mark II research reactor, which is considered as one of the most important applications of research reactors. The aim of this study is to enhance the utilization of TRIGA core in the field of neutron activation and ensure an economic use of the fuel. The main idea was to create an additional irradiation channel (IC) inside the core. For this purpose, three new core configurations are proposed, which differ according to the IC position in the core. Thermal neutron flux distribution and other neutronic safety parameters such as power peaking factors, excess reactivity, and control rods worth reactivity were calculated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNP) code and neutron cross-section library based on ENDF/B-VII evaluation. The calculated thermal flux in the central thimble (CT) and in the added IC for the reconfigured core is compared with the thermal flux in the CT of the existing core, which is taken as a reference. The results show that all the obtained fluxes in CTs are very close to the reference value, while a remarkable difference is observed between the fluxes in the new ICs and reference. This difference depends on the position of IC in the reactor core. To demonstrate that the Moroccan TRIGA reactor could safely operate at 2MW, with new configurations based on new ICs, different safety-related thermal-hydraulic parameters were investigated. The PARET model was used in this study to verify whether the safety margins are met despite the new modifications of the core. The results show that it is possible to introduce new ICs safely in the reactor core, because the obtained values of the parameters are largely far from compromising the safety of the reactor.

  19. Conversion of Molybdenum-99 production process to low enriched uranium: Neutronic and thermal hydraulic analyses of HEU and LEU target plates for irradiation in Pakistan Research Reactor-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Ahmad; Iqbal, Masood; Bokhari, Ishtiaq Hussain; Mahmood, Tayyab; Muhammad, Atta

    2012-09-01

    Technetium-99m, the daughter product of Molybdenum-99 is the most widely needed radionuclide for diagnostic studies in Pakistan. Molybdenum-99 Production Facility has been established at PINSTECH. Highly enriched uranium (93% 235U) U/Al alloy targets have been irradiated in Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) for the generation of fission Mo-99, while basic dissolution technique is used for separation of Mo-99 from target matrix activity. In line with the international objective of minimizing and eventually eliminating the use of HEU in civil commerce, national and international efforts have been underway to shift the production of medical isotopes from HEU to LEU (LEU; uranium is needed. LEU aluminum uranium dispersion target has been developed, which may replace existing HEU aluminum/uranium alloy targets for production of 99Mo using basic dissolution technique. Neutronic and thermal hydraulic calculations were performed for safe irradiation of targets in the core of PARR-1.

  20. Experimental Results for Direct Electron Irradiation of a Uranyl Sulfate Solution: Bubble Formation and Thermal Hydraulics Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chemerisov, Sergey [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gromov, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakhtang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heltemes, Thad [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sun, Zaijing [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wardle, Kent E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bailey, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Stepinski, Dominique [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jerden, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-01-30

    In support of the development of accelerator-driven production of fission product Mo-99 as proposed by SHINE Medical Technologies, a 35 MeV electron linac was used to irradiate depleted-uranium (DU) uranyl sulfate dissolved in pH 1 sulfuric acid at average power densities of 6 kW, 12 kW, and 15 kW. During these irradiations, gas bubbles were generated in the solution due to the radiolytic decomposition of water molecules in the solution. Multiple video cameras were used to record the behavior of bubble generation and transport in the solution. Seven six-channel thermocouples were used to record temperature gradients in the solution from self-heating. Measurements of hydrogen and oxygen concentrations in a helium sweep gas were recorded by a gas chromatograph to estimate production rates during irradiation. These data are being used to validate a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the experiment that includes multiphase flow and a custom bubble injection model for the solution region.

  1. Measurement of leaf hydraulic conductance and stomatal conductance and their responses to irradiance and dehydration using the Evaporative Flux Method (EFM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Lawren; Scoffoni, Christine

    2012-12-31

    Water is a key resource, and the plant water transport system sets limits on maximum growth and drought tolerance. When plants open their stomata to achieve a high stomatal conductance (gs) to capture CO2 for photosynthesis, water is lost by transpiration(1,2). Water evaporating from the airspaces is replaced from cell walls, in turn drawing water from the xylem of leaf veins, in turn drawing from xylem in the stems and roots. As water is pulled through the system, it experiences hydraulic resistance, creating tension throughout the system and a low leaf water potential (Ψ(leaf)). The leaf itself is a critical bottleneck in the whole plant system, accounting for on average 30% of the plant hydraulic resistance(3). Leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf) = 1/ leaf hydraulic resistance) is the ratio of the water flow rate to the water potential gradient across the leaf, and summarizes the behavior of a complex system: water moves through the petiole and through several orders of veins, exits into the bundle sheath and passes through or around mesophyll cells before evaporating into the airspace and being transpired from the stomata. K(leaf) is of strong interest as an important physiological trait to compare species, quantifying the effectiveness of the leaf structure and physiology for water transport, and a key variable to investigate for its relationship to variation in structure (e.g., in leaf venation architecture) and its impacts on photosynthetic gas exchange. Further, K(leaf) responds strongly to the internal and external leaf environment(3). K(leaf) can increase dramatically with irradiance apparently due to changes in the expression and activation of aquaporins, the proteins involved in water transport through membranes(4), and K(leaf) declines strongly during drought, due to cavitation and/or collapse of xylem conduits, and/or loss of permeability in the extra-xylem tissues due to mesophyll and bundle sheath cell shrinkage or aquaporin deactivation(5

  2. Neutronic, thermal-hydraulics and accident analysis calculations for an irradiation device to be used in the qualification process of dispersion fuels in the IEA-R1 research reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingos, Douglas Borges; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Umbehaun, Pedro Ernesto; Silva, Jose Eduardo Rosa da; Conti, Thadeu das Neves; Yamaguchi, Mitsuo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: douglasborgesdomingos@yahoo.com.br

    2009-07-01

    Neutronic, thermal-hydraulics and accident analysis calculations were developed to estimate the safety of an irradiation device placed in the IEA-R1 reactor core. The irradiation device will be used to receive miniplates of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al e U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al dispersion fuels, LEU type (19.9% of {sup 235}U), with uranium densities of, respectively, 3.0 gU/cm{sup 3} and 4.8gU/cm{sup 3}. The fuel miniplates will be irradiated to nominal {sup 235}U burnup levels of 50% and 80%, in order to qualify the above high-density dispersion fuels to be used in the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor, now in the conception phase. For the neutronic calculation, the computer code CITATION was utilized. The computer code FLOW was used to calculate the coolant flow rate in the irradiation device, allowing the determination of the fuel miniplate temperatures with the computer model MTRCR-IEA-R1. A postulated Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) was analyzed with the computer codes LOSS and TEMPLOCA, allowing the calculation of the fuel miniplate temperatures after the reactor pool draining. The calculations showed that the irradiation of the fuel miniplates will happen without any adverse consequence in the IEA-R1 reactor. (author)

  3. Shuttle requests

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that starting from 1 March 2007, the shuttle requests: for official visits or bidders' conferences on the CERN site; towards/from the airport or central Geneva; for long distances, shall be made via Fm.Support@cern.ch or by calling 77777. The radio taxi will still be reachable at 76969. TS/FM Group

  4. Space shuttle recommendations based on aircraft maintenance experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, J. M.; Fox, C. L.

    1972-01-01

    Space shuttle design recommendations based on aircraft maintenance experience are developed. The recommendations are specifically applied to the landing gear system, nondestructive inspection techniques, hydraulic system design, materials and processes, and program support.

  5. 梭锥管混浊流体分离装置流场PIV测试及分析%Test and analysis on flow field in the shuttle-conical tube turbid flow hydraulic separation Device by PIV techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳; 杨海华; 王苗; 邱秀云

    2013-01-01

    Particle image uelocimotrg (PIV) was used to test the water and sediment flow velocity field in the Shuttle-conical Tube Turbid Flow hydraulic separation Device (SCT) with two cases. The distributions of sediment flow velocity vector and the velocity diagram at various planes in different locations of the SCT have been offered. The results indicate that the test results are consistent with the physical experimental phenomenon and theoretical analysis. The SCT is divided into many sedimentation spaces by multilayer cone rings so that the sedimentation distance of SCT is shorter than the common device without any cone ring and all the sedimentation spaces are independent from each other. The turbid flow with suspension flow into the SCT, and sediment free settlement distance has been shortened, and in the water-sediment separation space composed by adjacent two cone rings,the sediment flow is downward along the upper sur-face of one cone ring, and the clear water flow is upward along the lower surface of the other cone ring. Then the water and sediment flow respectively along different path, the former flows into the clear water passage arranged at the sides of the wall, and the latter flows into the sand drainage channel at the center of the SCT. In the process of the separation and drainage, the clear water doesn’t mix and interfere with sediment flow so that the separation efficiency of water & sediment by the SCT has been improved.%利用粒子图像测速技术,测试了两种工况下梭锥管混浊流体分离装置(简称梭锥管)内的水沙两相流的速度场,给出了梭锥管内泥沙运动的流速矢量分布及流速大小云图。对测试结果的分析表明,实测结果与理论分析结果一致。含沙水流进入梭锥管后,其内设置的多层锥圈把泥沙沉降区域分割成若干个沉降距离较短且相互独立的沉降空间,缩短了泥沙的自由沉降距离。相邻锥圈组成的水沙分离空间内,形

  6. Hydraulic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sheng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the planning, design, construction and management of hydraulic structures, covering dams, spillways, tunnels, cut slopes, sluices, water intake and measuring works, ship locks and lifts, as well as fish ways. Particular attention is paid to considerations concerning the environment, hydrology, geology and materials etc. in the planning and design of hydraulic projects. It also considers the type selection, profile configuration, stress/stability calibration and engineering countermeasures, flood releasing arrangements and scouring protection, operation and maintenance etc. for a variety of specific hydraulic structures. The book is primarily intended for engineers, undergraduate and graduate students in the field of civil and hydraulic engineering who are faced with the challenges of extending our understanding of hydraulic structures ranging from traditional to groundbreaking, as well as designing, constructing and managing safe, durable hydraulic structures that are economical ...

  7. CERN Shuttle

    CERN Multimedia

    General Infrastructure Services Department

    2011-01-01

    As of Monday 21 February, a new schedule will come into effect for the Airport Shuttle (circuit No. 4) at the end of the afternoon: Last departure at 7:00 pm from Main Buildig, (Bldg. 500) to Airport (instead of 5:10 p.m.); Last departure from Airport to CERN, Main Buildig, (Bldg. 500), at 7:30 p.m. (instead of 5:40 p.m.). Group GS-IS

  8. HYDRAULIC SERVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, D.E.

    1962-05-01

    A hydraulic servo is designed in which a small pressure difference produced at two orifices by an electrically operated flapper arm in a constantly flowing hydraulic loop is hydraulically amplified by two constant flow pumps, two additional orifices, and three unconnected ball pistons. Two of the pistons are of one size and operate against the additional orifices, and the third piston is of a different size and operates between and against the first two pistons. (AEC)

  9. Space Shuttle Orbiter auxiliary power unit status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, M.; Loken, G.; Horton, J.; Lukens, W.; Scott, W.; Baughman, J.; Bauch, T.

    An overview of the United States Space Shuttle Orbiter APU, which provides power to the Orbiter vehicle hydraulic system, is presented. Three complete APU systems, each with its own separate fuel system, supply power to three dedicated hydraulic systems. These in turn provide power to all Orbiter vehicle critical flight functions including launch, orbit, reentry, and landing. The basic APU logic diagram is presented. The APU includes a hydrazine-powered turbine that drives a hydraulic pump and various accessories through a high-speed gearbox. The APU also features a sophisticated thermal management system designed to ensure safe and reliable operation in the various launch, orbit, reentry, and landing environments.

  10. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  11. Shuttle requests

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Please note that, to improve the service we provide, a new telephone number - 72500 - has been set up for all shuttle requests concerning: journeys within the CERN site, i.e. official visits or bidders' conferences; journeys to or from the airport or city centre; long-distance journeys. However, it will still be possible to submit requests in writing to Fm.Support@cern. The radio taxi can also still be reached on 76969. The TS/FM group would also like to inform you that details of all light logistics services (transport of persons, distribution and collection of parcels up to 1 tonne, distribution and collection of mail) can be found on the group's website: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/fm/fm.htm TS/FM Group 160239

  12. Hydraulic Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required whenever hydraulic structures are shown in the flood profile. It is also required if levees are shown on the FIRM, channels containing the...

  13. CARR辐照压水堆小组件热工水力分析%Thermal-hydraulic Analysis of PWR Small Assembly for Irradiation Test of CARR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹皓; 邹耀; 刘兴民

    2015-01-01

    T he thermal‐hydraulic behaviors of the PWR 4 × 4 small assembly tested in the high temperature and high pressure loop of China Advanced Research Reactor were analyzed .The CFD method was used to carry out 3D simulation of the model ,thus detailed thermal‐hydraulic parameters were obtained .Firstly ,the simplified model was simulated to give the 3D temperature and velocity distributions and analyze the heat transfer process .Then the whole scale small assembly model was simulated and the simulation results were compared with those of simplified rod bundle model .Its flow behavior was studied and flow mixing characteristics of the grids were analyzed ,and the mixing factor of the grid was calculated and can be used for further thermal‐hydraulic study .It is show n that the highest temperature of the fuel rod meets the design limit and the mixing effect of the grid is obvious .%分析压水堆4×4小组件在CARR高温高压回路中进行辐照考验时的热工水力问题。利用计算流体动力学(C FD )软件对其进行三维数值模拟,以获得详细的热工水力参数。首先,模拟简化的燃料棒束模型,得出三维温度与速度分布,并分析了传热过程。然后,模拟全尺寸小组件,与棒束模型所得的结果进行对比分析,着重研究其流动,并分析了格架的搅混特性,得出可应用于一维热工水力程序的搅混因子。结果表明,燃料棒最高温度可满足安全性要求,且格架的搅混作用明显。

  14. KJRR-FAI Hydraulic Flow Testing Input Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; R.B. Nielson; D.B. Chapman

    2013-12-01

    The INL, in cooperation with the KAERI via Cooperative Research And Development Agreement (CRADA), undertook an effort in the latter half of calendar year 2013 to produce a conceptual design for the KJRR-FAI campaign. The outcomes of this effort are documented in further detail elsewhere [5]. The KJRR-FAI was designed to be cooled by the ATR’s Primary Coolant System (PCS) with no provision for in-pile measurement or control of the hydraulic conditions in the irradiation assembly. The irradiation assembly was designed to achieve the target hydraulic conditions via engineered hydraulic losses in a throttling orifice at the outlet of the irradiation vehicle.

  15. Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

    2011-01-01

    During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

  16. Space shuttle main engine hardware simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, H. G.; Hampton, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    The Huntsville Simulation Laboratory (HSL) provides a simulation facility to test and verify the space shuttle main engine (SSME) avionics and software system using a maximum complement of flight type hardware. The HSL permits evaluations and analyses of the SSME avionics hardware, software, control system, and mathematical models. The laboratory has performed a wide spectrum of tests and verified operational procedures to ensure system component compatibility under all operating conditions. It is a test bed for integration of hardware/software/hydraulics. The HSL is and has been an invaluable tool in the design and development of the SSME.

  17. USE OF SILICON CARBIDE MONITORS IN ATR IRRADIATION TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. L. Davis; B. Chase; T. Unruh; D. Knudson; J. L. Rempe

    2012-07-01

    In April 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to advance US leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new users from universities, laboratories, and industry, the ATR will support basic and applied nuclear research and development and help address the nation's energy security needs. In support of this new program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed in-house capabilities to fabricate, test, and qualify new and enhanced temperature sensors for irradiation testing. Although most efforts emphasize sensors capable of providing real-time data, selected tasks have been completed to enhance sensors provided in irradiation locations where instrumentation leads cannot be included, such as drop-in capsule and Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) or 'rabbit' locations. For example, silicon carbide (SiC) monitors are now available to detect peak irradiation temperatures between 200°C and 800°C. Using a resistance measurement approach, specialized equipment installed at INL's High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL) and specialized procedures were developed to ensure that accurate peak irradiation temperature measurements are inferred from SiC monitors irradiated at the ATR. Comparison examinations were completed by INL to demonstrate this capability, and several programs currently rely on SiC monitors for peak temperature detection. This paper discusses the use of SiC monitors at the ATR, the process used to evaluate them at the HTTL, and presents representative measurements taken using SiC monitors.

  18. Space Shuttle-Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle represented an entirely new generation of space vehicles, the world's first reusable spacecraft. Unlike earlier expendable rockets, the Shuttle was designed to be launched over and over again and would serve as a system for ferrying payloads and persornel to and from Earth orbit. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds, that provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components. The MSFC was assigned responsibility for developing the Shuttle orbiter's high-performance main engines, the most complex rocket engines ever built. The MSFC was also responsible for developing the Shuttle's massive ET and the solid rocket motors and boosters.

  19. Space Shuttle Vehicle Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle represented an entirely new generation of space vehicle, the world's first reusable spacecraft. Unlike earlier expendable rockets, the Shuttle was designed to be launched over and over again and would serve as a system for ferrying payloads and persornel to and from Earth orbit. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds. The SRB's provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components. The MSFC was assigned responsibility for developing the Shuttle orbiter's high-performance main engines, the most complex rocket engines ever built. The MSFC was also responsible for developing the Shuttle's massive ET and the solid rocket motors and boosters.

  20. MSFC shuttle lightning research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Otha H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The shuttle mesoscale lightning experiment (MLE), flown on earlier shuttle flights, and most recently flown on the following space transportation systems (STS's), STS-31, -32, -35, -37, -38, -40, -41, and -48, has continued to focus on obtaining additional quantitative measurements of lightning characteristics and to create a data base for use in demonstrating observation simulations for future spaceborne lightning mapping systems. These flights are also providing design criteria data for the design of a proposed shuttle MLE-type lightning research instrument called mesoscale lightning observational sensors (MELOS), which are currently under development here at MSFC.

  1. Space Shuttle Abort Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Nguyen, Tri X.

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents some of the evolutionary steps in developing a rigorous Space Shuttle launch abort capability. The paper addresses the abort strategy during the design and development and how it evolved during Shuttle flight operations. The Space Shuttle Program made numerous adjustments in both the flight hardware and software as the knowledge of the actual flight environment grew. When failures occurred, corrections and improvements were made to avoid a reoccurrence and to provide added capability for crew survival. Finally some lessons learned are summarized for future human launch vehicle designers to consider.

  2. MELT WIRE SENSORS AVAILABLE TO DETERMINE PEAK TEMPERATURES IN ATR IRRADIATION TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. L. Davis; D. Knudson; J. Daw; J. Palmer; J. L. Rempe

    2012-07-01

    In April 2007, the Department of Energy (DOE) designated the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) a National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to advance US leadership in nuclear science and technology. By attracting new users from universities, laboratories, and industry, the ATR will support basic and applied nuclear research and development and help address the nation's energy security needs. In support of this new program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed in-house capabilities to fabricate, test, and qualify new and enhanced temperature sensors for irradiation testing. Although most efforts emphasize sensors capable of providing real-time data, selected tasks have been completed to enhance sensors provided in irradiation locations where instrumentation leads cannot be included, such as drop-in capsule and Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) or 'rabbit' locations. To meet the need for these locations, the INL has developed melt wire temperature sensors for use in ATR irradiation testing. Differential scanning calorimetry and environmental testing of prototypical sensors was used to develop a library of 28 melt wire materials, capable of detecting peak irradiation temperatures ranging from 85 to 1500°C. This paper will discuss the development work and present test results.

  3. Shuttle Inventory Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Inventory Management System (SIMS) consists of series of integrated support programs providing supply support for both Shuttle program and Kennedy Space Center base opeations SIMS controls all supply activities and requirements from single point. Programs written in COBOL.

  4. HYDRAULICS, LOUISA COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic analysis for estimating flood stages for a flood insurance study. It...

  5. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  6. 堆内辐照在线产氚氦冷陶瓷氚增殖剂包层球床组件热工流体力学计算分析%Thermal-hydraulic Calculation and Analysis on Helium Cooled Ceramic Breeder Pebble Bed Assembly for In-pile Irradiation & In-situ Tritium Extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭春秋; 解家春; 刘兴民

    2013-01-01

    在研究堆内进行辐照在线产氚试验是ITER计划专项国内配套研究项目之一.本工作主要针对研究堆内辐照氦冷陶瓷氚增殖剂包层(简称陶瓷)球床组件的试验技术要求,评估辐照陶瓷球床组件设计方案的可行性.通过对不同的陶瓷球床组件结构参数和组件在堆内的不同辐照位置,进行热工流体力学设计计算,得到满足要求的入堆辐照陶瓷球床组件设计方案.%In-pile irradiation & in-situ tritium extraction experiment is one of associated domestic research projects in ITER special program.According to the technical requirements of in-pile irradiation experiment of helium cooled ceramic breeder (ceramic) pebble bed assembly in a research reactor,the feasibility of the design for the in-pile irradiation & in-situ tritium extraction experiment of ceramic pebble bed assembly was evaluated.By conducting thermal-hydraulic design calculation with different in-pile irradiation channels,locations and structure parameters for ceramic pebble bed assembly,a reasonable design scheme of ceramic pebble bed assembly satisfying the design requirements for in-pile irradiation was obtained.

  7. Nanoparticle shuttle memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alex Karlwalter [Kensington, CA

    2012-03-06

    A device for storing data using nanoparticle shuttle memory having a nanotube. The nanotube has a first end and a second end. A first electrode is electrically connected to the first end of the nanotube. A second electrode is electrically connected to the second end of the nanotube. The nanotube has an enclosed nanoparticle shuttle. A switched voltage source is electrically connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby a voltage may be controllably applied across the nanotube. A resistance meter is also connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby the electrical resistance across the nanotube can be determined.

  8. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  9. Space Shuttle navigation validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragsdale, A.

    The validation of the guidance, navigation, and control system of the Space Shuttle is explained. The functions of the ascent, on-board, and entry mission phases software of the navigation system are described. The common facility testing, which evaluates the simulations to be used in the navigation validation, is examined. The standard preflight analysis of the operational modes of the navigation software and the post-flight navigation analysis are explained. The conversion of the data into a useful reference frame and the use of orbit parameters in the analysis of the data are discussed. Upon entry the data received are converted to flags, ratios, and residuals in order to evaluate performance and detect errors. Various programs developed to support navigation validation are explained. A number of events that occurred with the Space Shuttle's navigation system are described.

  10. Shuttle entry guidance revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

    1992-08-01

    The Shuttle entry guidance concept is reviewed which is aimed at tracking a reference drag trajectory that leads to the specified range and velocity for the initiation of the terminal energy management phase. An approximate method of constructing the domain of attraction is proposed, and its validity is ascertained by simulation. An alternative guidance law yielding global exponential tracking in the absence of control saturation is derived using a feedback linearization method. It is noted that the alternative guidance law does not improve on the stability and performance of the current guidance law, for the operating domain and control capability of the Shuttle. It is suggested that the new guidance law with a larger operating domain and increased lift-to-drag capability would be superior.

  11. Shuttle entry guidance revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle entry guidance concept is reviewed which is aimed at tracking a reference drag trajectory that leads to the specified range and velocity for the initiation of the terminal energy management phase. An approximate method of constructing the domain of attraction is proposed, and its validity is ascertained by simulation. An alternative guidance law yielding global exponential tracking in the absence of control saturation is derived using a feedback linearization method. It is noted that the alternative guidance law does not improve on the stability and performance of the current guidance law, for the operating domain and control capability of the Shuttle. It is suggested that the new guidance law with a larger operating domain and increased lift-to-drag capability would be superior.

  12. Electron shuttles in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Manefield, Mike; Lee, Matthew; Kouzuma, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Electron-shuttling compounds (electron shuttles [ESs], or redox mediators) are essential components in intracellular electron transfer, while microbes also utilize self-produced and naturally present ESs for extracellular electron transfer. These compounds assist in microbial energy metabolism by facilitating electron transfer between microbes, from electron-donating substances to microbes, and/or from microbes to electron-accepting substances. Artificially supplemented ESs can create new routes of electron flow in the microbial energy metabolism, thereby opening up new possibilities for the application of microbes to biotechnology processes. Typical examples of such processes include halogenated-organics bioremediation, azo-dye decolorization, and microbial fuel cells. Herein we suggest that ESs can be applied widely to create new microbial biotechnology processes.

  13. Potential improvements to the Shuttle through evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, Maxime A.; Smith, O. G.

    1993-01-01

    A possible series of evolutionary changes in the Space Shuttle are discussed that would increase both safety and performance while simultaneously decreasing the cost of operations. It is argued that major savings in operations costs can be achieved by employing electromechanical actuators in the hydraulic system and by making an architectural change to isolate the critical flight control processing system from other hardware. Minor modifications to existing Orbiters would enable the system to carry about 8000-10,000 more pounds to any given orbit. A more powerful, more reliable, and completely reusable booster should be developed, and reliability and safety improvements should be made. The SSMEs should be removed from the Orbiter and installed in a recoverable pod that would be attached to the rear of the ET.

  14. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analysis of devices for irradiation of LEU targets type of UAL{sub x}-Al and U-Ni to production of {sup 99}Mo in reactor IEA-R1 and RMB; Analises neutronicas e termo-hidraulica de dispositivos para irradiacao de alvos tipo LEU de UAL{sub x}-Al e U-Ni para producao de {sup 99}Mo nos reatores IEA-R1 e RMB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingos, Douglas Borges

    2014-07-01

    In this work neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analyses were made to compare three types of targets (UAl{sub 2}-Al, U-Ni cylindrical and U-Ni plate) used for the production of {sup 99}Mo by fission of {sup 235}U. Some experiments were conducted to validate the neutronic and thermal-hydraulics methodologies used in this work. For the neutronic calculations the computational programs NJOY99.0, AMPX-II and HAMMERTECHNION were used to generate the cross sections. SCALE 6.0 and CITATION computational programs were used for three-dimensional calculations of the reactor cores, fuel burning and the production of {sup 99}Mo. The computational programs MTRCR-IEAR1 and ANSYS CFX were used to calculate the thermal and hydraulic parameters of the irradiation devices and for comparing them to limits and design criteria. First were performed neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analyzes for the reactor IEA-R1 with the targets of UAl{sub 2}-Al (10 mini plates). Analyses have shown that the total activity obtained for {sup 99}Mo on the mini plates does not meet the demand of Brazilian hospitals (450 Ci/week) and that no limit of thermo-hydraulic design is overtaken. Next, the same calculations were performed for the three target types in Multipurpose Brazilian Reactor (MBR). The neutronic analyzes demonstrated that the three targets meet the demand of Brazilian hospitals. The thermal hydraulic analysis shows that a minimum speed of 7 m/s for the target UAl{sub 2}-Al, 8 m/s for the cylindrical target U-Ni and 9 m/s for the target U-Ni plate will be necessary in the irradiation device to not exceed the design limits. Were performed experiments using a test bench for validate the methodologies for the thermal-hydraulic calculation. The experiments performed to validate the neutronic calculations were made in the reactor IPEN/MB-01. All experiments were simulated with the methodologies described above and the results compared. The simulations results showed good agreement with experimental

  15. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  16. Handbook of hydraulic fluid technology

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, George E

    2011-01-01

    ""The Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology"" serves as the foremost resource for designing hydraulic systems and for selecting hydraulic fluids used in engineering applications. Featuring new illustrations, data tables, as well as practical examples, this second edition is updated with essential information on the latest hydraulic fluids and testing methods. The detailed text facilitates unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including important hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants. Written by worldwide experts, the book also offers a rigorous overview of h

  17. A fast pneumatic sample-shuttle with attenuated shocks

    CERN Document Server

    Biancalana, Valerio; Stiaccini, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    We describe a home-built pneumatic shuttle suitable for the fast displacement of samples in the vicinity of a highly sensitive atomic magnetometer. The samples are magnetized at 1 T using a Halbach assembly of magnets. The device enables the remote detection of free induction decay in ultra-low-field and zero-field NMR experiments, in relaxometric measurements and in other applications involving the displacement of magnetized samples within time intervals as short as a few tens of milliseconds. Other possible applications of fast sample shuttling exist in radiological studies, where samples have to be irradiated and then analyzed in a 'cold' environment.

  18. Study of space shuttle orbiter system management computer function. Volume 2: Automated performance verification concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The findings are presented of investigations on concepts and techniques in automated performance verification. The investigations were conducted to provide additional insight into the design methodology and to develop a consolidated technology base from which to analyze performance verification design approaches. Other topics discussed include data smoothing, function selection, flow diagrams, data storage, and shuttle hydraulic systems.

  19. Shuttle Lesson Learned - Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    This is a script for a video about toxicology and the space shuttle. The first segment is deals with dust in the space vehicle. The next segment will be about archival samples. Then we'll look at real time on-board analyzers that give us a lot of capability in terms of monitoring for combustion products and the ability to monitor volatile organics on the station. Finally we will look at other issues that are about setting limits and dealing with ground based lessons that pertain to toxicology.

  20. Space Shuttle Cockpit exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  1. Space Shuttle Cockpit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Want to sit in the cockpit of the Space Shuttle and watch astronauts work in outer space? At StenniSphere, you can do that and much more. StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis space Center in Hancock County, Miss., presents 14,000-square-feet of interactive exhibits that depict America's race for space as well as a glimpse of the future. Stennisphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  2. FEMA DFIRM Hydraulic Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer and accompanying attribute table is required whenever hydraulic structures are shown in the flood profile. It is also required if levees are shown on the...

  3. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on......-going research projects on fluid power and mechatronics based on tap water hydraulic servovalves and linear servo actuators and rotary vane actuators for motion control and power transmission. Development and design a novel water hydraulic rotary vane actuator for robot manipulators. Proposed mathematical...... modelling, control and simulation of a water hydraulic rotary vane actuator applied to power and control a two-links manipulator and evaluate performance. The results include engineering design and test of the proposed simulation models compared with IHA Tampere University’s presentation of research...

  4. Quantum Shuttle in Phase Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novotny, Tomas; Donarini, Andrea; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2003-01-01

    Abstract: We present a quantum theory of the shuttle instability in electronic transport through a nanostructure with a mechanical degree of freedom. A phase space formulation in terms of the Wigner function allows us to identify a crossover from the tunneling to the shuttling regime, thus...... extending the previously found classical results to the quantum domain. Further, a new dynamical regime is discovered, where the shuttling is driven exclusively by the quantum noise....

  5. Constant-Pressure Hydraulic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    Constant output pressure in gas-driven hydraulic pump would be assured in new design for gas-to-hydraulic power converter. With a force-multiplying ring attached to gas piston, expanding gas would apply constant force on hydraulic piston even though gas pressure drops. As a result, pressure of hydraulic fluid remains steady, and power output of the pump does not vary.

  6. History of Space Shuttle Rendezvous

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This technical history is intended to provide a technical audience with an introduction to the rendezvous and proximity operations history of the Space Shuttle Program. It details the programmatic constraints and technical challenges encountered during shuttle development in the 1970s and over thirty years of shuttle missions. An overview of rendezvous and proximity operations on many shuttle missions is provided, as well as how some shuttle rendezvous and proximity operations systems and flight techniques evolved to meet new programmatic objectives. This revised edition provides additional information on Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and Apollo/Soyuz. Some chapters on the Space Shuttle have been updated and expanded. Four special focus chapters have been added to provide more detailed information on shuttle rendezvous. A chapter on the STS-39 mission of April/May 1991 describes the most complex deploy/retrieve mission flown by the shuttle. Another chapter focuses on the Hubble Space Telescope servicing missions. A third chapter gives the reader a detailed look at the February 2010 STS-130 mission to the International Space Station. The fourth chapter answers the question why rendezvous was not completely automated on the Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle vehicles.

  7. Space Shuttle development update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, V.

    1984-01-01

    The development efforts, since the STS-4 flight, in the Space Shuttle (SS) program are presented. The SS improvements introduced in the last two years include lower-weight loads, communication through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, expanded extravehicular activity capability, a maneuvering backpack and the manipulator foot restraint, the improvements in thermal projection system, the 'optional terminal area management targeting' guidance software, a rendezvous system with radar and star tracker sensors, and improved on-orbit living conditions. The flight demonstrations include advanced launch techniques (e.g., night launch and direct insertion to orbit); the on-orbit demonstrations; and added entry and launching capabilities. The entry aerodynamic analysis and entry flight control fine tuning are described. Reusability, improved ascent performance, intact abort and landing flexibility, rollout control, and 'smart speedbrakes' are among the many improvements planned for the future.

  8. Shuttle entry guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpold, J. C.; Graves, C. A., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the entry guidance for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. This guidance provides the steering commands for trajectory control from initial penetration of the earth's atmosphere until the terminal area guidance is activated at an earth-relative speed of 2500 fps. At this point, the Orbiter is at a distance of about 50 nmi from the runway threshold, and at an altitude of about 80,000 ft. The entry guidance design is based on an analytic solution of the equations of motion defining the drag acceleration profile that meets the terminal criteria of the entry flight while maintaining the flight within systems and operational constraints. Guidance commands, which are based on a control law that ensures damping of oscillatory type trajectory motion, are computed to steer the Orbiter to this drag acceleration profile.

  9. Trend of hydraulic units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshimaru, Jun' ichi

    1988-11-01

    The gear, vane and piston pumps occupy a more then 90% share in the hydraulic pumps. Comparatively large pumps are mainly variable delivery piston pumps. The piston pumps are comparatively high in output density (output per unit weight), indicating the hydraulic pump in performance, and tend to become higher and higher in it. Though they are mainly 210 to 350kgf/cm/sup 2/ in rated pressure, some of them come to surpass 400kgf/cm/sup 3/ in it. While the progress in computation also requires the high speed operation, high accuracy and other severe conditions for the hydraulic units, which accordingly and increasingly intensify the requirement for hydraulic oil in abrasion resistibility, oxidation stability and response characteristics. While cavitation comes to easily occur, which considerably and disadvantageously influences hydraulic oil in life through degradation, noise level and respondingness. From now on, the development of high performance oil and study of mechanical structure are important. 19 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Relevant thermal-hydraulic aspects in the design of the RRR (Replacement Research Reactor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doval, Alicia S.; Mazufri, Claudio M. [INVAP SE, Bariloche (Argentina)

    2002-07-01

    A description of the main thermal-hydraulic features and challenges of the Replacement Research Reactor, for the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO), is presented. Different hydraulic and thermal-hydraulic aspects are considered, core cooling during full power operation and the way it affects the design, design criteria, engineered safety features and computational tools, amongst others. A special section is devoted to the thermal-hydraulic aspects inside the reflector tank, as well as the cooling of irradiation facilities, particularly, the Molybdenum production facility. (author)

  11. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analysis of a device for irradiation of LEU UAl{sub x}-Al targets for {sup 99}Mo production in the IEA-R1 reactor; Analises neutronica e termo-hidraulica de um dispositivo para irradiacao de alvos tipo LEU de UAl{sub x}-Al para producao de {sup 99}MO no reator IEA-R1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiyama, Pedro Julio Batista de Oliveira

    2012-07-01

    Technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc), the product of radioactive decay of molybdenum-99 ( Mo), is one of the most widely used radioisotope in nuclear medicine, covering approximately 80% of all radiodiagnosis procedures in the world. Nowadays, Brazil requires an amount of about 450 Ci of {sup 99}Mo per week. Due to the crisis and the shortage of {sup 99}Mo supply chain that has been observed on the world since 2008, IPEN/CNEN-SP decided to develop a project to produce {sup 99}Mo through fission of uranium-235. The objective of this dissertation was the development of neutronic and thermal-hydraulic calculations to evaluate the operational safety of a device for {sup 99}Mo production to be irradiated in the IEA-Rl reactor core at 5 MW. In this device will be placed ten targets of UAl{sub x}-Al dispersion fuel with low enriched uranium (LEU) and density of 2.889 gU/cm{sup 3}. For the neutronic calculations were utilized the computer codes HAMMER-TECHNION and CITATION and the maximum temperatures reached in the targets were calculated with the code MTRCR-IEA-R1. The analysis demonstrated that the device irradiation will occur without adverse consequences to the operation of the reactor. The total amount of {sup 99}Mo was calculated with the program SCALE and considering that the time needed for the chemical processing and recovering of the {sup 99}Mo will be five days after the irradiation, we have that the {sup 99}Mo activity available for distribution will be 176 Ci for 3 days of irradiation, 236 Ci for 5 days of irradiation and 272 Ci for 7 days of targets irradiation. (author)'.

  12. Cavitation in Hydraulic Machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, M.

    1996-11-01

    The main purpose of this doctoral thesis on cavitation in hydraulic machinery is to change focus towards the coupling of non-stationary flow phenomena and cavitation. It is argued that, in addition to turbulence, superimposed sound pressure fluctuations can have a major impact on cavitation and lead to particularly severe erosion. For the design of hydraulic devices this finding may indicate how to further limit the cavitation problems. Chapter 1 reviews cavitation in general in the context of hydraulic machinery, emphasizing the initial cavitation event and the role of the water quality. Chapter 2 discusses the existence of pressure fluctuations for situations common in such machinery. Chapter 3 on cavitation dynamics presents an algorithm for calculating the nucleation of a cavity cluster. Chapter 4 describes the equipment used in this work. 53 refs., 55 figs.,10 tabs.

  13. Hydraulics and pneumatics

    CERN Document Server

    Parr, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Nearly all industrial processes require objects to be moved, manipulated or subjected to some sort of force. This is frequently accomplished by means of electrical equipment (such as motors or solenoids), or via devices driven by air (pneumatics) or liquids (hydraulics).This book has been written by a process control engineer as a guide to the operation of hydraulic and pneumatic systems for all engineers and technicians who wish to have an insight into the components and operation of such a system.This second edition has been fully updated to include all recent developments su

  14. Popeye Project: Hydraulic umbilical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, K.G.; Williams, V.T.

    1996-12-31

    For the Popeye Project, the longest super-duplex hydraulic umbilical in the world was installed in the Gulf of Mexico. This paper reports on its selection and project implementation. Material selection addresses corrosion in seawater, water-based hydraulic fluid, and methanol. Five alternatives were considered: (1) carbon-steel with traditional coating and anodes, (2) carbon-steel coated with thermally sprayed aluminum, (3) carbon-steel sheathed in aluminum, (4) super-duplex, and (5) titanium. The merits and risks associated with each alternative are discussed. The manufacture and installation of the selected umbilical are also reported.

  15. RERTR-8 Irradiation Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2011-12-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-8, was designed to test monolithic mini-fuel plates fabricated via hot isostatic pressing (HIP), the effect of molybdenum (Mo) content on the monolithic fuel behavior, and the efficiency of ternary additions to dispersion fuel particles on the interaction layer behavior at higher burnup. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-8 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis, thermal analysis and hydraulic testing results.

  16. RERTR-6 Irradiation Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2011-12-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-6 was designed to evaluate several modified fuel designs that were proposed to address the possibility of breakaway swelling due to porosity within the (U. Mo) Al interaction product observed in the full-size plate tests performed in Russia and France1. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-6 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analyses, thermal analyses and hydraulic testing results.

  17. Hydraulic Arm Modeling via Matlab SimHydraulics

    OpenAIRE

    Věchet, Stanislav; Krejsa, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    System modeling is a vital tool for cost reduction and design process speed up in most engineering fields. The paper is focused on modeling of hydraulic arm as a part of intelligent prosthesis project, in the form of 2DOF open kinematic chain. The arm model combines mechanical, hydraulic and electric subsystems and uses Matlab as modeling tool. SimMechanics Matlab extension is used for mechanical part modeling, SimHydraulics toolbox is used for modeling of hydraulic circuit used for actuating...

  18. Space Shuttle Strategic Planning Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbraten, Gordon L.; Henderson, Edward M.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program is aggressively flying the Space Shuttle manifest for assembling the International Space Station and servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Completing this flight manifest while concurrently transitioning to the Exploration architecture creates formidable challenges; the most notable of which is retaining critical skills within the Shuttle Program workforce. The Program must define a strategy that will allow safe and efficient fly-out of the Shuttle, while smoothly transitioning Shuttle assets (both human and facility) to support early flight demonstrations required in the development of NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (Orion) and Crew and Cargo Launch Vehicles (Ares I). The Program must accomplish all of this while maintaining the current level of resources. Therefore, it will be necessary to initiate major changes in operations and contracting. Overcoming these challenges will be essential for NASA to fly the Shuttle safely, accomplish the Vision for Space Exploration, and ultimately meet the national goal of maintaining a robust space program. This paper will address the Space Shuttle Program s strategy and its current status in meeting these challenges.

  19. HYDRAULICS, TUSCARAWAS COUNTY, OHIO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  20. Hydraulic hoist-press

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babayev, Z.B.; Abashev, Z.V.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency expert of the Angrenskiy production-technological administration of the production association Sredazugol A. V. Bubnov has suggested a hydraulic hoist-press for repairing road equipment which is a device consisting of lifting mechanism, press and test stand for verifying the high pressure hoses and pumps.

  1. Modelling of Hydraulic Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Zhou, Jianjun; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of identifying the physical model (or the grey box model) of a hydraulic test robot. The obtained model is intended to provide a basis for model-based control of the robot. The physical model is formulated in continuous time and is derived by application...

  2. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  3. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on-going...

  4. Space Shuttle Program Legacy Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Share lessons learned on Space Shuttle Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) culture, processes, and products that can guide future enterprises to improve mission success and minimize the risk of catastrophic failures. Present the chronology of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) S&MA organization over the 40-year history of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and identify key factors and environments which contributed to positive and negative performance.

  5. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  6. H2O2 space shuttle APU

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A cryogenic H2-O2 auxiliary power unit (APU) was developed and successfully demonstrated. It has potential application as a minimum weight alternate to the space shuttle baseline APU because of its (1) low specific propellant consumption and (2) heat sink capabilities that reduce the amount of expendable evaporants. A reference system was designed with the necessary heat exchangers, combustor, turbine-gearbox, valves, and electronic controls to provide 400 shp to two aircraft hydraulic pumps. Development testing was carried out first on the combustor and control valves. This was followed by development of the control subsystem including the controller, the hydrogen and oxygen control valves, the combustor, and a turbine simulator. The complete APU system was hot tested for 10 hr with ambient and cryogenic propellants. Demonstrated at 95 percent of design power was 2.25 lb/hp-hr. At 10 percent design power, specific propellant consumption was 4 lb/hp-hr with space simulated exhaust and 5.2 lb/hp-hr with ambient exhaust. A 10 percent specific propellant consumption improvement is possible with some seal modifications. It was demonstrated that APU power levels could be changed by several hundred horsepower in less than 100 msec without exceeding allowable turbine inlet temperatures or turbine speed.

  7. Shuttle Atlantis Landing at Edwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    NASA's Space Shuttle Atlantis touched down on the lakebed runway at Edwards Air Force Base in California's Mojave Desert Tuesday, 3 December 1985 at 1:33:49 p.m. Pacific Standard Time, concluding the STS 61-B international mission. The eight-day mission successfully deployed three communications satellites including the Mexican Morelos B, the Australian Aussat 2 and an RCA Satcom K-2 satellite. In addition, two spacewalks were performed to experiment with construction of structures in space. Crew of the 61-B mission included Commander Brewster H. Shaw, Jr.; Pilot Bryan D. O'Connor; Mission Specialists Mary L. Cleave, Sherwood C. Spring and Jerry L. Ross; and Payload Specialists Rudolfo Neri Vela of Mexico and Charles Walker of McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories

  8. Shuttle Discovery Landing at Edwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The STS-29 Space Shuttle Discovery mission lands at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards AFB, California, early Saturday morning, 18 March 1989. Touchdown was at 6:35:49 a.m. PST and wheel stop was at 6:36:40 a.m. on runway 22. Controllers chose the concrete runway for the landing in order to make tests of braking and nosewheel steering. The STS-29 mission was very successful, completing the launch of a Tracking and Data Relay communications satellite, as well as a range of scientific experiments. Discovery's five-man crew was led by Commander Michael L. Coats, and included pilot John E. Blaha and mission specialists James P. Bagian, Robert C. Springer, and James F. Buchli. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout

  9. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  10. Undular Hydraulic Jump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Castro-Orgaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition from subcritical to supercritical flow when the inflow Froude number Fo is close to unity appears in the form of steady state waves called undular hydraulic jump. The characterization of the undular hydraulic jump is complex due to the existence of a non-hydrostatic pressure distribution that invalidates the gradually-varied flow theory, and supercritical shock waves. The objective of this work is to present a mathematical model for the undular hydraulic jump obtained from an approximate integration of the Reynolds equations for turbulent flow assuming that the Reynolds number R is high. Simple analytical solutions are presented to reveal the physics of the theory, and a numerical model is used to integrate the complete equations. The limit of application of the theory is discussed using a wave breaking condition for the inception of a surface roller. The validity of the mathematical predictions is critically assessed using physical data, thereby revealing aspects on which more research is needed

  11. RERTR-12 Insertion 2 Irradiation Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. Perez; G. S. Chang; D. M. Wachs; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme

    2012-09-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-12 was designed to provide comprehensive information on the performance of uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) based monolithic fuels for research reactor applications.1 RERTR-12 insertion 2 includes the capsules irradiated during the last three irradiation cycles. These capsules include Z, Y1, Y2 and Y3 type capsules. The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-12 insertion 2 experiment through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analysis results, thermal analysis results and hydraulic testing results.

  12. ]Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Shuttle program is one of the most complex engineering activities undertaken anywhere in the world at the present time. The Space Shuttle Independent Assessment Team (SIAT) was chartered in September 1999 by NASA to provide an independent review of the Space Shuttle sub-systems and maintenance practices. During the period from October through December 1999, the team led by Dr. McDonald and comprised of NASA, contractor, and DOD experts reviewed NASA practices, Space Shuffle anomalies, as well as civilian and military aerospace experience. In performing the review, much of a very positive nature was observed by the SIAT, not the least of which was the skill and dedication of the workforce. It is in the unfortunate nature of this type of review that the very positive elements are either not mentioned or dwelt upon. This very complex program has undergone a massive change in structure in the last few years with the transition to a slimmed down, contractor-run operation, the Shuttle Flight Operations Contract (SFOC). This has been accomplished with significant cost savings and without a major incident. This report has identified significant problems that must be addressed to maintain an effective program. These problems are described in each of the Issues, Findings or Observations summarized, and unless noted, appear to be systemic in nature and not confined to any one Shuttle sub-system or element. Specifics are given in the body of the report, along with recommendations to improve the present systems.

  13. Hydraulic System Design of Hydraulic Actuators for Large Butterfly Valves

    OpenAIRE

    HUANG, Ye; Liu, Changsheng; Shiongur Bamed

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic control systems of butterfly valves are presently valve-controlled and pump-controlled. Valve-controlled hydraulic systems have serious power loss and generate much heat during throttling. Pump-controlled hydraulic systems have no overflow or throttling losses but are limited in the speed adjustment of the variable-displacement pump, generate much noise, pollute the environment, and have motor power that does not match load requirements, resulting in low efficiency under...

  14. Hydraulic System Design of Hydraulic Actuators for Large Butterfly Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye HUANG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic control systems of butterfly valves are presently valve-controlled and pump-controlled. Valve-controlled hydraulic systems have serious power loss and generate much heat during throttling. Pump-controlled hydraulic systems have no overflow or throttling losses but are limited in the speed adjustment of the variable-displacement pump, generate much noise, pollute the environment, and have motor power that does not match load requirements, resulting in low efficiency under light loads and wearing of the variable-displacement pump. To overcome these shortcomings, this article designs a closed hydraulic control system in which an AC servo motor drives a quantitative pump that controls a spiral swinging hydraulic cylinder, and analyzes and calculates the structure and parameters of a spiral swinging hydraulic cylinder. The hydraulic system adjusts the servo motor’s speed according to the requirements of the control system, and the motor power matches the power provided to components, thus eliminating the throttling loss of hydraulic circuits. The system is compact, produces a large output force, provides stable transmission, has a quick response, and is suitable as a hydraulic control system of a large butterfly valve.

  15. Space shuttle and life sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    During the 1980's, some 200 Spacelab missions will be flown on space shuttle in earth-orbit. Within these 200 missions, it is planned that at least 20 will be dedicated to life sciences research, projects which are yet to be outlined by the life sciences community. Objectives of the Life Sciences Shuttle/Spacelab Payloads Program are presented. Also discussed are major space life sciences programs including space medicine and physiology, clinical medicine, life support technology, and a variety of space biology topics. The shuttle, spacelab, and other life sciences payload carriers are described. Concepts for carry-on experiment packages, mini-labs, shared and dedicated spacelabs, as well as common operational research equipment (CORE) are reviewed. Current NASA planning and development includes Spacelab Mission Simulations, an Announcement of Planning Opportunity for Life Sciences, and a forthcoming Announcement of Opportunity for Flight Experiments which will together assist in forging a Life Science Program in space.

  16. Space Shuttle flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinar, W. J.; Kubiak, E. T.; Peters, W. H.; Saldana, R. L.; Smith, E. E., Jr.; Stegall, H. W.

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is a control stabilized vehicle with control provided by an all digital, fly-by-wire flight control system. This paper gives a description of the several modes of flight control which correspond to the Shuttle mission phases. These modes are ascent flight control (including open loop first stage steering, the use of four computers operating in parallel and inertial guidance sensors), on-orbit flight control (with a discussion of reaction control, phase plane switching logic, jet selection logic, state estimator logic and OMS thrust vector control), entry flight control and TAEM (terminal area energy management to landing). Also discussed are redundancy management and backup flight control.

  17. Changes to the shuttle circuits

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    To fit with passengers expectation, there will be some changes to the shuttle circuits as from Monday 10 October. See details on http://cern.ch/ShuttleService (on line on 7 October). Circuit No. 5 is cancelled as circuit No. 1 also stops at Bldg. 33. In order to guarantee shorter travel times, circuit No. 1 will circulate on Meyrin site only and circuit No. 2, with departures from Bldg. 33 and 500, on Prévessin site only. Site Services Section

  18. Shuttle Propulsion Overview to NATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightfoot, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In the early morning on Saturday, February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke up during entry. After extensive investigation of the accident and recommendations made by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board, President Bush gave the vision for space exploration for NASA, which include return the Space Shuttle to flight as soon as practical, complete assembly of the ISS by the end of the decade, initiate robotic missions to the moon no later than 2008, develop a new Crew Exploration Vehicle, conduct first robotic, then human missions to Mars and extend human exploration across the solar system.

  19. Irradiation damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, L.M

    2000-07-01

    There is considerable interest in irradiation effects in intermetallic compounds from both the applied and fundamental aspects. Initially, this interest was associated mainly with nuclear reactor programs but it now extends to the fields of ion-beam modification of metals, behaviour of amorphous materials, ion-beam processing of electronic materials, and ion-beam simulations of various kinds. The field of irradiation damage in intermetallic compounds is rapidly expanding, and no attempt will be made in this chapter to cover all of the various aspects. Instead, attention will be focused on some specific areas and, hopefully, through these, some insight will be given into the physical processes involved, the present state of our knowledge, and the challenge of obtaining more comprehensive understanding in the future. The specific areas that will be covered are: point defects in intermetallic compounds; irradiation-enhanced ordering and irradiation-induced disordering of ordered alloys; irradiation-induced amorphization.

  20. Modelling of Hydraulic Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Zhou, Jianjun; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of identifying the physical model (or the grey box model) of a hydraulic test robot. The obtained model is intended to provide a basis for model-based control of the robot. The physical model is formulated in continuous time and is derived by application...... of the laws of physics on the system. The unknown (or uncertain) parameters are estimated with Maximum Likelihood (ML) parameter estimation. The identified model has been evaluated by comparing the measurements with simulation of the model. The identified model was much more capable of describing the dynamics...... of the system than the deterministic model....

  1. Hydraulic mining method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Lester H.; Knoke, Gerald S.

    1985-08-20

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  2. Spinning hydraulic jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahmane, Hamid; Kasimov, Aslan

    2013-11-01

    We report an experimental observation of a new symmetry breaking of circular hydraulic jump into a self-organized structure that consists of a spinning polygonal jump and logarithmic-spiral waves of fluid elevation downstream. The waves are strikingly similar to spiral density waves in galaxies. The fluid flow exhibits counterparts of salient morphological features of galactic flows, in particular the outflow from the center, jets, circum-nuclear rings, gas inflows toward the galactic center, and vortices. The hydrodynamic instability revealed here may have a counterpart that plays a role in the formation and sustainability of spiral arms in galaxies.

  3. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hydraulic equipment and the adjacent work area. Protection shall be afforded to the operator of hydraulic... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.880 Section 28.880 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.880 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system must...

  4. Analysis of Space Shuttle Ground Support System Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery Processes and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Anthony R.; Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael; Trent, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the FDIR (Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery) Project for the Constellation Program, a task was designed within the context of the Constellation Program FDIR project called the Legacy Benchmarking Task to document as accurately as possible the FDIR processes and resources that were used by the Space Shuttle ground support equipment (GSE) during the Shuttle flight program. These results served as a comparison with results obtained from the new FDIR capability. The task team assessed Shuttle and EELV (Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle) historical data for GSE-related launch delays to identify expected benefits and impact. This analysis included a study of complex fault isolation situations that required a lengthy troubleshooting process. Specifically, four elements of that system were considered: LH2 (liquid hydrogen), LO2 (liquid oxygen), hydraulic test, and ground special power.

  5. Applied hydraulic transients

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Hanif

    2014-01-01

    This book covers hydraulic transients in a comprehensive and systematic manner from introduction to advanced level and presents various methods of analysis for computer solution. The field of application of the book is very broad and diverse and covers areas such as hydroelectric projects, pumped storage schemes, water-supply systems, cooling-water systems, oil pipelines and industrial piping systems. Strong emphasis is given to practical applications, including several case studies, problems of applied nature, and design criteria. This will help design engineers and introduce students to real-life projects. This book also: ·         Presents modern methods of analysis suitable for computer analysis, such as the method of characteristics, explicit and implicit finite-difference methods and matrix methods ·         Includes case studies of actual projects ·         Provides extensive and complete treatment of governed hydraulic turbines ·         Presents design charts, desi...

  6. Hydraulic rams; a comparative investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tacke, J.H.P.M.

    1988-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the essential features of hydraulic ram operation is developed in order to clarify the possibilities and limitations of the ram relative to its site and its adjustments. The model distinguishes three different periods in the pumping cycle of the hydraulic ram: acceler

  7. Hydraulics. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on hydraulics is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids for training in the servicing of agricultural and industrial machinery. Focus is on oil hydraulics. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The twelve chapters focus…

  8. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, T.

    1986-01-01

    The proposed use of gamma radiation from cobalt 60 and cesium 137 for food irradiation in the United Kingdom is discussed, with particular reference to the possible dangers and disadvantages to the safety and wholesomeness of the food.

  9. Hydraulic Stability of Accropode Armour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.; Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    , and to assess the influence of core permeability on the hydraulic stability of Accropodes. Two structures were examined, one with a relatively permeable core and one with a relatively impermeable core. In November/December 1995, Ph.D.-student Marten Christensen carried out the model tests on the structure...... with permeable core (crushed granite with a gradation of 5-8 mm). The outcome of this study is described in "Hydraulic Stability of Single-Layer Dolos and Accropode Armour Layers" by Christensen & Burcharth (1995). In January/February 1996, Research Assistant Thomas Jensen carried out a similar study......The present report describes the hydraulic model tests of Accropode armour layers carried out at the Hydraulics Laboratory at Aalborg University from November 1995 through March 1996. The objective of the model tests was to investigate the hydraulic stability of Accropode armour layers...

  10. Hydraulic Stability of Accropode Armour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.; Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    , and to assess the influence of core permeability on the hydraulic stability of Accropodes. Two structures were examined, one with a relatively permeable core and one with a relatively impermeable core. In November/December 1995, Ph.D.-student Marten Christensen carried out the model tests on the structure...... with permeable core (crushed granite with a gradation of 5-8 mm). The outcome of this study is described in "Hydraulic Stability of Single-Layer Dolos and Accropode Armour Layers" by Christensen & Burcharth (1995). In January/February 1996, Research Assistant Thomas Jensen carried out a similar study......The present report describes the hydraulic model tests of Accropode armour layers carried out at the Hydraulics Laboratory at Aalborg University from November 1995 through March 1996. The objective of the model tests was to investigate the hydraulic stability of Accropode armour layers...

  11. [Food irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdał, W

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permission for irradiation for: spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables.

  12. Hydraulic Yaw System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Mørkholt, M.

    As wind turbines increase in size, combined with increased lifetime demands, new methods for load reduction needs to be examined. One method is to make the yaw system of the turbine soft/flexible and hereby dampen the loads to the system, which is the focus of the current paper. By utilizing...... the HAWC2 aeroelastic code and an extended model of the NREL 5MW turbine combined with a simplified linear model of the turbine, the parameters of the soft yaw system are optimized to reduce loading in critical components. Results shows that a significant reduction in fatigue and extreme loads to the yaw...... system and rotor shaft when utilizing the soft yaw drive concept compared to the original stiff yaw system. The physical demands of the hydraulic yaw system are furthermore examined for a life time of 20 years. Based on the extrapolated loads, the duty cycles show that it is possible to construct...

  13. Electro Hydraulic Hitch Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M. R.; Andersen, T. O.; Nielsen, B.

    2003-01-01

    system for agricultural applications and driving for transportation. During tranport phases, the lack of suspension causes the vehicle to bounce and pitch, and makes it difficalt to control. Many systems have been proposed to cope with the oscillatory behavior, and different solutions exist. Common......This paper present and discusses R&D results on electro hydraulic hitch control for off-road vehicle, in particular active damping of oscillation occuring on tractors. The research deals with analysis and control of the oscillations occuring on tractors which are design without any susspection...... for most of the systems are that they operate on the hydrailc actuators generally providing the motive forces for moving the implement and/or attachment, typically a plough. The basic idea and physical working principle are to use the implement, moveable relative to the vehicle, as a damper mass. The paper...

  14. AFIP-6 Irradiation Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielle M Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2011-09-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-6 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) fuels at a length prototypic to that of the ATR fuel plates (45 inches in length). The AFIP-6 test was the first test with plates in a swaged condition with longer fuel zones of approximately 22.5 inches in length1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-6 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results.

  15. Hydraulic architecture and photoinhibition influence spatial distribution of the arborescent palm Euterpe edulis in subtropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, M Genoveva; Campanello, Paula I; Villagra, Mariana; Montti, Lía; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2014-06-01

    Physiological characteristics of saplings can be considered one of the most basic constraints on species distribution. The shade-tolerant arborescent palm Euterpe edulis Mart. is endemic to the Atlantic Forest of Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay. At a local scale, saplings of this species growing in native forests are absent in gaps. We tested the hypothesis whether sensitivity to photoinhibition or hydraulic architecture constrains the distribution of E. edulis saplings in sun-exposed forest environments. Using shade houses and field studies, we evaluated growth, survival, hydraulic traits and the susceptibility of Photosystem II to photoinhibition in E. edulis saplings under different growth irradiances. Survival rates in exposed sites in the field were very low (a median of 7%). All saplings exhibited photoinhibition when exposed to high radiation levels, but acclimation to a high radiation environment increased the rate of recovery. Petiole hydraulic conductivity was similar across treatments regardless of whether it was expressed per petiole cross-sectional area or per leaf area. At the plant level, investment in conductive tissues relative to leaf area (Huber values) increased with increasing irradiance. Under high irradiance conditions, plants experienced leaf water potentials close to the turgor-loss point, and leaf hydraulic conductance decreased by 79% relative to its maximum value. Euterpe edulis saplings were able to adjust their photosynthetic traits to different irradiance conditions, whereas hydraulic characteristics at the leaf level did not change across irradiance treatments. Our results indicate that uncoupling between water demand and supply to leaves apparently associated with high resistances to water flow at leaf insertion points, in addition to small stems with low water storage capacity, weak stomatal control and high vulnerability of leaves to hydraulic dysfunction, are the main ecophysiological constraints that prevent the growth and

  16. Hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, A Hakan; Ozdamar, Tuğçe

    2013-06-01

    Hydraulic conductivities of compacted zeolites were investigated as a function of compaction water content and zeolite particle size. Initially, the compaction characteristics of zeolites were determined. The compaction test results showed that maximum dry unit weight (γ(dmax)) of fine zeolite was greater than that of granular zeolites. The γ(dmax) of compacted zeolites was between 1.01 and 1.17 Mg m(-3) and optimum water content (w(opt)) was between 38% and 53%. Regardless of zeolite particle size, compacted zeolites had low γ(dmax) and high w(opt) when compared with compacted natural soils. Then, hydraulic conductivity tests were run on compacted zeolites. The hydraulic conductivity values were within the range of 2.0 × 10(-3) cm s(-1) to 1.1 × 10(-7) cm s(-1). Hydraulic conductivity of all compacted zeolites decreased almost 50 times as the water content increased. It is noteworthy that hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite was strongly dependent on the zeolite particle size. The hydraulic conductivity decreased almost three orders of magnitude up to 39% fine content; then, it remained almost unchanged beyond 39%. Only one report was found in the literature on the hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite, which is in agreement with the findings of this study.

  17. Hydraulic Actuators with Autonomous Hydraulic Supply for the Mainline Aircrafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shumilov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Applied in the aircraft control systems, hydraulic servo actuators with autonomous hydraulic supply, so-called, hydraulic actuators of integrated configuration, i.e. combination of a source of hydraulic power and its load in the single unit, are aimed at increasing control system reliability both owing to elimination of the pipelines connecting the actuator to the hydraulic supply source, and owing to avoidance of influence of other loads failure on the actuator operability. Their purpose is also to raise control system survivability by eliminating the long pipeline communications and their replacing for the electro-conductive power supply system, thus reducing the vulnerability of systems. The main reason for a delayed application of the hydraulic actuators in the cutting-edge aircrafts was that such aircrafts require hydraulic actuators of considerably higher power with considerable heat releases, which caused an unacceptable overheat of the hydraulic actuators. Positive and negative sides of the hydraulic actuators, their alternative options of increased reliability and survivability, local hydraulic systems as an advanced alternative to independent hydraulic actuators are considered.Now to use hydraulic actuators in mainline aircrafts is inexpedient since there are the unfairly large number of the problems reducing, first and last, safety of flights, with no essential weight and operational advantages. Still works to create competitive hydraulic actuators ought to be continued.Application of local hydraulic systems (LHS will allow us to reduce length of pressure head and drain pipelines and mass of pipelines, as well as to raise their general fail-safety and survivability. Application of the LHS principle will allow us to use a majority of steering drive advantages. It is necessary to allocate especially the following:- ease of meeting requirements for the non-local spread of the engine weight;- essentially reducing length and weight of

  18. Hydraulic conductivity of organomodified soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, R.B.; Grant, J.M.; Voice, T.C.; Rakhshandehroo, G.; Xu, S.; Boyd, S.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The effects of organomodification on soil hydraulic conductivity were investigated. Hydraulic conductivity and porosity of treated and untreated samples of a sandy loam were measured as a function of effective stress. Batch treatment with hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium (HDTMA) and dry packing produced organomodified samples that were 79% less conducive than untreated samples prior to loading. Treated samples lost less hydraulic conductivity as a result of loading than untreated samples so that treated samples had higher conductivity at high loads. Observed differences in conductivity are explained in terms of the role of the treated and untreated clay in controlling initial effective pore size and its change during consolidation.

  19. HYDRAULICS, ATHENS COUNTY, OHIO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  20. HYDRAULICS, JACKSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  1. HYDRAULICS, MADISON COUNTY, ALABAMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Hydraulic data was reviewed and approved by FEMA during the initial MT-2 processing. Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management...

  2. HYDRAULICS, HAMPDEN COUNTY, MA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data in this submittal include spatial datasets and model outputs necessary for computation of the 1-percent flooding extent. The minimum requirement for...

  3. Hydraulic wind energy conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to design, build and test a hydraulic wind energy system. This design used a three bladed turbine, which drove a hydraulic pump. The energy is transmitted from the pump through a long hose and into a hydraulic motor, where the energy is used. This wind system was built and tested during the winter of 1980-1981. The power train included a five meter, three bladed wind turbine, a 9.8:1 ratio gearbox, a 1.44 cubic inch displacement pump with a small supercharge gear pump attached. The hydraulic fluid was pumped through a 70', 3/4'' I-D-high pressure flexhose, then through a volume control valve and into a 1.44 cubic inch displacement motor. The fluid was returned through a 70', 1'' I-D-flexhose.

  4. 14 CFR 29.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 29.1435 Section 29.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each element of the hydraulic system...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 23.1435 Section 23.1435... § 23.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, the structural loads expected...

  6. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.405 Section 28.405 Shipping... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.405 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system... than four times the system maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped...

  7. Advanced Performance Hydraulic Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lam, Adrienne S.

    2013-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, has developed a novel advanced hydraulic wind energy design, which has up to 23% performance improvement over conventional wind turbine and conventional hydraulic wind energy systems with 5 m/sec winds. It also has significant cost advantages with levelized costs equal to coal (after carbon tax rebate). The design is equally applicable to tidal energy systems and has passed preliminary laboratory proof-of-performance tests, as funded by the Department of Energy.

  8. Space Shuttle and Hypersonic Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Gerstenmaier, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years of human spaceflight have been characterized by the aerospace operations of the Soyuz, of the Space Shuttle and, more recently, of the Shenzhou. The lessons learned of this past half decade are important and very significant. Particularly interesting is the scenario that is downstream from the retiring of the Space Shuttle. A number of initiatives are, in fact, emerging from in the aftermath of the decision to terminate the Shuttle program. What is more and more evident is that a new era is approaching: the era of the commercial usage and of the commercial exploitation of space. It is probably fair to say, that this is the likely one of the new frontiers of expansion of the world economy. To make a comparison, in the last 30 years our economies have been characterized by the digital technologies, with examples ranging from computers, to cellular phones, to the satellites themselves. Similarly, the next 30 years are likely to be characterized by an exponential increase of usage of extra atmospheric resources, as a result of more economic and efficient way to access space, with aerospace transportation becoming accessible to commercial investments. We are witnessing the first steps of the transportation of future generation that will drastically decrease travel time on our Planet, and significantly enlarge travel envelope including at least the low Earth orbits. The Steve Jobs or the Bill Gates of the past few decades are being replaced by the aggressive and enthusiastic energy of new entrepreneurs. It is also interesting to note that we are now focusing on the aerospace band, that lies on top of the aeronautical shell, and below the low Earth orbits. It would be a mistake to consider this as a known envelope based on the evidences of the flights of Soyuz, Shuttle and Shenzhou. Actually, our comprehension of the possible hypersonic flight regimes is bounded within really limited envelopes. The achievement of a full understanding of the hypersonic flight

  9. Space Shuttle and Hypersonic Entry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Gerstenmaier, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Fifty years of human spaceflight have been characterized by the aerospace operations of the Soyuz, of the Space Shuttle and, more recently, of the Shenzhou. The lessons learned of this past half decade are important and very significant. Particularly interesting is the scenario that is downstream from the retiring of the Space Shuttle. A number of initiatives are, in fact, emerging from in the aftermath of the decision to terminate the Shuttle program. What is more and more evident is that a new era is approaching: the era of the commercial usage and of the commercial exploitation of space. It is probably fair to say, that this is the likely one of the new frontiers of expansion of the world economy. To make a comparison, in the last 30 years our economies have been characterized by the digital technologies, with examples ranging from computers, to cellular phones, to the satellites themselves. Similarly, the next 30 years are likely to be characterized by an exponential increase of usage of extra atmospheric resources, as a result of more economic and efficient way to access space, with aerospace transportation becoming accessible to commercial investments. We are witnessing the first steps of the transportation of future generation that will drastically decrease travel time on our Planet, and significantly enlarge travel envelope including at least the low Earth orbits. The Steve Jobs or the Bill Gates of the past few decades are being replaced by the aggressive and enthusiastic energy of new entrepreneurs. It is also interesting to note that we are now focusing on the aerospace band, that lies on top of the aeronautical shell, and below the low Earth orbits. It would be a mistake to consider this as a known envelope based on the evidences of the flights of Soyuz, Shuttle and Shenzhou. Actually, our comprehension of the possible hypersonic flight regimes is bounded within really limited envelopes. The achievement of a full understanding of the hypersonic flight

  10. Technologies and Innovations for Hydraulic Pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Ivantysynova, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Positive displacement machines working as hydraulic pumps or hydraulic motors have always been, are and will be an essential part of any hydraulic system. Current trends and future demands on energy efficient systems will not only drastically increase the number of positive displacement machines needed for modern efficient hydraulic circuits but will significantly change the performance requirements of pumps and motors. Throttleless system configurations will change the landscape of hydraulic...

  11. Space Shuttle Usage of z/OS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the avionics associated with the Space Shuttle's data processing system and its usage of z/OS. The contents include: 1) Mission, Products, and Customers; 2) Facility Overview; 3) Shuttle Data Processing System; 4) Languages and Compilers; 5) Application Tools; 6) Shuttle Flight Software Simulator; 7) Software Development and Build Tools; and 8) Fun Facts and Acronyms.

  12. Space Shuttle Main Engine Public Test Firing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    A new NASA Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) roars to the approval of more than 2,000 people who came to John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., on July 25 for a flight-certification test of the SSME Block II configuration. The engine, a new and significantly upgraded shuttle engine, was delivered to NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida for use on future shuttle missions. Spectators were able to experience the 'shake, rattle and roar' of the engine, which ran for 520 seconds - the length of time it takes a shuttle to reach orbit.

  13. Shot noise of a quantum shuttle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novotny, Tomas; Donarini, Andrea; Flindt, Christian

    2004-01-01

    even in the quantum limit, confirming that shuttling is universally a low noise phenomenon. In approaching the semiclassical limit, the Fano factor shows a giant enhancement (Fsimilar or equal to10(2)) at the shuttling threshold, consistent with predictions based on phase-space representations......We formulate a theory for shot noise in quantum nanoelectromechanical systems. As a specific example, the theory is applied to a quantum shuttle, and the zero-frequency noise, measured by the Fano factor F, is computed. F reaches very low values (Fsimilar or equal to10(-2)) in the shuttling regime...

  14. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-09-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

  15. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H

    2016-06-07

    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process.

  16. Hydraulic properties of ladle slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vlček

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of examining of hydraulic properties of ladle slags formed during production of steel. The studied ladle slags were subjected to different cooling mode from the molten state. Based on the ability of the slag react with the water was assessed their hydraulic activity. The hydraulic properties are caused by the presence of minerals dicalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate, mayenite, brownmillerite and dicalcium ferite. The emergence of required hydrating phases in the ladle slags is conditioned by a sufficient CaO content and their cooling rate. The contact the slag with water during processing and their ageing has a negative effect. The experiment has shown that the phase transformation of the mineral dicalcium silicate which occurs during cooling of the ladle slags cause their volume instability.

  17. Current Noise Spectrum of a Quantum Shuttle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Christian; Novotny, T.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    2005-01-01

    We present a method for calculating the full current noise spectrum S(omega) for the class of nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) that can be described by a Markovian generalized master equation. As a specific example we apply the method to a quantum shuttle. The noise spectrum of the shuttle h...

  18. Shuttle onboard IMU alignment methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, D. M.

    1976-01-01

    The current approach to the shuttle IMU alignment is based solely on the Apollo Deterministic Method. This method is simple, fast, reliable and provides an accurate estimate for the present cluster to mean of 1,950 transformation matrix. If four or more star sightings are available, the application of least squares analysis can be utilized. The least squares method offers the next level of sophistication to the IMU alignment solution. The least squares method studied shows that a more accurate estimate for the misalignment angles is computed, and the IMU drift rates are a free by-product of the analysis. Core storage requirements are considerably more; estimated 20 to 30 times the core required for the Apollo Deterministic Method. The least squares method offers an intermediate solution utilizing as much data that is available without a complete statistical analysis as in Kalman filtering.

  19. Reentry guidance for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, W.; Sohoni, V.

    1973-01-01

    An explicit guidance scheme is outlined which provides the appropriate energy management in order for the shuttle orbiter to reach any location within the required footprint. Considering the orbiter as entering the earth's atmosphere, expressions for the downrange, crossrange, and the time of the termination of the entry phase as functions of the control variables are developed. Performing an order-of-magnitude analysis of the terms in these expressions, only dominant terms are retained. Analytical expressions for the elements of the sensitivity matrix which represents the partial derivatives of the desired range with respect to control variables are formulated. Using the Gauss-Jordan inversion technique, the required change in guidance commands as a function of the deviations in the downrange and crossrange are explicitly computed.

  20. Reentry guidance for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, W.; Sohoni, V.

    1973-01-01

    An explicit guidance scheme is outlined which provides the appropriate energy management in order for the shuttle orbiter to reach any location within the required footprint. Considering the orbiter as entering the earth's atmosphere, expressions for the downrange, crossrange, and the time of the termination of the entry phase as functions of the control variables are developed. Performing an order-of-magnitude analysis of the terms in these expressions, only dominant terms are retained. Analytical expressions for the elements of the sensitivity matrix which represents the partial derivatives of the desired range with respect to control variables are formulated. Using the Gauss-Jordan inversion technique, the required change in guidance commands as a function of the deviations in the downrange and crossrange are explicitly computed.

  1. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartwright, P; Helin, K

    2000-01-01

    To elicit the transcriptional response following intra- or extracellular stimuli, the signals need to be transmitted to their site of action within the nucleus. The nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors is a mechanism mediating this process. The activation and inactivation...... of the transcriptional response is essential for cells to progress through the cell cycle in a normal manner. The involvement of cytoplasmic and nuclear accessory molecules, and the general nuclear membrane transport components, are essential for this process. Although nuclear import and export for different...... transcription factor families are regulated by similar mechanisms, there are several differences that allow for the specific activation of each transcription factor. This review discusses the general import and export pathways found to be common amongst many different transcription factors, and highlights...

  2. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartwright, P; Helin, K

    2000-01-01

    To elicit the transcriptional response following intra- or extracellular stimuli, the signals need to be transmitted to their site of action within the nucleus. The nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of transcription factors is a mechanism mediating this process. The activation and inactivation...... transcription factor families are regulated by similar mechanisms, there are several differences that allow for the specific activation of each transcription factor. This review discusses the general import and export pathways found to be common amongst many different transcription factors, and highlights...... of the transcriptional response is essential for cells to progress through the cell cycle in a normal manner. The involvement of cytoplasmic and nuclear accessory molecules, and the general nuclear membrane transport components, are essential for this process. Although nuclear import and export for different...

  3. Space Shuttle RTOS Bayesian Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A. Terry; Beling, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    With shrinking budgets and the requirements to increase reliability and operational life of the existing orbiter fleet, NASA has proposed various upgrades for the Space Shuttle that are consistent with national space policy. The cockpit avionics upgrade (CAU), a high priority item, has been selected as the next major upgrade. The primary functions of cockpit avionics include flight control, guidance and navigation, communication, and orbiter landing support. Secondary functions include the provision of operational services for non-avionics systems such as data handling for the payloads and caution and warning alerts to the crew. Recently, a process to selection the optimal commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) real-time operating system (RTOS) for the CAU was conducted by United Space Alliance (USA) Corporation, which is a joint venture between Boeing and Lockheed Martin, the prime contractor for space shuttle operations. In order to independently assess the RTOS selection, NASA has used the Bayesian network-based scoring methodology described in this paper. Our two-stage methodology addresses the issue of RTOS acceptability by incorporating functional, performance and non-functional software measures related to reliability, interoperability, certifiability, efficiency, correctness, business, legal, product history, cost and life cycle. The first stage of the methodology involves obtaining scores for the various measures using a Bayesian network. The Bayesian network incorporates the causal relationships between the various and often competing measures of interest while also assisting the inherently complex decision analysis process with its ability to reason under uncertainty. The structure and selection of prior probabilities for the network is extracted from experts in the field of real-time operating systems. Scores for the various measures are computed using Bayesian probability. In the second stage, multi-criteria trade-off analyses are performed between the scores

  4. Space Shuttle Orbiter-Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This illustration is an orbiter cutaway view with callouts. The orbiter is both the brains and heart of the Space Transportation System (STS). About the same size and weight as a DC-9 aircraft, the orbiter contains the pressurized crew compartment (which can normally carry up to seven crew members), the huge cargo bay, and the three main engines mounted on its aft end. There are three levels to the crew cabin. Uppermost is the flight deck where the commander and the pilot control the mission. The middeck is where the gallery, toilet, sleep stations, and storage and experiment lockers are found for the basic needs of weightless daily living. Also located in the middeck is the airlock hatch into the cargo bay and space beyond. It is through this hatch and airlock that astronauts go to don their spacesuits and marned maneuvering units in preparation for extravehicular activities, more popularly known as spacewalks. The Space Shuttle's cargo bay is adaptable to hundreds of tasks. Large enough to accommodate a tour bus (60 x 15 feet or 18.3 x 4.6 meters), the cargo bay carries satellites, spacecraft, and spacelab scientific laboratories to and from Earth orbit. It is also a work station for astronauts to repair satellites, a foundation from which to erect space structures, and a hold for retrieved satellites to be returned to Earth. Thermal tile insulation and blankets (also known as the thermal protection system or TPS) cover the underbelly, bottom of the wings, and other heat-bearing surfaces of the orbiter to protect it during its fiery reentry into the Earth's atmosphere. The Shuttle's 24,000 individual tiles are made primarily of pure-sand silicate fibers, mixed with a ceramic binder. The solid rocket boosters (SRB's) are designed as an in-house Marshall Space Flight Center project, with United Space Boosters as the assembly and refurbishment contractor. The solid rocket motor (SRM) is provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  5. Hydraulic resistance of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.

    2013-02-01

    Biofilms may interfere with membrane performance in at least three ways: (i) increase of the transmembrane pressure drop, (ii) increase of feed channel (feed-concentrate) pressure drop, and (iii) increase of transmembrane passage. Given the relevance of biofouling, it is surprising how few data exist about the hydraulic resistance of biofilms that may affect the transmembrane pressure drop and membrane passage. In this study, biofilms were generated in a lab scale cross flow microfiltration system at two fluxes (20 and 100Lm-2h-1) and constant cross flow (0.1ms-1). As a nutrient source, acetate was added (1.0mgL-1 acetate C) besides a control without nutrient supply. A microfiltration (MF) membrane was chosen because the MF membrane resistance is very low compared to the expected biofilm resistance and, thus, biofilm resistance can be determined accurately. Transmembrane pressure drop was monitored. As biofilm parameters, thickness, total cell number, TOC, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were determined, it was demonstrated that no internal membrane fouling occurred and that the fouling layer actually consisted of a grown biofilm and was not a filter cake of accumulated bacterial cells. At 20Lm-2h-1 flux with a nutrient dosage of 1mgL-1 acetate C, the resistance after 4 days reached a value of 6×1012m-1. At 100Lm-2h-1 flux under the same conditions, the resistance was 5×1013m-1. No correlation of biofilm resistance to biofilm thickness was found; Biofilms with similar thickness could have different resistance depending on the applied flux. The cell number in biofilms was between 4×107 and 5×108 cellscm-2. At this number, bacterial cells make up less than a half percent of the overall biofilm volume and therefore did not hamper the water flow through the biofilm significantly. A flux of 100Lm-2h-1 with nutrient supply caused higher cell numbers, more biomass, and higher biofilm resistance than a flux of 20Lm-2h-1. However, the biofilm thickness

  6. Controls of Hydraulic Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hydraulic wind turbine generator system was proposed based on analysis the current wind turbines technologies. The construction and principles were introduced. The mathematical model was verified using MATLAB and AMsim. A displacement closed loop of swash plate of motor and a speed closed loop of generator were setup, a PID control is introduced to maintain a constant speed and fixed frequency at wind turbine generator. Simulation and experiment demonstrated that the system can connect grid to generate electric and enhance reliability. The control system demonstrates a high performance speed regulation and effectiveness. The results are great significant to design a new type hydraulic wind turbine system.

  7. Design of H2-O2 space shuttle APU. Volume 1: APU design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, E.

    1974-01-01

    The H2-O2 space shuttle auxiliary power unit (APU) program is a NASA-Lewis effort aimed at hardware demonstration of the technology required for potential use on the space shuttle. It has been shown that a hydrogen-oxygen power unit (APU) system is an attractive alternate to the space shuttle baseline hydrazine APU system for minimum weight. It has the capability for meeting many of the heat sink requirements for the space shuttle vehicle, thereby reducing the amount of expendable evaporants required for cooling in the baseline APU. Volume 1 of this report covers preliminary design and analysis of the current reference system and detail design of the test version of this reference system. Combustor test results are also included. Volume 2 contains the results of the analysis of an initial version of the reference system and the computer printouts of system performance. The APU consists of subsystems for propellant feed and conditioning, turbopower, and control. Propellant feed and conditioning contains all heat exchangers, valves, and the combustor. The turbopower subsystem contains a two-stage partial-admission pressure-modulated, 400-hp, 63,000-rpm turbine, a 0-to 4-g lubrication system, and a gearbox with output pads for two hydraulic pumps and an alternator (alternator not included on test unit). The electronic control functions include regulation of speed and system temperatures; and start-and-stop sequences, overspeed (rpm) and temperature limits, failsafe provisions, and automatic shutdown provisions.

  8. Integrating hydraulic equivalent sections into a hydraulic geometry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yanhong; Yi, Yujun; Li, Zhiwei; Wang, Zhaoyin; Zheng, Xiangmin

    2017-09-01

    Hydraulic geometry (HG) is an important geomorphic concept that has played an indispensable role in hydrological analyses, physical studies of streams, ecosystem and aquatic habitat studies, and sedimentology research. More than 60 years after Leopold and Maddock (1953) first introduced the concept of HG, researchers have still not uncovered the physical principles underlying HG behavior. One impediment is the complexity of the natural river cross section. The current study presents a new way to simplify the cross section, namely, the hydraulic equivalent section, which is generalized from the cross section in the ;gradually varied flow of an alluvial river; (GVFAR) and features hydrodynamic properties and bed-building laws similar to those of the GVFAR. Energy balance was used to derive the stage Z-discharge Q relationship in the GVFAR. The GVFAR in the Songhua River and the Yangtze River were selected as examples. The data, including measured discharge, river width, water stage, water depth, wet area, and cross section, were collected from the hydrological yearbooks of typical hydrological stations on the Songhua River and the Yangtze River from 1955 to 1987. The relationships between stage Z-discharge Q and cross-sectional area A-stage Z at various stations were analyzed, and ;at-a-station hydraulic geometry; (AHG) relationships were obtained in power-law forms. Based on derived results and observational data analysis, the Z-Q and Z-A relationships of AHG were similar to rectangular weir flows, thus the cross section of the GVFAR was generalized as a compound rectangular, hydraulic equivalent cross section. As to bed-building characteristics, the bankfull discharge method and the stage-discharge-relation method were used to calculate the dominant variables of the alluvial river. This hydraulic equivalent section has the same Z-Q relation, Z-A relation, dominant discharge, dominant river width, and dominant water depth as the cross section in the GVFAR. With the

  9. Chemical Shuttle Additives in Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, Mary

    2013-03-31

    The goals of this program were to discover and implement a redox shuttle that is compatible with large format lithium ion cells utilizing LiNi{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} (NMC) cathode material and to understand the mechanism of redox shuttle action. Many redox shuttles, both commercially available and experimental, were tested and much fundamental information regarding the mechanism of redox shuttle action was discovered. In particular, studies surrounding the mechanism of the reduction of the oxidized redox shuttle at the carbon anode surface were particularly revealing. The initial redox shuttle candidate, namely 2-(pentafluorophenyl)-tetrafluoro-1,3,2-benzodioxaborole (BDB) supplied by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL, Lemont, Illinois), did not effectively protect cells containing NMC cathodes from overcharge. The ANL-RS2 redox shuttle molecule, namely 1,4-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-2,5-di-tert-butyl-benzene, which is a derivative of the commercially successful redox shuttle 2,5-di-tert-butyl-1,4-dimethoxybenzene (DDB, 3M, St. Paul, Minnesota), is an effective redox shuttle for cells employing LiFePO{sub 4} (LFP) cathode material. The main advantage of ANL-RS2 over DDB is its larger solubility in electrolyte; however, ANL-RS2 is not as stable as DDB. This shuttle also may be effectively used to rebalance cells in strings that utilize LFP cathodes. The shuttle is compatible with both LTO and graphite anode materials although the cell with graphite degrades faster than the cell with LTO, possibly because of a reaction with the SEI layer. The degradation products of redox shuttle ANL-RS2 were positively identified. Commercially available redox shuttles Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} (Air Products, Allentown, Pennsylvania and Showa Denko, Japan) and DDB were evaluated and were found to be stable and effective redox shuttles at low C-rates. The Li{sub 2}B{sub 12}F{sub 12} is suitable for lithium ion cells utilizing a high voltage cathode (potential that is higher

  10. Photochemical water splitting mediated by a C1 shuttle

    KAUST Repository

    Alderman, N. P.

    2016-10-31

    The possibility of performing photochemical water splitting in a two-stage system, separately releasing the H and O components, has been probed with two separate catalysts and in combination with a formaldehyde/formate shuttling redox couple. In the first stage, formaldehyde releases hydrogen vigorously in the presence of an Na[Fe(CN)]·10HO catalyst, selectively affording the formate anion. In the second stage, the formate anion is hydro-genated back to formaldehyde by water and in the presence of a BiWO photocatalyst whilst releasing oxygen. Both stages operate at room temperature and under visible light irradiation. The two separate photocatalysts are compatible since water splitting can also be obtained in one-pot experiments with simultaneous H/O evolution.

  11. CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WITTEKIND WD

    2007-10-03

    This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

  12. DCS Hydraulics Submittal, Butler County, Alabama, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...

  13. DCS Hydraulics Submittal, Bullock County, Alabama, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...

  14. DCS Hydraulics Submittal, Covington County, Alabama, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...

  15. High Pressure Hydraulic Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-20

    to 500 0 F. 5 cycles. 5000 F room temperature to 50001F; 45 ______________ Icycles The tesis planned for the distribution system demonstrator were...American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM D412 - Tension Testing of Vulcanized Rubber ASTM D571 - Testing Automotive Hydraulic Brake Hose Society of

  16. Hydraulic fracturing system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciezobka, Jordan; Salehi, Iraj

    2017-02-28

    A hydraulic fracturing system and method for enhancing effective permeability of earth formations to increase hydrocarbon production, enhance operation efficiency by reducing fluid entry friction due to tortuosity and perforation, and to open perforations that are either unopened or not effective using traditional techniques, by varying a pump rate and/or a flow rate to a wellbore.

  17. Hydraulic jumps in a channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonn, D.; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of hydraulic jumps with flow predominantly in one direction, created either by confining the flow to a narrow channel with parallel walls or by providing an inflow in the form of a narrow sheet. In the channel flow, we find a linear height profile upstream of the jump as expected...

  18. Hydraulic Fracture Containment in Sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of hydraulic fracturing in soft, high permeability material is considered fundamentally different from that in hard, low permeability rock, where a tensile fracture is created and conventional linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) applies. The fracturing and associated modeling work

  19. Design of hydraulic recuperation unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandourek Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with design and measurement of hydraulic recuperation unit. Recuperation unit consist of radial turbine and axial pump, which are coupled on the same shaft. Speed of shaft with impellers are 6000 1/min. For economic reasons, is design of recuperation unit performed using commercially manufactured propellers.

  20. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  1. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  2. A new linear type hydraulic motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong; Zhang, Tong; Li, Wenhua; Chen, Xinyang

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes the design of liner type hydraulic motor on the base of inner curved radial piston hydraulic motor. The hydraulic cylinders of the new type motor are in the straight line which will improve the utilization of the axial space and different out power can be supplied by changes the number of cylinders. In this paper, the structure and working principle of the liner type hydraulic motor is introduced.

  3. Hydraulic characterization of " Furcraea andina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Velasquez, M. F.; Fallico, C.; Molinari, A.; Santillan, P.; Salazar, M.

    2012-04-01

    The present level of pollution, increasingly involving groundwaters, constitutes a serious risk for environment and human health. Therefore the remediation of saturated and unsaturated soils, removing pollutant materials through innovative and economic bio-remediation techniques is more frequently required. Recent studies on natural fiber development have shown the effectiveness of these fibers for removal of some heavy metals, due to the lignin content in the natural fibers which plays an important role in the adsorption of metal cations (Lee et al., 2004; Troisi et al., 2008; C. Fallico, 2010). In the context of remediation techniques for unsaturated and/or saturated zone, an experimental approach for the hydraulic characterization of the "Furcraea andina" (i.e., Cabuya Blanca) fiber was carried out. This fiber is native to Andean regions and grows easily in wild or cultivated form in the valleys and hillsides of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Fibers of "Furcraea andina" were characterized by experimental tests to determine their hydraulic conductivity or permeability and porosity in order to use this medium for bioremediation of contaminated aquifer exploiting the physical, chemical and microbial capacity of natural fiber in heavy metal adsorption. To evaluate empirically the hydraulic conductivity, laboratory tests were carried out at constant head specifically on the fibers manually extracted. For these tests we used a flow cell (used as permeameter), containing the "Furcraea andina" fibers to be characterized, suitably connected by a tygon pipe to a Marriott's bottle, which had a plastic tube that allow the adjustment of the hydraulic head for different tests to a constant value. By this experiment it was also possible to identify relationships that enable the estimation of permeability as a function of density, i.e. of the compaction degree of the fibers. Our study was carried out for three values of hydraulic head (H), namely 10, 18, and 25 cm and for each

  4. 14 CFR 25.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 25.1435 Section 25.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Element design. Each element of the hydraulic system must be designed to: (1) Withstand the proof...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 27.1435 Section 27.1435... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, any structural loads...

  6. Advantages of a round-body shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington, James P.; Wells, William L.; Lepsch, Roger A., Jr.; Huffman, Jarrett K.; Macconochie, Ian O.

    1989-01-01

    A cylindrical fuselage cross-section SSTOV representing the design generation beyond the current NASA Space Shuttle has been projected capable of reducing the cost of payload delivery to orbit while increasing mission scope. Due to its intrinsically greater wetted-area and structural weight efficiencies, this cylindrical vehicle would carry 40 percent greater payload than the Space Shuttle system despite a 20-percent lower gross liftoff weight. A LOX/hydrocarbon fuel combination would be employed during the early portion of flight, thereupon shifting to LOX/hydrogen. The cylindrical SSTOV would have eight times the volume of the Space Shuttle Orbiter.

  7. Shuttle Upgrade Program: Tile TPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Stewart, David A.; DiFiore, Robert; Irby, Ed; Arnold, James (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    One of the areas where the thermal protection system on the Space Shuttle Orbiter could be improved is the RSI (Reusable Surface Insulation) tile. The improvement would be in damage resistance that would reduce the resultant maintenance and inspection required. It has performed very well in every other aspect. Improving the system's damage resistance has been the subject of much research over the past several years. One of the results of that research was a new system developed for damage prone areas on the orbiter (i.e., base heat shield). That system, designated as TUFI, Toughened Uni-Piece Fibrous Insulation, was successfully demonstrated as an experiment on the Orbiter and is now baselined for the base heat shield. This paper describes the results of a current research program to further improve the TUFI tile system, thus making it applicable to more areas on the orbiter. The way to remove the current limitations of the TUFI system (i.e., weight or thermal conductivity differences between it and the baseline tile (LI-900)) is to improve the characteristics of LI-900 or AETB-8. Specifically this paper describes the results of two efforts. The first shows performance data of an improved LI-900 system involving the application of TUFI and the second describes data that shows a reduced difference in thermal conductivity between the advanced TUFI substrate (AETB-8) now used on the orbiter and LI-900.

  8. RERTR-7 Irradiation Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2011-12-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) experiment RERTR-7A, was designed to test several modified fuel designs to target fission densities representative of a peak low enriched uranium (LEU) burnup in excess of 90% U-235 at peak experiment power sufficient to generate a peak surface heat flux of approximately 300 W/cm2. The RERTR-7B experiment was designed as a high power test of 'second generation' dispersion fuels at peak experiment power sufficient to generate a surface heat flux on the order of 230 W/cm2.1 The following report summarizes the life of the RERTR-7A and RERTR-7B experiments through end of irradiation, including as-run neutronic analyses, thermal analyses and hydraulic testing results.

  9. AFIP-2 Irradiation Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielle M Perez

    2011-04-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-2 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a prototypic scale of 2.25 inches x 21.5 inches x 0.050 inches (5.75 cm x 54.6 cm x 0.13cm). The AFIP-2 experiment was fabricated by friction bond (FB) and consists of two plates, one with a zirconium (Zr) diffusion barrier and one with a silicon (Si) enhanced fuel/clad interface1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-2 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results. The safety analyses performed for AFIP-2 are summarized in Table 5 of the following report.

  10. AFIP-2 Irradiation Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielle M Perez; M. A. Lillo; G. S. Chang; G. A. Roth; N. E. Woolstenhulme; D. M. Wachs

    2011-05-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) experiment AFIP-2 was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a prototypic scale of 2.25 inches x 21.5 inches x 0.050 inches (5.75 cm x 54.6 cm x 0.13cm). The AFIP-2 experiment was fabricated by friction bond (FB) and consists of two plates, one with a zirconium (Zr) diffusion barrier and one with a silicon (Si) enhanced fuel/clad interface1,2. The following report summarizes the life of the AFIP-2 experiment through end of irradiation, including a brief description of the safety analysis, as-run neutronic analysis results, hydraulic testing results, and thermal analysis results. The safety analyses performed for AFIP-2 are summarized in Table 5 of the following report.

  11. Thermal Hydraulic Performance of Tight Lattice Bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yasushi; Akiba, Miyuki; Morooka, Shinichi; Shirakawa, Kenetsu; Abe, Nobuaki

    Recently, the reduced moderation spectrum BWR has been studied. The fast neutron spectrum is obtained through triangular tight lattice fuel. However, there are few thermal hydraulic test data and thermal hydraulic correlation applicable to critical power prediction in such a tight lattice bundle. This study aims to enhance the database of the thermal hydraulic performance of the tight lattice bundle whose rod gap is about 1mm. Therefore, thermal hydraulic performance measurement tests of tight lattice bundles for the critical power, the pressure drop and the counter current flow limiting were performed. Moreover, the correlations to evaluate the thermal-hydraulic performance of the tight lattice bundle were developed.

  12. Design of hydraulic output Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, W. M.; Harvey, A. C.; Lee, K.

    1983-01-01

    A hydraulic output system for the RE-1000 free piston stirling engine (FPSE) was designed. The hydraulic output system can be readily integrated with the existing hot section of RE-1000 FPSE. The system has two simply supported diaphragms which separate the engine gas from the hydraulic fluid, a dynamic balance mechanism, and a novel, null center band hydraulic pump. The diaphragms are designed to endure more than 10 billion cycles, and to withstand the differential pressure load as high as 14 MPa. The projected thermodynamic performance of the hydraulic output version of RE-1000 FPSE is 1.87 kW at 29/7 percent brake efficiency.

  13. The space shuttle program technologies and accomplishments

    CERN Document Server

    Sivolella, Davide

    2017-01-01

    This book tells the story of the Space Shuttle in its many different roles as orbital launch platform, orbital workshop, and science and technology laboratory. It focuses on the technology designed and developed to support the missions of the Space Shuttle program. Each mission is examined, from both the technical and managerial viewpoints. Although outwardly identical, the capabilities of the orbiters in the late years of the program were quite different from those in 1981. Sivolella traces the various improvements and modifications made to the shuttle over the years as part of each mission story. Technically accurate but with a pleasing narrative style and simple explanations of complex engineering concepts, the book provides details of many lesser known concepts, some developed but never flown, and commemorates the ingenuity of NASA and its partners in making each Space Shuttle mission push the boundaries of what we can accomplish in space. Using press kits, original papers, newspaper and magazine articles...

  14. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Influenza A Virus Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses transcribe and replicate their genomes in the nuclei of infected host cells. The viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP complex of influenza virus is the essential genetic unit of the virus. The viral proteins play important roles in multiple processes, including virus structural maintenance, mediating nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the vRNP complex, virus particle assembly, and budding. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of viral proteins occurs throughout the entire virus life cycle. This review mainly focuses on matrix protein (M1, nucleoprotein (NP, nonstructural protein (NS1, and nuclear export protein (NEP, summarizing the mechanisms of their nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and the regulation of virus replication through their phosphorylation to further understand the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in host adaptation of the viruses.

  15. CERN Shuttles - Enlarged Regular Shuttle Services as from 8/02/2010

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    As of Monday 8 February 2010, please note the enhancement of the regular shuttle services: - with now two shuttles dedicated to the transportation within and between both CERN sites, Meyrin and Prevessin with bus stop at more buildings - To and from the Geneva airport every hour (from building 500) to complement the TPG bus Y For timetable details, please click here: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/gs-dep/groups/sem/ls/RegularShuttleTimetable_Feb2010.htm GS-SEM

  16. Space Shuttle Program Tin Whisker Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimi, Keith

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of tin whiskers (TW) on space shuttle hardware led to a program to investigate and removal and mitigation of the source of the tin whiskers. A Flight Control System (FCS) avionics box failed during vehicle testing, and was routed to the NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot for testing and disassembly. The internal inspection of the box revealed TW growth visible without magnification. The results of the Tiger Team that was assembled to investigate and develop recommendations are reviewed in this viewgraph presentation.

  17. Designing the Space Shuttle Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, James; Moore, Dennis; Wood, David; VanHooser, Kathrine; Wlzyn, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The major elements of the Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System include two reusable solid rocket motors integrated into recoverable solid rocket boosters, an expendable external fuel and oxidizer tank, and three reusable Space Shuttle Main Engines. Both the solid rocket motors and space shuttle main engines ignite prior to liftoff, with the solid rocket boosters separating about two minutes into flight. The external tank separates after main engine shutdown and is safely expended in the ocean. The SSME's, integrated into the Space Shuttle Orbiter aft structure, are reused after post landing inspections. Both the solid rocket motors and the space shuttle main engine throttle during early ascent flight to limit aerodynamic loads on the structure. The configuration is called a stage and a half as all the propulsion elements are active during the boost phase, and the SSME's continue operation to achieve orbital velocity approximately eight and a half minutes after liftoff. Design and performance challenges were numerous, beginning with development work in the 1970 s. The solid rocket motors were large, and this technology had never been used for human space flight. The SSME s were both reusable and very high performance staged combustion cycle engines, also unique to the Space Shuttle. The multi body side mount configuration was unique and posed numerous integration and interface challenges across the elements. Operation of the system was complex and time consuming. This paper discusses a number of the system level technical challenges including development and operations.

  18. Hydraulic fracture during epithelial stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares, Laura; Vincent, Romaric; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Campillo, Noelia; Navajas, Daniel; Arroyo, Marino; Trepat, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    The origin of fracture in epithelial cell sheets subject to stretch is commonly attributed to excess tension in the cells’ cytoskeleton, in the plasma membrane, or in cell-cell contacts. Here, we demonstrate that for a variety of synthetic and physiological hydrogel substrates the formation of epithelial cracks is caused by tissue stretching independently of epithelial tension. We show that the origin of the cracks is hydraulic; they result from a transient pressure build-up in the substrate during stretch and compression manoeuvres. After pressure equilibration, cracks heal readily through actomyosin-dependent mechanisms. The observed phenomenology is captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which predicts the size and healing dynamics of epithelial cracks as a function of the stiffness, geometry and composition of the hydrogel substrate. Our findings demonstrate that epithelial integrity is determined in a tension-independent manner by the coupling between tissue stretching and matrix hydraulics.

  19. Bio-based Hydraulic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-17

    currently formulated with vegetable oils (i.e., rapeseed , sun flower, corn, soybean, canola, coconut, etc.) and synthetic ester, such as polyol ester...2008 Vegetable Oil • Excellent lubrication • Nontoxic • Biodegradable • Derived from renewable resources such as rapeseed , sunflower, corn...Mineral Oil 100 SAE 15W-40 G Rapeseed 32 Commercial HF H Polyol ester 22 MIL-PRF-32073 Grade 2 I Canola - Cooking Oil *Hydraulic fluid 3717 April

  20. Fire Resistant Aircraft Hydraulic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    and compounds based on new experimental elastomers as well as most commercially available elastomers were screened in seeking seals that were both...for hydraulic component testing. All of the available E6.5 stock was purchased for the screening tests. However, DuPont stated that other homologs of...with the lubricity and anti-wear additive olyvan A (molybdenum oxysulphide dithiocarbamate ) added in the quantity of less than one percent by weight

  1. Hydraulic Redistribution: A Modeling Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, E.; Verma, P.; Loheide, S. P., III

    2014-12-01

    Roots play a key role in the soil water balance. They extract and transport water for transpiration, which usually represents the most important soil water loss in vegetated areas, and can redistribute soil water, thereby increasing transpiration rates and enhancing root nutrient uptake. We present here a two-dimensional model capable of describing two key aspects of root water uptake: root water compensation and hydraulic redistribution. Root water compensation is the ability of root systems to respond to the reduction of water uptake from areas of the soil with low soil water potential by increasing the water uptake from the roots in soil parts with higher water potential. Hydraulic redistribution is a passive transfer of water through the root system from areas of the soil with greater water potential to areas with lower water potential. Both mechanisms are driven by gradients of water potential in the soil and the roots. The inclusion of root water compensation and hydraulic redistribution in models can be achieved by describing root water uptake as a function of the difference in water potential between soil and root xylem. We use a model comprising the Richards equation for the water flow in variably saturated soils and the Darcy's equation for the water flow in the xylem. The two equations are coupled via a sink term, which is assumed to be proportional to the difference between soil and xylem water potentials. The model is applied in two case studies to describe vertical and horizontal hydraulic redistribution and the interaction between vegetation with different root depths. In the case of horizontal redistribution, the model is used to reproduce the fluxes of water across the root system of a tree subjected to uneven irrigation. This example can be extended to situations when only part of the root system has access to water, such as vegetation near creeks, trees at the edge of forests, and street trees in urban areas. The second case is inspired by recent

  2. STS-31 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-31 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle and the tenth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-34/LWT-27), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) (designated as BI-037). The primary objective of the mission was to place the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) into a 330 nmi. circular orbit having an inclination of 28.45 degrees. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM), IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), IMAX Crew Compartment Camera, and Ion Arc payloads. In addition, 12 development test objectives (DTO's) and 10 detailed supplementary objectives (DSO's) were assigned to the flight. The sequence of events for this mission is shown. The significant problems that occurred in the Space Shuttle Orbiter subsystems during the mission are summarized, and the official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each of the Space Shuttle Orbiter problems is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  3. Shuttle Propulsion Overview - The Design Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    The major elements of the Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System include two reusable solid rocket motors integrated into recoverable solid rocket boosters, an expendable external fuel and oxidizer tank, and three reusable Space Shuttle Main Engines. Both the solid rocket motors and space shuttle main engines ignite prior to liftoff, with the solid rocket boosters separating about two minutes into flight. The external tank separates, about eight and a half minutes into the flight, after main engine shutdown and is safely expended in the ocean. The SSME's, integrated into the Space Shuttle Orbiter aft structure, are reused after post landing inspections. The configuration is called a stage and a half as all the propulsion elements are active during the boost phase, with only the SSME s continuing operation to achieve orbital velocity. Design and performance challenges were numerous, beginning with development work in the 1970's. The solid rocket motors were large, and this technology had never been used for human space flight. The SSME s were both reusable and very high performance staged combustion cycle engines, also unique to the Space Shuttle. The multi body side mount configuration was unique and posed numerous integration and interface challenges across the elements. Operation of the system was complex and time consuming. This paper describes the design challenges and key areas where the design evolved during the program.

  4. Vibrations of hydraulic pump and their solution

    OpenAIRE

    Dobšáková Lenka; Nováková Naděžda; Habán Vladimír; Hudec Martin; Jandourek Pavel

    2017-01-01

    The vibrations of hydraulic pump and connected pipeline system are very problematic and often hardly soluble. The high pressure pulsations of hydraulic pump with the double suction inlet are investigated. For that reason the static pressure and accelerations are measured. The numerical simulations are carried out in order to correlate computed data with experimental ones and assess the main source of vibrations. Consequently the design optimization of the inner hydraulic part of pump is done ...

  5. Hydraulically Driven Grips For Hot Tensile Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, R. Keith; Johnson, George W.

    1994-01-01

    Pair of grips for tensile and compressive test specimens operate at temperatures up to 1,500 degrees F. Grips include wedges holding specimen inside furnace, where heated to uniform temperature. Hydraulic pistons drive wedges, causing them to exert clamping force. Hydraulic pistons and hydraulic fluid remain outside furnace, at room temperature. Cooling water flows through parts of grips to reduce heat transferred to external components. Advantages over older devices for gripping specimens in high-temperature tests; no need to drill holes in specimens, maintains constant gripping force on specimens, and heated to same temperature as that of specimen without risk of heating hydraulic fluid and acuator components.

  6. Shuttle Case Study Collection Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Khadijah S.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2012-01-01

    As a continuation from summer 2012, the Shuttle Case Study Collection has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. Decades of information related to processing and launching the Space Shuttle is gathered into a single database to provide educators with an alternative means to teach real-world engineering processes. The goal is to provide additional engineering materials that enhance critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving skills. During this second phase of the project, the Shuttle Case Study Collection website was developed. Extensive HTML coding to link downloadable documents, videos, and images was required, as was training to learn NASA's Content Management System (CMS) for website design. As the final stage of the collection development, the website is designed to allow for distribution of information to the public as well as for case study report submissions from other educators online.

  7. Design and Analysis of Hydraulic Chassis with Obstacle Avoidance Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yingjie; Zhang, Xiang

    2017-07-01

    This article mainly expounds the design of hydraulic system for the hydraulic chassis with obstacle avoidance function. Including the selection of hydraulic motor wheels, hydraulic pump, digital hydraulic cylinder and the matching of engine power. And briefly introduces the principle of obstacle avoidance.

  8. STS-62 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-05-01

    The STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSHE) systems performance during the sixty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-62; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-064. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L036A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 36OWO36B (welterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-62 mission were to perform the operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-2 (USMP-2) and the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Dexterous End Effector (DEE), the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A), the Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Material Exposure (LDCE), the Advanced Protein Crystal Growth (APCG), the Physiological Systems Experiments (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), the Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), the Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS), the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), and the Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B).

  9. An Analysis of Shuttle Crew Scheduling Violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristol, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    From the early years of the Space Shuttle program, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle crews have had a timeline of activities to guide them through their time on-orbit. Planners used scheduling constraints to build timelines that ensured the health and safety of the crews. If a constraint could not be met it resulted in a violation. Other agencies of the federal government also have scheduling constraints to ensure the safety of personnel and the public. This project examined the history of Space Shuttle scheduling constraints, constraints from Federal agencies and branches of the military and how these constraints may be used as a guide for future NASA and private spacecraft. This was conducted by reviewing rules and violations with regard to human aerospace scheduling constraints, environmental, political, social and technological factors, operating environment and relevant human factors. This study includes a statistical analysis of Shuttle Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) related violations to determine if these were a significant producer of constraint violations. It was hypothesized that the number of SCSC violations caused by EVA activities were a significant contributor to the total number of violations for Shuttle/ISS missions. Data was taken from NASA data archives at the Johnson Space Center from Space Shuttle/ISS missions prior to the STS-107 accident. The results of the analysis rejected the null hypothesis and found that EVA violations were a significant contributor to the total number of violations. This analysis could help NASA and commercial space companies understand the main source of constraint violations and allow them to create constraint rules that ensure the safe operation of future human private and exploration missions. Additional studies could be performed to evaluate other variables that could have influenced the scheduling violations that were analyzed.

  10. STS-129 shuttle crew visits Stennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Members of the STS-129 space shuttle crew visited NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center on Jan. 19 to share details of their November visit to the International Space Station. During their 11-day mission aboard shuttle Atlantis, crew members delivered equipment, supplies and spare parts to the ISS. Following their mission report, astronauts visited with Stennis employees during a brief reception. Astronauts visiting Stennis were Pilot Barry Wilmore, Mission Specialist Randy Bresnik, Commander Charles Hobaugh and Mission Specialists Mike Foreman and Robert Satcher.

  11. Post-Shuttle EVA Operations on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William; Witt, Vincent; Chullen, Cinda

    2010-01-01

    The expected retirement of the NASA Space Transportation System (also known as the Space Shuttle ) by 2011 will pose a significant challenge to Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) on-board the International Space Station (ISS). The EVA hardware currently used to assemble and maintain the ISS was designed assuming that it would be returned to Earth on the Space Shuttle for refurbishment, or if necessary for failure investigation. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, a new concept of operations was developed to enable EVA hardware (Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU), Airlock Systems, EVA tools, and associated support hardware and consumables) to perform ISS EVAs until 2015, and possibly beyond to 2020. Shortly after the decision to retire the Space Shuttle was announced, the EVA 2010 Project was jointly initiated by NASA and the One EVA contractor team. The challenges addressed were to extend the operating life and certification of EVA hardware, to secure the capability to launch EVA hardware safely on alternate launch vehicles, to protect for EMU hardware operability on-orbit, and to determine the source of high water purity to support recharge of PLSSs (no longer available via Shuttle). EVA 2010 Project includes the following tasks: the development of a launch fixture that would allow the EMU Portable Life Support System (PLSS) to be launched on-board alternate vehicles; extension of the EMU hardware maintenance interval from 3 years (current certification) to a minimum of 6 years (to extend to 2015); testing of recycled ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) water for use in the EMU cooling system in lieu of water resupplied by International Partner (IP) vehicles; development of techniques to remove & replace critical components in the PLSS on-orbit (not routine); extension of on-orbit certification of EVA tools; and development of an EVA hardware logistical plan to support the ISS without the Space Shuttle. Assumptions for the EVA 2010 Project included no more

  12. Helical coil thermal hydraulic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramello, M.; Bertani, C.; De Salve, M.; Panella, B.

    2014-11-01

    A model has been developed in Matlab environment for the thermal hydraulic analysis of helical coil and shell steam generators. The model considers the internal flow inside one helix and its associated control volume of water on the external side, both characterized by their inlet thermodynamic conditions and the characteristic geometry data. The model evaluates the behaviour of the thermal-hydraulic parameters of the two fluids, such as temperature, pressure, heat transfer coefficients, flow quality, void fraction and heat flux. The evaluation of the heat transfer coefficients as well as the pressure drops has been performed by means of the most validated literature correlations. The model has been applied to one of the steam generators of the IRIS modular reactor and a comparison has been performed with the RELAP5/Mod.3.3 code applied to an inclined straight pipe that has the same length and the same elevation change between inlet and outlet of the real helix. The predictions of the developed model and RELAP5/Mod.3.3 code are in fairly good agreement before the dryout region, while the dryout front inside the helical pipes is predicted at a lower distance from inlet by the model.

  13. WATER ENERGY IN HYDROAMELIORATIVE SYSTEMS USING THE HYDRAULIC TRANSFORMER TYPE A. BARGLAZAN AND THE HYDRAULIC HAMMER (HYDRAULIC PUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Eugen Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two examples of exploitation of water energy that can be used in the irrigation field. First of theseexamples is the hydraulic transformer type A. Barglazan used for irrigation, pumped water is taken directly from theriver’s well, using a hydraulic pump which simultaneously carried out a double transformation in this way: hydraulicenergy into mechanic energy and mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. Technology preparation and devices designwas done in record time, seeing that this constructive solution is more robust, reliable and with improved energyperformance versus the laboratory prototype. The experimental research which was made at 1:1 scale proved theirgood function over time. Another example is the hydraulic hammer (hydraulic pump that uses low-head energy topump water, with a global efficiency of about 10 - 50%. Currently, the new situation of private ownership of landprovides conditions for new pumping microstations to be made where irrigation is necessary and optimal hydrauliclocations exist.

  14. Delivery of completed irradiation vehicles and the quality assurance document to the High Flux Isotope Reactor for irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, Christian M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McDuffee, Joel Lee [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report details the initial fabrication and delivery of two Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) irradiation capsules (ATFSC01 and ATFSC02), with associated quality assurance documentation, to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The capsules and documentation were delivered by September 30, 2015, thus meeting the deadline for milestone M3FT-15OR0202268. These irradiation experiments are testing silicon carbide composite tubes in order to obtain experimental validation of thermo-mechanical models of stress states in SiC cladding irradiated under a prototypic high heat flux. This document contains a copy of the completed capsule fabrication request sheets, which detail all constituent components, pertinent drawings, etc., along with a detailed summary of the capsule assembly process performed by the Thermal Hydraulics and Irradiation Engineering Group (THIEG) in the Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division (RNSD). A complete fabrication package record is maintained by the THIEG and is available upon request.

  15. HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS OF VERTICAL VORTEX AT HYDRAULIC INTAKES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yun-liang; WU Chao; YE Mao; JU Xiao-ming

    2007-01-01

    The trace of vertical vortex flow at hydraulic intakes is of the shape of spiral lines, which was observed in the presented experiments with the tracer technique. It represents the fluid particles flow spirally from the water surface to the underwater and rotate around the vortex-axis multi-cycle. This process is similar to the movement of screw. To describe the multi-circle spiral characteristics under the axisymmetric condition, the vertical vortex would change not only in the radial direction but also in the axial direction. The improved formulae for three velocity components for the vertical vortex flow were deduced by using the method of separation of variables in this article. In the improved formulae, the velocity components are the functions of the radial and axial coordinates, so the multi-circle spiral flow of vertical vortex could be simulated. The calculated and measured results for the vertical vortex flow were compared and the causes of errors were analyzed.

  16. Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Olsen, Stefan; Bech, Thomas Nørgaard

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid.......KEYWORDS: water, pump, design, vane, gear....

  17. Hydraulic fracturing with distinct element method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruiksma, J.P.; Bezuijen, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this report, hydraulic fracturing is investigated using the distinct element code PFC2D from Itasca. Special routines were written to be able to model hydraulic fracturing. These include adding fluid flow to PFC2D and updating the fluid flow domains when fractures appear. A brief description of t

  18. Hydraulic Actuator for Ganged Control Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. C.; Robey, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Hydraulic actuator moves several nuclear-reactor control rods in unison. Electromagnetic pump pushes liquid lithium against ends of control rods, forcing them out of or into nuclear reactor. Color arrows show lithium flow for reactor startup and operation. Flow reversed for shutdown. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, actuator principle applied to terrestrial hydraulic machinery involving motion of ganged rods.

  19. Control arrangement for the actuation of hydraulic consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kussel, W.; Dettmers, M.; Weirich, W.

    1988-11-09

    An arrangement for controlling the actuation of hydraulic consumers, by selectively connecting the consumers to hydraulic pressure and return lines; the control arrangement comprising a respective hydraulically operated directional control valve associated with each of the hydraulic consumers, a respective electro-magnetically operated pre-control valve associated with each of the hydraulic directional control valves, and further electro-magnetically operated directional control valve means associated with the pre-control valves, each of the hydraulic consumers being connectible to the hydraulic pressure or return lines via the associated hydraulically operated directional control valve which is actuatable by a hydraulic control line leading from the output of the associated pre-control valve, wherein the inputs of the pre-control valves are connected directly to the hydraulic return line and indirectly, via the further control valve means, to the hydraulic return line or to a hydraulic control pressure line.

  20. STS-41 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-41 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle, Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-39/LWT-32), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's), designated as BI-040. The primary objective of the STS-41 mission was to successfully deploy the Ulysses/inertial upper stage (IUS)/payload assist module (PAM-S) spacecraft. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Shuttle Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) Spectrometer, Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), Space Life Sciences Training Program Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Voice Command System (VCS), Physiological Systems Experiment (PSE), Radiation Monitoring Experiment - 3 (RME-3), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Air Force Maui Optical Calibration Test (AMOS), and Intelsat Solar Array Coupon (ISAC) payloads. The sequence of events for this mission is shown in tabular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Orbiter problem is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  1. STS-52 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1992-12-01

    The STS-52 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the fifty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the thirteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET (designated as ET-55/LWT-48); three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2030, 2015, and 2034 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's, which were designated BI-054. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L027A for the left SRB and 360Q027B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully deploy the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS-2) and to perform operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-1 (USMP-1). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Attitude Sensor Package (ASP), the Canadian Experiments-2 (CANEX-2), the Crystals by Vapor Transport Experiment (CVTE), the Heat Pipe Performance Experiment (HPP), the Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments (CMIX), the Physiological System Experiment (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG-Block 2), the Shuttle Plume Impingement Experiment (SPIE), and the Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE) payloads.

  2. Shuttle Imaging Radar Survey Mission C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Abstract: Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) was part of an imaging radar system that was flown on board two Space Shuttle flights (9 - 20 April, 1994 and 30...

  3. Rockwell Fails in Response to Shuttle Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the contingent media relations policy employed by Rockwell International, the prime contractor for the United States space shuttle program, following the January 28, 1986, destruction of the Challenger. Analyzes Rockwell's response through a theoretical model of crisis perception and Rockwell's policy in relation to the mass media. (MS)

  4. Reliability of a Shuttle reaction timer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Russell D.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Rashid, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.

    1992-01-01

    Reaction, movement, and task times refer to the times needed to initially respond to a stimulus, make the specific movement, and complete the entire task. This study evaluated the reliability of a simple reaction timer designed to mimic a Space Shuttle task (turning on an overhead switch).

  5. Shuttle Transportation System Case-Study Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Khadijah

    2012-01-01

    A case-study collection was developed for NASA's Space Shuttle Program. Using lessons learned and documented by NASA KSC engineers, analysts, and contractors, decades of information related to processing and launching the Space Shuttle was gathered into a single database. The goal was to provide educators with an alternative means to teach real-world engineering processes and to enhance critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving skills. Suggested formats were created to assist both external educators and internal NASA employees to develop and contribute their own case-study reports to share with other educators and students. Via group project, class discussion, or open-ended research format, students will be introduced to the unique decision making process related to Shuttle missions and development. Teaching notes, images, and related documents will be made accessible to the public for presentation of Space Shuttle reports. Lessons investigated included the engine cutoff (ECO) sensor anomaly which occurred during mission STS-114. Students will be presented with general mission infom1ation as well as an explanation of ECO sensors. The project will conclude with the design of a website that allows for distribution of information to the public as well as case-study report submissions from other educators online.

  6. Shuttle Imaging Radar Survey Mission C

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) was part of an imaging radar system that was flown on board two Space Shuttle flights (9 - 20 April, 1994 and 30 September - 11...

  7. AMS gets lift on space shuttle Discovery

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    AMS-02, the CERN-recognized experiment that will seek dark matter, missing matter and antimatter in Space aboard the International Space Station (ISS), has recently got the green light to be part of the STS-134 NASA mission in 2010. Installation of AMS detectors in the Prévessin experiment hall.In a recent press release, NASA announced that the last or last-but-one mission of the Space Shuttle programme would be the one that will deliver AMS, the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, to the International Space Station. The Space Shuttle Discovery is due to lift off in July 2010 from Kennedy Space Center and its mission will include the installation of AMS to the exterior of the space station, using both the shuttle and station arms. "It wasn’t easy to get a lift on the Space Shuttle from the Bush administration," says professor Samuel Ting, spokesperson of the experiment, "since during his administration all the funds for space research w...

  8. Optimal Wafer Cutting in Shuttle Layout Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nisted, Lasse; Pisinger, David; Altman, Avri

    2011-01-01

    A major cost in semiconductor manufacturing is the generation of photo masks which are used to produce the dies. When producing smaller series of chips it can be advantageous to build a shuttle mask (or multi-project wafer) to share the startup costs by placing different dies on the same mask...

  9. Gravity-Driven Hydraulic Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanovich, L. N.; Garagash, D.; Murdoch, L. C.; Robinowitz, M.

    2014-12-01

    This study is motived by a new method for disposing of nuclear waste by injecting it as a dense slurry into a hydraulic fracture that grows downward to great enough depth to permanently isolate the waste. Disposing of nuclear waste using gravity-driven hydraulic fractures is mechanically similar to the upward growth of dikes filled with low density magma. A fundamental question in both applications is how the injected fluid controls the propagation dynamics and fracture geometry (depth and breadth) in three dimensions. Analog experiments in gelatin [e.g., Heimpel and Olson, 1994; Taisne and Tait, 2009] show that fracture breadth (the short horizontal dimension) remains nearly stationary when the process in the fracture "head" (where breadth is controlled) is dominated by solid toughness, whereas viscous fluid dissipation is dominant in the fracture tail. We model propagation of the resulting gravity-driven (buoyant or sinking), finger-like fracture of stationary breadth with slowly varying opening along the crack length. The elastic response to fluid loading in a horizontal cross-section is local and can be treated similar to the classical Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) model of hydraulic fracturing. The propagation condition for a finger-like crack is based on balancing the global energy release rate due to a unit crack extension with the rock fracture toughness. It allows us to relate the net fluid pressure at the tip to the fracture breadth and rock toughness. Unlike the PKN fracture, where breadth is known a priori, the final breadth of a finger-like fracture is a result of processes in the fracture head. Because the head is much more open than the tail, viscous pressure drop in the head can be neglected leading to a 3D analog of Weertman's hydrostatic pulse. This requires relaxing the local elasticity assumption of the PKN model in the fracture head. As a result, we resolve the breadth, and then match the viscosity-dominated tail with the 3-D, toughness

  10. Scaling hydraulic properties of a macroporous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Binayak P.

    1999-06-01

    Macroporous soils exhibit significant differences in their hydraulic properties for different pore domains. Multimodal hydraulic functions may be used to describe the characteristics of multiporosity media. I investigated the usefulness of scaling to describe the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity (K(-h)) functions of a macroporous soil in Las Nutrias, New Mexico. Piecewise-continuous hydraulic conductivity functions suitable for macroporous soils in conjunction with a hybrid similar media-functional normalization scaling approach were used. Results showed that gravity-dominated flow and the related hydraulic conductivity (K(minus;h) functions of the macropore region are more readily scalable than capillary-dominated flow properties of the mesopore and micropore regions. A possible reason for this behavior is that gravity-dominated flow in the larger pores is mostly influenced by the pore diameter which remains more uniform as compared to tortuous mesopores and micropores with variable neck and body sizes along the pore length.

  11. Hydraulic conductivity of GCLs in MSW landfills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-cheng; YANG Wu-chao; DAN Tang-hui

    2008-01-01

    The state of the art of the study on the hydraulic conductivity of GCLs is presented in terms of the in-fluence of the effective stress, chemical interactions, freeze - thaw cycles and temperature gradients. The chan-ges of void ratio caused by changes of effective stress have a direct linear effect on the hydraulic conductivity, regardless of the cation concentration or the thickness of the adsorbed layer. The hydraulic conductivity is relat-ed to the relative abundance of monovalent and divalent cation(RMD), and RMD has a great effect on the hy-draulic conductivity in weak solution. The long-term susceptibility of GCLs to increased hydraulic conductivity as a response to repeated freeze-thaw cycling is minimal, which has been proved after 150 freeze-thaw cycles. The potential of desiccation cracking increases with the increasing temperature gradient and is related to the ini-tial subsoil water content, the applied overburden stress, etc.

  12. Modeling and Simulation of Hydraulic Engine Mounts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Shanzhong; Marshall McNea

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic engine mounts are widely used in automotive powertrains for vibration isolation.A lumped mechanical parameter model is a traditional approach to model and simulate such mounts.This paper presents a dynamical model of a passive hydraulic engine mount with a double-chamber,an inertia track,a decoupler,and a plunger.The model is developed based on analogy between electrical systems and mechanical-hydraulic systems.The model is established to capture both low and high frequency dynatmic behaviors of the hydraulic mount.The model will be further used to find the approximate pulse responses of the mounts in terms of the force transmission and top chamber pressure.The close form solution from the simplifiod linear model may provide some insight into the highly nonlinear behavior of the mounts.Based on the model,computer simulation has been carried out to study dynamic performance of the hydraulic mount.

  13. Shuttle Repair Tools Automate Vehicle Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Successfully building, flying, and maintaining the space shuttles was an immensely complex job that required a high level of detailed, precise engineering. After each shuttle landed, it entered a maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) phase. Each system was thoroughly checked and tested, and worn or damaged parts replaced, before the shuttle was rolled out for its next mission. During the MRO period, workers needed to record exactly what needed replacing and why, as well as follow precise guidelines and procedures in making their repairs. That meant traceability, and with it lots of paperwork. In 2007, the number of reports generated during electrical system repairs was getting out of hand-placing among the top three systems in terms of paperwork volume. Repair specialists at Kennedy Space Center were unhappy spending so much time at a desk and so little time actually working on the shuttle. "Engineers weren't spending their time doing technical work," says Joseph Schuh, an electrical engineer at Kennedy. "Instead, they were busy with repetitive, time-consuming processes that, while important in their own right, provided a low return on time invested." The strain of such inefficiency was bad enough that slow electrical repairs jeopardized rollout on several occasions. Knowing there had to be a way to streamline operations, Kennedy asked Martin Belson, a project manager with 30 years experience as an aerospace contractor, to co-lead a team in developing software that would reduce the effort required to document shuttle repairs. The result was System Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART) software. SMART is a tool for aggregating and applying information on every aspect of repairs, from procedures and instructions to a vehicle s troubleshooting history. Drawing on that data, SMART largely automates the processes of generating repair instructions and post-repair paperwork. In the case of the space shuttle, this meant that SMART had 30 years worth of operations

  14. Food irradiation makes progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kooij, J. van (Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, Vienna (Austria))

    1984-06-01

    In the past fifteen years, food irradiation processing policies and programmes have been developed both by a number of individual countries, and through projects supported by FAO, IAEA and WHO. These aim at achieving general acceptance and practical implementation of food irradiation through rigorous investigations of its wholesomeness, technological and economic feasibility, and efforts to achieve the unimpeded movement of irradiated foods in international trade. Food irradiation processing has many uses.

  15. Macro Level Simulation Model Of Space Shuttle Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The contents include: 1) Space Shuttle Processing Simulation Model; 2) Knowledge Acquisition; 3) Simulation Input Analysis; 4) Model Applications in Current Shuttle Environment; and 5) Model Applications for Future Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV's). This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  16. Hydraulic test for evaluation of hydrophone VSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuuchi, Satoshi; Koide, Kaoru [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Toki, Gifu (Japan). Tono Geoscience Center

    1997-12-01

    This hydraulic test was carried out at the test site of Tono Geoscience Center, Mizunami-shi, Gifu Pref. in order to evaluate the reliability of the hydraulic conductivity estimated from hydrophone VSP experiment. From March to April 1997, we carried out measurements of pore-water pressure at five depths and permeability tests at seven depths down to G.L.-300m, within a borehole drilled in granitic rock. We compared the results of hydraulic test with hydrophone VSP experiment on condition that a single open fracture existed, and we obtained two notable results. First, for the granitic rock at which a single open fracture was found by BTV and also detected by hydrophone VSP experiment, the hydraulic conductivity was 1.54 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec, while for the same granitic rock at which another single open fracture was found by BTV but not detected by hydrophone VSP experiment, the hydraulic conductivity was less than 6 x 10{sup -10} cm/sec. Second, we converted the hydraulic conductivity of 1.54 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec which was obtained in a hydraulic test section of length 2.5 m into an equivalent value for a single open fracture of width 1 mm. The converted value (3.8 x 10{sup -4} cm/sec) was similar to the hydraulic conductivity estimated from hydrophone VSP experiment. In conclusion, the hydraulic test result shows that hydrophone VSP is useful to estimate an approximate hydraulic conductivity of a single open fracture. (author)

  17. STS-61 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fifth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-60; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-063. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L023A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360L023B (lightweight) for the right SRB. This STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-61 mission was to perform the first on-orbit servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope. The servicing tasks included the installation of new solar arrays, replacement of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera I (WF/PC I) with WF/PC II, replacement of the High Speed Photometer (HSP) with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), replacement of rate sensing units (RSU's) and electronic control units (ECU's), installation of new magnetic sensing systems and fuse plugs, and the repair of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS). Secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), the IMAX Camera, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

  18. DLC coatings for hydraulic applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luca NOBILI; Luca MAGAGNIN

    2009-01-01

    Replacement of lubricating oils with water or low-viscosity fluids is highly desirable in many industrial fields, on account of the environmental and economical advantages. Low lubricity of water might be insufficient for proper operation of hydraulic components, and diamond-like carbon(DLC) coatings are very attractive as solid lubricant films. A remote-plasma PACVD process was utilized to deposit hydrogenated DLC coatings (a-C:H) on different substrates. Microindentation measurements show that the coating hardness is around 35 GPa. Tribological behavior was evaluated by block-on-ring tests performed in water and water with alumina. The wear rate was calculated after measuring the wear volume by a laser profilemeter. Morphological and compositional analysis of the wear tracks reveal that coating failure may occur by abrasive wear or delamination, depending on the substrate properties. Hard and smooth substrates give the best results and dispersed alumina particles increase the wear rate.

  19. Aircraft Hydraulic Systems Dynamic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    4400 PSIG OUTLET PRESSURE ~’f UM5 S1 l .( FIF ~0RV lR 1 .I. AP (c R (V) IFWM) APPROX C ASE !VPý :iI S ReUN N•;MRF.. r p kN i t, isI A! f IN, I:E • ’l...and 1F.GI pump modelo were assumed from data supplied by CECO. 165 _ -- --- - SECTION V HYDRAULIC MOTOR MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND VERIFICATION A fixed...3 70 P.,0 601 ~4 M24.0 3 1p ’, 4 r I 1 1 ISIS 2411 APPENDIX E (CONT.) HSFR TECHNICAL MANUAL (AFAPL-TR-76-43, VOL. IV) 4.15 VANE PU`MP SUBROUTINE 4.15A

  20. First Results of Scanning Thermal Diffusivity Microscope (STDM) Measurements on Irradiated Monolithic and Dispersion Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. K. Huber; M. K. Figg; J. R. Kennedy; A. B. Robinson; D. M. Wachs

    2012-07-01

    The thermal conductivity of the fuel material in a reactor before and during irradiation is a sensitive and fundamental parameter for thermal hydraulic calculations that are useds to correctly determine fuel heat fluxes and meat temperatures and to simulate performance of the fuel elements during operation. Several techniques have been developed to measure the thermal properties of fresh fuel to support these calculations, but it is crucial to also investigate the change of thermal properties during irradiation.

  1. Food irradiation in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedekind, L.

    1986-08-01

    The paper concerns food irradiation in The People's Republic of China. Its use is envisaged to prolong storage times and to improve the quality of specific foodstuffs. Commercialisation in China, demonstration plants, seasonal shortages and losses, Shanghai irradiation centre, health and safety approval, prospects for wider applications and worldwide use of food irradiation, are all discussed.

  2. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A HYDRAULIC PISTON

    OpenAIRE

    Santos De La Cruz, Eulogio; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Rojas Lazo, Oswaldo; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Yenque Dedios, Julio; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Lavado Soto, Aurelio; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    A hydraulic system project includes the design, materials selection and construction of the hydraulic piston, hydraulic circuit and the joint with the pump and its accesories. This equiment will be driven by the force of moving fluid, whose application is in the devices of machines, tools, printing, perforation, packing and others. El proyecto de un sistema hidráulico, comprende el diseño, selección de materiales y construcción del pistón hidráulico, circuito hidráulico y el ensamble con l...

  3. Bubble visualization in a simulated hydraulic jump

    CERN Document Server

    Witt, Adam; Shen, Lian

    2013-01-01

    This is a fluid dynamics video of two- and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations carried out at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory. A transient hydraulic jump is simulated using OpenFOAM, an open source numerical solver. A Volume of Fluid numerical method is employed with a realizable k-epsilon turbulence model. The goal of this research is to model the void fraction and bubble size in a transient hydraulic jump. This fluid dynamics video depicts the air entrainment characteristics and bubble behavior within a hydraulic jump of Froude number 4.82.

  4. Light response of hydraulic conductance in bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voicu, Mihaela C; Zwiazek, Janusz J; Tyree, Melvin T

    2008-07-01

    A four- to seven-fold enhancement of leaf hydraulic conductance by light has been reported in three temperate tree species. The enhancement occurs in the liquid-flow pathway between the petiole and the site of water evaporation. The enhancement occurs within 1 h, and dissipates in darkness over a period of 1 to 10 h depending on species. Here we report light-induced enhancement of leaf hydraulic conductance in a fourth species, bur oak (Quercus macrocarpa Michx.), the dependence of the effect on light flux and color, its absence in leaves of seedlings, and the impact on the response of leaf vein severance and several metabolic inhibitors. The light response of leaf hydraulic conductance approached saturation at a photosynthetic photon flux of 150 mumol m(-2) s(-1). Hydraulic enhancement was greater in response to blue and green light than to visible radiation of longer wavelengths, although at the same irradiance, the response to white light was greater than to light of any single color. Atrazine (a photosystem II inhibitor), fusicoccin (which stimulates plasma membrane-bound H(+)-ATPase) and HgCl(2) (an aquaporin blocker) reduced the light response of leaf lamina hydraulic conductance. When 2-mercaptoethanol was added following mercury treatment, the light response was totally suppressed. Our results are consistent with the notion that the effect of light on leaf lamina hydraulic conductance is controlled by factors acting outside the leaf veins, possibly through light-induced changes in membrane permeability of either mesophyll or bundle sheath cells, or both.

  5. Space shuttle digital flight control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minott, G. M.; Peller, J. B.; Cox, K. J.

    1976-01-01

    The space shuttle digital, fly by wire, flight control system presents an interesting challenge in avionics system design. In residence in each of four redundant general purpose computers at lift off are the guidance, navigation, and control algorithms for the entire flight. The mission is divided into several flight segments: first stage ascent, second stage ascent; abort to launch site, abort once around; on orbit operations, entry, terminal area energy management; and approach and landing. The FCS is complicated in that it must perform the functions to fly the shuttle as a boost vehicle, as a spacecraft, as a reentry vehicle, and as a conventional aircraft. The crew is provided with both manual and automatic modes of operations in all flight phases including touchdown and rollout.

  6. Optomechanical photon shuttling between photonic cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Huan

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical motion of photonic devices driven by optical forces provides a profound means of coupling between optical fields. The current focus of these optomechanical effects has been on cavity optomechanics systems in which co-localized optical and mechanical modes interact strongly to enable wave-mixing between photons and phonons and backaction cooling of mechanical modes. Alternatively, extended mechanical modes can also induce strong nonlocal effects on propagating optical fields or multiple localized optical modes at distances. Here, we demonstrate a novel multi-cavity optomechanical device: a "photon see-saw", in which torsional optomechanical motion can shuttle photons between two photonic crystal nanocavities. The resonance frequencies of the two cavities, one on each side of the see-saw, are modulated anti-symmetrically by the device's rotation. Pumping photons into one cavity excites optomechanical self-oscillation which strongly modulates the inter-cavity coupling and shuttles photons to the other...

  7. Optomechanical photon shuttling between photonic cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Li, Mo

    2014-11-01

    Mechanical motion of photonic devices driven by optical forces provides a profound means of coupling between optical fields. The current focus of these optomechanical effects has been on cavity optomechanics systems in which co-localized optical and mechanical modes interact strongly to enable wave mixing between photons and phonons, and backaction cooling of mechanical modes. Alternatively, extended mechanical modes can also induce strong non-local effects on propagating optical fields or multiple localized optical modes at distances. Here, we demonstrate a multicavity optomechanical device in which torsional optomechanical motion can shuttle photons between two photonic crystal nanocavities. The resonance frequencies of the two cavities, one on each side of this 'photon see-saw', are modulated antisymmetrically by the device's rotation. Pumping photons into one cavity excites optomechanical self-oscillation, which strongly modulates the inter-cavity coupling and shuttles photons to the other empty cavity during every oscillation cycle in a well-regulated fashion.

  8. Space Shuttle security policies and programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle vehicle consists of the orbiter, external tank, and two solid rocket boosters. In dealing with security two major protective categories are considered, taking into account resource protection and information protection. A review is provided of four basic programs which have to be satisfied. Aspects of science and technology transfer are discussed. The restrictions for the transfer of science and technology information are covered under various NASA Management Instructions (NMI's). There were two major events which influenced the protection of sensitive and private information on the Space Shuttle program. The first event was a manned space flight accident, while the second was the enactment of a congressional bill to establish the rights of privacy. Attention is also given to national resource protection and national defense classified operations.

  9. Shuttle Kit Freezer Refrigeration Unit Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The refrigerated food/medical sample storage compartment as a kit to the space shuttle orbiter is examined. To maintain the -10 F in the freezer kit, an active refrigeration unit is required, and an air cooled Stirling Cycle refrigerator was selected. The freezer kit contains two subsystems, the refrigeration unit, and the storage volume. The freezer must provide two basic capabilities in one unit. One requirement is to store 215 lbs of food which is consumed in a 30-day period by 7 people. The other requirement is to store 128.3 lbs of medical samples consisting of both urine and feces. The unit can be mounted on the lower deck of the shuttle cabin, and will occupy four standard payload module compartments on the forward bulkhead. The freezer contains four storage compartments.

  10. Hydraulic Fracturing and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahy Tafti, T.; Aminzadeh, F.; Jafarpour, B.; de Barros, F.

    2013-12-01

    In this presentation, we highlight two key environmental concerns of hydraulic fracturing (HF), namely induced seismicity and groundwater contamination (GC). We examine the induced seismicity (IS) associated with different subsurface fluid injection and production (SFIP) operations and the key operational parameters of SFIP impacting it. In addition we review the key potential sources for possible water contamination. Both in the case of IS and GC we propose modeling and data analysis methods to quantify the risk factors to be used for monitoring and risk reduction. SFIP include presents a risk in hydraulic fracturing, waste water injection, enhanced oil recovery as well as geothermal energy operations. Although a recent report (NRC 2012) documents that HF is not responsible for most of the induced seismicities, we primarily focus on HF here. We look into vaious operational parameters such as volume and rate of water injection, the direction of the well versus the natural fracture network, the depth of the target and the local stress field and fault system, as well as other geological features. The latter would determine the potential for triggering tectonic related events by small induced seismicity events. We provide the building blocks for IS risk assessment and monitoring. The system we propose will involve adequate layers of complexity based on mapped seismic attributes as well as results from ANN and probabilistic predictive modeling workflows. This leads to a set of guidelines which further defines 'safe operating conditions' and 'safe operating zones' which will be a valuable reference for future SFIP operations. We also illustrate how HF can lead to groundwater aquifer contamination. The source of aquifer contamination can be the hydrocarbon gas or the chemicals used in the injected liquid in the formation. We explore possible pathways of contamination within and discuss the likelihood of contamination from each source. Many of the chemical compounds used

  11. STS-74 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-74 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-eighth flight since the return-to-flight, and the fifteenth flight of the Orbiter Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-74; three Phase 11 SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2012, 2026, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-076. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-51, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360TO51 A for the left SRB, and 360TO51 B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and perform life sciences investigations. The Russian Docking Module (DM) was berthed onto the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) using the Remote Manipulator System (RMS), and the Orbiter docked to the Mir with the DM. When separating from the Mir, the Orbiter undocked, leaving the DM attached to the Mir. The two solar arrays, mounted on the DM, were delivered for future Russian installation to the Mir. The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of the GLO experiment (GLO-4)/Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment Payload (PASDE) (GPP), the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2). Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT)) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  12. Shuttle Performance: Lessons Learned, part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrington, J. P. (Compiler); Jones, J. J. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    Beginning with the first orbital flight of the Space Shuttle, a great wealth of flight data became available to the aerospace community. These data were immediately subjected to analyses by several different groups with different viewpoints and motivations. The results were collected and presented in several papers in the subject areas of ascent and entry aerodynaics; guidance, navigation, and control; aerothermal environment prediction; thermal protection systems; and measurement techniques.

  13. Cryogenic Michelson Interferometer on the Space Shuttle

    OpenAIRE

    Wellard, Stan; Blakeley, Jeff; Brown, Steven; Bartschi, Brent

    1993-01-01

    A helium-cooled interferometer was flown aboard shuttle ifight STS-39. This interferometer, along with its sister radiometer, set new benchmarks for the quantity and quality of data collected. The interferometer generated approximately 150,000 interferograms during the course of the ifight. Data was collected at tangent heights from the earth's surface to celestial targets. The interferograms encoded spectral data from aurora, earth limb, and earth terminator scenes. The interfemmeter collect...

  14. Space shuttle entry terminal area energy management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    A historical account of the development for Shuttle's Terminal Area Energy Management (TAEM) is presented. A derivation and explanation of logic and equations are provided as a supplement to the well documented guidance computation requirements contained within the official Functional Subsystem Software Requirements (FSSR) published by Rockwell for NASA. The FSSR contains the full set of equations and logic, whereas this document addresses just certain areas for amplification.

  15. Study on Characteristics of Hydraulic Servo System for Force Control of Hydraulic Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo-gon; Han, Changsoo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-won [Korea University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sangdeok [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Because a hydraulic actuator has high power and force densities, this allows the weight of the robot's limbs to be reduced. This allows for good dynamic characteristics and high energy efficiency. Thus, hydraulic actuators are used in some exoskeleton robots and quadrupedal robots that require high torque. Force control is useful for robot compliance with a user or environment. However, force control of a hydraulic robot is difficult because a hydraulic servo system is highly nonlinear from a control perspective. In this study, a nonlinear model was used to develop a simulation program for a hydraulic servo system consisting of a servo valve, transmission lines, and a cylinder. The problems and considerations with regard to the force control performance for a hydraulic servo system were investigated. A force control method using the nonlinear model was proposed, and its effect was evaluated with the simulation program.

  16. STS-68 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-68 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-65; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2033, and 2026 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRBs that were designated BI-067. The RSRMs that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W040A for the left SRB and 360W040B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the operations of the Space Radar Laboratory-2 (SRL-2). The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations of the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC), the Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), the Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST), and five Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  17. Parker Hybrid Hydraulic Drivetrain Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Raymond [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Howland, James [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Venkiteswaran, Prasad [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-03-31

    This report examines the benefits of Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid brake energy recovery systems used in commercial applications for vocational purposes. A detailed background on the problem statement being addressed as well as the solution set specific for parcel delivery will be provided. Objectives of the demonstration performed in high start & stop applications included opportunities in fuel usage reduction, emissions reduction, vehicle productivity, and vehicle maintenance. Completed findings during the demonstration period and parallel investigations with NREL, CALSTART, along with a literature review will be provided herein on this research area. Lastly, results identified in the study by third parties validated the savings potential in fuel reduction of on average of 19% to 52% over the baseline in terms of mpg (Lammert, 2014, p11), Parker data for parcel delivery vehicles in the field parallels this at a range of 35% - 50%, emissions reduction of 17.4% lower CO2 per mile and 30.4% lower NOx per mile (Gallo, 2014, p15), with maintenance improvement in the areas of brake and starter replacement, while leaving room for further study in the area of productivity in terms of specific metrics that can be applied and studied.

  18. Thermal hydraulics development for CASL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowrie, Robert B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-07

    This talk will describe the technical direction of the Thermal-Hydraulics (T-H) Project within the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) Department of Energy Innovation Hub. CASL is focused on developing a 'virtual reactor', that will simulate the physical processes that occur within a light-water reactor. These simulations will address several challenge problems, defined by laboratory, university, and industrial partners that make up CASL. CASL's T-H efforts are encompassed in two sub-projects: (1) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), (2) Interface Treatment Methods (ITM). The CFD subproject will develop non-proprietary, scalable, verified and validated macroscale CFD simulation tools. These tools typically require closures for their turbulence and boiling models, which will be provided by the ITM sub-project, via experiments and microscale (such as DNS) simulation results. The near-term milestones and longer term plans of these two sub-projects will be discussed.

  19. Transputer Control of Hydraulic Actuators and Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1996-01-01

    Results from a Danish mechatronics research program entitled IMCIA - Intelligent Control and Intelligent Actuators. The objective is development of intelligent actuators for intelligent motion control. A mechatronics test facility with a transputer controlled hydraulic robot suiteable for real...

  20. Concept Evaluation for Hydraulic Yaw System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2013-01-01

    a suspension system on a car, leading the loads away from the turbine structure. However, to realize a soft hydraulic yaw system a new design concept must be found. As a part of the development of the new concept a preliminary concept evaluation has been conducted, evaluating seven different hydraulic yaw...... concepts, ranging from a one-to-one copy of the electrical drive (electrical drives replaced by hydraulic dittos), to floating suspension systems mounted on hydraulic cylinders. Rough calculations of size and consequences of the different systems are presented ending up with the final concept for further...... investigation. Loads and yaw demands are based on the IEC 61400-1 standard for wind turbine design, and the loads for this examination are extrapolated from the HAWC2 aeroelastic design code. The concepts are based on a 5 MW off-shore turbine....

  1. HYDRAULICS, Des Moines COUNTY, IOWA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  2. ON THE THEORIES OF HYDRAULIC GEOMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijay P. SINGH

    2003-01-01

    Hydraulic geometry is of fundamental importance in planning, design, and management of river engineering and training works. Although some concepts of hydraulic geometry were proposed toward the end of the nineteenth century, the real impetus toward formulating a theory of hydraulic geometry was provided by the work of Leopold and Maddock (1953). A number of theories have since been proposed.Some of the theories are interrelated but others are based on quite different principles. All theories,however, assume that the river flow is steady and uniform and the river tends to attain a state of equilibrium or quasi-equilibrium. The differences are due to the differences in hydraulic mechanisms that the theories employ to explain the attainment of equilibrium by the river.

  3. Stream restoration hydraulic design course: lecture notes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newbury, R

    2002-01-01

    Steam restoration encompasses a broad range of activities and disciplines. This lecture series is designed for practitioners who must fit habitat improvement works in the hydraulics of degraded channels...

  4. Drawing a pictogram operator - hydraulic stowing assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukhgol' ts, V.P.; Dinershtein, V.A.

    1984-11-01

    Hydraulic stowing is widely used during the extraction of coal from seams prone to spontaneous ignition or from seams situated under preserved structures. Experience has shown that the presence of a considerable number of controlling and measuring devices on hydraulic stowing assemblies results in erratic operations. The authors, after examining the controls of the hydraulic stowing complexes, recommend that all functions which the operator might perform badly or not at all should be controlled automatically. The operator must, however, have access to manual controls which should be included in the system in order to achieve an effective and trouble free operation. The authors propose a pictogram to explain the relationship between the human operator and the hydraulic complex, based on structural diagrams. The system developed, which was tried out at the Koksovaya mine, increased the efficiency of the complex and reduced the work load of the operator. 3 references.

  5. HYDRAULICS, Des Moines COUNTY, IOWA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. Hydraulic fracturing chemicals and fluids technology

    CERN Document Server

    Fink, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    When classifying fracturing fluids and their additives, it is important that production, operation, and completion engineers understand which chemical should be utilized in different well environments. A user's guide to the many chemicals and chemical additives used in hydraulic fracturing operations, Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Fluids Technology provides an easy-to-use manual to create fluid formulations that will meet project-specific needs while protecting the environment and the life of the well. Fink creates a concise and comprehensive reference that enables the engineer to logically select and use the appropriate chemicals on any hydraulic fracturing job. The first book devoted entirely to hydraulic fracturing chemicals, Fink eliminates the guesswork so the engineer can select the best chemicals needed on the job while providing the best protection for the well, workers and environment. Pinpoints the specific compounds used in any given fracturing operation Provides a systematic approach to class...

  7. Transputer Control of Hydraulic Actuators and Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1996-01-01

    Results from a Danish mechatronics research program entitled IMCIA - Intelligent Control and Intelligent Actuators. The objective is development of intelligent actuators for intelligent motion control. A mechatronics test facility with a transputer controlled hydraulic robot suiteable for real...

  8. 46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic starting. 112.50-3 Section 112.50-3 Shipping... POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting. A hydraulic starting system must meet the following: (a) The hydraulic starting system must be...

  9. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  10. RESEARCH OF THE DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS ON A NEW HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OF ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC HAMMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new typed hydraulic system of electro-hydraulic hammer is researched and developed.By means of power bond graphs the modeling and simulation to the dynamic characteristics of the new hydraulic system are performed. The experimental research which is emphasized on the blowing stroke is also performed. It is proved from the result of simulation and experiment that this new hydraulic system possesses such advantages as simplification of structure,flexibleness of operation and reliability of working. Especially it possesses better dynamic characteristics.

  11. Design of a laboratory hydraulic device for testing of hydraulic pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Máchal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution deals with solves problem of research of testing device to monitor of hydrostatic pumps durability about dynamic loading under laboratory conditions. When carrying out the design of testing device are based on load characteristics of tractor hydraulic circuit, the individual characteristics of hydraulic components and performed calculations. Load characteristics on the tractors CASE IH Magnum 310, JOHN DEERE 8100, ZETOR FORTERRA 114 41 and Fendt 926 Vario were measured. Design of a hydraulic laboratory device is based on the need for testing new types of hydraulic pumps or various types of hydraulic fluids. When creating of hydraulic device we focused on testing hydraulic pumps used in agricultural and forestry tractors. Proportional pressure control valve is an active member of the hydraulic device, which provides change of a continuous control signal into relative pressure of operating fluid. The advantage of a designed hydraulic system is possibility of simulation of dynamic operating loading, which is obtained by measurement under real conditions, and thereby creates laboratory conditions as close to real conditions as possible. The laboratory device is constructed at the Department of Transport and Handling, Faculty of Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra.

  12. Microbiological Lessons Learned from the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark; Bruce, Rebekah; Castro, Victoria A.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2011-01-01

    After 30 years of being the centerpiece of NASA s human spacecraft, the Space Shuttle will retire. This highly successful program provided many valuable lessons for the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft. Major microbiological risks to crewmembers include food, water, air, surfaces, payloads, animals, other crewmembers, and ground support personnel. Adverse effects of microorganisms are varied and can jeopardize crew health and safety, spacecraft systems, and mission objectives. Engineering practices and operational procedures can minimize the negative effects of microorganisms. To minimize problems associated with microorganisms, appropriate steps must begin in the design phase of new spacecraft or space habitats. Spacecraft design must include requirements to control accumulation of water including humidity, leaks, and condensate on surfaces. Materials used in habitable volumes must not contribute to microbial growth. Use of appropriate materials and the implementation of robust housekeeping that utilizes periodic cleaning and disinfection will prevent high levels of microbial growth on surfaces. Air filtration can ensure low levels of bioaerosols and particulates in the breathing air. The use of physical and chemical steps to disinfect drinking water coupled with filtration can provide safe drinking water. Thorough preflight examination of flight crews, consumables, and the environment can greatly reduce pathogens in spacecraft. The advances in knowledge of living and working onboard the Space Shuttle formed the foundation for environmental microbiology requirements and operations for the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft. Research conducted during the Space Shuttle Program resulted in an improved understanding of the effects of spaceflight on human physiology, microbial properties, and specifically the host-microbe interactions. Host-microbe interactions are substantially affected by spaceflight. Astronaut immune

  13. Launch Vehicle Demonstrator Using Shuttle Assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Creech, Dennis M.; Philips, Alan D.; Water, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) has the leading role for NASA s preliminary conceptual launch vehicle design and performance analysis. Over the past several years the ACO Earth-to-Orbit Team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a multitude of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). NASA plans to continue human space exploration and space station utilization. Launch vehicles used for heavy lift cargo and crew will be needed. One of the current leading concepts for future heavy lift capability is an inline one and a half stage concept using solid rocket boosters (SRB) and based on current Shuttle technology and elements. Potentially, the quickest and most cost-effective path towards an operational vehicle of this configuration is to make use of a demonstrator vehicle fabricated from existing shuttle assets and relying upon the existing STS launch infrastructure. Such a demonstrator would yield valuable proof-of-concept data and would provide a working test platform allowing for validated systems integration. Using shuttle hardware such as existing RS-25D engines and partial MPS, propellant tanks derived from the External Tank (ET) design and tooling, and four-segment SRB s could reduce the associated upfront development costs and schedule when compared to a concept that would rely on new propulsion technology and engine designs. There are potentially several other additional benefits to this demonstrator concept. Since a concept of this type would be based on man-rated flight proven hardware components, this demonstrator has the potential to evolve into the first iteration of heavy lift crew or cargo and serve as a baseline for block upgrades. This vehicle could also serve as a demonstration

  14. Characterization of a hydraulically induced bedrock fracture

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a controversial practice because of concerns about environmental impacts due to its widespread use in recovering unconventional petroleum and natural gas deposits. However, water-only hydraulic fracturing has been used safely and successfully for many years to increase the permeability of aquifers used for drinking and irrigation water supply. This process extends and widens existing bedrock fractures, allowing groundwater storage to increase. Researchers have studied ...

  15. FEEDBACK LINEARISATION APPLIED ON A HYDRAULIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.;

    2005-01-01

    Generally most hydraulic systems are intrensically non-linear, why applying linear control techniques typically results in conservatively dimensioned controllers to obtain stable performance. Non-linear control techniques have the potential of overcoming these problems, and in this paper the focus...... is on developing and applying several different feedback linearisation (FL) controllers to the individual servo actuators in a hydraulically driven servo robot to evaluate and compare their possiblities and limitations. This is done based on both simulation and experimental results....

  16. Data Analytics of Hydraulic Fracturing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jovan Yang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Viswanathan, Hari [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffery [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Middleton, Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    These are a set of slides on the data analytics of hydraulic fracturing data. The conclusions from this research are the following: they proposed a permeability evolution as a new mechanism to explain hydraulic fracturing trends; they created a model to include this mechanism and it showed promising results; the paper from this research is ready for submission; they devised a way to identify and sort refractures in order to study their effects, and this paper is currently being written.

  17. Hydraulic Motor Driving Variable-Pitch System for Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye HUANG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism of wind turbine uses three hydraulic cylinders to drive three crank and connecting rod mechanisms respectively; the blades are moved with the cranks. The hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism has complex structure, occupies a lot of space and its maintenance is trouble. In order to make up for the shortcomings of hydraulic cylinder variable-pitch system, the present hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism should be changed as follows: hydraulic motors are used to drive gears; gears drive blades; the electro-hydraulic proportional valves are used to control hydraulic motors. The hydraulic control part and electrical control part of variable-pitch system is redesigned. The new variable-pitch system is called hydraulic motor driving variable-pitch system. The new variable-pitch system meets the control requirements of blade pitch, makes the structure simple and its application effect is perfect.    

  18. Neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analysis of fission molybdenum-99 production at Tehran Research Reactor using LEU plate targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedi, Ebrahim; Ebrahimkhani, Marzieh; Davari, Amin; Mirvakili, Seyed Mohammad; Tabasi, Mohsen; Maragheh, Mohammad Ghannadi

    2016-12-01

    Efficient and safe production of molybdenum-99 ((99)Mo) radiopharmaceutical at Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) via fission of LEU targets is studied. Neutronic calculations are performed to evaluate produced (99)Mo activity, core neutronic safety parameters and also the power deposition values in target plates during a 7 days irradiation interval. Thermal-hydraulic analysis has been also carried out to obtain thermal behavior of these plates. Using Thermal-hydraulic analysis, it can be concluded that the safety parameters are satisfied in the current study. Consequently, the present neutronic and thermal-hydraulic calculations show efficient (99)Mo production is accessible at significant activity values in TRR current core configuration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. CERN Shuttles - NEW Regular Shuttle Services as from 11/01/2010

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    As of Monday 11 January a new regular shuttle service (from Monday to Friday) will be available to facilitate transportation: Within and between both CERN sites, Meyrin and Prevessin; To and from the following LHC points: ATLAS, ALICE, CMS, LHCb. For further details, please consult the timetable for this service. We should also like to take this opportunity to encourage you to use the new regular TPG Y bus service rather than the special on-demand CERN transport service to and from Geneva Airport whenever possible. The TPG buses run from 06:00 to 00:30. For further details, please consult the TPG timetable. Please do not hesitate to give us your feedback on the shuttle services: e-mail to veronique.marchal@cern.ch. In case of problems with the shuttles, please contact 75411. GS-SEM Group Infrastructure and General Services Department

  20. Ground test challenges in the development of the Space Shuttle orbiter auxiliary power unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, N. H.; Lance, R. J.; Weary, D. P.

    1984-01-01

    A conventional aircraft hydraulic system design approach was selected to provide fluid power for the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Developing the power unit, known as the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), to drive the hydraulic pumps presented a major technological challenge. A small, high speed turbine drive unit powered by catalytically decomposed hydrazine and operating in the pulse mode was selected to meet the requirement. Because of limitations of vendor test facilities, significant portions of the development, flight qualification, and postflight anomaly testing of the Orbiter APU were accomplished at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) test facilities. This paper discusses the unique requirements of attitude, gravity forces, pressure profiles, and thermal environments which had to be satisfied by the APU, and presents the unique test facility and simulation techniques employed to meet the ground test requirements. In particular, the development of the zero-g lubrication system, the development of necessary APU thermal control techniques, the accomplishment of integrated systems tests, and the postflight investigation of the APU lube oil cooler behavior are discussed.

  1. Shuttle Ku-band bent-pipe implementation considerations. [for Space Shuttle digital communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, B. H.; Seyl, J. W.; Huth, G. K.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes an approach for relay of data-modulated subcarriers from Shuttle payloads through the Shuttle Ku-band communications subsystem (and subsequently through a tracking and data relay satellite system to a ground terminal). The novelty is that a channel originally provided for baseband digital data is shown to be suitable for this purpose; the resulting transmission scheme is referred to as a narrowband bent-pipe scheme. Test results demonstrating the validity of the narrowband bent-pipe mode are presented, and limitations on system performance are described.

  2. Modelling property changes in graphite irradiated at changing irradiation temperature

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kok, S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed to predict the irradiation induced property changes in nuclear; graphite, including the effect of a change in irradiation temperature. The currently used method; to account for changes in irradiation temperature, the scaled...

  3. Hydraulic Conductivity Anisotropy of Heterogeneous Unsaturated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongmin; Zhu, Jianting

    2010-05-01

    The effects of saturation degree (or capillary pressure) on hydraulic conductivity anisotropy in unsaturated soils have not been fully understood. This study developed an approach based on a conceptualization of combining the neural network based pedo-transfer function (PTF) results with the thin layer concept to explore the capillary pressure-dependent anisotropy in relation to soil texture and soil bulk density. The main objective is to examine how anisotropy characteristics are related to the relationships between hydraulic parameters and the basic soil attributes such as texture and bulk density. The hydraulic parameters are correlated with the texture and bulk density based on the pedo-transfer function (PTF) results. It is demonstrated that non-monotonic behavior of the unsaturated soil anisotropy in relation to the capillary pressure is only observed when the saturated hydraulic conductivity and the shape parameter are both related to the mean particle diameter. When only one hydraulic parameter is related to the grain diameter or when both are not related to the same attribute simultaneously, the unsaturated soil anisotropy increases monotonically with the increasing capillary pressure head. Therefore, it is suggested that this behavior is mainly due to the coupled dependence of the layer saturated hydraulic conductivities and the shape factors on the texture and bulk density. The correlation between the soil grain diameter and bulk density decreases the anisotropy effects of the unsaturated layered soils. The study illustrates that the inter-relationships of soil texture, bulk density, and hydraulic properties may cause vastly different characteristics of anisotropic unsaturated soils.

  4. STS-46 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-10-01

    The STS-46 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET, designated ET-48 (LWT-41); three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2032, 2033, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-052. The lightweight/redesigned SRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360W025A for the left RSRM and 360L025B for the right RSRM. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) payload and perform the operations of the Tethered Satellite System-1 (TSS-1) and the Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Material 3/Thermal Energy Management Processes 2A-3 (EOIM-3/TEMP 2A-3). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Consortium for Material Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload-2 and 3 (CONCAP-2 and CONCAP-3), Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Materials Exposure (LDCE), Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Function (PHCF), and Ultraviolet Plume Instrumentation (UVPI). In addition to summarizing subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. Also included in the discussion is a reference to the assigned tracking number as published on the Problem Tracking List. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) as well as mission elapsed time (MET).

  5. STS-54 Space Shuttle mission report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-03-01

    The STS-54 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) subsystems performance during this fifty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the third flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET, which was designated ET-51; three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two retrievable and reusable SRB's which were designated BI-056. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L029A for the left SRB, and 360L029B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-F/Inertial Upper Stage payload and to fulfill the requirements of the Diffuse X-Ray Spectrometer (DXS) payload. The secondary objective was to fly the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE), and the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE). In addition to presenting a summary of subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. The official tracking number for each in-flight anomaly, assigned by the cognizant project, is also shown. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  6. Shuttle Abort Flight Management (SAFM) - Application Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Howard; Straube, Tim; Madsen, Jennifer; Ricard, Mike

    2002-01-01

    One of the most demanding tasks that must be performed by the Space Shuttle flight crew is the process of determining whether, when and where to abort the vehicle should engine or system failures occur during ascent or entry. Current Shuttle abort procedures involve paging through complicated paper checklists to decide on the type of abort and where to abort. Additional checklists then lead the crew through a series of actions to execute the desired abort. This process is even more difficult and time consuming in the absence of ground communications since the ground flight controllers have the analysis tools and information that is currently not available in the Shuttle cockpit. Crew workload specifically abort procedures will be greatly simplified with the implementation of the Space Shuttle Cockpit Avionics Upgrade (CAU) project. The intent of CAU is to maximize crew situational awareness and reduce flight workload thru enhanced controls and displays, and onboard abort assessment and determination capability. SAFM was developed to help satisfy the CAU objectives by providing the crew with dynamic information about the capability of the vehicle to perform a variety of abort options during ascent and entry. This paper- presents an overview of the SAFM application. As shown in Figure 1, SAFM processes the vehicle navigation state and other guidance information to provide the CAU displays with evaluations of abort options, as well as landing site recommendations. This is accomplished by three main SAFM components: the Sequencer Executive, the Powered Flight Function, and the Glided Flight Function, The Sequencer Executive dispatches the Powered and Glided Flight Functions to evaluate the vehicle's capability to execute the current mission (or current abort), as well as more than IS hypothetical abort options or scenarios. Scenarios are sequenced and evaluated throughout powered and glided flight. Abort scenarios evaluated include Abort to Orbit (ATO), Transatlantic

  7. Langley's Space Shuttle Technology: A bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champine, G. R.

    1981-01-01

    This bibliography documents most of the major publications, research reports, journal articles, presentations, and contractor reports, which have been published since the inception of the Space Shuttle Technology Task Group at the NASA Langley Reseach Center on July 11, 1969. This research work was performed in house by the Center staff or under contract, monitored by the Center staff. The report is arranged according to method of publication: (1) NASA Formal Reports; (2) Contractor Reports; and (3) Articles and Conferences. Disciplines covered are in the areas of aerothermodynamics, structures, dynamics and aeroelasticity, environmental, and materials. The publications are listed without abstracts for quick reference and planning.

  8. Redox shuttles for lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wei; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Amine, Khalil

    2014-11-04

    Compounds may have general Formula IVA or IVB. ##STR00001## where, R.sup.8, R.sup.9, R.sup.10, and R.sup.11 are each independently selected from H, F, Cl, Br, CN, NO.sub.2, alkyl, haloalkyl, and alkoxy groups; X and Y are each independently O, S, N, or P; and Z' is a linkage between X and Y. Such compounds may be used as redox shuttles in electrolytes for use in electrochemical cells, batteries and electronic devices.

  9. NASA management of the Space Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, F.

    1975-01-01

    The management system and management technology described have been developed to meet stringent cost and schedule constraints of the Space Shuttle Program. Management of resources available to this program requires control and motivation of a large number of efficient creative personnel trained in various technical specialties. This must be done while keeping track of numerous parallel, yet interdependent activities involving different functions, organizations, and products all moving together in accordance with intricate plans for budgets, schedules, performance, and interaction. Some techniques developed to identify problems at an early stage and seek immediate solutions are examined.

  10. Thermal-hydraulic modeling and analysis of hydraulic system by pseudo-bond graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡均平; 李科军

    2015-01-01

    To increase the efficiency and reliability of the thermodynamics analysis of the hydraulic system, the method based on pseudo-bond graph is introduced. According to the working mechanism of hydraulic components, they can be separated into two categories: capacitive components and resistive components. Then, the thermal-hydraulic pseudo-bond graphs of capacitive C element and resistance R element were developed, based on the conservation of mass and energy. Subsequently, the connection rule for the pseudo-bond graph elements and the method to construct the complete thermal-hydraulic system model were proposed. On the basis of heat transfer analysis of a typical hydraulic circuit containing a piston pump, the lumped parameter mathematical model of the system was given. The good agreement between the simulation results and experimental data demonstrates the validity of the modeling method.

  11. Space shuttle program: Shuttle Avionics Integration Laboratory. Volume 7: Logistics management plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    The logistics management plan for the shuttle avionics integration laboratory defines the organization, disciplines, and methodology for managing and controlling logistics support. Those elements requiring management include maintainability and reliability, maintenance planning, support and test equipment, supply support, transportation and handling, technical data, facilities, personnel and training, funding, and management data.

  12. Space shuttle/payload interface analysis (study 2.4). Volume 2: Space shuttle traffic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plough, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The transfer is reported of the capability to perform capture/cost analyses to MSFC. Space shuttle performance and direct costs, tug characteristics, reliability, and cost data were provided by NASA. The launch vehicle, mission models, payloads, and computer programs are discussed along with capture/cost analysis, and cost estimates. For Vol. 1, see N74-12493.

  13. Irradiation Creep in Graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubic, Rick; Butt, Darryl; Windes, William

    2014-03-13

    An understanding of the underlying mechanisms of irradiation creep in graphite material is required to correctly interpret experimental data, explain micromechanical modeling results, and predict whole-core behavior. This project will focus on experimental microscopic data to demonstrate the mechanism of irradiation creep. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy should be able to image both the dislocations in graphite and the irradiation-induced interstitial clusters that pin those dislocations. The team will first prepare and characterize nanoscale samples of virgin nuclear graphite in a transmission electron microscope. Additional samples will be irradiated to varying degrees at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) facility and similarly characterized. Researchers will record microstructures and crystal defects and suggest a mechanism for irradiation creep based on the results. In addition, the purchase of a tensile holder for a transmission electron microscope will allow, for the first time, in situ observation of creep behavior on the microstructure and crystallographic defects.

  14. Effect of Natural Fractures on Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Y.; Wang, Y.; Shi, G.

    2012-12-01

    Hydraulic Fracturing has been used successfully in the oil and gas industry to enhance oil and gas production in the past few decades. Recent years have seen the great development of tight gas, coal bed methane and shale gas. Natural fractures are believed to play an important role in the hydraulic fracturing of such formations. Whether natural fractures can benefit the fracture propagation and enhance final production needs to be studied. Various methods have been used to study the effect of natural fractures on hydraulic fracturing. Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA) is a numerical method which belongs to the family of discrete element methods. In this paper, DDA is coupled with a fluid pipe network model to simulate the pressure response in the formation during hydraulic fracturing. The focus is to study the effect of natural fractures on hydraulic fracturing. In particular, the effect of rock joint properties, joint orientations and rock properties on fracture initiation and propagation will be analyzed. The result shows that DDA is a promising tool to study such complex behavior of rocks. Finally, the advantages of disadvantages of our current model and future research directions will be discussed.

  15. Microbial effect on soil hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Alex; Rosenzweig, Ravid; Volk, Elazar; Rosenkranz, Hella; Iden, Sascha; Durner, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Although largely ignored, the soil contains large amount of biofilms (attached microbes) that can affect many processes. While biochemical processes are studied, biophysical processes receive only little attention. Biofilms may occupy some of the pore space, and by that affect the soil hydraulic properties. This effect on unsaturated soils, however, was not intensively studied. In this research we directly measure the hydraulic properties, namely the soil's unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function and retention curve, for soils containing real biofilm. To do that we inoculate soil with biofilm-forming bacteria and incubate it with sufficient amounts of nutrient until biofilm is formed. The hydraulic properties of the incubated soil are then measured using several techniques, including multi-step outflow and evaporation method. The longer measurements (evaporation method) are conducted under refrigeration conditions to minimize microbial activity during the experiment. The results show a clear effect of the biofilm, where the biofilm-affected soil (sandy loam in our case) behaves like a much finer soil. This qualitatively makes sense as the biofilm generates an effective pore size distribution that is characterized by smaller pores. However, the effect is much more complex and needs to be studied carefully considering (for example) dual porosity models. We compare our preliminary results with other experiments, including flow-through column experiments and experiments with biofilm analogues. Clearly a better understanding of the way microbial activity alters the hydraulic properties may help designing more efficient bioremediation, irrigation, and other soil-related processes.

  16. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The M. Nguyen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technology has been found effective for heavy duty vehicle because of its high power density. The mechanical batteries used in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV can be charged and discharged remarkably faster than chemical batteries. This feature is essential for heavy vehicle hybridization. One of the main problems that should be solved for the successful commercialization of HHV is the excessive noise and vibration involving with the hydraulic systems. This study focuses on using magnetorheological (MR technology to reduce the noise and vibration transmissibility from the hydraulic system to the vehicle body. In order to study the noise and vibration of HHV, a hydraulic hybrid subsystem in parallel design is analyzed. This research shows that the MR elements play an important role in reducing the transmitted noise and vibration to the vehicle body. Additionally, locations and orientations of the isolation system also affect the efficiency of the noise and vibration mitigation. In simulations, a skyhook control algorithm is used to achieve the highest possible effectiveness of the MR isolation system.

  17. A Computational Model of Hydraulic Volume Displacement Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pil'gunov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a computational model of industrial-purpose hydraulic drive with two hydraulic volume adjustable working chamber machines (pump and motor. Adjustable pump equipped with the pressure control unit can be run together with several adjustable hydraulic motors on the principle of three-phase hydraulic socket-outlet with high-pressure lines, drain, and drainage system. The paper considers the pressure-controlled hydrostatic transmission with hydraulic motor as an output link. It shows a possibility to create a saving hydraulic drive using a functional tie between the adjusting parameters of the pump and hydraulic motor through the pressure difference, torque, and angular rate of the hydraulic motor shaft rotation. The programmable logic controller can implement such tie. The Coulomb and viscous frictions are taken into consideration when developing a computational model of the hydraulic volume displacement drive. Discharge balance considers external and internal leakages in equivalent clearances of hydraulic machines, as well as compression loss volume caused by hydraulic fluid compressibility and deformation of pipe walls. To correct dynamic properties of hydraulic drive, the paper offers that in discharge balance are included the additional regulated external leakages in the open circuit of hydraulic drive and regulated internal leakages in the closed-loop circuit. Generalized differential equations having functional multipliers and multilinked nature have been obtained to describe the operation of hydraulic positioning and speed drive with two hydraulic volume adjustable working chamber machines. It is shown that a proposed computational model of hydraulic drive can be taken into consideration in development of LS («Load-Sensing» drives, in which the pumping pressure is tuned to the value required for the most loaded slave motor to overcome the load. Results attained can be used both in designing the industrial-purpose heavy

  18. Final Results of Shuttle MMOD Impact Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, J. L.; Christiansen, E. L.; Lear, D. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database documents damage features on each Orbiter thought to be from micrometeoroids (MM) or orbital debris (OD). Data is divided into tables for crew module windows, payload bay door radiators and thermal protection systems along with other miscellaneous regions. The combined number of records in the database is nearly 3000. Each database record provides impact feature dimensions, location on the vehicle and relevant mission information. Additional detail on the type and size of particle that produced the damage site is provided when sampling data and definitive spectroscopic analysis results are available. Guidelines are described which were used in determining whether impact damage is from micrometeoroid or orbital debris impact based on the findings from scanning electron microscopy chemical analysis. Relationships assumed when converting from observed feature sizes in different shuttle materials to particle sizes will be presented. A small number of significant impacts on the windows, radiators and wing leading edge will be highlighted and discussed in detail, including the hypervelocity impact testing performed to estimate particle sizes that produced the damage.

  19. Measurement and evaluation of static characteristics of rotary hydraulic motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hružík Lumír

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes experimental equipment for measurement of static characteristics of rotary hydraulic motor. It is possible to measure flow, pressure, temperature, speed and torque by means of this equipment. It deals with measurement of static characteristics of a gear rotary hydraulic motor. Mineral oil is used as hydraulic liquid in this case. Flow, torque and speed characteristics are evaluated from measured parameters. Measured mechanical-hydraulic, flow and total efficiencies of the rotary hydraulic motor are adduced in the paper. It is possible to diagnose technical conditions of the hydraulic motor (eventually to recommend its exchange from the experimental measurements.

  20. Promoting water hydraulics in Malaysia: A green educational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Ahmad Anas; Zaili, Zarin Syukri; Hassan, Siti Nor Habibah; Tuan, Tee Boon; Saadun, Mohd Noor Asril; Ibrahim, Mohd Qadafie

    2014-10-01

    In promoting water hydraulics in Malaysia, this paper presents research development of water hydraulics educational training system for secondary and tertiary levels in Malaysia. Water hydraulics trainer with robotic attachment has been studied in order to promote the usefulness of such educational tools in promoting sustainability and green technology in the country. The trainer is being developed in order to allow constructive curriculum development and continuous marketing research for the effectiveness and usefulness of using water in hydraulic power trainer. The research on water-based hydraulic trainer is now possible with the current development in water hydraulics technology.

  1. Hydraulic characterization of hydrothermally altered Nopal tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R.T.; Meyer-James, K.A. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Rice, G. [George Rice and Associates, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Understanding the mechanics of variably saturated flow in fractured-porous media is of fundamental importance to evaluating the isolation performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository for the Yucca Mountain site. Developing that understanding must be founded on the analysis and interpretation of laboratory and field data. This report presents an analysis of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of tuff cores from the Pena Blanca natural analog site in Mexico. The basic intent of the analysis was to examine possible trends and relationships between the hydraulic properties and the degree of hydrothermal alteration exhibited by the tuff samples. These data were used in flow simulations to evaluate the significance of a particular conceptual (composite) model and of distinct hydraulic properties on the rate and nature of water flow.

  2. Simulation of a Hydraulic Pump Control Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molen, G. Vander; Akers, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the mode of operation of a control valve assembly that is used with a hydraulic pump. The operating system of the valve is modelled in a simplified form, and an analogy for hydraulic resonance of the pressure sensing system is presented. For the control valve investigated, air entrainment, length and diameter of the resonator neck, and valve mass produced the greatest shift in resonant frequency. Experimental work was conducted on the hydraulic system so that the resonance levels and frequencies could be measured and the accuracy of the theory verified. The results obtained make it possible to evaluate what changes to any of the variables considered would be most effective in driving the second harmonic frequency above the operating range.

  3. Soil Structure and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houskova, B.; Nagy, V.

    The role of soil structure on saturated hydraulic conductivity changes is studied in plough layers of texturally different soils. Three localities in western part of Slovakia in Zitny ostrov (Corn Island) were under investigation: locality Kalinkovo with light Calcaric Fluvisol (FAO 1970), Macov with medium heavy Calcari-mollic Fluvisol and Jurova with heavy Calcari-mollic Fluvisol. Soil structure was determined in dry as well as wet state and in size of macro and micro aggregates. Saturated hydraulic conductivity was measured by the help of double ring method. During the period of ring filling the soil surface was protected against aggregates damage by falling water drops. Spatial and temporal variability of studied parameters was evaluated. Cultivated crops were ensilage maize at medium heavy and heavy soil and colza at light soil. Textural composition of soil and actual water content at the beginning of measurement are one of major factor affecting aggregate stability and consequently also saturated hydraulic conductivity.

  4. Universal asymptotic umbrella for hydraulic fracture modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Linkov, Aleksandr M

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents universal asymptotic solution needed for efficient modeling of hydraulic fractures. We show that when neglecting the lag, there is universal asymptotic equation for the near-front opening. It appears that apart from the mechanical properties of fluid and rock, the asymptotic opening depends merely on the local speed of fracture propagation. This implies that, on one hand, the global problem is ill-posed, when trying to solve it as a boundary value problem under a fixed position of the front. On the other hand, when properly used, the universal asymptotics drastically facilitates solving hydraulic fracture problems (both analytically and numerically). We derive simple universal asymptotics and comment on their employment for efficient numerical simulation of hydraulic fractures, in particular, by well-established Level Set and Fast Marching Methods.

  5. Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

    2007-09-13

    The self-potential (SP) response during hydraulic fracturing of intact Sierra granite was investigated in the laboratory. Excellent correlation of pressure drop and SP suggests that the SP response is created primarily by electrokinetic coupling. For low pressures, the variation of SP with pressure drop is linear, indicating a constant coupling coefficient (Cc) of -200 mV/MPa. However for pressure drops >2 MPa, the magnitude of the Cc increases by 80% in an exponential trend. This increasing Cc is related to increasing permeability at high pore pressures caused by dilatancy of micro-cracks, and is explained by a decrease in the hydraulic tortuosity. Resistivity measurements reveal a decrease of 2% prior to hydraulic fracturing and a decrease of {approx}35% after fracturing. An asymmetric spatial SP response created by injectate diffusion into dilatant zones is observed prior to hydraulic fracturing, and in most cases this SP variation revealed the impending crack geometry seconds before failure. At rupture, injectate rushes into the new fracture area where the zeta potential is different than in the rock porosity, and an anomalous SP spike is observed. After fracturing, the spatial SP distribution reveals the direction of fracture propagation. Finally, during tensile cracking in a point load device with no water flow, a SP spike is observed that is caused by contact electrification. However, the time constant of this event is much less than that for transients observed during hydraulic fracturing, suggesting that SP created solely from material fracture does not contribute to the SP response during hydraulic fracturing.

  6. Measurement and modeling of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kim S.; Elango, Lakshmanan

    2011-01-01

    The unsaturated zone plays an extremely important hydrologic role that influences water quality and quantity, ecosystem function and health, the connection between atmospheric and terrestrial processes, nutrient cycling, soil development, and natural hazards such as flooding and landslides. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is one of the main properties considered to govern flow; however it is very difficult to measure accurately. Knowledge of the highly nonlinear relationship between unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K) and volumetric water content is required for widely-used models of water flow and solute transport processes in the unsaturated zone. Measurement of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of sediments is costly and time consuming, therefore use of models that estimate this property from more easily measured bulk-physical properties is common. In hydrologic studies, calculations based on property-transfer models informed by hydraulic property databases are often used in lieu of measured data from the site of interest. Reliance on database-informed predicted values with the use of neural networks has become increasingly common. Hydraulic properties predicted using databases may be adequate in some applications, but not others. This chapter will discuss, by way of examples, various techniques used to measure and model hydraulic conductivity as a function of water content, K. The parameters that describe the K curve obtained by different methods are used directly in Richards’ equation-based numerical models, which have some degree of sensitivity to those parameters. This chapter will explore the complications of using laboratory measured or estimated properties for field scale investigations to shed light on how adequately the processes are represented. Additionally, some more recent concepts for representing unsaturated-zone flow processes will be discussed.

  7. On the Hydraulics of Flowing Horizontal Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, A.; Zhan, H.

    2003-12-01

    A flowing horizontal well is a special type of horizontal well that does not have pumping/injecting facility. The discharge rate of a flowing horizontal well is controlled by the hydraulic gradient between the aquifer and the well and it generally varies with time if the hydraulic head of the aquifer is transient. This type of well has been used in landslide control, mining dewatering, water table control, underground water transportation through a horizontal tunnel, agricultural water drainage, and other applications. Flowing horizontal wells have quite different hydrodynamic characteristics from horizontal wells with fixed pumping or injecting rates because their discharge rates are functions of the aquifer hydraulic heads (Zhan et al, 2001; Zhan and Zlotnik, 2002). Hydraulics of flowing horizontal wells have rarely been studied although the hydraulics of flowing vertical wells have been extensively investigated before. The purpose of this paper is to obtain analytical solutions of groundwater flow to a flowing horizontal-well in a confined aquifer, in a water table aquifer without precipitation, and in a water table aquifer with precipitation. The functions of the flowing horizontal well discharge rates versus time will be obtained under above mentioned different aquifer conditions. The relationships of the aquifer hydraulic heads versus the discharge rates of the well will be investigated. The rate of water table decline due to the dewatering of the well will also be computed, and this solution is particularly useful for landslide control and mining dewatering. The theoretical solutions will be compared with results of experiments that will be conducted in the hydrological laboratory at Texas A&M University. Reference: Zhan, H., Wang, L.V., and Park, E, On the horizontal well pumping tests in the anisotropic confined aquifers, J. hydrol., 252, 37-50, 2001. Zhan, H., and Zlotnik, V. A., Groundwater flow to a horizontal or slanted well in an unconfined aquifer

  8. Thermal Hydraulic Stability in a Coaxial Thermosyphon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jianhui; LU Wenqiang; LI Qing; LI Qiang; ZHOU Yuan

    2005-01-01

    The heat transfer and thermal hydraulic stability in a two-phase thermosyphon with coaxial riser and down-comer has been experimentally investigated and theoretically analyzed to facilitate its application in cold neutron source. The flow in a coaxial thermosyphon was studied experimentally for a variety of heating rates, transfer tube lengths, charge capacities, and area ratios. A numerical analysis of the hydraulic balance between the driving pressure head and the resistance loss has also been performed. The results show that the presented coaxial thermosyphon has dynamic performance advantages relative to natural circulation in a boiling water reactor.

  9. Large-eddy simulation in hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Rodi, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Complex turbulence phenomena are of great practical importance in hydraulics, including environmental flows, and require advanced methods for their successful computation. The Large Eddy Simulation (LES), in which the larger-scale turbulent motion is directly resolved and only the small-scale motion is modelled, is particularly suited for complex situations with dominant large-scale structures and unsteadiness. Due to the increasing computer power, LES is generally used more and more in Computational Fluid Dynamics. Also in hydraulics, it offers great potential, especially for near-field probl

  10. Mineral resource of the month: hydraulic cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic cements are the binders in concrete and most mortars and stuccos. Concrete, particularly the reinforced variety, is the most versatile of all construction materials, and most of the hydraulic cement produced worldwide is portland cement or similar cements that have portland cement as a basis, such as blended cements and masonry cements. Cement typically makes up less than 15 percent of the concrete mix; most of the rest is aggregates. Not counting the weight of reinforcing media, 1 ton of cement will typically yield about 8 tons of concrete.

  11. Mission Possible: BioMedical Experiments on the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bopp, E.; Kreutzberg, K.

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical research, both applied and basic, was conducted on every Shuttle mission from 1981 to 2011. The Space Shuttle Program enabled NASA investigators and researchers from around the world to address fundamental issues concerning living and working effectively in space. Operationally focused occupational health investigations and tests were given priority by the Shuttle crew and Shuttle Program management for the resolution of acute health issues caused by the rigors of spaceflight. The challenges of research on the Shuttle included: limited up and return mass, limited power, limited crew time, and requirements for containment of hazards. The sheer capacity of the Shuttle for crew and equipment was unsurpassed by any other launch and entry vehicle and the Shuttle Program provided more opportunity for human research than any program before or since. To take advantage of this opportunity, life sciences research programs learned how to: streamline the complicated process of integrating experiments aboard the Shuttle, design experiments and hardware within operational constraints, and integrate requirements between different experiments and with operational countermeasures. We learned how to take advantage of commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and developed a hardware certification process with the flexibility to allow for design changes between flights. We learned the importance of end-to-end testing for experiment hardware with humans-in-the-loop. Most importantly, we learned that the Shuttle Program provided an excellent platform for conducting human research and for developing the systems that are now used to optimize research on the International Space Station. This presentation will include a review of the types of experiments and medical tests flown on the Shuttle and the processes that were used to manifest and conduct the experiments. Learning Objective: This paper provides a description of the challenges related to launching and implementing biomedical

  12. Legacy of Biomedical Research During the Space Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Judith C.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program provided many opportunities to study the role of spaceflight on human life for over 30 years and represented the longest and largest US human spaceflight program. Outcomes of the research were understanding the effect of spaceflight on human physiology and performance, countermeasures, operational protocols, and hardware. The Shuttle flights were relatively short, Biomedical research was conducted on the Space Shuttle using various vehicle resources. Specially constructed pressurized laboratories called Spacelab and SPACEHAB housed many laboratory instruments to accomplish experiments in the Shuttle s large payload bay. In addition to these laboratory flights, nearly every mission had dedicated human life science research experiments conducted in the Shuttle middeck. Most Shuttle astronauts participated in some life sciences research experiments either as test subjects or test operators. While middeck experiments resulted in a low sample per mission compared to many Earth-based studies, this participation allowed investigators to have repetition of tests over the years on successive Shuttle flights. In addition, as a prelude to the International Space Station (ISS), NASA used the Space Shuttle as a platform for assessing future ISS hardware systems and procedures. The purpose of this panel is to provide an understanding of science integration activities required to implement Shuttle research, review biomedical research, characterize countermeasures developed for Shuttle and ISS as well as discuss lessons learned that may support commercial crew endeavors. Panel topics include research integration, cardiovascular physiology, neurosciences, skeletal muscle, and exercise physiology. Learning Objective: The panel provides an overview from the Space Shuttle Program regarding research integration, scientific results, lessons learned from biomedical research and countermeasure development.

  13. Current situation of food irradiation practice in U.S.A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Masakazu [Osaka Prefectural Univ., Sakai (Japan). Research Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology

    1996-12-31

    It is essential that private food companies adopt the process and retail stores sell irradiated food products in order to popularize food irradiation among consumers. FOOD TECHnology Inc. (former Vindicator Inc.), which is founded in Florida 1992 for the purpose of decontamination of fruit flies infected in Oranges using {sup 60}Co gamma-irradiation, and Carrot Top, which has been selling irradiated foods since 1992, are well known to be actively involved in PA activity of irradiated foods. Carrot Top is now strongly interested in selling tropical fruits from Hawaii, which has been prohibited to ship from Hawaii to the mainland without decontamination treatment by US government because of fruit fly infestation. They got a temporal permit for the shipment of those fruits with irradiation at Chicago. FOOD TECHnology Inc. irradiates chicken, tomatoes, strawberries and mushrooms. Foods for hospitalized patients and astronauts are also irradiated at FOOD TECHnology Inc.. All food supply for the `Space Shuttle` program has been provided. Recently they began to irradiate frozen shrimps and salmons. Carrot Top says that irradiated food items gain popularity among their customers although they changed the information transfer method from news letter to news paper advertisement as well as minimizing the description in the store. They noted that the goods sold well whether or not they are irradiated if they are fresh, good-looking and reasonable in price. FOOD TECHnology also commented that food industries has become more friendly towards food irradiation and they petitioned FDA for clearance of beef irradiation to decontaminate E. coli 0157:H7, but the private companies still hesitated to pick up this process therefore we need more efforts of PR. (J.P.N.)

  14. Astronaut Franklin Chang-Diaz organizes shuttle mail message

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    On Discovery's aft flight deck, Astronaut Franklin R. Chang-Diaz begins to organize what was believed to be among the longest mail messages in Shuttle history. Though early Shuttle flights could brag of longer teleprinted messages, the Thermal Imaging Printing Systems's day four correspondence, most of which is out of frame here, is a record length for recent flights.

  15. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy of a molecular shuttle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panman, M.R.; Bodis, P.; Shaw, D.J.; Bakker, B.H.; Newton, A.C.; Kay, E.R.; Leigh, D.A.; Buma, W.J.; Brouwer, A.M.; Woutersen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy is used to investigate the inter-component motion of an ultraviolet-triggered two-station molecular shuttle. The operation cycle of this molecular shuttle involves several intermediate species, which are observable in the amide I and amide II regions of the mid

  16. Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise Off-Loaded at Redstone Arsenal Airfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise is off-loaded Redstone Arsenal Airfield for later Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT) at Marshall Space Flight Center's Dynamic Test Stand. The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement (including orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters) were mated vertically.

  17. Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise Arrives at Redstone Arsenal Airfield

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise atop a 747 landing at Redstone Arsenal Airfield for later Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT) at Marshall Space Flight Center's Dynamic Test Stand. The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement (including orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters) were mated vertically.

  18. Time management displays for shuttle countdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beller, Arthur E.; Hadaller, H. Greg; Ricci, Mark J.

    1992-01-01

    The Intelligent Launch Decision Support System project is developing a Time Management System (TMS) for the NASA Test Director (NTD) to use for time management during Shuttle terminal countdown. TMS is being developed in three phases: an information phase; a tool phase; and an advisor phase. The information phase is an integrated display (TMID) of firing room clocks, of graphic timelines with Ground Launch Sequencer events, and of constraints. The tool phase is a what-if spreadsheet (TMWI) for devising plans for resuming from unplanned hold situations. It is tied to information in TMID, propagates constraints forward and backward to complete unspecified values, and checks the plan against constraints. The advisor phase is a situation advisor (TMSA), which proactively suggests tactics. A concept prototype for TMSA is under development. The TMID is currently undergoing field testing. Displays for TMID and TMWI are described. Descriptions include organization, rationale for organization, implementation choices and constraints, and use by NTD.

  19. Optimal guidance for the space shuttle transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, R. F.

    1974-01-01

    A guidance method for the space shuttle's transition from hypersonic entry to subsonic cruising flight is presented. The method evolves from a numerical trajectory optimization technique in which kinetic energy and total energy (per unit weight) replace velocity and time in the dynamic equations. This allows the open end-time problem to be transformed to one of fixed terminal energy. In its ultimate form, E-Guidance obtains energy balance (including dynamic-pressure-rate damping) and path length control by angle-of-attack modulation and cross-range control by roll angle modulation. The guidance functions also form the basis for a pilot display of instantaneous maneuver limits and destination. Numerical results illustrate the E-Guidance concept and the optimal trajectories on which it is based.

  20. Energy management during the space shuttle transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    An approach to calculating optimal, gliding flight paths of the type associated with the space shuttle's transition from entry to cruising flight is presented. Kinetic energy and total energy (per unit weight) replace velocity and time in the dynamic equations, reducing the dimension and complexity of the problem. The capability for treating integral and terminal penalties (as well as Mach number effects) is retained in the numerical optimization; hence, stability and control boundaries can be observed as trajectories to the desired final energy, flight path angle, and range are determined. Numerical results show that the jump to the front-side of the L/D curve need not be made until the end of the transition and that the dynamic model provides a conservative range estimate. Alternatives for real time trajectory control are discussed.

  1. Radar error statistics for the space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, W. M.

    1979-01-01

    Radar error statistics of C-band and S-band that are recommended for use with the groundtracking programs to process space shuttle tracking data are presented. The statistics are divided into two parts: bias error statistics, using the subscript B, and high frequency error statistics, using the subscript q. Bias errors may be slowly varying to constant. High frequency random errors (noise) are rapidly varying and may or may not be correlated from sample to sample. Bias errors were mainly due to hardware defects and to errors in correction for atmospheric refraction effects. High frequency noise was mainly due to hardware and due to atmospheric scintillation. Three types of atmospheric scintillation were identified: horizontal, vertical, and line of sight. This was the first time that horizontal and line of sight scintillations were identified.

  2. Dynamics of gradient formation by intracellular shuttling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M. [Mathematical and Statistical Computing Laboratory, Division of Computational Bioscience, Center for Information Technology, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Shvartsman, Stanislav Y. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2015-08-21

    A number of important cellular functions rely on the formation of intracellular protein concentration gradients. Experimental studies discovered a number of mechanisms for the formation of such gradients. One of the mechanisms relies on the intracellular shuttling of a protein that interconverts between the two states with different diffusivities, under the action of two enzymes, one of which is localized to the plasma membrane, whereas the second is uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm. Recent work reported an analytical solution for the steady state gradient in this mechanism, obtained in the framework of a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion model. Here, we study the dynamics in this model and derive analytical expressions for the Laplace transforms of the time-dependent concentration profiles in terms of elementary transcendental functions. Inverting these transforms numerically, one can obtain time-dependent concentration profiles of the two forms of the protein.

  3. Space shuttle crew training at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Paola Catapano

    From 13 to 16 October, the crew of NASA Space Shuttle mission STS-134 came to CERN for a special physics training programme. Invited here by Samuel Ting, they will deliver the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) detector to the International Space Station (ISS).   The STS134 crew in the Lodge at the Aiguille du Midi wearing CERN fleeces. From left to right: Captain Mark Kelly, US Navy; Pilot Gregory Johnson, USAF ret.; Mission Specialist Andrew Feustel; Mission Specialist Mike Fincke, USAF, Mission Specialist Gregory Chamitoff and Mission Specialist Roberto Vittori, ESA and Italian Air Force. Headed by Commander Mark Kelly, a US Navy captain, the crew included pilot Gregory Johnson, a US Air Force (USAF) colonel, and mission specialists Mike Fincke (also a USAF Colonel), Andrew Feustel, and Gregory Chamitoff of NASA, as well as Colonel Roberto Vittori of the European Space Agency (ESA). Two flight directors, Gary Horlache and Derek Hassmann of NASA, and the engineer responsible for the Ext...

  4. Dynamics of gradient formation by intracellular shuttling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.

    2015-08-01

    A number of important cellular functions rely on the formation of intracellular protein concentration gradients. Experimental studies discovered a number of mechanisms for the formation of such gradients. One of the mechanisms relies on the intracellular shuttling of a protein that interconverts between the two states with different diffusivities, under the action of two enzymes, one of which is localized to the plasma membrane, whereas the second is uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm. Recent work reported an analytical solution for the steady state gradient in this mechanism, obtained in the framework of a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion model. Here, we study the dynamics in this model and derive analytical expressions for the Laplace transforms of the time-dependent concentration profiles in terms of elementary transcendental functions. Inverting these transforms numerically, one can obtain time-dependent concentration profiles of the two forms of the protein.

  5. Notch sensitivity of space shuttle tile materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted at room temperature to determine the notch sensitivity of the thermal protection tile for the space shuttle. Two types of RSI tile were studied: LI-900 and LI-2200. Three point bend specimens were cut from discarded tiles in the in-plane (ip) and through-the-thickness (ttt) directions. They were tested with or without a sharp notch. The LI-900 (ip and ttt) specimens were not very notch sensitive, but the LI-2200 (ip and ttt) specimens were. The LI-2200 material showed about a 35 percent reduction in strength due to the presence of the notch. This reduction in strength should be considered in the design of mechanically fastened tile concepts.

  6. Mechatronic Hydraulic Drive with Regulator, Based on Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burennikov, Y.; Kozlov, L.; Pyliavets, V.; Piontkevych, O.

    2017-06-01

    Mechatronic hydraulic drives, based on variable pump, proportional hydraulics and controllers find wide application in technological machines and testing equipment. Mechatronic hydraulic drives provide necessary parameters of actuating elements motion with the possibility of their correction in case of external loads change. This enables to improve the quality of working operations, increase the capacity of machines. The scheme of mechatronic hydraulic drive, based on the pump, hydraulic cylinder, proportional valve with electrohydraulic control and programmable controller is suggested. Algorithm for the control of mechatronic hydraulic drive to provide necessary pressure change law in hydraulic cylinder is developed. For the realization of control algorithm in the controller artificial neural networks are used. Mathematical model of mechatronic hydraulic drive, enabling to create the training base for adjustment of artificial neural networks of the regulator is developed.

  7. DCS Hydraulics Submittal, Valencia County, New Mexico, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...

  8. Chapter 12. Pure Tap Water Hydraulic Systems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications.......Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications....

  9. A tensor approach to the estimation of hydraulic conductivities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... The HC values computed from the data measured on the weathered or ... Keywords: hydraulic conductivity tensor, roughness, combined stress, hydraulic aperture, Table Mountain ... the anisotropic nature of studied media.

  10. The Legacy of Space Shuttle Flight Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Christopher J.; Loveall, James B.; Orr, James K.; Klausman, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    The initial goals of the Space Shuttle Program required that the avionics and software systems blaze new trails in advancing avionics system technology. Many of the requirements placed on avionics and software were accomplished for the first time on this program. Examples include comprehensive digital fly-by-wire technology, use of a digital databus for flight critical functions, fail operational/fail safe requirements, complex automated redundancy management, and the use of a high-order software language for flight software development. In order to meet the operational and safety goals of the program, the Space Shuttle software had to be extremely high quality, reliable, robust, reconfigurable and maintainable. To achieve this, the software development team evolved a software process focused on continuous process improvement and defect elimination that consistently produced highly predictable and top quality results, providing software managers the confidence needed to sign each Certificate of Flight Readiness (COFR). This process, which has been appraised at Capability Maturity Model (CMM)/Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI) Level 5, has resulted in one of the lowest software defect rates in the industry. This paper will present an overview of the evolution of the Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) project and processes over thirty years, an argument for strong statistical control of software processes with examples, an overview of the success story for identifying and driving out errors before flight, a case study of the few significant software issues and how they were either identified before flight or slipped through the process onto a flight vehicle, and identification of the valuable lessons learned over the life of the project.

  11. AGC-2 Irradiation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrbaugh, David Thomas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Windes, William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Swank, W. David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be a helium-cooled, very high temperature reactor (VHTR) with a large graphite core. In past applications, graphite has been used effectively as a structural and moderator material in both research and commercial high temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR) designs.[ , ] Nuclear graphite H 451, used previously in the United States for nuclear reactor graphite components, is no longer available. New nuclear graphites have been developed and are considered suitable candidates for the new NGNP reactor design. To support the design and licensing of NGNP core components within a commercial reactor, a complete properties database must be developed for these current grades of graphite. Quantitative data on in service material performance are required for the physical, mechanical, and thermal properties of each graphite grade with a specific emphasis on data related to the life limiting effects of irradiation creep on key physical properties of the NGNP candidate graphites. Based on experience with previous graphite core components, the phenomenon of irradiation induced creep within the graphite has been shown to be critical to the total useful lifetime of graphite components. Irradiation induced creep occurs under the simultaneous application of high temperatures, neutron irradiation, and applied stresses within the graphite components. Significant internal stresses within the graphite components can result from a second phenomenon—irradiation induced dimensional change. In this case, the graphite physically changes i.e., first shrinking and then expanding with increasing neutron dose. This disparity in material volume change can induce significant internal stresses within graphite components. Irradiation induced creep relaxes these large internal stresses, thus reducing the risk of crack formation and component failure. Obviously, higher irradiation creep levels tend to relieve more internal stress, thus allowing the

  12. Use of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in Shuttle Decision Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Roger L.; Hamlin, Teri, L.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to assist in the decision making for the shuttle design and operation. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is a comprehensive, structured, and disciplined approach to identifying and analyzing risk in complex systems and/or processes that seeks answers to three basic questions: (i.e., what can go wrong? what is the likelihood of these occurring? and what are the consequences that could result if these occur?) The purpose of the Shuttle PRA (SPRA) is to provide a useful risk management tool for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to identify strengths and possible weaknesses in the Shuttle design and operation. SPRA was initially developed to support upgrade decisions, but has evolved into a tool that supports Flight Readiness Reviews (FRR) and near real-time flight decisions. Examples of the use of PRA for the shuttle are reviewed.

  13. The use of asphalt in hydraulic engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Velde, P.A.; Ebbens, E.H.; Van Herpen, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Asphalt products have been used in the Netherlands in hydraulic engineering for a long time on a large scale, especially after the great disaster in 1953 when a large part of western Holland was flooded by the sea. After the disaster a great number of dikes had to be repaired very quickly and this w

  14. Elevator and hydraulics; Elevator to yuatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, I. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-15

    A hydraulic type elevator is installed in relatively lower buildings as compared with a rope type elevator, but the ratio in the number of installation of the former elevator is increasing. This paper explains from its construction and features to especially various control systems for the riding comfort and safety. A direct push-up system with hydraulic jacks arranged beneath a car, and an indirect push-up system that has hydraulic jacks arranged on flank of a car and transmits the movement of a plunger via a rope are available. The latter system eliminates the need of large holes to embed hydraulic jacks. While the speed is controlled by controlling flow rates of high-pressure oil, the speed, position, acceleration and even time differential calculus of the acceleration must be controlled severely. The system uses two-step control for the through-speed and the landing speed. Different systems that have been realized may include compensation for temperatures in flow rate control valves, load pressures, and oil viscosity, from learning control to fuzzy control for psychological effects, or control of inverters in motors. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Hydraulic adjustment of Scots pine across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Vilalta, J.; Cochard, H.; Mencuccini, M.; Sterck, F.J.; Herrero, A.; Korhonen, J.F.J.; Llorens, P.; Nikinmaa, E.; Nolè, A.; Poyatos, R.; Ripullone, F.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Zweifel, R.

    2009-01-01

    The variability of branch-level hydraulic properties was assessed across 12 Scots pine populations covering a wide range of environmental conditions, including some of the southernmost populations of the species. The aims were to relate this variability to differences in climate, and to study the po

  16. Influence of tray hydraulics on tray column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Rijnsdorp, J.E.; Rijnsdorp, J.E.; Azink, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    To column control, in contrast to column design, tray hold-up and dependencies of tray hold-up on the operating conditions play an important role. The essence of this article is the development of an improved model of tray hydraulics over a broad operating range and its experimental validation by

  17. Design of a hydraulic bending machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven G. Hankel; Marshall Begel

    2004-01-01

    To keep pace with customer demands while phasing out old and unserviceable test equipment, the staff of the Engineering Mechanics Laboratory (EML) at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, designed and assembled a hydraulic bending test machine. The EML built this machine to test dimension lumber, nominal 2 in. thick and up to 12 in. deep, at spans up to...

  18. Sustainable hydraulic engineering through building with nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, de H.J.; Koningsveld, van M.; Aarninkhof, S.G.J.; Vries, de M.B.; Baptist, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic engineering infrastructures are of concern to many people and are likely to interfere with the environment. Moreover, they are supposed to keep on functioning for many years. In times of rapid societal and environmental change this implies that sustainability and adaptability are important

  19. The use of asphalt in hydraulic engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Velde, P.A.; Ebbens, E.H.; Van Herpen, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Asphalt products have been used in the Netherlands in hydraulic engineering for a long time on a large scale, especially after the great disaster in 1953 when a large part of western Holland was flooded by the sea. After the disaster a great number of dikes had to be repaired very quickly and this w

  20. International Institute for Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostertman, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the activities of the International Institute for Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering (IHE), whose primary function is the promotion of the better use of water resources as a vehicle of development by the transfer of knowledge and experience. (Author/RK)

  1. Digital hydraulic valving system. [design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The design and development are reported of a digital hydraulic valving system that would accept direct digital inputs. Topics include: summary of contractual accomplishments, design and function description, valve parameters and calculations, conclusions, and recommendations. The electrical control circuit operating procedure is outlined in an appendix.

  2. Sustainable hydraulic engineering through building with nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, de H.J.; Koningsveld, van M.; Aarninkhof, S.G.J.; Vries, de M.B.; Baptist, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic engineering infrastructures are of concern to many people and are likely to interfere with the environment. Moreover, they are supposed to keep on functioning for many years. In times of rapid societal and environmental change this implies that sustainability and adaptability are important

  3. Reactive barriers: hydraulic performance and design enhancements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, B D M

    2004-01-01

    The remediation of contaminated ground water is a multibillion-dollar global industry. Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are one of the leading technologies being developed in the search for alternatives to the pump-and-treat method. Improving the hydraulic performance of these PRBs is an important part of maximizing their potential to the industry. Optimization of the hydraulic performance of a PRB can be defined in terms of finding the balance between capture, residence time, and PRB longevity that produces a minimum-cost acceptable design. Three-dimensional particle tracking was used to estimate capture zone and residence time distributions. Volumetric flow analysis was used for estimation of flow distribution across a PRB and in the identification of flow regimes that may affect the permeability or reactivity of portions of the PRB over time. Capture zone measurements extended below the base of partially penetrating PRBs and were measured upgradient from the portion of aquifer influenced by PRB emplacement. Hydraulic performance analysis of standard PRB designs confirmed previously presented research that identified the potential for significant variation in residence time and capture zone. These variations can result in the need to oversize the PRB to ensure that downgradient contaminant concentrations do not exceed imposed standards. The most useful PRB design enhancements for controlling residence time and capture variation were found to be customized downgradient gate faces, velocity equalization walls, deeper emplacement of the funnel than the gate, and careful manipulation of the hydraulic conductivity ratio between the gate and the aquifer.

  4. SITMILARITY LAW FOR HYDRAULIC DISTORTED MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Newton's general similarity criterion was applied to the distorted model. The results for the similarities of gravity force, drag force and pressure force are identical with those derived from relevant differential equations of fluid flow. And the selected limits of the distorted ratio were studied and the simulation of roughness coefficient of distorted model was conducted by means of hydraulic test.

  5. Separation and pattern formation in hydraulic jumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Tomas; Ellegaard, C.; Hansen, A. Espe;

    1998-01-01

    We present theory and experiments on the circular hydraulic jump in the stationary regime. The theory can handle the situation in which the fluid flows over an edge far away from the jump. In the experiments the external height is controlled, and a series of transitions in the flow structure appe...

  6. HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF THREE GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The hydraulic conductivity of three 2.9 m2 (32 sq ft) geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) was measured. Tests were performed on individual sheets of the GCLs, on overlapped pieces of GCLs, and on composite liners consisting of a punctured geomembrane overlying a GCL. Hyd...

  7. Towards Autonomous Control of Hydraulic Actuator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Conrad, Finn

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of new developed control algorithms to increase autonomy and intelligence of hydraulic control systems. A refinement of relaytuning method is used to determine the control parameters of a lag/lead controller and a poleplacement controller. Further, a fail-safe function is developed t...

  8. Power management in hydraulically actuated mobile equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2008-01-01

    The focus of the current paper is on the control of hydraulic systems when utilizing the advances that electronic control may bring with regard to power management, prioritized flow sharing and anti-stall, arising from being able to control both pump, valves and engine electronically. A simple mo...

  9. Dentin permeability: determinants of hydraulic conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, O W; Walton, R E; Livingston, M J; Pashley, D H

    1978-02-01

    A technique is described which permits measurements of the ease with which fluid permeates dentin. This value, the hydraulic conductance of dentin, increased as surface area increases and/or as dentin thickness decreases. It increased 32-fold when dentin was acid etched due to removal of surface debris occluding the tubules.

  10. Irradiation Defects in Silicon Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The application of irradiation in silicon crystal is introduced.The defects caused by irradiation are reviewed and some major ways of studying defects in irradiated silicon are summarized.Furthermore the problems in the investigation of irradiated silicon are discussed as well as its properties.

  11. Analysis of Innovative Design of Energy Efficient Hydraulic Actuators

    OpenAIRE

    M Osman Abdalla

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic cylinder actuators are used extensively in industrial, construction and agricultural works. The small sized outlet ports of the cylinders resist the flow of discharged oil; and as a result the piston motion is slowed down. This causes a lot of heat generation and energy loss within the actuators. The study investigates and analyzes the possibilities of reducing the hydraulic resistance and increasing efficiency of the hydraulic actuator. Conventional hydraulic cylinders are simulate...

  12. DISCONTINUOUS FLOW OF TURBID DENSITY CURRENTS Ⅱ. INTERNAL HYDRAULIC JUMP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahua FAN

    2005-01-01

    Traveling and stationary internal hydraulic jumps in density currents with positive or negative entrainment coefficients were analyzed based on simple assumptions. An expression of internal hydraulic jumps with entrainment coefficients was derived. Experimental data, published in literature, of stationary internal hydraulic jumps in turbid, thermal and saline density currents including measured values of water entrainment were used to compare with theory. Comparison was also made of traveling internal hydraulic jumps between measured data and theory.

  13. Shuttle Risk Progression: Use of the Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to Show Reliability Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Teri L.

    2011-01-01

    It is important to the Space Shuttle Program (SSP), as well as future manned spaceflight programs, to understand the early mission risk and progression of risk as the program gains insights into the integrated vehicle through flight. The risk progression is important to the SSP as part of the documentation of lessons learned. The risk progression is important to future programs to understand reliability growth and the first flight risk. This analysis uses the knowledge gained from 30 years of operational flights and the current Shuttle PRA to calculate the risk of Loss of Crew and Vehicle (LOCV) at significant milestones beginning with the first flight. Key flights were evaluated based upon historical events and significant re-designs. The results indicated that the Shuttle risk tends to follow a step function as opposed to following a traditional reliability growth pattern where risk exponentially improves with each flight. In addition, it shows that risk can increase due to trading safety margin for increased performance or due to external events. Due to the risk drivers not being addressed, the risk did not improve appreciably during the first 25 flights. It was only after significant events occurred such as Challenger and Columbia, where the risk drivers were apparent, that risk was significantly improved. In addition, this paper will show that the SSP has reduced the risk of LOCV by almost an order of magnitude. It is easy to look back afte r 30 years and point to risks that are now obvious, however; the key is to use this knowledge to benefit other programs which are in their infancy stages. One lesson learned from the SSP is understanding risk drivers are essential in order to considerably reduce risk. This will enable the new program to focus time and resources on identifying and reducing the significant risks. A comprehensive PRA, similar to that of the Shuttle PRA, is an effective tool quantifying risk drivers if support from all of the stakeholders is

  14. Particulate environment around the shuttle as determined by the particle analysis cameras for shuttle (PACS) experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, B. David; Yates, G. Kenneth; Ahmadjian, Mark; Miranda, Henry

    1987-01-01

    The Particle Analysis Cameras for Shuttle (PACS) Experiment was flown on Mission STS61C (Columbia) in January 1986. This experiment involved a pair of cameras in a stereo viewing configuration and an associated strobe light flash to permit particle observation during the entire orbit. Although only one camera functioned properly, significant trends and particle counts were still obtained from the film data. We report here the preliminary analysis and conclusions from that mission.

  15. Food irradiation; Napromieniowanie zywnosci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migdal, W. [Instytut Chemii i Techniki Jadrowej, Doswiadczalna Stacja Radiacyjnego Utrwalania Plodow Rolnych, Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author) 14 refs, 3 tabs

  16. Total lymphoid irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutherland, D.E.; Ferguson, R.M.; Simmons, R.L.; Kim, T.H.; Slavin, S.; Najarian, J.S.

    1983-05-01

    Total lymphoid irradiation by itself can produce sufficient immunosuppression to prolong the survival of a variety of organ allografts in experimental animals. The degree of prolongation is dose-dependent and is limited by the toxicity that occurs with higher doses. Total lymphoid irradiation is more effective before transplantation than after, but when used after transplantation can be combined with pharmacologic immunosuppression to achieve a positive effect. In some animal models, total lymphoid irradiation induces an environment in which fully allogeneic bone marrow will engraft and induce permanent chimerism in the recipients who are then tolerant to organ allografts from the donor strain. If total lymphoid irradiation is ever to have clinical applicability on a large scale, it would seem that it would have to be under circumstances in which tolerance can be induced. However, in some animal models graft-versus-host disease occurs following bone marrow transplantation, and methods to obviate its occurrence probably will be needed if this approach is to be applied clinically. In recent years, patient and graft survival rates in renal allograft recipients treated with conventional immunosuppression have improved considerably, and thus the impetus to utilize total lymphoid irradiation for its immunosuppressive effect alone is less compelling. The future of total lymphoid irradiation probably lies in devising protocols in which maintenance immunosuppression can be eliminated, or nearly eliminated, altogether. Such protocols are effective in rodents. Whether they can be applied to clinical transplantation remains to be seen.

  17. OPTIMAL HYDRAULIC DESIGN AND CAD APPLICATIONS OF AXIAL FLOW HYDRAULIC TURBINE'S RUNNER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A method of the optimal hydraulic design and CAD application of runner blades of axial-flow hydraulic turbines are discussed on the basis of optimization principle and CAD technique in this paper. Based on the theory of fluid dynamics, the blade′s main geometrical parameter, working parameters and performances index of the blades and the relationship between them are analysed, and the mathematical model of optimal hydraulic design of axial-flow runners has been established. Through nonlinear programming, the problems can be solved. By making use of the calculation geometry and computer graphics, the distribution method of the singular points, and an CAD applied software, an optimal hydraulic design are presented.

  18. Hydraulic Bureaucracy in a Modern Hydraulic Society – Strategic Group Formation in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Dieter Evers

    2009-10-01

    Among these strategic groups, the hydraulic bureaucracy and hydraulic construction business are the most crucial in terms of the specific role they play in the hydraulic landscape of the Mekong delta. Both groups exert considerable influence on water resources management and strive for the same resources, namely public funds (including Overseas Development Aid that is directed to hydraulic infrastructure development. This paper illustrates how both groups have emerged due to the growing need for water resources management in the delta and how they have set up alliances for mutually sharing resources in the long run. Furthermore, it is shown how both groups have adapted their resource-oriented strategies and actions to respond to the changes in the economic and political environment in Vietnam’s recent history.

  19. CERN Shuttles – TRAM arrival – Two additional shuttles as from 2 May 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    General Infrastructure Services Department

    2011-01-01

    With the TRAM’s arrival at CERN and to facilitate mobility inside CERN, the GS Department is reinforcing CERN's shuttle services and will provide users with two additional shuttles from/to Building 33 (CERN Reception) as from Monday 2 May: Circuit No. 5: serving the Meyrin site (approx. every 15 minutes) •\tfrom 7·30 to 9·15 •\tfrom 11·30 to 13·28 (serving restaurants Nos.1 and 2) •\tfrom 16·30 to 18·35   Circuit No. 6: serving the Prevessin site (approx. every 20 minutes) •\tfrom 7·30 to 9·10 •\tfrom 11·30 to 13·28 (serving restaurants Nos. 1, 2 and 3) •\tfrom 16·30 to 18·23 For further details, please consult the timetable for these circuits at the following url: http://gs-dep.web.cern.ch/gs-dep/groups/SEM/ls/ShuttleService/ Please do not hesitate to give us your feedback...

  20. Hydraulic power take-off for wave energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg

    2001-01-01

    Investigation and laboratory experiments with a hydraulic power conversion system for converting forces from a 2.5m diamter float to extract energy from seawaves. The test rig consists of a hydraulic wave simulator and a hydraulic point absorber. The absorber converts the incomming forces...

  1. 21 CFR 880.5110 - Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed. 880.5110... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Therapeutic Devices § 880.5110 Hydraulic adjustable hospital bed. (a) Identification. A hydraulic adjustable...

  2. 14 CFR 33.72 - Hydraulic actuating systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic actuating systems. 33.72 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Design and Construction; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.72 Hydraulic actuating systems. Each hydraulic actuating system must function properly under all conditions in which...

  3. 7 CFR 2902.10 - Mobile equipment hydraulic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Comprehensive Procurement Guideline, 40 CFR 247.11. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mobile equipment hydraulic fluids. 2902.10 Section... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.10 Mobile equipment hydraulic fluids. (a) Definition. Hydraulic...

  4. Comparison of four methods to assess hydraulic conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, C.H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Gunter, J.A. [Gunter (John A.), Round Rock, TX (United States); Boutwell, G.P. [STE, Inc., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Trautwein, S.J. [Trautwein Soil Testing Equipment Co., Houston, TX (United States); Berzanskis, P.H. [Hoechst-Celanese, Inc., Pampa, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    A hydraulic conductivity assessment that was conducted on four test pads constructed to the same specifications with soil from the same source by four different contractors is described. The test pads had distinctly different field hydraulic conductivities, even though they were constructed with similar soil, to similar compaction conditions, and with similar machinery. Adequate hydration time was key in achieving low field hydraulic conductivity. More extensive processing was another factor responsible for low field hydraulic conductivity. Four different test methods were used to assess the hydraulic conductivity of each test pad: (1) sealed double-ring infiltrometers (SDRIs); (2) two-stage borehole permeameters; (3) laboratory hydraulic conductivity tests on large block specimens; and (4) laboratory hydraulic conductivity tests on small specimens collected in thin-wall sampling tubes. The tests were conducted independently by each of the writers. After the tests were completed, the results were submitted and compared. Analysis of the test results show that the three large-scale test methods generally yield similar hydraulic conductivities. For two of the test pads, however, the hydraulic conductivities of the specimens collected in sampling tubes were significantly lower than the field hydraulic conductivities. Both of these test pads had high field hydraulic conductivity. Thus, there is little value in using small specimens to assess field hydraulic conductivity.

  5. 23 CFR 650.111 - Location hydraulic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Location hydraulic studies. 650.111 Section 650.111 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Location and Hydraulic Design of Encroachments on Flood Plains §...

  6. Determination of the hydraulic residence time of two subsurface-flow constructed wetlands using radiotracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debien, Bruno R., E-mail: brunordebien@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept de Geografia. Lab. de Geomorfologia; Barreto, Alberto A.; Pinto, Amenonia M.F.; Moreira, Rubens M., E-mail: aab@cdtn.br, E-mail: amfp@cdtn.br, E-mail: rubens@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The adoption of constructed wetland systems (CW's) with subsuperficial drainage for sewage treatment is increasingly growing in places with low technological resources and available land. The efficient removal of pollutants depends on the internal flow characteristics in the CW and on its hydraulic residence time (HRT). In the present work {sup 82}Br - a gamma radiation emitter, produced from soluble potassium bromide irradiated in the TRIGA reactor at the Centre for the Development of Nuclear Energy (CDTN) - was used as a pseudo-conservative tracer for the comparative study of aqueous phase flow dynamics in two CW's: one in which plants were grown (WP) whereas the other had no plants (WNP). Experimental hydraulic residence time values were found to be very close to the theoretical one, while dispersion numbers obtained for both CW's were quite small. Besides these measured hydrodynamic parameters, the residence time distribution (RTD) curves of the tracer test and the results of modeling of experimental data also demonstrate the tendency of the units to display a plug flow-like effluent hydraulic transport within their systems, as expected from their designs, considering the large length/width ratio (L/W=8). (author)

  7. Gene transfer by retrovirus-derived shuttle vectors in the generation of murine bispecific monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMonte, L B; Nistico, P; Tecce, R; Dellabona, P; Momo, M; Anichini, A; Mariani, M; Natali, P G; Malavasi, F

    1990-01-01

    The present study reports on the use of gene transfer by retrovirus-derived shuttle vectors in the generation of hybrid hybridomas secreting bispecific monoclonal antibodies. neo- and dhfr- genes were infected into distinct murine hybridomas, thus conferring a dominant resistance trait to geneticin (G418) and to methotrexate. The vectors employed were replication-deficient and dependent on complementation by a helper virus provided by the irradiated packaging lines. After cocultivation with the relevant packaging cell lines, stable hybridoma lines expressing the selectable markers were easily obtained and were then suitable for conventional somatic fusion. This high-efficiency method was used to generate two bispecific monoclonal antibodies simultaneously targeting molecules expressed on cytotoxic cells (i.e., T lymphocytes and natural killer cells) against a human melanoma-associated antigen. Images PMID:2326256

  8. Irradiation and food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurbjörnsson, B; Loaharanu, P

    1989-01-01

    After more than four decades of research and development, food irradiation has been demonstrated to be safe, effective and versatile as a process of food preservation, decontamination or disinfection. Its various applications cover: inhibition of sprouting of root crops; insect disinfestation of stored products, fresh and dried food; shelf-life extension of fresh fruits, vegetables, meat and fish; destruction of parasites and pathogenic micro-organisms in food of animal origin; decontamination of spices and food ingredients, etc. Such applications provide consumers with the increase in variety, volume and value of food. Although regulations on food irradiation in different countries are largely unharmonized, national authorities have shown increasing recognition and acceptance of this technology based on the Codex Standard for Irradiated Foods and its associated Code of Practice. Harmonization of national legislations represents an important prerequisite to international trade in irradiated food. Consumers at large are still not aware of the safety and benefits that food irradiation has to offer. Thus, national and international organizations, food industry, trade associations and consumer unions have important roles to play in introducing this technology based on its scientific values. Public acceptance of food irradiation may be slow at the beginning, but should increase at a faster rate in the foreseeable future when consumers are well informed of the safety and benefits of this technology in comparison with existing ones. Commercial applications of food irradiation has already started in 18 countries at present. The volume of food or ingredients treated on a commercial scale varies from country to country ranging from several tons of spices to hundreds of thousands of tons of grains per annum. With the increasing interest of national authorities and the food industry in applying the process, it is anticipated that some 25 countries will use some 55 commercial

  9. Assimilation of temperature and hydraulic gradients for quantifying the spatial variability of streambed hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiang; Andrews, Charles B.; Liu, Jie; Yao, Yingying; Liu, Chuankun; Tyler, Scott W.; Selker, John S.; Zheng, Chunmiao

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the spatial and temporal characteristics of water flux into or out of shallow aquifers is imperative for water resources management and eco-environmental conservation. In this study, the spatial variability in the vertical specific fluxes and hydraulic conductivities in a streambed were evaluated by integrating distributed temperature sensing (DTS) data and vertical hydraulic gradients into an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and smoother (EnKS) and an empirical thermal-mixing model. The formulation of the EnKF/EnKS assimilation scheme is based on a discretized 1D advection-conduction equation of heat transfer in the streambed. We first systematically tested a synthetic case and performed quantitative and statistical analyses to evaluate the performance of the assimilation schemes. Then a real-world case was evaluated to calculate assimilated specific flux. An initial estimate of the spatial distributions of the vertical hydraulic gradients was obtained from an empirical thermal-mixing model under steady-state conditions using a constant vertical hydraulic conductivity. Then, this initial estimate was updated by repeatedly dividing the assimilated specific flux by estimates of the vertical hydraulic gradients to obtain a refined spatial distribution of vertical hydraulic gradients and vertical hydraulic conductivities. Our results indicate that optimal parameters can be derived with fewer iterations but greater simulation effort using the EnKS compared with the EnKF. For the field application in a stream segment of the Heihe River Basin in northwest China, the average vertical hydraulic conductivities in the streambed varied over three orders of magnitude (5 × 10-1 to 5 × 102 m/d). The specific fluxes ranged from near zero (qz < ±0.05 m/d) to ±1.0 m/d, while the vertical hydraulic gradients were within the range of -0.2 to 0.15 m/m. The highest and most variable fluxes occurred adjacent to a debris-dam and bridge pier. This phenomenon is very likely

  10. Fundamental plant biology enabled by the space shuttle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Wheeler, Ray M; Levine, Howard G; Ferl, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between fundamental plant biology and space biology was especially synergistic in the era of the Space Shuttle. While all terrestrial organisms are influenced by gravity, the impact of gravity as a tropic stimulus in plants has been a topic of formal study for more than a century. And while plants were parts of early space biology payloads, it was not until the advent of the Space Shuttle that the science of plant space biology enjoyed expansion that truly enabled controlled, fundamental experiments that removed gravity from the equation. The Space Shuttle presented a science platform that provided regular science flights with dedicated plant growth hardware and crew trained in inflight plant manipulations. Part of the impetus for plant biology experiments in space was the realization that plants could be important parts of bioregenerative life support on long missions, recycling water, air, and nutrients for the human crew. However, a large part of the impetus was that the Space Shuttle enabled fundamental plant science essentially in a microgravity environment. Experiments during the Space Shuttle era produced key science insights on biological adaptation to spaceflight and especially plant growth and tropisms. In this review, we present an overview of plant science in the Space Shuttle era with an emphasis on experiments dealing with fundamental plant growth in microgravity. This review discusses general conclusions from the study of plant spaceflight biology enabled by the Space Shuttle by providing historical context and reviews of select experiments that exemplify plant space biology science.

  11. Hydraulics and pneumatics a technician's and engineer's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Parr, Andrew

    1991-01-01

    Hydraulics and Pneumatics: A Technician's and Engineer's Guide provides an introduction to the components and operation of a hydraulic or pneumatic system. This book discusses the main advantages and disadvantages of pneumatic or hydraulic systems.Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of industrial prime movers. This text then examines the three different types of positive displacement pump used in hydraulic systems, namely, gear pumps, vane pumps, and piston pumps. Other chapters consider the pressure in a hydraulic system, which can be quickly and easily controlled

  12. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling activity of ataxin-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Macedo-Ribeiro

    Full Text Available Spinocerebellar ataxia type-3, also known as Machado-Joseph Disease (MJD, is one of many inherited neurodegenerative disorders caused by polyglutamine-encoding CAG repeat expansions in otherwise unrelated genes. Disease protein misfolding and aggregation, often within the nucleus of affected neurons, characterize polyglutamine disorders. Several evidences have implicated the nucleus as the primary site of pathogenesis for MJD. However, the molecular determinants for the nucleocytoplasmic transport of human ataxin-3 (Atx3, the protein which is mutated in patients with MJD, are not characterized. In order to characterize the nuclear shuttling activity of Atx3, we performed yeast nuclear import assays and found that Atx3 is actively imported into the nucleus, by means of a classical nuclear localizing sequence formed by a cluster of lysine and arginine residues. On the other hand, when active nuclear export was inhibited using leptomycin B, a specific inhibitor of the nuclear export receptor CRM1, both endogenous Atx3 and transfected GFP-Atx3 accumulated inside the nucleus of a subpopulation of COS-7 cells, whereas both proteins are normally predominant in the cytoplasm. Additionally, using a Rev(1.4-GFP nuclear export assay, we performed an extensive analysis of six putative aliphatic nuclear export motifs identified in Atx3 amino acid sequence. Although none of the tested peptide sequences were found to drive nuclear export when isolated, we have successfully mapped the region of Atx3 responsible for its CRM1-independent nuclear export activity. Curiously, the N-terminal Josephin domain alone is exported into the cytoplasm, but the nuclear export activity of Atx3 is significantly enhanced in a longer construct that is truncated after the two ubiquitin interaction motifs, upstream from the polyQ tract. Our data show that Atx3 is actively imported to and exported from the cell nucleus, and that its nuclear export activity is dependent on a motif

  13. A novel energy recovery system for parallel hybrid hydraulic excavator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Cao, Baoyu; Zhu, Zhencai; Chen, Guoan

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic excavator energy saving is important to relieve source shortage and protect environment. This paper mainly discusses the energy saving for the hybrid hydraulic excavator. By analyzing the excess energy of three hydraulic cylinders in the conventional hydraulic excavator, a new boom potential energy recovery system is proposed. The mathematical models of the main components including boom cylinder, hydraulic motor, and hydraulic accumulator are built. The natural frequency of the proposed energy recovery system is calculated based on the mathematical models. Meanwhile, the simulation models of the proposed system and a conventional energy recovery system are built by AMESim software. The results show that the proposed system is more effective than the conventional energy saving system. At last, the main components of the proposed energy recovery system including accumulator and hydraulic motor are analyzed for improving the energy recovery efficiency. The measures to improve the energy recovery efficiency of the proposed system are presented.

  14. Development of a prototype specialist shuttle vehicle for chipped woodfuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-06-01

    This report gives details of a project to develop and test a specialist chip shuttle vehicle for conveying woodchips out of the forest with the aim of reducing the cost of woodfuel production. The design objectives are described and include the need to allow easy transfer of the chips from the chipper to the shuttle and on into haulage units, good performance and manoeuvrability on and off roads, and high-tip capacity. Estimates of the improved production and reduced woodfuel production costs are discussed along with the anticipated satisfactory operation of the chipper-shuttle combination in a forestry site.

  15. NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot (NSLD) - The application of ATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, Lorenz G.; Jenkins, Henry C.; Mauceri, A. Jack

    1990-01-01

    The concept of the NASA Shuttle Logistics Depot (NSLD) developed for the Space Shuttle Orbiter Program is described. The function of the NSLD at Cape Canaveral is to perform the acceptance and diagnostic testing of the Shuttle's space-rated line-replaceable units and shop-replaceable units (SRUs). The NSLD includes a comprehensive electronic automatic test station, program development stations, and assorted manufacturing support equipment (including thermal and vibration test equipment, special test equipment, and a card SRU test system). The depot activities also include the establishment of the functions for manufacturing of mechanical parts, soldering, welding, painting, clean room operation, procurement, and subcontract management.

  16. Shuttle Planning for Link Closures in Urban Public Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hurk, Evelien; Koutsopoulos, Haris N.; Wilson, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Urban public transport systems must periodically close certain links for maintenance, which can have significant effects on the service provided to passengers. In practice, the effects of closures are mitigated by replacing the closed links with a simple shuttle service. However, alternative...... cost, which includes transfers and frequency-dependent waiting time costs. This model is applied to a shuttle design problem based on a real-world case study of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority network of Boston, Massachusetts. The results show that additional shuttle routes can reduce...

  17. Effect of periodic inflow on speed-controlled shuttle bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the dynamic behavior of a shuttle bus controlled the speed when passengers come periodically at the origin. We propose the nonlinear-map model for the dynamics of the speed-controlled bus with the periodic inflow. The bus schedule is closely connected to the motion. The motion of the speed-controlled bus is affected by the periodic inflow. The motion of the shuttle bus depends highly on both speed control and periodic inflow. The shuttle bus displays the periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions by varying both periodic inflow and speed control. We clarify the dependence of the bus motion on both speed control and periodic inflow.

  18. Shuttle Planning for Link Closures in Urban Public Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Hurk, Evelien; Koutsopoulos, Haris N.; Wilson, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Urban public transport systems must periodically close certain links for maintenance, which can have significant effects on the service provided to passengers. In practice, the effects of closures are mitigated by replacing the closed links with a simple shuttle service. However, alternative...... cost, which includes transfers and frequency-dependent waiting time costs. This model is applied to a shuttle design problem based on a real-world case study of the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority network of Boston, Massachusetts. The results show that additional shuttle routes can reduce...

  19. Shuttle operations simulation model programmers'/users' manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D. G.

    1972-01-01

    The prospective user of the shuttle operations simulation (SOS) model is given sufficient information to enable him to perform simulation studies of the space shuttle launch-to-launch operations cycle. The procedures used for modifying the SOS model to meet user requirements are described. The various control card sequences required to execute the SOS model are given. The report is written for users with varying computer simulation experience. A description of the components of the SOS model is included that presents both an explanation of the logic involved in the simulation of the shuttle operations cycle and a description of the routines used to support the actual simulation.

  20. A survey of load methodologies for shuttle orbiter payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. C.; Garba, J. A.; Salama, M.; Trubert, M.

    1981-01-01

    Loads methods currently being used to design planetary spacecraft to be launched on the shuttle orbiter are summarized. Experiences gained from expendable launch vehicle payloads are used to develop methodologies for the space shuttle orbiter payloads. The objectives for the development of a new methodology for the shuttle payloads are to reduce the cost and schedule for the payload load analysis by decoupling the payload analysis from the launch vehicle to the maximum extent possible. Methods are described for payload member load estimation or obtaining upper bounds for dynamic loads, as well as load prediction or calculating actual transient member load time histories.

  1. Leaf thermal and hydraulic capacitances - structural safeguards for rapid ambient fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schymanski, S. J.; Or, D.; Zwieniecki, M.

    2011-12-01

    Leaves may be subjected to rapidly fluctuating irradiation or thermal conditions due to motion of sun flecks and clouds or passage of warm and dry wind gusts. Given a stomatal characteristic time scale (~5 min) for adjusting transpiration flux, fluctuations of environmental conditions at shorter time scales (~1 min) could push leaf hydraulic and thermal status beyond its operational limits resulting in xylem cavitation or overheating. As active stomatal protection may not be adequate, we propose that leaf thermal and hydraulic capacitances and hence leaf specific mass (hydrated thickness) provide passive protection and play a critical role for autonomous and intrinsic capacitive-based responses to rapid fluctuations. For example, a simple variable leaf mass per unit area can affect both thermal and hydraulic capacitances. Thus a thin leaf (0.2 mm) exposed to a sunfleck can experience an increase in leaf temperature by 20K in the order of 3 minutes, i.e. before stomata can activate evaporative cooling. Increasing leaf thickness can be an effective measure to increase the buffer for such environmental fluctuations, so that slower regulatory measures such as stomatal adjustments can take over before detrimental effects take place. Systematic measurements of thermal changes in response to step changes in radiation conditions were obtained using laser illumination and infra-red thermal imaging of leaf laser-illuminated area across a wide range of leaf morphologies from major plant divisions (ferns, gymnosperms and angiosperms). Results confirm inverse relationships between leaf thickness and temperature rise (measured as steady state temperature increase). Hydraulic impacts of such structural capacitance on xylem function will be discussed.

  2. The Birmingham Irradiation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervan, P.; French, R.; Hodgson, P.; Marin-Reyes, H.; Wilson, J.

    2013-12-01

    At the end of 2012 the proton irradiation facility at the CERN PS [1] will shut down for two years. With this in mind, we have been developing a new ATLAS scanning facility at the University of Birmingham Medical Physics cyclotron. With proton beams of energy approximately 30 MeV, fluences corresponding to those of the upgraded Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) can be reached conveniently. The facility can be used to irradiate silicon sensors, optical components and mechanical structures (e.g. carbon fibre sandwiches) for the LHC upgrade programme. Irradiations of silicon sensors can be carried out in a temperature controlled cold box that can be scanned through the beam. The facility is described in detail along with the first tests carried out with mini (1×1 cm2) silicon sensors.

  3. The Birmingham Irradiation Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Dervan, P; Hodgson, P; Marin-Reyes, H; Wilson, J

    2013-01-01

    At the end of 2012 the proton irradiation facility at the CERN PS [1] will shut down for two years. With this in mind, we have been developing a new ATLAS scanning facility at the University of Birmingham Medical Physics cyclotron. With proton beams of energy approximately 30 MeV, fluences corresponding to those of the upgraded Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) can be reached conveniently. The facility can be used to irradiate silicon sensors, optical components and mechanical structures (e.g. carbon fibre sandwiches) for the LHC upgrade programme. Irradiations of silicon sensors can be carried out in a temperature controlled cold box that can be scanned through the beam. The facility is described in detail along with the first tests carried out with mini (1 x 1 cm^2 ) silicon sensors.

  4. Irradiation of food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacGregor, J.; Stanbrook, I.; Shersby, M.

    1989-07-12

    The House of Commons was asked to support the Government's intention to allow the use of the irradiation of foodstuffs under conditions that will fully safeguard the interests of the consumer. The Government, it was stated, regards this process as a useful additional way to ensure food safety. The effect of the radiation in killing bacteria will enhance safety standards in poultry meat, in some shell-fish and in herbs and spices. The problem of informing the public when the food has been irradiated, especially as there is no test to detect the irradiation, was raised. The subject was debated for an hour and a half and is reported verbatim. The main point raised was over whether the method gave safer food as not all bacteria were killed in the process. The motion was carried. (U.K.).

  5. Longitudinal dynamic stability of a shuttle vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, N. X.; Laitone, E. V.

    1972-01-01

    Analytical study of the longitudinal dynamic stability of a nonrolling, lifting vehicle gliding at hypersonic speeds. The analysis applies to shuttle vehicles designed for operating up to the rim of a planetary atmosphere. A general nondimensional time transformation is introduced to derive a unified second-order linear differential equation for the angle of attack, valid for all types of reentry of a general type of vehicle. The stability of motion is discussed for two fundamental regimes of flight that are based on widely different assumptions. For near ballistic entry along a straight line trajectory, the equation reduces to a confluent hypergeometric equation, the solution of which can be expressed in terms of Whittaker's function. Using a theorem in the theory of stability of differential equations, criteria for damped oscillations are derived. It is shown that the aerodynamic criteria for stability are the same as for the case of ballistic entry. In addition, for each vehicle configuration, and specified planetary atmosphere, there exists an altitude range where the angle of attack frequency is nearly equal to the orbital frequency causing instability in pitch. This resonance instability is due to the ellipticity of the orbit. Criteria for eccentricity instability are derived.

  6. Presenting the Shuttle Main Engine Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreur, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Originally, this project was to produce an animated Powerpoint presentation of the 'Shuttle Engine and its Software' and to produce a web page with animation including the same materials but with greater detail in the description of the software. The principal emphasis was to be on the web page. Midway through the first year of the project, we were advised by the technical coordinator of this work at MSFC to concentrate on the web page alone. Also, the project was expanded to include a web presentation of the MRECS (Modular Rocket Control System). For the SSME project, the web page presentation has been completed. The integration of the animation into the web page is complete although we have been asked to speed up the animation. Also, the addition of greater detail to the description of the SSME controller software has been added. Much of the work on this program was done by students as their task for their senior project course, the capstone course of their program of study. The students gained a great deal from this project. They have learned to use VISIO, POWERPOINT, PHOTOSHOP, and several web page software packages. The starting point for this project was a PowerPoint presentation by the PI while on a Summer Faculty Fellowship at MSFC. For this project, about half of the drawings of the SSME were improved and about half were completely redrawn. The original still drawings have been animated to illustrate the fuel flow through the SSME system.

  7. Space shuttle SRM field joint: Review paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammad Gharouni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to Challenger space shuttle accident in 1986, significant research has been done concerning structural behavior of field joints in solid rocket boosters (SRB. The structural deformations between the clevis inner leg and the tang (male-to-female parts of joint, the sealing of the O-ring to prevent the hot gas in joints, has been neglected causing the failure of the vehicle. Redesigning the field joint in SRB engine by accurate analysis of dynamic and thermal loads and by design of insulator and good O-ring, the leakiness of combustion hot gases was eliminated. Some parts of field joint such as capture feature (CF and its third O-ring, J-leg insulator and shim were added to redesigned field joint. Also, some adjustments in sealing system and pins were done to promote the efficiency of the field joint. Due to different experimental analysis on assembled field joints with default imperfections, redesigned joints operated well. These redesigned field joints are commonly used in aerospace and mechanical structures. This paper investigates the original and the redesigned field joints with additional explanations of different parts of the redesigned joints.

  8. IMPORTANT NOTICE: Cancellation of shuttle Circuit 3

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Circuit 3 of the CERN Shuttle Service (Point 5), which has served CMS since the start of LS1, will be cancelled with effect from Tuesday 16 April. This decision has been taken in consultation with CMS, as the circuit was seldom used.   In response to increasing demand for Circuit 1 - Meyrin and feedback from passengers, the two Circuit 3 journeys will be switched to Circuit 1 – Meyrin (see new timetable below): Mornings: Four journeys instead of three. Circuit 1 now starts at 8:10 (instead of 8:19 a.m.) and runs until 9:27 a.m. (instead of 9:16 a.m.). Lunchtimes: Five journeys in place between 12:10 p.m. and 1:47 p.m. Evenings: Circuit starts at 5:23 p.m. (instead of 5:03 p.m.) and ends at 6:20 p.m. at Building 33. Please note that the circuit will depart from Building 13 instead of Building 33.  

  9. Technology of load-sensitivity used in the hydraulic system of an all-hydraulic core rig

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIN De-zhong; CHEN Song-ling; WANG Qing-feng

    2009-01-01

    The existing hydraulic system always have problems of temperature rise, run-ning stability and anti-interference of the implementation components, reliability of hydrau-lic components, maintenance difficulties, and other issues. With high efficiency, energy saving, reliability, easy operating, stable running, anti-interference ability, and other ad-vantages, the load-sensitive hydraulic system is more suitable for coal mine all-hydraulic core rig. Therefore, for the technical development of the coal mine all-hydraulic core rig, the load-sensitive technology employed by the rig should be of great significance.

  10. Trends in Design of Water Hydraulics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a R&D-view on trends in development and best practise in design of both low-pressure and high-pressure tap water hydraulic components and systems for motion control as well as open-ended solutions various industrial applications. The focus is on the advantages using...... ordinary tap water and the range of application areas are illustrated with examples, in particular within the food processing industry, humidification operations, water mist systems for fire fighting, high water pressure cleaners, water moisturising systems for wood processing, lumber drying process...... operate with pure water from the tap without additives of any kind. Hence water hydraulics takes the benefit of pure water as fluid being environmentally friendly, easy to clean sanitary design, non-toxic, non-flammable, inexpensive, readily available and easily disposable. The low-pressure tap water...

  11. The hydraulic fracturing of geothermal formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naceur, K. Ben; Economides, M.J.; Schlumberger, Dowell

    1988-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has been attempted in geothermal formations as a means to stimulate both production and injection wells. Since most geothermal formations contain fissures and on occasion massive natural fissures, the production behavior of the man-made fractures results in certain characteristic trends. A model is offered that allows the presence of a finite or infinite conductivity fracture intercepting a fissured medium. The method is based on a numerical discretization of the formation allowing transient interporosity flow. Type curves for pressure drawdown and cumulative production are given for infinite acting and closed reservoirs. Since most of the fissured formations exhibit a degree of anisotropy, the effects of the orientation of the hydraulic fracture with respect to the fissure planes, and of the ratio between the directional permeabilities are then discussed. Guidelines are offered as to the size of appropriate stimulation treatments based on the observed fissured behavior of the reservoir.

  12. Plug & Play Control of Hydraulic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tom Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    Process Control research program, which the work presented here is a part of. An industrial case study involving a large-scale hydraulic network with non-linear dynamics is studied. The hydraulic network underlies a district heating system, which provides heating water to a number of end-users in a city...... structure has the additional benefit that structural changes such as the addition or removal of end-users are easily implementable. In this work, the problem of controlling the pressure drop at the end-users to a constant reference value is considered. This is done by the use of pumps located both...... are considered. Some of the work considers control actions which are constrained to non-negative values only. This is due to the fact that the actuators in this type of system typically consist of centrifugal pumps which are only able to deliver non-negative actuation. Other parts of the work consider control...

  13. Mechanization of hydraulic testing of chemical equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannikov, M.T.; Fridman, R.N.; Petrovnin, A.I.

    1982-09-01

    The Institute VNIIPTKhimmash has worked out a comprehensive list of equipment for testing for strength and tightness containers and heat exchangers with jackets, with mixers, also of individual parts and subassemblies for this equipment. Points out that in the test stands developed for hydraulic testing of vessels both individual and centralized recirculating water supply can be used. Concludes that a reduction in labor consumption in hydraulic testing and in servicing of all the equipment used, an increase in the mechanization of this kind of chemical equipment, and the solution of the problem of standardization not only with regard to dimensions and parameters, but also with regard to the makes and types of the materials used, will make possible a considerable increase in labor productivity and product quality.

  14. Concept Evaluation for Hydraulic Yaw System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2013-01-01

    a suspension system on a car, leading the loads away from the turbine structure. However, to realize a soft hydraulic yaw system a new design concept must be found. As a part of the development of the new concept a preliminary concept evaluation has been conducted, evaluating seven different hydraulic yaw......The yaw system is the subsystem on a wind turbine which ensures that the rotor plane of the turbine always is facing the wind direction. Studies from [1] show that a soft yaw system may be utilized to dampen the loads in the wind turbine structure. The soft yaw system operates much like...... investigation. Loads and yaw demands are based on the IEC 61400-1 standard for wind turbine design, and the loads for this examination are extrapolated from the HAWC2 aeroelastic design code. The concepts are based on a 5 MW off-shore turbine....

  15. New parameters influencing hydraulic runner lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabourin, M.; Thibault, D.; Bouffard, D. A.; Lévesque, M.

    2010-08-01

    Traditionally, hydraulic runner mechanical design is based on calculation of static stresses. Today, validation of hydraulic runner design in terms of reliability requires taking into account the fatigue effect of dynamics loads. A damage tolerant approach based on fracture mechanics is the method chosen by Alstom and Hydro-Québec to study fatigue damage in runners. This requires a careful examination of all factors influencing material fatigue behavior. Such material behavior depends mainly on the chemical composition, microstructure and thermal history of the component, and on the resulting residual stresses. Measurement of fracture mechanics properties of various steels have demonstrated that runner lifetime can be significantly altered by differences in the manufacturing process, although remaining in accordance with agreed practices and standards such as ASTM. Carbon content and heat treatment are suspected to influence fatigue lifetime. This will have to be investigated by continuing the current research.

  16. Pilot testing of a hydraulic bridge exciter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of a hydraulic bridge exciter and its first pilot testing on a full scale railway bridge in service. The exciter is based on a hydraulic load cylinder with a capacity of 50 kN and is intended for controlled dynamic loading up to at least 50 Hz. The load is applied from underneath the bridge, enabling testing while the railway line is in service. The system is shown to produce constant load amplitude even at resonance. The exciter is used to experimentally determine frequency response functions at all sensor locations, which serve as valuable input for model updating and verification. An FE-model of the case study bridge has been developed that is in good agreement with the experimental results.

  17. NEW HYDRAULIC ACTUATOR'S POSITION SERVOCONTROL STRATEGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KE Zunrong; ZHU Yuquan; LING Xuan

    2007-01-01

    A new hydraulic actuator-hydraulic muscle (HM) is described, and the actuator's features and applications are analyzed, then a position servocontrol system in which HM is main actuator is set up. The mathematical model of the system is built up and several control strategies are discussed. Based on the mathematical model, simulation research and experimental investigation with subsection PID control, neural network self-adaptive PID control and single neuron self-adaptive PID control adopted respectively are carried out, and the results indicate that compared with PID control, neural network self-adaptive PID control and single neuron self-adaptive PID control don't need controlled system's accurate model and have fast response, high control accuracy and strong robustness, they are very suitable for HM position servo control system.

  18. Advanced Hydraulic Studies on Enhancing Particle Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Cheng

    The removal of suspended solids and attached pollutants is one of the main treatment processes in wastewater treatment. This thesis presents studies on the hydraulic conditions of various particle removal facilities for possible ways to increase their treatment capacity and performance by utilizing...... and improving hydraulic conditions. Unlike most traditional theses which usually focus only on one particular subject of study, this thesis contains four relatively independent studies which cover the following topics: a newly proposed particle settling enhancement plate, the redesign of the inlet zone......, introduction and conclusions as well as the study results. All studies were carried out with a combination of numerical model and measurements. In the first part of the thesis a new concept of using a vortex to increase particle removal from liquid was proposed and the new particle settling enhancement plates...

  19. Thermal Hydraulic Design of PWT Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, David; Chen Ping; Lundquist, Martin; Luo, Yan

    2005-01-01

    Microwave power losses on the surfaces of accelerating structures will transform to heat which will deform the structures if it is not removed in time. Thermal hydraulic design of the disk and cooling rods of a Plane Wave Transformer (PWT) structure is presented. Experiments to measure the hydraulic (pressure vs flow rate) and cooling (heat removed vs flow rate) properties of the PWT disk are performed, and results compared with simulations using Mathcad models and the COSMOSM code. Both experimental and simulation results showed that the heat deposited on the structure could be removed effectively using specially designed water-cooling circuits and the temperature of the structure could be controlled within the range required.

  20. Hydraulic conductivity and diffusion characterization of GCLs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukunoki, T.; Rowe, R.K.; Li, H.M.; Sangam, H.P.; Hurst, P.; Bathurst, R.J. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)]|[Royal Military Coll. of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada); Badv, K. [Urmia Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    This paper reports on the characterization of the hydraulic conductivity and diffusion of a geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) installed at a site off the southeast coast of Baffin Island, in the Canadian Arctic, following different levels of freeze-thaw exposure and under low temperature conditions. The authors presented a summary of the results obtained for hydraulic conductivity tests on GCLs subjected to freeze-thaw cycles, and specimens permeated with jet fuel (Arctic diesel). They also reported on diffusion tests conducted at 22 Celsius and 5 Celsius, followed by a discussion of the effect of temperature. The results indicate that there is no significant impact on GCL performance due to freeze-thaw cycles, permeation by jet fuel or diffusion at the lower temperatures expected in the north for the short term (up to approximately four years). Additional studies are needed to confirm long term behaviour. 24 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  1. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Zohuri, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    This text covers the fundamentals of thermodynamics required to understand electrical power generation systems and the application of these principles to nuclear reactor power plant systems. It is not a traditional general thermodynamics text, per se, but a practical thermodynamics volume intended to explain the fundamentals and apply them to the challenges facing actual nuclear power plants systems, where thermal hydraulics comes to play.  Written in a lucid, straight-forward style while retaining scientific rigor, the content is accessible to upper division undergraduate students and aimed at practicing engineers in nuclear power facilities and engineering scientists and technicians in industry, academic research groups, and national laboratories. The book is also a valuable resource for students and faculty in various engineering programs concerned with nuclear reactors. This book also: Provides extensive coverage of thermal hydraulics with thermodynamics in nuclear reactors, beginning with fundamental ...

  2. The development of a positive isolation disconnect. [for fluid Shuttle Environmental Control/Life Support subsystems maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosener, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    Conceptual design and developmental testing were conducted to determine the feasibility of a highly reliable, positive isolation disconnect (PID) for potential inflight maintenance of Shuttle environmental control/life support system subsystems. The PID design consists of two coupled valves, each capable of fluid isolation through the use of individually operated opposing poppets. An integral level clamping mechanism couples the two valves and locks the bodies together. The coupling lever is locked in position by turning the valve stems that have foolproof caps. The stem shaft has an integral cam that turns inside a yoke to open the poppet to permit fluid flow. Results of 5000 life cycle tests, hydraulic lock test, leakage tests, and pressure drop tests are included.

  3. The Hydraulic Ram (Or Impulse) Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The hydraulic impulse pump utilizes a fraction of the momentum of a flowing stream to lift a small portion of that water to a higher level. There it may be accumulated in an elevated cistern to provide sufficient water for several families, for the pump works 24 h a day with no additional source of energy. The operation of the pump is described,…

  4. Hydraulic Aspects of Vegetation Maintanence in Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Vestergaard, Kristian

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of the underwater vegetation on Danish streams and some of the consequences of vegetation maintenance. the influence of the weed on the hydraulic conditions is studied through experiments in a smaller stream and the effect of cutting channels through the weed...... is measured. A method for predicting the Manning's n as a function of the discharge conditions is suggested, and also a working hypothesis for predictions of the effect of channel cutting is presented....

  5. Rapid Hydraulic Assessment for Stream Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    account the hydraulic conditions of the stream being restored. This is true whether the project involves a few feet of bank stabilization or several...coefficient, α, expresses a correction for nonuniformity in the velocity distribution, and in most applications this value is assumed to be 1 or read from...a table (e.g., Chow 1959, p.28). The depth and slope angle terms can be replaced by a vertical expression of the depth, y, because in most rivers

  6. Estimation of ground water hydraulic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvilshoej, Soeren

    1998-11-01

    The main objective was to assess field methods to determine ground water hydraulic parameters and to develop and apply new analysis methods to selected field techniques. A field site in Vejen, Denmark, which previously has been intensively investigated on the basis of a large amount of mini slug tests and tracer tests, was chosen for experimental application and evaluation. Particular interest was in analysing partially penetrating pumping tests and a recently proposed single-well dipole test. Three wells were constructed in which partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests were performed. In addition, multi-level slug tests, flow meter tests, gamma-logs, and geologic characterisation of soil samples were carried out. In addition to the three Vejen analyses, data from previously published partially penetrating pumping tests were analysed assuming homogeneous anisotropic aquifer conditions. In the present study methods were developed to analyse partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests based on an inverse numerical model. The obtained horizontal hydraulic conductivities from the partially penetrating pumping tests were in accordance with measurements obtained from multi-level slug tests and mini slug tests. Accordance was also achieved between the anisotropy ratios determined from partially penetrating pumping tests and multi-level single-well dipole tests. It was demonstrated that the partially penetrating pumping test analysed by and inverse numerical model is a very valuable technique that may provide hydraulic information on the storage terms and the vertical distribution of the horizontal and vertical hydraulic conductivity under both confined and unconfined aquifer conditions. (EG) 138 refs.

  7. Monitoring hydraulic fracturing with seismic emission volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, F.; Tang, Y.; Chen, H.; TAO, K.; Levander, A.

    2014-12-01

    Recent developments in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have made it possible to access the reservoirs that are not available for massive production in the past. Hydraulic fracturing is designed to enhance rock permeability and reservoir drainage through the creation of fracture networks. Microseismic monitoring has been proven to be an effective and valuable technology to image hydraulic fracture geometry. Based on data acquisition, seismic monitoring techniques have been divided into two categories: downhole and surface monitoring. Surface monitoring is challenging because of the extremely low signal-to-noise ratio of the raw data. We applied the techniques used in earthquake seismology and developed an integrated monitoring system for mapping hydraulic fractures. The system consists of 20 to 30 state-of-the-art broadband seismographs, which are generally about hundreds times more sensible than regular geophones. We have conducted two experiments in two basins with very different geology and formation mechanism in China. In each case, we observed clear microseismic events, which may correspond to the induced seismicity directly associated with fracturing and the triggered ones at pre-existing faults. However, the magnitude of these events is generally larger than magnitude -1, approximately one to two magnitudes larger than those detected by downhole instruments. Spectrum-frequency analysis of the continuous surface recordings indicated high seismic energy associated with injection stages. The seismic energy can be back-projected to a volume that surrounds each injection stage. Imaging seismic emission volume (SEV) appears to be an effective way to map the stimulated reservior volume, as well as natural fractures.

  8. Partially decoupled modeling of hydraulic fracturing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Settari, A.; Puchyr, P.J.; Bachman, R.C. (Simtech Consulting Services, Calgary (CA))

    1990-02-01

    A new method of partial decoupling of the problem of modeling a hydraulic fracture in a reservoir is described. According to the authors this approach has significant advantages over previous methods with fully coupled or completely uncoupled models. Better accuracy can be achieved in modeling the fracture propagation, and the new system is very efficient and versatile. Virtually any reservoir model can be used for predicting postfracture productivity. Examples of single- and multiphase applications for modeling fractured wells are discussed.

  9. Shuttle program. MCC level C formulation requirements: Shuttle TAEM guidance and flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carman, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Level C requirements for the shuttle orbiter terminal area energy management (TAEM) guidance and flight control functions to be incorporated into the Mission Control Center entry profile planning processor are defined. This processor will be used for preentry evaluation of the entry through landing maneuvers, and will include a simplified three degree-of-freedom model of the body rotational dynamics that is necessary to account for the effects of attitude response on the trajectory dynamics. This simulation terminates at TAEM-autoland interface.

  10. Flow characteristics of variable hydraulic transformer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨冠中; 姜继海

    2015-01-01

    A new kind of hydraulic transformer, called variable hydraulic transformer (VHT), is proposed to control its load flow rate. The hydraulic transformer evolves from a pressure transducer to a power transducer. The flow characteristics of VHT, such as its instantaneous flow rates, average flow rates, and flow pulsations in the ports, are investigated. Matlab software is used to simulate and calculate. There are five controlled angles of the port plate that can help to define the flow characteristics of VHT. The relationships between the flow characteristics and the structure in VHT are shown. Also, the plus−minus change of the average flow rates and the continuity of the instantaneous flow rates in the ports are presented. The results demonstrate the performance laws of VHT when the controlled angles of the port plate and of the swash plate change. The results also reveal that the special principle of the flow pulsation in the ports and the jump points of the instantaneous curves are the two basic causes of its loud noise, and that the control angles of the port plate and the swash plate and the pressures in the ports are the three key factors of the noise.

  11. Measuring Disturbance Impact on Soil Hydraulic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, S.; Mirus, B. B.

    2014-12-01

    Disturbances associated with land cover change such as forest clearing and mono-cropping can have a substantial impact on soil-hydraulic properties, which in turn have a cascading impact on surface and near-surface hydrologic response. Although disturbances and vegetation change can alter soil-water retention and conductivity relations, hydrologic models relying on traditional soil-texture based pedotransfer functions would not be able to capture the disturbance impact on infiltration and soil-moisture storage. Therefore, in-situ estimates of characteristic curves of soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity relations are needed to understand and predict hydrologic impacts of land cover change. We present a method for in-situ estimates of effective characteristic curves that capture hysteretic soil-water retention properties at the plot scale. We apply this method to two different forest treatments and in urban settings to investigate the impact of land-use disturbances on soil-hydraulic properties. We compare our in-situ estimation method to results for simple pedotransfer functions to illustrate how this approach can improve understanding of disturbance impacts on hydrologic processes and function.

  12. On the Dynamic Measurements of Hydraulic Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasmatuchi, Vlad; Bosioc, Alin; Münch-Alligné, Cécile

    2016-11-01

    The present work introduces the implementation and validation of a faster method to measure experimentally the efficiency characteristics of hydraulic turbomachines at a model scale on a test rig. The case study is represented by a laboratory prototype of an in-line axial microturbine for water supply networks. The 2.65 kW one-stage variable speed turbine, composed by one upstream 5-blade runner followed by one counter-rotating downstream 7-blade runner, has been installed on the HES-SO Valais/Wallis universal test rig dedicated to assess performances of small hydraulic machinery following the IEC standard recommendations. In addition to the existing acquisition/control system of the test rig used to measure the 3D hill-chart of a turbine by classical static point-by-point method, a second digitizer has been added to acquire synchronized dynamic signals of the employed sensors. The optimal acceleration/deceleration ramps of the electrical drives have been previously identified in order to cope with the purpose of a reduced measurement time while avoiding errors and hysteresis on the acquired hydraulic characteristics. Finally, the comparison between the turbine efficiency hill-charts obtained by dynamic and static point-by-point methods shows a very good agreement in terms of precision and repeatability. Moreover, the applied dynamic method reduces significantly (by a factor of up to ten) the time necessary to measure the efficiency characteristics on model testing.

  13. Determining the Conditions for the Hydraulic Impacts Emergence at Hydraulic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazurenko A.S.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This research aim is to develop a method for modeling the conditions for the critical hydrau-lic impacts emergence on thermal and nuclear power plants’ pipeline systems pressure pumps depart-ing from the general provisions of the heat and hydrodynamic instability theory. On the developed method basis, the conditions giving rise to the reliability-critical hydraulic impacts emergence on pumps for the thermal and nuclear power plants’ typical pipeline system have been determined. With the flow characteristic minimum allowable (critical sensitivity, the flow velocity fluctuations ampli-tude reaches critical values at which the pumps working elements’ failure occurs. The critical hydrau-lic impacts emergence corresponds to the transition of the vibrational heat-hydrodynamic instability into an aperiodic one. As research revealed, a highly promising approach as to the preventing the criti-cal hydraulic impacts related to the foreground use of pumps having the most sensitive consumption (at supply network performance (while other technical characteristics corresponding to that parame-ter. The research novelty refers to the suggested method elaborated by the authors’ team, which, in contrast to traditional approaches, is efficient in determining the pump hydraulic impact occurrence conditions when the vibrational heat-hydrodynamic instability transition to the aperiodic instability.

  14. Rapid hydraulic recovery in Eucalyptus pauciflora after drought: linkages between stem hydraulics and leaf gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Sebastià; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Medrano, Hipólito; Ball, Marilyn C; Choat, Brendan

    2014-03-01

    In woody plants, photosynthetic capacity is closely linked to rates at which the plant hydraulic system can supply water to the leaf surface. Drought-induced embolism can cause sharp declines in xylem hydraulic conductivity that coincide with stomatal closure and reduced photosynthesis. Recovery of photosynthetic capacity after drought is dependent on restored xylem function, although few data exist to elucidate this coordination. We examined the dynamics of leaf gas exchange and xylem function in Eucalyptus pauciflora seedlings exposed to a cycle of severe water stress and recovery after re-watering. Stomatal closure and leaf turgor loss occurred at water potentials that delayed the extensive spread of embolism through the stem xylem. Stem hydraulic conductance recovered to control levels within 6 h after re-watering despite a severe drought treatment, suggesting an active mechanism embolism repair. However, stomatal conductance did not recover after 10 d of re-watering, effecting tighter control of transpiration post drought. The dynamics of recovery suggest that a combination of hydraulic and non-hydraulic factors influenced stomatal behaviour post drought.

  15. Shuttle Electrical Power Analysis Program (SEPAP) distribution circuit analysis report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torina, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis and evaluation was made of the operating parameters of the shuttle electrical power distribution circuit under load conditions encountered during a normal Sortie 2 Mission with emphasis on main periods of liftoff and landing.

  16. Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy of a molecular shuttle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panman, Matthijs R; Bodis, Pavol; Shaw, Danny J; Bakker, Bert H; Newton, Arthur C; Kay, Euan R; Leigh, David A; Buma, Wybren Jan; Brouwer, Albert M; Woutersen, Sander

    2012-02-14

    Time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy is used to investigate the inter-component motion of an ultraviolet-triggered two-station molecular shuttle. The operation cycle of this molecular shuttle involves several intermediate species, which are observable in the amide I and amide II regions of the mid-IR spectrum. Using ab initio calculations on specific parts of the rotaxane, and by comparing the transient spectra of the normal rotaxane with that of the N-deuterated version, we can assign the observed vibrational modes of each species occurring during the shuttling cycle in an unambiguous way. The complete time- and frequency-dependent data set is analyzed using singular value decomposition (SVD). Using a kinetic model to describe the time-dependent concentrations of the transient species, we derive the absorption spectra associated with each stage in the operation cycle of the molecular shuttle, including the recombination of the charged species.

  17. Shuttle entry guidance revisited using nonlinear geometric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

    1994-11-01

    The entry guidance law for the space shuttle orbiter is revisited using nonlinear geometric methods. The shuttle guidance concept is to track a reference drag trajectory that has been designed to lead a specified range and velocity. It is shown that the approach taken in the original derivation of the shuttle entry guidance has much in common with the more recently developed feedback linearization method of differential geometric control. Using the feedback linearization method, however, an alternative, potentially superior, guidance law was formulated. Comparing the two guidance laws based performance domains in state space, taking into account the nonlinear dynamics, the alternative guidance law achieves the desired performance over larger domains in state space; the stability domain of the laws are similar. With larger operating domain for the shuttle or some other entry vehicle, the alternative guidance law should be considered.

  18. Space Shuttle processing - A case study in artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollikarimi, Cindy; Gargan, Robert; Zweben, Monte

    1991-01-01

    A scheduling system incorporating AI is described and applied to the automated processing of the Space Shuttle. The unique problem of addressing the temporal, resource, and orbiter-configuration requirements of shuttle processing is described with comparisons to traditional project management for manufacturing processes. The present scheduling system is developed to handle the late inputs and complex programs that characterize shuttle processing by incorporating fixed preemptive scheduling, constraint-based simulated annealing, and the characteristics of an 'anytime' algorithm. The Space-Shuttle processing environment is modeled with 500 activities broken down into 4000 subtasks and with 1600 temporal constraints, 8000 resource constraints, and 3900 state requirements. The algorithm is shown to scale to very large problems and maintain anytime characteristics suggesting that an automated scheduling process is achievable and potentially cost-effective.

  19. Space Shuttle Main Propulsion System Anomaly Detection: A Case Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The space shuttle main engine (SSME) is part of the Main Propnlsion System (MPS) which is an extremely complex system containing several sub-systems and components,...

  20. Astronaut Judith Resnik in the Shuttle mission simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Judith A. Resnik, 41-D mission specialist, prepares to climb some steps leading to the flight deck portion of JSC's Shuttle mission simulator (SMS) in preparation for training for her 41-D mission.

  1. Shuttle sonic boom - Technology and predictions. [environmental impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, P. F.; Wilhold, G. A.; Jones, J. H.; Garcia, F., Jr.; Hicks, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Because the shuttle differs significantly in both geometric and operational characteristics from conventional supersonic aircraft, estimation of sonic boom characteristics required a new technology base. The prediction procedures thus developed are reviewed. Flight measurements obtained for both the ascent and entry phases of the Apollo 15 and 16 and for the ascent phase only of the Apollo 17 missions are presented which verify the techniques established for application to shuttle. Results of extensive analysis of the sonic boom overpressure characteristics completed to date are presented which indicate that this factor of the shuttle's environmental impact is predictable, localized, of short duration and acceptable. Efforts are continuing to define the shuttle sonic boom characteristics to a fine level of detail based on the final system design.

  2. Multivariate distributions of soil hydraulic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Pachepsky, Yakov; Huisman, Johan Alexander; Martinez, Gonzalo; Bogena, Heye; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-05-01

    Statistical distributions of soil hydraulic parameters have to be known when synthetic fields of soil hydraulic properties need to be generated in ensemble modeling of soil water dynamics and soil water content data assimilation. Pedotransfer functions that provide statistical distributions of water retention and hydraulic conductivity parameters for textural classes are most often used in the parameter field generation. Presence of strong correlations can substantially influence the parameter generation results. The objective of this work was to review and evaluate available data on correlations between van Genuchten-Mualem (VGM) model parameters. So far, two different approaches were developed to estimate these correlations. The first approach uses pedotransfer functions to generate VGM parameters for a large number of soil compositions within a textural class, and then computes parameter correlations for each of the textural classes. The second approach computes the VGM parameter correlations directly from parameter values obtained by fitting VGM model to measured water retention and hydraulic conductivity data for soil samples belonging to a textural class. Carsel and Parish (1988) used the Rawls et al. (1982) pedotransfer functions, and Meyer et al. (1997) used the Rosetta pedotransfer algorithms (Schaap, 2002) to develop correlations according to the first approach. We used the UNSODA database (Nemes et al. 2001), the US Southern Plains database (Timlin et al., 1999), and the Belgian database (Vereecken et al., 1989, 1990) to apply the second approach. A substantial number of considerable (>0.7) correlation coefficients were found. Large differences were encountered between parameter correlations obtained with different approaches and different databases for the same textural classes. The first of the two approaches resulted in generally higher values of correlation coefficients between VGM parameters. However, results of the first approach application depend

  3. Gas Pressure Measurements on Space Shuttle Mission-39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    there have been numerous in-situ experiments designed to measure the gaseous contamination near the Shuttle [Green et al., 1985; Erlers et al., 1984...engines [ Erlers , 1984; Machuzak et al., 1993; Hunton, 19941. Engine-related pressure spikes were investigated by Narcisi et al. [19831, Wulf and von Zahn...Government Printing Office, Washington D.C., 1976. Erlers , H.K.F., S. Jacobs, L. Leger, and E. Miller (1984) Space Shuttle contamination measurements from

  4. Exodus - Distributed artificial intelligence for Shuttle firing rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Astrid E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the Expert System for Operations Distributed Users (EXODUS), a knowledge-based artificial intelligence system developed for the four Firing Rooms at the Kennedy Space Center. EXODUS is used by the Shuttle engineers and test conductors to monitor and control the sequence of tasks required for processing and launching Shuttle vehicles. In this paper, attention is given to the goals and the design of EXODUS, the operational requirements, and the extensibility of the technology.

  5. Analysis of Innovative Design of Energy Efficient Hydraulic Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Osman Abdalla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic cylinder actuators are used extensively in industrial, construction and agricultural works. The small sized outlet ports of the cylinders resist the flow of discharged oil; and as a result the piston motion is slowed down. This causes a lot of heat generation and energy loss within the actuators. The study investigates and analyzes the possibilities of reducing the hydraulic resistance and increasing efficiency of the hydraulic actuator. Conventional hydraulic cylinders are simulated in FLUENT. Results show that the small outlet ports are the sources of energy loss in hydraulic cylinders. A new hydraulic system was proposed as a solution to relieve the hydraulic resistance in the actuators. The proposed system is a four ports hydraulic cylinder fitted with a novel flow control valve. The proposed four ports cylinder was simulated and parameters such as ports sizes, loads and pressures are varied during the simulation. The hydraulic resisting forces, piston speed and mass flow rates are computed. Results show that the hydraulic resistance is significantly reduced in the proposed four ports actuators; and the proposed cylinders run faster than the conventional cylinders and a considerable amount of energyis saved as well.

  6. Variation in reach-scale hydraulic conductivity of streambeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewardson, M. J.; Datry, T.; Lamouroux, N.; Pella, H.; Thommeret, N.; Valette, L.; Grant, S. B.

    2016-04-01

    Streambed hydraulic conductivity is an important control on flow within the hyporheic zone, affecting hydrological, ecological, and biogeochemical processes essential to river ecosystem function. Despite many published field measurements, few empirical studies examine the drivers of spatial and temporal variations in streambed hydraulic conductivity. Reach-averaged hydraulic conductivity estimated for 119 surveys in 83 stream reaches across continental France, even of coarse bed streams, are shown to be characteristic of sand and finer sediments. This supports a model where processes leading to the accumulation of finer sediments within streambeds largely control hydraulic conductivity rather than the size of the coarse bed sediment fraction. After describing a conceptual model of relevant processes, we fit an empirical model relating hydraulic conductivity to candidate geomorphic and hydraulic drivers. The fitted model explains 72% of the deviance in hydraulic conductivity (and 30% using an external cross-validation). Reach hydraulic conductivity increases with the amplitude of bedforms within the reach, the bankfull channel width-depth ratio, stream power and upstream catchment erodibility but reduces with time since the last streambed disturbance. The correlation between hydraulic conductivity and time since a streambed mobilisation event is likely a consequence of clogging processes. Streams with a predominantly suspended load and less frequent streambed disturbances are expected to have a lower streambed hydraulic conductivity and reduced hyporheic fluxes. This study suggests a close link between streambed sediment transport dynamics and connectivity between surface water and the hyporheic zone.

  7. Solar Irradiance Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Solanki, Sami K

    2012-01-01

    The Sun has long been considered a constant star, to the extent that its total irradiance was termed the solar constant. It required radiometers in space to detect the small variations in solar irradiance on timescales of the solar rotation and the solar cycle. A part of the difficulty is that there are no other constant natural daytime sources to which the Sun's brightness can be compared. The discovery of solar irradiance variability rekindled a long-running discussion on how strongly the Sun affects our climate. A non-negligible influence is suggested by correlation studies between solar variability and climate indicators. The mechanism for solar irradiance variations that fits the observations best is that magnetic features at the solar surface, i.e. sunspots, faculae and the magnetic network, are responsible for almost all variations (although on short timescales convection and p-mode oscillations also contribute). In spite of significant progress important questions are still open. Thus there is a debat...

  8. NSUF Irradiated Materials Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, James Irvin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The Nuclear Science User Facilities has been in the process of establishing an innovative Irradiated Materials Library concept for maximizing the value of previous and on-going materials and nuclear fuels irradiation test campaigns, including utilization of real-world components retrieved from current and decommissioned reactors. When the ATR national scientific user facility was established in 2007 one of the goals of the program was to establish a library of irradiated samples for users to access and conduct research through competitively reviewed proposal process. As part of the initial effort, staff at the user facility identified legacy materials from previous programs that are still being stored in laboratories and hot-cell facilities at the INL. In addition other materials of interest were identified that are being stored outside the INL that the current owners have volunteered to enter into the library. Finally, over the course of the last several years, the ATR NSUF has irradiated more than 3500 specimens as part of NSUF competitively awarded research projects. The Logistics of managing this large inventory of highly radioactive poses unique challenges. This document will describe materials in the library, outline the policy for accessing these materials and put forth a strategy for making new additions to the library as well as establishing guidelines for minimum pedigree needed to be included in the library to limit the amount of material stored indefinitely without identified value.

  9. Cellular Response to Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo; YAN Shi-Wei

    2011-01-01

    To explore the nonlinear activities of the cellular signaling system composed of one transcriptional arm and one protein-interaction arm, we use an irradiation-response module to study the dynamics of stochastic interactions.It is shown that the oscillatory behavior could be described in a unified way when the radiation-derived signal and noise are incorporated.

  10. Wholesomeness of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raica, Nicholas; McDowell, Marion E.; Darby, William J.

    1963-01-15

    The wholesomeness of irradiated foods was evaluated in mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys over a 2-year period, or 4 generations. Data are presented on the effects of a diet containing radiation-processed foods on growth, reproduction, hematology, histopathology, carcinogenicity, and life span. (86 references) (C.H.)

  11. Geostatistical Estimations of Regional Hydraulic Conductivity Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriarche, D.; Castro, M. C.; Goovaerts, P.

    2004-12-01

    Direct and indirect measurements of hydraulic conductivity (K) are commonly performed, providing information on the magnitude of this parameter at the local scale (tens of centimeters to hundreds of meters) and at shallow depths. By contrast, field information on hydraulic conductivities at regional scales of tens to hundreds of kilometers and at greater depths is relatively scarce. Geostatistical methods allow for sparsely sampled observations of a variable (primary information) to be complemented by a more densely sampled secondary attribute. Geostatistical estimations of the hydraulic conductivity field in the Carrizo aquifer, a major groundwater flow system extending along Texas, are performed using available primary (e.g., transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity) and secondary (specific capacity) information, for depths up to 2.2 km, and over three regional domains of increasing extent: 1) the domain corresponding to a three-dimensional groundwater flow model previously built (model domain); 2) the area corresponding to the ten counties encompassing the model domain (County domain), and; 3) the full extension of the Carrizo aquifer within Texas (Texas domain). Two different approaches are used: 1) an indirect approach are transmissivity (T) is estimated first and (K) is retrieved through division of the T estimate by the screening length of the wells, and; 2) a direct approach where K data are kriged directly. Prediction performances of the tested geostatistical procedures (kriging combined with linear regression, kriging with known local means, kriging of residuals, and cokriging) are evaluated through cross validation for both log-transformed variables and back-transformed ones. For the indirect approach, kriging of log T residuals yields the best estimates for both log-transformed and back-transformed variables in the model domain. For larger regional scales (County and Texas domains), cokriging performs generally better than univariate kriging procedures

  12. Review of Hydraulic Fracturing for Preconditioning in Cave Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q.; Suorineni, F. T.; Oh, J.

    2016-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has been used in cave mining for preconditioning the orebody following its successful application in the oil and gas industries. In this paper, the state of the art of hydraulic fracturing as a preconditioning method in cave mining is presented. Procedures are provided on how to implement prescribed hydraulic fracturing by which effective preconditioning can be realized in any in situ stress condition. Preconditioning is effective in cave mining when an additional fracture set is introduced into the rock mass. Previous studies on cave mining hydraulic fracturing focused on field applications, hydraulic fracture growth measurement and the interaction between hydraulic fractures and natural fractures. The review in this paper reveals that the orientation of the current cave mining hydraulic fractures is dictated by and is perpendicular to the minimum in situ stress orientation. In some geotechnical conditions, these orientation-uncontrollable hydraulic fractures have limited preconditioning efficiency because they do not necessarily result in reduced fragmentation sizes and a blocky orebody through the introduction of an additional fracture set. This implies that if the minimum in situ stress orientation is vertical and favors the creation of horizontal hydraulic fractures, in a rock mass that is already dominated by horizontal joints, no additional fracture set is added to that rock mass to increase its blockiness to enable it cave. Therefore, two approaches that have the potential to create orientation-controllable hydraulic fractures in cave mining with the potential to introduce additional fracture set as desired are proposed to fill this gap. These approaches take advantage of directional hydraulic fracturing and the stress shadow effect, which can re-orientate the hydraulic fracture propagation trajectory against its theoretical predicted direction. Proppants are suggested to be introduced into the cave mining industry to enhance the

  13. Hydrodynamic evaluation of a hydraulic clarifier through hydraulic behaviour indicators and simplified flow models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Patiño

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic phenomena take place within water treatment plants associated with physical, operational and environmental factors which can affect the water quality. This study evaluated a hydraulic clarifier’s hydrodynamic pattern using sludge recirculation through continuous tracer test leading to determining hydraulic behaviour indicators and simplified flow models. The clarifier had dual flow with a predominantly complete mixture during the hours in which higher temperatures were reported for affluent water compared to those reported inside the reactor, causing the formation of density currents promoting mixing in the reactor and increased turbidity in the effluent. The hydraulic indicators and the Wolf-Resnick model had higher sensitivity to the influence of temperature on reactor hydrodynamics.

  14. Power Management in Mobile Hydraulic Applications - An Approach for Designing Hydraulic Power Supply Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2004-01-01

    in a project to develop rules and methods for designing and controlling mobile hydraulic systems in the most energy efficient way, when also considering the operational aspects of the system. The paper first describes the thoughts and ideas behind the project and then focus on an automated approach to design......Throughout the last three decades energy consumption has become one of the primary design aspects in hydraulic systems, especially for mobile hydraulic systems, as power and cooling capacity here is at limited disposal. Considering the energy usage, this is dependent on component efficiency......, but even more important is the system topology. However, there are no rules or guidelines for what system topology to choose for a given application, in order to obtain the most energy efficient system, nor for how the energy should be distributed in the system. This paper describes the approach taken...

  15. Smart drugs: green shuttle or real drug?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, L; Borghesi, B; Canali, C; Andrenacci, M; Basso, M; Federici, S; Labra, M

    2013-11-01

    We have combined morphological, molecular, and chemical techniques in order to identify the plant and chemical composition of some last-generation smart drugs, present on the market under the following names: Jungle Mistic Incense, B-52, Blendz, and Kratom 10x. Micromorphological analyses of botanical fragments allowed identification of epidermal cells, stomata, trichomes, starch, crystals, and pollen. DNA barcoding was carried out by the plastidial gene rbcL and the spacer trnH-psbA as universal markers. The combination of morphological and molecular data revealed a mixture of plants from different families, including aromatic species, viz., Lamiaceae and Turneraceae. GC-MS and LC-MS analyses on ethanol or methanol extracts showed the presence of synthetic cannabinoids, including JWH-250 in Jungle, JWH-122 in B-52, and JWH-073 and JWH-018 in Blendz. In Kratom 10x, only the indole alkaloid mitragynine was detected. All the identified synthetic cannabinoids, apart from mitragynine, are under the restriction of law in Italy (TU 309/90). Synthetic cannabinoid crystals were also identified by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, which also detected other foreign organic chemicals, probably preservatives or antimycotics. In Kratom only leaf fragments from Mitragyna speciosa, containing the alkaloid mitragynine, were found. In the remaining products, aromatic plant species have mainly the role of hiding synthetic cannabinoids, thus acting as a "green shuttle" rather than as real drugs. Such a multidisciplinary approach is proposed as a method for the identification of herbal blends of uncertain composition, which are widely marketed in "headshops" and on the Internet, and represent a serious hazard to public health.

  16. Latent Virus Reactivation in Space Shuttle Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, S. K.; Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Sams, C.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2011-01-01

    Latent virus reactivation was measured in 17 astronauts (16 male and 1 female) before, during, and after short-duration Space Shuttle missions. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected 2-4 months before launch, 10 days before launch (L-10), 2-3 hours after landing (R+0), 3 days after landing (R+14), and 120 days after landing (R+120). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA was measured in these samples by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA was measured in the 381 saliva samples and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in the 66 urine samples collected from these subjects. Fourteen astronauts shed EBV DNA in 21% of their saliva samples before, during, and after flight, and 7 astronauts shed VZV in 7.4% of their samples during and after flight. It was interesting that shedding of both EBV and VZV increased during the flight phase relative to before or after flight. In the case of CMV, 32% of urine samples from 8 subjects contained DNA of this virus. In normal healthy control subjects, EBV shedding was found in 3% and VZV and CMV were found in less than 1% of the samples. The circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol measured before, during, and after space flight did not show any significant difference between flight phases. These data show that increased reactivation of latent herpes viruses may be associated with decreased immune system function, which has been reported in earlier studies as well as in these same subjects (data not reported here).

  17. Replication of Space-Shuttle Computers in FPGAs and ASICs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Roscoe C.

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses the replication of the functionality of the onboard space-shuttle general-purpose computers (GPCs) in field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs). The purpose of the replication effort is to enable utilization of proven space-shuttle flight software and software-development facilities to the extent possible during development of software for flight computers for a new generation of launch vehicles derived from the space shuttles. The replication involves specifying the instruction set of the central processing unit and the input/output processor (IOP) of the space-shuttle GPC in a hardware description language (HDL). The HDL is synthesized to form a "core" processor in an FPGA or, less preferably, in an ASIC. The core processor can be used to create a flight-control card to be inserted into a new avionics computer. The IOP of the GPC as implemented in the core processor could be designed to support data-bus protocols other than that of a multiplexer interface adapter (MIA) used in the space shuttle. Hence, a computer containing the core processor could be tailored to communicate via the space-shuttle GPC bus and/or one or more other buses.

  18. Brand-new signage for the CERN shuttles

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    If, after reading the title of this article, you're striving to remember what the signs for the CERN shuttles look like, then you just hit the nail on the head: we bet that only a few people can actually do so. In order to make it easier for CERN users to move around the CERN sites, a graphic restyling of the shuttle signage has been implemented. You will start to see the new timetables in the coming days.   Larisa Kuchina, a graphic designer in the Communication Group, restyled the shuttle signage to make it more visible and intelligible. “I was inspired by the very clear and user friendly interface of the Geneva Public Transport system (TPG)”, explains Larisa. “Each timetable will also include the corresponding shuttle route. We will soon introduce new road signs for shuttle stops to make sure they are visible from a distance”. There are currently four shuttle lines, serving 28,000 passengers since February 2010: two of them operate between Meyrin and Pr...

  19. Space Shuttle GN and C Development History and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, Douglas; Hattis, Phil; Ruppert, John; Gavert, Don

    2011-01-01

    Completion of the final Space Shuttle flight marks the end of a significant era in Human Spaceflight. Developed in the 1970 s, first launched in 1981, the Space Shuttle embodies many significant engineering achievements. One of these is the development and operation of the first extensive fly-by-wire human space transportation Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) System. Development of the Space Shuttle GN&C represented first time inclusions of modern techniques for electronics, software, algorithms, systems and management in a complex system. Numerous technical design trades and lessons learned continue to drive current vehicle development. For example, the Space Shuttle GN&C system incorporated redundant systems, complex algorithms and flight software rigorously verified through integrated vehicle simulations and avionics integration testing techniques. Over the past thirty years, the Shuttle GN&C continued to go through a series of upgrades to improve safety, performance and to enable the complex flight operations required for assembly of the international space station. Upgrades to the GN&C ranged from the addition of nose wheel steering to modifications that extend capabilities to control of the large flexible configurations while being docked to the Space Station. This paper provides a history of the development and evolution of the Space Shuttle GN&C system. Emphasis is placed on key architecture decisions, design trades and the lessons learned for future complex space transportation system developments. Finally, some of the interesting flight operations experience is provided to inform future developers of flight experiences.

  20. Analyses of deformation and thermal-hydraulics within a wire-wrapped fuel subassembly in a liquid metal fast reactor by the coupled code system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uwaba, Tomoyuki, E-mail: uwaba.tomoyuki@jaea.go.jp; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Ito, Masahiro

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The coupled computational code system allowed for mechanical and thermal-hydraulic analyses in a fast reactor fuel subassembly. • In this system interactive calculations between flow area deformations and coolant temperature changes are repeated to their convergence state. • Effects on bundle-duct interaction on coolant temperature distributions were investigated by using the code system. - Abstract: The coupled numerical analysis of mechanical and thermal-hydraulic behaviors was performed for a wire-wrapped fuel pin bundle subassembly irradiated in a fast reactor. For the analysis, the fuel pin bundle deformation analysis code BAMBOO and the thermal-hydraulic analysis code ASFRE exchanged the deformation and temperature analysis results through the iterative calculations to attain convergence corresponding to the static balance between deformation and temperature. The analysis by the coupled code system showed that the radial distribution of coolant temperature in the subassembly tended to flatten as a result of the fuel pin bundle deformation governed by cladding void swelling and irradiation creep. Such flattening of temperature distribution was slightly observed as a result of fuel pin bowings due to the cladding-wire interaction even when no bundle-duct interaction occurred. The effect of the spacer wire-pitch on deformation and thermal-hydraulics was also investigated in this study.

  1. Derivation of site-specific relationships between hydraulic parameters and p-wave velocities based on hydraulic and seismic tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauchler, R.; Doetsch, J.; Dietrich, P.; Sauter, M.

    2012-01-10

    In this study, hydraulic and seismic tomographic measurements were used to derive a site-specific relationship between the geophysical parameter p-wave velocity and the hydraulic parameters, diffusivity and specific storage. Our field study includes diffusivity tomograms derived from hydraulic travel time tomography, specific storage tomograms, derived from hydraulic attenuation tomography, and p-wave velocity tomograms, derived from seismic tomography. The tomographic inversion was performed in all three cases with the SIRT (Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique) algorithm, using a ray tracing technique with curved trajectories. The experimental set-up was designed such that the p-wave velocity tomogram overlaps the hydraulic tomograms by half. The experiments were performed at a wellcharacterized sand and gravel aquifer, located in the Leine River valley near Göttingen, Germany. Access to the shallow subsurface was provided by direct-push technology. The high spatial resolution of hydraulic and seismic tomography was exploited to derive representative site-specific relationships between the hydraulic and geophysical parameters, based on the area where geophysical and hydraulic tests were performed. The transformation of the p-wave velocities into hydraulic properties was undertaken using a k-means cluster analysis. Results demonstrate that the combination of hydraulic and geophysical tomographic data is a promising approach to improve hydrogeophysical site characterization.

  2. Post irradiation test report of irradiated DUPIC simulated fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Jung, I. H.; Moon, J. S. and others

    2001-12-01

    The post-irradiation examination of irradiated DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) simulated fuel in HANARO was performed at IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility) in KAERI during 6 months from October 1999 to March 2000. The objectives of this post-irradiation test are i) the integrity of the capsule to be used for DUPIC fuel, ii) ensuring the irradiation requirements of DUPIC fuel at HANARO, iii) performance verification in-core behavior at HANARO of DUPIC simulated fuel, iv) establishing and improvement the data base for DUPIC fuel performance verification codes, and v) establishing the irradiation procedure in HANARO for DUPIC fuel. The post-irradiation examination performed are {gamma}-scanning, profilometry, density, hardness, observation the microstructure and fission product distribution by optical microscope and electron probe microanalyser (EPMA)

  3. Soil hydraulic properties near saturation, an improved conductivity model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, Christen Duus; Jacobsen, Ole Hørbye; Hansen, Søren;

    2006-01-01

    The hydraulic properties near saturation can change dramatically due to the presence of macropores that are usually difficult to handle in traditional pore size models. The purpose of this study is to establish a data set on hydraulic conductivity near saturation, test the predictive capability...... of commonly used hydraulic conductivity models and give suggestions for improved models. Water retention and near saturated and saturated hydraulic conductivity were measured for a variety of 81 top and subsoils. The hydraulic conductivity models by van Genuchten [van Genuchten, 1980. A closed-form equation...... for predicting the hydraulic conductivity of unsaturated soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 44, 892–898.] (vGM) and Brooks and Corey, modified by Jarvis [Jarvis, 1991. MACRO—A Model of Water Movement and Solute Transport in Macroporous Soils. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. Department of Soil Sciences...

  4. Selected Lessons Learned in Space Shuttle Orbiter Propulsion and Power Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Francisco J.; Martinez, Hugo; Ryan, Abigail; Westover, Shayne; Davies, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Over its 30 years of space flight history, plus the nearly 10 years of design, development test and evaluation, the Space Shuttle Orbiter is full of lessons learned in all of its numerous and complex subsystems. In the current paper, only selected lessons learned in the areas of the Orbiter propulsion and power subsystems will be described. The particular Orbiter subsystems include: Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), Hydraulics and Water Spray Boiler (WSB), Mechanical Flight Controls, Main Propulsion System (MPS), Fuel Cells and Power Reactant and Storage Devices (PRSD), Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), Reaction Control System (RCS), Electrical Power Distribution (EPDC), electrical wiring and pyrotechnics. Given the complexity and extensive history of each of these subsystems, and the limited scope of this paper, it is impossible to include most of the lessons learned; instead the attempt will be to present a selected few or key lessons, in the judgment of the authors. Each subsystem is presented separate, beginning with an overview of the hardware and their function, a short description of a few historical problems and their lessons, followed by a more comprehensive table listing of the major subsystem problems and lessons. These tables serve as a quick reference for lessons learned in each subsystem. In addition, this paper will establish common lessons across subsystems as well as concentrate on those lessons which are deemed to have the highest applicability to future space flight programs.

  5. South Davis Sewer District Pump Station Hydraulic Capacity Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, James W

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, South Davis Sewer District (SDSD) determined that possible hydraulic problems existed in their various pump stations operating within their treatment plants. A hydraulic analysis was conducted for the pump stations to diagnose the problems and provide possible alternative solutions. This analysis was conducted by using hydraulic minor loss equations to determine the amount of flow that the pumps were capable of producing and then comparing those results to the required demands in the...

  6. Predictive Maintenance of Hydraulic Lifts through Lubricating Oil Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Stamatios S. Kalligeros

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the possibility of measuring lift maintenance through analysis of used hydraulic oil. Hydraulic oils have proved to be a reliable indicator for the maintenance performed on elevators. It has also been proved that the end users or the maintenance personnel do not always conform to the instructions of the elevators’ hydraulic machine manufacturer. Furthermore, by examining the proportion of the metals, an estimation of the corrosion and the wear resistance of the joined mo...

  7. M1078 Hybrid Hydraulic Vehicle Fuel Economy Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 28-09-2012 2. REPORT TYPE Interim Report 3. DATES COVERED (From...system shakedown and developmental testing. During developmental testing, a hydraulic motor failure occurred. Although not catastrophic, the motor...main hydraulic hybrid system control module to request the TCM to shift the transmission. Clutch Operation with engine- off (hydraulic-only power) or

  8. Research on hydraulic-powered roof supports test problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hong-bo; JIANG Jin-qiu; MA Qiang

    2011-01-01

    The load-bearing characters of hydraulic-powered roof support with dual telescopic legs were analyzed. With a specific type hydraulic-powered roof support with dual telescopic legs for research object, the inside load test problems in factories was analyzed, and the correct test methods were given, which can enhance the test efficiency and make the factories away from the error design of hydraulic-powered roof supports and legs.

  9. Hydraulics national laboratory; Laboratoire national d`hydraulique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabard, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    The hydraulics national laboratory is a department of the service of applications of electric power and environment from the direction of studies and researches of Electricite de France. It has to solve the EDF problems concerning the fluids mechanics and hydraulics. Problems in PWR type reactors, fossil fuel power plants, circulating fluidized bed power plants, hydroelectric power plants relative to fluid mechanics and hydraulics studied and solved in 1995 are explained in this report. (N.C.)

  10. Neutron dosimetric measurements in shuttle and MIR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitz, G

    2001-06-01

    Detector packages consisting of thermoluminescence detectors (TLD), nuclear emulsions and plastic track detectors were exposed at identical positions inside MIR space station and on shuttle flights inside Spacelab and Spacehab during different phases of the solar cycle. The objectives of the investigations are to provide data on charge and energy spectra of heavy ions, and the contribution of events with low-energy deposit (protons, electrons, gamma, etc.) to the dose, as well as the contribution of secondaries, such as nuclear disintegration stars and neutrons. For neutron dosimetry 6LiF (TLD600) and 7LiF (TLD700) chips were used both of which have almost the same response to gamma rays but different response to neutrons. Neutrons in space are produced mainly in evaporation and knock-on processes with energies mainly of 1-10 MeV and up to several 100 MeV, respectively. The energy spectrum undergoes continuous changes toward greater depth in the attenuating material until an equilibrium is reached. In equilibrium, the spectrum is a wide continuum extending down to thermal energies to which the 6LiF is sensitive. Based on the difference of absorbed doses in the 6LiF and 7LiF chips, thermal neutron fluxes from 1 to 2.3 cm-2 s-1 are calculated using the assumption that the maximum induced dose in TLD600 for 1 neutron cm-2 is 1.6 x 10(-10) Gy (Horowitz and Freeman, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. 157 (1978) 393). It is assumed that the flux of high-energy neutrons is at least of that quantity. Tissue doses were calculated taking as a mean ambient absorbed dose per neutron 6 x10(-12) Gy cm2 (for a10 MeV neutron). The neutron equivalent doses for the above-mentioned fluxes are 52 micro Gy d-1 and 120 micro Gy d-1. In recent experiments, a personal neutron dosimeter was integrated into the dosimeter packages. First results of this dosimeter which is based on nuclear track detectors with converter foils are reported. For future measurements, a scintillator counter with

  11. Advanced Health Management System for the Space Shuttle Main Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Matt; Stephens, John

    2004-01-01

    Boeing-Canoga Park (BCP) and NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (NASA-MSFC) are developing an Advanced Health Management System (AHMS) for use on the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) that will improve Shuttle safety by reducing the probability of catastrophic engine failures during the powered ascent phase of a Shuttle mission. This is a phased approach that consists of an upgrade to the current Space Shuttle Main Engine Controller (SSMEC) to add turbomachinery synchronous vibration protection and addition of a separate Health Management Computer (HMC) that will utilize advanced algorithms to detect and mitigate predefined engine anomalies. The purpose of the Shuttle AHMS is twofold; one is to increase the probability of successfully placing the Orbiter into the intended orbit, and the other is to increase the probability of being able to safely execute an abort of a Space Transportation System (STS) launch. Both objectives are achieved by increasing the useful work envelope of a Space Shuttle Main Engine after it has developed anomalous performance during launch and the ascent phase of the mission. This increase in work envelope will be the result of two new anomaly mitigation options, in addition to existing engine shutdown, that were previously unavailable. The added anomaly mitigation options include engine throttle-down and performance correction (adjustment of engine oxidizer to fuel ratio), as well as enhanced sensor disqualification capability. The HMC is intended to provide the computing power necessary to diagnose selected anomalous engine behaviors and for making recommendations to the engine controller for anomaly mitigation. Independent auditors have assessed the reduction in Shuttle ascent risk to be on the order of 40% with the combined system and a three times improvement in mission success.

  12. Orthostatic Intolerance After ISS and Space Shuttle Missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M C; Feiveson, Alan H; Stein, Sydney; Stenger, Michael B; Platts, Steven H

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular deconditioning apparently progresses with flight duration, resulting in a greater incidence of orthostatic intolerance following long-duration missions. Therefore, we anticipated that the proportion of astronauts who could not complete an orthostatic tilt test (OTT) would be higher on landing day and the number of days to recover greater after International Space Station (ISS) than after Space Shuttle missions. There were 20 ISS and 65 Shuttle astronauts who participated in 10-min 80° head-up tilt tests 10 d before launch, on landing day (R+0), and 3 d after landing (R+3). Fisher's Exact Test was used to compare the ability of ISS and Shuttle astronauts to complete the OTT. Cox regression was used to identify cardiovascular parameters associated with OTT completion and mixed model analysis was used to compare the change and recovery rates between groups. The proportion of astronauts who completed the OTT on R+0 (2 of 6) was less in ISS than in Shuttle astronauts (52 of 65). On R+3, 13 of 15 and 19 of 19 of the ISS and Shuttle astronauts, respectively, completed the OTT. An index comprised of stroke volume and diastolic blood pressure provided a good prediction of OTT completion and was altered by spaceflight similarly for both astronaut groups, but recovery was slower in ISS than in Shuttle astronauts. The proportion of ISS astronauts who could not complete the OTT on R+0 was greater and the recovery rate slower after ISS compared to Shuttle missions. Thus, mission planners and crew surgeons should anticipate the need to tailor scheduled activities and level of medical support to accommodate protracted recovery after long-duration microgravity exposures.

  13. A New Type of Hydraulic Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitai Drimer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the invention and development of a new fundamental type of hydraulic actuator, aimed at delivering better actuation efficiency. This actuator is a flexible tube, composed of two different materials, which deflects while applying inner pressure. This concept is simple to produce, and allows adaptation of the deflected shape by the design parameters (radius, wall thickness, geometry, etc.. Among other applications, it is mostly suitable for the activation of fins of nature-like marine robots. Theoretical formulation, production of prototypes and actuation experiments are presented, as well as material hysteresis research and an application example.

  14. Hydraulic characteristics of HANARO fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S.; Chung, H. J.; Chun, S. Y.; Yang, S. K.; Chung, M. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the hydraulic characteristics measured by using LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) in subchannels of HANARO, KAERI research reactor, fuel bundle. The fuel bundle consists of 18 axially finned rods with 3 spacer grids, which are arranged in cylindrical configuration. The effects of the spacer grids on the turbulent flow were investigated by the experimental results. Pressure drops for each component of the fuel bundle were measured, and the friction factors of fuel bundle and loss coefficients for the spacer grids were estimated from the measured pressure drops. Implications regarding the turbulent thermal mixing were discussed. Vibration test results measured by using laser vibrometer were presented. 9 refs., 12 figs. (Author)

  15. Analyses of hydraulic performance of velocity caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Degn Eskesen, Mark Chr.; Buhrkall, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    The hydraulic performance of a velocity cap has been investigated. Velocity caps are often used in connection with offshore intakes. CFD (computational fluid dynamics) examined the flow through the cap openings and further down into the intake pipes. This was combined with dimension analyses...... in order to analyse the effect of different layouts on the flow characteristics. In particular, flow configurations going all the way through the structure were revealed. A couple of suggestions to minimize the risk for flow through have been tested....

  16. Mercury Thermal Hydraulic Loop (MTHL) Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felde, David K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Crye, Jason Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wendel, Mark W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, Jr, Graydon L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Farquharson, George [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jallouk, Philip A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McFee, Marshall T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pointer, William David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ruggles, Art E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a high-power linear accelerator built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) which incorporates the use of a flowing liquid mercury target. The Mercury Thermal Hydraulic Loop (MTHL) was constructed to investigate and verify the heat transfer characteristics of liquid mercury in a rectangular channel. This report provides a compilation of previously reported results from the water-cooled and electrically heated straight and curved test sections that simulate the geometry of the window cooling channel in the target nose region.

  17. Hydraulic Power Plant Machine Dynamic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Günther Poll

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method how to perform an entire structural and hydraulic diagnosis of prototype Francis power machines is presented and discussed in this report. Machine diagnosis of Francis units consists on a proper evaluation of acquired mechanical, thermal and hydraulic data obtained in different operating conditions of several rotary and non rotary machine components. Many different physical quantities of a Francis machine such as pressure, strains, vibration related data, water flow, air flow, position of regulating devices and displacements are measured in a synchronized way so that a relation of cause an effect can be developed for each operating condition and help one to understand all phenomena that are involved with such kind of machine. This amount of data needs to be adequately post processed in order to allow correct interpretation of the machine dynamics and finally these data must be compared with the expected calculated data not only to fine tuning the calculation methods but also to accomplish fully understanding of the influence of the water passages on such machines. The way how the power plant owner has to operate its Francis machines, many times also determined by a central dispatcher, has a high influence on the fatigue life time of the machine components. The diagnostic method presented in this report helps one to understand the importance of adequate operation to allow a low maintenance cost for the entire power plant. The method how to acquire these quantities is discussed in details together with the importance of correct sensor balancing, calibration and adequate correlation with the physical quantities. Typical results of the dynamic machine behavior, with adequate interpretation, obtained in recent measurement campaigns of some important hydraulic turbines were presented. The paper highlights the investigation focus of the hydraulic machine behavior and how to tailor the measurement strategy to accomplish all goals. Finally some

  18. Micromechanical Aspects of Hydraulic Fracturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo-torres, S. A.; Behraftar, S.; Scheuermann, A.; Li, L.; Williams, D.

    2014-12-01

    A micromechanical model is developed to simulate the hydraulic fracturing process. The model comprises two key components. Firstly, the solid matrix, assumed as a rock mass with pre-fabricated cracks, is represented by an array of bonded particles simulated by the Discrete Element Model (DEM)[1]. The interaction is ruled by the spheropolyhedra method, which was introduced by the authors previously and has been shown to realistically represent many of the features found in fracturing and communition processes. The second component is the fluid, which is modelled by the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). It was recently coupled with the spheropolyhedra by the authors and validated. An advantage of this coupled LBM-DEM model is the control of many of the parameters of the fracturing fluid, such as its viscosity and the injection rate. To the best of the authors' knowledge this is the first application of such a coupled scheme for studying hydraulic fracturing[2]. In this first implementation, results are presented for a two-dimensional situation. Fig. 1 shows one snapshot of the LBM-DEM coupled simulation for the hydraulic fracturing where the elements with broken bonds can be identified and the fracture geometry quantified. The simulation involves a variation of the underground stress, particularly the difference between the two principal components of the stress tensor, to explore the effect on the fracture path. A second study focuses on the fluid viscosity to examine the effect of the time scales of different injection plans on the fracture geometry. The developed tool and the presented results have important implications for future studies of the hydraulic fracturing process and technology. references 1. Galindo-Torres, S.A., et al., Breaking processes in three-dimensional bonded granular materials with general shapes. Computer Physics Communications, 2012. 183(2): p. 266-277. 2. Galindo-Torres, S.A., A coupled Discrete Element Lattice Boltzmann Method for the

  19. Hydraulics and Stability of Five Texas Inlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    8217~~r 0.38 .. , q . P . I Pleasure Pier 7 Morgan’s Point 2 South Jetty 8 Railroad Causeway N 1. 3 Teuas City Dike 9 Chocolate Bayou A 4 Manna Reel 10 Son...Range and Level.............15 III HYDRAULICS AND STABILITY OF SPECIFIC INLETS...................... 15 1. Brazos River-Freeport Harbor Entrance...g acceleration of gravity K Keulegan repletion coefficient k wave number L channel length Le effective channel length n Manning’s coefficient P

  20. HYDRAULIC CONCRETE COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Pshinko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Scientific work aims at the development and testing of information system to meet the challenges of concrete composition design and control (for railway structures and buildings based on the physico-analytical method algorithm for hydraulic concrete composition calculation. Methodology. The proposed algorithm of hydraulic concrete composition calculation is based on the physicochemical mechanics and in particular on the rheology of elastic–viscous–plastic bodies. The system of canonical equations consists of the equations for concrete strength, absolute volume, concrete mix consistency as well as the equation for optimal concrete saturation with aggregates while minimizing cement content. The joint solution of these four equations related to composition allows determining for the materials the concrete composition of required strength, concrete workability with minimum cement content. The procedure for calculation of hydraulic concrete composition according to the physico-analytical method consists of two parts: 1 physical, which is laboratory testing of concrete mix components in different concrete compositions; 2 analytical, which represents the calculation algorithm for concrete compositions equivalent in concrete strength and workability that comply with the specific conditions of concrete placing. Findings. To solve the problem of designing the concrete composition with the desired properties for railway structures and buildings it was proposed to use the information technology in the form of a developed computer program whose algorithm includes the physico-analytical method for hydraulic concrete composition determination. Originality. The developed concrete composition design method takes into account the basic properties of raw materials, concrete mix and concrete, which are pre-determined. The distinctive feature of physico-analytical method is obtaining of a set of equivalent compositions with a certain concrete mix

  1. Hydraulic Robotic Surgical Tool Changing Manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourghodrat, Abolfazl; Nelson, Carl A; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2017-03-01

    Natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a surgical technique to perform "scarless" abdominal operations. Robotic technology has been exploited to improve NOTES and circumvent its limitations. Lack of a multitasking platform is a major limitation. Manual tool exchange can be time consuming and may lead to complications such as bleeding. Previous multifunctional manipulator designs use electric motors. These designs are bulky, slow, and expensive. This paper presents design, prototyping, and testing of a hydraulic robotic tool changing manipulator. The manipulator is small, fast, low-cost, and capable of carrying four different types of laparoscopic instruments.

  2. Tidal current turbine based on hydraulic transmission system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-wei LIU; Wei LI; Yong-gang LIN; Shun MA

    2011-01-01

    Tidal current turbines (TCTs) are newly developed electricity generating devices.Aiming at the stabilization of the power output of TCTs,this paper introduces the hydraulic transmission technologies into TCTs.The hydrodynamics of the turbine was analyzed at first and its power output characteristics were predicted.A hydraulic power transmission system and a hydraulic pitch-controlled system were designed.Then related simulations were conducted.Finally,a TCT prototype was manufactured and tested in the workshop.The test results have confirmed the correctness of the current design and availability of installation of the hydraulic system in TCTs.

  3. Hydrological and hydraulic modelling of the Nyl River floodplain Part ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-01-01

    Jan 1, 2007 ... Keywords: Nyl River floodplain, Nylsvlei, Nylsvley Nature Reserve, modelling wetland hydraulics, wetland evapotranspiration ..... A review of suitable methods for estimating evapotranspira- ..... ingum routing. J. Hydrol.

  4. Strategies for Creating Prescribed Hydraulic Fractures in Cave Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q.; Suorineni, F. T.; Oh, J.

    2017-04-01

    The cave mining method was traditionally applied to massive low-grade, weak orebodies at shallow depths (less than 500 m) that favour cave propagation under gravity. Currently, this method is being applied to stronger orebodies and is taking place at depths of up to 2000 m below the surface. To ensure continuous cave propagation, preconditioning of the orebody is essential in this latter caving environment to improve rock mass caveability and to decrease fragmentation sizes. Hydraulic fracturing was initiated in the oil industry and is now being used in the cave mining industry as a preconditioning method and for stalled caves reactivation. A limitation of conventional hydraulic fracturing in the cave mining industry is that the hydraulic fracture orientation is uncontrollable and is dictated by the minimum in situ stress orientation. The preconditioning effectiveness of orientation-uncontrollable hydraulic fractures is limited in some geotechnical conditions, and the concept of creating orientation-controllable hydraulic fractures, here termed prescribed hydraulic fractures, is proposed to fill this gap. In this paper, the feasibility of the proposed approaches to creating prescribed hydraulic fractures is presented based on previous studies and numerical modelling. The numerical modelling code reliability in simulating the hydraulic fracture propagation and reorientation process was validated by comparing with laboratory results in the reported literature. In addition, the sensitivity of the prescribed hydraulic fracturing to the in situ stress condition and rock mass properties is examined.

  5. VIRTUAL DESIGN OF A NEW TYPE OF HYDRAULIC SUPPORT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Using virtual reality to design a new type of hydraulic support is discussed. That is how to make use of the virtual design to develop coal mining machine in practice. The advantages of virtual design are studied and the simple virtual reality system is built. The 3D parts and elements of hydraulic support are modeled with parametric design in CAD software, then exported to VR environment, in which the virtual hydraulic support is assembled, operated and tested. With the method, the errors and faults of design can be fined easily, many improvements are made and the new hydraulic support is developed successfully.

  6. Predictive Maintenance of Hydraulic Lifts through Lubricating Oil Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatios S. Kalligeros

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the possibility of measuring lift maintenance through analysis of used hydraulic oil. Hydraulic oils have proved to be a reliable indicator for the maintenance performed on elevators. It has also been proved that the end users or the maintenance personnel do not always conform to the instructions of the elevators’ hydraulic machine manufacturer. Furthermore, by examining the proportion of the metals, an estimation of the corrosion and the wear resistance of the joined moving parts can be observed. Additionally, the presence of chlorine and calcium in hydraulic oils demonstrates their function in a highly corrosive environment.

  7. Quantifying the Efficiency Advantages of High Viscosity Index Hydraulic Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian D. Neveu; Michael D. Zink; Alex Tsay

    2006-01-01

    By providing higher in- use viscosity at elevated operating temperatures, hydraulic fluids with high viscosity index improve the efficiency of the hydraulic system. For mobile hydraulic equipment this efficiency can be quantified as an increase in fuel economy. This paper reviews the research that demonstrates these efficiency advantages in gear, vane and piston pumps and presents a method for predicting the overall fuel economy for a fleet of hydraulic equipment in opquipment operator to easily improve the performance of the system and reduce fuel consumption.

  8. Singular perturbation approach for control of hydraulically driven flexible manipulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guang; WU Min

    2005-01-01

    The hydraulic flexible manipulator system is divided into two parts: flexible arm dynamics and hydraulic servomechanism, a driving Jacobian is derived to connect these two parts. Taking hydraulic actuator force as virtual input, a singular perturbed composite model is formulated and used to design composite controllers for the flexible link, in which the slow subsystem controller dominates the trajectory tracking, and then a fast controller is designed to damp out the vibration of the flexible structure. Moreover, the backstepping technique is applied to regulate the spool position of a hydraulic valve to provide the required force. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the presented approach.

  9. Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources: Update on EPA Hydraulic Fracturing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural gas plays a key role in our nation's energy future and the process known as hydraulic fracturing (HF) is one way of accessing that resource. Over the past few years, several key technical, economic, and energy developments have spurred increased use of HF for gas extracti...

  10. Development of A Hydraulic Drive for a novel Diesel-Hydraulic system for Large commercial Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecki, J. S.; Conrad, Finn; Matheson, P.;

    2002-01-01

    The objectives and results of the research project Hybrid Diesel-Hydraulic System for Large commercial vehicles, e.g. urban freight delivery, buses or garbage trucks. The paper presents and discusses the research and development of the system, modelling approach and results from preliminary...

  11. Development of A Hydraulic Drive for a novel Diesel-Hydraulic system for Large commercial Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecki, J. S.; Conrad, Finn; Matheson, P.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives and results of the research project Hybrid Diesel-Hydraulic System for Large commercial vehicles, e.g. urban freight delivery, buses or garbage trucks. The paper presents and discusses the research and development of the system, modelling approach and results from preliminary...... performance tests on a 10 ton vehicle....

  12. Irradiated cocoa beans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashby, R.; Tesh, J.M.

    1982-11-01

    Groups of 40 male and 40 female CD rats were fed powdered rodent diet containing 25% (w/w) of either non-irradiated, irradiated or fumigated cocoa beans. The diets were supplemented with certain essential dietary constituents designed to satisfy normal nutritional requirements. An additional 40 male and 40 female rats received basal rodent diet alone (ground) and acted as an untreated control. After 70 days of treatment, 15 male and 15 female rats from each group were used to assess reproductive function of the F/sub 0/ animals and growth and development of the F/sub 1/ offspring up to weaning; the remaining animals were killed after 91 days of treatment.

  13. Irradiated brown dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Casewell, S L; Lawrie, K A; Maxted, P F L; Dobbie, P D; Napiwotzki, R

    2014-01-01

    We have observed the post common envelope binary WD0137-349 in the near infrared $J$, $H$ and $K$ bands and have determined that the photometry varies on the system period (116 min). The amplitude of the variability increases with increasing wavelength, indicating that the brown dwarf in the system is likely being irradiated by its 16500 K white dwarf companion. The effect of the (primarily) UV irradiation on the brown dwarf atmosphere is unknown, but it is possible that stratospheric hazes are formed. It is also possible that the brown dwarf (an L-T transition object) itself is variable due to patchy cloud cover. Both these scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for further study are made.

  14. Space shuttle with common fuel tank for liquid rocket booster and main engines (supertanker space shuttle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    An operation and schedule enhancement is shown that replaces the four-body cluster (Space Shuttle Orbiter (SSO), external tank, and two solid rocket boosters) with a simpler two-body cluster (SSO and liquid rocket booster/external tank). At staging velocity, the booster unit (liquid-fueled booster engines and vehicle support structure) is jettisoned while the remaining SSO and supertank continues on to orbit. The simpler two-bodied cluster reduces the processing and stack time until SSO mate from 57 days (for the solid rocket booster) to 20 days (for the liquid rocket booster). The areas in which liquid booster systems are superior to solid rocket boosters are discussed. Alternative and future generation vehicles are reviewed to reveal greater performance and operations enhancements with more modifications to the current methods of propulsion design philosophy, e.g., combined cycle engines, and concentric propellant tanks.

  15. Shuttle Ground Support Equipment (GSE) T-0 Umbilical to Space Shuttle Program (SSP) Flight Elements Consultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timmy R.; Kichak, Robert A.; McManamen, John P.; Kramer-White, Julie; Raju, Ivatury S.; Beil, Robert J.; Weeks, John F.; Elliott, Kenny B.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was tasked with assessing the validity of an alternate opinion that surfaced during the investigation of recurrent failures at the Space Shuttle T-0 umbilical interface. The most visible problem occurred during the Space Transportation System (STS)-112 launch when pyrotechnics used to separate Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) Hold-Down Post (HDP) frangible nuts failed to fire. Subsequent investigations recommended several improvements to the Ground Support Equipment (GSE) and processing changes were implemented, including replacement of ground-half cables and connectors between flights, along with wiring modifications to make critical circuits quad-redundant across the interface. The alternate opinions maintained that insufficient data existed to exonerate the design, that additional data needed to be gathered under launch conditions, and that the interface should be further modified to ensure additional margin existed to preclude failure. The results of the assessment are contained in this report.

  16. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on

  17. [Hydraulic fracturing - a hazard for drinking water?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, U; Gordalla, B; Frimmel, F

    2013-11-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is a technique used to release and promote the extraction of natural gas (including shale gas, tight gas, and coal bed methane) from deep natural gas deposits. Among the German public there is great concern with regard to the potential environmental impacts of fracking including the contamination of ground water, the most important source of drinking water in Germany. In the present article the risks of ground water contamination through fracking are discussed. Due to the present safety requirements and the obligatory geological and hydrogeological scrutiny of the underground, which has to be performed prior to fracking, the risk of ground water contamination by fracking can be regarded as very low. The toxicity of chemical additives of fracking fluids is discussed. It is recommended that in the future environmental impact assessment and approval of fracs should be performed by the mining authorities in close cooperation with the water authorities. Furthermore, it is recommended that hydraulic fracturing in the future should be accompanied by obligatory ground water monitoring.

  18. Thermal Hydraulic Tests for Reactor Core Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, S. K.; Baek, W. P.; Chun, S. Y. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The main objectives of the present project are to resolve the current issues of reactor core thermal hydraulics, to develop an advanced measurement and analytical techniques, and to perform reactor core safety verification tests. 6x6 reflood experiments, various heat transfer experiments using Freon, and experiments on the spacer grids effects on the post-dryout are carried out using spacer grids developed in Korea in order to resolve the current issues of the reactor core thermal hydraulics. In order to develop a reflood heat transfer model, the detailed reflood phenomena are visualized and measured using round tube and 2x2 rod bundle. A detailed turbulent mixing phenomenon for subchannels is measured using advanced measurement techniques such as LDV and PIV. MARS and MATRA codes developed in Korea are assessed, verified and improved using the obtained experimental data. Finally, a systematic quality assurance program and experimental data generation system has been constructed in order to increase the reliability of the experimental data.

  19. Smart magnetic markers use in hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Jarosław; Bogacki, Jan

    2016-11-01

    One of the main challenges and unknowns during shale gas exploration is to assess the range and efficiency of hydraulic fracturing. It is also essential to assess the distribution of proppant, which keeps the fracture pathways open. Solving these problems may considerably increase the efficiency of the shale gas extraction. Because of that, the idea of smart magnetic marker, which can be detected when added to fracturing fluid, has been considered for a long time. This study provides overview of the possibilities of magnetic marker application for shale gas extraction. The imaging methods using electromagnetic markers, are considered or developed in two directions. The first possibility is the markers' electromagnetic activity throughout the whole volume of the fracturing fluid. Thus, it can be assumed that the whole fracturing fluid is the marker. Among these type of hydraulic fracturing solutions, ferrofluid could be considered. The second possibility is marker, which is just one of many components of the fracturing fluid. In this case feedstock magnetic materials, ferrites and nanomaterials could be considered. Magnetic properties of magnetite could be too low and ferrofluids' or nanomaterials' price is unacceptably high. Because of that, ferrites, especially ZnMn ferrites seems to be the best material for magnetic marker. Because of the numerous applications in electronics, it is cheap and easily available, although the price is higher, then that of magnetite. The disadvantage of using ferrite, could be too small mechanical strength. It creates an essential need for combining magnetic marker with proppant into magnetic-ceramic composite.

  20. USE OF GEOSYNTHETIC CASINGS IN HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyavskiy Semen Avraamovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the use of geosynthetic casings in hydraulic engineering. The authors describe the structure of earth dams that have geosynthetic casings used as the reinforcement of downstream slopes. Results of stability calculations are provided. The authors consider several examples of effective application of advanced geosynthetic materials used in combination with local building materials as structural elements of hydraulic engineering facilities. Their analysis has demonstrated a strong potential and expediency of application of geosynthetic casings in the course of construction and renovation of low-pressure earth dams. The authors have also developed a new structure of an earth dam. The new earth dam has geosynthetic casings used as structural reinforcing elements of the crown and the downstream slope. The dam structure contemplates the overflow of high water. The structural strengths of the proposed solution include a smaller material consumption rate, lower labour intensiveness and cost of the slope reinforcement due to the application of local building materials used to fill the casings, fast and easy depositing of slope reinforcing elements, and high workability of its dismantling for repair purposes. The authors have also completed the analysis of stability of geosynthetic casings of downstream slopes of an earth dam. The analysis has proven high efficiency of a small slope ratio in combination with its anchorage and reinforcement of the downstream toe with the help of high-strength geogrids.

  1. Laminar circular hydraulic jumps without separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Ratul; Tomar, Gaurav; Govindarajan, Rama

    2009-11-01

    The traditional inviscid criterion for the occurrence of a planar, standing hydraulic jump is to have the Froude number decrease downstream and go through a value of 1 at some location. Here, upstream propagating, small-amplitude, long, non-dispersive gravity waves are trapped, and non-linear steepening is said to result in a near-discontinuous height profile, but it is not clear how. Such a condition on the Froude number is shown in the present axisymmetric Navier-Stokes computations to hold for a circular jump as well. The relevance of non-linear steepening to a circular jump is therefore a question we wish to answer. In circular jumps, moreover, a region of recirculation is usually observed underneath the jump, underlining the importance of viscosity in this process. This led Tani (J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 1949) to hypothesise that boundary-layer separation was the cause of the circular jump. This hypothesis has been debated extensively and the possibility of circular jumps without separation hinted at. In our simulations, we are able to obtain circular hydraulic jumps without any flow separation. This, and the necessity or otherwise of viscosity in jump formation will be discussed.

  2. Drainage hydraulics of permeable friction courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbeneau, Randall J.; Barrett, Michael E.

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes solutions to the hydraulic equations that govern flow in permeable friction courses (PFC). PFC is a layer of porous asphalt approximately 50 mm thick that is placed as an overlay on top of an existing conventional concrete or asphalt road surface to help control splash and hydroplaning, reduce noise, and enhance quality of storm water runoff. The primary objective of this manuscript is to present an analytical system of equations that can be used in design and analysis of PFC systems. The primary assumptions used in this analysis are that the flow can be modeled as one-dimensional, steady state Darcy-type flow and that slopes are sufficiently small so that the Dupuit-Forchheimer assumptions apply. Solutions are derived for cases where storm water drainage is confined to the PFC bed and for conditions where the PFC drainage capacity is exceeded and ponded sheet flow occurs across the pavement surface. The mathematical solutions provide the drainage characteristics (depth and residence time) as a function of rainfall intensity, PFC hydraulic conductivity, pavement slope, and maximum drainage path length.

  3. Hydraulic fracture model comparison study: Complete results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warpinski, N.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abou-Sayed, I.S. [Mobil Exploration and Production Services (United States); Moschovidis, Z. [Amoco Production Co. (US); Parker, C. [CONOCO (US)

    1993-02-01

    Large quantities of natural gas exist in low permeability reservoirs throughout the US. Characteristics of these reservoirs, however, make production difficult and often economic and stimulation is required. Because of the diversity of application, hydraulic fracture design models must be able to account for widely varying rock properties, reservoir properties, in situ stresses, fracturing fluids, and proppant loads. As a result, fracture simulation has emerged as a highly complex endeavor that must be able to describe many different physical processes. The objective of this study was to develop a comparative study of hydraulic-fracture simulators in order to provide stimulation engineers with the necessary information to make rational decisions on the type of models most suited for their needs. This report compares the fracture modeling results of twelve different simulators, some of them run in different modes for eight separate design cases. Comparisons of length, width, height, net pressure, maximum width at the wellbore, average width at the wellbore, and average width in the fracture have been made, both for the final geometry and as a function of time. For the models in this study, differences in fracture length, height and width are often greater than a factor of two. In addition, several comparisons of the same model with different options show a large variability in model output depending upon the options chosen. Two comparisons were made of the same model run by different companies; in both cases the agreement was good. 41 refs., 54 figs., 83 tabs.

  4. Formed Core Sampler Hydraulic Conductivity Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D. H.; Reigel, M. M.

    2012-09-25

    A full-scale formed core sampler was designed and functionally tested for use in the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to compare properties of the formed core samples and core drilled samples taken from adjacent areas in the full-scale sampler. While several physical properties were evaluated, the primary property of interest was hydraulic conductivity. Differences in hydraulic conductivity between the samples from the formed core sampler and those representing the bulk material were noted with respect to the initial handling and storage of the samples. Due to testing conditions, the site port samples were exposed to uncontrolled temperature and humidity conditions prior to testing whereas the formed core samples were kept in sealed containers with minimal exposure to an uncontrolled environment prior to testing. Based on the results of the testing, no significant differences in porosity or density were found between the formed core samples and those representing the bulk material in the test stand.

  5. Regulation of food irradiation and detection of irradiated food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.B. [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    1998-12-31

    The main international standards for irradiated foods are those produced by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The international regulatory environment is now favourable towards irradiated foods. Most countries still regulate on a food-by-food, case-by-case basis. However in Asia there is movement towards a Harmonised Regulation for Irradiated Foods. The WHO believes that irradiated foods may be safely irradiated at any dose above 10 kGy. This may lead to the Codex maximum dose being raised or abandoned. If this occurs there are opportunities to produce shelf-stable foods in lightweight packaging that last for years at room temperature. Detection methods for irradiated foods are now available and may assist to reassure consumers that labelling regulations can be enforced. (author)

  6. ATF Neutron Irradiation Program Irradiation Vehicle Design Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geringer, J. W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Howard, Richard H. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Cetiner, N. O. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Petrie, Christian M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; Smith, Kurt R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division; McDuffee, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division

    2016-03-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) under the Civil Nuclear Energy Working Group (CNWG) is engaged in a cooperative research effort with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to explore issues related to nuclear energy, including research on accident-tolerant fuels and materials for use in light water reactors. This work develops a draft technical plan for a neutron irradiation program on the candidate accident-tolerant fuel cladding materials and elements using the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The research program requires the design of a detailed experiment, development of test vehicles, irradiation of test specimens, possible post irradiation examination and characterization of irradiated materials and the shipment of irradiated materials to Japan. This report discusses the conceptual design, the development and irradiation of the test vehicles.

  7. Gemstone dedicated gamma irradiation development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omi, Nelson M.; Rela, Paulo R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: nminoru@ipen.br; prela@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    The gemstones gamma irradiation process to enhance the color is widely accepted for the jewelry industry. These gems are processed in conventional industrial gamma irradiation plant which are optimized for other purposes, using underwater irradiation devices with high rejection rate due to its poor dose uniformity. A new conception design, which states the working principles and manufacturing ways of the device, was developed in this work. The suggested device's design is based on the rotation of cylindrical baskets and their translation in circular paths inside and outside a cylindrical source rack as a planetary system. The device is meant to perform the irradiation in the bottom of the source storage pool, where the sources remain always shielded by the water layer. The irradiator matches the Category III IAEA classification. To verify the physical viability of the basic principle, tests with rotating cylindrical baskets were performed in the Multipurpose Irradiator constructed in the CTR, IPEN. Also, simulations using the CADGAMMA software, adapted to simulate underwater irradiations, were performed. With the definitive optimized irradiator, the irradiation quality will be enhanced with better dose control and the production costs will be significantly lower than market prices due to the intended treatment device's optimization. This work presents some optimization parameters and the expected performance of the irradiator. (author)

  8. Advanced Microbial Check Valve development. [for Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, G. V.; Greenley, D. R.; Putnam, D. F.; Sauer, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Microbial Check Valve (MCV) is a flight qualified assembly that provides bacteriologically safe drinking water for the Space Shuttle. The 1-lb unit is basically a canister packed with an iodinated ion-exchange resin. The device is used to destroy organisms in a water stream as the water passes through it. It is equally effective for fluid flow in either direction and its primary method of disinfection is killing rather than filtering. The MCV was developed to disinfect the fuel cell water and to prevent back contamination of stored potable water on the Space Shuttle. This paper reports its potential for space applications beyond the basic Shuttle mission. Data are presented that indicate the MCV is suitable for use in advanced systems that NASA has under development for the reclamation of humidity condensate, wash water and human urine.

  9. Effect of speedup delay on shuttle bus schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    We study the bus schedule in the shuttle bus transportation system controlled by speedup. The bus schedule is closely related to the dynamic motion of the bus. The motion of a shuttle bus depends on the inflow rate of passengers and the delayed speedup control. The delayed speedup control has an important effect on the dynamic motion of the bus. We present the delayed map model for the dynamics of the shuttle bus with the delayed speedup control. The bus motion changes from a stable state, through a periodic state, to a quasi-periodic state by the delayed speedup control. The return map of the tour time displays a smooth closed curve and the bus motion is quasi-periodic. The dynamic transition to the quasi-periodic motion changes greatly with the delay time. We clarify the effect of the delayed speedup control on the bus schedule.

  10. Maintaining space shuttle safety within an environment of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Michael A.

    1999-09-01

    In the 10 years since the Challenger accident, NASA has developed a set of stable and capable processes to prepare the Space Shuttle for safe launch and return. Capitalizing on the extensive experience gained from a string of over 50 successful flights, NASA today is changing the way it does business in an effort to reduce cost. A single Shuttle Flight Operations Contractor (SFOC) has been chosen to operate the Shuttle. The Government role will change from direct "oversight" to "insight" gained through understanding and measuring the contractor's processes. This paper describes the program management changes underway and the NASA Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) organization's philosophy, role, and methodology for pursuing this new approach. It describes how audit and surveillance will replace direct oversight and how meaningful performance metrics will be implemented.

  11. Dynamic characterization and analysis of space shuttle SRM solid propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufferd, W. L.

    1979-01-01

    The dynamic response properties of the space shuttle solid rocket moter (TP-H1148) propellant were characterized and the expected limits of propellant variability were established. Dynamic shear modulus tests conducted on six production batches of TP-H1148 at various static and dynamic strain levels over the temperature range from 40 F to 90 F. A heat conduction analysis and dynamic response analysis of the space shuttle solid rocket motor (SRM) were also conducted. The dynamic test results show significant dependence on static and dynamic strain levels and considerable batch-to-batch and within-batch variability. However, the results of the SRM dynamic response analyses clearly demonstrate that the stiffness of the propellant has no consequential on the overall SRM dynamic response. Only the mass of the propellant needs to be considered in the dynamic analysis of the space shuttle SRM.

  12. Redox shuttles for overcharge protection of lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amine, Khalil; Chen, Zonghai; Wang, Qingzheng

    2010-12-14

    The present invention is generally related to electrolytes containing novel redox shuttles for overcharge protection of lithium-ion batteries. The redox shuttles are capable of thousands hours of overcharge tolerance and have a redox potential at about 3-5.5 V vs. Li and particularly about 4.4-4.8 V vs. Li. Accordingly, in one aspect the invention provides electrolytes comprising an alkali metal salt; a polar aprotic solvent; and a redox shuttle additive that is an aromatic compound having at least one aromatic ring with four or more electronegative substituents, two or more oxygen atoms bonded to the aromatic ring, and no hydrogen atoms bonded to the aromatic ring; and wherein the electrolyte solution is substantially non-aqueous. Further there are provided electrochemical devices employing the electrolyte and methods of making the electrolyte.

  13. Origin and development of ablator for Space Shuttle external tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquillo, L.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle External Tank (ET) represents the largest element of the Space Shuttle transportation system. The ET is the fuel tank which contains cryogenic propellants, including liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. The task of providing a suitable Thermal Protection System (TPS) which is mass producible for the ET represented a challenge for the aerospace industry. The difficulties were compounded by stringent insulation and ablation requirements for the materials to maintain their integrity over a wide range of operating temperatures during prelaunch and ascent. Attention is given to the configuration of the Space Shuttle system, the configuration of the external tank, the initial ET TPS concept, TPS materials and processes concepts, design rationale, TPS materials structural considerations, material and processes development, development tests, material/process verification, and flight results.

  14. Reusable, flyback liquid rocket booster for the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Mark G.

    1989-08-01

    This paper outlines a preliminary design for an unmanned, reusable, flyback liquid rocket booster (LRB) as an evolutionary follow-on to the Shuttle solid rocket booster (SRB). Previous Shuttle liquid-propellant booster concepts are reviewed in order to gain insight into these designs. The operating costs, environmental impacts, and abort options of the SRB are discussed. The LRB flight profile and advantages of LRB use are discussed. The preliminary design for the LRB is outlined in detail using calculations and drawings. This design maximizes the use of existing hardware and proven technology to minimize cost and development time. The LRB design is presented as a more capable, more environmentally acceptable, and safer Shuttle booster.

  15. Managing Toxicological Risks: The Legacy of Shuttle Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Space toxicology greatly matured as a result of research and operations associated with the Shuttle. Materials offgassing had been a manageable concern since the Apollo days, but we learned to pay careful attention to compounds that could escape containment, to combustion events, to toxic propellants, to overuse of utility compounds, and to microbial and human metabolites. We also learned that flying real-time hardware to monitor air pollutants was a pathway with unanticipated speed bumps. Each new orbiter was tested for any excess offgassing products that could pollute the air during flight. In the late 1990s toxicologists and safety experts developed a 5-level toxicity rating system to guide containment of toxic compounds. This system is now in use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Several combustion events during Shuttle Mir and also during Shuttle free-flight impelled toxicologists to identify hardware capable of monitoring toxic products; however, rapid adaptation of the hardware for the unique conditions of spaceflight caused unexpected missteps. Current and planned combustion analyzers would be useful to commercial partners that wish to manage the risk of health effects from thermal events. Propellants received special attention during the Shuttle program because of the possibility of bringing them into the habitable volume on extravehicular activity suits. Monitors for the airlocks were developed to mitigate this risk. Utility materials, such as lubricants, posed limited toxicological problems because water was not recovered. One clearly documented case of microbial metabolites polluting the Shuttle atmosphere was noted, and this has implications for commercial flights and control of microbes. Finally, carbon dioxide, the major human metabolite, episodically presented air quality problems aboard Shuttle, especially when nominal air flows were obstructed. Commercial vehicles must maintain robust air circulation given the anticipated high density

  16. Maintaining Optimum Pump Performance with Specially- Formulated Hydraulic Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a battery of tests, and related results, that were performed under normal and severe conditions designed to demonstrate that hydraulic fluids formulated with Lubrizol' s high quality anti - wear hydraulic fluid technology can stand up to today's increasing demands for longer life and provide excellent performance under higher operating temperatures and pressures.

  17. THE THEORETICAL MODEL FOR PREDICTING CIRCULATION VELOCITY OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英林; 侯春生

    1997-01-01

    By rational hypothesis of fluid flow pattern, applied the law of conservation of energy and integrated the laboratory test results, finished the prediction by the theoretical model of circulation velocity of hydraulic brake which is important parameter. Thus provide the theoritical basis for hydraulic brake of belt conveyor whose research has just been started.

  18. 49 CFR 570.55 - Hydraulic brake system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... parking brake and turn the ignition to start to verify that the brake system failure indicator lamp is... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic brake system. 570.55 Section 570.55... 10,000 Pounds § 570.55 Hydraulic brake system. The following requirements apply to vehicles...

  19. Design of Transputer Controllers for Hydraulic Actuator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with how transputers can be applied for fast controllers for hydraulic actuator systems. A general transputer-based control systems including a data acquisition transputer subsystem is presented. An application case: development of a mechatronic test facility with a fast hydraulic...

  20. Hydraulic Systems with Tap Water versus Bio-oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1997-01-01

    Deals with the advantages of using pure tap water hydraulics versus bio-oils for suiteable applications. Focus is in particular on food processing industry.......Deals with the advantages of using pure tap water hydraulics versus bio-oils for suiteable applications. Focus is in particular on food processing industry....

  1. 46 CFR 58.30-10 - Hydraulic fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manufacturers and ANSI B93.5 (incorporated by reference; see 46 CFR 58.03-1) shall be considered in the... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic fluid. 58.30-10 Section 58.30-10 Shipping... AND RELATED SYSTEMS Fluid Power and Control Systems § 58.30-10 Hydraulic fluid. (a) The...

  2. Hydraulic analysis of cell-network treatment wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaguo; Jawitz, James W.

    2006-11-01

    SummaryWhen individual cells of a multiple-cell treatment wetland are hydraulically connected, the wetland has a cell-network structure. The hydraulic performance of treatment wetlands is often characterized using tracer residence time distributions (RTDs) measured between the wetland inlet and outlet, such that the wetland is considered as a single hydraulic unit, regardless of the extent of networking between individual internal cells. This work extends the single hydraulic unit approach to enable the specification of moments and RTD parameters for individual cells, or clusters of cells, within the cell-network based on inert tracer tests with injection only at the network inlet. Hydraulic performance is quantified in terms of hydraulic efficiency and travel time dimensionless variance using both the method of moments and RTD modeling. Cell-network analysis was applied to a case study from the Orlando Easterly Wetland (OEW), demonstrating the improvement in hydraulic performance of individual wetland cells following wetland restoration activities. Furthermore, cell-network analysis indicated that the location of water quality sampling station locations within the cell network can significantly affect the accuracy of pollutant removal effectiveness estimation when the individual sample station RTD does not represent the hydraulic unit RTD. At the OEW, it was determined that historical nutrient removal effectiveness estimation may be underestimated for one area and overestimated for another, and recommendations were provided for sample station locations to minimize future performance estimation errors.

  3. Modeling and parameter estimation for hydraulic system of excavator's arm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Qing-hua; HAO Peng; ZHANG Da-qing

    2008-01-01

    A retrofitted electro-bydraulic proportional system for hydraulic excavator was introduced firstly. According to the principle and characteristic of load independent flow distribution(LUDV)system, taking boom hydraulic system as an example and ignoring the leakage of hydraulic cylinder and the mass of oil in it,a force equilibrium equation and a continuous equation of hydraulic cylinder were set up.Based On the flow equation of electro-hydraulic proportional valve, the pressure passing through the valve and the difference of pressure were tested and analyzed.The results show that the difference of pressure does not change with load, and it approximates to 2.0 MPa. And then, assume the flow across the valve is directly proportional to spool displacement andis not influenced by load, a simplified model of electro-hydraulic system was put forward. At the same time, by analyzing the structure and load-bearing of boom instrument, and combining moment equivalent equation of manipulator with rotating law, the estimation methods and equations for such parameters as equivalent mass and bearing force of hydraulic cylinder were set up. Finally, the step response of flow of boom cylinder was tested when the electro-hydraulic proportional valve was controlled by the stepcurrent. Based on the experiment curve, the flow gain coefficient of valve is identified as 2.825×10-4m3/(s·A)and the model is verified.

  4. Application of Ferrography to Fault Diagnosis of Hydraulic Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with research on the successful use of ferrography as a wear measurement method for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of hydraulic systems.The analysis program and progression is discussed, and a case study for condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of hydraulic systems by means of ferrography is also reviewed.

  5. Hydraulic drive and control system of the cone collecting robot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kong Qinghua; Liu Jinhao; Lu Huaimin

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the basic structure and design and operation principle of the hydraulic drive and control system with two pumps and two circuits. The manipulator of the cone collecting robot designed is full driven by hydraulic, which has five freedoms. The computer and electrohydraulic proportion velocity regulating valve were installed to realize open loop serve control for reducing cost and easy application.

  6. Performances of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongying; Luo, Changjie; Wang, Huimin

    2012-07-01

    The current research of a balanced hydraulic motor focuses on the characteristics of the motor with three planet gears. References of a balanced hydraulic motor with more than three planet gears are hardly found. In order to study the characteristics of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train that includes more than three planet gears, on the basis of analysis of the structure and working principle of a balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train, formulas are deduced for calculating the hydraulic motor's primary performance indexes such as displacement, unit volume displacement, flowrate fluctuation ratio, etc. Influences of the gears' tooth number on displacement and flowrate characteristics are analyzed. In order to guarantee the reliability of sealing capability, the necessary conditions that tooth number of the sun gear and the planet gears should satisfy are discussed. Selecting large unit volume displacement and small displacement fluctuation ratio as designing objectives, a balanced hydraulic motor with three planet gears and a common gear motor are designed under the conditions of same displacement, tooth addendum coefficien and clearance coefficient. By comparing the unit volume displacement and fluctuation ratio of the two motors, it can be seen that the balanced hydraulic motor with planetary gear train has the advantages of smaller fluctuation ratio and larger unit volume displacement. The results provide theoretical basis for choosing gear tooth-number of this kind of hydraulic motor.

  7. Tap Water Hydraulic Systems for Medium Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of new range of developed tap water hydraulic componets and applications for medium power up to 4 kW and 50 bar.......Presentation of new range of developed tap water hydraulic componets and applications for medium power up to 4 kW and 50 bar....

  8. FEASIBILITY OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OF SOILS TO IMPROVE REMEDIAL ACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing, a technique commonly used to increase the yields of oil wells, could improve the effectiveness of several methods of in situ remediation. This project consisted of laboratory and field tests in which hydraulic fractures were created in soil. Laboratory te...

  9. 14 CFR 35.43 - Propeller hydraulic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Propeller hydraulic components. 35.43 Section 35.43 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.43 Propeller hydraulic components....

  10. Efficiency limit factor analysis for the Francis-99 hydraulic turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Y.; Zhang, L. X.; Guo, J. P.; Guo, Y. K.; Pan, Q. L.; Qian, J.

    2017-01-01

    The energy loss in hydraulic turbine is the most direct factor that affects the efficiency of the hydraulic turbine. Based on the analysis theory of inner energy loss of hydraulic turbine, combining the measurement data of the Francis-99, this paper calculates characteristic parameters of inner energy loss of the hydraulic turbine, and establishes the calculation model of the hydraulic turbine power. Taken the start-up test conditions given by Francis-99 as case, characteristics of the inner energy of the hydraulic turbine in transient and transformation law are researched. Further, analyzing mechanical friction in hydraulic turbine, we think that main ingredients of mechanical friction loss is the rotation friction loss between rotating runner and water body, and defined as the inner mechanical friction loss. The calculation method of the inner mechanical friction loss is given roughly. Our purpose is that explore and research the method and way increasing transformation efficiency of water flow by means of analysis energy losses in hydraulic turbine.

  11. Geomorphic Segmentation, Hydraulic Geometry, and Hydraulic Microhabitats of the Niobrara River, Nebraska - Methods and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Jason S.; Zelt, Ronald B.; Schaepe, Nathaniel J.

    2009-01-01

    The Niobrara River of Nebraska is a geologically, ecologically, and economically significant resource. The State of Nebraska has recognized the need to better manage the surface- and ground-water resources of the Niobrara River so they are sustainable in the long term. In cooperation with the Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, the U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the hydrogeomorphic settings and hydraulic geometry of the Niobrara River to assist in characterizing the types of broad-scale physical habitat attributes that may be of importance to the ecological resources of the river system. This report includes an inventory of surface-water and ground-water hydrology data, surface water-quality data, a longitudinal geomorphic segmentation and characterization of the main channel and its valley, and hydraulic geometry relations for the 330-mile section of the Niobrara River from Dunlap Diversion Dam in western Nebraska to the Missouri River confluence. Hydraulic microhabitats also were analyzed using available data from discharge measurements to demonstrate the potential application of these data and analysis methods. The main channel of the Niobrara was partitioned into three distinct fluvial geomorphic provinces: an upper province characterized by open valleys and a sinuous, equiwidth channel; a central province characterized by mixed valley and channel settings, including several entrenched canyon reaches; and a lower province where the valley is wide, yet restricted, but the river also is wide and persistently braided. Within the three fluvial geomorphic provinces, 36 geomorphic segments were identified using a customized, process-orientated classification scheme, which described the basic physical characteristics of the Niobrara River and its valley. Analysis of the longitudinal slope characteristics indicated that the Niobrara River longitudinal profile may be largely bedrock-controlled, with slope inflections co-located at changes in bedrock type at

  12. Descent guidance and mission planning for space shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosten, B. K.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle descent mission planning, mission design, deorbit targeting, and entry guidance have necessarily become interrelated because of the nature of the Orbiter's design and mission requirements. The desired descent trajectory has been formulated in a drag acceleration/relative velocity state space since nearly all of the vehicle's highly constraining flight limitations can be uniquely represented in this plane. Constraints and flight requirements that affect the descent are described. The guidance logic which allows the Orbiter to follow the designed trajectory, the impacts of contingency aborts and flightcrew interaction are discussed. The mission planning and guidance techniques remain essentially unchanged through the Shuttle flight test program and subsequent operational flights.

  13. Space Shuttle Damper System for Ground Wind Load Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, G. D.; Holt, J. R.; Chang, C. S.

    1973-01-01

    An active damper system which was originally developed for a 5.5% Saturn IB/Skylab Ground Winds Model was modified and used for similar purposes in a Space Shuttle model. A second damper system which was originally used in a 3% Saturn V/Dry Workshop model was also modified and made compatible with the Space Shuttle model to serve as a back-up system. Included in this final report are descriptions of the modified damper systems and the associated control and instrumentation.

  14. New timetable for a Regular morning and evening shuttle

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    Starting from 31 March 2008, for one month, a new timetable for a regular morning and evening shuttle serving LHC Points 2 and 5 will be put in place. You can find all the corresponding details on the FM group WEB page: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/fm/logistique/shuttle_timetable.htm Please note that during April, all other requests for transport from Meyrin and Prévessin to the LHC Points via tel. 76969 during the day (between 8:30 and 17:30) will not be met. TS/FM group Tel. 160239

  15. New timetable for a morning and evening regular shuttle

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    Starting from the 31st of March 2008 and for one month, a new timetable for a morning and evening regular shuttle serving LHC Points 2 and 5, will be put in place. You can find all the corresponding details in the FM group WEB page http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/fm/logistique/shuttle_timetable.htm Please note that during April, every other request of transfer from Meyrin and Prevessin towards LHC Points reaching the 76969 during the day (between 8:30 and 17:30) will not be satisfied. TS/FM group 160239

  16. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle (STS-4) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Batts, G. W.

    1982-01-01

    Selected atmospheric conditions observed near space shuttle STS-4 launch time on June 27, 1982, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida are summarized. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given as well as the wind and thermodynamic parameters measured at the surface and aloft in the SRB descent/impact ocean area. Final meteorological tapes, which consist of wind descent were constructed. The STS-4 ascent meteorological data tape was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center in response to shuttle task agreement No. 989-13-22-368 with Johnson Space Center.

  17. Atmospheric environment for Space Shuttle (STS-9) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Batts, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    This report presents a summary of selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-9 launch time on November 28, 1983, at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given in this report. The final meteorological tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-9 vehicle ascent has been constructed. The STS-9 ascent meteorological data tape has been constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center in response to Shuttle task agreement No. 561-81-22-368 with Johnson Space Center.

  18. Atmospheric environment for space shuttle (STS-13) launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D. L.; Hill, C. K.; Jasper, G.; Batts, G. W.

    1984-01-01

    Selected atmospheric conditions observed near Space Shuttle STS-13 launch time on April 6, 1984, at Kennedy Space Center Florida are summarized. Values of ambient pressure, temperature, moisture, ground winds, visual observations (cloud), and winds aloft are included. The sequence of prelaunch Jimsphere measured vertical wind profiles is given. The final meteorological tape, which consists of wind and thermodynamic parameters versus altitude, for STS-13 vehicle ascent was constructed by Marshall Space Flight Center in response to shuttle task agreement No. 561-81-22-368 with Johnson Space Center.

  19. Replacement Capability Options for the United States Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    first designed for reuse ” (NASA, 2000). 1. United States Space Shuttle Program (1981–2011) The first operational Space Shuttle was Columbia (OV-102...Week article on China’s future plans for their Long March Launch vehicles, “China is developing three basic rocket modules, with diameters of 2.25... wastewater , which will burn up with the spacecraft when it re-enters the Earth’s atmosphere. The Cargo Module can hold 1,000 to 1,700 kilograms (2,205

  20. Electrostatic Noise in the Plasma Environment Around the Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayner, Boris V.; Ferguson, Dale C.

    1995-01-01

    The Langmuir probe flown as part of the Solar Array Module Plasma Interactions Experiment (SAMPIE) package aboard the space shuttle flight STS-62 was used to determine plasma potential fluctuations in the vicinity of the shuttle. The broadband noise was observed at frequencies 250 - 20,000 Hz. Measurements were performed in ram conditions; thus, it seems reasonable to believe that the influence of spacecraft operations on plasma parameters was absolutely negligible. The average spectrum of fluctuations is in agreement with theoretical predictions. The influence on the observed spectra of arcing generated by high negative bias voltages applied to solar cell samples is briefly discussed.