WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydraulic rock fracturing

  1. Hydraulic conductivity of rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1994-10-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada contains numerous geological units that are highly fractured. A clear understanding of the hydraulic conductivity of fractures has been identified as an important scientific problem that must be addressed during the site characterization process. The problem of the flow of a single-phase fluid through a rough-walled rock fracture is discussed within the context of rigorous fluid mechanics. The derivation of the cubic law is given as the solution to the Navier-Stokes equations for flow between smooth, parallel plates, the only fracture geometry that is amenable to exact treatment. The various geometric and kinetic conditions that are necessary in order for the Navier-Stokes equations to be replaced by the more tractable lubrication or Hele-Shaw equations are studied and quantified. Various analytical and numerical results are reviewed pertaining to the problem of relating the effective hydraulic aperture to the statistics of the aperture distribution. These studies all lead to the conclusion that the effective hydraulic aperture is always less than the mean aperture, by a factor that depends on the ratio of the mean value of the aperture to its standard deviation. The tortuosity effect caused by regions where the rock walls are in contact with each other is studied using the Hele-Shaw equations, leading to a simple correction factor that depends on the area fraction occupied by the contact regions. Finally, the predicted hydraulic apertures are compared to measured values for eight data sets from the literature for which aperture and conductivity data were available on the same fracture. It is found that reasonably accurate predictions of hydraulic conductivity can be made based solely on the first two moments of the aperture distribution function, and the proportion of contact area. 68 refs

  2. Hydraulic fracturing of rock-fill dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie WANG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The condition in which hydraulic fracturing in core of earth-rock fill dam maybe induced, the mechanism by which the reason of hydraulic fracturing canbe explained, and the failure criterion by which the occurrence of hydraulicfracturing can be determined, were investigated. The condition dependson material properties such as, cracks in the core and low permeability ofcore soil, and “water wedging” action in cracks. An unsaturated core soiland fast impounding are the prerequisites for the formation of “waterwedging” action. The mechanism of hydraulic fracturing can be explainedby fracture mechanics. The crack propagation induced by water pressuremay follow any of mode I, mode II and mixed mode I-II. Based on testingresults of a core soil, a new criterion for hydraulic fracturing was suggested,from which mechanisms of hydraulic fracturing in the core of rock-fill damwere discussed. The results indicated that factors such as angle betweencrack surface and direction of principal stress, local stress state at thecrack, and fracture toughness KIC of core soil may largely affect theinduction of hydraulic fracturing and the mode of the propagation of thecrack.The condition in which hydraulic fracturing in core of earth-rock fill dam maybe induced, the mechanism by which the reason of hydraulic fracturing canbe explained, and the failure criterion by which the occurrence of hydraulicfracturing can be determined, were investigated. The condition dependson material properties such as, cracks in the core and low permeability ofcore soil, and “water wedging” action in cracks. An unsaturated core soiland fast impounding are the prerequisites for the formation of “waterwedging” action. The mechanism of hydraulic fracturing can be explainedby fracture mechanics. The crack propagation induced by water pressuremay follow any of mode I, mode II and mixed mode I-II. Based on testingresults of a core soil, a new criterion for hydraulic fracturing

  3. Uncertainty in hydraulic tests in fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Sung-Hoon; Koh, Yong-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of hydraulic tests in fractured rock has uncertainty because of the different hydraulic properties of a fractured rock to a porous medium. In this study, we reviewed several interesting phenomena which show uncertainty in a hydraulic test at a fractured rock and discussed their origins and the how they should be considered during site characterisation. Our results show that the estimated hydraulic parameters of a fractured rock from a hydraulic test are associated with uncertainty due to the changed aperture and non-linear groundwater flow during the test. Although the magnitude of these two uncertainties is site-dependent, the results suggest that it is recommended to conduct a hydraulic test with a little disturbance from the natural groundwater flow to consider their uncertainty. Other effects reported from laboratory and numerical experiments such as the trapping zone effect (Boutt, 2006) and the slip condition effect (Lee, 2014) can also introduce uncertainty to a hydraulic test, which should be evaluated in a field test. It is necessary to consider the way how to evaluate the uncertainty in the hydraulic property during the site characterisation and how to apply it to the safety assessment of a subsurface repository. (authors)

  4. Hydraulic fracturing in anisotropic and heterogeneous rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valliappan, V.; Remmers, J.J.C.; Barnhoorn, A.; Smeulders, D.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a two dimensional model for modelling the hydraulic fracture process in anisotropic and heterogeneous rocks. The model is formulated using extended finite elements (XFEM) in combination with Newton-Raphson method for spatial and Euler's implicit scheme for time. The

  5. Elastic Rock Heterogeneity Controls Brittle Rock Failure during Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenbruch, C.; Shapiro, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    For interpretation and inversion of microseismic data it is important to understand, which properties of the reservoir rock control the occurrence probability of brittle rock failure and associated seismicity during hydraulic stimulation. This is especially important, when inverting for key properties like permeability and fracture conductivity. Although it became accepted that seismic events are triggered by fluid flow and the resulting perturbation of the stress field in the reservoir rock, the magnitude of stress perturbations, capable of triggering failure in rocks, can be highly variable. The controlling physical mechanism of this variability is still under discussion. We compare the occurrence of microseismic events at the Cotton Valley gas field to elastic rock heterogeneity, obtained from measurements along the treatment wells. The heterogeneity is characterized by scale invariant fluctuations of elastic properties. We observe that the elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation controls the occurrence of brittle failure. In particular, we find that the density of events is increasing with the Brittleness Index (BI) of the rock, which is defined as a combination of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. We evaluate the physical meaning of the BI. By applying geomechanical investigations we characterize the influence of fluctuating elastic properties in rocks on the probability of brittle rock failure. Our analysis is based on the computation of stress fluctuations caused by elastic heterogeneity of rocks. We find that elastic rock heterogeneity causes stress fluctuations of significant magnitude. Moreover, the stress changes necessary to open and reactivate fractures in rocks are strongly related to fluctuations of elastic moduli. Our analysis gives a physical explanation to the observed relation between elastic heterogeneity of the rock formation and the occurrence of brittle failure during hydraulic reservoir stimulations. A crucial factor for understanding

  6. An XFEM Model for Hydraulic Fracturing in Partially Saturated Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salimzadeh Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is a complex multi-physics phenomenon. Numerous analytical and numerical models of hydraulic fracturing processes have been proposed. Analytical solutions commonly are able to model the growth of a single hydraulic fracture into an initially intact, homogeneous rock mass. Numerical models are able to analyse complex problems such as multiple hydraulic fractures and fracturing in heterogeneous media. However, majority of available models are restricted to single-phase flow through fracture and permeable porous rock. This is not compatible with actual field conditions where the injected fluid does not have similar properties as the host fluid. In this study we present a fully coupled hydro-poroelastic model which incorporates two fluids i.e. fracturing fluid and host fluid. Flow through fracture is defined based on lubrication assumption, while flow through matrix is defined as Darcy flow. The fracture discontinuity in the mechanical model is captured using eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM while the fracture propagation criterion is defined through cohesive fracture model. The discontinuous matrix fluid velocity across fracture is modelled using leak-off loading which couples fracture flow and matrix flow. The proposed model has been discretised using standard Galerkin method, implemented in Matlab and verified against several published solutions. Multiple hydraulic fracturing simulations are performed to show the model robustness and to illustrate how problem parameters such as injection rate and rock permeability affect the hydraulic fracturing variables i.e. injection pressure, fracture aperture and fracture length. The results show the impact of partial saturation on leak-off and the fact that single-phase models may underestimate the leak-off.

  7. Simulating Hydraulic Fracturing: Failure in soft versus hard rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksans, J.; Koehn, D.; Toussaint, R.

    2017-12-01

    In this contribution we discuss the dynamic development of hydraulic fractures, their evolution and the resulting seismicity during fluid injection in a coupled numerical model. The model describes coupling between a solid that can fracture dynamically and a compressible fluid that can push back at the rock and open fractures. With a series of numerical simulations we show how the fracture pattern and seismicity change depending on changes in depth, injection rate, Young's Modulus and breaking strength. Our simulations indicate that the Young's Modulus has the largest influence on the fracture dynamics and also the related seismicity. Simulations of rocks with a Young's modulus smaller than 10 GPa show dominant mode I failure and a growth of fracture aperture with a decrease in Young's modulus. Simulations of rocks with a higher Young's modulus than 10 GPa show fractures with a constant aperture and fracture growth that is mainly governed by a growth in crack length and an increasing amount of mode II failure. We propose that two distinct failure regimes are observed in the simulations, above 10 GPa rocks break with a constant critical stress intensity factor whereas below 10 GPa they break reaching a critical cohesion, i.e. a critical tensile strength. These results are very important for the prediction of fracture dynamics and seismicity during fluid injection, especially since we see a transition from one failure regime to another at around 10 GPa, a Young's modulus that lies in the middle of possible values for natural shale rocks.

  8. Evaluation of scale effects on hydraulic characteristics of fractured rock using fracture network model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yuji; Sawada, Atsushi; Uchida, Masahiro; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko; Umeki, Hiroyuki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko; Ohnishi, Yuzo

    2001-01-01

    It is important to take into account scale effects on fracture geometry if the modeling scale is much larger than the in-situ observation scale. The scale effect on fracture trace length, which is the most scale dependent parameter, is investigated using fracture maps obtained at various scales in tunnel and dam sites. We found that the distribution of fracture trace length follows negative power law distribution in regardless of locations and rock types. The hydraulic characteristics of fractured rock is also investigated by numerical analysis of discrete fracture network (DFN) model where power law distribution of fracture radius is adopted. We found that as the exponent of power law distribution become larger, the hydraulic conductivity of DFN model increases and the travel time in DFN model decreases. (author)

  9. The Behaviour of Fracture Growth in Sedimentary Rocks: A Numerical Study Based on Hydraulic Fracturing Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianchong Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To capture the hydraulic fractures in heterogeneous and layered rocks, a numerical code that can consider the coupled effects of fluid flow, damage, and stress field in rocks is presented. Based on the characteristics of a typical thin and inter-bedded sedimentary reservoir, China, a series of simulations on the hydraulic fracturing are performed. In the simulations, three points, i.e., (1 confining stresses, representing the effect of in situ stresses, (2 strength of the interfaces, and (3 material properties of the layers on either side of the interface, are crucial in fracturing across interfaces between two adjacent rock layers. Numerical results show that the hydrofracture propagation within a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks is controlled by changing in situ stresses, interface properties, and lithologies. The path of the hydraulic fracture is characterized by numerous deflections, branchings, and terminations. Four types of potential interaction, i.e., penetration, arrest, T-shaped branching, and offset, between a hydrofracture and an interface within the layered rocks are formed. Discontinuous composite fracture segments resulting from out-of-plane growth of fractures provide a less permeable path for fluids, gas, and oil than a continuous planar composite fracture, which are one of the sources of the high treating pressures and reduced fracture volume.

  10. Effect of Random Natural Fractures on Hydraulic Fracture Propagation Geometry in Fractured Carbonate Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Shijie; Zhao, Haiyang; Wang, Lei; Li, Wei; Geng, Yudi; Tao, Shan; Zhang, Guangqing; Chen, Mian

    2018-02-01

    Natural fractures have a significant influence on the propagation geometry of hydraulic fractures in fractured reservoirs. True triaxial volumetric fracturing experiments, in which random natural fractures are created by placing cement blocks of different dimensions in a cuboid mold and filling the mold with additional cement to create the final test specimen, were used to study the factors that influence the hydraulic fracture propagation geometry. These factors include the presence of natural fractures around the wellbore, the dimension and volumetric density of random natural fractures and the horizontal differential stress. The results show that volumetric fractures preferentially formed when natural fractures occurred around the wellbore, the natural fractures are medium to long and have a volumetric density of 6-9%, and the stress difference is less than 11 MPa. The volumetric fracture geometries are mainly major multi-branch fractures with fracture networks or major multi-branch fractures (2-4 fractures). The angles between the major fractures and the maximum horizontal in situ stress are 30°-45°, and fracture networks are located at the intersections of major multi-branch fractures. Short natural fractures rarely led to the formation of fracture networks. Thus, the interaction between hydraulic fractures and short natural fractures has little engineering significance. The conclusions are important for field applications and for gaining a deeper understanding of the formation process of volumetric fractures.

  11. XFEM modeling of hydraulic fracture in porous rocks with natural fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Liu, ZhanLi; Zeng, QingLei; Gao, Yue; Zhuang, Zhuo

    2017-08-01

    Hydraulic fracture (HF) in porous rocks is a complex multi-physics coupling process which involves fluid flow, diffusion and solid deformation. In this paper, the extended finite element method (XFEM) coupling with Biot theory is developed to study the HF in permeable rocks with natural fractures (NFs). In the recent XFEM based computational HF models, the fluid flow in fractures and interstitials of the porous media are mostly solved separately, which brings difficulties in dealing with complex fracture morphology. In our new model the fluid flow is solved in a unified framework by considering the fractures as a kind of special porous media and introducing Poiseuille-type flow inside them instead of Darcy-type flow. The most advantage is that it is very convenient to deal with fluid flow inside the complex fracture network, which is important in shale gas extraction. The weak formulation for the new coupled model is derived based on virtual work principle, which includes the XFEM formulation for multiple fractures and fractures intersection in porous media and finite element formulation for the unified fluid flow. Then the plane strain Kristianovic-Geertsma-de Klerk (KGD) model and the fluid flow inside the fracture network are simulated to validate the accuracy and applicability of this method. The numerical results show that large injection rate, low rock permeability and isotropic in-situ stresses tend to lead to a more uniform and productive fracture network.

  12. Streaming potential modeling in fractured rock: Insights into the identification of hydraulically active fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubinet, D.; Linde, N.; Jougnot, D.; Irving, J.

    2016-05-01

    Numerous field experiments suggest that the self-potential (SP) geophysical method may allow for the detection of hydraulically active fractures and provide information about fracture properties. However, a lack of suitable numerical tools for modeling streaming potentials in fractured media prevents quantitative interpretation and limits our understanding of how the SP method can be used in this regard. To address this issue, we present a highly efficient two-dimensional discrete-dual-porosity approach for solving the fluid flow and associated self-potential problems in fractured rock. Our approach is specifically designed for complex fracture networks that cannot be investigated using standard numerical methods. We then simulate SP signals associated with pumping conditions for a number of examples to show that (i) accounting for matrix fluid flow is essential for accurate SP modeling and (ii) the sensitivity of SP to hydraulically active fractures is intimately linked with fracture-matrix fluid interactions. This implies that fractures associated with strong SP amplitudes are likely to be hydraulically conductive, attracting fluid flow from the surrounding matrix.

  13. 3D Simulation of Multiple Simultaneous Hydraulic Fractures with Different Initial Lengths in Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, X.; Rayudu, N. M.; Singh, G.

    2017-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is widely used technique for extracting shale gas. During this process, fractures with various initial lengths are induced in rock mass with hydraulic pressure. Understanding the mechanism of propagation and interaction between these induced hydraulic cracks is critical for optimizing the fracking process. In this work, numerical results are presented for investigating the effect of in-situ parameters and fluid properties on growth and interaction of multi simultaneous hydraulic fractures. A fully coupled 3D fracture simulator, TOUGH- GFEM is used for simulating the effect of different vital parameters, including in-situ stress, initial fracture length, fracture spacing, fluid viscosity and flow rate on induced hydraulic fractures growth. This TOUGH-GFEM simulator is based on 3D finite volume method (FVM) and partition of unity element method (PUM). Displacement correlation method (DCM) is used for calculating multi - mode (Mode I, II, III) stress intensity factors. Maximum principal stress criteria is used for crack propagation. Key words: hydraulic fracturing, TOUGH, partition of unity element method , displacement correlation method, 3D fracturing simulator

  14. Effect of rock rheology on fluid leak- off during hydraulic fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarushina, V. M.; Bercovici, D.; Oristaglio, M. L.

    2012-04-01

    In this communication, we evaluate the effect of rock rheology on fluid leak­off during hydraulic fracturing of reservoirs. Fluid leak-off in hydraulic fracturing is often nonlinear. The simple linear model developed by Carter (1957) for flow of fracturing fluid into a reservoir has three different regions in the fractured zone: a filter cake on the fracture face, formed by solid additives from the fracturing fluid; a filtrate zone affected by invasion of the fracturing fluid; and a reservoir zone with the original formation fluid. The width of each zone, as well as its permeability and pressure drop, is assumed to remain constant. Physical intuition suggests some straightforward corrections to this classical theory to take into account the pressure dependence of permeability, the compressibility or non-Newtonian rheology of fracturing fluid, and the radial (versus linear) geometry of fluid leak­off from the borehole. All of these refinements, however, still assume that the reservoir rock adjacent to the fracture face is non­deformable. Although the effect of poroelastic stress changes on leak-off is usually thought to be negligible, at the very high fluid pressures used in hydraulic fracturing, where the stresses exceed the rock strength, elastic rheology may not be the best choice. For example, calculations show that perfectly elastic rock formations do not undergo the degree of compaction typically seen in sedimentary basins. Therefore, pseudo-elastic or elastoplastic models are used to fit observed porosity profiles with depth. Starting from balance equations for mass and momentum for fluid and rock, we derive a hydraulic flow equation coupled with a porosity equation describing rock compaction. The result resembles a pressure diffusion equation with the total compressibility being a sum of fluid, rock and pore-space compressibilities. With linear elastic rheology, the bulk formation compressibility is dominated by fluid compressibility. But the possibility

  15. Hydraulic fracturing rock stress measurement at Haestholmen, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljunggren, C.; Klasson, H.

    1992-12-01

    This report presents hydraulic fracturing measurements in two boreholes located on the Haestholmen island near Loviisa, Finland. The aim of the measurements was to provide stress data, forming input for the design of an underground facility for disposal of low- and medium-level waste as well as future plant decommissioning radioactive waste from the IVO reactor units situated on Haestholmen. The theoretical background to the hydrofracturing method is summarized, as is the equipment and experimental procedures used in the present case. All results obtained are presented and critically discussed. The final stress parameters presented are magnitudes and directions of the maximum and minimum horizontal stresses. Testing was successfully completed according to schedule in both boreholes.(orig.)

  16. Finite element simulations of interactions between multiple hydraulic fractures in a poroelastic rock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salimzadeh, Saeed; Usui, Tomoya; Paluszny, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    A fully coupled three-dimensional finite-element model for hydraulic fractures in permeable rocks is presented, and used to investigate the ranges of applicability of the classical analytical solutions that are known to be valid in limiting cases. This model simultaneously accounts for fluid flow...

  17. Three-Dimensional poroelastic effects during hydraulic fracturing in permeable rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salimzadeh, Saeed; Paluszny, Adriana; Zimmerman, Robert W.

    2017-01-01

    A fully coupled three-dimensional finite-element model for hydraulic fractures in permeable rocks is presented, and used to investigate the ranges of applicability of the classical analytical solutions that are known to be valid in limiting cases. This model simultaneously accounts for fluid flow...

  18. Rock mechanics issues and research needs in the disposal of wastes in hydraulic fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doe, T.W.; McClain, W.C.

    1984-07-01

    The proposed rock mechanics studies outlined in this document are designed to answer the basic questions concerning hydraulic fracturing for waste disposal. These questions are: (1) how can containment be assured for Oak Ridge or other sites; and (2) what is the capacity of a site. The suggested rock mechanics program consists of four major tasks: (1) numerical modeling, (2) laboratory testing, (3) field testing, and (4) monitoring. These tasks are described

  19. An integrated geophysical and hydraulic investigation to characterize a fractured-rock aquifer, Norwalk, Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, J.W.; Williams, J.H.; Johnson, C.D.; Savino, D.M.; Haeni, F.P.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an integrated geophysical and hydraulic investigation at the Norden Systems, Inc. site in Norwalk, Connecticut, where chlorinated solvents have contaminated a fractured-rock aquifer. Borehole, borehole-to-borehole, surface-geophysical, and hydraulic methods were used to characterize the site bedrock lithology and structure, fractures, and transmissive zone hydraulic properties. The geophysical and hydraulic methods included conventional logs, borehole imagery, borehole radar, flowmeter under ambient and stressed hydraulic conditions, and azimuthal square-array direct-current resistivity soundings. Integrated interpretation of geophysical logs at borehole and borehole-to-borehole scales indicates that the bedrock foliation strikes northwest and dips northeast, and strikes north-northeast to northeast and dips both southeast and northwest. Although steeply dipping fractures that cross-cut foliation are observed, most fractures are parallel or sub-parallel to foliation. Steeply dipping reflectors observed in the radar reflection data from three boreholes near the main building delineate a north-northeast trending feature interpreted as a fracture zone. Results of radar tomography conducted close to a suspected contaminant source area indicate that a zone of low electromagnetic (EM) velocity and high EM attenuation is present above 50 ft in depth - the region containing the highest density of fractures. Flowmeter logging was used to estimate hydraulic properties in the boreholes. Thirty-three transmissive fracture zones were identified in 11 of the boreholes. The vertical separation between transmissive zones typically is 10 to 20 ft. Open-hole and discrete-zone transmissivity was estimated from heat-pulse flowmeter data acquired under ambient and stressed conditions. The open-hole transmissivity ranges from 2 to 86 ft2/d. The estimated transmissivity of individual transmissive zones ranges from 0.4 to 68 ft2/d. Drawdown monitoring

  20. The Role of the Rock on Hydraulic Fracturing of Tight Shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Rivera, R.; Green, S.; Stanchits, S.; Yang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Successful economic production of oil and gas from nano-darcy-range permeability, tight shale reservoirs, is achieved via massive hydraulic fracturing. This is so despite their limited hydrocarbon in place, on per unit rock volume basis. As a reference, consider a typical average porosity of 6% and an average hydrocarbon saturation of 50% to 75%. The importance of tight shales results from their large areal extent and vertical thickness. For example, the areal extent of the Anwar field in Saudi Arabia of 3230 square miles (and 300 ft thick), while the Marcellus shale alone is over 100,000 square miles (and 70 to 150 ft thick). The low permeability of the rock matrix, the predominantly mineralized rock fabric, and the high capillary forces to both brines and hydrocarbons, restrict the mobility of pore fluids in these reservoirs. Thus, one anticipates that fluids do not move very far within tight shales. Successful production, therefore results from maximizing the surface area of contact with the reservoir by massive hydraulic fracturing from horizontal bore holes. This was the conceptual breakthrough of the previous decade and the one that triggered the emergence of gas shales, and recently oily shales, as important economic sources of energy. It is now understood that the process can be made substantially more efficient, more sustainable, and more cost effective by understanding the rock. This will be the breakthrough of this decade. Microseismic monitoring, mass balance calculations, and laboratory experiments of hydraulic fracturing on tight shales indicate the development of fracture complexity and fracture propagation that can not be explained in detail in this layered heterogeneous media. It is now clear that in tight shales the large-scale formation fabric is responsible for fracture complexity. For example, the presence and pervasiveness of mineralized fractures, bed interfaces, lithologic contacts, and other types of discontinuities, and their orientation

  1. HYFRAC3D, 3-D Hydraulic Rock Fracture Propagation by Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advani, S.H.; Lee, J.K.; Lee, T.S.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: HYFRAC3D is a finite element program for simulation of three-dimensional fracture geometries with a two-dimensional planar solution. The model predicts the height, width and wing length over time for a hydraulic fracture propagating in a multi-layered system of rock with variable fluid flow and rock mechanics properties. 2 - Method of solution: The program uses the finite element Method of solution. A backward difference scheme is used by taking the weight functions on the time axis. This implicit time matching scheme requires iteration since the fracture configuration at time t+dt is not known. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Graphics output is not available and program is limited to fracture propagation in a single plane without proppant transport

  2. The Process of Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing, know as fracking or hydrofracking, produces fractures in a rock formation by pumping fluids (water, proppant, and chemical additives) at high pressure down a wellbore. These fractures stimulate the flow of natural gas or oil.

  3. Numerical Study of Critical Role of Rock Heterogeneity in Hydraulic Fracture Propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Zhou; H. Huang; M. Deo

    2016-03-01

    Log and seismic data indicate that most shale formations have strong heterogeneity. Conventional analytical and semi-analytical fracture models are not enough to simulate the complex fracture propagation in these highly heterogeneous formation. Without considering the intrinsic heterogeneity, predicted morphology of hydraulic fracture may be biased and misleading in optimizing the completion strategy. In this paper, a fully coupling fluid flow and geomechanics hydraulic fracture simulator based on dual-lattice Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to predict the hydraulic fracture propagation in heterogeneous reservoir. The heterogeneity of rock is simulated by assigning different material force constant and critical strain to different particles and is adjusted by conditioning to the measured data and observed geological features. Based on proposed model, the effects of heterogeneity at different scale on micromechanical behavior and induced macroscopic fractures are examined. From the numerical results, the microcrack will be more inclined to form at the grain weaker interface. The conventional simulator with homogeneous assumption is not applicable for highly heterogeneous shale formation.

  4. Coupled hydro-thermo-mechanical modeling of hydraulic fracturing in quasi-brittle rocks using BPM-DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Tomac

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved understanding of coupled hydro-thermo-mechanical (HTM hydraulic fracturing of quasi-brittle rock using the bonded particle model (BPM within the discrete element method (DEM. BPM has been recently extended by the authors to account for coupled convective–conductive heat flow and transport, and to enable full hydro-thermal fluid–solid coupled modeling. The application of the work is on enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs, and hydraulic fracturing of hot dry rock (HDR is studied in terms of the impact of temperature difference between rock and a flowing fracturing fluid. Micro-mechanical investigation of temperature and fracturing fluid effects on hydraulic fracturing damage in rocks is presented. It was found that fracture is shorter with pronounced secondary microcracking along the main fracture for the case when the convective–conductive thermal heat exchange is considered. First, the convection heat exchange during low-viscosity fluid infiltration in permeable rock around the wellbore causes significant rock cooling, where a finger-like fluid infiltration was observed. Second, fluid infiltration inhibits pressure rise during pumping and delays fracture initiation and propagation. Additionally, thermal damage occurs in the whole area around the wellbore due to rock cooling and cold fluid infiltration. The size of a damaged area around the wellbore increases with decreasing fluid dynamic viscosity. Fluid and rock compressibility ratio was found to have significant effect on the fracture propagation velocity.

  5. Flexible parallel implicit modelling of coupled thermal-hydraulic-mechanical processes in fractured rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacace, Mauro; Jacquey, Antoine B.

    2017-09-01

    Theory and numerical implementation describing groundwater flow and the transport of heat and solute mass in fully saturated fractured rocks with elasto-plastic mechanical feedbacks are developed. In our formulation, fractures are considered as being of lower dimension than the hosting deformable porous rock and we consider their hydraulic and mechanical apertures as scaling parameters to ensure continuous exchange of fluid mass and energy within the fracture-solid matrix system. The coupled system of equations is implemented in a new simulator code that makes use of a Galerkin finite-element technique. The code builds on a flexible, object-oriented numerical framework (MOOSE, Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment) which provides an extensive scalable parallel and implicit coupling to solve for the multiphysics problem. The governing equations of groundwater flow, heat and mass transport, and rock deformation are solved in a weak sense (either by classical Newton-Raphson or by free Jacobian inexact Newton-Krylow schemes) on an underlying unstructured mesh. Nonlinear feedbacks among the active processes are enforced by considering evolving fluid and rock properties depending on the thermo-hydro-mechanical state of the system and the local structure, i.e. degree of connectivity, of the fracture system. A suite of applications is presented to illustrate the flexibility and capability of the new simulator to address problems of increasing complexity and occurring at different spatial (from centimetres to tens of kilometres) and temporal scales (from minutes to hundreds of years).

  6. Thermo-hydro-mechanical simulation of a 3D fractured porous rock: preliminary study of coupled matrix-fracture hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canamon, I.; Javier Elorza, F.; Ababou, R.

    2007-01-01

    We present a problem involving the modeling of coupled flow and elastic strain in a 3D fractured porous rock, which requires prior homogenization (up-scaling) of the fractured medium into an equivalent Darcian anisotropic continuum. The governing equations form a system of PDE's (Partial Differential Equations) and, depending on the case being considered, this system may involve two different types of 'couplings' (in a real system, both couplings (1) and (2) generally take place): 1) Hydraulic coupling in a single (no exchange) or in a dual matrix-fracture continuum (exchange); 2) Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical interactions between fluid flow, pressure, elastic stress, strain, and temperature. We present here a preliminary model and simulation results with FEMLAB R , for the hydraulic problem with anisotropic heterogeneous coefficients. The model is based on data collected at an instrumented granitic site (FEBEX project) for studying a hypothetical nuclear waste repository at the Grimsel Test Site in the Swiss Alps. (authors)

  7. Rock mechanics in the disposal of radioactive wastes by hydraulic fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClain, W C

    1968-01-01

    The ultimate capacity of a hydraulic-fracturing waste disposal facility is governed primarily by the integrity of the rocks overlying the injected wastes. The objective of this study is to analyze theoretically the stresses and strains generated by the injected wastes in an effort to understand the behavior of the system sufficiently well that the failure mechanism can be predicted and the capacity of the injection well estimated. The surface uplifts at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's fracturing site were compared with theoretical curves obtained by assuming the uplifts to be inversely analogous to the subsidence which occurs over mining excavations. This analysis, based on assumptions of homogeneity, isotropy, and linear elasticity, provided considerable insight into the mechanics of the process. The most probable mechanism of failure of the rock appears to be by the formation of a vertical instead of a horizontal fracture. Fracture orientation is controlled primarily by the orientation of the principal stress field in the rock. Each successive waste injection slightly modifies this stress field toward a condition more favorable to the formation of a vertical fracture. (16 refs.)

  8. Quantifying Water-Rock Interactions during Hydraulic Fracturing from the Analysis of Flowback Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osselin, F.; Nightingale, M.; Kloppmann, W.; Gaucher, E.; Clarkson, C.; Mayer, B.

    2017-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technologies have facilitated the rapid development of shale gas and other unconventional resources throughout the world. In order to get sufficient access to the trapped hydrocarbon, it is necessary to fracture the bedrock and increase its permeability. Fracturing fluids are usually composed of tens of thousand of cubic meters of low salinity water with numerous additives, such as viscosity agent or breakers. The objective of this study was to investigate and quantify the water-rock interactions during hydraulic fracturing. This study was based on repeated sampling of flowback water from a hydraulically fractured well in Alberta, Canada. The flowback water was sampled 24 times during the first week and one last time after one, and analyzed for major ions and trace elements, as well as stable isotopes of sulfate and water among others. Results showed that salinity rapidly increases up to 100 000 mg/L at the end of the first week. We demonstrate that conservative species such as Na and Cl follow a clear two end-members mixing line, while some species including sulfate had much higher concentrations (8 times higher than the expected value from the mixing line). This indicates that the rapid increase of salinity in flowback water is caused by both mixing with formation water initially present in the shale formation, and from water-rock interactions triggered by the fracturing fluid and in some cases by the additives. Stable isotope data suggest that additional sulfate is mobilized as a consequence of pyrite oxidation, releasing sulfate, iron and potentially other heavy metals into the flowback water. This release of excess sulfate can be detrimental because it has the potential to promote scaling of sulfate minerals. Moreover, pyrite oxidation is a highly acidifying reaction and this may decrease the effectiveness of other additives, and promote carbonate minerals dissolution enhancing further scaling. We propose that a better control of the

  9. Insight into subdecimeter fracturing processes during hydraulic fracture experiment in Äspö hard rock laboratory, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Martínez-Garzón, Patricia; Plenkers, Katrin; Leonhardt, Maria; Zang, Arno; Dresen, Georg; Bohnhoff, Marco

    2017-04-01

    We analyze the nano- and picoseismicity recorded during a hydraulic fracturing in-situ experiment performed in Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory, Sweden. The fracturing experiment included six fracture stages driven by three different water injection schemes (continuous, progressive and pulse pressurization) and was performed inside a 28 m long, horizontal borehole located at 410 m depth. The fracturing process was monitored with two different seismic networks covering a wide frequency band between 0.01 Hz and 100000 Hz and included broadband seismometers, geophones, high-frequency accelerometers and acoustic emission sensors. The combined seismic network allowed for detection and detailed analysis of seismicity with moment magnitudes MW<-4 (source sizes approx. on cm scale) that occurred solely during the hydraulic fracturing and refracturing stages. We relocated the seismicity catalog using the double-difference technique and calculated the source parameters (seismic moment, source size, stress drop, focal mechanism and seismic moment tensors). The physical characteristics of induced seismicity are compared to the stimulation parameters and to the formation parameters of the site. The seismic activity varies significantly depending on stimulation strategy with conventional, continuous stimulation being the most seismogenic. We find a systematic spatio-temporal migration of microseismic events (propagation away and towards wellbore injection interval) and temporal transitions in source mechanisms (opening - shearing - collapse) both being controlled by changes in fluid injection pressure. The derived focal mechanism parameters are in accordance with the local stress field orientation, and signify the reactivation of pre-existing rock flaws. The seismicity follows statistical and source scaling relations observed at different scales elsewhere, however, at an extremely low level of seismic efficiency.

  10. Thermo-hydro-mechanical simulation of a 3D fractured porous rock: preliminary study of coupled matrix-fracture hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canamon, I.; Javier Elorza, F. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Dept. de Matematica Aplicada y Metodos Informaticas, ETSI Minas (UPM) (Spain); Ababou, R. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (IMFT), 31 (France)

    2007-07-01

    We present a problem involving the modeling of coupled flow and elastic strain in a 3D fractured porous rock, which requires prior homogenization (up-scaling) of the fractured medium into an equivalent Darcian anisotropic continuum. The governing equations form a system of PDE's (Partial Differential Equations) and, depending on the case being considered, this system may involve two different types of 'couplings' (in a real system, both couplings (1) and (2) generally take place): 1) Hydraulic coupling in a single (no exchange) or in a dual matrix-fracture continuum (exchange); 2) Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical interactions between fluid flow, pressure, elastic stress, strain, and temperature. We present here a preliminary model and simulation results with FEMLAB{sup R}, for the hydraulic problem with anisotropic heterogeneous coefficients. The model is based on data collected at an instrumented granitic site (FEBEX project) for studying a hypothetical nuclear waste repository at the Grimsel Test Site in the Swiss Alps. (authors)

  11. Rock Springs Site 12 hydraulic/explosive true in situ oil shale fracturing experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrish, R.L.; Boade, R.R.; Stevens, A.L.; Long, A. Jr.; Turner, T.F.

    1980-06-01

    The experiment plan involved the creation and characterization of three horizontal hydraulic fractures, followed by the insertion and simultaneous detonation of slurry explosive in the two lower fractures. Core analyses, wellbore logging, and airflow and /sup 85/Kr tracer tests were used for site characterization and assessment of the hydraulic and explosive fracturing. Tiltmeters, wellhead pressure and flow gages, and in-formation pressure, flow and crack-opening sensors were used to monitor hydrofracture creation and explosive insertion. Explosive detonation diagnostic data were taken with stress and time-of-arrival gages and surface and in-formation accelerometers. The post-fracturing assessments indicated that: (1) hydrofracture creation and explosive insertion and detonation were accomplished essentially as planned; (2) induced fractures were randomly distributed through the shale with no extensively fractured regions or dislocation of shale; and (3) enhancement of permeability was limited to enlargement of the explosive-filled fractures.

  12. Near Wellbore Hydraulic Fracture Propagation from Perforations in Tight Rocks: The Roles of Fracturing Fluid Viscosity and Injection Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hassan Fallahzadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracture initiation and near wellbore propagation is governed by complex failure mechanisms, especially in cased perforated wellbores. Various parameters affect such mechanisms, including fracturing fluid viscosity and injection rate. In this study, three different fracturing fluids with viscosities ranging from 20 to 600 Pa.s were used to investigate the effects of varying fracturing fluid viscosities and fluid injection rates on the fracturing mechanisms. Hydraulic fracturing tests were conducted in cased perforated boreholes made in tight 150 mm synthetic cubic samples. A true tri-axial stress cell was used to simulate real far field stress conditions. In addition, dimensional analyses were performed to correspond the results of lab experiments to field-scale operations. The results indicated that by increasing the fracturing fluid viscosity and injection rate, the fracturing energy increased, and consequently, higher fracturing pressures were observed. However, when the fracturing energy was transferred to a borehole at a faster rate, the fracture initiation angle also increased. This resulted in more curved fracture planes. Accordingly, a new parameter, called fracturing power, was introduced to relate fracture geometry to fluid viscosity and injection rate. Furthermore, it was observed that the presence of casing in the wellbore impacted the stress distribution around the casing in such a way that the fracture propagation deviated from the wellbore vicinity.

  13. Combined interpretation of radar, hydraulic, and tracer data from a fractured-rock aquifer near Mirror Lake, New Hampshire, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Lewis, F. D.; Lane, J.W.; Gorelick, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    An integrated interpretation of field experimental cross-hole radar, tracer, and hydraulic data demonstrates the value of combining time-lapse geophysical monitoring with conventional hydrologic measurements for improved characterization of a fractured-rock aquifer. Time-lapse difference-attenuation radar tomography was conducted during saline tracer experiments at the US Geological Survey Fractured Rock Hydrology Research Site near Mirror Lake, Grafton County, New Hampshire, USA. The presence of electrically conductive saline tracer effectively illuminates permeable fractures or pathways for geophysical imaging. The geophysical results guide the construction of three-dimensional numerical models of ground-water flow and solute transport. In an effort to explore alternative explanations for the tracer and tomographic data, a suite of conceptual models involving heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity fields and rate-limited mass transfer are considered. Calibration data include tracer concentrations, the arrival time of peak concentration at the outlet, and steady-state hydraulic head. Results from the coupled inversion procedure suggest that much of the tracer mass migrated outside the three tomographic image planes, and that solute is likely transported by two pathways through the system. This work provides basic and site-specific insights into the control of permeability heterogeneity on ground-water flow and solute transport in fractured rock. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  14. Observations from borehole dilution logging experiments in fractured crystalline rock under variable hydraulic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, Philip T.; Anderson, Alton; Williams, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying hydraulically active fractures in low permeability, crystalline-bedrock aquifers requires a variety of geophysical and hydrogeophysical borehole tools and approaches. One such approach is Single Borehole Dilution Tests (SBDT), which in some low flow cases have been shown to provide greater resolution of borehole flow than other logging procedures, such as vertical differential Heat Pulse Flowmeter (HPFM) logging. Because the tools used in SBDT collect continuous profiles of water quality or dye changes, they can identify horizontal flow zones and vertical flow. We used SBDT with a food grade blue dye as a tracer and dual photometer-nephelometer measurements to identify low flow zones.SBDT were conducted at seven wells with open boreholes (exceeding 300 ft). At most of the wells HPFM logs were also collected. The seven wells are set in low-permeability, fractured granite and gneiss rocks underlying a former tetrachloroeythylene (PCE) source area at the Savage Municipal Well Superfund site in Milford, NH. Time series SBDT logs were collected at each of the seven wells under three distinct hydraulic conditions: (1) ambient conditions prior to a pump test at an adjacent well, (2) mid test, after 2-3 days of the start of the pump test, and (3) at the end of the test, after 8-9 days of the pump test. None of the SBDT were conducted under pumping conditions in the logged well. For each condition, wells were initially passively spiked with blue dye once and subsequent time series measurements were made.Measurement accuracy and precision of the photometer tool is important in SBDT when attempting to detect low rates of borehole flow. Tests indicate that under ambient conditions, none of the wells had detectable flow as measured with HPFM logging. With SBDT, 4 of the 7 showed the presence of some very low flow. None of 5 (2 of the 7 wells initially logged with HPFM under ambient conditions were not re-logged) wells logged with the HPFM during the pump test had

  15. Numerical Simulation of Hydraulic Fracturing in Low-/High-Permeability, Quasi-Brittle and Heterogeneous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakzad, R.; Wang, S. Y.; Sloan, S. W.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, an elastic-brittle-damage constitutive model was incorporated into the coupled fluid/solid analysis of ABAQUS to iteratively calculate the equilibrium effective stress of Biot's theory of consolidation. The Young's modulus, strength and permeability parameter of the material were randomly assigned to the representative volume elements of finite element models following the Weibull distribution function. The hydraulic conductivity of elements was associated with their hydrostatic effective stress and damage level. The steady-state permeability test results for sandstone specimens under different triaxial loading conditions were reproduced by employing the same set of material parameters in coupled transient flow/stress analyses of plane-strain models, thereby indicating the reliability of the numerical model. The influence of heterogeneity on the failure response and the absolute permeability was investigated, and the post-peak permeability was found to decrease with the heterogeneity level in the coupled analysis with transient flow. The proposed model was applied to the plane-strain simulation of the fluid pressurization of a cavity within a large-scale block under different conditions. Regardless of the heterogeneity level, the hydraulically driven fractures propagated perpendicular to the minimum principal far-field stress direction for high-permeability models under anisotropic far-field stress conditions. Scattered damage elements appeared in the models with higher degrees of heterogeneity. The partially saturated areas around propagating fractures were simulated by relating the saturation degree to the negative pore pressure in low-permeability blocks under high pressure. By replicating previously reported trends in the fracture initiation and breakdown pressure for different pressurization rates and hydraulic conductivities, the results showed that the proposed model for hydraulic fracture problems is reliable for a wide range of

  16. Hydraulic and mechanical properties of natural fractures in low-permeability rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrack-Nolte, L.J.; Myer, L.R.; Cook, N.G.W.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive laboratory study of the mechanical displacement, permeability, and void geometry of single rock fractures in a quartz monzonite are summarized and analyzed. A metal-injection technique was developed that provided quantitative data on the precise geometry of the void spaces between the fracture surfaces and the areas of contact at different stresses. At effective stresses of less than 20 MPa fluid flow was proportional to the mean fracture aperture raised to a power greater than 3. As stress was increased, contact area was increased and void spaces become interconnected by small tortuous channels that constitute the principal impediment to fluid flow. At effective stresses higher than 20 MPa, the mean fracture aperture continued to diminish with increasing stress, but this had little effect on flow because the small tortuous flow channels deformed little with increasing stress

  17. Analysis of the hydraulic data from the MI fracture zone at the Grimsel Rock Laboratory, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davey, A.; Karasaki, K.; Long, J.C.S.; Landsfeld, M.; Mensch, A.; Martel, S.J.

    1989-10-01

    One of the major problems in analyzing flow and transport in fractured rock is that the flow may be largely confined to a poorly connected network of fractures. In order to overcome some of this problem, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) has been developing a new type of fracture hydrology model called an equivalent discontinuum model. In this model the authors represent the discontinuous nature of the problem through flow on a partially filled lattice. A key component in constructing an equivalent discontinuum model from this lattice is removing some of the conductive elements such that the system is partially connected in the same manner as the fracture network. This is done through a statistical inverse technique called simulated annealing. The fracture network model is annealed by continually modifying a base model, or template such that the modified systems behave more and more like the observed system. In order to see how the simulated annealing algorithm works, the authors have developed a series of synthetic real cases. In these cases, the real system is completely known so that the results of annealing to steady state data can be evaluated absolutely. The effect of the starting configuration has been studied by varying the percent of conducting elements in the initial configuration. Results have shown that the final configurations converge to about the same percentage of conducting elements. An example using Nagra field data from the Migration Experiment (MI) at Grimsel Rock Laboratory in Switzerland is also analyzed. 24 refs., 33 figs., 3 tabs

  18. Hydraulic gradients in rock aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlblom, P.

    1992-05-01

    This report deals with fractured rock as a host for deposits of hazardous waste. In this context the rock, with its fractures containing moving groundwater, is called the geological barrier. The desired properties of the geological barrier are low permeability to water, low hydraulic gradients and ability to retain matter dissolved in the water. The hydraulic gradient together with the permeability and the porosity determines the migration velocity. Mathematical modelling of the migration involves calculation of the water flow and the hydrodynamic dispersion of the contaminant. The porous medium approach can be used to calculate mean flow velocities and hydrodynamic dispersion of a large number of fractures are connected, which means that a large volume have to be considered. It is assumed that the porous medium approach can be applied, and a number of idealized examples are shown. It is assumed that the groundwater table is replenished by percolation at a constant rate. One-dimensional analytical calculations show that zero hydraulic gradients may exist at relatively large distance from the coast. Two-dimensional numerical calculations show that it may be possible to find areas with low hydraulic gradients and flow velocities within blocks surrounded by areas with high hydraulic conductivity. (au)

  19. Geotechnical site assessment methodologies relevant to potential deep underground disposal facilities: with particular reference to the determination of in situ rock stress by the hydraulic fracturing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monaghan, B.G.; Richards, L.R.

    1986-10-01

    A final report summarizing the research conducted on geotechnical site assessment methodologies relevant to Land 3/4 sites. Two areas of research have been investigated; in situ stress determination by the hydraulic fracturing method in basic volcanics and sediments and the laboratory determination of hydraulic fracture tensile strength. The analysis and interpretation of the hydraulic fracturing test data from a programme of testing in the Vale of Belvoir is discussed in detail particularly in respect of the effects of pore water pressure and fluid diffusion in the rocks being tested. The regional stress regime of the Vale of Belvoir is discussed with respect to the results of the in situ stress determination. A method for determining the hydraulic fracture tensile strength in the laboratory is described. The results of a series of laboratory tests on rock core are reported. (author)

  20. Hydraulic fracture monitoring in hard rock at 410 m depth with an advanced fluid-injection protocol and extensive sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Arno; Stephansson, Ove; Stenberg, Leif; Plenkers, Katrin; Specht, Sebastian; Milkereit, Claus; Schill, Eva; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Dresen, Georg; Zimmermann, Günter; Dahm, Torsten; Weber, Michael

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, an underground experiment at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is described. Main goal is optimizing geothermal heat exchange in crystalline rock mass at depth by multistage hydraulic fracturing with minimal impact on the environment, that is, seismic events. For this, three arrays with acoustic emission, microseismicity and electromagnetic sensors are installed mapping hydraulic fracture initiation and growth. Fractures are driven by three different water injection schemes (continuous, progressive and pulse pressurization). After a brief review of hydraulic fracture operations in crystalline rock mass at mine scale, the site geology and the stress conditions at Äspö HRL are described. Then, the continuous, single-flow rate and alternative, multiple-flow rate fracture breakdown tests in a horizontal borehole at depth level 410 m are described together with the monitoring networks and sensitivity. Monitoring results include the primary catalogue of acoustic emission hypocentres obtained from four hydraulic fractures with the in situ trigger and localizing network. The continuous versus alternative water injection schemes are discussed in terms of the fracture breakdown pressure, the fracture pattern from impression packer result and the monitoring at the arrays. An example of multistage hydraulic fracturing with several phases of opening and closing of fracture walls is evaluated using data from acoustic emissions, seismic broad-band recordings and electromagnetic signal response. Based on our limited amount of in situ tests (six) and evaluation of three tests in Ävrö granodiorite, in the multiple-flow rate test with progressively increasing target pressure, the acoustic emission activity starts at a later stage in the fracturing process compared to the conventional fracturing case with continuous water injection. In tendency, also the total number and magnitude of acoustic events are found to be smaller in the progressive treatment with

  1. Mechanics of Hydraulic Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detournay, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic fractures represent a particular class of tensile fractures that propagate in solid media under pre-existing compressive stresses as a result of internal pressurization by an injected viscous fluid. The main application of engineered hydraulic fractures is the stimulation of oil and gas wells to increase production. Several physical processes affect the propagation of these fractures, including the flow of viscous fluid, creation of solid surfaces, and leak-off of fracturing fluid. The interplay and the competition between these processes lead to multiple length scales and timescales in the system, which reveal the shifting influence of the far-field stress, viscous dissipation, fracture energy, and leak-off as the fracture propagates.

  2. Borehole radar applied to the characterization of hydraulically conductive fracture zones in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, O.; Falk, L.; Forslund, O.; Lundmark, L.; Sandberg, E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the borehole radar system, RAMAC, developed within the framework of the International Stripa Project, which can be used in three different measuring modes; single-hole reflection, cross-hole reflection and cross-hole tomography. The reflection modes basically provide geometrical data on features located at some distance from the borehole. In addition the strength of the reflections indicate the contrast in electrical properties. Single-hole reflection data are cylindrically symmetrical with respect to the borehole, which means that a unique fracture orientation cannot be obtained. A method has been devised where absolute orientation of fracture zones is obtained by combining single-hole reflection data from adjacent holes. Similar methods for the analysis of cross-hole reflection data have also been developed and found to be efficient. The radar operates in the frequency range 20-60 MHz which gives a resolution of 1-3 m in crystalline rock. The investigation range obtained in the Stripa granite is approximately 100 m in the single-hole mode and 200-300 m in the cross-hole model. Variations in the arrival time and amplitude of the direct wave between transmitter and receiver have been used for cross-hole tomographic imaging to yield maps of radar velocity and attenuation. The cross-hole measurement configuration coupled with tomographic inversion has less resolution than the reflection methods but provides better quantitative estimates of the values of measured properties. The analysis of the radar data has provided a consistent description of the fracture zones at the Stripa Cross-hole site in agreement with both geological and geophysical observations

  3. Parameters and a magnitude moment relationship from small earthquakes observed during hydraulic fracturing experiments in crystalline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, C.

    1982-04-01

    Using source parameters estimated from seismic spectra and magnitudes estimated from coda lengths, we demonstrate that the log-linear relationship between moment and magnitude holds for events with magnitudes as low as -6. Using, as a data set, events induced by hydraulic fracturing experiments at the Fenton Hill, New Mexico, Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal site, we find that the relationship between magnitude M and seismic moment (Mo) is log (Mo) = 17.27+0.77 M Moreover, the linear relationship between seismic moment and source radius (r) holds for the Fenton Hill microearthquakes. Analyses of the Fenton Hill data yield the following relationship. log (r) = 2.28+0.19 log (Mo)

  4. Transport of barium through dolomite rocks under the presence of guar gum and brine salinities of hydraulic fracturing wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, P.; Vilcaez, J.

    2017-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing wastewater (HFW) containing high concentrations of Ba, is commonly disposed into the deep saline aquifers. We investigate the effect of brine salinity, competing cations (Ca and Mg), and guar gum (most common fracturing viscosifier) on the sorption and transport of Ba through dolomite rocks. To this aim, we have conducted batch sorption and core-flooding experiments at both ambient (22°C) and deep subsurface (60°C) temperature conditions. The effect of mineral composition is assessed by comparing batch and core-flooding experimental results obtained with sandstone and dolomite rocks. Batch sorption experiments conducted using powdered dolomite rocks (500-600 µm particle size) revealed that Ba sorption on dolomite greatly decreases with increasing brine salinity (0 - 180,000 mg-NaCl/L), and that at brine salinities of HFW, chloro-complexation reactions between Ba and Cl ions and changes in pH (that results from dolomite dissolution) are the controlling factors of Ba sorption on dolomite. Organo-complexation reactions between Ba and guar gum, and competition of Ba with common cations (Ca and Mg) for hydration sites of dolomite, play a secondary role. This finding is in accordance with core-flooding experimental results, showing that the transport of Ba through synthetic dolomite rocks of high flow properties (25-29.6% porosity, 9.6-13.7 mD permeability), increases with increasing brine salinity (0-180,000 mg-NaCl/L), while the presence of guar gum (50-500 mg/L) does not affect the transport of Ba. On the other hand, core-flooding experiments conducted using natural dolomite core plugs (6.5-8.6% porosity, 0.06-0.3 mD permeability), indicates that guar gum can clog the pore throats of tight dolomite rocks retarding the transport of Ba. Results of our numerical simulation studies indicate that the mechanism of Ba sorption on dolomite can be represented by a sorption model that accounts for both surface complexation reactions on three distinct

  5. Measurement of field-saturated hydraulic conductivity on fractured rock outcrops near Altamura (Southern Italy) with an adjustable large ring infiltrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, Maria C.; de Carlo, L.; Masciopinto, C.; Nimmo, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Up to now, field studies set up to measure field-saturated hydraulic conductivity to evaluate contamination risks, have employed small cylinders that may not be representative of the scale of measurements in heterogeneous media. In this study, a large adjustable ring infiltrometer was designed to be installed on-site directly on rock to measure its field-saturated hydraulic conductivity. The proposed device is inexpensive and simple to implement, yet also very versatile, due to its large adjustable diameter that can be fixed on-site. It thus allows an improved representation of the natural system's heterogeneity, while also taking into consideration irregularities in the soil/rock surface. The new apparatus was tested on an outcrop of karstic fractured limestone overlying the deep Murge aquifer in the South of Italy, which has recently been affected by untreated sludge disposal, derived from municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants. The quasi-steady vertical flow into the unsaturated fractures was investigated by measuring water levels during infiltrometer tests. Simultaneously, subsurface electrical resistivity measurements were used to visualize the infiltration of water in the subsoil, due to unsaturated water flow in the fractures. The proposed experimental apparatus works well on rock outcrops, and allows the repetition of infiltration tests at many locations in order to reduce model uncertainties in heterogeneous media. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Hydraulic fracturing proppants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. P. de Campos

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydrocarbon reservoirs can be classified as unconventional or conventional depending on the oil and gas extraction difficulty, such as the need for high-cost technology and techniques. The hydrocarbon extraction from bituminous shale, commonly known as shale gas/oil, is performed by using the hydraulic fracturing technique in unconventional reservoirs where 95% water, 0.5% of additives and 4.5% of proppants are used. Environmental problems related to hydraulic fracturing technique and better performance/development of proppants are the current challenge faced by companies, researchers, regulatory agencies, environmentalists, governments and society. Shale gas is expected to increase USA fuel production, which triggers the development of new proppants and technologies of exploration. This paper presents a review of the definition of proppants, their types, characteristics and situation in the world market and information about manufacturers. The production of nanoscale materials such as anticorrosive and intelligent proppants besides proppants with carbon nanotubes is already carried out on a scale of tonnes per year in Belgium, Germany and Asia countries.

  7. Effects of fracture surface roughness and shear displacement on geometrical and hydraulic properties of three-dimensional crossed rock fracture models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Na; Liu, Richeng; Jiang, Yujing; Li, Bo; Yu, Liyuan

    2018-03-01

    While shear-flow behavior through fractured media has been so far studied at single fracture scale, a numerical analysis of the shear effect on the hydraulic response of 3D crossed fracture model is presented. The analysis was based on a series of crossed fracture models, in which the effects of fracture surface roughness and shear displacement were considered. The rough fracture surfaces were generated using the modified successive random additions (SRA) algorithm. The shear displacement was applied on one fracture, and at the same time another fracture shifted along with the upper and lower surfaces of the sheared fracture. The simulation results reveal the development and variation of preferential flow paths through the model during the shear, accompanied by the change of the flow rate ratios between two flow planes at the outlet boundary. The average contact area accounts for approximately 5-27% of the fracture planes during shear, but the actual calculated flow area is about 38-55% of the fracture planes, which is much smaller than the noncontact area. The equivalent permeability will either increase or decrease as shear displacement increases from 0 to 4 mm, depending on the aperture distribution of intersection part between two fractures. When the shear displacement continuously increases by up to 20 mm, the equivalent permeability increases sharply first, and then keeps increasing with a lower gradient. The equivalent permeability of rough fractured model is about 26-80% of that calculated from the parallel plate model, and the equivalent permeability in the direction perpendicular to shear direction is approximately 1.31-3.67 times larger than that in the direction parallel to shear direction. These results can provide a fundamental understanding of fluid flow through crossed fracture model under shear.

  8. Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

    2007-09-13

    The self-potential (SP) response during hydraulic fracturing of intact Sierra granite was investigated in the laboratory. Excellent correlation of pressure drop and SP suggests that the SP response is created primarily by electrokinetic coupling. For low pressures, the variation of SP with pressure drop is linear, indicating a constant coupling coefficient (Cc) of -200 mV/MPa. However for pressure drops >2 MPa, the magnitude of the Cc increases by 80% in an exponential trend. This increasing Cc is related to increasing permeability at high pore pressures caused by dilatancy of micro-cracks, and is explained by a decrease in the hydraulic tortuosity. Resistivity measurements reveal a decrease of 2% prior to hydraulic fracturing and a decrease of {approx}35% after fracturing. An asymmetric spatial SP response created by injectate diffusion into dilatant zones is observed prior to hydraulic fracturing, and in most cases this SP variation revealed the impending crack geometry seconds before failure. At rupture, injectate rushes into the new fracture area where the zeta potential is different than in the rock porosity, and an anomalous SP spike is observed. After fracturing, the spatial SP distribution reveals the direction of fracture propagation. Finally, during tensile cracking in a point load device with no water flow, a SP spike is observed that is caused by contact electrification. However, the time constant of this event is much less than that for transients observed during hydraulic fracturing, suggesting that SP created solely from material fracture does not contribute to the SP response during hydraulic fracturing.

  9. Adsorption of hydraulic fracturing fluid components 2-butoxyethanol and furfural onto granular activated carbon and shale rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, Katherine E; Haerr, Gregory; Lucchesi, Jessica; Carter, Kimberly E

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the adsorption ability of a surfactant and a non-surfactant chemical additive used in hydraulic fracturing onto shale and GAC. Experiments were performed at varying temperatures and sodium chloride concentrations to establish these impacts on the adsorption of the furfural (a non-surfactant) and 2-Butoxyethanol (2-BE) (a surfactant). Experiments were carried out in continuously mixed batch experiments with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm modeling. The results of the experiments showed that adsorption of these compounds onto shale does not occur, which may allow these compounds to return to the surface in flowback and produced waters. The adsorption potential for these chemicals onto GAC follows the assumptions of the Langmuir model more strongly than those of the Freundlich model. The results show uptake of furfural and 2-BE occurs within 23 h in the presence of DI water, 0.1 mol L -1 sodium chloride, and in lab synthesized hydraulic fracturing brine. Based on the data, 83% of the furfural and 62% of the 2-BE was adsorbed using GAC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Hydraulic fracture propagation modeling and data-based fracture identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing

    Successful shale gas and tight oil production is enabled by the engineering innovation of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. Hydraulically induced fractures will most likely deviate from the bi-wing planar pattern and generate complex fracture networks due to mechanical interactions and reservoir heterogeneity, both of which render the conventional fracture simulators insufficient to characterize the fractured reservoir. Moreover, in reservoirs with ultra-low permeability, the natural fractures are widely distributed, which will result in hydraulic fractures branching and merging at the interface and consequently lead to the creation of more complex fracture networks. Thus, developing a reliable hydraulic fracturing simulator, including both mechanical interaction and fluid flow, is critical in maximizing hydrocarbon recovery and optimizing fracture/well design and completion strategy in multistage horizontal wells. A novel fully coupled reservoir flow and geomechanics model based on the dual-lattice system is developed to simulate multiple nonplanar fractures' propagation in both homogeneous and heterogeneous reservoirs with or without pre-existing natural fractures. Initiation, growth, and coalescence of the microcracks will lead to the generation of macroscopic fractures, which is explicitly mimicked by failure and removal of bonds between particles from the discrete element network. This physics-based modeling approach leads to realistic fracture patterns without using the empirical rock failure and fracture propagation criteria required in conventional continuum methods. Based on this model, a sensitivity study is performed to investigate the effects of perforation spacing, in-situ stress anisotropy, rock properties (Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and compressive strength), fluid properties, and natural fracture properties on hydraulic fracture propagation. In addition, since reservoirs are buried thousands of feet below the surface, the

  11. On the link between stress field and small-scale hydraulic fracture growth in anisotropic rock derived from microseismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gischig, Valentin Samuel; Doetsch, Joseph; Maurer, Hansruedi; Krietsch, Hannes; Amann, Florian; Evans, Keith Frederick; Nejati, Morteza; Jalali, Mohammadreza; Valley, Benoît; Obermann, Anne Christine; Wiemer, Stefan; Giardini, Domenico

    2018-01-01

    To characterize the stress field at the Grimsel Test Site (GTS) underground rock laboratory, a series of hydrofracturing and overcoring tests were performed. Hydrofracturing was accompanied by seismic monitoring using a network of highly sensitive piezosensors and accelerometers that were able to record small seismic events associated with metre-sized fractures. Due to potential discrepancies between the hydrofracture orientation and stress field estimates from overcoring, it was essential to obtain high-precision hypocentre locations that reliably illuminate fracture growth. Absolute locations were improved using a transverse isotropic P-wave velocity model and by applying joint hypocentre determination that allowed for the computation of station corrections. We further exploited the high degree of waveform similarity of events by applying cluster analysis and relative relocation. Resulting clouds of absolute and relative located seismicity showed a consistent east-west strike and 70° dip for all hydrofractures. The fracture growth direction from microseismicity is consistent with the principal stress orientations from the overcoring stress tests, provided that an anisotropic elastic model for the rock mass is used in the data inversions. The σ1 stress is significantly larger than the other two principal stresses and has a reasonably well-defined orientation that is subparallel to the fracture plane; σ2 and σ3 are almost equal in magnitude and thus lie on a circle defined by the standard errors of the solutions. The poles of the microseismicity planes also lie on this circle towards the north. Analysis of P-wave polarizations suggested double-couple focal mechanisms with both thrust and normal faulting mechanisms present, whereas strike-slip and thrust mechanisms would be expected from the overcoring-derived stress solution. The reasons for these discrepancies can be explained by pressure leak-off, but possibly may also involve stress field rotation around the

  12. Hydraulic testing in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, K.E.; Andersson, J.E.; Carlsson, L.; Hansson, K.; Larsson, N.A.

    1986-12-01

    Swedish Geolocical Company (SGAB) conducted and carried out single-hole hydraulic testing in borehole Fi 6 in the Finnsjoen area of central Sweden. The purpose was to make a comprehensive evaluation of different methods applicable in crystalline rocks and to recommend methods for use in current and scheduled investigations in a range of low hydraulic conductivity rocks. A total of eight different methods of testing were compared using the same equipment. This equipment was thoroughly tested as regards the elasticity of the packers and change in volume of the test section. The use of a hydraulically operated down-hole valve enabled all the tests to be conducted. Twelve different 3-m long sections were tested. The hydraulic conductivity calculated ranged from about 5x10 -14 m/s to 1x10 -6 m/s. The methods used were water injection under constant head and then at a constant rate-of-flow, each of which was followed by a pressure fall-off period. Water loss, pressure pulse, slug and drill stem tests were also performed. Interpretation was carried out using standard transient evaluation methods for flow in porous media. The methods used showed themselves to be best suited to specific conductivity ranges. Among the less time-consuming methods, water loss, slug and drill stem tests usually gave somewhat higher hydraulic conductivity values but still comparable to those obtained using the more time-consuming tests. These latter tests, however, provided supplementary information on hydraulic and physical properties and flow conditions, together with hydraulic conductivity values representing a larger volume of rock. (orig./HP)

  13. Disposal of waste by hydraulic fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, T.; Weeren, H.

    1984-01-01

    Liquid radioactive waste solutions at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been disposed of for nearly 20 years by preparing a slurry, injecting it into bedding plane fractures formed in low-permeability shale, and allowing the slurry to set into a solid. Three major considerations are required for this method: a rock formation that forms horizontal or bedding plane fractures and is highly impermeable, a plant facility that can develop sufficient hydraulic pressure to fracture the rock and to inject the slurry, and a slurry that can be pumped into the fracture and that will set, preferably, into a low-leaching solid. The requirements and desirable conditions of the formation, the process and facility as used for radioactive waste disposal, and the mix formulation and slurry properties that were required for injection and solidification are described. The intent of this paper is to stimulate interest in this technique for possible application to nonnuclear wastes

  14. Database for Hydraulically Conductive Fractures. Update 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammisto, E.; Palmen, J.

    2011-02-01

    Posiva flow logging (PFL) with 0.5 m test interval and made in 10 cm steps can be used for exact depth determination of hydraulically conductive fractures. Together with drillhole wall images and fracture data from core logging PFL provides possibilities to detect single conductive fractures. In this report, the results of PFL are combined to the fracture data in drillholes OL-KR49 .. OL-KR53, OL-KR50B, OL-KR52B and OLKR53B and pilot holes ONK-PH11 - ONK-PH13. The results are used mainly in development of hydroDFN- models. The conductive fractures were first recognised from the PFL data and digital drillhole images and then the fractures from the core logging corresponding to the ones picked from the digital drillhole images were identified. The conductive fractures were recognised from the images primarily based on openness of fractures or a visible flow in the image. In most of the cases of measured flow, no tails of flow were seen in the image. In these cases, the conductive fractures were recognised from the image based on openness of fractures and a matching depth. According to the results the hydraulically conductive fractures/zones can be distinguished from the drillhole wall images in most cases. An important phase in the work is to calibrate the depth of the image and the flow logging with the sample length. The hydraulic conductivity is clearly higher in the upper part of the bedrock in the depth range 0-150 m below sea level than deeper in the bedrock. The frequency of hydraulically conductive fractures detected in flow logging (T > 10 -10 -10 -9 m 2 /s) in depth range 0-150 m varies from 0.07 to 0.84 fractures/meter of sample length. Deeper in the rock the conductive fractures are less frequent, but occur often in groups of few fractures. In drillholes OL-KR49 .. OL-KR53, OL-KR50B, OL-KR52B and OL-KR53B about 8.5 % of all fractures and 4.4 % of the conductive fractures are within HZ-structures. (orig.)

  15. Selective perceptions of hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarge, Melanie A; VanDyke, Matthew S; King, Andy J; White, Shawna R

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) is a focal topic in discussions about domestic energy production, yet the American public is largely unfamiliar and undecided about the practice. This study sheds light on how individuals may come to understand hydraulic fracturing as this unconventional production technology becomes more prominent in the United States. For the study, a thorough search of HF photographs was performed, and a systematic evaluation of 40 images using an online experimental design involving N = 250 participants was conducted. Key indicators of hydraulic fracturing support and beliefs were identified. Participants showed diversity in their support for the practice, with 47 percent expressing low support, 22 percent high support, and 31 percent undecided. Support for HF was positively associated with beliefs that hydraulic fracturing is primarily an economic issue and negatively associated with beliefs that it is an environmental issue. Level of support was also investigated as a perceptual filter that facilitates biased issue perceptions and affective evaluations of economic benefit and environmental cost frames presented in visual content of hydraulic fracturing. Results suggested an interactive relationship between visual framing and level of support, pointing to a substantial barrier to common understanding about the issue that strategic communicators should consider.

  16. The Influence of Hydraulic Fracturing on Carbon Storage Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Pengcheng; Settgast, Randolph R.; Hao, Yue; Morris, Joseph P.; Ryerson, Frederick J.

    2017-12-01

    Conventional principles of the design and operation of geologic carbon storage (GCS) require injecting CO2 below the caprock fracturing pressure to ensure the integrity of the storage complex. In nonideal storage reservoirs with relatively low permeability, pressure buildup can lead to hydraulic fracturing of the reservoir and caprock. While the GCS community has generally viewed hydraulic fractures as a key risk to storage integrity, a carefully designed stimulation treatment under appropriate geologic conditions could provide improved injectivity while maintaining overall seal integrity. A vertically contained hydraulic fracture, either in the reservoir rock or extending a limited height into the caprock, provides an effective means to access reservoir volume far from the injection well. Employing a fully coupled numerical model of hydraulic fracturing, solid deformation, and matrix fluid flow, we study the enabling conditions, processes, and mechanisms of hydraulic fracturing during CO2 injection. A hydraulic fracture's pressure-limiting behavior dictates that the near-well fluid pressure is only slightly higher than the fracturing pressure of the rock and is insensitive to injection rate and mechanical properties of the formation. Although a fracture contained solely within the reservoir rock with no caprock penetration, would be an ideal scenario, poroelastic principles dictate that sustaining such a fracture could lead to continuously increasing pressure until the caprock fractures. We also investigate the propagation pattern and injection pressure responses of a hydraulic fracture propagating in a caprock subjected to heterogeneous in situ stress. The results have important implications for the use of hydraulic fracturing as a tool for managing storage performance.

  17. Hydraulic fracturing in granite under geothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, P.; Lockner, D.; Byerlee, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental hydraulic fracturing of granite under geothermal conditions produces tensile fracture at rapid fluid injection rates and shear fracture at slow injection rates and elevated differential stress levels. A sudden burst of acoustic emission activity accompanies tensile fracture formation whereas the acoustic emission rate increases exponentially prior to shear fracture. Temperature does not significantly affect the failure mechanism, and the experimental results have not demonstrated the occurrence of thermal fracturing. A critical result of these experiments is that fluid injection at intermediate rates and elevated differential stress levels increases permeability by more than an order of magnitude without producing macroscopic fractures, and low-level acoustic emission activity occurs simultaneously near the borehole and propagates outward into the specimen with time. Permeability measurements conducted at atmospheric pressure both before and after these experiments show that increased permeability is produced by permanent structural changes in the rock. Although results of this study have not demonstrated the occurrence of thermal fracturing, they suggest that fluid injection at certain rates in situ may markedly increase local permeability. This could prove critical to increasing the efficiency of heat exchange for geothermal energy extraction from hot dry rock. ?? 1980.

  18. Fracture characteristics in Japanese rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yuji; Sawada, Atsushi; Akahori, Kuniaki

    1999-11-01

    It is crucial for the performance assessment of geosphere to evaluate the characteristics of fractures that can be dominant radionuclide migration pathways from a repository to biosphere. This report summarizes the characteristics of fractures obtained from broad literature surveys and the fields surveys at the Kamaishi mine in northern Japan and at outcrops and galleries throughout the country. The characteristics of fractures described in this report are fracture orientation, fracture shape, fracture frequency, fracture distribution in space, transmissivity of fracture, fracture aperture, fracture fillings, alteration halo along fracture, flow-wetted surface area in fracture, and the correlation among these characteristics. Since granitic rock is considered the archetype fractured media, a large amount of fracture data is available in literature. In addition, granitic rock has been treated as a potential host rock in many overseas programs, and has JNC performed a number of field observations and experiments in granodiorite at the Kamaishi mine. Therefore, the characteristics of fractures in granitic rock are qualitatively and quantitatively clarified to some extent in this report, while the characteristics of fractures in another rock types are not clarified. (author)

  19. Hydraulic fracturing - an attempt of DEM simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmala, Alicja; Foltyn, Natalia; Klejment, Piotr; Dębski, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a technique widely used in oil, gas and unconventional reservoirs exploitation in order to enable the oil/gas to flow more easily and enhance the production. It relays on pumping into a rock a special fluid under a high pressure which creates a set of microcracks which enhance porosity of the reservoir rock. In this research, attempt of simulation of such hydrofracturing process using the Discrete Element Method approach is presented. The basic assumption of this approach is that the rock can be represented as an assembly of discrete particles cemented into a rigid sample (Potyondy 2004). An existence of voids among particles simulates then a pore system which can be filled out by fracturing fluid, numerically represented by much smaller particles. Following this microscopic point of view and its numerical representation by DEM method we present primary results of numerical analysis of hydrofracturing phenomena, using the ESyS-Particle Software. In particular, we consider what is happening in distinct vicinity of the border between rock sample and fracking particles, how cracks are creating and evolving by breaking bonds between particles, how acoustic/seismic energy is releasing and so on. D.O. Potyondy, P.A. Cundall. A bonded-particle model for rock. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 41 (2004), pp. 1329-1364.

  20. Impact of ductility on hydraulic fracturing in shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMinn, Chris; Auton, Lucy

    2016-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a method for extracting natural gas and oil from low-permeability rocks such as shale via the high-pressure injection of fluid into the bulk of the rock. The goal is to initiate and propagate fractures that will provide hydraulic access deeper into the reservoir, enabling gas or oil to be collected from a larger region of the rock. Fracture is the tensile failure of a brittle material upon reaching a threshold tensile stress, but some shales have a high clay content and may yield plastically before fracturing. Plastic deformation is the shear failure of a ductile material, during which stress relaxes through irreversible rearrangements of the particles of the material. Here, we investigate the impact of the ductility of shales on hydraulic fracturing. We first consider a simple, axisymmetric model for radially outward fluid injection from a wellbore into a ductile porous rock. We use this model to show that plastic deformation greatly reduces the maximum tensile stress, and that this maximum stress does not always occur at the wellbore. We then complement these results with laboratory experiments in an analogue system, and with numerical simulations based on the discrete element method (DEM), both of which suggest that ductile failure can indeed dramatically change the resulting deformation pattern. These results imply that hydraulic fracturing may fail in ductile rocks, or that the required injection rate for fracking may be much larger than the rate predicted from models that assume purely elastic mechanical behavior.

  1. Toughness-Dominated Regime of Hydraulic Fracturing in Cohesionless Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanovich, L. N.; Hurt, R. S.; Ayoub, J.; Norman, W. D.

    2011-12-01

    experiments, there is a high pressure gradient in the leak-off zone in the direction normal to the fracture. Fluid pressure does not decrease considerably along the fracture, however, due to the relatively wide fracture aperture. This suggests that hydraulically induced fractures in unconsolidated materials may be considered to be within the toughness-dominated regime of hydraulic fracturing. Our results indicate that the primary influence on peak or initiation pressure comes from the remote stresses. However, fracture morphology changes significantly with other chosen parameters (stress, flow rate, rheology and permeability). Additionally, an important characteristic feature of fractures in our experiments is the frequent bluntness of the fracture tip, which suggests that plastic deformation at the fracture tip is important. Modeling shows that large openings at the fracture tip correspond to relatively large 'effective' fracture (surface) energy, which can be orders of magnitude greater than for typical (solid) rocks.

  2. Evaluation of permeable fractures in rock aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok Lee, Hang

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the practical usefulness and fundamental applicability of a self-potential (SP) method for identifying the permeable fractures were evaluated by a comparison of SP methods with other geophysical logging methods and hydraulic tests. At a 10 m-shallow borehole in the study site, the candidates of permeable fractures crossing the borehole were first determined by conventional geophysical methods such as an acoustic borehole televiwer, temperature, electrical conductivity and gamma-gamma loggings, which was compared to the analysis by the SP method. Constant pressure injection and recovery tests were conducted for verification of the hydraulic properties of the fractures identified by various logging methods. The acoustic borehole televiwer and gamma-gamma loggings detected the open space or weathering zone within the borehole, but they cannot prove the possibility of a groundwater flow through the detected fractures. The temperature and electrical conductivity loggings had limitations to detect the fractured zones where groundwater in the borehole flows out to the surrounding rock aquifers. Comparison of results from different methods showed that there is a best correlation between the distribution of hydraulic conductivity and the variation of the SP signals, and the SP logging can estimate accurately the hydraulic activity as well as the location of permeable fractures. Based on the results, the SP method is recommended for determining the hydraulically-active fractures rather than other conventional geophysical loggings. This self-potential method can be effectively applied in the initial stage of a site investigation which selects the optimal location and evaluates the hydrogeological property of fractures in target sites for the underground structure including the geothermal reservoir and radioactive waste disposal.

  3. A Thermoelastic Hydraulic Fracture Design Tool for Geothermal Reservoir Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad Ghassemi

    2003-06-30

    Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Thus, knowledge of conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fracture are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. At times, the practice aims to create a number of parallel fractures connecting a pair of wells. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have set out to develop advanced thermo-mechanical models for design of artificial fractures and rock fracture research in geothermal reservoirs. These models consider the significant hydraulic and thermo-mechanical processes and their interaction with the in-situ stress state. Wellbore failure and fracture initiation is studied using a model that fully couples poro-mechanical and thermo-mechanical effects. The fracture propagation model is based on a complex variable and regular displacement discontinuity formulations. In the complex variable approach the displacement discontinuities are

  4. Theoretical Modeling of Rock Breakage by Hydraulic and Mechanical Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rock breakage by coupled mechanical and hydraulic action has been developed over the past several decades, but theoretical study on rock fragmentation by mechanical tool with water pressure assistance was still lacking. The theoretical model of rock breakage by mechanical tool was developed based on the rock fracture mechanics and the solution of Boussinesq’s problem, and it could explain the process of rock fragmentation as well as predicating the peak reacting force. The theoretical model of rock breakage by coupled mechanical and hydraulic action was developed according to the superposition principle of intensity factors at the crack tip, and the reacting force of mechanical tool assisted by hydraulic action could be reduced obviously if the crack with a critical length could be produced by mechanical or hydraulic impact. The experimental results indicated that the peak reacting force could be reduced about 15% assisted by medium water pressure, and quick reduction of reacting force after peak value decreased the specific energy consumption of rock fragmentation by mechanical tool. The crack formation by mechanical or hydraulic impact was the prerequisite to improvement of the ability of combined breakage.

  5. The Criteria for the Selection of Wells for Hydraulic Fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Salimov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Various methods of selection of wells for hydraulic fracturing are analyzed. It is established that all methods can be divided into three large groups: criteria in the table form of boundary values of parameters, statistical methods of pattern recognition, methods of engineering calculation. The complication or use of additional parameters only leads to a reduction in the number of wells at which hydraulic fracturing is possible. It is shown that the use of reservoir properties of rocks, which are already used by hydraulic fracturing simulators, is not practicable as selection criteria. It is required to include in the selection criteria only those additional factors on which the effectiveness of hydraulic fracturing depends directly.

  6. Characteristic Length Scales in Fracture Networks: Hydraulic Connectivity through Periodic Hydraulic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M.; Bour, O.; Le Borgne, T.; Longuevergne, L.; Lavenant, N.; Cole, M. C.; Guiheneuf, N.

    2017-12-01

    Determining hydraulic and transport connectivity in fractured bedrock has long been an important objective in contaminant hydrogeology, petroleum engineering, and geothermal operations. A persistent obstacle to making this determination is that the characteristic length scale is nearly impossible to determine in sparsely fractured networks. Both flow and transport occur through an unknown structure of interconnected fracture and/or fracture zones making the actual length that water or solutes travel undetermined. This poses difficulties for flow and transport models. For, example, hydraulic equations require a separation distance between pumping and observation well to determine hydraulic parameters. When wells pairs are close, the structure of the network can influence the interpretation of well separation and the flow dimension of the tested system. This issue is explored using hydraulic tests conducted in a shallow fractured crystalline rock. Periodic (oscillatory) slug tests were performed at the Ploemeur fractured rock test site located in Brittany, France. Hydraulic connectivity was examined between three zones in one well and four zones in another, located 6 m apart in map view. The wells are sufficiently close, however, that the tangential distance between the tested zones ranges between 6 and 30 m. Using standard periodic formulations of radial flow, estimates of storativity scale inversely with the square of the separation distance and hydraulic diffusivity directly with the square of the separation distance. Uncertainty in the connection paths between the two wells leads to an order of magnitude uncertainty in estimates of storativity and hydraulic diffusivity, although estimates of transmissivity are unaffected. The assumed flow dimension results in alternative estimates of hydraulic parameters. In general, one is faced with the prospect of assuming the hydraulic parameter and inverting the separation distance, or vice versa. Similar uncertainties exist

  7. Experimental Investigation of Crack Extension Patterns in Hydraulic Fracturing with Shale, Sandstone and Granite Cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming He

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is an important method of reservoir stimulation in the exploitation of geothermal resources, and conventional and unconventional oil and gas resources. In this article, hydraulic fracturing experiments with shale, sandstone cores (from southern Sichuan Basin, and granite cores (from Inner Mongolia were conducted to investigate the different hydraulic fracture extension patterns in these three reservoir rocks. The different reactions between reservoir lithology and pump pressure can be reflected by the pump pressure monitoring curves of hydraulic fracture experiments. An X-ray computer tomography (CT scanner was employed to obtain the spatial distribution of hydraulic fractures in fractured shale, sandstone, and granite cores. From the microscopic and macroscopic observation of hydraulic fractures, different extension patterns of the hydraulic fracture can be analyzed. In fractured sandstone, symmetrical hydraulic fracture morphology could be formed, while some micro cracks were also induced near the injection hole. Although the macroscopic cracks in fractured granite cores are barely observed by naked eye, the results of X-ray CT scanning obviously show the morphology of hydraulic fractures. It is indicated that the typical bedding planes well developed in shale formation play an important role in the propagation of hydraulic fractures in shale cores. The results also demonstrated that heterogeneity influenced the pathway of the hydraulic fracture in granite cores.

  8. Periodic Hydraulic Testing for Discerning Fracture Network Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M.; Le Borgne, T.; Bour, O.; Guihéneuf, N.; Cole, M.

    2015-12-01

    Discrete fracture network (DFN) models often predict highly variable hydraulic connections between injection and pumping wells used for enhanced oil recovery, geothermal energy extraction, and groundwater remediation. Such connections can be difficult to verify in fractured rock systems because standard pumping or pulse interference tests interrogate too large a volume to pinpoint specific connections. Three field examples are presented in which periodic hydraulic tests were used to obtain information about hydraulic connectivity in fractured bedrock. The first site, a sandstone in New York State, involves only a single fracture at a scale of about 10 m. The second site, a granite in Brittany, France, involves a fracture network at about the same scale. The third site, a granite/schist in the U.S. State of New Hampshire, involves a complex network at scale of 30-60 m. In each case periodic testing provided an enhanced view of hydraulic connectivity over previous constant rate tests. Periodic testing is particularly adept at measuring hydraulic diffusivity, which is a more effective parameter than permeability for identify the complexity of flow pathways between measurement locations. Periodic tests were also conducted at multiple frequencies which provides a range in the radius of hydraulic penetration away from the oscillating well. By varying the radius of penetration, we attempt to interrogate the structure of the fracture network. Periodic tests, therefore, may be uniquely suited for verifying and/or calibrating DFN models.

  9. The Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Beng Ong

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (or “fracking”) is a method of extracting oil and natural gas trapped in deep rock layers underground by pumping water, sand, and other chemicals/additives at high pressures into a well drilled vertically, and then horizontally into the rocks.Advocates of fracking in U.S. have skillfully positioned domestic natural gas as a sensible alternative energy to the country’s goals of reducing carbon emissions and dependence on foreign oil, while simultaneously creating jobs loca...

  10. Hydraulic fracturing chemicals and fluids technology

    CERN Document Server

    Fink, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    When classifying fracturing fluids and their additives, it is important that production, operation, and completion engineers understand which chemical should be utilized in different well environments. A user's guide to the many chemicals and chemical additives used in hydraulic fracturing operations, Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Fluids Technology provides an easy-to-use manual to create fluid formulations that will meet project-specific needs while protecting the environment and the life of the well. Fink creates a concise and comprehensive reference that enables the engineer to logically select and use the appropriate chemicals on any hydraulic fracturing job. The first book devoted entirely to hydraulic fracturing chemicals, Fink eliminates the guesswork so the engineer can select the best chemicals needed on the job while providing the best protection for the well, workers and environment. Pinpoints the specific compounds used in any given fracturing operation Provides a systematic approach to class...

  11. Relative Permeability of Fractured Rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark D. Habana

    2002-06-30

    Contemporary understanding of multiphase flow through fractures is limited. Different studies using synthetic fractures and various fluids have yielded different relative permeability-saturation relations. This study aimed to extend the understanding of multiphase flow by conducting nitrogen-water relative permeability experiments on a naturally-fractured rock from The Geysers geothermal field. The steady-state approach was used. However, steady state was achieved only at the endpoint saturations. Several difficulties were encountered that are attributed to phase interference and changes in fracture aperture and surface roughness, along with fracture propagation/initiation. Absolute permeabilities were determined using nitrogen and water. The permeability values obtained change with the number of load cycles. Determining the absolute permeability of a core is especially important in a fractured rock. The rock may change as asperities are destroyed and fractures propagate or st rain harden as the net stresses vary. Pressure spikes occurred in water a solute permeability experiments. Conceptual models of an elastic fracture network can explain the pressure spike behavior. At the endpoint saturations the water relative permeabilities obtained are much less than the nitrogen gas relative permeabilities. Saturations were determined by weighing and by resistivity calculations. The resistivity-saturation relationship developed for the core gave saturation values that differ by 5% from the value determined by weighing. Further work is required to complete the relative permeability curve. The steady-state experimental approach encountered difficulties due to phase interference and fracture change. Steady state may not be reached until an impractical length of time. Thus, unsteady-state methods should be pursued. In unsteady-state experiments the challenge will be in quantifying rock fracture change in addition to fluid flow changes.

  12. Surrogate-based optimization of hydraulic fracturing in pre-existing fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingjie; Sun, Yunwei; Fu, Pengcheng; Carrigan, Charles R.; Lu, Zhiming; Tong, Charles H.; Buscheck, Thomas A.

    2013-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has been used widely to stimulate production of oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy in formations with low natural permeability. Numerical optimization of fracture stimulation often requires a large number of evaluations of objective functions and constraints from forward hydraulic fracturing models, which are computationally expensive and even prohibitive in some situations. Moreover, there are a variety of uncertainties associated with the pre-existing fracture distributions and rock mechanical properties, which affect the optimized decisions for hydraulic fracturing. In this study, a surrogate-based approach is developed for efficient optimization of hydraulic fracturing well design in the presence of natural-system uncertainties. The fractal dimension is derived from the simulated fracturing network as the objective for maximizing energy recovery sweep efficiency. The surrogate model, which is constructed using training data from high-fidelity fracturing models for mapping the relationship between uncertain input parameters and the fractal dimension, provides fast approximation of the objective functions and constraints. A suite of surrogate models constructed using different fitting methods is evaluated and validated for fast predictions. Global sensitivity analysis is conducted to gain insights into the impact of the input variables on the output of interest, and further used for parameter screening. The high efficiency of the surrogate-based approach is demonstrated for three optimization scenarios with different and uncertain ambient conditions. Our results suggest the critical importance of considering uncertain pre-existing fracture networks in optimization studies of hydraulic fracturing.

  13. Hydraulic Fracturing and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahy Tafti, T.; Aminzadeh, F.; Jafarpour, B.; de Barros, F.

    2013-12-01

    In this presentation, we highlight two key environmental concerns of hydraulic fracturing (HF), namely induced seismicity and groundwater contamination (GC). We examine the induced seismicity (IS) associated with different subsurface fluid injection and production (SFIP) operations and the key operational parameters of SFIP impacting it. In addition we review the key potential sources for possible water contamination. Both in the case of IS and GC we propose modeling and data analysis methods to quantify the risk factors to be used for monitoring and risk reduction. SFIP include presents a risk in hydraulic fracturing, waste water injection, enhanced oil recovery as well as geothermal energy operations. Although a recent report (NRC 2012) documents that HF is not responsible for most of the induced seismicities, we primarily focus on HF here. We look into vaious operational parameters such as volume and rate of water injection, the direction of the well versus the natural fracture network, the depth of the target and the local stress field and fault system, as well as other geological features. The latter would determine the potential for triggering tectonic related events by small induced seismicity events. We provide the building blocks for IS risk assessment and monitoring. The system we propose will involve adequate layers of complexity based on mapped seismic attributes as well as results from ANN and probabilistic predictive modeling workflows. This leads to a set of guidelines which further defines 'safe operating conditions' and 'safe operating zones' which will be a valuable reference for future SFIP operations. We also illustrate how HF can lead to groundwater aquifer contamination. The source of aquifer contamination can be the hydrocarbon gas or the chemicals used in the injected liquid in the formation. We explore possible pathways of contamination within and discuss the likelihood of contamination from each source. Many of the chemical compounds used

  14. Studies on groundwater transport in fractured crystalline rock under controlled conditions using nonradioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, E.; Klockars, C.-E.

    1981-04-01

    The purpose of the investigation has been study the following parameters along existing fractures between two boreholes: hydraulic properties of rock mass and fractures; adsorptive properties of some selected tracers during transport along fractures; dispersivity and dilution of tracers during transport in fractures; kinematic porosity of fractured bedrock. The procedure has been to determine the hydraulic properties of a rock mass by means of conventional hydraulic testing methods in 100 m deep boreholes, and to study transport mechanisms and properties of selected tracers in a selected fracture zone between two boreholes. (Auth.)

  15. Physical simulation study on the hydraulic fracture propagation of coalbed methane well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Caifang; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Wang, Meng; Zhou, Longgang; Jiang, Wei

    2018-03-01

    As the most widely used technique to modify reservoirs in the exploitation of unconventional natural gas, hydraulic fracturing could effectively raise the production of CBM wells. To study the propagation rules of hydraulic fractures, analyze the fracture morphology, and obtain the controlling factors, a physical simulation experiment was conducted with a tri-axial hydraulic fracturing test system. In this experiment, the fracturing sample - including the roof, the floor, and the surrounding rock - was prepared from coal and similar materials, and the whole fracturing process was monitored by an acoustic emission instrument. The results demonstrated that the number of hydraulic fractures in coal is considerably higher than that observed in other parts, and the fracture morphology was complex. Vertical fractures were interwoven with horizontal fractures, forming a connected network. With the injection of fracturing fluid, a new hydraulic fracture was produced and it extended along the preexisting fractures. The fracture propagation was a discontinuous, dynamic process. Furthermore, in-situ stress plays a key role in fracture propagation, causing the fractures to extend in a direction perpendicular to the minimum principal stress. To a certain extent, the different mechanical properties of the coal and the other components inhibited the vertical propagation of hydraulic fractures. Nonetheless, the vertical stress and the interfacial property are the major factors to influence the formation of the "T" shaped and "工" shaped fractures.

  16. Sealing of rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.; Erlstroem, M.; Boergesson, L.

    1985-12-01

    The major water-bearing fractures in granite usually from fairly regular sets but the extension and degree of connectivity is varying. This means that only a few fractures that are interconnected with the deposition holes and larger water-bearing structures in a HLW repository are expected and if they can be identified and cut off through sealing it would be possible to improve the isolation of waste packages very effectively. Nature's own fracture sealing mechanisms may be simulated and a survey of the involved processes actually suggests a number of possible filling methods and substances. Most of them require high temperature and pressure and correspondingly sophisticated techniques, but some are of potential interest for immediate application with rather moderate effort. Such a technique is to fill the fractures with clayey substances which stay flexible and low-permeable provided that they remain physically and chemically intact. It is demonstrated in the report that effective grouting requires a very low viscosity and shear strength of the substance and this can be achieved by mechanical agitation as demonstrated in this report. Thus, by superimposing static pressure and shear waves induced by percussion hammering at a suitable frequency, clays and fine-grained silts as well as cement can be driven into fractures with an average aperture as small as 0.1 mm. Experiments were made in the laboratory using concrete and steel plates, and a field pilot test was also conducted under realistic conditions on site in Stripa. They all demonstrated the practicality of the 'dynamic injection technique' and that the fluid condition of the grouts yielded complete filling of the injected space to a considerable distance from the injection point. The field test indicated a good sealing ability as well as a surprisingly high resistance to erosion and piping. (author)

  17. Hydromechanical modeling of clay rock including fracture damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahina, D.; Houseworth, J. E.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2012-12-01

    Argillaceous rock typically acts as a flow barrier, but under certain conditions significant and potentially conductive fractures may be present. Fracture formation is well-known to occur in the vicinity of underground excavations in a region known as the excavation disturbed zone. Such problems are of particular importance for low-permeability, mechanically weak rock such as clays and shales because fractures can be relatively transient as a result of fracture self-sealing processes. Perhaps not as well appreciated is the fact that natural fractures can form in argillaceous rock as a result of hydraulic overpressure caused by phenomena such as disequlibrium compaction, changes in tectonic stress, and mineral dehydration. Overpressure conditions can cause hydraulic fracturing if the fluid pressure leads to tensile effective stresses that exceed the tensile strength of the material. Quantitative modeling of this type of process requires coupling between hydrogeologic processes and geomechanical processes including fracture initiation and propagation. Here we present a computational method for three-dimensional, hydromechanical coupled processes including fracture damage. Fractures are represented as discrete features in a fracture network that interact with a porous rock matrix. Fracture configurations are mapped onto an unstructured, three-dimensonal, Voronoi grid, which is based on a random set of spatial points. Discrete fracture networks (DFN) are represented by the connections of the edges of a Voronoi cells. This methodology has the advantage that fractures can be more easily introduced in response to coupled hydro-mechanical processes and generally eliminates several potential issues associated with the geometry of DFN and numerical gridding. A geomechanical and fracture-damage model is developed here using the Rigid-Body-Spring-Network (RBSN) numerical method. The hydrogelogic and geomechanical models share the same geometrical information from a 3D Voronoi

  18. Thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of fractured rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coste, F.

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to model Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical behavior of fractured rock mass regarding a nuclear waste re-depository. For this, a methodology of modeling was proposed and was applied to a real underground site (EDF site at Nouvelle Romanche). This methodology consists, in a first step, to determine hydraulic and mechanical REV. Beyond the greatest of these REV, development of a finite element code allows to model all the fractures in an explicit manner. The homogenized mechanical properties are determined in drained and undrained boundary conditions by simulating triaxial tests that represent rock mass subject to loading. These simulations allow to study the evolution of hydraulic and mechanical properties as a function of stress state. Drained and undrained boundary conditions enable to discuss the validity of assimilation of a fractured rock mass to a porous medium. The simulations lead to a better understanding of the behavior of the fractured rock masses and allow to show the dominant role of the shear behavior of the fractures on the hydraulic and mechanical homogenized properties. From a thermal point of view, as long as conduction is dominant, thermal properties of the rock mass are almost the same as those the intact rock. (author)

  19. Estimating the hydraulic conductivity of two-dimensional fracture networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, C. T.; Zimmerman, R. W.

    2010-12-01

    Most oil and gas reservoirs, as well as most potential sites for nuclear waste disposal, are naturally fractured. In these sites, the network of fractures will provide the main path for fluid to flow through the rock mass. In many cases, the fracture density is so high as to make it impractical to model it with a discrete fracture network (DFN) approach. For such rock masses, it would be useful to have recourse to analytical, or semi-analytical, methods to estimate the macroscopic hydraulic conductivity of the fracture network. We have investigated single-phase fluid flow through stochastically generated two-dimensional fracture networks. The centres and orientations of the fractures are uniformly distributed, whereas their lengths follow either a lognormal distribution or a power law distribution. We have considered the case where the fractures in the network each have the same aperture, as well as the case where the aperture of each fracture is directly proportional to the fracture length. The discrete fracture network flow and transport simulator NAPSAC, developed by Serco (Didcot, UK), is used to establish the “true” macroscopic hydraulic conductivity of the network. We then attempt to match this conductivity using a simple estimation method that does not require extensive computation. For our calculations, fracture networks are represented as networks composed of conducting segments (bonds) between nodes. Each bond represents the region of a single fracture between two adjacent intersections with other fractures. We assume that the bonds are arranged on a kagome lattice, with some fraction of the bonds randomly missing. The conductance of each bond is then replaced with some effective conductance, Ceff, which we take to be the arithmetic mean of the individual conductances, averaged over each bond, rather than over each fracture. This is in contrast to the usual approximation used in effective medium theories, wherein the geometric mean is used. Our

  20. Toxicity Assessment for EPA's Hydraulic Fracturing Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains data used to develop multiple manuscripts on the toxicity of chemicals associated with the hydraulic fracturing industry. These manuscripts...

  1. Deformations of fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephansson, O.

    1977-09-01

    Results of the DBM and FEM analysis in this study indicate that a suitable rock mass for repository of radioactive waste should be moderately jointed (about 1 joint/m 2 ) and surrounded by shear zones of the first order. This allowes for a gentle and flexible deformation under tectonic stresses and prevent the development of large cross-cutting failures in the repository area. (author)

  2. Data Analytics of Hydraulic Fracturing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jovan Yang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Viswanathan, Hari [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffery [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Middleton, Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    These are a set of slides on the data analytics of hydraulic fracturing data. The conclusions from this research are the following: they proposed a permeability evolution as a new mechanism to explain hydraulic fracturing trends; they created a model to include this mechanism and it showed promising results; the paper from this research is ready for submission; they devised a way to identify and sort refractures in order to study their effects, and this paper is currently being written.

  3. Numerical Investigation into the Effect of Natural Fracture Density on Hydraulic Fracture Network Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Chong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is an important method to enhance permeability in oil and gas exploitation projects and weaken hard roofs of coal seams to reduce dynamic disasters, for example, rock burst. It is necessary to fully understand the mechanism of the initiation, propagation, and coalescence of hydraulic fracture network (HFN caused by fluid flow in rock formations. In this study, a coupled hydro-mechanical model was built based on synthetic rock mass (SRM method to investigate the effects of natural fracture (NF density on HFN propagation. Firstly, the geometrical structures of NF obtained from borehole images at the field scale were applied to the model. Secondly, the micro-parameters of the proposed model were validated against the interaction between NF and hydraulic fracture (HF in physical experiments. Finally, a series of numerical simulations were performed to study the mechanism of HFN propagation. In addition, confining pressure ratio (CPR and injection rate were also taken into consideration. The results suggested that the increase of NF density drives the growth of stimulated reservoir volume (SRV, concentration area of injection pressure (CAIP, and the number of cracks caused by NF. The number of tensile cracks caused by rock matrix decrease gradually with the increase of NF density, and the number of shear cracks caused by rock matrix are almost immune to the change of NF density. The propagation orientation of HFN and the breakdown pressure in rock formations are mainly controlled by CPR. Different injection rates would result in a relatively big difference in the gradient of injection pressure, but this difference would be gradually narrowed with the increase of NF density. Natural fracture density is the key factor that influences the percentages of different crack types in HFN, regardless of the value of CPR and injection rate. The proposed model may help predict HFN propagation and optimize fracturing treatment designs in

  4. Massive hydraulic fracturing gas stimulation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appledorn, C.R.; Mann, R.L.

    1977-01-01

    The Rio Blanco Massive Hydraulic Fracturing Project was fielded in 1974 as a joint Industry/ERDA demonstration to test the relative formations that were stimulated by the Rio Blanco Nuclear fracturing experiment. The project is a companion effort to and a continuation of the preceding nuclear stimulation project, which took place in May 1973. 8 figures

  5. Characterizing Hydraulic Properties and Ground-Water Chemistry in Fractured-Rock Aquifers: A User's Manual for the Multifunction Bedrock-Aquifer Transportable Testing Tool (BAT3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Allen M.

    2007-01-01

    packers, the submersible pump, and other downhole components to land surface. Borehole geophysical logging must be conducted prior to deploying the Multifunction BAT3 in bedrock boreholes. In particular, it is important to identify the borehole diameter as a function of depth to avoid placing the packers over rough sections of the borehole, where they may be damaged during inflation. In addition, it is advantageous to identify the location of fractures intersecting the borehole wall, for example, using an acoustic televiewer log or a borehole camera. A knowledge of fracture locations is helpful in designing the length of the test interval and the locations where hydraulic tests and geochemical sampling are to be conducted. The Multifunction BAT3 is configured to conduct both fluid-injection and fluid-withdrawal tests. Fluid-injection tests are used to estimate the hydraulic properties of low-permeability fractures intersecting the borehole. The lower limit of the transmissivity that can be estimated using the configuration of the Multifunction BAT3 described in this report is approximately 10-3 square feet per day (ft2/d). Fluid-withdrawal tests are used to collect water samples for geochemical analyses and estimate the hydraulic properties of high-permeability fractures intersecting the borehole. The Multifunction BAT3 is configured with a submersible pump that can support pumping rates ranging from approximately 0.05 to 2.5 gallons per minute, and the upper limit of the of the transmissivity that can be estimated is approximately 104 ft2/d. The Multifunction BAT3 also can be used to measure the ambient hydraulic head of a section of a bedrock borehole, and to conduct single-hole tracer tests by injecting and later withdrawing a tracer solution.

  6. Tracer transport in fractured rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, C.F.; Tsang, Y.W.; Hale, F.V.

    1988-07-01

    Recent interest in the safety of toxic waste underground disposal and nuclear waste geologic repositories has motivated many studies of tracer transport in fractured media. Fractures occur in most geologic formations and introduce a high degree of heterogeneity. Within each fracture, the aperture is not constant in value but strongly varying. Thus for such media, tracer tends to flow through preferred flowpaths or channels within the fractures. Along each of these channels, the aperture is also strongly varying. A detailed analysis is carried out on a 2D single fracture with variable apertures and the flow through channels is demonstrated. The channels defined this way are not rigidly set pathways for tracer transport, but are the preferred flow paths in the sense of stream-tubes in the potential theory. It is shown that such variable-aperture channels can be characterized by an aperture probability distribution function, and not by the exact deterministic geometric locations. We also demonstrate that the 2D tracer transport in a fracture can be calculated by a model of a system of 1D channels characterized by this distribution function only. Due to the channeling character of tracer transport in fractured rock, random point measurements of tracer breakthrough curves may give results with a wide spread in value due to statistical fluctuations. The present paper suggests that such a wide spread can probably be greatly reduced by making line/areal (or multiple) measurements covering a few spatial correlation lengths. 13 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  7. Characterisation of hydraulically-active fractures in a fractured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... injection and recovery tests were conducted for verification of the ... Keywords: self-potential method, hydraulically-conductive fractures, constant pressure injection and recovery ...... porous media 1: theory of the zeta potential.

  8. Comparison of laboratory, in situ, and rock mass measurements of the hydraulic conductivity of metamorphic rock at the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.

    1980-01-01

    In situ testing of exploratory wells in metamorphic rock indicates that two types of fracturing occur in the rock mass. Rock containing small openings that permit only extremely slow movement of water is termed virtually impermeable rock. Rock containing openings of sufficient size to permit transmission of water at a significantly faster rate is termed hydraulically transmissive rock. Laboratory methods are unsuitable for measuring hydraulic conductivity in hydraulically transmissive rock; however, for the virtually impermeable rock, values comparable to the in situ tests are obtained. The hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass over a large region is calculated by using the hydraulic gradient, porosity, and regional velocity. This velocity is determined by dividing the inferred travel distance by the age of water which is determined by the helium content of the water. This rock mass hydraulic conductivity value is between the values measured for the two types of fractures, but is closer to the measured value for the virtually impermeable rock. This relationship is attributed to the control of the regional flow rate by the virtually impermeable rock where the discrete fractures do not form a continuous open connection through the entire rock mass. Thus, laboratory methods of measuring permeability in metamorphic rock are of value if they are properly applied

  9. Characterisation of hydraulically-active fractures in a fractured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the initial stage of a site investigation to select the optimal site location or to evaluate the hydrogeological properties of fractures in underground exploration studies, such as those related geothermal reservoir evaluation and radioactive waste disposal. Keywords: self-potential method, hydraulically-conductive fractures, ...

  10. Failure Mode of the Water-filled Fractures under Hydraulic Pressure in Karst Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Water-filled fractures continue to grow after the excavation of karst tunnels, and the hydraulic pressure in these fractures changes along with such growth. This paper simplifies the fractures in the surrounding rock as flat ellipses and then identifies the critical hydraulic pressure values required for the occurrence of tensile-shear and compression-shear failures in water-filled fractures in the case of plane stress. The occurrence of tensile-shear fracture requires a larger critical hydraulic pressure than compression-shear failure in the same fracture. This paper examines the effects of fracture strike and lateral pressure coefficient on critical hydraulic pressure, and identifies compression-shear failure as the main failure mode of water-filled fractures. This paper also analyses the hydraulic pressure distribution in fractures with different extensions, and reveals that hydraulic pressure decreases along with the continuous growth of fractures and cannot completely fill a newly formed fracture with water. Fracture growth may be interrupted under the effect of hydraulic tensile shear.

  11. Recent Developments in Multiscale and Multiphase Modelling of the Hydraulic Fracturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently hydraulic fracturing of rocks has received much attention not only for its economic importance but also for its potential environmental impact. The hydraulically fracturing technique has been widely used in the oil (EOR and gas (EGR industries, especially in the USA, to extract more oil/gas through the deep rock formations. Also there have been increasing interests in utilising the hydraulic fracturing technique in geological storage of CO2 in recent years. In all cases, the design and implementation of the hydraulic fracturing process play a central role, highlighting the significance of research and development of this technique. However, the uncertainty behind the fracking mechanism has triggered public debates regarding the possible effect of this technique on human health and the environment. This has presented new challenges in the study of the hydraulic fracturing process. This paper describes the hydraulic fracturing mechanism and provides an overview of past and recent developments of the research performed towards better understandings of the hydraulic fracturing and its potential impacts, with particular emphasis on the development of modelling techniques and their implementation on the hydraulic fracturing.

  12. Hydraulic properties of fracture networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreuzy, J.R. de

    1999-12-01

    Fractured medium are studied in the general framework of oil and water supply and more recently for the underground storage of high level nuclear wastes. As fractures are generally far more permeable than the embedding medium, flow is highly channeled in a complex network of fractures. The complexity of the network comes from the broad distributions of fracture length and permeability at the fracture scale and appears through the increase of the equivalent permeability at the network scale. The goal of this thesis is to develop models of fracture networks consistent with both local-scale and global-scale observations. Bidimensional models of fracture networks display a wide variety of flow structures ranging from the sole permeable fracture to the equivalent homogeneous medium. The type of the relevant structure depends not only on the density and the length and aperture distributions but also on the observation scale. In several models, a crossover scale separates complex structures highly channeled from more distributed and homogeneous-like flow patterns at larger scales. These models, built on local characteristics and validated by global properties, have been settled in steady state. They have also been compared to natural well test data obtained in Ploemeur (Morbihan) in transient state. The good agreement between models and data reinforces the relevance of the models. Once validated and calibrated, the models are used to estimate the global tendencies of the main flow properties and the risk associated with the relative lack of data on natural fractures media. (author)

  13. Understanding hydraulic fracturing: a multi-scale problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, J. D.; Jiménez-Martínez, J.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Carey, J. W.; Porter, M. L.; Rougier, E.; Karra, S.; Kang, Q.; Frash, L.; Chen, L.; Lei, Z.; O’Malley, D.; Makedonska, N.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the impact that hydraulic fracturing has had on the energy sector, the physical mechanisms that control its efficiency and environmental impacts remain poorly understood in part because the length scales involved range from nanometres to kilometres. We characterize flow and transport in shale formations across and between these scales using integrated computational, theoretical and experimental efforts/methods. At the field scale, we use discrete fracture network modelling to simulate production of a hydraulically fractured well from a fracture network that is based on the site characterization of a shale gas reservoir. At the core scale, we use triaxial fracture experiments and a finite-discrete element model to study dynamic fracture/crack propagation in low permeability shale. We use lattice Boltzmann pore-scale simulations and microfluidic experiments in both synthetic and shale rock micromodels to study pore-scale flow and transport phenomena, including multi-phase flow and fluids mixing. A mechanistic description and integration of these multiple scales is required for accurate predictions of production and the eventual optimization of hydrocarbon extraction from unconventional reservoirs. Finally, we discuss the potential of CO2 as an alternative working fluid, both in fracturing and re-stimulating activities, beyond its environmental advantages. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Energy and the subsurface’. PMID:27597789

  14. Fluid driven fracture mechanics in highly anisotropic shale: a laboratory study with application to hydraulic fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehne, Stephan; Benson, Philip; Koor, Nick; Enfield, Mark

    2017-04-01

    The finding of considerable volumes of hydrocarbon resources within tight sedimentary rock formations in the UK led to focused attention on the fundamental fracture properties of low permeability rock types and hydraulic fracturing. Despite much research in these fields, there remains a scarcity of available experimental data concerning the fracture mechanics of fluid driven fracturing and the fracture properties of anisotropic, low permeability rock types. In this study, hydraulic fracturing is simulated in a controlled laboratory environment to track fracture nucleation (location) and propagation (velocity) in space and time and assess how environmental factors and rock properties influence the fracture process and the developing fracture network. Here we report data on employing fluid overpressure to generate a permeable network of micro tensile fractures in a highly anisotropic shale ( 50% P-wave velocity anisotropy). Experiments are carried out in a triaxial deformation apparatus using cylindrical samples. The bedding planes are orientated either parallel or normal to the major principal stress direction (σ1). A newly developed technique, using a steel guide arrangement to direct pressurised fluid into a sealed section of an axially drilled conduit, allows the pore fluid to contact the rock directly and to initiate tensile fractures from the pre-defined zone inside the sample. Acoustic Emission location is used to record and map the nucleation and development of the micro-fracture network. Indirect tensile strength measurements at atmospheric pressure show a high tensile strength anisotropy ( 60%) of the shale. Depending on the relative bedding orientation within the stress field, we find that fluid induced fractures in the sample propagate in two of the three principal fracture orientations: Divider and Short-Transverse. The fracture progresses parallel to the bedding plane (Short-Transverse orientation) if the bedding plane is aligned (parallel) with the

  15. Multiphase flow models for hydraulic fracturing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiptsov, Andrei A.

    2017-10-01

    The technology of hydraulic fracturing of a hydrocarbon-bearing formation is based on pumping a fluid with particles into a well to create fractures in porous medium. After the end of pumping, the fractures filled with closely packed proppant particles create highly conductive channels for hydrocarbon flow from far-field reservoir to the well to surface. The design of the hydraulic fracturing treatment is carried out with a simulator. Those simulators are based on mathematical models, which need to be accurate and close to physical reality. The entire process of fracture placement and flowback/cleanup can be conventionally split into the following four stages: (i) quasi-steady state effectively single-phase suspension flow down the wellbore, (ii) particle transport in an open vertical fracture, (iii) displacement of fracturing fluid by hydrocarbons from the closed fracture filled with a random close pack of proppant particles, and, finally, (iv) highly transient gas-liquid flow in a well during cleanup. The stage (i) is relatively well described by the existing hydralics models, while the models for the other three stages of the process need revisiting and considerable improvement, which was the focus of the author’s research presented in this review paper. For stage (ii), we consider the derivation of a multi-fluid model for suspension flow in a narrow vertical hydraulic fracture at moderate Re on the scale of fracture height and length and also the migration of particles across the flow on the scale of fracture width. At the stage of fracture cleanaup (iii), a novel multi-continua model for suspension filtration is developed. To provide closure relationships for permeability of proppant packings to be used in this model, a 3D direct numerical simulation of single phase flow is carried out using the lattice-Boltzmann method. For wellbore cleanup (iv), we present a combined 1D model for highly-transient gas-liquid flow based on the combination of multi-fluid and

  16. Channelling of flow through fractures in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, P.J.

    1987-05-01

    A method of mapping the channelling of flow in rock fractures formed by contacts between rock faces and of measuring the effective apertures of channels has been developed. Some typical results are given. (author)

  17. Database for hydraulically conductive fractures. Update 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmen, J.; Tammisto, E.; Ahokas, H.

    2010-03-01

    Posiva flow logging (PFL) with a 0.5 m test interval and made in 10 cm steps can be used for the determination of the depth of hydraulically conductive fractures. Together with drillhole wall images and fracture data from core logging, PFL provides possibilities to detect individual conductive fractures. In this report, the results of PFL are combined with fracture data on drillholes OL-KR41 - OL-KR48, OL-KR41B - OLKR45B and pilot holes ONK-PH8 - ONK-PH10. In addition, HTU-data measured by 2 m section length and 2 m steps in holes OL-KR39 and OL-KR40 at depths 300-700 m were analyzed and combined with fracture data in a similar way. The conductive fractures were first recognised from PFL data and digital drillhole images and then the fractures from the core logging that correspond to the ones picked from the digital drillhole images were identified. The conductive fractures were primarily recognised in the images based on the openness of fractures or a visible flow in the image. In most of the cases, no tails of flow were seen in the image. In these cases the conductive fractures were recognised in the image based on the openness of fractures and a matching depth. On the basis of the results hydraulically conductive fractures/zones could in most cases be distinguished in the drillhole wall images. An important phase in the work is the calibration of the depth of the image, flow logging and the HTU logging with the sample length. In addition to results of PFL-correlation, Hydraulic Testing Unit (HTU) data measured by 2 m section length and 2 m steps was studied at selected depths for holes OL-KR39, OL-KR40, OL-KR42 and OL-KR45. Due to low HTU section depth accuracy the conducting fractures were successfully correlated with Fracture Data Base (FDB) fractures only in drillholes OL-KR39 and OL-KR40. HTU-data depth matching in these two drillholes was performed using geophysical Single Point Resistance (SPR) data both from geophysical and PFL measurements as a depth

  18. Hydraulic fracturing in shales: the spark that created an oil and gas boom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    In the oil and gas business, one of the valued properties of a shale was its lack of flow capacity (its sealing integrity) and its propensity to provide mechanical barriers to hydraulic fracture height growth when exploiting oil and gas bearing sandstones. The other important property was the high organic content that made shale a potential source rock for oil and gas, commodities which migrated elsewhere to be produced. Technological advancements in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have turned this perspective on its head, making shale (or other ultra-low permeability rocks that are described with this catch-all term) the most prized reservoir rock in US onshore operations. Field and laboratory results have changed our view of how hydraulic fracturing works, suggesting heterogeneities like bedding planes and natural fractures can cause significant complexity in hydraulic fracture growth, resulting in induced networks of fractures whose details are controlled by factors including in situ stress contrasts, ductility contrasts in the stratigraphy, the orientation and strength of pre-existing natural fractures, injection fluid viscosity, perforation cluster spacing and effective mechanical layer thickness. The stress shadowing and stress relief concepts that structural geologists have long used to explain joint spacing and orthogonal fracture pattern development in stratified sequences are key to understanding optimal injection point spacing and promotion of more uniform length development in induced hydraulic fractures. Also, fracture interaction criterion to interpret abutting vs crossing natural fracture relationships in natural fracture systems are key to modeling hydraulic fracture propagation within natural fractured reservoirs such as shale. Scaled physical experiments provide constraints on models where the physics is uncertain. Numerous interesting technical questions remain to be answered, and the field is particularly appealing in that better

  19. Percolation Theory and Modern Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, J. Q.; Turcotte, D. L.; Rundle, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    During the past few years, we have been developing a percolation model for fracking. This model provides a powerful tool for understanding the growth and properties of the complex fracture networks generated during a modern high volume hydraulic fracture stimulations of tight shale reservoirs. The model can also be used to understand the interaction between the growing fracture network and natural reservoir features such as joint sets and faults. Additionally, the model produces a power-law distribution of bursts which can easily be compared to observed microseismicity.

  20. Effect of Poroelasticity on Hydraulic Fracture Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usui, Tomoya; Salimzadeh, Saeed; Paluszny, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates, by performing finite element-based simulations, the influence of fluid leak-off and poroelasticity on growth of multiple hydraulic fractures that initiate from a single horizontal well. In this research, poroelastic deformation of the matrix is coupled with fluid flow in ...

  1. Rock fracture processes in chemically reactive environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhubl, P.

    2015-12-01

    Rock fracture is traditionally viewed as a brittle process involving damage nucleation and growth in a zone ahead of a larger fracture, resulting in fracture propagation once a threshold loading stress is exceeded. It is now increasingly recognized that coupled chemical-mechanical processes influence fracture growth in wide range of subsurface conditions that include igneous, metamorphic, and geothermal systems, and diagenetically reactive sedimentary systems with possible applications to hydrocarbon extraction and CO2 sequestration. Fracture processes aided or driven by chemical change can affect the onset of fracture, fracture shape and branching characteristics, and fracture network geometry, thus influencing mechanical strength and flow properties of rock systems. We are investigating two fundamental modes of chemical-mechanical interactions associated with fracture growth: 1. Fracture propagation may be aided by chemical dissolution or hydration reactions at the fracture tip allowing fracture propagation under subcritical stress loading conditions. We are evaluating effects of environmental conditions on critical (fracture toughness KIc) and subcritical (subcritical index) fracture properties using double torsion fracture mechanics tests on shale and sandstone. Depending on rock composition, the presence of reactive aqueous fluids can increase or decrease KIc and/or subcritical index. 2. Fracture may be concurrent with distributed dissolution-precipitation reactions in the hostrock beyond the immediate vicinity of the fracture tip. Reconstructing the fracture opening history recorded in crack-seal fracture cement of deeply buried sandstone we find that fracture length growth and fracture opening can be decoupled, with a phase of initial length growth followed by a phase of dominant fracture opening. This suggests that mechanical crack-tip failure processes, possibly aided by chemical crack-tip weakening, and distributed solution-precipitation creep in the

  2. Invasion-Flowback Processes During Hydraulic Fracturing Well Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenzhekhanov, Shaken; He, Kai; Xu, Liang; Lord, Paul; Lozano, Martin; Neeves, Keith; Yin, Xiaolong

    2017-11-01

    Drainage-imbibition cycles that simulate hydraulic fracturing fluid's invasion and flowback during well interference were investigated using NOA81 microfluidic micromodels. Well interference is quite common in unconventional oil and gas fields. It is not unusual for the fracturing fluid injected into a well to be discovered in a nearby well. Normally, the effect of such interference is considered to be negative, as fracturing fluid will be imbibed into the porous rock and block the flow path of hydrocarbons. However, field data show that some interferences are beneficial, and microfluidic experiments presented in this study show that surfactant in the fracturing fluid may be a reason for the observed positive interference. Two fluid drainage-imbibition cycles were conducted in micromodels. The first cycle simulates fracturing of the old well and the second cycle simulates fluid invasion from the new well into the old well's fracture network. The experimental data show that while most such interferences indeed can cause production loss, when the old well's fracturing fluid does not contain surfactant yet the new well's fracturing fluid does, interference can be positive, as the residual water saturation in the porous medium is effectively reduced by surfactants.

  3. Quantifying Discrete Fracture Network Connectivity in Hydraulic Fracturing Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbancic, T.; Ardakani, E. P.; Baig, A.

    2017-12-01

    Hydraulic fracture stimulations generally result in microseismicity that is associated with the activation or extension of pre-existing microfractures and discontinuities. Microseismic events acquired under 3D downhole sensor coverage provide accurate event locations outlining hydraulic fracture growth. Combined with source characteristics, these events provide a high quality input for seismic moment tensor inversion and eventually constructing the representative discrete fracture network (DFN). In this study, we investigate the strain and stress state, identified fracture orientation, and DFN connectivity and performance for example stages in a multistage perf and plug completion in a North American shale play. We use topology, the familiar concept in many areas of structural geology, to further describe the relationships between the activated fractures and their effectiveness in enhancing permeability. We explore how local perturbations of stress state lead to the activation of different fractures sets and how that effects the DFN interaction and complexity. In particular, we observe that a more heterogeneous stress state shows a higher percentage of sub-horizontal fractures or bedding plane slips. Based on topology, the fractures are evenly distributed from the injection point, with decreasing numbers of connections by distance. The dimensionless measure of connection per branch and connection per line are used for quantifying the DFN connectivity. In order to connect the concept of connectivity back to productive volume and stimulation efficiency, the connectivity is compared with the character of deformation in the reservoir as deduced from the collective behavior of microseismicity using robustly determined source parameters.

  4. Acoustic Resonance Characteristics of Rock and Concrete Containing Fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Seiji [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    In recent years, acoustic resonance has drawn great attention as a quantitative tool for characterizing properties of materials and detecting defects in both engineering and geological materials. In quasi-brittle materials such as rock and concrete, inherent fractures have a significant influence on their mechanical and hydraulic properties. Most of these fractures are partially open, providing internal boundaries that are visible to propagating seismic waves. Acoustic resonance occurs as a result of constructive and destructive interferences of propagating waves. Therefore the geometrical and mechanical properties of the fracture are also interrogated by the acoustic resonance characteristics of materials. The objective of this dissertation is to understand the acoustic resonance characteristics of fractured rock and concrete.

  5. Deep fracturation of granitic rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bles, J.L.; Blanchin, R.; Bonijoly, D.; Dutartre, P.; Feybesse, J.L.; Gros, Y.; Landry, J.; Martin, P.

    1986-01-01

    This documentary study realized with the financial support of the European Communities and the CEA aims at the utilization of available data for the understanding of the evolution of natural fractures in granitic rocks from the surface to deep underground, in various feasibility studies dealing with radioactive wastes disposal. The Mont Blanc road tunnel, the EDF Arc-Isere gallerie, the Auriat deep borehole and the Pyrenean rock mass of Bassies are studied. In this study are more particularly analyzed the relationship between small fractures and large faults, evolution with depth of fracture density and direction, consequences of rock decompression and relationship between fracturation and groundwater [fr

  6. An Experimental Investigation of Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Considering Anisotropy and Using Freshwater and Supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming He

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of hydraulic fracturing makes use of a liquid to fracture reservoir rocks for the exploitation of unconventional resources. Hence, it is vital to understand the processes that produce the fracture networks that occur during hydraulic fracturing. A shale reservoir is one of the largest unconventional resources and it displays obvious anisotropic characteristics due to its inherent sedimentary structures. The viscosity and flow ability of the fracturing fluid plays an important role in this process. We conducted a series of hydraulic fracturing tests on shale cores (from the southern Sichuan Basin using freshwater and supercritical CO2 (SCO2 as fracturing fluids to investigate the different modes of fracture propagation. The pump pressure curves that we obtained during the fracturing experiment show how the shale responded to each of the fracturing fluids. We examined the influence of the anisotropic characteristics on the propagation of hydraulic fractures by conducting a series of hydraulic fracturing experiments on the shale cores using different bedding orientations. The bedding orientation of the shale had a profound influence on the fracture propagation when using either freshwater or a SCO2 fluid. The breakdown pressure of the shale core was affected not only by the bedding orientation but also by the fracturing fluid. A macroscopic observation of the fractures revealed different fracture geometries and propagation patterns. The results demonstrated that the anisotropic structures and the fracturing fluids could influence the path of the hydraulic fracture.

  7. Hydrogeologic framework of fractured sedimentary rock, Newark Basin, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacombe, Pierre J.; Burton, William C.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogeologic framework of fractured sedimentary bedrock at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), Trenton, New Jersey, a trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated site in the Newark Basin, is developed using an understanding of the geologic history of the strata, gamma-ray logs, and rock cores. NAWC is the newest field research site established as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Toxic Substances Hydrology Program, Department of Defense (DoD) Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, and DoD Environmental Security Technology Certification Program to investigate contaminant remediation in fractured rock. Sedimentary bedrock at the NAWC research site comprises the Skunk Hollow, Byram, and Ewing Creek Members of the Lockatong Formation and Raven Rock Member of the Stockton Formation. Muds of the Lockatong Formation that were deposited in Van Houten cycles during the Triassic have lithified to form the bedrock that is typical of much of the Newark Basin. Four lithotypes formed from the sediments include black, carbon-rich laminated mudstone, dark-gray laminated mudstone, light-gray massive mudstone, and red massive mudstone. Diagenesis, tectonic compression, off-loading, and weathering have altered the rocks to give some strata greater hydraulic conductivity than other strata. Each stratum in the Lockatong Formation is 0.3 to 8 m thick, strikes N65 degrees E, and dips 25 degrees to 70 degrees NW. The black, carbon-rich laminated mudstone tends to fracture easily, has a relatively high hydraulic conductivity and is associated with high natural gamma-ray count rates. The dark-gray laminated mudstone is less fractured and has a lower hydraulic conductivity than the black carbon-rich laminated mudstone. The light-gray and the red massive mudstones are highly indurated and tend to have the least fractures and a low hydraulic conductivity. The differences in gamma-ray count rates for different mudstones allow gamma-ray logs to be used to correlate and

  8. Seismic characteristics of tensile fracture growth induced by hydraulic fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, D. W. S.; Van der Baan, M.; Boroumand, N.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a process of injecting high-pressure slurry into a rockmass to enhance its permeability. Variants of this process are used for unconventional oil and gas development, engineered geothermal systems and block-cave mining; similar processes occur within volcanic systems. Opening of hydraulic fractures is well documented by mineback trials and tiltmeter monitoring and is a physical requirement to accommodate the volume of injected fluid. Numerous microseismic monitoring investigations acquired in the audio-frequency band are interpreted to show a prevalence of shear-dominated failure mechanisms surrounding the tensile fracture. Moreover, the radiated seismic energy in the audio-frequency band appears to be a miniscule fraction (<< 1%) of the net injected energy, i.e., the integral of the product of fluid pressure and injection rate. We use a simple penny-shaped crack model as a predictive framework to describe seismic characteristics of tensile opening during hydraulic fracturing. This model provides a useful scaling relation that links seismic moment to effective fluid pressure within the crack. Based on downhole recordings corrected for attenuation, a significant fraction of observed microseismic events are characterized by S/P amplitude ratio < 5. Despite the relatively small aperture of the monitoring arrays, which precludes both full moment-tensor analysis and definitive identification of nodal planes or axes, this ratio provides a strong indication that observed microseismic source mechanisms have a component of tensile failure. In addition, we find some instances of periodic spectral notches that can be explained by an opening/closing failure mechanism, in which fracture propagation outpaces fluid velocity within the crack. Finally, aseismic growth of tensile fractures may be indicative of a scenario in which injected energy is consumed to create new fracture surfaces. Taken together, our observations and modeling provide evidence that

  9. Leakage losses from a hydraulic fracture and fracture propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.E.; Gustafson, C.W.

    1988-01-01

    The fluid mechanics of viscous fluid injection into a fracture embedded in a permeable rock formation is studied. Coupling between flow in the fracture and flow in the rock is retained. The analysis is based on a perturbation scheme that assumes the depth of penetration of the fluid into the rock is small compared to the characteristic length w 3 0 /k, where w 0 is the characteristic crack width and k is the permeability. This restriction, however, is shown to be minor. The spatial dependence of the leakage rate per unit length from the fracture is found to be linear, decreasing from the well bore to the fracture tip where it vanishes. The magnitude of the leakage rate per unit length is found to decay in time as t -1 /sup // 3 if the injection rate at the well bore is constant, and as t -1 /sup // 2 if the well bore pressure is held constant. The results cast considerable doubt on the validity of Carter's well-known leakage formula (Drilling Prod. Prac. API 1957, 261) derived from a one-dimensional theory. Using the simple fracture propagation model made popular by Carter, the present work also predicts that the fracture grows at a rate proportional to t 1 /sup // 3 for a fixed well bore injection rate and a rate proportional to t 1 /sup // 4 for a fixed well bore pressure

  10. Legal aspects of the hydraulic fracturing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Duraj

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent months the possibility of extracting shale gas by way of the hydraulic fracturing method in Poland as well as across EU territory has been widely discussed. The European Parliament is to decide whether to ban this method. There are various legal, ecological and economical aspects influencing European legislators. It is hard not to notice how strongly the anti- and pro- hydraulic fracturing lobbies are connected with business. At the moment there are no specific regulations that relate directly to this extraction method, neither in the EU as a whole nor in Poland. However, in Poland a new Geological and Mining Act is supposed to come into force on 1st January 2012, which will regulate natural gas extraction with a view to ensure proper extraction of shale gas in the near future. This article is aimed at showing Polish regulations, both planned and currently in force, as well as the relevant EU law in respect of shale gas extraction. The author would like to emphasize the need to create one coherent legislative regime which would enable entrepreneurs to commence extraction by way of hydraulic fracturing without creating a danger for the environment.

  11. The application of positron emission tomography to the study of mass transfer in fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilling, D.; Jefferies, N.L.; Fowles, P.; Hawkesworth, M.R.; Parker, D.J.

    1991-06-01

    Water flow in hard rocks takes place dominantly in fractures. In order to predict the transport of dissolved radioelements through a fractured rock it is necessary to determine both the geometry of the fracture network and the hydraulic properties of the individual fractures. This paper describes a technique for studying mass transfer in a single fracture. The technique is positron emission tomography (PET) and it offers the potential for visualising quantitatively the migration of dissolved tracers. Preliminary experiments have been undertaken involving the flow of Na-22 and F-18 labelled solutions through artificial fractures. The results demonstrate that PET is well suited to this application. (author)

  12. Water flow and solute transport through fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, J.E.; Bourke, P.J.; Pascoe, D.M.; Watkins, V.M.B.; Kingdon, R.D.

    1990-09-01

    In densely fractured slate at the Nirex research site in Cornwall, the positions, orientations and hydraulic conductivities of the 380 fractures intersecting a drill hole between 9 and 50 m depth have been individually measured. These data have been used: to determine the dimensions of statistically representative volumes of the network of fractures and to predict, using discrete flow path modelling and the NAPSAC code, the total flows into the fractures when large numbers are simultaneously pressurised along various lengths of the hole. Corresponding measurements, which validated the NAPSAC code to factor of two accuracy for the Cornish site, are reported. Possibilities accounting for this factor are noted for experimental investigation, and continuing, more extensive, inter hole flow and transport measurements are outlined. The application of this experimental and theoretical approach for calculating radionuclide transport in less densely fractured rock suitable for waste disposal is discussed. (Author)

  13. Water flow and solute transport through fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, P.J.; Kingdon, R.D.; Bolt, J.E.; Pascoe, D.M.; Watkins, V.M.B.

    1991-01-01

    In densely fractured slate at the Nirex research site in Cornwall, the positions, orientations and hydraulic conductivities of the 380 fractures intersecting a drill hole between 9 and 50 m depths have been individually measured. These data have been used: - to determine the dimensions of statistically representative volumes of the sheetwork of fractures; - to predict; using discrete flowpath modelling and the NAPSAC code; the total flows into the fractures when large numbers are simultaneously pressurised along various lengths of the hole; Corresponding measurements, which proved the modelling and validated the code to factor of two accuracy, are reported. Possibilities accounting for this factor are noted for experimental investigation, and continuing, more extensive inter-hole flow and transport measurements are outlined. The application of this experimental and theoretical approach for calculating radionuclide transport in less densely fractured rock suitable for waste disposal is discussed. 7 figs., 9 refs

  14. Rio Blanco massive hydraulic fracture: project definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A recent Federal Power Commission feasibility study assessed the possibility of economically producing gas from three Rocky Mountain basins. These basins have potentially productive horizons 2,000 to 4,000 feet thick containing an estimated total of 600 trillion cubic feet of gas in place. However, the producing sands are of such low permeability and heterogeneity that conventional methods have failed to develop these basins economically. The Natural Gas Technology Task Force, responsible for preparing the referenced feasibility study, determined that, if effective well stimulation methods for these basins can be developed, it might be possible to recover 40 to 50 percent of the gas in place. The Task Force pointed out two possible underground fracturing methods: Nuclear explosive fracturing, and massive hydraulic fracturing. They argued that once technical viability has been demonstrated, and with adequate economic incentives, there should be no reason why one or even both of these approaches could not be employed, thus making a major contribution toward correcting the energy deficiency of the Nation. A joint Government-industry demonstration program has been proposed to test the relative effectiveness of massive hydraulic fracturing of the same formation and producing horizons that were stimulated by the Rio Blanco nuclear project

  15. Hydraulic and hydrochemical characterisation of argillaceous rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Throughout the OECD member countries many national programmes on radioactive waste management are considering geological disposal in argillaceous media. In order to determine their suitability for waste disposal, evaluations and understanding of basic physical and chemical processes that govern radionuclides transport through these formations are required. Clay-rich media have a very marked capacity to retard the movement of radionuclides by sorption, filtration and other mechanisms. However, a complicating factor to make quantitative predictions of the performance of clay barriers is our incomplete knowledge of the mechanisms of groundwater and solute transport in compact clays. Application of hydraulic testing and groundwater sampling methods to low and very low permeability rocks, and in particular to argillaceous media, requires modifications in equipment, testing procedures, and interpretation methods. In this context, the NEA Coordinating Group on Site Evaluation and Design of Experiments for Radioactive Waste Disposal (SEDE) established the NEA Working Group on Measurement and Physical Understanding of Groundwater Flow through Argillaceous Media (the Clay Club) to address the many issues associated with this subject. The workshop on hydraulic and hydrochemical characteristics of argillaceous media was hosted by the British Geological Survey in Keyworth, United Kingdom, on 7-9 June 1994

  16. Cleavage and creep fracture of rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.S.; Munson, D.E.; Bodner, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    The dominant failure mechanism in rock salt at ambient temperature is either cleavage or creep fracture. Since the transition of creep fracture to cleavage in a compressive stress field is not well understood, failure of rock salt by cleavage and creep fracture is analyzed in this paper to elucidate the effect of stress state on the competition between these two fracture mechanisms. For cleavage fracture, a shear crack is assumed to cause the formation and growth of a symmetric pair of wing cracks in a predominantly compressive stress field. The conditions for wing-crack instability are derived and presented as the cleavage fracture boundary in the fracture mechanism map. Using an existing creep fracture model, stress conditions for the onset of creep fracture and isochronous failure curves of specified times-to-rupture are calculated and incorporated into the fracture mechanism map. The regimes of dominance by cleavage and creep fracture are established and compared with experimental data. The result indicates that unstable propagation of cleavage cracks occurs only in the presence of tensile stress. The onset of creep fracture is promoted by a tensile stress, but can be totally suppressed by a high confining pressure. Transition of creep fracture to cleavage occurs when critical conditions of stress difference and tensile stress for crack instability are exceeded

  17. Coupled Fracture and Flow in Shale in Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, J. W.; Mori, H.; Viswanathan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Production of hydrocarbon from shale requires creation and maintenance of fracture permeability in an otherwise impermeable shale matrix. In this study, we use a combination of triaxial coreflood experiments and x-ray tomography characterization to investigate the fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale at in situ reservoir conditions (25-50 oC and 35-120 bars). Initially impermeable shale core was placed between flat anvils (compression) or between split anvils (pure shear) and loaded until failure in the triaxial device. Permeability was monitored continuously during this process. Significant deformation (>1%) was required to generate a transmissive fracture system. Permeability generally peaked at the point of a distinct failure event and then dropped by a factor of 2-6 when the system returned to hydrostatic failure. Permeability was very small in compression experiments (fashion as pressure increased. We also observed that permeability decreased with increasing fluid flow rate indicating that flow did not follow Darcy's Law, possibly due to non-laminar flow conditions, and conformed to Forscheimer's law. The coupled deformation and flow behavior of Utica shale, particularly the large deformation required to initiate flow, indicates the probable importance of activation of existing fractures in hydraulic fracturing and that these fractures can have adequate permeability for the production of hydrocarbon.

  18. Fracturing Fluid Leak-off for Deep Volcanic Rock in Zhungeer Basin: Mechanism and Control Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Bo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The deep volcanic reservoir in Zhungeer Basin is buried in over 4000m depth, which is characterized by complex lithology (breccia, andesite, basalt, etc., high elastic modulus and massive natural fractures. During hydraulic fracturing, hydraulic fracture will propagate and natural fractures will be triggered by the increasing net pressure. However, the extension of fractures, especially natural fractures, would aggravate the leak-off effect of fracturing fluid, and consequently decrease the fracturing success rate. 4 out of 12 fracturing wells in the field have failed to add enough proppants due to fluid loss. In order to increase the success rate and efficiency of hydraulic fracturing for deep volcanic reservoir, based on theoretical and experimental method, the mechanism of fracturing fluid leak-off is deeply studied. We propose a dualistic proppant scheme and employ the fluid loss reducer to control the fluid leak-off in macro-fractures and micro-fractures respectively. The proposed technique remarkably improved the success rate in deep volcanic rock fracturing. It bears important theoretical value and practical significance to improve the hydraulic fracturing design for deep volcanic reservoir.

  19. Hydraulic fracture considerations in oil sand overburden dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R.; Madden, B.; Danku, M. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed hydraulic fracture potential in the dry-filled temporary dams used in the oil sands industry. Hydraulic fractures can occur when reservoir fluid pressures are greater than the minimum stresses in a dam. Stress and strain conditions are influenced by pore pressures, levels of compaction in adjacent fills as well as by underlying pit floor and abutment conditions. Propagation pressure and crack initiation pressures must also be considered in order to provide improved hydraulic fracture protection to dams. Hydraulic fractures typically result in piping failures. Three cases of hydraulic fracture at oil sands operations in Alberta were presented. The study showed that hydraulic fracture failure modes must be considered in dam designs, particularly when thin compacted lift of dry fill are used to replace wetted clay cores. The risk of hydraulic fractures can be reduced by eliminating in situ bedrock irregularities and abutments. Overpressure heights, abutment sloping, and the sloping of fills above abutments, as well as the dam's width and base conditions must also be considered in relation to potential hydraulic fractures. It was concluded that upstream sand beaches and internal filters can help to prevent hydraulic fractures in dams in compacted control zones. 5 refs., 16 figs.

  20. The hydraulic properties of fracture zones and tracer tests with non-reactive elements in Studsvik

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klockars, C.-E.; Persson, O.; Landstroem, O.

    1982-04-01

    Tracer technique was applied in a rock formation within the Studsvik Energiteknik area in order to study hydrodynamic properties of discrete fracture zones between boreholes. The two hole method was applied in these studies; a nonreactive tracer is injected in one hole into a fracture zone which is in hydraulic contact with a central pump hole (observation hole). Hydraulic tests and TV inspection were carried out in the fracture zones. Chemical composition of the groundwater was determined. In summary, the following hydraulic properties were found for the fracture zones between the boreholes B1N-B6N and B5N-B6N respectively, under the prevailing conditions: 1) The fracture zones studied consists of a number of transport pathways with different mean transit times, varying from 100 to 1200 hours. 2) The fracture zone between boreholes B1N and B6N has a mean hydraulic conductivity of 6-7 x 10 -5 m/s and the fracture zone between boreholes B5N and B6N, 2 x 10 -4 m/s. 3) The kinematic porosity of the fracture zones studied, calculated as the ratio between the hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass and that of the fracture zone, is 2 x 10 -3 and 5 x 10 -3 , respectively. 4) The roughness factor β, which expresses the ratio between measured and theoretically calculated (plane-parallel) fracture conductivity for the fracture zones studied, is approximately 0.04 and 0.06, respectively. 5) Dispersivity for the flow channels within the fracture zones is of the order of 0.3-0.8 m. 6) The groundwater encountered is a nearly neutral, probably reducing, Na-Ca-HCO 3 water. The results of the tracer tests reveal the following: I-131 is a suitable nonreactive tracer for the test area. A test with simultaneous injection of I-131 and T (tritium) gave comparable breakthrough curves. (Author)

  1. Experimental assessment of the sealing effectiveness of rock fracture grouting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, A.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1987-03-01

    The objective of this investigation is to determine the effectiveness of cement grouts as sealants of fractures in rock. Laboratory experiments have been conducted on seven 15-cm granite cubes containing saw cuts, three 23-cm diameter andesite cores containing induced tension cracks, and one 15-cm diameter marble core containing a natural fracture. Prior to grouting, the hydraulic conductivity of the fractures is determined under a range of normal stresses, applied in loading and unloading cycles, from 0 to 14 MPa (2000 psi). Grout is injected through an axial borehole, at a pressure of 1.2 to 8.3 MPa (180 to 1200 psi), pressure selected to provide a likely groutable fracture aperture, while the fracture is stressed at a constant normal stress. The fracture permeability is measured after grouting. Flow tests on the ungrouted samples confirm the inverse relation between normal stress and fracture permeability. The equivalent aperture determined by these tests is a reliable indicator of groutability. Postgrouting permeability measurements as performed here, and frequently in practice, can be misleading, since incomplete grouting of fractures can result in major apparent reductions in permeability. The apparent permeability reduction is caused by grouting of a small area of a highly preferential flowpath directly adjacent to the hole used for grouting and for permeability testing. Experimental results confirm claims in the literature that ordinary portland cement inadequately penetrates fine fractures

  2. Characterizing hydraulic fractures in shale gas reservoirs using transient pressure tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang

    2015-06-01

    This work presents an unconventional gas reservoir simulator and its application to quantify hydraulic fractures in shale gas reservoirs using transient pressure data. The numerical model incorporates most known physical processes for gas production from unconventional reservoirs, including two-phase flow of liquid and gas, Klinkenberg effect, non-Darcy flow, and nonlinear adsorption. In addition, the model is able to handle various types and scales of fractures or heterogeneity using continuum, discrete or hybrid modeling approaches under different well production conditions of varying rate or pressure. Our modeling studies indicate that the most sensitive parameter of hydraulic fractures to early transient gas flow through extremely low permeability rock is actually the fracture-matrix contacting area, generated by fracturing stimulation. Based on this observation, it is possible to use transient pressure testing data to estimate the area of fractures generated from fracturing operations. We will conduct a series of modeling studies and present a methodology using typical transient pressure responses, simulated by the numerical model, to estimate fracture areas created or to quantity hydraulic fractures with traditional well testing technology. The type curves of pressure transients from this study can be used to quantify hydraulic fractures in field application.

  3. The Effect of Loading Rate on Hydraulic Fracturing in Synthetic Granite - a Discrete Element Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomac, I.; Gutierrez, M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydraulic fracture initiation and propagation from a borehole in hard synthetic rock is modeled using the two dimensional Discrete Element Method (DEM). DEM uses previously established procedure for modeling the strength and deformation parameters of quasi-brittle rocks with the Bonded Particle Model (Itasca, 2004). A series of simulations of laboratory tests on granite in DEM serve as a reference for synthetic rock behavior. Fracturing is enabled by breaking parallel bonds between DEM particles as a result of the local stress state. Subsequent bond breakage induces fracture propagation during a time-stepping procedure. Hydraulic fracturing occurs when pressurized fluid induces hoop stresses around the wellbore which cause rock fracturing and serves for geo-reservoir permeability enhancement in oil, gas and geothermal industries. In DEM, a network of fluid pipes and reservoirs is used for mathematical calculation of fluid flow through narrow channels between DEM particles, where the hydro-mechanical coupling is fully enabled. The fluid flow calculation is superimposed with DEM stress-strain calculation at each time step. As a result, the fluid pressures during borehole pressurization in hydraulic fracturing, as well as, during the fracture propagation from the borehole, can be simulated. The objective of this study is to investigate numerically a hypothesis that fluid pressurization rate, or the fluid flow rate, influences upon character, shape and velocity of fracture propagation in rock. The second objective is to better understand and define constraints which are important for successful fracture propagation in quasi-brittle rock from the perspective of flow rate, fluid density, viscosity and compressibility relative to the rock physical properties. Results from this study indicate that not only too high fluid flow rates cause fracture arrest and multiple fracture branching from the borehole, but also that the relative compressibility of fracturing fluid and

  4. Addresing environmental challenges to shale gas and hydraulic fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vadillo Fernandez, L.; Rodriguez Gomez, V.; Fernadez Naranjo, F.J.

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews the main issues of unconventional gas extracted by hydraulic fracturing techniques. Topics such as technology, fracturing stages, flowback characterization and alternatives of disposal and reuse, water consumption, physicochemical features of the geological formations, development of the fractures performed by hydraulic fracturing, well flow decline, land use and occupation and induced seismicity are presented, as well as the scientific debate: the potential steps of methane gas and groundwater contamination. (Author)

  5. A review on hydraulic fracturing of unconventional reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanshu Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is widely accepted and applied to improve the gas recovery in unconventional reservoirs. Unconventional reservoirs to be addressed here are with very low permeability, complicated geological settings and in-situ stress field etc. All of these make the hydraulic fracturing process a challenging task. In order to effectively and economically recover gas from such reservoirs, the initiation and propagation of hydraulic fracturing in the heterogeneous fractured/porous media under such complicated conditions should be mastered. In this paper, some issues related to hydraulic fracturing have been reviewed, including the experimental study, field study and numerical simulation. Finally the existing problems that need to be solved on the subject of hydraulic fracturing have been proposed.

  6. Disclosure of hydraulic fracturing fluid chemical additives: analysis of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Alexis L; Makey, Colleen M; Benson, Eugene B; Burrows, Isaac J; Scammell, Madeleine K

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to extract natural gas from shale formations. The process involves injecting into the ground fracturing fluids that contain thousands of gallons of chemical additives. Companies are not mandated by federal regulations to disclose the identities or quantities of chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing operations on private or public lands. States have begun to regulate hydraulic fracturing fluids by mandating chemical disclosure. These laws have shortcomings including nondisclosure of proprietary or "trade secret" mixtures, insufficient penalties for reporting inaccurate or incomplete information, and timelines that allow for after-the-fact reporting. These limitations leave lawmakers, regulators, public safety officers, and the public uninformed and ill-prepared to anticipate and respond to possible environmental and human health hazards associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids. We explore hydraulic fracturing exemptions from federal regulations, as well as current and future efforts to mandate chemical disclosure at the federal and state level.

  7. Mechanical dispersion in fractured crystalline rock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafleur, D.W.; Raven, K.G.

    1986-12-01

    This report compiles and evaluates the hydrogeologic parameters describing the flow of groundwater and transport of solutes in fractured crystalline rocks. This report describes the processes of mechanical dispersion in fractured crystalline rocks, and compiles and evaluates the dispersion parameters determined from both laboratory and field tracer experiments. The compiled data show that extrapolation of the reliable test results performed over intermediate scales (10's of m and 10's to 100's of hours) to larger spatial and temporal scales required for performance assessment of a nuclear waste repository in crystalline rock is not justified. The reliable measures of longitudinal dispersivity of fractured crystalline rock are found to range between 0.4 and 7.8 m

  8. Flow and contaminant transport in fractured rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bear, J.; Tsang, C.F.; Marsily, G. de

    1993-01-01

    This book is a compilation of nine articles dealing with various aspect of flow in fractured media. Articles range from radionuclide waste to multiphase flow in petroleum reservoirs to practical field test methods. Each chapter contains copious figures to aid the reader, but is also a detailed in-depth analysis of some major flow problem. The subjects covered are as follows: an introduction to flow and transport models; solute transport in fractured rock with application to radioactive waste repositories; solute transport models through fractured networks; theoretical view of stochastic models of fracture systems; numerical models of tracers; multiphase flow models in fractured systems and petroleum reservoirs; unsaturated flow modeling; comparative analysis of various flow modeling techniques in fractured media; and, a summary of field methods for measuring transfers of mass, heat, contaminant, momentum, and electrical charge in fractured media

  9. Example of fracture characterization in granitic rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, R.K.

    1981-03-01

    A detailed study of geologic discontinuities for an underground heater test in highly fractured granitic rock is reported. Several prominent shear fractures were delineated within a 6 x 30 x 15 m rock mass by correlating surface mapping and borehole fracture logs. Oblique-reverse faulting is suspected on at least one of the surfaces, and its inferred borehole intercepts appear to be collinear in the direction of slickensiding observed in the field. Four distinct joint sets were identified, one of which coincides with the shear fractures. Another lies nearly horizontal, and two others are steeply inclined and orthogonal. Fracture lengths and spacings for the four joint sets are represented by lognormal probability distributions

  10. Radionuclide migration in fractured rock: hydrological investigations at an experimental site in the Carnmennellis granite, Cornwall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, M.J.; Durrance, E.M.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives, methods and results of hydrological investigation of the granite at an experimental site in Cornwall are described and discussed. Constant head injection tests and radioactive tracer experiments have revealed a fracture permeability in which water movement is confined to discrete fractures separated by rock of very low permeability. Data on flow path frequency, orientation and effective hydraulic aperture, required for network modelling, are presented for a 700 m borehole, with additional hydraulic data from three other boreholes. In addition to fractures of average hydraulic conductivity a small number of major hydraulic features (''main drains'') with major implications for radionuclide migration have been identified. A mean hydraulic conductivity for the granite investigated of 1.57x10 -7 ms -1 has been obtained, 2.11x10 -8 ms -1 if the major hydraulic features are excluded

  11. Hydraulic Parameter Generation Technique Using a Discrete Fracture Network with Bedrock Heterogeneity in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Yeol Cheong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In instances of damage to engineered barriers containing nuclear waste material, surrounding bedrock is a natural barrier that retards radionuclide movement by way of adsorption and delay due to groundwater flow through highly tortuous fractured rock pathways. At the Gyeongju nuclear waste disposal site, groundwater mainly flows through granitic and sedimentary rock fractures. Therefore, to understand the nuclide migration path, it is necessary to understand discrete fracture networks based on heterogeneous fracture orientations, densities, and size characteristics. In this study, detailed heterogeneous fracture distribution, including the density and orientation of the fractures, was considered for a region that has undergone long periods of change from various geological activities at and around the Gyeongju site. A site-scale discrete fracture network (DFN model was constructed taking into account: (i regional fracture heterogeneity constrained by a multiple linear regression analysis of fracture intensity on faults and electrical resistivity; and (ii the connectivity of conductive fractures having fracture hydraulic parameters, using transient flow simulation. Geometric and hydraulic heterogeneity of the DFN was upscaled into equivalent porous media for flow and transport simulation for a large-scale model.

  12. Radionuclide migration in crystalline rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelttae, P.

    2002-01-01

    Crystalline rock has been considered as a host medium for the repository of high radioactive spent nuclear fuel in Finland. The geosphere will act as an ultimate barrier retarding the migration of radionuclides to the biosphere if they are released through the technical barriers. Radionuclide transport is assumed to take place along watercarrying fractures, and retardation will occur both in the fracture and within the rock matrix. To be able to predict the transport and retardation of radionuclides in rock fractures and rock matrices, it is essential to understand the different phenomena involved. Matrix diffusion has been indicated to be an important mechanism, which will retard the transport of radionuclides in rock fractures. Both dispersion and matrix diffusion are processes, which can have similar influences on solute breakthrough curves in fractured crystalline rock. In this work, the migration of radionuclides in crystalline rock fractures was studied by means of laboratory scale column methods. The purpose of the research was to gain a better understanding of various phenomena - particularly matrix diffusion - affecting the transport and retardation behaviour of radionuclides in fracture flow. Interaction between radionuclides and the rock matrix was measured in order to test the compatibility of experimental retardation parameters and transport models used in assessing the safety of underground repositories for spent nuclear fuel. Rock samples of mica gneiss and of unaltered, moderately altered and strongly altered tonalite represented different rock features and porosities offering the possibility to determine experimental boundary limit values for parameters describing both the transport and retardation of radionuclides and rock matrix properties. The dominant matrix diffusion behaviour was demonstrated in porous ceramic column and gas diffusion experiments. Demonstration of the effects of matrix diffusion in crystalline rock fracture succeeded for the

  13. Simulation of quasi-static hydraulic fracture propagation in porous media with XFEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan-Lien Ramirez, Alina; Neuweiler, Insa; Löhnert, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is the injection of a fracking fluid at high pressures into the underground. Its goal is to create and expand fracture networks to increase the rock permeability. It is a technique used, for example, for oil and gas recovery and for geothermal energy extraction, since higher rock permeability improves production. Many physical processes take place when it comes to fracking; rock deformation, fluid flow within the fractures, as well as into and through the porous rock. All these processes are strongly coupled, what makes its numerical simulation rather challenging. We present a 2D numerical model that simulates the hydraulic propagation of an embedded fracture quasi-statically in a poroelastic, fully saturated material. Fluid flow within the porous rock is described by Darcy's law and the flow within the fracture is approximated by a parallel plate model. Additionally, the effect of leak-off is taken into consideration. The solid component of the porous medium is assumed to be linear elastic and the propagation criteria are given by the energy release rate and the stress intensity factors [1]. The used numerical method for the spatial discretization is the eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) [2]. It is based on the standard Finite Element Method, but introduces additional degrees of freedom and enrichment functions to describe discontinuities locally in a system. Through them the geometry of the discontinuity (e.g. a fracture) becomes independent of the mesh allowing it to move freely through the domain without a mesh-adapting step. With this numerical model we are able to simulate hydraulic fracture propagation with different initial fracture geometries and material parameters. Results from these simulations will also be presented. References [1] D. Gross and T. Seelig. Fracture Mechanics with an Introduction to Micromechanics. Springer, 2nd edition, (2011) [2] T. Belytschko and T. Black. Elastic crack growth in finite elements with minimal

  14. Sensitivity analysis of hydraulic fracturing Using an extended finite element method for the PKN model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garikapati, Hasini; Verhoosel, Clemens V.; van Brummelen, Harald; Diez, Pedro; Papadrakakis, M.; Papadopoulos, V.; Stefanou, G.; Plevris, V.

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a process that is surrounded by uncertainty, as available data on e.g. rock formations is scant and available models are still rudimentary. In this contribution sensitivity analysis is carried out as first step in studying the uncertainties in the model. This is done to

  15. Observations of a potential size-effect in experimental determination of the hydraulic properties of fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, P.A.; Amick, C.H.; Gale, J.E.; Iwai, K.

    1979-05-01

    In several recent investigations, experimental studies on the effect of normal stress on the hydraulic conductivity of a single fracture were made on three rock specimens ranging in cross-sectional area from 0.02 m 2 to over 1.0 m 2 . At the maximum stress levels that could be attained (10 to 20 MPa), minimum values of the fracture hydraulic conductivity were not the same for each rock specimen. These minimum values increased with specimen size, indicating that the determination of fracture conductivity may be significantly influenced by a size effect. The implications of these results are important. Cores collected in the field are normally not larger than 0.15 m in diameter. However, the results of this work suggest that when this size core is used for laboratory investigations, the results may be nonconservative in that fracture permeabilities will be significantly lower than will be found in the field. 6 figures

  16. Measuring the initial earth pressure of granite using hydraulic fracturing test; Goseong and Yuseong areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Young Kwon; Won, Kyung Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    This report provides the initial earth pressure of granitic rocks obtained from Deep Core Drilling Program which is carried out as part of the assessment of deep geological environmental condition. These data are obtained by hydraulic fracturing test in three boreholes drilled up to 350{approx}500 m depth at the Yuseong and Goseong sites. These sites were selected based on the result of preliminary site evaluation study. The boreholes are NX-size (76 mm) and vertical. The procedure of hydraulic fracturing test is as follows: - Selecting the testing positions by preliminary investigation using BHTV logging. - Performing the hydraulic fracturing test at each selected position with depth.- Estimating the shut-in pressure by the bilinear pressure-decay-rate method. - Estimating the fracture reopening pressure from the pressure-time curves.- Estimating the horizontal principal stresses and the direction of principal stresses. 65 refs., 39 figs., 12 tabs. (Author)

  17. Research on fracture analysis, groundwater flow and sorption processes in fractured rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Ha [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea)

    1998-12-01

    Due to increasing demand for numerous industrial facilities including nuclear power plants and waste repositories, the feasibility of rocks masses as sites for the facilities has been a geological issue of concern. Rock masses, in general, comprises systems of fractures which can provide pathways for groundwater flow and may also affect the stability of engineered structures. such properties of fractures stimulate a synthetic study on (1) analyses of fracture systems, and (2) characterization of groundwater flow and sorption processes in fractured rocks to establish a preliminary model for assessing suitable sites for industrial facilities. The analyses of fracture systems cover (1) reconstruction of the Cenozoic tectonic movements and estimation of frequency indices for the Holocene tectonic movements, (2) determination of distributions and block movements of the Quaternary marine terraces, (3) investigation of lithologic and geotechnical nature of study area, and (4) examination of the Cenozoic volcanic activities and determination of age of the dike swarms. Using data obtained from above mentioned analyses along with data related to earthquakes and active faults, probabilistic approach is performed to determine various potential hazards which may result from the Quaternary or the Holocene tectonic movements. In addition, stepwise and careful integration of various data obtained from field works and laboratory experiments are carried out to analyze groundwater flow in fractures rocks as follows; (1) investigation of geological feature of the site, (2) identification and characterization of fracture systems using core and televiewer logs, (3) determination of conductive fractures using electrical conductivity, temperature, and flow logs, (4) identification of hydraulic connections between fractures using televiewer logs with tracer tests within specific zones. The results obtained from these processes allow a qualitative interpretation of groundwater flow patterns

  18. Groundwater degassing in fractured rock: Modelling and data comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarsjoe, J.; Destouni, G. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Water Resources Engineering

    1998-11-01

    Dissolved gas may be released from deep groundwater in the vicinity of open boreholes and drifts, where the water pressures are relatively low. Degassing of groundwater may influence observations of hydraulic conditions made in drifts, interpretation of experiments performed close to drifts, and buffer mass and backfill performance, particularly during emplacement and repository closure. Under certain conditions, considerable fracture inflow and transmissivity reductions have been observed during degassing experiments in the field and in the laboratory; such reductions affect the outcome and interpretation of both hydraulic and tracer tests. We develop models for the estimation of the resulting degree of fracture gas saturation and the associated transmissivity reduction due to groundwater degassing in fractured rock. Derived expressions for bubble trapping probability show that fracture aperture variability and correlation length influence the conditions for capillary bubble trapping and gas accumulation. The laboratory observations of bubble trapping in an Aespoe fracture replica are consistent with the prediction of a relatively high probability of bubble trapping in this fracture. The prediction was based on the measured aperture distribution of the Aespoe fracture and the applied hydraulic gradient. Results also show that the conceptualisation of gas and water occupancy in a fracture greatly influences model predictions of gas saturation and relative transmissivity. Images from laboratory degassing experiments indicate that tight apertures are completely filled with water, whereas both gas and water exist in wider apertures under degassing conditions; implementation of this relation in our model resulted in the best agreement between predictions and laboratory observations. Model predictions for conditions similar to those prevailing in field for single fractures at great depths indicate that degassing effects in boreholes should generally be small, unless the

  19. Groundwater flow and sorption processes in fractured rocks (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Young; Woo, Nam Chul; Yum, Byoung Woo; Choi, Young Sub; Chae, Byoung Kon; Kim, Jung Yul; Kim, Yoo Sung; Hyun, Hye Ja; Lee, Kil Yong; Lee, Seung Gu; Youn, Youn Yul; Choon, Sang Ki [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    This study is objected to characterize groundwater flow and sorption processes of the contaminants (ground-water solutes) along the fractured crystalline rocks in Korea. Considering that crystalline rock mass is an essential condition for using underground space cannot be overemphasized the significance of the characterizing fractured crystalline rocks. the behavior of the groundwater contaminants is studied in related to the subsurface structure, and eventually a quantitative technique will be developed to evaluate the impacts of the contaminants on the subsurface environments. The study has been carried at the Samkwang mine area in the Chung-Nam Province. The site has Pre-Cambrian crystalline gneiss as a bedrock and the groundwater flow system through the bedrock fractures seemed to be understandable with the study on the subsurface geologic structure through the mining tunnels. Borehole tests included core logging, televiewer logging, constant pressure fixed interval length tests and tracer tests. The results is summarized as follows; 1) To determine the hydraulic parameters of the fractured rock, the transient flow analysis produce better results than the steady - state flow analysis. 2) Based on the relationship between fracture distribution and transmissivities measured, the shallow part of the system could be considered as a porous and continuous medium due to the well developed fractures and weathering. However, the deeper part shows flow characteristics of the fracture dominant system, satisfying the assumptions of the Cubic law. 3) Transmissivities from the FIL test were averaged to be 6.12 x 10{sup -7}{sub m}{sup 2}{sub /s}. 4) Tracer tests result indicates groundwater flow in the study area is controlled by the connection, extension and geometry of fractures in the bedrock. 5) Hydraulic conductivity of the tracer-test interval was in maximum of 7.2 x 10{sup -6}{sub m/sec}, and the effective porosity of 1.8 %. 6) Composition of the groundwater varies

  20. Water infiltration into exposed fractured rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, T.C.; Evans, D.D.

    1993-01-01

    Fractured rock media are present at many existing and potential waste disposal sites, yet characterization data and physical relationships are not well developed for such media. This study focused on water infiltration characteristics of an exposed fractured rock as an approach for defining the upper boundary condition for unsaturated-zone water percolation and contaminant transport modeling. Two adjacent watersheds of 0.24 and 1.73 ha with slopes up to 45% were instrumented for measuring rainfall and runoff. Fracture density was measured from readily observable fracture traces on the surface. Three methods were employed to evaluate the rainfall-runoff relationship. The first method used the annual totals and indicated that only 22.5% of rainfall occurred as runoff for the 1990-1991 water year, which demonstrates a high water intake rate by the exposed fracture system. The second method employed total rainfall and runoff for individual storms in conjunction with the commonly used USDA Soil Conservation Service curve number method developed for wide ranges of soils and vegetation. Curve numbers between 75 and 85 were observed for summer and winter storms with dry antecedent runoff conditions, while values exceeded 90 for wet conditions. The third method used a mass-balance approach for four major storms, which indicated that water intake rates ranged from 2.0 to 7.3 mm h -1 , yielding fracture intake velocities ranging from 122 to 293 m h -1 . The three analyses show the complexity of the infiltration process for fractured rock. However, they contribute to a better understanding of the upper boundary condition for predicting contaminant transport through an unsaturated fractured rock medium. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Boundary element simulation of petroleum reservoirs with hydraulically fractured wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecher, Radek

    The boundary element method is applied to solve the linear pressure-diffusion equation of fluid-flow in porous media. The governing parabolic partial differential equation is transformed into the Laplace space to obtain the elliptic modified-Helmholtz equation including the homogeneous initial condition. The free- space Green's functions, satisfying this equation for anisotropic media in two and three dimensions, are combined with the generalized form of the Green's second identity. The resulting boundary integral equation is solved by following the collocation technique and applying the given time-dependent boundary conditions of the Dirichlet or Neumann type. The boundary integrals are approximated by the Gaussian quadrature along each element of the discretized domain boundary. Heterogeneous regions are represented by the sectionally-homogeneous zones of different rock and fluid properties. The final values of the interior pressure and velocity fields and of their time-derivatives are found by numerically inverting the solutions from the Laplace space by using the Stehfest's algorithm. The main extension of the mostly standard BEM-procedure is achieved in the modelling of the production and injection wells represented by internal sources and sinks. They are treated as part of the boundary by means of special single-node and both-sided elements, corresponding to the line and plane sources respectively. The wellbore skin and storage effects are considered for the line and cylindrical sources. Hydraulically fractured wells of infinite conductivity are handled directly according to the specified constraint type, out of the four alternatives. Fractures of finite conductivity are simulated by coupling the finite element model of their 1D-interior with the boundary element model of their 2D- exterior. Variable fracture width, fractures crossing zone boundaries, ``networking'' of fractures, fracture-tip singularity handling, or the 3D-description are additional advanced

  2. Hydraulic properties of 3D rough-walled fractures during shearing: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qian; Ma, Guowei; Jing, Hongwen; Wang, Huidong; Su, Haijian; Wang, Yingchao; Liu, Richeng

    2017-12-01

    This study experimentally analyzed the influence of shear processes on nonlinear flow behavior through 3D rough-walled rock fractures. A high-precision apparatus was developed to perform stress-dependent fluid flow tests of fractured rocks. Then, water flow tests on rough-walled fractures with different mechanical displacements were conducted. At each shear level, the hydraulic pressure ranged from 0 to 0.6 MPa, and the normal load varied from 7 to 35 kN. The results show that (i) the relationship between the volumetric flow rate and hydraulic gradient of rough-walled fractures can be well fit using Forchheimer's law. Notably, both the linear and nonlinear coefficients in Forchheimer's law decrease during shearing; (ii) a sixth-order polynomial function is used to evaluate the transmissivity based on the Reynolds number of fractures during shearing. The transmissivity exhibits a decreasing trend as the Reynolds number increases and an increasing trend as the shear displacement increases; (iii) the critical hydraulic gradient, critical Reynolds number and equivalent hydraulic aperture of the rock fractures all increase as the shear displacement increases. When the shear displacement varies from 0 to 15 mm, the critical hydraulic gradient ranges from 0.3 to 2.2 for a normal load of 7 kN and increases to 1.8-8.6 for a normal load of 35 kN; and (iv) the Forchheimer law results are evaluated by plotting the normalized transmissivity of the fractures during shearing against the Reynolds number. An increase in the normal load shifts the fitted curves downward. Additionally, the Forchheimer coefficient β decreases with the shear displacement but increases with the applied normal load.

  3. Study on flow and mass transport through fractured soft sedimentary rocks (Contact research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, Michito; Kumamoto, Sou; Maekawa, Keisuke

    2007-03-01

    It is important for safety assessment of HLW geological disposal to evaluate groundwater flow and mass transport in deep underground accurately. Though it is considered that the mass transport in sedimentary rock occurs in pores between grains mainly, fractures of sedimentary rock can be main paths. The objective of this study is to establish a conceptual model for flow and mass transport in fractured soft sedimentary rock. In previous study, a series of laboratory hydraulic and tracer tests and numerical analyses were carried out using sedimentary rock specimens obtained from Koetoi and Wakkanai formation. Single natural fractured cores and rock block specimen were used for the tests and analyses. The results indicated that the matrix diffusion played an important role for mass transport in the fractured soft sedimentary rocks. In this study, the following two tasks were carried out: (1) laboratory hydraulic and tracer experiments of rock cores of Koetoi and Wakkanai formation obtained at HDB-9, HDB-10 and HDB-11 boreholes and a rock block specimen, Wakkanai formation, obtained at an outcrop in the Horonobe area, (2) a numerical study on the conceptual model of flow and mass transport through fractured soft sedimentary rocks. Non-sorbing tracer experiments using naturally fractured cores and rock block specimens were carried out. Pottasium iodide was used as a tracer. The obtained breakthrough curves were interpreted and fitted by using a numerical simulator, and mass transport parameters, such as longitudinal dispersivity, matrix diffusion coefficient, transport aperture, were obtained. Mass transport simulations using a fracture network model, a continuum model and a double porosity model were performed to study the applicability of continuum model and double porosity model for transport in fractured sedimentary rock. (author)

  4. Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdoch, L.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the use of hydraulic fracturing to increase permeability in geologic formations where in-situ remedial action of contaminant plumes will be performed. Several in-situ treatment strategies are discussed including the use of hydraulic fracturing to create in situ redox zones for treatment of organics and inorganics. Hydraulic fracturing methods offer a mechanism for the in-situ treatment of gently dipping layers of reactive compounds. Specialized methods using real-time monitoring and a high-energy jet during fracturing allow the form of the fracture to be influenced, such as creation of assymmetric fractures beneath potential sources (i.e. tanks, pits, buildings) that should not be penetrated by boring. Some examples of field applications of this technique such as creating fractures filled with zero-valent iron to reductively dechlorinate halogenated hydrocarbons, and the use of granular activated carbon to adsorb compounds are discussed

  5. Water flow characteristics of rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, Lennart

    1990-03-01

    This report has been worked out within the project 'Groundwater flow and dispersion processes in fractured rock' supported by the National Board for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SKN) in Sweden, dnr 96/85. This project is attached to the safety problems involved in the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The purpose of the report is to give a survey of the knowledge of fracture characteristics and to discuss this knowledge in relation to the modelling of flow and dispersion of radioactive substances in the fractures

  6. Laboratory tests of hydraulic fracturing and swell healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunbo, Christensen Claes; Foged, Christensen Helle; Foged, Niels

    1998-01-01

    New laboratory test set-ups and test procedures are described - for testing the formation of hydraulically induced fractures as well as the potential for subsequent fracture closurefrom the relase of a swelling potential. The main purpose with the tests is to provide information on fracturing str...

  7. SEEPAGE INTO DRIFTS IN UNSATRUATED FRACTURED ROCK AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JENS BIRHOLZER; GUOMIN LI; CHIN-FU TSANG; YVONNE TSANG

    1998-01-01

    An important issue for the long-term performance of underground nuclear waste repositories is the rate of seepage into the waste emplacement drifts. A prediction of the future seepage rate is particularly complicated for the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as it is located in thick, partially saturated, fractured tuff formations. The long-term situation in the drifts several thousand years after waste emplacement will be characterized by a relative humidity level close to or equal to 100%. as the drifts will be sealed and unventilated, and the waste packages will have cooled. The underground tunnels will then act as capillary barriers for the unsaturated flow, ideally diverting water around them, if the capillary forces are stronger than gravity and viscous forces. Seepage into the drifts will only be possible if the hydraulic pressure in the rock close to the drift walls increases to positive values; i.e., the flow field becomes locally saturated. In the present work, we have developed and applied a methodology to study the potential rate of seepage into underground cavities embedded in a variably saturated, heterogeneous fractured rock formation. The fractured rock mass is represented as a stochastic continuum where the fracture permeabilities vary by several orders of magnitude. Three different realizations of random fracture permeability fields are generated, with the random permeability structure based on extensive fracture mapping, borehole video analysis, and in-situ air permeability testing. A 3-D numerical model is used to simulate the heterogeneous steady-state flow field around the drift, with the drift geometry explicitly represented within the numerical discretization grid. A variety of flow scenarios are considered assuming present-day and future climate conditions at Yucca Mountain. The numerical study is complemented by theoretical evaluations of the drift seepage problem, using stochastic perturbation theory to develop a better

  8. Fracture network growth for prediction of fracture characteristics and connectivity in tight reservoir rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnhoorn, A.; Cox, S.F.

    2012-01-01

    Fracturing experiments on very low-porosity dolomite rocks shows a difference in growth of fracture networks by stress-driven fracturing and fluid-driven fracturing. Stress-driven fracture growth, in the absence of fluid pressure, initially forms fractures randomly throughout the rocks followed by

  9. Hydraulic Fracturing: Paving the Way for a Sustainable Future?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangang Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of hydraulic fracturing technology, the United States has become the largest natural gas producer in the world with a substantial portion of the production coming from shale plays. In this review, we examined current hydraulic fracturing literature including associated wastewater management on quantity and quality of groundwater. We conclude that proper documentation/reporting systems for wastewater discharge and spills need to be enforced at the federal, state, and industrial level. Furthermore, Underground Injection Control (UIC requirements under SDWA should be extended to hydraulic fracturing operations regardless if diesel fuel is used as a fracturing fluid or not. One of the biggest barriers that hinder the advancement of our knowledge on the hydraulic fracturing process is the lack of transparency of chemicals used in the practice. Federal laws mandating hydraulic companies to disclose fracturing fluid composition and concentration not only to federal and state regulatory agencies but also to health care professionals would encourage this practice. The full disclosure of fracturing chemicals will allow future research to fill knowledge gaps for a better understanding of the impacts of hydraulic fracturing on human health and the environment.

  10. Hydraulic fracturing: paving the way for a sustainable future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangang; Al-Wadei, Mohammed H; Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Terry, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    With the introduction of hydraulic fracturing technology, the United States has become the largest natural gas producer in the world with a substantial portion of the production coming from shale plays. In this review, we examined current hydraulic fracturing literature including associated wastewater management on quantity and quality of groundwater. We conclude that proper documentation/reporting systems for wastewater discharge and spills need to be enforced at the federal, state, and industrial level. Furthermore, Underground Injection Control (UIC) requirements under SDWA should be extended to hydraulic fracturing operations regardless if diesel fuel is used as a fracturing fluid or not. One of the biggest barriers that hinder the advancement of our knowledge on the hydraulic fracturing process is the lack of transparency of chemicals used in the practice. Federal laws mandating hydraulic companies to disclose fracturing fluid composition and concentration not only to federal and state regulatory agencies but also to health care professionals would encourage this practice. The full disclosure of fracturing chemicals will allow future research to fill knowledge gaps for a better understanding of the impacts of hydraulic fracturing on human health and the environment.

  11. Fractures and Rock Mechanics, Phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogsbøll, Anette; Jakobsen, Finn; Madsen, Lena

    1997-01-01

    The main objective of the project is to combine geological descriptions of fractures, chalk types and rock mechanical properties in order to investigate whether the chosen outcrops can be used as analogues to reservoir chalks. This report deals with 1) geological descriptions of outcrop locality...

  12. Fractures and Rock Mechanics, Phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havmøller, Ole; Krogsbøll, Anette

    1997-01-01

    The main objectives of the project are to combine geological description of fractures, chalk types and rock mechanical properties, and to investigate whether the chosen outcrops can be used as analogues to reservoir chalks. Five chalk types, representing two outcrop localities: Stevns...

  13. Experimental Analysis of Hydraulic Fracture Growth and Acoustic Emission Response in a Layered Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Li; Shicheng, Zhang; Yushi, Zou; Xinfang, Ma; Shan, Wu; Yinuo, Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Microseismic/acoustic emission (AE) monitoring is an essential technology for understanding hydraulic fracture (HF) geometry and stimulated reservoir volume (SRV) during hydraulic fracturing in unconventional reservoirs. To investigate HF growth mechanisms and features of induced microseismic/AE events in a layered formation, laboratory fracturing experiments were performed on shale specimens (30 cm × 30 cm × 30 cm) with multiple bedding planes (BPs) under triaxial stresses. AE monitoring was used to reveal the spatial distribution and hypocenter mechanisms of AE events induced by rock failure. Computerized tomography scanning was used to observe the internal fracture geometry. Experimental results showed that the various HF geometries could be obviously distinguished based on injection pressure curves and AE responses. Fracture complexity was notably increased when vertically growing HFs connected with and opened more BPs. The formation of a complex fracture network was generally indicated by frequent fluctuations in injection pressure curves, intense AE activity, and three-dimensionally distributed AE events. Investigations of the hypocenter mechanisms revealed that shear failure/event dominated in shale specimens. Shear and tensile events were induced in hydraulically connected regions, and shear events also occurred around BPs that were not hydraulically connected. This led to an overestimation of HF height and SRV in layered formations based on the AE location results. The results also showed that variable injection rate and using plugging agent were conducive in promoting HF to penetrate through the weak and high-permeability BPs, thereby increasing the fracture height.

  14. Influence of perforation erosion on multiple growing hydraulic fractures in multi-stage fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongming Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, the limited-entry method is widely used to promote uniform growth of multiple fractures. However, this method's effectiveness may be lost because the perforations will be eroded gradually during the fracturing period. In order to study the influence of perforation erosion on multiple growing hydraulic fractures, we combined the solid–fluid coupled model of hydraulic fracture growth with an empirical model of perforation erosion to implement numerical simulation. The simulations show clearly that the erosion of perforation will significantly deteriorate the non-uniform growth of multiple fractures. Based on the numerical model, we also studied the influences of proppant concentration and injection rates on perforation erosion in multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. The results indicate that the initial erosion rates become higher with the rising proppant concentration, but the growth of multiple hydraulic fractures is not sensitive to the varied proppant concentration. In addition, higher injection rates are beneficial significantly to the limited-entry design, leading to more uniform growth of fractures. Thus, in multi-stage hydraulic fracturing enough high injection rates are proposed to keep uniform growths. Keywords: Unconventional oil and gas reservoir, Horizontal well, Perforation friction, Perforation erosion, Multi-stage hydraulic fracturing, Numerical simulation, Mathematic model, Uniform growth of fractures

  15. The study of crosslinked fluid leakoff in hydraulic fracturing physical simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grothe, Vinicius Perrud; Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo; Sousa, Jose Luiz Antunes de Oliveira e [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Estruturas; Fernandes, Paulo Dore [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2000-07-01

    The fluid loss plays an important role in the design and execution of hydraulic fracturing treatments. The main objectives of this work were: the study of the fluid loss associated with the propagation of hydraulic fractures generated at laboratory; and the comparison of two distinct methods for estimating leakoff coefficients - Nolte analysis and the filtrate volume vs. square root of time plot. Synthetic rock samples were used as well as crosslinked hydroxypropyl guar (HPG) fluids in different polymer concentrations. The physical simulations comprised the confinement of (0.1 x 0.1 x 0.1) m{sup 3} rock samples in a load cell for the application of an in situ stress field. Different flow rates were employed in order to investigate shear effects on the overall leakoff coefficient. Horizontal radial fractures were hydraulically induced with approximate diameters, what was accomplished by controlling the injection time. Leakoff coefficients determined by means of the pressure decline analysis were compared to coefficients obtained from static filtration tests, considering similar experimental conditions. The research results indicated that the physical simulation of hydraulic fracturing may be regarded as an useful tool for evaluating the effectiveness of fracturing fluids and that it can supply reliable estimates of fluid loss coefficients. (author)

  16. Couple stresses and the fracture of rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Colin; Coman, Ciprian D; Aldazabal, Javier

    2015-03-28

    An assessment is made here of the role played by the micropolar continuum theory on the cracked Brazilian disc test used for determining rock fracture toughness. By analytically solving the corresponding mixed boundary-value problems and employing singular-perturbation arguments, we provide closed-form expressions for the energy release rate and the corresponding stress-intensity factors for both mode I and mode II loading. These theoretical results are augmented by a set of fracture toughness experiments on both sandstone and marble rocks. It is further shown that the morphology of the fracturing process in our centrally pre-cracked circular samples correlates very well with discrete element simulations. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Economic Recovery of Oil Trapped at Fan Margins Using High Angle Wells and Multiple Hydraulic Fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike L. Laue

    1997-05-30

    The distal fan margin in the northeast portion of the Yowlumne field contains significant reserves but is not economical to develop using vertical wells. Numerous interbedded shales and deteriorating rock properties limit producibility. In addition, extreme depths (13,000 ft) present a challenging environment for hydraulic fracturing and artificial lift. Lastly, a mature waterflood increases risk because of the uncertainty with size and location of flood fronts. This project attempts to demonstrate the effectiveness of exploiting the distal fan margin of this slope-basin clastic reservoir through the use of a high-angle well completed with multiple hydraulic-fracture treatments. The combination of a high-angle (or horizontal) well and hydraulic fracturing will allow greater pay exposure than can be achieved with conventional vertical wells while maintaining vertical communication between thin interbedded layers and the wellbore. The equivalent production rate and reserves of three vertical wells are anticipated at one-half to two-thirds the cost.

  18. The application of positron emission tomography to the study of mass transfer in fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilling, D.; Jefferies, N.L.; Fowles, P.; Hawkesworth, M.R.; Parker, D.J.

    1991-06-01

    In order to predict the transport of dissolved radioelements through a fractured rock it is necessary to determine both the geometry of the fracture network and the hydraulic properties of the individual fractures. This paper describes a technique for studying mass transfer in a single fracture. The technique is positron emission tomography (PET) and it offers the potential for visualising quantitatively the migration of dissolved tracers. Preliminary experiments have been undertaken involving the flow of Na-22 and F-18 labelled solutions through artificial fractures. The results demonstrate that PET is well suited to this application. (author)

  19. Hydraulic Shearing and Hydraulic Jacking Observed during Hydraulic Stimulations in Fractured Geothermal Reservoir in Pohang, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, K. B.; Park, S.; Xie, L.; Kim, K. I.; Yoo, H.; Kim, K. Y.; Choi, J.; Yoon, K. S.; Yoon, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Song, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) relies on sufficient and irreversible enhancement of reservoir permeability through hydraulic stimulation and possibility of such desirable change of permeability is an open question that can undermine the universality of EGS concept. We report results of first hydraulic stimulation campaign conducted in two deep boreholes in fractured granodiorite geothermal reservoir in Pohang, Korea. Borehole PX-1, located at 4.22 km, was subjected to the injection of 3,907 m3 with flow rate of up to 18 kg/s followed by bleeding off of 1,207 m3. The borehole PX-2, located at 4.35 km, was subjected to the injection of 1,970 m3 with flow rate of up to 46 kg/sIn PX-1, a sharp distinct decline of wellhead pressure was observed at around 16 MPa of wellhead pressure which was similar to the predicted injection pressure to induce hydraulic shearing. Injectivity interpretation before and after the hydraulic shearing indicates that permanent increase of permeability was achieved by a factor of a few. In PX-2, however, injectivity was very small and hydraulic shearing was not observed due possibly to the near wellbore damage made by the remedying process of lost circulation such as using lost circulation material during drilling. Flow rate of larger than 40 kg/s was achieved at very high well head pressure of nearly 90 MPa. Hydraulic jacking, that is reversible opening and closure of fracture with change of injection pressure, was clearly observed. Although sharp increase of permeability due to fracture opening was achieved with elevated injection pressure, the increased permeability was reversed with decreased injection pressure.Two contrasting response observed in the same reservoir at two different boreholes which is apart only 600 m apart provide important implication that can be used for the stimulation strategy for EGS.This work was supported by the New and Renewable Energy Technology Development Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology

  20. Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Modeling of Water Leak-Off Process during Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The water leak-off during hydraulic fracturing in shale gas reservoirs is a complicated transport behavior involving thermal (T, hydrodynamic (H, mechanical (M and chemical (C processes. Although many leak-off models have been published, none of the models fully coupled the transient fluid flow modeling with heat transfer, chemical-potential equilibrium and natural-fracture dilation phenomena. In this paper, a coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC model based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics, hydrodynamics, thermo-poroelastic rock mechanics, and non-isothermal chemical-potential equations is presented to simulate the water leak-off process in shale gas reservoirs. The THMC model takes into account a triple-porosity medium, which includes hydraulic fractures, natural fractures and shale matrix. The leak-off simulation with the THMC model involves all the important processes in this triple-porosity medium, including: (1 water transport driven by hydraulic, capillary, chemical and thermal osmotic convections; (2 gas transport induced by both hydraulic pressure driven convection and adsorption; (3 heat transport driven by thermal convection and conduction; and (4 natural-fracture dilation considered as a thermo-poroelastic rock deformation. The fluid and heat transport, coupled with rock deformation, are described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. The semi-implicit finite-difference algorithm is proposed to solve these equations. The evolution of pressure, temperature, saturation and salinity profiles of hydraulic fractures, natural fractures and matrix is calculated, revealing the multi-field coupled water leak-off process in shale gas reservoirs. The influences of hydraulic pressure, natural-fracture dilation, chemical osmosis and thermal osmosis on water leak-off are investigated. Results from this study are expected to provide a better understanding of the

  1. Ground source energy in crystalline bedrock - increased energy extraction by using hydraulic fracturing in boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramstad, Randi Kalstad

    2004-11-01

    central borehole encircled by four satellite boreholes 13 metres away from the central borehole. The central borehole at EAB was flanked with two boreholes 16 and 20 metres away. In operation mode, groundwater was pumped from the satellite boreholes, heat exchanged, and re-injected into the groundwater magazine via the central borehole. Routine operation of the plants has not yet been initiated. The main findings from this study can be summarized as follows: (1) Hydraulic fracturing with water-only results in an overall increase in water yield for the hard rock borehole. (2) Hydraulic fracturing with injection of sand as propping agent also leads to an increased water yield. (3) The use of sand as propping agent seems to be more required in fractures with high counter pressure, in this study higher than approximately 40 bars, compared with fractures with lower counter pressure. The particle size of the sand should also be adjusted to the appearing counter pressure, and injection of coarser sand is recommended in fractures with lower counter pressures. (4) Comparing the results from the hydraulic fracturing performed at Bryn and EAB shows that the pressure levels, required to create new fractures, varied considerably. The maximum pressures present at Bryn were higher than the corresponding pressures at EAB. At Bryn 70% (44 out of 63) of the pressure-time curves from the hydraulic fracturing with water-only were interpreted as initiation or reopening of fractures, while the number for EAB was 97% (36 out of 37). The lower degree of fracturing at Bryn is likely to be a result of high rock stresses and high tensile strength of the bedrock, also confirmed by the results from the rock stress measurements performed at Bryn. Considering the bedrock at EAB, characterized as nodular limestone, the tensile strength is assumed to be less than the values for the low-metamorphic sandstone present at Bryn. (5) The infiltration rate in the central boreholes is a critical factor for the

  2. Diffusive Imaging of Hydraulically Induced and Natural Fracture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, B.; Marder, M. P.; Patzek, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing of tight shales continues to provide the US with a major source of energy. Efficiency of gas recovery in shales depends upon the geometry of the resulting network of fractures, the details of which are not yet fully understood. The present research explores how much of the underlying geometry can be deduced from the time dependence of the flow of gas out of the reservoir. We consider both ideal and real gas. In the case of real gas, we calculate production rate for parallel planar hydrofractures embedded in an infinite reservoir. Transport is governed by a nonlinear diffusion equation, which we solve exactly with a scaling curve. The scaling curve production rate declines initially as 1 over square root time, then as an exponential, and finally as 1 over square root of time again at late time. We show that for a given hydraulically fractured well, the onsets of transition between different decline regimes provides a direct estimate of a characteristic spacing of the underlying fracture network. We show that the scaling solution accurately fits the production history of more than 15,000 wells in the Barnett Shale. Almost all of the wells either have not yet transitioned into the late time decline or have been refractured while in exponential decline. However, there are 36 wells which show the late time transition. These allow us to calculate the characteristic spacing, which turns out to have a mode at about 10 m, a minimum at 1.6 m and a maximum at 13.3 m. We estimate that over 30 years these wells will produce on average about 45% more gas because of diffusion from the infinite external reservoir than they would if this contribution is neglected. Finally, we compute the rate at which ideal gas diffuses within an infinite region of rock into a specific absorbing fractal fracture network, which we model using geological constraints and percolation theory. Our solution employs a Brownian walk and the first passage kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm

  3. EPA Published Research Related to the Hydraulic Fracturing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A list of publications that will support the draft assessment report on the potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing on drinking water resources. These publications have undergone peer review through the journal where the paper has been published.

  4. QAPP for Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) Surface Spills Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    This QAPP provides information concerning the analysis of spills associated with hydraulic fracturing. This project is relevant to both the chemical mixing and flowback and produced water stages of the HF water cycle as found in the HF Study Plan.

  5. Executive Summary, Hydraulic Fracturing Study - Draft Assessment 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this Executive Summary of the HF Draft report, EPA highlights the reviews of scientific literature to assess the potential for hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas to change the quality or quantity of drinking water resources.

  6. Geometry, mechanics and transmissivity of rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanaro, F.

    2001-04-01

    This thesis work investigates methods and tools for characterising, testing and modelling the behaviour of rock fractures. Using a 3D-laser-scanning technique, the topography of the surfaces and their position with respect to one another are measured. From the fracture topography, fracture roughness, angularity and aperture are quantified; the major features used for characterisation. The standard deviations for the asperity heights, surface slopes and aperture are determined. These statistical parameters usually increase/decrease according to power laws of the sampling size, and sometimes reach a sill beyond which they become constant. Also the number of contact spots with a certain area decreases according to a power-law function of the area. These power-law relations reveal the self affine fractal nature of roughness and aperture. Roughness is 'persistent' while aperture varies between 'persistent' and 'anti-persistent' probably depending on the degree of match of the fracture walls. The fractal models for roughness, aperture and contact area are used to develop a constitutive model, based on contact mechanics, for describing the fracture normal and shear deformability. The experimental testing results of normal deformability are simulated well by the model whereas fracture shear deformability is not as well modelled. The model predicts well fracture dilation but is too stiff compared to rock samples. A mathematical description of the aperture pattern during shearing is also formulated. The mean value and covariance of the aperture in shearing is calculated and verifies reported observations. The aperture map of samples is inserted in a numerical program for flow calculation. The 'integral transform method' is used for solving the Reynolds' equation; it transforms the fracture transmissivity pattern into a frequency-based function. This closely resembles the power laws that describe fractals. This function can be described directly from the fractal properties of

  7. Convective heat transfer of supercritical CO_2 in a rock fracture for enhanced geothermal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Le; Jiang, Peixue; Wang, Zhenchuan; Xu, Ruina

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Contrasting experiments between a rough and a smooth fracture were performed. • A numerical model of rough fracture was reconstructed based on CT scanning data. • Heat transfer in rough fracture was affected by channeling and disturbance effects. - Abstract: Convective heat transfer characteristics of supercritical pressure fluid in a rock fracture are important for building an accurate heat transfer model of enhanced geothermal systems. This paper presents experimental investigations of laminar convection heat transfer of supercritical pressure CO_2 in an artificial smooth parallel-plate fracture and a rough and tortuous fracture that was created using the Brazilian technique. Hot rock with a relatively high initial temperature reserves more heat, which can ensure a larger heat extraction rate for a longer time when cold fluid flows through the fracture. Compared with the smooth parallel-plate fracture, CO_2 flowing through the rough and tortuous fracture with an equivalent hydraulic aperture extracted less heat from the hot rock due to the less efficient heat exchange in a rough fracture caused by channeling effect. This was illustrated by numerical simulation results of the reconstructed fracture based on micro-computed tomography scan data. The overall Nusselt number obtained from the numerical results was larger in a rough fracture with a larger Reynolds number due to disturbance effect on the boundary layer development. The heat transfer performance in a rough fracture is therefore influenced by interactions of the channeling and disturbance effects caused by the tortuous flow path.

  8. Rock fracture grouting with microbially induced carbonate precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minto, James M.; MacLachlan, Erica; El Mountassir, Gráinne; Lunn, Rebecca J.

    2016-11-01

    Microbially induced carbonate precipitation has been proposed for soil stabilization, soil strengthening, and permeability reduction as an alternative to traditional cement and chemical grouts. In this paper, we evaluate the grouting of fine aperture rock fractures with calcium carbonate, precipitated through urea hydrolysis, by the bacteria Sporosarcina pasteurii. Calcium carbonate was precipitated within a small-scale and a near field-scale (3.1 m2) artificial fracture consisting of a rough rock lower surfaces and clear polycarbonate upper surfaces. The spatial distribution of the calcium carbonate precipitation was imaged using time-lapse photography and the influence on flow pathways revealed from tracer transport imaging. In the large-scale experiment, hydraulic aperture was reduced from 276 to 22 μm, corresponding to a transmissivity reduction of 1.71 × 10-5 to 8.75 × 10-9 m2/s, over a period of 12 days under constantly flowing conditions. With a modified injection strategy a similar three orders of magnitude reduction in transmissivity was achieved over a period of 3 days. Calcium carbonate precipitated over the entire artificial fracture with strong adhesion to both upper and lower surfaces and precipitation was controlled to prevent clogging of the injection well by manipulating the injection fluid velocity. These experiments demonstrate that microbially induced carbonate precipitation can successfully be used to grout a fracture under constantly flowing conditions and may be a viable alternative to cement based grouts when a high level of hydraulic sealing is required and chemical grouts when a more durable grout is required.

  9. Characterization on the Fracture system in jurassic granitic rocks: Kosung and Yusung areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Chun Soo; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Yong Kweon

    2001-03-01

    The safety of waste disposal can be achieved by a complete isolation of radioactive wastes from biosphere or by a retardation of nuclide migration to reach an acceptable dose level. For the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, the potential pathways of nuclide primarily depend on the spatial distribution characteristics of conductive fractures in rock mass. Major key issues in the quantification of fracture system for a disposal site are involved in classification criteria, hydraulic parameters, geometry, field investigation methods etc. This research aims to characterize the spatial distribution characteristics of regional lineaments and background fractures in eastern and western-type granite rock mass.

  10. Characterization on the Fracture system in jurassic granitic rocks: Kosung and Yusung areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Chun Soo; Park, Byung Yoon; Koh, Yong Kweon

    2001-03-01

    The safety of waste disposal can be achieved by a complete isolation of radioactive wastes from biosphere or by a retardation of nuclide migration to reach an acceptable dose level. For the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, the potential pathways of nuclide primarily depend on the spatial distribution characteristics of conductive fractures in rock mass. Major key issues in the quantification of fracture system for a disposal site are involved in classification criteria, hydraulic parameters, geometry, field investigation methods etc. This research aims to characterize the spatial distribution characteristics of regional lineaments and background fractures in eastern and western-type granite rock mass

  11. Two new methods for the determination of hydraulic fracture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-09-15

    Sep 15, 2008 ... Flow is radial and divergent. • There is only a single fracture within the test segment. • The fracture and rock mass are rigid and the matrix is imper- meable. • The fracture aperture varies along the radius and is radically symmetrical about the borehole. • Advection, dispersion and diffusion are negligible due ...

  12. Study on flow and mass transport through fractured sedimentary rocks (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, Michito; Kumamoto, Sou; Karasaki, Kenzi; Sato, Hisashi; Sawada, Atsushi

    2009-03-01

    It is important for safety assessment of HLW geological disposal to understand hydro-geological conditions at the investigation area, and to evaluate groundwater flow and mass transport model and parameters, at each investigation phase. Traditionally, for Neogene sedimentary rock, the grain spacing of sediments has been considered as the dominant migration path. However, fractures of sedimentary rock could act as dominant paths, although they were soft sedimentary rocks. In this study, as part of developing groundwater flow and mass transport evaluation methodologies of such a fractured sedimentary rock' distributed area, we conducted two different scale of studies; 1) core rock sample scale and 2) several kilometer scale. For the core rock sample scale, some of laboratory hydraulic and tracer experiments have conducted using the rock cores with tailored parallel fracture, obtained at pilot borehole drilled in the vicinity of ventilation shaft. From the test results, hydraulic conductivity, diffusion coefficient, transport aperture, dispersion length and etc. was evaluated. Based on these test results, the influence of these parameters onto mass transport behavior of fractures sedimentary rocks was examined. For larger scale, such as several kilometer scale, the regional scale groundwater flow was examined using temperature data observed along the boreholes at Horonobe site. The results show that the low permeable zone between the boreholes might be estimated. (author)

  13. Maturity of nearby faults influences seismic hazard from hydraulic fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, Maria; Brudzinski, Michael R.; Friberg, Paul; Skoumal, Robert J.; Baxter, Nicholas D.; Currie, Brian S.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the causes of human-induced earthquakes is paramount to reducing societal risk. We investigated five cases of seismicity associated with hydraulic fracturing (HF) in Ohio since 2013 that, because of their isolation from other injection activities, provide an ideal setting for studying the relations between high-pressure injection and earthquakes. Our analysis revealed two distinct groups: (i) deeper earthquakes in the Precambrian basement, with larger magnitudes (M > 2), b-values 1.5, and few post–shut-in earthquakes. Based on geologic history, laboratory experiments, and fault modeling, we interpret the deep seismicity as slip on more mature faults in older crystalline rocks and the shallow seismicity as slip on immature faults in younger sedimentary rocks. This suggests that HF inducing deeper seismicity may pose higher seismic hazards. Wells inducing deeper seismicity produced more water than wells with shallow seismicity, indicating more extensive hydrologic connections outside the target formation, consistent with pore pressure diffusion influencing seismicity. However, for both groups, the 2 to 3 h between onset of HF and seismicity is too short for typical fluid pressure diffusion rates across distances of ˜1 km and argues for poroelastic stress transfer also having a primary influence on seismicity.

  14. Maturity of nearby faults influences seismic hazard from hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, Maria; Brudzinski, Michael R; Friberg, Paul; Skoumal, Robert J; Baxter, Nicholas D; Currie, Brian S

    2018-02-20

    Understanding the causes of human-induced earthquakes is paramount to reducing societal risk. We investigated five cases of seismicity associated with hydraulic fracturing (HF) in Ohio since 2013 that, because of their isolation from other injection activities, provide an ideal setting for studying the relations between high-pressure injection and earthquakes. Our analysis revealed two distinct groups: ( i ) deeper earthquakes in the Precambrian basement, with larger magnitudes (M > 2), b-values 1.5, and few post-shut-in earthquakes. Based on geologic history, laboratory experiments, and fault modeling, we interpret the deep seismicity as slip on more mature faults in older crystalline rocks and the shallow seismicity as slip on immature faults in younger sedimentary rocks. This suggests that HF inducing deeper seismicity may pose higher seismic hazards. Wells inducing deeper seismicity produced more water than wells with shallow seismicity, indicating more extensive hydrologic connections outside the target formation, consistent with pore pressure diffusion influencing seismicity. However, for both groups, the 2 to 3 h between onset of HF and seismicity is too short for typical fluid pressure diffusion rates across distances of ∼1 km and argues for poroelastic stress transfer also having a primary influence on seismicity.

  15. Hydraulic Fracture Growth in a Layered Formation based on Fracturing Experiments and Discrete Element Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushi, Zou; Xinfang, Ma; Tong, Zhou; Ning, Li; Ming, Chen; Sihai, Li; Yinuo, Zhang; Han, Li

    2017-09-01

    Hydraulic fracture (HF) height containment tends to occur in layered formations, and it significantly influences the entire HF geometry or the stimulated reservoir volume. This study aims to explore the influence of preexisting bedding planes (BPs) on the HF height growth in layered formations. Laboratory fracturing experiments were performed to confirm the occurrence of HF height containment in natural shale that contains multiple weak and high-permeability BPs under triaxial stresses. Numerical simulations were then conducted to further illustrate the manner in which vertical stress, BP permeability, BP density(or spacing), pump rate, and fluid viscosity control HF height growth using a 3D discrete element method-based fracturing model. In this model, the rock matrix was considered transversely isotropic and multiple BPs can be explicitly represented. Experimental and numerical results show that the vertically growing HF tends to be limited by multi-high-permeability BPs, even under higher vertical stress. When the vertically growing HF intersects with the multi-high-permeability BPs, the injection pressure will be sharply reduced. If a low pumping rate or a low-viscosity fluid is used, the excess fracturing fluid leak-off into the BPs obviously decreases the rate of pressure build up, which will then limit the growth of HF. Otherwise, a higher pumping rate and/or a higher viscosity will reduce the leak-off time and fluid volume, but increase the injection pressure to drive the HF to grow and to penetrate through the BPs.

  16. FROMS3D: New Software for 3-D Visualization of Fracture Network System in Fractured Rock Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Y. H.; Um, J. G.; Choi, Y.

    2014-12-01

    A new software (FROMS3D) is presented to visualize fracture network system in 3-D. The software consists of several modules that play roles in management of borehole and field fracture data, fracture network modelling, visualization of fracture geometry in 3-D and calculation and visualization of intersections and equivalent pipes between fractures. Intel Parallel Studio XE 2013, Visual Studio.NET 2010 and the open source VTK library were utilized as development tools to efficiently implement the modules and the graphical user interface of the software. The results have suggested that the developed software is effective in visualizing 3-D fracture network system, and can provide useful information to tackle the engineering geological problems related to strength, deformability and hydraulic behaviors of the fractured rock masses.

  17. Calculation of gas migration in fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thunvik, R.; Braester, C.

    1987-09-01

    Calculations are presented for rock properties characteristic to the Forsmark area. The rock permeability was determined by flow tests in vertical boreholes. It is assumed that the permeability distribution obtained from these boreholes is representative also for the permeability distribution along the repository cavern. Calculations were worked out for two different types of boundary conditions, one in which a constant gas flow rate equivalent to a gas production of 33000 kg/year was assumed and the other in which a constant gas cushion of 0.5 metres was assumed. For the permeability distribution considered, the breakthrough at the sea bottom occurred within one hour. The gaswater displacement took place mainly through the fractures of high permeability and practically no flow took place in the fractures of low permeability. (orig./DG)

  18. Intermediate-Scale Hydraulic Fracturing in a Deep Mine - kISMET Project Summary 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, C. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dobson, P. F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wu, Y. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cook, P. J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kneafsey, T. J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nakagawa, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ulrich, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Siler, D. L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Guglielmi, Y. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ajo-Franklin, J. B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rutqvist, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Daley, T. M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Birkholzer, J. T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wang, H. F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Lord, N. E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Haimson, B. C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Sone, H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Vigilante, P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Roggenthen, W. M. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (United States); Doe, T. W. [Golder Associates Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Lee, M. Y. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ingraham, M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huang, H. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mattson, E. D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhou, J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Johnson, T. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Morris, J. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); White, J. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Johnson, P. A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Coblentz, D. D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Heise, J. [Stanford Underground Research Facility, Lead, SD (United States); Zoback, M. D. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2016-11-04

    In support of the U.S. DOE SubTER Crosscut initiative, we established a field test facility in a deep mine and designed and carried out in situ hydraulic fracturing experiments in the crystalline rock at the site to characterize the stress field, understand the effects of rock fabric on fracturing, and gain experience in monitoring using geophysical methods. The project also included pre- and post-fracturing simulation and analysis, laboratory measurements and experiments, and we conducted an extended analysis of the local stress state using previously collected data. Some of these activities are still ongoing. The kISMET (permeability (k) and Induced Seismicity Management for Energy Technologies) experiments meet objectives in SubTER’s “stress” pillar and the “new subsurface signals” pillar. The kISMET site was established in the West Access Drift of SURF 4850 ft (1478 m) below ground (on the 4850L) in phyllite of the Precambrian Poorman Formation. We drilled and cored five near-vertical boreholes in a line on 3 m spacing, deviating the two outermost boreholes slightly to create a five-spot pattern around the test borehole centered in the test volume at ~1528 m (5013 ft). Laboratory measurements of core from the center test borehole showed P-wave velocity heterogeneity along each core indicating strong, fine-scale (~1 cm or smaller) changes in the mechanical properties of the rock. The load-displacement record on the core suggests that the elastic stiffness is anisotropic. Tensile strength ranges between 3-7.5 MPa and 5-12 MPa. Permeability measurements are planned, as are two types of laboratory miniature hydraulic fracturing experiments to investigate the importance of rock fabric (anisotropy and heterogeneity) on near-borehole hydraulic fracture generation. Pre-fracturing numerical simulations with INL’s FALCON discrete element code predicted a fracture radius of 1.2 m for a corresponding injection volume of 1.2 L for the planned fractures, and

  19. Theoretical and laboratory investigations of flow through fractures in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witherspoon, P.A.; Watkins, D.J.; Tsang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical model developed for flow through a deformable fracture subject to stresses was successfully tested against laboratory experiments. The model contains no arbitrary parameters and can be used to predict flow rates through a single fracture if the fractional fracture contact area can be estimated and if stress-deformation data are available. These data can be obtained from laboratory or in situ tests. The model has considerable potential for practical application. The permeability of ultralarge samples of fractured crystalline rock as a function of stresses was measured. Results from tests on a pervasively fractured 1-m-diameter specimen of granitic rock showed that drastically simplifying assumptions must be used to apply theoretical models to this type of rock mass. Simple models successfully reproduce the trend of reduced permeability as stress is applied in a direction normal to the fracture plane. The tests also demonstrated how fracture conductivity increases as a result of dilatancy associated with shear displacements. The effect of specimen size on the hydraulic properties of fractured rock was also investigated. Permeability tests were performed on specimens of charcoal black granite containing a single fracture subjected to normal stress. Results are presented for tests performed on a 0.914-m-diameter specimen and on the same specimen after it had been reduced to 0.764 m in diameter. The data show that fracture conductivity is sensitive to stress history and sample disturbance

  20. Fracture Initiation of an Inhomogeneous Shale Rock under a Pressurized Supercritical CO2 Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the advantages of good fracture performance and the application of carbon capture and storage (CCS, supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 is considered a promising alternative for hydraulic fracturing. However, the fracture initiation mechanism and its propagation under pressurized SC-CO2 jet are still unknown. To address these problems, a fluid–structure interaction (FSI-based numerical simulation model along with a user-defined code was used to investigate the fracture initiation in an inhomogeneous shale rock. The mechanism of fracturing under the effect of SC-CO2 jet was explored, and the effects of various influencing factors were analyzed and discussed. The results indicated that higher velocity jets of SC-CO2 not only caused hydraulic-fracturing ring, but also resulted in the increase of stress in the shale rock. It was found that, with the increase of perforation pressure, more cracks initiated at the tip. In contrast, the length of cracks at the root decreased. The length-to-diameter ratio and the aperture ratio distinctly affected the pressurization of SC-CO2 jet, and contributed to the non-linear distribution and various maximum values of the stress in shale rock. The results proved that Weibull probability distribution was appropriate for analysis of the fracture initiation. The studied parameters explain the distribution of weak elements, and they affect the stress field in shale rock.

  1. Development of technical means for directional hydraulic fracturing with shearing loading of borehole walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybalkin, LA; Patutin, AV; Patutin, DV

    2018-03-01

    During the process of mineral deposits’ mining one of the most important conditions for safe and economically profitable work of a mining enterprise is obtaining timely information on the stress state of the developed massif. One of the most common methods of remote study of the geomechanical state of the rock massif is hydraulic fracturing of the formation. Directional hydraulic fracturing is a type of the method employed to form cracks across production wells. This technology was most widely used in the gas industry to extract gas from shale formations. In mining, this technology is used to set up filtration screens, to integrate degassing, to soften the hard roof of coal seams. Possible practical appliance is the expansion of the application field of this technology to intensify the production of viscous oil, to leach non-ferrous metals, to create in the rock massif anti-filtration screens for various purposes, as well as to measure stresses acting along the wells.

  2. Hydraulic conductivities of fractures and matrix in Slovenian carbonate aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timotej Verbovšek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic conductivities and specific storage coefficients of fractures and matrix in Slovenian carbonate aquifers were determined by Barker’s method for pumping test analysis, based on fractional flow dimension. Values are presented for limestones and mainly for dolomites, and additionally for separate aquifers, divided by age andlithology in several groups. Data was obtained from hydrogeological reports for 397 water wells, and among these, 79 pumping tests were reinterpreted. Hydraulic conductivities of fractures are higher than the hydraulic conductivities of matrix, and the differences are highly statistically significant. Likewise, differences are significant for specific storage, and the values of these coefficients are higher in the matrix. Values of all coefficients vary in separate aquifers, and the differences can be explained by diagenetic effects, crystal size, degree of fracturing, andcarbonate purity. Comparison of the methods, used in the reports, and the Barker’s method (being more suitable for karstic and fractured aquifers, shows that the latter fits real data better.

  3. Low polymer hydraulic fracturing applications in Reconcavo basin wells can reduce cost and improve conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzart, Joao Walter Pereira; Araujo, Paulo Fernando de

    2000-01-01

    Gels used for hydraulic-fracturing treatments generally contain high concentrations of polymer. The polymer helps the fracturing fluid achieve the level of viscosity necessary for transporting proppant through the rock matrix. However, high-polymer gels leave greater amounts of residue in the formation and can therefore cause formation damage. This paper describes how low polymer (L P) gels can be used for hydraulic-fracturing operations to reduce job costs and increase conductivity by reducing formation damage while maintaining the characteristics of a high-polymer gel. The L P fluid system has a low p H and contains an appropriate breaker concentration. Operators have achieved positive results with this system, which allows them to measure robust gel breaks and reduces the necessity for well cleaning. Consequently, formation damage can be significantly reduced. (author)

  4. Simulation of hydraulic disturbances caused by the underground rock characterisation facility in Olkiluoto, Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefman, J.; Ferenc, M.

    2004-01-01

    Spent fuel from the Finnish nuclear power plants will be disposed of in a repository to be excavated in crystalline bedrock at a depth of 400-700 metres in Olkiluoto. The extensive site investigations carried out since the early 1980's will next focus on the construction of an underground rock characterisation facility (ONKALO) in 2004-2010. The open tunnel system will constitute a major hydraulic disturbance for the site's groundwater conditions for hundreds of years. Especially, inflow of groundwater into the tunnels results in a drawdown of groundwater table and upcoming of deep saline groundwater, which the present study aimed to assess by means of a 3D finite element simulation. The modelled bedrock volume, which horizontally covered the whole Olkiluoto island, was conceptually divided into hydraulic units, planar fracture zones and sparsely fractured rock between the zones, which were both separately treated as porous media. The geometry of the fracture zones was based on the geological bedrock model. Simulations showed that without engineering measures (e.g. grouting) taken to limit inflow of groundwater into the open tunnels, the hydraulic disturbances could be drastic. The tunnels draw groundwater from all directions in the bedrock. A major part of inflow comes from the well-conductive subhorizontal fracture zones intersected by the access tunnel and the shaft. The simulations show that the resulting drawdown of groundwater table may be from tens to hundreds of metres and the depressed area may extend over the area of the island. The results also indicate that the salinity of groundwater is gradually rising around and below the tunnel system, and locally concentration (TDS) may rise rather high in the vicinity of the tunnels. However, the disturbances can significantly be reduced by the grouting of rock. (orig.)

  5. Hydraulic fracturing in well ONM 15, Hassi-Messaoud field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerbouc, P

    1968-01-01

    In the Hassi-Messaoud field, hydraulic fracturing has been an extremely difficult problem because of the difficult conditions, and numerous tests run with conventional techniques which have had good results elswhere in the Sahara and worldwide, have given poor results. In Dec. 1967, the CFP(A) succeeded in an experimental fracturing operation on the ONM 15 well, increasing the production from 1 to 11 mU3D/hr. The principal results were: (1) in the sandstone reservoir of Hassi-Messaoud, the fracture was successfully propped with high-strength glass beads; (2) the orientation of the fracture was vertical; and (3) in certain favorable cases, such as wells that were mudded off or had a permeability barrier close to the well, the productivity can be increased by a factor of 10. However, it can still not be stated that hydraulic fracturing will be an economic stimulation method for the Hassi-Messaoud reservoir.

  6. Petrophysics at the rock matrix scale: hydraulic properties and petrographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoto, M.

    2003-01-01

    The main objective of this publication is to review, summarize and make comprehensive the hydraulic properties of rocks, at the rock matrix or in tact rock scale. Also to describe how to petrographically interpret those properties. For this purpose, the procedures for the characterization and visualisation of the rock-forming components and in special the water path-ways at that scale are explained. Further more, to establish a methodological approach for an appropriate petrographic interpretation of all the mentioned properties is intended. This Technical Report is applied to the geological solution for the final disposal of high level radioactive wastes. In any case, most of the aspects covered here are of scientific and technical interest for any researcher interested in the behaviour of water in rocks and vice versa, also in the potential fluid- rock interactions. The document is divided into six Chapters, mainly theoretical and methodological, and six Appen - dixes, more focussed to practical tests and procedures for rock characterization. Two significant rock types in high level radioactive waste, HLW, granites and clays, have been used for illustrating most of the examples here included. Under a wide geological perspective, it must be stated that in any geological scenario two different systems or scales coexist; the rock massif (with fractures of about m to km) and the rock matrix (with internal discontinuities such as fissures and cracks to the order of Fm to dm). Their different behaviour is considered in Chapter 1 as well as the specific role played by the rock matrix in the long- and short-term period. General considerations about physical properties of rocks and comparative advantages and disadvantages of the main candidate rocks for radioactive repositories are also included. (Author)

  7. Hydraulic-fracture growth in dipping anisotropic strata as viewed through the surface deformation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzhausen, G.R.; Haase, C.S.; Stow, S.H.; Gazonas, G.

    1985-01-01

    In 1983 and 1984 Oak Rdige National Laboratory conducted a series of precision ground deformation measurements before, during, and after the generation of several large hydraulic fractures in a dipping member of the Cambrian Conasauga Shale. Each fracture was produced by the injection of approximately 500,000 L of slurry on a single day. Injection depth was 300 m. Leveling surveys were run several days before and several days after the injections. An array of eight high-precision borehole tiltmeters monitored ground deformations continuously for a period of several weeks. Analysis of the leveling and the tilt measurements revealed surface uplifts as great as 25 mm and tilts of tens of microradians during each injection. Furthermore, partial recovery (subsidence) of the ground took place during the days following an injection, accompanied by shifts in the position of maximum resultant uplift. Interpretation of the tilt measurements is consistent with stable widening and extension of hydraulic fractures with subhorizontal orientations. Comparison of the measured tilt patterns with fracture orientations established from logging of observation wells suggests that shearing parallel to the fracture planes accompanied fracture dilation. This interpretation is supported by measured tilts and ground uplifts that were as much as 100 percent greater than those expected from fracture dilation alone. Models of elastically anisotropic overburden rock do not explain the measured tilt patterns in the absence of shear stresses in the fracture planes. This work represents the first large-scale hydraulic-fracturing experiment in which the possible effects of material anisotropy and fracture-parallel shears have been measured and interpreted

  8. Hydraulic-fracture growth in dipping anisotropic strata as viewed through the surface deformation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzhausen, G.R.; Haase, C.S.; Stow, S.H.; Gazonas, G.

    1985-01-01

    In 1983 and 1984 Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted a series of precision ground deformation measurements before, during, and after the generation of several large hydraulic fractures in a dipping member of the Cambrian Conassauga Shale. Each fracture was produced by the injection of approximately 500,000 liters of slurry on a single day. Injection depth was 300 m. Leveling surveys were run several days before and several days after the injections. An array of eight high-precision borehole tiltmeters monitored ground deformations continuously for a period of several weeks. Analysis of the leveling and the tilt measurements revealed surface uplifts as great as 25 mm and tilts of tens of microradians during each injection. Furthermore, partial recovery (subsidence) of the ground took place during the days following an injection, accompanied by shifts in the position of maximum resultant uplift. Interpretation of the tilt measurements is consistent with stable widening and extension of hydraulic fractures with subhorizontal orientations. Comparison of the measured tilt patterns with fracture orientations established from logging of observation wells suggests that shearing parallel to the fracture planes accompanied fracture dilation. This interpretation is supported by measured tilts and ground uplifts that were as much as 100 percent greater than those expected from fracture dilation alone. Models of elastically anisotropic overburden rock do not explain the measured tilt patterns in the absence of shear stresses in the fracture planes. This work represents the first large-scale hydraulic-fracturing experiment in which the possible effects of material anisotropy and fracture-parallel shears have been measured and interpreted

  9. A Review of Critical Conditions for the Onset of Nonlinear Fluid Flow in Rock Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecting appropriate governing equations for fluid flow in fractured rock masses is of special importance for estimating the permeability of rock fracture networks. When the flow velocity is small, the flow is in the linear regime and obeys the cubic law, whereas when the flow velocity is large, the flow is in the nonlinear regime and should be simulated by solving the complex Navier-Stokes equations. The critical conditions such as critical Reynolds number and critical hydraulic gradient are commonly defined in the previous works to quantify the onset of nonlinear fluid flow. This study reviews the simplifications of governing equations from the Navier-Stokes equations, Stokes equation, and Reynold equation to the cubic law and reviews the evolutions of critical Reynolds number and critical hydraulic gradient for fluid flow in rock fractures and fracture networks, considering the influences of shear displacement, normal stress and/or confining pressure, fracture surface roughness, aperture, and number of intersections. This review provides a reference for the engineers and hydrogeologists especially the beginners to thoroughly understand the nonlinear flow regimes/mechanisms within complex fractured rock masses.

  10. Experimental validation of microseismic emissions from a controlled hydraulic fracture in a synthetic layered medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roundtree, Russell

    A controlled hydraulic fracture experiment was performed on two medium sized (11" x 11" x 15") synthetic layered blocks of low permeability, low porosity Lyons sandstone sandwiched between cement. The purpose of the research was to better understand and characterize the fracture evolution as the fracture tip impinged upon the layer boundaries between the well bonded layers. It is also one of the first documented uses of passive microseismic used in a laboratory environment to characterize hydraulic fracturing. A relatively low viscosity fluid of 1000 centipoise, compared to properly scaled previous work (Casas 2005, and Athavale 2007), was pumped at a constant rate of 10 mL/minute through a steel cased hole landed and isolated in the sandstone layer. Efforts were made to contain the hydraulic fracture within the confines of the rock specimen to retain the created hydraulic fracture geometry. Two identical samples and treatment schedules were created and differed only in the monitoring system used to characterize the microseismic activity during the fracture treatment. The first block had eight embedded P-wave transducers placed in the sandstone layer to record the passive microseismic emissions and localize the location and time of the acoustic event. The second block had six compressional wave transducers and twelve shear wave transducers embedded in the sandstone layer of the block. The intention was to record and process the seismic data using conventional P-wave to S-wave difference timing techniques well known in industry. While this goal ultimately not possible due to the geometry of the receiver placements and the limitations of the Vallene acquisition processing software, the data received and the events localized from the 18 transducer test were of much higher numbers and quality than on the eight transducer test. This experiment proved conclusively that passive seismic emission recording can yield positive results in the laboratory. Just as in the field

  11. Advanced Hydraulic Fracturing Technology for Unconventional Tight Gas Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Holditch; A. Daniel Hill; D. Zhu

    2007-06-19

    The objectives of this project are to develop and test new techniques for creating extensive, conductive hydraulic fractures in unconventional tight gas reservoirs by statistically assessing the productivity achieved in hundreds of field treatments with a variety of current fracturing practices ranging from 'water fracs' to conventional gel fracture treatments; by laboratory measurements of the conductivity created with high rate proppant fracturing using an entirely new conductivity test - the 'dynamic fracture conductivity test'; and by developing design models to implement the optimal fracture treatments determined from the field assessment and the laboratory measurements. One of the tasks of this project is to create an 'advisor' or expert system for completion, production and stimulation of tight gas reservoirs. A central part of this study is an extensive survey of the productivity of hundreds of tight gas wells that have been hydraulically fractured. We have been doing an extensive literature search of the SPE eLibrary, DOE, Gas Technology Institute (GTI), Bureau of Economic Geology and IHS Energy, for publicly available technical reports about procedures of drilling, completion and production of the tight gas wells. We have downloaded numerous papers and read and summarized the information to build a database that will contain field treatment data, organized by geographic location, and hydraulic fracture treatment design data, organized by the treatment type. We have conducted experimental study on 'dynamic fracture conductivity' created when proppant slurries are pumped into hydraulic fractures in tight gas sands. Unlike conventional fracture conductivity tests in which proppant is loaded into the fracture artificially; we pump proppant/frac fluid slurries into a fracture cell, dynamically placing the proppant just as it occurs in the field. From such tests, we expect to gain new insights into some of the critical

  12. Effective media models for unsaturated fractured rock: A field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholl, M.J.; Glass, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick unsaturated rock mass at Yucca Mountain is currently under consideration as a potential repository site for disposal of high level radioactive waste. In accordance with standard industry and scientific practices, abstract numerical models will be used to evaluate the potential for radionuclide release through the groundwater system. At this time, currently available conceptual models used to develop effective media properties are based primarily on simplistic considerations. The work presented here is part of an integrated effort to develop effective media models at the intermediate block scale (approximately 8-125m) through a combination of physical observations, numerical simulations and theoretical considerations. A multi-purpose field experiment designed and conducted as part of this integrated effort is described. Specific goals of this experimental investigation were to: (1) obtain fracture network data from Topopah Spring Tuff for use in block scale simulations; (2) identity positions of the network conducting flow under three different boundary conditions; (3) visualize preferential flow paths and small-scale flow structures; (4) collect samples for subsequent hydraulic testing and use in block-scale simulations; and (5) demonstrate the ability of Electrical Resistance Tomography (ERT) to delineate fluid distribution within fractured rock

  13. Anisotropic characterization of rock fracture surfaces subjected to profile analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, H.W.; Xie, H.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical parameters of a rock fracture are dependent on its surface roughness anisotropy. In this Letter, we show how quantitatively describe the anisotropy of a rock fracture surface. A parameter, referred to as the index for the accumulation power spectral density psd*, is proposed to characterize the anisotropy of a rock fracture surface. Variation of psd*, with orientation angle θ of sampling, is also discussed

  14. Hydrodynamic analysis of clastic injection and hydraulic fracturing structures in the Jinding Zn-Pb deposit, Yunnan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxiang Chi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Jinding Zn-Pb deposit has been generally considered to have formed from circulating basinal fluids in a relatively passive way, with fluid flow being controlled by structures and sedimentary facies, similar to many other sediments-hosted base metal deposits. However, several recent studies have revealed the presence of sand injection structures, intrusive breccias, and hydraulic fractures in the open pit of the Jinding deposit and suggested that the deposit was formed from explosive release of overpressured fluids. This study reports new observations of fluid overpressure-related structures from underground workings (Paomaping and Fengzishan, which show clearer crosscutting relationships than in the open pit. The observed structures include: 1 sand (±rock fragment dikes injecting into fractures in solidified rocks; 2 sand (±rock fragment bodies intruding into unconsolidated or semi-consolidated sediments; 3 disintegrated semi-consolidated sand bodies; and 4 veins and breccias formed from hydraulic fracturing of solidified rocks followed by cementation of hydrothermal minerals. The development of ore minerals (sphalerite in the cement of the various clastic injection and hydraulic fractures indicate that these structures were formed at the same time as mineralization. The development of hydraulic fractures and breccias with random orientation indicates small differential stress during mineralization, which is different from the stress field with strong horizontal shortening prior to mineralization. Fluid flow velocity may have been up to more than 11 m/s based on calculations from the size of the fragments in the clastic dikes. The clastic injection and hydraulic fracturing structures are interpreted to have formed from explosive release of overpressured fluids, which may have been related to either magmatic intrusions at depth or seismic activities that episodically tapped an overpressured fluid reservoir. Because the clastic injection

  15. Experience curve for natural gas production by hydraulic fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Rokuhei; Greenfield, Carl; Pogue, Katie; Zwaan, Bob van der

    2017-01-01

    From 2007 to 2012 shale gas production in the US expanded at an astounding average growth rate of over 50%/yr, and thereby increased nearly tenfold over this short time period alone. Hydraulic fracturing technology, or “fracking”, as well as new directional drilling techniques, played key roles in this shale gas revolution, by allowing for extraction of natural gas from previously unviable shale resources. Although hydraulic fracturing technology had been around for decades, it only recently became commercially attractive for large-scale implementation. As the production of shale gas rapidly increased in the US over the past decade, the wellhead price of natural gas dropped substantially. In this paper we express the relationship between wellhead price and cumulative natural gas output in terms of an experience curve, and obtain a learning rate of 13% for the industry using hydraulic fracturing technology. This learning rate represents a measure for the know-how and skills accumulated thus far by the US shale gas industry. The use of experience curves for renewable energy options such as solar and wind power has allowed analysts, practitioners, and policy makers to assess potential price reductions, and underlying cost decreases, for these technologies in the future. The reasons for price reductions of hydraulic fracturing are fundamentally different from those behind renewable energy technologies – hence they cannot be directly compared – and hydraulic fracturing may soon reach, or maybe has already attained, a lower bound for further price reductions, for instance as a result of its water requirements or environmental footprint. Yet, understanding learning-by-doing phenomena as expressed by an industry-wide experience curve for shale gas production can be useful for strategic planning in the gas sector, as well as assist environmental policy design, and serve more broadly as input for projections of energy system developments. - Highlights: • Hydraulic

  16. Studying physical properties of deformed intact and fractured rocks by micro-scale hydro-mechanical-seismicity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raziperchikolaee, Samin

    The pore pressure variation in an underground formation during hydraulic stimulation of low permeability formations or CO2 sequestration into saline aquifers can induce microseismicity due to fracture generation or pre-existing fracture activation. While the analysis of microseismic data mainly focuses on mapping the location of fractures, the seismic waves generated by the microseismic events also contain information for understanding of fracture mechanisms based on microseismic source analysis. We developed a micro-scale geomechanics, fluid-flow and seismic model that can predict transport and seismic source behavior during rock failure. This model features the incorporation of microseismic source analysis in fractured and intact rock transport properties during possible rock damage and failure. The modeling method considers comprehensive grains and cements interaction through a bonded-particle-model. As a result of grain deformation and microcrack development in the rock sample, forces and displacements in the grains involved in the bond breakage are measured to determine seismic moment tensor. In addition, geometric description of the complex pore structure is regenerated to predict fluid flow behavior of fractured samples. Numerical experiments are conducted for different intact and fractured digital rock samples, representing various mechanical behaviors of rocks and fracture surface properties, to consider their roles on seismic and transport properties of rocks during deformation. Studying rock deformation in detail provides an opportunity to understand the relationship between source mechanism of microseismic events and transport properties of damaged rocks to have a better characterizing of fluid flow behavior in subsurface formations.

  17. Fractures inside crystalline rocks. Effects of deformations on fluid circulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentier, S.

    2005-01-01

    The modeling of fluid flows inside granite massifs is an important task for the evaluation of the feasibility of radioactive waste storage inside such formations. This document makes a synthesis of the works carried out since about 15 years, in particular by the French bureau of geological and mining research (BRGM), about the hydro-mechanical behaviour of a fracture and about the hydrodynamical characterization of fracture networks inside crystalline rocks: 1 - introduction; 2 - hydro-mechanical behaviour under normal stress: experimental results (hydro-mechanical behaviour, flow regimes, mechanical behaviour, test protocol, complementary tests, influence of samples size), geometrical interpretation of experimental results (relation with walls geometry, relation with voids geometry, relation with contacts geometry), hydro-mechanical modeling (hydraulic modeling, mechanical modeling); 3 - from the hydro-mechanical behaviour under normal stress to the coupling with heat transfers and chemistry: experiment for the study of the chemo-thermo-hydro-mechanical coupling (experimental results, relation with walls morphology), thermo-hydro-mechanical experiments, thermo-hydro-chemical experiments with fractures, conclusions; 4 - hydro-mechanical behaviour during shear: experimental results, geometrical interpretation (relation with the geometry of damaged zones, relation with voids geometry, relation with walls geometry), hydro-mechanical modeling (mechanical modeling, hydro-mechanical modeling of the behaviour during shear). (J.S.)

  18. Overview of Chronic Oral Toxicity Values for Chemicals Present in Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids, Flowback and Produced Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    as part of EPA's Hydraulic Fracturing Drinking Water Assessment, EPA is summarizing existing toxicity data for chemicals reported to be used in hydraulic fracturing fluids and/or found in flowback or produced waters from hydraulically fractured wells

  19. Estimates of hydraulic fracturing (Frac) sand production, consumption, and reserves in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiwas, Donald I.

    2015-01-01

    The practice of fracturing reservoir rock in the United States as a method to increase the flow of oil and gas from wells has a relatively long history and can be traced back to 1858 in Fredonia, New York, when a gas well situated in shale of the Marcellus Formation was successfully fractured using black powder as a blasting agent. Nearly all domestic hydraulic fracturing, often referred to as hydrofracking or fracking, is a process where fluids are injected under high pressure through perforations in the horizontal portion of a well casing in order to generate fractures in reservoir rock with low permeability (“tight”). Because the fractures are in contact with the well bore they can serve as pathways for the recovery of gas and oil. To prevent the fractures generated by the fracking process from closing or becoming obstructed with debris, material termed “proppant,” most commonly high-silica sand, is injected along with water-rich fluids to maintain or “prop” open the fractures. The first commercial application of fracking in the oil and gas industry took place in Oklahoma and Texas during the 1940s. In 1949, over 300 wells, mostly vertical, were fracked (ALL Consulting, LLC, 2012; McGee, 2012; Veil, 2012) and used silica sand as a proppant (Fracline, 2011). The resulting increase in well productivity demonstrated the significant potential that fracking might have for the oil and gas industry.

  20. The successful use of transverse hydraulic fractures from horizontal wellbores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crosby, D. G.; Yang, Z.; Rahman, S. S. [New South Wales Univ., NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    Since a significant proportion of the world`s recoverable hydrocarbon resources exist in reservoirs possessing permeabilities of less than one milli-Darcy (mD), some form of permeability enhancement or stimulation is necessary if the hydrocarbons are to be exploited economically. Multi-stage, transversely fractured horizontal wellbores are shown to have the potential to greatly increase production from low permeability formations. To overcome the problems caused by near-wellbore tortuosity, common to wells with multiple fracturing from the same perforated interval, a criterion was devised which predicts the wellbore pressures to initiate secondary multiple transverse hydraulic fractures in close proximity to primary fractures. The criterion, confirmed by laboratory experiments, demonstrates that transversely fractured horizontal wellbores have limited capacities to resist the initiation of multiple fractures from adjacent perforations. This characteristic can be used in designing hydraulic fracture treatments to establish injection pressure limits or threshold pressures, above which additional multiple fractures will initiate and propagate from the wellbore. 23 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  1. A study on the characteristics of site-scale fracture system in granite and volcanic rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Su; Kim, Chun Soo; Bae, Dae Seok; Park, Byoung Yoon; Koh, Young Kown [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-03-01

    The safety of waste disposal can be achieved by a complete isolation of radioactive wastes from biosphere or by a retardation of nuclide migration to reach an acceptable dose level. For the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, the potential pathways of nuclide primarily depend on the spatial distribution characteristics of conductive fractures. Major key issues in the quantification of fracture system for a disposal site are involved in classification criteria, hydraulic parameters, geometry, field investigation methods etc. This research aims to characterize the spatial distribution characteristics of conductive fractures in granite and volcanic rock mass. 10 refs., 32 figs., 13 tabs. (Author)

  2. Concepts of flow in fractured rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.H.

    1989-01-01

    The role of well testing is considered in the context of tracer tests in fractured rock. It is shown that the important information required by a tracer test includes not just the hydrogeological parameters (transmissivity and storage), but also the geometry of flow. This is usually implicit in well testing, perhaps because the tests are generally interpretationally insensitive to variations in flow geometry. It is also argued that both well and tracer tests change their flow geometry during their lifetime. They often start as pipe flow near a well and change to large scale, almost spherical, flow after long periods of time. The duration of a tracer test is compared with that of a well test and is found to reach an equivalent duration (of dimensionless time) that is at least 10 4 times longer. Care should be exercised in transposing flow geometries derived from mature well tests on to tracer tests which are not similar in dimensionless time. Finally, a 'sinusoidal flow test' is outlined which has prompted a new way of looking at well tests in terms of their flow geometry. The new analysis involves 'partial dimension' of flow and is probably highly appropriate to fissured rocks. Fissured rocks have, for too long, been seen as a regular system of planar, fully transmissive fissures. (author). 12 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  3. Combining periodic hydraulic tests and surface tilt measurements to explore in situ fracture hydromechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuite, Jonathan; Longuevergne, Laurent; Bour, Olivier; Guihéneuf, Nicolas; Becker, Matthew W.; Cole, Matthew; Burbey, Thomas J.; Lavenant, Nicolas; Boudin, Frédéric

    2017-08-01

    Fractured bedrock reservoirs are of socio-economical importance, as they may be used for storage or retrieval of fluids and energy. In particular, the hydromechanical behavior of fractures needs to be understood as it has implications on flow and governs stability issues (e.g., microseismicity). Laboratory, numerical, or field experiments have brought considerable insights to this topic. Nevertheless, in situ hydromechanical experiments are relatively uncommon, mainly because of technical and instrumental limitations. Here we present the early stage development and validation of a novel approach aiming at capturing the integrated hydromechanical behavior of natural fractures. It combines the use of surface tiltmeters to monitor the deformation associated with the periodic pressurization of fractures at depth in crystalline rocks. Periodic injection and withdrawal advantageously avoids mobilizing or extracting significant amounts of fluid, and it hinders any risk of reservoir failure. The oscillatory perturbation is intended to (1) facilitate the recognition of its signature in tilt measurements and (2) vary the hydraulic penetration depth in order to sample different volumes of the fractured bedrock around the inlet and thereby assess scale effects typical of fractured systems. By stacking tilt signals, we managed to recover small tilt amplitudes associated with pressure-derived fracture deformation. Therewith, we distinguish differences in mechanical properties between the three tested fractures, but we show that tilt amplitudes are weakly dependent on pressure penetration depth. Using an elastic model, we obtain fracture stiffness estimates that are consistent with published data. Our results should encourage further improvement of the method.

  4. Developing two-phase flow modelling concepts for rock fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keto, V. (Fortum Nuclear Services Oy, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-01-15

    The Finnish nuclear waste disposal company, Posiva Oy, is planning an underground repository for spent nuclear fuel to be constructed on the island of Olkiluoto on the south-west coast of Finland. One element of the site investigations conducted at Olkiluoto is the excavation of the underground rock characterisation facility (ONKALO) that will be extended to the final disposal depth (approximately -400 m). The bedrock around the excavated tunnel volume is fully saturated with groundwater, which water commonly contains a mixture of dissolved gases. These gases remain dissolved due to the high hydrostatic pressure. During tunnel excavation work the natural hydrostatic pressure field is disturbed and the water pressure will decrease close to the atmospheric pressure in the immediate vicinity of the tunnel. During this pressure drop two-phase flow conditions (combined flow of both water and gas) may develop in the vicinity of the underground opening, as the dissolved gas is exsoluted under the low pressure (the term exsolution refers here to release of the dissolved gas molecules from the water phase into a separate gas phase). This report steers towards concept development for numerical two-phase flow modeling for fractured rock. The focus is on the description of gas phase formation process under disturbed hydraulic conditions by exsolution of dissolved gases from groundwater, and on understanding the effects of a possibly formed gas phase on groundwater flow conditions in rock fractures. A mathematical model of three mutually coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for two-phase flow is presented and corresponding constitutional relationships are introduced and discussed. Illustrative numerical simulations are performed in a simplified setting using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5a - software package. Shortcomings and conceptual problems are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Developing two-phase flow modelling concepts for rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keto, V.

    2010-01-01

    The Finnish nuclear waste disposal company, Posiva Oy, is planning an underground repository for spent nuclear fuel to be constructed on the island of Olkiluoto on the south-west coast of Finland. One element of the site investigations conducted at Olkiluoto is the excavation of the underground rock characterisation facility (ONKALO) that will be extended to the final disposal depth (approximately -400 m). The bedrock around the excavated tunnel volume is fully saturated with groundwater, which water commonly contains a mixture of dissolved gases. These gases remain dissolved due to the high hydrostatic pressure. During tunnel excavation work the natural hydrostatic pressure field is disturbed and the water pressure will decrease close to the atmospheric pressure in the immediate vicinity of the tunnel. During this pressure drop two-phase flow conditions (combined flow of both water and gas) may develop in the vicinity of the underground opening, as the dissolved gas is exsoluted under the low pressure (the term exsolution refers here to release of the dissolved gas molecules from the water phase into a separate gas phase). This report steers towards concept development for numerical two-phase flow modeling for fractured rock. The focus is on the description of gas phase formation process under disturbed hydraulic conditions by exsolution of dissolved gases from groundwater, and on understanding the effects of a possibly formed gas phase on groundwater flow conditions in rock fractures. A mathematical model of three mutually coupled nonlinear partial differential equations for two-phase flow is presented and corresponding constitutional relationships are introduced and discussed. Illustrative numerical simulations are performed in a simplified setting using COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5a - software package. Shortcomings and conceptual problems are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Interwell tracer analyses of a hydraulically fractured granitic geothermal reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tester, J.W.; Potter, R.M.; Bivins, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Field experiments using fluorescent dye and radioactive tracers (Br 82 and I 131 ) have been employed to characterize a hot, low-matrix permeability, hydraulically-fractured granitic reservoir at depths of 2440 to 2960 m (8000 to 9700 ft). Tracer profiles and residence time distributions have been used to delineate changes in the fracture system, particularly in diagnosing pathological flow patterns and in identifying new injection and production zones. The effectiveness of one- and two-dimensional theoretical dispersion models utilizing single and multiple porous, fractured zones with velocity and formation dependent effects are discussed with respect to actual field data

  7. FEASIBILITY OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OF SOILS TO IMPROVE REMEDIAL ACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing, a method of increasing fluid flow within the subsurface, should improve the effectiveness of several remedial techniques, including pump and treat, vapor extraction, bio-remediation, and soil-flushing. he technique is widely used to increase the yields of oi...

  8. Experience curve for natural gas production by hydraulic fracturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fukui, R.; Greenfield, C.; Pogue, K.; van der Zwaan, B.

    From 2007 to 2012 shale gas production in the US expanded at an astounding average growth rate of over 50yr, and thereby increased nearly tenfold over this short time period alone. Hydraulic fracturing technology, or ``fracking'', as well as new directional drilling techniques, played key roles in

  9. Hydraulic fracturing, energy transition and political engagement in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasch, Elisabet Dueholm; Köhne, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses how citizens (re)define their relation to the state in the contestation of hydraulic fracturing in the Noordoostpolder (the Netherlands) in the context of energy transition. It approaches citizenship as the negotiations between governments and citizens about in-and exclusion

  10. Monitoring hydraulic fractures: state estimation using an extended Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochinha, Fernando Alves; Peirce, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in using remote elastostatic deformations to identify the evolving geometry of underground fractures that are forced to propagate by the injection of high pressure viscous fluids. These so-called hydraulic fractures are used to increase the permeability in oil and gas reservoirs as well as to pre-fracture ore-bodies for enhanced mineral extraction. The undesirable intrusion of these hydraulic fractures into environmentally sensitive areas or into regions in mines which might pose safety hazards has stimulated the search for techniques to enable the evolving hydraulic fracture geometries to be monitored. Previous approaches to this problem have involved the inversion of the elastostatic data at isolated time steps in the time series provided by tiltmeter measurements of the displacement gradient field at selected points in the elastic medium. At each time step, parameters in simple static models of the fracture (e.g. a single displacement discontinuity) are identified. The approach adopted in this paper is not to regard the sequence of sampled elastostatic data as independent, but rather to treat the data as linked by the coupled elastic-lubrication equations that govern the propagation of the evolving hydraulic fracture. We combine the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with features of a recently developed implicit numerical scheme to solve the coupled free boundary problem in order to form a novel algorithm to identify the evolving fracture geometry. Numerical experiments demonstrate that, despite excluding significant physical processes in the forward numerical model, the EKF-numerical algorithm is able to compensate for the un-modeled dynamics by using the information fed back from tiltmeter data. Indeed the proposed algorithm is able to provide reasonably faithful estimates of the fracture geometry, which are shown to converge to the actual hydraulic fracture geometry as the number of tiltmeters is increased. Since the location of

  11. Interaction between Hydraulic Fracturing Process and Pre-existing Natural Fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, C.

    2010-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is employed as a stimulation treatment by the oil and gas industry to enhance the hydro-carbon recoveries. The rationale is that by creating fractures from the wellbore into the surrounding formations, the conductivity between the well and reservoir is significantly increased

  12. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Backfill and Plug test. Hydraulic testing of core drilled boreholes in the ZEDEX drift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludvigson, Jan-Erik; Nordqvist, Rune; Ekman, Lennart; Hansson, Kent (GEOSIGMA AB, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2009-07-01

    The present report documents the performance and results of hydraulic testing in selected core boreholes in the Zedex drift. The holes will be used as rock instrumentation boreholes during the Backfill and Plug Test at Aespoe HRL. The testing involves both 1 m long boreholes with 56 mm diameter as well as longer boreholes c. 5 m, 8 m and 25 m long with 56 mm or 76 mm diameter. Only single-hole tests were performed. The tests were carried out as short-time constant head injection tests since all boreholes tested (except one) were non-flowing before tests. The injection phase was followed by a pressure recovery phase. Furthermore, the tests were carried out as single-packer tests. A specially designed test system was used for the tests. The main evaluation of the tests was performed on data from the recovery phase by a new approach based on a non-linear regression technique combined with a flow simulation model (SUTRA). The tests in the 1 m-holes (testing the interval c. 0.3-0.7 m in the rock perpendicular to the tunnel face) show that the hydraulic conductivity of the superficial rock around the Zedex drift in general is low. However, during testing in some boreholes, visible leakage in the rock occurred through superficial fractures into the tunnel. These fractures were mainly located in the floor of the Zedex drift and are probably blast-induced. These fractures have a high hydraulic conductivity. The tests in the longer boreholes show that the hydraulic conductivity further into the rock in general is below c. 1x10-10 m/s. Increased hydraulic conductivity (c.1.5x10-8 m/s) was only observed in the flowing borehole KXZSD8HL.

  13. Study of deep fracturation of granitic rock mass. Documentary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bles, J.L.; Landry, J.

    1984-01-01

    This documentary study realized with the financial support of the European Communities and the CEA aims at the utilization of available data for the understanding of the evolution of natural fractures in granitic rocks from the surface to deep underground. The Mt Blanc road tunnel, the EDF's Arc-Isere gallerie, the Auriat deep borehole and the Pyrenean rock mass of Bassies are studied because detailed structural and geological studies have been realized these last 20 years. In this study are more particularly analyzed the relationship between small fractures and large faults, evolution with depth of fracture density and direction, consequences of rock decompression and relationship between fracturation and groundwater

  14. Characterizing fractures and shear zones in crystalline rock using seismic and GPR methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doetsch, Joseph; Jordi, Claudio; Laaksonlaita, Niko; Gischig, Valentin; Schmelzbach, Cedric; Maurer, Hansruedi

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the natural or artificially created hydraulic conductivity of a rock mass is critical for the successful exploitation of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). The hydraulic response of fractured crystalline rock is largely governed by the spatial organization of permeable fractures. Defining the 3D geometry of these fractures and their connectivity is extremely challenging, because fractures can only be observed directly at their intersections with tunnels or boreholes. Borehole-based and tunnel-based ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and seismic measurements have the potential to image fractures and other heterogeneities between and around boreholes and tunnels, and to monitor subtle time-lapse changes in great detail. We present the analysis of data acquired in the Grimsel rock laboratory as part of the In-situ Stimulation and Circulation (ISC) experiment, in which a series of stimulation experiments have been and will be performed. The experiments in the granitic rock range from hydraulic fracturing to controlled fault-slip experiments. The aim is to obtain a better understanding of coupled seismo-hydro-mechanical processes associated with high-pressure fluid injections in crystalline rocks and their impact on permeability creation and enhancement. GPR and seismic data have been recorded to improve the geological model and characterize permeable fractures and shear zones. The acquired and processed data include reflection GPR profiles measured from tunnel walls, single-borehole GPR images, and borehole-to-borehole and tunnel-to-tunnel seismic and GPR tomograms. The reflection GPR data reveal the geometry of shear zones up to a distance of 30 m from the tunnels and boreholes, but the interpretation is complicated by the geometrical ambiguity around tunnels and boreholes and by spurious reflections from man-made structures such as boreholes. The GPR and seismic traveltime tomography results reveal brittle fractured rock between two ductile shear zones. The

  15. Hydraulic Fracturing for Oil and Gas: Impacts from the Hydraulic Fracturing Water Cycle on Drinking Water Resources in the United States (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This final report provides a review and synthesis of available scientific information concerning the relationship between hydraulic fracturing activities and drinking water resources in the United States. The report is organized around activities in the hydraulic...

  16. Two-phase flow in fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, P.; Long, J.; Zuidema, P.

    1993-11-01

    This report gives the results of a three-day workshop on two-phase flow in fractured rock. The workshop focused on two-phase flow processes that are important in geologic disposal of nuclear waste as experienced in a variety of repository settings. The goals and objectives of the workshop were threefold: exchange information; describe the current state of understanding; and identify research needs. The participants were divided into four subgroups. Each group was asked to address a series of two-phase flow processes. The following groups were defined to address these processes: basic flow processes; fracture/matrix interactions; complex flow processes; and coupled processes. For each process, the groups were asked to address these four issues: (1) describe the two-phase flow processes that are important with respect to repository performance; (2) describe how this process relates to the specific driving programmatic issues given above for nuclear waste storage; (3) evaluate the state of understanding for these processes; and (4) suggest additional research to address poorly understood processes relevant to repository performance. The reports from each of the four working groups are given here

  17. Hydraulic fracturing for natural gas: impact on health and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, David O

    2016-03-01

    Shale deposits exist in many parts of the world and contain relatively large amounts of natural gas and oil. Recent technological developments in the process of horizontal hydraulic fracturing (hydrofracturing or fracking) have suddenly made it economically feasible to extract natural gas from shale. While natural gas is a much cleaner burning fuel than coal, there are a number of significant threats to human health from the extraction process as currently practiced. There are immediate threats to health resulting from air pollution from volatile organic compounds, which contain carcinogens such as benzene and ethyl-benzene, and which have adverse neurologic and respiratory effects. Hydrogen sulfide, a component of natural gas, is a potent neuro- and respiratory toxin. In addition, levels of formaldehyde are elevated around fracking sites due to truck traffic and conversion of methane to formaldehyde by sunlight. There are major concerns about water contamination because the chemicals used can get into both ground and surface water. Much of the produced water (up to 40% of what is injected) comes back out of the gas well with significant radioactivity because radium in subsurface rock is relatively water soluble. There are significant long-term threats beyond cancer, including exacerbation of climate change due to the release of methane into the atmosphere, and increased earthquake activity due to disruption of subsurface tectonic plates. While fracking for natural gas has significant economic benefits, and while natural gas is theoretically a better fossil fuel as compared to coal and oil, current fracking practices pose significant adverse health effects to workers and near-by residents. The health of the public should not be compromized simply for the economic benefits to the industry.

  18. Folding and Fracturing of Rocks: the background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, John G.

    2017-04-01

    This book was generated by structural geology teaching classes at Imperial College. I was appointed lecturer during 1957 and worked together with Dr Gilbert Wilson teaching basic structural geology at B.Sc level. I became convinced that the subject, being essentially based on geometric field observations, required a firm mathematical basis for its future development. In particular it seemed to me to require a very sound understanding of stress and strain. My field experience suggested that a knowledge of two- and three-demensional strain was critical in understanding natural tectonic processes. I found a rich confirmation for this in early publications of deformed fossils, oolitic limestones and spotted slates made by several geologists around the beginning of the 20th century (Sorby, Philips, Haughton, Harker) often using surprisingly sophisticated mathematical methods. These methods were discussed and elaborated in Folding and Fracturing of Rocks in a practical way. The geometric features of folds were related to folding mechanisms and the fold related small scale structures such as cleavage, schistosity and lineation explained in terms of rock strain. My work in the Scottish Highlands had shown just how repeated fold superposition could produce very complex geometric features, while further work in other localities suggested that such geometric complications are common in many orogenic zones. From the development of structural geological studies over the past decades it seems that the readers of this book have found many of the ideas set out are still of practical application. The mapping of these outcrop-scale structures should be emphasised in all field studies because they can be seen as ''fingerprints'' of regional scale tectonic processes. My own understanding of structural geology has been inspired by field work and I am of the opinion that future progress in understanding will be likewise based on careful observation and measurement of the features of

  19. Hydraulic Fracturing and Microseismicity: Global Perspective in Oil Exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Kayal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Induced microseismicity is a common phenomenon in oil and gas reservoirs due to changes in internal stress accompanied by hydraulic fracturing and oil-gas extraction. These microseismicity can be monitored to understand the direction and type of hydraulic fracturing and pre-existing faults by precise hypocenter location and focal mechanism studies. Normal as well as strike-slip faulting earthquakes occur due to opening up of new cracks/fractures, and thrust/reverse faulting earthquakes due to compaction or closing of existing fractures. Further, frequency-magnitude relation (b-value and fractal dimension (D-value of the spatial and temporal clusterization of induced microseismicity may be much useful to characterize the fractures / existing faults and the stress regimes. Seismic tomography, on the other hand, can image the heterogeneous velocity structures / perturbations in the reservoir due to fractures and oil-gas-water contents. A few global case studies are illustrated to understand these processes and to draw attention towards importance of these studies in oil industries.

  20. Characterization of the Oriskany and Berea Sandstones: Evaluating Biogeochemical Reactions of Potential Sandstone–Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verba, Circe [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Harris, Aubrey [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2016-07-07

    The Marcellus shale, located in the mid-Atlantic Appalachian Basin, has been identified as a source for natural gas and targeted for hydraulic fracturing recovery methods. Hydraulic fracturing is a technique used by the oil and gas industry to access petroleum reserves in geologic formations that cannot be accessed with conventional drilling techniques (Capo et al., 2014). This unconventional technique fractures rock formations that have low permeability by pumping pressurized hydraulic fracturing fluids into the subsurface. Although the major components of hydraulic fracturing fluid are water and sand, chemicals, such as recalcitrant biocides and polyacrylamide, are also used (Frac Focus, 2015). There is domestic concern that the chemicals could reach groundwater or surface water during transport, storage, or the fracturing process (Chapman et al., 2012). In the event of a surface spill, understanding the natural attenuation of the chemicals in hydraulic fracturing fluid, as well as the physical and chemical properties of the aquifers surrounding the spill site, will help mitigate potential dangers to drinking water. However, reports on the degradation pathways of these chemicals are limited in existing literature. The Appalachian Basin Marcellus shale and its surrounding sandstones host diverse mineralogical suites. During the hydraulic fracturing process, the hydraulic fracturing fluids come into contact with variable mineral compositions. The reactions between the fracturing fluid chemicals and the minerals are very diverse. This report: 1) describes common minerals (e.g. quartz, clay, pyrite, and carbonates) present in the Marcellus shale, as well as the Oriskany and Berea sandstones, which are located stratigraphically below and above the Marcellus shale; 2) summarizes the existing literature of the degradation pathways for common hydraulic fracturing fluid chemicals [polyacrylamide, ethylene glycol, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), glutaraldehyde

  1. Hydraulic fracture diagnostic: recent advances and their impact; Analyses de la fracturation hydraulique: progres recents et leur impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolhart, St.L. [GRI, United States (United States)

    2000-07-01

    The use of hydraulic fracturing has grown tremendously since its introduction over 50 years ago. Most wells in low permeability reservoirs are not economic without hydraulic fracture stimulation. Hydraulic fracturing is also seeing increasing use in high permeability applications. The success of this technology can be attributed to the great strides made in three areas: hydraulic fracture theory and modeling, improved surface and subsurface equipment and advanced fluid systems and proppers. However, industry still has limited capabilities when it comes to determining the geometry of the created hydraulic fracture. This limitation, in turn places limits on the continued improvement of hydraulic fracturing as a means to optimize productivity and recovery. GRI's Advanced Hydraulic Fracture Diagnostics Program has developed two new technologies, microseismic hydraulic fracture mapping and downhole tilt-meter hydraulic fracture mapping, to address this limitation. These two technologies have been utilized to improve field development and reduce hydraulic fracturing costs. This paper reviews these technologies and presents case histories of their use. (author)

  2. The effect of offset on fracture permeability of rocks from the Southern Andes Volcanic Zone, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Flores, P.; Wang, G.; Mitchell, T. M.; Meredith, P. G.; Nara, Y.; Sarkar, V.; Cembrano, J.

    2017-11-01

    The Southern Andes Volcanic Zone (SVZ) represents one of the largest undeveloped geothermal provinces in the world. Development of the geothermal potential requires a detailed understanding of fluid transport properties of its main lithologies. The permeability of SVZ rocks is altered by the presence of fracture damage zones produced by the Liquiñe-Ofqui Fault System (LOFS) and the Andean Transverse Faults (ATF). We have therefore measured the permeability of four representative lithologies from the volcanic basement in this area: crystalline tuff, andesitic dike, altered andesite and granodiorite. For comparative purposes, we have also measured the permeability of samples of Seljadalur basalt, an Icelandic rock with widely studied and reported hydraulic properties. Specifically, we present the results of a systematic study of the effect of fractures and fracture offsets on permeability as a function of increasing effective pressure. Baseline measurements on intact samples of SVZ rocks show that the granodiorite has a permeability (10-18 m2), two orders of magnitude higher than that of the volcanic rocks (10-20 m2). The presence of throughgoing mated macro-fractures increases permeability by between four and six orders of magnitude, with the highest permeability recorded for the crystalline tuff. Increasing fracture offset to produce unmated fractures results in large increases in permeability up to some characteristic value of offset, beyond which permeability changes only marginally. The increase in permeability with offset appears to depend on fracture roughness and aperture, and these are different for each lithology. Overall, fractured SVZ rocks with finite offsets record permeability values consistent with those commonly found in geothermal reservoirs (>10-16 m2), which potentially allow convective/advective flow to develop. Hence, our results demonstrate that the fracture damage zones developed within the SVZ produce permeable regions, especially within the

  3. Influences of Hydraulic Fracturing on Fluid Flow and Mineralization at the Vein-Type Tungsten Deposits in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangchong Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolframite is the main ore mineral at the vein-type tungsten deposits in the Nanling Range, which is a world-class tungsten province. It is disputed how wolframite is precipitated at these deposits and no one has yet studied the links of the mechanical processes to fluid flow and mineralization. Finite element-based numerical experiments are used to investigate the influences of a hydraulic fracturing process on fluid flow and solubility of CO2 and quartz. The fluids are aqueous NaCl solutions and fluid pressure is the only variable controlling solubility of CO2 and quartz in the numerical experiments. Significant fluctuations of fluid pressure and high-velocity hydrothermal pulse are found once rock is fractured by high-pressure fluids. The fluid pressure drop induced by hydraulic fracturing could cause a 9% decrease of quartz solubility. This amount of quartz deposition may not cause a significant decrease in rock permeability. The fluid pressure decrease after hydraulic fracturing also reduces solubility of CO2 by 36% and increases pH. Because an increase in pH would cause a major decrease in solubility of tungsten, the fluid pressure drop accompanying a hydraulic fracturing process facilitates wolframite precipitation. Our numerical experiments provide insight into the mechanisms precipitating wolframite at the tungsten deposits in the Nanling Range as well as other metals whose solubility is strongly dependent on pH.

  4. Experimental insights into geochemical changes in hydraulically fractured Marcellus Shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcon, Virginia; Joseph, Craig; Carter, Kimberly E.; Hedges, Sheila W.; Lopano, Christina L.; Guthrie, George D.; Hakala, J. Alexandra

    2017-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing applied to organic-rich shales has significantly increased the recoverable volume of methane available for U.S. energy consumption. Fluid-shale reactions in the reservoir may affect long-term reservoir productivity and waste management needs through changes to fracture mineral composition and produced fluid chemical composition. We performed laboratory experiments with Marcellus Shale and lab-generated hydraulic fracturing fluid at elevated pressures and temperatures to evaluate mineral reactions and the release of trace elements into solution. Results from the experiment containing fracturing chemicals show evidence for clay and carbonate dissolution, secondary clay and anhydrite precipitation, and early-stage (24–48 h) fluid enrichment of certain elements followed by depletion in later stages (i.e. Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Sc, Zn). Other elements such as As, Fe, Mn, Sr, and Y increased in concentration and remained elevated throughout the duration of the experiment with fracturing fluid. Geochemical modeling of experimental fluid data indicates primary clay dissolution, and secondary formation of smectites and barite, after reaction with fracturing fluid. Changes in aqueous organic composition were observed, indicating organic additives may be chemically transformed or sequestered by the formation after hydraulic fracturing. The NaCl concentrations in our fluids are similar to measured concentrations in Marcellus Shale produced waters, showing that these experiments are representative of reservoir fluid chemistries and can provide insight on geochemical reactions that occur in the field. These results can be applied towards evaluating the evolution of hydraulically-fractured reservoirs, and towards understanding geochemical processes that control the composition of produced water from unconventional shales. - Highlights: • Metal concentrations could be at their peak in produced waters recovered 24–48 after fracturing. • Carbonate

  5. Vibrational modes of hydraulic fractures: Inference of fracture geometry from resonant frequencies and attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovsky, Bradley P.; Dunham, Eric M.

    2015-02-01

    Oscillatory seismic signals arising from resonant vibrations of hydraulic fractures are observed in many geologic systems, including volcanoes, glaciers and ice sheets, and hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs. To better quantify the physical dimensions of fluid-filled cracks and properties of the fluids within them, we study wave motion along a thin hydraulic fracture waveguide. We present a linearized analysis, valid at wavelengths greater than the fracture aperture, that accounts for quasi-static elastic deformation of the fracture walls, as well as fluid viscosity, inertia, and compressibility. In the long-wavelength limit, anomalously dispersed guided waves known as crack or Krauklis waves propagate with restoring force from fracture wall elasticity. At shorter wavelengths, the waves become sound waves within the fluid channel. Wave attenuation in our model is due to fluid viscosity, rather than seismic radiation from crack tips or fracture wall roughness. We characterize viscous damping at both low frequencies, where the flow is always fully developed, and at high frequencies, where the flow has a nearly constant velocity profile away from viscous boundary layers near the fracture walls. Most observable seismic signals from resonating fractures likely arise in the boundary layer crack wave limit, where fluid-solid coupling is pronounced and attenuation is minimal. We present a method to estimate the aperture and length of a resonating hydraulic fracture using both the seismically observed quality factor and characteristic frequency. Finally, we develop scaling relations between seismic moment and characteristic frequency that might be useful when interpreting the statistics of hydraulic fracture events.

  6. Hydrogeomechanics for rock engineering: coupling subsurface hydrogeomechanical assessement and hydrogeotechnical mapping on fracturated rock masses

    OpenAIRE

    Meirinhos, João Miguel de Freitas

    2015-01-01

    The present work aims to achieve and further develop a hydrogeomechanical approach in Caldas da Cavaca hydromineral system rock mass (Aguiar da Beira, NW Portugal), and contribute to a better understanding of the hydrogeological conceptual site model. A collection of several data, namely geology, hydrogeology, rock and soil geotechnics, borehole hydraulics and hydrogeomechanics, was retrieved from three rock slopes (Lagoa, Amores and Cancela). To accomplish a comprehensive analysis and rock e...

  7. The risk of hydraulic fracturing on public health in the UK and the UK's fracking legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reap, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing to extract natural gas from shale rock is a new, rapidly expanding industry in the United States (US). However, there is concern that these operations could be having large negative impacts such as groundwater contamination, increased air pollution and seismic events. The United Kingdom (UK) is looking at the potential for emulating the success of 'shale gas' in the US. Differences in population density and geological conditions mean that the public health impacts recorded in the US cannot be directly extrapolated to the UK. There is limited academic literature available but findings suggest that the UK government is not fully recognising the inherent risks of hydraulic fracturing exposed by this literature. Government reports suggest a reliance on engineering solutions and better practice to overcome problems found in the US when evidence suggests that there are inherent risks and impacts that cannot be eliminated. This study applies US results to approximate the impact of one exposure pathway, inhalation of hydrocarbons by the public from operational air emissions over the 30 year lifetime of a well and finds that 7.2 extra cancer cases from exposure to air contamination would be expected in the UK if all test sites, approved test sites and test sites awaiting approval as of January 2015 went on to extract gas. In conclusion, limited assessment of the public health implications of hydraulic fracturing operations is available but the UK government appears to not be applying the precautionary principle to potentially significant legislation.

  8. Transboundary Extraction of Groundwater in the Presence of Hydraulic Fracturing

    OpenAIRE

    Poudel, Biswo N.; Paudel, Krishna P.; Zilberman, David

    2013-01-01

    We studied transboundary ground water management problems in the presence of hydraulic fracturing (fracking). We found that the presence of risk suggests a need to exercise caution in fracking. We also found that a cooperative outcome implies the decrease in fracking and the increase in steady state survival rate of groundwater. However, water extraction rates remained the same in both cooperative and noncooperative solutions. We also argue that a Pigouvian type tax could be imposed on the na...

  9. Long-range spatial dependence in fractured rock. Empirical evidence and implications for tracer transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painter, S.

    1999-02-01

    Nonclassical stochastic continuum models incorporating long-range spatial dependence are evaluated as models for fractured crystalline rock. Open fractures and fracture zones are not modeled explicitly in this approach. The fracture zones and intact rock are modeled as a single stochastic continuum. The large contrasts between the fracture zones and unfractured rock are accounted for by making use of random field models specifically designed for highly variable systems. Hydraulic conductivity data derived from packer tests in the vicinity of the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory form the basis for the evaluation. The Aespoe log K data were found to be consistent with a fractal scaling model based on bounded fractional Levy motion (bfLm), a model that has been used previously to model highly variable sedimentary formations. However, the data are not sufficient to choose between this model, a fractional Brownian motion model for the normal-score transform of log K, and a conventional geostatistical model. Stochastic simulations conditioned by the Aespoe data coupled with flow and tracer transport calculations demonstrate that the models with long-range dependence predict earlier arrival times for contaminants. This demonstrates the need to evaluate this class of models when assessing the performance of proposed waste repositories. The relationship between intermediate-scale and large-scale transport properties in media with long-range dependence is also addressed. A new Monte Carlo method for stochastic upscaling of intermediate-scale field data is proposed

  10. Understanding large scale groundwater flow in fractured crystalline rocks to aid in repository siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, C.; Brown, A.; Gascoyne, M.; Stevenson, D.; Ophori, D.

    2000-01-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) conducted a ten-year long groundwater flow study of a 1050 km 2 region of fractured crystalline rock in southeastern Manitoba to illustrate how an understanding of large scale groundwater flow can be used to assist in selecting a hydraulically favourable location for the deep geological disposal of nuclear fuel waste. The study involved extensive field investigations that included the drilling testing, sampling and monitoring of twenty deep boreholes distributed at detailed study areas across the region. The surface and borehole geotechnical investigations were used to construct a conceptual model of the main litho-structural features that controlled groundwater flow through the crystalline rocks of the region. Eighty-three large fracture zones and other spatial domains of moderately fractured and sparsely fractured rocks were represented in a finite element model of the area to simulate regional groundwater flow. The groundwater flow model was calibrated to match the observed groundwater recharge rate and the hydraulic heads measured in the network of deep boreholes. Particle tracking was used to determine the pathways and travel times from different depths in the velocity field of the calibrated groundwater flow model. The results were used to identify locations in the regional flow field that maximize the time it takes for groundwater to travel to surface discharge areas through long, slow groundwater pathways. One of these locations was chosen as a good hypothetical location for situating a nuclear fuel waste disposal vault at 750 m depth. (authors)

  11. Hydrogeological study of single water conducting fracture using a crosshole hydraulic test apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hajime; Shimo, Michito; Yamamoto, Takuya

    1998-03-01

    The Crosshole Injection Test Apparatus has been constructed to evaluate the hydraulic properties and conditions, such as hydraulic conductivity and its anisotropy, storage coefficient, pore pressure etc. within a rock near a drift. The construction started in FY93 and completed on August FY96 as a set of equipments for the use of crosshole hydraulic test, which is composed of one injection borehole instrument, one observation borehole instrument and a set of on-ground instrument. In FY96, in-situ feasibility test was conducted at a 550 m level drift in Kamaishi In Situ Test Site which has been operated by PNC, and the performance of the equipment and its applicability to various types of injection method were confirmed. In this year, a hydrogeological investigation on the single water conducting fracture was conducted at a 250 m level drift in Kamaishi In Situ Test Site, using two boreholes, KCH-3 and KCH-4, both of which are 30 m depth and inclined by 45 degrees from the surface. Pressure responses at the KCH-3 borehole during the drilling of KCH-4 borehole, the results of Borehole TV logging and core observation indicated that a major conductive single-fracture was successfully isolated by the packers. As a result of a series of the single-hole and the crosshole tests (sinusoidal and constant flowrate test), the hydraulic parameters of the single-fracture (such as hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient) were determined. This report shows all the test result, analysed data, and also describes the hydro-geological structure near the drift. (author)

  12. Seepage into drifts in unsaturated fractured rock at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, Jens; Li, Guomin; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Tsang, Yvonne

    1998-01-01

    An important issue for the long-term performance of underground nuclear waste repository is the rate of seepage into the waste emplacement drifts. A prediction of the future seepage rate is particularly complicated for the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as it is located in thick, partially saturated, fractured tuff formations. The long-term situation in the drifts several thousand years after waste emplacement will be characterized by a relative humidity level close to or equal to 100%, as the drifts will be sealed and unventilated, and the waste packages will have cooled. The underground tunnels will then act as capillary barriers for the unsaturated flow, ideally diverting water around them, if the capillary forces are stronger than gravity and viscous forces. Seepage into the drifts will only be possible if the hydraulic pressure in the rock close to the drift walls increases to positive values; i.e., the flow field becomes locally saturated. In the present work, they have developed and applied a methodology to study the potential rate of seepage into underground cavities embedded in a variably saturated, heterogeneous fractured rock formation. The fractured rock mass is represented as a stochastic continuum where the fracture permeabilities vary by several orders of magnitude. Three different realizations of random fracture permeability fields are generated, with the random permeability structure based on extensive fracture mapping, borehole video analysis, and in-situ air permeability testing. A 3-D numerical model is used to simulate the heterogeneous steady-state flow field around the drift, with the drift geometry explicitly represented within the numerical discretization grid. A variety of flow scenarios are considered assuming present-day and future climate conditions at Yucca Mountain. The numerical study is complemented by theoretical evaluations of the drift seepage problem, using stochastic perturbation theory to develop a better

  13. Monitoring Hydraulic Fracturing Using Ground-Based Controlled Source Electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, M. S.; Trevino, S., III; Everett, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing allows hydrocarbon production in low permeability formations. Imaging the distribution of fluid used to create a hydraulic fracture can aid in the characterization of fracture properties such as extent of plume penetration as well as fracture azimuth and symmetry. This could contribute to improving the efficiency of an operation, for example, in helping to determine ideal well spacing or the need to refracture a zone. A ground-based controlled-source electromagnetics (CSEM) technique is ideal for imaging the fluid due to the change in field caused by the difference in the conductive properties of the fluid when compared to the background. With advances in high signal to noise recording equipment, coupled with a high-power, broadband transmitter we can show hydraulic fracture extent and azimuth with minimal processing. A 3D finite element code is used to model the complete well casing along with the layered subsurface. This forward model is used to optimize the survey design and isolate the band of frequencies with the best response. In the field, the results of the modeling are also used to create a custom pseudorandom numeric (PRN) code to control the frequencies transmitted through a grounded dipole source. The receivers record the surface voltage across two grounded dipoles, one parallel and one perpendicular to the transmitter. The data are presented as the displays of amplitude ratios across several frequencies with the associated spatial information. In this presentation, we show multiple field results in multiple basins in the United States along with the CSEM theory used to create the survey designs.

  14. Ambient Seismic Imaging of Hydraulically Active Fractures at km Depths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, P. E.; Sicking, C.

    2017-12-01

    Streaming Depth Images of ambient seismic signals using numerous, densely-distributed, receivers have revealed their connection to hydraulically active fractures at 0.5 to 5 km depths. Key for this type of imaging is very high-fold stacking over both multiple receives and periods of a few hours. Also important is suppression of waveforms from fixed, repeating sources such as pumps, generators, and traffic. A typical surface-based ambient SDI survey would use a 3D seismic receiver grid. It would have 1,000 to 4,000 uniformly distributed receivers at a density of 50/km2over the target. If acquired by borehole receivers buried 100 m deep, the density can be dropped by an order of magnitude. We show examples of the acquisition and signal processing scenarios used to produce the ambient images. (Sicking et al., SEG Interpretation, Nov 2017.) While the fracture-fluid source connection of SDI has been verified by drilling and various types of hydraulic tests, the precise nature of the signal's origin is not clear. At the current level of observation, the signals do not have identifiable phases, but can be focused using P wave velocities. Suggested sources are resonances of pressures fluctuations in the fractures, or small, continuous, slips on fractures surfaces. In either case, it appears that the driving mechanism is tectonic strain in an inherently unstable crust. Solid earth tides may enhance these strains. We illustrate the value of the ambient SDI method in its industrial application by showing case histories from energy industry and carbon-capture-sequestration projects. These include ambient images taken before, during, and after hydraulic treatments in un-conventional reservoirs. The results show not only locations of active fractures, but also their time responses to stimulation and production. Time-lapse ambient imaging can forecast and track events such as well interferences and production changes that can result from nearby treatments.

  15. Numerical simulation of the heat extraction in EGS with thermal-hydraulic-mechanical coupling method based on discrete fractures model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhi-xue; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Yi; Yao, Jun; Wang, Hao-xuan; Lv, Shuhuan; Sun, Zhi-lei; Huang, Yong; Cai, Ming-yu; Huang, Xiaoxue

    2017-01-01

    The Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) creates an artificial geothermal reservoir by hydraulic fracturing which allows heat transmission through the fractures by the circulating fluids as they extract heat from Hot Dry Rock (HDR). The technique involves complex thermal–hydraulic–mechanical (THM) coupling process. A numerical approach is presented in this paper to simulate and analyze the heat extraction process in EGS. The reservoir is regarded as fractured porous media consisting of rock matrix blocks and discrete fracture networks. Based on thermal non-equilibrium theory, the mathematical model of THM coupling process in fractured rock mass is used. The proposed model is validated by comparing it with several analytical solutions. An EGS case from Cooper Basin, Australia is simulated with 2D stochastically generated fracture model to study the characteristics of fluid flow, heat transfer and mechanical response in geothermal reservoir. The main parameters controlling the outlet temperature of EGS are also studied by sensitivity analysis. The results shows the significance of taking into account the THM coupling effects when investigating the efficiency and performance of EGS. - Highlights: • EGS reservoir comprising discrete fracture networks and matrix rock is modeled. • A THM coupling model is proposed for simulating the heat extraction in EGS. • The numerical model is validated by comparing with several analytical solutions. • A case study is presented for understanding the main characteristics of EGS. • The THM coupling effects are shown to be significant factors to EGS's running performance.

  16. Complex Contact Angles Calculated from Capillary Rise Measurements on Rock Fracture Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, E.; Gates, C. H.; Brabazon, J. W.; Santodonato, L. J.; Dhiman, I.; Bilheux, H.; Bilheux, J. C.; Lokitz, B. S.

    2017-12-01

    Contact angles for fluids in unconventional reservoir rocks are needed for modeling hydraulic fracturing leakoff and subsequent oil and gas extraction. Contact angle measurements for wetting fluids on rocks are normally performed using polished flat surfaces. However, such prepared surfaces are not representative of natural rock fracture faces, which have been shown to be rough over multiple scales. We applied a variant of the Wilhelmy plate method for determining contact angle from the height of capillary rise on a vertical surface to the wetting of rock fracture faces by water in the presence of air. Cylindrical core samples (5.05 cm long x 2.54 cm diameter) of Mancos shale and 6 other rock types were investigated. Mode I fractures were created within the cores using the Brazilian method. Each fractured core was then separated into halves exposing the fracture faces. One fracture face from each rock type was oriented parallel to a collimated neutron beam in the CG-1D imaging instrument at ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor. Neutron radiography was performed using the multi-channel plate detector with a spatial resolution of 50 μm. Images were acquired every 60 s after a water reservoir contacted the base of the fracture face. The images were normalized to the initial dry condition so that the upward movement of water on the fracture face was clearly visible. The height of wetting at equilibrium was measured on the normalized images using ImageJ. Contact angles were also measured on polished flat surfaces using the conventional sessile drop method. Equilibrium capillary rise on the exposed fracture faces was up to 8.5 times greater than that predicted for polished flat surfaces from the sessile drop measurements. These results indicate that rock fracture faces are hyperhydrophilic (i.e., the height of capillary rise is greater than that predicted for a contact angle of zero degrees). The use of complex numbers permitted calculation of imaginary contact angles for

  17. CAPILLARY BARRIERS IN UNSATURATED FRACTURED ROCKS OF YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.S.; Zhang, W.; Pan, L.; Hinds, J.; Bodvarsson, G.

    2000-01-01

    This work presents modeling studies investigating the effects of capillary barriers on fluid-flow and tracer-transport processes in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a potential site for storing high-level radioactive waste. These studies are designed to identify factors controlling the formation of capillary barriers and to estimate their effects on the extent of possible large-scale lateral flow in unsaturated fracture rocks. The modeling approach is based on a continuum formulation of coupled multiphase fluid and tracer transport through fractured porous rock. Flow processes in fractured porous rock are described using a dual-continuum concept. In addition, approximate analytical solutions are developed and used for assessing capillary-barrier effects in fractured rocks. This study indicates that under the current hydrogeologic conceptualization of Yucca Mountain, strong capillary-barrier effects exist for significantly diverting moisture flow

  18. Increasing the production efficiency and reducing the environmental impacts of hydraulic fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, H. S.

    2016-12-01

    Shale gas is an unconventional fossil energy resource profoundly impacting US energy independence and is projected to last for at least 100 years. Production of methane and other hydrocarbons from low permeability shale involves hydraulic fracturing of rock, establishing fracture connectivity, and multiphase fluid-flow and reaction processes all of which are poorly understood. The result is inefficient extraction with many environmental concerns. A science-based capability is required to quantify the governing mesoscale fluid-solid interactions, including microstructural control of fracture patterns and the interaction of engineered fluids with hydrocarbon flow. These interactions depend on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes over scales from microns to tens of meters. Determining the key mechanisms in subsurface THMC systems has been impeded due to the lack of sophisticated experimental methods to measure fracture aperture and connectivity, multiphase permeability, and chemical exchange capacities at the high temperature, pressure, and stresses present in the subsurface. In this study, we developed and prototyped the microfluidic and triaxial core flood experiments required to reveal the fundamental dynamics of fracture-fluid interactions. The goal is transformation of hydraulic fracturing from present ad hoc approaches to science-based strategies while safely enhancing production. Specifically, we have demonstrated an integrated experimental/modeling approach that allows for a comprehensive characterization of fluid-solid interactions and develop models that can be used to determine the reservoir operating conditions necessary to gain a degree of control over fracture generation, fluid flow, and interfacial processes over a range of subsurface conditions.

  19. Numerical Simulation of the Propagation of Hydraulic and Natural Fracture Using Dijkstra’s Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of hydraulic-fracturing technology is dramatically increasing in exploitation of natural gas extraction. However the prediction of the configuration of propagated hydraulic fracture is extremely challenging. This paper presents a numerical method of obtaining the configuration of the propagated hydraulic fracture into discrete natural fracture network system. The method is developed on the basis of weighted fracture which is derived in combination of Dijkstra’s algorithm energy theory and vector method. Numerical results along with experimental data demonstrated that proposed method is capable of predicting the propagated hydraulic fracture configuration reasonably with high computation efficiency. Sensitivity analysis reveals a number of interesting observation results: the shortest path weight value decreases with increasing of fracture density and length, and increases with increasing of the angle between fractures to the maximum principal stress direction. Our method is helpful for evaluating the complexity of the discrete fracture network, to obtain the extension direction of the fracture.

  20. Hydraulic fracturing in cells and tissues: fracking meets cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Marino; Trepat, Xavier

    2017-02-01

    The animal body is largely made of water. A small fraction of body water is freely flowing in blood and lymph, but most of it is trapped in hydrogels such as the extracellular matrix (ECM), the cytoskeleton, and chromatin. Besides providing a medium for biological molecules to diffuse, water trapped in hydrogels plays a fundamental mechanical role. This role is well captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which explains how any deformation applied to a hydrogel causes pressure gradients and water flows, much like compressing a sponge squeezes water out of it. Here we review recent evidence that poroelastic pressures and flows can fracture essential biological barriers such as the nuclear envelope, the cellular cortex, and epithelial layers. This type of fracture is known in engineering literature as hydraulic fracturing or 'fracking'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Estimation of hydrologic properties of an unsaturated, fractured rock mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klavetter, E.A.; Peters, R.R.

    1986-07-01

    In this document, two distinctly different approaches are used to develop continuum models to evaluate water movement in a fractured rock mass. Both models provide methods for estimating rock-mass hydrologic properties. Comparisons made over a range of different tuff properties show good qualitative and quantitative agreement between estimates of rock-mass hydrologic properties made by the two models. This document presents a general discussion of: (1) the hydrology of Yucca Mountain, and the conceptual hydrological model currently being used for the Yucca Mountain site, (2) the development of two models that may be used to estimate the hydrologic properties of a fractured, porous rock mass, and (3) a comparison of the hydrologic properties estimated by these two models. Although the models were developed in response to hydrologic characterization requirements at Yucca Mountain, they can be applied to water movement in any fractured rock mass that satisfies the given assumptions

  2. Deep fracturation of granitic rock mass. Fracturation profonde des massifs rocheux granitiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bles, J L; Blanchin, R; Bonijoly, D; Dutartre, P; Feybesse, J L; Gros, Y; Landry, J; Martin, P

    1986-01-01

    This documentary study realized with the financial support of the European Communities and the CEA aims at the utilization of available data for the understanding of the evolution of natural fractures in granitic rocks from the surface to deep underground, in various feasibility studies dealing with radioactive wastes disposal. The Mont Blanc road tunnel, the EDF Arc-Isere gallerie, the Auriat deep borehole and the Pyrenean rock mass of Bassies are studied. In this study are more particularly analyzed the relationship between small fractures and large faults, evolution with depth of fracture density and direction, consequences of rock decompression and relationship between fracturation and groundwater.

  3. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Analysis of fracture networks based on the integration of structural and hydrogeological observations on different scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, P. [Geotechnical Inst. Ltd., Bern (Switzerland); Hermanson, Jan [Golder Associates, Stockholm (Sweden); Mazurek, M. [Univ. of Bern (Switzerland)

    2001-05-01

    Fracture networks at Aespoe have been studied for several rock types exhibiting different degrees of ductile and brittle deformation, as well as on different scales. Mesoscopic fault systems have been characterised and classified in an earlier report, this report focuses mainly on fracture networks derived on smaller scales, but also includes mesoscopic and larger scales. The TRUE-1 block has been selected for detailed structural analysis on a small scale due to the high density of relevant information. In addition to the data obtained from core materials, structural maps, BIP data and the results of hydro tests were synthesised to derive a conceptual structural model. The approach used to derive this conceptual model is based on the integration of deterministic structural evidence, probabilistic information and both upscaling and downscaling of observations and concepts derived on different scales. Twelve fracture networks mapped at different sites and scales and exhibiting various styles of tectonic deformation were analysed for fractal properties and structural and hydraulic interconnectedness. It was shown that these analysed fracture networks are not self-similar. An important result is the structural and hydraulic interconnectedness of fracture networks on all scales in the Aespoe rocks, which is further corroborated by geochemical evidence. Due to the structural and hydraulic interconnectedness of fracture systems on all scales at Aespoe, contaminants from waste canisters placed in tectonically low deformation environments would be transported - after having passed through the engineered barriers -from low-permeability fractures towards higher permeability fractures and may thus eventually reach high-permeability features.

  4. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. Analysis of fracture networks based on the integration of structural and hydrogeological observations on different scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossart, P.; Hermanson, Jan; Mazurek, M.

    2001-05-01

    Fracture networks at Aespoe have been studied for several rock types exhibiting different degrees of ductile and brittle deformation, as well as on different scales. Mesoscopic fault systems have been characterised and classified in an earlier report, this report focuses mainly on fracture networks derived on smaller scales, but also includes mesoscopic and larger scales. The TRUE-1 block has been selected for detailed structural analysis on a small scale due to the high density of relevant information. In addition to the data obtained from core materials, structural maps, BIP data and the results of hydro tests were synthesised to derive a conceptual structural model. The approach used to derive this conceptual model is based on the integration of deterministic structural evidence, probabilistic information and both upscaling and downscaling of observations and concepts derived on different scales. Twelve fracture networks mapped at different sites and scales and exhibiting various styles of tectonic deformation were analysed for fractal properties and structural and hydraulic interconnectedness. It was shown that these analysed fracture networks are not self-similar. An important result is the structural and hydraulic interconnectedness of fracture networks on all scales in the Aespoe rocks, which is further corroborated by geochemical evidence. Due to the structural and hydraulic interconnectedness of fracture systems on all scales at Aespoe, contaminants from waste canisters placed in tectonically low deformation environments would be transported - after having passed through the engineered barriers -from low-permeability fractures towards higher permeability fractures and may thus eventually reach high-permeability features

  5. Effects of fracture distribution and length scale on the equivalent continuum elastic compliance of fractured rock masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marte Gutierrez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fracture systems have strong influence on the overall mechanical behavior of fractured rock masses due to their relatively lower stiffness and shear strength than those of the rock matrix. Understanding the effects of fracture geometrical distribution, such as length, spacing, persistence and orientation, is important for quantifying the mechanical behavior of fractured rock masses. The relation between fracture geometry and the mechanical characteristics of the fractured rock mass is complicated due to the fact that the fracture geometry and mechanical behaviors of fractured rock mass are strongly dependent on the length scale. In this paper, a comprehensive study was conducted to determine the effects of fracture distribution on the equivalent continuum elastic compliance of fractured rock masses over a wide range of fracture lengths. To account for the stochastic nature of fracture distributions, three different simulation techniques involving Oda's elastic compliance tensor, Monte Carlo simulation (MCS, and suitable probability density functions (PDFs were employed to represent the elastic compliance of fractured rock masses. To yield geologically realistic results, parameters for defining fracture distributions were obtained from different geological fields. The influence of the key fracture parameters and their relations to the overall elastic behavior of the fractured rock mass were studied and discussed. A detailed study was also carried out to investigate the validity of the use of a representative element volume (REV in the equivalent continuum representation of fractured rock masses. A criterion was also proposed to determine the appropriate REV given the fracture distribution of the rock mass.

  6. Analysis of compressive fracture in rock using statistical techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, S.C.

    1994-12-01

    Fracture of rock in compression is analyzed using a field-theory model, and the processes of crack coalescence and fracture formation and the effect of grain-scale heterogeneities on macroscopic behavior of rock are studied. The model is based on observations of fracture in laboratory compression tests, and incorporates assumptions developed using fracture mechanics analysis of rock fracture. The model represents grains as discrete sites, and uses superposition of continuum and crack-interaction stresses to create cracks at these sites. The sites are also used to introduce local heterogeneity. Clusters of cracked sites can be analyzed using percolation theory. Stress-strain curves for simulated uniaxial tests were analyzed by studying the location of cracked sites, and partitioning of strain energy for selected intervals. Results show that the model implicitly predicts both development of shear-type fracture surfaces and a strength-vs-size relation that are similar to those observed for real rocks. Results of a parameter-sensitivity analysis indicate that heterogeneity in the local stresses, attributed to the shape and loading of individual grains, has a first-order effect on strength, and that increasing local stress heterogeneity lowers compressive strength following an inverse power law. Peak strength decreased with increasing lattice size and decreasing mean site strength, and was independent of site-strength distribution. A model for rock fracture based on a nearest-neighbor algorithm for stress redistribution is also presented and used to simulate laboratory compression tests, with promising results.

  7. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Rock Dynamic Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Mirmohammadlou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid development of engineering activities expands through a variety of rock engineering processes such as drilling, blasting, mining and mineral processing. These activities require rock dynamic fracture mechanics method to characterize the rock behavior. Dynamic fracture toughness is an important parameter for the analysis of engineering structures under dynamic loading. Several experimental methods are used for determination of dynamic fracture properties of materials. Among them, the Hopkinson pressure bar and the drop weight have been frequently used for rocks. On the other hand, numerical simulations are very useful in dynamic fracture studies. Among vast variety of numerical techniques, the powerful extended finite element method (XFEM enriches the finite element approximation with appropriate functions extracted from the fracture mechanics solution around a crack-tip. The main advantage of XFEM is its capability in modeling different on a fixed mesh, which can be generated without considering the existence of discontinuities. In this paper, first, the design of a drop weight test setup is presented. Afterwards, the experimental tests on igneous (basalt and calcareous (limestone rocks with single-edge-cracked bend specimen are discussed. Then, each experimental test is modeled with the XFEM code. Finally, the obtained experimental and numerical results are compared. The results indicate that the experimentally predicted dynamic fracture toughness has less than 8 percent difference with calculated dynamic fracture toughness from extended finite element method

  8. Views on the calculation of flow and dispersion processes in fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, Lennart

    1990-03-01

    In the report some basic aspects on model types, physical processes, determination of parameters are discussed in relation to a description of flow and dispersion processes in fractured rocks. As far as model types concern it is shown that Darcy's law and the dispersion equation are not especially applicable. These equations can only describe an average situation of flow and spreading while in reality very large deviations could exist between an average situation and the flow and concentration distribution for a certain fracture geometry. The reason for this is primarily the relation between the length scales for the repository and the near field and the fracture system respectively and the poor connectivity between fractures or expressed in another way - the geosphere can not be treated as a continuous medium. The statistical properties of the fractures and the fracture geometry cause large uncertainties in at least two respects: * boundary conditions as to groundwater flow at the repository and thus the mass flow of radioactive material * distribution of flows and concentrations in planes in the geosphere on different distances from the repository. A realistic evaluation of transport and spreading of radioactive material by the groundwater in the geosphere thus requires that the possible variation or uncertainty of the water conducting characteristics of the fracture system is considered. A possible approach is then to describe flow in the geosphere on the basic of the flow in single fractures which are hydraulically connected to each other so that a flow in a fracture system is obtained. The discussion on physical processes which might influence the flow description in single fractures is concentrated to three aspects - factors driving the flow besides the ordinary hydraulic gradient, the viscous properties of water in a very small space (such as a fracture), the influence on the flow of heat release from the repository. (42 figs., 28 refs.)

  9. Assessing the monitoring performance using a synthetic microseismic catalogue for hydraulic fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángel López Comino, José; Kriegerowski, Marius; Cesca, Simone; Dahm, Torsten; Mirek, Janusz; Lasocki, Stanislaw

    2016-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is considered among the human operations which could induce or trigger seismicity or microseismic activity. The influence of hydraulic fracturing operations is typically expected in terms of weak magnitude events. However, the sensitivity of the rock mass to trigger seismicity varies significantly for different sites and cannot be easily predicted prior to operations. In order to assess the sensitivity of microseismity to hydraulic fracturing operations, we perform a seismic monitoring at a shale gas exploration/exploitation site in the central-western part of the Peribaltic synclise at Pomerania (Poland). The monitoring will be continued before, during and after the termination of hydraulic fracturing operations. The fracking operations are planned in April 2016 at a depth 4000 m. A specific network setup has been installed since summer 2015, including a distributed network of broadband stations and three small-scale arrays. The network covers a region of 60 km2. The aperture of small scale arrays is between 450 and 950 m. So far no fracturing operations have been performed, but seismic data can already be used to assess the seismic noise and background microseismicity, and to investigate and assess the detection performance of our monitoring setup. Here we adopt a recently developed tool to generate a synthetic catalogue and waveform dataset, which realistically account for the expected microseismicity. Synthetic waveforms are generated for a local crustal model, considering a realistic distribution of hypocenters, magnitudes, moment tensors, and source durations. Noise free synthetic seismograms are superposed to real noise traces, to reproduce true monitoring conditions at the different station locations. We estimate the detection probability for different magnitudes, source-receiver distances, and noise conditions. This information is used to estimate the magnitude of completeness at the depth of the hydraulic fracturing horizontal wells

  10. 40 CFR 147.52 - State-administered program-Hydraulic Fracturing of Coal Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fracturing of Coal Beds. 147.52 Section 147.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... PROGRAMS Alabama § 147.52 State-administered program—Hydraulic Fracturing of Coal Beds. The UIC program for hydraulic fracturing of coal beds in the State of Alabama, except those on Indian lands, is the program...

  11. Coupled Modeling of Flow, Transport, and Deformation during Hydrodynamically Unstable Displacement in Fractured Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, B.; Juanes, R.

    2015-12-01

    Coupled processes of flow, transport, and deformation are important during production of hydrocarbons from oil and gas reservoirs. Effective design and implementation of enhanced recovery techniques such as miscible gas flooding and hydraulic fracturing requires modeling and simulation of these coupled proceses in geologic porous media. We develop a computational framework to model the coupled processes of flow, transport, and deformation in heterogeneous fractured rock. We show that the hydrocarbon recovery efficiency during unstable displacement of a more viscous oil with a less viscous fluid in a fractured medium depends on the mechanical state of the medium, which evolves due to permeability alteration within and around fractures. We show that fully accounting for the coupling between the physical processes results in estimates of the recovery efficiency in agreement with observations in field and lab experiments.

  12. Study of pore pressure reaction on hydraulic fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimonova, Mariia; Baryshnikov, Nikolay; Turuntaev, Sergey; Zenchenko, Evgeniy; Zenchenko, Petr

    2017-04-01

    We represent the results of the experimental study of the hydraulic fracture propagation influence on the fluid pore pressure. Initial pore pressure was induced by injection and production wells. The experiments were carried out according to scaling analysis based on the radial model of the fracture. All required geomechanical and hydrodynamical properties of a sample were derived from the scaling laws. So, gypsum was chosen as a sample material and vacuum oil as a fracturing fluid. The laboratory setup allows us to investigate the samples of cylindrical shape. It can be considered as an advantage in comparison with standard cubic samples, because we shouldn't consider the stress field inhomogeneity induced by the corners. Moreover, we can set 3D-loading by this setting. Also the sample diameter is big enough (43cm) for placing several wells: the fracturing well in the center and injection and production wells on two opposite sides of the central well. The experiment consisted of several stages: a) applying the horizontal pressure; b) applying the vertical pressure; c) water solution injection in the injection well with a constant pressure; d) the steady state obtaining; e) the oil injection in the central well with a constant rate. The pore pressure was recorded in the 15 points along bottom side of the sample during the whole experiment. We observe the pore pressure change during all the time of the experiment. First, the pore pressure changed due to water injection. Then we began to inject oil in the central well. We compared the obtained experimental data on the pore pressure changes with the solution of the 2D single-phase equation of pore-elasticity, and we found significant difference. The variation of the equation parameters couldn't help to resolve the discrepancy. After the experiment, we found that oil penetrated into the sample before and after the fracture initiation. This fact encouraged us to consider another physical process - the oil

  13. Modelling of excavation depth and fractures in rock caused by tool indentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kou Shaoquan; Tan Xiangchun; Lindqvist, P.A. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    The hydraulic regime after excavation in the near-field rock around deposition holes and deposition tunnels in a spent nuclear fuel repository is of concern for prediction of the saturation process of bentonite buffer and tunnel backfill. The hydraulic condition of main interest in this context is a result of the fracture network that is caused by the excavation. Modelling of the excavation disturbed zone in hard rocks caused by mechanical excavation has been carried out in the Division of Mining Engineering since 1993. This report contains an overview of the work conducted. The mechanical excavation is reasonably simplified as an indentation process of the interaction between rigid indenters and rocks. A large number of experiments have been carried out in the laboratory, and the results used for identifying crushed zones and fracture systems in rock under indentation are presented based on these experiments. The indentation causes crushing and damage of the rock and results in a crushed zone and a cracked zone. The indenter penetrates the rock with a certain depth when the force is over a threshold value relevant to the rock and tool. Outside the cracked zone there are basically three systems of cracks: median cracks, radial cracks, and side cracks. Fully developed radial cracks on each side of the indented area can connect with each other and join with median crack. This forms the so-called radial/median crack system. The influence of the mechanical properties of the rock is discussed based on our conceptual model, and the main factors governing the indentation event are summarised. The cracked zone is dealt with by an analytical fracture model. The side crack is simulated by applying the boundary element method coupled with fracture mechanics. Functional relationships are established relating either the indentation depth or the length of radial/median cracks to the various quantities characterising the physical event, namely the shape and the size of the

  14. Modelling of excavation depth and fractures in rock caused by tool indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou Shaoquan; Tan Xiangchun; Lindqvist, P.A.

    1997-10-01

    The hydraulic regime after excavation in the near-field rock around deposition holes and deposition tunnels in a spent nuclear fuel repository is of concern for prediction of the saturation process of bentonite buffer and tunnel backfill. The hydraulic condition of main interest in this context is a result of the fracture network that is caused by the excavation. Modelling of the excavation disturbed zone in hard rocks caused by mechanical excavation has been carried out in the Division of Mining Engineering since 1993. This report contains an overview of the work conducted. The mechanical excavation is reasonably simplified as an indentation process of the interaction between rigid indenters and rocks. A large number of experiments have been carried out in the laboratory, and the results used for identifying crushed zones and fracture systems in rock under indentation are presented based on these experiments. The indentation causes crushing and damage of the rock and results in a crushed zone and a cracked zone. The indenter penetrates the rock with a certain depth when the force is over a threshold value relevant to the rock and tool. Outside the cracked zone there are basically three systems of cracks: median cracks, radial cracks, and side cracks. Fully developed radial cracks on each side of the indented area can connect with each other and join with median crack. This forms the so-called radial/median crack system. The influence of the mechanical properties of the rock is discussed based on our conceptual model, and the main factors governing the indentation event are summarised. The cracked zone is dealt with by an analytical fracture model. The side crack is simulated by applying the boundary element method coupled with fracture mechanics. Functional relationships are established relating either the indentation depth or the length of radial/median cracks to the various quantities characterising the physical event, namely the shape and the size of the

  15. Solute transport in fractured rock - applications to radionuclide waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.

    1990-12-01

    Flow and solute transport in fractured rocks has been intensively studied in the last decade. The increased interest is mainly due to the plans in many countries to site repositories for high level nuclear waste in deep geologic formations. All investigated crystalline rocks have been found to be fractured and most of the water flows in the fractures and fracture zones. The water transports dissolved species and radionuclides. It is thus of interest to be able to understand and to do predictive modelling of the flowrate of water, the flowpaths and the residence times of the water and of the nuclides. The dissolved species including the nuclides will interact with the surrounding rock in different ways and will in many cases be strongly retarded relative to the water velocity. Ionic species may be ion exchanged or sorbed in the mineral surfaces. Charges and neutral species may diffuse into the stagnant waters in the rock matrix and thus be withdrawn from the mobile water. These effects will be strongly dependent on how much rock surface is in contact with the flowing water. It has been found in a set of field experiments and by other observations that not all fractures conduct water. Furthermore it is found that conductive fractures only conduct the water in a small part of the fracture in what is called channels or preferential flowpaths. This report summarizes the present concepts of water flow and solute transport in fractured rocks. The data needs for predictive modelling are discussed and both field and laboratory measurement which have been used to obtain data are described. Several large scale field experiments which have been specially designed to study flow and tracer transport in crystalline rocks are described. In many of the field experients new techniques have been developed and used. (81 refs.) (author)

  16. Identification of MHF (massive hydraulic fracturing) fracture planes and flow paths: A correlation of well log data with patterns in locations of induced seismicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreesen, D.; Malzahn, M.; Fehler, M.; Dash, Z.

    1987-01-01

    One of the critical steps in developing a hot dry rock geothermal system is the creation of flow paths through the rock between two wellbores. To date, circulation systems have only been created by drilling one wellbore, hydraulically fracturing the well (which induces microearthquakes), locating the microearthquakes and then drilling a second wellbore through the zone of seismicity. A technique for analyzing the pattern of seismicity to determine where fracture planes are located in the seismically active region has recently been developed. This allows us to distinguish portions of the seismically active volume which are most likely to contain significant flow paths. We applied this technique to seismic data collected during a massive hydraulic fracturing (MHF) treatment and found that the fracture planes determined by the seismic method are confirmed by borehole temperature and caliper logs which indicate where permeable fractures and/or zones of weakness intersect the wellbores. A geometric model based on these planes and well log data has enhanced our understanding of the reservoir flow paths created by fracturing and is consistent with results obtained during production testing of the reservoir.

  17. Fracturing process and effect of fracturing degree on wave velocity of a crystalline rock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalampos Saroglou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the effect of fracturing degree on P- and S-wave velocities in rock. The deformation of intact brittle rocks under loading conditions is characterized by a microcracking procedure, which occurs due to flaws in their microscopic structure and propagates through the intact rock, leading to shear fracture. This fracturing process is of fundamental significance as it affects the mechanical properties of the rock and hence the wave velocities. In order to determine the fracture mechanism and the effect of fracturing degree, samples were loaded at certain percentages of peak strength and ultrasonic wave velocity was recorded after every test. The fracturing degree was recorded on the outer surface of the sample and quantified by the use of the indices P10 (traces of joints/m, P20 (traces of joints/m2 and P21 (length of fractures/m2. It was concluded that the wave velocity decreases exponentially with increasing fracturing degree. Additionally, the fracturing degree is described adequately with the proposed indices. Finally, other parameters concerning the fracture characteristics, rock type and scale influence were found to contribute to the velocity decay and need to be investigated further.

  18. Healing of shear strength and its time dependency in a single rock fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Yuta; Nakashima, Shinichiro; Yasuhara, Hideaki; Kishida, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Evolution of the long-term mechanical, hydraulic, and transport characteristics of rock fractures should be, in advance, predicted in considering an issue on entombment of energy byproducts of high level radioactive wastes. Under stressed and temperature conditions, those behaviors of the rock fractures of interest may be evolved in time and space likely due to the change in topographical aperture distributions. This irreversible process may be induced by pure mechanical and/or chemo-mechanical creeps such as water-rock reactions like stress corrosion and pressure solution, and chemical effects including mineral dissolution and reprecipitation in the free-walls of fractures. Specifically, the chemo-mechanical processes active at the contacting asperities within rock fractures may exert a significant influence on the mechanical, hydraulic, and transport behaviors throughout a long period, and thus, should be vigorously examined theoretically and experimentally. This paper presents the slide-hold-slide shear test results for fully saturated, single-jointed mortar specimens so as to investigate the effects of load holding on mechanical properties of rock joints. From the test results, it was confirmed that shear strength increased for mortar specimens in both short and long time holding cases. However, the evolution of shear strength recovery in two cases is different. This is because a dominant factor of shear strength recovery during the short time holding may be attributed to a pure mechanical process like creep deformation at contacting asperities, while the one during long time holding is affected by both mechanical and chemical processes like pressure solution. Moreover, to reproduce the shear strength recovery during short time holding we develop a direct shear model by including temporal variation of dilation during holding. The model predictions are in relatively good agreement with the test measurements. (author)

  19. Stimuli Responsive/Rheoreversible Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids for Enhanced Geothermal Energy Production (Part I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, C. A.; Jung, H. B.; Shao, H.; Bonneville, A.; Heldebrant, D.; Hoyt, D.; Zhong, L.; Holladay, J.

    2014-12-01

    Cost-effective yet safe creation of high-permeability reservoirs inside deep crystalline bedrock is the primary challenge for the viability of enhanced geothermal systems and unconventional oil/gas recovery. Current reservoir stimulation processes utilize brute force (hydraulic pressures in the order of hundreds of bar) to create/propagate fractures in the bedrock. Such stimulation processes entail substantial economic costs ($3.3 million per reservoir as of 2011). Furthermore, the environmental impacts of reservoir stimulation are only recently being determined. Widespread concerns about the environmental contamination have resulted in a number of regulations for fracturing fluids advocating for greener fracturing processes. To reduce the costs and environmental impact of reservoir stimulation, we developed an environmentally friendly and recyclable hydraulic fracturing fluid that undergoes a controlled and large volume expansion with a simultaneous increase in viscosity triggered by CO2 at temperatures relevant for reservoir stimulation in Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). The volume expansion, which will specifically occurs at EGS depths of interest, generates an exceptionally large mechanical stress in fracture networks of highly impermeable rock propagating fractures at effective stress an order of magnitude lower than current technology. This paper will concentrate on the presentation of this CO2-triggered expanding hydrogel formed from diluted aqueous solutions of polyallylamine (PAA). Aqueous PAA-CO2 mixtures also show significantly higher viscosities than conventional rheology modifiers at similar pressures and temperatures due to the cross-linking reaction of PAA with CO2, which was demonstrated by chemical speciation studies using in situ HP-HT 13C MAS-NMR. In addtion, PAA shows shear-thinning behavior, a critical advantage for the use of this fluid system in EGS reservoir stimulation. The high pressure/temperature experiments and their results as well

  20. Laboratory investigations into fracture propagation characteristics of rock material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, B. N. V. Siva; Murthy, V. M. S. R.

    2018-04-01

    After Industrial Revolution, demand of materials for building up structures have increased enormously. Unfortunately, failures of such structures resulted in loss of life and property. Rock is anisotropic and discontinuous in nature with inherent flaws or so-called discontinuities in it. Rock is apparently used for construction in mining, civil, tunnelling, hydropower, geothermal and nuclear sectors [1]. Therefore, the strength of the structure built up considering rockmass as the construction material needs proper technical evaluation during designing stage itself to prevent and predict the scenarios of catastrophic failures due to these inherent fractures [2]. In this study, samples collected from nine different drilling sites have been investigated in laboratory for understanding the fracture propagation characteristics in rock. Rock material properties, ultrasonic velocities through pulse transmission technique and Mode I Fracture Toughness Testing of different variants of Dolomites and Graywackes are determined in laboratory and the resistance of the rock material to catastrophic crack extension or propagation has been determined. Based on the Fracture Toughness values and the rock properties, critical Energy Release Rates have been estimated. However further studies in this direction is to be carried out to understand the fracture propagation characteristics in three-dimensional space.

  1. Investigated conductive fracture in the granitic rocks by flow-meter logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogata, Nobuhisa; Koide, Kaoru; Takeichi, Atsushi

    1997-01-01

    Test of the use of a measurement technique for the hydraulic conductivity of geological structures which act as flow paths or are impermeable to groundwater flow. In order to prove the value of flow-meter logging as an in-situ technique for detecting conductive fractures in granitic rocks, the method has been applied to a borehole near the Tono uranium mine, Gifu, Japan. This study in involved with detecting a conductive fracture and calculating the hydraulic conductivities. The results were as follows: (1) In a zone of groundwater inflow into the borehole, the hydraulic conductivity was calculated to be of the order of the 10 -3 - 10 -4 (cm/sec) from flow-meter logging. This value agreed with the results of a in-situ borehole permeability test carried out with a similar depth interval. (2) The study showed that flow-meter logging is effective for detecting the distribution of high conductivity fractures and calculating the hydraulic conductivity. (author)

  2. A study on the ground water flow and hydrogeochemical interaction in fractured rock masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Jong Sung; Kim, Chun Soo; Yoon, Si Tae; Kim, Sun Joon; Chung, Chan Ho; Kim, Gye Nam

    1991-01-01

    A study site, the Precambrian gneiss complex in the vincinity of Chungyang has been investigated by geologic surface mapping, tunnel mapping and core drilling with chemical analysis and microscopic observation of rock samples and fracture filling materials. Four boreholes at depths between 50 and 200m were drilled. They are located in a potential fracture zone, which was selected based on the topographic characterisitcs and the fracture survey data. The hydraulic characteristics are described based on the results of constant pressure injection test and cross hole test. In the single hole test, the test sections varied between 1 and 5 m. The hydraulic conductivity of local fracture zones ranges from 1xlO -5 to lxlO -7 m/sec whereas that of the intact rock within the depth of 50 m is in the range of 7xlO -8 to 8xlO -9 m/sec. The field dispersivity values obtained from an injection phase range from 0.15 to 4.5 m at varying depths. The whole thickness dispersivity on the 18 m section obtained from a withdrawal phase is 0.4 m. The dispersion test in two well non-circulation mode was carried out along a single fracture set at depth between 11.5-14.5m. The longitudinal dispersivity obtained from the two well test is 8.14 m. The identified minerals of host rocks are quartz, K-feldspar,plagioclase, biotite, muscovite, sericite, chlorite, calcite, pyrite, zircon and opaque minerals. The primary minerals such as feldspar and biotite are highly altered into sericite and chlorite respectively. The fracture-filling materials from core samples identified by as calcite, kaolinite, smectite, chlorite, illitite, quartz, pyrite with fe- and Mn-oxides. (Author)

  3. Evaluation of Low or High Permeability of Fractured Rock using Well Head Losses from Step-Drawdown Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Woo; Kim, Geon Young; Koh, Yong Kwon; Kim, Hyoung Soo

    2012-01-01

    The equation of the step-drawdown test 's w = BQ+CQ p ' written by Rorabaugh (1953) is suitable for drawdown increased non-linearly in the fractured rocks. It was found that value of root mean square error (RMSE) between observed and calculated drawdowns was very low. The calculated C (well head loss coefficient) and P (well head loss exponent) value of well head losses (CQ p ) ranged 3.689 x 10 -19 - 5.825 x 10 -7 and 3.459 - 8.290, respectively. It appeared that the deeper depth in pumping well the larger drawdowns due to pumping rate increase. The well head loss in the fractured rocks, unlike that in porous media, is affected by properties of fractures (fractures of aperture, spacing, and connection) around pumping well. The C and P value in the well head loss is very important to interpret turbulence interval and properties of high or low permeability of fractured rock. As a result, regression analysis of C and P value in the well head losses identified the relationship of turbulence interval and hydraulic properties. The relationship between C and P value turned out very useful to interpret hydraulic properties of the fractured rocks.

  4. Bioremediation in fractured rock: 1. Modeling to inform design, monitoring, and expectations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedeman, Claire; Shapiro, Allen M.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas; Goode, Daniel J.; Lacombe, Pierre; DeFlaun, Mary F.; Drew, Scott R.; Johnson, Carole D.; Williams, John H.; Curtis, Gary P.

    2018-01-01

    Field characterization of a trichloroethene (TCE) source area in fractured mudstones produced a detailed understanding of the geology, contaminant distribution in fractures and the rock matrix, and hydraulic and transport properties. Groundwater flow and chemical transport modeling that synthesized the field characterization information proved critical for designing bioremediation of the source area. The planned bioremediation involved injecting emulsified vegetable oil and bacteria to enhance the naturally occurring biodegradation of TCE. The flow and transport modeling showed that injection will spread amendments widely over a zone of lower‐permeability fractures, with long residence times expected because of small velocities after injection and sorption of emulsified vegetable oil onto solids. Amendments transported out of this zone will be diluted by groundwater flux from other areas, limiting bioremediation effectiveness downgradient. At nearby pumping wells, further dilution is expected to make bioremediation effects undetectable in the pumped water. The results emphasize that in fracture‐dominated flow regimes, the extent of injected amendments cannot be conceptualized using simple homogeneous models of groundwater flow commonly adopted to design injections in unconsolidated porous media (e.g., radial diverging or dipole flow regimes). Instead, it is important to synthesize site characterization information using a groundwater flow model that includes discrete features representing high‐ and low‐permeability fractures. This type of model accounts for the highly heterogeneous hydraulic conductivity and groundwater fluxes in fractured‐rock aquifers, and facilitates designing injection strategies that target specific volumes of the aquifer and maximize the distribution of amendments over these volumes.

  5. Fracturing Fluid Leak-off for Deep Volcanic Rock in Zhungeer Basin: Mechanism and Control Method

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Bo; Cheng Hao; He Yidong; Fu Yanming

    2017-01-01

    The deep volcanic reservoir in Zhungeer Basin is buried in over 4000m depth, which is characterized by complex lithology (breccia, andesite, basalt, etc.), high elastic modulus and massive natural fractures. During hydraulic fracturing, hydraulic fracture will propagate and natural fractures will be triggered by the increasing net pressure. However, the extension of fractures, especially natural fractures, would aggravate the leak-off effect of fracturing fluid, and consequently decrease the ...

  6. Analysis of hydromechanical well tests in fractured sedimentary rock at the NAWC site, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, L.C.; Hisz, D.B.; Ebenhack, J.F.; Fowler, D.E.; Tiedeman, C.R.; Germanovich, L.N.

    2009-01-01

    Hydromechanical well tests involve measuring and interpreting displacements along with hydraulic heads that result when a hydraulic stress is applied to a well. The motivation behind this type of test is that the displacement measurements provide information about the constitutive properties and structure of the aquifer that go beyond what can be derived from pressure signals alone. We used a borehole extensometer to measure transient displacements with a resolution of +/- 25 nm during well tests in fractured mudstone and sandstone at the former Naval Air Warfare Center in West Trenton, New Jersey. One well showed opening displacements on the order of 300nm during slug tests with maximum head changes of 7 m. Inversion of the transient signals suggest that a conductive fracture (aperture = 380 ??m, normal stiffness = 8??10 8 Pa/m) was largely responsible for the pressure signal, but the displacement signal appears to have resulted from both the fracture and deformation of the enveloping sandstone (E = 5 GPa, permeability = 0.6 md). At another well, an anomalous but repeatable signal was characterized by closing displacements during increasing pressure. This displacement signal can be explained by a hydraulically active fracture below the extensometer that became pressurized and compressed the overly sediments. Poroelastic theoretical analyses were inverted to estimate parameters and verify interpretations. Copyright 2009 ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association.

  7. Seismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing: techniques for determining fluid flow paths and state of stress away from a wellbore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehler, M.; House, L.; Kaieda, H.

    1986-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has gained in popularity in recent years as a way to determine the orientations and magnitudes of tectonic stresses. By augmenting conventional hydraulic fracturing measurements with detection and mapping of the microearthquakes induced by fracturing, we can supplement and idependently confirm information obtained from conventional analysis. Important information obtained from seismic monitoring includes: the state of stress of the rock, orientation and spacing of the major joint sets, and measurements of rock elastic parameters at locations distant from the wellbore. While conventional well logging operations can provide information about several of these parameters, the zone of interrogation is usually limited to the immediate proximity of the borehole. The seismic waveforms of the microearthquakes contain a wealth of information about the rock in regions that are otherwise inaccessible for study. By reliably locating the hypocenters of many microearthquakes, we have inferred the joint patterns in the rock. We observed that microearthquake locations do not define a simple, thin, planar distribution, that the fault plane solutions are consistent with shear slippage, and that spectral analysis indicates that the source dimensions and slip along the faults are small. Hence we believe that the microearthquakes result from slip along preexisting joints, and not from tensile extension at the tip of the fracture. Orientations of the principal stresses can be estimated by using fault plane solutions of the larger microearthquakes. By using a joint earthquake location scheme, and/or calibrations with downhole detonators, rock velocities and heterogeneities thereof can be investigated in rock volumes that are far enough from the borehole to be representative of intrincis rock properties.

  8. Numerical simulations of seepage flow in rough single rock fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingang Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the relationship between the structural characteristics and seepage flow behavior of rough single rock fractures, a set of single fracture physical models were produced using the Weierstrass–Mandelbrot functions to test the seepage flow performance. Six single fractures, with various surface roughnesses characterized by fractal dimensions, were built using COMSOL multiphysics software. The fluid flow behavior through the rough fractures and the influences of the rough surfaces on the fluid flow behavior was then monitored. The numerical simulation indicates that there is a linear relationship between the average flow velocity over the entire flow path and the fractal dimension of the rough surface. It is shown that there is good a agreement between the numerical results and the experimental data in terms of the properties of the fluid flowing through the rough single rock fractures.

  9. Hydromechanical coupling in fractured rock masses: mechanisms and processes of selected case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangerl, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Hydromechanical (HM) coupling in fractured rock play an important role when events including dam failures, landslides, surface subsidences due to water withdrawal or drainage, injection-induced earthquakes and others are analysed. Generally, hydromechanical coupling occurs when a rock mass contain interconnected pores and fractures which are filled with water and pore/fracture pressures evolves. In the on hand changes in the fluid pressure can lead to stress changes, deformations and failures of the rock mass. In the other hand rock mass stress changes and deformations can alter the hydraulic properties and fluid pressures of the rock mass. Herein well documented case studies focussing on surface subsidence due to water withdrawal, reversible deformations of large-scale valley flanks and failure as well as deformation processes of deep-seated rock slides in fractured rock masses are presented. Due to pore pressure variations HM coupling can lead to predominantly reversible rock mass deformations. Such processes can be considered by the theory of poroelasticity. Surface subsidence reaching magnitudes of few centimetres and are caused by water drainage into deep tunnels are phenomenas which can be assigned to processes of poroelasticity. Recently, particular focus was given on large tunnelling projects to monitor and predict surface subsidence in fractured rock mass in oder to avoid damage of surface structures such as dams of large reservoirs. It was found that surface subsidence due to tunnel drainage can adversely effect infrastructure when pore pressure drawdown is sufficiently large and spatially extended and differential displacements which can be amplified due to topographical effects e.g. valley closure are occurring. Reversible surface deformations were also ascertained on large mountain slopes and summits with the help of precise deformation measurements i.e. permanent GPS or episodic levelling/tacheometric methods. These reversible deformations are often

  10. Simulations of hydraulic fracturing and leakage in sedimentary basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lothe, Ane Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing and leakage of water through the caprock is described from sedimentary basin over geological time scale. Abnormal pressure accumulations reduce the effective stresses in the underground and trigger the initiation of hydraulic fractures. The major faults in the basin define these pressure compartments. In this Thesis, basin simulations of hydraulic fracturing and leakage have been carried out. A simulator (Pressim) is used to calculate pressure generation and dissipitation between the compartments. The flux between the compartments and not the flow within the compartments is modelled. The Griffith-Coulomb failure criterion determines initial failure at the top structures of overpressured compartments, whereas the frictional sliding criterion is used for reactivation along the same fractures. The minimum horizontal stress is determined from different formulas, and an empirical one seems to give good results compared to measured pressures and minimum horizontal stresses. Simulations have been carried out on two datasets; one covering the Halten Terrace area and one the Tune Field area in the northern North Sea. The timing of hydraulic fracturing and amount of leakage has been quantified in the studies from the Halten Terrace area. This is mainly controlled by the lateral fluid flow and the permeability of the major faults in the basin. Low fault permeability gives early failure, while high fault permeabilities results in no or late hydraulic fracturing and leakage from overpressured parts of the basin. In addition to varying the transmissibility of all faults in a basin, the transmissibility across individual faults can be varied. Increasing the transmissibility across faults is of major importance in overpressured to intermediately pressured areas. However, to obtain change in the flow, a certain pressure difference has to be the situation between the different compartments. The coefficient of internal friction and the coefficient of frictional

  11. kISMET: Stress analysis and intermediate-scale hydraulic fracturing at the Sanford Underground Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, P. F.; Oldenburg, C. M.; Wu, Y.; Cook, P. J.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Nakagawa, S.; Ulrich, C.; Siler, D. L.; Guglielmi, Y.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.; Rutqvist, J.; Daley, T. M.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Wang, H. F.; Lord, N.; Haimson, B. C.; Sone, H.; Vigilante, P.; Roggenthen, W.; Doe, T.; Lee, M.; Ingraham, M. D.; Huang, H.; Mattson, E.; Johnson, T. C.; Zhou, J.; Zoback, M. D.; Morris, J.; White, J. A.; Johnson, P. A.; Coblentz, D. D.; Heise, J.

    2017-12-01

    In 2015, we established a field test facility at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF), and in 2016 we carried out in situ hydraulic fracturing experiments to characterize the stress field, understand the effects of crystalline rock fabric on fracturing, and gain experience in monitoring using geophysical methods. The kISMET (permeability (k) and Induced Seismicity Management for Energy Technologies) project test site was established in the West Access Drift at the 4850 ft level, 1478 m below ground in phyllite of the Precambrian Poorman Formation. The kISMET team drilled and cored five near-vertical boreholes in a line on 3 m spacing, deviating the two outermost boreholes slightly to create a five-spot pattern around the test borehole centered in the test volume 40 m below the drift invert (floor) at a total depth of 1518 m. Laboratory measurements of core from the center test borehole showed P-wave velocity heterogeneity along each core indicating strong, fine-scale ( 1 cm or smaller) changes in the mechanical properties of the rock. Tensile strength ranges between 3‒7.5 MPa and 5‒12 MPa. Pre-fracturing numerical simulations with a discrete element code were carried out to predict fracture size and magnitude of microseismicity. Field measurements of the stress field were made using hydraulic fracturing, which produced remarkably uniformly oriented fractures suggesting rock fabric did not play a significant role in controlling fracture orientation. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and continuous active seismic source monitoring (CASSM) were deployed in the four monitoring boreholes, and passive seismic accelerometer-based measurements in the West Access Drift were carried out during the generation of a larger fracture (so-called stimulation test). ERT was not able to detect the fracture created, nor did the accelerometers in the drift, but microseismicity was detected for the first (deepest) hydraulic-fracturing stress measurement. Analytical

  12. IMPACT OF ROCK HARDNESS ON FRAGMENTATION BY HYDRAULIC HAMMER AND CRUSHING IN JAW CRUSHER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trpimir Kujundžić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The physical and mechanical characteristics of intact rocks depend on the way of their formation, sustained deformations and the process of wearing a specific rock has been exposed to. These characteristics have a rather high influence on the technological process of extraction and dressing of mineral raw materials. However, the mechanical characteristics of rocks due to use of explosives for their extraction in the open pit have a more significant impact. The rock blocks extracted by blasting which are larger than the opening of the primary crusher are usually fragmented by hydraulic hammer. The paper presents the results of the testing of impact of rock hardness on fragmentation of rocks by means of hydraulic hammer and during crushing in jaw crusher. The testing was carried out on the rock samples from five quarries. According to the obtained results the hardness has a considerably larger impact on the fragmentation energy by hydraulic hammer than on the crushing energy in jaw crusher.

  13. Diffusivity and electrical resistivity measurements in rock matrix around fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpulainen, H.; Uusheimo, K.

    1989-12-01

    Microfracturing of rock matrix around permeable fractures was studied experimentally from drill core samples around major fractures. The methods used were diffusion measurements using a 36 Cl-tracer and electrical resistivity measurements. Rock samples were from the Romuvaara investigation site, the granite specimen around a partially filled carbonate fracture (KR4/333 m) and gneiss specimen around a slickenside fracture (KR1/645 m). A consistent difference of one to two orders of magnitude in the levels of the methods with regard to the effective diffusion coefficients for Cl - -ion was found, the electrical resistivity measurement giving higher values. On the basis of the diffusion measurements the diffusion porosities could be calculated but these remained one to two orders of magnitude lower than that expected for granitic rocks using the water saturation method. A possible reason for these differences could have been the low, in some cases 0.004 M NaC1-concentration in the diffusion experiments vs. the 1 M NaCl-concentration used in the electrical resistivity measurements. Due to the small number of specimens and cross sectional areas of only 2 cm 2 , rock inhomogeneity effects were significant making the interpretation of the results somewhat troublesome. Porosities on fracture surfaces seemed to be higher than in the deeper, more intact rock matrix

  14. Impact of Petrophysical Properties on Hydraulic Fracturing and Development in Tight Volcanic Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinghao Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The volcanic reservoir is an important kind of unconventional reservoir. The aqueous phase trapping (APT appears because of fracturing fluids filtration. However, APT can be autoremoved for some wells after certain shut-in time. But there is significant distinction for different reservoirs. Experiments were performed to study the petrophysical properties of a volcanic reservoir and the spontaneous imbibition is monitored by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and pulse-decay permeability. Results showed that natural cracks appear in the samples as well as high irreducible water saturation. There is a quick decrease of rock permeability once the rock contacts water. The pores filled during spontaneous imbibition are mainly the nanopores from NMR spectra. Full understanding of the mineralogical effect and sample heterogeneity benefits the selection of segments to fracturing. The fast flow-back scheme is applicable in this reservoir to minimize the damage. Because lots of water imbibed into the nanopores, the main flow channels become larger, which are beneficial to the permeability recovery after flow-back of hydraulic fracturing. This is helpful in understanding the APT autoremoval after certain shut-in time. Also, Keeping the appropriate production differential pressure is very important in achieving the long term efficient development of volcanic gas reservoirs.

  15. Anisotropy of strength and deformability of fractured rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Noorian Bidgoli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anisotropy of the strength and deformation behaviors of fractured rock masses is a crucial issue for design and stability assessments of rock engineering structures, due mainly to the non-uniform and non-regular geometries of the fracture systems. However, no adequate efforts have been made to study this issue due to the current practical impossibility of laboratory tests with samples of large volumes containing many fractures, and the difficulty for controlling reliable initial and boundary conditions for large-scale in situ tests. Therefore, a reliable numerical predicting approach for evaluating anisotropy of fractured rock masses is needed. The objective of this study is to systematically investigate anisotropy of strength and deformability of fractured rocks, which has not been conducted in the past, using a numerical modeling method. A series of realistic two-dimensional (2D discrete fracture network (DFN models were established based on site investigation data, which were then loaded in different directions, using the code UDEC of discrete element method (DEM, with changing confining pressures. Numerical results show that strength envelopes and elastic deformability parameters of tested numerical models are significantly anisotropic, and vary with changing axial loading and confining pressures. The results indicate that for design and safety assessments of rock engineering projects, the directional variations of strength and deformability of the fractured rock mass concerned must be treated properly with respect to the directions of in situ stresses. Traditional practice for simply positioning axial orientation of tunnels in association with principal stress directions only may not be adequate for safety requirements. Outstanding issues of the present study and suggestions for future study are also presented.

  16. Transient diffusion from a waste solid into fractured porous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, J.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    Previous analytical studies of the advective transport of dissolved contaminants through fractured rock have emphasized the effect of molecular diffusion in the rock matrix in affecting the space-time-dependent concentration of the contaminant as it moves along the fracture. Matrix diffusion only in the direction normal to the fracture surface was assumed. Contaminant sources were constant-concentration surfaces of width equal to the fracture aperture and of finite or infinite extent in the transverse direction. Such studies illustrate the far-field transport features of fractured media. To predict the time-dependent mass transfer from a long waste cylinder surrounded by porous rock and intersected by a fracture, the present study includes diffusion from the waste surface directly into porous rock, as well as the more realistic geometry. Here the authors present numerical results from Chambre's analytical solution for the time-dependent mass transfer from the cylinder for the low-flow conditions wherein near-field mass transfer is expected to be controlled by molecular diffusion

  17. Hydraulic Fracturing and Production Optimization in Eagle Ford Shale Using Coupled Geomechanics and Fluid Flow Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppachoknirun, Theerapat; Tutuncu, Azra N.

    2017-12-01

    With increasing production from shale gas and tight oil reservoirs, horizontal drilling and multistage hydraulic fracturing processes have become a routine procedure in unconventional field development efforts. Natural fractures play a critical role in hydraulic fracture growth, subsequently affecting stimulated reservoir volume and the production efficiency. Moreover, the existing fractures can also contribute to the pressure-dependent fluid leak-off during the operations. Hence, a reliable identification of the discrete fracture network covering the zone of interest prior to the hydraulic fracturing design needs to be incorporated into the hydraulic fracturing and reservoir simulations for realistic representation of the in situ reservoir conditions. In this research study, an integrated 3-D fracture and fluid flow model have been developed using a new approach to simulate the fluid flow and deliver reliable production forecasting in naturally fractured and hydraulically stimulated tight reservoirs. The model was created with three key modules. A complex 3-D discrete fracture network model introduces realistic natural fracture geometry with the associated fractured reservoir characteristics. A hydraulic fracturing model is created utilizing the discrete fracture network for simulation of the hydraulic fracture and flow in the complex discrete fracture network. Finally, a reservoir model with the production grid system is used allowing the user to efficiently perform the fluid flow simulation in tight formations with complex fracture networks. The complex discrete natural fracture model, the integrated discrete fracture model for the hydraulic fracturing, the fluid flow model, and the input dataset have been validated against microseismic fracture mapping and commingled production data obtained from a well pad with three horizontal production wells located in the Eagle Ford oil window in south Texas. Two other fracturing geometries were also evaluated to optimize

  18. Status of the art: hydraulic conductivity of acid- fractures; Condutividade hidraulica de fratura acida: estado da arte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Valdo Ferreira [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LENEP/UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencia e Tecnologia. Lab. de Engenharia e Exploracao de Petroleo; Campos, Wellington [PETROBRAS, RJ (Brazil). E and P Engenharia de Producao. Gerencia de Completacao e Avaliacao], e-mail: wcampos@petrobras.com.br

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents a review of the hydraulic conductivity models developed for acid fractures in almost four decades of studies in petroleum engineering. These studies have often benefited from theories and experiments carried out in areas of knowledge such as physics, geology, hydrology, fluid mechanics, rock mechanics and tribology. The review showed that the pioneer study of Nierode and Kruk (1973) is still used in commercial software and influences the current studies. There was significant evolution on the quantitative surface topography characterization of the fractures and their impact on the hydraulic conductivity. The same occurred for the effects of acid dissolution on the rock resistance. Improvements on correlations similar to the Nierode and Kruk can be applied at once on the acid fracturing project and evaluation practice for the cases of rough dissolution pattern. A method to consider the overall conductivity from heterogeneous channels and roughness pattern was recently proposed. The complexity of the theoretical fundaments, specially the range of validity of the equations in face of the simplifications assumed, the difficulty of performing representative laboratory and field experiments, the difficulty of characterizing quantitatively the fractures surface topography and its effects on the conductivity, and the large variety of rocks and acid systems keep this subject open for research. (author)

  19. Permeability and Dispersion Coefficients in Rocks with Fracture Network - 12140

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.K.; Htway, M.Z. [Handong Global University, 3 Namsong-ri, Heunghae-eub, Buk-gu, Pohang, Kyungbuk, 791-708 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, S.P. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O.Box 150, Yusong, Daejon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    Fluid flow and solute transport are considered for a rock medium with a fracture network with regard to the effective permeability and the dispersion coefficients. To investigate the effects of individual fractures a three-fracture system is chosen in which two are parallel and the third one connects the two at different angles. Specifically the micro-cell boundary-value problems(defined through multiple scale analysis) are solved numerically by using finite elements to calculate the permeability and dispersion coefficients. It is shown that the permeability depends significantly on the pattern of the fracture distribution and the dispersion coefficient is influenced by both the externally imposed pressure gradient (which also reflects the flow field) and the direction of the gradient of solute concentration on the macro-scale. From the calculations of the permeability and dispersion coefficients for solute in a rock medium with a fracture network the following conclusions are drawn. 1. The permeability of fractured medium depends on the primary orientation of the fracture network and is influenced by the connecting fractures in the medium. 2. The cross permeability, e.g., permeability in the direction normal to the direction of the external pressure gradient is rather insensitive to the orientation of the fracture network. 3. Calculation of permeability is most efficiently achieved with optimal discretization across individual fractures and is rather insensitive to the discretization along the fracture.. 4. The longitudinal dispersion coefficient Dxx of a fractured medium depends on both the macro-scale concentration gradient and the direction of the flow (pressure gradient). Hence both features must be considered when investigating solute transport in a fractured medium. (authors)

  20. Numerical Simulation of Hydraulic Fracture Propagation Guided by Single Radial Boreholes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiankui Guo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Conventional hydraulic fracturing is not effective in target oil development zones with available wellbores located in the azimuth of the non-maximum horizontal in-situ stress. To some extent, we think that the radial hydraulic jet drilling has the function of guiding hydraulic fracture propagation direction and promoting deep penetration, but this notion currently lacks an effective theoretical support for fracture propagation. In order to verify the technology, a 3D extended finite element numerical model of hydraulic fracturing promoted by the single radial borehole was established, and the influences of nine factors on propagation of hydraulic fracture guided by the single radial borehole were comprehensively analyzed. Moreover, the term ‘Guidance factor (Gf’ was introduced for the first time to effectively quantify the radial borehole guidance. The guidance of nine factors was evaluated through gray correlation analysis. The experimental results were consistent with the numerical simulation results to a certain extent. The study provides theoretical evidence for the artificial control technology of directional propagation of hydraulic fracture promoted by the single radial borehole, and it predicts the guidance effect of a single radial borehole on hydraulic fracture to a certain extent, which is helpful for planning well-completion and fracturing operation parameters in radial borehole-promoted hydraulic fracturing technology.

  1. Impacts on water quality by hydraulic fracturing in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, B.; Stute, M.; Chillrud, S. N.; Ross, J. M.; Howarth, M.; Panettieri, R.; Saberi, P.

    2015-12-01

    Shale gas development, including drilling and hydraulic fracturing, is rapidly increasing throughout the United States and, indeed, the rest of the world. Systematic surveys of water quality both pre- and post drilling/production are sparse. To examine the impacts of shale gas production on water quality, pilot studies have been conducted in adjacent counties of western NY (Chemung, Tioga, Broome, and Delaware) and northern PA (Bradford, Susquehanna, and Wayne). These 7 counties along the border of NY and PA share similar geology and demographic compositions and have been identified as a key area to develop shale gas with the key difference that active fracking is occurring in PA but there is no fracking yet in NY. Measurements include a suite of major and trace elements, methane and its stable isotopes, noble gases and tritium for dating purposes, and the primary radioactive elements of potential concern, radon and radium. We found elevated methane levels on both sides of the border. Higher levels of major ions were observed in PA samples close to the gas wells in the valley, possibly from hydraulic fracturing activities. The lab analysis of samples collected in recently launched 100 Bottom Project is ongoing and the results will be presented in this conference.

  2. Prediction of Fracture Behavior in Rock and Rock-like Materials Using Discrete Element Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaga, T.; Young, P.

    2009-05-01

    The study of fracture initiation and propagation in heterogeneous materials such as rock and rock-like materials are of principal interest in the field of rock mechanics and rock engineering. It is crucial to study and investigate failure prediction and safety measures in civil and mining structures. Our work offers a practical approach to predict fracture behaviour using discrete element models. In this approach, the microstructures of materials are presented through the combination of clusters of bonded particles with different inter-cluster particle and bond properties, and intra-cluster bond properties. The geometry of clusters is transferred from information available from thin sections, computed tomography (CT) images and other visual presentation of the modeled material using customized AutoCAD built-in dialog- based Visual Basic Application. Exact microstructures of the tested sample, including fractures, faults, inclusions and void spaces can be duplicated in the discrete element models. Although the microstructural fabrics of rocks and rock-like structures may have different scale, fracture formation and propagation through these materials are alike and will follow similar mechanics. Synthetic material provides an excellent condition for validating the modelling approaches, as fracture behaviours are known with the well-defined composite's properties. Calibration of the macro-properties of matrix material and inclusions (aggregates), were followed with the overall mechanical material responses calibration by adjusting the interfacial properties. The discrete element model predicted similar fracture propagation features and path as that of the real sample material. The path of the fractures and matrix-inclusion interaction was compared using computed tomography images. Initiation and fracture formation in the model and real material were compared using Acoustic Emission data. Analysing the temporal and spatial evolution of AE events, collected during the

  3. Validation studies for assessing unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, R.L.; Neuman, S.P.; Rasmussen, T.C.; Guzman, A.; Davidson, G.R.; Lohrstorfer, C.F.

    1994-08-01

    *The objectives of this contract are to examine hypotheses and conceptual models concerning unsaturated flow and transport through heterogeneous fractured rock and to design and execute confirmatory field and laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses and conceptual models. Important new information is presented such as the application and evaluation of procedures for estimating hydraulic, pneumatic, and solute transport coefficients for a range of thermal regimes. A field heater experiment was designed that focused on identifying the suitability of existing monitoring equipment to obtain required data. A reliable method was developed for conducting and interpreting tests for air permeability using a straddle-packer arrangement. Detailed studies of fracture flow from Queen Creek into the Magina Copper Company ore haulage tunnel have been initiated. These studies will provide data on travel time for transport of water and solute in unsaturated tuff. The collection of rainfall runoff, and infiltration data at two small watersheds at the Apache Leap Tuff Site enabled us to evaluate the quantity and rate of water infiltrating into the subsurface via either fractures or matrix. Characterization methods for hydraulic parameters relevant to Weigh-level waste transport, including fracture apertures, transmissivity, matrix porosity, and fracture wetting front propagation velocities, were developed

  4. Validation studies for assessing unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassett, R.L.; Neuman, S.P.; Rasmussen, T.C.; Guzman, A.; Davidson, G.R.; Lohrstorfer, C.F. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Hydrology and Water Resources

    1994-08-01

    *The objectives of this contract are to examine hypotheses and conceptual models concerning unsaturated flow and transport through heterogeneous fractured rock and to design and execute confirmatory field and laboratory experiments to test these hypotheses and conceptual models. Important new information is presented such as the application and evaluation of procedures for estimating hydraulic, pneumatic, and solute transport coefficients for a range of thermal regimes. A field heater experiment was designed that focused on identifying the suitability of existing monitoring equipment to obtain required data. A reliable method was developed for conducting and interpreting tests for air permeability using a straddle-packer arrangement. Detailed studies of fracture flow from Queen Creek into the Magina Copper Company ore haulage tunnel have been initiated. These studies will provide data on travel time for transport of water and solute in unsaturated tuff. The collection of rainfall runoff, and infiltration data at two small watersheds at the Apache Leap Tuff Site enabled us to evaluate the quantity and rate of water infiltrating into the subsurface via either fractures or matrix. Characterization methods for hydraulic parameters relevant to Weigh-level waste transport, including fracture apertures, transmissivity, matrix porosity, and fracture wetting front propagation velocities, were developed.

  5. On the description of the properties of fractured rock using the concept of a porous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, J.

    1980-05-01

    In order to describe the flow of groundwater through fractured rock, water is either assumed to flow through a pervious continuum of through descrete fractures between impervious blocks of rock. The latter approach being the one demanding more information on the rock, problems on groundwater flow are usually discussed using the porous medium approach. It is often a question of debate wether the continuum approach is applicable to the fractured rock under consideration. Therefore, it is essential that after assuming that a certain flow region acts as a porous medium, we use a procedure for measuring the properties that at the same time gives a test of this assumption. When giving a description of groundwater flow, the goal is often a presentation of pathlines and flowtimes between points of interest and the ground surface. Using a porous medium approach, this means that hydraulic conductivity and porosity must be known through the medium. In order to cope with transient flow, we must also know the time constant governing the development of the flow. The pathlines depend to a great extent on the variation of conductivity through space. A conductivity decreasing with depth will force the pathlines to the surface giving local flow. If instead the conductivity is constant, the flow is regional. It is therefore important to know the gradient of hydraulic conductivity. Finally, as we know that the flow takes place through a geological structure, the anisotropic behaviour of the rock must be known in order to describe the flow. In this report a procedure to measure the properties listed above is developed. (author)

  6. Innovations in the characterization of fractured rocks developed within the Stripa project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.; Brightman, M.; Holmes, D.

    1994-01-01

    This text deals with the hydrogeological work that has been carried out at Stripa Mine. First of all, the philosophy applied evolved through the years, and has finally been focused on a fractured rock approach. Second, it has been necessary to develop hydraulic testing methods - such as focused packer testing - and equipment; the key of the success of the equipment that was built, was that it was fully computer controlled and able to regulate water pressures quickly, reliably and accurately. In the end, the aim of the hydrogeological testing was to characterize both the small scale fracture network and the large scale major fracture zone which composed the site. (TEC). 13 refs., 5 figs

  7. Flexible parallel implicit modelling of coupled thermal–hydraulic–mechanical processes in fractured rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cacace

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Theory and numerical implementation describing groundwater flow and the transport of heat and solute mass in fully saturated fractured rocks with elasto-plastic mechanical feedbacks are developed. In our formulation, fractures are considered as being of lower dimension than the hosting deformable porous rock and we consider their hydraulic and mechanical apertures as scaling parameters to ensure continuous exchange of fluid mass and energy within the fracture–solid matrix system. The coupled system of equations is implemented in a new simulator code that makes use of a Galerkin finite-element technique. The code builds on a flexible, object-oriented numerical framework (MOOSE, Multiphysics Object Oriented Simulation Environment which provides an extensive scalable parallel and implicit coupling to solve for the multiphysics problem. The governing equations of groundwater flow, heat and mass transport, and rock deformation are solved in a weak sense (either by classical Newton–Raphson or by free Jacobian inexact Newton–Krylow schemes on an underlying unstructured mesh. Nonlinear feedbacks among the active processes are enforced by considering evolving fluid and rock properties depending on the thermo-hydro-mechanical state of the system and the local structure, i.e. degree of connectivity, of the fracture system. A suite of applications is presented to illustrate the flexibility and capability of the new simulator to address problems of increasing complexity and occurring at different spatial (from centimetres to tens of kilometres and temporal scales (from minutes to hundreds of years.

  8. Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and Geomechanics of Water-Based Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Gas Systems and Electromagnetic Geophysical Monitoring of Fluid Migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jihoon; Um, Evan; Moridis, George

    2014-12-01

    -geomechanical simulator and are transformed via a rock-physics model into electrical conductivity models. It is shown that anomalous conductivity distribution in the resulting models is closely related to injected water saturation, but not closely related to newly created unsaturated fractures. Our numerical modeling experiments demonstrate that the crosswell EM method can be highly sensitive to conductivity changes that directly indicate the migration pathways of the injected fluid. Accordingly, the EM method can serve as an effective monitoring tool for distribution of injected fluids (i.e., migration pathways) during hydraulic fracturing operations

  9. A gas migration test in saturated, fractured rock. Final report for the Joint UKDOE/AECL Project. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascoyne, M.; Wuschke, D.M.; Brown, A.; Hayles, J.G.; Kozak, E.T.; Lodha, G.S.; Thorne, G.A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1991-12-31

    Helium gas was injected at constant pressure into an inclined fracture zone through an access borehole at a depth of about 40 m, in the Lac du Bonnet granite, southeastern Manitoba. The gas flow rate, arrival time and pattern of distribution of gas at the surface were monitored by soil gas surveys. The field results were compared with predictions of a simple analytical model. Good agreement was found when the influence of vertical fracturing in the bedrock and a low-permeability overburden were included in the model. The model was then used to determine the hydraulic conductivity of individual gas flow paths in the fractured rock. (author).

  10. A gas migration test in saturated, fractured rock. Final report for the Joint UKDOE/AECL Project. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascoyne, M; Wuschke, D M; Brown, A; Hayles, J G; Kozak, E T; Lodha, G S; Thorne, G A [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1992-12-31

    Helium gas was injected at constant pressure into an inclined fracture zone through an access borehole at a depth of about 40 m, in the Lac du Bonnet granite, southeastern Manitoba. The gas flow rate, arrival time and pattern of distribution of gas at the surface were monitored by soil gas surveys. The field results were compared with predictions of a simple analytical model. Good agreement was found when the influence of vertical fracturing in the bedrock and a low-permeability overburden were included in the model. The model was then used to determine the hydraulic conductivity of individual gas flow paths in the fractured rock. (author).

  11. Estimating Hydraulic Conductivities in a Fractured Shale Formation from Pressure Pulse Testing and 3d Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbet, C.; DICK, P.; Lefevre, M.; Wittebroodt, C.; Matray, J.; Barnichon, J.

    2013-12-01

    In the framework of its research on the deep disposal of radioactive waste in shale formations, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has developed a large array of in situ programs concerning the confining properties of shales in their underground research laboratory at Tournemire (SW France). One of its aims is to evaluate the occurrence and processes controlling radionuclide migration through the host rock, from the disposal system to the biosphere. Past research programs carried out at Tournemire covered mechanical, hydro-mechanical and physico-chemical properties of the Tournemire shale as well as water chemistry and long-term behaviour of the host rock. Studies show that fluid circulations in the undisturbed matrix are very slow (hydraulic conductivity of 10-14 to 10-15 m.s-1). However, recent work related to the occurrence of small scale fractures and clay-rich fault gouges indicate that fluid circulations may have been significantly modified in the vicinity of such features. To assess the transport properties associated with such faults, IRSN designed a series of in situ and laboratory experiments to evaluate the contribution of both diffusive and advective process on water and solute flux through a clay-rich fault zone (fault core and damaged zone) and in an undisturbed shale formation. As part of these studies, Modular Mini-Packer System (MMPS) hydraulic testing was conducted in multiple boreholes to characterize hydraulic conductivities within the formation. Pressure data collected during the hydraulic tests were analyzed using the nSIGHTS (n-dimensional Statistical Inverse Graphical Hydraulic Test Simulator) code to estimate hydraulic conductivity and formation pressures of the tested intervals. Preliminary results indicate hydraulic conductivities of 5.10-12 m.s-1 in the fault core and damaged zone and 10-14 m.s-1 in the adjacent undisturbed shale. Furthermore, when compared with neutron porosity data from borehole

  12. Mixing induced reactive transport in fractured crystalline rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Landa, Lurdes; Carrera, Jesus; Dentz, Marco; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel; Nardí, Albert; Saaltink, Maarten W.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the solute retention properties of crystalline fractured rocks due to mixing-induced geochemical reactions are studied. While fractured media exhibit paths of fast flow and transport and thus short residence times for conservative solutes, at the same time they promote mixing and dilution due to strong heterogeneity, which leads to sharp concentration contrasts. Enhanced mixing and dilution have a double effect that favors crystalline fractured media as a possible host medium for nuclear waste disposal. Firstly, peak radionuclide concentrations are attenuated and, secondly, mixing-induced precipitation reactions are enhanced significantly, which leads to radionuclide immobilization. An integrated framework is presented for the effective modeling of these flow, transport and reaction phenomena, and the interaction between them. In a simple case study, the enhanced dilution and precipitation potential of fractured crystalline rocks are systematically studied and quantified and contrasted it to retention and attenuation in an equivalent homogeneous formation.

  13. Drill-back studies examine fractured, heated rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollenberg, H.A.; Flexser, S.; Myer, L.R.

    1990-01-01

    To investigate the effects of heating on the mineralogical, geochemical, and mechanical properties of rock by high-level radioactive waste, cores are being examined from holes penetrating locations where electric heaters simulated the presence of a waste canister, and from holes penetration natural hydrothermal systems. Results to date indicate the localized mobility and deposition of uranium in an open fracture in heated granitic rock, the mobility of U in a breccia zone in an active hydrothermal system in tuff, and the presence of U in relatively high concentration in fracture-lining material in tuff. Mechanical -- property studies indicate that differences in compressional- and shear-wave parameters between heated and less heated rock can be attributed to differences in the density of microcracks. Emphasis has shifted from initial studies of granitic rock at Stripa, Sweden to current investigations of welded tuff at the Nevada Test Site. 7 refs., 8 figs

  14. Ozone generation by rock fracture: Earthquake early warning?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baragiola, Raul A.; Dukes, Catherine A.; Hedges, Dawn [Engineering Physics, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2011-11-14

    We report the production of up to 10 ppm ozone during crushing and grinding of typical terrestrial crust rocks in air, O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} at atmospheric pressure, but not in helium or nitrogen. Ozone is formed by exoelectrons emitted by high electric fields, resulting from charge separation during fracture. The results suggest that ground level ozone produced by rock fracture, besides its potential health hazard, can be used for early warning in earthquakes and other catastrophes, such as landslides or land shifts in excavation tunnels and underground mines.

  15. Assessing geotechnical centrifuge modelling in addressing variably saturated flow in soil and fractured rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brendon R; Brouwers, Luke B; Van Tonder, Warren D; Dippenaar, Matthys A

    2017-05-01

    The vadose zone typically comprises soil underlain by fractured rock. Often, surface water and groundwater parameters are readily available, but variably saturated flow through soil and rock are oversimplified or estimated as input for hydrological models. In this paper, a series of geotechnical centrifuge experiments are conducted to contribute to the knowledge gaps in: (i) variably saturated flow and dispersion in soil and (ii) variably saturated flow in discrete vertical and horizontal fractures. Findings from the research show that the hydraulic gradient, and not the hydraulic conductivity, is scaled for seepage flow in the geotechnical centrifuge. Furthermore, geotechnical centrifuge modelling has been proven as a viable experimental tool for the modelling of hydrodynamic dispersion as well as the replication of similar flow mechanisms for unsaturated fracture flow, as previously observed in literature. Despite the imminent challenges of modelling variable saturation in the vadose zone, the geotechnical centrifuge offers a powerful experimental tool to physically model and observe variably saturated flow. This can be used to give valuable insight into mechanisms associated with solid-fluid interaction problems under these conditions. Findings from future research can be used to validate current numerical modelling techniques and address the subsequent influence on aquifer recharge and vulnerability, contaminant transport, waste disposal, dam construction, slope stability and seepage into subsurface excavations.

  16. Results of Scientific and Technical Supervision of Hydraulic Fracturing Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Kh. Makhmutov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents actual results of the research conducted as part of a field pilot project which consisted in interpretation of minifrac test data and evaluation of the efficiency of the scientific and technical supervision of fracking operations. The research program involved 11 wells targeting Devonian terrigenous reservoirs. Minifrac tests in one perforation interval were performed only in seven wells, that is approximately in 64% of total well count. A reliable fracture closure estimate was obtained only in six wells (55%, beginning of pseudoradial flow was observed only in one well out of 11 wells (9%. Hence, conventional minifrac tests should be supplemented with other diagnostic injection tests. Analysis of the performance of hydraulic fracturing operations conducted according to this pilot project plan indicates that fracture modelling, and scientific and technical supervision of fracking operations performed by Hydrofrac Research Laboratory of Institute TatNIPIneft Tatneft PJSC have yielded beneficial effects, namely 1.44 times increase in oil production rates.

  17. Chemical Interactions of Hydraulic Fracturing Biocides with Natural Pyrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolazio, Nizette A.

    In conjunction with horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing or fracking has enabled the recovery of natural gas from low permeable shale formations. In addition to water, these fracking fluids employ proppants and up to 38 different chemical additives to improve the efficiency of the process. One important class of additives used in hydraulic fracturing is biocides. When applied appropriately, they limit the growth of harmful microorganisms within the well, saving energy producers 4.5 billion dollars each year. However, biocides or their harmful daughter products may return to the surface in produced water, which must then be appropriately stored, treated and disposed of. Little is known about the effect of mineral-fluid interactions on the fate of the biocides employed in hydraulic fracturing. In this study, we employed laboratory experiments to determine changes in the persistence and products of these biocides under controlled environments. While many minerals are present in shale formations, pyrite, FeS2(s) is particularly interesting because of its prevalence and reactivity. The FeII groups on the face of pyrite may be oxidized to form FeIII phases. Both of these surfaces have been shown to be reactive with organic compounds. Chlorinated compounds undergo redox reactions at the pyrite-fluid interface, and sulfur-containing compounds undergo exceptionally strong sorption to both pristine and oxidized pyrite. This mineral may significantly influence the degradation of biocides in the Marcellus Shale. Thus, the overall goal of this study was to understand the effect of pyrite on biocide reactivity in hydraulic fracturing, focusing on the influence of pyrite on specific functional groups. The first specific objective was to demonstrate the effect of pyrite and pyrite reaction products on the degradation of the bromine-containing biocide, DBNPA. On the addition of pyrite to DBNPA, degradation rates of the doubly brominated compound were found to increase

  18. Simulation of Anisotropic Rock Damage for Geologic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busetti, S.; Xu, H.; Arson, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    A continuum damage model for differential stress-induced anisotropic crack formation and stiffness degradation is used to study geologic fracturing in rocks. The finite element-based model solves for deformation in the quasi-linear elastic domain and determines the six component damage tensor at each deformation increment. The model permits an isotropic or anisotropic intact or pre-damaged reference state, and the elasticity tensor evolves depending on the stress path. The damage variable, similar to Oda's fabric tensor, grows when the surface energy dissipated by three-dimensional opened cracks exceeds a threshold defined at the appropriate scale of the representative elementary volume (REV). At the laboratory or wellbore scale (1000m) scales the damaged REV reflects early natural fracturing (background or tectonic fracturing) or shear strain localization (fault process zone, fault-tip damage, etc.). The numerical model was recently benchmarked against triaxial stress-strain data from laboratory rock mechanics tests. However, the utility of the model to predict geologic fabric such as natural fracturing in hydrocarbon reservoirs was not fully explored. To test the ability of the model to predict geological fracturing, finite element simulations (Abaqus) of common geologic scenarios with known fracture patterns (borehole pressurization, folding, faulting) are simulated and the modeled damage tensor is compared against physical fracture observations. Simulated damage anisotropy is similar to that derived using fractured rock-mass upscaling techniques for pre-determined fracture patterns. This suggests that if model parameters are constrained with local data (e.g., lab, wellbore, or reservoir domain), forward modeling could be used to predict mechanical fabric at the relevant REV scale. This reference fabric also can be used as the starting material property to pre-condition subsequent deformation or fluid flow. Continuing efforts are to expand the present damage

  19. Underground nuclear explosion effects in granite rock fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derlich, S.

    1970-01-01

    On the Saharan nuclear test site in Hoggar granite, mechanical properties of the altered zones were studied by in situ and laboratory measurements. In situ methods of study are drillings, television, geophysical and permeability measurements. Fracturing is one of the most important nuclear explosion effects. Several altered zones were identified. There are: crushed zone, fractured zone and stressed zone. Collapse of crushed and fractured zone formed the chimney. The extent of each zone can be expressed in terms of yield and of characteristic parameters. Such results are of main interest for industrial uses of underground nuclear explosives in hard rock. (author)

  20. Underground nuclear explosion effects in granite rock fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derlich, S [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etude de Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)

    1970-05-01

    On the Saharan nuclear test site in Hoggar granite, mechanical properties of the altered zones were studied by in situ and laboratory measurements. In situ methods of study are drillings, television, geophysical and permeability measurements. Fracturing is one of the most important nuclear explosion effects. Several altered zones were identified. There are: crushed zone, fractured zone and stressed zone. Collapse of crushed and fractured zone formed the chimney. The extent of each zone can be expressed in terms of yield and of characteristic parameters. Such results are of main interest for industrial uses of underground nuclear explosives in hard rock. (author)

  1. 4D synchrotron X-ray imaging to understand porosity development in shales during exposure to hydraulic fracturing fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, A. M.; Bargar, J.; Kohli, A. H.; Harrison, A. L.; Jew, A. D.; Lim, J. H.; Liu, Y.; Maher, K.; Zoback, M. D.; Brown, G. E.

    2016-12-01

    Unconventional (shale) reservoirs have emerged as the most important source of petroleum resources in the United States and represent a two-fold decrease in greenhouse gas emissions compared to coal. Despite recent progress, hydraulic fracturing operations present substantial technical, economic, and environmental challenges, including inefficient recovery, wastewater production and disposal, contaminant and greenhouse gas pollution, and induced seismicity. A relatively unexplored facet of hydraulic fracturing operations is the fluid-rock interface, where hydraulic fracturing fluid (HFF) contacts shale along faults and fractures. Widely used, water-based fracturing fluids contain oxidants and acid, which react strongly with shale minerals. Consequently, fluid injection and soaking induces a host of fluid-rock interactions, most notably the dissolution of carbonates and sulfides, producing enhanced or "secondary" porosity networks, as well as mineral precipitation. The competition between these mechanisms determines how HFF affects reactive surface area and permeability of the shale matrix. The resultant microstructural and chemical changes may also create capillary barriers that can trap hydrocarbons and water. A mechanistic understanding of the microstructure and chemistry of the shale-HFF interface is needed to design new methodologies and fracturing fluids. Shales were imaged using synchrotron micro-X-ray computed tomography before, during, and after exposure to HFF to characterize changes to the initial 3D structure. CT reconstructions reveal how the secondary porosity networks advance into the shale matrix. Shale samples span a range of lithologies from siliceous to calcareous to organic-rich. By testing shales of different lithologies, we have obtained insights into the mineralogic controls on secondary pore network development and the morphologies at the shale-HFF interface and the ultimate composition of produced water from different facies. These results

  2. Small-scale electrical resistivity tomography of wet fractured rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBrecque, Douglas J; Sharpe, Roger; Wood, Thomas; Heath, Gail

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a series of experiments that tested the ability of the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) method to locate correctly wet and dry fractures in a meso-scale model. The goal was to develop a method of monitoring the flow of water through a fractured rock matrix. The model was a four by six array of limestone blocks equipped with 28 stainless steel electrodes. Dry fractures were created by placing pieces of vinyl between one or more blocks. Wet fractures were created by injecting tap water into a joint between blocks. In electrical terms, the dry fractures are resistive and the wet fractures are conductive. The quantities measured by the ERT system are current and voltage around the outside edge of the model. The raw ERT data were translated to resistivity values inside the model using a three-dimensional Occam's inversion routine. This routine was one of the key components of ERT being tested. The model presented several challenges. First, the resistivity of both the blocks and the joints was highly variable. Second, the resistive targets introduced extreme changes the software could not precisely quantify. Third, the abrupt changes inherent in a fracture system were contrary to the smoothly varying changes expected by the Occam's inversion routine. Fourth, the response of the conductive fractures was small compared to the background variability. In general, ERT was able to locate correctly resistive fractures. Problems occurred, however, when the resistive fracture was near the edges of the model or when multiple fractures were close together. In particular, ERT tended to position the fracture closer to the model center than its true location. Conductive fractures yielded much smaller responses than the resistive case. A difference-inversion method was able to correctly locate these targets.

  3. Demonstration of a Fractured Rock Geophysical Toolbox (FRGT) for Characterization and Monitoring of DNAPL Biodegradation in Fractured Rock Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-29

    is characterized by dark gray slate or phyllite, alternating with thin layers of light gray siltstone or sandstone . Table 1 summarizes the primary...sedimentary rocks of the Newark Basin. Competent rocks are primarily mudstones and sandstones of the Lockatong and Stockton Formations. Fill, weathered silt... sandstone , and characterized by water bearing bedding plane fractures. An array of open boreholes in the source area that were drilled for the 2002

  4. Acoustic emission in a fluid saturated heterogeneous porous layer with application to hydraulic fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, J.T. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1988-11-01

    A theoretical model for acoustic emission in a vertically heterogeneous porous layer bounded by semi-infinite solid regions is developed using linearized equations of motion for a fluid/solid mixture and a reflectivity method. Green's functions are derived for both point loads and moments. Numerically integrated propagators represent solutions for intermediate heterogeneous layers in the porous region. These are substituted into a global matrix for solution by Gaussian elimination and back-substitution. Fluid partial stress and seismic responses to dislocations associated with fracturing of a layer of rock with a hydraulically conductive fracture network are computed with the model. A constitutive model is developed for representing the fractured rock layer as a porous material, using commonly accepted relationships for moduli. Derivations of density, tortuosity, and sinuosity are provided. The main results of the model application are the prediction of a substantial fluid partial stress response related to a second mode wave for the porous material. The response is observable for relatively large distances, on the order of several tens of meters. The visco-dynamic transition frequency associated with parabolic versus planar fluid velocity distributions across micro-crack apertures is in the low audio or seismic range, in contrast to materials with small pore size, such as porous rocks, for which the transition frequency is ultrasonic. Seismic responses are predicted for receiver locations both in the layer and in the outlying solid regions. In the porous region, the seismic response includes both shear and dilatational wave arrivals and a second-mode arrival. The second-mode arrival is not observable outside of the layer because of its low velocity relative to the dilatational and shear wave propagation velocities of the solid region.

  5. Genesis of natural hydraulic fractures as an indicator of basin inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingfeng; Hooker, John; Cartwright, Joe

    2017-09-01

    Satin spar (fibrous gypsum) veins, which occur in evaporite basins worldwide, provide significant insights into host rock deformation and fluid flow, although the genetic mechanism remains obscure. Satin spar veins in the red marls of the Triassic Mercia Mudstone of the Bristol Channel Basin were characterized in the context of regional and local setting. The vein network in the Keuper Marl (lower Mercia) exhibits a lack of systematic cross-cutting between three distinct vein sets. Two sets of veins are observed in the overlying Tea Green Marl, with one set clearly crossing the other. The gypsum veins commonly contain a blocky median zone of multiple thin bands of host-rock inclusions and alabastrine gypsum crystals, exhibiting crack-seal patterns. Fibrous zones on either side of the median zone consist of pure parallel-aligned gypsum fibres that are oblique to vein walls, indicating a hybrid shear-extensional mode of vein widening. Veins developed within reverse-reactivated faults contain fibre lineations in the median zones and also on vein surfaces, suggesting a minimum of two phases of fault slip. The veins are interpreted to have formed as a result of overpressure in the low-permeability mudstones by tectonic compression during basin inversion, giving rise to the median zone. Growth of gypsum fibres commenced when the initial fractures were completely sealed. The timing of vein formation is suggested to be Miocene, based on cross-cutting relationships with folds formed during the latest phase of basin inversion. Because the fractures initiated in response to fluid overpressures, they provide a useful analog to subsurface hydraulic fracture systems in low-permeability rocks subjected to tectonic compression. The fibrous widening of the veins post-dates their initiation and led to continued propagation and increased connectivity.

  6. Direct Imaging of Natural Fractures and Stress Compartments Stimulated by Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacazette, A.; Vermilye, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    This contribution will present results from passive seismic studies of hydraulic fracture treatments in North American and Asian basins. One of the key data types is a comparatively new surface-based seismic imaging product - "Tomographic Fracture Images®" (TFI®). The procedure is an extension of Seismic Emission Tomography (SET), which is well-established and widely used. Conventional microseismic results - microearthquake hypocenter locations, magnitudes, and focal mechanism solutions - are also obtained from the data via a branch of the processing workflow. TFI is accomplished by summing the individual time steps in a multidimensional SET hypervolume over extended periods of time, such as an entire frac stage. The dimensions of a SET hypervolume are the X, Y, and Z coordinates of the voxels, the time step (typically on the order of 100 milliseconds), and the seismic activity value. The resulting summed volume is skeletonized to produce images of the main fracture surfaces, which are known to occupy the maximum activity surfaces of the high activity clouds from theory, field studies, and experiments. The orientation vs. area of the resulting TFIs can be analyzed in detail and compared with independent data sets such as volumetric structural attributes from reflection seismic data and borehole fracture data. We find that the primary effect of hydraulic fracturing is to stimulate preexisting natural fracture networks and faults. The combination of TFIs with hypocenter distributions and microearthquake focal mechanisms provides detailed information on subsurface stress compartmentalization. Faults are directly imaged which allows discrimination of fault planes from auxiliary planes of focal mechanism solutions. Examples that will be shown include simultaneous movement on a thrust fault and tear fault and examples of radically different stress compartments (e.g. extensional vs. wrench faulting) stimulated during a single hydraulic fracture treatment. The figure

  7. Report on alternative techniques to hydraulic fracturing for the exploration and exploitation of non conventional hydrocarbons - National Assembly No. 1581 / Senate No. 174

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LENOIR, Jean-Claude; BATAILLE, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Based on several hearings, and on missions in the USA and in Poland, this report addresses the issue of alternative techniques to hydraulic fracturing which appeared to be more advanced than hearings performed for a preliminary report had suggested. A first part outlines the necessity of fracturing the rock, and presents several possible modalities, proposes a detailed overview of alternative techniques to hydraulic fracturing used in the USA and in Poland. The second part outlines that coal gas is already an exploitable resource without rock fracturing; it discusses the possible perspectives thus associated for the old French coal-mining sites, outlines that this resource can be exploited without requiring hydraulic fracturing, and comments the first assessments. The third part addresses the possible management of risks associated with hydraulic fracturing: risks vary from one region to the other and therefore require further studies; the non-conventional hydrocarbon issue is addressed in different ways in the USA; the use of this technique must be controlled by public authorities. The next part outlines the need of an assessment of national resources before any assessment of the economic impact. The last part formulates several proposals for the future

  8. Hydraulic washing removal efficiencies of Orimulsion from rock surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, J.R.; Ward, S.; Sergy, G.

    2002-01-01

    Orimulsion is a fuel alternative composed of 70 per cent bitumen in 30 per cent water. It is shipped from Venezuela to New Brunswick where it is used as fuel oil for power plants. While there have not been any major spills of Orimulsion, it is recognized that very little is known regarding the dispersal and weathering processes of Orimulsion, or the behaviour and cleanup of the product on both rocky and course sediment shorelines. For that reason, this study was conducted to determine the efficiency of hydraulic washing under different water temperatures and pressures to remove bitumen from rocky shorelines. The results of the study make it possible to assess the physical effectiveness of the method and to determine the range of effective operational parameters. The coating protocol was refined to create uniform coating of both dispersed and coalesced bitumen of rock surfaces. The use of a chemical agent for enhancing removal efficiency was also assessed. Orimulsion could reach shorelines as low concentration dispersions of bitumen particles suspended in a water column, or as a high concentration mixture of bitumen, water and air. Granite tiles were coated with uniform coatings of both dispersed and coalesced bitumen. They were then washed under different pressures, temperatures and other treatments. Temperatures of more than 40 degrees C and pressures of more than 76 kPa were needed to effectively remove the bitumen coatings. Weathering significantly increased coating tenacity for dispersed coatings, but did not affect coalesced coating tenacity. Immediate washing was found to be very effective for removing dispersed coating, but not for coalesced coating. Coating tenacity was also affected by submergence times. Pre-treatment of the coating with a dispersion called Corexit significantly improved the removal efficiencies of dispersed coatings, but not coalesced coatings. 6 refs., 10 tabs., 5 figs

  9. Evaluating the oxidation of shale during hydraulic fracturing using SEM-EDS and spectrocolorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X. Y.; Nakashima, S.

    2017-12-01

    During hydraulic fracturing (fracking) for shale gas/oil extraction, oxygen is introduced into deep oxygen-poor environments, and Fe2+-bearing minerals in rocks can be oxidized thus leading to the degradation of rock quality. Akita diatomaceous shale is considered to be one of the source rocks for oil and gas fields in northwestern Japan. Outcrops of Akita shale often show presence of jarosite (Fe sulfate: yellow) and/or goethite (Fe hydroxide: brown to orange) as oxidation products of pyrite (FeS2). Several series of oxidation experiments of Akita shale under dry, humid, and wet conditions were conducted at temperatures of around 30 oC and 50oC for 30-40 days. Portable color spectro-colorimeters were used to monitor color changes of the rock surfaces every hour. SEM-EDS, UV-Vis, and Raman spectroscopic analyses were performed on the rock sample surface to examine the chemical and mineralogical compositions of Akita shale before and after the dry, humid, and wet experiments. In SEM-EDS analyses before the humid experiment, Fe and S containing phases show their atomic ratio close to 1:2 indicating that this is pyrite (FeS2). After the experiment, the ratio changed to around 1:1 suggesting a conversion from pyrite (FeS2) to mackinawite-like mineral (FeS). In addition, the formation of Ca sulfate (possibly gypsum: CaSO4.2H2O) and goethite-like Fe hydroxide were identified which were not present initially. Therefore, oxidation pathways of iron sulfide (pyrite: FeS2) via FeS to sulfate is confirmed by our humid experiments around 30oC on Akita shale. These oxidation processes might occur during the fracking of shale within relatively short time periods associated with precipitation of sulfates and hydroxides. Therefore, further studies are needed for their effects on rock properties and gas/oil production.

  10. Deformation Behavior between Hydraulic and Natural Fractures Using Fully Coupled Hydromechanical Model with XFEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a growing consensus that preexisting natural fractures play an important role during stimulation. A novel fully coupled hydromechanical model using extended finite element method is proposed. This directly coupled scheme avoids the cumbersome process during calculating the fluid pressure in complicated fracture networks and translating into an equivalent nodal force. Numerical examples are presented to simulate the hydraulic fracture propagation paths for simultaneous multifracture treatments with properly using the stress shadow effects for horizontal wells and to reveal the deformation response and interaction mechanism between hydraulic induced fracture and nonintersected natural fractures at orthotropic and nonorthotropic angles. With the stress shadow effects, the induced hydraulic flexural fracture deflecting to wellbore rather than transverse fracture would be formed during the progress of simultaneous fracturing for a horizontal well. The coupled hydromechanical simulation reveals that the adjacent section to the intersection is opened and the others are closed for orthogonal natural fracture, while the nonorthogonal natural fracture is activated near the intersection firstly and along the whole section with increasing perturbed stresses. The results imply that the induced hydraulic fracture tends to cross orthotropic natural fracture, while it is prior to being arrested by the nonorthotropic natural fracture.

  11. Characterization of the fracturation of rock masses for determining flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derlich, S.

    1984-02-01

    Flow in a rock mass is the consequence of the permeability of the rock, which can be roughly separated into matrix permeability and fissure permeability. In crystalline rocks fissure permeability is dominant, especially where the rocks are extensively fractured. It is thus essential, by means of studies either at the surface or underground, to characterize the volume fracturation in the mass considered. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the methodology for analysing fracturation at a site by the studies performed on the granite mass of Auriat in the French Massif Central. A number of geology laboratories have participated in this study and a broad spectrum of observations has been made which can be used for determining the various stages of a study with a view to selection of a site, the advantages and limitations of each method or study plan and additional methods which need to be used for gaining as complete a picture as possible of the fracturation. A brief examination of the results obtained at Auriat enables the relative advantages of using these various methods at a particular site to be compared

  12. Demonstration and Validation of a Fractured Rock Passive Flux Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    attenuation, and enhanced biodegradation as competitive remediation solutions to chlorinated ethene-contaminated fractured rock. The criteria and...located outside, then some form of weatherproofing for the gauges will be necessary. As a temporary measure, heavy-duty polyethylene bags , secured

  13. The risks of hydraulic fracturing and the responsibilities of engineers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Kirkman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One third of U.S. natural gas is extracted by injecting fluid at high pressure into shale formations, a process associated with a number of possible hazards and risks that have become the subject of intense public controversy. We develop a three-part schema to make sense of risks of hydraulic fracturing and the responsibilities of engineers: the lab, the field, and the forum. In the lab, researchers seek to answer basic questions about, for example, the behavior of shale under particular conditions; there uncertainty seems to arise at every turn. In the field, engineers and others work to implement technological processes, such as hydraulic fracturing and the subsequent extraction of oil and gas; hazards may arise as natural and social systems respond in sometimes surprising ways. In the forum, the public and their representatives deliberate about risk and acceptable risk, questions that are framed in ethical as well as technical terms. The difficulty of characterizing – and in living up to – the responsibilities of engineers lie in part in the apparent distance between the lab and the forum. We examine in turn uncertainties in the lab, hazards in the field, and deliberation in the forum, leading to the conclusion that scientists and engineers can and should help to inform public deliberation but that their research cannot, on its own, resolve all controversies. Scientists and engineers who seek to inform deliberation should be mindful of the scope and limits of their authority, clear and modest in communicating research findings to the public, and careful to avoid even apparent conflicts of interest wherever possible. We close by drawing from the lab-field-forum schema to suggest a direction for pedagogical innovations aimed at the formation of responsible engineers in the context of college-level degree programs.

  14. An overview of geophysical technologies appropriate for characterization and monitoring at fractured-rock sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geophysical methods are used increasingly for characterization and monitoring at remediation sites in fractured-rock aquifers. The complex heterogeneity of fractured rock poses enormous challenges to groundwater remediation professionals, and new methods are needed to cost-effect...

  15. Study of the method to estimate the hydraulic characteristics in rock masses by using elastic wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsu, Kenta; Ohnishi, Yuzo; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Yano, Takao; Ando, Kenichi; Yoshimura, Kimitaka

    2008-01-01

    In the area of radioactive waste repository, estimating radionuclide migration through the rock mass is an important factor for assessment of the repository. The purpose of this study is to develop a method to estimate hydraulic characteristics of rock masses by using elastic wave velocity dispersion. This method is based on dynamics poroelastic relations such as Biot and BISQ theories. These theories indicate relations between velocity dispersion and hydraulic characteristics. In order to verify the validity of these theories in crystalline rocks, we performed laboratory experiments. The results of experiments show the dependency of elastic wave velocity on its frequency. To test the applicability of this method to real rock masses, we performed in-situ experiment for tuff rock masses. The results of in-situ experiment show the possibility as a practical method to estimate the hydraulic characteristics by using elastic wave velocity dispersion. (author)

  16. Hydraulic properties and scale effects investigation in regional rock aquifers, south-western Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastev, M.; Savard, M. M.; Lapcevic, P.; Lefebvre, R.; Martel, R.

    This paper reports on the characterization of hydraulic properties of regional rock aquifers carried out within a groundwater resources assessment project in the St. Lawrence Lowlands of south-western Quebec. To understand the aquifer behavior at both the fracture level and at field scale, hydraulic investigations were carried out using various aquifer tests. The groundwater flow at the local scale is controlled mostly by the fracture system. Results of the constant-head injection tests show a weak decreasing trend of hydraulic conductivity with depth indicating that a major part of the groundwater flow occurs in the first meters of the rock sequence. At the regional scale, the equivalent porous media approach is applicable. The hydraulic conductivity measurements were correlated to the scale of the aquifer tests expressed with the investigated aquifer volume. A simple interpolation procedure for the hydraulic conductivity field was developed based on the distance between field measurements and the tested aquifer volumes. The regional distribution of the hydraulic conductivity for the major fractured aquifer units indicates that dolostone is the most permeable whereas sandstone and crystalline rocks are the least permeable units. Este artículo trata de la caracterización de las propiedades hidráulicas en acuíferos regionales rocosos, la cual se llevó a cabo dentro del proyecto de evaluación de los recursos de agua subterránea en St. Lawrence Lowlands al suroeste de Quebec. Para entender el comportamiento del acuífero tanto a nivel de fractura como a escala del campo, se ejecutaron investigaciones hidráulicas usando varias pruebas de acuífero. El flujo del agua subterránea a escala local está controlado principalmente por el sistema de fracturas. Los resultados de las pruebas de inyección con cabeza constante muestran una tendencia decreciente débil de la conductividad hidráulica con la profundidad, indicando que la mayor parte del flujo de agua

  17. Numerical simulation of hydraulic fracturing and associated microseismicity using finite-discrete element method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing (HF technique has been extensively used for the exploitation of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs. HF enhances the connectivity of less permeable oil and gas-bearing rock formations by fluid injection, which creates an interconnected fracture network and increases the hydrocarbon production. Meanwhile, microseismic (MS monitoring is one of the most effective approaches to evaluate such stimulation process. In this paper, the combined finite-discrete element method (FDEM is adopted to numerically simulate HF and associated MS. Several post-processing tools, including frequency-magnitude distribution (b-value, fractal dimension (D-value, and seismic events clustering, are utilized to interpret numerical results. A non-parametric clustering algorithm designed specifically for FDEM is used to reduce the mesh dependency and extract more realistic seismic information. Simulation results indicated that at the local scale, the HF process tends to propagate following the rock mass discontinuities; while at the reservoir scale, it tends to develop in the direction parallel to the maximum in-situ stress.

  18. Hydraulic fracturing offers view of microbial life in the deep terrestrial subsurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, Paula J; Borton, Mikayla; Darrah, Thomas H; Hartsock, Angela; Wrighton, Kelly C

    2016-11-01

    Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing are increasingly used for recovering energy resources in black shales across the globe. Although newly drilled wells are providing access to rocks and fluids from kilometer depths to study the deep biosphere, we have much to learn about microbial ecology of shales before and after 'fracking'. Recent studies provide a framework for considering how engineering activities alter this rock-hosted ecosystem. We first provide data on the geochemical environment and microbial habitability in pristine shales. Next, we summarize data showing the same pattern across fractured shales: diverse assemblages of microbes are introduced into the subsurface, eventually converging to a low diversity, halotolerant, bacterial and archaeal community. Data we synthesized show that the shale microbial community predictably shifts in response to temporal changes in geochemistry, favoring conservation of key microorganisms regardless of inputs, shale location or operators. We identified factors that constrain diversity in the shale and inhibit biodegradation at the surface, including salinity, biocides, substrates and redox. Continued research in this engineered ecosystem is required to assess additive biodegradability, quantify infrastructure biocorrosion, treat wastewaters that return to the surface and potentially enhance energy production through in situ methanogenesis. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical calculations of the water saturation phase of a KBS-3 deposition hole. Influence of hydraulic rock properties on the water saturation phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boergesson, Lennart; Hernelind, J.

    1999-12-01

    The wetting process in deposition holes designed according to the KBS-3-concept has been simulated with finite element calculations of the thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in the buffer, backfill and surrounding rock. The buffer material has been modelled according to the preliminary material models developed for swelling clay. The properties of the rock have been varied in order to investigate the influence of the rock properties and the hydraulic conditions on the wetting processes. In the modelling of the test holes the permeability of the rock matrix, the water supply from the backfill, the water pressure in the surrounding rock, the permeability of the disturbed zone around the deposition hole, the water retention properties of the rock, and the transmissivity of two fractures intersecting the deposition hole have been varied. The calculations indicate that the wetting takes about 5 years if the water pressure in the rock is high and if the permeability of the rock is so high that the properties of the bentonite determine the wetting rate. However, it may take considerably more than 30 years if the rock is very tight and the water pressure in the rock is low. The calculations also show that the influence of the rock structure is rather large except for the influence of the transmissivity T of the fractures, which turned out to be insignificant for the values used in the calculations

  20. Statistical fracture mechanics approach to the strength of brittle rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratigan, J.L.

    1981-06-01

    Statistical fracture mechanics concepts used in the past for rock are critically reviewed and modifications are proposed which are warranted by (1) increased understanding of fracture provided by modern fracture mechanics and (2) laboratory test data both from the literature and from this research. Over 600 direct and indirect tension tests have been performed on three different rock types; Stripa Granite, Sierra White Granite and Carrara Marble. In several instances assumptions which are common in the literature were found to be invalid. A three parameter statistical fracture mechanics model with Mode I critical strain energy release rate as the variant is presented. Methodologies for evaluating the parameters in this model as well as the more commonly employed two parameter models are discussed. The experimental results and analysis of this research indicate that surfacially distributed flaws, rather than volumetrically distributed flaws are responsible for rupture in many testing situations. For several of the rock types tested, anisotropy (both in apparent tensile strength and size effect) precludes the use of contemporary statistical fracture mechanics models

  1. Laboratory investigation of shale rock to identify fracture propagation in vertical direction to bedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tan; Yan, Jin; Bing, Hou; Yingcao, Zhou; Ruxin, Zhang; Zhi, Chang; Meng, Fan

    2018-06-01

    Affected by beddings and natural fractures, fracture geometry in the vertical plane is complex in shale formation, which differs from a simple fracture in homogeneous sandstone reservoirs. However, the propagation mechanism of a hydraulic fracture in the vertical plane has not been well understood. In this paper, a true tri-axial pressure machine was deployed for shale horizontal well fracturing simulation experiments of shale outcrops. The effects of multiple factors on hydraulic fracture vertical propagation were studied. The results revealed that hydraulic fracture initiation and propagation displayed four basic patterns in the vertical plane of laminated shale formation. A hydraulic fracture would cross the beddings under the high vertical stress difference between a vertical stress and horizontal minimum stress of 12 MPa, while a hydraulic fracture propagates along the beddings under a low vertical stress difference of 3 MPa. Four kinds of fracture geometry, including a single main fracture, a nonplanar fracture, a complex fracture, and a complex fracture network, were observed due to the combined effects of flow rate and viscosity. Due to the influence of binding strength (or cementing strength) on the fracture communication effects between a hydraulic fracture and the beddings, the opening region of the beddings takes the shape of an ellipse.

  2. Implicit fracture modelling in FLAC3D: Assessing the behaviour of fractured shales, carbonates and other fractured rock types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, S.; Pizzocolo, F.; Veer, E.F. van der; Heege, J.H. ter

    2016-01-01

    Fractured rocks play an important role in many types of petroleum and geo-energy operations. From fractured limestone reservoirs to unconventionals, understanding the geomechanical behaviour and the dynamically coupled (dual) permeability system is paramount for optimal development of these systems.

  3. A fractured rock geophysical toolbox method selection tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Lewis, F. D.; Johnson, C.D.; Slater, L.D.; Robinson, J.L.; Williams, J.H.; Boyden, C.L.; Werkema, D.D.; Lane, J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Geophysical technologies have the potential to improve site characterization and monitoring in fractured rock, but the appropriate and effective application of geophysics at a particular site strongly depends on project goals (e.g., identifying discrete fractures) and site characteristics (e.g., lithology). No method works at every site or for every goal. New approaches are needed to identify a set of geophysical methods appropriate to specific project goals and site conditions while considering budget constraints. To this end, we present the Excel-based Fractured-Rock Geophysical Toolbox Method Selection Tool (FRGT-MST). We envision the FRGT-MST (1) equipping remediation professionals with a tool to understand what is likely to be realistic and cost-effective when contracting geophysical services, and (2) reducing applications of geophysics with unrealistic objectives or where methods are likely to fail.

  4. Analytic solution of pseudocolloid migration in fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Y.; Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.L.; Chambre, P.L.

    1989-06-01

    A form of colloid migration that can enhance or retard the migration of a dissolved contaminant in ground water is the sorption of the contaminant on the moving colloidal particulate to form pseudocolloids. In this paper we develop analytical solutions for the interactive migration of radioactive species dissolved in ground water and sorbed as pseudocolloids. The solute and pseudocolloids are assumed to undergo advection and dispersion in a one-dimensional flow field in planar fractures in porous rock. Interaction between pseudocolloid and dissolved species is described by equilibrium sorption. Sorbed species on the pseudocolloids undergo radioactive decay, and pseudocolloids can sorb on fracture surfaces and sediments. Filtration is neglected. The solute can decay and sorb on pseudocolloids, on the fracture surfaces, and on sediments and can diffuse into the porous rock matrix. 1 fig

  5. Application of hydraulic fracturing to determine virgin in situ stress state around Waste Isolation Pilot Plant - in situ measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawersik, W.R.; Stone, C.M.

    1985-10-01

    Hydraulic fracturing tests were carried out in horizontal drillholes in rock salt in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, NM. It was determined that the virgin in situ stress field is isotropic or nearly isotropic. The inferred magnitude of the isotropic in situ stress falls between bounds of 14.28 MPa and 17.9 MPa for the average breakdown/reopening pressures and driving pressures. The best estimate from instantaneous shut-in pressures is 16.61 MPa. Given some uncertainties about the interpretation of hydraulic fracturing data in salt, all of the foregoing values are in acceptable agreement with an average calculated isotropic in situ stress of 14.9 MPa at an average depth of 657 m below surface. Interpretations of breakdown and reopening pressures are based on finite element analyses of the relaxed stress field around a borehole in salt. This stress field varies little between approximately 50 and 200 days after drilling. The finite element analyses were also used to interpret the observed stable pressure-time signatures with little or no pressure drops during primary breakdown of the salt formation. The conclusion about the isotropic nature of the virgin in situ stress field is supported by observations of the induced fracture patterns. The report includes a comparison of the hydrofrac data in the WIPP with the published results of hydraulic fracturing tests in salt at three other locations. 75 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs

  6. Thermodynamics of energy extraction from fractured hot dry rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, J S; Bejan, A [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science; Kim, J H [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1992-03-01

    It has been proposed to extract energy from the subterranean hot dry rock bed (HDR) by creating one or more narrow fractures in the rock and circulating cold water through the fractures. In time, the temperature of the rock region surrounding the crack drops under the influence of time-dependent conduction. This study presents the most basic thermodynamic aspects (first law and second law) of the HDR energy extraction process. It shows which parameters most influence the amount of useful energy (exergy) extracted from the HDR reservoir over a fixed time interval. For example, the water flow rate can be selected optimally in order to maximize the delivery of exergy over the lifetime of the HDR system. (author).

  7. Organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids and wastewaters: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luek, Jenna L; Gonsior, Michael

    2017-10-15

    High volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) of shale to stimulate the release of natural gas produces a large quantity of wastewater in the form of flowback fluids and produced water. These wastewaters are highly variable in their composition and contain a mixture of fracturing fluid additives, geogenic inorganic and organic substances, and transformation products. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of organic compounds identified in HVHF fluids, flowback fluids, and produced waters are reviewed here to communicate knowledge gaps that exist in the composition of HVHF wastewaters. In general, analyses of organic compounds have focused on those amenable to gas chromatography, focusing on volatile and semi-volatile oil and gas compounds. Studies of more polar and non-volatile organic compounds have been limited by a lack of knowledge of what compounds may be present as well as quantitative methods and standards available for analyzing these complex mixtures. Liquid chromatography paired with high-resolution mass spectrometry has been used to investigate a number of additives and will be a key tool to further research on transformation products that are increasingly solubilized through physical, chemical, and biological processes in situ and during environmental contamination events. Diverse treatments have been tested and applied to HVHF wastewaters but limited information has been published on the quantitative removal of individual organic compounds. This review focuses on recently published information on organic compounds identified in flowback fluids and produced waters from HVHF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Creep in the sparsely fractured rock between a disposal vault and a zone of highly fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, B.J.S.; Rigby, G.L.

    1993-08-01

    AECL Research is responsible for investigating the feasibility and safety of the disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel waste deep in the plutonic rock of the Canadian Shield. The excavation of the disposal vault, the installation of sealing systems and the heat generated by the fuel waste will all perturb the in situ stress state of the rock mass. This computer codes HOTROK, MCROC and MCDIRC are used to analyze the influence of these stress perturbations on the mechanical behaviour of the rock mass. Time-dependent microcracking of the rock mass will lead to creep around openings in the vault. The analysis specifically estimates the resulting creep strain in the sparsely fractured rock between the edge of the disposal vault and a postulated zone of highly fractured rock. The estimates are extremely conservative. The conclusion reached is that the rock mass more than 3 m beyond the edge of the vault will experience < 0.001 creep strain 100 000 years after the fuel waste is emplaced. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  9. Advanced hydraulic fracturing methods to create in situ reactive barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murdoch, L.; Siegrist, B.; Vesper, S.

    1997-01-01

    Many contaminated areas consist of a source area and a plume. In the source area, the contaminant moves vertically downward from a release point through the vadose zone to an underlying saturated region. Where contaminants are organic liquids, NAPL may accumulate on the water table, or it may continue to migrate downward through the saturated region. Early developments of permeable barrier technology have focused on intercepting horizontally moving plumes with vertical structures, such as trenches, filled with reactive material capable of immobilizing or degrading dissolved contaminants. This focus resulted in part from a need to economically treat the potentially large volumes of contaminated water in a plume, and in part from the availability of construction technology to create the vertical structures that could house reactive compounds. Contaminant source areas, however, have thus far remained largely excluded from the application of permeable barrier technology. One reason for this is the lack of conventional construction methods for creating suitable horizontal structures that would place reactive materials in the path of downward-moving contaminants. Methods of hydraulic fracturing have been widely used to create flat-lying to gently dipping layers of granular material in unconsolidated sediments. Most applications thus far have involved filling fractures with coarse-grained sand to create permeable layers that will increase the discharge of wells recovering contaminated water or vapor. However, it is possible to fill fractures with other compounds that alter the chemical composition of the subsurface. One early application involved development and field testing micro-encapsulated sodium percarbonate, a solid compound that releases oxygen and can create aerobic conditions suitable for biodegradation in the subsurface for several months

  10. Disposal of radioactive grouts into hydraulically fractured shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    A process for permanent waste disposal has been in operation for nearly 20 years at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In this method, intermediate-level radioactive waste effluents in the form of a slurry containing hydraulic binders (grouts) are injected by means of fracturing into a deep underground formation (a nearly impervious shale formation) considered to be isolated from the surface. The composition of the grout is carefully chosen so that the slurry thus injected solidifies in situ, ensuring fixation of the waste and rendering this type of disposal final in character. This process - ''hydrofracture'' or ''shale fracturing'' - immobilizes the wastes directly in situ, in such a condition that is well removed from the biosphere. It is an inexpensive process that is particularly suited for the permanent disposal of large batches of certain types of wastes under specific conditions. Some sections of this report are concerned with the general aspects of the hydrofracture process. Other sections are site specific and discuss the development of the process at ORNL and the operating experience with the ORNL facility. Sections 2 and 3 are concerned with the general aspects of site selection and are not site specific. Sections 4, 5, 6 and 8 are concerned with operating experience at ORNL and are site specific. Section 7 (safety assessment) is based on ORNL experience, but the considerations that are discussed in this section have general application. Details of the operating experience with the process at ORNL and West Valley are given in Appendix 1. Appendix 2 is a brief treatment of the theory of fracture mechanics

  11. Steady-state flow in a rock mass intersected by permeable fracture zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindbom, B.

    1986-12-01

    Level 1 of HYDROCOIN consists of seven well-defined test problems. This paper is concerned with Case 2, which is formulated as a generic groundwater flow situation often found in crystalline rock with highly permeable fracture zones in a less permeable rock mass. The case is two-dimensional and modelled with 8-noded, isoparametric, rectangular elements. According to the case definition, calculations of hydraulic head and particle tracking are performed. The computations are carried out with varying degree of discretisation in order to analyse possible impact on the result with respect to nodal density. Further calculations have been performed mainly devoted to mass balance deviations and how these are affected by permeability contrasts, varying degree of spatial discretisation and distortion of finite elements. The distribution of hydraulic head in the domain is less sensitive to differences in nodal density than the trajectories. The hydraulic heads show similar behaviour for three meshes with varying degrees of discretisation. The particle tracking seems to be more sensitive to the level of discretisation. The results obtained with a coarse and medium mesh indicate completely different solutions for one of the pathlines. The coarse mesh is too sparsely discretised for the specified problem. The local mass balance is evaluated for seven runs. The mass balance deviation seems to be considerably more sensitive to the level of discretisation than to both permeability contrasts and deformation of elements. The permeability contrasts between the rock mass and fracture zones vary from a factor of 1000 to 1 (homogeneous properties) with increments of a factor of 10. These calculations in fact give better mass balance with increasing permeability contrasts, contrary to what could be expected. (orig./HP)

  12. Characterizing fractured plutonic rocks of the Canadian shield for deep geological disposal of Canada's radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodha, G.S.; Davison, C.C.; Gascoyne, M.

    1998-01-01

    continuity of fracture zones away from the boreholes up to distances of 50 to 400 metres. Single-hole hydraulic tests using straddle packer methods, testing in multiple-interval casing systems and large-scale crosshole pumping tests provided estimates of the in-situ permeability. Crosshole tracer tests were performed in several of the major fracture zones to estimate the solute transport properties and to provide information to scale up the properties to the regional modeling scale. Geochemical and hydrogeochemical characterization of host rock, fracture-infilling minerals, groundwaters and porewaters have provided data for flow modelling and safety assessment as well as obtaining supporting information such as groundwater ages, sources of salinity and rock-water interactions

  13. The Practical Application of Aqueous Geochemistry in Mapping Groundwater Flow Systems in Fractured Rock Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursey, G.; Seok, E.; Gale, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    Flow to underground mines and open pits takes place through an interconnected network of regular joints/fractures and intermediate to large scale structural features such as faults and fracture zones. Large scale features can serve either as high permeability pathways or as barriers to flow, depending on the internal characteristics of the structure. Predicting long term water quality in barrier-well systems and long-term mine water inflows over a mine life, as a mine expands, requires the use of a 3D numerical flow and transport code. The code is used to integrate the physical geometry of the fractured-rock mass with porosity, permeability, hydraulic heads, storativity and recharge data and construct a model of the flow system. Once that model has been calibrated using hydraulic head and permeability/inflow data, aqueous geochemical and isotopic data provide useful tools for validating flow-system properties, when one is able to recognize and account for the non-ideal or imperfect aspects of the sampling methods used in different mining environments. If groundwater samples are collected from discrete depths within open boreholes, water in those boreholes have the opportunity to move up or down in response to the forces that drive groundwater flow, whether they be hydraulic gradients, gas pressures, or density differences associated with variations in salinity. The use of Br/Cl ratios, for example, can be used to determine if there is active flow into, or out of, the boreholes through open discontinuities in the rock mass (i.e., short-circuiting). Natural groundwater quality can also be affected to varying degrees by mixing with drilling fluids. The combined use of inorganic chemistry and stable isotopes can be used effectively to identify dilution signals and map the dilution patterns through a range of fresh, brackish and saline water types. The stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen are nearly ideal natural tracers of water, but situations occur when deep

  14. Cross-hole fracture connectivity assessed using hydraulic responses during liner installations in crystalline bedrock boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Elisha; Levison, Jana; Pehme, Peeter; Novakowski, Kentner; Parker, Beth

    2018-01-01

    In order to continually improve the current understanding of flow and transport in crystalline bedrock environments, developing and improving fracture system characterization techniques is an important area of study. The presented research examines the installation of flexible, impermeable FLUTe™ liners as a means for assessing cross-hole fracture connectivity. FLUTe™ liners are used to generate a new style of hydraulic pulse, with pressure response monitored in a nearby network of open boreholes drilled in gneissic rock of the Canadian Shield in eastern Ontario, Canada. Borehole liners were installed in six existing 10-15 cm diameter boreholes located 10-35 m apart and drilled to depths ranging between 25-45 m. Liner installation tests were completed consecutively with the number of observation wells available for each test ranging between one and six. The collected pressure response data have been analyzed to identify significant groundwater flow paths between source and observation boreholes as well as to estimate inter-well transmissivity and storativity using a conventional type-curve analysis. While the applied solution relies on a number of general assumptions, it has been found that reasonable comparison can be made to previously completed pulse interference and pumping tests. Results of this research indicate areas where method refinement is necessary, but, nonetheless, highlight the potential for use in crystalline bedrock environments. This method may provide value to future site characterization efforts given that it is complementary to, and can be used in conjunction with, other currently employed borehole liner applications, such as the removal of cross-connection at contaminated sites and the assessment of discrete fracture distributions when boreholes are sealed, recreating natural hydraulic gradient conditions.

  15. Source Characterization and Seismic Hazard Considerations for Hydraulic Fracture Induced Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, K.; Viegas, G. F.; Baig, A. M.; Urbancic, T.

    2015-12-01

    Large microseismic events (M>0) have been shown to be generated during hydraulic fracture treatments relatively frequently. These events are a concern both from public safety and engineering viewpoints. Recent microseismic monitoring projects in the Horn River Basin have utilized both downhole and surface sensors to record events associated with hydraulic fracturing. The resulting hybrid monitoring system has produced a large dataset with two distinct groups of events: large events recorded by the surface network (0structures; small events are concentrated at reservoir depth. Differences in behavior have been observed between these two datasets, leading to conclusions of different underlying processes responsible for the recorded activity. Both datasets show very low seismic efficiency, implying slip weakening and possibly the presence of fluids in the source region. Reservoir events have shear-tensile source mechanisms ranging between tensile opening and tensile closing, and fracture orientations dominated by the rock fabric which are not always optimally oriented to the regional stress field. The observed source characteristics are expected for events driven by increased pore pressure and reduced friction due to lubrication. On average, deep events show higher stress drop, apparent stress, and rupture velocity than reservoir events. This reflects higher confining stresses with depth, and possibly the release of stored energy in the existing zone of weakness. Deep events are dominated by shear failures, but source characteristics are smaller than for naturally occurring tectonic earthquakes of similar magnitude. Most importantly from a seismic hazard perspective, large earthquakes associated with hydrofracing have lower stress drops than tectonic earthquakes, and thus produce smaller peak ground acceleration and less damage on surface. The largest event recorded in this dataset has a moment magnitude of +2.9 and was felt by field crews in the area. The response

  16. Summary of three dimensional pump testing of a fractured rock aquifer in the western Siberian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.L.; Looney, B.B.; Eddy-Dilek, C.A.; Drozhko, E.G.; Glalolenko, Y.V.; Mokrov, Y.G.; Ivanov, I.A.; Glagolev, A.V.; Vasil'kova, N.A.

    1996-01-01

    A group of scientists from the Savannah River Technology Center and Russia successfully completed a 17 day field investigation of a fractured rock aquifer at the MAYAK PA nuclear production facility in Russia. The test site is located in the western Siberian Basin near the floodplain of the Mishelyak river. The fractured rock aquifer is composed of orphyrites, tuff, tuffbreccia and lava and is overlain by 0.5--12 meters of elluvial and alluvial sediments. A network of 3 uncased wells (176, 1/96, and 2/96) was used to conduct the tests. Wells 176 and 2/96 were used as observation wells and the centrally located well 1/96 was used as the pumping well. Six packers were installed and inflated in each of the observation wells at a depth of up to 85 meters. The use of 6 packers in each well resulted in isolating 7 zones for monitoring. The packers were inflated to different pressures to accommodate the increasing hydrostatic pressure. A straddle packer assembly was installed in the pumping well to allow testing of each of the individual zones isolated in the observation wells. A constant rate pumping test was run on each of the 7 zones. The results of the pumping tests are included in Appendix A. The test provided new information about the nature of the fractured rock aquifers in the vicinity of the Mishelyak river and will be key information in understanding the behavior of contaminants originating from process wastes discharged to Lake Karachi. Results from the tests will be analyzed to determine the hydraulic properties of different zones within the fractured rock aquifer and to determine the most cost effective clean-up approach for the site

  17. Post-excavation analysis of a revised hydraulic model of the Room 209 fracture, URL, Manitoba, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, A.; Tin Chan; Griffiths, P.; Nakka, B.

    1989-10-01

    An excavation response test was conducted in the Room 209 on the 240 m level of the AECL Underground Research Laboratory. Model predictions prior to excavation were made of the geomechanical response of the rock mass and the hydraulic response of an intercepted fracture. The model results were compared with excavation response data collected in a comprehensive instrument array. The work performed has addressed discrepancies between calculated and in-situ measured hydraulic response as part of a post-test analysis. Already existing hydraulic conceptual models of the fracture were revised and any available information was included in the new model. The model reproduced the pre-excavation hydraulic head distribution and hydraulic test results in terms of normalized flow rate within 5% and 75%, respectively. It was also found that the model reproduced the results of cross-hole hydraulic interference tests at least from a qualitative standpoint. The next stage of the modelling addressed the response of the model to a simulation of the excavated pilot tunnel. The preliminary results suggested the presence of a skin of different permeability in a thin zone around the periphery of the tunnel. By altering the permeability in the floor and along the walls and roof of the periphery, a better correspondence between calculated and measured drawdown was obtained. The same also applied for measured groundwater inflow in quantity, though not for the actual distribution on inflow. As probable causes for the interpreted positive skin in the crown and wall, temporary partial unsaturation and propulsion of debris into the fracture were suggested. The negative skin in the floor was interpreted as an effect of the dense and high energy charges used in the excavation process. (authors)

  18. Field assessment of the use of borehole pressure transients to measure the permeability of fractured rock masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forster, C.B.; Gale, J.E.

    1981-06-01

    A field experiment to evaluate the transient pressure pulse technique as a method of determining the in-situ hydraulic conductivity of low permeability fractured rock was made. The experiment attempted to define: the radius of influence of a pressure pulse-test in fractured rock and the correlation between pressure-pulse tests and steady-state flow tests performed in five boreholes drilled in fractured granite. Twenty-five test intervals, 2 to 3 m in length, were isolated in the boreholes, using air-inflated packers. During pressure pulse and steady-state tests, pressures were monitored in both the test and observation cavities. Rock-mass conductivities were calculated from steady-state test results and were found to range from less than 10 - 11 to 10 - 7 cm/sec. However, there was no consistent correlation between the steady-state conductivity and the pressure pulse decay characteristics of individual intervals. These conflicting test results can be attributed to the following factors: differences in volumes of rock affected by the test techniques; effects of equipment configuration and compliance; and complexity of the fracture network. Although the steady-state flow tests indicate that hydraulic connections exist between most of the test cavities, no pressure responses were noted in the observation cavities (located at least 0.3 m from the test cavities) during the pulse tests. This does not mean, however, that the pressure-pulse radius of influence is <0.3 m, because the observation cavities were too large (about 7 liters). The lack of correlation between steady-state conductivities and the corresponding pressure pulse decay times does not permit use of existing single-fracture type curves to analyze pulse tests performed in multiple-fracture intervals. Subsequent work should focus on the detailed interpretation of field results with particular reference to the effects of the fracture system at the test site

  19. Nanoparticles migration in fractured rocks and affects on contaminant migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missana, Tiziana; Garcia-Gutierrez, Miguel; Alonso, Ursula

    2014-05-01

    In previous studies, the transport behavior of artificial (gold and latex) and natural (smectite clay) colloids, within a planar fracture in crystalline rock, was analyzed. In order to better understand the effects of colloid size, shape and surface charge on nanoparticle migration and especially on filtration processes on natural rock surfaces, different clay colloids and oxide nanoparticles were selected and their transport studied as a function of the residence time. In all the cases, (a fraction of) the nanoparticles travelled in the fracture as fast as or faster than water (with a retardation factor, Rf ≤ 1) and the observed Rf, was related to the Taylor dispersion coefficient, accounting for colloid size, water velocity and fracture width. However, under most of the cases, in contrast to the behavior of a conservative tracer, colloids recovery was much lower than 100 %. Differences in recovery between different nanoparticles, under similar residence times, were analyzed. In order to evaluate the possible consequences, on contaminant migration, of the presence of nanoparticles in the system, transport tests were carried out with both colloids and sorbing radionuclides. The overall capacity for colloids of enhancing radionuclide migration in crystalline rock fractures is discussed. Acknowledgments: The research leading to these results received funding from EU FP7/2007-2011 grant agreement Nº 295487 (BELBAR, Bentonite Erosion: effects on the Long term performance of the engineered Barrier and Radionuclide Transport) and by the Spanish Government under the project NANOBAG (CTM2011-2797).

  20. Unsaturated flow and transport through fractured rock related to high-level waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.D.; Rasmussen, T.C.

    1991-01-01

    Research results are summarized for a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission contract with the University of Arizona focusing on field and laboratory methods for characterizing unsaturated fluid flow and solute transport related to high-level radioactive waste repositories. Characterization activities are presented for the Apache Leap Tuff field site. The field site is located in unsaturated, fractured tuff in central Arizona. Hydraulic, pneumatic, and thermal characteristics of the tuff are summarized, along with methodologies employed to monitor and sample hydrologic and geochemical processes at the field site. Thermohydrologic experiments are reported which provide laboratory and field data related to the effects conditions and flow and transport in unsaturated, fractured rock. 29 refs., 17 figs., 21 tabs

  1. Fracture Characterization in Reactive Fluid-Fractured Rock Systems Using Tracer Transport Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.

    2014-12-01

    Fractures, whether natural or engineered, exert significant controls over resource exploitation from contemporary energy sources including enhanced geothermal systems and unconventional oil and gas reserves. Consequently, fracture characterization, i.e., estimating the permeability, connectivity, and spacing of the fractures is of critical importance for determining the viability of any energy recovery program. While some progress has recently been made towards estimating these critical fracture parameters, significant uncertainties still remain. A review of tracer technology, which has a long history in fracture characterization, reveals that uncertainties exist in the estimated parameters not only because of paucity of scale-specific data but also because of knowledge gaps in the interpretation methods, particularly in interpretation of tracer data in reactive fluid-rock systems. We have recently demonstrated that the transient tracer evolution signatures in reactive fluid-rock systems are significantly different from those in non-reactive systems (Mukhopadhyay et al., 2013, 2014). For example, the tracer breakthrough curves in reactive fluid-fractured rock systems are expected to exhibit a long pseudo-state condition, during which tracer concentration does not change by any appreciable amount with passage of time. Such a pseudo-steady state condition is not observed in a non-reactive system. In this paper, we show that the presence of this pseudo-steady state condition in tracer breakthrough patterns in reactive fluid-rock systems can have important connotations for fracture characterization. We show that the time of onset of the pseudo-steady state condition and the value of tracer concentration in the pseudo-state condition can be used to reliably estimate fracture spacing and fracture-matrix interface areas.

  2. Clay club initiative: self-healing of fractures in clay-rich host rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horseman, S.T.; Cuss, R.J.; Reeves, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    The capacity of fractures in argillaceous rocks to self-heal (or become, with the passage of time, less conductive to groundwater) is often cited as a primary factor favouring the choice of such materials as host rocks for deep disposal. The underlying processes which contribute to self-healing can be broadly subdivided into: (a) mechanical and hydro-mechanical processes linked to the change in the stress field, movement of pore water, swelling, softening, plastic deformation and creep, and (b) geochemical processes linked to chemical alterations, transport in aqueous solution and the precipitation of minerals. Since chemical alteration can cause profound changes to the mechanical properties of argillaceous rocks, it is often difficult to draw a firm line between these two subdivisions. Based on the deliberations of the recent Cluster Conference in Luxembourg, there would appear to be some support for the use of the term 'self-sealing' for processes affecting fracture conductivity in argillaceous rock that are largely mechanical or hydro-mechanical in their origin. There are four main areas in which the self-healing capacity of the host rock becomes relevant to repository design and performance assessment: - potential for radionuclide transport within the excavation damage zone (EDZ); - design and performance of repository sealing systems; - potential impact of gas migration; - long-term performance considering erosional unloading, seismicity and fault reactivation. The presence of an EDZ is acknowledged to be a particularly important issue in performance assessment. Interconnection of fractures in the EDZ could lead to the development of a preferential flow path extending along the emplacement holes, access tunnels and shafts of a repository towards overlying aquifers and the biosphere. In the preliminary French Safety Analyses, for example, the treatment of scenarios relating to early seal failure have highlighted the hydraulic role of the damaged zone as a

  3. Multiscale pore networks and their effect on deformation and transport property alteration associated with hydraulic fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigle, Hugh; Hayman, Nicholas; Jiang, Han; Tian, Xiao; Jiang, Chunbi

    2017-04-01

    clusters of organic-hosted pores prevents the overpressure from dissipating, resulting in localized overpressure at the micron scale. When the rock is subjected to a hydraulic fracture stimulation, the rock surrounding the main induced fracture experiences shear deformation. Those parts of the rock that contain overpressured fluids in the organic-hosted pores will be more likely to experience dilatancy in the form of brittle deformation; the portions of the rock lacking in organic-hosted pores will tend to experience compactive shear failure since the effective normal stresses are larger. The microcrack networks that propagate into the regions of organic-hosted porosity allow the hydrocarbons resident in those pores to migrate to the main induced tensile fractures. The disconnected nature of the microcrack networks causes only a slight increase in permeability, which is consistent with other observations. Our work illustrates how multiscale pore networks in shale interact with in situ stresses to affect the bulk shale rheology.

  4. Estimation of the hydraulic conductivity of a two-dimensional fracture network using effective medium theory and power-law averaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, R. W.; Leung, C. T.

    2009-12-01

    Most oil and gas reservoirs, as well as most potential sites for nuclear waste disposal, are naturally fractured. In these sites, the network of fractures will provide the main path for fluid to flow through the rock mass. In many cases, the fracture density is so high as to make it impractical to model it with a discrete fracture network (DFN) approach. For such rock masses, it would be useful to have recourse to analytical, or semi-analytical, methods to estimate the macroscopic hydraulic conductivity of the fracture network. We have investigated single-phase fluid flow through generated stochastically two-dimensional fracture networks. The centers and orientations of the fractures are uniformly distributed, whereas their lengths follow a lognormal distribution. The aperture of each fracture is correlated with its length, either through direct proportionality, or through a nonlinear relationship. The discrete fracture network flow and transport simulator NAPSAC, developed by Serco (Didcot, UK), is used to establish the “true” macroscopic hydraulic conductivity of the network. We then attempt to match this value by starting with the individual fracture conductances, and using various upscaling methods. Kirkpatrick’s effective medium approximation, which works well for pore networks on a core scale, generally underestimates the conductivity of the fracture networks. We attribute this to the fact that the conductances of individual fracture segments (between adjacent intersections with other fractures) are correlated with each other, whereas Kirkpatrick’s approximation assumes no correlation. The power-law averaging approach proposed by Desbarats for porous media is able to match the numerical value, using power-law exponents that generally lie between 0 (geometric mean) and 1 (harmonic mean). The appropriate exponent can be correlated with statistical parameters that characterize the fracture density.

  5. Bioremediation in Fractured Rock: 2. Mobilization of Chloroethene Compounds from the Rock Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Allen M; Tiedeman, Claire R; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E; Goode, Daniel J; Hsieh, Paul A; Lacombe, Pierre J; DeFlaun, Mary F; Drew, Scott R; Curtis, Gary P

    2018-03-01

    A mass balance is formulated to evaluate the mobilization of chlorinated ethene compounds (CE) from the rock matrix of a fractured mudstone aquifer under pre- and postbioremediation conditions. The analysis relies on a sparse number of monitoring locations and is constrained by a detailed description of the groundwater flow regime. Groundwater flow modeling developed under the site characterization identified groundwater fluxes to formulate the CE mass balance in the rock volume exposed to the injected remediation amendments. Differences in the CE fluxes into and out of the rock volume identify the total CE mobilized from diffusion, desorption, and nonaqueous phase liquid dissolution under pre- and postinjection conditions. The initial CE mass in the rock matrix prior to remediation is estimated using analyses of CE in rock core. The CE mass mobilized per year under preinjection conditions is small relative to the total CE mass in the rock, indicating that current pump-and-treat and natural attenuation conditions are likely to require hundreds of years to achieve groundwater concentrations that meet regulatory guidelines. The postinjection CE mobilization rate increased by approximately an order of magnitude over the 5 years of monitoring after the amendment injection. This rate is likely to decrease and additional remediation applications over several decades would still be needed to reduce CE mass in the rock matrix to levels where groundwater concentrations in fractures achieve regulatory standards. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  6. Bioremediation in fractured rock: 2. Mobilization of chloroethene compounds from the rock matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Allen M.; Tiedeman, Claire; Imbrigiotta, Thomas; Goode, Daniel J.; Hsieh, Paul A.; Lacombe, Pierre; DeFlaun, Mary F.; Drew, Scott R.; Curtis, Gary P.

    2018-01-01

    A mass balance is formulated to evaluate the mobilization of chlorinated ethene compounds (CE) from the rock matrix of a fractured mudstone aquifer under pre- and postbioremediation conditions. The analysis relies on a sparse number of monitoring locations and is constrained by a detailed description of the groundwater flow regime. Groundwater flow modeling developed under the site characterization identified groundwater fluxes to formulate the CE mass balance in the rock volume exposed to the injected remediation amendments. Differences in the CE fluxes into and out of the rock volume identify the total CE mobilized from diffusion, desorption, and nonaqueous phase liquid dissolution under pre- and postinjection conditions. The initial CE mass in the rock matrix prior to remediation is estimated using analyses of CE in rock core. The CE mass mobilized per year under preinjection conditions is small relative to the total CE mass in the rock, indicating that current pump-and-treat and natural attenuation conditions are likely to require hundreds of years to achieve groundwater concentrations that meet regulatory guidelines. The postinjection CE mobilization rate increased by approximately an order of magnitude over the 5 years of monitoring after the amendment injection. This rate is likely to decrease and additional remediation applications over several decades would still be needed to reduce CE mass in the rock matrix to levels where groundwater concentrations in fractures achieve regulatory standards.

  7. Reliability of Source Mechanisms for a Hydraulic Fracturing Dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, T.; Van der Baan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Non-double-couple components have been inferred for induced seismicity due to fluid injection, yet these components are often poorly constrained due to the acquisition geometry. Likewise non-double-couple components in microseismic recordings are not uncommon. Microseismic source mechanisms provide an insight into the fracturing behaviour of a hydraulically stimulated reservoir. However, source inversion in a hydraulic fracturing environment is complicated by the likelihood of volumetric contributions to the source due to the presence of high pressure fluids, which greatly increases the possible solution space and therefore the non-uniqueness of the solutions. Microseismic data is usually recorded on either 2D surface or borehole arrays of sensors. In many cases, surface arrays appear to constrain source mechanisms with high shear components, whereas borehole arrays tend to constrain more variable mechanisms including those with high tensile components. The abilities of each geometry to constrain the true source mechanisms are therefore called into question.The ability to distinguish between shear and tensile source mechanisms with different acquisition geometries is investigated using synthetic data. For both inversions, both P- and S- wave amplitudes recorded on three component sensors need to be included to obtain reliable solutions. Surface arrays appear to give more reliable solutions due to a greater sampling of the focal sphere, but in reality tend to record signals with a low signal to noise ratio. Borehole arrays can produce acceptable results, however the reliability is much more affected by relative source-receiver locations and source orientation, with biases produced in many of the solutions. Therefore more care must be taken when interpreting results.These findings are taken into account when interpreting a microseismic dataset of 470 events recorded by two vertical borehole arrays monitoring a horizontal treatment well. Source locations and

  8. Modeling of Hydraulic Fracture Propagation at the kISMET Site Using a Fully Coupled 3D Network-Flow and Quasi- Static Discrete Element Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jing [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Huang, Hai [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mattson, Earl [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Herb F. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Haimson, Bezalel C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Doe, Thomas W. [Golder Associates Inc., Redmond, VA (United States); Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dobson, Patrick F. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Aimed at supporting the design of hydraulic fracturing experiments at the kISMET site, ~1500 m below ground in a deep mine, we performed pre-experimental hydraulic fracturing simulations in order to estimate the breakdown pressure, propagation pressure, fracture geometry, and the magnitude of induced seismicity using a newly developed fully coupled three-dimensional (3D) network flow and quasi-static discrete element model (DEM). The quasi-static DEM model, which is constructed by Delaunay tessellation of the rock volume, considers rock fabric heterogeneities by using the “disordered” DEM mesh and adding random perturbations to the stiffness and tensile/shear strengths of individual DEM elements and the elastic beams between them. A conjugate 3D flow network based on the DEM lattice is constructed to calculate the fluid flow in both the fracture and porous matrix. One distinctive advantage of the model is that fracturing is naturally described by the breakage of elastic beams between DEM elements. It is also extremely convenient to introduce mechanical anisotropy into the model by simply assigning orientation-dependent tensile/shear strengths to the elastic beams. In this paper, the 3D hydraulic fracturing model was verified against the analytic solution for a penny-shaped crack model. We applied the model to simulate fracture propagation from a vertical open borehole based on initial estimates of rock mechanical properties and in-situ stress conditions. The breakdown pressure and propagation pressure are directly obtained from the simulation. In addition, the released elastic strain energies of individual fracturing events were calculated and used as a conservative estimate for the magnitudes of the potential induced seismic activities associated with fracturing. The comparisons between model predictions and experimental results are still ongoing.

  9. Fracture and Healing of Rock Salt Related to Salt Caverns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.S.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, serious investigations of potential extension of the useful life of older caverns or of the use of abandoned caverns for waste disposal have been of interest to the technical community. All of the potential applications depend upon understanding the reamer in which older caverns and sealing systems can fail. Such an understanding will require a more detailed knowledge of the fracture of salt than has been necessary to date. Fortunately, the knowledge of the fracture and healing of salt has made significant advances in the last decade, and is in a position to yield meaningful insights to older cavern behavior. In particular, micromechanical mechanisms of fracture and the concept of a fracture mechanism map have been essential guides, as has the utilization of continuum damage mechanics. The Multimechanism Deformation Coupled Fracture (MDCF) model, which is summarized extensively in this work was developed specifically to treat both the creep and fracture of salt, and was later extended to incorporate the fracture healing process known to occur in rock salt. Fracture in salt is based on the formation and evolution of microfractures, which may take the form of wing tip cracks, either in the body or the boundary of the grain. This type of crack deforms under shear to produce a strain, and furthermore, the opening of the wing cracks produce volume strain or dilatancy. In the presence of a confining pressure, microcrack formation may be suppressed, as is often the case for triaxial compression tests or natural underground stress situations. However, if the confining pressure is insufficient to suppress fracture, then the fractures will evolve with time to give the characteristic tertiary creep response. Two first order kinetics processes, closure of cracks and healing of cracks, control the healing process. Significantly, volume strain produced by microfractures may lead to changes in the permeability of the salt, which can become a major concern in

  10. Rheological Characteristics of Cement Grout and its Effect on Mechanical Properties of a Rock Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Quansheng; Lei, Guangfeng; Peng, Xingxin; Lu, Chaobo; Wei, Lai

    2018-02-01

    Grouting reinforcement, which has an obvious strengthening effect on fractured rock mass, has been widely used in various fields in geotechnical engineering. The rheological properties of grout will greatly affect its diffusion radius in rock fractures, and the water-cement ratio is an important factor in determining the grouting flow patterns. The relationship between shear stress and shear rate which could reflect the grout rheological properties, the effects of water-cement ratio, and temperature on the rheological properties of grouting was studied in the laboratory. Besides, a new method for producing fractured rock specimens was proposed and solved the problem of producing natural fractured rock specimens. To investigate the influences of grouting on mechanical properties of a rock fracture, the fractured rock specimens made using the new method were reinforced by grouting on the independent designed grouting platform, and then normal and tangential mechanical tests were carried out on fractured rock specimens. The results showed that the mechanical properties of fractured rock mass are significantly improved by grouting, the peak shear strength and residual strength of rock fractures are greatly improved, and the resistance to deformation is enhanced after grouting. Normal forces affect the tangential behavior of the rock fracture, and the tangential stress strength increases with normal forces. The strength and stability of fractured rock mass are increased by grouting reinforcement.

  11. A Laboratory Study of the Effects of Interbeds on Hydraulic Fracture Propagation in Shale Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiheng Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate how the characteristics of interbeds affect hydraulic fracture propagation in the continental shale formation, a series of 300 mm × 300 mm × 300 mm concrete blocks with varying interbeds, based on outcrop observation and core measurement of Chang 7-2 shale formation, were prepared to conduct the hydraulic fracturing experiments. The results reveal that the breakdown pressure increases with the rise of thickness and strength of interbeds under the same in-situ field stress and injection rate. In addition, for the model blocks with thick and high strength interbeds, the hydraulic fracture has difficulty crossing the interbeds and is prone to divert along the bedding faces, and the fracturing effectiveness is not good. However, for the model blocks with thin and low strength interbeds, more long branches are generated along the main fracture, which is beneficial to the formation of the fracture network. What is more, combining the macroscopic descriptions with microscopic observations, the blocks with thinner and lower strength interbeds tend to generate more micro-fractures, and the width of the fractures is relatively larger on the main fracture planes. Based on the experiments, it is indicated that the propagation of hydraulic fractures is strongly influenced by the characteristics of interbeds, and the results are instructive to the understanding and evaluation of the fracability in the continental shale formation.

  12. Physical processes that control droplet transport in rock fracture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Katrina Moran

    Aquifer recharge is generally driven by fluids that move from the Earths surface to groundwater through the unsaturated zone, also known as the vadose zone. When the vadose zone is fractured, fluids, which may include contaminants, can move through the fracture network as well as the porous matrix. Such a network of fractures can provide a more rapid path, thereby reducing contact time between the fluid and the matrix. Contact time allows for exchange of solutes between the fluid and the porous matrix, thus being able to quantify contact time is important. In addition, the behavior of fluids within a fracture network has been found to be very complex; large-scale models are yet not able to predict transport paths or flux rates. Because, small-scale flow phenomena can strongly influence the large-scale behavior of fluid movement through systems of fractures, it is important that small-scale dynamics be properly understood in order to improve our predictive capabilities in these complex systems. Relevant flow dynamics includes the impact of boundary conditions, fluid modes that evolve in time and space and transitions between modes. This thesis presents three investigations aimed at understanding the physical processes governing fluid movement in unsaturated fractures, with the ultimate goal of improving predictive relationships for fluid transport in rock fracture systems. These investigations include a theoretical analysis of the wetting of a rough surface, an experimental study of the dynamics of fluid droplets (or liquid bridges) moving in a single fracture and a theoretical analysis of the movement of a fluid droplet encountering a fracture intersection. Each investigation is motivated by environmental applications. Development of an analytical equation for the wetting of a rough surface is based on a balance between capillary forces and frictional resistive forces. The resulting equation predicts movement of the liquid invasion front driven solely by the

  13. Aftershocks and triggering processes in rock fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidsen, J.; Kwiatek, G.; Goebel, T.; Stanchits, S. A.; Dresen, G.

    2017-12-01

    One of the hallmarks of our understanding of seismicity in nature is the importance of triggering processes, which makes the forecasting of seismic activity feasible. These triggering processes by which one earthquake induces (dynamic or static) stress changes leading to potentially multiple other earthquakes are at the core relaxation processes. A specic example of triggering are aftershocks following a large earthquake, which have been observed to follow certain empirical relationships such as the Omori-Utsu relation. Such an empirical relation should arise from the underlying microscopic dynamics of the involved physical processes but the exact connection remains to be established. Simple explanations have been proposed but their general applicability is unclear. Many explanations involve the picture of an earthquake as a purely frictional sliding event. Here, we present experimental evidence that these empirical relationships are not limited to frictional processes but also arise in fracture zone formation and are mostly related to compaction-type events. Our analysis is based on tri-axial compression experiments under constant displacement rate on sandstone and granite samples using spatially located acoustic emission events and their focal mechanisms. More importantly, we show that event-event triggering plays an important role in the presence of large-scale or macrocopic imperfections while such triggering is basically absent if no signicant imperfections are present. We also show that spatial localization and an increase in activity rates close to failure do not necessarily imply triggering behavior associated with aftershocks. Only if a macroscopic crack is formed and its propagation remains subcritical do we observe significant triggering.

  14. Stress, Flow and Particle Transport in Rock Fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Tomofumi

    2007-09-15

    The fluid flow and tracer transport in a single rock fracture during shear processes has been an important issue in rock mechanics and is investigated in this thesis using Finite Element Method (FEM) and streamline particle tracking method, considering evolutions of aperture and transmissivity with shear displacement histories under different normal stresses, based on laboratory tests. The distributions of fracture aperture and its evolution during shear were calculated from the initial aperture fields, based on the laser-scanned surface roughness features of replicas of rock fracture specimens, and shear dilations measured during the coupled shear-flow-tracer tests in laboratory performed using a newly developed testing apparatus in Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan. Three rock fractures of granite with different roughness characteristics were used as parent samples from which nine plaster replicas were made and coupled shear-flow tests was performed under three normal loading conditions (two levels of constant normal loading (CNL) and one constant normal stiffness (CNS) conditions). In order to visualize the tracer transport, transparent acrylic upper parts and plaster lower parts of the fracture specimens were manufactured from an artificially created tensile fracture of sandstone and the coupled shear-flow tests with fluid visualization was performed using a dye tracer injected from upstream and a CCD camera to record the dye movement. A special algorithm for treating the contact areas as zero-aperture elements was used to produce more accurate flow field simulations by using FEM, which is important for continued simulations of particle transport, but was often not properly treated in literature. The simulation results agreed well with the flow rate data obtained from the laboratory tests, showing that complex histories of fracture aperture and tortuous flow channels with changing normal stresses and increasing shear displacements, which were also captured

  15. Applying Bioaugmentation to Treat DNAPL Sources in Fractured Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-27

    Figure 1. This ESTCP demonstration was focused in the vicinity of Building 8595, adjacent to the location of a reported surface release of PCE ( Earth ...electron donor source, such as vegetable oil, is typically used in passive approaches. When treating a DNAPL source area in fractured rock, there are... vegetable oil) are used. Hydrogen The generation of hydrogen can be used to verify fermentation of electron donor. Metals (Fe, Mn, As) Increase

  16. Analog site for fractured rock characterization. Annual report FY 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, J.C.S.; Loughty, C.; Faybishenko, B.

    1995-10-01

    This report describes the accomplishments of the Analog Site for Fracture Rock Characterization Project during fiscal year 1995. This project is designed to address the problem of characterizing contaminated fractured rock. In order to locate contaminant plumes, develop monitoring schemes, and predict future fate and transport, the project will address the following questions: What parts of the system control flow-geometry of a fracture network? What physical processes control flow and transport? What are the limits on measurements to determine the above? What instrumentation should be used? How should it be designed and implemented? How can field tests be designed to provide information for predicting behavior? What numerical models are good predictors of the behavior of the system? The answers to these question can be used to help plan drilling programs that are likely to intersect plumes and provide effective monitoring of plume movement. The work is done at an open-quotes analogueclose quotes site, i.e., a site that is not contaminated, but has similar geology to sites that are contaminated, in order to develop tools and techniques without the financial, time and legal burdens of a contaminated site. The idea is to develop conceptual models and investigations tools and methodology that will apply to the contaminated sites in the same geologic regimes. The Box Canyon site, chosen for most of this work represents a unique opportunity because the Canyon walls allow us to see a vertical plane through the rock. The work represents a collaboration between the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL), Stanford University (Stanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Parsons Environmental Engineering (Parsons). LBL and Stanford bring extensive experience in research in fractured rock systems. INEL and Parsons bring significant experience with the contamination problem at INEL

  17. Case Study Analysis of the Impacts of Water Acquisition for Hydraulic Fracturing on Local Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) is used to develop unconventional gas reserves, but the technology requires large volumes of water, placing demands on local water resources and potentially creating conflict with other users and ecosystems. This study examines the balance between water ...

  18. Modeling of fault reactivation and induced seismicity during hydraulic fracturing of shale-gas reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have conducted numerical simulation studies to assess the potential for injection-induced fault reactivation and notable seismic events associated with shale-gas hydraulic fracturing operations. The modeling is generally tuned toward conditions usually encountered in the Marce...

  19. Hydrogeologic characterization of a fractured granitic rock aquifer, Raymond, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Andrew J.B. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The hydrogeologic properties of a shallow, fractured granitic rock aquifer in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, California were investigated via the analysis of borehole geophysical logs and pumping tests. The drawdowns produced during these tests are not indicative of any simple conceptual aquifer model, and borehole logs show that the granite is intensely fractured. These observations are suggestive of a complex fracture-flow geometry which is extremely difficult to decipher. However, through the measurement of orientations of individual subsurface fractures from acoustic televiewer logs, and correlation between particular fractures and electrical resistivity and thermal-pulse flowmeter logs, it was found that the aquifer is, in general, comprised of two subhorizontal and nearly parallel zones of unloading fractures. Downhole flowmeter measurements taken in several wells provide further evidence for the inferred dual-layer structure of the aquifer, as well as yield quantitative measures of the contribution of flow from each zone. Analysis of drawdowns in pumped wells reveals that there are zones of relatively high transmissivity immediately around them. It was found that these properties, as well as a nearby zone of lower transmissivity, can account for their observed drawdowns. A numerical model was constructed to test whether these major heterogeneities could also account for the drawdowns in observation wells. This stepwise analysis of both the geophysical and hydrological data resulted in the formulation of a conceptual model of the aquifer which is consistent with observations, and which can account for its behavior when subjected to pumping.

  20. IMPACT OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURING ON THE QUALITY OF NATURAL WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Cel

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Poland, due to the estimated shale gas deposits amounting to 346-768 billion m3 has become one of the most attractive regions for shale gas exploration in Europe. Throughout the period 2010-2015, 72 exploratory drillings have been made (as of 4.01.2016 while hydraulic fracturing was carried out 25 times. Employing new drilling and shale gas prospecting technologies raises a question pertaining to their impact on the environment. The number of chemical compounds used (approximately 2000 for the production of new technological fluids may potentially pollute the environment. The fact that the composition of these fluids remains undisclosed hinders the assessment of their impact on the environment and devising optimal methods for managing this type of waste. The presented work indicates the chemical compounds which may infiltrate to groundwater, identified on the basis of technological fluids characteristics, as well as the review of studies pertaining to their impact on potable water carried out in the United States. The study focused on marking heavy metals, calcium, sodium, magnesium, potassium, chlorides and sulphates in the surface waters collected in proximity of Lewino well.

  1. Hydraulic fracturing and infant health: New evidence from Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Greenstone, Michael; Meckel, Katherine

    2017-12-01

    The development of hydraulic fracturing ("fracking") is considered the biggest change to the global energy production system in the last half-century. However, several communities have banned fracking because of unresolved concerns about the impact of this process on human health. To evaluate the potential health impacts of fracking, we analyzed records of more than 1.1 million births in Pennsylvania from 2004 to 2013, comparing infants born to mothers living at different distances from active fracking sites and those born both before and after fracking was initiated at each site. We adjusted for fixed maternal determinants of infant health by comparing siblings who were and were not exposed to fracking sites in utero. We found evidence for negative health effects of in utero exposure to fracking sites within 3 km of a mother's residence, with the largest health impacts seen for in utero exposure within 1 km of fracking sites. Negative health impacts include a greater incidence of low-birth weight babies as well as significant declines in average birth weight and in several other measures of infant health. There is little evidence for health effects at distances beyond 3 km, suggesting that health impacts of fracking are highly local. Informal estimates suggest that about 29,000 of the nearly 4 million annual U.S. births occur within 1 km of an active fracking site and that these births therefore may be at higher risk of poor birth outcomes.

  2. The impact of a (hyper)alkaline plume on (fractured) crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, Russell

    2012-01-01

    Russell Alexander from Bedrock Geosciences, Switzerland, gave a presentation on the possible effects of cement pore waters on a crystalline host rock. Field, laboratory and natural analogue studies as well as geochemical modelling indicate that cement leachates tend to induce the sealing of fractures in the rock. These studies also indicate that strongly alkaline waters might: - Accelerate the dissolution of vitrified waste, but probably not affect the dissolution rate of spent fuel. - Degrade bentonite to some degree. To avoid some of the effects associated with the use of concrete, several approaches may be used: - Minimisation and tracking/monitoring of the concrete masses. - Development and use of low-pH cements and alternative grouting materials. - The selection of less fractured rock volumes for a repository location. The sealing of fractures evidenced in the Maquarin natural analogue study might contribute to limiting the extent of perturbations caused by an alkaline plume and is likely to create a hydraulic barrier that affects groundwater flow. The effects of these processes should be analysed in a safety case since they may support the idea of a self-sealing repository. Uncertainties in the treatment of an alkaline plume in fractured rock include: - The possible formation of colloids. - Thermodynamic data for cement components and secondary mineral stability. - Cement carbonation. - The effects of super-plasticisers. Given these uncertainties, current assessments of perturbations around a HLW or spent fuel repository caused by cementitious materials are often conservative and provide a pessimistic view of disposal system performance. Discussion of the paper included: Will groundwater flows in deep systems be fast enough to cause pervasive sealing of fractures? The process of how a network of fractures may be sealed over time is uncertain. The flow field will be altered as fractures are sealed and this may cause flow rates in other parts of the fracture

  3. Geophysical study in waste landfill localized above fractured rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariveltom Cosme da Silva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Geophysical survey is an important method for investigation of contaminated areas used in the characterization of contrasting physical properties in the presence of pollutants. This work applied the geophysical methods of Electrical Resistivity and Self Potential in waste landfill, located in Caçapava do Sul city, RS. The landfill is located over fractured metamorphic rocks. Eight lines of electrical profiling with 288 measures of self potential were done. In addition, 83 measurements of direction and dip of fractures were taken. The application of spontaneous potential method permitted to detect the direction of groundwater flow. The electrical resistivity measurements allowed the identification of low-intensity anomalies associated with the presence of leachate. There is a relationship between anomalous zones and the directions of fractures.

  4. INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS DURING CO2 INJECTION IN HYDRAULICALLY AND NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Schechter

    2005-04-27

    This report describes the work performed during the fourth year of the project, ''Investigating of Efficiency Improvements during CO{sub 2} Injection in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs.'' The objective of this project is to perform unique laboratory experiments with artificially fractured cores (AFCs) and X-ray CT scanner to examine the physical mechanisms of bypassing in hydraulically fractured reservoirs (HFR) and naturally fractured reservoirs (NFR) that eventually result in more efficient CO{sub 2} flooding in heterogeneous or fracture-dominated reservoirs. In Chapter 1, we worked with DOE-RMOTC to investigate fracture properties in the Tensleep Formation at Teapot Dome Naval Reserve as part of their CO{sub 2} sequestration project. In Chapter 2, we continue our investigation to determine the primary oil recovery mechanism in a short vertically fractured core. Finally in Chapter 3, we report our numerical modeling efforts to develop compositional simulator with irregular grid blocks.

  5. Application of Phase-Field Techniques to Hydraulically- and Deformation-Induced Fracture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Nathan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schweizer, Laura [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Phase-field techniques provide an alternative approach to fracture problems which mitigate some of the computational expense associated with tracking the crack interface and the coalescence of individual fractures. The technique is extended to apply to hydraulically driven fracture such as would occur during fracking or CO2 sequestration. Additionally, the technique is applied to a stainless steel specimen used in the Sandia Fracture Challenge. It was found that the phase-field model performs very well, at least qualitatively, in both deformation-induced fracture and hydraulically-induced fracture, though spurious hourglassing modes were observed during coupled hydralically-induced fracture. Future work would include performing additional quantitative benchmark tests and updating the model as needed.

  6. Research on fracture analysis, groundwater flow and sorption processes in fractured rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae-Ha; Kim, Won-Young; Lee, Seung-Gu [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (KR)] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    Due to increasing demand for numerous industrial facilities including nuclear power plants and waste repositories, the feasibility of rocks masses as sites for the facilities has been a geological issue of concern. Rock masses, in general, comprises systems of fractures which can provide pathways for groundwater flow and may also affect the stability of engineered structures. For the study of groundwater flow and sorption processes in fractured rocks, five boreholes were drilled. A stepwise and careful integration of various data obtained from field works and laboratory experiments were carried out to analyze groundwater flow in fractured rocks as follows; (1) investigation of geological feature of the site, (2) identification and characterization of fracture systems using core and televiewer logs, (3) determination of hydrogeological properties of fractured aquifers using geophysical borehole logging, pumping and slug tests, and continuous monitoring of groundwater level and quality, (4) evaluation of groundwater flow patterns using fluid flow modeling. The results obtained from these processes allow a qualitative interpretation of fractured aquifers in the study area. Column experiments of some reactive radionuclides were also performed to examine sorption processes of the radionuclides including retardation coefficients. In addition, analyses of fracture systems covered (1) reconstruction of the Cenozoic tectonic movements and estimation of frequency indices for the Holocene tectonic movements, (2) determination of distributions and block movements of the Quaternary marine terraces, (3) investigation of lithologic and geotechnical nature of study area, and (4) examination of the Cenozoic volcanic activities and determination of age of the dike swarms. Using data obtained from above mentioned analyses along with data related to earthquakes and active faults, probabilistic approach was performed to determine various potential hazards which may result from the

  7. Penetration of liquid fingers into superheated fractured rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholzer, Jens

    2003-04-01

    Water infiltrating down a fracture in unsaturated rock experiences complex fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena when entering above-boiling rock temperature regions. Such conditions are expected, for example, after emplacement of heat-generating nuclear waste in underground repositories. A new efficient semianalytical method is proposed in this paper that simulates the flow processes of infiltration events subject to vigorous boiling from the adjacent hot rock. It is assumed that liquid flow forms in localized preferential flow paths and that infiltration events are typically short in duration but large in magnitude relative to the average net infiltration. The new solution scheme is applied to several test cases studying sensitivity to a variety of input parameters. Sample simulations are performed for conditions representative of the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A characteristic parameter is introduced that provides a quick estimate of the relative significance of boiling at a given location of interest.

  8. Penetration of liquid fingers into superheated fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birkholzer, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Water infiltrating down a fracture in unsaturated rock experiences complex fluid-flow and heat-transfer phenomena when entering above-boiling rock temperature regions. Such conditions are expected, for example, after emplacement of heat-generating nuclear waste in underground repositories. A new, efficient semi-analytical method is proposed in this paper that simulates the flow processes of infiltration events subject to vigorous boiling from the adjacent hot rock. It is assumed that liquid flow forms in localized preferential flow paths, and that infiltration events are typically short in duration but large in magnitude relative to the average net infiltration. The new solution scheme is applied to several test cases studying sensitivity to a variety of input parameters. Sample simulations are performed for conditions representative of the potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A characteristic parameter is introduced that provides a quick estimate of the relative significance of boiling at a given location of interest

  9. Spatial statistics for predicting flow through a rock fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coakley, K.J.

    1989-03-01

    Fluid flow through a single rock fracture depends on the shape of the space between the upper and lower pieces of rock which define the fracture. In this thesis, the normalized flow through a fracture, i.e. the equivalent permeability of a fracture, is predicted in terms of spatial statistics computed from the arrangement of voids, i.e. open spaces, and contact areas within the fracture. Patterns of voids and contact areas, with complexity typical of experimental data, are simulated by clipping a correlated Gaussian process defined on a N by N pixel square region. The voids have constant aperture; the distance between the upper and lower surfaces which define the fracture is either zero or a constant. Local flow is assumed to be proportional to local aperture cubed times local pressure gradient. The flow through a pattern of voids and contact areas is solved using a finite-difference method. After solving for the flow through simulated 10 by 10 by 30 pixel patterns of voids and contact areas, a model to predict equivalent permeability is developed. The first model is for patterns with 80% voids where all voids have the same aperture. The equivalent permeability of a pattern is predicted in terms of spatial statistics computed from the arrangement of voids and contact areas within the pattern. Four spatial statistics are examined. The change point statistic measures how often adjacent pixel alternate from void to contact area (or vice versa ) in the rows of the patterns which are parallel to the overall flow direction. 37 refs., 66 figs., 41 tabs

  10. Development of a new code to solve hydro-mechanical coupling, shear failure and tensile failure due to hydraulic fracturing operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Gómez Castro, Berta; De Simone, Silvia; Carrera, Jesús

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, there are still some unsolved relevant questions which must be faced if we want to proceed to the hydraulic fracturing in a safe way. How much will the fracture propagate? This is one of the most important questions that have to be solved in order to avoid the formation of pathways leading to aquifer targets and atmospheric release. Will the fracture failure provoke a microseismic event? Probably this is the biggest fear that people have in fracking. The aim of this work (developed as a part of the EU - FracRisk project) is to understand the hydro-mechanical coupling that controls the shear of existing fractures and their propagation during a hydraulic fracturing operation, in order to identify the key parameters that dominate these processes and answer the mentioned questions. This investigation focuses on the development of a new C++ code which simulates hydro-mechanical coupling, shear movement and propagation of a fracture. The framework employed, called Kratos, uses the Finite Element Method and the fractures are represented with an interface element which is zero thickness. This means that both sides of the element lie together in the initial configuration (it seems a 1D element in a 2D domain, and a 2D element in a 3D domain) and separate as the adjacent matrix elements deform. Since we are working in hard, fragile rocks, we can assume an elastic matrix and impose irreversible displacements in fractures when rock failure occurs. The formulation used to simulate shear and tensile failures is based on the analytical solution proposed by Okada, 1992 and it is part of an iterative process. In conclusion, the objective of this work is to employ the new code developed to analyze the main uncertainties related with the hydro-mechanical behavior of fractures derived from the hydraulic fracturing operations.

  11. Social costs from proximity to hydraulic fracturing in New York State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popkin, Jennifer H.; Duke, Joshua M.; Borchers, Allison M.; Ilvento, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The study reports data from an economic choice experiment to determine the likely welfare impacts of hydraulic fracturing, in this case using natural gas extracted by hydraulic fracturing for household electricity. Data were collected from an Internet survey of 515 residents of New York State. The welfare analysis indicated that on average households incur a welfare loss from in-state hydraulic fracturing as the source of their electricity. The evidence suggests that households in shale counties bear more costs from HF electricity than households out of shale counties. The average welfare loss is substantive, estimated at 40–46% of average household electric bills in shale counties and 16–20% of bills in counties without shale. The evidence also suggests that relative proximity to HF well sites also increases cost borne by households. -- Highlights: •New York households were surveyed to determine impacts of hydraulic fracturing. •Households on average lose welfare if hydraulic fracturing gas provides their electricity. •The average welfare loss is estimated to be 16–46% of respondents’ electricity bill. •The welfare impacts were heterogeneous, with some predicted to have welfare gain. •Proximity to hydraulic fracturing wells decreases welfare, on average

  12. Is the permeability of naturally fractured rocks scale dependent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizmohammadi, Siroos; Matthäi, Stephan K.

    2017-09-01

    The equivalent permeability, keq of stratified fractured porous rocks and its anisotropy is important for hydrocarbon reservoir engineering, groundwater hydrology, and subsurface contaminant transport. However, it is difficult to constrain this tensor property as it is strongly influenced by infrequent large fractures. Boreholes miss them and their directional sampling bias affects the collected geostatistical data. Samples taken at any scale smaller than that of interest truncate distributions and this bias leads to an incorrect characterization and property upscaling. To better understand this sampling problem, we have investigated a collection of outcrop-data-based Discrete Fracture and Matrix (DFM) models with mechanically constrained fracture aperture distributions, trying to establish a useful Representative Elementary Volume (REV). Finite-element analysis and flow-based upscaling have been used to determine keq eigenvalues and anisotropy. While our results indicate a convergence toward a scale-invariant keq REV with increasing sample size, keq magnitude can have multi-modal distributions. REV size relates to the length of dilated fracture segments as opposed to overall fracture length. Tensor orientation and degree of anisotropy also converge with sample size. However, the REV for keq anisotropy is larger than that for keq magnitude. Across scales, tensor orientation varies spatially, reflecting inhomogeneity of the fracture patterns. Inhomogeneity is particularly pronounced where the ambient stress selectively activates late- as opposed to early (through-going) fractures. While we cannot detect any increase of keq with sample size as postulated in some earlier studies, our results highlight a strong keq anisotropy that influences scale dependence.

  13. Can introduction of hydraulic fracturing fluids induce biogenic methanogenesis in the shale reservoirs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.; Wilson, T.; Wrighton, K. C.; Borton, M.; O'Banion, B.

    2017-12-01

    The hydraulic fracturing fluids (HFF) injected into the shale formation are composed primarily of water, proppant and some chemical additives ( 0.5- 2% by volume). The additives contain a lot of organic and inorganic compounds like ammonium sulfate, guar gum, boric acid, hydrochloric acid, citric acid, potassium carbonate, glutaraldehyde, ethylene glycols which serve as friction reducers, gelling agents, crosslinkers, biocides, corrosion/scale inhibitors, etc. The water and additives introduced into the formation ensue a variety of microbiogechmical reactions in the reservoir. For this study produced, water and gas samples were collected from several old and new Marcellus wells in SE Pennsylvania and NE West Virginia to better understand these microbe-water-rock interactions. The carbon isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) in the produced fluids and CO2 in produced gas (δ13CCO2) are highly enriched with values > +10‰ and +14 ‰ V-PDB respectively. The injected hydraulic fracturing fluid had low δ13CDIC values of detectable carbon in them. The drilling mud and carbonate veins had δ13C values of -1.8 and < 2.0 ‰ V-PDB respectively. Therefore, the high δ13CDIC signatures in produced water are possibly due to the microbial utilization of lighter carbon (12C) by microbes or methanogenic bacteria in the reservoir. It is possible that introduction of C containing nutrients like guar, methanol, methylamines, etc. stimulates certain methanogen species in the reservoir to produce biogenic methane. Genomic analysis reveals that methanogen species like Methanohalophilus or Methanolobus could be the possible sources of biogenic methane in these shale reservoirs. The evidence of microbial methanogenesis raises the possibility of enhanced gas recovery from these shales using biological amendments.

  14. Characterization of Gas Transport Properties of Fractured Rocks By Borehole and Chamber Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimo, M.; Shimaya, S.; Maejima, T.

    2014-12-01

    Gas transport characteristics of fractured rocks is a great concern to variety of engineering applications such as underground storage of LPG, nuclear waste disposal, CCS and gas flooding in the oil field. Besides absolute permeability, relative permeability and capillary pressure as a function of water saturation have direct influences to the results of two phase flow simulation. However, number of the reported gas flow tests for fractured rocks are limited, therefore, the applicability of the conventional two-phase flow functions used for porous media, such as Mualem-van Genuchten model, to prediction of the gas transport in the fractured rock mass are not well understood. The authors conducted the two types of in-situ tests, with different scales, a borehole gas-injection test and a chamber gas-injection test in fractured granitic rock. These tests were conducted in the Cretaceous granitic rocks at the Namikata underground LPG storage cavern construction site in Ehime Prefecture in Japan, preceding to the cavern scale gas-tightness test. A borehole injection test was conducted using vertical and sub-vertical boreholes drilled from the water injection tunnel nearly at the depth of the top of the cavern, EL-150m. A new type downhole gas injection equipment that is capable to create a small 'cavern' within a borehole was developed. After performing a series of preliminary tests to investigate the hydraulic conductivity and gas-tightness, i.e. threshold pressure, gas injection tests were conducted under different gas pressure. Fig.1 shows an example of the test results From a chamber test using a air pressurizing chamber with volume of approximately166m3, the gas-tightness was confirmed within the uncertainty of 22Pa under the storage pressure of 0.7MPa, however, significant air leakage occurred possibly through an open fracture intersecting the chamber just after cavern pressure exceeds the initial hydrostatic pressure at the ceiling level of the chamber. Anomalies

  15. Conceptual characterization of the system of fractures of the rock mass known as Sierra del Medio (Chubut)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    This work characterizes conceptually the system of fractures of the rock mass known as Sierra del Medio and its surroundings. The purpose of this characterization is to define the spectra of flow regimes which must be covered in computational models to be used in the prediction of the thermohydraulic effects of the eventual emplacement of a high-level radioactive waste repository. The analysis of the available data from previous studies was performed in order to determine qualitative data to be used in the stage of feasibility studied. The flow of water roughly N-S is defined by two systems of vertical, almost orthogonal fractures and surrounded by large faults. A set of hypotheses were considered which allow, supposing a given distribution of surface fractures, to establish the variations according to depth. The usual ways of obtaining the permeability and the hydraulic conductivity in fractured porous media are summarized in an appendix. (Author) [es

  16. HRL Aespoe - two-phase flow experiment - gas and water flow in fractured crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kull, H.; Liedtke, L.

    1998-01-01

    (The full text of the contribution follows:) Gas generated from radioactive waste may influence the hydraulic and mechanical properties of the man-made barriers and the immediate surroundings of the repository. Prediction of alteration in fractured crystalline rock is difficult. There is a lack of experimental data, and calibrated models are not yet available. Because of the general importance of this matter the German Federal Ministry for Education, Science, Research and Technology decided to conduct a two-phase flow study at HRL Aespoe within the scope of the co-operation agreement with SKB. Within the presentation an overview of field experiments and modelling studies scheduled until end of '99 are given. Conceptual models for one- and two-phase flow, methodologies and with respect to numerical calculations necessary parameter set-ups are discussed. Common objective of in-situ experiments is to calibrate flow models to improve the reliability of predictions for gas migration through fractured rock mass. Hence, in a defined dipole flow field in niche 2/715 at HRL Aespoe effective hydraulic parameters are evaluated. Numerical modelling of non-isothermal, two-phase, two-component processes is feasible only for two-dimensional representation of a porous medium. To overcome this restriction a computer program will be developed to model three-dimensional, fractured, porous media. Rational aspects of two-phase flow studies are for the designing of geotechnical barriers and for the long-term safety analysis of potential radionuclide transport in a future repository required for the licensing process

  17. Non-Darcy Flow Experiments of Water Seepage through Rough-Walled Rock Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-dong Ni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of flow phenomena in fractured rocks is very important for groundwater-resources management in hydrogeological engineering. The most commonly used tool to approximate the non-Darcy behavior of the flow velocity is the well-known Forchheimer equation, deploying the “inertial” coefficient β that can be estimated experimentally. Unfortunately, the factor of roughness is imperfectly considered in the literature. In order to do this, we designed and manufactured a seepage apparatus that can provide different roughness and aperture in the test; the rough fracture surface is established combining JRC and 3D printing technology. A series of hydraulic tests covering various flows were performed. Experimental data suggest that Forchheimer coefficients are to some extent affected by roughness and aperture. At last, favorable semiempirical Forchheimer equation which can consider fracture aperture and roughness was firstly derived. It is believed that such studies will be quite useful in identifying the limits of applicability of the well-known “cubic law,” in further improving theoretical/numerical models associated with fluid flow through a rough fracture.

  18. The Multi-Porosity Multi-Permeability and Electrokinetic Natures of Shales and Their Effects in Hydraulic Fracturing of Unconventional Shale Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C.; Hoang, S. K.; Tran, M. H.; Abousleiman, Y. N.

    2013-12-01

    Imaging studies of unconventional shale reservoir rocks have recently revealed the multi-porosity multi-permeability nature of these intricate formations. In particular, the porosity spectrum of shale reservoir rocks often comprises of the nano-porosity in the organic matters, the inter-particle micro-porosity, and the macroscopic porosity of the natural fracture network. Shale is also well-known for its chemically active behaviors, especially shrinking and swelling when exposed to aqueous solutions, as the results of pore fluid exchange with external environment due to the difference in electro-chemical potentials. In this work, the effects of natural fractures and electrokinetic nature of shale on the formation responses during hydraulic fracturing are examined using the dual-poro-chemo-electro-elasticity approach which is a generalization of the classical Biot's poroelastic formulation. The analyses show that the presence of natural fractures can substantially increase the leak-off rate of fracturing fluid into the formation and create a larger region of high pore pressure near the fracture face as shown in Fig.1a. Due to the additional fluid invasion, the naturally fractured shale swells up more and the fracture aperture closes faster compared to an intrinsically low permeability non-fractured shale formation as shown in Fig.1b. Since naturally fractured zones are commonly targeted as pay zones, it is important to account for the faster fracture closing rate in fractured shales in hydraulic fracturing design. Our results also show that the presence of negative fixed charges on the surface of clay minerals creates an osmotic pressure at the interface of the shale and the external fluid as shown in Fig.1c. This additional Donnan-induced pore pressure can result in significant tensile effective stresses and tensile damage in the shale as shown in Fig.1d. The induced tensile damage can exacerbate the problem of proppant embedment resulting in more fracture closure

  19. Simulation of hydraulic disturbances caused by the underground rock characterisation facility in Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefman, J.; Meszaros, F.

    2005-11-01

    The hydraulic disturbances that might result from the open ONKALO tunnel system were assessed by means of site-scale finite element simulations. The details of the construction and operation of the ONKALO was not taken into account in the simulations, but the entire tunnel system was instantly made hydraulically active at the beginning of the simulation and was assumed to be open for 100 years. The inflow of groundwater into the tunnels, the resulting drawdown of the water table, and the upconing of deep saline groundwater were analysed separately by using somewhat different modelling approaches and assumptions. The drawdown of the water table was simulated by employing the free surface approach, in which only the saturated part was included in the modelled volume and the sinking water table constituted the free surface. The tunnel inflows were obtained from the state of equilibrium. The evolution of the salinity distribution was simulated with a time-dependent and coupled (flow and salt transport) model. The simulations showed that without engineering measures (e.g., grouting) to limit inflow of groundwater into the open tunnels, the hydraulic disturbances would be significantly greater than with these measures implemented. The drifts that made up strong sinks in the model, draw groundwater from all directions in the bedrock. Most of inflow (330-1100 l/min) would come from the well-conductive subhorizontal fracture zones intersected by the access tunnel and the shaft. The water table might sink locally to a depth of about 200 metres and the depressed area extend over the Olkiluoto Island. The results also indicated that the salinity of the groundwater could gradually rise around and below the drifts, and locally concentration (TDS) may rise from 22 g/l up to over 50 g/l in the vicinity of the tunnels. The disturbances can significantly be reduced by the grouting of rock. In the case of tight grouting the depression of the water table was confined to the immediate

  20. Injection of radioactive waste by hydraulic fracturing at West Valley, New York. Volume 3. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-05-01

    Ten appendices are included: log data, elastic constants for transversely isotropic elastic media by ultrasonic velocity measurement, fracture toughness anisotropy of West Valley shale, in-situ stress measurement techniques, stress measurement data, hydraulic fracturing measurements, enhancement of horizontal crack initiation by jetting, finite element programs for analysis of crack propagation and for groundwater flow analysis, and well data

  1. Multi-hazard risk assessment applied to hydraulic fracturing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Aristizabal, Alexander; Gasparini, Paolo; Russo, Raffaella; Capuano, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Without exception, the exploitation of any energy resource produces impacts and intrinsically bears risks. Therefore, to make sound decisions about future energy resource exploitation, it is important to clearly understand the potential environmental impacts in the full life-cycle of an energy development project, distinguishing between the specific impacts intrinsically related to exploiting a given energy resource and those shared with the exploitation of other energy resources. Technological advances as directional drilling and hydraulic fracturing have led to a rapid expansion of unconventional resources (UR) exploration and exploitation; as a consequence, both public health and environmental concerns have risen. The main objective of a multi-hazard risk assessment applied to the development of UR is to assess the rate (or the likelihood) of occurrence of incidents and the relative potential impacts on surrounding environment, considering different hazards and their interactions. Such analyses have to be performed considering the different stages of development of a project; however, the discussion in this paper is mainly focused on the analysis applied to the hydraulic fracturing stage of a UR development project. The multi-hazard risk assessment applied to the development of UR poses a number of challenges, making of this one a particularly complex problem. First, a number of external hazards might be considered as potential triggering mechanisms. Such hazards can be either of natural origin or anthropogenic events caused by the same industrial activities. Second, failures might propagate through the industrial elements, leading to complex scenarios according to the layout of the industrial site. Third, there is a number of potential risk receptors, ranging from environmental elements (as the air, soil, surface water, or groundwater) to local communities and ecosystems. The multi-hazard risk approach for this problem is set by considering multiple hazards

  2. Fractal analysis of fractures and microstructures in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merceron, T.; Nakashima, S.; Velde, B.; Badri, A.

    1991-01-01

    Fractal geometry was used to characterize the distribution of fracture fields in rocks, which represent main pathways for material migration such as groundwater flow. Fractal investigations of fracture distribution were performed on granite along Auriat and Shikoku boreholes. Fractal dimensions range between 0.3 and 0.5 according to the different sets of fracture planes selected for the analyses. Shear, tension and compressional modes exhibit different fractal values while the composite fracture patterns are also fractal but with a different, median, fractal value. These observations indicate that the fractal method can be used to distinguish fracture types of different origins in a complex system. Fractal results for Shikoku borehole also correlate with geophysical parameters recorded along, drill-holes such as resistivity and possibly permeability. These results represent the first steps of the fractal investigation along drill-holes. Future studies will be conducted to verify relationships between fractal dimensions and permeability by using available geophysical data. Microstructures and microcracks were analysed in the Inada granite. Microcrack patterns are fractal but fractal dimensions values vary according to both mineral type and orientations of measurement within the mineral. Microcracks in quartz are characterized by more irregular distribution (average D = 0.40) than those in feldspars (D = 0.50) suggesting a different mode of rupture. Highest values of D are reported along main cleavage planes for feldspars or C axis for quartz. Further fractal investigations of microstructure in granite will be used to characterize the potential pathways for fluid migration and diffusion in the rock matrix. (author)

  3. Modelling Subduction Zone Magmatism Due to Hydraulic Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, R.; Davies, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this project is to test the hypothesis that subduction zone magmatism involves hydraulic fractures propagating from the oceanic crust to the mantle wedge source region (Davies, 1999). We aim to test this hypothesis by developing a numerical model of the process, and then comparing model outputs with observations. The hypothesis proposes that the water interconnects in the slab following an earthquake. If sufficient pressure develops a hydrofracture occurs. The hydrofracture will expand in the direction of the least compressive stress and propagate in the direction of the most compressive stress, which is out into the wedge. Therefore we can calculate the hydrofracture path and end-point, given the start location on the slab and the propagation distance. We can therefore predict where water is added to the mantle wedge. To take this further we have developed a thermal model of a subduction zone. The model uses a finite difference, marker-in-cell method to solve the heat equation (Gerya, 2010). The velocity field was prescribed using the analytical expression of cornerflow (Batchelor, 1967). The markers contained within the fixed grid are used to track the different compositions and their properties. The subduction zone thermal model was benchmarked (Van Keken, 2008). We used the hydrous melting parameterization of Katz et.al., (2003) to calculate the degree of melting caused by the addition of water to the wedge. We investigate models where the hydrofractures, with properties constrained by estimated water fluxes, have random end points. The model predicts degree of melting, magma productivity, temperature of the melt and water content in the melt for different initial water fluxes. Future models will also include the buoyancy effect of the melt and residue. Batchelor, Cambridge UP, 1967. Davies, Nature, 398: 142-145, 1999. Gerya, Cambridge UP, 2010. Katz, Geochem. Geophys. Geosy, 4(9), 2003 Van Keken et.al. Phys. Earth. Planet. In., 171:187-197, 2008.

  4. Environmental tracers as indicators of groundwater flow and evolution in a fractured rock aquifer, Clare Valley, South Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, A.J.; Cook, P.G.; Herczeg, A.L.; Simmons, C.T.

    1999-01-01

    Environmental tracers, chemistry and hydraulic data have been used to develop a conceptual model for groundwater flow in a fractured rock aquifer, at Clare, South Australia. In the upper 36 m there is relatively high horizontal flow, closely spaced fractures and large apertures. Below 36 m, horizontal flow rates are less and apertures become smaller. A sub horizontal fracture at 36 m separates the upper system from flow systems below. There is minimum vertical connection of groundwater above and below 36 m as indicated by low hydraulic conductivity and a steep 14 C concentration gradient. The observed linear trends in chemistry and isotope data are a result of mixing between old saline water and relatively younger fresh water. Greater mixing has occurred in the upper 36 m, with the amount of mixing diminishing with depth. We propose that this mixing is a recent process that has been triggered as a result of increased recharge to the system since the clearing of native vegetation approximately 100 years ago. Increased recharge of lower salinity water has resulted in the establishment of concentration gradients between the matrix and the fractures. This has resulted in diffusion of relatively immobile water in the matrix into relatively fast moving water in the fractures. Greater flushing has occurred in the upper 36 m due greater fracture density and larger apertures and higher horizontal flow rates. (author)

  5. Simulation of fluid flow in fractured rock: a probabilistic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaniego, J.A.; Priest, S.D.

    1985-02-01

    This report describes the results of a research project designed to investigate the influence of discontinuities on fluid flow through fractured rock masses. The aim has been to provide a rational basis for the assessment of prospective intermediate level radioactive waste repository sites. The results of this work are presented in the form of two groups of FORTRAN computer programs. The first of these is designed to process data obtained from exposed rock faces and thereby provide an unbiased estimate of discontinuity characteristics. The resulting data are input to the second group of programs which generate a two-dimensional random realisation of discontinuity geometry. When appropriate boundary conditions have been specified, the resulting network of channels is solved numerically to determine nodal potentials, flow quantities and equivalent permeabilities. A number of validation runs are presented, together with some parametric studies, to investigate the influence of excavation size and discontinuity geometry on fluid flow. A practical application is given in the form of a case study involving the prediction of fluid flow into a 2.8 m diameter tunnel in water bearing, fractured rock. Finally, the applications and limitations of the programs in site assessment for radioactive waste repositories are discussed. (author)

  6. An Improved Rate-Transient Analysis Model of Multi-Fractured Horizontal Wells with Non-Uniform Hydraulic Fracture Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youwei He

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Although technical advances in hydraulically fracturing and drilling enable commercial production from tight reservoirs, oil/gas recovery remains at a low level. Due to the technical and economic limitations of well-testing operations in tight reservoirs, rate-transient analysis (RTA has become a more attractive option. However, current RTA models hardly consider the effect of the non-uniform production on rate decline behaviors. In fact, PLT results demonstrate that production profile is non-uniform. To fill this gap, this paper presents an improved RTA model of multi-fractured horizontal wells (MFHWs to investigate the effects of non-uniform properties of hydraulic fractures (production of fractures, fracture half-length, number of fractures, fracture conductivity, and vertical permeability on rate transient behaviors through the diagnostic type curves. Results indicate obvious differences on the rate decline curves among the type curves of uniform properties of fractures (UPF and non-uniform properties of fractures (NPF. The use of dimensionless production integral derivative curve magnifies the differences so that we can diagnose the phenomenon of non-uniform production. Therefore, it’s significant to incorporate the effects of NPF into the RDA models of MFHWs, and the model proposed in this paper enables us to better evaluate well performance based on long-term production data.

  7. Radiological issues associated with the recent boom in oil and gas hydraulic fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Alejandro [AMEC Environment and Infrastructure, 800 North Bell Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15106 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    As the worldwide hydraulic fracturing 'fracking' market continued to grow to an estimated $37 Billion in 2012, the need to understand and manage radiological issues associated with fracking is becoming imperative. Fracking is a technique that injects pressurized fluid into rock layer to propagate fractures that allows natural gas and other petroleum products to be more easily extracted. Radioactivity is associated with fracking in two ways. Radioactive tracers are frequently a component of the injection fluid used to determine the injection profile and locations of fractures. Second, because there are naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the media surrounding and containing oil and gas deposits, the process of fracking can dislodge radioactive materials and transport them to the surface in the wastewater and gases. Treatment of the wastewater to remove heavy metals and other contaminates can concentrate the NORM into technologically-enhanced NORM (TENORM). Regulations to classify, transport, and dispose of the TENORM and other radioactive waste can be complicated and cumbersome and vary widely in the international community and even between states/provinces. In many cases, regulations on NORM and TENORM do not even exist. Public scrutiny and regulator pressure will only continue to increase as the world demands on oil and gas continue to rise and greater quantities of TENORM materials are produced. Industry experts, health physicists, regulators, and public communities must work together to understand and manage radiological issues to ensure reasonable and effective regulations protective of the public, environment, and worker safety and health are implemented. (authors)

  8. Radiological issues associated with the recent boom in oil and gas hydraulic fracturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    As the worldwide hydraulic fracturing 'fracking' market continued to grow to an estimated $37 Billion in 2012, the need to understand and manage radiological issues associated with fracking is becoming imperative. Fracking is a technique that injects pressurized fluid into rock layer to propagate fractures that allows natural gas and other petroleum products to be more easily extracted. Radioactivity is associated with fracking in two ways. Radioactive tracers are frequently a component of the injection fluid used to determine the injection profile and locations of fractures. Second, because there are naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the media surrounding and containing oil and gas deposits, the process of fracking can dislodge radioactive materials and transport them to the surface in the wastewater and gases. Treatment of the wastewater to remove heavy metals and other contaminates can concentrate the NORM into technologically-enhanced NORM (TENORM). Regulations to classify, transport, and dispose of the TENORM and other radioactive waste can be complicated and cumbersome and vary widely in the international community and even between states/provinces. In many cases, regulations on NORM and TENORM do not even exist. Public scrutiny and regulator pressure will only continue to increase as the world demands on oil and gas continue to rise and greater quantities of TENORM materials are produced. Industry experts, health physicists, regulators, and public communities must work together to understand and manage radiological issues to ensure reasonable and effective regulations protective of the public, environment, and worker safety and health are implemented. (authors)

  9. Fully Coupled Geomechanics and Discrete Flow Network Modeling of Hydraulic Fracturing for Geothermal Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, P; Johnson, S M; Hao, Y; Carrigan, C R

    2011-01-18

    The primary objective of our current research is to develop a computational test bed for evaluating borehole techniques to enhance fluid flow and heat transfer in enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). Simulating processes resulting in hydraulic fracturing and/or the remobilization of existing fractures, especially the interaction between propagating fractures and existing fractures, represents a critical goal of our project. To this end, we are continuing to develop a hydraulic fracturing simulation capability within the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC), a combined FEM/DEM analysis code with explicit solid-fluid mechanics coupling. LDEC simulations start from an initial fracture distribution which can be stochastically generated or upscaled from the statistics of an actual fracture distribution. During the hydraulic stimulation process, LDEC tracks the propagation of fractures and other modifications to the fracture system. The output is transferred to the Non-isothermal Unsaturated Flow and Transport (NUFT) code to capture heat transfer and flow at the reservoir scale. This approach is intended to offer flexibility in the types of analyses we can perform, including evaluating the effects of different system heterogeneities on the heat extraction rate as well as seismicity associated with geothermal operations. This paper details the basic methodology of our approach. Two numerical examples showing the capability and effectiveness of our simulator are also presented.

  10. Shallow Aquifer Vulnerability From Subsurface Fluid Injection at a Proposed Shale Gas Hydraulic Fracturing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M. P.; Worrall, F.; Davies, R. J.; Hart, A.

    2017-11-01

    Groundwater flow resulting from a proposed hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operation was numerically modeled using 91 scenarios. Scenarios were chosen to be a combination of hydrogeological factors that a priori would control the long-term migration of fracking fluids to the shallow subsurface. These factors were induced fracture extent, cross-basin groundwater flow, deep low hydraulic conductivity strata, deep high hydraulic conductivity strata, fault hydraulic conductivity, and overpressure. The study considered the Bowland Basin, northwest England, with fracking of the Bowland Shale at ˜2,000 m depth and the shallow aquifer being the Sherwood Sandstone at ˜300-500 m depth. Of the 91 scenarios, 73 scenarios resulted in tracked particles not reaching the shallow aquifer within 10,000 years and 18 resulted in travel times less than 10,000 years. Four factors proved to have a statistically significant impact on reducing travel time to the aquifer: increased induced fracture extent, absence of deep high hydraulic conductivity strata, relatively low fault hydraulic conductivity, and magnitude of overpressure. Modeling suggests that high hydraulic conductivity formations can be more effective barriers to vertical flow than low hydraulic conductivity formations. Furthermore, low hydraulic conductivity faults can result in subsurface pressure compartmentalization, reducing horizontal groundwater flow, and encouraging vertical fluid migration. The modeled worst-case scenario, using unlikely geology and induced fracture lengths, maximum values for strata hydraulic conductivity and with conservative tracer behavior had a particle travel time of 130 years to the base of the shallow aquifer. This study has identified hydrogeological factors which lead to aquifer vulnerability from shale exploitation.

  11. Applications of stochastic models to solute transport in fractured rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelhar, L.W.

    1987-01-01

    A stochastic theory for flow and solute transport in a single variable aperture fracture bounded by sorbing porous matrix into which solutes may diffuse, is developed using a perturbation approximation and spectral solution techniques which assume local statistical homogeneity. The theory predicts that the effective aperture of the fracture for mean solute displacement will be larger than the aperture required to calculate the large-scale flow resistance of the fracture. This ratio of apertures is a function of the variance of the logarithm of the apertures. The theory also predicts the macrodispersion coefficient for large-scale transport in the fracture. The resulting macrodispersivity is proportional to the variance of the logaperture and to its correlation scale. When variable surface sorption is included, it is found that the macrodispersivity is increased significantly, in some cases more than an order of magnitude. It is also shown that the effective retardation coefficient for the sorptively heterogeneous fracture is found by simply taking the arithmetic mean of the local surface sorption coefficient. Matrix diffusion is also shown to increase the fracture macrodispesivity at very large times. A reexamination of the results of four different field tracer tests in crystalline rock in Sweden and Canada shows aperture ratios and dispersivities that are consistent with the stochastic theory. The variance of the natural logarithm of the aperture is found to be in the range of 3 to 6 and the correlation scales for logaperture ranges from .2 to 1.2 meters. Detailed recommendations for additional field investigations at scales ranging from a few meters up to a kilometer are presented. (orig.)

  12. Upscaling of permeability field of fractured rock system: Numerical examples

    KAUST Repository

    Bao, K.; Salama, Amgad; Sun, S.

    2012-01-01

    When the permeability field of a given porous medium domain is heterogeneous by the existence of randomly distributed fractures such that numerical investigation becomes cumbersome, another level of upscaling may be required. That is such complex permeability field could be relaxed (i.e., smoothed) by constructing an effective permeability field. The effective permeability field is an approximation to the real permeability field that preserves certain quantities and provides an overall acceptable description of the flow field. In this work, the effective permeability for a fractured rock system is obtained for different coarsening scenarios starting from very coarse mesh all the way towards the fine mesh simulation. In all these scenarios, the effective permeability as well as the pressure at each cell is obtained. The total flux at the exit boundary is calculated in all these cases, and very good agreement is obtained.

  13. The moderately fractured rock experiment: Background and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    The Moderately Fractured Rock (MFR) experiment is conducted at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's Underground Research Laboratory (URL) as part of Ontario Power Generation's Deep Geologic Repository Technology Program. The MFR experiment was initiated in the mid-1990s with the purpose of advancing the understanding of mass transport in MFR (fractures 1-5/m, k ≅ 10 -15 m 2 ) in which groundwater flow and solute migration occurs through a network of interconnected fractures. The experimental program has involved a series of multi-well forced gradient tracer tests at scales of 10-50 m within a ≅ 100,000 m 3 volume of MFR accessed from the 240 m level of the URL. The tracer tests conducted with non-reactive, reactive and colloidal tracers have served to explore the applicability of continuum models for prediction of groundwater flow and mass transport. Recently, a Modeling Task Force was created to re-examine tracer test experimental methodologies, MFR flow and transport conceptual models and provide a broader forum in which to apply alternative dual-permeability, discrete fracture and hybrid mathematical codes for flow system analysis. This paper provides a description of the MFR experiment, preliminary research findings and plans for the future

  14. Large-Scale True Triaxial Apparatus for Geophysical Studies in Fractured Rock

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia, A. V.

    2018-05-12

    The study of fractured rock masses in the laboratory remains challenging because of the large specimen sizes and bulky loading systems that are required. This article presents the design, structural analysis, and operation of a compact and self-reacting true triaxial device for fractured rock. The frame subjects a 50 cm by 50 cm by 50 cm fractured rock specimen to a maximum stress of 3 MPa along three independent axes. Concurrent measurements include long-wavelength P-wave propagation, passive acoustic emission monitoring, deformations, and thermal measurements. The device can accommodate diverse research, from rock mass properties and geophysical fractured rock characterizations, to coupled hydro-chemo-thermo-mechanical processes, drilling, and grouting. Preliminary wave propagation data gathered under isotropic and anisotropic stress conditions for an assembly of 4,000 rock blocks demonstrate the system’s versatility and provide unprecedented information related to long-wavelength propagation in fractured rock under various stress anisotropies.

  15. Large-Scale True Triaxial Apparatus for Geophysical Studies in Fractured Rock

    KAUST Repository

    Garcia, A. V.; Rached, R. M.; Santamarina, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    The study of fractured rock masses in the laboratory remains challenging because of the large specimen sizes and bulky loading systems that are required. This article presents the design, structural analysis, and operation of a compact and self-reacting true triaxial device for fractured rock. The frame subjects a 50 cm by 50 cm by 50 cm fractured rock specimen to a maximum stress of 3 MPa along three independent axes. Concurrent measurements include long-wavelength P-wave propagation, passive acoustic emission monitoring, deformations, and thermal measurements. The device can accommodate diverse research, from rock mass properties and geophysical fractured rock characterizations, to coupled hydro-chemo-thermo-mechanical processes, drilling, and grouting. Preliminary wave propagation data gathered under isotropic and anisotropic stress conditions for an assembly of 4,000 rock blocks demonstrate the system’s versatility and provide unprecedented information related to long-wavelength propagation in fractured rock under various stress anisotropies.

  16. Solute transport processes in a highly permeable fault zone of Lindau fractured rock test site (Germany)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himmelsbach, T. [Ruhr-Univ., Bochum (Germany). Dept. of Applied Geology; Hoetzl, H. [Univ. of Karlsruhe (Germany). Dept. of Applied Geology; Maloszewski, P. [GSF-Inst. for Hydrology, Munich-Neuherberg (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    The results of field tracer experiments performed in the Lindau fractured rock test site (southern Black Forest, Germany) and subsequent modeling are presented. A vertical, hydrothermally mineralized fault zone, with a permeability much greater than the surrounding granite mass, lies beneath a planned dam site. A dense network of boreholes and tunnels were used to investigate scaling effects of solute transport processes in fractured rock. A series of tracer experiments using deuterium and dye tracers were performed over varying distances and under different testing procedures, resulting in different flow field conditions. Large-scale tracer experiments were performed under natural flow field conditions, while small-scale tracer experiments were performed under artificially induced radial-convergent and injection-withdrawal flow fields. The tracer concentration curves observed in all experiments were strongly influenced by the matrix diffusion. The curves were evaluated with the one-dimensional single fissure dispersion model (SFDM) adjusted for the different flow field conditions. The fitting model parameters found determined the fracture aperture, and matrix and fissure porosities. The determined fracture aperture varied between the sections having different hydraulic conductivity. The determined values of matrix porosity seemed to be independent of the scale of the experiment. The modeled matrix porosities agreed well with values determined in independent laboratory investigations of drill cores using mercury porosimetry. In situ fissure porosity, determined only in small-scale experiments, was independent of the applied geometry of the artificially induced flow fields. The dispersivities were found to be independent of the scale of experiment but dependent on the flow conditions. The values found in forced gradient tests lie between 0.2 and 0.3 m, while values in experiments performed under natural flow conditions were one order of magnitude higher.

  17. A multidisciplinary fractured rock characterization study at Raymond field site, Raymond, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasaki, Kenzi; Freifeld, Barry; Cohen, Andrew; Cook, Paul; Vasco, Don; Grossenbacher, Ken

    2001-01-01

    A dedicated field site was developed and a suite of experiments were conducted in the Sierra Nevada foothills, near the town of Raymond, California to develop and test a multi-disciplinary approach to the characterization of groundwater flow and transport in fractured rocks. A wealth of geologic, hydrologic and geophysical data was collected at the site using a variety of unique tools. A cluster of nine approximately 90 m deep boreholes were drilled at the site in a V-shaped pattern with an angle of 60 degrees. The boreholes are spaced 7.5, 15, 30, and 60 meters from the central borehole. Various geophysical and hydrologic tests were conducted in and between these boreholes. Integration of cross-hole radar and seismic tomography, borehole flow surveys and images from a new digital borehole scanner indicated that groundwater flow is mainly confined to a few sub-horizontal fracture zones. A unique suite of hydraulic tests were conducted, in which three to four intervals in each of the nine boreholes were isolated using pneumatic packers. Some 130 injection tests were conducted, and more than 4,100 cross-hole transient pressure measurements were obtained. A computer algorithm was developed to analyze such massive interference data systematically. As a result of the analysis, an image of the fracture connections emerged, which is consistent with the geophysical data. High precision tiltmeters were effective in remotely characterizing the preferential flow path. Several radial convergent tracer tests were conducted by injecting a mixture of several conservative tracers and one sorbing tracer: deuterium, fluorescein, lithium bromide and polystyrene micro-spheres. Some differences between the breakthrough curves are observed, which may be due to possible differences among so-called 'conservative' tracers. Some characterization tools were found to be more effective than others in locating flowing fractures. However, no single tool was almighty. Characterization of

  18. Two new methods for the determination of hydraulic fracture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fracture apertures play a significant role in groundwater systems. For proper groundwater quantity and contamination management, fractures have to be properly characterised. However, due to their complexity, fracture characterisation is one of the main challenges for hydrogeologists all over the world. This is particularly ...

  19. Results of Hydraulic Tests in Miocene Tuffaceous Rocks at the C-Hole Complex, 1995 to 1997, Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldon, Arthur L.; Umari, Amjad M.A.; Fahy, Michael F.; Earle, John D.; Gemmell, James M.; Darnell, Jon

    2002-01-01

    Four hydraulic tests were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey at the C-hole complex at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, between May 1995 and November 1997. These tests were conducted as part of ongoing investigations to determine the hydrologic and geologic suitability of Yucca Mountain as a potential site for permanent underground storage of high-level nuclear waste. The C-hole complex consists of three 900-meter-deep boreholes that are 30.4 to 76.6 meters apart. The C-holes are completed in fractured, variably welded tuffaceous rocks of Miocene age. Six hydrogeologic intervals occur within the saturated zone in these boreholes - the Calico Hills, Prow Pass, Upper Bullfrog, Lower Bullfrog, Upper Tram, and Lower Tram intervals. The Lower Bullfrog and Upper Tram intervals contributed about 90 percent of the flow during hydraulic tests. The four hydraulic tests conducted from 1995 to 1997 lasted 4 to 553 days. Discharge from the pumping well, UE-25 c #3, ranged from 8.49 to 22.5 liters per second in different tests. Two to seven observation wells, 30 to 3,526 meters from the pumping well, were used in different tests. Observation wells included UE-25 c #1, UE-25 c #2, UE-25 ONC-1, USW H-4, UE-25 WT #14, and UE-25 WT #3 in the tuffaceous rocks and UE-25 p #1 in Paleozoic carbonate rocks. In all hydraulic tests, drawdown in the pumping well was rapid and large (2.9-11 meters). Attributable mostly to frictional head loss and borehole-skin effects, this drawdown could not be used to analyze hydraulic properties. Drawdown and recovery in intervals of UE-25 c #1 and UE-25 c #2 and in other observation wells typically was less than 51 centimeters. These data were analyzed. Hydrogeologic intervals in the C-holes have layered heterogeneity related to faults and fracture zones. Transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, and storativity generally increase downhole. Transmissivity ranges from 4 to 1,600 meters squared per day; hydraulic conductivity ranges from 0.1 to 50 meters per day

  20. A Rock Mechanics and Coupled Hydro mechanical Analysis of Geological Repository of High Level Nuclear Waste in Fractured Rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Kibok

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a few case studies on fractured hard rock based on geological data from Sweden, Korea is one of a few countries where crystalline rock is the most promising rock formation as a candidate site of geological repository of high level nuclear waste. Despite the progress made in the area of rock mechanics and coupled hydro mechanics, extensive site specific study on multiple candidate sites is essential in order to choose the optimal site. For many countries concerned about the safe isolation of nuclear wastes from the biosphere, disposal in a deep geological formation is considered an attractive option. In geological repository, thermal loading continuously disturbs the repository system in addition to disturbances a recent development in rock mechanics and coupled hydro mechanical study using DFN(Discrete Fracture Network) - DEM(Discrete Element Method) approach mainly applied in hard, crystalline rock containing numerous fracture which are main sources of deformation and groundwater flow

  1. Reactivity of Dazomet, a Hydraulic Fracturing Additive: Hydrolysis and Interaction with Pyrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolazio, N.; Lowry, G. V.; Karamalidis, A.; Hakala, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Marcellus Shale is currently the largest shale gas formation in play across the world. The low-permeability formation requires hydraulic fracturing to be produced. In this process, millions of gallons of water are blended with chemical additives and pumped into each well to fracture the reservoir rock. Although additives account for less than 2% of the fracking fluid mixture, they amount to hundreds of tons per frack job. The environmental properties of some of these additives have been studied, but their behavior under downhole conditions is not widely reported in the peer-reviewed literature. These compounds and their reaction products may return to the surface as produced or waste water. In the event of a spill or release, this water has the potential to contaminate surface soil and water. Of these additives, biocides may present a formidable challenge to water quality. Biocides are toxic compounds (by design), typically added to the Marcellus Shale to control bacteria in the well. An assessment of the most frequently used biocides indicated a need to study the chemical dazomet under reservoir conditions. The Marcellus Shale contains significant deposits of pyrite. This is a ubiquitous mineral within black shales that is known to react with organic compounds in both oxic and anoxic settings. Thus, the objective of our study was to determine the effect of pyrite on the hydrolysis of dazomet. Liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QQQ) was used to calculate the loss rate of aqueous dazomet. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the reaction products. Our experiments show that in water, dazomet rapidly hydrolyses in water to form organic and inorganic transformation products. This reaction rate was unaffected when performed under anoxic conditions. However, with pyrite we found an appreciable increase in the removal rate of dazomet. This was accompanied by a corresponding change in the distribution of observed

  2. A tensor approach to the estimation of hydraulic conductivities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the field measurements of the physical properties of fractured rocks, the anisotropic properties of hydraulic conductivity (HC) of the fractured rock aquifer can be assessed and presented using a tensor approach called hydraulic conductivity tensor. Three types of HC values, namely point value, axial value and flow ...

  3. Test plan: Hydraulic fracturing and hydrologic tests in Marker Beds 139 and 140

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wawersik, W.R.; Beauheim, R.L.

    1991-03-01

    Combined hydraulic fracturing and hydrological measurements in this test plan are designed to evaluate the potential influence of fracture formation in anhydrite Marker Beds 139 and 140 on gas pressure in and gas flow from the disposal rooms in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant with time. The tests have the further purpose of providing comparisons of permeabilities of anhydrite interbeds in an undisturbed (virgin) state and after fracture development and/or opening and dilation of preexisting partially healed fractures. Three sets of combined hydraulic fracturing and hydrological measurements are planned. A set of trial measurements is expected to last four to six weeks. The duration of each subsequent experiment is anticipated to be six to eight weeks

  4. Natural analogue studies in crystalline rock: the influence of water-bearing fractures on radionuclide immobilisation in a granitic rock repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, W.R.; MacKenzie, A.B.; Scott, R.D.; McKinley, I.G.

    1990-06-01

    Current Swiss concepts for the disposal of radioactive waste involve disposal in deep mined repositories to ensure that only insignificant quantities of radionuclides will ever reach the surface and so enter the biosphere. The rock formations presently considered as potential candidates for hosting radwaste repositories have thus been selected on the basis of their capacity to isolate radionuclides from the biosphere. An important factor in ensuring such containment is a very low solute transport rate through the host formation. However, it is considered likely that, in the formations of interest in the Swiss programme (eg. granites, argillaceous sediments, anhydrite), the rocks will be fractured to some extent even at repository depth. In the instance of the cumulative failure of near-field barriers in the repository, these hydraulically connected fractures in the host formation could be very important far-field routes of migration (and possible sites of retardation) of radionuclides dissolved in the groundwaters. In this context, the so-called 'matrix diffusion' mechanism is potentially very important for radionuclide retardation. This report is the culmination of a programme which has attempted to assess the potential influence of these water-bearing fractures on radionuclide transport in a crystalline rock radwaste repository. 162 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs

  5. Hydraulic fracturing to enhance geothermal energy recovery in deep and tight formations. Modell approach in petrothermy research project OPTIRISS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiee, M.M.; Schmitz, S.; Barsch, M. [DBI - Gastechnologisches Institut gGmbH, Freiberg (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    In Germany numerous projects were successfully conducted in developments of geothermal energy which applied so far mostly for the hydrothermal deposit type. In Thuringia and Saxony there are currently project developments of geothermal resource taking into account for deep, tight formations in petrothermy and Enhanced geothermal system, (EGS). One of the potential tasks in generating these petrothermal producers and in the design of the underground power plant appears to be hydraulic fracturing with multi frac method. This is to create the heat exchanger surfaces in the rock and ensure maximum volumetric flow through it. Therefore it is very important for a sustainable heat production. However the promise of its adequate conductivity in the deep formation is one of the dominant contests in geothermal energy industry. In a multi frac method, two wells (normally horizontal wellbores at different depths) are drilled in direction of minimum horizontal stress of the formation rock. By multiple frac operation in separate sections, flow paths are generated between the wells through which it is possible to extract the heat from the rock. The numerical simulation of hydraulic fracture propagation processes in the rock is mainly from the research in the area of oil and gas industry. These techniques are mainly used for very low permeable formations in petroleum engineering (e.g. Shale gas). The development is at the beginning for EGS (e.g. granites). In this work single and multi fracking propagation processes in a synthetic example of deep hard formation are investigated. The numerical simulation is carried out to design and characterize frac processes and frac dimensions. Sensitivities to various rock parameters and different process designs are examined and optimum criteria are concluded. This shows that the minimum stress profile has the most effective role and should be modelled properly. The analysis indicates the optimum fracture length and height for adequate thermal

  6. Numerical investigation on hydraulic fracture cleanup and its impact on the productivity of a gas well with a non-Newtonian fluid model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedel, T. [Schlumberger Data and Consulting Services, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2006-07-01

    There are many damage mechanisms associated with hydraulically fractured gas wells. These include hydraulic damage caused by invading fluids during the treatment and damage due to the stresses exerted on the fracture face. Damage to the proppant pack can also reduce conductivity and non-Darcy flow. However, these are not the only impacts of impaired productivity in tight-gas reservoirs, which do not respond to hydraulic fracturing as expected. Some sustain a flat production profile or show only a slow increase in production rate for several weeks or months. This is due to poor rock quality, strong stress dependency in permeability, hydraulic and mechanical damage. Another reason for the poor performance is related to the cleanup of the cross-linked fracturing fluid with its non-Newtonian characteristics. This paper presented an improved 3-phase cleanup model for the investigation of polymer gel cleanup. Yield stress was considered according to the Herschel-Bulkley rheology model. The viscosity model is based on the exact analytical solution, including the plug flow zone. According to data in the published literature, half of the gel phase can be recovered. The gel saturation gradually increases towards the fracture tips, thereby lowering the fracture conductivities. The residing gel damages the permeability and porosity of the proppant pack or causes damage to the fracture face, thereby reducing production potential. These results are in agreement with field observations where fracture half-lengths, conductivities and productivity are also lower than expected. Preliminary results suggest that capillary forces and load-water recovery have little influence on gel cleanup. 16 refs., 2 tabs., 17 figs.

  7. On the possibility of magnetic nano-markers use for hydraulic fracturing in shale gas mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Jaroslaw; Bogacki, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Recently shale gas production became essential for the global economy, thanks to fast advances in shale fracturing technology. Shale gas extraction can be achieved by drilling techniques coupled with hydraulic fracturing. Further increasing of shale gas production is possible by improving the efficiency of hydraulic fracturing and assessing the spatial distribution of fractures in shale deposits. The latter can be achieved by adding magnetic markers to fracturing fluid or directly to proppant, which keeps the fracture pathways open. After that, the range of hydraulic fracturing can be assessed by measurement of vertical and horizontal component of earth's magnetic field before and after fracturing. The difference in these components caused by the presence of magnetic marker particles may allow to delineate spatial distribution of fractures. Due to the fact, that subterranean geological formations may contain minerals with significant magnetic properties, it is important to provide to the markers excellent magnetic properties which should be also, independent of harsh chemical and geological conditions. On the other hand it is of great significance to produce magnetic markers at an affordable price because of the large quantities of fracturing fluids or proppants used during shale fracturing. Examining the properties of nano-materials, it was found, that they possess clearly superior magnetic properties, as compared to the same structure but having a larger particle size. It should be then possible, to use lower amount of magnetic marker, to obtain the same effect. Although a research on properties of new magnetic nano-materials is very intensive, cheap magnetic nano-materials are not yet produced on a scale appropriate for shale gas mining. In this work we overview, in detail, geological, technological and economic aspects of using magnetic nano-markers in shale gas mining. Acknowledgment This work was supported by the NCBiR under Grant "Electromagnetic method to

  8. Permeability in fractured rocks from deep geothermal boreholes in the Upper Rhine Graben

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jeanne; Whitechurch, Hubert; Genter, Albert; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Baujard, Clément

    2015-04-01

    Permeability in fractured rocks from deep geothermal boreholes in the Upper Rhine Graben Vidal J.1, Whitechurch H.1, Genter A.2, Schmittbuhl J.1, Baujard C.2 1 EOST, Université de Strasbourg 2 ES-Géothermie, Strasbourg The thermal regime of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) is characterized by a series of geothermal anomalies on its French part near Soultz-sous-Forêts, Rittershoffen and in the surrounding area of Strasbourg. Sedimentary formations of these areas host oil field widely exploited in the past which exhibit exceptionally high temperature gradients. Thus, geothermal anomalies are superimposed to the oil fields which are interpreted as natural brine advection occurring inside a nearly vertical multi-scale fracture system cross-cutting both deep-seated Triassic sediments and Paleozoic crystalline basement. The sediments-basement interface is therefore very challenging for geothermal industry because most of the geothermal resource is trapped there within natural fractures. Several deep geothermal projects exploit local geothermal energy to use the heat or produce electricity and thus target permeable fractured rocks at this interface. In 1980, a geothermal exploration well was drilled close to Strasbourg down to the Permian sediments at 3220 m depth. Bottom hole temperature was estimated to 148°C but the natural flow rate was too low for an economic profitability (geothermal site by drilling five boreholes, three of which extend to 5 km depth. They identified a temperature of 200° C at 5 km depth in the granitic basement but with a variable flow rate. Hydraulic and chemical stimulation operations were applied in order to increase the initial low permeability by reactivating and dissolving sealed fractures in basement. The productivity was considerably improved and allows geothermal exploitation at 165° C and 20 L/s. Recent studies revealed the occurrences of permeable fractures in the limestones of Muschelkalk and the sandstones of Buntsandstein also. For

  9. Conceptual and analytical modeling of fracture zone aquifers in hard rock. Implications of pumping tests in the Pohjukansalo well field, east-central Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leveinen, J.

    2001-01-01

    Fracture zones with an interconnected network of open fractures can conduct significant groundwater flow and as in the case of the Pohjukansalo well field in Leppaevirta, can yield sufficiently for small-scale municipal water supply. Glaciofluvial deposits comprising major aquifers commonly overlay fracture zones that can contribute to the water balance directly or indirectly by providing hydraulic interconnections between different formations. Fracture zones and fractures can also transport contaminants in a poorly predictable way. Consequently, hydrogeological research of fracture zones is important for the management and protection of soil aquifers in Finland. Hydraulic properties of aquifers are estimated in situ by well test analyses based on analytical models. Most analytical models rely on the concepts of radial flow and horizontal slab aquifer. In Paper 1, pump test responses of fracture zones in the Pohjukansalo well field were characterised based on alternative analytical models developed for channelled flow cases. In Paper 2, the tests were analysed based on the generalised radial flow (GRF) model and a concept of a fracture network possessing fractional flow dimension due to limited connectivity compared to ideal 2- or 3- dimensional systems. The analysis provides estimates of hydraulic properties in terms of parameters that do not have concrete meaning when the flow dimension of the aquifer has fractional values. Concrete estimates of hydraulic parameters were produced by making simplified assumptions and by using the composite model developed in Paper 3. In addition to estimates of hydraulic parameters, analysis of hydraulic tests provides qualitative information that is useful when the hydraulic connections in the fracture system are not well known. However, attention should be paid to the frequency of drawdown measurements-particularly for the application of derivative curves. In groundwater studies, analytical models have been also used to estimate

  10. Fracture Dissolution of Carbonate Rock: An Innovative Process for Gas Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James W. Castle; Ronald W. Falta; David Bruce; Larry Murdoch; Scott E. Brame; Donald Brooks

    2006-10-31

    ) that allow for the easy removal of calcium waste from the well. Physical and chemical analysis of core samples taken from prospective geologic formations for the acid dissolution process confirmed that many of the limestone samples readily dissolved in concentrated hydrochloric acid. Further, some samples contained oily residues that may help to seal the walls of the final cavern structure. These results suggest that there exist carbonate rock formations well suited for the dissolution technology and that the presence of inert impurities had no noticeable effect on the dissolution rate for the carbonate rock. A sensitivity analysis was performed for characteristics of hydraulic fractures induced in carbonate formations to enhance the dissolution process. Multiple fracture simulations were conducted using modeling software that has a fully 3-D fracture geometry package. The simulations, which predict the distribution of fracture geometry and fracture conductivity, show that the stress difference between adjacent beds is the physical property of the formations that has the greatest influence on fracture characteristics by restricting vertical growth. The results indicate that by modifying the fracturing fluid, proppant type, or pumping rate, a fracture can be created with characteristics within a predictable range, which contributes to predicting the geometry of storage caverns created by acid dissolution of carbonate formations. A series of three-dimensional simulations of cavern formation were used to investigate three different configurations of the acid-dissolution process: (a) injection into an open borehole with production from that same borehole and no fracture; (b) injection into an open borehole with production from that same borehole, with an open fracture; and (c) injection into an open borehole connected by a fracture to an adjacent borehole from which the fluids are produced. The two-well configuration maximizes the overall mass transfer from the rock to the

  11. A gas migration test in saturated, fractured rock - final report for the joint UKDOE/AECL project, phase 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gascoyne, M.; Wuschke, D.M.; Brown, A.; Hayles, J.G.; Kozak, E.T.; Lodha, G.S.; Thorne, G.A.

    1991-12-01

    Helium gas was injected at constant pressure into an inclined fracture zone through an access borehole at a depth of about 40 m, in the Lac du Bonnet granite, southeastern Manitoba. The gas flow rate, arrival time and pattern of distribution of gas at the surface were monitored by soil gas surveys. The field results were compared with predictions of a simple analytical model derived from Thunvik and Braester (1987). Good agreement was found when the influence of vertical fracturing in the bedrock and a low-permeability overburden were included in the model. The model was then used to determined the hydraulic conductivity of individual gas flow paths in the fractured rock. (author). 23 refs., 5 tabs., 37 figs

  12. Dynamic Response in Transient Stress-Field Behavior Induced by Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Andrew

    Hydraulic fracturing is a technique which is used to exploit geologic features and subsurface properties in an effort to increase production in low-permeability formations. The process of hydraulic fracturing provides a greater surface contact area between the producing formation and the wellbore and thus increases the amount of recoverable hydrocarbons from within the reservoir. The use of this stimulation technique has brought on massive applause from the industry due to its widespread success and effectiveness, however the dynamic processes that take part in the development of hydraulic fractures is a relatively new area of research with respect to the massive scale operations that are seen today. The process of hydraulic fracturing relies upon understanding and exploiting the in-situ stress distribution throughout the area of study. These in-situ stress conditions are responsible for directing fracture orientation and propagation paths throughout the period of injection. The relative magnitude of these principle stresses is key in developing a successful stimulation plan. In horizontal well plan development the interpretation of stress within the reservoir is required for determining the azimuth of the horizontal well path. These horizontal laterals are typically oriented in a manner such that the well path lies parallel to the minimum horizontal stress. This allows for vertical fractures to develop transversely to the wellbore, or normal to the least principle stress without the theoretical possibility of fractures overlapping, creating the most efficient use of the fluid energy during injection. The orientation and magnitude of these in-situ stress fields however can be dynamic, controlled by the subsequent fracture propagation and redistribution of the surrounding stresses. That is, that as the fracture propagates throughout the reservoir, the relative stress fields surrounding the fractures may see a shift and deviate from their original direction or

  13. The disposal of intermediate-level radioactive liquid waste by hydraulic fracturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruilin, Chen; Hanchen, Zhou; Yuzhu, Gao; Wen, Qiao; Wentao, Wang [Beijing Inst. of Nuclear Engineering (China)

    1994-12-31

    The hydraulic fracturing process is characterized by combination of the treatment with the disposal of ILLW (intermediate-level liquid waste). It is of cement solidification in deep geology stratum. First of all, it is necessary to select a suitable disposal site with detailed information on geology and hydrogeology. The process has such advantages as simple, low cost, large capacity of disposal, safe and reliable in technology. It is an attractive process of ILLW. Since 1980`s, the research and the concept design of the hydraulic fracturing process have been initiated for disposal of ILLW. It is demonstrated by the field tests. The authors considered that the geological structure near Sichuan Nuclear Fuel Plant fits the disposal of ILLW by the hydraulic fracturing process.

  14. The disposal of intermediate-level radioactive liquid waste by hydraulic fracturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ruilin; Zhou Hanchen; Gao Yuzhu; Qiao Wen; Wang Wentao

    1993-01-01

    The hydraulic fracturing process is characterized by combination of the treatment with the disposal of ILLW (intermediate-level liquid waste). It is of cement solidification in deep geology stratum. First of all, it is necessary to select a suitable disposal site with detailed information on geology and hydrogeology. The process has such advantages as simple, low cost, large capacity of disposal, safe and reliable in technology. It is an attractive process of ILLW. Since 1980's, the research and the concept design of the hydraulic fracturing process have been initiated for disposal of ILLW. It is demonstrated by the field tests. The authors considered that the geological structure near Sichuan Nuclear Fuel Plant fits the disposal of ILLW by the hydraulic fracturing process

  15. Regulatory and Non-regulatory Responses to Hydraulic Fracturing in Local Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phartiyal, P.

    2015-12-01

    The practice of extracting oil and gas from tight rock formations using advances in technology, such as hydraulic fracturing and directional drilling, has expanded exponentially in states and localities across the country. As the scientific data collection and analysis catches up on the many potential impacts of this unconventional oil and gas development, communities are turning to their local officials to make decisions on whether and how fracking should proceed. While most regulatory authority on the issue rests with the state agencies, local officials have experimented with a wide range of regulatory, non-regulatory, and fiscal tools to manage the impacts of fracking. These impacts can occur on the local air, water, seismicity, soil, roads, schools, and affect residents, on-site workers, emergency and social services. Local officials' approaches are often influenced by their prior experience with minerals extraction in their localities. The speaker will present examples of the kinds of information sources, tools and approaches communities across the country are using, from noise barriers to setback requirements to information sharing in order to be able to balance the promise and perils of oil and gas development in their jurisdictions.

  16. Reactive solute transport in an asymmetrical fracture-rock matrix system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Renjie; Zhan, Hongbin

    2018-02-01

    The understanding of reactive solute transport in a single fracture-rock matrix system is the foundation of studying transport behavior in the complex fractured porous media. When transport properties are asymmetrically distributed in the adjacent rock matrixes, reactive solute transport has to be considered as a coupled three-domain problem, which is more complex than the symmetric case with identical transport properties in the adjacent rock matrixes. This study deals with the transport problem in a single fracture-rock matrix system with asymmetrical distribution of transport properties in the rock matrixes. Mathematical models are developed for such a problem under the first-type and the third-type boundary conditions to analyze the spatio-temporal concentration and mass distribution in the fracture and rock matrix with the help of Laplace transform technique and de Hoog numerical inverse Laplace algorithm. The newly acquired solutions are then tested extensively against previous analytical and numerical solutions and are proven to be robust and accurate. Furthermore, a water flushing phase is imposed on the left boundary of system after a certain time. The diffusive mass exchange along the fracture/rock matrixes interfaces and the relative masses stored in each of three domains (fracture, upper rock matrix, and lower rock matrix) after the water flushing provide great insights of transport with asymmetric distribution of transport properties. This study has the following findings: 1) Asymmetric distribution of transport properties imposes greater controls on solute transport in the rock matrixes. However, transport in the fracture is mildly influenced. 2) The mass stored in the fracture responses quickly to water flushing, while the mass stored in the rock matrix is much less sensitive to the water flushing. 3) The diffusive mass exchange during the water flushing phase has similar patterns under symmetric and asymmetric cases. 4) The characteristic distance

  17. Evaluation of hydraulic conductivities of bentonite and rock under hyper alkaline and nitrate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriya, K.; Fujii, K.; Kubo, H.

    2002-02-01

    The chemical conditions of TRU waste repository were estimated as alkaline conditions effected by cementitious materials. And, some TRU wastes include soluble nitrate salt, we have to consider the repository conditions might be high ionic strength condition leaching of nitrate salt. In this study, experimental studies were carried out to evaluate hydraulic conductivities of bentonite and rock under hyper alkaline and nitrate conditions. The followings results were obtained for bentonite. 1) In the immersion experiments of bentonite in hyper alkaline fluids with and without nitrate, the disappearance of montmorillonite of bentonite was observed and CSH formation was found after 30 days. In hyper alkaline fluid with nitrate, minerals at θ=37 nm by XRD was identified. 2) Significant effects of hyper alkaline on hydraulic conductivity of compacted bentonite were not observed. However, hydraulic conductivities of hyper alkaline fluid with nitrate and ion exchanged bentonite increased. In hyper alkaline with nitrate, more higher hydraulic conductivities of exchanged bentonite were measured. The followings results were obtained for rock. 1) In the immersion experiments of crushed tuff in hyper alkaline fluids with and without nitrate, CSH and CASH phases were observed. 2) The hydraulic conductivity of tuff in hyper alkaline fluids decreased gradually. Finally, hyper alkaline flow in tuff stopped after 2 months and hyper alkaline flow with nitrate stopped shorter than without nitrate. In the results of analysis of tuff after experiment, we could identified secondary minerals, but we couldn't find the clogging evidence of pores in tuff by secondary minerals. (author)

  18. Occurrence, frequency, and significance of cavities in fractured-rock aquifers near Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.K.

    1988-01-01

    Virtually all wells drilled into bedrock intercept a water-bearing fracture, but cavities occur only in areas underlaid by limy rocks. Multiple cavities are common in wells in the Conasauga and Knox Groups but are rare in the Rome Formation and the Chickamauga Group. The geometric mean height (vertical dimension) of the cavities is 0.59 m, the geometric mean depth is 14 m, the average lateral spatial frequency is 0.16, and the average vertical spatial frequency is 0.019. Differences in cavity parameter values are caused partly by geologic factors such as lithology, bed thickness, and spatial fracture frequency. However, hydrologic factors such as percolation rate, recharge amount, aquifer storage capacity, and differences between lateral and vertical permeability may also be important. Tracer tests show that groundwater velocity in some cavities is in the range 20-300 m/d, and relatively rapid flow rates occur near springs. In contrast, wells that intercept cavities have about the same range in hydraulic conductivity as wells in regolith and fractured rock. The hydraulic conductivity data indicate a flow rate of less than 1.0 m/d. This difference cannot be adequately explained, but rapid groundwater movement may be much more common above the water table than below. Rapid groundwater flows below the water table might be rare except near springs in the Knox Group. 10 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Continuum-based DFN-consistent simulations of oxygen ingress in fractured crystalline rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinchero, P.; Puigdomenech, I.; Molinero, J.; Ebrahimi, H.; Gylling, B.; Svensson, U.; Bosbach, D.; Deissmann, G.

    2016-12-01

    The potential transient infiltration of oxygenated glacial meltwater into initially anoxic and reducing fractured crystalline rocks during glaciation events is an issue of concern for some of the prospected deep geological repositories for spent nuclear fuel. Here, this problem is assessed using reactive transport calculations. First, a novel parameterisation procedure is presented, where flow, transport and geochemical parameters (i.e. hydraulic conductivity, effective/kinetic porosity, and mineral specific surface and abundance) are defined on a finite volume numerical grid based on the (spatially varying) properties of an underlying Discrete Fracture Network (DFN). Second, using this approach, a realistic reactive transport model of Forsmark, i.e. the selected site for the proposed Swedish spent nuclear fuel repository, is implemented. The model consists of more than 70 million geochemical transport degrees of freedom and simulates the ingress of oxygen-rich water from the recharge area of the domain and its depletion due to reactions with the Fe(II) mineral chlorite. Third, the calculations are solved in the supercomputer JUQUEEN of the Jülich Supercomputing Centre. The results of the simulations show that oxygen infiltrates relatively quickly along fractures and deformation zones until a steady state profile is reached, where geochemical reactions counterbalance advective transport processes. Interestingly, most of the iron-bearing minerals are consumed in the highly conductive zones, where larger mineral surfaces are available for reactions. An analysis based on mineral mass balance shows that the considered rock medium has enough capacity to buffer oxygen infiltration for a long period of time (i.e. some thousand years).

  20. Mobilities of radionuclides in fresh and fractured crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torstenfelt, B.; Ittner, T.; Allard, B.; Andersson, K.; Olofsson, U.

    1982-12-01

    Sorption and migration of technetium, cesium and americium on fracture surfaces and fresh surfaces of granites taken from drilling cores from the Finnsjoen and Studsvik areas and the Stripa mine are reported. The three elements were used as reference elements with different chemistry and behaviour in water; under the conditions used in the experiments technetium exists as the heptavalent TcO -4 -ion, cesium as the non-complexed monovalent cation Cs + and americium as the strongly hydrolysed Am(OH)super (3-x) (x-1-4). The waters used were synthetic groundwaters representative of waters from the drilling holes. After the exposure of the fracture samples to spiked groundwater solutions for a period of three up to six months the penetration depths and concentration profiles were analysed and autoradiographs of cesium and americium distribution vs depth were taken. The sorption of technetium was found to be negligible. The transport of TcO -4 depends on accessibility to fractures and micro-fissures in the rock. Cesium is sorbed through an ion-exchange process. Migration of cesium depends not only on the transport in water into fractures and micro-fissures, but also on migration through mineral veins with a high CEC. Americium is strongly sorbed on most solid surfaces and did not migrate significantly during the contact time of three months. The diffusivity in granite was found to be around 10 - 13 m 2 /s for cesium; preliminary values for technetium and americium were 10 - 12 m 2 /s and less than 10 - 16 m 2 /s, respectively. (Authors)

  1. Predicting the Occurrence of Hydraulic Fracture in Grouting Operations Based on the Pressure in the Penetrated Cement Grout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Bakhshandeh Amnieh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cement grouting is an operation often carried out to consolidate and seal the rock mass in dam sites and tunnels. The quality and efficiency of a grouting operation depends on various factors such as water take, grout properties and grouting pressure. One of the parameters which have the highest effect is pressure since the application of excessive pressure causes the hydraulic fracture phenomenon to occur in the rock mass and too little pressure leads to incomplete grouting and failure to seal the site in a perfect manner. Mathematical modeling is used for the first time in this study to predict and determine the optimum pressure. Thus, the joints that exist in the rock mass are simulated using cylindrical shell model. The joint surroundings are also modeled through Pasternak environment. To obtain equations governing the joints and the surroundings, energy method is used accompanied by Hamilton principle. In the end, an analytical solution method is used to obtain the maximum grouting pressure. In order to validate the modeling, the grouting pressure values obtained by the model were used in the sites of Seymareh and Aghbolagh dams and the relative error rates were measured considering the differences between calculated and actual pressures. Modeling in the examined sections of Seymareh dam showed 29.61, 5.57, 21.98, 32.50 and 9.09 percent error rates and in the sections of Aghbolagh dam it rendered the values of 4.32, 5.40 and 2.96 percent. The results indicate that this modeling can be used to estimate the amount of pressure for hydraulic fracture in grouting, to predict it and to prevent it.

  2. Regional economic impacts of the unconventional promotion of natural gas (Hydraulic Fracturing). Preliminary study; Regionaloekonomische Auswirkungen der unkonventionellen Erdgasfoerderung (Hydraulic Fracturing). Vorstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizer, Kilian; Bossmeyer, Christoph

    2012-07-01

    Actually, there is a controversial public discussion on the exploitation of conventional natural gas by means of hydraulic fracturing (Fracking). The contribution under consideration examines the geologic, toxicological or technical as well as legal points of contact with respect to the different effects for the actor groups. Based on the existing scientific realizations, the regional economic effects of the fracking technology and the subsequent promotion of unconventional natural gas deposits have to be worked out.

  3. Mechanical interaction between swelling compacted clay and fractured rock, and the leaching of clay colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grindrod, P.; Peletier, M.A.; Takase, H.

    1999-01-01

    We consider the interaction between a saturated clay buffer layer and a fractured crystalline rock engineered disturbed zone. Once saturated, the clay extrudes into the available rock fractures, behaving as a compressible non-Newtonian fluid. We discuss the modelling implications of published

  4. Folding and fracturing of rock adjacent to salt diapirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Mark G.

    2017-04-01

    When John Ramsay wrote his groundbreaking book in 1967, deformation around salt diapirs was not something he covered. At the time, most geologists considered diapirs to form due to density inversion, rising through thick overlying strata due to buoyancy. In doing so, salt was thought to shove aside the younger rocks, shearing and fracturing them in drag folds and supposedly producing "salt gouge". Even after it was realized that the majority of diapirs spend most of their history growing at or just beneath the surface, the relative rise of salt and sinking of minibasins were (and are) still thought by many to be accommodated in part by shear and fracturing of rocks in a collar zone around the salt. There are two arguments against this model. The first is mechanical: whereas halite behaves as a viscous fluid, even young sediment deforms as a brittle material with layer anisotropy. Thus, the salt-sediment interface is the outer margin of an intrasalt shear zone caused by viscous drag against the diapir margin. The velocity of salt flow decreases dramatically toward the edge of the diapir, so that the outermost salt effectively doesn't move. Hence, no shear or fracturing is expected in surrounding strata. The second and more important argument is that empirical field data do not support the idea of drag folds and associated deformation. Certainly, strata are typically folded and thinned adjacent to diapirs. However, stratal upturn is generated by monoclinal drape folding of the diapir roof over the edge of the rising salt, and thinning is caused by deposition onto the bathymetric highs formed by the diapirs, often supplemented by roof erosion and slumping. Halokinetic sequences observed in numerous salt basins (e.g., Paradox Basin, La Popa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees, Sivas Basin, Zagros Mountains, Kuqa Basin) contain no diapir-parallel shear zones and minimal thinning and fracturing caused by diapir rise. Even megaflaps, in which strata extend for kilometers up the sides

  5. Hydrological characteristics of Japanese rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijiri, Yuji; Sawada, Atsushi; Akahori, Kuniaki

    1999-11-01

    It is crucial to evaluate the