WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydraulic redistribution hr

  1. Hydraulic Redistribution: A Modeling Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, E.; Verma, P.; Loheide, S. P., III

    2014-12-01

    Roots play a key role in the soil water balance. They extract and transport water for transpiration, which usually represents the most important soil water loss in vegetated areas, and can redistribute soil water, thereby increasing transpiration rates and enhancing root nutrient uptake. We present here a two-dimensional model capable of describing two key aspects of root water uptake: root water compensation and hydraulic redistribution. Root water compensation is the ability of root systems to respond to the reduction of water uptake from areas of the soil with low soil water potential by increasing the water uptake from the roots in soil parts with higher water potential. Hydraulic redistribution is a passive transfer of water through the root system from areas of the soil with greater water potential to areas with lower water potential. Both mechanisms are driven by gradients of water potential in the soil and the roots. The inclusion of root water compensation and hydraulic redistribution in models can be achieved by describing root water uptake as a function of the difference in water potential between soil and root xylem. We use a model comprising the Richards equation for the water flow in variably saturated soils and the Darcy's equation for the water flow in the xylem. The two equations are coupled via a sink term, which is assumed to be proportional to the difference between soil and xylem water potentials. The model is applied in two case studies to describe vertical and horizontal hydraulic redistribution and the interaction between vegetation with different root depths. In the case of horizontal redistribution, the model is used to reproduce the fluxes of water across the root system of a tree subjected to uneven irrigation. This example can be extended to situations when only part of the root system has access to water, such as vegetation near creeks, trees at the edge of forests, and street trees in urban areas. The second case is inspired by recent

  2. The ecohydrologic significance of hydraulic redistribution in a semiarid savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Russell L.; Cable, William L.; Hultine, Kevin R.

    2008-02-01

    Recent studies have illuminated the process of hydraulic redistribution, defined as the translocation of soil moisture via plant root systems, but the long-term ecohydrologic significance of this process is poorly understood. We investigated hydraulic redistribution (HR) by Prosopis velutina Woot. (velvet mesquite) in an upland savanna ecosystem over a two-year period. Our goal was to quantify patterns of HR by mesquite roots and assess how this affects tree water use and productivity. We used the heat ratio method to monitor bi-directional sap flow, an analog of HR, in both lateral and tap roots. Additionally, we monitored soil water content and used the eddy covariance technique to quantify ecosystem carbon dioxide and water exchange. Mesquite roots redistributed large amounts of water throughout the year, even during periods of canopy dormancy. Dormant season precipitation (November-March) was often taken up by shallow lateral roots and transferred downward in the soil profile by deeper lateral and tap roots. Such a transfer was also apparent when the trees were active and moisture from summer rainfall was plant available in the upper soil layers. As the upper soil layers dried, sap flow moving toward the canopy in the lateral roots diminished and water use from deeper soils increased via the taproots. The relationship between root sap flow and above-canopy fluxes suggested that deeper "stored" water from HR allowed the trees to transpire more in the spring that followed a winter with significant downward redistribution. Patterns of lateral and tap root sap flow also implied that redistribution may extend the growing season of the trees after summer rains have ended and surface soils are dry, thus allowing the trees to photosynthesize through periods of seasonal drought. The large hydrologic magnitude and the ecological effects of HR we studied, along with mounting evidence of this process occurring in many other ecosystems, indicates that HR should be accounted

  3. HYDRAULIC REDISTRIBUTION OF SOIL WATER IN TWO OLD-GROWTH CONIFEROUS FORESTS: QUANTIFYING PATTERNS AND CONTROLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although hydraulic redistribution of soil water (HR) by roots is a widespread phenomenon, the processes governing spatial and temporal patterns of HR are not well understood. We incorporated soil/plant biophysical properties into a simple model based on Darcy's law to predict sea...

  4. Observations, measurements and best practices for monitoring hydraulic redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, T. W.; Liang, X.

    2011-12-01

    Hydraulic redistribution (HR) is a biogeophysical phenomenon where plant roots move water through the soil column from areas of high soil moisture content to areas of low soil moisture content. The impacts of this process on the hydrologic cycle at the regional scale are beginning to be studied through the use of numerical modeling. The extent of plant species which exhibit HR, the magnitude of water redistributed and the conditions under which it occurs are still unknown. Therefore models must rely on some general assumptions to account for this process. More information is needed to understand how to correctly account for HR in land surface models. The ideal method is through direct measurement and observation. HR has been studied through a variety of mediums, e.g. deuterium footprints, soil moisture patterns and sap flow measurements. All three methods capture the moisture fluctuations within the soil layers via measurements of deuterium concentration, volumetric soil moisture content and root sap flow direction. The problem with deuterium labeling is that it does not allow for the persistent long term measurements over natural wetting and drying periods without additional irrigation. Sap flow measurements, despite having the ability to measure specific plant individuals' water dynamics, requires difficult access to the plant's root system which can be complex and difficult to sample. Soil moisture measurements can be made on a variety of sensor types and the installation is much less intensive. This study examines soil moisture measurements as a means for monitoring HR. Field observations in different regions of the United States utilizing different soil moisture sensor types (capacitance and reflectometer) are shown to exhibit similar diurnal soil moisture patterns common to the HR phenomenon. These observations are then compared and contrasted to model simulation results.

  5. Combined measurement and modeling of the hydrological impact of hydraulic redistribution using CLM4.5 at eight AmeriFlux sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congsheng Fu; Guiling Wang; Michael L. Goulden; Russell L. Scott; Kenneth Bible; Zoe G. Cardon

    2016-01-01

    Effects of hydraulic redistribution (HR) on hydrological, biogeochemical, and ecological processes have been demonstrated in the field, but the current generation of standard earth system models does not include a representation of HR. Though recent studies have examined the effect of incorporating HR into land surface models, few (if any) have done cross-site...

  6. Hydraulic redistribution study in two native tree species of agroforestry parklands of West African dry savanna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayala, Jules; Heng, Lee Kheng; van Noordwijk, Meine; Ouedraogo, Sibiri Jean

    2008-11-01

    Hydraulic redistribution (HR) in karité ( Vitellaria paradoxa) and néré ( Parkia biglobosa) tree species was studied by monitoring the soil water potential ( ψs) using thermocouple psychrometers at four compass directions, various distances from trees and at different soil depths (max depth 80 cm) during the dry seasons of 2004 and 2005. A modified WaNuLCAS model was then used to infer the amount of water redistribued based on ψs values. Tree transpiration rate was also estimated from sap velocity using thermal dissipative probes (TDP) and sapwood area, and the contribution of hydraulically redistributed water in tree transpiration was determined. The results revealed on average that 46% of the psychrometer readings under karité and 33% under néré showed the occurrence of HR for the two years. Soil under néré displayed significantly lower fluctuations of ψs (0.16 MPa) compared to soil under karité (0.21 MPa). The results of this study indicated that the existence of HR leads to a higher ψs in the plant rhizosphere and hence is important for soil water dynamics and plant nutrition by making more accessible the soluble elements. The simulation showed that the amount of water redistributed would be approximately 73.0 L and 247.1 L per tree per day in 2005 for karité and néré, and would represent respectively 60% and 53% of the amount transpired a day. Even though the model has certainly overestimated the volume of water hydraulically redistributed by the two species, this water may play a key role in maintaining fine root viability and ensuring the well adaptation of these species to the dry areas. Therefore, knowledge of the extent of such transfers and of the seasonal patterns is required and is of paramount importance in parkland systems both for trees and associated crops.

  7. Hydraulic redistribution of soil water by roots affects whole-stand evapotranspiration and net ecosystem carbon exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domec, Jean-Christophe; King, John S; Noormets, Asko; Treasure, Emrys; Gavazzi, Michael J; Sun, Ge; McNulty, Steven G

    2010-07-01

    *Hydraulic redistribution (HR) of water via roots from moist to drier portions of the soil occurs in many ecosystems, potentially influencing both water use and carbon assimilation. *By measuring soil water content, sap flow and eddy covariance, we investigated the temporal variability of HR in a loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantation during months of normal and below-normal precipitation, and examined its effects on tree transpiration, ecosystem water use and carbon exchange. *The occurrence of HR was explained by courses of reverse flow through roots. As the drought progressed, HR maintained soil moisture above 0.15 cm(3) cm(-3) and increased transpiration by 30-50%. HR accounted for 15-25% of measured total site water depletion seasonally, peaking at 1.05 mm d(-1). The understory species depended on water redistributed by the deep-rooted overstory pine trees for their early summer water supply. Modeling carbon flux showed that in the absence of HR, gross ecosystem productivity and net ecosystem exchange could be reduced by 750 and 400 g C m(-2) yr(-1), respectively. *Hydraulic redistribution mitigated the effects of soil drying on understory and stand evapotranspiration and had important implications for net primary productivity by maintaining this whole ecosystem as a carbon sink.

  8. Combined measurement and modeling of the hydrological impact of hydraulic redistribution using CLM4.5 at eight AmeriFlux sites

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Effects of hydraulic redistribution (HR) on hydrological, biogeochemical, and ecological processes have been demonstrated in the field, but the current generation of standard earth system models does not include a representation of HR. Though recent studies have examined the effect of incorporating HR into land surface models, few (if any) have done cross-site comparisons for contrasting climate regimes and multiple vegetation types via the integration of measurement and mod...

  9. Modelled hydraulic redistribution by sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) matches observed data only after including night-time transpiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Rebecca B; Cardon, Zoe G; Teshera-Levye, Jennifer; Rockwell, Fulton E; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Holbrook, N Michele

    2014-04-01

    The movement of water from moist to dry soil layers through the root systems of plants, referred to as hydraulic redistribution (HR), occurs throughout the world and is thought to influence carbon and water budgets and ecosystem functioning. The realized hydrologic, biogeochemical and ecological consequences of HR depend on the amount of redistributed water, whereas the ability to assess these impacts requires models that correctly capture HR magnitude and timing. Using several soil types and two ecotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in split-pot experiments, we examined how well the widely used HR modelling formulation developed by Ryel et al. matched experimental determination of HR across a range of water potential driving gradients. H. annuus carries out extensive night-time transpiration, and although over the last decade it has become more widely recognized that night-time transpiration occurs in multiple species and many ecosystems, the original Ryel et al. formulation does not include the effect of night-time transpiration on HR. We developed and added a representation of night-time transpiration into the formulation, and only then was the model able to capture the dynamics and magnitude of HR we observed as soils dried and night-time stomatal behaviour changed, both influencing HR.

  10. Modeled hydraulic redistribution by Helianthus annuus L. matches observed data only after model modification to include nighttime transpiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, R. B.; Cardon, Z. G.; Rockwell, F. E.; Teshera-Levye, J.; Zwieniecki, M.; Holbrook, N. M.

    2013-12-01

    The movement of water from moist to dry soil layers through the root systems of plants, referred to as hydraulic redistribution (HR), occurs throughout the world and is thought to influence carbon and water budgets and ecosystem functioning. The realized hydrologic, biogeochemical, and ecological consequences of HR depend on the amount of redistributed water, while the ability to assess these impacts requires models that correctly capture HR magnitude and timing. Using several soil types and two eco-types of Helianthus annuus L. in split-pot experiments, we examined how well the widely used HR modeling formulation developed by Ryel et al. (2002) could match experimental determination of HR across a range of water potential driving gradients. H. annuus carries out extensive nighttime transpiration, and though over the last decade it has become more widely recognized that nighttime transpiration occurs in multiple species and many ecosystems, the original Ryel et al. (2002) formulation does not include the effect of nighttime transpiration on HR. We developed and added a representation of nighttime transpiration into the formulation, and only then was the model able to capture the dynamics and magnitude of HR we observed as soils dried and nighttime stomatal behavior changed, both influencing HR.

  11. Plant root-driven hydraulic redistribution, root nutrient uptake and carbon exudation interact with soil properties to generate rhizosphere resource hotspots that vary in space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espeleta, J. F.; Neumann, R. B.; Cardon, Z. G.; Mayer, K. U.; Rastetter, E. B.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic redistribution (HR) of soil water by plants occurs in seasonally dry ecosystems worldwide. During drought, water flows from deep moist soil, through plant roots, into dry (often litter-rich) upper soil layers. Using modeling, we explored how physical transport processes driven by transpiration and hydraulic redistribution interact with root physiology (nutrient uptake and carbon exudation) and soil properties (soil texture and cation exchange) to influence nitrogen and carbon concentrations in the rhizosphere. At the single root scale, we modeled a 10-cm radial soil domain, and simulated solute transport, soil cation exchange, and root exudation and nutrient uptake under two water flow patterns: daytime transpiration without nighttime HR, and daytime transpiration with nighttime HR. During HR, water efflux flushed solutes away from the root, diluting the concentrations of key nutrients like nitrate. The transport of cations by transpiration in the day and their accumulation near the root led to competitive desorption of ammonium from soil further from the root and generation of hotspots of ammonium availability at night. HR influenced the spatial and temporal patterns of these hotspots and their intensity. They were also influenced by soil properties of texture and cation exchange capacity. This dynamic resource landscape caused by diel cycling between transpiration and hydraulic redistribution presents a stage for greater complexity of microbial interactions. We are currently embedding a microbial community and small food web into this rhizosphere model in order to explore how organisms responsible for nutrient and soil carbon cycling respond to these fluctuating resource regimes.

  12. Convergence of the effect of root hydraulic functioning and root hydraulic redistribution on ecosystem water and carbon balance across divergent forest ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    domec, J.; King, J. S.; Ogée, J.; Noormets, A.; Warren, J.; Meinzer, F. C.; Sun, G.; Jordan-Meille, L.; Martineau, E.; Brooks, R. J.; Laclau, J.; Battie Laclau, P.; McNulty, S.

    2012-12-01

    INVITED ABSTRACT: Deep root water uptake and hydraulic redistribution (HR) play a major role in forest ecosystems during drought, but little is known about the impact of climate change on root-zone processes influencing HR and its consequences on water and carbon fluxes. Using data from two old growth sites in the western USA, two mature sites in the eastern USA, one site in southern Brazil, and simulations with the process-based model MuSICA, our objectives were to show that HR can 1) mitigate the effects of soil drying on root functioning, and 2) have important implications for carbon uptake and net ecosystem exchange (NEE). In a dry, old-growth ponderosa pine (USA) and a eucalyptus stand (Brazil) both characterized by deep sandy soils, HR limited the decline in root hydraulic conductivity and increased dry season tree transpiration (T) by up to 30%, which impacted NEE through major increases in gross primary productivity (GPP). The presence of deep-rooted trees did not necessarily imply high rates of HR unless soil texture allowed large water potential gradients to occur, as was the case in the wet old-growth Douglas-fir/mixed conifer stand. At the Duke mixed hardwood forest characterized by a shallow clay-loam soil, modeled HR was low but not negligible, representing annually up to 10% of T, and maintaining root conductance high. At this site, in the absence of HR, it was predicted that annual GPP would have been diminished by 7-19%. At the coastal loblolly pine plantation, characterized by deep organic soil, HR limited the decline in shallow root conductivity by more than 50% and increased dry season T by up to 40%, which increased net carbon gain by the ecosystem by about 400 gC m-2 yr-1, demonstrating the significance of HR in maintaining the stomatal conductance and assimilation capacity of the whole ecosystem. Under future climate conditions (elevated atmospheric [CO2] and temperature), HR is predicted to be reduced by up to 50%; reducing the resilience of

  13. HYDRAULIC REDISTRIBUTION OF SOIL WATER DURING SUMMER DROUGHT IN TWO CONTRASTING PACIFIC NORTHWEST CONIFEROUS FORESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The magnitude of hydraulic redistribution of soil water by roots and its impact on soil water balance were estimated by monitoring time courses of soil water status at multiple depths and root sap flow during droughted conditions in a dry ponderosa pine ecosystem and a moist Doug...

  14. A model for hydraulic redistribution incorporating coupled soil-root moisture transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Amenu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the adaptive strategies of vegetation, particularly in water limited ecosystems, is the development of deep roots and the use of hydraulic redistribution which enables them to make optimal use of resources available throughout the soil column. Hydraulic redistribution refers to roots acting as a preferential pathway for the movement of water from wet to dry soil layers driven by the moisture gradient – be it from the shallow to deep layers or vice versa. This occurs during the nighttime while during the daytime moisture movement is driven to fulfill the transpiration demand at the canopy. In this study, we develop a model to investigate the effect of hydraulic redistribution by deep roots on the terrestrial climatology. Sierra Nevada eco-region is chosen as the study site which has wet winters and dry summers. Hydraulic redistribution enables the movement of moisture from the upper soil layers to deeper zones during the wet months and this moisture is then available to meet the transpiration demand during the late dry season. It results in significant alteration of the profiles of soil moisture and water uptake as well as increase in the canopy transpiration, carbon assimilation, and the associated water-use-efficiency during the dry summer season. This also makes the presence of roots in deeper soil layers much more important than their proportional abundance would otherwise dictate. Comparison with observations of latent heat from a flux tower demonstrates improved predictability and provides validation of the model results. Hydraulic redistribution serves as a mechanism for the interaction between the variability of deep layer soil-moisture and the land-surface climatology and could have significant implications for seasonal and sub-seasonal climate prediction.

  15. A model for hydraulic redistribution incorporating coupled soil-root moisture transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Amenu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the adaptive strategies of vegetation, particularly in water limited ecosystems, is the development of deep roots and the use of hydraulic redistribution which enables them to make optimal use of resources available throughout the soil column. Hydraulic redistribution refers to roots acting as a preferential pathway for the movement of water from wet to dry soil layers driven by the moisture gradient – be it from the shallow to deep layers or vice versa. This occurs during the nighttime while during the daytime moisture movement is driven to fulfill the transpiration demand at the canopy. In this study, we develop a model to investigate the effect of hydraulic redistribution by deep roots on the terrestrial climatology. Sierra Nevada eco-region is chosen as the study site which has wet winters and dry summers. Hydraulic redistribution enables the movement of moisture from the upper soil layers to deeper zones during the wet months and this moisture is then available to meet the transpiration demand during the late dry season. It results in significant alteration of the profiles of soil moisture and water uptake as well as increase in the canopy transpiration, carbon assimilation, and the associated water-use-efficiency during the dry summer season. This also makes the presence of roots in deeper soil layers much more important than their proportional abundance would otherwise dictate. Comparison with observations of latent heat from a flux tower demonstrates improved predictability and provides validation of the model results. Hydraulic redistribution serves as a mechanism for the interaction between the variability of deep layer soil-moisture and the land-surface climatology and could have significant implications for seasonal and sub-seasonal climate prediction.

  16. Modeled hydraulic redistribution in tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations: the implications of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kailiang; Foster, Adrianna

    2016-04-01

    Past studies have largely focused on hydraulic redistribution (HR) in trees, shrubs, and grasses, and recognized its role in interspecies interactions. HR in plants that conduct crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM), however, remains poorly investigated, as does the effect of HR on transpiration in different vegetation associations (i.e., tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations). We have developed a mechanistic model to investigate the net direction and magnitude of HR at the patch scale for tree-grass, CAM-grass, and tree-CAM associations at the growing season to yearly timescale. The modeling results show that deep-rooted CAM plants in CAM-grass associations could perform hydraulic lift at a higher rate than trees in tree-grass associations in a relatively wet environment, as explained by a significant increase in grass transpiration rate in the shallow soil layer, balancing a lower transpiration rate by CAM plants. By comparison, trees in tree-CAM associations may perform hydraulic descent at a higher rate than those in tree-grass associations in a dry environment. Model simulations also show that hydraulic lift increases the transpiration of shallow-rooted plants, while hydraulic descent increases that of deep-rooted plants. CAM plants transpire during the night and thus perform HR during the day. Based on these model simulations, we suggest that the ability of CAM plants to perform HR at a higher rate may have different effects on the surrounding plant community than those of plants with C3 or C4 photosynthetic pathways (i.e., diurnal transpiration).

  17. Importance of internal hydraulic redistribution for prolonging the lifespan of roots in dry soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerle, T L; Richards, J H; Smart, D R; Eissenstat, D M

    2008-02-01

    Redistribution of water within plants could mitigate drought stress of roots in zones of low soil moisture. Plant internal redistribution of water from regions of high soil moisture to roots in dry soil occurs during periods of low evaporative demand. Using minirhizotrons, we observed similar lifespans of roots in wet and dry soil for the grapevine 'Merlot' (Vitis vinifera) on the rootstock 101-14 Millardet de Gramanet (Vitis riparia x Vitis rupestris) in a Napa County, California vineyard. We hypothesized that hydraulic redistribution would prevent an appreciable reduction in root water potential and would contribute to prolonged root survivorship in dry soil zones. In a greenhouse study that tested this hypothesis, grapevine root systems were divided using split pots and were grown for 6 months. With thermocouple psychrometers, we measured water potentials of roots of the same plant in both wet and dry soil under three treatments: control (C), 24 h light + supplemental water (LW) and 24 h light only (L). Similar to the field results, roots in the dry side of split pots had similar survivorship as roots in the wet side of the split pots (P = 0.136) in the C treatment. In contrast, reduced root survivorship was directly associated with plants in which hydraulic redistribution was experimentally reduced by 24 h light. Dry-side roots of plants in the LW treatment lived half as long as the roots in the wet soil despite being provided with supplemental water (P < 0.0004). Additionally, pre-dawn water potentials of roots in dry soil under 24 h of illumination (L and LW) exhibited values nearly twice as negative as those of C plants (P = 0.034). Estimates of root membrane integrity using electrolyte leakage were consistent with patterns of root survivorship. Plants in which nocturnal hydraulic redistribution was reduced exhibited more than twice the amount of electrolyte leakage in dry roots compared to those in wet soil of the same plant. Our study demonstrates that

  18. Native root xylem embolism and stomatal closure in stands of Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine: mitigation by hydraulic redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domec, J-C; Warren, J M; Meinzer, F C; Brooks, J R; Coulombe, R

    2004-09-01

    Hydraulic redistribution (HR), the passive movement of water via roots from moist to drier portions of the soil, occurs in many ecosystems, influencing both plant and ecosystem-water use. We examined the effects of HR on root hydraulic functioning during drought in young and old-growth Douglas-fir [ Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] and ponderosa pine ( Pinus ponderosa Dougl. Ex Laws) trees growing in four sites. During the 2002 growing season, in situ xylem embolism, water deficit and xylem vulnerability to embolism were measured on medium roots (2-4-mm diameter) collected at 20-30 cm depth. Soil water content and water potentials were monitored concurrently to determine the extent of HR. Additionally, the water potential and stomatal conductance ( g(s)) of upper canopy leaves were measured throughout the growing season. In the site with young Douglas-fir trees, root embolism increased from 20 to 55 percent loss of conductivity (PLC) as the dry season progressed. In young ponderosa pine, root embolism increased from 45 to 75 PLC. In contrast, roots of old-growth Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine trees never experienced more than 30 and 40 PLC, respectively. HR kept soil water potential at 20-30 cm depth above -0.5 MPa in the old-growth Douglas-fir site and -1.8 MPa in the old-growth ponderosa pine site, which significantly reduced loss of shallow root function. In the young ponderosa pine stand, where little HR occurred, the water potential in the upper soil layers fell to about -2.8 MPa, which severely impaired root functioning and limited recovery when the fall rains returned. In both species, daily maximum g(s) decreased linearly with increasing root PLC, suggesting that root xylem embolism acted in concert with stomata to limit water loss, thereby maintaining minimum leaf water potential above critical values. HR appears to be an important mechanism for maintaining shallow root function during drought and preventing total stomatal closure.

  19. Combined measurement and modeling of the hydrological impact of hydraulic redistribution using CLM4.5 at eight AmeriFlux sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Congsheng; Wang, Guiling; Goulden, Michael L.; Scott, Russell L.; Bible, Kenneth; Cardon, Zoe G.

    2016-05-01

    Effects of hydraulic redistribution (HR) on hydrological, biogeochemical, and ecological processes have been demonstrated in the field, but the current generation of standard earth system models does not include a representation of HR. Though recent studies have examined the effect of incorporating HR into land surface models, few (if any) have done cross-site comparisons for contrasting climate regimes and multiple vegetation types via the integration of measurement and modeling. Here, we incorporated the HR scheme of Ryel et al. (2002) into the NCAR Community Land Model Version 4.5 (CLM4.5), and examined the ability of the resulting hybrid model to capture the magnitude of HR flux and/or soil moisture dynamics from which HR can be directly inferred, to assess the impact of HR on land surface water and energy budgets, and to explore how the impact may depend on climate regimes and vegetation conditions. Eight AmeriFlux sites with contrasting climate regimes and multiple vegetation types were studied, including the Wind River Crane site in Washington State, the Santa Rita Mesquite savanna site in southern Arizona, and six sites along the Southern California Climate Gradient. HR flux, evapotranspiration (ET), and soil moisture were properly simulated in the present study, even in the face of various uncertainties. Our cross-ecosystem comparison showed that the timing, magnitude, and direction (upward or downward) of HR vary across ecosystems, and incorporation of HR into CLM4.5 improved the model-measurement matches of evapotranspiration, Bowen ratio, and soil moisture particularly during dry seasons. Our results also reveal that HR has important hydrological impact in ecosystems that have a pronounced dry season but are not overall so dry that sparse vegetation and very low soil moisture limit HR.

  20. Interactive effects of nocturnal transpiration and climate change on the root hydraulic redistribution and carbon and water budgets of southern United States pine plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domec, Jean-Christophe; Ogée, Jérôme; Noormets, Asko; Jouangy, Julien; Gavazzi, Michael; Treasure, Emrys; Sun, Ge; McNulty, Steve G; King, John S

    2012-06-01

    Deep root water uptake and hydraulic redistribution (HR) have been shown to play a major role in forest ecosystems during drought, but little is known about the impact of climate change, fertilization and soil characteristics on HR and its consequences on water and carbon fluxes. Using data from three mid-rotation loblolly pine plantations, and simulations with the process-based model MuSICA, this study indicated that HR can mitigate the effects of soil drying and had important implications for carbon uptake potential and net ecosystem exchange (NEE), especially when N fertilization is considered. At the coastal site (C), characterized by deep organic soil, HR increased dry season tree transpiration (T) by up to 40%, and such an increase affected NEE through major changes in gross primary productivity (GPP). Deep-rooted trees did not necessarily translate into a large volume of HR unless soil texture allowed large water potential gradients to occur, as was the case at the sandy site (S). At the Piedmont site (P) characterized by a shallow clay-loam soil, HR was low but not negligible, representing up to 10% of T. In the absence of HR, it was predicted that at the C, S and P sites, annual GPP would have been diminished by 19, 7 and 9%, respectively. Under future climate conditions HR was predicted to be reduced by up to 25% at the C site, reducing the resilience of trees to precipitation deficits. The effect of HR on T and GPP was predicted to diminish under future conditions by 12 and 6% at the C and P sites, respectively. Under future conditions, T was predicted to stay the same at the P site, but to be marginally reduced at the C site and slightly increased at the S site. Future conditions and N fertilization would decrease T by 25% at the C site, by 15% at the P site and by 8% at the S site. At the C and S sites, GPP was estimated to increase by 18% and by >70% under future conditions, respectively, with little effect of N fertilization. At the P site, future

  1. Hydraulic redistribution in dwarf Rhizophora mangle trees driven by interstitial soil water salinity gradients: impacts on hydraulic architecture and gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Guang-You; Jones, Tim J; Luton, Corene; Zhang, Yong-Jiang; Manzane, Eric; Scholz, Fabian G; Bucci, Sandra J; Cao, Kun-Fang; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2009-05-01

    Rhizophora mangle L. trees of Biscayne National Park (Florida, USA) have two distinct growth forms: tall trees (5-10 m) growing along the coast and dwarf trees (1 m or less) growing in the adjacent inland zone. Sharp decreases in salinity and thus increases in soil water potential from surface soil to about a depth of 1 m were found at the dwarf mangrove site but not at the tall mangrove site. Consistent with our prediction, hydraulic redistribution detected by reverse sap flow in shallow prop roots was observed during nighttime, early morning and late afternoon in dwarf trees, but not in tall trees. In addition, hydraulic redistribution was observed throughout the 24-h period during a low temperature spell. Dwarf trees had significantly lower sapwood-specific hydraulic conductivity, smaller stem vessel diameter, lower leaf area to sapwood area ratio (LA/SA), smaller leaf size and higher leaf mass per area. Leaves of dwarf trees had lower CO(2) assimilation rate and lower stomatal conductance compared to tall trees. Leaf water potentials at midday were more negative in tall trees that are consistent with their substantially higher stomatal conductance and LA/SA. The substantially lower water transport efficiency and the more conservative water use of dwarf trees may be due to a combination of factors such as high salinity in the surface soil, particularly during dry periods, and substantial reverse sap flow in shallow roots that make upper soil layers with high salinity a competing sink of water to the transpiring leaves. There may also be a benefit for the dwarf trees in having hydraulic redistribution because the reverse flow and the release of water to upper soil layers should lead to dilution of the high salinity in the rhizosphere and thus relieve its potential harm to dwarf R. mangle trees.

  2. Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Robert L.; Kirby, Klane

    This curriculum guide contains a course in hydraulics to train entry-level workers for automotive mechanics and other fields that utilize hydraulics. The module contains 14 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to hydraulics; (2) fundamentals of hydraulics; (3) reservoirs; (4) lines, fittings, and couplers; (5)…

  3. Hydraulic redistribution in a Mediterranean wild olive-pasture ecosystem: A key to tree survival and a limit to tree-patch size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreli, Matteo; Montaldo, Nicola; Oren, Ram

    2017-04-01

    In water-limited environments, such as certain Mediterranean ecosystems, trees may survive prolonged droughts by uptake of water by dimorphic root system: deep roots, growing vertically, and shallower lateral roots, extending beyond the crown projection of tree clumps into zones of seasonal vegetative cover. In such ecosystems, therefore, the balance between soil water under tree canopy versus that in treeless patches plays a crucial role on sustaining tree physiological performance and surface water fluxes during drought periods. The study has been performed at the Orroli site, Sardinia (Italy). The landscape is covered by patchy vegetation: wild olives trees in clumps, herbaceous species, drying to bare soil in late spring. The climate is Mediterranean maritime with long droughts from May to October, and an historical mean yearly rain of about 670 mm concentrated in the autumn and winter months. Soil depth varies from 10 to 50 cm, with underlying fractured rocky layer of basalt. From 2003, a 10 meters micrometeorological tower equipped with eddy-covariance system has been used for measuring water and energy surface fluxes, as well as key state variables (e.g. leaf and soil skin temperature, radiations, air humidity and wind velocity). Soil moisture was measured with five soil water reflectometers (two below the olive canopy and three in patches with pasture vegetation alternating with bare soil in the dry season). Early analyses show that wild olive continue to transpire even as the soil dries and the pasture desiccates. In 2015, to estimate plant water use and in the context of soil water dynamic, 33 Granier-type thermal dissipation probes were installed for estimating sap flow in stems of wild olives trees, 40 cm aboveground, in representative trees over the eddy-covariance foot-print. The combined data of sap flow, soil water content, and eddy covariance, revealed hydraulic redistribution system through the plant and the soil at different layers, allowing to

  4. HR Connect

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — HR Connect is the USAID HR personnel system which allows HR professionals to process HR actions related to employee's personal and position information. This system...

  5. Incorporating root hydraulic redistribution in CLM4.5: Effects on predicted site and global evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and water storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jinyun; Riley, William J.; Niu, Jie

    2015-12-01

    We implemented the Amenu-Kumar model in the Community Land Model (CLM4.5) to simulate plant Root Hydraulic Redistribution (RHR) and analyzed its influence on CLM hydrology from site to global scales. We evaluated two numerical implementations: the first solved the coupled equations of root and soil water transport concurrently, while the second solved the two equations sequentially. Through sensitivity analysis, we demonstrate that the sequentially coupled implementation (SCI) is numerically incorrect, whereas the tightly coupled implementation (TCI) is numerically robust with numerical time steps varying from 1 to 30 min. At the site-level, we found the SCI approach resulted in better agreement with measured evapotranspiration (ET) at the AmeriFlux Blodgett Forest site, California, whereas the two approaches resulted in equally poor agreement between predicted and measured ET at the LBA Tapajos KM67 Mature Forest site in Amazon, Brazil. Globally, the SCI approach overestimated annual land ET by as much as 3.5 mm d-1 in some grid cells when compared to the TCI estimates. These comparisons demonstrate that TCI is a more robust numerical implementation of RHR. However, we found, even with TCI, that incorporating RHR resulted in worse agreement with measured soil moisture at both the Blodgett Forest and Tapajos sites and degraded the agreement between simulated terrestrial water storage anomaly and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations. We find including RHR in CLM4.5 improved ET predictions compared with the FLUXNET-MTE estimates north of 20° N but led to poorer predictions in the tropics. The biases in ET were robust and significant regardless of the four different pedotransfer functions or of the two meteorological forcing data sets we applied. We also found that the simulated water table was unrealistically sensitive to RHR. Therefore, we contend that further structural and data improvements are warranted to improve the hydrological

  6. Systematic Method for Evaluating Extraction and Injection Flow Rates for 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Unit Pump-and-Treat Interim Actions for Hydraulic Containment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiliotopoulos, Alexandros A.

    2013-03-20

    This document describes a systematic method to develop flow rate recommendations for Pump-and-Treat (P&T) extraction and injection wells in 100-KR-4 and 100-HR-3 Groundwater Operable Units (OU) of the Hanford Site. Flow rate recommendations are developed as part of ongoing performance monitoring and remedy optimization of the P&T interim actions to develop hydraulic contairnnent of the dissolved chromium plume in groundwater and protect the Columbia River from further discharges of groundwater from inland. This document details the methodology and data required to infer the influence of individual wells near the shoreline on hydraulic containment and river protection and develop flow rate recommendations to improve system performance and mitigate potential shortcomings of the system configuration in place.

  7. Production, Redistribution, and Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey V. Zakharov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We use an infinite-dimensional Lotka–Volterra model to analyze production, accumulation, and redistribution of wealth in an economy. We show that, if the amount of wealth produced in the economy is small relative to the amount redistributed, the eventual distribution of wealth will be extremely unequal, with all of it being concentrated in single hands in the limit case. The winner’s identity is determined by his ability to redistribute and produce wealth. Similar outcomes are observed in some physical processes. Article is published in the authors’ wording.

  8. Caretakers or HR Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Baba Abugre

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Do human resources (HR managers in developing countries have the clout to make strategic decisions during mergers and acquisitions (M&As? This study aims at establishing the major roles played by HR managers in M&As of public sector companies in Ghana. The research examined the M&As of 10 Ghanaian companies where 10 HR managers gave detailed narratives of their roles and the part they played in the M&A processes. The qualitative method used to solicit the narratives of the HR managers resulted in the following findings: that HR managers in Ghana have a limited role in the planning process of the M&A; that indigenous HR managers perform several tasks in the course of the M&A to get employees stable before and after the M&A processes; nevertheless, they are not part of the policy formulators. The article makes a modest input of the significance of indigenous HR role in international M&As as a panacea to solving the global crises by advocating the empowerment of HR managers in developing context to be partners in the initial commencement of M&As.

  9. Tapping the HR Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. outsourcing firm ADP is expanding its foot-print in China F or a business almost nonexistent in China two decades ago, human resource (HR) outsourcing has since turned the country into a potential goldmine as outsourcing solution providers look to establish or expand their operations. To cater the growing HR outsourcing

  10. Tapping the HR Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING WENLEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ For a business almost nonexistent in China two decades ago,human resource(HR)outsourcing has since turned the country into a potential goldmine as outsourcing solution providers look to establish or expand their operations.

  11. Food Redistribution as Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Phillips, Caleb; Higbee, Becky

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the simultaneous problems of food waste and hunger in the context of the possible solution of food (waste) rescue and redistribution. To this end, we develop an empirical model that can be used in Monte Carlo simulations to study the dynamics of the underlying problem. Our model's parameters are derived from a unique data set provided by a large food bank and food rescue organization in north central Colorado. We find that food supply is a non-parametric heavy-tailed process that is well-modeled with an extreme value peaks-over-threshold model. Although the underlying process is stochastic, the basic approach of food rescue and redistribution appears to be feasible both at small and large scales. The ultimate efficacy of this model is intimately tied to the rate at which food expires and hence the ability to preserve and quickly transport and redistribute food. The cost of the redistribution is tied to the number and density of participating suppliers, and costs can be reduced (and supp...

  12. Difference, Power and, Redistribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Morten

    perceived as structures of domination and expressions of emancipating modernisation. Welfare states are perceived as both structures of democratic redistribution and as power based resource appropriation. Finally welfare states are perceived as normative structures and institutions. Pierre Bourdieu's theory...... of capital and the establishment of universality as normative standard of evaluation in the field of power as well as in social space as such....

  13. Intergenerational redistribution in representative democracies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, M.E.A.J.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis deals with political decision making on intergenerational redistributive policies via public debt, public pensions and public investment. Members of different generations have different preferences on these redistributive policies. The resulting intergenerational conflict is resolved in

  14. Dissolution Power and Redistribution

    OpenAIRE

    Becher, Michael

    2015-01-01

    While democracies vary in whether they allow their chief executives to dissolve parliament and call an early election, recent theories of the economic consequences of executive-legislative institutions in comparative politics pay little attention to dissolution power. I develop a model to analyze how chief executives' ability to dissolve the legislature influences the stability and level of redistribution. It shows that dissolution power critically alters the ability of partisan chief executi...

  15. Democracy, Redistribution, and Equality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Przeworski

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that economic inequality inevitably generates politicalinequality, which in turn reproduces economic inequality. Basic concepts areintroduced first along with strong caveats concerning the quality of the crossnationaldata on income distributions; historical patterns of income inequalityare summarized next, and with these preliminaries, a distinction is made betweenredistribution of consumption at a particular time and equalization of incomeearning capacities over time. Following this economic considerations, the articlediscussion moves to political factors that may block redistributions.

  16. HR som business partner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Birger; Jensen, André Barsøe

    2014-01-01

    De fleste af os vælger at antage, at forandringer kan styres, i hvert fald til en vis grad. Ellers ville man også kunne falde i en slags handlingslammelse, og det er ikke, hvad der efterspørges fra HR’s ansvarlige. Der kræves resultater. HR er gennem en årrække blevet langt mere strategisk, hvor ...

  17. Er HR ude i tovene?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulfelt, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    HR: Er der behov for nytænkning i HR-land? Artikler i Harvard Business Review - bakket op af en dansk undersøgelse - konkluderer, at HR stadig mangler gennemslagskraft i virksomhederne. Er HR ude i tovene? ... For i undersøgelsen "Ny Dansk Ledelse" (maj 2015), som er baseret på danske lederes...

  18. Distributed Human Resource Redistribution System Based on Agent and Ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xiangquan; Wang Ningsheng; Long Wen

    2006-01-01

    A computer system for human resource (HR) redistribution system is presented to solve the balance problem of the "surplus resources" and "surplus tasks" among a group of project units. The system architecture is designed in a compositional manner using the elements of agent technology and knowledge technology. A combination of generic agent models, ontology and knowledge provides an effective approach to address the dynamic, distributed and knowledge-intensive characters of the HR management. In the system, the broker agent acting as intermediary provides matchmaking services to the domain agents, and the individual domain agents communicate directly with each other. The HR ontology provides the semantic match of the surplus task and the surplus resource. Finally, an application example is presented to illustrate the achieved solution for a concrete scenario. This novel way offers a comprehensive HR exchange solution and is suitable for both intra-organizational and inter-organizational HR management.

  19. Hydraulic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sheng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the planning, design, construction and management of hydraulic structures, covering dams, spillways, tunnels, cut slopes, sluices, water intake and measuring works, ship locks and lifts, as well as fish ways. Particular attention is paid to considerations concerning the environment, hydrology, geology and materials etc. in the planning and design of hydraulic projects. It also considers the type selection, profile configuration, stress/stability calibration and engineering countermeasures, flood releasing arrangements and scouring protection, operation and maintenance etc. for a variety of specific hydraulic structures. The book is primarily intended for engineers, undergraduate and graduate students in the field of civil and hydraulic engineering who are faced with the challenges of extending our understanding of hydraulic structures ranging from traditional to groundbreaking, as well as designing, constructing and managing safe, durable hydraulic structures that are economical ...

  20. HYDRAULIC SERVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, D.E.

    1962-05-01

    A hydraulic servo is designed in which a small pressure difference produced at two orifices by an electrically operated flapper arm in a constantly flowing hydraulic loop is hydraulically amplified by two constant flow pumps, two additional orifices, and three unconnected ball pistons. Two of the pistons are of one size and operate against the additional orifices, and the third piston is of a different size and operates between and against the first two pistons. (AEC)

  1. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  2. HR technology in modern Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glinkina Ol'ga Vladimirovna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article made a study and analysis of the concepts «HR technology", "recruitment", "interview" and other terms of the application of the mechanism of HR technologies in modern Russian market of Russia. The scheme of decision-making in recruiting Russian companies and Western, identifies key differences. Fully described algorithm measures for staff selection western companies. The article also discusses the features of recruitment in relation to modern Western companies operating in the Russian market.

  3. Wealth networks with local redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunggon; Kim, Gwang Il; Lee, Geymin

    2008-08-01

    We propose a growing network model of the distribution of wealth in a society with local redistribution. Individuals, represented by nodes in the model, provide goods and services to one of their neighbors and they simultaneously produce wealth using goods and services received from their neighbors. A proportion of the wealth produced by a node is redistributed to its neighbors as a reward for the received goods and services. Nodes have different ability to produce wealth. We analyze the interaction between the wealth accumulation process and the structure of the network, and analyze also how the interaction is affected by the redistribution of wealth. It is investigated how rich nodes attract the individuals entering the network in this model. Under a reasonable distribution of ability, simulation result shows that the distribution of degree, i.e. number of neighbors of a node, is scale-free, and that the wealth distribution for the middle class is a log-normal distribution, while for the richest it shows a power-law behavior. We also show that the local redistribution of wealth has a significant effect on the distribution of both degree and wealth.

  4. Hydraulic Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required whenever hydraulic structures are shown in the flood profile. It is also required if levees are shown on the FIRM, channels containing the...

  5. Simulation of Water Movement through Unsaturated Infiltration- Redistribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Bunsri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the movement of water in a natural unsaturated zone, focusing on infiltration-redistribution system. Infiltration refers to the downward movement of water due to the gravitational force and redistribution defines the upward movement of water due to the capillary rise. Under natural conditions, the movement of water through an infiltrationredistribution depended upon the relations among water content, hydraulic conductivity and tension of soil pore. Various combinations of water balance concepts, Richards’ equation, soil-physics theory and capillary height concepts were applied to mathematically model the movement of water through infiltration-redistribution system. The accuracy and computational efficiency of the developed model were evaluated for the case study. Besides the laboratory scale sand/soil columns with the inner diameter of 10.4 cm were investigated in order to provide the supporting data for model calibration. Sand/soil layers were packed with a bulk density of 1.80 and 1.25 g/cm3, respectively. The infiltration was sprayed uniformly at the soil surface with the constant rate of 66.1 and 7.18 cm3/h for sand and soil columns, respectively. The redistribution process was developed by which water arriving at the column base enter to the sand/soil column due to capillary rise. The laboratory observations were simulated using the developed model. The results indicate that the developed model could well estimate the movement of water in the infiltration-redistribution system that observed in the case study and the experiments.

  6. The redistributive consequences of monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Nakajima, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Monetary policy is not intended to benefit one segment of the population at the expense of another by redistributing income and wealth. But as Makoto Nakajima explains, it is probably impossible to avoid such redistributive consequences.

  7. Hr Pitt mängib hr Smithi / Timo Diener

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Diener, Timo

    2005-01-01

    Brad Pitt actionkomöödias "Hr ja pr Smith" ("Mr and Mrs Smith") : režissöör Doug Liman : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2005. Filmi ümber puhkenud skandaalist ning näitleja plaanitavatest filmirollidest aastal 2006

  8. Hr Pitt mängib hr Smithi / Timo Diener

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Diener, Timo

    2005-01-01

    Brad Pitt actionkomöödias "Hr ja pr Smith" ("Mr and Mrs Smith") : režissöör Doug Liman : Ameerika Ühendriigid 2005. Filmi ümber puhkenud skandaalist ning näitleja plaanitavatest filmirollidest aastal 2006

  9. Biodiversity redistribution under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecl, Gretta T.; Bastos, Miguel; Bell, Johann D.

    2017-01-01

    Distributions of Earth’s species are changing at accelerating rates, increasingly driven by humanmediated climate change. Such changes are already altering the composition of ecological communities, but beyond conservation of natural systems, how and why does this matter? We review evidence...... that climate-driven species redistribution at regional to global scales affects ecosystem functioning, human well-being, and the dynamics of climate change itself. Production of natural resources required for food security, patterns of disease transmission, and processes of carbon sequestration are all altered...... by changes in species distribution. Consideration of these effects of biodiversity redistribution is critical yet lacking in most mitigation and adaptation strategies, including the United Nation’s Sustainable Development Goals....

  10. Bilinear Expansion For Redistribution Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunian, Haik; Alecian, Georges; Khachatryan, Knarik; Vardanyan, Ani

    2016-11-01

    We suggest here a method for construction of a bilinear expansion for an angle-averaged redistribution function. This function describes the elementary act of a photon scattering by a model two-level atom with the upper level broadened due to radiation damping. An eigenvalue and eigenvector determination problem is formulated and the relevant matrices are found analytically. Numerical procedures for their computations are elaborated as well. A simple method for the numerical calculations accuracy evaluation is suggested. It is shown that a family of redistribution functions describing the light scattering process within the spectral line frequencies can be constructed if the eigenvalue problem for the considered function is solved. It becomes possible if the eigenvalues and eigenvectors with the appropriate basic functions are used. The Voigt function and its derivatives used as basic functions are studied in detail as well.

  11. Putting HR outsourcing into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Faced with the time-consuming responsibility of human resources (HR) management, a growing number of medical practices are outsourcing their HR to professional employer organizations (PEOs) so they can concentrate on their core business. A PEO functions as an HR department-minus the high overhead-managing daily administrative tasks such as payroll processing and related tax filings, employee benefits, and workers' compensation coverage and claims resolution. PEOs help physicians' offices keep up with the piles of paperwork that never seem to shrink, freeing doctors to focus on patient care and building their practice. Because of their volume buying power, PEOs are able to offer employees of small medical practices big-company benefits-everything from health, dental, and vision coverage to long-term disability insurance and tuition assistance. A fledgling industry only a decade ago, HR outsourcing has morphed into a blossoming industry. Enlisting the services of a PEO is now considered de rigueur in many small business circles.

  12. The Mystery of HR 6815

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Raymond R.

    The catalogue data for HR 6815 (V669 Herculis) are very incomplete. A literature search was carried out in an attempt to find the missing parameters, and a possible source for the single catalogued datum was found. Further suggested elements are provided, based on 105 photoelectric observations made between 1991 and 1996.

  13. MIGRATION OF ORACLE HR DATABASE

    CERN Multimedia

    ais.support@cern.ch

    2001-01-01

    Restricted services from 3 to 7 November 2001 Due to the migration of the Oracle HR application to the Web, some services which rely on the application's availability may be disturbed from Friday 2 November at 17:30 until Thursday 8 November at 08:30. Amongst those services: HR Division: records office, recruitment, claims and benefits. FI Division: personnel accounting, advances and claims. ST Division: registration office (access cards). SPL Division: external firm staff records. EP Division: users' office. Experiments' secretariats: PIE, Greybook. Divisional secretariats: externals, internal addresses. All information concerning this migration is available at: http://ais.cern.ch We apologize for any inconvenience and thank you in advance for your understanding.

  14. Strategic campaigns and redistributive politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The article investigates strategic, informative campaigning by two parties when politics concern redistribution. Voters are uncertain about whether parties favour special groups. Parties will target campaigns on groups where most votes are gained by informing about policies. In equilibrium......, campaigning will be most intensive in groups where the uncertainty is largest and where voters are most mobile, most likely to vote, most receptive to campaigns and relatively uninformed initially. These groups will become more informed about policy. Parties will therefore gain more votes by treating...

  15. Next HR Department Public meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

      Dear Colleagues, I am pleased to invite you to the next public meeting organized by HR Department, which will take place on Monday 25 June at 14:30, for the first time in the Globe (in front of the Reception). The agenda will comprise of: ·         the recent staff member survey results ·         the Diversity at CERN ·         the Learning and Development Policy The first topic concerns, more specifically, staff members. All presentations will be made in English, however, we are pleased to inform you that a simultaneous interpretation in French is foreseen. Should you not be able to attend the meeting, it can also be followed via Webcast and the recording will be made available on Indico. Finally, subject to a favourable weather, refreshments...

  16. The politics of redistribution in local government

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denters, Sebastianus A.H.

    This paper deals with the politics of redistribution in local government. Traditionally, it has been assumed that redistributive policies are crucial in electoral competition and party politics, both in national and local political systems. From this perspective, differences in local competition and

  17. Réunion publique HR

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    Chers Collègues,Je me permets de vous rappeler qu'une réunion publique organisée par le Département HR se tiendra aujourd'hui:Vendredi 30 avril 2010 à 9h30 dans l'Amphithéâtre principal (café offert dès 9h00).Durant cette réunion, des informations générales seront données sur:le CERN Admin e-guide, qui est un nouveau guide des procédures administratives du CERN ayant pour but de faciliter la recherche d'informations pratiques et d'offrir un format de lecture convivial;le régime d'Assurance Maladie de l'Organisation (présentation effectuée par Philippe Charpentier, Président du CHIS Board) et;la Caisse de Pensions (présentation effectuée par Théodore Economou, Administrateur de la Caisse de Pensions du CERN).Une transmission simultanée de cette réunion sera assur...

  18. Asteroseismology Across the HR Diagram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M. J.; Cunha, M. S.; Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G.

    2003-05-01

    Ground-based observations have detected solar-like oscillations on Sun-like stars, and diagnostics similar to those used in helioseismology are now being used to test and constrain the physics and evolutionary state of these stars. Multi-mode oscillations are being observed in an abundance of other stars, including slowly pulsating B stars (SPB stars), delta-Scuti stars, Ap stars and the pulsating white dwarfs. New classes of pulsators continue to be discovered across the Herzsprung-Russell diagram. Yet the chances still to be faced to make asteroseismology across the HR diagram a reality are formidable. Observation, data analysis and theory all pose hard problems to be overcome. This book, reflecting the goal of the meeting, aims to facilitate a cross-fertilisation of ideas and approaches between fields covering different pulsators and with different areas of expertise. The book successfully covers most known types of pulsators, reflecting a highly productive and far reaching interchange of ideas which we believe is conveyed by the papers and posters published, making it a reference for researchers and postgraduate students working on stellar structure and evolution. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1173-3

  19. Next HR Department public meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, I am pleased to invite you to the next public meeting organized by the HR Department, which will take place on Tuesday 28 June at 3 p.m. in the Council Chamber. A drink will be served after the meeting as of 16:30 This meeting will be the opportunity to revisit the specificities of the Career Structure measures and Benchmark Jobs, what they entail and how they will be implemented, and to answer your questions. This meeting is also important for me on a personal note, as I will bid you farewell, at least for a few years, taking special leave as of 1 August 2016 to take up the position of Director-General for Human Resources at the European Central Bank in Frankfurt.  Should you not be able to attend the meeting, it can also be followed via Webcast and the recording will be made available on Indico. I look forward to meeting you. Best regards, Anne-Sylvie Catherin Head of the Human Resources Department

  20. Redistributive effects in public health care financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honekamp, Ivonne; Possenriede, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    This article focuses on the redistributive effects of different measures to finance public health insurance. We analyse the implications of different financing options for public health insurance on the redistribution of income from good to bad health risks and from high-income to low-income individuals. The financing options considered are either income-related (namely income taxes, payroll taxes, and indirect taxes), health-related (co-insurance, deductibles, and no-claim), or neither (flat fee). We show that governments who treat access to health care as a basic right for everyone should consider redistributive effects when reforming health care financing.

  1. Subsurface application enhances benefits of manure redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable nutrient management requires redistribution of livestock manure from nutrient-excess areas to nutrient-deficit areas. Field experiments were conducted to assess agronomic and environmental effects of different poultry litter application methods (surface vs. subsurface) and timings (fall ...

  2. Plant clonal integration mediates the horizontal redistribution of soil resources, benefiting neighbouring plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehua eYe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Resources such as water taken up by plants can be released into soils through hydraulic redistribution and can also be translocated by clonal integration within a plant clonal network. We hypothesized that the resources from one (donor microsite could be translocated within a clonal network, released into different (recipient microsites and subsequently used by neighbour plants in the recipient microsite. To test these hypotheses, we conducted two experiments in which connected and disconnected ramet pairs of Potentilla anserina were grown under both homogeneous and heterogeneous water regimes, with seedlings of Artemisia ordosica as neighbours. The isotopes [15N] and deuterium were used to trace the translocation of nitrogen and water, respectively, within the clonal network. The water and nitrogen taken up by P. anserina ramets in the donor microsite were translocated into the connected ramets in the recipient microsites. Most notably, portions of the translocated water and nitrogen were released into the recipient microsite and were used by the neighbouring A. ordosica, which increased growth of the neighbouring A. ordosica significantly. Therefore, our hypotheses were supported, and plant clonal integration mediated the horizontal hydraulic redistribution of resources, thus benefiting neighbouring plants. Such a plant clonal integration-mediated resource redistribution in horizontal space may have substantial effects on the interspecific relations and composition of the community and consequently on ecosystem processes.

  3. Plant Clonal Integration Mediates the Horizontal Redistribution of Soil Resources, Benefiting Neighboring Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xue-Hua; Zhang, Ya-Lin; Liu, Zhi-Lan; Gao, Shu-Qin; Song, Yao-Bin; Liu, Feng-Hong; Dong, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Resources such as water taken up by plants can be released into soils through hydraulic redistribution and can also be translocated by clonal integration within a plant clonal network. We hypothesized that the resources from one (donor) microsite could be translocated within a clonal network, released into different (recipient) microsites and subsequently used by neighbor plants in the recipient microsite. To test these hypotheses, we conducted two experiments in which connected and disconnected ramet pairs of Potentilla anserina were grown under both homogeneous and heterogeneous water regimes, with seedlings of Artemisia ordosica as neighbors. The isotopes [(15)N] and deuterium were used to trace the translocation of nitrogen and water, respectively, within the clonal network. The water and nitrogen taken up by P. anserina ramets in the donor microsite were translocated into the connected ramets in the recipient microsites. Most notably, portions of the translocated water and nitrogen were released into the recipient microsite and were used by the neighboring A. ordosica, which increased growth of the neighboring A. ordosica significantly. Therefore, our hypotheses were supported, and plant clonal integration mediated the horizontal hydraulic redistribution of resources, thus benefiting neighboring plants. Such a plant clonal integration-mediated resource redistribution in horizontal space may have substantial effects on the interspecific relations and composition of the community and consequently on ecosystem processes.

  4. Tsunami mitigation - redistribution of energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Usama

    2017-04-01

    Tsunamis are water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, in the deep ocean or a large lake, following an earthquake, landslide, underwater explosion, meteorite impacts, or other violent geological events. On the coastline, the resulting waves evolve from unnoticeable to devastating, reaching heights of tens of meters and causing destruction of property and loss of life. Over 225,000 people were killed in the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami alone. For many decades, scientists have been studying tsunami, and progress has been widely reported in connection with the causes (1), forecasting (2), and recovery (3). However, none of the studies ratifies the approach of a direct mitigation of tsunamis, with the exception of mitigation using submarine barriers (e.g. see Ref. (4)). In an attempt to open a discussion on direct mitigation, I examine the feasibility of redistributing the total energy of a very long surface ocean (gravity) wave over a larger space through nonlinear resonant interaction with two finely tuned acoustic-gravity waves (see Refs. (5-8)). Theoretically, while the energy input in the acoustic-gravity waves required for an effective interaction is comparable to that in a tsunami (i.e. impractically large), employing the proposed mitigation technique the initial tsunami amplitude could be reduced substantially resulting in a much milder impact at the coastline. Moreover, such a technique would allow for the harnessing of the tsunami's own energy. Practically, this mitigation technique requires the design of highly accurate acoustic-gravity wave frequency transmitters or modulators, which is a rather challenging ongoing engineering problem. References 1. E. Bryant, 2014. Tsunami: the underrated hazard. Springer, doi:10.1007/978-3-319- 06133-7. 2. V. V. Titov, F. I. Gonza`lez, E. N. Bernard, M. C. Eble, H. O. Mofjeld, J. C. Newman, A. J. Venturato, 2005. Real-Time Tsunami Forecasting: Challenges and Solutions. Nat. Hazards 35:41-58, doi:10

  5. The perspective of Malaysian Manufacturing Organizations on Strategy, HR Outsourcing and HR Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasliza Abdul HALIM

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the relationship between different types of human resource management (HRM strategy and the human resource outsourcing, and impact on the size of human resource (HR department. Three HRM strategies are considered: Facilitation, accumulation and utilization. The data for the study were obtained from survey responses from 232 organizations, of which 113 were engaged in HR outsourcing. The findings suggest that organizations tend to rely on outsourcing of HR functions when they espouse facilitation and utilization HRM strategy. Concurrently, by relying on HR outsourcing, the organizations manage to experience a reduction in the size of HR department. The results show that it is important for the organizations to better understand the implications of an increased reliance on outsourcing within HR. This allows them to focus on how HR functions are delivered within organizations with the interaction of HRM strategy and the size of HR department will tend to be smaller resulting from outsourcing activities.

  6. Solute Redistribution in Directional Melting Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@The solute redistribution in directional melting process is theoretically studied. Based on quantitative evaluations, uniform solute distribution in liquid and a quasi-steady solute distribution in solid are supposed. The discussion on the solute balance comes to a simple model for the solute redistribution in directional melting process. As an example, the variation of liquid composition during melting process of carbon steel is quantitatively evaluated using the model. Results show that the melting of an alloy starts at solidus temperature, but approaches the liquidus temperature after a very short transient process.

  7. HYDRAULICS, LOUISA COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic analysis for estimating flood stages for a flood insurance study. It...

  8. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  9. HR8844: A new hot Am star ?

    CERN Document Server

    Monier, R; Royer, F

    2016-01-01

    Using one archival high dispersion high quality spectrum of HR8844 (A0V) obtained with the echelle spectrograph SOPHIE at Observatoire de Haute Provence, we show that this star is not a superficially normal A0V star as hitherto thought. The model atmosphere and spectrum synthesis modeling of the spectrum of HR8844 reveals large departures of its abundances from the solar composition. We report here on our first determinations of the elemental abundances of 41 elements in the atmosphere of HR8844. Most of the light elements are underabundant whereas the very heavy elements are overabundant in HR8844.This interesting new chemically peculiar star could be a hybrid object between the HgMn stars and the Am stars.

  10. Universal Service Policies as Wealth Redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Milton

    1999-01-01

    Offers a critical reassessment of the underlying rationale for universal service policies and argues that public policies designed to promote universal telecommunications access are simply a form of wealth redistribution. Considers economic and political issues and discusses how telecommunications can help ameliorate inequalities but not eliminate…

  11. Inequality, redistribution and growth : Theory and evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haile, D.

    2005-01-01

    From a macro-perspective, the thesis provides a political economic model that analyses the joint determination of inequality, corruption, taxation, education and economic growth in a dynamic environment. It demonstrates how redistributive taxation is affected by the distribution of wealth and limite

  12. Personal use, social supply or redistribution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Munksgaard, Rasmus; Houborg, Esben

    2017-01-01

    In 2011, Silk Road became the first black market, or "cryptomarket", for illicit drugs. This study examines two of the largest cryptomarkets which have operated, Silk Road 2.0 and Agora Marketplace. We hypothesize that cryptomarkets cater to buyers who intend to resell or redistribute the product...

  13. Redistributive Politics in a Political Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    -regional inequalities created by the single market. Despite the fact that the principle of ‘juste retour’ has traditionally limited the redistributive capacity of the EU, the net fiscal position of member states - what they pay to the EU budget minus what they receive from it - is very diverse, and has changed quite...

  14. Cognitive ability and the demand for redistribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Mollerstrom

    Full Text Available Empirical research suggests that the cognitively able are politically more influential than the less able, by being more likely to vote and to assume leadership positions. This study asks whether this pattern matters for public policy by investigating what role a person's cognitive ability plays in determining his preferences for redistribution of income among citizens in society. To answer this question, we use a unique Swedish data set that matches responses to a tailor-made questionnaire to administrative tax records and to military enlistment records for men, with the latter containing a measure of cognitive ability. On a scale of 0 to 100 percent redistribution, a one-standard-deviation increase in cognitive ability reduces the willingness to redistribute by 5 percentage points, or by the same amount as a $35,000 increase in mean annual income. We find support for two channels mediating this economically strong and statistically significant relation. First, higher ability is associated with higher income. Second, ability is positively correlated with the view that economic success is the result of effort, rather than luck. Both these factors are, in turn, related to lower demand for redistribution.

  15. Butterfly Diagram and Activity Cycles in HR 1099

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdyugina, Svetlana V.; Henry, Gregory W.

    2007-04-01

    We analyze photometric data of the active RS CVn-type star HR 1099 for the years 1975-2006 with an inversion technique and reveal the nature of two activity cycles of 15-16 yr and 5.3+/-0.1 yr duration. The 16 yr cycle is related to variations of the total spot area and is coupled with the differential rotation, while the 5.3 yr cycle is caused by the symmetric redistribution of the spotted area between the opposite stellar hemispheres (flip-flop cycle). We recover long-lived active regions comprising two active longitudes that migrate in the orbital reference frame with a variable rate because of the differential rotation along with changes in the mean spot latitudes. The migration pattern is periodic with the 16 yr cycle. Combining the longitudinal migration of the active regions with a previously measured differential rotation law, we recover the first stellar butterfly diagram without an assumption about spot shapes. We find that mean latitudes of active regions at opposite longitudes change antisymmetrically in the course of the 16 yr cycle: while one active region migrates to the pole, the other approaches the equator. This suggests a precession of the global magnetic field with respect to the stellar rotational axis.

  16. Butterfly Diagram and Activity Cycles in HR 1099

    CERN Document Server

    Berdyugina, S V

    2007-01-01

    We analyze photometric data of the active RS CVn--type star HR 1099 for the years 1975--2006 with an inversion technique and reveal the nature of two activity cycles of 15--16 yr and 5.3$\\pm$0.1 yr duration. The 16 yr cycle is related to variations of the total spot area and is coupled with the differential rotation, while the 5.3 yr cycle is caused by the symmetric redistribution of the spotted area between the opposite stellar hemispheres (flip-flop cycle). We recover long-lived active regions comprising two active longitudes that migrate in the orbital reference frame with a variable rate because of the differential rotation along with changes in the mean spot latitudes. The migration pattern is periodic with the 16 yr cycle. Combining the longitudinal migration of the active regions with a previously measured differential rotation law, we recover the first stellar butterfly diagram without an assumption about spot shapes. We find that mean latitudes of active regions at opposite longitudes change antisymm...

  17. The perspective of Malaysian Manufacturing Organizations on Strategy, HR Outsourcing and HR Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Hasliza Abdul HALIM; Norbani CHE-HA

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the relationship between different types of human resource management (HRM) strategy and the human resource outsourcing, and impact on the size of human resource (HR) department. Three HRM strategies are considered: Facilitation, accumulation and utilization. The data for the study were obtained from survey responses from 232 organizations, of which 113 were engaged in HR outsourcing. The findings suggest that organizations tend to rely on outsourcing of HR functions when ...

  18. Vidensbaseret beslutningstagning i HR-funktionen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Hansen, Thomas Bech; Frederiksen, Niels

    2009-01-01

    Employees are a company's most important asset. Hence it is essential that companies use the information available about their employees optimally to learn about employee behavior and to optimize their use of human resources. In this article we present a job separation study using Danske Bank...... personnel fi les, performance evaluations and employee job satisfaction surveys. The analysis illustrates how fi rms applying quantitative HR can transform information about their employees into an improved assessment of expected employee job separation probabilities and by that remove a substantial part...... of the uncertainty faced by HR department. Further, we discuss how the newly acquired knowledge allows the HR department to engage in more tactical and strategic decisions....

  19. Redistributive effects of Swedish health care finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdtham, U G; Sundberg, G

    1998-01-01

    This paper investigates the redistributive effects of the Swedish health care financing system in 1980 and 1990 for four different financial sources: county council taxes, payroll taxes, direct payments and state grants. The redistributive effects are decomposed into vertical, horizontal and 'reranking' segments for each of the four financial sources. The data used are based on probability samples of the Swedish population, from the Level of Living Survey (LNU) from 1981 and 1991. The paper concludes that the Swedish health care financing system is weakly progressive, although direct payments are regressive. There is some horizontal inequity and 'reranking', which mainly comes from the county council taxes, since those tax rates vary for each county council. The implication is that, to some extent, people with equal incomes are treated unequally.

  20. Moisture redistribution in screeded concrete slabs

    OpenAIRE

    Åhs, Magnus

    2007-01-01

    The principal objective for this licentiate thesis is to develop a methodology and evaluation model in order to make the future relative humidity in a screeded concrete slab predictable. Residual moisture in screeded concrete slabs may redistribute to the top screed surface under semi-permeable flooring, thus elevating the relative humidity, RH, and possibly exceed the critical humidity level. Passing the critical humidity level may result in material damages on the flooring and adhesive. ...

  1. Horizontal steam generator PGV-1000 thermal-hydraulic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubra, O. [Skoda Company, Prague (Switzerland); Doubek, M. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Switzerland)

    1995-12-31

    A computer program for the steady state thermal-hydraulic analysis of horizontal steam generator PGV-1000 is presented. The program provides the capability to analyze steam generator PGV-1000 primary side flow and temperature distribution, primary side pressure drops, heat transfer between the primary and secondary sides and multidimensional heat flux distribution. A special attention is paid to the thermal-hydraulics of the secondary side. The code predicts 3-D distribution of the void fraction at the secondary side, mass redistribution under the submerged perforated sheet and the steam generator level profile. By means of developed computer program a detailed thermal-hydraulic study of the PGV-1000 has been carried out. A wide range of calculations has been performed and a set of important steam generator characteristics has been obtained. Some of them are presented in the paper. (orig.). 5 refs.

  2. Matching Effective HR Practices with Competitive Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Randall S.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examines links between three competitive strategies (cost reduction, quality improvement, and innovation) and human resources (HR) practices. Describes a framework for ensuring that the two are made compatible and illustrates the process by showing how one $20 million business wrestled with these compatibility issues. (CH)

  3. Matching Effective HR Practices with Competitive Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Randall S.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examines links between three competitive strategies (cost reduction, quality improvement, and innovation) and human resources (HR) practices. Describes a framework for ensuring that the two are made compatible and illustrates the process by showing how one $20 million business wrestled with these compatibility issues. (CH)

  4. Linking HR strategy, e-HR goals, architectures, and outcomes: a model and case study evidence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reddington, Martin; Martin, Graeme; Bondarouk, T.V.; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, H.; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Looise, J.C.; Looise, Jan C.

    2011-01-01

    Building on our earlier model of the links between HR strategy, e-HR goals, architectures, and outcomes, we illustrate the relationship between some of these elements with data from three global organizations. In doing so, we aim to help academics and practitioners understand this increasingly

  5. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  6. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  7. Handbook of hydraulic fluid technology

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, George E

    2011-01-01

    ""The Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology"" serves as the foremost resource for designing hydraulic systems and for selecting hydraulic fluids used in engineering applications. Featuring new illustrations, data tables, as well as practical examples, this second edition is updated with essential information on the latest hydraulic fluids and testing methods. The detailed text facilitates unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including important hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants. Written by worldwide experts, the book also offers a rigorous overview of h

  8. A conceptual, distributed snow redistribution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, S.; Holzmann, H.

    2015-11-01

    When applying conceptual hydrological models using a temperature index approach for snowmelt to high alpine areas often accumulation of snow during several years can be observed. Some of the reasons why these "snow towers" do not exist in nature are vertical and lateral transport processes. While snow transport models have been developed using grid cell sizes of tens to hundreds of square metres and have been applied in several catchments, no model exists using coarser cell sizes of 1 km2, which is a common resolution for meso- and large-scale hydrologic modelling (hundreds to thousands of square kilometres). In this paper we present an approach that uses only gravity and snow density as a proxy for the age of the snow cover and land-use information to redistribute snow in alpine basins. The results are based on the hydrological modelling of the Austrian Inn Basin in Tyrol, Austria, more specifically the Ötztaler Ache catchment, but the findings hold for other tributaries of the river Inn. This transport model is implemented in the distributed rainfall-runoff model COSERO (Continuous Semi-distributed Runoff). The results of both model concepts with and without consideration of lateral snow redistribution are compared against observed discharge and snow-covered areas derived from MODIS satellite images. By means of the snow redistribution concept, snow accumulation over several years can be prevented and the snow depletion curve compared with MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data could be improved, too. In a 7-year period the standard model would lead to snow accumulation of approximately 2900 mm SWE (snow water equivalent) in high elevated regions whereas the updated version of the model does not show accumulation and does also predict discharge with more accuracy leading to a Kling-Gupta efficiency of 0.93 instead of 0.9. A further improvement can be shown in the comparison of MODIS snow cover data and the calculated depletion curve, where

  9. A splitting-free vorticity redistribution method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhart, M.; Obi, S.

    2017-02-01

    We present a splitting-free variant of the vorticity redistribution method. Spatial consistency and stability when combined with a time-stepping scheme are proven. We propose a new strategy preventing excessive growth in the number of particles while retaining the order of consistency. The novel concept of small neighbourhoods significantly reduces the method's computational cost. In numerical experiments the method showed second order convergence, one order higher than predicted by the analysis. Compared to the fast multipole code used in the velocity computation, the method is about three times faster.

  10. Population redistribution in optically trapped polar molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Deiglmayr, J; Dulieu, O; Wester, R; Weidemüller, M

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the rovibrational population redistribution of polar molecules in the electronic ground state induced by spontaneous emission and blackbody radiation. As a model system we use optically trapped LiCs molecules formed by photoassociation in an ultracold two-species gas. The population dynamics of vibrational and rotational states is modeled using an ab-initio electric dipole moment function and experimental potential energy curves. Comparison with the evolution of the v"=3 electronic ground state yields good qualitative agreement. The analysis provides important input to assess applications of ultracold LiCs molecules in quantum simulation and ultracold chemistry.

  11. Analytical solutions for reactive transport under an infiltration-redistribution cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severino, Gerardo; Indelman, Peter

    2004-05-01

    Transport of reactive solute in unsaturated soils under an infiltration-redistribution cycle is investigated. The study is based on the model of vertical flow and transport in the unsaturated zone proposed by Indelman et al. [J. Contam. Hydrol. 32 (1998) 77], and generalizes it by accounting for linear nonequilibrium kinetics. An exact analytical solution is derived for an irreversible desorption reaction. The transport of solute obeying linear kinetics is modeled by assuming equilibrium during the redistribution stage. The model which accounts for nonequilibrium during the infiltration and assumes equilibrium at the redistribution stage is termed partial equilibrium infiltration-redistribution model (PEIRM). It allows to derive approximate closed form solutions for transport in one-dimensional homogeneous soils. These solutions are further applied to computing the field-scale concentration by adopting the Dagan and Bresler [Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 43 (1979) 461] column model. The effect of soil heterogeneity on the solute spread is investigated by modeling the hydraulic saturated conductivity as a random function of horizontal coordinates. The quality of the PEIRM is illustrated by calculating the critical values of the Damköhler number which provide the achievable accuracy in estimating the solute mass in the mobile phase. The distinguishing feature of transport during the infiltration-redistribution cycle as compared to that of infiltration only is the finite depth of solute penetration. For irreversible desorption, the maximum solute penetration W/theta(r) is determined by the amount of applied water W and the residual water content theta(r). For sorption-desorption kinetics, the maximum depth of penetration z(r)(e, infinity ) also depends on the ratio between the rate of application and the column-saturated conductivity. It is shown that z(r)(e, infinity ) is bounded between the depths W/(theta(r)+K(d)) and W/theta(r) corresponding to the maximum solute

  12. HR ANALYTICS FOR STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Understanding HR’s contributions in driving organizational performance is nowadays essential. HR professionals need to face the new realities and adopt an integrated management model in order to provide the best actions regarding the management of human capital. An organization needs and can quantify the HR’s overall strategic impact by finding the proper ways for measuring its impact on the success drivers. This paper aims to identify and describe the steps needed in order to asses HR’s stra...

  13. Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C; Mandic, Danilo P

    2015-08-01

    Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis.

  14. Enabling quaternion derivatives: the generalized HR calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dongpo; Jahanchahi, Cyrus; Took, Clive C.; Mandic, Danilo P.

    2015-01-01

    Quaternion derivatives exist only for a very restricted class of analytic (regular) functions; however, in many applications, functions of interest are real-valued and hence not analytic, a typical case being the standard real mean square error objective function. The recent HR calculus is a step forward and provides a way to calculate derivatives and gradients of both analytic and non-analytic functions of quaternion variables; however, the HR calculus can become cumbersome in complex optimization problems due to the lack of rigorous product and chain rules, a consequence of the non-commutativity of quaternion algebra. To address this issue, we introduce the generalized HR (GHR) derivatives which employ quaternion rotations in a general orthogonal system and provide the left- and right-hand versions of the quaternion derivative of general functions. The GHR calculus also solves the long-standing problems of product and chain rules, mean-value theorem and Taylor's theorem in the quaternion field. At the core of the proposed GHR calculus is quaternion rotation, which makes it possible to extend the principle to other functional calculi in non-commutative settings. Examples in statistical learning theory and adaptive signal processing support the analysis. PMID:26361555

  15. Neutron Imaging Reveals Internal Plant Hydraulic Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Horita, Jusuke [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Many terrestrial ecosystem processes are constrained by water availability and transport within the soil. Knowledge of plant water fluxes is thus critical for assessing mechanistic processes linked to biogeochemical cycles, yet resolution of root structure and xylem water transport dynamics has been a particularly daunting task for the ecologist. Through neutron imaging, we demonstrate the ability to non-invasively monitor individual root functionality and water fluxes within Zea mays L. (maize) and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) seedlings growing in a sandy medium. Root structure and growth were readily imaged by neutron radiography and neutron computed tomography. Seedlings were irrigated with water or deuterium oxide and imaged through time as a growth lamp was cycled on to alter leaf demand for water. Sub-millimeter scale resolution reveals timing and magnitudes of root water uptake, redistribution within the roots, and root-shoot hydraulic linkages, relationships not well characterized by other techniques.

  16. The global warming hiatus: Slowdown or redistribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Hai; Boyer, Tim; Trenberth, Kevin; Karl, Thomas R.; Xie, Shang-Ping; Nieves, Veronica; Tung, Ka-Kit; Roemmich, Dean

    2016-11-01

    Global mean surface temperatures (GMST) exhibited a smaller rate of warming during 1998-2013, compared to the warming in the latter half of the 20th Century. Although, not a "true" hiatus in the strict definition of the word, this has been termed the "global warming hiatus" by IPCC (2013). There have been other periods that have also been defined as the "hiatus" depending on the analysis. There are a number of uncertainties and knowledge gaps regarding the "hiatus." This report reviews these issues and also posits insights from a collective set of diverse information that helps us understand what we do and do not know. One salient insight is that the GMST phenomenon is a surface characteristic that does not represent a slowdown in warming of the climate system but rather is an energy redistribution within the oceans. Improved understanding of the ocean distribution and redistribution of heat will help better monitor Earth's energy budget and its consequences. A review of recent scientific publications on the "hiatus" shows the difficulty and complexities in pinpointing the oceanic sink of the "missing heat" from the atmosphere and the upper layer of the oceans, which defines the "hiatus." Advances in "hiatus" research and outlooks (recommendations) are given in this report.

  17. FEMA DFIRM Hydraulic Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer and accompanying attribute table is required whenever hydraulic structures are shown in the flood profile. It is also required if levees are shown on the...

  18. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on......-going research projects on fluid power and mechatronics based on tap water hydraulic servovalves and linear servo actuators and rotary vane actuators for motion control and power transmission. Development and design a novel water hydraulic rotary vane actuator for robot manipulators. Proposed mathematical...... modelling, control and simulation of a water hydraulic rotary vane actuator applied to power and control a two-links manipulator and evaluate performance. The results include engineering design and test of the proposed simulation models compared with IHA Tampere University’s presentation of research...

  19. Constant-Pressure Hydraulic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    Constant output pressure in gas-driven hydraulic pump would be assured in new design for gas-to-hydraulic power converter. With a force-multiplying ring attached to gas piston, expanding gas would apply constant force on hydraulic piston even though gas pressure drops. As a result, pressure of hydraulic fluid remains steady, and power output of the pump does not vary.

  20. Evidence for vertical ozone redistribution since 1967

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrer, R.; Döhler, W.; Kirsch, H.-J.; Plessing, P.; Görsdorf, U.

    1993-03-01

    Long-term measurements of the ozone concentration in the vicinity of the city of Berlin have been performed with ground based Dobson spectrophotometers and balloon borne systems. The respective experiments cover the past 24 years. All data have been reevaluated and corrected towards uniform calibration standards, leading to the longest European data set of total column density, altitude-dependent ozone partial pressures and the corresponding temperatures. Smoothing algorithms unravel significant long-term trends. The analysis shows an increase of ozone concentration within the middle stratosphere (below 31 km height) as well as in the troposphere over the past 24 years. On the contrary, ongoing ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere has been found. The large scale vertical redistribution of atmospheric ozone in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere seems to be in agreement with model calculations and trend predictions that have their roots in changes of the chemical composition and the ozone photochemistry due to anthropogenically induced trace gas concentrations.

  1. Charge Redistribution from Anomalous Magnetovorticity Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Koichi; Yin, Yi

    2016-10-01

    We investigate novel transport phenomena in a chiral fluid originated from an interplay between a vorticity and strong magnetic field, which induces a redistribution of vector charges in the system and an axial current along the magnetic field. The corresponding transport coefficients are obtained from an energy-shift argument for the chiral fermions in the lowest Landau level due to a spin-vorticity coupling and also from diagrammatic computations on the basis of the linear response theory. Based on consistent results from both methods, we observe that the transport coefficients are proportional to the anomaly coefficient and are independent of temperature and chemical potential. We therefore speculate that these transport phenomena are connected to quantum anomaly.

  2. Characterizing HR3549B using SPHERE

    CERN Document Server

    Mesa, D; D'Orazi, V; Ginski, C; Desidera, S; Bonnefoy, M; Gratton, R; Langlois, M; Marzari, F; Messina, S; Antichi, J; Biller, B; Bonavita, M; Cascone, E; Chauvin, G; Claudi, R U; Curtis, I; Fantinel, D; Feldt, M; Garufi, A; Galicher, R; Henning, Th; Incorvaia, S; Lagrange, A M; Millward, M; Perrot, C; Salasnich, B; Scuderi, S; Sissa, E; Wahhaj, Z; Zurlo, A

    2016-01-01

    Aims. In this work, we characterize the low mass companion of the A0 field star HR3549. Methods. We observed HR3549AB in imaging mode with the the NIR branch (IFS and IRDIS) of SPHERE@VLT, with IFS in YJ mode and IRDIS in the H band. We also acquired a medium resolution spectrum with the IRDIS long slit spectroscopy mode. The data were reduced using the dedicated SPHERE GTO pipeline, purposely designed for this instrument. We employed algorithms such as PCA and TLOCI to reduce the speckle noise. Results. The companion was clearly visible both with IRDIS and IFS.We obtained photometry in four different bands as well as the astrometric position for the companion. Based on our astrometry, we confirm that it is a bound object and put constraints on its orbit. Although several uncertainties are still present, we estimate an age of ~100-150 Myr for this system, yielding a most probable mass for the companion of 40-50MJup and T_eff ~300-2400 K. Comparing with template spectra points to a spectral type between M9 and...

  3. Immigration, integration and support for redistribution in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.

    2011-01-01

    Immigration can be expected to have offsetting implications for public support for redistribution. On the one hand, immigration poses individual or collective economic risks that might make citizens more likely to support government redistribution, but on the other it can generate fiscal pressure or

  4. The influence of flow redistribution on working rat muscle oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoofd, L.J.C.; Degens, H.

    2009-01-01

    We applied a theoretical model of muscle tissue O2 transport to investigate the effects of flow redistribution on rat soleus muscle oxygenation. The situation chosen was the anaerobic threshold where redistribution of flow is expected to have the largest impact. In the basic situation all

  5. Pure Redistribution and the Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    We study pure redistribution as a device to increase cooperation and efficiency in the provision of public goods. Experimental subjects play a two-stage game. The first stage is the standard linear public goods game. In the second stage, subjects can redistribute payoffs among other subjects...... cooperation in the provision of public goods...

  6. Pure redistribution and the provision of public goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sausgruber, Rupert; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    2007-01-01

    We show that a simple redistribution scheme can increase the provision of public goods and that the scheme is popular. This suggests that imposed redistribution as in the mechanism by Falkinger [Falkinger, J., 1996. Efficient private provision of public goods when deviations from average...

  7. Trend of hydraulic units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshimaru, Jun' ichi

    1988-11-01

    The gear, vane and piston pumps occupy a more then 90% share in the hydraulic pumps. Comparatively large pumps are mainly variable delivery piston pumps. The piston pumps are comparatively high in output density (output per unit weight), indicating the hydraulic pump in performance, and tend to become higher and higher in it. Though they are mainly 210 to 350kgf/cm/sup 2/ in rated pressure, some of them come to surpass 400kgf/cm/sup 3/ in it. While the progress in computation also requires the high speed operation, high accuracy and other severe conditions for the hydraulic units, which accordingly and increasingly intensify the requirement for hydraulic oil in abrasion resistibility, oxidation stability and response characteristics. While cavitation comes to easily occur, which considerably and disadvantageously influences hydraulic oil in life through degradation, noise level and respondingness. From now on, the development of high performance oil and study of mechanical structure are important. 19 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  8. Cavitation in Hydraulic Machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, M.

    1996-11-01

    The main purpose of this doctoral thesis on cavitation in hydraulic machinery is to change focus towards the coupling of non-stationary flow phenomena and cavitation. It is argued that, in addition to turbulence, superimposed sound pressure fluctuations can have a major impact on cavitation and lead to particularly severe erosion. For the design of hydraulic devices this finding may indicate how to further limit the cavitation problems. Chapter 1 reviews cavitation in general in the context of hydraulic machinery, emphasizing the initial cavitation event and the role of the water quality. Chapter 2 discusses the existence of pressure fluctuations for situations common in such machinery. Chapter 3 on cavitation dynamics presents an algorithm for calculating the nucleation of a cavity cluster. Chapter 4 describes the equipment used in this work. 53 refs., 55 figs.,10 tabs.

  9. The Emerging Roles Of HR Professionals In Driving Organizational Change

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Md. Mamin Ullah

    2012-01-01

    .... The roles of HR Professionals are also changing due to dramatic rate of change in today’s organizations. The role of the HR Professionals must parallel the needs of his or her changing organization...

  10. Inflation Game Redistributions and Economic Crisis Path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel AILENEI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the effects of the socially redistribution of wealth generated by inflation, the authors aim to identify the system of interests that supports this process, namely the connections with the economic crisis. In this aim, this work launches the hypothesis that the contagious disease of the market imbalances represents the basis for the manifestation of the inflationary process. By analyzing the assumptions and the causes of the market imbalances manifestation, the authors reveal a system of interest alliances that added to the complicit attitude of the consumers supports the manifestation of the inflationary process. The confrontation between this hypothesis and the inflationary trends in developed countries over the last four decades, respectively the recent lesson of the global economic crisis, leads to the confirmation of a common root of the inflationary phenomenon and the economic crises. The authors think that in order to avoid the emergence of new global economic crises and the negative effects of inflation, a radical behavioural change is required from both consumers and other economic agents.

  11. Hydraulics and pneumatics

    CERN Document Server

    Parr, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Nearly all industrial processes require objects to be moved, manipulated or subjected to some sort of force. This is frequently accomplished by means of electrical equipment (such as motors or solenoids), or via devices driven by air (pneumatics) or liquids (hydraulics).This book has been written by a process control engineer as a guide to the operation of hydraulic and pneumatic systems for all engineers and technicians who wish to have an insight into the components and operation of such a system.This second edition has been fully updated to include all recent developments su

  12. Popeye Project: Hydraulic umbilical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, K.G.; Williams, V.T.

    1996-12-31

    For the Popeye Project, the longest super-duplex hydraulic umbilical in the world was installed in the Gulf of Mexico. This paper reports on its selection and project implementation. Material selection addresses corrosion in seawater, water-based hydraulic fluid, and methanol. Five alternatives were considered: (1) carbon-steel with traditional coating and anodes, (2) carbon-steel coated with thermally sprayed aluminum, (3) carbon-steel sheathed in aluminum, (4) super-duplex, and (5) titanium. The merits and risks associated with each alternative are discussed. The manufacture and installation of the selected umbilical are also reported.

  13. HR differentiation: you win some, you lose more

    OpenAIRE

    Marescaux, Elise; De Winne, Sophie; Sels, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Standardization of HR has long been the norm in organizations. Accordingly, research focuses on measuring the presence of HR practices assuming they apply equally across all employees. However, it is increasingly argued that differentiating HR practices – e.g based on workers’ performance or needs – may be crucial to attract, motivate and retain employees. Yet, as employees compare their work situation with the one of referent colleagues, differentiating HR practices may cause some employees ...

  14. Learning and Development Policy available on HR web

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The full text of CERN’s “Learning and Development Policy” is now available in English and French on the HR training website: cern.ch/hr-training/. This new policy was presented to all personnel in the HR Public meeting held on Monday 25 June, and the slides and the video recording remain available on Indico. Pascale Goy, Head of the Learning and Development Group in HR, is available for more information: pascale.goy@cern.ch , tel. 62232.

  15. Hydraulic Arm Modeling via Matlab SimHydraulics

    OpenAIRE

    Věchet, Stanislav; Krejsa, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    System modeling is a vital tool for cost reduction and design process speed up in most engineering fields. The paper is focused on modeling of hydraulic arm as a part of intelligent prosthesis project, in the form of 2DOF open kinematic chain. The arm model combines mechanical, hydraulic and electric subsystems and uses Matlab as modeling tool. SimMechanics Matlab extension is used for mechanical part modeling, SimHydraulics toolbox is used for modeling of hydraulic circuit used for actuating...

  16. FACILITATING RADICAL FRONT-END INNOVATION THROUGH TARGETED HR PRACTICES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how radical front end innovation can be actively facilitated through selected and targeted HR practices and bundles of HR practices. The empirical field is an explorative case study of front end innovation and HR practices in the pharmaceutical industry, with an in-depth case ...

  17. Who Supports Redistribution? Subjective Income Inequality in Japan and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    STEPHEN; TAY

    2015-01-01

    Governments reduce income inequality with redistribution policies. These policies are often contentious because people who live in the same country have different preferences for redistribution. Some prefer the government to do more while others prefer the government to do less. Hence what explains the difference in preferences? Using the methodologically suitable cases of Japan and China, this paper contributes to the redistributive preference literature by proposing an alternative theory of how a person’s subjective evaluation of and experiences with income inequality—subjective income inequality—affect his/her redistributive preferences. Specifically, a person who feels that his/her country’s level of income inequality is too high is more likely to support government redistribution. But contrary to extant studies, this paper finds that a spatial locality’s level of objective income inequality does not systematically affect its citizens’ preference for redistribution. This finding has implications for redistribution policies because government policies in Japan and China—as with other countries—narrowly frame income inequality in the objective dimensions by pegging it to "objective" income inequality indices(e.g., Gini ratio), thereby ignoring the more important subjective dimensions of income inequality.

  18. Mapping of Soil Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity in Navroud-Assalem Watershed in Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Khaledian

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With increasing awareness of human beings towards the environment, researchers pay more attention to process and redistribution of water flow and solute transport in the soil and groundwater. Moreover, determination of soil hydraulic conductivity is necessary to determine the runoff from basins. Water movement within the unsaturated zone is often described by the formulae proposed by Richards. To solve this equation, initial and boundary conditions of the hydraulic conductivity and the soil water pressure should be determined as functions of soil water content. Beerkan method was developed to identify retention and hydraulic conductivity curves. In this method, van Gunechten with Burdine condition and Brooks and Corey equations were used to describe water retention and hydraulic conductivity curves. Recognition of the spatial pattern of studied parameter using semivariogram and then preparing zoning map with interpolation methods such as IDW and kriging can help us in relevant watershed management. The aim of this study was to spatial analyze of saturated hydraulic conductivity from 50 infiltration tests at watershed scale using Beerkan method and then preparing zoning map for the Navroud watershed. Materials and Methods: Navroud-Assalem watershed with an area of about 307 km2 is located in the west part of Guilan province, within the city of Talesh. Of the total watershed area of Navroud, about 41 km2 is plains and the rest of it is about 266 km2, corresponding to the mountainous area. The study area includes an area with a height above 130 m. In order to complete the database of the studied watershed the present study was designed to assess soil saturated hydraulic conductivity. In this study, a 2×2 km network was designed in Navroud watershed with a surface area of 307 km2, and then infiltration tests were carried out in each node using single ring of Beerkan. Beerkan method derives shape parameters from particle

  19. HR development in local government: how and why does HR strategy matter in organizational change and development?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bruns, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    ...) and organizational change emerge. Considering a resource and capability-based approach, the analysis reveals strategic HRM practices as a useful concept to distinguish HR activities and the processes that are occurring when a HR strategy is performed...

  20. HYDRAULICS, TUSCARAWAS COUNTY, OHIO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  1. Modeling of constituent redistribution in U Pu Zr metallic fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Hayes, S. L.; Hofman, G. L.; Yacout, A. M.

    2006-12-01

    A computer model was developed to analyze constituent redistribution in U-Pu-Zr metallic nuclear fuels. Diffusion and thermochemical properties were parametrically determined to fit the postirradiation data from a fuel test performed in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). The computer model was used to estimate redistribution profiles of fuels proposed for the conceptual designs of small modular fast reactors. The model results showed that the level of redistribution of the fuel constituents of the designs was similar to the measured data from EBR-II.

  2. Perancangan dan Analisis Redistribution Routing Protocol OSPF dan EIGRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DWI ARYANTA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak OSPF (Open Shortest Path First dan EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol adalah dua routing protokol yang banyak digunakan dalam jaringan komputer. Perbedaan karakteristik antar routing protokol menimbulkan masalah dalam pengiriman paket data. Teknik redistribution adalah solusi untuk melakukan komunikasi antar routing protokol. Dengan menggunakan software Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 pada penelitian ini dibuat simulasi OSPF dan EIGRP yang dihubungkan oleh teknik redistribution, kemudian dibandingkan kualitasnya dengan single routing protokol EIGRP dan OSPF. Parameter pengujian dalam penelitian ini adalah nilai time delay dan trace route. Nilai trace route berdasarkan perhitungan langsung cost dan metric dibandingkan dengan hasil simulasi. Hasilnya dapat dilakukan proses redistribution OSPF dan EIGRP. Nilai delay redistribution lebih baik 1% dibanding OSPF dan 2-3% di bawah EIGRP tergantung kepadatan traffic. Dalam perhitungan trace route redistribution dilakukan 2 perhitungan, yaitu cost untuk area OSPF dan metric pada area EIGRP. Pengambilan jalur utama dan alternatif pengiriman paket berdasarkan nilai cost dan metric yang terkecil, hal ini terbukti berdasarkan perhitungan dan simulasi. Kata kunci: OSPF, EIGRP, Redistribution, Delay, Cost, Metric. Abstract OSPF (Open Shortest Path First and EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol are two routing protocols are widely used in computer networks. Differences between the characteristics of routing protocols pose a problem in the delivery of data packets. Redistribution technique is the solution for communication between routing protocols. By using the software Cisco Packet Tracer 5.3 in this study were made simulating OSPF and EIGRP redistribution linked by technique, then compared its quality with a single EIGRP and OSPF routing protocols. Testing parameters in this study is the value of the time delay and trace route. Value trace route based on direct calculation of cost

  3. Hydraulic hoist-press

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babayev, Z.B.; Abashev, Z.V.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency expert of the Angrenskiy production-technological administration of the production association Sredazugol A. V. Bubnov has suggested a hydraulic hoist-press for repairing road equipment which is a device consisting of lifting mechanism, press and test stand for verifying the high pressure hoses and pumps.

  4. Modelling of Hydraulic Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Zhou, Jianjun; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of identifying the physical model (or the grey box model) of a hydraulic test robot. The obtained model is intended to provide a basis for model-based control of the robot. The physical model is formulated in continuous time and is derived by application...

  5. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  6. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on-going...

  7. The Perceived Importance of HR duties to Danish line managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Julia; Madsen, Mona Toft; Madsen, Henning

    2009-01-01

    of particular HR duties and how the importance assigned to HR duties varies across managers. Based on a survey of 1,500 Danish managers, we find that 'motivating others' is considered the most important HR duty whereas 'team building', 'handling conflicts' and 'coaching' are considered the least important HR......Today, HR scholars widely acknowledge that realising HRM requires the involvement of all managers and that the personal motivation of line managers plays an important role in their successful involvement. Yet, previous research has neglected to study how line managers rate the importance...

  8. Water savings of redistributing global crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle; Seveso, Antonio; Rulli, Maria Cristina; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Human demand for crop production is expected to increase substantially in the coming decades as a result of population growth, richer diets and biofuel use. For food production to keep pace, unprecedented amounts of resources - water, fertilizers, energy - will be required. This has led to calls for 'sustainable intensification' in which yields are increased on existing croplands while seeking to minimize impacts on water and other agricultural resources. Recent studies have quantified aspects of this, showing that there is a large potential to improve crop yields and increase harvest frequencies to better meet human demand. Though promising, both solutions would necessitate large additional inputs of water and fertilizer in order to be achieved under current technologies. However, the question of whether the current distribution of crops is, in fact, the best for realizing maximized production has not been considered to date. To this end, we ask: Is it possible to minimize water demand by simply growing crops where soil and climate conditions are best suited? Here we use maps of agro-ecological suitability - a measure of physical and chemical soil fertility - for 15 major food crops to identify differences between current crop distributions and where they can most suitably be planted. By redistributing crops across currently cultivated lands, we determine what distribution of crops would maintain current calorie production and agricultural value while minimizing the water demand of crop production. In doing this, our study provides a novel tool for policy makers and managers to integrate food security, environmental sustainability, and rural livelihoods by improving the use of freshwater resources without compromising crop calorie production or rural livelihoods.

  9. Bombardment-induced segregation and redistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, N.Q.; Wiedersich, H.

    1986-04-01

    During ion bombardment, a number of processes can alter the compositional distribution and microstructure in near-surface regions of alloys. The relative importance of each process depends principally on the target composition, temperature, and ion characteristics. In addition to displacement mixing leading to a randomization of atomic locations, and preferential loss of alloying elements by sputtering, which are dominant at relatively low temperatures, several thermally-activated processes, including radiation-enhanced diffusion, radiation-induced segregation and Gibbsian adsorption, also play important roles. At elevated temperatures, nonequilibrium point defects induced by ion impacts become mobile and tend to anneal out by recombination and diffusion to extended sinks, such as dislocations, grain boundaries and free surfaces. The high defect concentrations, far exceeding the thermodynamic equilbrium values, can enhance diffusion-controlled processes, while persistent defect fluxes, originating from the spatial non-uniformity in defect production and annihilation, give rise to local redistribution of alloy constituents because of radiation-induced segregation. Moreover, when the alloy is maintained at high temperature, Gibbsian adsorption, driven by the reduction in free energy of the system, occurs even without irradiation; it involves a compositional perturbation in a few atom layers near the alloy surface. The combination of these processes leads to the complex development of a compositionally-modified layer in the subsurface region. In the present paper, selected examples of these different phenomena and their synergistic effects on the evolution of the near-surface compositions of alloys during sputtering and ion implantation at elevated temperatures are discussed. 74 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Welding Metallurgy of Alloy HR-160

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuPont, J.N.; Michael, J.R.; Newbury, B.D.

    1999-05-28

    The solidification behavior and resultant solidification cracking susceptibility of autogenous gas tungsten arc fusion welds in alloy HR-160 was investigated by Varestraint testing, differential thermal analysis, and various microstructural characterization techniques. The alloy exhibited a liquidus temperature of 1387 {deg}C and initiated solidification by a primary L - {gamma} reaction in which Ni, Si, and Ti segregated to the interdendritic liquid and Co segregated to the {gamma} dendrite cores. Chromium exhibited no preference for segregation to the solid or liquid phase during solidification. Solidification terminated at {approx} 1162 {deg}C by a eutectic-type L - [{gamma}+ (Ni,Co){sub 16}(Ti,Cr){sub 6}Si{sub 7}] reaction. The (Ni,Co){sub 16}(Ti,Cr){sub 6}Si{sub 7} phase is found to be analogous to the G phase which forms in the Ni-Ti-Si and Co-Ti-Si ternary systems, and similarities are found to exist between the solidification behavior of this commercial multicomponent alloy and the simple Ni-Si and Ni-Ti binary systems. Reasonable agreement is obtained between the calculated and measured volume percent of the [{gamma} +(Ni,Co){sub l6}(Ti,Cr){sub 6}Si{sub 7}] eutectic-typr constituent with the Scheil equation using experimentally determined k values for Si and Ti from electron microprobe data. The alloy exhibited a very high susceptibility to solidification cracking in the Varestraint test. This is attributed to a large solidification temperature range of 225 {deg}C and the presence of 2 to 5 vol% solute rich interdendritic liquid which preferentially wets the grain boundaries and interdendritic regions.

  11. The Perceived Importance of HR duties to Danish line managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandl, Julia; Madsen, Mona Toft; Madsen, Henning

    2009-01-01

    Today, HR scholars widely acknowledge that realising HRM requires the involvement of all managers and that the personal motivation of line managers plays an important role in their successful involvement. Yet, previous research has neglected to study how line managers rate the importance...... of particular HR duties and how the importance assigned to HR duties varies across managers. Based on a survey of 1,500 Danish managers, we find that 'motivating others' is considered the most important HR duty whereas 'team building', 'handling conflicts' and 'coaching' are considered the least important HR...... duties. Female top managers in the public sector exhibit the greatest interest in HR whereas men at lower managerial levels in the private sector give lowest priority to HR work. We conclude with possible explanations for the observed differences in a Danish context and beyond and provide suggestions...

  12. On the Absorption and Redistribution of Energy in Irradiated Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Brad

    2008-01-01

    We present a sequence of toy models for irradiated planet atmospheres, in which the effects of geometry and energy redistribution are modelled self-consistently. We use separate but coupled grey atmosphere models to treat the ingoing stellar irradiation and outgoing planetary reradiation. We investigate how observed quantities such as full phase secondary eclipses and orbital phase curves depend on various important parameters, such as the depth at which irradiation is absorbed and the depth at which energy is redistributed. We also compare our results to the more detailed radiative transfer models in the literature, in order to understand how those map onto the toy model parameter space. Such an approach can prove complementary to more detailed calculations, in that they demonstrate, in a simple way, how the solutions change depending on where, and how, energy redistribution occurs. As an example of the value of such models, we demonstrate how energy redistribution and temperature equilibration at moderate o...

  13. Global Redistributive Obligations in the Face of Severe Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, David Vestergaard

    This dissertation concerns global poverty. More specifically, it concerns the question of, which redistributive obligations we have towards foreigners and how these obligations are affected by the existence of severe and widespread poverty. Most people (both theorists and ordinary citizens) agree...... as a matter of justice. This moral discrepancy is reflected in our current levels of redistribution, by which we redistribute up to 50 % of our income on the domestic level and less than 1% to poor foreigners through development aid. But can this overwhelming redistributive partiality be justified...... to poor foreigners. Further, the social facts on which they rely are created and upheld in a problematic (and potentially unjust) manner, which makes them a problematic foundation for grounding principles of justice. Second, I argue that anti-cosmopolitans do not succeed in showing that we cannot meet...

  14. Quantification of trapped gas redistribution in dual-porosity media with continuous and discontinuous domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snehota, Michal; Sacha, Jan; Jelinkova, Vladimira; Cislerova, Milena; Vontobel, Peter

    2016-04-01

    interconnected and disconnected fine pore systems. The rate of the redistribution was significantly higher in the case of steady state flow condition in comparison to no-flow conditions. The transfer from fine to large pores led to reduced hydraulic conductivity of the sample.

  15. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  16. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  17. Undular Hydraulic Jump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Castro-Orgaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition from subcritical to supercritical flow when the inflow Froude number Fo is close to unity appears in the form of steady state waves called undular hydraulic jump. The characterization of the undular hydraulic jump is complex due to the existence of a non-hydrostatic pressure distribution that invalidates the gradually-varied flow theory, and supercritical shock waves. The objective of this work is to present a mathematical model for the undular hydraulic jump obtained from an approximate integration of the Reynolds equations for turbulent flow assuming that the Reynolds number R is high. Simple analytical solutions are presented to reveal the physics of the theory, and a numerical model is used to integrate the complete equations. The limit of application of the theory is discussed using a wave breaking condition for the inception of a surface roller. The validity of the mathematical predictions is critically assessed using physical data, thereby revealing aspects on which more research is needed

  18. FACILITATING RADICAL FRONT-END INNOVATION THROUGH TARGETED HR PRACTICES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how radical front end innovation can be actively facilitated through selected and targeted HR practices and bundles of HR practices. The empirical field is an explorative case study of front end innovation and HR practices in the pharmaceutical industry, with an in-depth case...... study of the Danish pharmaceutical company, H. Lundbeck A/S, and explorative studies of seven European and American pharmaceutical and biotech companies. The study aims to show how companies can apply HR practices in ways that actively supports the development of radical front end innovation. The value...... added and the contribution of this article to the existing FEI and HR literature therefore lies in the exploration and mapping of how radical front end innovation is and can be facilitated through targeted HR practices; and in identifying the unique opportunities and challenges of innovation...

  19. Operational experience of HR AVI Amsterdam; Erste Betriebserfahrungen der HR AVI, Amsterdam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wandschneider, Joern [wandschneider + gutjahr ingenieurgesellschaft mbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    The HR-AVI (which derives from ''high efficiency waste treatment plant'' in Dutch) in Amsterdam is the first waste fired power plant worldwide to demonstrate more than 30 % net electrical efficiency. This was in fact the target when designing the plant; it thus features a number of innovations. The HR-AVI is in operation since September 2007, and two years of operational experience are available for evaluation. The first year was marked by a number of extraordinary difficulties that could not have been anticipated in this form, and which bear no significance on the plant efficiency. In particular, the break-age of the generator shaft led to a turbine outage for a lengthy period, resulting in operating modes that had not been intended continuously. It proved that the plant is able to meet the efficiency require ment with ease. But some problems evolved when operating the complex systems in automatic or manual control. Moreover, the maximum electrical efficiency is a diver ging requirement with regard to the maximum refuse through put, if the turbine including peripherals is not always fully available. A display is installed in the control room to indicate the current efficiency. Unfortunately, there are no operational means to compensate for losses in that efficiency figure. The remaining task is to optimize both the operation and the reliability of the water and steam cycle, meaning to produce more of the built-in efficiency in the actually practiced day to day operation. (orig.)

  20. HR competencies at a merged Higher Education Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile M. Schultz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Certain human resource (HR competencies are essential to assist with the dynamics of change in the higher education landscape.Research purposes: The aim of this study was to determine the HR competencies at a merged higher education institution. Other objectives were to establish the satisfaction of academics, administrative staff and management regarding the HR competencies and the importance thereof.Motivation for the study: Human resource professionals require assistance by providing HR competencies necessary to add value at a merged higher education institution.Research designs, approaches and methods: A quantitative research design was employed as the research strategy. The questionnaire was based on the literature, the business plan and the HR balanced scorecard report. The target population was 1363 permanent staff on one campus and the response rate was 28%. A principal factor analysis, spider charts and box plots were utilised for data analysis. The results indicated business knowledge, HR practices, personal skills and management skills as the vital HR competencies.Practical implications: Staff were not satisfied with the current HR competencies and consequently this necessitated attention to improve the deficient areas.Contribution: This study shows that limited research was done with regard to HR competencies in the South African higher education backdrop.

  1. Hydraulic System Design of Hydraulic Actuators for Large Butterfly Valves

    OpenAIRE

    HUANG, Ye; Liu, Changsheng; Shiongur Bamed

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic control systems of butterfly valves are presently valve-controlled and pump-controlled. Valve-controlled hydraulic systems have serious power loss and generate much heat during throttling. Pump-controlled hydraulic systems have no overflow or throttling losses but are limited in the speed adjustment of the variable-displacement pump, generate much noise, pollute the environment, and have motor power that does not match load requirements, resulting in low efficiency under...

  2. Hydraulic System Design of Hydraulic Actuators for Large Butterfly Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye HUANG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic control systems of butterfly valves are presently valve-controlled and pump-controlled. Valve-controlled hydraulic systems have serious power loss and generate much heat during throttling. Pump-controlled hydraulic systems have no overflow or throttling losses but are limited in the speed adjustment of the variable-displacement pump, generate much noise, pollute the environment, and have motor power that does not match load requirements, resulting in low efficiency under light loads and wearing of the variable-displacement pump. To overcome these shortcomings, this article designs a closed hydraulic control system in which an AC servo motor drives a quantitative pump that controls a spiral swinging hydraulic cylinder, and analyzes and calculates the structure and parameters of a spiral swinging hydraulic cylinder. The hydraulic system adjusts the servo motor’s speed according to the requirements of the control system, and the motor power matches the power provided to components, thus eliminating the throttling loss of hydraulic circuits. The system is compact, produces a large output force, provides stable transmission, has a quick response, and is suitable as a hydraulic control system of a large butterfly valve.

  3. Designing HR Organizational Structures in terms of the HR Business Partner Model Principles from the Perspective of Czech Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Stříteský

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes new trends related to the concepts contained in HR organizational structures within Czech organizations. In addition, it describes the specifics of the roles played by HR in those organizations which have transformed their HR departments in terms of the principles of the HR Business Partner Model, both in theory based on available resources, and at the practical level based on the results of primary examination. The goal of this paper is to present the key perceptions of the changes made in the HR structure within the organizations, as well as the impact of these changes on the effectiveness of the HR departments concerned. Another goal of the paper is to summarize the responsibilities of the newly created position known as the HR Business Partner in these organizations as well as the demands placed upon the personnel employed in the HR Business Partner role. The paper offers conclusions based on the results of both quantitative and qualitative surveys. It also contains a case study of one organization which has one of the best transformed HR departments, and whose services are classified, by internal clients, as being of high quality.

  4. Macroeconomic and social change and popular demand for redistribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads Meier

    This paper tests the self-interest hypothesis arguing that changes in macroeconomic and social conditions affect popular demand for redistribution. I analyze data from four waves of the European Social Survey and use a synthetic cohort design to generate pseudo panel data for socio-demographic gr......This paper tests the self-interest hypothesis arguing that changes in macroeconomic and social conditions affect popular demand for redistribution. I analyze data from four waves of the European Social Survey and use a synthetic cohort design to generate pseudo panel data for socio......-demographic groups that are matched over time. I estimate fixed effect models and find that (1) changes in macroeconomic and social conditions affect the demand for redistribution; (2) results are mostly consistent with the self-interest hypothesis claiming that agents demand more redistribution in economically hard...... times (and vice versa in good times); and (3) the effect of macroeconomic and social conditions on the demand for redistribution are highly non-linear....

  5. African American Accounting Majors and the 150-hr Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Quinton; Hill, Cecil L.; Wright, Carl

    2010-01-01

    The study provides information on African American accounting majors' views regarding 150-hr issues. The authors collected data from 152 students at two schools. Students at one school supported the requirement while those at the other school did not. However, students believed that the 150-hr requirement enhances the quality of certified public…

  6. Managing (Sales)People towards Performance: HR Strategy, Leadership & Teamwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M.S. Dietz (Bart)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractManaging people towards performance is one of the most critical priorities for managers in practice. This dissertation focuses on this important issue and explores how HR Strategy, Leaders, and Teams, impact performance. It addresses respectively how HR as a system of coherent attributes

  7. Professional Development of HR Practitioners--A Phenomenographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Moira

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is an investigation into the experiences of professional development of human resource (HR) practitioners in the North of Scotland, and the use of non-formal learning in that development. Design/methodology/approach: In-depth semi-structured interviews from a purposively selected sample of HR practitioners were…

  8. Outsourcing HR Services: The Role of Human Resource Intermediaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Henrik; Wallo, Andreas; Nilsson, Barbro; Hoglund, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the area of interest is an emerging type of organisation called human resource intermediaries (HRIs), which focus on delivering human resource (HR) services to public sector organisations and private companies. The purpose of this article is, thus, to explore HRIs as deliverers of HR services. More specifically, the…

  9. Managing (Sales)People towards Performance: HR Strategy, Leadership & Teamwork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.M.S. Dietz (Bart)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractManaging people towards performance is one of the most critical priorities for managers in practice. This dissertation focuses on this important issue and explores how HR Strategy, Leaders, and Teams, impact performance. It addresses respectively how HR as a system of coherent

  10. Value creation through HR shared services: towards a conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, J.G.; Bondarouk, T.V.; Looise, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to derive a measure for the performance of human resource shared service providers (HR SSPs) and then to develop a theoretical framework that conceptualises their performance. Design/methodology/approach – This conceptual paper starts from the HR shared servic

  11. Outsourcing HR Services: The Role of Human Resource Intermediaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, Henrik; Wallo, Andreas; Nilsson, Barbro; Hoglund, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the area of interest is an emerging type of organisation called human resource intermediaries (HRIs), which focus on delivering human resource (HR) services to public sector organisations and private companies. The purpose of this article is, thus, to explore HRIs as deliverers of HR services. More specifically, the…

  12. African American Accounting Majors and the 150-hr Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Quinton; Hill, Cecil L.; Wright, Carl

    2010-01-01

    The study provides information on African American accounting majors' views regarding 150-hr issues. The authors collected data from 152 students at two schools. Students at one school supported the requirement while those at the other school did not. However, students believed that the 150-hr requirement enhances the quality of certified public…

  13. Modelling of Hydraulic Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Zhou, Jianjun; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of identifying the physical model (or the grey box model) of a hydraulic test robot. The obtained model is intended to provide a basis for model-based control of the robot. The physical model is formulated in continuous time and is derived by application...... of the laws of physics on the system. The unknown (or uncertain) parameters are estimated with Maximum Likelihood (ML) parameter estimation. The identified model has been evaluated by comparing the measurements with simulation of the model. The identified model was much more capable of describing the dynamics...... of the system than the deterministic model....

  14. Hydraulic mining method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Lester H.; Knoke, Gerald S.

    1985-08-20

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  15. Spinning hydraulic jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahmane, Hamid; Kasimov, Aslan

    2013-11-01

    We report an experimental observation of a new symmetry breaking of circular hydraulic jump into a self-organized structure that consists of a spinning polygonal jump and logarithmic-spiral waves of fluid elevation downstream. The waves are strikingly similar to spiral density waves in galaxies. The fluid flow exhibits counterparts of salient morphological features of galactic flows, in particular the outflow from the center, jets, circum-nuclear rings, gas inflows toward the galactic center, and vortices. The hydrodynamic instability revealed here may have a counterpart that plays a role in the formation and sustainability of spiral arms in galaxies.

  16. Method for estimating spatially variable seepage loss and hydraulic conductivity in intermittent and ephemeral streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niswonger, R.G.; Prudic, D.E.; Fogg, G.E.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Buckland, E.M.

    2008-01-01

    A method is presented for estimating seepage loss and streambed hydraulic conductivity along intermittent and ephemeral streams using streamflow front velocities in initially dry channels. The method uses the kinematic wave equation for routing streamflow in channels coupled to Philip's equation for infiltration. The coupled model considers variations in seepage loss both across and along the channel. Water redistribution in the unsaturated zone is also represented in the model. Sensitivity of the streamflow front velocity to parameters used for calculating seepage loss and for routing streamflow shows that the streambed hydraulic conductivity has the greatest sensitivity for moderate to large seepage loss rates. Channel roughness, geometry, and slope are most important for low seepage loss rates; however, streambed hydraulic conductivity is still important for values greater than 0.008 m/d. Two example applications are presented to demonstrate the utility of the method. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Efficient Multidimensional Data Redistribution for Resizable Parallel Computations

    CERN Document Server

    Sudarsan, Rajesh

    2007-01-01

    Traditional parallel schedulers running on cluster supercomputers support only static scheduling, where the number of processors allocated to an application remains fixed throughout the execution of the job. This results in under-utilization of idle system resources thereby decreasing overall system throughput. In our research, we have developed a prototype framework called ReSHAPE, which supports dynamic resizing of parallel MPI applications executing on distributed memory platforms. The resizing library in ReSHAPE includes support for releasing and acquiring processors and efficiently redistributing application state to a new set of processors. In this paper, we derive an algorithm for redistributing two-dimensional block-cyclic arrays from $P$ to $Q$ processors, organized as 2-D processor grids. The algorithm ensures a contention-free communication schedule for data redistribution if $P_r \\leq Q_r$ and $P_c \\leq Q_c$. In other cases, the algorithm implements circular row and column shifts on the communicat...

  18. Ultrafast charge redistribution in small iodine containing molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Hollstein, Maximilian; Gerken, Nils; Klumpp, Stephan; Palutke, Steffen; Baev, Ivan; Brenner, Günter; Dziarzhytski, Siarhei; Wurth, Wilfried; Pfannkuche, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    The competition between intra molecular charge redistribution and fragmentation has been studied in small molecules containing iodine by using intense ultrashort pulses in the extreme ultraviolet regime (XUV). We show that after an element specific inner-shell photoionization of diiodomethane (CH$_2$I$_2$) and iodomethane (CH$_3$I), the induced positive charge is redistributed with a significantly different efficiency. Therefore, we analyze ion time-of-flight data obtained from XUV-pump XUV-probe experiments at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH). Theoretical considerations on the basis of ab initio electronic structure calculations including correlations relate this effect to a strongly molecule specific, purely electronic charge redistribution process that takes place directly after photoionization causing a distribution of the induced positive charge predominantly on the atoms which exhibit the lowest atomic ionization potential, i.e, in the molecules considered, the iodine atom(s). As a result of t...

  19. 46 CFR 28.880 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hydraulic equipment and the adjacent work area. Protection shall be afforded to the operator of hydraulic... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.880 Section 28.880 Shipping... INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.880 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system must...

  20. Hydraulic Resistance of Vitreous Cutters: The Impact of Blade Design and Cut Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Tommaso; Querzoli, Giorgio; Angelini, Giampiero; Malvasi, Carlo; Rossi, Alessandro; Morini, Mario; Esposito, Graziana; Micera, Alessandra; di Luca, Natale Mario; Ripandelli, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To measure the hydraulic resistance (HR) of vitreous cutters equipped with a Regular guillotine Blade (RB) or double edge blade (DEB) at cut rates comprised between 0 and 12,000 cuts per minute (CPM) and compare it with vitreous fragment size. This was an in vitro experimental study; in vivo HR measure and vitreous sampling. Methods HR, defined as aspiration pressure/flow rate, was measured in balanced salt solution (BSS; Alcon, Fort Worth, TX) (in vitro) and during pars plana vitrectomy of 20 consecutive patients aged 18 to 65, undergoing macular surgery. HR was recorded at increasing cut rates (500–6000 CPM for the RB and 500–12,000 CPM for the DEB; 5 mL/min flow). Vitreous samples were withdrawn and analyzed with Western and collagen type II and IX immunostaining to evaluate protein size. The main outcome measures were hydraulic resistance (mm Hg/ml/min [±SD]) and optic density for Western blot and immunostaining. Results RB and DEB showed identical HR in BSS between 0 and 3000 CPM. Above 3000 CPM, RB HR steadily increased, and was significantly higher than DEB HR. Vitreous HR was also similar for the two blades between 0 and 1500 CPM. Above 1500 CPM, RB offered a significantly higher resistance. Western blot and immunostaining of vitreous samples did not yield a significant difference in size, regardless of blade type and cut rate. Conclusions DEB is more efficient, offering a lower HR than RB over 1500 CPM in human vitreous. There is no viscosity reduction as a function of cut-rate between 1500 and 12,000 CPM, as HR does not vary. Translational Relevance Future vitreous cutters will benefit of a DEB; optimal cut rate needs to be defined, and the simple increase of cut rate does not provide benefits after a certain limit to be assessed. PMID:27441099

  1. Estimating soil moisture and soil thermal and hydraulic properties by assimilating soil temperatures using a particle batch smoother

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianzhi; Steele-Dunne, Susan C.; Ochsner, Tyson E.; Giesen, Nick van de

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the potential of estimating the soil moisture profile and the soil thermal and hydraulic properties by assimilating soil temperature at shallow depths using a particle batch smoother (PBS) using synthetic tests. Soil hydraulic properties influence the redistribution of soil moisture within the soil profile. Soil moisture, in turn, influences the soil thermal properties and surface energy balance through evaporation, and hence the soil heat transfer. Synthetic experiments were used to test the hypothesis that assimilating soil temperature observations could lead to improved estimates of soil hydraulic properties. We also compared different data assimilation strategies to investigate the added value of jointly estimating soil thermal and hydraulic properties in soil moisture profile estimation. Results show that both soil thermal and hydraulic properties can be estimated using shallow soil temperatures. Jointly updating soil hydraulic properties and soil states yields robust and accurate soil moisture estimates. Further improvement is observed when soil thermal properties were also estimated together with the soil hydraulic properties and soil states. Finally, we show that the inclusion of a tuning factor to prevent rapid fluctuations of parameter estimation, yields improved soil moisture, temperature, and thermal and hydraulic properties.

  2. Applied hydraulic transients

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Hanif

    2014-01-01

    This book covers hydraulic transients in a comprehensive and systematic manner from introduction to advanced level and presents various methods of analysis for computer solution. The field of application of the book is very broad and diverse and covers areas such as hydroelectric projects, pumped storage schemes, water-supply systems, cooling-water systems, oil pipelines and industrial piping systems. Strong emphasis is given to practical applications, including several case studies, problems of applied nature, and design criteria. This will help design engineers and introduce students to real-life projects. This book also: ·         Presents modern methods of analysis suitable for computer analysis, such as the method of characteristics, explicit and implicit finite-difference methods and matrix methods ·         Includes case studies of actual projects ·         Provides extensive and complete treatment of governed hydraulic turbines ·         Presents design charts, desi...

  3. An insight in the surroundings of HR4796

    CERN Document Server

    Lagrange, A -M; Boccaletti, A; Lacour, S; Thebault, P; Chauvin, G; Mouillet, D; Augereau, J C; Bonnefoy, M; Ehrenreich, D; Kral, Q

    2012-01-01

    HR4796 is a young, early A-type star harbouring a well structured debris disk, shaped as a ring with sharp inner edges. It forms with the M-type star HR4796B a binary system, with a proj. sep. ~560 AU. Our aim is to explore the surroundings of HR4796A and B, both in terms of extended or point-like structures. Adaptive optics images at L'-band were obtained with NaCo in Angular Differential Mode and with Sparse Aperture Masking (SAM). We analyse the data as well as the artefacts that can be produced by ADI reduction on an extended structure with a shape similar to that of HR4796A dust ring. We determine constraints on the presence of companions using SAM and ADI on HR4796A, and ADI on HR4796B. We also performed dynamical simulations of a disk of planetesimals and dust produced by collisions, perturbed by a planet located close to the disk outer edge. The disk ring around HR4796A is well resolved. We highlight the potential effects of ADI reduction of the observed disk shape and surface brightness distribution,...

  4. Hydraulic rams; a comparative investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tacke, J.H.P.M.

    1988-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the essential features of hydraulic ram operation is developed in order to clarify the possibilities and limitations of the ram relative to its site and its adjustments. The model distinguishes three different periods in the pumping cycle of the hydraulic ram: acceler

  5. Hydraulics. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on hydraulics is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids for training in the servicing of agricultural and industrial machinery. Focus is on oil hydraulics. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and laymen. The twelve chapters focus…

  6. Stereotypes and Prejudices in HR Industry in Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Simina GHERASIM-ARDELEAN; Maura GORAŞ

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we aimed to reveal the effects of the crisis in HR area, the stereotypes and prejudices clients have about Romanian HR companies, training programs and trainers and the ideal profile of a trainer. The effects of the crisis in HR are: the stagnation of the number of clients in the company’s portfolio, the decreasing in the number of contracted training, the decreasing of the training prices and project-based contracts with trainers instead of permanent job contracts. We find that...

  7. Hydraulic Stability of Accropode Armour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.; Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    , and to assess the influence of core permeability on the hydraulic stability of Accropodes. Two structures were examined, one with a relatively permeable core and one with a relatively impermeable core. In November/December 1995, Ph.D.-student Marten Christensen carried out the model tests on the structure...... with permeable core (crushed granite with a gradation of 5-8 mm). The outcome of this study is described in "Hydraulic Stability of Single-Layer Dolos and Accropode Armour Layers" by Christensen & Burcharth (1995). In January/February 1996, Research Assistant Thomas Jensen carried out a similar study......The present report describes the hydraulic model tests of Accropode armour layers carried out at the Hydraulics Laboratory at Aalborg University from November 1995 through March 1996. The objective of the model tests was to investigate the hydraulic stability of Accropode armour layers...

  8. Hydraulic Stability of Accropode Armour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.; Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    , and to assess the influence of core permeability on the hydraulic stability of Accropodes. Two structures were examined, one with a relatively permeable core and one with a relatively impermeable core. In November/December 1995, Ph.D.-student Marten Christensen carried out the model tests on the structure...... with permeable core (crushed granite with a gradation of 5-8 mm). The outcome of this study is described in "Hydraulic Stability of Single-Layer Dolos and Accropode Armour Layers" by Christensen & Burcharth (1995). In January/February 1996, Research Assistant Thomas Jensen carried out a similar study......The present report describes the hydraulic model tests of Accropode armour layers carried out at the Hydraulics Laboratory at Aalborg University from November 1995 through March 1996. The objective of the model tests was to investigate the hydraulic stability of Accropode armour layers...

  9. Intergenerational redistribution and risk sharing with changing longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    2014-01-01

    retirement and cohort-specific longevity to address intergenerational redistribution and risk sharing. While it is well known that a utilitarian planner strives for consumption smoothing, it is shown that healthy ageing calls for work smoothing in the sense that retirement ages increase with longevity. Hence...

  10. Is a Minimum Wage an Appropriate Instrument for Redistribution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.F. Gerritsen (Aart); B. Jacobs (Bas)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the redistributional (dis)advantages of a minimum wage over income taxation in competitive labor markets, without imposing assumptions on the (in)efficiency of labor rationing. Compared to a distributionally equivalent tax change, a minimum-wage increase raises involuntary

  11. Fast Ion Redistribution and Implications for the Hybrid Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazikian, R; Austin, M E; Budny, R V; Chu, M S; Heidbrink, W W; Makowski, M A; Petty, C C; Politzer, P A; Solomon, W M; Van Zeeland, M A

    2007-06-26

    Time dependent TRANSP analysis indicates that radial redistribution of fast ions is unlikely to affect the central current density in hybrid plasmas sufficient to raise q(0) above unity. The results suggest that some other mechanism other than fast ion transport must be involved in raising q(0) and preventing sawteeth in hybrid plasmas.

  12. Support for redistribution and the paradox of immigration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.; Koster, F.; van Egmond, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that immigration has varying implications for attitudes about government redistribution depending on the level at which immigration is experienced. Working in occupations with higher shares of foreign-born employees can raise individual economic insecurities in ways that might

  13. Support for redistribution and the paradox of immigration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.; Koster, F.; van Egmond, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues that immigration has varying implications for attitudes about government redistribution depending on the level at which immigration is experienced. Working in occupations with higher shares of foreign-born employees can raise individual economic insecurities in ways that might over

  14. The redistribution of granulocytes following E. coli endotoxin induced sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Lillevang, S T; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    1994-01-01

    Infusion of endotoxin elicits granulocytopenia followed by increased numbers of granulocytes in peripheral blood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the redistribution and sequestration of granulocytes in the tissues following E. coli endotoxin induced sepsis. From 16 rabbits granulocytes...

  15. Redistribution, Recognition and Representation: Working against Pedagogies of Indifference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Bob; Keddie, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on an Australian government-commissioned research study that documented classroom pedagogies in 24 Queensland schools. The research created the model of "productive pedagogies", which conjoined what Nancy Fraser calls a politics of redistribution, recognition and representation. In this model pedagogies are…

  16. 45 CFR 98.64 - Reallotment and redistribution of funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT FUND Financial Management § 98.64 Reallotment and redistribution of funds. (a) According to the... paragraph the term “State” means the 50 States and the District of Columbia. Territorial and tribal grantees... will be based on the State's financial report to ACF for the Child Care and Development Fund...

  17. Democracy, redistributive taxation and the private provision of public goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The paper studies in a simple, Downsian model of political competition the private provision of public goods embedded in a system of democracy and redistributive taxation. Results show that the positive effect of inequality on production of public goods, to which Olson (1965) pointed, is weakened...

  18. Democracy, Redistributive Taxation and the Private Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    The paper studies in a simple, Downsian model of political competition how the private provision of public goods is affected when it is embedded in a system of democracy and redistributive taxation. Results show that the positive effect of inequality on public goods production, which Olson (1965...

  19. Hydraulic Yaw System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Mørkholt, M.

    As wind turbines increase in size, combined with increased lifetime demands, new methods for load reduction needs to be examined. One method is to make the yaw system of the turbine soft/flexible and hereby dampen the loads to the system, which is the focus of the current paper. By utilizing...... the HAWC2 aeroelastic code and an extended model of the NREL 5MW turbine combined with a simplified linear model of the turbine, the parameters of the soft yaw system are optimized to reduce loading in critical components. Results shows that a significant reduction in fatigue and extreme loads to the yaw...... system and rotor shaft when utilizing the soft yaw drive concept compared to the original stiff yaw system. The physical demands of the hydraulic yaw system are furthermore examined for a life time of 20 years. Based on the extrapolated loads, the duty cycles show that it is possible to construct...

  20. Electro Hydraulic Hitch Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M. R.; Andersen, T. O.; Nielsen, B.

    2003-01-01

    system for agricultural applications and driving for transportation. During tranport phases, the lack of suspension causes the vehicle to bounce and pitch, and makes it difficalt to control. Many systems have been proposed to cope with the oscillatory behavior, and different solutions exist. Common......This paper present and discusses R&D results on electro hydraulic hitch control for off-road vehicle, in particular active damping of oscillation occuring on tractors. The research deals with analysis and control of the oscillations occuring on tractors which are design without any susspection...... for most of the systems are that they operate on the hydrailc actuators generally providing the motive forces for moving the implement and/or attachment, typically a plough. The basic idea and physical working principle are to use the implement, moveable relative to the vehicle, as a damper mass. The paper...

  1. Employee Work-Life Balance as an HR Imperative | Igbinomwanhia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Employee Work-Life Balance as an HR Imperative. ... With the growing diversity of family structures represented in today‟s workforce, ... of managing an employee's work-life balance have increased markedly over the past 20 years.

  2. HR strategy – necessity or fad for business sustainability?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valentina Mihaela Ghinea; Mădălina Moroianu

    2016-01-01

    The present paper pleads for the awareness of HR strategy importance, in terms of proper design and implementation, as they definitely could impede or sustain the development of an organization. By making use...

  3. Intrahepatic Flow Redistribution in Patients Treated with Radioembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spreafico, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.spreafico@istitutotumori.mi.it; Morosi, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.morosi@istitutotumori.mi.it [Fondazione Istituto Tumori, Department of Radiology (Italy); Maccauro, Marco, E-mail: marco.maccauro@istitutotumori.mi.it [Fondazione Istituto Tumori, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Italy); Romito, Raffaele, E-mail: raffaele.romito@istitutotumori.mi.it [Fondazione Istituto Tumori, Department of Liver Surgery and Transplant (Italy); Lanocita, Rodolfo, E-mail: rodolfo.lanocita@istitutotumori.mi.it; Civelli, Enrico M., E-mail: enrico.civelli@istitutotumori.mi.it [Fondazione Istituto Tumori, Department of Radiology (Italy); Sposito, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.sposito@istitutotumori.mi.it; Bhoori, Sherrie, E-mail: sherrie.bhoori@istitutotumori.mi.it [Fondazione Istituto Tumori, Department of Liver Surgery and Transplant (Italy); Chiesa, Carlo, E-mail: carlo.chiesa@istitutotumori.mi.it [Fondazione Istituto Tumori, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Italy); Frigerio, Laura F., E-mail: laura.frigerio@istitutotumori.mi.it [Fondazione Istituto Tumori, Department of Radiology (Italy); Lorenzoni, Alice, E-mail: alice.lorenzoni@istitutotumori.mi.it [Fondazione Istituto Tumori, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Italy); Cascella, Tommaso, E-mail: tommaso.cascella@istitutotumori.mi.it; Marchianò, Alfonso, E-mail: alfonso.marchiano@istitutotumori.mi.it [Fondazione Istituto Tumori, Department of Radiology (Italy); Mazzaferro, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.mazzaferro@istitutotumori.mi.it [Fondazione Istituto Tumori, Department of Liver Surgery and Transplant (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    IntroductionIn planning Yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y)-radioembolizations, strategy problems arise in tumours with multiple arterial supplies. We aim to demonstrate that tumours can be treated via one main feeding artery achieving flow redistribution by embolizing accessory vessels.MethodsOne hundred {sup 90}Y-radioembolizations were performed on 90 patients using glass microspheres. In 19 lesions/17 patients, accessory branches were found feeding a minor tumour portion and embolized. In all 17 patients, the assessment of the complete perfusion was obtained by angiography and single photon emission computerized tomography–computerized tomography (SPECT–CT). Dosimetry, toxicity, and tumor response rate of the patients treated after flow redistribution were compared with the 83 standard-treated patients. Seventeen lesions in 15 patients with flow redistribution were chosen as target lesions and evaluated according to mRECIST criteria.ResultsIn all patients, the complete tumor perfusion was assessed immediately before radioembolization by angiography in all patients and after the {sup 90}Y-infusion by SPECT–CT in 15 of 17 patients. In the 15 assessable patients, the response rate in their 17 lesions was 3 CR, 8 PR, and 6 SD. Dosimetric and toxicity data, as well tumour response rate, were comparable with the 83 patients with regular vasculature.ConclusionsAll embolization procedures were performed successfully with no complications, and the flow redistribution was obtained in all cases. Results in term of toxicity, median dose administered, and radiological response were comparable with standard radioembolizations. Our findings confirmed the intratumoral flow redistribution after embolizing the accessory arteries, which makes it possible to treat the tumour through its single main feeding artery.

  4. Numerical Simulations of Vertical Water Redistribution in Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhishek, A.

    2016-12-01

    Moisture redistribution process in porous media has a wide range of practical applications in petroleum industry, agriculture engineering, hydrology and carbon/CO2 sequestration. Recently, a vertical water redistribution experiment was designed. A thin column with dimensions of 50 (height) by 1.2 cm (inner diameter) was employed. Five water tensiometers were mounted along the column at distances of 1, 13, 25, 37 and 49 cm from the top. Two air tensiometers were mounted at 15 and 35 cm from the top to measure air pressure. The column was packed with saturated medium sand and was set up vertically. The bottom of the column was set open to the air to allow the sand to drain gradually under gravity. Once the flow completely ceased and equilibrium was reached, the column was reversed to let moisture in the sand redistribute. During both free drainage and redistribution processes, saturation was measured by gamma transmission method, and water and air pressure were measured by tensiometers. Numerical simulations were used to estimate saturation distribution over the whole column and the duration of experiments. We used both 1D and 2D models based on Richards equation to simulate this vertical redistribution process. Both COMSOL and HYDRUS-1D were used to solve 1D model, while COMSOL was employed to solve 2D model. In 1D simulations, equilibrium time was found to increase linearly during free drainage process, proportional to the length of the column. It was 1.4 days for the length of 50 cm, which is employed in experiments. In 2D simulations, water saturation profiles were non-uniform along the width of the domain at earlier time steps, while they become almost uniform when equilibrium was reached. The simulated results are compared with experimental results.

  5. Human capital measures, strategy and performance: HR managers' perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Stephen; Langevin, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the results of a survey and interviews with human resource (HR) professionals to identify and better understand their perceptions and expectations of human capital measures' (HCM) content, links to strategy, and impact on performance. This paper relies on a quantitative analysis of survey questionnaires collected from 104 HR executives, as well as on a qualitative investigation using six interviews. Two types of HCM are derived using principal component ...

  6. The Link between HR Attributions and Employees’ Turnover Intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Tandung, Juliana Caesaria

    2016-01-01

    Human Resources Management (HRM) is part of the organizational functions that contribute to the effectiveness of a firm’s performance, and brings an organization a competitive advantage through the implementation of its Human Resources (HR) practices. HR practices adopted by management are perceived or attributed subjectively by individual employees, and can in turn affect the employees’ attitudes and behavior (e.g. Job satisfaction and turnover intention). The purpose of this study is to con...

  7. The bipolar structure of the LBV nebula around HR Carinae

    CERN Document Server

    Weis, K; Bomans, D J; Chu, Y H; Joner, M D

    1997-01-01

    HR Carinae is one of the few Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) in the Galaxy. It has a nebula that appears bipolar. We have obtained imaging and high-dispersion, long-slit echelle data of the HR Car nebula, and confirmed that it is a bipolar nebula. Its polar axis lies along the position angle of 125 +- 5 degree; each lobe has, at a distance of 5 kpc a diameter of about 0.65 pc and a line-of-sight expansion velocity of 75-150 km/sec. Beside the expanding bipolar lobes, a number of [NII]-bright knots are detected. These knots have lower expansion velocities than the lobes and are detected only within the projected boundary of the lobes. These knots are most likely nitrogen-enriched material ejected by HR Car. On a larger scale, a funnel-shaped nebula is detected at 2.5" northwest of HR Car. The axis of the funnel is roughly aligned with the polar axis of the HR Car nebula, suggesting that HR Car may be responsible for the ionization and shaping of this nebula. Future observations of kinematics and abundances are ...

  8. Impact of E-HR in Indian environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmendra Chourishi Chanchal Kumar Buttan Abhishek Chaurasia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper attempts to investigate the transformation in the role of the HR function in Indian firms, as a result of the use of Internet and technology. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on both quantitative and qualitative methodology. A survey and focus groups took place in order to meet research objectives. Findings: This paper examines and discusses the development of e-HR use in India and the reasons for adoption of e-HR practices focusing on strategy, process and HRM issues. Findings show that e-HR facilitates the transformation of HRM role into a more strategic one. Driving forces and critical success factors of e-HR adoption and implementation are identified and discussed. Research limitations/implications: Limits its usefulness to countries that experience a stage of HRM professionalisation and technological development similar to that of India. Practical implications: Identifies critical success factors in e-HR adoption as well as main problems associated with it. Originality/value: Qualitative results provided by the focus groups give an illustrative picture of the companies presented.

  9. Hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, A Hakan; Ozdamar, Tuğçe

    2013-06-01

    Hydraulic conductivities of compacted zeolites were investigated as a function of compaction water content and zeolite particle size. Initially, the compaction characteristics of zeolites were determined. The compaction test results showed that maximum dry unit weight (γ(dmax)) of fine zeolite was greater than that of granular zeolites. The γ(dmax) of compacted zeolites was between 1.01 and 1.17 Mg m(-3) and optimum water content (w(opt)) was between 38% and 53%. Regardless of zeolite particle size, compacted zeolites had low γ(dmax) and high w(opt) when compared with compacted natural soils. Then, hydraulic conductivity tests were run on compacted zeolites. The hydraulic conductivity values were within the range of 2.0 × 10(-3) cm s(-1) to 1.1 × 10(-7) cm s(-1). Hydraulic conductivity of all compacted zeolites decreased almost 50 times as the water content increased. It is noteworthy that hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite was strongly dependent on the zeolite particle size. The hydraulic conductivity decreased almost three orders of magnitude up to 39% fine content; then, it remained almost unchanged beyond 39%. Only one report was found in the literature on the hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite, which is in agreement with the findings of this study.

  10. Hydraulic Actuators with Autonomous Hydraulic Supply for the Mainline Aircrafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shumilov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Applied in the aircraft control systems, hydraulic servo actuators with autonomous hydraulic supply, so-called, hydraulic actuators of integrated configuration, i.e. combination of a source of hydraulic power and its load in the single unit, are aimed at increasing control system reliability both owing to elimination of the pipelines connecting the actuator to the hydraulic supply source, and owing to avoidance of influence of other loads failure on the actuator operability. Their purpose is also to raise control system survivability by eliminating the long pipeline communications and their replacing for the electro-conductive power supply system, thus reducing the vulnerability of systems. The main reason for a delayed application of the hydraulic actuators in the cutting-edge aircrafts was that such aircrafts require hydraulic actuators of considerably higher power with considerable heat releases, which caused an unacceptable overheat of the hydraulic actuators. Positive and negative sides of the hydraulic actuators, their alternative options of increased reliability and survivability, local hydraulic systems as an advanced alternative to independent hydraulic actuators are considered.Now to use hydraulic actuators in mainline aircrafts is inexpedient since there are the unfairly large number of the problems reducing, first and last, safety of flights, with no essential weight and operational advantages. Still works to create competitive hydraulic actuators ought to be continued.Application of local hydraulic systems (LHS will allow us to reduce length of pressure head and drain pipelines and mass of pipelines, as well as to raise their general fail-safety and survivability. Application of the LHS principle will allow us to use a majority of steering drive advantages. It is necessary to allocate especially the following:- ease of meeting requirements for the non-local spread of the engine weight;- essentially reducing length and weight of

  11. Hydraulic conductivity of organomodified soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, R.B.; Grant, J.M.; Voice, T.C.; Rakhshandehroo, G.; Xu, S.; Boyd, S.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The effects of organomodification on soil hydraulic conductivity were investigated. Hydraulic conductivity and porosity of treated and untreated samples of a sandy loam were measured as a function of effective stress. Batch treatment with hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium (HDTMA) and dry packing produced organomodified samples that were 79% less conducive than untreated samples prior to loading. Treated samples lost less hydraulic conductivity as a result of loading than untreated samples so that treated samples had higher conductivity at high loads. Observed differences in conductivity are explained in terms of the role of the treated and untreated clay in controlling initial effective pore size and its change during consolidation.

  12. Topography mediates plant water stress: coupling groundwater flow and rhizosphere-xylem hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, D. S.; Tai, X.

    2016-12-01

    Explicit representation of groundwater movement and its subsidy to the unsaturated zone have long been recognized to affect land surface fluxes. But its impact on mediating plant safety during drought has not yet been evaluated, due to the oversimplified representation of the soil-plant-atmospheric continuum in current mainstream land surface models. Here we evaluated the interaction between groundwater processes and plant hydraulics by integrating a three-dimensional groundwater model - ParFlow with a physiologically sophisticated plant model - TREES. A series of simulation experiments using representative hillslope shapes during a general dry down period were carried out to explore the impacts of topography, soil properties, and plant traits - maximum hydraulic conductance (Kmax), root area (Ar), and vulnerability to cavitation on plant hydraulic stress and the potential feedbacks to soil water spatial dynamics. From an initial condition of uniform pressure, lateral redistribution dominated the first stage when soils were wet, resulting in various water table depths. As drought progressed, the tension wetted zone provided a water subsidy to the root zone, causing various rates of soil dry down at different locations. In the end, the root zone soil water remains stable and dry, with diurnal fluctuations induced by the hydraulic redistribution of plant roots. Plants, in general, had higher transpiration and lower hydraulic stress on concave hillslopes. The same plant growing on fine-textured soils had higher transpiration rate, and therefore stronger feedbacks to the water table depths, compared to coarse-textured soil. But these responses could further vary by plant traits. For locations with shallow water table, Kmax is the most important factor determining plant function. When soil is dry, plants with higher Ar and more resistant xylem sustained higher transpiration rates. Those promising performance suggests that the coupled model could be a powerful tool for

  13. Modelling the inner debris disc of HR 8799

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contro, B.; Horner, J.; Wittenmyer, R. A.; Marshall, J. P.; Hinse, T. C.

    2016-11-01

    In many ways, the HR 8799 planetary system strongly resembles our own. It features four giant planets and two debris belts, analogues to the Asteroid and Edgeworth-Kuiper belts. Here, we present the results of dynamical simulations of HR8799's inner debris belt, to study its structure and collisional environment. Our results suggest that HR 8799's inner belt is highly structured, with gaps between regions of dynamical stability. The belt is likely constrained between sharp inner and outer edges, located at ˜6 and ˜8 au, respectively. Its inner edge coincides with a broad gap cleared by the 4:1 mean-motion resonance with HR 8799e. Within the belt, planetesimals are undergoing a process of collisional attrition like that observed in the Asteroid belt. However, whilst the mean collision velocity in the Asteroid belt exceeds 5 km s-1, the majority of collisions within HR 8799's inner belt occur with velocities of order 1.2 km s-1, or less. Despite this, they remain sufficiently energetic to be destructive - giving a source for the warm dust detected in the system. Interior to the inner belt, test particles remain dynamically unstirred, aside from narrow bands excited by distant high-order resonances with HR 8799e. This lack of stirring is consistent with earlier thermal modelling of HR 8799's infrared excess, which predicted little dust inside 6 au. The inner system is sufficiently stable and unstirred that the formation of telluric planets is feasible, although such planets would doubtless be subject to a punitive impact regime, given the intense collisional grinding required in the inner belt to generate the observed infrared excess.

  14. What plant hydraulics can tell us about responses to climate-change droughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperry, John S; Love, David M

    2015-07-01

    Climate change exposes vegetation to unusual drought, causing declines in productivity and increased mortality. Drought responses are hard to anticipate because canopy transpiration and diffusive conductance (G) respond to drying soil and vapor pressure deficit (D) in complex ways. A growing database of hydraulic traits, combined with a parsimonious theory of tree water transport and its regulation, may improve predictions of at-risk vegetation. The theory uses the physics of flow through soil and xylem to quantify how canopy water supply declines with drought and ceases by hydraulic failure. This transpiration 'supply function' is used to predict a water 'loss function' by assuming that stomatal regulation exploits transport capacity while avoiding failure. Supply-loss theory incorporates root distribution, hydraulic redistribution, cavitation vulnerability, and cavitation reversal. The theory efficiently defines stomatal responses to D, drying soil, and hydraulic vulnerability. Driving the theory with climate predicts drought-induced loss of plant hydraulic conductance (k), canopy G, carbon assimilation, and productivity. Data lead to the 'chronic stress hypothesis' wherein > 60% loss of k increases mortality by multiple mechanisms. Supply-loss theory predicts the climatic conditions that push vegetation over this risk threshold. The theory's simplicity and predictive power encourage testing and application in large-scale modeling. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. HYDRAULICS, ATHENS COUNTY, OHIO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  16. HYDRAULICS, JACKSON COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  17. HYDRAULICS, MADISON COUNTY, ALABAMA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This Hydraulic data was reviewed and approved by FEMA during the initial MT-2 processing. Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management...

  18. HYDRAULICS, HAMPDEN COUNTY, MA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data in this submittal include spatial datasets and model outputs necessary for computation of the 1-percent flooding extent. The minimum requirement for...

  19. Hydraulic wind energy conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to design, build and test a hydraulic wind energy system. This design used a three bladed turbine, which drove a hydraulic pump. The energy is transmitted from the pump through a long hose and into a hydraulic motor, where the energy is used. This wind system was built and tested during the winter of 1980-1981. The power train included a five meter, three bladed wind turbine, a 9.8:1 ratio gearbox, a 1.44 cubic inch displacement pump with a small supercharge gear pump attached. The hydraulic fluid was pumped through a 70', 3/4'' I-D-high pressure flexhose, then through a volume control valve and into a 1.44 cubic inch displacement motor. The fluid was returned through a 70', 1'' I-D-flexhose.

  20. 14 CFR 29.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 29.1435 Section 29.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 29.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each element of the hydraulic system...

  1. 14 CFR 23.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 23.1435 Section 23.1435... § 23.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system must be designed as follows: (1) Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, the structural loads expected...

  2. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.405 Section 28.405 Shipping... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.405 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system... than four times the system maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped...

  3. News from HR: a word from Anne-Sylvie Catherin

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Anne-Sylvie Catherin, head of HR Department, looks back over her years at CERN before taking up her new position at the European Central Bank.   At the end of July, I will be leaving CERN on a special leave of absence to take up a new position at the European Central Bank. This is a new chapter in my career, in a new context with its own challenges, and as I prepare for it, I would like to take a little time to look back over my years at CERN and share with you the enriching journey it has been, both for myself and for HR. It has always been my strong belief that any organisation’s greatest asset is its people. When an HR professional believes that, it’s only a short step to the conclusion that the best way to nurture those people is by adopting a professional approach to HR. In this respect, I arrived at a very fortuitous time. Enrico Chiaveri was head of HR and, although his background is in physics, we shared that same conviction. Enrico was the icebreaker in driving change, a...

  4. High-resolution EEG (HR-EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaret, M; Maillard, L; Jung, J

    2015-03-01

    High-resolution EEG (HR-EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) allow the recording of spontaneous or evoked electromagnetic brain activity with excellent temporal resolution. Data must be recorded with high temporal resolution (sampling rate) and high spatial resolution (number of channels). Data analyses are based on several steps with selection of electromagnetic signals, elaboration of a head model and use of algorithms in order to solve the inverse problem. Due to considerable technical advances in spatial resolution, these tools now represent real methods of ElectroMagnetic Source Imaging. HR-EEG and MEG constitute non-invasive and complementary examinations, characterized by distinct sensitivities according to the location and orientation of intracerebral generators. In the presurgical assessment of drug-resistant partial epilepsies, HR-EEG and MEG can characterize and localize interictal activities and thus the irritative zone. HR-EEG and MEG often yield significant additional data that are complementary to other presurgical investigations and particularly relevant in MRI-negative cases. Currently, the determination of the epileptogenic zone and functional brain mapping remain rather less well-validated indications. In France, in 2014, HR-EEG is now part of standard clinical investigation of epilepsy, while MEG remains a research technique.

  5. Modelling the Inner Debris Disc of HR 8799

    CERN Document Server

    Contro, B; Wittenmyer, R A; Marshall, J P; Hinse, T C

    2016-01-01

    In many ways, the HR 8799 planetary system strongly resembles our own. It features four giant planets and two debris belts, analogues to the Asteroid and Edgeworth-Kuiper belts. Here, we present the results of dynamical simulations of HR 8799's inner debris belt, to study its structure and collisional environment. Our results suggest that HR 8799's inner belt is highly structured, with gaps between regions of dynamical stability. The belt is likely constrained between sharp inner and outer edges, located at ~6 and ~8 au, respectively. Its inner edge coincides with a broad gap cleared by the 4:1 mean-motion resonance with HR 8799e. Within the belt, planetesimals are undergoing a process of collisional attrition like that observed in the Asteroid belt. However, whilst the mean collision velocity in the Asteroid belt exceeds 5 km/s, the majority of collisions within HR 8799's inner belt occur with velocities of order 1.2 km/s, or less. Despite this, they remain sufficiently energetic to be destructive - giving a...

  6. HR 7355 - another rapidly braking He-strong CP star?

    CERN Document Server

    Mikulasek, Z; Henry, G W; de Villiers, S N; Paunzen, E; Zejda, M

    2010-01-01

    Strong meridional mixing induced by rapid rotation is one reason why all hot main-sequence stars are not chemically peculiar. However, the finding that the He-strong CP star HR 7355 is a rapid rotator complicates this concept. Our goal is to explain the observed behaviour of HR 7355 based on period analysis of all available photometry. Over two years, we acquired 114 new BV observations of HR 7355 at observatories in Arizona, U.S.A and Cape Town, South Africa. We performed period analyses of the new observations along with new analyses of 732 archival measurements from the Hipparcos and ASAS projects. We find that the light curves of HR 7355 in various filters are quite similar, with amplitudes 0.035(4), 0.036(4), and 0.038(3) mag in B, Hp and V, respectively. The light curves are double-peaked, with unevenly deep minima. We substantially refine the rotational period to be P=0.5214410(4) d, indicating that HR 7355 is the most rapidly rotating CP star known. Our period analyses reveal a possible lengthening of...

  7. 47 CFR 73.9001 - Redistribution control of digital television broadcasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Redistribution control of digital television... RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution Control § 73.9001 Redistribution control of digital television broadcasts. Licensees of TV broadcast stations may utilize...

  8. Business groups and profit redistribution: a boon or bane for firms?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, Rejie; Kabir, Rezaul

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the phenomenon of profit redistribution in Indian business groups and relates redistribution with the underperformance of group-affiliated firms relative to unaffiliated firms. The study also documents that profit redistribution is more pronounced in groups of large sizes and h

  9. Advanced Performance Hydraulic Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lam, Adrienne S.

    2013-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, has developed a novel advanced hydraulic wind energy design, which has up to 23% performance improvement over conventional wind turbine and conventional hydraulic wind energy systems with 5 m/sec winds. It also has significant cost advantages with levelized costs equal to coal (after carbon tax rebate). The design is equally applicable to tidal energy systems and has passed preliminary laboratory proof-of-performance tests, as funded by the Department of Energy.

  10. The redistribution of granulocytes following E. coli endotoxin induced sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Lillevang, S T; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    1994-01-01

    Infusion of endotoxin elicits granulocytopenia followed by increased numbers of granulocytes in peripheral blood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the redistribution and sequestration of granulocytes in the tissues following E. coli endotoxin induced sepsis. From 16 rabbits granulocytes...... were isolated, labelled with Indium and reinjected intravenously. Eight rabbits received an infusion of E. coli endotoxin 2 micrograms kg-1 while eight received isotonic saline. The redistribution of granulocytes was imaged with a gamma camera and calculated with a connected computer before and 2 and 6...... hours after infusion of endotoxin or saline. Serum cortisol and interleukin-1 beta were measured. In another seven rabbits, respiratory burst activity and degranulation of granulocytes were measured prior to and from 5 min to 6 hours after infusion of E. coli endotoxin 2 micrograms kg-1 BW. Following...

  11. Analysis of pressure buildup data influenced by wellbore phase redistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.G.; Jones, J.R.; Reynolds, A.C.

    1986-10-01

    This work considers the influence of wellbore phase redistribution effects on the analysis of pressure buildup data. First, the authors show that the pressure responses observed when phase redistribution effects exist consist of three distinct types and delineate the conditions under which each type exists. Second, they investigate the reliability of Fair's type curves for analyzing pressure data. Third, for each type of pressure response, they provide rules for determining when the conventional semilog straight line will begin on a semilog plot of pressure data vs. time. They also consider general procedures that are based on Duhamel's principle for analyzing pressure data when sandface flow rates are also available. They discuss the application of these methods to analyze pressure data influenced by wellbore storage effects and investigate the effect that errors in the measured sandface rate have on the analysis.

  12. The redistribution of granulocytes following E. coli endotoxin induced sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, P; Lillevang, S T; Tønnesen, Else Kirstine

    1994-01-01

    Infusion of endotoxin elicits granulocytopenia followed by increased numbers of granulocytes in peripheral blood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the redistribution and sequestration of granulocytes in the tissues following E. coli endotoxin induced sepsis. From 16 rabbits granulocytes...... were isolated, labelled with Indium and reinjected intravenously. Eight rabbits received an infusion of E. coli endotoxin 2 micrograms kg-1 while eight received isotonic saline. The redistribution of granulocytes was imaged with a gamma camera and calculated with a connected computer before and 2 and 6...... hours after infusion of endotoxin or saline. Serum cortisol and interleukin-1 beta were measured. In another seven rabbits, respiratory burst activity and degranulation of granulocytes were measured prior to and from 5 min to 6 hours after infusion of E. coli endotoxin 2 micrograms kg-1 BW. Following...

  13. Federal transfers, interregional inequality and redistribution in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas GONZÁLEZ

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzes the impact of federal transfers and subnational expenditure in human development and interregional equity. Data on federal transfers and subnational spending in Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Chile, and Colombia, between 1983 and 2011, indicate that the redistributive power of the central government is statistically associated with improvements in interregional equity but not with better values in the human development index. Exactly the opposite results are found for subnational social spending.

  14. Effect of topography on sulfate redistribution in Cumulonimbus cloud development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujović, Dragana; Vučković, Vladan; Curić, Mlađen

    2014-03-01

    An aqueous chemical module is created and included into a complex three-dimensional atmospheric cloud-resolving mesoscale model. In the chemical module, oxidation of S(IV) by ozone and hydrogen peroxide in cloud-water and rainwater, as important process of the sulfate production is included. To examine the impact of topography on the sulfate redistribution in a clean and a polluted environment, the complex topography of Serbia is included in the model. Numerical simulations of an isolated summer Cumulonimbus cloud shows that thunderstorms generate very strong vertical sulfate redistribution from the planetary boundary layer to the upper troposphere. This redistribution is sensitive to cloud dynamics, while cloud microphysics and precipitation determine wet removal of the chemical species. In simulations with realistic topography, the chemical species are transported over larger distances close to the surface, while in the upper atmosphere, there is no difference compared to the simulations without topography. The sensitivity tests of cloud chemistry to the physical processes are made. Omission of nucleation and impact scavenging of aerosols in the model simulations shows that 75.8 and 62.5 % of total sulfur mass deposited in the base experiment for the clean and the polluted environment, respectively, is the result of other processes. Exclusion of oxidation accounted for 19.2 and 37.7 % of total sulfur deposited for clean and polluted environment. Ignoring the ice phase almost not change mass of deposited sulfur: there is an increase of 2.9 and 1.5 % for clean and polluted atmosphere, respectively. Real topography conditions affect the sulfate redistribution in the sense of greater possibilities of transport. Numerical simulations without real topography give an artificial increase of deposited sulfur mass of about 25-30 %.

  15. Land Policy Changes and Land Redistribution in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén Albornoz Barriga

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines three distinct periods of policy change and land redistribution in Ecuador through the agrarian reform laws of 1964, 1973 and 2010. A comparative case study of each moment of the law reforms was based on the instruments and policy network approach. In order to explain public policy process design, the high incidence of collective domains led by agribusiness on government management, and the incidence of indigenous organizations and farmers over the state action.

  16. Alloy element redistribution during sintering of powder metallurgy steels

    OpenAIRE

    Tahir, Abdul Malik

    2014-01-01

    Homogenization of alloying elements is desired during sintering of powder metallurgy components. The redistribution processes such as penetration of liquid phase into the interparticle/grain boundaries of solid particles and subsequent solid-state  diffusion of alloy element(s) in the base powder, are important for the effective homogenization of alloy element(s) during liquid phase sintering of the mixed powders. The aim of this study is to increase the understanding of alloy element redistr...

  17. Redistributive properties of the vesicular stomatitis virus polymerase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helfman, W.B.; Perrault, J. (San Diego State Univ., CA (USA))

    1989-08-01

    The template for transcription of the vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) genome consists of a negative-strand RNA (approximately 11 kb) tightly associated with approximately 1250 copies of the nucleocapsid or N protein (N-RNA template). The interaction between the virion-associated polymerase and this template was probed with a novel assay using purified N-RNA complexes added to detergent-disrupted uv-irradiated standard virions or unirradiated defective interfering (DI) particles. In contrast to the well-known stability of assembled cellular transcription complexes, the VSV polymerase copied exogenously added templates efficiently and yielded products indistinguishable from control virus transcription. Addition of uv-irradiated N-RNA templates to unirradiated virus effectively competed for transcription of endogenous template indicating that most or all of the polymerase can freely redistribute. Furthermore preincubation of virus and added templates at high ionic strength to solubilize L and NS polymerase proteins did not release additional active enzyme for redistribution. Pretranscription of virus also had little or no effect on redistributed activity indicating that polymerase complexes are capable of multiple rounds of synthesis beginning at the 3' end promoter. Unexpectedly, titration with saturating amounts of added N-RNA showed that active polymerase complexes are only in slight excess relative to template in standard or DI particles despite the large surplus of packaged L and NS polypeptides. Moreover, added standard virus templates competed equally well for the redistributing polymerase from DI particles or standard virus indicating no significant polymerase-binding preference for interfering templates. These findings bear important implications regarding mechanisms of VSV transcription and replication.

  18. The Emerging Roles Of HR Professionals In Driving Organizational Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mamin Ullah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To remain competitive in this global business world, organizations often find it necessary to undertake major changes that affect their processes and people. Therefore, change management is seen as a permanent business function to improve efficiency and keep organizations adaptable to the competitive marketplace. Many organizations strategically use change to improve organizational effectiveness. But bringing about successful change in today’s competitive environment requires thoughtful planning, effectivecommunication and employee acceptance. The roles of HR Professionals are also changing due to dramatic rate of change in today’s organizations. The role of the HR Professionals must parallel the needs of his or her changing organization. Successful organizations are becoming more adaptive, resilient, quick to change direction and customer-centered. Within this environment, the HR professional, who is considered necessary by line managers, is a strategic partner, an employee sponsor or advocate, an administrative expert, a changementor and so on.

  19. Resource redistribution in polydomous ant nest networks: local or global?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Daniel W.; Robinson, Elva J.H.

    2014-01-01

    An important problem facing organisms in a heterogeneous environment is how to redistribute resources to where they are required. This is particularly complex in social insect societies as resources have to be moved both from the environment into the nest and between individuals within the nest. Polydomous ant colonies are split between multiple spatially separated, but socially connected, nests. Whether, and how, resources are redistributed between nests in polydomous colonies is unknown. We analyzed the nest networks of the facultatively polydomous wood ant Formica lugubris. Our results indicate that resource redistribution in polydomous F. lugubris colonies is organized at the local level between neighboring nests and not at the colony level. We found that internest trails connecting nests that differed more in their amount of foraging were stronger than trails between nests with more equal foraging activity. This indicates that resources are being exchanged directly from nests with a foraging excess to nests that require resources. In contrast, we found no significant relationships between nest properties, such as size and amount of foraging, and network measures such as centrality and connectedness. This indicates an absence of a colony-level resource exchange. This is a clear example of a complex behavior emerging as a result of local interactions between parts of a system. PMID:25214755

  20. Technologies and Innovations for Hydraulic Pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Ivantysynova, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Positive displacement machines working as hydraulic pumps or hydraulic motors have always been, are and will be an essential part of any hydraulic system. Current trends and future demands on energy efficient systems will not only drastically increase the number of positive displacement machines needed for modern efficient hydraulic circuits but will significantly change the performance requirements of pumps and motors. Throttleless system configurations will change the landscape of hydraulic...

  1. Expression of reconstructive hFⅧ in the hrDNA by using hrDNA targeting vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xionghao; WU Lingqian; DAI Heping; XIA Kun; XIA Jiahui; LIU Mujun; SHE Hua; WEN Lu; XUE Zhigang; LIANG Desheng; CAI Fang; PAN Qian; LONG Zhigao

    2005-01-01

    Our lab has constructed a new nonviral vector-hrDNA targeting vector(pHrneo). pHrneo is a human derived vector that can target gene into human ribosomal DNA(hrDNA) locus. In this study, we inserted expression cassette of reconstructive hFⅧ (hFVIII-BDDAK39) to pHrneo to construct targeting vector: pHrneo-BDDAK39. Through electroporation of pHrneo-BDDAK39 into HT1080 cells, we identified the homologous recombinants by PCR and Southen blotting, and tested the expression of hFVIII- BDDAK39 in the hrDNA locus. The hFⅧ-BDDAK39 was successfully targeted into hrDNA locus of HT-1080 by pHrneo-BDDAK39, and the efficiency of site-specific integration was 2.0×10-5. hFⅧ-BDDAK39 in hrDNA locus of HT-1080 is found to be able to express efficiently (32±5 ng·106 cells-1·24 h-1). Targeting vector pHrneo-BDDAK39 can find use in gene therapy for hemophilia.

  2. Current Redistribution in Resistor Networks: Fat-Tail Statistics in Regular and Small-World Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmann, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    The redistribution of electrical currents in resistor networks after single-bond failures is analyzed in terms of current-redistribution factors that are shown to depend only on the topology of the network and on the values of the bond resistances. We investigate the properties of these current-redistribution factors for regular network topologies (e.g. $d$-dimensional hypercubic lattices) as well as for small-world networks. In particular, we find that the statistics of the current redistribution factors exhibits a fat-tail behavior, which reflects the long-range nature of the current redistribution as determined by Kirchhoff's circuit laws.

  3. Current redistribution in resistor networks: Fat-tail statistics in regular and small-world networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jörg; Bernasconi, Jakob

    2017-03-01

    The redistribution of electrical currents in resistor networks after single-bond failures is analyzed in terms of current-redistribution factors that are shown to depend only on the topology of the network and on the values of the bond resistances. We investigate the properties of these current-redistribution factors for regular network topologies (e.g., d-dimensional hypercubic lattices) as well as for small-world networks. In particular, we find that the statistics of the current redistribution factors exhibits a fat-tail behavior, which reflects the long-range nature of the current redistribution as determined by Kirchhoff's circuit laws.

  4. Multiple wavelength microwave observations of the RS Canum Venaticorum stars UX Arietis, HR 1099, HR 5110, and II Pegasi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, Robert F.; Lang, Kenneth R.

    1987-01-01

    The variabilities, core size and magnetic field of the RS CVn star UX Arietis was measured with the VLA at pairs of frequencies near 1415 MHz and 4835 MHz on June 10, 1985. Data were also gathered on HR 1099, HR 5110 and II Peg. UX Arietis exhibited variability on time scales ranging from 30 sec to 1 hr at 4835 MHz, but no detectable variations at 1415 MHz. An upper limit of 900 billion cm was placed on the size of the core emitting region, which is estimated to have a magnetic field strength of 15 G. The 30 sec variations are attributed to absorption by thermal plasma between the G5 and K1 companions of the UX Arietis system.

  5. Enrico Chiaveri: The dialogue in the HR Strategy

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    Enrico Chiaveri has been Head of the Human Resources Department since 2005. A core part of his department’s mission with the new Management is to develop and implement a strategic HR approach for our forward-looking Organization. He explained key aspects of the HR strategy to the Bulletin. For the first time in CERN’s history, a head of the HR Department and his deputy - Anne-Sylvie Catherin - invited the staff to a general information meeting on 23 February 2009. The scope of the meeting was to present the status of a number of current initiatives that will improve and tailor CERN’s HR strategy to the needs of the Organization and its staff, and also open up dialogue. Presented for the first time in an integrated way, the initiatives include contract policy, MARS, a staff survey, CERN’s values, a performance model, recruitment & outreach, learning & development, internal mobility and the development of a code of condu...

  6. Learning Culture, Line Manager and HR Professional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on the role of line management and learning culture in the development of professional practice for the human resource (HR) practitioner. Design/methodology/approach: Three-year longitudinal, matched-pair study involving five participants and their line managers. Findings: Two of the five participants experienced…

  7. Teaching HR Professionals: The Classroom as a Community of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Kate; Avramenko, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces an innovative course design incorporating both communities of practice and reflective practice as a learning strategy for part-time learners in higher education. The new design has been applied to teaching HR practitioners in a UK-based business school. Findings indicate that the suggested way of organizing teaching and…

  8. An Ounce of Prevention: The Benefits of an HR Audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    During her 13 years leading a school district human resources office, the author came to recognize that managing human capital is much more than recruiting, hiring, managing personnel records, and handling performance issues. In addition to implementing initiatives to increase the efficiency with which HR officers and staff perform those tasks,…

  9. THE CHANGING ROLE OF HR: VALUES AND CONTRIBUTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben; Krogager, Per

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates, through a case-study of one of the old life sciences and diagnostics companies in Denmark, Radiometer Medical Plc. (now part of the Danaher Corporation), how the HR-department starts to work in a much more systematic way with effectiveness and efficiency, in the attempt...

  10. HR 8799: The Benchmark Directly-Imaged Planetary System

    CERN Document Server

    Currie, Thayne

    2016-01-01

    HR 8799 harbors arguably the first and best-studied directly-imaged planets. In this brief article, I describe how the HR 8799 planetary system is a benchmark system for studying the atmospheres, orbital properties, dynamical stability, and formation of young superjovian planets. Multi-wavelength photometry and spectroscopy show that HR 8799 bcde appear to have thicker clouds than do field brown dwarfs of similar effective temperatures and exhibit evidence for non-equilibrium carbon chemistry, features that are likely connected to the planets' low surface gravities. Over 17 years of astrometric data constrain the planets' orbits to not be face on but possibly in multiple orbital resonances. At orbital separations of 15--70 au and with masses of $\\approx$ 5--7 $M_{\\rm J}$, HR 8799 bcde probe the extremes of jovian planet formation by core accretion: medium-resolution spectroscopy may provide clues about these planets' formation conditions. Data from the next generation of 30 m-class telescopes should better co...

  11. Learning Culture, Line Manager and HR Professional Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on the role of line management and learning culture in the development of professional practice for the human resource (HR) practitioner. Design/methodology/approach: Three-year longitudinal, matched-pair study involving five participants and their line managers. Findings: Two of the five participants experienced…

  12. HR Manager Leadership in Quality Improvement in a College Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabi, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the influence of the human resource (HR) manager on the quality of service in an academic college, and the human resource management (HRM) outcomes of the process. Design/methodology/approach: The paper relates to a customer satisfaction survey. More than 120 questionnaires were completed by the…

  13. Stimulating teachers’ team performance through team-oriented HR practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmans, Machiel; Runhaar, Piety; Wesselink, Renate; Mulder, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Teams of teachers are increasingly held accountable for the quality of education and educational reforms in vocational education and training institutions. However, historically teachers have not been required to engage in deep-level collaboration, thus team-oriented HR practices are being used t

  14. HR Manager Leadership in Quality Improvement in a College Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabi, Moshe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the influence of the human resource (HR) manager on the quality of service in an academic college, and the human resource management (HRM) outcomes of the process. Design/methodology/approach: The paper relates to a customer satisfaction survey. More than 120 questionnaires were completed by the…

  15. THE CHANGING ROLE OF HR: VALUES AND CONTRIBUTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben; Krogager, Per

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates, through a case-study of one of the old life sciences and diagnostics companies in Denmark, Radiometer Medical Plc. (now part of the Danaher Corporation), how the HR-department starts to work in a much more systematic way with effectiveness and efficiency, in the attempt...

  16. Engineering rhizosphere hydraulics: pathways to improve plant adaptation to drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mutez; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Ahmadi, Katayoun; Kroener, Eva; Kostka, Stanley; Carminati, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Developing new technologies to optimize the use of water in irrigated croplands is of increasing importance. Recent studies have drawn attention to the role of mucilage in shaping rhizosphere hydraulic properties and regulating root water uptake. During drying mucilage keeps the rhizosphere wet and conductive, but upon drying it turns hydrophobic limiting root water uptake. Here we introduced the concept of rhizoligands, defined as additives that 1) rewet the rhizosphere and 2) reduce mucilage swelling hereby reducing the rhizosphere conductivity. We then tested its effect on rhizosphere water dynamics and transpiration. The following experiments were carried out to test if selected surfactants behave as a rhizoligand. We used neutron radiography to monitor water redistribution in the rhizosphere of lupine and maize irrigated with water and rhizoligand solution. In a parallel experiment, we tested the effect of rhizoligand on the transpiration rate of lupine and maize subjected to repeated drying and wetting cycles. We also measured the effect of rhizoligand on the maximum swelling of mucilage and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of soil mixed with various mucilage concentrations. The results were then simulated using a root water uptake model. Rhizoligand treatment quickly and uniformly rewetted the rhizosphere of maize and lupine. Interestingly, rhizoligand also reduced transpiration during drying/wetting cycles. Evaporation from the bare soil was of minor importance. Our hypothesis is that the reduction in transpiration was triggered by the interaction between rhizoligand and mucilage exuded by roots. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that rhizoligand reduced the maximum swelling of mucilage, increased its viscosity, and decreased the hydraulic conductivity of soil-mucilage mixtures. The reduced conductivity of the rhizosphere induced a moderate stress to the plants reducing transpiration. Simulation with a reduced hydraulic conductivity of the

  17. Evaluation of Two Soil Water Redistribution Models (Finite Difference and Hourly Cascade Approach) Through The Comparison of Continuous field Sensor-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreyra, R.; Stockle, C. O.; Huggins, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Soil water storage and dynamics are of critical importance for a variety of processes in terrestrial ecosystems, including agriculture. Many of those systems are under significant pressure in terms of water availability and use. Therefore, assessing alternative scenarios through hydrological models is an increasingly valuable exercise. Soil water holding capacity is defined by the concepts of soil field capacity and plant available water, which are directly related to soil physical properties. Both concepts define the energy status of water in the root system and closely interact with plant physiological processes. Furthermore, these concepts play a key role in the environmental transport of nutrients and pollutants. Soil physical parameters (e.g. saturated hydraulic conductivity, total porosity and water release curve) are required as input for field-scale soil water redistribution models. These parameters are normally not easy to measure or monitor, and estimation through pedotransfer functions is often inadequate. Our objectives are to improve field-scale hydrological modeling by: (1) assessing new undisturbed methodologies for determining important soil physical parameters necessary for model inputs; and (2) evaluating model outputs, making a detailed specification of soil parameters and the particular boundary condition that are driving water movement under two contrasting environments. Soil physical properties (saturated hydraulic conductivity and determination of water release curves) were quantified using undisturbed laboratory methodologies for two different soil textural classes (silt loam and sandy loam) and used to evaluate two soil water redistribution models (finite difference solution and hourly cascade approach). We will report on model corroboration results performed using in situ, continuous, field measurements with soil water content capacitance probes and digital tensiometers. Here, natural drainage and water redistribution were monitored

  18. Influence of pore pressure to the development of a hydraulic fracture in poroelastic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Golovin, Sergey V

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the influence of the pore pressure to the development of a hydraulically-driven fracture in a poroelastic medium. We present a novel numerical model for propagation of a planar hydraulic fracture and prove its correctness by demonstration of the numerical convergence and by comparison with known solutions. The advantage of the algorithm is that it does not require the distinguishing of the fracture's tips and reconstruction of the numerical mesh according to the fracture propagation. Next, we perform a thorough analysis of the interplay of fluid filtration and redistribution of stresses near the fracture. We demonstrate that the fracture length decreases with the increase of the Biot's number (the parameter that determines the contribution of the pore pressure to the stress) and explain this effect by analysing the near-fracture pore pressure, rock deformation and stresses. We conclude, that the correct account for the fluid exchange between the fracture and the rock should be bas...

  19. Complex Fluids and Hydraulic Fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbati, Alexander C; Desroches, Jean; Robisson, Agathe; McKinley, Gareth H

    2016-06-07

    Nearly 70 years old, hydraulic fracturing is a core technique for stimulating hydrocarbon production in a majority of oil and gas reservoirs. Complex fluids are implemented in nearly every step of the fracturing process, most significantly to generate and sustain fractures and transport and distribute proppant particles during and following fluid injection. An extremely wide range of complex fluids are used: naturally occurring polysaccharide and synthetic polymer solutions, aqueous physical and chemical gels, organic gels, micellar surfactant solutions, emulsions, and foams. These fluids are loaded over a wide range of concentrations with particles of varying sizes and aspect ratios and are subjected to extreme mechanical and environmental conditions. We describe the settings of hydraulic fracturing (framed by geology), fracturing mechanics and physics, and the critical role that non-Newtonian fluid dynamics and complex fluids play in the hydraulic fracturing process.

  20. Hydraulic properties of ladle slags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vlček

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents results of examining of hydraulic properties of ladle slags formed during production of steel. The studied ladle slags were subjected to different cooling mode from the molten state. Based on the ability of the slag react with the water was assessed their hydraulic activity. The hydraulic properties are caused by the presence of minerals dicalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate, mayenite, brownmillerite and dicalcium ferite. The emergence of required hydrating phases in the ladle slags is conditioned by a sufficient CaO content and their cooling rate. The contact the slag with water during processing and their ageing has a negative effect. The experiment has shown that the phase transformation of the mineral dicalcium silicate which occurs during cooling of the ladle slags cause their volume instability.

  1. Getting the HR message across: The linkage between line HR consensus and commitment strength among hospital employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbosch, Luc; Reuver, Renee; Sanders, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Related to the theoretical work of Bowen and Ostroff (2004; also Ostroff/Bowen 2000), this article focuses on the features of an HRM system that help or constrain organizations to get their HR message across. At a department-level of analysis, we focus on the consensus between line managers and

  2. Getting the HR message across: The linkage between line HR consensus and commitment strength among hospital employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbosch, Luc; Reuver, Renee; Sanders, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Related to the theoretical work of Bowen and Ostroff (2004; also Ostroff/Bowen 2000), this article focuses on the features of an HRM system that help or constrain organizations to get their HR message across. At a department-level of analysis, we focus on the consensus between line managers and dece

  3. Getting the HR Message Across: The Linkage between Line - HR Consensus and "Commitment Strength" among Hospital Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorenbosch, Luc; Reuver, Renee; Sanders, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Related to the theoretical work of Bowen and Ostroff (2004; also Ostroff/Bowen 2000), this article focuses on the features of an HRM system that help or constrain organizations to get their HR message across. At a department-level of analysis, we focus on the consensus between line managers and dece

  4. Response of Compacted Bentonites to Thermal and Thermo-Hydraulic Loadings at High Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehasis Tripathy

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The final disposal of high-level nuclear waste in many countries is preferred to be in deep geological repositories. Compacted bentonites are proposed for use as the buffer surrounding the waste canisters which may be subjected to both thermal and hydraulic loadings. A significant increase in the temperature is anticipated within the buffer, particularly during the early phase of the repository lifetime. In this study, several non-isothermal and non-isothermal hydraulic tests were carried on compacted MX80 bentonite. Compacted bentonite specimens (water content = 15.2%, dry density = 1.65 Mg/m3 were subjected to a temperature of either 85 or 150 °C at one end, whereas the temperature at the opposite end was maintained at 25 °C. During the non-isothermal hydraulic tests, water was supplied from the opposite end of the heat source. The temperature and relative humidity were monitored along predetermined depths of the specimens. The profiles of water content, dry density, and degree of saturation were established after termination of the tests. The test results showed that thermal gradients caused redistribution of the water content, whereas thermo-hydraulic gradients caused both redistribution and an increase in the water content within compacted bentonites, both leading to development of axial stress of various magnitudes. The applied water injection pressures (5 and 600 kPa and temperature gradients appeared to have very minimal impact on the magnitude of axial stress developed. The thickness of thermal insulation layer surrounding the testing devices was found to influence the temperature and relative humidity profiles thereby impacting the redistribution of water content within compacted bentonites. Under the influence of both the applied thermal and thermo-hydraulic gradients, the dry density of the bentonite specimens increased near the heat source, whereas it decreased at the opposite end. The test results emphasized the influence of

  5. Redistribution of paclobutrazol-14C in soil and plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Maria Aparecida; Tornisielo, Valdemar Luiz; Regitano, Jussara Borges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Ecotoxicologia]. E-mail: macosta@cena.usp.br; vltorrnis@cena.usp.br; regitano@cena.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Paclobutrazol (PBZ) is important to the mango culture since it works as a growth regulator that inhibits gibberellins synthesis controlling the growth of the trees and thus reducing pruning and manipulation during cultivation. Although PBZ has been used for years in mango in Brazil, there are no studies evaluating its environmental fate under Brazilian conditions. Therefore, the objective of the present work is to evaluate the redistribution of PBZ and its metabolites in soil and plant. For this experiment, radiolabeled ({sup 14}C-PBZ) was used once this technique allows detention of minimum amounts of residues in both soil and plant. In addition, plants were cultivated in vessels (100 L and 1 plant /vessel) and the PBZ were applied to the soils at the recommended rate of 1,0 kg ha{sup -1}, having radioactive concentration of 2,0 MBq/vessel. In order to evaluate PBZ redistribution, the volumes of water percolated with rainfall and senescent leaves were collected to monitor their {sup 14}C-residue concentration by liquid scintillation spectrometry (LSS). In parallel, the sorption and leaching potential of PBZ was determined in order to support the previous study. The results showed that PBZ presented relatively low mobility (0.12 % of the applied amount) and high sorption (91.9 % of the applied amount) in the studied soil, being minimal its leached amount; and that majority of the soil applied radioactivity were redistributed in the plant leaves (1.08% of the applied amount). Needing more inquiries in relation to the contamination of the soil and rain water percolated in period of September, 2nd, 2006 to January, 8th, 2007 was of the 0.06% in relation applied radioactivity being very next the radioactivity to deep, indicating that the product still is not being leached during rains. (author)

  6. Hydraulic resistance of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.

    2013-02-01

    Biofilms may interfere with membrane performance in at least three ways: (i) increase of the transmembrane pressure drop, (ii) increase of feed channel (feed-concentrate) pressure drop, and (iii) increase of transmembrane passage. Given the relevance of biofouling, it is surprising how few data exist about the hydraulic resistance of biofilms that may affect the transmembrane pressure drop and membrane passage. In this study, biofilms were generated in a lab scale cross flow microfiltration system at two fluxes (20 and 100Lm-2h-1) and constant cross flow (0.1ms-1). As a nutrient source, acetate was added (1.0mgL-1 acetate C) besides a control without nutrient supply. A microfiltration (MF) membrane was chosen because the MF membrane resistance is very low compared to the expected biofilm resistance and, thus, biofilm resistance can be determined accurately. Transmembrane pressure drop was monitored. As biofilm parameters, thickness, total cell number, TOC, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were determined, it was demonstrated that no internal membrane fouling occurred and that the fouling layer actually consisted of a grown biofilm and was not a filter cake of accumulated bacterial cells. At 20Lm-2h-1 flux with a nutrient dosage of 1mgL-1 acetate C, the resistance after 4 days reached a value of 6×1012m-1. At 100Lm-2h-1 flux under the same conditions, the resistance was 5×1013m-1. No correlation of biofilm resistance to biofilm thickness was found; Biofilms with similar thickness could have different resistance depending on the applied flux. The cell number in biofilms was between 4×107 and 5×108 cellscm-2. At this number, bacterial cells make up less than a half percent of the overall biofilm volume and therefore did not hamper the water flow through the biofilm significantly. A flux of 100Lm-2h-1 with nutrient supply caused higher cell numbers, more biomass, and higher biofilm resistance than a flux of 20Lm-2h-1. However, the biofilm thickness

  7. Controls of Hydraulic Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hydraulic wind turbine generator system was proposed based on analysis the current wind turbines technologies. The construction and principles were introduced. The mathematical model was verified using MATLAB and AMsim. A displacement closed loop of swash plate of motor and a speed closed loop of generator were setup, a PID control is introduced to maintain a constant speed and fixed frequency at wind turbine generator. Simulation and experiment demonstrated that the system can connect grid to generate electric and enhance reliability. The control system demonstrates a high performance speed regulation and effectiveness. The results are great significant to design a new type hydraulic wind turbine system.

  8. Democracy, Redistributive Taxation and the Private Provision of Public Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas

    The paper studies in a simple, Downsian model of political competition how the private provision of public goods is affected when it is embedded in a system of democracy and redistributive taxation. Results show that the positive effect of inequality on public goods production, which Olson (1965......) pointed to, is weakened and might even be reversed in this context. Also, the median voter may choose a negative tax rate, even if he is poorer than the mean, in order to stimulate public goods production. The relevance of the model is illustrated with an application to the finance of higher education....

  9. Internal Transport Barrier Driven by Redistribution of Energetic Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.L. Wong; W.W. Heidbrink; E. Ruskov; C.C. Petty; C.M. Greenfield; R. Nazikian; R. Budny

    2004-11-12

    Alfven instabilities excited by energetic ions are used as a means to reduce the central magnetic shear in a tokamak via redistribution of energetic ions. When the central magnetic shear is low enough, ballooning modes become stable for any plasma pressure gradient and an internal transport barrier (ITB) with a steep pressure gradient can exist. This mechanism can sustain a steady-state ITB as demonstrated by experimental data from the DIII-D tokamak. It can also produce a shear in toroidal and poloidal plasma rotation. Possible application of this technique to use the energetic alpha particles for improvement of burning plasma performance is discussed.

  10. Improved SIRT correction factors and redistribution in geotomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanis, C. A.; Hill, H. W.; Freeland, K. A.

    In this paper revised correction factors are introduced which improve the profile of a geophysical environment reconstructed using the Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT). These factors are based not only on the distances a given ray passes through the cells, as was assumed in the past, but also on the existing values (from a previous iteration) of the electrical properties of the cells through which a ray traverses. In addition, redistribution of the correction factors is utilized whenever the updated value of the electrical parameter of a given cell falls below a physically realizable or an a priori minimum value.

  11. Emission redistribution from a quantum dot-bowtie nanoantenna

    OpenAIRE

    Regler, A.; Schraml, K.; Lyamkina, A.; Spiegl, M; Müller, K.; Vuckovic, J.; Finley, J. J.; Kaniber, M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a combined experimental and simulation study of a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot coupled to a nearby ($\\sim 25nm$) plasmonic antenna. Micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy shows a $\\sim 2.4\\times$ increase of intensity, which is attributed to spatial far-field redistribution of the emission from the quantum dot-antenna system. Power-dependent studies show similar saturation powers of $2.5\\mu W$ for both coupled and uncoupled quantum dot emission in polarization-resolved me...

  12. Frequency redistribution function for the polarized two-term atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casini, R. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Landi Degl' Innocenti, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Manso Sainz, R. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, c/Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Landi Degl' Innocenti, E. [Dipartimento di Astronomia e Scienze dello Spazio, Università di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Landolfi, M. [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy)

    2014-08-20

    We present a generalized frequency redistribution function for the polarized two-term atom in an arbitrary magnetic field. This result is derived within a new formulation of the quantum problem of coherent scattering of polarized radiation by atoms in the collisionless regime. The general theory, which is based on a diagrammatic treatment of the atom-photon interaction, is still a work in progress. However, the results anticipated here are relevant enough for the study of the magnetism of the solar chromosphere and of interest for astrophysics in general.

  13. Carbon redistribution by erosion processes in an intensively disturbed catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boix-Fayos, Carolina; Martínez-Mena, María; Pérez Cutillas, Pedro; de Vente, Joris; Barberá, Gonzalo G.; Mosch, Wouter; Navarro Cano, Jose Antonio; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Understanding how organic carbon moves with sediments along the fluvial system is crucial to close catchment scale carbon budgets. Especially challenging is the analysis of organic carbon dynamics during fluvial transport in heterogeneous, fragile and disturbed environments with ephemeral and intense hydrological pulses, typical of Mediterranean conditions. This paper explores the catchment scale organic carbon redistribution by lateral flows in extreme Mediterranean environmental conditions from a geomorphological perspective. The study area is a catchment (Cárcavo) in SE Spain with a semiarid climate, erodible lithologies, shallow soils, and highly disturbed by agricultural terraces, land levelling, reforestations and construction of check-dams. To increase understanding of erosion induced catchment scale organic carbon redistribution, we studied the subcatchments of 8 check-dams distributed along the catchment main channel in detail. We determined 137Cs, physicochemical characteristics and organic carbon pools of soils and sediments deposited behind each check-dam, performed spatial analysis of properties of the catchment and buffer areas around check-dams, and carried out geomorphological analysis of the slope-channel connections. Soils showed very low Total Organic Carbon (TOC) values oscillating between 15.2 and 4.4 g Kg-1 for forest and agricultural soils, respectively. Sediments mobilized by erosion were poor in TOC compared to the eroded (forest) soils (6.6±0.7 g Kg-1), and the redistribution of organic carbon through the catchment, especially of the Mineral Associated Organic Carbon (MAC) pool, showed the same pattern as clay particles and 137Cs. The TOC erosion rates (0.031±0.03 Mg ha-1 y-1) were comparable to others reported for subhumid Mediterranean catchments and to those modelled worldwide for pasture land. Those lateral fluxes were equivalent to 10.4 % of the TOC stock from the topsoil at the moment of the check-dam construction and

  14. Isotope exchange investigation of nitrogen redistribution in expanded austenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Drouet, M.; Martinavičius, A.

    2013-01-01

    Sequential plasma and gaseous nitriding of Fe–18Cr–10Ni–3Mo stainless steel at 390°C with 14N and 15N isotopes followed by denitriding in flowing hydrogen was investigated. Redistribution of plasma-inserted nitrogen atoms (15N) by subsequent gaseous nitriding (14N) was observed. Denitriding after...... plasma- and gaseous nitriding resulted in predominant retraction of 14N, and only a minor amount of 15N. The nitrogen isotope diffusion behaviour is explained by two different states of nitrogen bonding and short-range ordering between nitrogen and chromium....

  15. Integrating hydraulic equivalent sections into a hydraulic geometry study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yanhong; Yi, Yujun; Li, Zhiwei; Wang, Zhaoyin; Zheng, Xiangmin

    2017-09-01

    Hydraulic geometry (HG) is an important geomorphic concept that has played an indispensable role in hydrological analyses, physical studies of streams, ecosystem and aquatic habitat studies, and sedimentology research. More than 60 years after Leopold and Maddock (1953) first introduced the concept of HG, researchers have still not uncovered the physical principles underlying HG behavior. One impediment is the complexity of the natural river cross section. The current study presents a new way to simplify the cross section, namely, the hydraulic equivalent section, which is generalized from the cross section in the ;gradually varied flow of an alluvial river; (GVFAR) and features hydrodynamic properties and bed-building laws similar to those of the GVFAR. Energy balance was used to derive the stage Z-discharge Q relationship in the GVFAR. The GVFAR in the Songhua River and the Yangtze River were selected as examples. The data, including measured discharge, river width, water stage, water depth, wet area, and cross section, were collected from the hydrological yearbooks of typical hydrological stations on the Songhua River and the Yangtze River from 1955 to 1987. The relationships between stage Z-discharge Q and cross-sectional area A-stage Z at various stations were analyzed, and ;at-a-station hydraulic geometry; (AHG) relationships were obtained in power-law forms. Based on derived results and observational data analysis, the Z-Q and Z-A relationships of AHG were similar to rectangular weir flows, thus the cross section of the GVFAR was generalized as a compound rectangular, hydraulic equivalent cross section. As to bed-building characteristics, the bankfull discharge method and the stage-discharge-relation method were used to calculate the dominant variables of the alluvial river. This hydraulic equivalent section has the same Z-Q relation, Z-A relation, dominant discharge, dominant river width, and dominant water depth as the cross section in the GVFAR. With the

  16. Masses, Radii, and Cloud Properties of the HR 8799 Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Marley, Mark S; Cushing, Michael; Ackerman, Andrew S; Fortney, Jonathan J; Freedman, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The near-infrared colors of the planets directly imaged around the A star HR 8799 are much redder than most field brown dwarfs of the same effective temperature. Previous theoretical studies of these objects have concluded that the atmospheres of planets b, c, and d are unusually cloudy or have unusual cloud properties. Most studies have also found that the inferred radii of some or all of the planets disagree with expectations of standard giant planet evolution models. Here we compare the available data to the predictions of our own set of atmospheric and evolution models that have been extensively tested against observations of field L and T dwarfs, including the reddest L dwarfs. Unlike almost all previous studies we require mutually consistent choices for effective temperature, gravity, cloud properties, and planetary radius. This procedure thus yields plausible values for the masses, effective temperatures, and cloud properties of all three planets. We find that the cloud properties of the HR 8799 planet...

  17. Human Resource Predictive Analytics HRPA For HR Management In Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeet N. Mishra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Human resource predictive analytics is an evolving application field of analytics for HRM purposes. The purpose of HRM is measuring employee performance and engagement studying workforce collaboration patterns analyzing employee churn and turnover and modelling employee lifetime value. The motive of applying HRPA is to optimize performances and produce better return on investment for organizations through decision making based on data collection HR metrics and predictive models. The paper is divided into three sections to understand the emergence of HR predictive analytics for HRM. Firstly the paper introduces the concept of HRPA. Secondly the paper discusses three aspects of HRPA a Need b Approach amp Application c Impact. Lastly the paper leads to the conclusion on HRPA.

  18. The latest on the recent HR staff survey

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The data collected in the framework of the staff survey sent out by the Human Resources (HR) Department in March this year are currently being analysed. The first results concern the response rate and the breakdown of participants. 1328 staff members replied to the questionnaire, representing a response rate of close to 60%. Marie-Luce Falipou, who is in charge of the project within the HR Department, is evidently satisfied with the result: "The high response rate shows that the staff appreciated HR’s efforts to sound out their opinions and felt concerned by the subjects covered in the questionnaire". All the data are now being processed by the team led by Philippe Sarnin, Director of the Social Psychology Department at the University of Lyon2. "The number of responses submitted during the 15 days the form was available on line was very satisfactory. This is a vital factor in ensuring that we are able to build up an accurate pictu...

  19. HR strategy – necessity or fad for business sustainability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghinea Valentina Mihaela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The present paper pleads for the awareness of HR strategy importance, in terms of proper design and implementation, as they definitely could impede or sustain the development of an organization. By making use of G.VALI, the model of organizational culture dynamics, we look for revealing the impact that (non-existence of HR strategy, its alignment and coherence could have on the organization success. As proven by human experience, all types of strategies could work and be effective in certain conditions. Even more, no one can say that one strategy is better than other. However, in the same way, there is no guarantee of some strategies success. In this light, the difference lays in the handy and clever interlock of the country specific advantages and firm (-tobe specific advantages. For achieving this specific aim, vertical (alignment and horizontal (coherence integration of each functional strategy must be ensured.

  20. Detached eclipsing binaries with very unequal members - HR 7464

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuricin, G.; Mardirossian, F.; Mezzetti, M.

    1984-06-01

    Waelkens and Rufener's (1983) photoelectric lightcurve (as yet unexplored) of the newly discovered eclipsing binary HR 7464 has been analyzed. The photometric solution presented here reveals that this binary is an A5m + G main sequence detached system, which is particularly remarkable for the great dissimilarity between its members. The frequency of detached eclipsing pairs with very unequal members (i.e., with low mass ratio) is then discussed; some bimodality in the innate mass ratio distribution of close binaries is inferred.

  1. Augmented HR Repair Mediates Acquired Temozolomide Resistance in Glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Del Alcazar, Carlos Rodrigo; Todorova, Pavlina Krasimirova; Habib, Amyn A; Mukherjee, Bipasha; Burma, Sandeep

    2016-10-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults and is universally fatal. The DNA alkylating agent temozolomide is part of the standard-of-care for GBM. However, these tumors eventually develop therapy-driven resistance and inevitably recur. While loss of mismatch repair (MMR) and re-expression of MGMT have been shown to underlie chemoresistance in a fraction of GBMs, resistance mechanisms operating in the remaining GBMs are not well understood. To better understand the molecular basis for therapy-driven temozolomide resistance, mice bearing orthotopic GBM xenografts were subjected to protracted temozolomide treatment, and cell lines were generated from the primary (untreated) and recurrent (temozolomide-treated) tumors. As expected, the cells derived from primary tumors were sensitive to temozolomide, whereas the cells from the recurrent tumors were significantly resistant to the drug. Importantly, the acquired resistance to temozolomide in the recurrent lines was not driven by re-expression of MGMT or loss of MMR but was due to accelerated repair of temozolomide-induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Temozolomide induces DNA replication-associated DSBs that are primarily repaired by the homologous recombination (HR) pathway. Augmented HR appears to underpin temozolomide resistance in the recurrent lines, as these cells were cross-resistant to other agents that induced replication-associated DSBs, exhibited faster resolution of damage-induced Rad51 foci, and displayed higher levels of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). Furthermore, in light of recent studies demonstrating that CDK1 and CDK2 promote HR, it was found that CDK1/2 inhibitors countered the heightened HR in recurrent tumors and sensitized these therapy-resistant tumor cells to temozolomide.

  2. Teaching HR Professionals: The Classroom as a Community of Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Avramenko

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an innovative course design incorporating both communities of practice and reflective practice as a learning strategy for part-time learners in higher education. The new design has been applied to teaching HR practitioners in a UK-based business school. Findings indicate that the suggested way of organizing teaching and learning for part-time professionals is very informative and facilitates a richer engagement with theory whilst addressing issues of practice.

  3. CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WITTEKIND WD

    2007-10-03

    This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% {sup 239}Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: {sm_bullet}bare, {sm_bullet}1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or {sm_bullet}12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection.

  4. DCS Hydraulics Submittal, Butler County, Alabama, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...

  5. DCS Hydraulics Submittal, Bullock County, Alabama, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...

  6. DCS Hydraulics Submittal, Covington County, Alabama, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...

  7. Size-exclusion chromatographic NMR under HR-MAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena Alcalde, Guillermo; Anderson, Natalie; Day, Iain J

    2017-05-01

    The addition of stationary phases or sample modifiers can be used to modify the separation achievable in the diffusion domain of diffusion NMR experiments or provide information on the nature of the analyte-sample modifier interaction. Unfortunately, the addition of insoluble chromatographic stationary phases can lead to line broadening and degradation in spectral resolution, largely because of differences in magnetic susceptibility between the sample and the stationary phase. High-resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) techniques can be used to remove this broadening. Here, we attempt the application of HR-MAS to size-exclusion chromatographic NMR with limited success. Observed diffusion coefficients for polymer molecular weight reference standards are shown to be larger than those obtained on static samples. Further investigation reveals that under HR-MAS it is possible to obtain reasonably accurate estimates of diffusion coefficients, using either full rotor synchronisation or sophisticated pulse sequences. The requirement for restricting the sample to the centre of the MAS rotor to ensure homogeneous magnetic and RF fields is also tested. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. PHF11 promotes DSB resection, ATR signaling, and HR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yi; Handa, Naofumi; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C.; de Lange, Titia

    2017-01-01

    Resection of double-strand breaks (DSBs) plays a critical role in their detection and appropriate repair. The 3′ ssDNA protrusion formed through resection activates the ATR-dependent DNA damage response (DDR) and is required for DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR). Here we report that PHF11 (plant homeodomain finger 11) encodes a previously unknown DDR factor involved in 5′ end resection, ATR signaling, and HR. PHF11 was identified based on its association with deprotected telomeres and localized to sites of DNA damage in S phase. Depletion of PHF11 diminished the ATR signaling response to telomere dysfunction and genome-wide DNA damage, reduced end resection at sites of DNA damage, resulted in compromised HR and misrejoining of S-phase DSBs, and increased the sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. PHF11 interacted with the ssDNA-binding protein RPA and was found in a complex with several nucleases, including the 5′ dsDNA exonuclease EXO1. Biochemical experiments demonstrated that PHF11 stimulates EXO1 by overcoming its inhibition by RPA, suggesting that PHF11 acts (in part) by promoting 5′ end resection at RPA-bound sites of DNA damage. These findings reveal a role for PHF11 in DSB resection, DNA damage signaling, and DSB repair. PMID:28115467

  9. The dynamical structure of HR 8799's inner debris disk

    CERN Document Server

    Contro, Bruna; Horner, Jonti; Marshall, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    The HR 8799 system, with its four giant planets and two debris belts, has an architecture closely mirroring that of our Solar system where the inner, warm asteroid belt and outer, cool Edgeworth-Kuiper belt bracket the giant planets. As such, it is a valuable laboratory for examining exoplanetary dynamics and debris disk-exoplanet interactions. Whilst the outer debris belt of HR 8799 has been well resolved by previous observations, the spatial extent of the inner disk remains unknown. This leaves a significant question mark over both the location of the planetesimals responsible for producing the belt's visible dust and the physical properties of those grains. We have performed the most extensive simulations to date of the inner, unresolved debris belt around HR 8799, using UNSW Australia's Katana supercomputing facility to follow the dynamical evolution of a model inner disk comprising 300,298 particles for a period of 60 million years. These simulations have enabled the characterisation of the extent and st...

  10. PHF11 promotes DSB resection, ATR signaling, and HR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yi; Handa, Naofumi; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C; de Lange, Titia

    2017-01-01

    Resection of double-strand breaks (DSBs) plays a critical role in their detection and appropriate repair. The 3' ssDNA protrusion formed through resection activates the ATR-dependent DNA damage response (DDR) and is required for DSB repair by homologous recombination (HR). Here we report that PHF11 (plant homeodomain finger 11) encodes a previously unknown DDR factor involved in 5' end resection, ATR signaling, and HR. PHF11 was identified based on its association with deprotected telomeres and localized to sites of DNA damage in S phase. Depletion of PHF11 diminished the ATR signaling response to telomere dysfunction and genome-wide DNA damage, reduced end resection at sites of DNA damage, resulted in compromised HR and misrejoining of S-phase DSBs, and increased the sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents. PHF11 interacted with the ssDNA-binding protein RPA and was found in a complex with several nucleases, including the 5' dsDNA exonuclease EXO1. Biochemical experiments demonstrated that PHF11 stimulates EXO1 by overcoming its inhibition by RPA, suggesting that PHF11 acts (in part) by promoting 5' end resection at RPA-bound sites of DNA damage. These findings reveal a role for PHF11 in DSB resection, DNA damage signaling, and DSB repair.

  11. HST/NICMOS detection of HR 8799 b in 1998

    CERN Document Server

    Lafrenière, David; Doyon, René; Barman, Travis

    2009-01-01

    Three planets have been directly imaged around the young star HR 8799. The planets are 5-13 Mjup and orbit the star at projected separations of 24-68 AU. While the initial detection occurred in 2007, two of the planets were recovered in a re-analysis of data obtained in 2004. Here we present a detection of the furthest planet of that system, HR 8799 b, in archival HST/NICMOS data from 1998. The detection was made using the locally-optimized combination of images algorithm to construct, from a large set of HST/NICMOS images of different stars taken from the archive, an optimized reference point-spread function image used to subtract the light of the primary star from the images of HR 8799. This new approach improves the sensitivity to planets at small separations by a factor of ~10 compared to traditional roll deconvolution. The new detection provides an astrometry point 10 years before the most recent observations, and is consistent with a Keplerian circular orbit with a~70 AU and low orbital inclination. The...

  12. Heat Redistribution and Misaligned Orbit Models in PHOEBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Martin; Prsa, Andrej; Conroy, Kyle E.

    2017-01-01

    Reflection and aligned Roche geometry have been long supported in modeling codes that synthesize light and radial velocity curves of eclipsing binary stars. However, recent advances in observational data, mostly in terms of precision and temporal baseline, demonstrated that the assumptions of these two effects are frequently violated. Reflection treatment neglected the energy absorbed by the irradiated star, and Roche geometry assumed aligned vectors of spin and orbital angular momentum. Observations of night- and day-side brightness variation of cooler stellar and substellar companions point to a clear deficiency in treating heat redistribution, and the break in symmetry of the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect points to misaligned stellar spins w.r.t. orbital plane. The framework of existing codes did not allow for revising these effects while keeping the rest of the logic intact, which prompted a complete rewrite of the modeling code PHOEBE (PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs). Here we present the basic considerations and proof-of-concept examples of the revised reflection effect and misaligned spin-orbit support. Reflection has been extended with heat absorption and consequent redistribution, which can be local, longitudinal or global. Misaligned spin-orbit vectors are supported by deriving the equation of the Roche potential that allows misaligned rotational axes and are provided by the corresponding Euler angles. This research is supported by the NSF grant #1517474.

  13. Puromycin induces SUMO and ubiquitin redistribution upon proteasome inhibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Hotaru [Course for Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Saitoh, Hisato, E-mail: hisa@kumamoto-u.ac.jp [Course for Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)

    2016-07-29

    We have previously reported the co-localization of O-propargyl-puromycin (OP-Puro) with SUMO-2/3 and ubiquitin at promyelocytic leukemia-nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) in the presence of the proteasome inhibitor MG132, implying a role for the ubiquitin family in sequestering OP-puromycylated immature polypeptides to the nucleus during impaired proteasome activity. Here, we found that as expected puromycin induced SUMO-1/2/3 accumulation with ubiquitin at multiple nuclear foci in HeLa cells when co-exposed to MG132. Co-administration of puromycin and MG132 also facilitated redistribution of PML and the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase RNF4 concurrently with SUMO-2/3. As removal of the drugs from the medium led to disappearance of the SUMO-2/3-ubiquitin nuclear foci, our findings indicated that nuclear assembly/disassembly of SUMO-2/3 and ubiquitin was pharmacologically manipulable, supporting our previous observation on OP-Puro, which predicted the ubiquitin family function in sequestrating aberrant proteins to the nucleus. -- Highlights: •Puromycin exhibits the O-propargyl-puromycin effect. •Puromycin induces SUMO redistribution upon proteasome inhibition. •Ubiquitin and RNF4 accumulate at PML-nuclear bodies with SUMO-2/3. •The ubiquitin family may function in nuclear sequestration of immature proteins.

  14. Membrane Phospholipid Redistribution in Cytokinesis: A Theoretical Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mei-Wen AN; Wen-Zhou WU; Wei-Yi CHEN

    2005-01-01

    In cell mitosis, cytokinesis is a major deformation process, during which the site of the contractile ring is determined by the biochemical stimulus from asters of the mitotic apparatus, actin and myosin assembly is related to the motion of membrane phospholipids, and local distribution and arrangement of the microfilament cytoskeleton are different at different cytokinesis stages. Based on the Zinemanas-Nir model, a new model is proposed in this study to simulate the entire process by coupling the biochemical stimulus with the mechanical actions. There were three assumptions in this model: the movements of phospholipid proteins are driven by gradients of biochemical stimulus on the membrane surface; the local assembly of actin and myosin filament depends on the amount of phospholipid proteins at the same location;and the surface tension includes membrane tensions due to both the passive deformation of the membrane and the active contraction of actin filament, which is determined by microfilament redistribution and rearrangement. This model could explain the dynamic movement of microfilaments during cytokinesis and predict cell deformation. The calculated results from this model demonstrated that the reorientation of phospholipid proteins and the redistribution and reorientation of microfilaments may play a crucial role in cell division. This model may better represent the cytokinesis process by the introduction of biochemical stimulus.

  15. Solar Atmospheric Magnetic Energy Coupling: Radiative Redistribution Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange, N. Brice; Gendre, Bruce; Morris, David C.; Chesny, David

    2016-07-01

    Essential to many outstanding solar and stellar physics problems is elucidating the dynamic magnetic to radiative energy coupling of their atmospheres. Using three years of Solar Dynamics Observatory's Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and Heliosemic Magnetic Imager data of gross atmospheric feature classes, an investigation of magnetic and radiative energy redistribution is detailed. Self-consistent radiative to temperature distributions, that include magnetic weighting, of each feature class is revealed via utilizing the upper limit of thermodynamic atmospheric conditions provided by Active Region Cores (ARCs). Distinctly interesting is that our radiative energy distributions, though indicative to a linearly coupling with temperature, highlight the manifestation of diffuse ``unorganized" emission at upper transition region -- lower coronal regimes. Results we emphasize as correlating remarkably with emerging evidence for similar dependencies of magnetic energy redistribution efficiency with temperature, i.e., linearly with an embedded diffuse emitting region. We present evidence that our magnetic and radiative energy coupling descriptions are consistent with established universal scaling laws for large solar atmospheric temperature gradients and descriptions to the unresolved emission, as well as their insight to a potential origin of large variability in their previous reports. Finally, our work casts new light on the utility of narrowband observations as ad hoc tools for detailing solar atmospheric thermodynamic profiles, thus, presenting significant provisions to the field of solar and stellar physics, i.e., nature of coronae heating.

  16. Dynamic aspects of soil water availability for isohydric plants: Focus on root hydraulic resistances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, V.; Vanderborght, J.; Draye, X.; Javaux, M.

    2014-11-01

    Soil water availability for plant transpiration is a key concept in agronomy. The objective of this study is to revisit this concept and discuss how it may be affected by processes locally influencing root hydraulic properties. A physical limitation to soil water availability in terms of maximal flow rate available to plant leaves (Qavail) is defined. It is expressed for isohydric plants, in terms of plant-centered variables and properties (the equivalent soil water potential sensed by the plant, ψs eq; the root system equivalent conductance, Krs; and a threshold leaf water potential, ψleaf lim). The resulting limitation to plant transpiration is compared to commonly used empirical stress functions. Similarities suggest that the slope of empirical functions might correspond to the ratio of Krs to the plant potential transpiration rate. The sensitivity of Qavail to local changes of root hydraulic conductances in response to soil matric potential is investigated using model simulations. A decrease of radial conductances when the soil dries induces earlier water stress, but allows maintaining higher night plant water potentials and higher Qavail during the last week of a simulated 1 month drought. In opposition, an increase of radial conductances during soil drying provokes an increase of hydraulic redistribution and Qavail at short term. This study offers a first insight on the effect of dynamic local root hydraulic properties on soil water availability. By better understanding complex interactions between hydraulic processes involved in soil-plant hydrodynamics, better prospects on how root hydraulic traits mitigate plant water stress might be achieved.

  17. High Pressure Hydraulic Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-20

    to 500 0 F. 5 cycles. 5000 F room temperature to 50001F; 45 ______________ Icycles The tesis planned for the distribution system demonstrator were...American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM D412 - Tension Testing of Vulcanized Rubber ASTM D571 - Testing Automotive Hydraulic Brake Hose Society of

  18. Hydraulic fracturing system and method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciezobka, Jordan; Salehi, Iraj

    2017-02-28

    A hydraulic fracturing system and method for enhancing effective permeability of earth formations to increase hydrocarbon production, enhance operation efficiency by reducing fluid entry friction due to tortuosity and perforation, and to open perforations that are either unopened or not effective using traditional techniques, by varying a pump rate and/or a flow rate to a wellbore.

  19. Hydraulic jumps in a channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonn, D.; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of hydraulic jumps with flow predominantly in one direction, created either by confining the flow to a narrow channel with parallel walls or by providing an inflow in the form of a narrow sheet. In the channel flow, we find a linear height profile upstream of the jump as expected...

  20. Hydraulic Fracture Containment in Sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of hydraulic fracturing in soft, high permeability material is considered fundamentally different from that in hard, low permeability rock, where a tensile fracture is created and conventional linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) applies. The fracturing and associated modeling work

  1. Design of hydraulic recuperation unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandourek Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with design and measurement of hydraulic recuperation unit. Recuperation unit consist of radial turbine and axial pump, which are coupled on the same shaft. Speed of shaft with impellers are 6000 1/min. For economic reasons, is design of recuperation unit performed using commercially manufactured propellers.

  2. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  3. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  4. A new linear type hydraulic motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dong; Zhang, Tong; Li, Wenhua; Chen, Xinyang

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes the design of liner type hydraulic motor on the base of inner curved radial piston hydraulic motor. The hydraulic cylinders of the new type motor are in the straight line which will improve the utilization of the axial space and different out power can be supplied by changes the number of cylinders. In this paper, the structure and working principle of the liner type hydraulic motor is introduced.

  5. Landscape evolution by soil redistribution in a Mediterranean agricultural context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampalini, Rossano; Follain, Stéphane; Le Bissonnais, Yves

    2010-05-01

    Soils and landscapes are frequently subjected to rapid evolutions induced by climate changes and humans disturbances. Early, soil scientists had already sought to identify the dynamic interactions between soils and landscapes. Soil redistribution modelling is an appropriate analyse methodology widely utilized (Kirkby, 1985; Van Oost et al., 2000; Van Rompaey et al., 2001; Minasny and McBratney, 1999; Van Oost et al., 2005; Govers et al., 2006) to understand space time evolution in soil and landscape processes at short and medium term. The aims of this research is to develop a model able to simulate soil evolution as affected by soil redistribution processes (e.g. water-erosion processes and mechanical erosion) and to use pedological knowledge acquired from a field study coupled with the present research. The LandSoil model, here proposed, is an event based model, dimensioned for fine spatial [1 m] and medium [10 -100 years] temporal scales, taking into account a detailed representation of the agricultural landscape structure. It is composed of three modules for soil erosion/redistribution: rill erosion (Souchère et al., 2003); interrill erosion (Cerdan et al., 2002); and tillage erosion based on the mechanistic rules developed by Govers et al., 1994. After each rain and tillage event a new topography is evaluated as well as all the geometric landscape parameters. Specificities of the model are: i) long-term landscape analysis and topography balance after each rainfall; ii) evaluation of water erosion and soil mechanistic redistribution (tillage erosion); iii) taking in consideration of the landscape geometry, especially connectivity, as a significant information in describing the landscape and useful in modelling (Landscape structure management and landscape design); and iv) utilisation of various and different climate scenarios thanks to the event based model. Subsequently we apply this model to study the effect of different scenarios of land management and

  6. Therapeutic redistribution of metal ions to treat Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Peter J; Barnham, Kevin J

    2012-09-18

    Currently, therapeutics that modify Alzheimer's disease (AD)are not available. Increasing age is the primary risk factor for AD and due to an aging global population the urgent need for effective therapeutics increases every year. This Account presents the development of an AD treatment strategy that incorporates diverse compounds with a common characteristic: the ability to redistribute metal ions within the brain. Central to cognitive decline in AD is the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) that accumulates in the AD brain. A range of therapeutic strategies have been developed based on the premise that decreasing the brain Aβ burden will attenuate the severity of the disease symptoms. Unfortunately these treatments have failed to show any positive outcomes in large-scale clinical trials, raising many questions regarding whether therapeutics for AD can rely solely on decreasing Aβ levels. An alternate strategy is to target the interaction between Aβ and metal ions using compounds with the potential to redistribute metal ions within the brain. The original rationale for this strategy came from studies showing that metal ions promote Aβ toxicity and aggregation. In initial studies using the prototype metal-chelating compound clioquinol (CQ), CQ prevented Aβ toxicity in vitro, out-competed Aβ for metal ions without affecting the activity of metal-dependent enzymes, and attenuated the rate of cognitive decline in AD subjects in a small phase II clinical trial. All these outcomes were consistent with the original hypothesized mechanism of action for CQ where prevention or reversal of the extracellular Aβ-metal interactions could prevent Aβ toxicity. Soon after the completion of these studies, a new body of work began to suggest that this hypothesized mechanism of action for CQ was simplistic and that other factors were also important for the positive therapeutic outcomes. Perhaps most significantly, it was shown that after CQ sequesters metal ions the neutral CQ

  7. Hydraulic characterization of " Furcraea andina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Velasquez, M. F.; Fallico, C.; Molinari, A.; Santillan, P.; Salazar, M.

    2012-04-01

    The present level of pollution, increasingly involving groundwaters, constitutes a serious risk for environment and human health. Therefore the remediation of saturated and unsaturated soils, removing pollutant materials through innovative and economic bio-remediation techniques is more frequently required. Recent studies on natural fiber development have shown the effectiveness of these fibers for removal of some heavy metals, due to the lignin content in the natural fibers which plays an important role in the adsorption of metal cations (Lee et al., 2004; Troisi et al., 2008; C. Fallico, 2010). In the context of remediation techniques for unsaturated and/or saturated zone, an experimental approach for the hydraulic characterization of the "Furcraea andina" (i.e., Cabuya Blanca) fiber was carried out. This fiber is native to Andean regions and grows easily in wild or cultivated form in the valleys and hillsides of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Fibers of "Furcraea andina" were characterized by experimental tests to determine their hydraulic conductivity or permeability and porosity in order to use this medium for bioremediation of contaminated aquifer exploiting the physical, chemical and microbial capacity of natural fiber in heavy metal adsorption. To evaluate empirically the hydraulic conductivity, laboratory tests were carried out at constant head specifically on the fibers manually extracted. For these tests we used a flow cell (used as permeameter), containing the "Furcraea andina" fibers to be characterized, suitably connected by a tygon pipe to a Marriott's bottle, which had a plastic tube that allow the adjustment of the hydraulic head for different tests to a constant value. By this experiment it was also possible to identify relationships that enable the estimation of permeability as a function of density, i.e. of the compaction degree of the fibers. Our study was carried out for three values of hydraulic head (H), namely 10, 18, and 25 cm and for each

  8. Effects of income redistribution on the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games

    CERN Document Server

    Pei, Zhenhua; Du, Jinming

    2016-01-01

    Income redistribution is the transfer of income from some individuals to others directly or indirectly by means of social mechanisms, such as taxation, public services and so on. Employing a spatial public goods game, we study the influence of income redistribution on the evolution of cooperation. Two kinds of evolutionary models are constructed, which describe local and global redistribution of income respectively. In the local model, players have to pay part of their income after each PGG and the accumulated income is redistributed to the members. While in the global model, all the players pay part of their income after engaging in all the local PGGs, which are centered on himself and his nearest neighbours, and the accumulated income is redistributed to the whole population. We show that the cooperation prospers significantly with increasing income expenditure proportion in the local redistribution of income, while in the global model the situation is opposite. Furthermore, the cooperation drops dramatical...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 25.1435 Section 25.1435... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 25.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Element design. Each element of the hydraulic system must be designed to: (1) Withstand the proof...

  10. 14 CFR 27.1435 - Hydraulic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hydraulic systems. 27.1435 Section 27.1435... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1435 Hydraulic systems. (a) Design. Each hydraulic system and its elements must withstand, without yielding, any structural loads...

  11. Changing Role of HR : A Comparative study of different organization structures in relation to HR & the motivation behind them

    OpenAIRE

    Paphavatana, Pisalvit; Mohiuddin, Md. Fazla

    2011-01-01

    Since its big breakthrough in 1980 starting in America (Bredin, 2008), we see yet another shift from traditional to Strategic Human Resources which were basically about two normative model “best fit” vs. “best practice” and their implication in business organizations (Boxall & Purcell, 2000). Scholars like Ulrich (1997), suggested ways about how Human Resource (HR) could contribute in the search for competitive advantage by advocating new organizational structures and roles such as HRSSC ...

  12. THE IMPACT OF HR MANAGERS’ ROLES ON IMPLEMENTING BEST HR PRACTICES AND ATTRACTING AND RETAINING BEST EMPLOYEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Valentina FLOREA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Today’s organizations are facing new challenges, which require them to make effective decisions in order to solve complex issues. These decisions are generally made at higher levels in the organization’s hierarchical structure, where managers maintain power and control to influence organizational goals, including the behaviors and the attitudes of their subordinates. In this article we will show the importance of having effective managers, especially in HR, who can positively influence attracting intellectual capital and acquire knowledge management, by increasing employees motivation, job satisfaction, performance, and organizational commitment, in order to achieve high levels of productivity and efficiency. Also, we will evaluate the HR managers’ roles in order to obtain performance by managing, controlling, evaluating, analyzing, auditing, forecasting, and integrating effectively knowledge management and intellectual capital in organizations. Our study is made in large organizations from Dambovita County, Romania, and it demonstrates that employees need excellent HR managers to obtain the best from them and to face a changing environment.

  13. Villa HR = Villa HR

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Villa (242 m2) Tallinnas teletorni lähedal. Nappi välisilmet ilmestab targasti valitud akende rütm. Arhitekt Andri Kirsima. Projektbüroo: AB Kirsima ja Niineväli. Sisearhitekt Pille Tael. Valmis: 2007. 2 plaani, 4 värv. välisvaadet, sisevaade

  14. HR4EU--A Web-Portal for E-Learning of Croatian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filko, Matea; Farkaš, Daša; Hriberski, Diana

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the HR4EU--a web portal for e-learning of Croatian. HR4EU is the first portal that offers Croatian language courses which are free-of-charge and developed by language professionals. Moreover, HR4EU also integrates bidirectional interaction with some of the previously developed language resources for Croatian. The HR4EU…

  15. Enhancing HR shared service centers through resource orchestration : uncovering the dynamic capabilities of the administrative expert

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maatman, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Many organizations have introduced transactional HR Shared Service Centers (HR SSCs) that are responsible for supporting the business by providing administrative HR services. Many of these HR SSCs are faced with headcount and cost reduction objectives and therefore unable to respond to the

  16. Enhancing HR shared service centers through resource orchestration : uncovering the dynamic capabilities of the administrative expert

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maatman, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Many organizations have introduced transactional HR Shared Service Centers (HR SSCs) that are responsible for supporting the business by providing administrative HR services. Many of these HR SSCs are faced with headcount and cost reduction objectives and therefore unable to respond to the increasin

  17. Why a well-designed HR shared service provider fails to create end-user value?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, Jeroen Gerard; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Looise, Jan C.

    2011-01-01

    Human resource shared services centres (HR SSCs) are foreseen as improving HR service delivery for their end-users: employees, line managers and decentralized HR professionals. Although the concept expects the benefits of HR SSCs to come from centralizing knowledge and decentralizing the control

  18. Modeling Microgravity Induced Fluid Redistribution Autoregulatory and Hydrostatic Enhancements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, J. G.; Werner, C.; Nelson, E. S.; Feola, A.; Raykin, J.; Samuels, B.; Ethier, C. R.

    2017-01-01

    Space flight induces a marked cephalad (headward) redistribution of blood and interstitial fluid potentially resulting in a loss of venous tone and reduction in heart muscle efficiency upon introduction into the microgravity environment. Using various types of computational models, we are investigating how this fluid redistribution may induce intracranial pressure changes, relevant to reported reductions in astronaut visual acuity, part of the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. Methods: We utilize a lumped parameter cardiovascular system (CVS) model, augmented by compartments comprising the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) space, as the primary tool to describe how microgravity, and the associated lack of hydrostatic gradient, impacts fluid redistribution. Models of ocular fluid pressures and biomechanics then accept the output of the above model as boundary condition input to allow more detailed, local analysis (see IWS Abstract by Ethier et al.). Recently, we enhanced the capabilities our previously reported CVS model through the implementation of robust autoregulatory mechanisms and a more fundamental approach to the implementation of hydrostatic mechanisms. Modifying the approach of Blanco et al., we implemented auto-regulation in a quasi-static manner, as an averaged effect across the span of one heartbeat. This approach reduced the higher frequency perturbations from the regulatory mechanism and was intended to allow longer simulation times (days) than models that implement within-beat regulatory mechanisms (minutes). A more fundamental approach to hydrostatics was implemented by a quasi-1D approach, in which compartment descriptions include compartment length, orientation and relative position, allowed for modeling of body orientation, relative body positioning and, in the future, alternative gravity environments. At this time the inclusion of hydrostatic mechanisms supplies additional capabilities to train and validate the CVS model

  19. Thermal Hydraulic Performance of Tight Lattice Bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yasushi; Akiba, Miyuki; Morooka, Shinichi; Shirakawa, Kenetsu; Abe, Nobuaki

    Recently, the reduced moderation spectrum BWR has been studied. The fast neutron spectrum is obtained through triangular tight lattice fuel. However, there are few thermal hydraulic test data and thermal hydraulic correlation applicable to critical power prediction in such a tight lattice bundle. This study aims to enhance the database of the thermal hydraulic performance of the tight lattice bundle whose rod gap is about 1mm. Therefore, thermal hydraulic performance measurement tests of tight lattice bundles for the critical power, the pressure drop and the counter current flow limiting were performed. Moreover, the correlations to evaluate the thermal-hydraulic performance of the tight lattice bundle were developed.

  20. Design of hydraulic output Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, W. M.; Harvey, A. C.; Lee, K.

    1983-01-01

    A hydraulic output system for the RE-1000 free piston stirling engine (FPSE) was designed. The hydraulic output system can be readily integrated with the existing hot section of RE-1000 FPSE. The system has two simply supported diaphragms which separate the engine gas from the hydraulic fluid, a dynamic balance mechanism, and a novel, null center band hydraulic pump. The diaphragms are designed to endure more than 10 billion cycles, and to withstand the differential pressure load as high as 14 MPa. The projected thermodynamic performance of the hydraulic output version of RE-1000 FPSE is 1.87 kW at 29/7 percent brake efficiency.

  1. Effect on runoff of rainfall redistribution by the impluvium-shaped canopy of banana cultivated on an Andosol with a high infiltration rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattan, P.; Ruy, S. M.; Cabidoche, Y.-M.; Findeling, A.; Desbois, P.; Charlier, J. B.

    2009-04-01

    SummaryRainfall redistribution by plant canopy, notably the water flow down the plant stem (stemflow), modifies the incident rainfall rate at the soil surface and may affect runoff generation. To test this hypothesis, we observed and measured runoff at the plant scale with banana cultivated on tropical Andosol. Observation of runoff by video and matrix potential monitoring showed that, during a runoff event, the matrix potential increased mainly downstream from the pseudostem in line with the slope, delimiting a saturated zone of runoff propagation that appeared on video monitoring. The results indicate that rainfall redistribution by plant canopy, i.e. stemflow and dripping areas, enhances runoff even on soil with a high infiltration rate (mean hydraulic conductivity at saturation Ks of 67 mm h -1). Data analysis of 40 runoff events showed that events were composed of at least two runoff phases characterized by an abrupt increase in runoff coefficient (RC) from 0.16 to 0.65 between the first and the second phase. The change in RC was related to rainfall rate. Also, between the first and the second runoff phase, the apparent infiltration rate at the plot scale decreased from 30 to 10 mm h -1. This was related to an increase in runoff contributing areas (RCA), from an estimated 18% to 93% of the plot surface. However, data analysis and model simulations showed that the increase in mean rainfall rate in RCA due to stemflow was not sufficient to account for large runoff volumes. Hence, one must also take into account the spatial variation of hydraulic conductivity at saturation with low values relative to RCA (estimation for the second runoff phase was 7.6 mm h -1). Moreover, simulation results implied Ks decreases with time. Finally, rainfall redistribution may have an impact at a larger scale. In banana plantations, the hydraulic connectivity of runoff areas can enhance the stemflow effect up to the plot scale. From this point of view, the two-compartment scheme we

  2. 10 MMBt/Hr AFBC Commercial Demonstration Cedar Lane Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harold M. Keener; Mary H. Wicks; Tom Machamer; Dave Hoecke; Don Bonk; Bob Brown

    2005-10-31

    The objective of this project was to demonstrate and promote the commercialization of coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed combustion (AFBC) systems, with limestone addition for SO2 emissions control and a baghouse for particulate emissions control. This AFBC system was targeted for small scale industrial-commercial-institutional space and process heat applications in the 4-40 MMBtu/hr size range. A cost effective and environmentally acceptable AFBC technology in this size range could displace a considerable amount of heating gas and oil with coal, while resulting in significant total cost savings to the owner/operators.

  3. Spatial Segregation, Redistribution and Welfare: A Theoretical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Gabrieli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a theoretical model focusing on the effect that different neighborhood compositions can have on the formation of individual beliefs about economic opportunities. Specifically we highlight two effects that spatial segregation may have: (1 it can efficiently separate the individual effort choices of highly and low productive individuals, (2 it may imply that the median voter imposes a level of redistribution that is inefficient from the aggregate point of view. The trade-off implies that segregated and non-segregated cities may present very similar levels of aggregate welfare. We employ this framework to discuss how the structure of cities can play a role in the determination of US-type and Europe-type politico-economic equilibria and the implications for planning policies.

  4. Landform Erosion and Volatile Redistribution on Ganymede and Callisto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey Morgan; Howard, Alan D.; McKinnon, William B.; Schenk, Paul M.; Wood, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    We have been modeling landscape evolution on the Galilean satellites driven by volatile transport. Our work directly addresses some of the most fundamental issues pertinent to deciphering icy Galilean satellite geologic histories by employing techniques currently at the forefront of terrestrial, martian, and icy satellite landscape evolution studies [e.g., 1-6], including modeling of surface and subsurface energy and volatile exchanges, and computer simulation of long-term landform evolution by a variety of processes. A quantitative understanding of the expression and rates of landform erosion, and of volatile redistribution on landforms, is especially essential in interpreting endogenic landforms that have, in many cases, been significantly modified by erosion [e.g., 7-9].

  5. From microscopic taxation and redistribution models to macroscopic income distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Bertotti, Maria Letizia; 10.1016/j.physa.2011.06.008

    2011-01-01

    We present here a general framework, expressed by a system of nonlinear differential equations, suitable for the modelling of taxation and redistribution in a closed (trading market) society. This framework allows to describe the evolution of the income distribution over the population and to explain the emergence of collective features based on the knowledge of the individual interactions. By making different choices of the framework parameters, we construct different models, whose long-time behavior is then investigated. Asymptotic stationary distributions are found, which enjoy similar properties as those observed in empirical distributions. In particular, they exhibit power law tails of Pareto type and their Lorenz curves and Gini indices are consistent with some real world ones.

  6. Load redistribution considerations in the fracture of ceramic matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David J.; Wetherhold, Robert C.

    1992-01-01

    Using a macroscopic viewpoint, composite laminae are homogeneous orthotropic solids whose directional strengths are random variables. Incorporation of these random variable strengths into failure models, either interactive or noninteractive, allows for the evaluation of the lamina reliability under a given stress state. Using a noninteractive criterion for demonstration purposes, laminate reliabilities are calculated assuming previously established load sharing rules for the redistribution of load as the failure of laminae occur. The matrix cracking predicted by ACK theory is modeled to allow a loss of stiffness in the fiber direction. The subsequent failure in the fiber direction is controlled by a modified bundle theory. Results are compared with previous models which did not permit separate consideration of matrix cracking, as well as to results obtained from experimental data. The effects of variations from the ideal physical geometry which is normally used to depict the matrix cracking are also studied.

  7. Measurement and control of the fast ion redistribution on MAST

    CERN Document Server

    Turnyanskiy, M; Akers, R J; Cecconello, M; Keeling, D L; Kirk, A; Lake, R; Pinches, S D; Sangaroon, S; Wodniak, I

    2013-01-01

    Previous experiments on MAST and other tokamaks have indicated that the level of fast ion redistribution can exceed that expected from classical diffusion and that this level increases with beam power. In this paper we present a quantification of this effect in MAST plasmas using a recently commissioned scanning neutron camera. The observed fast ion diffusivity correlates with the amplitude of n=1 energetic particle modes, indicating that they are the probable cause of the non-classical fast ion diffusion in MAST. Finally, it will be shown that broadening the fast ion pressure profile by the application of neutral beam injection at an off-axis location can mitigate the growth of these modes and result in the classical fast ion behaviour

  8. Charge redistribution from anomalous magneto-vorticity coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    We investigate novel transport phenomena in a chiral fluid originated from an interplay between a vorticity and strong magnetic field, which induces a redistribution of vector charges in the system and an axial current along the magnetic field. The corresponding transport coefficients are obtained from an energy-shift argument for the chiral fermions in the lowest Landau level (LLL) due to a spin-vorticity coupling and also from diagrammatic computations on the basis of the linear response theory. Based on consistent results from the both methods, we observe that the transport coefficients are proportional to the anomaly coefficient and are independence of temperature and chemical potential. We therefore speculate that these transport phenomena are connected to quantum anomaly.

  9. Horizontal flow and capillarity-driven redistribution in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doster, F; Hönig, O; Hilfer, R

    2012-07-01

    A recent macroscopic mixture theory for two-phase immiscible displacement in porous media has introduced percolating and nonpercolating phases. Quasi-analytic solutions are computed and compared to the traditional theory. The solutions illustrate physical insights and effects due to spatiotemporal changes of nonpercolating phases, and they highlight the differences from traditional theory. Two initial and boundary value problems are solved in one spatial dimension. In the first problem a fluid is displaced by another fluid in a horizontal homogeneous porous medium. The displacing fluid is injected with a flow rate that keeps the saturation constant at the injection point. In the second problem a horizontal homogeneous porous medium is considered which is divided into two subdomains with different but constant initial saturations. Capillary forces lead to a redistribution of the fluids. Errors in the literature are reported and corrected.

  10. Creep Stress Redistribution of Single-Lap Weldbonded Joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yong; Chen, Jian-Jun; Tu, Shan-Tung

    2005-01-01

    Weldbonding is a new joining technique that combines the spot welding with the adhesive bonding. It has found more and more applications in recent years because of its unique advantages. However, researches on the new technique are few especially on the long-term stress and strength of weldbonded structures. In the present paper, three-dimensional viscoplastic finite element analyses (FEA) of a single-lap weldbonded joint are conducted to investigate the stress redistribution. The results show that stresses increase obviously near the interface between the adhesive and the weld spot with the creep of adhesive. The adhesive tends to distribute its stresses more uniformly and transfer some loads to the weld spot. The stress concentration factor of weldbonded joint is significantly lower than that of the direct spot-weld in connection. The simulations illustrate that increasing of creep parameter will enhance the maximum stress level in the weld spot.

  11. From microscopic taxation and redistribution models to macroscopic income distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Maria Letizia; Modanese, Giovanni

    2011-10-01

    We present here a general framework, expressed by a system of nonlinear differential equations, suitable for the modeling of taxation and redistribution in a closed society. This framework allows one to describe the evolution of income distribution over the population and to explain the emergence of collective features based on knowledge of the individual interactions. By making different choices of the framework parameters, we construct different models, whose long-time behavior is then investigated. Asymptotic stationary distributions are found, which enjoy similar properties as those observed in empirical distributions. In particular, they exhibit power law tails of Pareto type and their Lorenz curves and Gini indices are consistent with some real world ones.

  12. Kinetic equations modelling wealth redistribution: a comparison of approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düring, Bertram; Matthes, Daniel; Toscani, Giuseppe

    2008-11-01

    Kinetic equations modelling the redistribution of wealth in simple market economies is one of the major topics in the field of econophysics. We present a unifying approach to the qualitative study for a large variety of such models, which is based on a moment analysis in the related homogeneous Boltzmann equation, and on the use of suitable metrics for probability measures. In consequence, we are able to classify the most important feature of the steady wealth distribution, namely the fatness of the Pareto tail, and the dynamical stability of the latter in terms of the model parameters. Our results apply, e.g., to the market model with risky investments [S. Cordier, L. Pareschi, and G. Toscani, J. Stat. Phys. 120, 253 (2005)], and to the model with quenched saving propensities [A. Chatterjee, B. K. Chakrabarti, and S. S. Manna, Physica A 335, 155 (2004)]. Also, we present results from numerical experiments that confirm the theoretical predictions.

  13. Geographical redistribution of radionuclides in forest and wetland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tjaernhage, Aasa; Plamboeck, Agnetha; Nylen, Torbjoern; Lidstroem, Kenneth; Aagren, Goeran; Lindgren, Jonas

    2000-12-01

    This report summarizes the results from a survey concerning the presence of caesium-137 in soil in two different areas, Verkmyraan in Gaestrikland and Nyaenget in Vaesterbotten. This has been done with a portable NaI gamma spectrometer connected to a GPS, called back pack. Soil samples have also been taken in the two areas to compare the results from these with the back pack measurements. The results from a survey of Cesium-137 1989 in Nyaenget has also been included to see if there has been a redistribution of Cs-137 in the area in the last ten years. At Verkmyraan there is an increase in Cs-137 deposition at the lower part of the catchment which probably depends on a transport of Cs-137 to the outflow. In Nyaenget the results show a possible levelling of the Cs-137 activity between the different soil types, but to verify that, more soil samples must be taken and analysed.

  14. A modelling study of moisture redistribution by thin cirrus clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dinh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A high resolution 2-dimensional numerical model is used to study the moisture redistribution following homogeneous ice nucleation induced by Kelvin waves in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL. We compare results for dry/moist initial conditions, and three levels of complexity for the representation of cloud processes: full bin microphysics and radiative effects of the ice, ditto but without radiative effects, and instantaneous removal of moisture in excess of saturation upon nucleation. Cloud evolution and the profiles of moisture redistribution are found to be sensitive to initial conditions and cloud processes. Ice sedimentation leads to a downward flux of water. On the other hand, the cloud radiative heating induces upward advection of the cloudy air. This results in an upward flux of water vapour if the cloudy air is moister (or drier than the environment, which is typically when the environment is subsaturated (or supersaturated. The numerical results show that only a small fraction (less than 25% of the cloud experiences nucleation. Sedimentation and reevaporation are important, and hydrated layers in observation may be as good an indicator as dehydrated layers for the occurrence of thin cirrus clouds. The calculation with instantaneous removal of condensates misses the hydration by construction, but also underestimates dehydration due to lack of moisture removal from sedimenting particles below the nucleation level, and due to nucleation before reaching the minimum saturation mixing ratio. The sensitivity to initial conditions and cloud processes suggests that it is difficult to reach generic, quantitative conclusions regarding the role of thin cirrus clouds for the moisture distribution in the TTL and stratosphere.

  15. Hydraulic fracture during epithelial stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares, Laura; Vincent, Romaric; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Campillo, Noelia; Navajas, Daniel; Arroyo, Marino; Trepat, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    The origin of fracture in epithelial cell sheets subject to stretch is commonly attributed to excess tension in the cells’ cytoskeleton, in the plasma membrane, or in cell-cell contacts. Here, we demonstrate that for a variety of synthetic and physiological hydrogel substrates the formation of epithelial cracks is caused by tissue stretching independently of epithelial tension. We show that the origin of the cracks is hydraulic; they result from a transient pressure build-up in the substrate during stretch and compression manoeuvres. After pressure equilibration, cracks heal readily through actomyosin-dependent mechanisms. The observed phenomenology is captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which predicts the size and healing dynamics of epithelial cracks as a function of the stiffness, geometry and composition of the hydrogel substrate. Our findings demonstrate that epithelial integrity is determined in a tension-independent manner by the coupling between tissue stretching and matrix hydraulics.

  16. The 25 kWe solar thermal Stirling hydraulic engine system: Conceptual design

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Maurice; Emigh, Grant; Noble, Jack; Riggle, Peter; Sorenson, Torvald

    1988-01-01

    The conceptual design and analysis of a solar thermal free-piston Stirling hydraulic engine system designed to deliver 25 kWe when coupled to a 11 meter test bed concentrator is documented. A manufacturing cost assessment for 10,000 units per year was made. The design meets all program objectives including a 60,000 hr design life, dynamic balancing, fully automated control, more than 33.3 percent overall system efficiency, properly conditioned power, maximum utilization of annualized insolation, and projected production costs. The system incorporates a simple, rugged, reliable pool boiler reflux heat pipe to transfer heat from the solar receiver to the Stirling engine. The free-piston engine produces high pressure hydraulic flow which powers a commercial hydraulic motor that, in turn, drives a commercial rotary induction generator. The Stirling hydraulic engine uses hermetic bellows seals to separate helium working gas from hydraulic fluid which provides hydrodynamic lubrication to all moving parts. Maximum utilization of highly refined, field proven commercial components for electric power generation minimizes development cost and risk.

  17. Bio-based Hydraulic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-17

    currently formulated with vegetable oils (i.e., rapeseed , sun flower, corn, soybean, canola, coconut, etc.) and synthetic ester, such as polyol ester...2008 Vegetable Oil • Excellent lubrication • Nontoxic • Biodegradable • Derived from renewable resources such as rapeseed , sunflower, corn...Mineral Oil 100 SAE 15W-40 G Rapeseed 32 Commercial HF H Polyol ester 22 MIL-PRF-32073 Grade 2 I Canola - Cooking Oil *Hydraulic fluid 3717 April

  18. Fire Resistant Aircraft Hydraulic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    and compounds based on new experimental elastomers as well as most commercially available elastomers were screened in seeking seals that were both...for hydraulic component testing. All of the available E6.5 stock was purchased for the screening tests. However, DuPont stated that other homologs of...with the lubricity and anti-wear additive olyvan A (molybdenum oxysulphide dithiocarbamate ) added in the quantity of less than one percent by weight

  19. 41 CFR 101-25.104-1 - Redistribution, repair, or rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., or rehabilitation. 101-25.104-1 Section 101-25.104-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.104-1 Redistribution, repair, or rehabilitation. Prior to the... through redistribution, repair, or rehabilitation of already owned furniture and office machines....

  20. A little fairness may induce a lot of redistribution in democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyran, Jean-Robert; Sausgruber, Rupert

    2006-01-01

    We use a model of self-centered inequality aversion suggested by Fehr and Schmidt (Quart. J. Econom. 114 (3) (1999) 817) to study voting on redistribution. We theoretically identify two classes of conditions when an empirically plausible amount of fairness preferences induces redistribution through...

  1. Managing consequences of climate-driven species redistribution requires integration of ecology, conservation and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonebrake, Timothy C; Brown, Christopher J; Bell, Johann D; Blanchard, Julia L; Chauvenet, Alienor; Champion, Curtis; Chen, I-Ching; Clark, Timothy D; Colwell, Robert K; Danielsen, Finn; Dell, Anthony I; Donelson, Jennifer M; Evengård, Birgitta; Ferrier, Simon; Frusher, Stewart; Garcia, Raquel A; Griffis, Roger B; Hobday, Alistair J; Jarzyna, Marta A; Lee, Emma; Lenoir, Jonathan; Linnetved, Hlif; Martin, Victoria Y; McCormack, Phillipa C; McDonald, Jan; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Mitchell, Nicola; Mustonen, Tero; Pandolfi, John M; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Possingham, Hugh; Pulsifer, Peter; Reynolds, Mark; Scheffers, Brett R; Sorte, Cascade J B; Strugnell, Jan M; Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Twiname, Samantha; Vergés, Adriana; Villanueva, Cecilia; Wapstra, Erik; Wernberg, Thomas; Pecl, Gretta T

    2017-06-01

    Climate change is driving a pervasive global redistribution of the planet's species. Species redistribution poses new questions for the study of ecosystems, conservation science and human societies that require a coordinated and integrated approach. Here we review recent progress, key gaps and strategic directions in this nascent research area, emphasising emerging themes in species redistribution biology, the importance of understanding underlying drivers and the need to anticipate novel outcomes of changes in species ranges. We highlight that species redistribution has manifest implications across multiple temporal and spatial scales and from genes to ecosystems. Understanding range shifts from ecological, physiological, genetic and biogeographical perspectives is essential for informing changing paradigms in conservation science and for designing conservation strategies that incorporate changing population connectivity and advance adaptation to climate change. Species redistributions present challenges for human well-being, environmental management and sustainable development. By synthesising recent approaches, theories and tools, our review establishes an interdisciplinary foundation for the development of future research on species redistribution. Specifically, we demonstrate how ecological, conservation and social research on species redistribution can best be achieved by working across disciplinary boundaries to develop and implement solutions to climate change challenges. Future studies should therefore integrate existing and complementary scientific frameworks while incorporating social science and human-centred approaches. Finally, we emphasise that the best science will not be useful unless more scientists engage with managers, policy makers and the public to develop responsible and socially acceptable options for the global challenges arising from species redistributions. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  2. Horizontal one-dimensional redistribution of oil and water with hysteresis due to oil entrapment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.I.J. van Dijke; S.E.A.T.M. van der Zee

    1998-01-01

    textabstractRedistribution of oil and water in a long horizontal column, including oil entrapment by water, is described by a nonlinear diffusion problem with a spatially varying diffusion coefficient. This problem admits a similarity solution that was found previously for redistribution of water

  3. Business Groups and Profit Redistribution : A Boon or Bane for Firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, R.; Kabir, M.R.; Douma, S.W.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates how profit redistribution affects the performance of firms affiliated to business groups.It shows that inefficient profit redistribution causes group-affiliated firms to perform poorly relative to independent firms.This underperformance persists even after controlling for oth

  4. Team and teamwork in modern european HR management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usheva Mariana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the major issues occurring in every contemporary organization is the issue of the efficiency of work and obtaining maximum results from work done. Most often when the issue of increasing the efficiency of work is laid the question of teams and teamwork in various projectя of the company comes to the foreground and frequently no proper differentiation is made between a “group of people” and a “team” and this brings to a large number of misunderstandings of managers and employees with regard to the designation and benefits of team organization of work. There are clear traceable differences between the perception of the concept of “team” and the implementation of teamwork by European and Bulgarian companies and it is good to make the differentiation between them with a view to the HR management.

  5. Ultraviolet and radio flares from UX Arietis and HR 1099

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kenneth R.; Willson, Robert F.

    1988-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of the RS CVn systems UX Ari and HR 1099 with the IUE satellite and the VLA are presented. Flaring activity is observed at ultraviolet wavelengths with the IUE when none is detected at radio wavelengths with the VLA. Radio flares with no detectable ultraviolet activity have also been observed. Thus, flares in the two spectral regions are either uncorrelated or weakly correlated. The flaring emission probably originates in different regions at the two wavelengths. Radio flares from RS CVn stars may originate in sources that are larger than, or comparable to, a star in size. This is in sharp contrast to compact, coherent radio flares from dwarf M stars. The ultraviolet flares from RS CVn stars probably originate in sources that are smaller than a component star.

  6. The double-lined spectroscopic binary hr 6046

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Scarfe

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available HR 6046 se conoce desde hace mucho como una binaria espectrosc opica de una l nea, cuya primaria es de tipo K tard o. El largo per odo (de m as de seis a~nos y el alto valor de la funci on de masa han motivado varios intentos, hasta ahora fallidos, para resolver interferom etricamente el sistema. Sin embargo, hemos detectado espectrosc opicamente a la secundaria, y presentamos aqu los elementos orbitales espectrosc opicos. La secundaria tiene una masa casi igual a la de la primaria, pese a que es mucho m as d ebil. La comparaci on con espectros est andar para tipos tard os sugiere que tambi en la secundaria es una estrella evolucionada.

  7. Multiple Stars Across the H-R Diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Hubrig, Swetlana; Tokovinin, Andrei; Proceedings of the ESO Workshop held in Garching, Germany, 12-15 July 2005

    2008-01-01

    Stars show a marked tendency to be in systems of different multiplicity, ranging from simple binaries and triples to globular clusters with several 10,000's of stars. The formation and evolution of multiple systems remains a challenging part of astrophysics, and the contributions in this book report on the significant progress that had been made in this research field in the last years. The reader will find a variety of research topics addressed, such as the dynamical evolution in multiple stars, the effects of the environment on multiple system parameters, stellar evolution within multiple stars, multiplicity of massive stars, pre-main sequence and intermediate mass stars, multiplicity of low-mass stars from embedded protostars to open clusters, and brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets in multiples. This book presents the proceedings of the ESO Workshop on Multiple Stars across the H-R Diagram held in the summer of 2005.

  8. Direct imaging of multiple planets orbiting the star HR 8799

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marois, C; Macintosh, B; Barman, T; Zuckerman, B; Song, I; Patience, J; Lafreniere, D; Doyon, R

    2008-10-14

    Direct imaging of exoplanetary systems is a powerful technique that can reveal Jupiter-like planets in wide orbits, can enable detailed characterization of planetary atmospheres, and is a key step towards imaging Earth-like planets. Imaging detections are challenging due to the combined effect of small angular separation and large luminosity contrast between a planet and its host star. High-contrast observations with the Keck and Gemini telescopes have revealed three planets orbiting the star HR 8799, with projected separations of 24, 38, and 68 astronomical units. Multi-epoch data show counter-clockwise orbital motion for all three imaged planets. The low luminosity of the companions and the estimated age of the system imply planetary masses between 5 and 13 times that of Jupiter. This system resembles a scaled-up version of the outer portion of our Solar System.

  9. Induction of Hyperalgesia in Pigs through Blocking Low Hydraulic Resistance Channels and Reduction of the Resistance through Acupuncture: A Mechanism of Action of Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bo Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the classic theory of Chinese medicine, pain is due to the blockage in meridian channels, and acupuncture was invented to treat pain by “dredging” the channels. To test the theory, a hyperalgesia model was made by injecting hydrogel into low hydraulic resistance channel (LHRC in 12 anaesthetized minipigs. Tail-flick threshold and ear-flick threshold were measured using a thermal radiation dolorimeter, and relative flick threshold (RFT was calculated. Hydraulic resistance (HR was measured with a biological HR measuring instrument on low HR points on LHRC and on control points with higher HR located outside LHRC; readings were recorded before, during, and after acupuncture treatment. RFT decreased after blocking the LRHC and was still significantly decreased 2 days and 4 days afterwards. No significant changes occurred when injecting saline into the same points or injecting gel into points outside the channel. Subsequent acupuncture reduced HR on LRHC along meridians but had no significant effect on sites with higher HR located outside LHRC. One of the mechanisms of action of acupuncture treatment for chronic pain may be that acupuncture affects peripheral tissue by reducing the HR in LHRC along meridians, improving the flow of interstitial fluid and removing algogenic substances and thereby relieving pain.

  10. MASSES, RADII, AND CLOUD PROPERTIES OF THE HR 8799 PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marley, Mark S. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS-245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Saumon, Didier [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mail Stop F663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Cushing, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Ackerman, Andrew S. [NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, 2880 Broadway, New York, NY 10025 (United States); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Freedman, Richard, E-mail: Mark.S.Marley@NASA.gov, E-mail: dsaumon@lanl.gov, E-mail: michael.cushing@utoledo.edu, E-mail: andrew.ackerman@nasa.gov, E-mail: jfortney@ucolick.org, E-mail: freedman@darkstar.arc.nasa.gov [SETI Institute and NASA Ames Research Center, MS-245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The near-infrared colors of the planets directly imaged around the A star HR 8799 are much redder than most field brown dwarfs of the same effective temperature. Previous theoretical studies of these objects have concluded that the atmospheres of planets b, c, and d are unusually cloudy or have unusual cloud properties. Some studies have also found that the inferred radii of some or all of the planets disagree with expectations of standard giant planet evolution models. Here, we compare the available data to the predictions of our own set of atmospheric and evolution models that have been extensively tested against observations of field L and T dwarfs, including the reddest L dwarfs. Unlike some previous studies, we require mutually consistent choices for effective temperature, gravity, cloud properties, and planetary radius. This procedure thus yields plausible values for the masses, effective temperatures, and cloud properties of all three planets. We find that the cloud properties of the HR 8799 planets are not unusual but rather follow previously recognized trends, including a gravity dependence on the temperature of the L to T spectral transition-some reasons for which we discuss. We find that the inferred mass of planet b is highly sensitive to whether or not we include the H- and the K-band spectrum in our analysis. Solutions for planets c and d are consistent with the generally accepted constraints on the age of the primary star and orbital dynamics. We also confirm that, like in L and T dwarfs and solar system giant planets, non-equilibrium chemistry driven by atmospheric mixing is also important for these objects. Given the preponderance of data suggesting that the L to T spectral type transition is gravity dependent, we present an exploratory evolution calculation that accounts for this effect. Finally we recompute the bolometric luminosity of all three planets.

  11. Bringing human resources to the table: utilization of an HR balanced scorecard at Mayo Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fottler, Myron D; Erickson, Eric; Rivers, Patrick A

    2006-01-01

    Rather than viewing HR as a critical driver of organizational strategy and outcomes, most health care organizations see HR as a drain on the organization's bottom line. Only by aligning HR with the organizational strategy will HR leaders truly get a seat at the leadership table. HR professionals can overcome impediments and gain a seat at the table by learning the language of business and the ways in which organizational leaders use data to drive their decisions. This article shows how Mayo Clinic uses the popular Balanced Scorecard approach to align its measures of HR performance to the organization's strategic plan.

  12. Vibrations of hydraulic pump and their solution

    OpenAIRE

    Dobšáková Lenka; Nováková Naděžda; Habán Vladimír; Hudec Martin; Jandourek Pavel

    2017-01-01

    The vibrations of hydraulic pump and connected pipeline system are very problematic and often hardly soluble. The high pressure pulsations of hydraulic pump with the double suction inlet are investigated. For that reason the static pressure and accelerations are measured. The numerical simulations are carried out in order to correlate computed data with experimental ones and assess the main source of vibrations. Consequently the design optimization of the inner hydraulic part of pump is done ...

  13. Hydraulically Driven Grips For Hot Tensile Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, R. Keith; Johnson, George W.

    1994-01-01

    Pair of grips for tensile and compressive test specimens operate at temperatures up to 1,500 degrees F. Grips include wedges holding specimen inside furnace, where heated to uniform temperature. Hydraulic pistons drive wedges, causing them to exert clamping force. Hydraulic pistons and hydraulic fluid remain outside furnace, at room temperature. Cooling water flows through parts of grips to reduce heat transferred to external components. Advantages over older devices for gripping specimens in high-temperature tests; no need to drill holes in specimens, maintains constant gripping force on specimens, and heated to same temperature as that of specimen without risk of heating hydraulic fluid and acuator components.

  14. Climate velocity and the future global redistribution of marine biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Molinos, Jorge; Halpern, Benjamin S.; Schoeman, David S.; Brown, Christopher J.; Kiessling, Wolfgang; Moore, Pippa J.; Pandolfi, John M.; Poloczanska, Elvira S.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Burrows, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Anticipating the effect of climate change on biodiversity, in particular on changes in community composition, is crucial for adaptive ecosystem management but remains a critical knowledge gap. Here, we use climate velocity trajectories, together with information on thermal tolerances and habitat preferences, to project changes in global patterns of marine species richness and community composition under IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5. Our simple, intuitive approach emphasizes climate connectivity, and enables us to model over 12 times as many species as previous studies. We find that range expansions prevail over contractions for both RCPs up to 2100, producing a net local increase in richness globally, and temporal changes in composition, driven by the redistribution rather than the loss of diversity. Conversely, widespread invasions homogenize present-day communities across multiple regions. High extirpation rates are expected regionally (for example, Indo-Pacific), particularly under RCP8.5, leading to strong decreases in richness and the anticipated formation of no-analogue communities where invasions are common. The spatial congruence of these patterns with contemporary human impacts highlights potential areas of future conservation concern. These results strongly suggest that the millennial stability of current global marine diversity patterns, against which conservation plans are assessed, will change rapidly over the course of the century in response to ocean warming.

  15. Terrestrial vegetation redistribution and carbon balance under climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbrecht Tim

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs compute the terrestrial carbon balance as well as the transient spatial distribution of vegetation. We study two scenarios of moderate and strong climate change (2.9 K and 5.3 K temperature increase over present to investigate the spatial redistribution of major vegetation types and their carbon balance in the year 2100. Results The world's land vegetation will be more deciduous than at present, and contain about 125 billion tons of additional carbon. While a recession of the boreal forest is simulated in some areas, along with a general expansion to the north, we do not observe a reported collapse of the central Amazonian rain forest. Rather, a decrease of biomass and a change of vegetation type occurs in its northeastern part. The ability of the terrestrial biosphere to sequester carbon from the atmosphere declines strongly in the second half of the 21st century. Conclusion Climate change will cause widespread shifts in the distribution of major vegetation functional types on all continents by the year 2100.

  16. Emission redistribution from a quantum dot-bowtie nanoantenna

    CERN Document Server

    Regler, A; Lyamkina, A; Spiegl, M; Müller, K; Vuckovic, J; Finley, J J; Kaniber, M

    2016-01-01

    We present a combined experimental and simulation study of a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot coupled to a nearby ($\\sim 25nm$) plasmonic antenna. Micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy shows a $\\sim 2.4\\times$ increase of intensity, which is attributed to spatial far-field redistribution of the emission from the quantum dot-antenna system. Power-dependent studies show similar saturation powers of $2.5\\mu W$ for both coupled and uncoupled quantum dot emission in polarization-resolved measurements. Moreover, time-resolved spectroscopy reveals the absence of Purcell-enhancement of the quantum dot coupled to the antenna as compared to an uncoupled dot, yielding comparable exciton lifetimes of $\\tau\\sim0.5ns$. This observation is supported by numerical simulations, suggesting only minor Purcell-effects of $25nm$. The observed increased emission from a coupled quantum dot-plasmonic antenna system is found to be in good qualitative agreement with numerical simulations and will lead to a better understanding o...

  17. Lead sequestration and species redistribution during soil organic matter decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroth, A.W.; Bostick, B.C.; Kaste, J.M.; Friedland, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The turnover of soil organic matter (SOM) maintains a dynamic chemical environment in the forest floor that can impact metal speciation on relatively short timescales. Here we measure the speciation of Pb in controlled and natural organic (O) soil horizons to quantify changes in metal partitioning during SOM decomposition in different forest litters. We provide a link between the sequestration of pollutant Pb in O-horizons, estimated by forest floor Pb inventories, and speciation using synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. When Pb was introduced to fresh forest Oi samples, it adsorbed primarily to SOM surfaces, but as decomposition progressed over two years in controlled experiments, up to 60% of the Pb was redistributed to pedogenic birnessite and ferrihydrite surfaces. In addition, a significant fraction of pollutant Pb in natural soil profiles was associated with similar mineral phases (???20-35%) and SOM (???65-80%). Conifer forests have at least 2-fold higher Pb burdens in the forest floor relative to deciduous forests due to more efficient atmospheric scavenging and slower organic matter turnover. We demonstrate that pedogenic minerals play an important role in surface soil Pb sequestration, particularly in deciduous forests, and should be considered in any assessment of pollutant Pb mobility. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  18. NK cell subset redistribution during the course of viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico eLugli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells are important effectors of innate immunity that play a critical role in the control of human viral infections. Indeed, given their capability to directly recognize virally infected cells without the need of specific antigen presentation, NK cells are on the first line of defense against these invading pathogens. By establishing cellular networks with a variety of cell types such as dendritic cells, NK cells can also amplify anti-viral adaptive immune responses. In turn, viruses evolved and developed several mechanisms to evade NK cell-mediated immune activity. It has been reported that certain viral diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 as well as cytomegalovirus (CMV infections, are associated with a pathologic redistribution of NK cell subsets in the peripheral blood. In particular, it has been observed the expansion of unconventional CD56neg NK cells, whose effector functions are significantly impaired as compared to that of conventional CD56pos NK cells. In this review, we address the impact of chronic viral infections on the functional and phenotypic perturbations of human NK cell compartment.

  19. Emission redistribution from a quantum dot-bowtie nanoantenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regler, Armin; Schraml, Konrad; Lyamkina, Anna A.; Spiegl, Matthias; Müller, Kai; Vuckovic, Jelena; Finley, Jonathan J.; Kaniber, Michael

    2016-07-01

    We present a combined experimental and simulation study of a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot coupled to a nearby (˜25 nm) plasmonic antenna. Microphotoluminescence spectroscopy shows a ˜2.4× increase of intensity, which is attributed to spatial far-field redistribution of the emission from the quantum dot-antenna system. Power-dependent studies show similar saturation powers of 2.5 μW for both coupled and uncoupled quantum dot emission in polarization-resolved measurements. Moreover, time-resolved spectroscopy reveals the absence of Purcell enhancement of the quantum dot coupled to the antenna as compared with an uncoupled dot, yielding comparable exciton lifetimes of τ˜0.5 ns. This observation is supported by numerical simulations, suggesting only minor Purcell-effects of antenna separations >25 nm. The observed increased emission from a coupled quantum dot-plasmonic antenna system is found to be in good qualitative agreement with numerical simulations and will lead to a better understanding of light-matter coupling in such semiconductor-plasmonic hybrid systems.

  20. "Redistribution" Effect of Lumpy Zone for Gas Flow in BF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The gas flow from tuyere to raceway zone by blasting involves three distributional zones, such as dripping,cohesive, and lumpy zone. The gas flow distribution in lumpy zone directly affects the gas utilization ration and smooth operation in the blast furnace. However, the furnace closeness brings about great difficulty in the study of high-temperature gas flow. The charging and blasting system affecting the gas flow and whether the top gas flow distribution could reflect its inner condition as well as the furnace state, such as hanging or scaffolding, which have become the main problems for the research on gas flow. Recently, several researches overseas studied gas flow distribution using the numerical simulation method; however, such a research was rare amongst the natives. In this study, the flow model of gas in cohesive and lumpy zone was established using the numerical simulation software and the gas flow distributions with uniform distribution of burden permeability, scaffolding of wall, and nonuniform charge level were analyzed. As a result, the effects of cohesive zone and lower parts on the gas flow are very limited and the charge level largely affects the distribution of top gas flow. Therefore, it was found that the distribution of top gas flow could hardly reflect the inner gas flow. The process is called "redistribution" effect, which means that the gas flow after passing through the raceway, dripping, and cohesive zone is distributed when it flows into the lumpy zone.

  1. Managing fleet capacity effectively under second-hand market redistribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillérou, Emmanuelle; Roudaut, Nolwenn; Guyader, Olivier

    2013-09-01

    Fishing capacity management policies have been traditionally implemented at national level with national targets for capacity reduction. More recently, capacity management policies have increasingly targeted specific fisheries. French fisheries spatially vary along the French coastline and are associated to specific regions. Capacity management policies, however, ignore the capital mobility associated with second-hand vessel trade between regions. This is not an issue for national policies but could limit the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies. A gravity model and a random-effect Poisson regression model are used to analyze the determinants and spatial extent of the second-hand market in France. This study is based on panel data from the French Atlantic Ocean between 1992 and 2009. The trade flows between trading partners is found to increase with their sizes and to be spatially concentrated. Despite the low trade flows between regions, a net impact analysis shows that fishing capacity is redistributed by the second-hand market to regions on the Channel and Aquitaine from central regions. National capacity management policies (constructions/destructions) have induced a net decrease in regional fleet capacity with varying magnitude across regions. Unless there is a change of policy instruments or their scale of implementation, the operation of the second-hand market decreases the effectiveness of regional capacity management policies in regions on the Channel and Aquitaine.

  2. Design and Analysis of Hydraulic Chassis with Obstacle Avoidance Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yingjie; Zhang, Xiang

    2017-07-01

    This article mainly expounds the design of hydraulic system for the hydraulic chassis with obstacle avoidance function. Including the selection of hydraulic motor wheels, hydraulic pump, digital hydraulic cylinder and the matching of engine power. And briefly introduces the principle of obstacle avoidance.

  3. Effect of fuel pin ballooning on the sub-channel thermal hydraulics during small break loca for Indian PHWRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, D.; Behera, G.H.; Bandopadhyay, S.K.; Gupta, S.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Div. Reactor Safety, Bombay (India)

    2001-07-01

    Effect of fuel pin ballooning on the subchannel thermal-hydraulics during a small break (0.25%) located at the Reactor Inlet Feeder (RIF) has been studied for Indian PHWRs. The break leads to a low flow situation in the affected reactor channel along with delayed reactor trip. Higher power to flow ratio in the inner subchannels in comparison to outer subchannel of a 19 pin fuel bundle causes early 2-phase condition causing the flow to by pass from the inner ones to outer ones. This causes the fuel pins to experience different temperatures. Fuel pin ballooning causes reduction in the subchannel areas and further flow redistribution takes place. The transient subchannel thermal-hydraulic conditions along the reactor channel are very much different due to the power distribution and pressure drop. (authors)

  4. HR Contribution to IT Innovation Implementation: Results of Three Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarouk, Tatiana; Looise, Jan C.

    2005-01-01

    The theoretical and empirical investigation of information technologies (IT) innovation implementations reveals that they lack conceptual and practical support from HRM professionals. The HRM practices undertaken by HR professionals are not even discussed. We argue that HR departments should

  5. HR Contribution to IT Innovation Implementation: Results of Three Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarouk, T.V.; Looise, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The theoretical and empirical investigation of information technologies (IT) innovation implementations reveals that they lack conceptual and practical support from HRM professionals. The HRM practices undertaken by HR professionals are not even discussed. We argue that HR departments should contrib

  6. Redistribution of mobile surface charges of an oil droplet in water in applied electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengqi; Li, Dongqing

    2016-10-01

    Most researches on oil droplets immersed in aqueous solutions assume that the surface charges of oil droplets are, similar to that of solid particles, immobile and distributed uniformly under external electric field. However, the surface charges at the liquid-liquid interface are mobile and will redistribute under external electric field. This paper studies the redistribution of surface charges on an oil droplet under the influence of the external electrical field. Analytical expressions of the local zeta potential on the surface of an oil droplet after the charge redistribution in a uniform electrical field were derived. The effects of the initial zeta potential, droplet radius and strength of applied electric field on the surface charge redistribution were studied. In analogy to the mobile surface charges, the redistribution of Al2O3-passivated aluminum nanoparticles on the oil droplet surface was observed under applied electrical field. Experimental results showed that these nanoparticles moved and accumulated towards one side of the oil droplet under electric field. The redistribution of the nanoparticles is in qualitative agreement with the redistribution model of the mobile surface charges developed in this work.

  7. Repeatability and reproducibility of corneal thickness using SOCT Copernicus HR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Silvia; Viqueira, Valentín; Mas, David; Domenech, Begoña

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the reliability of corneal thickness measurements derived from SOCT Copernicus HR (Fourier domain OCT). Thirty healthy eyes of 30 subjects were evaluated. One eye of each patient was chosen randomly. Images were obtained of the central (up to 2.0 mm from the corneal apex) and paracentral (2.0 to 4.0 mm) cornea. We assessed corneal thickness (central and paracentral) and epithelium thickness. The intra-observer repeatability data were analysed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for a range of 95 per cent within-subject standard deviation (S(W)) and the within-subject coefficient of variation (C(W)). The level of agreement by Bland-Altman analysis was also represented for the study of the reproducibility between observers and agreement between methods of measurement (automatic versus manual). The mean value of the central corneal thickness (CCT) was 542.4 ± 30.1 μm (SD). There was a high intra-observer agreement, finding the best result in the central sector with an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.99, 95 per cent CI (0.989 to 0.997) and the worst, in the minimum corneal thickness, with an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.672, 95 per cent CI (0.417 to 0.829). Reproducibility between observers was very high. The best result was found in the central sector thickness obtained both manually and automatically with an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.990 in both cases and the worst result in the maximum corneal thickness with an intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.827. The agreement between measurement methods was also very high with intra-class correlation coefficient greater than 0.91. On the other hand the repeatability and reproducibility for epithelial measurements was poor. Pachymetric mapping with SOCT Copernicus HR was found to be highly repeatable and reproducible. We found that the device lacks an appropriate ergonomic design as proper focusing of the laser beam onto the

  8. Masses, Radii, and Cloud Properties of the HR 8799 Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier; Cushing, Michael; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Freedman, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The near-infrared colors of the planets directly imaged around the A star HR 8799 are much redder than most field brown dwarfs of the same effective temperature. Previous theoretical studies of these objects have compared the photometric and limited spectral data of the planets to the predictions of various atmosphere and evolution models and concluded that the atmospheres of planets b, c, and d are unusually cloudy or have unusual cloud properties. Most studies have also found that the inferred radii of some or all of the planets disagree with expectations of standard giant planet evolution models. Here we compare the available data to the predictions of our own set of atmospheric and evolution models that have been extensively tested against field L and T dwarfs, including the reddest L dwarfs. Unlike almost all previous studies we specify mutually self-consistent choices for effective temperature, gravity, cloud properties, and planetary radius. This procedure yields plausible and self-consistent values for the masses, effective temperatures, and cloud properties of all three planets. We find that the cloud properties of the HR 8799 planets are in fact not unusual but rather follow previously recognized trends including a gravity dependence on the temperature of the L to T spectral transition, some reasons for which we discuss. We find that the inferred mass of planet b is highly sensitive to the H and K band spectrum. Solutions for planets c and particularly d are less certain but are consistent with the generally accepted constraints on the age of the primary star and orbital dynamics. We also confirm that as for L and T dwarfs and solar system giant planets, non-equilibrium chemistry driven by atmospheric mixing is also important for these objects. Given the preponderance of data suggesting that the L to T spectral type transition is gravity dependent, we present a new evolution calculation that predicts cooling tracks on the near-infrared color

  9. Helical coil thermal hydraulic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramello, M.; Bertani, C.; De Salve, M.; Panella, B.

    2014-11-01

    A model has been developed in Matlab environment for the thermal hydraulic analysis of helical coil and shell steam generators. The model considers the internal flow inside one helix and its associated control volume of water on the external side, both characterized by their inlet thermodynamic conditions and the characteristic geometry data. The model evaluates the behaviour of the thermal-hydraulic parameters of the two fluids, such as temperature, pressure, heat transfer coefficients, flow quality, void fraction and heat flux. The evaluation of the heat transfer coefficients as well as the pressure drops has been performed by means of the most validated literature correlations. The model has been applied to one of the steam generators of the IRIS modular reactor and a comparison has been performed with the RELAP5/Mod.3.3 code applied to an inclined straight pipe that has the same length and the same elevation change between inlet and outlet of the real helix. The predictions of the developed model and RELAP5/Mod.3.3 code are in fairly good agreement before the dryout region, while the dryout front inside the helical pipes is predicted at a lower distance from inlet by the model.

  10. WATER ENERGY IN HYDROAMELIORATIVE SYSTEMS USING THE HYDRAULIC TRANSFORMER TYPE A. BARGLAZAN AND THE HYDRAULIC HAMMER (HYDRAULIC PUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Eugen Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two examples of exploitation of water energy that can be used in the irrigation field. First of theseexamples is the hydraulic transformer type A. Barglazan used for irrigation, pumped water is taken directly from theriver’s well, using a hydraulic pump which simultaneously carried out a double transformation in this way: hydraulicenergy into mechanic energy and mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. Technology preparation and devices designwas done in record time, seeing that this constructive solution is more robust, reliable and with improved energyperformance versus the laboratory prototype. The experimental research which was made at 1:1 scale proved theirgood function over time. Another example is the hydraulic hammer (hydraulic pump that uses low-head energy topump water, with a global efficiency of about 10 - 50%. Currently, the new situation of private ownership of landprovides conditions for new pumping microstations to be made where irrigation is necessary and optimal hydrauliclocations exist.

  11. Approximate formulation of redistribution in the Ly-alpha, Ly-beta, H-alpha system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.; Ballagh, R. J.; Hubeny, I.

    1989-01-01

    Simple approximate formulas are given for the coupled redistribution of Ly-alpha, Ly-beta, and H-alpha, by using well-defined approximations to an essentially exact formulation. These formulas incorporate all the essential physics including Raman scattering, lower state radiative decay, and correlated terms representing emission during a collision which must be retained in order that the emission coefficients are properly behaved in the line wings. Approximate expressions for the appropriate line broadening parameters are collected. Finally, practical expressions for the source functions are given. These are formulated through newly introduced nonimpact redistribution functions, which are shown to be reasonably approximated by existing (ordinary and generalized) redistribution functions.

  12. A refined analysis of the remarkable Bp star HR 6000

    CERN Document Server

    Castelli, F

    2007-01-01

    UVES spectra of the very young (~10^7 years) peculiar B-type star HR 6000 were analyzed in the near-UV and visual spectral regions (3050-9460 A) with the aim to extend to other spectral ranges the study made previously in the UV using IUE spectra. Stellar parameters Teff=12850K, logg=4.10, and xi=0km/s, as determined from H_beta, H_gamma, H_delta Balmer profiles and from the Fe I, Fe II ionization equilibrium, were used to compute an individual abundances ATLAS12 model. We identified spectral peculiarities and obtained final stellar abundances by comparing observed and computed equivalent widths and line profiles. The adopted model fails to reproduce the (b-y) and c color indices. The spectral analysis has revealed: the presence of emission lines for Mn II, Cr II, and Fe II; isotopic anomalies for Hg, Ca; the presence of interstellar lines of Na I at lambda lambda 3302.3, 3302.9, 5890, 5896 A, and of K I at 7665, 7699 A; the presence of a huge quantity of unidentified lines, which we presume to be mostly due ...

  13. Radial Distribution of Dust Grains Around HR 4796A

    CERN Document Server

    Wahhaj, Z; Backman, D E; Werner, M W; Serabyn, E; Ressler, M E; Lis, D C

    2004-01-01

    We present high-dynamic-range images of circumstellar dust around HR 4796A that were obtained with MIRLIN at the Keck II telescope at lambda = 7.9, 10.3, 12.5 and 24.5 um. We also present a new continuum measurement at 350 um obtained at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. Emission is resolved in Keck images at 12.5 and 24.5 um with PSF FWHM's of 0.37" and 0.55", respectively, and confirms the presence of an outer ring centered at 70 AU. Unresolved excess infrared emission is also detected at the stellar position and must originate well within 13 AU of the star. A model of dust emission fit to flux densities at 12.5, 20.8, and 24.5 um indicates dust grains are located 4(+3/-2) AU from the star with effective size, 28+/-6 um, and an associated temperature of 260+/-40 K. We simulate all extant data with a simple model of exozodiacal dust and an outer exo-Kuiper ring. A two-component outer ring is necessary to fit both Keck thermal infrared and HST scattered-light images. Bayesian parameter estimates yield a ...

  14. Resolving the Planetesimal Belt of HR 8799 with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, Mark; Casassus, Simon; Hales, Antonio S; Dent, William R F; Faramaz, Virginie; Matrà, Luca; Barkats, Denis; Brahm, Rafael; Cuadra, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The star HR 8799 hosts one of the largest known debris discs and at least four giant planets. Previous observations have found evidence for a warm belt within the orbits of the planets, a cold planetesimal belt beyond their orbits and a halo of small grains. With the infrared data, it is hard to distinguish the planetesimal belt emission from that of the grains in the halo. With this in mind, the system has been observed with ALMA in band 6 (1.34 mm) using a compact array format. These observations allow the inner edge of the planetesimal belt to be resolved for the first time. A radial distribution of dust grains is fitted to the data using an MCMC method. The disc is best fit by a broad ring between $145^{+12}_{-12}$ AU and $429^{+37}_{-32}$ AU at an inclination of $40^{+5}_{-6}${\\deg} and a position angle of $51^{+8}_{-8}${\\deg}. A disc edge at ~145 AU is too far out to be explained simply by interactions with planet b, requiring either a more complicated dynamical history or an extra planet beyond the orb...

  15. HYDRAULIC CHARACTERISTICS OF VERTICAL VORTEX AT HYDRAULIC INTAKES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yun-liang; WU Chao; YE Mao; JU Xiao-ming

    2007-01-01

    The trace of vertical vortex flow at hydraulic intakes is of the shape of spiral lines, which was observed in the presented experiments with the tracer technique. It represents the fluid particles flow spirally from the water surface to the underwater and rotate around the vortex-axis multi-cycle. This process is similar to the movement of screw. To describe the multi-circle spiral characteristics under the axisymmetric condition, the vertical vortex would change not only in the radial direction but also in the axial direction. The improved formulae for three velocity components for the vertical vortex flow were deduced by using the method of separation of variables in this article. In the improved formulae, the velocity components are the functions of the radial and axial coordinates, so the multi-circle spiral flow of vertical vortex could be simulated. The calculated and measured results for the vertical vortex flow were compared and the causes of errors were analyzed.

  16. Impact of the HIV-1 env genetic context outside HR1-HR2 on resistance to the fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide and viral infectivity in clinical isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatz, F.; Nijhuis, M.; Lemaire, M.; Riedijk, M.; Wensing, A.M.; Servais, J.Y.; Ham, P.M. van; Hoepelman, A.I.; Koopmans, P.P.; Sprenger, H.G.; Devaux, C.; Schmit, J.C.; Perez Bercoff, D.

    2011-01-01

    Resistance mutations to the HIV-1 fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide emerge mainly within the drug's target region, HR1, and compensatory mutations have been described within HR2. The surrounding envelope (env) genetic context might also contribute to resistance, although to what extent and through which

  17. Impact of the HIV-1 env Genetic Context outside HR1-HR2 on Resistance to the Fusion Inhibitor Enfuvirtide and Viral Infectivity in Clinical Isolates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baatz, Franky; Nijhuis, Monique; Lemaire, Morgane; Riedijk, Martiene; Wensing, Annemarie M. J.; Servais, Jean-Yves; van Ham, Petra M.; Hoepelman, Andy I. M.; Koopmans, Peter P.; Sprenger, Herman G.; Devaux, Carole; Schmit, Jean-Claude; Bercoff, Danielle Perez

    2011-01-01

    Resistance mutations to the HIV-1 fusion inhibitor enfuvirtide emerge mainly within the drug's target region, HR1, and compensatory mutations have been described within HR2. The surrounding envelope (env) genetic context might also contribute to resistance, although to what extent and through which

  18. Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Olsen, Stefan; Bech, Thomas Nørgaard

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid.......KEYWORDS: water, pump, design, vane, gear....

  19. Hydraulic fracturing with distinct element method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruiksma, J.P.; Bezuijen, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this report, hydraulic fracturing is investigated using the distinct element code PFC2D from Itasca. Special routines were written to be able to model hydraulic fracturing. These include adding fluid flow to PFC2D and updating the fluid flow domains when fractures appear. A brief description of t

  20. Hydraulic Actuator for Ganged Control Rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. C.; Robey, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Hydraulic actuator moves several nuclear-reactor control rods in unison. Electromagnetic pump pushes liquid lithium against ends of control rods, forcing them out of or into nuclear reactor. Color arrows show lithium flow for reactor startup and operation. Flow reversed for shutdown. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, actuator principle applied to terrestrial hydraulic machinery involving motion of ganged rods.

  1. Dietary intervention causes redistribution of zinc in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Simone Cardoso; Fisberg, Mauro; Cozzolino, Silvia Maria Franciscato

    2013-08-01

    Obese people tend to have low zinc circulation levels; this is not always related to zinc intake but can reflect the distribution of zinc in relation to the proportion of body fat and factors related to the inflammatory processes that cause obesity. The purpose of this study was to assess zinc distribution in 15 obese adolescent girls before and after a nutritional orientation program. Participants ranged from 14 to 18 years old (postpubescent) and had a body fat percent (BF%) of >35 %. Zinc nutritional status and other zinc-dependent parameters, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and insulin levels, were assessed by biochemical analysis of plasma and erythrocytes, salivary sediment, and urine. Samples were collected before and after 4 months of dietary intervention. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to verify BF% both at the beginning and at the end of the study. Food consumption was assessed in ten individual food questionnaires throughout the study; food groups were separated on the questionnaires in the same way as suggested by some authors to develop the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) but with the addition of zinc. After 4 months of nutritional orientation, 78 % of the participants showed a decrease in BF%. Intraerythrocytic zinc increased over the study period, while salivary sediment zinc, SOD, insulin, and Zn urinary24 h/creatinine all decreased (p zinc intake throughout the study but participants did increase their consumption of fruits, dairy, and meats during the study (p zinc and decreased levels of SOD. There was also a statistically significant correlation between BF% and Zn urinary 24h/creatinine, and SOD. All these parameters were diminished at the end of the study. The dietary intervention for obese adolescent girls is effective with decrease of BF that led to the redistribution of zinc in the body as shown by the changes in erythrocytes, plasma, salivary, urine zinc, as well as the complementary parameters of insulin and SOD. These

  2. Novel approaches to understanding carbon redistribution at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungait, Jennifer; Beniston, Joshua; Lal, Rattan; Horrocks, Claire; Collins, Adrian; Mariappen, Sankar; Quine, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    Established biogeochemical techniques are used to trace organic inputs typically derived directly or indirectly from plants into soils, sediments and water using lipid biomarkers. Recently, advances in bulk and compound specific stable 13C isotope analyses have provided novel ways of exploring the source and residence times of organic matter in soils using the natural abundance stable 13C isotope signature of C3 and C4 plant end member values. However, the application of biogeochemical source tracing technologies at the molecular level at field to catchment scales has been slow to develop because of perceived problems with dilution of molecular-scale signals. This paper describes the results of recent experiments in natural and agricultural environments in the UK (Collins et al., 2013; Dungait et al., 2013) and United States (Beniston et al., submitted) that have successfully applied new tracing techniques using stable 13C isotope and complementary approaches to explore the transport of sediment-bound organic carbon at a range of scales from the small plot (m2) to field (ha) and small catchment (10's ha). References Beniston et al (submitted) The effects of crop residue removal on soil erosion and macronutrient dynamics on soils under no till for 42 years. Biogeosciences Collins et al (2013) Catchment source contributions to the sediment-bound organic matter degrading salmonid spawning gravels in a lowland river, southern England. Science of the Total Environment 456-457, 181-195. Dungait et al (2013) Microbial responses to the erosional redistribution of soil organic carbon in arable fields. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 60, 195-201. Puttock et al (2012) Stable carbon isotope analysis of fluvial sediment fluxes over two contrasting C4-C3 semi-arid vegetation transitions. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 26, 2386-2392.

  3. Signaling flux redistribution at toll-like receptor pathway junctions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Selvarajoo

    Full Text Available Various receptors on cell surface recognize specific extracellular molecules and trigger signal transduction altering gene expression in the nucleus. Gain or loss-of-function mutations of one molecule have shown to affect alternative signaling pathways with a poorly understood mechanism. In Toll-like receptor (TLR 4 signaling, which branches into MyD88- and TRAM-dependent pathways upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation, we investigated the gain or loss-of-function mutations of MyD88. We predict, using a computational model built on the perturbation-response approach and the law of mass conservation, that removal and addition of MyD88 in TLR4 activation, enhances and impairs, respectively, the alternative TRAM-dependent pathway through signaling flux redistribution (SFR at pathway branches. To verify SFR, we treated MyD88-deficient macrophages with LPS and observed enhancement of TRAM-dependent pathway based on increased IRF3 phosphorylation and induction of Cxcl10 and Ifit2. Furthermore, increasing the amount of MyD88 in cultured cells showed decreased TRAM binding to TLR4. Investigating another TLR4 pathway junction, from TRIF to TRAF6, RIP1 and TBK1, the removal of MyD88-dependent TRAF6 increased expression of TRAM-dependent Cxcl10 and Ifit2. Thus, we demonstrate that SFR is a novel mechanism for enhanced activation of alternative pathways when molecules at pathway junctions are removed. Our data suggest that SFR may enlighten hitherto unexplainable intracellular signaling alterations in genetic diseases where gain or loss-of-function mutations are observed.

  4. Thermally driven moisture redistribution in partially saturated porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R.T.; Dodge, F.T.; Svedeman, S.J.; Manteufel, R.D.; Meyer, K.A.; Baca, R.G. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses; Rice, G. [George Rice and Associates, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-12-01

    It is widely recognized that the decay heat produced by high-level radioactive waste (HLW) will likely have a significant impact on both the pre- and post-closure performance of the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain (YM), in southwest Nevada. The task of delineating which aspects of that impact are favorable to isolation performance and which are adverse is an extremely challenging technical undertaking because of such factors as the hydrothermal regimes involved, heterogeneity of the geologic media, and the time and space scales involved. This difficulty has motivated both the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to undertake multi-year thermohydrology research programs to examine the effects of decay heat on pre- and post-closure performance of the repository. Both of these organizations are currently pursuing laboratory and field experiments, as well as numerical modeling studies, to advance the state of knowledge of the thermohydrologic phenomena relevant to the proposed geologic repository. The NRC-sponsored Thermohydrology Research Project, which was initiated in mid-1989 at the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA), began with the intent of addressing a broad spectrum of generic thermohydrologic questions. While some of these questions were answered in the conduct of the study, other new and challenging ones were encountered. Subsequent to that report, laboratory-scale experiments were designed to address four fundamental questions regarding thermohydrologic phenomena: what are the principal mechanisms controlling the redistribution of moisture; under what hydrothermal conditions and time frames do individual mechanisms predominate; what driving mechanism is associated with a particular hydrothermal regime; what is the temporal and spatial scale of each hydrothermal regime? This report presents the research results and findings obtained since issuance of the first progress report. 85 refs.

  5. Rotational and translational distortions of the crystal structure of the Sr{sub 2}HrRuO{sub 6} (Hr = Ho, Dy, Gd, Eu) complex perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triana, C.A., E-mail: ctrianae@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, A.A. 5997, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Landínez Téllez, D.A. [Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, A.A. 5997, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Roa-Rojas, J., E-mail: jroar@unal.edu.co [Grupo de Física de Nuevos Materiales, Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, A.A. 5997, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia)

    2013-05-15

    Sr{sub 2}HrRuO{sub 6} (Hr = Ho, Dy, Gd, Eu) complex perovskites were synthesized through the high-temperature solid-state reaction method, and their crystal structures were analyzed in detail as a function of the Hr-cation ionic radius. Results of powder XRD pattern measurement and Rietveld analysis of the experimental profiles show that the Sr{sub 2}HrRuO{sub 6} compounds crystallize in a monoclinic distorted perovskite-like structure, P2{sub 1}/n (#14) space group, where the unit cell parameters are related to the primitive unit cell a{sub p} by a≈√(2)a{sub p}, b≈√(2)a{sub p} and c ≈ 2a{sub p}. The structures show an alternate distribution of the Ru{sup 5+} (2d: 0.5, 0, 0) and Hr{sup 3+} (2c: 0, 0.5, 0) making up RuO{sub 6} and HrO{sub 6} octahedra alternatively arranged in two interleaving fcc sublattices, where the O(1), O(2), and O(3) ions are localized at the corner of the octahedral, while the Sr{sup 2+} is located at the A-site, occupying the cavities built by the corner-sharing octahedra with Wyckoff position 4e. Due to the existence of mismatched ionic sizes between the ionic radii of the Sr{sub 2}HrRuO{sub 6} compounds, the HrO{sub 6} and RuO{sub 6} octahedra are constrained to tilting around the [111]{sub c}, [001]{sub c}, and [110]{sub c} cubic directions so as to optimize the Sr–O inter-atomic bond lengths, tending to rotate the structure in order to fix the Ru{sup 5+} and Hr{sup 3+} ions on the M′ and M″ sites of the complex perovskites. The cell parameters a, b, and c, the inter-atomic bond angles, the inter-atomic bond lengths, and the tilting angles increase as the Hr-cation ionic radius increases. The mismatch that exists in the Sr{sub 2}HrRuO{sub 6} ionic radius produces a large distortion from the ideal cubic symmetry. The pure perovskite-like phase of Sr{sub 2}HrRuO{sub 6} is thermodynamically and kinetically stable at high temperatures above 1420 K, where it is entirely governed by the average size of the Hr{sup 3+} and Ru

  6. Control arrangement for the actuation of hydraulic consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kussel, W.; Dettmers, M.; Weirich, W.

    1988-11-09

    An arrangement for controlling the actuation of hydraulic consumers, by selectively connecting the consumers to hydraulic pressure and return lines; the control arrangement comprising a respective hydraulically operated directional control valve associated with each of the hydraulic consumers, a respective electro-magnetically operated pre-control valve associated with each of the hydraulic directional control valves, and further electro-magnetically operated directional control valve means associated with the pre-control valves, each of the hydraulic consumers being connectible to the hydraulic pressure or return lines via the associated hydraulically operated directional control valve which is actuatable by a hydraulic control line leading from the output of the associated pre-control valve, wherein the inputs of the pre-control valves are connected directly to the hydraulic return line and indirectly, via the further control valve means, to the hydraulic return line or to a hydraulic control pressure line.

  7. Gravity-Driven Hydraulic Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanovich, L. N.; Garagash, D.; Murdoch, L. C.; Robinowitz, M.

    2014-12-01

    This study is motived by a new method for disposing of nuclear waste by injecting it as a dense slurry into a hydraulic fracture that grows downward to great enough depth to permanently isolate the waste. Disposing of nuclear waste using gravity-driven hydraulic fractures is mechanically similar to the upward growth of dikes filled with low density magma. A fundamental question in both applications is how the injected fluid controls the propagation dynamics and fracture geometry (depth and breadth) in three dimensions. Analog experiments in gelatin [e.g., Heimpel and Olson, 1994; Taisne and Tait, 2009] show that fracture breadth (the short horizontal dimension) remains nearly stationary when the process in the fracture "head" (where breadth is controlled) is dominated by solid toughness, whereas viscous fluid dissipation is dominant in the fracture tail. We model propagation of the resulting gravity-driven (buoyant or sinking), finger-like fracture of stationary breadth with slowly varying opening along the crack length. The elastic response to fluid loading in a horizontal cross-section is local and can be treated similar to the classical Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) model of hydraulic fracturing. The propagation condition for a finger-like crack is based on balancing the global energy release rate due to a unit crack extension with the rock fracture toughness. It allows us to relate the net fluid pressure at the tip to the fracture breadth and rock toughness. Unlike the PKN fracture, where breadth is known a priori, the final breadth of a finger-like fracture is a result of processes in the fracture head. Because the head is much more open than the tail, viscous pressure drop in the head can be neglected leading to a 3D analog of Weertman's hydrostatic pulse. This requires relaxing the local elasticity assumption of the PKN model in the fracture head. As a result, we resolve the breadth, and then match the viscosity-dominated tail with the 3-D, toughness

  8. Scaling hydraulic properties of a macroporous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Binayak P.

    1999-06-01

    Macroporous soils exhibit significant differences in their hydraulic properties for different pore domains. Multimodal hydraulic functions may be used to describe the characteristics of multiporosity media. I investigated the usefulness of scaling to describe the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity (K(-h)) functions of a macroporous soil in Las Nutrias, New Mexico. Piecewise-continuous hydraulic conductivity functions suitable for macroporous soils in conjunction with a hybrid similar media-functional normalization scaling approach were used. Results showed that gravity-dominated flow and the related hydraulic conductivity (K(minus;h) functions of the macropore region are more readily scalable than capillary-dominated flow properties of the mesopore and micropore regions. A possible reason for this behavior is that gravity-dominated flow in the larger pores is mostly influenced by the pore diameter which remains more uniform as compared to tortuous mesopores and micropores with variable neck and body sizes along the pore length.

  9. Hydraulic conductivity of GCLs in MSW landfills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-cheng; YANG Wu-chao; DAN Tang-hui

    2008-01-01

    The state of the art of the study on the hydraulic conductivity of GCLs is presented in terms of the in-fluence of the effective stress, chemical interactions, freeze - thaw cycles and temperature gradients. The chan-ges of void ratio caused by changes of effective stress have a direct linear effect on the hydraulic conductivity, regardless of the cation concentration or the thickness of the adsorbed layer. The hydraulic conductivity is relat-ed to the relative abundance of monovalent and divalent cation(RMD), and RMD has a great effect on the hy-draulic conductivity in weak solution. The long-term susceptibility of GCLs to increased hydraulic conductivity as a response to repeated freeze-thaw cycling is minimal, which has been proved after 150 freeze-thaw cycles. The potential of desiccation cracking increases with the increasing temperature gradient and is related to the ini-tial subsoil water content, the applied overburden stress, etc.

  10. Modeling and Simulation of Hydraulic Engine Mounts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Shanzhong; Marshall McNea

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic engine mounts are widely used in automotive powertrains for vibration isolation.A lumped mechanical parameter model is a traditional approach to model and simulate such mounts.This paper presents a dynamical model of a passive hydraulic engine mount with a double-chamber,an inertia track,a decoupler,and a plunger.The model is developed based on analogy between electrical systems and mechanical-hydraulic systems.The model is established to capture both low and high frequency dynatmic behaviors of the hydraulic mount.The model will be further used to find the approximate pulse responses of the mounts in terms of the force transmission and top chamber pressure.The close form solution from the simplifiod linear model may provide some insight into the highly nonlinear behavior of the mounts.Based on the model,computer simulation has been carried out to study dynamic performance of the hydraulic mount.

  11. Hydraulic test for evaluation of hydrophone VSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuuchi, Satoshi; Koide, Kaoru [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Toki, Gifu (Japan). Tono Geoscience Center

    1997-12-01

    This hydraulic test was carried out at the test site of Tono Geoscience Center, Mizunami-shi, Gifu Pref. in order to evaluate the reliability of the hydraulic conductivity estimated from hydrophone VSP experiment. From March to April 1997, we carried out measurements of pore-water pressure at five depths and permeability tests at seven depths down to G.L.-300m, within a borehole drilled in granitic rock. We compared the results of hydraulic test with hydrophone VSP experiment on condition that a single open fracture existed, and we obtained two notable results. First, for the granitic rock at which a single open fracture was found by BTV and also detected by hydrophone VSP experiment, the hydraulic conductivity was 1.54 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec, while for the same granitic rock at which another single open fracture was found by BTV but not detected by hydrophone VSP experiment, the hydraulic conductivity was less than 6 x 10{sup -10} cm/sec. Second, we converted the hydraulic conductivity of 1.54 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec which was obtained in a hydraulic test section of length 2.5 m into an equivalent value for a single open fracture of width 1 mm. The converted value (3.8 x 10{sup -4} cm/sec) was similar to the hydraulic conductivity estimated from hydrophone VSP experiment. In conclusion, the hydraulic test result shows that hydrophone VSP is useful to estimate an approximate hydraulic conductivity of a single open fracture. (author)

  12. Do line managers’ have ‘linking pin’ in HR roles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ayyub Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The present article aims to identify the possible line managers’ involvement factors in human resource (HR initiatives and its ‘linking pin’ to the HR roles. In this regard, few factors have been considered pertinent to line managers’ involvement factors in HR initiatives which are desire, self-efficacy, and HR support. Whereas, the considered dimensions of HR roles reviewed are strategic partner, change agent, employee champion, and administrative expert. Design/methodology/approach: The paper intends to provide a conceptual review of the past literature in the areas of HR roles and line managers and further justify the proposed conceptual framework that will move this work further. Findings: The review also showed that HR devolution to line managers will boost line managers’ participation and responsibility to practice HR roles at the workplace. Research limitations/implications: The main limitation of this review is no empirical evidence provided by the authors to support the literature of the article. All the provided literature is written based on the findings gained from the previous studies. Practical implications: Line managers’ involvement in HR Initiatives can increase the competency diversity among line manager. This in turn can help the organization to operate at high efficiency. Originality/value: There is a notable lack of research conducted to identify line managers’ involvement in HR. Therefore, this article contributes to the literature on the relationship between line managers and HR roles.

  13. DLC coatings for hydraulic applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luca NOBILI; Luca MAGAGNIN

    2009-01-01

    Replacement of lubricating oils with water or low-viscosity fluids is highly desirable in many industrial fields, on account of the environmental and economical advantages. Low lubricity of water might be insufficient for proper operation of hydraulic components, and diamond-like carbon(DLC) coatings are very attractive as solid lubricant films. A remote-plasma PACVD process was utilized to deposit hydrogenated DLC coatings (a-C:H) on different substrates. Microindentation measurements show that the coating hardness is around 35 GPa. Tribological behavior was evaluated by block-on-ring tests performed in water and water with alumina. The wear rate was calculated after measuring the wear volume by a laser profilemeter. Morphological and compositional analysis of the wear tracks reveal that coating failure may occur by abrasive wear or delamination, depending on the substrate properties. Hard and smooth substrates give the best results and dispersed alumina particles increase the wear rate.

  14. Aircraft Hydraulic Systems Dynamic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    4400 PSIG OUTLET PRESSURE ~’f UM5 S1 l .( FIF ~0RV lR 1 .I. AP (c R (V) IFWM) APPROX C ASE !VPý :iI S ReUN N•;MRF.. r p kN i t, isI A! f IN, I:E • ’l...and 1F.GI pump modelo were assumed from data supplied by CECO. 165 _ -- --- - SECTION V HYDRAULIC MOTOR MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND VERIFICATION A fixed...3 70 P.,0 601 ~4 M24.0 3 1p ’, 4 r I 1 1 ISIS 2411 APPENDIX E (CONT.) HSFR TECHNICAL MANUAL (AFAPL-TR-76-43, VOL. IV) 4.15 VANE PU`MP SUBROUTINE 4.15A

  15. Phase transformation and liquid density redistribution during solidification of Ni-based superalloy Inconel 718

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang Ling Gong He Zhao Haofeng Dong Jianxin Zhang Maicang

    2012-01-01

    .... It was found that significant segregation in liquid prompts high Nb phase to precipitate directly from liquid, which results in the redistribution of alloy elements and liquid density in their vicinity. The term...

  16. [Transdermal nitroglycerin before induction of anesthesia prevents redistribution hypothermia in patients under general anesthesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, N; Ozaki, M; Matsukawa, T; Suzuki, H

    1998-12-01

    Initial anesthesic-induced hypothermia results largely from core-to-peripheral redistribution of heat. Administration of transdermal nitroglycerin induces vasodilation. Such vasodilation, induced well before induction of anesthesia, might redistribute heat to peripheral tissues. Minimal redistribution hypothermia might accompany subsequent induction of anesthesia. We studied 32 patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery. Thirty minutes before induction of anesthesia, they were randomly assigned to: 1. transdermal nitroglycerin 10 mg; 2. transdermal nitroglycerin 5 mg; and, 3. control. Core temperature during the first hour of anesthesia decreased significantly more in the control patients than in those given either dose of nitroglycerin. Vasodilation induced by transdermal nitroglycerin before induction of anesthesia significantly decreased subsequent redistribution hypothermia. Drug-induced modulation of vascular tone thus produces clinically important alterations in intraoperative core temperature.

  17. Betwixt and between?: the European Union’s redistributive management of globalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Burgoon

    2010-01-01

    The European Union's (EU) management of globalization includes redistributing or compensating for distributional consequences of globalization, using policies at different levels of governance (national, regional-European and supra-European). This contribution analyzes the extent and politics of suc

  18. Using 137 Cs measurements to investigate the influence of erosion and soil redistribution on soil properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, P; Walling, D E

    2011-05-01

    Information on the interaction between soil erosion and soil properties is an important requirement for sustainable management of the soil resource. The relationship between soil properties and the soil redistribution rate, reflecting both erosion and deposition, is an important indicator of this interaction. This relationship is difficult to investigate using traditional approaches to documenting soil redistribution rates involving erosion plots and predictive models. However, the use of the fallout radionuclide (137)Cs to document medium-term soil redistribution rates offers a means of overcoming many of the limitations associated with traditional approaches. The study reported sought to demonstrate the potential for using (137)Cs measurements to assess the influence of soil erosion and redistribution on soil properties (particle size composition, total C, macronutrients N, P, K and Mg, micronutrients Mn, Mo, Fe, Cu and Zn and other elements, including Ti and As). (137)Cs measurements undertaken on 52 soil cores collected within a 7 ha cultivated field located near Colebrooke in Devon, UK were used to establish the magnitude and spatial pattern of medium-term soil redistribution rates within the field. The soil redistribution rates documented for the individual sampling points within the field ranged from an erosion rate of -12.9 t ha(-1) yr(-1) to a deposition rate of 19.2 t ha(-1) yr(-1). Composite samples of surface soil (0-5 cm) were collected immediately adjacent to each coring point and these samples were analysed for a range of soil properties. Individual soil properties associated with these samples showed significant variability, with CV values generally lying in the range 10-30%. The relationships between the surface soil properties and the soil redistribution rate were analysed. This analysis demonstrated statistically significant relationships between some soil properties (total phosphorus, % clay, Ti and As) and the soil redistribution rate, but for

  19. Use of Distribution Devices for Hydraulic Profiling of Coolant Flow in Core Gas-cooled Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Satin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In setting up a reactor plant for the transportation-power module of the megawatt class an important task is to optimize the path of flow, i.e. providing moderate hydraulic resistance, uniform distribution of the coolant. Significant contribution to the hydraulic losses makes one selected design of the coolant supplies. It is, in particular, hemispherical or semi-elliptical shape of the supply reservoir, which is selected to reduce its mass, resulting in the formation of torusshaped vortex in the inlet manifold, that leads to uneven coolant velocity at the inlet into the core, the flow pulsations, hydraulic losses.To control the flow redistribution in the core according to the level of energy are used the switchgear - deflectors installed in a hemispherical reservoir supplying coolant to the fuel elements (FE of the core of gas-cooled reactor. This design solution has an effect on the structure of the flow, rate in the cooling duct, and the flow resistance of the collector.In this paper we present the results of experiments carried out on the gas dynamic model of coolant paths, deflectors, and core, comprising 55 fuel rod simulators. Numerical simulation of flow in two-parameter model, using the k-ε turbulence model, and the software package ANSYS CFX v14.0 is performed. The paper demonstrates that experimental results are in compliance with calculated ones.The results obtained suggest that the use of switchgear ensures a coolant flow balance directly at the core inlet, thereby providing temperature reduction of fuel rods with a uniform power release in the cross-section. Considered options to find constructive solutions for deflectors give an idea to solve the problem of reducing hydraulic losses in the coolant paths, to decrease pulsation components of flow in the core and length of initial section of flow stabilization.

  20. Household perceptions towards a redistributive policy across health insurance funds in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chomi, Eunice; Mujinja, Phares; Hansen, Kristian Schultz

    2015-01-01

    Background The Tanzanian health insurance system comprises multiple health insurance funds targeting different population groups but which operate in parallel, with no mechanisms for redistribution across the funds. Establishing such redistributive mechanisms requires public support, which...... data collected from a survey of 695 households relating to perceptions of household heads towards cross-subsidisation of the poor to enable them to access health services. Kruskal-Wallis test is used to compare perceptions by membership status. Generalized ordinal logistic regression models are used...

  1. Refined Monte Carlo method for simulating angle-dependent partial frequency redistributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.-S.

    1982-01-01

    A refined algorithm for generating emission frequencies from angle-dependent partial frequency redistribution functions R sub II and R sub III is described. The improved algorithm has as its basis a 'rejection' technique that, for absorption frequencies x less than 5, involves no approximations. The resulting procedure is found to be essential for effective studies of radiative transfer in optically thick or temperature varying media involving angle-dependent partial frequency redistributions.

  2. Effects of income redistribution on the evolution of cooperation in spatial public goods games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zhenhua; Wang, Baokui; Du, Jinming

    2017-01-01

    Income redistribution is the transfer of income from some individuals to others directly or indirectly by means of social mechanisms, such as taxation, public services and so on. Employing a spatial public goods game, we study the influence of income redistribution on the evolution of cooperation. Two kinds of evolutionary models are constructed, which describe local and global redistribution of income respectively. In the local model, players have to pay part of their income after each PGG and the accumulated income is redistributed to the members. While in the global model, all the players pay part of their income after engaging in all the local PGGs, which are centred on himself and his nearest neighbours, and the accumulated income is redistributed to the whole population. We show that the cooperation prospers significantly with increasing income expenditure proportion in the local redistribution of income, while in the global model the situation is opposite. Furthermore, the cooperation drops dramatically from the maximum curvature point of income expenditure proportion. In particular, the intermediate critical points are closely related to the renormalized enhancement factors.

  3. Research on Construction Optimization of Three-Connected-Arch Hydraulic Underground Cavities Considering Creep Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-yun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent the creep of surrounding rock in long-term construction, with consideration of different construction methods and other factors during the construction of large-scale underground cavity, three different construction schemes are designed for specific projects and a nonlinear viscoelastic-plastic creep model which can describe rock accelerated creeping is introduced and applied to construction optimization calculation of the large-scale three-connected-arch hydraulic underground cavity through secondary development of FLAC3D. The results show that the adoption of middle cavity construction method, the second construction method, enables the maximum vault displacement of 16.04 mm. This method results in less stress redistribution and plastic zone expansion to the cavity’s surrounding rock than the other two schemes, which is the safest construction scheme. The conclusion can provide essential reference and guidance to similar engineering for construction optimization.

  4. Daphnia HR96 is a promiscuous xenobiotic and endobiotic nuclear receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimullina, Elina [Environmental Toxicology Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Yekaterinburg 620144 (Russian Federation); Li Yangchun; Ginjupalli, Gautam K. [Environmental Toxicology Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Baldwin, William S., E-mail: baldwin@clemson.edu [Environmental Toxicology Program, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634 (United States); Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Daphnia pulex is the first crustacean to have its genome sequenced. The genome project provides new insight and data into how an aquatic crustacean may respond to environmental stressors, including toxicants. We cloned Daphnia pulex HR96 (DappuHR96), a nuclear receptor orthologous to the CAR/PXR/VDR group of nuclear receptors. In Drosophila melanogaster, (hormone receptor 96) HR96 responds to phenobarbital exposure and has been hypothesized as a toxicant receptor. Therefore, we set up a transactivation assay to test whether DappuHR96 is a promiscuous receptor activated by xenobiotics and endobiotics similar to the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane X-receptor (PXR). Transactivation assays performed with a GAL4-HR96 chimera demonstrate that HR96 is a promiscuous toxicant receptor activated by a diverse set of chemicals such as pesticides, hormones, and fatty acids. Several environmental toxicants activate HR96 including estradiol, pyriproxyfen, chlorpyrifos, atrazine, and methane arsonate. We also observed repression of HR96 activity by chemicals such as triclosan, androstanol, and fluoxetine. Nearly 50% of the chemicals tested activated or inhibited HR96. Interestingly, unsaturated fatty acids were common activators or inhibitors of HR96 activity, indicating a link between diet and toxicant response. The omega-6 and omega-9 unsaturated fatty acids linoleic and oleic acid activated HR96, but the omega-3 unsaturated fatty acids alpha-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid inhibited HR96, suggesting that these two distinct sets of lipids perform opposing roles in Daphnia physiology. This also provides a putative mechanism by which the ratio of dietary unsaturated fats may affect the ability of an organism to respond to a toxic insult. In summary, HR96 is a promiscuous nuclear receptor activated by numerous endo- and xenobiotics.

  5. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A HYDRAULIC PISTON

    OpenAIRE

    Santos De La Cruz, Eulogio; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Rojas Lazo, Oswaldo; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Yenque Dedios, Julio; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos; Lavado Soto, Aurelio; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos

    2014-01-01

    A hydraulic system project includes the design, materials selection and construction of the hydraulic piston, hydraulic circuit and the joint with the pump and its accesories. This equiment will be driven by the force of moving fluid, whose application is in the devices of machines, tools, printing, perforation, packing and others. El proyecto de un sistema hidráulico, comprende el diseño, selección de materiales y construcción del pistón hidráulico, circuito hidráulico y el ensamble con l...

  6. Bubble visualization in a simulated hydraulic jump

    CERN Document Server

    Witt, Adam; Shen, Lian

    2013-01-01

    This is a fluid dynamics video of two- and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations carried out at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory. A transient hydraulic jump is simulated using OpenFOAM, an open source numerical solver. A Volume of Fluid numerical method is employed with a realizable k-epsilon turbulence model. The goal of this research is to model the void fraction and bubble size in a transient hydraulic jump. This fluid dynamics video depicts the air entrainment characteristics and bubble behavior within a hydraulic jump of Froude number 4.82.

  7. Hydraulic Fracturing and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahy Tafti, T.; Aminzadeh, F.; Jafarpour, B.; de Barros, F.

    2013-12-01

    In this presentation, we highlight two key environmental concerns of hydraulic fracturing (HF), namely induced seismicity and groundwater contamination (GC). We examine the induced seismicity (IS) associated with different subsurface fluid injection and production (SFIP) operations and the key operational parameters of SFIP impacting it. In addition we review the key potential sources for possible water contamination. Both in the case of IS and GC we propose modeling and data analysis methods to quantify the risk factors to be used for monitoring and risk reduction. SFIP include presents a risk in hydraulic fracturing, waste water injection, enhanced oil recovery as well as geothermal energy operations. Although a recent report (NRC 2012) documents that HF is not responsible for most of the induced seismicities, we primarily focus on HF here. We look into vaious operational parameters such as volume and rate of water injection, the direction of the well versus the natural fracture network, the depth of the target and the local stress field and fault system, as well as other geological features. The latter would determine the potential for triggering tectonic related events by small induced seismicity events. We provide the building blocks for IS risk assessment and monitoring. The system we propose will involve adequate layers of complexity based on mapped seismic attributes as well as results from ANN and probabilistic predictive modeling workflows. This leads to a set of guidelines which further defines 'safe operating conditions' and 'safe operating zones' which will be a valuable reference for future SFIP operations. We also illustrate how HF can lead to groundwater aquifer contamination. The source of aquifer contamination can be the hydrocarbon gas or the chemicals used in the injected liquid in the formation. We explore possible pathways of contamination within and discuss the likelihood of contamination from each source. Many of the chemical compounds used

  8. Study on Characteristics of Hydraulic Servo System for Force Control of Hydraulic Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo-gon; Han, Changsoo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-won [Korea University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sangdeok [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Because a hydraulic actuator has high power and force densities, this allows the weight of the robot's limbs to be reduced. This allows for good dynamic characteristics and high energy efficiency. Thus, hydraulic actuators are used in some exoskeleton robots and quadrupedal robots that require high torque. Force control is useful for robot compliance with a user or environment. However, force control of a hydraulic robot is difficult because a hydraulic servo system is highly nonlinear from a control perspective. In this study, a nonlinear model was used to develop a simulation program for a hydraulic servo system consisting of a servo valve, transmission lines, and a cylinder. The problems and considerations with regard to the force control performance for a hydraulic servo system were investigated. A force control method using the nonlinear model was proposed, and its effect was evaluated with the simulation program.

  9. Contributions of In-Situ Stress Transient Redistribution to Blasting Excavation Damage Zone of Deep Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Peng; Lu, Wen-bo; Chen, Ming; Hu, Ying-guo; Zhou, Chuang-bing; Wu, Xin-xia

    2015-03-01

    With the background of construction of the headrace tunnels with the deepest buried depth in China at present, by means of carefully acoustic velocity detection and analysis of Excavation Damage Zone (EDZ), the contributions to damage zones made by the effect of in situ stress transient redistribution are studied and compared with the extent of damage caused by the explosive load. Also, the numerical simulation was adopted to verify detecting the results. It turned out that the in situ stress transient redistribution during blasting has great influence on the development of EDZ of deep tunnels. The blasting excavation-induced damage zone of deep tunnels can be divided into the inner damage zone and the outer damage zone from the excavation surface into surrounding rocks. Although this damage zone dividing method is similar to the work of Martino and Chandler (2004), the consideration of developing a mechanism of the inner damage zone, especially the contribution of in situ stress transient redistribution, is totally different. The inner damage zone, which accounts for 29-57 % of the total damage zone, is mainly caused by explosive load and in situ stress transient adjustment, while the outer damage zone can be mostly attributed to the static redistribution of in situ stress. Field tests and numerical simulation indicate that the in situ stress transient redistribution effect during blasting contributes about 16-51 % to the inner damage zone in the 2# headrace tunnel of Jinping II Hydropower Station. For general cases, it can be concluded that the in situ stress transient redistribution is one of the main contributors of an excavation damage zone, and damage caused by in situ stress transient redistribution effect may exceed the damage caused by explosion load and become the main inducing factor for damage with the rise of in situ stress levels.

  10. Hydrogeological characterisation of a glacially affected barrier island – the North Frisian Island of Föhr

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Burschil

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the application of geophysical investigations to characterise and improve the geological/hydrogeological model through the estimation of petrophysical parameters for groundwater modelling. Seismic reflection and airborne electromagnetic surveys in combination with borehole information enhance the 3-D geological model and allow a petrophysical interpretation of the subsurface.

    The North Sea Island of Föhr has a very complex underground structure what was already known from boreholes. The local waterworks use a freshwater body embedded in saline groundwater. Several glaciations disordered the Youngest Tertiary and Quaternary sediments by glaciotectonic thrust-faulting as well as incision and refill of glacial valleys. Both underground structures have a strong impact on the distribution of freshwater bearing aquifers. An initial hydrogeological model of Föhr was built from borehole data alone and was restricted to the southern part of the island where in the sandy areas of the Geest a large freshwater body was formed. We improved the geological/hydrogeological model by adding data from different geophysical methods, e.g. airborne electromagnetics (EM for mapping the resistivity of the entire island, seismic reflections for detailed cross sections in the groundwater catchment area, and geophysical borehole logging for calibration of these measurements. An integrated evaluation of the results from the different geophysical methods yields reliable data.

    To determinate petrophysical parameter about 18 borehole logs, more than 75 m deep, and nearby airborne EM inversion models were analyzed concerning resistivity. We establish an empirical relation between measured resistivity and hydraulic conductivity for the specific area – the North Sea island of Föhr. Five boreholes concerning seismic interval velocities discriminate sand and till.

    The interpretation of these data was the basis for building the geological

  11. Parker Hybrid Hydraulic Drivetrain Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Raymond [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Howland, James [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Venkiteswaran, Prasad [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-03-31

    This report examines the benefits of Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid brake energy recovery systems used in commercial applications for vocational purposes. A detailed background on the problem statement being addressed as well as the solution set specific for parcel delivery will be provided. Objectives of the demonstration performed in high start & stop applications included opportunities in fuel usage reduction, emissions reduction, vehicle productivity, and vehicle maintenance. Completed findings during the demonstration period and parallel investigations with NREL, CALSTART, along with a literature review will be provided herein on this research area. Lastly, results identified in the study by third parties validated the savings potential in fuel reduction of on average of 19% to 52% over the baseline in terms of mpg (Lammert, 2014, p11), Parker data for parcel delivery vehicles in the field parallels this at a range of 35% - 50%, emissions reduction of 17.4% lower CO2 per mile and 30.4% lower NOx per mile (Gallo, 2014, p15), with maintenance improvement in the areas of brake and starter replacement, while leaving room for further study in the area of productivity in terms of specific metrics that can be applied and studied.

  12. Thermal hydraulics development for CASL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowrie, Robert B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-07

    This talk will describe the technical direction of the Thermal-Hydraulics (T-H) Project within the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL) Department of Energy Innovation Hub. CASL is focused on developing a 'virtual reactor', that will simulate the physical processes that occur within a light-water reactor. These simulations will address several challenge problems, defined by laboratory, university, and industrial partners that make up CASL. CASL's T-H efforts are encompassed in two sub-projects: (1) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), (2) Interface Treatment Methods (ITM). The CFD subproject will develop non-proprietary, scalable, verified and validated macroscale CFD simulation tools. These tools typically require closures for their turbulence and boiling models, which will be provided by the ITM sub-project, via experiments and microscale (such as DNS) simulation results. The near-term milestones and longer term plans of these two sub-projects will be discussed.

  13. Beyond shared savings : a multilevel analysis of the perceived value of HR shared services

    OpenAIRE

    Meijerink, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Human Resource Shared Service Centers are introduced by organizations with the aim to create value for employees and managers. Although several studies uncovered the value potential of HR shared services (e.g. possibilities for reducing costs, improving HR service quality and increasing the strategic contribution of the HRM function), little research has been done that explains how the value of HR shared services is created. Low levels of perceived value may have undesirable consequences such...

  14. Transputer Control of Hydraulic Actuators and Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1996-01-01

    Results from a Danish mechatronics research program entitled IMCIA - Intelligent Control and Intelligent Actuators. The objective is development of intelligent actuators for intelligent motion control. A mechatronics test facility with a transputer controlled hydraulic robot suiteable for real...

  15. Concept Evaluation for Hydraulic Yaw System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2013-01-01

    a suspension system on a car, leading the loads away from the turbine structure. However, to realize a soft hydraulic yaw system a new design concept must be found. As a part of the development of the new concept a preliminary concept evaluation has been conducted, evaluating seven different hydraulic yaw...... concepts, ranging from a one-to-one copy of the electrical drive (electrical drives replaced by hydraulic dittos), to floating suspension systems mounted on hydraulic cylinders. Rough calculations of size and consequences of the different systems are presented ending up with the final concept for further...... investigation. Loads and yaw demands are based on the IEC 61400-1 standard for wind turbine design, and the loads for this examination are extrapolated from the HAWC2 aeroelastic design code. The concepts are based on a 5 MW off-shore turbine....

  16. HYDRAULICS, Des Moines COUNTY, IOWA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  17. ON THE THEORIES OF HYDRAULIC GEOMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijay P. SINGH

    2003-01-01

    Hydraulic geometry is of fundamental importance in planning, design, and management of river engineering and training works. Although some concepts of hydraulic geometry were proposed toward the end of the nineteenth century, the real impetus toward formulating a theory of hydraulic geometry was provided by the work of Leopold and Maddock (1953). A number of theories have since been proposed.Some of the theories are interrelated but others are based on quite different principles. All theories,however, assume that the river flow is steady and uniform and the river tends to attain a state of equilibrium or quasi-equilibrium. The differences are due to the differences in hydraulic mechanisms that the theories employ to explain the attainment of equilibrium by the river.

  18. Stream restoration hydraulic design course: lecture notes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Newbury, R

    2002-01-01

    Steam restoration encompasses a broad range of activities and disciplines. This lecture series is designed for practitioners who must fit habitat improvement works in the hydraulics of degraded channels...

  19. Drawing a pictogram operator - hydraulic stowing assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukhgol' ts, V.P.; Dinershtein, V.A.

    1984-11-01

    Hydraulic stowing is widely used during the extraction of coal from seams prone to spontaneous ignition or from seams situated under preserved structures. Experience has shown that the presence of a considerable number of controlling and measuring devices on hydraulic stowing assemblies results in erratic operations. The authors, after examining the controls of the hydraulic stowing complexes, recommend that all functions which the operator might perform badly or not at all should be controlled automatically. The operator must, however, have access to manual controls which should be included in the system in order to achieve an effective and trouble free operation. The authors propose a pictogram to explain the relationship between the human operator and the hydraulic complex, based on structural diagrams. The system developed, which was tried out at the Koksovaya mine, increased the efficiency of the complex and reduced the work load of the operator. 3 references.

  20. HYDRAULICS, Des Moines COUNTY, IOWA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  1. Hydraulic fracturing chemicals and fluids technology

    CERN Document Server

    Fink, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    When classifying fracturing fluids and their additives, it is important that production, operation, and completion engineers understand which chemical should be utilized in different well environments. A user's guide to the many chemicals and chemical additives used in hydraulic fracturing operations, Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Fluids Technology provides an easy-to-use manual to create fluid formulations that will meet project-specific needs while protecting the environment and the life of the well. Fink creates a concise and comprehensive reference that enables the engineer to logically select and use the appropriate chemicals on any hydraulic fracturing job. The first book devoted entirely to hydraulic fracturing chemicals, Fink eliminates the guesswork so the engineer can select the best chemicals needed on the job while providing the best protection for the well, workers and environment. Pinpoints the specific compounds used in any given fracturing operation Provides a systematic approach to class...

  2. Transputer Control of Hydraulic Actuators and Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1996-01-01

    Results from a Danish mechatronics research program entitled IMCIA - Intelligent Control and Intelligent Actuators. The objective is development of intelligent actuators for intelligent motion control. A mechatronics test facility with a transputer controlled hydraulic robot suiteable for real...

  3. 46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic starting. 112.50-3 Section 112.50-3 Shipping... POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting. A hydraulic starting system must meet the following: (a) The hydraulic starting system must be...

  4. 21 CFR 870.2780 - Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric... § 870.2780 Hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric plethysmographs. (a) Identification. A hydraulic... using hydraulic, pneumatic, or photoelectric measurement techniques. (b) Classification. Class...

  5. RESEARCH OF THE DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS ON A NEW HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OF ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC HAMMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new typed hydraulic system of electro-hydraulic hammer is researched and developed.By means of power bond graphs the modeling and simulation to the dynamic characteristics of the new hydraulic system are performed. The experimental research which is emphasized on the blowing stroke is also performed. It is proved from the result of simulation and experiment that this new hydraulic system possesses such advantages as simplification of structure,flexibleness of operation and reliability of working. Especially it possesses better dynamic characteristics.

  6. Design of a laboratory hydraulic device for testing of hydraulic pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Máchal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution deals with solves problem of research of testing device to monitor of hydrostatic pumps durability about dynamic loading under laboratory conditions. When carrying out the design of testing device are based on load characteristics of tractor hydraulic circuit, the individual characteristics of hydraulic components and performed calculations. Load characteristics on the tractors CASE IH Magnum 310, JOHN DEERE 8100, ZETOR FORTERRA 114 41 and Fendt 926 Vario were measured. Design of a hydraulic laboratory device is based on the need for testing new types of hydraulic pumps or various types of hydraulic fluids. When creating of hydraulic device we focused on testing hydraulic pumps used in agricultural and forestry tractors. Proportional pressure control valve is an active member of the hydraulic device, which provides change of a continuous control signal into relative pressure of operating fluid. The advantage of a designed hydraulic system is possibility of simulation of dynamic operating loading, which is obtained by measurement under real conditions, and thereby creates laboratory conditions as close to real conditions as possible. The laboratory device is constructed at the Department of Transport and Handling, Faculty of Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra.

  7. Characterization of a hydraulically induced bedrock fracture

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a controversial practice because of concerns about environmental impacts due to its widespread use in recovering unconventional petroleum and natural gas deposits. However, water-only hydraulic fracturing has been used safely and successfully for many years to increase the permeability of aquifers used for drinking and irrigation water supply. This process extends and widens existing bedrock fractures, allowing groundwater storage to increase. Researchers have studied ...

  8. FEEDBACK LINEARISATION APPLIED ON A HYDRAULIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.;

    2005-01-01

    Generally most hydraulic systems are intrensically non-linear, why applying linear control techniques typically results in conservatively dimensioned controllers to obtain stable performance. Non-linear control techniques have the potential of overcoming these problems, and in this paper the focus...... is on developing and applying several different feedback linearisation (FL) controllers to the individual servo actuators in a hydraulically driven servo robot to evaluate and compare their possiblities and limitations. This is done based on both simulation and experimental results....

  9. Data Analytics of Hydraulic Fracturing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jovan Yang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Viswanathan, Hari [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffery [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Middleton, Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    These are a set of slides on the data analytics of hydraulic fracturing data. The conclusions from this research are the following: they proposed a permeability evolution as a new mechanism to explain hydraulic fracturing trends; they created a model to include this mechanism and it showed promising results; the paper from this research is ready for submission; they devised a way to identify and sort refractures in order to study their effects, and this paper is currently being written.

  10. Hydraulic Motor Driving Variable-Pitch System for Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye HUANG

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism of wind turbine uses three hydraulic cylinders to drive three crank and connecting rod mechanisms respectively; the blades are moved with the cranks. The hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism has complex structure, occupies a lot of space and its maintenance is trouble. In order to make up for the shortcomings of hydraulic cylinder variable-pitch system, the present hydraulic variable-pitch mechanism should be changed as follows: hydraulic motors are used to drive gears; gears drive blades; the electro-hydraulic proportional valves are used to control hydraulic motors. The hydraulic control part and electrical control part of variable-pitch system is redesigned. The new variable-pitch system is called hydraulic motor driving variable-pitch system. The new variable-pitch system meets the control requirements of blade pitch, makes the structure simple and its application effect is perfect.    

  11. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Soil Redistribution in a Heterogeneous Shrub Dominated Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pelt, R. S.; Zobeck, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Redistribution of soil by wind results when the erosive force of the wind impacts bare, susceptible soil surfaces. In semi-arid and arid environments, many grasslands with protected surfaces are being replaced by heterogeneous shrub communities with bare, susceptible soil surfaces between the individual shrubs. The development of nutrient islands and the increases of fugitive dust in these areas is indicative of increases of soil redistribution, but few quantitative measurements have been made to date. We fenced three 1 ha areas in an approximately 100 ha coppice dune area of southeast New Mexico dominated by shinnery oak, sand sage, and mesquite and installed a 4 X 4 grid of MWAC sampler masts spaced at 20 m from each other. Weather data were collected at an automated weather station in each of the fenced areas. We found the patterns of soil redistribution to be highly variable in space and time. Differences in vegetation patterns and wind fields were noted among the plots for the same discrete time period that could explain some of the spatial variability. We also noted seasonality of wind fields that accounted for the temporally variable spatial patterns of soil redistribution. We conclude that accurate measurement of soil redistribution patterns in a heterogeneous shrub community requires a very large number of samplers and a long period of study and we believe that net soil loss from an area is limited to fine dust emissions.

  12. Antibodies against analogous heptad repeat peptide HR212 of Newcastle Disease Virus inhibit virus-cell membrane fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; TIEN Po

    2007-01-01

    Membrane fusion is a key step in enveloped virus entry. Highly conserved heptad repeat regions (HR1 and HR2) of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) fusion protein (F) are critical functional domains for viral membrane fusion. They display different conformations in the membrane fusion states and are viewed as candidate targets for neutralizing antibody responses. We previously reported that an analog of heptad repeat peptides HR2-HR1-HR2(HR212) and HR2 could inhibit NDV induced cell-cell membrane fusion. Here, we show that HR212 can induce the production of highly potent antibody in immunized rabbits, which could recognize full length peptides of both HR1 and HR2, and inhibit NDV hemagglutination and NDV entry. These suggest that either HR212 or its antibody could be an inhibitor of virus-induced cell-cell membrane fusion.

  13. A Preliminary Description of the Moisture Moment Method to Describe Unsaturated Soil Hydraulic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyner, J. S.; Cihan, A.; Lee, J.; Gentry, R. W.

    2007-12-01

    We will present a new experimental procedure to elicit unsaturated soil hydraulic properties from a bench-scale test. A slightly wetted horizontal soil column is hung from two load cells and water is slowly injected into one end. A data logger records the cumulative change of force acting on each load cell due to redistribution of water. A tensiometer present at the inlet measures soil tension throughout the test. Unlike previous horizontal infiltration tests, the proposed technique does not necessitate maintaining a constant water content at the inlet/outlet of the soil column (i.e. no Boltzmann transformation). By analyzing the change in forces on the two load cells, one can describe water retention curve and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity curve. In the future, we plan to test the procedure on a range of soil textures from sand to clay. We will validate our water retention curve predictions by measuring the actual water retention within the column using a computer controlled gamma-ray attenuation system. The new method requires a few hours to more than a day.

  14. In-situ neutron diffraction measurement of stress redistribution in a dissimilar joint during heat treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodge, M.F., E-mail: michael.dodge@twi.co.uk [TWI Ltd., Great Abington, Cambridge CB21 6AL (United Kingdom); Gittos, M.F. [TWI Ltd., Great Abington, Cambridge CB21 6AL (United Kingdom); Dong, H. [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Zhang, S.Y.; Kabra, S.; Kelleher, J.F. [ISIS, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-11

    Neutron diffraction is routinely used to monitor stress redistribution before and after heat treatment in dissimilar joints. However there remains a paucity of information concerning the evolution of strain throughout the process of heat treatment itself. Due to different mechanical properties between opposing sides, a competitive strain redistribution process occurs. Consequently, a novel in-situ measurement approach has been developed: strains at multiple points in a dissimilar joint have been measured during heat treatment. Thus, the described work elucidates areas within the thermal cycle in which competitive strain redistribution occurs, and where high residual stresses remain, following PWHT. The method may be used to characterise comparable material combinations, with a view to optimising the thermal cycles, and ultimately, the structural integrity of dissimilar joints.

  15. Photonic superdiffusive motion in resonance line radiation trapping - partial frequency redistribution effects

    CERN Document Server

    Alves-Pereira, A R; Martinho, J M G; Berberan-Santos, M N

    2007-01-01

    The relation between the jump length probability distribution function and the spectral line profile in resonance atomic radiation trapping is considered for Partial Frequency Redistribution (PFR) between absorbed and reemitted radiation. The single line Opacity Distribution Function [M.N. Berberan-Santos et.al. J.Chem.Phys. 125, 174308 (2006)] is generalized for PFR and used to discuss several possible redistribution mechanisms (pure Doppler broadening, combined natural and Doppler broadening and combined Doppler, natural and collisional broadening). It is shown that there are two coexisting scales with a different behavior: the small scale is controlled by the intricate PFR details while the large scale is essentially given by the atom rest frame redistribution asymptotic. The pure Doppler and combined natural, Doppler and collisional broadening are characterized by both small and large scale superdiffusive Levy flight behaviors while the combined natural and Doppler case has an anomalous small scale behavi...

  16. Rapid redistribution and inhibition of renal sodium transporters during acute pressure natriuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y; Mircheff, A K; Hensley, C B

    1996-01-01

    Acute arterial hypertension provokes a rapid decrease in proximal tubule (PT) Na+ reabsorption, increasing flow to the macula densa, the signal for tubuloglomerular feedback. We tested the hypothesis, in rats, that Na+ transport is decreased due to rapid redistribution of apical Na+/H+ exchangers...... natriuretic stimuli, cortex was removed, and membranes were fractionated by density gradient centrifugation. Urine output and endogenous lithium clearance increased threefold in response to either stimuli. Acute hypertension provoked a redistribution of apical Na+/H+ exchanger NHE3, alkaline phosphatase...... is attributed to decreased activity of the transporters. Benzolamide did not alter Na+ transporter activity or distribution, implying that decreasing apical Na+ uptake does not initiate redistribution or inhibition of basolateral Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. We conclude that PT natriuresis provoked by acute arterial...

  17. Emergency Vehicle Dispatching and Redistribution in Highway Network Based on Bilevel Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Duan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Response time is a key factor in the emergency vehicle dispatching problem. Because regional emergency vehicles are limited, vehicle gaps will be created in the rescue station after vehicles are dispatched to several accidents, which affects quick response to the subsequent incidents. To solve this problem, a bilevel programming model for emergency vehicle dispatching and redistribution is established, of which the optimal objectives are the shortest rescue time for current accidents and the shortest time for vehicle redistribution, and the key constraints are emergency vehicle requirements and accident time windows. In the precondition of effective rescue of current accidents, emergency vehicles are redistributed according to the potential risks in the rescue station coverage area. A bilevel shuffled frog leaping algorithm is proposed to solve the bilevel programming model. The dispatching results of examples show that the model conforms to dispatching decision rule and the bilevel shuffled frog leaping algorithm can resolve the bilevel programming model fast and efficiently.

  18. A framework for the comparative analysis of HR Shared Services Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarouk, Tanya; Bondarouk, Tanya; Ruel, Huub; Looise, Jan Kees

    2011-01-01

    While there is a growing body of research demonstrating that HR Shared Services can offer a value-creating structure for HRM within organizations, there remains considerable room for improving our understanding of it. The premise of this chapter is that the mixture of HR Shared Services outcomes lea

  19. Data-driven HR how to use analytics and metrics to drive performance

    CERN Document Server

    Marr, Bernard

    2018-01-01

    Traditionally seen as a purely people function unconcerned with numbers, HR is now uniquely placed to use company data to drive performance, both of the people in the organization and the organization as a whole. Data-driven HR is a practical guide which enables HR practitioners to leverage the value of the vast amount of data available at their fingertips. Covering how to identify the most useful sources of data, how to collect information in a transparent way that is in line with data protection requirements and how to turn this data into tangible insights, this book marks a turning point for the HR profession. Covering all the key elements of HR including recruitment, employee engagement, performance management, wellbeing and training, Data-driven HR examines the ways data can contribute to organizational success by, among other things, optimizing processes, driving performance and improving HR decision making. Packed with case studies and real-life examples, this is essential reading for all HR profession...

  20. Does alignment matter? The performance implications of HR roles connected to organizational strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, B.S.; Giurge, L.M.

    2017-01-01

    For the HR function to have a positive impact on performance and thus strategically add value to the organization, it has been suggested to redefine its traditional operational role. However, to gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between these HR roles and performance, their alignment

  1. ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECT OF SYSTEMATIC RESEARCH AND ANALYSES OF HUMAN RESOURCES (HR) POTENTIAL IN THE NUCLEAR INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolay I. Ishchenko

    2013-01-01

    The article observes organizational aspects of systematic approach to HR development in the areas of scientific industries, which uses and explores socially dangerous technologies. Specific aspects of the nuclear industry as a large scientific and production area have been observed in the article. Major steps and results of systematic HR research have been formulated. 

  2. The HR96 activator, atrazine, reduces sensitivity of D. magna to triclosan and DHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Namrata; Litoff, Elizabeth J; Baldwin, William S

    2015-06-01

    HR96 is a CAR/PXR/VDR ortholog in invertebrates, and a promiscuous endo- and xenobiotic nuclear receptor involved in acclimation to toxicants. Daphnia HR96 is activated by chemicals such as atrazine and linoleic acid (LA) (n-6 fatty acid), and inhibited by triclosan and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (n-3 fatty acid). We hypothesized that inhibitors of HR96 may block the protective responses of HR96 based on previously performed luciferase assays. Therefore, we performed acute toxicity tests with two-chemical mixtures containing a HR96 inhibitor (DHA or triclosan) and a HR96 activator (LA or atrazine). Surprisingly, results demonstrate that triclosan and DHA are less toxic when co-treated with 20-80 μM atrazine. Atrazine provides concentration-dependent protection as lower concentrations have no effect and higher concentrations cause toxicity. LA, a weaker HR96 activator, did not provide protection from triclosan or DHA. Atrazine's protective effects are presumably due to its ability to activate HR96 or other toxicologically relevant transcription factors and induce protective enzymes. Atrazine did not significantly induce glucosyltransferase, a crucial enzyme in triclosan detoxification. However, atrazine did increase antioxidant activities, crucial pathways in triclosan's toxicity, as measured through GST activity and the TROLOX equivalence assay. The increase in antioxidant capacity is consistent with atrazine providing protection from a wide range of toxicants that induce ROS, including triclosan and unsaturated fatty acids predisposed to lipid peroxidation.

  3. How can HR practices support front-end innovation and increase the innovativeness of companies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth; Andersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    ' innovativeness. If HR is to support these activities, focus should be on broader issues such as team-based organising, founded on a questioning attitude and a management style with a high level of empowerment. In addition, traditional HR themes such as recruitment, training and development have...

  4. Gallium-67 scanning at 6 hr in active inflammatory bowel disease: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, L.R.; Griep, R.J.; Schuffler, M.D.; Silliman, R.A.

    1977-05-01

    Gallium citrate scanning at 6 hr was used to evaluate a patient with active ulcerative colitis. The localization of /sup 67/Ga in the colon correlated with the extent of the inflammatory process. When either colonoscopy or radiographic contrast studies are contraindicated, /sup 67/Ga scanning at 6 hr may prove useful in the evaluation of active inflammatory bowel disease.

  5. Beyond shared savings : a multilevel analysis of the perceived value of HR shared services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Human Resource Shared Service Centers are introduced by organizations with the aim to create value for employees and managers. Although several studies uncovered the value potential of HR shared services (e.g. possibilities for reducing costs, improving HR service quality and increasing the strategi

  6. Hydraulic Conductivity Anisotropy of Heterogeneous Unsaturated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongmin; Zhu, Jianting

    2010-05-01

    The effects of saturation degree (or capillary pressure) on hydraulic conductivity anisotropy in unsaturated soils have not been fully understood. This study developed an approach based on a conceptualization of combining the neural network based pedo-transfer function (PTF) results with the thin layer concept to explore the capillary pressure-dependent anisotropy in relation to soil texture and soil bulk density. The main objective is to examine how anisotropy characteristics are related to the relationships between hydraulic parameters and the basic soil attributes such as texture and bulk density. The hydraulic parameters are correlated with the texture and bulk density based on the pedo-transfer function (PTF) results. It is demonstrated that non-monotonic behavior of the unsaturated soil anisotropy in relation to the capillary pressure is only observed when the saturated hydraulic conductivity and the shape parameter are both related to the mean particle diameter. When only one hydraulic parameter is related to the grain diameter or when both are not related to the same attribute simultaneously, the unsaturated soil anisotropy increases monotonically with the increasing capillary pressure head. Therefore, it is suggested that this behavior is mainly due to the coupled dependence of the layer saturated hydraulic conductivities and the shape factors on the texture and bulk density. The correlation between the soil grain diameter and bulk density decreases the anisotropy effects of the unsaturated layered soils. The study illustrates that the inter-relationships of soil texture, bulk density, and hydraulic properties may cause vastly different characteristics of anisotropic unsaturated soils.

  7. Effects of HR-592, a new derivative of indole, on conditioned behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ichimaru,Yasuyuki

    1990-02-01

    Full Text Available Effects of HR-592, a new derivative of indole, on conditioned avoidance and intracranial self-stimulation behavior were investigated in rats using a shuttle box and a Skinner box, respectively. The oral administration of HR-592 at doses of 3-10 mg/kg caused a dose-dependent suppression of the conditioned avoidance response. Even the escape response was slightly suppressed in the group administered 10 mg/kg of HR-592. The self-stimulation behavior was suppressed dose-dependently from 1 to 8 h after the administration of 6-10 mg/kg of HR-592. These results indicate that the action of HR-592 on conditioned avoidance response and intracranial self-stimulation behavior is similar to the action of neuroleptics.

  8. Change of offices for HR Department - disrupted service during the last week of February 2013

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    HR Department would like to inform that, due to office renovation work, a number of HR Services currently located on the ground, first and second floors of Building 5 will move to temporary offices as from late February.   The removals will take place from Friday 22 until Tuesday 26 February 2013 inclusive and during this period, telephone and e-mail contact may be disrupted. The following services will be relocated to: Building 510  – ground floor (until mid-June) Head of Department and Deputy Office of the Head of HR Department Group Leaders and Partners Diversity Office HR Legal Section Building 652 – Prefab/Algeco (until September) Human Resources Advisors and assistants Staff Recruitment Service Fellows & Apprentices Service Students & Associates Service Temporary office numbers will be available in the CERN phonebook. Any emergencies during the removals may be addressed to Lynda.Leroux@cern.ch Thank you in advance for your understanding. HR Head O...

  9. Thermal-hydraulic modeling and analysis of hydraulic system by pseudo-bond graph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡均平; 李科军

    2015-01-01

    To increase the efficiency and reliability of the thermodynamics analysis of the hydraulic system, the method based on pseudo-bond graph is introduced. According to the working mechanism of hydraulic components, they can be separated into two categories: capacitive components and resistive components. Then, the thermal-hydraulic pseudo-bond graphs of capacitive C element and resistance R element were developed, based on the conservation of mass and energy. Subsequently, the connection rule for the pseudo-bond graph elements and the method to construct the complete thermal-hydraulic system model were proposed. On the basis of heat transfer analysis of a typical hydraulic circuit containing a piston pump, the lumped parameter mathematical model of the system was given. The good agreement between the simulation results and experimental data demonstrates the validity of the modeling method.

  10. Exploring the central characteristics of HR shared services: evidence from a critical case study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, J.G.; Bondarouk, T.V.

    2012-01-01

    Human resource shared service centers (HR SSCs) are foreseen as improving HR service delivery for their end-users: employees, line managers and decentralized HR professionals. Although the concept expects the benefits of HR SSCs to come from centralizing knowledge and decentralizing the control exer

  11. Extensions to decomposition of the redistributive effect of health care finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Hai

    2009-10-01

    The total redistributive effect (RE) of health-care finance has been decomposed into vertical, horizontal and reranking effects. The vertical effect has been further decomposed into tax rate and tax structure effects. We extend this latter decomposition to the horizontal and reranking components of the RE. We also show how to measure the vertical, horizontal and reranking effects of each component of the redistributive system, allowing analysis of the RE of health-care finance in the context of that system. The methods are illustrated with application to the RE of health-care financing in Canada.

  12. A new generalization of the proportional conflict redistribution rule stable in terms of decision

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, we present and discuss a new generalized proportional conflict redistribution rule. The Dezert-Smarandache extension of the Demster-Shafer theory has relaunched the studies on the combination rules especially for the management of the conflict. Many combination rules have been proposed in the last few years. We study here different combination rules and compare them in terms of decision on didactic example and on generated data. Indeed, in real applications, we need a reliable decision and it is the final results that matter. This chapter shows that a fine proportional conflict redistribution rule must be preferred for the combination in the belief function theory.

  13. A Generalized Kawasaki-Type Dynamics with Spin-Pair Redistribution Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建阳; 朱涵

    2002-01-01

    We generalize Kawasaki's dynamics, spin-pair exchange mechanism, to a spin-pair redistribution mechanism,and we present a normalized redistribution probability. As an application, we treat the one-dimensional kinetic Gaussian model and obtain the exact diffusion equation and the temperature-dependent diffusion coefficient. We find that the diffusion process can slow down infinitely near the critical point and obtain the critical dynamic exponent z = 2 that is independent of the assumed mechanism, either Glauber-type or Kawasaki-type.

  14. INFLUENCE OF CARBON CONTENT OF MARTENSITE STEELS ON HARDNESS RE-DISTRIBUTION NEAR WORN SURFACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.P. Ma

    2002-01-01

    After three-body abrasion, the hardness re-distribution near the worn surface has aclose relationship with the carbon content of martensite steel. It is considered thatthere is a competition between the work-hardening and the temper softening, whichresults from deformation and friction heat of material. When the carbon content ofmartensite steel is below about 0.6%, the subsurface hardness distribution of materialis a softened layer sandwiched between two hardened layers, but above 0.6%C, nosoftened region appears on the hardness re-distribution curve.

  15. The hydraulic jump in radially spreading flow: A new model and new experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackford, B. L.

    1996-02-01

    A new model for the hydraulic jump in radially spreading flow is presented. The equation of motion for a liquid annulus spreading out under the influence of hydrostatic pressure gradient and Frictional drag is developed. The resulting nonlinear differential equation for the liquid depth, h(r), is solved by computer simulation. The jump is assumed to begin when the laminar flow is engulfed by the underlying boundary layer liquid, as suggested recently in the literature. This complicated mixing process is crudely modeled by a drag term which slows the flow and initiates a positive feedback mechanism culminating at a new critical depth, beyond which the depth increases asymptotically to a final value. The model predicts a new relationship between the laminar flow depth just before the jump and the final depth. An experimental apparatus was built to make detailed measurements of the depth h(r), both in the region before the jump and beyond the jump. The theoretical predictions were compared to the experimental data, and gave surprisingly good agreement by suitable adjustment of the two parameters k and C of the model. The parameter k determines the growth rate of the boundary layer thickness, and C determines the drag force. The results suggest that the usual textbook assumption of zero momentum loss across the jump is not appropriate for this type of hydraulic jump. The case of a hydraulic jump in the absence of gravity is considered also and a much different behavior is predicted, which could be tested by experiment in a microgravity environment.

  16. Effect of Natural Fractures on Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Y.; Wang, Y.; Shi, G.

    2012-12-01

    Hydraulic Fracturing has been used successfully in the oil and gas industry to enhance oil and gas production in the past few decades. Recent years have seen the great development of tight gas, coal bed methane and shale gas. Natural fractures are believed to play an important role in the hydraulic fracturing of such formations. Whether natural fractures can benefit the fracture propagation and enhance final production needs to be studied. Various methods have been used to study the effect of natural fractures on hydraulic fracturing. Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA) is a numerical method which belongs to the family of discrete element methods. In this paper, DDA is coupled with a fluid pipe network model to simulate the pressure response in the formation during hydraulic fracturing. The focus is to study the effect of natural fractures on hydraulic fracturing. In particular, the effect of rock joint properties, joint orientations and rock properties on fracture initiation and propagation will be analyzed. The result shows that DDA is a promising tool to study such complex behavior of rocks. Finally, the advantages of disadvantages of our current model and future research directions will be discussed.

  17. Microbial effect on soil hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, Alex; Rosenzweig, Ravid; Volk, Elazar; Rosenkranz, Hella; Iden, Sascha; Durner, Wolfgang

    2014-05-01

    Although largely ignored, the soil contains large amount of biofilms (attached microbes) that can affect many processes. While biochemical processes are studied, biophysical processes receive only little attention. Biofilms may occupy some of the pore space, and by that affect the soil hydraulic properties. This effect on unsaturated soils, however, was not intensively studied. In this research we directly measure the hydraulic properties, namely the soil's unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function and retention curve, for soils containing real biofilm. To do that we inoculate soil with biofilm-forming bacteria and incubate it with sufficient amounts of nutrient until biofilm is formed. The hydraulic properties of the incubated soil are then measured using several techniques, including multi-step outflow and evaporation method. The longer measurements (evaporation method) are conducted under refrigeration conditions to minimize microbial activity during the experiment. The results show a clear effect of the biofilm, where the biofilm-affected soil (sandy loam in our case) behaves like a much finer soil. This qualitatively makes sense as the biofilm generates an effective pore size distribution that is characterized by smaller pores. However, the effect is much more complex and needs to be studied carefully considering (for example) dual porosity models. We compare our preliminary results with other experiments, including flow-through column experiments and experiments with biofilm analogues. Clearly a better understanding of the way microbial activity alters the hydraulic properties may help designing more efficient bioremediation, irrigation, and other soil-related processes.

  18. Vibration Isolation for Parallel Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    The M. Nguyen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, several types of hybrid vehicles have been developed in order to improve the fuel economy and to reduce the pollution. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV have shown a significant improvement in fuel efficiency for small and medium-sized passenger vehicles and SUVs. HEV has several limitations when applied to heavy vehicles; one is that larger vehicles demand more power, which requires significantly larger battery capacities. As an alternative solution, hydraulic hybrid technology has been found effective for heavy duty vehicle because of its high power density. The mechanical batteries used in hydraulic hybrid vehicles (HHV can be charged and discharged remarkably faster than chemical batteries. This feature is essential for heavy vehicle hybridization. One of the main problems that should be solved for the successful commercialization of HHV is the excessive noise and vibration involving with the hydraulic systems. This study focuses on using magnetorheological (MR technology to reduce the noise and vibration transmissibility from the hydraulic system to the vehicle body. In order to study the noise and vibration of HHV, a hydraulic hybrid subsystem in parallel design is analyzed. This research shows that the MR elements play an important role in reducing the transmitted noise and vibration to the vehicle body. Additionally, locations and orientations of the isolation system also affect the efficiency of the noise and vibration mitigation. In simulations, a skyhook control algorithm is used to achieve the highest possible effectiveness of the MR isolation system.

  19. HR-ICP-MS an appropriate technique to leachate characterization study; HR-ICP-MS - metodo adequado para o estudo de caracterizacao de chorumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabaleiro, Selma Lopes; Oliveira, Arno Heeren de; Cabaleiro, Henrique Lopes [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: cabal1@terra.com.br; heeren@nuclear.ufmg.br; hcabaleiro@hotmail.com

    2005-07-01

    The determination of toxic elements, in samples of leachate from the water drainage through the mass of waste disposed at a place without sanitary control closer to the Lixao de Contagem, has used High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS). The samples were collected in two seasons, considering the wet and dry seasons. The results confirmed the leachate's pollutant load by the presence of metals like Al, Cd, Zn, Cu, As, and also confirmed that HR-ICP-MS is an appropriate technique to the studies of metal distribution, at the trace level and ultra traces, in environmental matrices. (author)

  20. A Computational Model of Hydraulic Volume Displacement Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pil'gunov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a computational model of industrial-purpose hydraulic drive with two hydraulic volume adjustable working chamber machines (pump and motor. Adjustable pump equipped with the pressure control unit can be run together with several adjustable hydraulic motors on the principle of three-phase hydraulic socket-outlet with high-pressure lines, drain, and drainage system. The paper considers the pressure-controlled hydrostatic transmission with hydraulic motor as an output link. It shows a possibility to create a saving hydraulic drive using a functional tie between the adjusting parameters of the pump and hydraulic motor through the pressure difference, torque, and angular rate of the hydraulic motor shaft rotation. The programmable logic controller can implement such tie. The Coulomb and viscous frictions are taken into consideration when developing a computational model of the hydraulic volume displacement drive. Discharge balance considers external and internal leakages in equivalent clearances of hydraulic machines, as well as compression loss volume caused by hydraulic fluid compressibility and deformation of pipe walls. To correct dynamic properties of hydraulic drive, the paper offers that in discharge balance are included the additional regulated external leakages in the open circuit of hydraulic drive and regulated internal leakages in the closed-loop circuit. Generalized differential equations having functional multipliers and multilinked nature have been obtained to describe the operation of hydraulic positioning and speed drive with two hydraulic volume adjustable working chamber machines. It is shown that a proposed computational model of hydraulic drive can be taken into consideration in development of LS («Load-Sensing» drives, in which the pumping pressure is tuned to the value required for the most loaded slave motor to overcome the load. Results attained can be used both in designing the industrial-purpose heavy

  1. Measurement and evaluation of static characteristics of rotary hydraulic motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hružík Lumír

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes experimental equipment for measurement of static characteristics of rotary hydraulic motor. It is possible to measure flow, pressure, temperature, speed and torque by means of this equipment. It deals with measurement of static characteristics of a gear rotary hydraulic motor. Mineral oil is used as hydraulic liquid in this case. Flow, torque and speed characteristics are evaluated from measured parameters. Measured mechanical-hydraulic, flow and total efficiencies of the rotary hydraulic motor are adduced in the paper. It is possible to diagnose technical conditions of the hydraulic motor (eventually to recommend its exchange from the experimental measurements.

  2. Promoting water hydraulics in Malaysia: A green educational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Ahmad Anas; Zaili, Zarin Syukri; Hassan, Siti Nor Habibah; Tuan, Tee Boon; Saadun, Mohd Noor Asril; Ibrahim, Mohd Qadafie

    2014-10-01

    In promoting water hydraulics in Malaysia, this paper presents research development of water hydraulics educational training system for secondary and tertiary levels in Malaysia. Water hydraulics trainer with robotic attachment has been studied in order to promote the usefulness of such educational tools in promoting sustainability and green technology in the country. The trainer is being developed in order to allow constructive curriculum development and continuous marketing research for the effectiveness and usefulness of using water in hydraulic power trainer. The research on water-based hydraulic trainer is now possible with the current development in water hydraulics technology.

  3. Hydraulic characterization of hydrothermally altered Nopal tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R.T.; Meyer-James, K.A. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Rice, G. [George Rice and Associates, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Understanding the mechanics of variably saturated flow in fractured-porous media is of fundamental importance to evaluating the isolation performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository for the Yucca Mountain site. Developing that understanding must be founded on the analysis and interpretation of laboratory and field data. This report presents an analysis of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of tuff cores from the Pena Blanca natural analog site in Mexico. The basic intent of the analysis was to examine possible trends and relationships between the hydraulic properties and the degree of hydrothermal alteration exhibited by the tuff samples. These data were used in flow simulations to evaluate the significance of a particular conceptual (composite) model and of distinct hydraulic properties on the rate and nature of water flow.

  4. Simulation of a Hydraulic Pump Control Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molen, G. Vander; Akers, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the mode of operation of a control valve assembly that is used with a hydraulic pump. The operating system of the valve is modelled in a simplified form, and an analogy for hydraulic resonance of the pressure sensing system is presented. For the control valve investigated, air entrainment, length and diameter of the resonator neck, and valve mass produced the greatest shift in resonant frequency. Experimental work was conducted on the hydraulic system so that the resonance levels and frequencies could be measured and the accuracy of the theory verified. The results obtained make it possible to evaluate what changes to any of the variables considered would be most effective in driving the second harmonic frequency above the operating range.

  5. Soil Structure and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houskova, B.; Nagy, V.

    The role of soil structure on saturated hydraulic conductivity changes is studied in plough layers of texturally different soils. Three localities in western part of Slovakia in Zitny ostrov (Corn Island) were under investigation: locality Kalinkovo with light Calcaric Fluvisol (FAO 1970), Macov with medium heavy Calcari-mollic Fluvisol and Jurova with heavy Calcari-mollic Fluvisol. Soil structure was determined in dry as well as wet state and in size of macro and micro aggregates. Saturated hydraulic conductivity was measured by the help of double ring method. During the period of ring filling the soil surface was protected against aggregates damage by falling water drops. Spatial and temporal variability of studied parameters was evaluated. Cultivated crops were ensilage maize at medium heavy and heavy soil and colza at light soil. Textural composition of soil and actual water content at the beginning of measurement are one of major factor affecting aggregate stability and consequently also saturated hydraulic conductivity.

  6. Universal asymptotic umbrella for hydraulic fracture modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Linkov, Aleksandr M

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents universal asymptotic solution needed for efficient modeling of hydraulic fractures. We show that when neglecting the lag, there is universal asymptotic equation for the near-front opening. It appears that apart from the mechanical properties of fluid and rock, the asymptotic opening depends merely on the local speed of fracture propagation. This implies that, on one hand, the global problem is ill-posed, when trying to solve it as a boundary value problem under a fixed position of the front. On the other hand, when properly used, the universal asymptotics drastically facilitates solving hydraulic fracture problems (both analytically and numerically). We derive simple universal asymptotics and comment on their employment for efficient numerical simulation of hydraulic fractures, in particular, by well-established Level Set and Fast Marching Methods.

  7. Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

    2007-09-13

    The self-potential (SP) response during hydraulic fracturing of intact Sierra granite was investigated in the laboratory. Excellent correlation of pressure drop and SP suggests that the SP response is created primarily by electrokinetic coupling. For low pressures, the variation of SP with pressure drop is linear, indicating a constant coupling coefficient (Cc) of -200 mV/MPa. However for pressure drops >2 MPa, the magnitude of the Cc increases by 80% in an exponential trend. This increasing Cc is related to increasing permeability at high pore pressures caused by dilatancy of micro-cracks, and is explained by a decrease in the hydraulic tortuosity. Resistivity measurements reveal a decrease of 2% prior to hydraulic fracturing and a decrease of {approx}35% after fracturing. An asymmetric spatial SP response created by injectate diffusion into dilatant zones is observed prior to hydraulic fracturing, and in most cases this SP variation revealed the impending crack geometry seconds before failure. At rupture, injectate rushes into the new fracture area where the zeta potential is different than in the rock porosity, and an anomalous SP spike is observed. After fracturing, the spatial SP distribution reveals the direction of fracture propagation. Finally, during tensile cracking in a point load device with no water flow, a SP spike is observed that is caused by contact electrification. However, the time constant of this event is much less than that for transients observed during hydraulic fracturing, suggesting that SP created solely from material fracture does not contribute to the SP response during hydraulic fracturing.

  8. Measurement and modeling of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kim S.; Elango, Lakshmanan

    2011-01-01

    The unsaturated zone plays an extremely important hydrologic role that influences water quality and quantity, ecosystem function and health, the connection between atmospheric and terrestrial processes, nutrient cycling, soil development, and natural hazards such as flooding and landslides. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is one of the main properties considered to govern flow; however it is very difficult to measure accurately. Knowledge of the highly nonlinear relationship between unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K) and volumetric water content is required for widely-used models of water flow and solute transport processes in the unsaturated zone. Measurement of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of sediments is costly and time consuming, therefore use of models that estimate this property from more easily measured bulk-physical properties is common. In hydrologic studies, calculations based on property-transfer models informed by hydraulic property databases are often used in lieu of measured data from the site of interest. Reliance on database-informed predicted values with the use of neural networks has become increasingly common. Hydraulic properties predicted using databases may be adequate in some applications, but not others. This chapter will discuss, by way of examples, various techniques used to measure and model hydraulic conductivity as a function of water content, K. The parameters that describe the K curve obtained by different methods are used directly in Richards’ equation-based numerical models, which have some degree of sensitivity to those parameters. This chapter will explore the complications of using laboratory measured or estimated properties for field scale investigations to shed light on how adequately the processes are represented. Additionally, some more recent concepts for representing unsaturated-zone flow processes will be discussed.

  9. On the Hydraulics of Flowing Horizontal Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, A.; Zhan, H.

    2003-12-01

    A flowing horizontal well is a special type of horizontal well that does not have pumping/injecting facility. The discharge rate of a flowing horizontal well is controlled by the hydraulic gradient between the aquifer and the well and it generally varies with time if the hydraulic head of the aquifer is transient. This type of well has been used in landslide control, mining dewatering, water table control, underground water transportation through a horizontal tunnel, agricultural water drainage, and other applications. Flowing horizontal wells have quite different hydrodynamic characteristics from horizontal wells with fixed pumping or injecting rates because their discharge rates are functions of the aquifer hydraulic heads (Zhan et al, 2001; Zhan and Zlotnik, 2002). Hydraulics of flowing horizontal wells have rarely been studied although the hydraulics of flowing vertical wells have been extensively investigated before. The purpose of this paper is to obtain analytical solutions of groundwater flow to a flowing horizontal-well in a confined aquifer, in a water table aquifer without precipitation, and in a water table aquifer with precipitation. The functions of the flowing horizontal well discharge rates versus time will be obtained under above mentioned different aquifer conditions. The relationships of the aquifer hydraulic heads versus the discharge rates of the well will be investigated. The rate of water table decline due to the dewatering of the well will also be computed, and this solution is particularly useful for landslide control and mining dewatering. The theoretical solutions will be compared with results of experiments that will be conducted in the hydrological laboratory at Texas A&M University. Reference: Zhan, H., Wang, L.V., and Park, E, On the horizontal well pumping tests in the anisotropic confined aquifers, J. hydrol., 252, 37-50, 2001. Zhan, H., and Zlotnik, V. A., Groundwater flow to a horizontal or slanted well in an unconfined aquifer

  10. Thermal Hydraulic Stability in a Coaxial Thermosyphon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jianhui; LU Wenqiang; LI Qing; LI Qiang; ZHOU Yuan

    2005-01-01

    The heat transfer and thermal hydraulic stability in a two-phase thermosyphon with coaxial riser and down-comer has been experimentally investigated and theoretically analyzed to facilitate its application in cold neutron source. The flow in a coaxial thermosyphon was studied experimentally for a variety of heating rates, transfer tube lengths, charge capacities, and area ratios. A numerical analysis of the hydraulic balance between the driving pressure head and the resistance loss has also been performed. The results show that the presented coaxial thermosyphon has dynamic performance advantages relative to natural circulation in a boiling water reactor.

  11. Large-eddy simulation in hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Rodi, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Complex turbulence phenomena are of great practical importance in hydraulics, including environmental flows, and require advanced methods for their successful computation. The Large Eddy Simulation (LES), in which the larger-scale turbulent motion is directly resolved and only the small-scale motion is modelled, is particularly suited for complex situations with dominant large-scale structures and unsteadiness. Due to the increasing computer power, LES is generally used more and more in Computational Fluid Dynamics. Also in hydraulics, it offers great potential, especially for near-field probl

  12. Mineral resource of the month: hydraulic cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic cements are the binders in concrete and most mortars and stuccos. Concrete, particularly the reinforced variety, is the most versatile of all construction materials, and most of the hydraulic cement produced worldwide is portland cement or similar cements that have portland cement as a basis, such as blended cements and masonry cements. Cement typically makes up less than 15 percent of the concrete mix; most of the rest is aggregates. Not counting the weight of reinforcing media, 1 ton of cement will typically yield about 8 tons of concrete.

  13. Measurement of flow diverter hydraulic resistance to model flow modification in and around intracranial aneurysms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugron, Adám; Szikora, István; Paál, György

    2014-06-01

    Flow diverters (FDs) have been successfully applied in the recent decade to the treatment of intracranial aneurysms by impairing the communication between the flows in the parent artery and the aneurysm and, thus, the blood within the aneurysm sac. It would be desirable to have a simple and accurate computational method to follow the changes in the peri- and intraaneurysmal flow caused by the presence of FDs. The detailed flow simulation around the intricate wire structure of the FDs has three disadvantages: need for high amount of computational resources and highly skilled professionals to prepare the computational grid, and also the lack of validation that makes the invested effort questionable. In this paper, we propose a porous layer method to model the hydraulic resistance (HR) of one or several layers of the FDs. The basis of this proposal is twofold: first, from an application point of view, the only interesting parameter regarding the function of the FD is its HR; second, we have developed a method to measure the HR with a simple apparatus. We present the results of these measurements and demonstrate their utility in numerical simulations of patient-specific aneurysm simulations.

  14. Constituent Redistribution in U-Zr Metallic Fuel Using the Advanced Fuel Performance Code BISON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, Jack D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Matthews, Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Previous work done by Galloway, et. al. on EBR-II ternary (U-Pu-Zr) fuel constituent redistribution yielded accurate simulation data for the limited data sets of Zr redistribution. The data sets included EPMA scans of two different irradiated rods. First, T179, which was irradiated to 1.9 at% burnup, was analyzed. Second, DP16, which was irradiated to 11 at% burnup, was analyzed. One set of parameters that most accurately represented the zirconium profiles for both experiments was determined. Since the binary fuel (U-Zr) has previously been used as the driver fuel for sodium fast reactors (SFR) as well as being the likely driver fuel if a new SFR is constructed, this same process has been initiated on the binary fuel form. From limited binary EPMA scans as well as other fuel characterization techniques, it has been observed that zirconium redistribution also occurs in the binary fuel, albeit at a reduced rate compared to observation in the ternary fuel, as noted by Kim et. al. While the rate of redistribution has been observed to be slower, numerous metallographs of U-Zr fuel show distinct zone formations.

  15. CONTAMINANT REDISTRIBUTION CAN CONFOUND INTERPRETATION OF OIL-SPILL BIOREMEDIATION STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The physical redistribution of oil between the inside and outside of experimental plots can affect the results of bioremediation field studies that are conducted on shorelines contaminated by real oil spills. Because untreated oil from the surrounding beach will enter the plot, ...

  16. A similarity solution for oil lens redistribution including capillary forces and oil entrapment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijke, van J.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    1997-01-01

    Redistribution of a LNAPL lens (oil) at the phreatic surface is described using a multi-phase flow model, with emphasis on the effect of oil entrapment by water. The flow process is analyzed under the assumption that the vertical capillary and gravitational forces balance. Vertical integration leads

  17. Mass Redistribution in the Core and Time-varying Gravity at the Earth's Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Wei-Jia; Chao, Benjamin F.; Fang, Ming

    2003-01-01

    The Earth's liquid outer core is in convection, as suggested by the existence of the geomagnetic field in much of the Earth's history. One consequence of the convection is the redistribution of mass resulting from relative motion among fluid parcels with slightly different densities. This time dependent mass redistribution inside the core produces a small perturbation on the gravity field of the Earth. With our numerical dynamo solutions, we find that the mass redistribution (and the resultant gravity field) symmetric about the equator is much stronger than that anti-symmetric about the equator. In particular, J(sub 2) component is the strongest. In addition, the gravity field variation increases with the Rayleigh number that measures the driving force for the geodynamo in the core. With reasonable scaling from the current dynamo solutions, we could expect that at the surface of the Earth, the J(sub 2) variation from the core is on the order of l0(exp -16)/year relative to the mean (i.e. spherically symmetric) gravity field of the Earth. The possible shielding effect due to core-mantle boundary pressure variation loading is likely much smaller and is therefore negligible. Our results suggest that time-varying gravity field perturbation due to core mass redistribution may be measured with modem space geodetic observations, which will result a new means of detecting dynamical processes in the Earth's deep interior.

  18. Rainfall intensity switches ecohydrological runoff/runon redistribution patterns in dryland vegetation patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliano, Patricio N; Breshears, David D; Fernández, Roberto J; Jobbágy, Esteban G

    2015-12-01

    Effectively managing net primary productivity in drylands for grazing and other uses depends on understanding how limited rainfall input is redistributed by runoff and runon among vegetation patches, particularly for patches that contrast between lesser and greater amounts of vegetation cover. Due in part to data limitations, ecohydrologists generally have focused on rainfall event size to characterize water redistribution processes. Here we use soil moisture data from a semiarid woodland to highlight how, when event size is controlled and runoff and interception are negligible at the stand scale, rainfall intensity drives the relationship between water redistribution and canopy and soil patch attributes. Horizontal water redistribution variability increased with rainfall intensity and differed between patches with contrasting vegetation cover. Sparsely vegetated patches gained relatively more water during lower intensity events, whereas densely vegetated ones gained relatively more water during higher intensity events. Consequently, range managers need to account for the distribution of rainfall event intensity, as well as event size, to assess the consequences of climate variability and change on net primary productivity. More generally, our results suggest that rainfall intensity needs to be considered in addition to event size to understand vegetation patch dynamics in drylands.

  19. DEM resolution effects on shallow landslide hazard and soil redistribution modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, L.F.G.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Schoorl, J.M.; Veldkamp, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the effects of digital elevation model (DEM) resolution on the results of a model that simulates spatially explicit relative shallow landslide hazard and soil redistribution patterns and quantities. We analyse distributions of slope, specific catchment area and relative haza

  20. Preferences on Redistribution in Fragmented Labor Markets in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Berens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the extent to which labor market dualization polarizes preferences on redistribution between formal and informal sector workers in Latin America and the Caribbean. Differences in welfare state costs and benefits for these labor market groups are likely to fuel diverging incentives regarding welfare consumption. The article tests whether or not informal workers are driven mainly by economic self-interest to increase gains from public welfare goods. The study employed a hierarchical model on pooled survey data from the Latin American Public Opinion Project (LAPOP 2008 and 2010 to analyze the risk exposure of formal and informal workers and, subsequently, their preferences on redistribution. The analysis reveals that while economic self-interest is an influential factor for formal workers, it is (unexpectedly much less so for informal workers. Also, an increased economically insecure environment, reflected by high unemployment rates, does not motivate informal workers to an exceptional degree to turn towards the state for redistribution, despite greater exposure to economic risk. Labor market dualization does not translate into polarization at the individual level regarding redistributive preferences in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  1. Strain redistribution around holes and notches in fiber-reinforced cross-woven brittle matrix composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben Krogsdal; Brøndsted, Povl

    1997-01-01

    Mechanics, and an identification procedure based on a uni-axial tensile test and a shear test the strain redistribution around a hole or a notch due to matrix cracking can be predicted. Damage due to fiber breakage is not included in the model. Initial matrix damage in the C-f/SiCm material has...

  2. Redistribution spurs growth by using a portfolio effect on risky human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Jan; Paetzel, Fabian; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate by mathematical analysis and systematic computer simulations that redistribution can lead to sustainable growth in a society. In accordance with economic models of risky human capital, we assume that dynamics of human capital is modeled as a multiplicative stochastic process which, in the long run, leads to the destruction of individual human capital. When agents are linked by fully redistributive taxation the situation might turn to individual growth in the long run. We consider that a government collects a proportion of income and reduces it by a fraction as costs for administration (efficiency losses). The remaining public good is equally redistributed to all agents. Sustainable growth is induced by redistribution despite the losses from the random growth process and despite administrative costs. Growth results from a portfolio effect. The findings are verified for three different tax schemes: proportional tax, taking proportionally more from the rich, and proportionally more from the poor. We discuss which of these tax schemes performs better with respect to maximize growth under a fixed rate of administrative costs, and the governmental income. This leads us to general conclusions about governmental decisions, the relation to public good games with free riding, and the function of taxation in a risk-taking society.

  3. Development and validity of a new model for assessing pressure redistribution properties of support surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Junko; Sugama, Junko; Sanada, Hiromi; Okuwa, Mayumi; Nakatani, Toshio; Konya, Chizuko; Sakamoto, Jirou

    2011-05-01

    Pressure ulcers are a common problem, especially in older patients. In Japan, most institutionalized older people are malnourished and show extreme bony prominence (EBP). EBP is a significant factor in the development of pressure ulcers due to increased interface pressure concentrated at the skin surface over the EBP. The use of support surfaces is recommended for the prophylaxis of pressure ulcers. However, the present equivocal criteria for evaluating the pressure redistribution of support surfaces are inadequate. Since pressure redistribution is influenced by physique and posture, evaluations using human subjects are limited. For this reason, models that can substitute for humans are necessary. We developed a new EBP model based on the anthropometric measurements, including pelvic inclination, of 100 bedridden elderly people. A comparison between the pressure distribution charts of our model and bedridden elderly subjects demonstrated that maximum contact pressure values, buttock contact pressure values, and bone prominence rates corresponded closely. This indicates that the model provides a good approximation of the features of elderly people with EBP. We subsequently examined the validity of the model through quantitative assessment of pressure redistribution functions consisting of immersion, envelopment, and contact area change. The model was able to detect differences in the hardness of urethane foam, differences in the internal pressure of an air mattress, and sequential changes during the pressure switching mode. These results demonstrate the validity of our new buttock model in evaluating pressure redistribution for a variety of surfaces.

  4. Charge transfer and redistribution at interfaces between metals and 2D materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokdam, Menno

    2013-01-01

    Large potential steps are observed at the interfaces between metals and novel 2D materials. They can lower the work function by more than 1 eV, even when the two parts are only weakly interacting. In this thesis the transfer and redistribution of electrons in metal|2D material heterostructures are s

  5. The hydrostatic pressure indifference point underestimates orthostatic redistribution of blood in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L G; Carlsen, Jonathan F.; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann

    2014-01-01

    The hydrostatic indifference point (HIP; where venous pressure is unaffected by posture) is located at the level of the diaphragm and is believed to indicate the orthostatic redistribution of blood, but it remains unknown whether HIP coincides with the indifference point for blood volume (VIP). D...

  6. Mass Redistribution in the Core and Time-varying Gravity at the Earth's Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Wei-Jia; Chao, Benjamin F.; Fang, Ming

    2003-01-01

    The Earth's liquid outer core is in convection, as suggested by the existence of the geomagnetic field in much of the Earth's history. One consequence of the convection is the redistribution of mass resulting from relative motion among fluid parcels with slightly different densities. This time dependent mass redistribution inside the core produces a small perturbation on the gravity field of the Earth. With our numerical dynamo solutions, we find that the mass redistribution (and the resultant gravity field) symmetric about the equator is much stronger than that anti-symmetric about the equator. In particular, J(sub 2) component is the strongest. In addition, the gravity field variation increases with the Rayleigh number that measures the driving force for the geodynamo in the core. With reasonable scaling from the current dynamo solutions, we could expect that at the surface of the Earth, the J(sub 2) variation from the core is on the order of l0(exp -16)/year relative to the mean (i.e. spherically symmetric) gravity field of the Earth. The possible shielding effect due to core-mantle boundary pressure variation loading is likely much smaller and is therefore negligible. Our results suggest that time-varying gravity field perturbation due to core mass redistribution may be measured with modem space geodetic observations, which will result a new means of detecting dynamical processes in the Earth's deep interior.

  7. Redistribution Spurs Growth by Using a Portfolio Effect on Risky Human Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Jan; Paetzel, Fabian; Schweitzer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate by mathematical analysis and systematic computer simulations that redistribution can lead to sustainable growth in a society. In accordance with economic models of risky human capital, we assume that dynamics of human capital is modeled as a multiplicative stochastic process which, in the long run, leads to the destruction of individual human capital. When agents are linked by fully redistributive taxation the situation might turn to individual growth in the long run. We consider that a government collects a proportion of income and reduces it by a fraction as costs for administration (efficiency losses). The remaining public good is equally redistributed to all agents. Sustainable growth is induced by redistribution despite the losses from the random growth process and despite administrative costs. Growth results from a portfolio effect. The findings are verified for three different tax schemes: proportional tax, taking proportionally more from the rich, and proportionally more from the poor. We discuss which of these tax schemes performs better with respect to maximize growth under a fixed rate of administrative costs, and the governmental income. This leads us to general conclusions about governmental decisions, the relation to public good games with free riding, and the function of taxation in a risk-taking society. PMID:23390505

  8. A glimpse through the veil of ignorance: Equality of opportunity and support for redistribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. Krawczyk

    2010-01-01

    This study is an experimental investigation into preference for redistribution of income. It had been hypothesized that (belief in) equality of opportunity in a society diminishes support for the welfare state. This could potentially explain the low taxes and social benefits in the United States vis

  9. A glimpse through the veil of ignorance: equality of opportunity and support for redistribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. Krawczyk

    2007-01-01

    This study is an experimental investigation into preference for redistribution of income. It had been hypothesized that (belief in) equality of opportunity in a society diminishes support for the welfare state. This could potentially explain the low taxes and social benefits in the United States vis

  10. Studying DAC capacitor-array degradation in charge-redistribution SAR ADCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, system-level behavioural models are used to simulate the aging-related degradation effects in the DAC capacitor array of a charge-redistribution successive approximation register (SAR) ADC because of the large calculation time of transistor-level aging simulators. A performance-analys

  11. Studying DAC capacitor-array degradation in charge-redistribution SAR ADCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Muhammad Aamir; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, system-level behavioural models are used to simulate the aging-related degradation effects in the DAC capacitor array of a charge-redistribution successive approximation register (SAR) ADC because of the large calculation time of transistor-level aging simulators. A performance-analys

  12. Mandatory Pension System and Redistribution: The Comparative Analysis of Institutions in Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunajevas Eugenijus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mandatory pension systems occupy a central role in the system of social security because of the share of social expenditure in national economies. One of the goals of pension system is to redistribute incomes among individuals. However, it is not clear how the intentions to redistribute incomes coincide with the outcomes. In this paper, we will study the difference between the intentions as they are articulated within institutions, with the outcomes that are generated by them. We use the method of comparative institutional analysis in order to find out the differences. Our comparative institutional analysis is based on the grammar of institutions that is proposed by Crawford and Ostrom. Also, in order to understand the differences, we will compare the institutions in relatively similar cases – the Baltic States. The results show that there is a gap between the intentions and outcomes to redistribute incomes among individuals. The findings from the comparative institutional analysis suggest that the most redistributive old age pension system is in Estonia. However, according to the factual information from Eurostat, the greatest distributive effect is produced by the mandatory pension system of Lithuania.

  13. Barker's Ecology of Disadvantage and Educational Equity: Issues of Redistribution and Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffo, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    As Barker notes, the link between disadvantage and poor educational attainments is an enduring one. Educational policy over the last 40 years or so has tended to respond to educational inequality in predominately one of two ways--attempts to raise standards across the system as a whole and attempts to redistribute resources to families, schools…

  14. Local temperature redistribution and structural transition during joule-heating-driven conductance switching in VO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Suhas; Pickett, Matthew D; Strachan, John Paul; Gibson, Gary; Nishi, Yoshio; Williams, R Stanley

    2013-11-13

    Joule-heating induced conductance-switching is studied in VO2 , a Mott insulator. Complementary in situ techniques including optical characterization, blackbody microscopy, scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and numerical simulations are used. Abrupt redistribution in local temperature is shown to occur upon conductance-switching along with a structural phase transition, at the same current.

  15. Elemental redistribution in a nanocrystalline Ni-Fe alloy induced by high-pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, S. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Sha, G., E-mail: gang.sha@sydney.edu.au [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Wang, Y.B. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Liao, X.Z., E-mail: xiaozhou.liao@sydney.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Alhajeri, S.N. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering, College of Technological Studies, PAAET, Shuwaikh 70654 (Kuwait); Li, H.Q. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Zhu, Y.T. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27659-7919 (United States); Langdon, T.G. [Materials Research Group, School of Engineering Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Departments of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-1453 (United States); Ringer, S.P. [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2011-09-25

    Highlights: {center_dot} Elemental distribution of a nc Ni-Fe alloy before and after high-pressure torsion. {center_dot} The supersaturated Ni-Fe solid solution was stable under HPT. {center_dot} C and S atoms further segregated to the remaining GBs during grain growth. {center_dot} GB diffusion and the motion of defects facilitate the elemental redistribution. - Abstract: An electrochemically deposited nanocrystalline supersaturated face-centred-cubic Ni-21 at.% Fe alloy with an initial average grain size of {approx}21 nm was processed using high-pressure torsion (HPT) that resulted in grain growth via grain rotation and coalescence to an average grain size of {approx}53 nm. Atom probe tomography investigations revealed that the supersaturated Ni-Fe solid solution was stable under HPT and that C and S atoms, which are the major impurities in the material and segregated to the grain boundaries (GBs) of the as-deposited material, migrated from disappearing GBs to the remaining GBs during HPT. We propose that the elemental redistribution was facilitated by GB diffusion and the motion of a large volume of HPT-induced defects at the GB regions during the grain growth process. This elemental redistribution process is different from other HPT-induced elemental redistribution processes reported in the literature.

  16. Discovery of a strong magnetic field in the rapidly rotating B2Vn star HR 7355

    CERN Document Server

    Oksala, M E; Marcolino, W L F; Grunhut, J; Bohlender, D A; Manset, N; Townsend, R H D

    2010-01-01

    We report on the detection of a strong, organized magnetic field in the helium-variable early B-type star HR 7355 using spectropolarimetric data obtained with ESPaDOnS on CFHT by the MiMeS large program. We also present results from new V-band differential photometry obtained with the CTIO 0.9m telescope. We investigate the longitudinal field, using a technique called Least-Squares Deconvolution (LSD), and the rotational period of HR 7355. These new observations strongly support the proposal that HR 7355 harbors a structured magnetosphere similar to that in the prototypical helium-strong star, sigma Ori E.

  17. Realization of New Routing Protocol HR-AODV in Wireless Mesh Network%WMN中新型路由协议HR-AODV的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓南; 周颢; 赵保华

    2011-01-01

    This paper improves the AODV protocol used in the wireless Ad hoc network, realizes a new hybrid routing architecture by combining active and passive protocol, increases range limitation mechanism and compromise of distance and energy, the improved HR-AODV protocol has a better performance in Wireless Mesh Network(WMN), and it is more suitable for upper level applications in network layer. Simulation results using NS2 show that the HR-AODV protocol achieves a larger improvement in the network latency, packet loss rate, thought and so on, it has stronger robustness and fault tolerance.%对移动Ad hoc网络现有的AODV协议进行改进,实现一种将主动路由与被动路由相结合的新型混合路由方式,并增加范围限定机制以及折中距离和能量机制,改进后的HR-AODV协议在无线Mesh网络下具有较好的性能,可在网络层更好地服务于上层应用.NS2仿真结果表明,HR-AODV协议在时延、丢包率以及吞吐量等方面有较大改善,具有较强的健壮性和容错性.

  18. Towards a Conceptual Model of HR Shared Services: the Employment of Intellectual Capital to Create Value for Employees, Managers and HR Professionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, Jeroen Gerard; Bondarouk, Tatiana; Looise, Jan C.

    2009-01-01

    Human Resource Shared Services (HRSS) are established to reap the benefits of both centralization and decentralization through bundling intellectual capital and offering HR services that are adapted to the needs of clients and end-users. As a result, HRSS are believed to create value for end-users:

  19. Cytokine release in HR-HPV(+) women without and with cervical dysplasia (CIN II and III) or carcinoma, compared with HR-HPV(-) controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. Bais (Aagje); I. Beckmann (Ilse); P.C. Ewing (Patricia); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); C.J.L.M. Meijer; P.J.F. Snijders (Peter); T.J.M. Helmerhorst (Theo)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractAims. We investigated the effect of HR-HPV infection on the capacity of the cytokine network in whole blood cultures during carcinogenesis of cervical carcinoma. Methods. Thirty-nine women with moderate dysplasia, severe dysplasia, cervical carcinoma, or without dysplasia formed the

  20. Drug-driven AMPA receptor redistribution mimicked by selective dopamine neuron stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T C Brown

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Addictive drugs have in common that they cause surges in dopamine (DA concentration in the mesolimbic reward system and elicit synaptic plasticity in DA neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA. Cocaine for example drives insertion of GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors (AMPARs at glutamatergic synapes in DA neurons. However it remains elusive which molecular target of cocaine drives such AMPAR redistribution and whether other addictive drugs (morphine and nicotine cause similar changes through their effects on the mesolimbic DA system. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used in vitro electrophysiological techniques in wild-type and transgenic mice to observe the modulation of excitatory inputs onto DA neurons by addictive drugs. To observe AMPAR redistribution, post-embedding immunohistochemistry for GluA2 AMPAR subunit was combined with electron microscopy. We also used a double-floxed AAV virus expressing channelrhodopsin together with a DAT Cre mouse line to selectively express ChR2 in VTA DA neurons. We find that in mice where the effect of cocaine on the dopamine transporter (DAT is specifically blocked, AMPAR redistribution was absent following administration of the drug. Furthermore, addictive drugs known to increase dopamine levels cause a similar AMPAR redistribution. Finally, activating DA VTA neurons optogenetically is sufficient to drive insertion of GluA2-lacking AMPARs, mimicking the changes observed after a single injection of morphine, nicotine or cocaine. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose the mesolimbic dopamine system as a point of convergence at which addictive drugs can alter neural circuits. We also show that direct activation of DA neurons is sufficient to drive AMPAR redistribution, which may be a mechanism associated with early steps of non-substance related addictions.

  1. Mechatronic Hydraulic Drive with Regulator, Based on Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burennikov, Y.; Kozlov, L.; Pyliavets, V.; Piontkevych, O.

    2017-06-01

    Mechatronic hydraulic drives, based on variable pump, proportional hydraulics and controllers find wide application in technological machines and testing equipment. Mechatronic hydraulic drives provide necessary parameters of actuating elements motion with the possibility of their correction in case of external loads change. This enables to improve the quality of working operations, increase the capacity of machines. The scheme of mechatronic hydraulic drive, based on the pump, hydraulic cylinder, proportional valve with electrohydraulic control and programmable controller is suggested. Algorithm for the control of mechatronic hydraulic drive to provide necessary pressure change law in hydraulic cylinder is developed. For the realization of control algorithm in the controller artificial neural networks are used. Mathematical model of mechatronic hydraulic drive, enabling to create the training base for adjustment of artificial neural networks of the regulator is developed.

  2. DCS Hydraulics Submittal, Valencia County, New Mexico, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...

  3. Chapter 12. Pure Tap Water Hydraulic Systems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications.......Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications....

  4. A tensor approach to the estimation of hydraulic conductivities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-03

    Jul 3, 2006 ... The HC values computed from the data measured on the weathered or ... Keywords: hydraulic conductivity tensor, roughness, combined stress, hydraulic aperture, Table Mountain ... the anisotropic nature of studied media.

  5. Classification of lying states for the humanoid robot SJTU-HR1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The humanoid robot SJTU-HR1’s concept is introduced and its characteristics tree is given.The basic states for SJTU-HR1 are proposed,including lying,sitting,standing and handstanding,abstracted from the daily exercises of human beings.The GF(generalized function) set theory is exploited to achieve the kinematic characteristics of the interested EEs(end-effectors) of SJTU-HR1 for the lying states.Finally,the results show that the large amounts of states can be described using the abbreviations in a systematic manner.Although we have focused on the application of the GF set theory to humanoid robots,particularly the SJTU-HR1,this methodology can also be applied to quadruped robots and hexapedal robots,especially when the desired tasks are complex.

  6. EXCEPTIONAL CLOSURE OF VARIOUS HR DEPARTEMENT SERVICES ON 20 AND 21 SEPTEMBER 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Due to a group training event, the following services will be exceptionally closed on Thursday 20 and Friday 21 September 2007 : installation service (removals, cars, diplomatic privileges), school fees, Personnel Records Office (including attestations), French visas; duty travel, leave, reinstallation indemnity, unemployment benefit, tax information and social affairs. The French and Swiss cards service will remain open as usual, from 8:30 to 12:30. Thank you for your understanding. HR Department HR-SPS Group

  7. FY2017 Defense Appropriations Fact Sheet: Selected Highlights of H.R. 5293 and S. 3000

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-17

    FY2017 Defense Appropriations Fact Sheet: Selected Highlights of H.R. 5293 and S . 3000 Pat Towell Specialist in U.S. Defense Policy and Budget...Appropriations Fact Sheet: Selected Highlights of H.R. 5293 and S . 300 Congressional Research Service Summary This Fact Sheet summarizes selected...Appropriations Committee on May 26, 2016 ( S . 3000). Congressional action on the FY2017 defense appropriations act has been fundamentally shaped by the

  8. HR differentiation between professional and managerial employees : broadening and integrating theoretical perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Krausert, Achim

    2016-01-01

    Recent HR differentiation research has been concerned with HRM differences within job groups (such as between more and less talented managerial employees) and HRM differences between job groups of different strategic value (such as knowledge and manual workers). Less attention has been paid to HR differentiation among strategically valuable job groups. This paper reviews literature relevant to the question whether (and how) firms should differentiate their HRM systems between professional and...

  9. Time variation of emission lines structure in the spectrum of HR Delfini

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babaev, M.B. (AN Azerbajdzhanskoj SSR, Baku. Shemakhinskaya Astrofizicheskaya Observatoriya)

    1983-04-01

    It is found that H..beta.., HeII lambda4686 and (OIII)lambdalambda4959, 5007 emission lines in the spectrum of nova HR Del had in 1981 four-component structure, as they did earlier. A comparison with 1968-1978 spectra reveals the changes in relative intensities of the internal and external components of these lines. It is concluded that time variations of physical conditions occur in some condensation in the envelope of HR Del.

  10. EXCEPTIONAL CLOSURE OF VARIOUS HR DEPARTMENT SERVICES ON 20 AND 21 SEPTEMBER 2007

    CERN Multimedia

    *Beyond was established as CIC Productions to produce the television series Beyond 2000 for the Seven Network in Australia,

    2007-01-01

    Due to a group training event, the following services will be exceptionally closed on Thursday 20 and Friday 21 September 2007: installation service (removals, cars, diplomatic privileges), school fees, Personnel Records Office (including attestations), French visas; duty travel, leave, reinstallation indemnity, unemployment benefit, tax information and social affairs. The French and Swiss cards service will remain open as usual, from 8:30 to 12:30. Thank you for your understanding. HR Department HR-SPS Group

  11. The use of asphalt in hydraulic engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Velde, P.A.; Ebbens, E.H.; Van Herpen, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Asphalt products have been used in the Netherlands in hydraulic engineering for a long time on a large scale, especially after the great disaster in 1953 when a large part of western Holland was flooded by the sea. After the disaster a great number of dikes had to be repaired very quickly and this w

  12. Elevator and hydraulics; Elevator to yuatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, I. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-15

    A hydraulic type elevator is installed in relatively lower buildings as compared with a rope type elevator, but the ratio in the number of installation of the former elevator is increasing. This paper explains from its construction and features to especially various control systems for the riding comfort and safety. A direct push-up system with hydraulic jacks arranged beneath a car, and an indirect push-up system that has hydraulic jacks arranged on flank of a car and transmits the movement of a plunger via a rope are available. The latter system eliminates the need of large holes to embed hydraulic jacks. While the speed is controlled by controlling flow rates of high-pressure oil, the speed, position, acceleration and even time differential calculus of the acceleration must be controlled severely. The system uses two-step control for the through-speed and the landing speed. Different systems that have been realized may include compensation for temperatures in flow rate control valves, load pressures, and oil viscosity, from learning control to fuzzy control for psychological effects, or control of inverters in motors. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Hydraulic adjustment of Scots pine across Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez-Vilalta, J.; Cochard, H.; Mencuccini, M.; Sterck, F.J.; Herrero, A.; Korhonen, J.F.J.; Llorens, P.; Nikinmaa, E.; Nolè, A.; Poyatos, R.; Ripullone, F.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Zweifel, R.

    2009-01-01

    The variability of branch-level hydraulic properties was assessed across 12 Scots pine populations covering a wide range of environmental conditions, including some of the southernmost populations of the species. The aims were to relate this variability to differences in climate, and to study the po

  14. Influence of tray hydraulics on tray column

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Rijnsdorp, J.E.; Rijnsdorp, J.E.; Azink, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    To column control, in contrast to column design, tray hold-up and dependencies of tray hold-up on the operating conditions play an important role. The essence of this article is the development of an improved model of tray hydraulics over a broad operating range and its experimental validation by

  15. Design of a hydraulic bending machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven G. Hankel; Marshall Begel

    2004-01-01

    To keep pace with customer demands while phasing out old and unserviceable test equipment, the staff of the Engineering Mechanics Laboratory (EML) at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, designed and assembled a hydraulic bending test machine. The EML built this machine to test dimension lumber, nominal 2 in. thick and up to 12 in. deep, at spans up to...

  16. Sustainable hydraulic engineering through building with nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, de H.J.; Koningsveld, van M.; Aarninkhof, S.G.J.; Vries, de M.B.; Baptist, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic engineering infrastructures are of concern to many people and are likely to interfere with the environment. Moreover, they are supposed to keep on functioning for many years. In times of rapid societal and environmental change this implies that sustainability and adaptability are important

  17. The use of asphalt in hydraulic engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Velde, P.A.; Ebbens, E.H.; Van Herpen, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Asphalt products have been used in the Netherlands in hydraulic engineering for a long time on a large scale, especially after the great disaster in 1953 when a large part of western Holland was flooded by the sea. After the disaster a great number of dikes had to be repaired very quickly and this w

  18. International Institute for Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostertman, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the activities of the International Institute for Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering (IHE), whose primary function is the promotion of the better use of water resources as a vehicle of development by the transfer of knowledge and experience. (Author/RK)

  19. Digital hydraulic valving system. [design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The design and development are reported of a digital hydraulic valving system that would accept direct digital inputs. Topics include: summary of contractual accomplishments, design and function description, valve parameters and calculations, conclusions, and recommendations. The electrical control circuit operating procedure is outlined in an appendix.

  20. Sustainable hydraulic engineering through building with nature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, de H.J.; Koningsveld, van M.; Aarninkhof, S.G.J.; Vries, de M.B.; Baptist, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic engineering infrastructures are of concern to many people and are likely to interfere with the environment. Moreover, they are supposed to keep on functioning for many years. In times of rapid societal and environmental change this implies that sustainability and adaptability are important