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Sample records for hydraulic pressure grouting

  1. 水工隧洞水泥灌浆的若干问题%Some Issues on Cement Grouting of Hydraulic Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏鲁平

    2002-01-01

    Based on the practices of construction supervision to cement grouting at the reservoir emptying and power tunnels of the TSQ stage Ⅰ Hydropower station, some issues on quality control of cement grouting of hydraulic tunnel are discussed, and corresponding suggestions are put forward for revision of current standard (SL62-94). It is regarded that the refilling grouting could not be used for remedying the thickness of concrete lining; the end sealing of refilling grouting section should not be neglected; higher grouting pressure would be used. For the consolidation grouting, grout return pipe should be placed at the grout hole top for pure pressure type grouting; five-grade water cement ratio of grout mix is suggested; a certain standard should be specified for changing the grout to thicker mix by skipping the intermediate grade; the standard for ending the grouting should be relaxed. In current grouting standard, some terms should be complemented for contact grouting of steel penstock and spiral case and for plug grouting of circular-anchor hole.

  2. Research on method of pressure grouting piling of driven tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dianqi PAN; Zupei ZHANG; Diancai PAN; Yong CHEN; Maosen TAN

    2006-01-01

    The pressure grouting pile of driven tube can improve the load bearing capacity of the single pile from the mechanism of pressure grouting pile of driven tube. On the basis of analyzing the mechanism, the authors designed the machines and tools of pressure grouting, determined the operating manufacture and technology parameter on the pressure grouting secondly. The result shows that the pressure grouting pile of driven tube not only changes the pile type but also reduce the length of the pile and its engineering cost, it enhances the load bearing capacity of single pile an the same time.

  3. Pressured Grouting Method (PGM) in Pile Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴兴序; 于志强; 王旭

    2002-01-01

    Application of pressured grouting method (PGM) in pile engineering can tackle problems encountered during construction of bored piles. Bearing capacity of piles can be increased through compaction of subsoils around piles. This paper reports research efforts of this technique by the pile research team in Southwest Jiaotong University in last decade with respect to the construction process, test findings, and primary research conclusions. The social-economical benefits of this method and application market in pile engineering are also analyzed.

  4. HYDRAULIC AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SALTSTONE GROUTS AND VAULT CONCRETES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, K; John Harbour, J; Mark Phifer, M

    2008-11-25

    were determined following a minimum 28 day curing period. Additional testing of the three saltstone formulations was conducted following a minimum 90 day curing period. The compressive strength of each saltstone and concrete material was measured at approximately 14, 28, 56, and 90 days. Recommended hydraulic property values for each saltstone grout and the vault concretes are provided. The hydraulic properties provided for each material include the saturated hydraulic conductivity, dry bulk density, particle density, and porosity. In addition, water retention data are presented for each material along with the van Genuchten transport parameters as determined using the RETC code.

  5. Constant-Pressure Hydraulic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    Constant output pressure in gas-driven hydraulic pump would be assured in new design for gas-to-hydraulic power converter. With a force-multiplying ring attached to gas piston, expanding gas would apply constant force on hydraulic piston even though gas pressure drops. As a result, pressure of hydraulic fluid remains steady, and power output of the pump does not vary.

  6. Structural model testing for prestressed concrete pressure vessels: a study of grouted vs nongrouted posttensioned prestressing tendon systems. [HTGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J.

    1979-04-01

    Nongrouted tendons are predominantly used in this country as the prestressing system for prestressed concrete pressure vessels (PCPVs) because they are more easily surveyed to detect reductions in prestressing level and distress such as results from corrosion. Grouted tendon systems, however, offer advantages which may make them cost-effective for PCPV applications. Literature was reviewed to (1) provide insight on the behavior of grouted tendon system, (2) establish performance histories for structures utilizing grouted tendons, (3) examine corrosion protection procedures for prestressing tendons, (4) identify arguments for and against using grouted tendons, and (5) aid in the development of the experimental investigation. The experimental investigation was divided into four phases: (1) grouted-nongrouted tendon behavior, (2) evaluation of selected new material systems, (3) bench-scale corrosion studies, and (4) preliminary evaluation of acoustic emission techniques for monitoring grouted tendons in PCPVs. The groutability of large tendon systems was also investigated.

  7. 盾构隧道同步注浆浆液压力消散规律研究%Research on the Dissipation Law of Grout Pressure during the Simultaneous Grouting of Shield Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莎莎; 戴志仁; 白云

    2012-01-01

    基于达西定律、力学平衡原理和广义虎克定律,推导盾尾空隙内浆液的固结方程,以软土地区典型的盾构隧道同步注浆参数为例,分析浆液压力消散规律.结果表明:浆饼(浆液固结层)厚度与土体剪切模量、泊松比成反比,与注浆压力成正比,与浆液固结前后孔隙比的变化密切相关;不计地层渗流阻力影响时,浆液压力的消散与浆饼厚度的形成主要集中在浆液注入盾尾空隙后的2.1h以内;地层渗流阻力可以延缓浆液的固结过程,但不能影响其最终固结状态;土体剪切模量的增大有利于促进浆液压力的快速消散;孔隙水压力的增大能明显抑制浆液压力的消散;注浆压力的增大对初始时刻浆液压力的消散具有明显的促进作用,但却会相应延长压力消散的时间.%Guided by Darcy law, the mechanical equilibrium principle and the generalized Hooke's law, the formula of grout consolidation in tail void was derived. Based on the typical grouting parameters during simultaneous grouting in soft soils, the dissipation law of grout pressure was analyzed. Results show that the thickness of grout cake (grout consolidated layer) is inversely proportional to soil shear modulus and Poisson's ratio, is proportional to grouting pressure, and is still closely related to the change of void ratio before and after grout consolidation. Excluded the influence of ground osmotic resistance, the dissipation of grout pressure and the formation of grout cake is mainly concentrated in the first 2. 1 hours after grout injected into tail void. Ground osmotic resistance can obviously delay grout consolidation process, but not the finial consolidation state. The increment of soil shear modulus helps to accelerate the dissipation speed of grout pressure. The increment of pore water pressure can obviously restrain the dissipation of grout pressure. The increase of grouting pressure can obviously promote the initial

  8. High Pressure Hydraulic Distribution System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-20

    to 500 0 F. 5 cycles. 5000 F room temperature to 50001F; 45 ______________ Icycles The tesis planned for the distribution system demonstrator were...American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM D412 - Tension Testing of Vulcanized Rubber ASTM D571 - Testing Automotive Hydraulic Brake Hose Society of

  9. Penetration grouting reinforcement of sandy gravel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ping; PENG Zhen-bin; TANG Yi-qun; PENG Wen-xiang; HE Zhong-ming

    2008-01-01

    To study the relationship between grouting effect and grouting factors, three factors (seven parameters) directionless pressure and small cycle grouting model experiment on sandy gravel was done, which was designed according to uniform design method. And regressing was applied to analysis of the test data. The two models test results indicate that when the diffusing radius of grout changes from 26 to 51 era, the grouted sandy gravel compressing strength changes fTom 2.13 to 12.30 MPa; the relationship between diffusing radius(R) and water cement ratio(m), permeability coefficient(k), grouting pressure(p), grouting time(t) is R=19.953m0.121k0.429p0.412t0.437, the relationship between compressing strength(P) and porosity(n), water cement ratio, grouting pressure, grouting time is P=0.984n0.517m-1.488p0.118t0.031.So the porosity of sandy gravel, the permeability coefficient of sandy gravel, grouting pressure, grouting time, water cement ratio are main factors to influence the grouting effect. The grouting pressure is the main factor to influence grouting diffusing radius, and the water cement ratio is the main factor to influence grouted sandy gravel compressing strength.

  10. Grout diffusion characteristics during chemical grouting in a deep water-bearing sand layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Dangliang; Sui Wanghua

    2012-01-01

    The deep,loose bottom aquifer of the eastern air shaft in the Xinglongzhuang Coal Mine was used to develop an experimental model of shaft grouting through Model deep soil.Lab experiments using chemical grouting were done to study the grout.The grouted soil shapes and osmotic pressure were measured during the experiments.The tested characteristics of the grouted soil show that the diffusion mode of grout in saturated sandy soil is a combination of split compaction and osmosis.More specifically,the shape of the grouted soil is determined by split compaction while the size of the grouted soil shape is determined by osmosis.Sensor test results indicate that the main reason for the non-uniform grout diffusion is the anisotropic osmotic pressure field surrounding the grouting holes.

  11. Real-Time Grouting Monitoring and Visualization Analysis System for Dam Foundation Curtain Grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊贵超; 钟登华; 任炳昱; 崔博; 李晓超; 岳攀

    2016-01-01

    A real-time monitoring and 3D visualization analysis system is proposed for dam foundation curtain grouting. Based on the real-time control technology, the optimization method and the set theory, a mathematical model of the system is established. The real-time collection and transmission technology of the grouting data pro-vides a data foundation for the system. The real-time grouting monitoring and dynamic alarming method helps the system control the grouting quality during the grouting process, thus, the abnormalities of grouting, such as jacking and hydraulic uplift, can be effectively controlled. In addition, the 3D grouting visualization analysis technology is proposed to establish the grouting information model(GIM). The GIM provides a platform to visualize and ana-lyze the grouting process and results. The system has been applied to a hydraulic project of China as a case study, and the application results indicate that the real-time grouting monitoring and 3D visualization analysis for the grouting process can help engineers control the grouting quality more efficiently.

  12. Pressure Characteristic Analysis of a Hydraulic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, H. Y.; Yang, H. J.

    2017-02-01

    EPPR(ElectroProportional Pressure Reducing) valve control the MCV(Main Control Valve) built on the mobile heavy machine. The EPPR valve was tested in the experimental setup and the performance of the valve was compared with that of the existing EPPR valve. On thisstudy, electromagnetic properties analysis using AMESim program was performed to optimize the designing of EPPR Valve (Electric Proportional Pressure Reducing Valve) and by applying its results to the hydraulic system analytical model, performance of the valve could be predicted. Also by comparing the results of the actual experiment and the simulation, The results of thisstudy is that the 3 factor(cone angle, tip width, clearance between sleeve and plunger) have much effectiveness than other components in the EPPR valve.

  13. Model test of the tunnel subjected to high water pressure in Jinping Second Cascade Hydropower Station,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the area with high groundwater pressure,grout curtain is often adopted to reduce the water pressure on tunnel lining.A series of model tests for the diversion tunnel of the Jinping Second Cascade Hydropower Station,China,is designed to study the effect of grout curtain.The impact of the thickness of grout curtain,permeability of grout curtain,internal water pressure and drainage inflow on the distribution of water pressure are discussed.The results indicates that under un-drained condition,water pressure is equal to hydrostatic one no matter grout curtain is selected or not,water pressure under drained condition is far less than that of un-drained condition,drainage in tunnel can reduce tunnel water pressure effectively.For same inflow,both increasing of thickness and decrease of hydraulic conductivity of grout curtain can reduce water pressure effectively.For the same water pressure,the smaller inflow of grout curtain,the less volume of water to be discharged.The impact of hydraulic conductivity of grout curtain is more obvious than that of thickness.With increasing of internal water pressure,the water pressure of grout curtain increases too,and the water pressure increases nearly linearly.The proposed thickness of grout curtain for the diversion tunnels is 16 m.

  14. PRESSURE COMPENSATION METHOD OF UNDERWATER HYDRAULIC SYSTEM WITH HYDRAULIC POWER UNIT BEING UNDER ATMOSPHERIC CIRCUMSTANCE AND PRESSURE COMPENSATED VALVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Qingfeng; Li Yanmin; Zhong Tianyu; Xu Guohua

    2005-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the-state-of-the-art of pressure compensation of underwater hydraulic systems (UHSs), a new method of pressure compensation of UHSs, whose hydraulic power unit is in the atmospheric circumstance, is proposed. And a pilot-operated relief valve with pressure compensation is realized. The pressure compensation precision is guaranteed by direct detection. Its dynamic performance and stability are improved by a dynamic feedback. Theoretical study, simulation and experiment show that the pilot-operated relief valve with pressure compensation has a fine property of tracking underwater ambient pressure and meet the requirement of underwater ambient pressure compensation.

  15. Study on the characteristics of grout permeation based on cylindrical diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen-gang LI; Wen ZHAO; Yun-sheng HUANG; Yun-xia LEI; Long-mei YU

    2013-01-01

    Permeation grouting is widely applied for its low grouting pressure and minor disturbance to the stratum in grouting engineering,especially in engineering with strict requirements on ground settlement.However,permeation grouting theory lags behind compared with other engineering disciplines,and the theoretical formulas now available cannot accurately be used to guide grouting engineering design and predict the cost and effects of grouting due to many factors affecting grout permeation in stratum.In this study,permeation grouting experiment devices were independently manufactured with the characteristics of easily controlling grouting pressure,simulating sandy strata grout,and detecting grouting effect.Using a uniform design,the sand consolidation agent,as grouting material,its spread in Shenyang sandy strata was tested with these experiment devices.The quantitative relations between grouting factors (grouting pressure,strata parameters,water-sand consolidation agent ratio)and grouting effects (grout spread radius,gell strength,grout amount) are obtained with regression analysis,and the influence degree of grouting factors on grouting effects is studied.

  16. Sugarcane Tandem Mills Operation at Two Hydraulic Pressure Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Michel Corrales-Suárez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the areas with more energy consumption in a sugar factory is the tandem of mills. The applied hydraulic pressure on the superior mace is one of the variables that have influence on this energy consumption. Hydraulic pressures were decreased in a value that did not affect the extraction process efficiency to determine the possibilities of decreasing this energy consumption. The research was carried out in two sugar cane tandems of six mills. The pressures were only varied in the extraction mills in humid according to a statistical design of experiments in random blocks. The results were analyzed by means of the analysis of variance of double classification. The independent variables were the hydraulic pressures in the intermediate mills while the dependent variables were the % pol and % humidity of the final bagasse. The hydraulic pressures of the intermediate mills were reduced 3.45 MPa in the Tandem 1 and 2.07 MPa in the Tandem 2. It was demonstrated that under the conditions of the experiment, the employment of working hydraulic pressures smaller than the usually established ones for each tandem did not affect the extraction process of the sugar cane sucrose significantly, but decreased 11.75% the power demand on tandem 1 and 8.17% on tandem 2.

  17. The Effects of Friction on the Performance of A Concrete Block Mine Seal with Pressurized Grout Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Kyle A.

    2014-10-01

    Mine seals are necessary in nearly every underground coal mine to isolate mined-out areas from the ventilation network. Many seals are already in place in active mines and more need to be constructed to keep up with the development of underground coal reserves. The accidents involving seal failures at Sago and Darby prompted MSHA to create and implement new regulations regarding the strength of the seals. These regulations require the design and construction of seals that are larger and stronger than ever before. Structural seals capable of withstanding the new required design loads are now designed by an engineer and no longer approved through explosion testing. Prior to the seal failure accidents, a solid-block wall with pressurized grout bags at the wall/ribs and wall/roof interfaces was a popular design which met the 137.9 kPa (20 psi) requirement. After implementation of the new 344.7 kPa (50 psi) or 827.4 kPa (120 psi) design regulations depending on whether the atmosphere is kept inert inby the seal, a re-design of the seal was necessary. This paper discusses the quantification of the coefficients of friction which are then implemented into finite element modeling.

  18. Strength of Experimental Grouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

     The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....... The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....

  19. Servo Controlled Variable Pressure Modification to Space Shuttle Hydraulic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouns, H. H.

    1983-01-01

    Engineering drawings show modifications made to the constant pressure control of the model AP27V-7 hydraulic pump to an electrically controlled variable pressure setting compensator. A hanger position indicator was included for continuously monitoring hanger angle. A simplex servo driver was furnished for controlling the pressure setting servovalve. Calibration of the rotary variable displacement transducer is described as well as pump performance and response characteristics.

  20. Thermal Hydraulic Integral Effect Tests for Pressurized Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, W. P.; Song, C. H.; Kim, Y. S. and others

    2005-02-15

    The objectives of the project are to construct a thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility and to perform various integral effect tests for design, operation, and safety regulation of pressurized water reactors. During the first phase of this project (1997.8{approx}2002.3), the basic technology for thermal-hydraulic integral effect tests was established and the basic design of the test facility was accomplished: a full-height, 1/300-volume-scaled full pressure facility for APR1400, an evolutionary pressurized water reactor that was developed by Korean industry. Main objectives of the present phase (2002.4{approx}2005.2), was to optimize the facility design and to construct the experimental facility. We have performed following researches: 1) Optimization of the basic design of the thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility for PWRs - ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation) - Reduced height design for APR1400 (+ specific design features of KSNP safety injection systems) - Thermal-hydraulic scaling based on three-level scaling methodology by Ishii et al. 2) Construction of the ATLAS facility - Detailed design of the test facility - Manufacturing and procurement of components - Installation of the facility 3) Development of supporting technology for integral effect tests - Development and application of advanced instrumentation technology - Preliminary analysis of test scenarios - Development of experimental procedures - Establishment and implementation of QA system/procedure.

  1. Analysis and control of flows in pressurized hydraulic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis, design and flow control problems in pressurized hydraulic networks such as water transmission and distribution systems consisting of pipes and other appurtenant components such as reservoirs, pumps, valves and surge devices are dealt with from the prospective of network synthesis aiming at

  2. Quantized pressure control in large-scale nonlinear hydraulic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, Claudio De; Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose; Jensen, Tom Nørgaard

    2010-01-01

    It was shown previously that semi-global practical pressure regulation at designated points of a large-scale nonlinear hydraulic network is guaranteed by distributed proportional controllers. For a correct implementation of the control laws, each controller, which is located at these designated poin

  3. Analysis and control of flows in pressurized hydraulic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, R.K.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis, design and flow control problems in pressurized hydraulic networks such as water transmission and distribution systems consisting of pipes and other appurtenant components such as reservoirs, pumps, valves and surge devices are dealt with from the prospective of network synthesis aiming at

  4. Controlling a negative loaded hydraulic cylinder using pressure feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.R.; Andersen, T.O.

    2010-01-01

    the high pass filtered pressure gradient equal tozero is introduced. It yields lead compensation with a markedly improved performance. The sizing of the filter is described taking into account the bandwidth of the directional control valve. The suggested control scheme is implemented and examined......This paper is concerned with the inherent oscillatory nature of pressure compensated velocity control of a hydraulic cylinder subjected to a negative load and suspended by means of an over-center valve. Initially, a linearized stability analysis of such a hydraulic circuit is carried out clearly...... showing that without extra measures such a system will be unstable in a substantial part of the cylinder stroke. The stability criterion is expressed in hard quantities: Cylinder volumes, cylinder area ratio and overcenter valve pilot area ratio. A pressure feed back scheme that has as target to maintain...

  5. GROUT HOPPER MODELING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2011-08-30

    The Saltstone facility has a grout hopper tank to provide agitator stirring of the Saltstone feed materials. The tank has about 300 gallon capacity to provide a larger working volume for the grout slurry to be held in case of a process upset, and it is equipped with a mechanical agitator, which is intended to keep the grout in motion and agitated so that it won't start to set up. The dry feeds and the salt solution are already mixed in the mixer prior to being transferred to the hopper tank. The hopper modeling study through this work will focus on fluid stirring and agitation, instead of traditional mixing in the literature, in order to keep the tank contents in motion during their residence time so that they will not be upset or solidified prior to transferring the grout to the Saltstone disposal facility. The primary objective of the work is to evaluate the flow performance for mechanical agitators to prevent vortex pull-through for an adequate stirring of the feed materials and to estimate an agitator speed which provides acceptable flow performance with a 45{sup o} pitched four-blade agitator. In addition, the power consumption required for the agitator operation was estimated. The modeling calculations were performed by taking two steps of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach. As a first step, a simple single-stage agitator model with 45{sup o} pitched propeller blades was developed for the initial scoping analysis of the flow pattern behaviors for a range of different operating conditions. Based on the initial phase-1 results, the phase-2 model with a two-stage agitator was developed for the final performance evaluations. A series of sensitivity calculations for different designs of agitators and operating conditions have been performed to investigate the impact of key parameters on the grout hydraulic performance in a 300-gallon hopper tank. For the analysis, viscous shear was modeled by using the Bingham plastic approximation

  6. GROUT HOPPER MODELING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2011-08-30

    The Saltstone facility has a grout hopper tank to provide agitator stirring of the Saltstone feed materials. The tank has about 300 gallon capacity to provide a larger working volume for the grout slurry to be held in case of a process upset, and it is equipped with a mechanical agitator, which is intended to keep the grout in motion and agitated so that it won't start to set up. The dry feeds and the salt solution are already mixed in the mixer prior to being transferred to the hopper tank. The hopper modeling study through this work will focus on fluid stirring and agitation, instead of traditional mixing in the literature, in order to keep the tank contents in motion during their residence time so that they will not be upset or solidified prior to transferring the grout to the Saltstone disposal facility. The primary objective of the work is to evaluate the flow performance for mechanical agitators to prevent vortex pull-through for an adequate stirring of the feed materials and to estimate an agitator speed which provides acceptable flow performance with a 45{sup o} pitched four-blade agitator. In addition, the power consumption required for the agitator operation was estimated. The modeling calculations were performed by taking two steps of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach. As a first step, a simple single-stage agitator model with 45{sup o} pitched propeller blades was developed for the initial scoping analysis of the flow pattern behaviors for a range of different operating conditions. Based on the initial phase-1 results, the phase-2 model with a two-stage agitator was developed for the final performance evaluations. A series of sensitivity calculations for different designs of agitators and operating conditions have been performed to investigate the impact of key parameters on the grout hydraulic performance in a 300-gallon hopper tank. For the analysis, viscous shear was modeled by using the Bingham plastic approximation

  7. Effects of shifting time on pressure impact in hydraulic systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhen-cai; CHEN Guo-an

    2005-01-01

    The limitations in existing measures for absorbing pressure impact in hydraulic systems were summarized in this paper. Based on the forming principle of the oil in a hydrostatic closed pressure chamber, the underlying reasons of the pressure impact were analyzed theoretically, the intrinsic laws that the extent of the pressure impact in hydraulic oil lines are affected by some factors, such as oil elastic modulus, oil line's geometrical volume, and changing rate of oil volume versus time etc, were discussed. Experimental investigations into pressure impact in all pressure chambers because of shifting were conducted under different working conditions by employing a special experimental system. The effects of shifting time on pressure impact were studied. A new concept with universal meaning, i.e. optimal shifting time, and its characterizing parameter and the methods of shifting at optimal shifting time were also proposed. The results show that shifting time lag △t is of rationality and maneuverablility. The higher the working pressure, the shorter the shifting time.

  8. Grouting Control for Deep-Water Jacket Skirt Pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qing; ZHANG Jianxin; XU Lianjiang

    2006-01-01

    Deep-water jacket skirt pile grouting is a critical step in ocean platform construction. Because of the complexity of the skirt pile structure and grouting pipeline, the calculation of grouting pressure and the control of output pressure are involved. Beginning with the jacket skirt pile grouting construction scheme, grouting pressure is estimated on the basis of engineering fluid mechanics theory and variable frequency control technique. Programmable logic controller is the center of grouting pressure control system, which accomplishes the flow control of cement buffer tank water buffer tank, additive buffer tank, cement metering tank, water metering tank, additive metering tank, mixer and agitator. Based on PROFIBUS-DP network, the output pressure of the slurry pump is controlled by the inverter. This method has been applied successfully in JZ20-2 Nor. high spot jacket platform construction.

  9. Hydraulic forces caused by annular pressure seals in centrifugal pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iino, T.; Kaneko, H.

    1980-01-01

    The hydraulic forces caused by annular pressure seals were investigated. The measured inlet and exit loss coefficients of the flow through the seals were much smaller than the conventional values. The results indicate that the damping coefficient and the inertia coefficient of the fluid film in the seal are not affected much by the rotational speed or the eccentricity of the rotor, though the stiffness coefficient seemed to be influenced by the eccentricity.

  10. 邻近营业线高压旋喷桩施工安全技术%Construction Security Technology of High Pressure Jet Grouting Pile at Adjacent Operating Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武垚强

    2016-01-01

    本文介绍了郑徐客专徐州枢纽相关工程ZXZH-1标邻近营业线高压旋喷桩施工技术,对类似环境下的高压旋喷桩施工有一定的参考价值。%This article introduces the construction technology of high pressure jet grouting pile at adjacent operating lines of ZXZH-1 section in the related project of Xuzhou hub of Zhengzhou-Xuzhou passenger dedicated line, which has certain reference value for the high pressure jet grouting pile construction in similar environment.

  11. Changes in entrapped gas content and hydraulic conductivity with pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinas, Maricris; Roy, James W; Smith, James E

    2013-01-01

    Water table fluctuations continuously introduce entrapped air bubbles into the otherwise saturated capillary fringe and groundwater zone, which reduces the effective (quasi-saturated) hydraulic conductivity, K(quasi), thus impacting groundwater flow, aquifer recharge and solute and contaminant transport. These entrapped gases will be susceptible to compression or expansion with changes in water pressure, as would be expected with water table (and barometric pressure) fluctuations. Here we undertake laboratory experiments using sand-packed columns to quantify the effect of water table changes of up to 250 cm on the entrapped gas content and the quasi-saturated hydraulic conductivity, and discuss our ability to account for these mechanisms in ground water models. Initial entrapped air contents ranged between 0.080 and 0.158, with a corresponding K(quasi) ranging between 2 and 6 times lower compared to the K(s) value. The application of 250 cm of water pressure caused an 18% to 26% reduction in the entrapped air content, resulting in an increase in K(quasi) by 1.16 to 1.57 times compared to its initial (0 cm water pressure) value. The change in entrapped air content measured at pressure step intervals of 50 cm, was essentially linear, and could be modeled according to the ideal gas law. Meanwhile, the changes in K(quasi) with compression-expansion of the bubbles because of pressure changes could be adequately captured with several current hydraulic conductivity models. © Ground Water 2012 and © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2012. Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  12. Application of Curtain Grouting in Seepage Control of Hydraulic Structure Engineering%帷幕灌浆在水工建筑物防渗工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边传伟; 葛志友

    2013-01-01

    结合南水北调中线干线易县段魏家坟沟排水倒虹吸工程,对帷幕灌浆技术在防渗施工中的运用及施工工艺流程进行了分析和探讨,并提出了相应的改进措施,为施工提供借鉴依据。%Combined the Yi Xian section of Weijia Fen ditch drainage inverted siphon project in with the middle route of south-to-north water diversion project,the curtain grouting technology are analyzed and discussed in seepage control of hydraulic structure construction and the application process,and proposed the corresponding improvement measures and provides the reference basis for the construction.

  13. Tank closure reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  14. Hot bitumen grouting rediscovered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naudts, A. [ECO Grouting Specialists, Grand Valley, ON (Canada)

    2001-10-01

    The article extols the value of hot bitumen grouting, in conjunction with cement-based grout, as a fast, safe, environmentally-friendly and cost-effective sealant. A major advantage of bitumen grout is that blown bitumen will never wash out. The article discusses the properties and some applications of bitumen grout. A diagram shows an application of bitumen and cement-based grout at a large dam. Examples of preventing water flow in dams, in a coal mine and in a potash mine are also given.

  15. Hydraulic High Pressure Valve Controller Using the In-Situ Pressure Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Hall, Jeffery L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hydraulic valve controller that uses an existing pressure differential as some or all of the power source for valve operation. In a high pressure environment, such as downhole in an oil or gas well, the pressure differential between the inside of a pipe and the outside of the pipe may be adequately large to drive a linear slide valve. The valve is operated hydraulically by a piston in a bore. When a higher pressure is applied to one end of the bore and a lower pressure to the other end, the piston moves in response to the pressure differential and drives a valve attached to it. If the pressure differential is too small to drive the piston at a sufficiently high speed, a pump is provided to generate a larger pressure differential to be applied. The apparatus is conveniently constructed using multiport valves, which can be rotary valves.

  16. Validation of NIS 500 MPa hydraulic pressure measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eltawil Alaaeldin A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 500 MPa pressure is considered as the common maximum pressure in most of the National Metrology Institutes worldwide; however, validation of the uncertainty in that range required a lot of work. NIS when recognized on, 2008 guaranteed big uncertainty value above 200 MPa due to the absence of international comparison at that time. This paper summarizes the results of a validation of 500 MPa range of hydraulic gauge pressure measurements carried out at NIS. The study covers the calibration through direct comparison and through using of a pressure sensor. The paper summarized the technical work carried out at the results of measurements and the effect of these results on NIS Calibration Measurements Capability. The validation also includes the comparison between the obtained results and pervious calibration of the same piston-cylinder assembly that calibrated against the NIST primary standard.

  17. Modeling of Propagation of Interacting Cracks Under Hydraulic Pressure Gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hai [Idaho National Laboratory; Mattson, Earl Douglas [Idaho National Laboratory; Podgorney, Robert Karl [Idaho National Laboratory

    2015-04-01

    A robust and reliable numerical model for fracture initiation and propagation, which includes the interactions among propagating fractures and the coupling between deformation, fracturing and fluid flow in fracture apertures and in the permeable rock matrix, would be an important tool for developing a better understanding of fracturing behaviors of crystalline brittle rocks driven by thermal and (or) hydraulic pressure gradients. In this paper, we present a physics-based hydraulic fracturing simulator based on coupling a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) for deformation and fracturing with conjugate lattice network flow model for fluid flow in both fractures and porous matrix. Fracturing is represented explicitly by removing broken bonds from the network to represent microcracks. Initiation of new microfractures and growth and coalescence of the microcracks leads to the formation of macroscopic fractures when external and/or internal loads are applied. The coupled DEM-network flow model reproduces realistic growth pattern of hydraulic fractures. In particular, simulation results of perforated horizontal wellbore clearly demonstrate that elastic interactions among multiple propagating fractures, fluid viscosity, strong coupling between fluid pressure fluctuations within fractures and fracturing, and lower length scale heterogeneities, collectively lead to complicated fracturing patterns.

  18. Grout cement. ; Grout cement to fill ground/grout cement to fill cracks. Chunyuyo cement. ; Jiban chunyuyo cement /hibiware chunyuyo cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okaue, H. (Nittetsu Cement Co. Ltd., Hokkaido (Japan))

    1991-09-01

    Ground grout cement is grouted into the ground under high pressure in high water ratio (100 to 1000%) in the form of milk differing from concrete in terms of the water-cement ratio. The grouted milk is governed by characteristics of the cement the milk itself possesses, resulting in variable grouting modes, which are divided in fracture grouting, permeation grouting and boundary grouting. Their applications include cutting off of water in dams, ground reinforcement, prevention of water gushing in tunnel excavation, natural ground reinforcement, improvement of sandy soil and prevention of its collapse, and stabilization of ground for urban civil engineering works such as subway, water supply and sewerage constructions. Grout cement to fill cracks in concrete structures is so grouted into cracks that the slurry fills up contiguous cracks to a certain level and goes upward while pushing out air or water existing in the cracks. The slurry filled into the cracks solidifies and hardens while being absorbed into the concrete, and finally integrates with the concrete. The grout cement is used to rework such concrete structures as dams, tunnels, and bridge bases. 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Hazards and Safeguards of High Pressure Hydraulic Fatigue Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    rew e I&64aN neem mde tliF by block mumber) The creation and transfer of hydraulic pressure at the 690-MPa (100,000-psi) level is in itself hazardous...than alloy steel, we have found that it is more notch sensitive to fatigue and drastically degrades with small constituent variations. To avoid this...I ATTN: SMCWV-PP DIRECTOR, PRODUCT ASSURANCE DIRECTORATE 1 ATTN: SMCWV-QA NOTE: PLEASE NOTIFY DIRECTOR, BENET LABORATORIES, ATTN: SMCAR-CCB-TL, OF ANY

  20. Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Robert L.; Kirby, Klane

    This curriculum guide contains a course in hydraulics to train entry-level workers for automotive mechanics and other fields that utilize hydraulics. The module contains 14 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to hydraulics; (2) fundamentals of hydraulics; (3) reservoirs; (4) lines, fittings, and couplers; (5)…

  1. Field grouting summary report on the WAG 4 seeps 4 and 6 removal action project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 3. Appendixes E and F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    During the summer of 1996, a unique multi-phase, multi-stage, low-pressure permeation grouting pilot program was performed inside portions of four unlined waste disposal trenches at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The project was deemed a non-time-critical removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); however, due to a history of heavy precipitation in the fall, the schedule was fast-tracked to meet an October 31, 1996 grouting completion date. The technical objective of the removal action was to reduce the off-site transport of j Strontium 90 ({sup 90}Sr) by grouting portions of four waste disposal trenches believed to be responsible for over 70 percent of the {sup 90}Sr leaving the site. A goal of the grouting operation was to reduce the average in situ hydraulic conductivity of the grouted waste materials to a value equal to or less than 1 x 10{sup -6} cm/sec. This target hydraulic conductivity value was established to be at least two orders of magnitude lower than that of the surrounding natural ground.

  2. Field grouting summary report on the WAG seeps 4 and 6 removal action project, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    During the summer of 1996, a unique multi-phase, multi-stage, low-pressure permeation grouting pilot program was performed inside portions of four unlined waste disposal trenches at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The project was deemed a non-time-critical removal action under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA); however, due to a history of heavy precipitation in the fall, the schedule was fast-tracked to meet an October 31, 1996 grouting completion date. The technical objective of the removal action was to reduce the off-site transport of Strontium 90 ({sup 90}Sr) by grouting portions of four waste disposal trenches believed to be responsible for over 70% of the {sup 90}Sr leaving the site. A goal of the grouting operation was to reduce the average in situ hydraulic conductivity of the grouted waste materials to a value equal to or less than 1 x 10{sup {minus}6} cm/sec. This target hydraulic conductivity value was established to be at least two orders of magnitude lower than that of the surrounding natural ground.

  3. Experimental Investigation on the Basic Law of Hydraulic Fracturing After Water Pressure Control Blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bingxiang; Li, Pengfeng; Ma, Jian; Chen, Shuliang

    2014-07-01

    Because of the advantages of integrating water pressure blasting and hydraulic fracturing, the use of hydraulic fracturing after water pressure control blasting is a method that is used to fully transform the structure of a coal-rock mass by increasing the number and range of hydraulic cracks. An experiment to study hydraulic fracturing after water pressure blasting on cement mortar samples (300 × 300 × 300 mm3) was conducted using a large-sized true triaxial hydraulic fracturing experimental system. A traditional hydraulic fracturing experiment was also performed for comparison. The experimental results show that water pressure blasting produces many blasting cracks, and follow-up hydraulic fracturing forces blasting cracks to propagate further and to form numerous multidirectional hydraulic cracks. Four macroscopic main hydraulic cracks in total were noted along the borehole axial and radial directions on the sample surfaces. Axial and radial main failure planes induced by macroscopic main hydraulic cracks split the sample into three big parts. Meanwhile, numerous local hydraulic cracks were formed on the main failure planes, in different directions and of different types. Local hydraulic cracks are mainly of three types: local hydraulic crack bands, local branched hydraulic cracks, and axial layered cracks. Because local hydraulic cracks produce multiple local layered failure planes and lamellar ruptures inside the sample, the integrity of the sample decreases greatly. The formation and propagation process of many multidirectional hydraulic cracks is affected by a combination of water pressure blasting, water pressure of fracturing, and the stress field of the surrounding rock. To a certain degree, the stress field of surrounding rock guides the formation and propagation process of the blasting crack and the follow-up hydraulic crack. Following hydraulic fracturing that has been conducted after water pressure blasting, the integrity of the sample is found to

  4. 静压注浆处理油罐基础不均匀沉降%On treatment of uneven settlement of tank foundation with static pressure grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏景和

    2012-01-01

    通过对某厂油罐基础不均匀沉降的处理,论述了用静压注浆处理油罐地基沉降的可行性。同时,采用油罐内架设三脚架提拉罐底板的方法,对处理中小型油罐沉降具有一定的参考价值。%According to the treatment of the uneven settlement of the tank foundation at some plant, the paper indicates the feasibility to treat the tank foundation settlement with the static pressure grouting, and adopts to erect the tripod pulling tank bottom in the tank, so it provides some ref- erence value to treat the settlement in small tank.

  5. 46 CFR 128.240 - Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and pressure design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control-materials and... Hydraulic or pneumatic power and control—materials and pressure design. (a) Each standard piping component (such as pipe runs, fittings, flanges, and standard valves) for hydraulic or pneumatic power and...

  6. Laboratory Study on Grout Injection for Improving Subgrade of Airfield Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck Shang Goh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper shares the authors’ experience of using low pressure grouting to improve the subgrade performance. The first part of the paper introduced a case history where low pressure grouting was applied in weakened subgrade of the active airport pavements in Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA. The treated areas seemed to have been improved and only one of all eight treated areas had reoccurrence of depression. However, the performance of the treated area was difficult to be evaluated. The latter part of the paper investigated the effectiveness of grout injection through laboratory experiments. The laboratory equipment used for the grout injection tests included an injection mold and a steel tank of 1 m length x 0.6 m wide x 0.6 m depth for subgrade soil sample. Three grout types namely neat cement grout, fly ash cement grout, bentonite cement grout were used for this study. Six tests were conducted on sandy soil samples to examine the effect of grout type on the effectiveness of injection. The sandy soil was compacted to approximate 80 % of the maximum dry density. The injection pressure was fixed at 0.5 MPa. Insitu CBR test was also conducted to determine the strength of the grouted sample. The results showed that the fly ash cement grout could penetrate further than the neat cement grout; however its strength was lower than the neat cement grout.

  7. Prediction of ground surface displacement caused by grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭风琪; 刘晓潭; 童无期; 单智

    2015-01-01

    Ground surface displacement caused by grouting was calculated with stochastic medium theory. Ground surface displacement was assumed to be caused by the cavity expansion of grouting, slurry seepage, and slurry contraction. A prediction method of ground surface displacement was developed. The reliability of the presented method was validated through a comparison between theoretical results and results from engineering practice. Results show that the present method is effective. The effect of parameters on uplift displacement was illustrated under different grouting conditions. Through analysis, it can be known that the ground surface uplift is mainly caused by osmosis of slurry and the primary influence angle of stratum βdetermines the influence range of surface uplift. Besides, the results show that ground surface uplift displacement decreases notably with increasing depth of the grouting cavity but it increases with increasing diffusion radius of grout and increasing grouting pressure.

  8. REACTOR GROUT THERMAL PROPERTIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steimke, J.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2011-01-28

    Savannah River Site has five dormant nuclear production reactors. Long term disposition will require filling some reactor buildings with grout up to ground level. Portland cement based grout will be used to fill the buildings with the exception of some reactor tanks. Some reactor tanks contain significant quantities of aluminum which could react with Portland cement based grout to form hydrogen. Hydrogen production is a safety concern and gas generation could also compromise the structural integrity of the grout pour. Therefore, it was necessary to develop a non-Portland cement grout to fill reactors that contain significant quantities of aluminum. Grouts generate heat when they set, so the potential exists for large temperature increases in a large pour, which could compromise the integrity of the pour. The primary purpose of the testing reported here was to measure heat of hydration, specific heat, thermal conductivity and density of various reactor grouts under consideration so that these properties could be used to model transient heat transfer for different pouring strategies. A secondary purpose was to make qualitative judgments of grout pourability and hardened strength. Some reactor grout formulations were unacceptable because they generated too much heat, or started setting too fast, or required too long to harden or were too weak. The formulation called 102H had the best combination of characteristics. It is a Calcium Alumino-Sulfate grout that contains Ciment Fondu (calcium aluminate cement), Plaster of Paris (calcium sulfate hemihydrate), sand, Class F fly ash, boric acid and small quantities of additives. This composition afforded about ten hours of working time. Heat release began at 12 hours and was complete by 24 hours. The adiabatic temperature rise was 54 C which was within specification. The final product was hard and displayed no visible segregation. The density and maximum particle size were within specification.

  9. Analysis of an controller design for an electro-hydraulic servo pressure regulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Madsen, A. M.;

    2009-01-01

    of the existing hydraulic components there are, however, still a need for being able to generate a hydraulic pilot pressure, as e.g. almost all open-circuit pumps are hydraulically controlled. The focus of the current paper is therefore on the analysis and controller design an electro-hydraulic servo pressure...... regulator, which generates a hydraulic LS-pressure based on an electrical reference, hereby synergistically integrating knowledge from all parts of the mechatronics area. The servo pressure regulator is used to generate the LS-signal for a variable displacement pump, and the paper rst presents...... to generate a controlled leakage  ow that aids in stabilising the system. The robustness of the system is then discussed in relation to dierent pilot line volumes and pump dynamics. Finally experimental results are presented, where the performance is compared to that of a similar hydraulic reference system...

  10. Strength of High Performance Grouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations.......The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....

  11. Study on reasonable grouting sealing pressure for Hole Sealing in the Determination of Coal Seam Gas Pressure%煤层瓦斯压力测定的合理封孔注浆压力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨宏民; 杨峰峰; 安丰华; 陈向军

    2015-01-01

    煤层瓦斯压力测定是煤矿安全生产基础参数测定的重要内容之一,测压成功的关键是封孔技术。当围岩裂隙较发育时需要采用压力注浆封孔,注浆压力就成为封孔的技术关键。为了确定一定围岩岩性条件下的合理封孔注浆压力,采用数值模拟的方法对测压钻孔塑性区大小进行了仿真模拟,并根据浆液渗流规律和钻孔围岩性质之间的关系建立了浆液流动数学模型,得出了合理的注浆压力为4MPa,结合新型“两堵一注”囊袋式封孔装置与CPD8M型煤层瓦斯压力自动测定仪进行了现场应用,结果表明4MPa的注浆压力满足平煤十三矿试验现场围岩条件下的封孔要求,对同类条件下瓦斯压力测定具有一定的指导意义。%Coal seam gas pressure measurement is an important part of the basic parameter determination of safety production in coal mine , the key to successful manometry is sealing technology .When the surrounding rock fracture is developed by using pressure grouting hole needs , grouting pressure has become the key technology of hole seal-ing.In order to determine a reasonable hole sealing grouting pressure of surrounding rock lithology conditions , u-sing numerical simulation method to pressure hole the size of the plastic zone is simulated , and the establishment of slurry flow mathematical model according to the relationship between the flow of slurry and drilling properties of sur -rounding rock, grouting pressure obtained reasonable 4MPa, combined with the new "two block a injection"bag type sealing device and CDP8M type coal gas pressure automatic measuring instrument for field application , the re-sults show that the grouting pressure 4 MPa meet thirteen min of Ping dingshan mining site test of surrounding rock conditions of sealing requirements , it has certain guiding significance for similar conditions of gas pressure determi-nation.

  12. Time-dependent water permeation behavior of concrete under constant hydraulic pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Yonghao; Wang Zhongli; Zhou Yue

    2008-01-01

    In the present work, a concrete permeability testing setup was designed to study the behavior of hydraulic concrete subjected to constant hydraulic pressure. The results show that when concrete is subjected to high enough constant hydraulic pressure, it will be permeated, and after it reaches its maximum permeation rate, the permeability coefficient will gradually decrease towards a stable value. A time-dependent model of permeability coefficient for concrete subjected to hydraulic pressure is proposed. It is indicated that the decrease of the permeability coefficient with permeation time conforms well to the negative-exponential decrease model.

  13. Grouting material selection test in hydraulic tunnel gushing%水工隧洞涌水灌浆材料比选试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武立强

    2015-01-01

    This paper combine with tunnel construction of Dahuofang Reservoir water conveyance project (phase Ⅱ)in Liaoning Province,carry out water-tight experiment respectively and effect analysis focuses on the features of grouting ma-terial when the tunnel occurs a large water-gushing,such as cement,water glass and other commonly used material,in or-der to provide a reference for similar projects.%结合辽宁省大伙房水库输水(二期)工程隧洞施工,论述了隧洞发生较大涌水现象时,针对水泥、水玻璃、水泥—水玻璃等常用灌浆材料的性能特点,分别进行阻水试验及效果分析,以期为类似工程提供一定参考价值。

  14. Effects of hydraulic pressure on the performance of single chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shaoan; Liu, Weifeng; Guo, Jian; Sun, Dan; Pan, Bin; Ye, Yaoli; Ding, Weijun; Huang, Haobin; Li, Fujian

    2014-06-15

    Scaling up of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) without losing power density requires a thorough understanding of the effect of hydraulic pressure on MFC performance. In this work, the performance of an activated carbon air-cathode MFC was evaluated under different hydraulic pressures. The MFC under 100 mmH2O hydraulic pressure produced a maximum power density of 1260 ± 24 mW m(-2), while the power density decreased by 24.4% and 44.7% as the hydraulic pressure increased to 500 mmH2O and 2000 mmH2O, respectively. Notably, the performance of both the anode and the cathode had decreased under high hydraulic pressures. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests of the cathode indicated that both charge transfer resistance and diffusion transfer resistance increased with the increase in hydraulic pressure. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA genes demonstrated that the similarity among anodic biofilm communities under different hydraulic pressures was ≥ 90%, and the communities of all MFCs were dominated by Geobacter sp. These results suggested that the reduction in power output of the single chamber air-cathode MFC under high hydraulic pressures can be attributed to water flooding of the cathode and suppression the metabolism of anodic exoelectrogenic bacteria.

  15. PHYSICAL PROPERTY MEASUREMENTS OF LABORATORY PREPARED SALTSTONE GROUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E.; Cozzi, A.; Edwards, T.

    2014-05-05

    The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) built two new Saltstone Disposal Units (SDU), SDU 3 and SDU 5, in 2013. The variable frequency drive (VFD) for the grout transfer hose pump tripped due to high current demand by the motor during the initial radioactive saltstone transfer to SDU 5B on 12/5/2013. This was not observed during clean cap processing on July 5, 2013 to SDU 3A, which is a slightly longer distance from the SPF than is SDU 5B. Saltstone Design Authority (SDA) is evaluating the grout pump performance and capabilities to transfer the grout processed in SPF to SDU 3/5. To assist in this evaluation, grout physical properties are required. At this time, there are no rheological data from the actual SPF so the properties of laboratory prepared samples using simulated salt solution or Tank 50 salt solution will be measured. The physical properties of grout prepared in the laboratory with de-ionized water (DI) and salt solutions were obtained at 0.60 and 0.59 water to premix (W/P) ratios, respectively. The yield stress of the DI grout was greater than any salt grout. The plastic viscosity of the DI grout was lower than all of the salt grouts (including salt grout with admixture). When these physical data were used to determine the pressure drop and fluid horsepower for steady state conditions, the salt grouts without admixture addition required a higher pressure drop and higher fluid horsepower to transport. When 0.00076 g Daratard 17/g premix was added, both the pressure drop and fluid horsepower were below that of the DI grout. Higher concentrations of Daratard 17 further reduced the pressure drop and fluid horsepower. The uncertainty in the single point Bingham Plastic parameters is + 4% of the reported values and is the bounding uncertainty. Two different mechanical agitator mixing protocols were followed for the simulant salt grout, one having a total mixing time of three minutes and the other having a time of 10 minutes. The Bingham Plastic parameters

  16. Safety estimation of high-pressure hydraulic cylinder using FSI method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KIM J.H.; HAN S.M.; KIM Y.J.

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic cylinder is a primary component of the hydraulic valve systems.The numerical study of hydraulic cylinder to evaluate the stress analysis,the life assessment and the performance of operation characteristics in hydraulic cylinder were described.The calculation of safety factor,fatigue life,piston chamber pressure,rod chamber pressure and the change of velocity of piston with flow time after the beginning of hydraulic cylinder were incorporated.Numerical analysis was performed using the commercial CFD code,ANSYS with unsteady,dynamic mesh model,two-way FSI (fluid-struc-ture interaction)method and k-εturbulent model.The internal pressure in hydraulic cylinder through stress analysis show higher than those of the yield strength.

  17. Study on applicability of clay-based grout injection in the excavated damaged zone around the plug (TSX project)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugita, Yutaka [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Works

    2002-09-01

    JNC has joined the international joint project, the TSX project, with AECL at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Canada. Full-scale sealing technologies are applied to an underground tunnel in the TSX project. Regarding clay grouting, which supports the performance of the clay plug, a grouting experiment in the Excavated Damaged Zone around the tunnel was performed in the TSX project. A pre-injection test was the trial for the development of the grouting procedure, and the injection test was to evaluate the grouting effectiveness of the grouting in the EDZ around the tunnel. The results of the experiments showed the efficiency injection concentration of the grout slurry was between 4.0 and 6.0wt%. Grouted EDZ had lower hydraulic conductivity than that before grouting. (author)

  18. Cement-based grouts in geological disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onofrei, M. [AECL Research, Pinnawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1996-04-01

    The behavior and performance of a specially developed high-performance cement-based grout has been studied through a combined laboratory and in situ research program conducted under the auspices of the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program (CNFWMP). A new class of cement-based grouts - high-performance grouts-with the ability to penetrate and seal fine fractures was developed and investigated. These high-performance grouts, which were injected into fractures in the granitic rock at the Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Canada, are shown to successfully reduce the hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass from <10{sup -7} m s{sup -1} to 10{sup -9} m s{sup -1} and to penetrate fissures in the rock with apertures as small as 10 {mu}m. Furthermore, the laboratory studies have shown that this high - performance grout has very low hydraulic conductivity and is highly leach resistant under repository conditions. Microcracks generated in this materials from shrinkage, overstressing or thermal loads are likely to self-seal. The results of these studies suggest that the high-performance grouts can be considered as viable materials in disposal-vault sealing applications. Further work is needed to fully justify extrapolation of the results of the laboratory studies to time scales relevant to performance assessment.

  19. Failure Mode of the Water-filled Fractures under Hydraulic Pressure in Karst Tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xin; Lu, Hao; Huang, Houxu; Hao, Yiqing; Xia, Yuanpu

    2017-06-01

    Water-filled fractures continue to grow after the excavation of karst tunnels, and the hydraulic pressure in these fractures changes along with such growth. This paper simplifies the fractures in the surrounding rock as flat ellipses and then identifies the critical hydraulic pressure values required for the occurrence of tensile-shear and compression-shear failures in water-filled fractures in the case of plane stress. The occurrence of tensile-shear fracture requires a larger critical hydraulic pressure than compression-shear failure in the same fracture. This paper examines the effects of fracture strike and lateral pressure coefficient on critical hydraulic pressure, and identifies compression-shear failure as the main failure mode of water-filled fractures. This paper also analyses the hydraulic pressure distribution in fractures with different extensions, and reveals that hydraulic pressure decreases along with the continuous growth of fractures and cannot completely fill a newly formed fracture with water. Fracture growth may be interrupted under the effect of hydraulic tensile shear.

  20. Failure Mode of the Water-filled Fractures under Hydraulic Pressure in Karst Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Water-filled fractures continue to grow after the excavation of karst tunnels, and the hydraulic pressure in these fractures changes along with such growth. This paper simplifies the fractures in the surrounding rock as flat ellipses and then identifies the critical hydraulic pressure values required for the occurrence of tensile-shear and compression-shear failures in water-filled fractures in the case of plane stress. The occurrence of tensile-shear fracture requires a larger critical hydraulic pressure than compression-shear failure in the same fracture. This paper examines the effects of fracture strike and lateral pressure coefficient on critical hydraulic pressure, and identifies compression-shear failure as the main failure mode of water-filled fractures. This paper also analyses the hydraulic pressure distribution in fractures with different extensions, and reveals that hydraulic pressure decreases along with the continuous growth of fractures and cannot completely fill a newly formed fracture with water. Fracture growth may be interrupted under the effect of hydraulic tensile shear.

  1. In situ grouting of low-level burial trenches with a cement-based grout at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C.W.; Spence, R.D.; Tamura, T.; Spalding, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    A technology being evaluated for use in the closure of one of the low-level radwaste burial grounds at ORNL is trench stabilization using a cement-based grout. To demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of this technology, two interconnecting trenches in SWSA 6 were selected as candidates for in situ grouting with a particulate grout. The primary objective was to demonstrate the increased trench stability (characterized by trench penetration tests) and the decreased potential for leachate migration (characterized by hydraulic conductivity tests) following in situ injection of a particulate grout into the waste trenches. Stability against trench subsidence is a critical issue. For example, construction of impermeable covers to seal the trenches will be ineffectual unless subsequent trench subsidence is permanently suspended. A grout composed of 39% Type 1 Portland cement, 55.5% Class F fly ash, and 5.5% bentonite mixed at 12.5 lb/gal of water was selected. Before the trenches were grouted, the primary characteristics relating to physical stability, hydraulic conductivity, and void volume of the trenches were determined. Their physical stability was evaluated using soil-penetration tests.

  2. Analysis of and H∞ Controller Design For An Electro-Hydraulic Servo Pressure Regulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole;

    2011-01-01

    -circuit pumps are still hydraulically controlled, there is however still a need for being able to generate a hydraulic pilot pressure. The focus of the current paper is on the analysis and controller design of an electrohydraulic servo pressure regulator, which generates a hydraulic LS-pressure for a variable......Currently mobile hydraulics is in a transition phase, where electronic sensors and digital signal processors are becoming standard on a high number of machines, hereby replacing hydraulic pilot lines and offering new possibilities with regard to both control and feasibility. As most open...... displacement pump based on an electrical reference. The paper first presents the considered system and an experimentally verified model of this. A linearized model and a stability analysis is then presented, based on which an H∞control strategy is selected. A nominal performance and a robustly stable...

  3. Analysis of and H∞ Controller Design For An Electro-Hydraulic Servo Pressure Regulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2011-01-01

    -circuit pumps are still hydraulically controlled, there is however still a need for being able to generate a hydraulic pilot pressure. The focus of the current paper is on the analysis and controller design of an electrohydraulic servo pressure regulator, which generates a hydraulic LS-pressure for a variable...... displacement pump based on an electrical reference. The paper first presents the considered system and an experimentally verified model of this. A linearized model and a stability analysis is then presented, based on which an H∞control strategy is selected. A nominal performance and a robustly stable...

  4. PRESSURE OSCILLATIONS IN TRANSIENT PROCESSES OF HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS WITH VARIABLE DISPLACEMENT PUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hennadii Zaionchkovskyi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In aviation hydraulic drive of high power as a power supply the axial-piston variable displacement pumps became wide spreaded. The pump operational modes with air isolation and cavitation are accompanied by increased noise, delivery reduction and intensive pressure oscillations. The negative results of such phenomena are hydraulic elements erosion, pipeline fatigue failure, working fluid viscosity reduction and its contamination by wear products. The mechanism of cavitation rising in axial-piston pumps is considered, and factors which influence the cavitation rising and working fluid aeration are specified. The features of transient processes in aircraft hydraulic systems with variable displacement pumps are considered. It has been showed that as the pump delivery changes from its minimum to maximum great pressure oscillations in the aircraft pressure pipeline of the hydraulic system takes place, and have a negative influence on the pump service life. The recommendations concerning such pressure oscillation reduction are given.

  5. Interstitial hydraulic conductivity and interstitial fluid pressure for avascular or poorly vascularized tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L J; Schlesinger, M

    2015-09-07

    A correct description of the hydraulic conductivity is essential for determining the actual tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) distribution. Traditionally, it has been assumed that the hydraulic conductivities both in a tumor and normal tissue are constant, and that a tumor has a much larger interstitial hydraulic conductivity than normal tissue. The abrupt transition of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface leads to non-physical results (the hydraulic conductivity and the slope of the TIFP are not continuous at tumor surface). For the sake of simplicity and the need to represent reality, we focus our analysis on avascular or poorly vascularized tumors, which have a necrosis that is mostly in the center and vascularization that is mostly on the periphery. We suggest that there is an intermediary region between the tumor surface and normal tissue. Through this region, the interstitium (including the structure and composition of solid components and interstitial fluid) transitions from tumor to normal tissue. This process also causes the hydraulic conductivity to do the same. We introduce a continuous variation of the hydraulic conductivity, and show that the interstitial hydraulic conductivity in the intermediary region should be monotonically increasing up to the value of hydraulic conductivity in the normal tissue in order for the model to correspond to the actual TIFP distribution. The value of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface should be the lowest in value.

  6. Design and Analysis of High Pressure Hydraulic Filter for Marine Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momin, Toshin; Chandrasekar, RP; Balasubramanian, S.; Junaid Basha, AM, Dr.

    2017-05-01

    Filter is a critical component in ahydraulic system for maintaining the cleanliness of the fluid to required class level. InMarine applications very high reliable filter is required to operate continuously in saline environment. Design anddevelopment of high pressure hydraulic filter for Marine application is a challenging task. The design involves selection of special materialsandstringent qualification tests as per International standards. The present paper describes various stages of design and development of high pressure hydraulic filter for Marine application.

  7. Tree shoot bending generates hydraulic pressure pulses: a new long-distance signal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Rosana; Badel, Eric; Peraudeau, Sebastien; Leblanc-Fournier, Nathalie; Beaujard, François; Julien, Jean-Louis; Cochard, Hervé; Moulia, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    When tree stems are mechanically stimulated, a rapid long-distance signal is induced that slows down primary growth. An investigation was carried out to determine whether the signal might be borne by a mechanically induced pressure pulse in the xylem. Coupling xylem flow meters and pressure sensors with a mechanical testing device, the hydraulic effects of mechanical deformation of tree stem and branches were measured. Organs of several tree species were studied, including gymnosperms and angiosperms with different wood densities and anatomies. Bending had a negligible effect on xylem conductivity, even when deformations were sustained or were larger than would be encountered in nature. It was found that bending caused transient variation in the hydraulic pressure within the xylem of branch segments. This local transient increase in pressure in the xylem was rapidly propagated along the vascular system in planta to the upper and lower regions of the stem. It was shown that this hydraulic pulse originates from the apoplast. Water that was mobilized in the hydraulic pulses came from the saturated porous material of the conduits and their walls, suggesting that the poroelastic behaviour of xylem might be a key factor. Although likely to be a generic mechanical response, quantitative differences in the hydraulic pulse were found in different species, possibly related to differences in xylem anatomy. Importantly the hydraulic pulse was proportional to the strained volume, similar to known thigmomorphogenetic responses. It is hypothesized that the hydraulic pulse may be the signal that rapidly transmits mechanobiological information to leaves, roots, and apices.

  8. Measuring the initial earth pressure of granite using hydraulic fracturing test; Goseong and Yuseong areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Young Kwon; Won, Kyung Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    This report provides the initial earth pressure of granitic rocks obtained from Deep Core Drilling Program which is carried out as part of the assessment of deep geological environmental condition. These data are obtained by hydraulic fracturing test in three boreholes drilled up to 350{approx}500 m depth at the Yuseong and Goseong sites. These sites were selected based on the result of preliminary site evaluation study. The boreholes are NX-size (76 mm) and vertical. The procedure of hydraulic fracturing test is as follows: - Selecting the testing positions by preliminary investigation using BHTV logging. - Performing the hydraulic fracturing test at each selected position with depth.- Estimating the shut-in pressure by the bilinear pressure-decay-rate method. - Estimating the fracture reopening pressure from the pressure-time curves.- Estimating the horizontal principal stresses and the direction of principal stresses. 65 refs., 39 figs., 12 tabs. (Author)

  9. Analysis on the Pressure Fluctuation Law of a Hydraulic Exciting System with a Wave-exciter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Xiu-ye; KOU Zi-ming; LU Zi-rong

    2011-01-01

    A hydraulic exciting system with a wave exciter has been constructed in order to study the hydraulic vibra- tion law. The system consists of an oil source, wave-exciter and oil cylinder, and is controlled by a wave-exciter. The working principle of the hydraulic exciting system and wave exciter has been analyzed, and its excitation process has been illustrated. The law of every pipe's pressure fluctuation of the system is obtained by experiment. The theo- retical analysis and experimental data prove that the pipeline pressure periodically changes and the pipeline pressure fluctuation frequency is independently controlled by the excitation frequency of the wave-exciter. Every pipelinc's pressure wave is produced by system flow fluctuation and water hammer coupling. The pressure fluctuation rules of the system provide a theoretical basis for the study of the associated liberation system.

  10. Pressure regulation in nonlinear hydraulic networks by positive controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Persis, Claudio; Skovmose Kallesøe, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    We report on our investigation of an industrial case study of a system distributed over a network, namely a large-scale hydraulic network which underlies a district heating system. The network comprises an arbitrarily large number of end-users and actuators distributed along the network. After intro

  11. 高压旋喷注浆法在处理涵洞地基中的应用%High pressure jet grouting method in treatment of culvert application foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世波

    2013-01-01

      结合朔黄铁路扩能改造K132+808.5段钢筋混凝土盖板箱涵中的地基处理工程,详细介绍高压旋喷注浆法在处理涵洞地基中的施工特点与加固效果,包括桩的平面布置、水泥浆配制、注浆量及注浆压力、施工工艺与现场检测效果评价等.结果表明,采用高压旋喷注浆法处理涵洞软土地基可操作性强、加固效果且经济性良好,可为今后相似工程中的涵洞地基处理提供实际参考与施工依据.%In connection with the foundation treatment engineering of reinforced concrete cover plate culvert in the capacity expansion and revamp of K132+808.5 section of Shuo-Huang Railway, this paper expounds the characteristics and reinforcement effect of the high pressure jet grouting method in treatment of culvert foundation, including the pile layout, making up of cement slurry, quantity and pressure of grouting, construction process and effect evaluation of on-site examination and so on. Results show that the high pressure jet grouting method has stronger operability, nicer reinforcement effect and economic efficiency in the treatment of soft soil foundation of a culvert, which offers real referential values and construction bases for foundation treatment in a culvert in similar projects.

  12. WORKING LIQUID PRESSURE AND ITS CONTROL IN HYDRAULIC DRAWING PROCESSES OF CUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A method of setting up a pressure-stroke characteristic of the working liquid in hydraulic drawing is studied. A pressure-stroke characteristic and software for controlling its forming process are also developed. And a set of pressure controlling devices with PLC as a central processor are designed. It can be got from the relevant experiments that the pressure-stroke characteristic is correct and its control for forming process is available.

  13. Development and application demonstration of stemming slurry materials for high-pressure grouting in soft stratum%松软地层高压灌浆封孔浆体研制及应用论证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵金; 曾柳絮; 陈安重; 杨松林; 彭春雷

    2012-01-01

    For the impervious construction in soft stratum, there are various technical problems, such as easy collapse of boreholes, vertical lift induced by difficultly pressed grouting, large waste led by easy grouting leakage, and difficult grouting control. The traditional methods of "sleeve valve pipe grouting", "embedded screen pipe tube" and "orifice closed grouting" are difficult to meet the design requirements in deep soft ground. To reduce cost and to improve efficiency, a new construction method, high pulsating pressure grouting from below with stemming slurry materials, is put forward, and one of the key techniques, slurry sealing technique, is described. For the construction requirements, a kind of lowAntensity, rapidly solidified and hard plastic-like sealing slurry is developed, and its performance parameters are obtained. It is enough to stem grouting and to consume energy by filling slurry materials between grouting pipe and bore hole pipe wall based on the grouting mechanism. The bottom-up pulling force which provides the basis for choosing pulling machines for construction is calculated. In addition, if you turn the grouting pipe continuously during the process of grouting, the work efficiency can be improved and the grouting pipe can be smoothly promoted to avoid locking accidents even in deep borehole cases without pipe drawing machines. Through the tests on the deep soft stratum in the bay area of Tuokou Hydropower Station, the slurry materials achieve the desired effect. Theoretical study and engineering practice show that it's feasible to adopt slurry sealing technology and to implement high-pressure grouting in soft stratum, and that the construction techniques by means of stemming slurry material can meet requirements.%在松软地层进行防渗工程施工时,存在钻孔易塌孔,灌浆难起压易导致垂向挤密抬动,灌浆易漏浆串浆导致耗浆量大,灌浆过程难控制等技术难题。传统的“袖阀

  14. Grout performance in support of in situ grouting of the TH4 tank sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, R.D.; Kauschinger, J.L.; Spence, R.D.

    1999-04-01

    The cold demonstration test proved that less water was required to pump the in situ grout formulation than had been previously tested in the laboratory. The previous in situ grout formulation was restandardized with the same relative amounts of dry blend ingredients, albeit adding a fluidized admixture, but specifying less water for the slurry mix that must by pumped through the nozzles at high pressure. Also, the target GAAT tank for demonstrating this is situ grouting technique has been shifted to Tank TH4. A chemical surrogate sludge for TH4 was developed and tested in the laboratory, meeting expectations for leach resistance and strenght at 35 wt % sludge loading. It addition, a sample of hot TH4 sludge was also tested at 35 wt % sludge loading and proved to have superior strength and leach resistance compared with the surrogate test.

  15. Numerical and experimental study of low-frequency pressure pulsations in hydraulic units with Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, D.; Minakov, A.; Dekterev, D.; Sentyabov, A.; Dekterev, A.

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents the numerical simulation method of three-dimensional turbulent flows in the hydraulic turbine. This technique was verified by means of experimental data obtained on a water model of the Francis turbines. An aerodynamic stand, which is a miniature copy of the real hydraulic turbine, was designed. A series of experiments have been carried out on this stand and the corresponding calculations were performed. The dependence of the velocity and pressure pulsations profiles for different operation regimes are presented.

  16. Hydraulic Pressure during Fluid Flow Regulates Purinergic Signaling and Cytoskeleton Organization of Osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardinier, Joseph D; Gangadharan, Vimal; Wang, Liyun; Duncan, Randall L

    2014-06-01

    During physiological activities, osteoblasts experience a variety of mechanical forces that stimulate anabolic responses at the cellular level necessary for the formation of new bone. Previous studies have primarily investigated the osteoblastic response to individual forms of mechanical stimuli. However in this study, we evaluated the response of osteoblasts to two simultaneous, but independently controlled stimuli; fluid flow-induced shear stress (FSS) and static or cyclic hydrostatic pressure (SHP or CHP, respectively). MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts-like cells were subjected to 12dyn/cm(2) FSS along with SHP or CHP of varying magnitudes to determine if pressure enhances the anabolic response of osteoblasts during FSS. For both SHP and CHP, the magnitude of hydraulic pressure that induced the greatest release of ATP during FSS was 15 mmHg. Increasing the hydraulic pressure to 50 mmHg or 100 mmHg during FSS attenuated the ATP release compared to 15 mmHg during FSS. Decreasing the magnitude of pressure during FSS to atmospheric pressure reduced ATP release to that of basal ATP release from static cells and inhibited actin reorganization into stress fibers that normally occurred during FSS with 15 mmHg of pressure. In contrast, translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) to the nucleus was independent of the magnitude of hydraulic pressure and was found to be mediated through the activation of phospholipase-C (PLC), but not src kinase. In conclusion, hydraulic pressure during FSS was found to regulate purinergic signaling and actin cytoskeleton reorganization in the osteoblasts in a biphasic manner, while FSS alone appeared to stimulate NFκB translocation. Understanding the effects of hydraulic pressure on the anabolic responses of osteoblasts during FSS may provide much needed insights into the physiologic effects of coupled mechanical stimuli on osteogenesis.

  17. Jet grouting for a groundwater cutoff wall in difficult glacial soil deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, R.F.; Pepe, F. Jr. [Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, New York, NY (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Jet grouting is being used as part of a groundwater cutoff wall system in a major New York City subway construction project to limit drawdowns in an adjacent PCB contamination plume. A circular test shaft of jet grout columns was conducted during the design phase to obtain wall installation parameters. The test program also included shaft wall mapping, and measurements of; inflows, piezometric levels, ground heave and temperature, and jet grout hydraulic conductivity. An axisymmetric finite element method groundwater model was established to back calculate the in-situ hydraulic conductivities of both the surrounding glacial soils and the jet grout walls by matching observed inflows and piezometric levels. The model also verified the use of packer permeability test as a tool in the field to evaluate the hydraulic conductivities of jet grout columns. Both the test program and analytic studies indicated that adjustments to the construction procedures would be required to obtain lower hydraulic conductivities of the jet grout walls for construction. A comparison is made with the conductivities estimated from the test program/analytic studies with those from the present construction.

  18. 高压水泥旋喷桩在避风塘工程中的应用%Application of High Pressure Jet Grouting Pile in Typhoon Shelter Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄祥军; 温永威; 曾建青

    2011-01-01

    In the temporary typhoon shelter project of Shantou Port Guangao Harbor Area, high pressure jet grouting pile is used as waterproof curtain, and the foundation trench and harbor basin are excavated on land. The above project is used as an example to emphasize key points of high pressure jet grouting pile construction, as well as the feasibility and economy of major technical measures adopted in construction, which will provide the reference for similar projects.%在汕头港广澳港区临时避风塘工程的施工中,以高压水泥旋喷桩作为防水帷幕,实现了基槽、港池挖方的陆上干地施工.以本工程为例,重点介绍高压水泥旋喷桩的施工要点、主要施工技术措施的可行性和经济性,可供类似工程参考.

  19. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Injected Granular Soil with Thick Super Plasticized Grouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costas A. Anagnostopoulos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of super-plasticizers in micro fine or regular cement-based grouts has become of vital importance in advanced professional grouting practices. These super-plasticizers play an important role in the production of more durable grouts with improved rheological characteristics. This report presents a laboratory study of the effect of a new-generation Polycarboxylate Super-plasticizer (PCE on the inject ability of thick cement grouts into a coarse soil, under different grouting pressures, in comparison to that of a polynaphthalene (SNF super-plasticizer. Finally, the physical (dry unit weight, porosity and permeability and mechanical properties (compressive strength, elastic modulus of grouted specimens with various grouts were examined. The experiments were conducted using different additive dosages with grouts proportioned with a water to cement ratio (w/c of 0.33, 0.4 and 0.5, respectively. The results showed that PCE super-plasticizer is more effective than the SNF one for the increase of grout inject ability and the improvement of physical and mechanical properties of grouted soil.

  20. Pore pressure migration during hydraulic stimulation due to permeability enhancement by low-pressure subcritical fracture slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukuhira, Yusuke; Moriya, Hirokazu; Ito, Takatoshi; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Häring, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the details of pressure migration during hydraulic stimulation is important for the design of an energy extraction system and reservoir management, as well as for the mitigation of hazardous-induced seismicity. Based on microseismic and regional stress information, we estimated the pore pressure increase required to generate shear slip on an existing fracture during stimulation. Spatiotemporal analysis of pore pressure migration revealed that lower pore pressure migrates farther and faster and that higher pore pressure migrates more slowly. These phenomena can be explained by the relationship between fracture permeability and stress state criticality. Subcritical fractures experience shear slip following smaller increases of pore pressure and promote migration of pore pressure because of their enhanced permeability. The difference in migration rates between lower and higher pore pressures suggests that the optimum wellhead pressure is the one that can stimulate relatively permeable fractures, selectively. Its selection optimizes economic benefits and minimizes seismic risk.

  1. Cure shrinkage in epoxy grouts for grouted repairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsuddoha, Md.; Islam, Md. Mainul; Aravinthan, Thiru; Manalo, Allan; Lau, Kin-tak

    2013-08-01

    Structures can go through harsh environmental adversity and can experience material loss and cracks during their service lives. Infill material is used to ensure a supporting bed for a grouted repair. Epoxy grouts are used for repairing and rehabilitating structures, such as foundations, bridges, piers, transportation pipelines, etc., because they are resistant to typical chemicals and possess superior mechanical properties than other grouts. The resin based infill used inside the void or cracked space of the repair is vulnerable to shrinkage. When these filled grouts have high resin content, cracks can develop from residual stresses, which can affect the load transfer performance. It follows that interlayer separation and cracking of infill layer can occur in a grouted repair. In this study, volumetric shrinkage of two epoxy grouts was measured over 28 days using a Pycnometer. The highest volumetric shrinkage measured after 7 days was found to be 2.72%. The results suggest that the volumetric shrinkage can be reduced to 1.1% after 7 days, through the introduction of a coarse aggregate filler; a 2.5 times reduction in shrinkage. About 98% and 92% of the total shrinkage over the 28 day period, of the unfilled and filled grouts respectively, was found to occur within 7 days of mixing. The gel-time shrinkages were also calculated, to determine the "postgel" part of the curing contraction which subsequently produces residual stresses in the hardened grout systems.

  2. Rock fracture grouting with microbially induced carbonate precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minto, James M.; MacLachlan, Erica; El Mountassir, Gráinne; Lunn, Rebecca J.

    2016-11-01

    Microbially induced carbonate precipitation has been proposed for soil stabilization, soil strengthening, and permeability reduction as an alternative to traditional cement and chemical grouts. In this paper, we evaluate the grouting of fine aperture rock fractures with calcium carbonate, precipitated through urea hydrolysis, by the bacteria Sporosarcina pasteurii. Calcium carbonate was precipitated within a small-scale and a near field-scale (3.1 m2) artificial fracture consisting of a rough rock lower surfaces and clear polycarbonate upper surfaces. The spatial distribution of the calcium carbonate precipitation was imaged using time-lapse photography and the influence on flow pathways revealed from tracer transport imaging. In the large-scale experiment, hydraulic aperture was reduced from 276 to 22 μm, corresponding to a transmissivity reduction of 1.71 × 10-5 to 8.75 × 10-9 m2/s, over a period of 12 days under constantly flowing conditions. With a modified injection strategy a similar three orders of magnitude reduction in transmissivity was achieved over a period of 3 days. Calcium carbonate precipitated over the entire artificial fracture with strong adhesion to both upper and lower surfaces and precipitation was controlled to prevent clogging of the injection well by manipulating the injection fluid velocity. These experiments demonstrate that microbially induced carbonate precipitation can successfully be used to grout a fracture under constantly flowing conditions and may be a viable alternative to cement based grouts when a high level of hydraulic sealing is required and chemical grouts when a more durable grout is required.

  3. ESTIMATION OF RESIDUAL CONTACT PRESSURE IN HYDRAULICALLY EXPANDED CRA-LINED PIPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xuesheng; Li Peining; Wang Ruzhu

    2004-01-01

    The mechanically bonded CRA-lined pipe is developed to meet the need for corrosion-resistant alloy steel pipe. Residual contact pressure at the interface of lined pipe is important factor that governs the quality of lined pipe. A simplified theoretical method is presented to predict the residual contact pressure created by hydraulic pressure. The calculating equation related hydro-forming pressure to the residual contact pressure between two metal faces is derived. And the validation of the proposed equation is accomplished by comparing its result to those obtained by experimental investigation.

  4. Characterizing hydraulic fractures in shale gas reservoirs using transient pressure tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang

    2015-06-01

    This work presents an unconventional gas reservoir simulator and its application to quantify hydraulic fractures in shale gas reservoirs using transient pressure data. The numerical model incorporates most known physical processes for gas production from unconventional reservoirs, including two-phase flow of liquid and gas, Klinkenberg effect, non-Darcy flow, and nonlinear adsorption. In addition, the model is able to handle various types and scales of fractures or heterogeneity using continuum, discrete or hybrid modeling approaches under different well production conditions of varying rate or pressure. Our modeling studies indicate that the most sensitive parameter of hydraulic fractures to early transient gas flow through extremely low permeability rock is actually the fracture-matrix contacting area, generated by fracturing stimulation. Based on this observation, it is possible to use transient pressure testing data to estimate the area of fractures generated from fracturing operations. We will conduct a series of modeling studies and present a methodology using typical transient pressure responses, simulated by the numerical model, to estimate fracture areas created or to quantity hydraulic fractures with traditional well testing technology. The type curves of pressure transients from this study can be used to quantify hydraulic fractures in field application.

  5. A Study on the Pressure Relief Scope and the Stress Variation of Hydraulic Flushing Borehole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. F.Wei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the variation of the pressure relief scope and the stress around hydraulic flushing borehole, the theory of coalrock damage was utilized to distinguish the interaction area of water-jet and coal-rock into the coal-rock crushing area, the water-jet pressure stagnation area, the transition area and the original stress recovery area of coal-rock. Based on the actual occurrence conditions of the coal seam, the pressure variation and relief scope around the hydraulic flushing borehole were analyzed and simulated by RFPA2D-Flow software. The results showed that a relief area with the radius of 5.0 ~ 6.0 m around the borehole formed due to the hydraulic flushing with the pressure relief of 0.038 ~ 6.545 MPa, and the maximum principal stress is 15.85 MPa with a distance of 6.8 m from the inspected hole where stress concentration appeared. After hydraulic flushing test, the diameter (441.8 ~ 1171.6 mm of the hole which can be an expression of coal crushing area size, was calculated based on the examination of the coal amount through the trial process, and it can be drawn that the pressure relief area must be larger than that of the coal-rock crushing area. Meanwhile, the measured pressures relief range(5.96 ~ 6.62 m is basically consistent with the numerical simulation result (5.0 ~ 6.0 m which verified the accuracy of the simulation analysis, according to the distance from the inspection drilling to the hydraulic flushing borehole and the decreased degree of the gas content in the inspection hole by the way of Gas Content.

  6. GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMP GROUTING MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALLAN,M.

    1998-04-01

    The thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts has been investigated in order to determine suitability of these materials for grouting vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps. The roles of mix variables such as water/cement ratio, sand/cement ratio and superplasticizer dosage were measured. The cement-sand grouts were also tested for rheological characteristics, bleeding, permeability, bond to HDPE pipe, shrinkage, coefficient of thermal expansion, exotherm, durability and environmental impact. This paper summarizes the thermal conductivity, permeability, bonding and exotherm data for selected cementitious grouts. The theoretical reduction in bore length that could be achieved with the BNL-developed cement-sand grouts is examined. Finally, the FY 98 research and field trials are discussed.

  7. Geothermal heat pump grouting materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.

    1998-08-01

    The thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts has been investigated in order to determine suitability of these materials for grouting vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pumps. The roles of mix variables such as water/cement ratio, sand/cement ratio and superplasticizer dosage were measured. The cement-sand grouts were also tested for rheological characteristics, bleeding, permeability, bond to HDPE pipe, shrinkage, coefficient of thermal expansion, exotherm, durability and environmental impact. This paper summarizes the thermal conductivity, permeability, bonding and exotherm data for selected cementitious grouts. The theoretical reduction in bore length that could be achieved with the BNL-developed cement-sand grouts is examined. Finally, the FY 98 research and field trials are discussed.

  8. NUMERICAL SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH ON HYDRAULIC COUNTER-PRESSURE DEEP DRAWING OF CONICAL PART

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Hydraulic counter-pressure deep drawing of truncated conical part is numerically simulated with MARK and the nature of increasing the forming limit in this process is searched.The effects of blank holding force and chamber pressure on forming results are investigated by experiments and,as a result,truncated conical parts with large drawing ratio are successfully formed in single step with this drawing method.

  9. Pressure Responses of a Vertically Hydraulic Fractured Well in a Reservoir with Fractal Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Razminia, Kambiz; Torres, Delfim F M

    2015-01-01

    We obtain an analytical solution for the pressure-transient behavior of a vertically hydraulic fractured well in a heterogeneous reservoir. The heterogeneity of the reservoir is modeled by using the concept of fractal geometry. Such reservoirs are called fractal reservoirs. According to the theory of fractional calculus, a temporal fractional derivative is applied to incorporate the memory properties of the fractal reservoir. The effect of different parameters on the computed wellbore pressure is fully investigated by various synthetic examples.

  10. Averaging hydraulic head, pressure head, and gravitational head in subsurface hydrology, and implications for averaged fluxes, and hydraulic conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. de Rooij

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Current theories for water flow in porous media are valid for scales much smaller than those at which problem of public interest manifest themselves. This provides a drive for upscaled flow equations with their associated upscaled parameters. Upscaling is often achieved through volume averaging, but the solution to the resulting closure problem imposes severe restrictions to the flow conditions that limit the practical applicability. Here, the derivation of a closed expression of the effective hydraulic conductivity is forfeited to circumvent the closure problem. Thus, more limited but practical results can be derived. At the Representative Elementary Volume scale and larger scales, the gravitational potential and fluid pressure are treated as additive potentials. The necessary requirement that the superposition be maintained across scales is combined with conservation of energy during volume integration to establish consistent upscaling equations for the various heads. The power of these upscaling equations is demonstrated by the derivation of upscaled water content-matric head relationships and the resolution of an apparent paradox reported in the literature that is shown to have arisen from a violation of the superposition principle. Applying the upscaling procedure to Darcy's Law leads to the general definition of an upscaled hydraulic conductivity. By examining this definition in detail for porous media with different degrees of heterogeneity, a series of criteria is derived that must be satisfied for Darcy's Law to remain valid at a larger scale.

  11. Controlling a negative loaded hydraulic cylinder using pressure feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.R.; Andersen, T.O.

    2010-01-01

    showing that without extra measures such a system will be unstable in a substantial part of the cylinder stroke. The stability criterion is expressed in hard quantities: Cylinder volumes, cylinder area ratio and overcenter valve pilot area ratio. A pressure feed back scheme that has as target to maintain...

  12. Characteristic analysis of a water hydraulic pilot-operated pressure-reducing valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuyao; Hu, Junhua; Wu, Chao; Liu, Yiou; Liu, Yinshui

    2017-06-01

    Comprehensive characteristics of a seawater hydraulic pilot-operated pressure-reducing valve with constant pressure output were analyzed. A rated pressure of 15MPa and a rated flowrate of 40L/min were offered in the numerical work. Static and dynamic analyses show good behaviors: The settling time is less than 0.2s, the output pressure variation is about 0.3MPa at the maximum when input pressure or flowrate is flucturing, and the steady external leakage is below 0.025L/min. The pilot spring regulates the output pressure and the main spring has an ability to adjust the output pressure variation faintly. The narrow hole diameter of the adjustable damping plugs is negatively related to the respond time. And appropriately raising the spring chamber volume can evidently reduce outlet pressure impact of the valve when input mutations happen.

  13. MODELING ANALYSIS FOR GROUT HOPPER WASTE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2012-01-04

    The Saltstone facility at Savannah River Site (SRS) has a grout hopper tank to provide agitator stirring of the Saltstone feed materials. The tank has about 300 gallon capacity to provide a larger working volume for the grout nuclear waste slurry to be held in case of a process upset, and it is equipped with a mechanical agitator, which is intended to keep the grout in motion and agitated so that it won't start to set up. The primary objective of the work was to evaluate the flow performance for mechanical agitators to prevent vortex pull-through for an adequate stirring of the feed materials and to estimate an agitator speed which provides acceptable flow performance with a 45{sup o} pitched four-blade agitator. In addition, the power consumption required for the agitator operation was estimated. The modeling calculations were performed by taking two steps of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach. As a first step, a simple single-stage agitator model with 45{sup o} pitched propeller blades was developed for the initial scoping analysis of the flow pattern behaviors for a range of different operating conditions. Based on the initial phase-1 results, the phase-2 model with a two-stage agitator was developed for the final performance evaluations. A series of sensitivity calculations for different designs of agitators and operating conditions have been performed to investigate the impact of key parameters on the grout hydraulic performance in a 300-gallon hopper tank. For the analysis, viscous shear was modeled by using the Bingham plastic approximation. Steady state analyses with a two-equation turbulence model were performed. All analyses were based on three-dimensional results. Recommended operational guidance was developed by using the basic concept that local shear rate profiles and flow patterns can be used as a measure of hydraulic performance and spatial stirring. Flow patterns were estimated by a Lagrangian integration technique along

  14. MODELING ANALYSIS FOR GROUT HOPPER WASTE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2012-01-04

    The Saltstone facility at Savannah River Site (SRS) has a grout hopper tank to provide agitator stirring of the Saltstone feed materials. The tank has about 300 gallon capacity to provide a larger working volume for the grout nuclear waste slurry to be held in case of a process upset, and it is equipped with a mechanical agitator, which is intended to keep the grout in motion and agitated so that it won't start to set up. The primary objective of the work was to evaluate the flow performance for mechanical agitators to prevent vortex pull-through for an adequate stirring of the feed materials and to estimate an agitator speed which provides acceptable flow performance with a 45{sup o} pitched four-blade agitator. In addition, the power consumption required for the agitator operation was estimated. The modeling calculations were performed by taking two steps of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach. As a first step, a simple single-stage agitator model with 45{sup o} pitched propeller blades was developed for the initial scoping analysis of the flow pattern behaviors for a range of different operating conditions. Based on the initial phase-1 results, the phase-2 model with a two-stage agitator was developed for the final performance evaluations. A series of sensitivity calculations for different designs of agitators and operating conditions have been performed to investigate the impact of key parameters on the grout hydraulic performance in a 300-gallon hopper tank. For the analysis, viscous shear was modeled by using the Bingham plastic approximation. Steady state analyses with a two-equation turbulence model were performed. All analyses were based on three-dimensional results. Recommended operational guidance was developed by using the basic concept that local shear rate profiles and flow patterns can be used as a measure of hydraulic performance and spatial stirring. Flow patterns were estimated by a Lagrangian integration technique along

  15. Abrasion properties of homogenous and blended fill materials during pressure hydraulic transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchaninov, S.P.

    1978-03-01

    A description is given of tests conducted to determine the abrasive properties of small and large-grain free-flowing fill materials during hydraulic transport of the materials under pressure. Data are given on the size, density, abrasiveness of various sized varieties of rock, sand, and blends comprising homogenous materials, simple and complex mixtures, and on the physical characteristics of various fill materials in relation to the trafficability and parameters of pipelines. Technical specifications are given for fill steel pipes. The study indicates that the durability of hydraulic fill pipelines largely depends on the abrasiveness of the fill materials. 3 references, 2 figures, 2 tables.

  16. Effect of Hydraulic Accumulator on Pressure Surge of a Hydrostatic Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajit; Das, Jayanta; Dasgupta, Kabir; Barnwal, Manish Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Hydraulic power system is generally used in off-road vehicles for power transmission such as Heavy Earth Moving Machineries (HEMM). Their energy efficiency and unsubstantial failure becomes an extensive subject of analysis. Various arrangements in the system are compassed along with the utilization of some appropriate components. Application of a hydraulic accumulator is one among them. Benefits of accumulator is its multi-purpose usages like energy saving and pressure surge damping. This paper deals with the control of pressure surges in the hydraulic system and energy saving from the surges by using accumulator. For this purpose, the simulation of the hydraulic system is done in MATLAB/SimulinkR environment and an external disturbance is introduced to generate the pressure surge. The surge absorptivity of the accumulator is studied for different sizes at different pre-charged conditions of the accumulator. The discharge characteristics of different sized accumulators are also analyzed in this paper. It is observed that the ability to absorb the surge and stabilize the system is high in the smaller capacity accumulator. However the energy delivery time of larger sized accumulator is high.

  17. STUDY OF DISTRIBUTION LAW OF WATER PRESSURE ACTING ON COMPOSITE LINING AND REASONABLE PARAMETERS OF GROUTING CIRCLE FOR SUBSEA TUNNEL%海底隧道复合衬砌水压力分布规律及合理注浆加固圈参数研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏飞; 张顶立; 赵勇; 张成平

    2012-01-01

    与普通山岭隧道不同,海底隧道深埋于海床之下,地下水的处理是其修建过程中的关键问题,而隧道渗水量控制及衬砌结构水荷载确定又是地下水处理的核心问题.采用“堵水限排”的设计理念,设计海底隧道复合衬砌结构防排水系统,可以实现以较小的排放量明显折减甚至消除作用在支护结构上的外水压力,使海底隧道衬砌结构设计更经济.基于地下水水力学理论,推导海底隧道渗水量和复合衬砌结构外水压力的计算方法,并结合厦门海底隧道工程实践,采用理论分析和数值模拟方法揭示初期支护、二次衬砌以及注浆加固圈等参数的变化对隧道渗水量和衬砌外水压力的影响规律.在此基础上,提出海底隧道复合衬砌合理注浆加固圈参数的确定方法,并在厦门翔安海底隧道穿越F4风化深槽的合理注浆加固圈参数设计中取得成功应用.研究结果可为海底隧道或富水区高水头山岭隧道工程的防排水系统设计提供借鉴和参考.%Different from land tunnels, the subsea tunnels are located deeply under the sea, so the groundwater treatment is the key issue during tunnel construction. Simultaneously, water inflow control and calculation of water load acting on lining structure are the core issues. The external water pressure on lining will be reduced remarkably with low discharge by adopting the design discipline of blocking groundwater and limiting discharge. So the design of lining structure in subsea tunnels is more economical. Based on the correlation theory of groundwater hydraulics, a calculation methods of water load acting on composite lining and water inflow in subsea tunnels is derived. Taking Xiang'an subsea tunnel in Xiamen for example, the influences of variable parameters of primary support, secondary support and grouting circle on water inflow and external water pressure are then expounded by using theoretical analysis and numerical

  18. Influence of pore pressure to the development of a hydraulic fracture in poroelastic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Golovin, Sergey V

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the influence of the pore pressure to the development of a hydraulically-driven fracture in a poroelastic medium. We present a novel numerical model for propagation of a planar hydraulic fracture and prove its correctness by demonstration of the numerical convergence and by comparison with known solutions. The advantage of the algorithm is that it does not require the distinguishing of the fracture's tips and reconstruction of the numerical mesh according to the fracture propagation. Next, we perform a thorough analysis of the interplay of fluid filtration and redistribution of stresses near the fracture. We demonstrate that the fracture length decreases with the increase of the Biot's number (the parameter that determines the contribution of the pore pressure to the stress) and explain this effect by analysing the near-fracture pore pressure, rock deformation and stresses. We conclude, that the correct account for the fluid exchange between the fracture and the rock should be bas...

  19. Predicting the Grouting Ability of Sandy Soils by Artificial Neural Networks Based On Experimental Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Hassanlourad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the grouting ability of sandy soils is investigated by artificial neural networks based on the results of chemical grout injection tests. In order to evaluate the soil grouting potential, experimental samples were prepared and then injected. The sand samples with three different particle sizes (medium, fine, and silty and three relative densities (%30, %50, and %90 were injected with the sodium silicate grout with three different concentrations (water to sodium silicate ratio of 0.33, 1, and 2. A multi-layer Perceptron type of the artificial neural network was trained and tested using the results of 138 experimental tests. The multi-layer Perceptron included one input layer, two hidden layers and one output layer. The input parameters consisted of initial relative densities of grouted samples, the average size of particles (D50, the ratio of the grout water to sodium silicate and the grout pressure. The output parameter was the grout injection radius. The results of the experimental tests showed that the radius of grout injection is a complicated function of the mentioned parameters. In addition, the results of the trained artificial neural network showed to be reasonably consistent with the experimental results.

  20. Construction Technology forLeakage Ribsat the Bottom of Reverse Pressure Injection Inorganic Grout Repair Girder%反向压注无机灌浆料修补箱梁底部漏筋技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张向民

    2015-01-01

    无机高强灌浆料具有自流性好、快硬、早强、高强、无收缩、微膨胀、自密性好等特点,且无毒、无害、对水质及周围环境无污染,加上施工质量可靠、操作方便、成本较低、工期较短等优点,在工程修补加固中得到广泛应用.本文结合工程实例,克服施工操作难、工作空间小等难题,经过方案优化,采用反向压注无机灌浆料修补技术对案例箱梁底部漏筋进行了修补处理,并详细介绍了该施工技术工艺流程.研究结果表明,反向压注无机灌浆料修补箱梁底部漏筋效果良好,值得应用与推广.%Inorganic high-strength grout hasthe advantages of good self-fluidity, fast hard, early strength, high strength, non-shrink, micro-expansion, and self-tightness, and it is non-toxic, harmless, without pollution to water quality and the surrounding environment, coupled with reliable construction quality easy operation, low cost, short du?ration, etc., it is widely used in engineering repair and strengthening.Combining with engineering example, overcom?ing the difficultiesin construction operation, small work space and other problems, after scheme optimization, this pa?per used a reverse pressure injection inorganic grout repair technique to repair and treatleakage ribs at thebottom of the box in this case, and introduced the construction process in detail. The results show that using the reverse pres?sure injection inorganic grout to repair leakage ribsat the bottom of the box has a good effect, worth of wide applica?tion and promotion.

  1. THEORETICAL ANALYSIS ON HYDRAULIC TRANSIENT RESULTED BY SUDDEN INCREASE OF INLET PRESSURE FOR LAMINAR PIPELINE FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓松圣; 周绍骑; 廖振方; 邱正阳; 曾顺鹏

    2004-01-01

    Hydraulic transient,which is resulted from sudden increase of inlet pressure for laminar pipeline flow,is studied.The partial differential equation,initial and boundary conditions for transient pressure were constructed,and the theoretical solution was obtained by variable-separation method.The partial differential equation,initial and boundary conditions for flow rate were obtained in accordance with the constraint correlation between flow rate and pressure while the transient flow rate distribution was also solved by variable-separation method.The theoretical solution conforms to numerical solution obtained by method of characteristics(MOC)very well.

  2. Theory and application of rock burst prevention using deep hole high pressure hydraulic fracturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan-Kun ZHAO; Jun LIU; Xiang-Zhi WEI; Chuan-Hong DING; Yu-Lei LV; Gang-Feng LI

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyze the mechanism of deep hole high pressure hydraulic fracturing,nonlinear dynamic theory,damage mechanics,elastic-plastic mechanics are used,and the law of crack propagation and stress transfer under two deep hole hydraulic fracturing in tectonic stress areas is studied using seepage-stress coupling models with RFPA simulation software.In addition,the effects of rock burst control are tested using multiple methods,either in the stress field or in the energy field.The research findings show that with two deep holes hydraulic fracturing in tectonic stress areas,the direction of the main crack propagation under shear-tensile stress is parallel to the greatest principal stress direction.High-pressure hydraulic fracturing water seepage can result in the destruction of the coal structure,while also weakening the physical and mechanical properties of coal and rock.Therefore the impact of high stress concentration in hazardous areas will level off,which has an effect on rock burst prevention and control in the region.

  3. The High Pressure Jet Grouting Pile Engineering Examples in the Construction Waste Landfill Area%高压旋喷桩在建筑垃圾填埋区的工程实例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌海

    2014-01-01

    工程建造于废弃的采石场,采石场留下较大的采石坑,坑中填充了各种建筑垃圾和生活垃圾。原设计采用冲孔灌注桩作为工程的基础桩,由于场地内存在小范围的土洞,开始施工冲孔灌注桩时就发生了严重的塌孔事故。改用高压旋喷桩地基处理的基础方案达到了良好的效果。就此讨论了在此类建筑垃圾填埋区域进行高压旋喷桩地基处理的整个流程。对试桩过程、设计参数取用、施工过程和检测过程中应注意的问题进行了研究和讨论。%The engineering construction in the abandoned quarry,quarry left large quarries,pit filled with all sorts of construction waste and household refuse.The original design using punching as the basis of engineering pile,due to the existence of a small scale soil caves in field,when punching pile construction a serious down hole accidents took place. To switch to foundation treatment of the high pressure j et grouting pile foundation scheme achieved good effect.This paper discussed the whole process of high pressure j et grouting pile foundation treatment.Process of test pile,design parameters,construction process and testing process were studied.

  4. Self Cleanable Tile Grout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet CANBAZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, In this study, self-cleaning tile grout and white cement specimens are produced and the effect of self-cleaning mechanism of TiO2 is tested. Effects of TiO2 amount and TiO2 type are tested and compared. Anatase form and rutile TiO2 additive are used in the study. In addition, effects of silicate additives on the self-cleaning mechanism is determined. Studies are conducted with respect to Italian UNI code. This study presents a method for solving rust between the tiles of ceramic wet floor coverings with photocatalysis method and then removing the dirt with secondary effects such as water, wind etc.

  5. Hydraulic Resistance and Liberation of Air in Aviation Kerosene Flow Through Diaphragms at Low Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitanin, É. L.; Kitanina, E. É.; Zherebtsov, V. A.; Peganova, M. M.; Stepanov, S. G.; Bondarenko, D. A.; Morisson, D.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental investigations of the liberation of air in gravity flow of aviation fuel through a pipeline with diaphragms. Experiments were carried out in the pressure range 0.2-1.0 bar and temperature range -20 to +20°C. The TC-1 kerosene was preliminarily saturated with air at atmospheric pressure. The liberation of air after the diaphragms with three ratios of the flow area to the cross-sectional area of the pipeline has been investigated. The results of investigations of the two-phase flow in several experimental pipelines containing one or two diaphragms and other local hydraulic resistances have been generalized. The obtained approximation equations permit calculating the hydraulic resistance of the diaphragm in the two-phase flow and the mass gas content of air after the diaphragm in pipelines of complex geometry.

  6. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of a Passive Residual Heat Removal System for an Integral Pressurized Water Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A theoretical investigation on the thermal hydraulic characteristics of a new type of passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS), which is connected to the reactor coolant system via the secondary side of the steam generator, for an integral pressurized water reactor is presented in this paper. Three-interknited natural circulation loops are adopted by this PRHRS to remove the residual heat of the reactor core after a reactor trip. Based on the one-dimensional model and a simulation code (S...

  7. NUMERICAL SIMULATION AND ANALYSIS OF PRESSURE PULSATION IN FRANCIS HYDRAULIC TURBINE WITH AIR ADMISSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the three-dimensional unsteady multiphase flow is simulated in the whole passage of Francis hydraulic turbine. The pressure pulsation is predicted and compared with experimental data at positions in the draft tube, in front of runner, guide vanes and at the inlet of the spiral case. The relationship between pressure pulsation in the whole passage and air admission is analyzed. The computational results show: air admission from spindle hole decreases the pressure difference in the horizontal section of draft tube, which in turn decreases the amplitude of low-frequency pressure pulsation in the draft tube; the rotor-stator interaction between the air inlet and the runner increases the blade-frequency pressure pulsation in front of the runner.

  8. Thermally conductive cementitious grouts for geothermal heat pumps. Progress report FY 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.L.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.

    1998-11-01

    Research commenced in FY 97 to determine the suitability of superplasticized cement-sand grouts for backfilling vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pump (GHP) systems. The overall objectives were to develop, evaluate and demonstrate cementitious grouts that could reduce the required bore length and improve the performance of GHPs. This report summarizes the accomplishments in FY 98. The developed thermally conductive grout consists of cement, water, a particular grade of silica sand, superplasticizer and a small amount of bentonite. While the primary function of the grout is to facilitate heat transfer between the U-loop and surrounding formation, it is also essential that the grout act as an effective borehole sealant. Two types of permeability (hydraulic conductivity) tests was conducted to evaluate the sealing performance of the cement-sand grout. Additional properties of the proposed grout that were investigated include bleeding, shrinkage, bond strength, freeze-thaw durability, compressive, flexural and tensile strengths, elastic modulus, Poisson`s ratio and ultrasonic pulse velocity.

  9. Estimating hydraulic conductivity of fractured rocks from high‐pressure packer tests with an Izbash's law‐based empirical model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Yi‐Feng; Hu, Shao‐Hua; Hu, Ran; Zhou, Chuang‐Bing

    2015-01-01

    ...‐pressure groundwater flow conditions. The interpretation of the HPPT data, however, remains difficult due to the transition of flow conditions in the conducting structures and the hydraulic fracturing...

  10. A switched energy saving position controller for variable-pressure electro-hydraulic servo systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivay, Ali; Zareinejad, Mohammad; Rezaei, S Mehdi; Baghestan, Keivan

    2014-07-01

    The electro-hydraulic servo system (EHSS) demonstrates a relatively low level of efficiency compared to other available actuation methods. The objective of this paper is to increase this efficiency by introducing a variable supply pressure into the system and controlling this pressure during the task of position tracking. For this purpose, an EHSS structure with controllable supply pressure is proposed and its dynamic model is derived from the basic laws of physics. A switching control structure is then proposed to control both the supply pressure and the cylinder position at the same time, in a way that reduces the overall energy consumption of the system. The stability of the proposed switching control system is guaranteed by proof, and its performance is verified by experimental testing.

  11. Pressure Control of Electro-Hydraulic Servovalve and Transmission Line Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fouad Mahdi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The effected of the long transmission line (TL between the actuator and the hydraulic control valve sometimes essentials. The study is concerned with modeling the TL which carries the oil from the electro-hydraulic servovalve to the actuator. The pressure value inside the TL has been controlled by the electro-hydraulic servovalve as a voltage supplied to the servovalve amplifier. The flow rate through the TL has been simulated by using the lumped π element electrical analogy method for laminar flow. The control voltage supplied to servovalve can be achieved by the direct using of the voltage function generator or indirect C++ program connected to the DAP-view program built in the DAP-card data acquisition connected to PC, to control the value of pressure in a selected point in the TL. It has been found that the relation between the voltage value and the output flow rate from the servovalve in most of the path is a linear relation. The MATLAB m-File program is used to create a representation state of the mathematical model to find a good simulation for the experimental open loop control test.

  12. Method for achieving hydraulic balance in typical Chinese building heating systems by managing differential pressure and flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Xia, Jianjun; Thorsen, Jan Eric;

    2017-01-01

    Hydraulic unbalance is a common problem in Chinese district heating (DH) systems. Hydraulic unbalance has resulted in poor flow distribution among heating branches and overheating of apartments. Studies show that nearly 30% of the total heat supply is being wasted in Chinese DH systems due...... to a lack of pressure and flow control. This study investigated using pre-set radiator valves combined with differential pressure (DP) controllers to achieve hydraulic balance in building distribution systems, and consequently save energy and reduce the emissions. We considered a multi-storey building...

  13. Experimental study on pile-end post-grouting piles for super large bridge pile foundations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weiming GONG; Guoliang DAI; Haowen ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    The application of pile-end post-grouting piles for super-large bridge pile foundations in some important projects was introduced in this paper. There are totally 21 test piles. The maximum pile diameter varies from 2.5 m to 3 m, and the maximum length is 125m; the bearing capacity of the post-grouting piles is over ten thousands tons. Based on the test results, the bearing capacity,displacement, and beating characteristics before and after grouting were analyzed. The results show that the beating capacity of the piles is increased in different degrees after grouting although the technical parameters, including the patterns of grouting pipes, pressure, dosages of cement, duration of grouting lasting time, are different. However,the obtained values are very discrete. In addition, the calculation formula for the post-grouting piles under specified grouting condition was deduced based on the statistics analysis results of 57 test piles. The research results have been applied in the design of bridge foundation.

  14. Differences in hydraulic pressure producing efficiency of front suspension units for motorcycles due to structural difference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajino, Tsutomu; Namazue, Eitaro; Ueno, Yutaka

    1995-12-31

    The front suspension unit for motorcycles is one of the functional parts for which continuous engineering improvement is required for advanced driveability. Especially, the ones for off-road motocross racing are frequently required to have their energy absorbing properties, ability to maintain tire-to-ground contact, driving comfort, etc. to be improved to meet the challenges of the racing courses which include many jumps, to exceed the performance of competitors, and to match the ever-improving performance of the engines and frames. To cope with the situation, the operability, rigidity and hydraulic pressure producing mechanism needs to be upgraded. As part of an improvement program, the authors have developed a air-oil separated front suspension which the authors have called the ``twin chamber`` suspension. In this study, the authors compared the hydraulic pressure producing efficiency of the air-oil separated suspension with that of the conventional single chamber construction. The results of the comparison showed that the twin chamber suspension is less affected by the pressure hysteresis by 8% or more at the piston area and 50% or more at the partition area than the conventional suspension. In addition, for the twin chamber suspension, the rise of pressure becomes smoother to give a quicker response as the velocity increases.

  15. Estimating Hydraulic Conductivities in a Fractured Shale Formation from Pressure Pulse Testing and 3d Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbet, C.; DICK, P.; Lefevre, M.; Wittebroodt, C.; Matray, J.; Barnichon, J.

    2013-12-01

    In the framework of its research on the deep disposal of radioactive waste in shale formations, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has developed a large array of in situ programs concerning the confining properties of shales in their underground research laboratory at Tournemire (SW France). One of its aims is to evaluate the occurrence and processes controlling radionuclide migration through the host rock, from the disposal system to the biosphere. Past research programs carried out at Tournemire covered mechanical, hydro-mechanical and physico-chemical properties of the Tournemire shale as well as water chemistry and long-term behaviour of the host rock. Studies show that fluid circulations in the undisturbed matrix are very slow (hydraulic conductivity of 10-14 to 10-15 m.s-1). However, recent work related to the occurrence of small scale fractures and clay-rich fault gouges indicate that fluid circulations may have been significantly modified in the vicinity of such features. To assess the transport properties associated with such faults, IRSN designed a series of in situ and laboratory experiments to evaluate the contribution of both diffusive and advective process on water and solute flux through a clay-rich fault zone (fault core and damaged zone) and in an undisturbed shale formation. As part of these studies, Modular Mini-Packer System (MMPS) hydraulic testing was conducted in multiple boreholes to characterize hydraulic conductivities within the formation. Pressure data collected during the hydraulic tests were analyzed using the nSIGHTS (n-dimensional Statistical Inverse Graphical Hydraulic Test Simulator) code to estimate hydraulic conductivity and formation pressures of the tested intervals. Preliminary results indicate hydraulic conductivities of 5.10-12 m.s-1 in the fault core and damaged zone and 10-14 m.s-1 in the adjacent undisturbed shale. Furthermore, when compared with neutron porosity data from borehole

  16. The design of hydraulic pressure regulators that are stable without the use of sensing line restrictors or frictional dampers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, H.

    1977-01-01

    A direct-acting hydraulic pressure regulator design which incorporates stability margin, response and droop margin is developed. The pressure regulator system does not involve a nonlinear sensing line restrictor (which may degrade transient response) or linear damping (which is sensitive to clearance and viscosity). The direct-acting hydraulic pressure regulator makes use of the technique of lead network stabilization (i.e., the tuned stabilizer concept). An analytically derived circuit pressure regulator is tested to study the stability limit under a parallel capacitive plus resistive load and the stabilizing effect of the tuned stabilizer.

  17. Percutaneous biliary stones removal using balloon sphincteroplasty and hydraulic pressure as primary therapeutic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Soo; You, Jin Jong [Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Chinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15

    We wanted to report on the efficacy and safety of the percutaneous biliary stone removal technique using hydraulic pressure after balloon sphincteroplasty through the PTBD tract for patients with bile duct stones. The subjects of this study were 85 patients (46 men and 39 women) with bile duct stones who came to hospital over a period of the previous 4 years. All subjects had undergone attempts for with the biliary tree through PTBD. First, an 8-9F sheath was inserted into the biliary tree through the PTBD route by using a balloon catheter prior to sphincteroplasty, and 50cc of hydraulic pressure with contrast-mixed saline solution was then injected via the sheath. Follow-up cholangiogram was performed 1-3 days later to evaluate the results of stone removal. For residual stones, we attempted second, third, and fourth trials to completely remove the stones. The size and number of stones were analyzed. The results were analyzed, together with the complications, after classifying the cases as 'success', 'partial removal' or 'failure' according to the number of remaining stones. Out of 85 patients, 71 (83%) cases had successful results, and 43 (51%) cases resulted in success with the first attempt. The second, third and fourth trials were conducted on 16, 10 and 2 cases, respectively. Out of 14 failure cases, 10 patients had too many intrahepatic duct stones. The complications were abdominal pain (n=21), fever (n=9), and pancreatitis (n=2), and portal vein thrombosis, biloma and sepsis were also found in 1 case each. We report that this percutaneus biliary stone removal technique using hydraulic pressure after balloon sphincteroplasty through the PTBD is safe and effective, and particularly, it achieves good results as the primary therapy for treating only choledocholiths.

  18. A novel high-temperature and high-pressure hydraulic pump based on mononeuron control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linhui ZHAO; Xin FANG

    2009-01-01

    Based on structures and characteristics of traditional hydraulic pumps, this paper proposes a novel high-temperature and high-pressure hydraulic pump (HHHP) that can work under 150℃ and 28MPa to overcome problems of traditional high-temperature plun-ger pumps. The HHHP is designed with the structure of mechanical division and double cylinder parallel. The control signals of two cylinders are two separate triangle waveforms with 90℃ phase difference. Because the output waveforms of two cylinders have the same characteristics as the control signals, the HHHP can obtain a stable output after two separate waveforms are superposed. A mono-neuron self-adaptive PID control algorithm is also improved by modifying parameters K and η. Two improved controllers are used to control the two cylinders,respectively, making two displacements of plungers match each other. Therefore, reduced fluctuations and stable pressure output is obtained. Besides simulation, tests on the built prototype test system are carried out to verify the performance of HHHP. Results show that the improved control approach can limit fluctuations to a lower level and the HHHP system attains good outputs under different signal periods and different pressures.

  19. Little pump that could : hydraulic submersible pump tackles low pressure, low fluid volume gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, E.

    2008-03-15

    A new pump designed by Global Energy Services was described. The pump was designed to address problems associated with downhole pumps in coalbed methane (CBM) wells. The hydraulic submersible pump (HSP) was designed to address issues related to artificial lift gas lock and solids. The pump has been installed at 35 CBM wells in western Canada as well as at natural gas wells with low pressures and low rates of water. The HSP technology was designed for use with wells between 0.01 cubic metres and 24 cubic metres per day of water. A single joystick in the surface unit is used to determine the amount of hydraulic oil delivered to the bottomhole pump when then determines the amounts of fluid produced. A 10-slot self-flushing sand screen is used to filter out particles of sand, coal, and cement. The pump also includes a hydraulic flow control valve to control water volumes. The HSP's positive displacement design makes it suitable for use in horizontal and deviated wells. The pump technology is currently being re-designed to handle larger volumes at deeper depths. 2 figs.

  20. Characterisation, design and execution of two grouting fans at 450 m level, Aespoe HRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmelin, Ann [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Eriksson, Magnus [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Fransson, Aasa [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-09-01

    During June 2003 a grouting field experiment was carried out at Aespoe HRL, in connection with the construction of a tunnel (TASQ) for the Aespoe Pillar Stability Experiment (APSE). The tunnel is situated in connection to the elevator shaft landing at 450 m depth and runs in direction N/E. The grouting was carried out as part of the ordinary construction work, but was accompanied by extra investigations and analyses during operations and an active adaptation of a basic grouting design to the encountered conditions. The main objectives of this set-up were to Investigate what can be achieved with best available technology, material and knowledge under the current conditions, i.e. a relatively tight crystalline rock mass at great depth; Collect data and evaluate theories resulting from previous research projects on characterisation and predictions on grout spread; Collect data to further develop those above mentioned theories; Contribute to the achievement of good conditions at the experimental site for the pillar stability experiments. The characterization method is based on analyses of stepwise investigations consisting of investigations in an initially drilled core-drill hole followed by probe and grouting boreholes with pressure-build-up tests and measuring of inflow during drilling, all aiming at identifying the singular fractures that are to be sealed. The decision about grouting design is based on the successively up-dated rock description from the characterization and iterative selection and testing of grouting design and grout in a numeric model, resulting in an expected grout spread and sealing effect. Based on investigations and analysis of results from investigations of a core-drilled hole at the site, a basic design was set up, together with conditions for application. Probe boreholes covering the first anticipated fan gave substantially larger inflows than expected, and subsequently the design was changed. A first round was drilled and grouted, sealing

  1. Application of high-pressure rotating jet grouting technology in steel sheet pile construction%高压旋喷灌浆技术在钢板桩工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志明; 李汉桥

    2001-01-01

    In the construction of steel sheet pile works in the Honghu floodcontrol dyke,high-pressure rotating jet grouting technology was used to build a close seepage control system's pile wall at the joint of steel sheet pile with vertical composite geomembrane.In order to guarantee project quality,strengthen the controlling and examination of intermediate key construction links,some measures were timely taken for solving problems arising in construction.Inspection by excavation and boring showed good project guality with 100% projects being up to standard and 80% projects being excellent.The seepage control body constructed by using high-pressure rotating jet grouting technology at the joint of steel sheet piles with vertical composite geomembane is successful,and is characterized by good results,high-speed construction,reliable quality and reasonable cost,etc.This construction method has remarkable superiority compared with other ones.%洪湖钢板桩工程中在垂直铺塑与钢板桩两种工法联接处,采用高压旋喷桩墙形成封闭防渗体系。施工过程中,为保证质量,加强对中间关键环节的控制、检查,对出现的问题及时采取处理措施,有效地保证了工程质量。经开挖自检和钻孔检查,合格率100%,优良率75%,工程质量优良。施工结果表明,钢板桩和垂直铺塑接头处采用高压旋喷灌浆技术构筑防渗体是成功的。它具有效果好、速度快、质量有保证、经济适宜等特点,与其它工法相比具有明显的优势。者

  2. Effects of Loading Paths on Hydrodynamic Deep Drawing with Independent Radial Hydraulic Pressure of Aluminum Alloy Based on Numerical Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojing LIU; Yongchao XU; Shijian YUAN

    2008-01-01

    In order to meet the forming demands for low plasticity materials and large height-diameter ratio parts, a new process of hydrodynamic deep drawing (HDD) with independent radial hydraulic pressure is proposed. To investigate the effects of loading paths on the HDD with independent radial hydraulic pressure, the forming process of 5A06 aluminum alloy cylindrical cup with a hemispherical bottom was studied by numerical simula- tion. By employing the dynamic explicit analytical software ETA/Dynaform based on LS-DYNA3D, the effects of loading paths on the sheet-thickness distribution and surface quality were analyzed. The corresponding relations of the radial hydraulic pressure loading paths and the part's strain status on the forming limit diagram (FLD) were also discussed. The results indicated that a sound match between liquid chamber pressure and independent radial hydraulic pressure could restrain the serious thinning at the hemisphere bottom and that through adjusting radial hydraulic pressure could reduce the radial tensile strain and change the strain paths. Therefore, the drawing limit of the aluminum cylindrical cup with a hemispherical bottom could be increased significantly.

  3. Grouted Pile and Its Bearing Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The grouting method applied in bored pile is an improvement to the conventional bored pile. Load tests have proved that grouting under the bored pile tip is an effective method to enhance the bearing capacity of the pile and to reduce the pile settlement. In this paper, the grouting technology is described and pile-load test results are discussed. In order to put the grouting method into design practice, the authors analyze the working mechanism of soil compaction. And, based on the theory of cavities expansion in soil mass, approximate formulae are proposed for estimating the bearing capacity of the grouted pile. The theoretical prediction agrees well with the load test results.

  4. Standard laboratory hydraulic pressure drop characteristics of various solid and I&E fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, E.D.; Horn, G.R.

    1958-01-20

    The purpose of this report is to present a set of standard pressure-drop curves for various fuel elements in process tubes of Hanford reactors. The flow and pressures within a process tube assembly under normal conditions are dependent to a large extent on the magnitude of the pressure drop across the fuel elements. The knowledge of this pressure drop is important in determination of existing thermal conditions within the process tubes and in predicting conditions for new fuel element designs or changes in operating conditions. The pressure-flow relations for the different Hanford fuel element-process tube assemblies have all been determined at one time or another in the 189-D Hydraulics Laboratory but the data had never been collected into a single report. Such a report is presented now in the interest of establishing a set of ``standard curves`` as determined by laboratory investigations. It must be recognized that the pressure drops of fuel elements in actual process tubes in the reactors may be slightly different than those reported here. The data presented here were obtained in new process tubes while reactor process tubes are usually either corroded or filmed, depending on their past history.

  5. Hydraulic pressure variations of groundwater in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory during Amatrice earthquake of August 24th, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano De Luca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since May 2015, hydraulic pressure, temperature and electrical conductivity of groundwater are in continuos recording near the deep underground laboratories of Gran Sasso of INFN. We used the S13 borehole that have pressure varying in the range of 24-28 bar during the year; these values mean that we have at least 300 m of water table above. The sampling of these parameters was brought until to 50 Hz using a 3 channels 24-bit ADC. During the period May 2015 – September 2016 (17 months we detected hydraulic pressure signals from 12 earthquakes at different surface distances (from 12.000 to 30 km and different magnitudes (from 8.3 to 4.3 Mw. For the Amatrice mainshock, we present, as first results, the hydroseismograph recorded at the S13 hydraulic pressure device compared to the time history recorded at GIGS station located both in the deep core of the Gran Sasso chain.

  6. DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC PROPORTIONAL PRESSURE-FLOW HYBRID VALVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The structure principles under the flow and pressure working conditions are studied, in order to investigate the dynamic characteristics of the electro-hydraulic proportional pressure-flow hybrid valve. According to the structure principles under the two different working conditions, the transfer functions under such conditions are derived. With the transfer functions, some structure elements that may affect its performance, are investigated, afterwards some principles of optimality and effective methods for improving the dynamic performance of the valve are proposed. The conclusions can be used to instruct engineering applications and products designing. The test results conform to the results of the theoretical analysis and simulation, which proves the correctness of the study and simulation works.

  7. Pressure Control for a Hydraulic Cylinder Based on a Self-Tuning PID Controller Optimized by a Hybrid Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of the hydraulic support electro-hydraulic control system test platform, a self-tuning proportion integration differentiation (PID controller is proposed to imitate the actual pressure of the hydraulic support. To avoid the premature convergence and to improve the convergence velocity for tuning PID parameters, the PID controller is optimized with a hybrid optimization algorithm integrated with the particle swarm algorithm (PSO and genetic algorithm (GA. A selection probability and an adaptive cross probability are introduced into the PSO to enhance the diversity of particles. The proportional overflow valve is installed to control the pressure of the pillar cylinder. The data of the control voltage of the proportional relief valve amplifier and pillar pressure are collected to acquire the system transfer function. Several simulations with different methods are performed on the hydraulic cylinder pressure system. The results demonstrate that the hybrid algorithm for a PID controller has comparatively better global search ability and faster convergence velocity on the pressure control of the hydraulic cylinder. Finally, an experiment is conducted to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  8. Grouting for Pile Foundation Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Stoel, A.E.C.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the use of grouting methods for pile foundation improvement, a generic term that is used here to define both foundation renovation (increasing the bearing capacity of a pile foundation that has insufficient bearing capacity) and foundation protection (safeguar

  9. Grouted Connections with Shear Keys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ronnie; Jørgensen, M. B.; Damkilde, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a finite element model in the software package ABAQUS in which a reliable analysis of grouted pile-to-sleeve connections with shear keys is the particular purpose. The model is calibrated to experimental results and a consistent set of input parameters is estimated so...

  10. Parameters Optimization of Curtain Grouting Reinforcement Cycle in Yonglian Tunnel and Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For practical purposes, the curtain grouting method is an effective method to treat geological disasters and can be used to improve the strength and permeability resistance of surrounding rock. Selection of the optimal parameters of grouting reinforcement cycle especially reinforcement cycle thickness is one of the most interesting areas of research in curtain grouting designs. Based on the fluid-structure interaction theory and orthogonal analysis method, the influence of reinforcement cycle thickness, elastic modulus, and permeability on water inflow of tunnel after grouting and stability of surrounding rock was analyzed. As to the water inflow of tunnel after grouting used as performance evaluation index of grouting reinforcement cycle, it can be concluded that the permeability was the most important factor followed by reinforcement cycle thickness and elastic modulus. Furthermore, pore water pressure field, stress field, and plastic zone of surrounding rock were calculated by using COMSOL software under different conditions of reinforcement cycle thickness. It also can be concluded that the optimal thickness of reinforcement cycle and permeability can be adopted as 8 m and 1/100 of the surrounding rock permeability in the curtain grouting reinforcement cycle. The engineering case provides a reference for similar engineering.

  11. Numerical Study of Thermal Hydraulic behavior of Pressurizer for PLCS Scenario by CUPID Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Ryong; Yoon, Han Young [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Bo Kam; Kim, Jeong Ju; Park, Jong Cheol; Lee, Gyu Cheon [KEPCO, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    For a malfunction of a pressurizer level control system, a chemical and volume control system (CVCS) charging flowrate becomes a maximum level and a letdown flowrate a minimum level as well. Consequently, a water level and pressure of pressurizer is abnormally increased, which causes a pilot operated relief valve (POSRV) opened. It becomes important to investigate that a mixture from the POSRV becomes single-phase gas or two-phase mixture. In this study, the three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic behavior inside the pressurizer is numerically investigated by the CUPID code. The flow fields highly depend on some parameters such as subcooling of the stored water, interfacial drag model and POSRV opening. Thus, these parameters are examined in this study. These parameters are examined in this study. Less subcooling temperature makes the flow behavior unstable and flashing occur. The two-phase mixture is discharged through the POSRV. Moreover, less flow area delays a discharging flow rate. A sensitivity for the other parameters such critical flow model should be examined for the future work.

  12. Energy-saving analysis of hydraulic hybrid excavator based on common pressure rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Jiang, Jihai; Su, Xiaoyu; Karimi, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Energy-saving research of excavators is becoming one hot topic due to the increasing energy crisis and environmental deterioration recently. Hydraulic hybrid excavator based on common pressure rail (HHEC) provides an alternative with electric hybrid excavator because it has high power density and environment friendly and easy to modify based on the existing manufacture process. This paper is focused on the fuel consumption of HHEC and the actuator dynamic response to assure that the new system can save energy without sacrificing performance. Firstly, we introduce the basic principle of HHEC; then, the sizing process is presented; furthermore, the modeling period which combined mathematical analysis and experiment identification is listed. Finally, simulation results show that HHEC has a fast dynamic response which can be accepted in engineering and the fuel consumption can be reduced 21% to compare the original LS excavator and even 32% after adopting another smaller engine.

  13. HYDRAULIC PRESSURE SIGNAL DENOISING USING THRESHOLD SELF-LEARNING WAVELET ALGORITHM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xin-lei; YANG Kai-lin; GUO Yong-xin

    2008-01-01

    A pre-filter combined with threshold self-learning wavelet algorithm is proposed for hydraulic pressure signals denoising. The denoising threshold is self-learnt in the steady flow state, and then modified under a given limit to make the mean square errors between reconstruction signals and desirable outputs minimum, so the corresponding optimal denoising threshold in a single operating case can be obtained. These optimal thresholds are used for the whole signal denoising and are different in various cases. Simulation results and comparative studies show that the present approach has an obvious effect of noise suppression and is superior to those of traditional wavelet algorithms and back-propagation neural networks. It also provides the precise data for the next step of pipeline leak detection using transient technique.

  14. HYDRAULIC SERVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, D.E.

    1962-05-01

    A hydraulic servo is designed in which a small pressure difference produced at two orifices by an electrically operated flapper arm in a constantly flowing hydraulic loop is hydraulically amplified by two constant flow pumps, two additional orifices, and three unconnected ball pistons. Two of the pistons are of one size and operate against the additional orifices, and the third piston is of a different size and operates between and against the first two pistons. (AEC)

  15. Alternative blade materials for technical and ecological optimization of a hydraulic pressure machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwyzer, Olivier; Saenger, Nicole

    2016-11-01

    The Hydraulic Pressure Machine (HPM) is an energy converter to exploit head differences between 0.5 and 2.5 m in small streams and irrigation canals. Previous investigations show that efficiencies above 60% are possible. Several case studies indicate good continuity for aquatic life (e.g. fish) and bed load for the technology. The technology is described as an economically and ecologically viable option for small scale hydropower generation. Primary goal of this research is to improve the HPM blade design regarding its continuity properties by maintaining good efficiency rates. This is done by modifying the blade tip and testing within a large physical model under laboratory condition. Blade tips from steel (conventional - reference case) and a combination of EPDM rubber and steel as sandwich construction (rubber, steel, rubber - adhesive layered) are tested and compared. Both materials reach similar values for hydraulic efficiency (approx. 58%) and mechanical power output (approx. 220 W). The variation of different gap sizes pointed out the importance of small clearance gaps to reach high efficiencies. For assessing the two blade tip materials regarding continuity for aquatic life, fish dummies were led through the wheel. Analysis of slow motion video of dummies hit by the blade show significant advantages for the EPDM blade tip. The EPDM rubber allows to bend and thus reduces the shock and the probability for cuts on the fish dummy. It was shown that blade tips from EPDM have certain advantages regarding continuity compared to standard blade tips from steel. No compromise regarding energy production had to be made. These results from the HPM can be transferred to breast shot water wheel and may be applied for new and retrofitting projects.

  16. Grouting of Multiple Leaf-Masonry Walls: Application on Some Islamic Historical Monuments in Cairo, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed HEMEDA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study summarizes an overview on the available experimental and practical data and results from laboratory testing (ungrouted and grouted three leaf masonry wallettes in compression and in diagonal compression. On the basis of the experimental results, (A the structural behavior of the multiple leaf-masonry walls studied in details (b the parameters that affect the behavior of ungrouted masonry are detected and commented upon, and (c the behavior of grouted masonry studied in details. Particularly attention to be paid to large walls whose construction may comprise different kinds of materials. Such walls include cavity walls; rubble filled masonry walls and veneered brick walls which have poor quality core. Not only may the interior of the wall be less capable of carrying load but movement of the core material may also be a source of new stresses. As the experimental results show that the key parameter for the improvement of the mechanical properties of masonry is not the compressive strength of the injected grout, emphasis is given to ternary, as well as to hydraulic lime based grouts: those materials are expected to ensure durable interventions, they lead to a significant enhancement of the mechanical properties of masonry. On the basis of the experimental data on wallettes, as well as based on recent data from tests on grouted cylinders made of filling materials, simple formulae are drived, allowing for the strength of masonry to be calculated, and scientifically interventions processes and techniques had been applied to selected historical monuments in Cairo.

  17. Investigation of a Hardened Cement Paste Grout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteves, Luis Pedro; Sørensen, Eigil Verner

    This report documents a series of tests performed on a hardened cement paste grout delivered by the client, Det Norske Veritas A/S.......This report documents a series of tests performed on a hardened cement paste grout delivered by the client, Det Norske Veritas A/S....

  18. Research on Pressure Shock in Hydraulic System%液压系统中的压力冲击研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨斌

    2016-01-01

    Based on theoretical calculation and simulation analysis, this paper got the key factor which affect the pressure shock in valve-control hydraulic system. Then concluded how the tube length and valve open-time affect pressure shock in hydraulic system. And the conclusions were verified based on test. It showed that tube length and valve open-time affect pressure shock in hydraulic system directly. The research also showed that shortening tube length and increasing valve open-time properly can reduce pressure shock effectively. All above provide the direction for the layout and design of hydraulic system part/product, and also provide theoretical basis for optimizing hydraulic system.%通过理论计算和仿真分析,研究影响阀控液压系统压力冲击的关键因素,得出阀控液压系统中的压力冲击与管路长度、阀开启时间的关系,并进行试验验证。结果表明,管路长度、阀开启时间直接影响着阀控液压系统中的压力冲击。缩短管路长度和适当延长阀开启时间,都能有效减小阀控系统中的压力冲击。这为飞机液压系统中元部件的布局和设计提供了方向,为飞机液压系统的完善和优化提供了依据。

  19. Strength Assessment of Broken Rock Postgrouting Reinforcement Based on Initial Broken Rock Quality and Grouting Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfa Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate postgrouting rock mass strength growth is important for engineering design. In this paper, using self-developed indoor pressure-grouting devices, 19 groups of test cubic blocks were made of the different water cement ratio grouting into the broken rock of three kinds of particle sizes. The shear strength parameters of each group under different conditions were tested. Then this paper presents a quantitative calculation method for predicting the strength growth of grouted broken rock. Relational equations were developed to investigate the relationship between the growth rates of uniaxial compressive strength (UCS, absolute value of uniaxial tensile strength (AUTS, internal friction angle, and cohesion for post- to pregrouting broken rock based on Mohr-Coulomb strength criterion. From previous test data, the empirical equation between the growth rate of UCS and the ratio of the initial rock mass UCS to the grout concretion UCS has been determined. The equations of the growth rates of the internal friction coefficient and UCS for grouting broken rock with rock mass rating (RMR and its increment have been established. The calculated results are consistent with the experimental results. These observations are important for engineered design of grouting reinforcement for broken rock mass.

  20. Compensation Grouting in Sand: Experiments, Field Experiences and Mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezuijen, A.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis reports on experimental research on compensation grouting in sand. It is investigated in model tests, how the shape of the grout bodies made during injection depends on the grout properties, the density of the sand and the way the tubes are installed. The shape of the grout body affects

  1. Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of a Passive Residual Heat Removal System for an Integral Pressurized Water Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junli Gou

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical investigation on the thermal hydraulic characteristics of a new type of passive residual heat removal system (PRHRS, which is connected to the reactor coolant system via the secondary side of the steam generator, for an integral pressurized water reactor is presented in this paper. Three-interknited natural circulation loops are adopted by this PRHRS to remove the residual heat of the reactor core after a reactor trip. Based on the one-dimensional model and a simulation code (SCPRHRS, the transient behaviors of the PRHRS as well as the effects of the height difference between the steam generator and the heat exchanger and the heat transfer area of the heat exchanger are studied in detail. Through the calculation analysis, it is found that the calculated parameter variation trends are reasonable. The higher height difference between the steam generator and the residual heat exchanger and the larger heat transfer area of the residual heat exchanger are favorable to the passive residual heat removal system.

  2. Jet Grouting. Control of execution and result parameters. Test fields - Experience in Chile; Jet Grouting. Control de parametros de ejecucion y de resultados. Campos de prueba-Experiencia en Chile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayarza, P. M.; Vukotic, G.

    2014-07-01

    This article emphasizes the importance of Test Fields in project that includes the Jet Grouting technique. In particular, the Chilean experience is analyzed, where the Jet Grouting was first introduced by Pilots Terratest S. A. in the year 2010, only, only in 2011 the first project using jet columns was constructed. The versatilely of this technique allows its use in a wide variety of projects, for example, soil capacity improvement, settlement control, reduction of soil permeability and other environmental applications. Currently, the most common applications are underpinning existing foundations, ground improvement, lateral support of excavations, hydraulic barriers, slope stabilization, liquefaction control, among others. The Jet Grouting is one of the most demanding soil improvement technique and requires excellence in designing and execution engineers and other involved specialist. It is therefore essential to ensure exhaustive control to the execution and final parameters, in order to check that the product- Jet Grouting element-have the design properties, and implement modifications if necessary. Many authors strongly advises that if there is no comparable experience and even if there is, a Test Field of Jet Grouting elements has to be executed in site. This field consists in a nearby area with similar geotechnical conditions of the project, where Jet Grouting test columns will be constructed. This Test Field will allow selecting the most effective execution parameters and verifying that the final product has he correct design properties. (Author)

  3. Numerical design and optimization of hydraulic resistance and wall shear stress inside pressure-driven microfluidic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiri, Hazem Salim; Bardaweel, Hamzeh Khalid

    2015-11-07

    Microfluidic networks represent the milestone of microfluidic devices. Recent advancements in microfluidic technologies mandate complex designs where both hydraulic resistance and pressure drop across the microfluidic network are minimized, while wall shear stress is precisely mapped throughout the network. In this work, a combination of theoretical and modeling techniques is used to construct a microfluidic network that operates under minimum hydraulic resistance and minimum pressure drop while constraining wall shear stress throughout the network. The results show that in order to minimize the hydraulic resistance and pressure drop throughout the network while maintaining constant wall shear stress throughout the network, geometric and shape conditions related to the compactness and aspect ratio of the parent and daughter branches must be followed. Also, results suggest that while a "local" minimum hydraulic resistance can be achieved for a geometry with an arbitrary aspect ratio, a "global" minimum hydraulic resistance occurs only when the aspect ratio of that geometry is set to unity. Thus, it is concluded that square and equilateral triangular cross-sectional area microfluidic networks have the least resistance compared to all rectangular and isosceles triangular cross-sectional microfluidic networks, respectively. Precise control over wall shear stress through the bifurcations of the microfluidic network is demonstrated in this work. Three multi-generation microfluidic network designs are considered. In these three designs, wall shear stress in the microfluidic network is successfully kept constant, increased in the daughter-branch direction, or decreased in the daughter-branch direction, respectively. For the multi-generation microfluidic network with constant wall shear stress, the design guidelines presented in this work result in identical profiles of wall shear stresses not only within a single generation but also through all the generations of the

  4. Validation of the thermal-hydraulic system code ATHLET based on selected pressure drop and void fraction BFBT tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Marcello, Valentino, E-mail: valentino.marcello@kit.edu; Escalante, Javier Jimenez; Espinoza, Victor Sanchez

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Simulation of BFBT-BWR steady-state and transient tests with ATHLET. • Validation of thermal-hydraulic models based on pressure drops and void fraction measurements. • TRACE system code is used for the comparative study. • Predictions result in a good agreement with the experiments. • Discrepancies are smaller or comparable with respect to the measurements uncertainty. - Abstract: Validation and qualification of thermal-hydraulic system codes based on separate effect tests are essential for the reliability of numerical tools when applied to nuclear power plant analyses. To this purpose, the Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is involved in various validation and qualification activities of different CFD, sub-channel and system codes. In this paper, the capabilities of the thermal-hydraulic code ATHLET are assessed based on the experimental results provided within the NUPEC BFBT benchmark related to key Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) phenomena. Void fraction and pressure drops measurements in the BFBT bundle performed under steady-state and transient conditions which are representative for e.g. turbine trip and recirculation pump trip events, are compared with the numerical results of ATHLET. The comparison of code predictions with the BFBT data has shown good agreement given the experimental uncertainty and the results are consistent with the trends obtained with similar thermal-hydraulic codes.

  5. A modified nodal pressure method for calculating flow distribution in hydraulic circuits for the case of unconventional closing relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egor M. Mikhailovsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a method for numerically solving the problem of flow distribution in hydraulic circuits with lumped parameters for the case of random closing relations. The conventional and unconventional types of relations for the laws of isothermal steady fluid flow through the individual hydraulic circuit components are studied. The unconventional relations are presented by those given implicitly by the flow rate and dependent on the pressure of the working fluid. In addition to the unconventional relations, the formal conditions of applicability were introduced. These conditions provide a unique solution to the flow distribution problem. A new modified nodal pressure method is suggested. The method is more versatile in terms of the closing relation form as compared to the unmodified one, and has lower computational costs as compared to the known technique of double-loop iteration. The paper presents an analysis of the new method and its algorithm, gives a calculated example of a gas transportation network, and its results.

  6. Novel wave power analysis linking pressure-flow waves, wave potential, and the forward and backward components of hydraulic power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynard, Jonathan P; Smolich, Joseph J

    2016-04-15

    Wave intensity analysis provides detailed insights into factors influencing hemodynamics. However, wave intensity is not a conserved quantity, so it is sensitive to diameter variations and is not distributed among branches of a junction. Moreover, the fundamental relation between waves and hydraulic power is unclear. We, therefore, propose an alternative to wave intensity called "wave power," calculated via incremental changes in pressure and flow (dPdQ) and a novel time-domain separation of hydraulic pressure power and kinetic power into forward and backward wave-related components (ΠP±and ΠQ±). Wave power has several useful properties:1) it is obtained directly from flow measurements, without requiring further calculation of velocity;2) it is a quasi-conserved quantity that may be used to study the relative distribution of waves at junctions; and3) it has the units of power (Watts). We also uncover a simple relationship between wave power and changes in ΠP±and show that wave reflection reduces transmitted power. Absolute values of ΠP±represent wave potential, a recently introduced concept that unifies steady and pulsatile aspects of hemodynamics. We show that wave potential represents the hydraulic energy potential stored in a compliant pressurized vessel, with spatial gradients producing waves that transfer this energy. These techniques and principles are verified numerically and also experimentally with pressure/flow measurements in all branches of a central bifurcation in sheep, under a wide range of hemodynamic conditions. The proposed "wave power analysis," encompassing wave power, wave potential, and wave separation of hydraulic power provides a potent time-domain approach for analyzing hemodynamics.

  7. 一种用于液体静压导轨的高精密液压站设计%Design of the Ultra-precision Hydraulic Station for Hydraulic Static Pressured Guide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵午云; 郭勇

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic static pressured guide is the important function unit of precision machine tool. Hydraulic station is indispen-sable and supplementary unit for hydraulic static pressured guide in normal operation,and must provide hydraulic static pressured guide with lubricating oil of invariable pressure. An ultra-precision hydraulic station for hydraulic static pressured guide was designed. In this hydraulic station,lubricating oil was provided by precision gear pump driven by variable frequency motor,and pressure export was ensured to be steady by full-closed loop feedback control. The export pressure precision of the hydraulic station can reach ± 0.05%. Good effect is gained in the application of the hydraulic station on the hydraulic static pressured guide of ultra-precision machine tool.%液体静压导轨是精密超精密加工机床的重要功能单元,液压站是液体静压导轨正常工作的必要辅助单元。液体静压导轨要保持高的精度,液压站必须能够为静压导轨提供压力非常稳定的润滑油输入。设计一种用于液体静压导轨的高精密液压站,该液压站利用变频电机驱动精密齿轮泵供给润滑油,利用全闭环反馈调节装置控制润滑油的稳压输出。实际测量证明:该液压站的输出压力稳定精度可达±0.05%,应用于超精密机床上的液体静压导轨取得了良好的效果。

  8. Grout to meet physical and chemical requirements for closure at Hanford grout vaults. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-21

    The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout based on portland cement, Class F fly ash, and bentonite clay, for the Hanford Grout Vault Program. The purpose of this grout was to fill the void between a wasteform containing 106-AN waste and the vault cover blocks. Following a successful grout development program, heat output, volume change, and compressive strength were monitored with time in simulated repository conditions and in full-depth physical models. This research indicated that the cold-cap grout could achieve and maintain adequate volume stability and other required physical properties in the internal environment of a sealed vault. To determine if contact with 106-AN liquid waste would cause chemical deterioration of the cold-cap grout, cured specimens were immersed in simulated waste. Over a period of 21 days at 150 F, specimens increased in mass without significant changes in volume. X-ray diffraction of reacted specimens revealed crystallization of sodium aluminum silicate hydrate. Scanning electron microscopy used with X-ray fluorescence showed that clusters if this phase had formed in grout pores, increasing grout density and decreasing its effective porosity. Physical and chemical tests collectively indicate a sealing component. However, the Hanford Grout Vault Program was cancelled before completion of this research. This report summarizes close-out Waterways Experiment Station when the Program was cancelled.

  9. Fatigue Life of High Performance Grout for Wind Turbine Grouted Connection in Wet or Dry Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.; Westhof, Luc; Yde, Elo;

    Grouted connections of monopile supported offshore wind turbine structures are subjected to loads leading to very high oscillating service stresses in the grout material. The fatigue capacity of a high performance cement based grout was tested by dynamic compressive loading of cylindrical specimens...... at varying levels of cyclic frequency and load. The fatigue tests were performed in two series: one with the specimens in air and one with the specimens submerged in water during the test. The fatigue life of the grout, in terms of the number of cycles to failure, was found to be significantly shorter when...... tested in water than when tested in air....

  10. TANKS 18 AND 19-F EQUIPMENT GROUT FILL MATERIAL EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D.; Langton, C.

    2011-12-15

    performance properties; (3) Design up to 2 additional grout systems for filling the Tank 18-F and Tank 19-F equipment; (4) Prepare samples of candidate grouts and measure fresh properties, thermal properties and cured properties; (5) Recommend a grout for the Tier 1A equipment fill mock up - ADMP 4 foot high mock up, 1 inch and 2 inch pipes; (6) Support procurement of materials for the Tier 1A equipment fill mock up test; (7) Prepare samples of the recommended grout for hydraulic property measurements which can be used for comparison to values used in the F- Tank Farm Performance Assessment (PA); and (8) Document equipment fill grout data and recommendations in a report.

  11. Adaptive Control System of Hydraulic Pressure Based on The Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, A. V.; Pilipenko, A. P.; Kanatnikov, N. V.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the authors highlight the problem of replacing an old heavy industrial equipment, and offer the replacement of obsolete control systems on the modern adaptive control system, which takes into account changes in the hydraulic system of the press and compensates them with a corrective action. The proposed system can reduce a water hammer and thereby increase the durability of the hydraulic system and tools.

  12. A study of grout flow pattern analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. Y. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Hyun, S. [Mercer Univ., Macon, GA (United States)

    2013-01-10

    A new disposal unit, designated as Salt Disposal Unit no. 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt nuclear waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System plan. The unit is cylindrical disposal vault of 380 ft diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has about 30 million gallons of capacity. Primary objective was to develop the computational model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as function of elevation of grout discharge port, and slurry rheology. A Bingham plastic model was basically used to represent the grout flow behavior. A two-phase modeling approach was taken to achieve the objective. This approach assumes that the air-grout interface determines the shape of the accumulation mound. The results of this study were used to develop the design guidelines for the discharge ports of the Saltstone feed materials in the SDU6 facility. The focusing areas of the modeling study are to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor under the baseline modeling conditions, to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation of discharge port, discharge pipe diameter, and grout properties, and to determine the changes in grout density as it is related to grout drop height. An axi-symmetric two-phase modeling method was used for computational efficiency. Based on the nominal design and operating conditions, a transient computational approach was taken to compute flow fields mainly driven by pumping inertia and natural gravity. Detailed solution methodology and analysis results are discussed here.

  13. A study of grout flow pattern analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. Y. [Savannah River National Lab., Aiken, SC (United States); Hyun, S. [Mercer Univ., Macon, GA (United States)

    2013-01-10

    A new disposal unit, designated as Salt Disposal Unit no. 6 (SDU6), is being designed for support of site accelerated closure goals and salt nuclear waste projections identified in the new Liquid Waste System plan. The unit is cylindrical disposal vault of 380 ft diameter and 43 ft in height, and it has about 30 million gallons of capacity. Primary objective was to develop the computational model and to perform the evaluations for the flow patterns of grout material in SDU6 as function of elevation of grout discharge port, and slurry rheology. A Bingham plastic model was basically used to represent the grout flow behavior. A two-phase modeling approach was taken to achieve the objective. This approach assumes that the air-grout interface determines the shape of the accumulation mound. The results of this study were used to develop the design guidelines for the discharge ports of the Saltstone feed materials in the SDU6 facility. The focusing areas of the modeling study are to estimate the domain size of the grout materials radially spread on the facility floor under the baseline modeling conditions, to perform the sensitivity analysis with respect to the baseline design and operating conditions such as elevation of discharge port, discharge pipe diameter, and grout properties, and to determine the changes in grout density as it is related to grout drop height. An axi-symmetric two-phase modeling method was used for computational efficiency. Based on the nominal design and operating conditions, a transient computational approach was taken to compute flow fields mainly driven by pumping inertia and natural gravity. Detailed solution methodology and analysis results are discussed here.

  14. Strength of Mock-up Trial Grout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    The present report describes tests carried out on samples taken and cast during the execution of a mock-up trial placement of the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9500 on January 21, 2009.......The present report describes tests carried out on samples taken and cast during the execution of a mock-up trial placement of the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9500 on January 21, 2009....

  15. Application of Grouting and Water-Blocking Techniques to the Replacement of Shield Tail Seal Brushes in a Permeable Strata with High Water Pressure%注浆止水技术在高水压强渗透地层盾尾刷更换施工中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施瑾伟; 杨钊; 杨擎; 鞠义成; 余村

    2015-01-01

    盾尾密封的完整性和可靠性对于盾构施工安全极其重要。当盾尾刷出现损坏时,要及时进行更换,而进行盾尾刷更换的关键在于地层中地下水的封堵。文章以南京纬三路过江通道N线工程为例,结合高水压强渗透地层盾尾刷更换施工的特点和要求,采用了改进的注浆止水技术。一是通过加强同步注浆,形成第一道止水体系;二是采用增设预留孔的两环特殊管片,对盾尾区域进行止水加固;三是在盾构B环注入聚氨酯形成止水带,防止前方泥水舱泥水后窜。通过采取多道措施形成一个厚度大、密实性高、且具有一定强度的完整止水体系,在无水的环境中成功更换了盾尾刷。%The integrity and reliability of shield-tail sealing are very important to the safety of shield tunnelling, and tail-seal brushes need to be replaced quickly in case of any damage; therefore the sealing of underground water is key to success in these cases. Taking line N of the Nanjing Weisan Road river-crossing project as an example, and considering the characteristics and requirements of replacing a tail-seal brush in a strong, permeable strata with high water pressure, an improved grouting technique was adopted for stopping water: 1) the primary water-stopping system was formed by strengthening the synchronous grouting; 2) the shield-tail part was consolidated by grouting via two special segments with additional reserved holes; and 3) the B-ring of the shield was grouted with polyurethane to avoid leakage from the front of the slurry chamber. Using this method, a complete water-sealing system characterized by its thickness, high density and strength is formed, ensuring successful replacement of the tail-seal brushes in a dry environent.

  16. CEMENTITIOUS GROUT FOR CLOSING SRS HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANKS - #12315

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.; Stefanko, D.

    2012-01-10

    closure operations. Subsequent down selection was based on compressive strength and saturated hydraulic conductivity results. Fresh slurry property results were used as the first level of screening. A high range water reducing admixture and a viscosity modifying admixture were used to adjust slurry properties to achieve flowable grouts. Adiabatic calorimeter results were used as the second level screening. The third level of screening was used to design mixes that were consistent with the fill material parameters used in the F-Tank Farm Performance Assessment which was developed to assess the long-term fate and transport of residual contamination in the environment resulting from the operational closures.

  17. Comparative study of Thermal Hydraulic Analysis Codes for Pressurized Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yang Hoon; Jang, Mi Suk; Han, Kee Soo [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Various codes are used for the thermal hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactors. The use of some codes among these is limited by user and some codes are not even open to general person. Thus, the use of alternative code is considered for some analysis. In this study, simple thermal hydraulic behaviors are analyzed using three codes to show that alternative codes are possible for the analysis of nuclear reactors. We established three models of the simple u-tube manometer using three different codes. RELAP5 (Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program), SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis CodE for nuclear power Plants), GOTHIC (Generation of Thermal Hydraulic Information for Containments) are selected for this analysis. RELAP5 is widely used codes for the analysis of system behavior of PWRs. SPACE has been developed based on RELAP5 for the analysis of system behavior of PWRs and licensing of the code is in progress. And GOTHIC code also has been widely used for the analysis of thermal hydraulic behavior in the containment system. The internal behavior of u-tube manometer was analyzed by RELAP5, SPACE and GOTHIC codes. The general transient behavior was similar among 3 codes. However, the stabilized status of the transient period analyzed by REPAP5 was different from the other codes. It would be resulted from the different physical models used in the other codes, which is specialized for the multi-phase thermal hydraulic behavior analysis.

  18. Final report of supplementary comparison SIM.M.P-S7: Hydraulic pressure comparison from 7 MPa to 70 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Romero, Juan Carlos; Catalina Neira, María; Torres Guzmán, Jorge C.

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the final results of supplementary comparison SIM.M.P-S7 in the field of hydraulic pressure up to 70 MPa, within the PTB-ANDIMET-PLUS project. Seven national pressure reference laboratories participated in this comparison, which started with an opening meeting in November 2011 at the city of Lima; the closing meeting was held at the National Metrology Institute of Colombia INM, at Bogota, on 27-28 November 2012. Each participating laboratory used for the comparison its best hydraulic pressure balance standard in the range from 7 MPa to 70 MPa. The transfer standard for the comparison was a digital manometer DH Instruments Fluke RPM-4 with an accuracy of 0.008% of the reading. The reference laboratory and advisor for the comparison was CENAM, Mexico. The comparison protocol and results analysis was made by the pressure laboratory of National Metrology Institute INM (Colombia) who participated in the comparison as well. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by SIM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  19. Evaluation of Compressive Strength and Stiffness of Grouted Soils by Using Elastic Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Mo Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement grouted soils, which consist of particulate soil media and cementation agents, have been widely used for the improvement of the strength and stiffness of weak ground and for the prevention of the leakage of ground water. The strength, elastic modulus, and Poisson’s ratio of grouted soils have been determined by classical destructive methods. However, the performance of grouted soils depends on several parameters such as the distribution of particle size of the particulate soil media, grouting pressure, curing time, curing method, and ground water flow. In this study, elastic wave velocities are used to estimate the strength and elastic modulus, which are generally obtained by classical strength tests. Nondestructive tests by using elastic waves at small strain are conducted before and during classical strength tests at large strain. The test results are compared to identify correlations between the elastic wave velocity measured at small strain and strength and stiffness measured at large strain. The test results show that the strength and stiffness have exponential relationship with elastic wave velocities. This study demonstrates that nondestructive methods by using elastic waves may significantly improve the strength and stiffness evaluation processes of grouted soils.

  20. Fatigue Life of High Performance Grout in Dry and Wet Environment for Wind Turbine Grouted Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    2011-01-01

    The cementitious material in grouted connections of offshore monopile wind turbine structures is subjected to very high oscillating service stresses. The fatigue capacity of the grout therefore becomes essential to the performance and service life of the grouted connection. In the present work...... the fatigue life of a high performance cement based grout was tested by dynamic compressive loading of cylindrical specimens at varying levels of cyclic frequency and load. The fatigue tests were performed in two series, one with the specimens tested in air and one with the specimens submerged in water during...... the test. The fatigue life of the grout, in terms of the number of cycles to failure, was found to be significantly shorter when tested in water than when tested in air, particularly at low frequency....

  1. The hydraulics of the pressurized water reactors; L'hydraulique des reacteurs a eau pressurisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchter, J.C. [CEA Cadarache, SMET, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Barbier, D. [CEA/Grenoble, Dept. de Thermohydraulique et de Physique, DTP/SH2C, 38 (France); Caruso, A. [Electricite de France, Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    1999-07-02

    The SFEN organized, the 10 june 1999 at Paris, a meeting in the domain of the PWR hydraulics and in particular the hydraulic phenomena concerning the vessel and the vapor generators. The papers presented showed the importance of the industrial stakes with their associated phenomena: cores performance and safety with the more homogenous cooling system, the rods and the control rods wear, the temperature control, the fluid-structure interactions. A great part was also devoted to the progresses in the domain of the numerical simulation and the models and algorithms qualification. (A.L.B.)

  2. Towards improved estimation of the unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity in the near saturated range by a fully automated, pressure controlled unit gradient experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werisch, Stefan; Müller, Marius

    2017-04-01

    Determination of soil hydraulic properties has always been an important part of soil physical research and model applications. While several experiments are available to measure the water retention of soil samples, the determination of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is often more complicated, bound to strong assumption and time consuming. Although, the application of unit gradient experiments is recommended since the middle of the last century, as one method towards a (assumption free) direct measurement of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, data from unit gradient experiments is seldom to never reported in literature. We developed and build a fully automated, pressure controlled, unit gradient experiment, which allows a precise determination of the unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity K(h) and water retention VWC(h), especially in the highly dynamic near saturated range. The measurement apparatus applies the concept of hanging water columns and imposes the required soil water pressure by dual porous plates. This concepts allows the simultaneous and direct measurement of water retention and hydraulic conductivity. Moreover, this approach results in a technically less demanding experiment than related flux controlled experiments, and virtually any flux can be measured. Thus, both soil properties can be measured in mm resolution, for wetting and drying processes, between saturation and field capacity for all soil types. Our results show, that it is important to establish separate measurements of the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity in the near saturated range, as the shape of the retention function and hydraulic conductivity curve do not necessarily match. Consequently, the prediction of the hydraulic conductivity curve from measurements of the water retention behavior in combination with a value for the saturated hydraulic conductivity can be misleading. Thus, separate parameterizations of the individual functions might be necessary and are

  3. Efficiency of jet grout columns and sand-recycled material mixtures for mitigating liquefaction damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerem Ertek, M.; Demir, Gökhan; Köktan, Utku

    2017-04-01

    Liquefaction is an important seismic phenomena that has to be assessed and consequently makes it essential to take measures in order to reduce related hazards. There are several ways to assess liquefaction potential analytically and some constitutive models implemented in FEM softwares presenting cyclic behaviour of sand making it possible to observe shear strain or excess pore pressure ratio which are measures to hold a view about liquefaction occurrence. According to various studies in the literature, post-earthquake inspections show that the measures in terms of grouting, piled rafts and sand mixtures with different non-liquefiable materials reduce liquefaction related damage. This paper aims to provide a brief information about effectiveness of jet-grout columns and recycled material-sand mixtures against liquefaction by the help of numerical analyses performed with MIDAS GTS NX software with regard to generation of shear strains. Key words: liquefaction, numerical analyses, jet-grout, sand mixtures

  4. Rheology of sludge-slurry grouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, E. W.

    1980-10-01

    A series of rheograms was developed that relates the critical velocity (velocity where flow changes from laminar to turbulent) of a cementitious grout that incorporates a suspended sludge-slurry to the critical velocity of a reference grout made with a simulated waste solution. The sludge that is now in the Gunite waste tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be suspended and pumped to the new waste storage tanks in Melton Valley. The sludge will then be blended with a cement mix base to form a grout which will be injected underground by the shale fracturing process. This report describes the materials, equipment, and techniques used in the laboratory studies to suspend sludges and mix sludge-slurry grouts that have flow properties similar to those of current shale fracturing grouts. Bentonite clay is an effective suspender in dilute NaNO/sub 3/ solutions; 15 wt % solids can be suspended with 2.0 wt % bentonite in a 0.1 M NaNO/sub 3/ solution. Other suspending materials were evaluated, but bentonite gave the best results. If a slurry grout becomes too viscous to pump, methods must be available to thin the mixture. A number of thinners, friction reducers, and plasticizers were examined. Q-Broxin, a thinner supplied by Baroid, reduced the velocity of a grout required for turbulent flow in a 5.0-cm (2-in.)-diam tube from 1.76 to 1.20 m/s (5.79 to 3.95 ft/s); FX-32C, a plasticizer supplied by Fox Industries, Inc., reduced the velocity from 1.76 to 0.75 m/s (5.6 to 2.45 ft/s).

  5. Pressure Regulation in Nonlinear Hydraulic Networks by Positive and Quantized Controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, Claudio De; Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose

    2011-01-01

    We investigate an industrial case study of a system distributed over a network, namely, a large-scale hydraulic network which underlies a district heating system. The network comprises an arbitrarily large number of components (valves, pipes, and pumps). After introducing the model for this class of

  6. Critical hydraulic pressure forecasting of water inrush in coal seam floors based on a genetic algorithm-neural network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, M.; Shi, C.; Liu, T. [China Academy of Safety Science and Technology, Beijing (China); Fu, T. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering

    2008-08-15

    This paper presented a method of forecasting water inrush in coal seam floors. The theoretical forecasting method used a combined genetic algorithm-neural network method to analyze the relationships between the critical pressure of water inrush and the different conditions in coal seam floors. Actual measurement data from Chinese coal mines were used to train the multi-layer feedforward neural network. Genetic algorithms were used to train the neural networks and optimize the neural network topology. The topology structure of the network was selected by considering population size, mutation rate, and crossing rates. The critical hydraulic pressure of water inrush was then predicted, and predictions were compared with measurements taken to validate the method. Results of the study showed that the forecasting method improved learning efficiency and the prediction capacity of the network. It was concluded that the combined method can be used to accurately predict the critical hydraulic pressure of water inrush on coal seam floors. 28 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs.

  7. Microbial analyses of cement and grouting additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallbeck, L.; Jaegevall, S.; Paeaejaervi, A.; Rabe, L.; Edlund, J.; Eriksson, S. [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden)

    2012-01-15

    During sampling in the ONKALO tunnel in 2006, heavy growth of a slimy material was observed in connection with grouting. It was suggested to be microbial growth on organic additives leaching from the grout. Two sampling campaigns resulted in the isolation of several aerobic bacterial strains. Some of these strains were used in biodegradation studies of three solid cement powders, eight liquid grout additives, and six plastic drainage materials. Degradation was also studied using ONKALO groundwaters as inoculums. The isolated strains were most closely related to hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms. The biodegradation of seven of the products was tested using microorganisms isolated from the ONKALO slime in 2006; none of these strains could degrade the tested products. When ONKALO drillhole groundwaters were used as inoculums in the degradation studies, it was demonstrated that Structuro 111X, Mighty 150, and Super-Parmix supported growth of the groundwater microorganisms. Structuro 111X is a polycarboxylate condensate while Mighty 150 and Super-Parmix are condensates with formaldehyde and naphthalene. Some of the isolated microorganisms belonged to the genus Pseudomonas, many strains of which can degrade organic molecules. None of the plastic drainage materials supported growth during the degradation studies. Microorganisms were present in two of the liquid products when delivered, GroutAid and Super-Parmix. The potential of the organic compounds in grout additives to be degraded by microorganisms, increasing the risk of biofilm formation and complexing compound production, must be considered. Microbial growth will also increase the possibility of hydrogen sulphide formation. (orig.)

  8. Mechanical Properties of High Cementitious Grout (I)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

     The present report describes tests carried out on the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9500, marked WMG 7145 FP, developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....... The present report describes tests carried out on the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9500, marked WMG 7145 FP, developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....

  9. Grouting of fly ash in sanitary landfills; Injektering av flygaska i hushaallsavfallsdeponi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, Karin; Berg, Magnus [AaF-Energi och Miljoe AB, Stockhom (Sweden); Andreas, Lale; Lagerkvist, Anders [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden); Jannes, Sara; Tham, Gustav [Telge Aatervinning AB, Soedertaelje (Sweden); Sjoeblom, Rolf [Tekedo AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the potential for stabilization of sanitary landfills by injecting fly ash. The method is supposed to prevent differential settlements in landfills and by that to counteract damages in the final cover. Injecting fly ash may also affect the chemical development in a positive way and prevent metal leaching. Pilot experiments at the Tveta waste recycling center (Tveta Aatervinningsanlaeggning) have been performed in order to estimate if the grouting technology is a suitable method for sanitary landfills. Fly ashes from the combustion of bio fuels were used in these tests. A literature study and laboratory experiments in order to prepare the field experiments were also part of the project. About 100 tons of ash slurry were injected during the pilot experiments. This corresponds to a filling degree of approximately 12-16 % of the available pores in the landfill body. As a result of the pilot test, the following conclusions can be drawn: Ash can be mixed with water to a pumpable slurry which can be injected without hardening inside the equipment. Neither the waste nor the grouting material caused a backpressure during the injection and nothing indicates that the injected ash deforms the landfilled waste. The ash-water-slurry flows through the voids in the waste easily. Thus, the ash may dispread quite far from the injection holes. Using a more powerful equipment backpressure and movements in the waste might occur. It was not possible to estimate the flow required for backpressure in this study. Large variations are possible but for safety reasons the maximal pressure should be limited with regard to the expected stability in the actual area. The grouted ash will harden within the landfill body within a couple of days. It accumulates in hard but brittle lumps, which may result in an increased stability of the landfill. Further studies are necessary in order to evaluate how the stability is affected and what amounts of ash are

  10. Re-grouting of Maroon Dam foundation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palassi, M. [Tehran Univ. (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Sharghi, A. [JTMA Co., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    The Maroon dam, built on the Maroon River in the Khoozestan province (southwest) of Iran, has a height of 176 metres and a 1.2 billion cubic metre reservoir. It is one of the largest embankment dams in Iran. A number of unpredicted inflows of water into tunnels and other underground openings occurred during the first impoundment of the Maroon dam. Impoundment was halted and the reservoir was emptied to correct the problem. This paper reviews the measures that were implemented during the remediation process, and presented an evaluation of the effectiveness of the process. The foundation treatment involved placing concrete in the caverns, constructing a concrete lining, and extending the grout curtain. The grouting procedure was also described. The overall effectiveness of the concrete work and grouting resulted in a reduction in leakage from 8.5 cubic metres per second to a more acceptable 10 litres per second. 8 figs.

  11. Characterization of hydrofracture grouts for radionuclide migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stinton, D.P.; McDaniel, E.W.; Weeren, H.O.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed characterization of hydrofracture grouts was performed by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and ..beta..-..gamma.. autoradiography. Laboratory-produced samples containing simulated wastes as well as actual radioactive samples of hydrofracture grout sheets obtained by core drilling were examined in this work. X-ray diffraction results revealed that both laboratory-produced samples and a core-drilled sample consisted primarily of calcium carbonate phases. Both sample types contained very small amounts of strontium or cesium wastes, neither of which could be detected by microscopic techniques. The core-drilled sample contained radioactive /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 60/Co that could be detected by ..beta..-..gamma.. autoradiography. The autoradiograph revealed that these radionuclides were still present in the 20-year-old grout and that they had not migrated into the trapped shale fragments.

  12. Numerical Model of Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Transport in the Subsurface with Pressure Transient, Density Effects, and Imbibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsell, D.; Rajaram, H.; Dempsey, D.; Viswanathan, H.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the transport of hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluid that is injected into the deep subsurface for shale gas extraction is important to ensure that shallow drinking water aquifers are not contaminated from an environmental and public health perspective and to understand formation damage from an oil and gas production perspective. Upward pressure gradients, permeable pathways such as faults or improperly abandoned wellbores, and the density contrast of the HF fluid to the surrounding brine encourages upward HF fluid migration. In contrast, the very low shale permeability and the imbibition of water into partially-saturated shale may sequester much of the HF fluid. Using the Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer Code (FEHM), single-phase flow and transport simulations are performed to quantify how much HF fluid is removed via the wellbore as flowback and produced water and how much reaches overlying aquifers; imbibition is calculated with a semi-analytical one-dimensional solution and treated as a sink term. The travel time for HF fluid to reach the shallow aquifers is highly dependent on the amount of water imbibed and the suction applied to the well. If imbibition rates and suction are small, the pressure transient due to injection and the density contrast allows rapid upward plume migration at early times. The density contrast diminishes considerably within tens to hundreds of years as mixing occurs. We present estimates of HF fluid migration to shallow aquifers during the first 1,000 years after hydraulic fracturing begins for ranges of subsurface properties.

  13. CLOSURE OF HLW TANKS PHASE 2 FULL SCALE COOLING COILS GROUT FILL DEMONSTATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E; Alex Cozzi, A

    2008-06-19

    This report documents the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) support for the Tank Closure and Technology Development (TCTD) group's strategy for closing high level radioactive waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Specifically, this task addresses the ability to successfully fill intact cooling coils, presently within the HLW tanks, with grout that satisfies the fresh and cured grout requirements [1] under simulated field conditions. The overall task was divided into two phases. The first phase was the development of a grout formulation that satisfies the processing requirements for filling the HLW tank cooling coils [5]. The second phase of the task, which is documented in this report, was the filling of full scale cooling coils under simulated field conditions using the grout formulation developed in the first phase. SRS Type I tank cooling coil assembly design drawings and pressure drop calculations were provided by the Liquid Waste (LW) customer to be used as the basis for configuring the test assemblies. The current concept for closing tanks equipped with internal cooling coils is to pump grout into the coils to inhibit pathways for infiltrating water. Access to the cooling coil assemblies is through the existing supply/return manifold headers located on top of the Type I tanks. The objectives for the second phase of the testing, as stated in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance plan (TTQAP) [2], were to: (1) Perform a demonstration test to assess cooling coil grout performance in simulated field conditions, and (2) Measure relevant properties of samples prepared under simulated field conditions. SRNL led the actual work of designing, fabricating and filling two full-scale cooling coil assemblies which were performed at Clemson Engineering Technologies Laboratory (CETL) using the South Carolina University Research and Education Foundation (SCUREF) program. A statement of work (SOW) was issued to CETL [6] to perform this work.

  14. Investigation of Hardened Filling Grout Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

     Suzlon Wind Energy A/S requested on August 28, 2007 an investigation of 2 samples of a hardened filling grout to be carried out, comprising drilling and strength determination of 4 test cylinders, and description of the surface characteristics of the samples....... Suzlon Wind Energy A/S requested on August 28, 2007 an investigation of 2 samples of a hardened filling grout to be carried out, comprising drilling and strength determination of 4 test cylinders, and description of the surface characteristics of the samples....

  15. An Experimental Study of Measuring Oscillatory and Transient Pressures in Hydraulic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    dynamic conditions. One of these computer programs that was of interest in this study was the Hydraulic Systems Frequency Response (HsFR). H- SFR program...reason for that failure is that the model for the hose was not accurate enough. The predicted amplitudes were much lower than measurec’ values except...the line. 6. P(%)- in line - Pclanp on x 100 ( 6 Pin line 7. Span - The distance between two clamps. The trans- ducers were located in the center of the

  16. Influence Mechanism of Grouting on Mechanical Characteristics of Rock Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jixun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouting technology has been widely used in all fields of geotechnical and civil engineering. Prospective engineering objectives including reinforcement of rock mass and groundwater leakage treatment can be achieved by grouting which will change the mechanical parameters of rock mass such as strength, elastic modulus, and coefficient of permeability. In this paper, rock mass is assumed as a composite material consisting of rock particles and random microcracks initially. Since part or all of the cracks will be filled with cement slurry after grouting, rock mass consists of rock particles, grout condensate, and some or no random microcracks after grouting. The damage constitutional law of the mesoscopic element is established based on the theory of mesoscopic damage mechanics. With the heterogeneity of the components of rock mass considered, the variation of mechanical characteristics of rock mass is studied before and after grouting. And the influence mechanism of grouting on rock mass is investigated at mesoscale level.

  17. Effects of grouting, shotcreting and concrete leachates on backfill geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna, Miguel; Arcos, David; Duro, Lara [Enviros Consulting, Valldoreix, Barc elona (Spain)

    2007-11-15

    The use of concrete to seal open fractures (grouting) and to impermeabilise the deposition tunnels (shotcreting) has been envisaged in the construction of a high level nuclear waste (HLNW) repository according to SKB designs. Nevertheless, the geochemical effect of using concrete in the repository is not fully understood. Concrete degradation due to the interaction with groundwater can affect the performance of other repository barriers, such as the backfill material used for sealing the deposition tunnels. One of the main effects of concrete degradation is the generation of alkaline plumes. For this reason, SKB is currently planning to use a type of concrete whose degradation result in lower pH values than those developed with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). In order to assess the long-term geochemical effect of including low-pH concrete elements in a HLNW repository, we performed a 2D reactive-transport model of a backfilled deposition tunnel that intersects a hydraulic conductive fracture which has been partially grouted. An additional case has been modelled where part of the deposition tunnel walls were covered with a shotcrete layer. The modelling results predict the development of a high-alkalinity plume, larger in the case of considering a grouted fracture, accompanied by the precipitation of CSH-phases in the fracture. However, the effect on the backfill material is only significant if concrete is in contact with the backfill (shotcrete case). In order to conduct these models, and considering that at the beginning of the present work there was not a specific composition for such a low-pH concrete, its composition has been assumed in order to meet the expected geochemical evolution of concrete degradation according to SKB expectations. This is a pH of pore water of around 11 and the degradation of CSH phases resulting in a source for Ca and Si into the system. For this reason, jennite and tobermorite have been selected, although it is known that jennite is

  18. Grout long radius flow testing to support Saltstone disposal Unit 5 design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D. B.; Langton, C. A.; Serrato, M. G.; Brooks, T. E. II; Huff, T. H.

    2013-02-24

    The Saltstone Facility, located within the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina, consists of two facility segments: The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The SPF receives decontaminated legacy low level sodium salt waste solution that is a byproduct of prior nuclear material processing. The salt solution is mixed with cementitious materials to form a grout slurry known as “Saltstone”. The grout is pumped to the SDF where it is placed in a Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) to solidify. SDU 6 is referred to as a “mega vault” and is currently in the design stage. The conceptual design for SDU 6 is a single cell, cylindrical geometry approximately 114.3 meters in diameter by 13.1 meter high and is larger than previous cylindrical SDU designs, 45.7 meters in diameter by 7.01 meters high (30 million gallons versus 2.9 million gallons of capacity). Saltstone slurry will be pumped into the new waste disposal unit through roof openings at a projected flow rate of about 34.1 cubic meters per hour. Nine roof openings are included in the design to discharge material into the SDU with an estimated grout pour radius of 22.9 to 24.4 meters and initial drop height of 13.1 meters. The conceptual design for the new SDU does not include partitions to limit the pour radius of the grout slurry during placement other than introducing material from different pour points. This paper addresses two technical issues associated with the larger diameter of SDU 6; saltstone flow distance in a tank 114.3 meters in diameter and quality of the grout. A long-radius flow test scaled to match the velocity of an advancing grout front was designed to address these technology gaps. The emphasis of the test was to quantify the flow distance and to collect samples to evaluate cured properties including compressive strength, porosity, density, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Two clean cap surrogate mixes (saltstone premix plus water

  19. Grout Long Radius Flow Testing to Support Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 Design - 13352

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D.B.; Langton, C.A.; Serrato, M.G. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Brooks, T.E. II; Huff, T.H. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Saltstone Facility, located within the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina, consists of two facility segments: The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The SPF receives decontaminated legacy low level sodium salt waste solution that is a byproduct of prior nuclear material processing. The salt solution is mixed with cementitious materials to form a grout slurry known as 'Saltstone'. The grout is pumped to the SDF where it is placed in a Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) to solidify. SDU 6 is referred to as a 'mega vault' and is currently in the design stage. The conceptual design for SDU 6 is a single cell, cylindrical geometry approximately 114.3 meters in diameter by 13.1 meter high and is larger than previous cylindrical SDU designs, 45.7 meters in diameter by 7.01 meters high (30 million gallons versus 2.9 million gallons of capacity). Saltstone slurry will be pumped into the new waste disposal unit through roof openings at a projected flow rate of about 34.1 cubic meters per hour. Nine roof openings are included in the design to discharge material into the SDU with an estimated grout pour radius of 22.9 to 24.4 meters and initial drop height of 13.1 meters. The conceptual design for the new SDU does not include partitions to limit the pour radius of the grout slurry during placement other than introducing material from different pour points. This paper addresses two technical issues associated with the larger diameter of SDU 6; Saltstone flow distance in a tank 114.3 meters in diameter and quality of the grout. A long-radius flow test scaled to match the velocity of an advancing grout front was designed to address these technology gaps. The emphasis of the test was to quantify the flow distance and to collect samples to evaluate cured properties including compressive strength, porosity, density, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Two clean cap surrogate mixes (Saltstone premix

  20. Vaginal pressure during lifting, floor exercises, jogging, and use of hydraulic exercise machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Katharine K; Morse, Abraham N; Crawford, Sybil L; Howard, Allison

    2007-12-01

    We recorded vaginal pressure in 12 women without risk factors for prolapse during two activity and exercise sessions, compared exercise and cough pressure, and evaluated method reproducibility and patterns of relative pressure. Portable urodynamic equipment, repeated measures descriptive design, and purposeful sampling were used with nonparametric analysis and visual comparison of pressure graphs. Mean participant age was 31.1 years (range 20-51), and mean body mass index was 22.7 (range 18.5-29.3). Mean pressures (in cm H(2)O): cough, 98.0 (48.0-133.7); standing, 24.0 (15.9-28.5); supine exercise, 34.0 (6.3-91.9); exercise machines, 37.0 (20.3-182.3). Repeated measures correlations for selected measures ranged from 0.66 (p pressure patterns were not consistent with patterns of group medians. We concluded that vaginal pressure measurement is reproducible in women without prolapse and that studied exercises generally produced lower pressure than cough, but individuals varied in pressure exerted. Individual variations warrant further study.

  1. A multiscale approach to determine hydraulic conductivity in thick claystone aquitards using field, laboratory, and numerical modeling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. A.; Barbour, S. L.; Hendry, M. J.; Novakowski, K.; van der Kamp, G.

    2016-07-01

    Characterizing the hydraulic conductivity (K) of aquitards is difficult due to technical and logistical difficulties associated with field-based methods as well as the cost and challenge of collecting representative and competent core samples for laboratory analysis. The objective of this study was to produce a multiscale comparison of vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivity (Kv and Kh, respectively) of a regionally extensive Cretaceous clay-rich aquitard in southern Saskatchewan. Ten vibrating wire pressure transducers were lowered into place at depths between 25 and 325 m, then the annular was space was filled with a cement-bentonite grout. The in situ Kh was estimated at the location of each transducer by simulating the early-time pore pressure measurements following setting of the grout using a 2-D axisymmetric, finite element, numerical model. Core samples were collected during drilling for conventional laboratory testing for Kv to compare with the transducer-determined in situ Kh. Results highlight the importance of scale and consideration of the presence of possible secondary features (e.g., fractures) in the aquitard. The proximity of the transducers to an active potash mine (˜1 km) where depressurization of an underlying aquifer resulted in drawdown through the aquitard provided a unique opportunity to model the current hydraulic head profile using both the Kh and Kv estimates. Results indicate that the transducer-determined Kh estimates would allow for the development of the current hydraulic head distribution, and that simulating the pore pressure recovery can be used to estimate moderately low in situ Kh (<10-11 m s-1).

  2. Review of results from SKB R and D on grouting technology for sealing the rock, years 1996-2000; Oeversikt av resuItat fraan SKB:s FoU inom injekteringsteknik foer bergtaetning aaren 1996-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, A. (ed.) [Swedpower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Eklund, D. [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Eriksson, Magnus [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. Soil and Rock Mechanics; Fransson, Aasa [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Inst. of Geology; Hansson, Paer [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Lagerblad, B. [Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Inst., Stockholm (Sweden); Lindblom, U. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Geotechnical Engineering; Wilen, P. [Swedpower AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2001-05-01

    In order identify the current state of the art and developments needs, SKB assembled a group of experts from universities and other research organisations. Internal plans were written for the subprojects 'Characterisation of rock for grouting purposes', 'Mechanisms that control the spreading of grout in jointed rock' and 'Cement based grouting material'. Later internal plans for the subprojects 'Demands on grouting' and 'Stabilising and sealing effect of pre-grouting' were written. The aims, which were set for the different subprojects, were in short, to summarise the technological advances, establish a method for rock characterisation from a grouting point of view, develop conceptual and numerical models for simulation of the grouting course, characterise grout in a relevant way, develop understanding and theoretical know-how of durability and chemical influence, identify and develop a number of grouting materials for different situations, develop a specification of requirements for grouting and to verify the theories in laboratory. In the subproject 'Demands on grouting' a literature review was carried out. One important conclusion from the study is that the concept is not very well dealt with in the literature. SKB are currently investigating the prerequisites for the construction of the deep repository. One part of that work is to further specify demands on maximum allowed volume of leakage water for the repository as a whole and also for each part of the deep repository. In the subproject 'Characterisation of rock for grouting purposes', the possibilities of using hydraulic tests for predictions and design have been studied. The idea of this study was to investigate correspondences and deviations to increase the understanding of what is measured in a water-loss measurement. One can draw the conclusion that hydraulic tests are useful when describing the fracture geometry. Numerical modelling

  3. ELAWD GROUT HOPPER MOCK-UP TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickenheim, B.; Hansen, E.; Leishear, R.; Marzolf, A.; Reigel, M.

    2011-10-27

    A 10-inch READCO mixer is used for mixing the premix (45 (wt%) fly ash, 45 wt% slag, and 10 wt% portland cement) with salt solution in the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF). The Saltstone grout free falls into the grout hopper which feeds the suction line leading to the Watson SPX 100 duplex hose pump. The Watson SPX 100 pumps the grout through approximately 1500 feet of piping prior to being discharged into the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) vaults. The existing grout hopper has been identified by the Saltstone Enhanced Low Activity Waste Disposal (ELAWD) project for re-design. The current nominal working volume of this hopper is 12 gallons and does not permit handling an inadvertent addition of excess dry feeds. Saltstone Engineering has proposed a new hopper tank that will have a nominal working volume of 300 gallons and is agitated with a mechanical agitator. The larger volume hopper is designed to handle variability in the output of the READCO mixer and process upsets without entering set back during processing. The objectives of this task involve scaling the proposed hopper design and testing the scaled hopper for the following processing issues: (1) The effect of agitation on radar measurement. Formation of a vortex may affect the ability to accurately measure the tank level. The agitator was run at varying speeds and with varying grout viscosities to determine what parameters cause vortex formation and whether measurement accuracy is affected. (2) A dry feeds over addition. Engineering Calculating X-ESR-Z-00017 1 showed that an additional 300 pounds of dry premix added to a 300 gallon working volume would lower the water to premix ratio (W/P) from the nominal 0.60 to 0.53 based on a Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) salt simulant. A grout with a W/P of 0.53 represents the upper bound of grout rheology that could be processed at the facility. A scaled amount of dry feeds will be added into the hopper to verify that this is a recoverable situation

  4. Nuclear Engineering Computer Modules, Thermal-Hydraulics, TH-1: Pressurized Water Reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reihman, Thomas C.

    This learning module is concerned with the temperature field, the heat transfer rates, and the coolant pressure drop in typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. As in all of the modules of this series, emphasis is placed on developing the theory and demonstrating its use with a simplified model. The heart of the module is the PWR…

  5. Prediction of pressure fluctuation of a hydraulic turbine at no-load condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T. J.; Wu, X. J.; Liu, J. T.; Wu, Y. L.

    2015-01-01

    In order to study characteristics of pressure fluctuation of a turbine during the starting period, a turbine with guide vanes device at no-load condition was investigated using RNG k-epsilon turbulence model. The inner flow distribution and pressure fluctuation characteristics were analyzed. Results show that the pressure fluctuations in the region between the runner and guide vanes are different around the runner inlet. The dominant frequency of pressure fluctuation in the vaneless space close to the casing outlet is the blade passing frequency, while the dominant frequency at the rest region is the twice of the blade passing frequency. The increase of amplitude of pressure fluctuation close to the casing outlet can be attribute to the large scale stall at suction side of the runner inlet.

  6. Predictive permeability model of faults in crystalline rocks; verification by joint hydraulic factor (JH) obtained from water pressure tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barani, Hamidreza Rostami; Lashkaripour, Gholamreza; Ghafoori, Mohammad

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, a new model is proposed to predict the permeability per fracture in the fault zones by a new parameter named joint hydraulic factor (JH). JH is obtained from Water Pressure Test (WPT) and modified by the degree of fracturing. The results of JH correspond with quantitative fault zone descriptions, qualitative fracture, and fault rock properties. In this respect, a case study was done based on the data collected from Seyahoo dam site located in the east of Iran to provide the permeability prediction model of fault zone structures. Datasets including scan-lines, drill cores, and water pressure tests in the terrain of Andesite and Basalt rocks were used to analyse the variability of in-site relative permeability of a range from fault zones to host rocks. The rock mass joint permeability quality, therefore, is defined by the JH. JH data analysis showed that the background sub-zone had commonly core had permeability characteristics nearly as low as the outer damage zone, represented by 8 Lu (1.3 ×10-4 m 3/s) per fracture, with occasional peaks towards 12 Lu (2 ×10-4 m 3/s) per fracture. The maximum JH value belongs to the inner damage zone, marginal to the fault core, with 14-22 Lu (2.3 ×10-4-3.6 ×10-4 m 3/s) per fracture, locally exceeding 25 Lu (4.1 ×10-4 m 3/s) per fracture. This gives a proportional relationship for JH approximately 1:4:2 between the fault core, inner damage zone, and outer damage zone of extensional fault zones in crystalline rocks. The results of the verification exercise revealed that the new approach would be efficient and that the JH parameter is a reliable scale for the fracture permeability change. It can be concluded that using short duration hydraulic tests (WPTs) and fracture frequency (FF) to calculate the JH parameter provides a possibility to describe a complex situation and compare, discuss, and weigh the hydraulic quality to make predictions as to the permeability models and permeation amounts of different

  7. Predictive permeability model of faults in crystalline rocks; verification by joint hydraulic factor (JH) obtained from water pressure tests

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hamidreza Rostami Barani; Gholamreza Lashkaripour; Mohammad Ghafoori

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, a new model is proposed to predict the permeability per fracture in the fault zones by a new parameter named joint hydraulic factor (JH). JH is obtained from Water Pressure Test WPT) and modified by the degree of fracturing. The results of JH correspond with quantitative fault zone descriptions, qualitative fracture, and fault rock properties. In this respect, a case study was done based on the data collected from Seyahoo dam site located in the east of Iran to provide the permeability prediction model of fault zone structures. Datasets including scan-lines, drill cores, and water pressure tests in the terrain of Andesite and Basalt rocks were used to analyse the variability of in-site relative permeability of a range from fault zones to host rocks. The rock mass joint permeability quality, therefore, is defined by the JH. JH data analysis showed that the background sub-zone had commonly > 3 Lu (less of 5 × 10−5 m3/s) per fracture, whereas the fault core had permeability characteristics nearly as low as the outer damage zone, represented by 8 Lu (1.3 × 10−4 m3/s) per fracture, with occasional peaks towards 12 Lu (2 × 10−4 m3/s) per fracture. The maximum JH value belongs to the inner damage zone, marginal to the fault core, with 14–22 Lu (2.3 × 10−4 –3.6 × 10−4 m3/s) per fracture, locally exceeding 25 Lu (4.1 × 10−4 m3/s) per fracture. This gives a proportional relationship for JH approximately 1:4:2 between the fault core, inner damage zone, and outer damage zone of extensional fault zones in crystalline rocks. The results of the verification exercise revealed that the new approach would be efficient and that the JH parameter is a reliable scale for the fracture permeability change. It can be concluded that using short duration hydraulic tests (WPTs) and fracture frequency (FF) to calculate the JH parameter provides a possibility to describe a complex situation and compare, discuss, and weigh the hydraulic quality to make

  8. Laboratory Hydraulic Fracturing Experiments for Determining Reopening and Closing Pressures of Fractures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    IMAI, Tadao; KAMOSHIDA, Naoto; KATO, Harumi; SUGIMOTO, Fumio

    2009-01-01

    ... in the borehole wall and the triggering of acoustic emissions.In the experiments, we measured the pressures during the reopening and closing of a fracture caused by elastic restitution in a block of rock not subjected to compressive load...

  9. Tanks 18 And 19-F Structural Flowable Grout Fill Material Evaluation And Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C. A.; Stefanko, D. B.

    2013-04-23

    Cementitious grout will be used to close Tanks 18-F and 19-F. The functions of the grout are to: 1) physically stabilize the final landfill by filling the empty volume in the tanks with a non-compressible material; 2) provide a barrier for inadvertent intrusion into the tank; 3) reduce contaminant mobility by a) limiting the hydraulic conductivity of the closed tank and b) reducing contact between the residual waste and infiltrating water; and 4) providing an alkaline, chemically reducing environment in the closed tank to control speciation and solubility of selected radionuclides. The objective of this work was to identify a single (all-in-one) grout to stabilize and isolate the residual radionuclides in the tank, provide structural stability of the closed tank and serve as an inadvertent intruder barrier. This work was requested by V. A. Chander, High Level Waste (HLW) Tank Engineering, in HLW-TTR-2011-008. The complete task scope is provided in the Task Technical and QA Plan, SRNL-RP-2011-00587 Revision 0. The specific objectives of this task were to: 1) Identify new admixtures and dosages for formulating a zero bleed flowable tank fill material selected by HLW Tank Closure Project personnel based on earlier tank fill studies performed in 2007. The chemical admixtures used for adjusting the flow properties needed to be updated because the original admixture products are no longer available. Also, the sources of cement and fly ash have changed, and Portland cements currently available contain up to 5 wt. % limestone (calcium carbonate). 2) Prepare and evaluate the placement, compressive strength, and thermal properties of the selected formulation with new admixture dosages. 3) Identify opportunities for improving the mix selected by HLW Closure Project personnel and prepare and evaluate two potentially improved zero bleed flowable fill design concepts; one based on the reactor fill grout and the other based on a shrinkage compensating flowable fill mix design. 4

  10. Discussion of Key Points in Reservoir Anti-seepage Grouting Project Quality Test%水库防渗灌浆工程质量检测的要点探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    劳正绍

    2013-01-01

    Impermeable grouting reinforcement is the main implementation content in weak dam risk removal reinforcement.Impermeable grouting commonly adopts high pressure jet grouting , filling grouting, dam foundation curtain grouting and the like .However , quality inspection of high pressure jet grouting , filling grouting and dam foundation curtain grouting is mainly based on inspection hole drilling water injection and drilling packer permeability test .The paper provides important scientific basis for project quality inspection and acceptance through inspection hole test results .%  防渗灌浆加固是病险水库除险加固的主要实施内容,防渗灌浆加固常用高压喷射灌浆、充填灌浆、坝基帷幕灌浆等,而高压喷射灌浆、充填灌浆、坝基帷幕灌浆质量检测是以检查孔钻孔注水和钻孔压水试验为主,通过检查孔的试验成果,为工程质量检查、验收提供重要的科学依据。

  11. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of curtain grouting in the dam bedrock based on binghamian grouts%大坝基岩帷幕宾汉姆浆液灌浆的三维数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓韶辉; 王晓玲; 敖雪菲; 任炳昱; 李瑞金

    2016-01-01

    Because of the grouting engineering of masking and the complexity of geological conditions, how to accurately determine the diffusion regularity of grout under complicated geological conditions is the key and difficult point of grouting numerical simulation analysis. Binghamian grouts two-phase flow characteris⁃tics in the process of grout diffusion and complex geological conditions of dam bedrock is not considered in the present numerical simulation research of grouting in the hydraulic engineering. These research objects mainly focus on a single fracture or a single grout hole, while the simulation of grout front has not in⁃volved. Aim at the above-mentioned problems,a three-dimensional refined geological information model,in⁃cluded different formations,unfavorable geological body, curtains, grouting holes, was firstly established in this paper. Then, coupled with the volume of fluid (VOF) method in the CFD commercial software STAR-CCM+, a three-dimensional grouting mathematical model of Binghamian grouts air-grout two-phase flow was developed to achieve the numerical simulation of the multiple holes and sequencing grouting in the dam bedrock,also analyzing the grout diffusion rule and curtain lap after grouting. Finally,a hydropow⁃er station of bedrock curtain grouting process was taken as a case. The results show that the grout diffu⁃sion radius increases with time in a certain time range,but its rate of change shows a decline trend. After grouting completion of each sequence hole,grout front laps well. Furthermore,comparing the simulation val⁃ue with the actual measuring value of the grouting quantity and time, the average errors were 9.08% and 6.32% respectively,which verified the reliability of the method.%由于灌浆工程的掩蔽性和地质条件的复杂性,如何准确地确定复杂地质条件下浆液的扩散规律是灌浆数值模拟分析的关键及难点。目前,在水利工程中灌浆数值模拟的

  12. Grout Spread and Injection Period of Silica Solution and Cement Mix in Rock Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Tani, Mohamed; Stille, Håkan

    2017-09-01

    A systematic presentation of the analytic relations of grout spread to the time period is established. They are divided following the nature of the flow, the property of the mix and the driving process. This includes channel flow between parallel plates and radial flow between parallel discs, nonlinear Newtonian fluids like silica solution, polyurethane and epoxy, and Bingham material like cement-based grout, and three grouting processes at a constant flow rate, constant pressure and constant energy. The analytic relations for the constant energy process are new and complete the relations of the constant flow rate and constant pressure processes. The well-known statement that refusal cannot be obtained during finite time for any injected material at a constant flow rate or constant injection pressure is extended to include the energy process. The term refusal pressure or energy cannot be supported for stop criteria. Stop criteria have to be defined considering confirmed relation of the spread to the time period and of the flow rate to the pressure and spread. It is shown that it is always possible to select a grouting process along which the work will exceed any predefined energy, the consequence of which is that jacking is related to the applied forces and not to the injected energy. Furthermore, a clarification is undertaken concerning the radial flow rate of a Bingham material since there are two different formulations. Their difference is explained and quantified. Finally, it is shown that the applied Lugeon theory is not supported by the analytic relations and needs to be substantially modified.

  13. Simplification of hydraulic balance without differential pressure regulators; Vereinfachung des hydraulischen Abgleichs. Wegfall der Differenzdruckregler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebauer, Marc [W. Baelz und Sohn GmbH und Co., Heilbronn (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    In many heating systems, it would be possible to reduce the number of armatures to save energy. The author presents an example to show the shortcomings of systems with differential pressure controllers and recirculation pumps and points out the advantages of jet pump control. (orig.)

  14. Use of metakaolin in grouts intended for soil nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husson B.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to carry out a feasibility study to evaluate the pertinence of using metakaolin in grout intended for soil nailing. After a first step of grout optimisation based on technical and environmental constraints, an in-situ study was performed to evaluate the compatibility of metakaolin with this kind of application. This part highlights the minimum performance levels necessary if grout is to fulfil its role of transferring stresses between soil and nail.

  15. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩同春

    2004-01-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerizationreaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reactionkinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time ofcalcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and anexample is provided to verify the proposed formula.

  16. Gel time of calcium acrylate grouting material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩同春

    2004-01-01

    Calcium acrylate is a polymerized grout, and can polymerize in an aqueous solution. The polymerization reaction utilizes ammonium persulfate as a catalyst and sodium thiosulfate as the activator. Based on the theory of reaction kinetics, this study on the relation between gel time and concentration of activator and catalyst showed that gel time of calcium acrylate is inversely proportional to activator and catalyst concentration. A formula of gel time is proposed, and an example is provided to verify the proposed formula.

  17. Maintenance Implementation Plan for the Grout Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoakum, A.K.

    1993-08-01

    The objective of the Maintenance Implementation Plan (MIP) is to describe how the Grout Treatment Facility will implement the requirements established by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4330.4A, Maintenance Management Program, Chapter 2.0 Nuclear Facilities (DOE 1990). The plan provides a blueprint for a disciplined approach to implementation and compliance. Each element of the order is prioritized, categorized, and then placed into one of three phases for implementation.

  18. Stability Verification for Energy-Aware Hydraulic Pressure Control via Simplicial Subdivision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a linear programming-based method for finding Lyapunov functions of dynamical systems with polynomial vector fields. We propose to utilize a certificate of positivity in the Bernstein basis based on subdivisioning to find a Lyapunov function. The subdivision-based method...... is proposed since it has better degree bounds than similar methods based on degree elevation. The proposed method is successfully applied to find a Lyapunov function for a pressure controlled water distribution system....

  19. Evaluation of the Performance of Grouting Materials for Saturated Riprap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehyeon Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, four types of grout were developed to evaluate the effect of grouting of saturated riprap layers on ground water flow. The developed types of grout are divided into a quick-setting type and a general-type, and also into high and low viscosities. A number of grout tests were performed in a model acrylic chamber, 0.4 m in diameter and 2.0 m in length, for visual observation of injection. To reproduce the field flow condition of the saturated riprap layers (approach flow, the grout tests were carried out at 0 cm/s and 100 cm/s for the flow speed and 10 L/min for the grout injection speed after installing a flow injection opening on the lower part of the chamber. Based on the results of the grout tests, the injection of each grout in the saturated riprap layers was examined to find out the most effective grout.

  20. Thermal-hydraulic behaviors of vapor-liquid interface due to arrival of a pressure wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Akira; Fujii, Yoshifumi; Matsuzaki, Mitsuo [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    In the vapor explosion, a pressure wave (shock wave) plays a fundamental role for triggering, propagation and enhancement of the explosion. Energy of the explosion is related to the magnitude of heat transfer rate from hot liquid to cold volatile one. This is related to an increasing rate of interface area and to an amount of transient heat flux between the liquids. In this study, the characteristics of transient heat transfer and behaviors of vapor film both on the platinum tube and on the hot melt tin drop, under same boundary conditions have been investigated. It is considered that there exists a fundamental mechanism of the explosion in the initial expansion process of the hot liquid drop immediately after arrival of pressure wave. The growth rate of the vapor film is much faster on the hot liquid than that on the solid surface. Two kinds of roughness were observed, one due to the Taylor instability, by rapid growth of the explosion bubble, and another, nucleation sites were observed at the vapor-liquid interface. Based on detailed observation of early stage interface behaviors after arrival of a pressure wave, the thermal fragmentation mechanism is proposed.

  1. ENVIRONMENTAL EVALUATION HANFORD GROUT LYSIMETER FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, G. A.

    1984-06-01

    The Hanford Grout Lysimeter Facility (HGLF) will be constructed to test the leaching and migration of radioactive and nonradioactive tracers embedded in a solidification agent (grout) under actual burial conditions in Hanford soil. Three different water treatment rates will be used: natural precipitation, 4 times and 8 times natural precipitation. Six lysimeters will be assembled. Each unit will measure 6 feet in diameter, 25 feet deep. Their construction and instrumentation will be performed during June-July, 1984 by J. A. Jones Construction Company and/or their subcontractor. The routine monitoring will be performed by Battelle staff over a 5.5 year period beginning in November 1984. The total estimated project cost will be approximately $200,000. The only anticipated environmental impact from this project will be a temporary nuisance-type local dust problem during the construction phase. This will not be a detriment to the environment. The results of dose calculations indicate that dose rates from the grouted waste cans will be quite low when the cans are covered by a meter or more of earth. Dose rates at or near the surface of the individual cans are not high enough to preclude their handling. The facility area will be fenced, posted as a radiation zone and operated under a radiation work procedure.

  2. The Application and Design of High Pressure Jet Grouting Pile in the Sluice Foundation Treatment of Both Sides of Qiantang River%高压旋喷桩在钱塘江两岸水闸地基处理中的应用设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立新

    2013-01-01

      Along with the use of sluice operation, it exposed the defects of the tidal gate: the uneven settlement between each part of the sluice is serious. According to the investigation and analysis of risks, the main reason of the situation formation is that the sluice foundation is washed away by the tide. High pressure jet grouting pile can be used not only as the foundation reinforcement of existing buildings and new buildings, but also can be used as a temporary measure in construction (such as retaining soil and water, waterproof of deep foundation pit side etc. ), especially as the best way of the sluice foundation reinforcement of both sides of Qiantang River. The use of high pressure jet grouting pile technology in sluice foundation treatment has achieved satisfying results.%  随着水闸的运行使用,暴露出一个这一带挡潮闸的通病:水闸各段各部位之间不均匀沉降严重。根据险情调查分析,出现该状况的主要原因是潮水对水闸地基的冲刷所致。高压旋喷桩不仅可作为既有建筑和新建建筑的地基加固之用,也可作为施工中的临时措施(如深基坑侧壁挡土或挡水、防水帷幕等),尤其是目前钱塘江两岸水闸的地基加固、防渗处理的最佳方法。目前在该地区相关水闸地基处理中采用高压旋喷桩技术,取得了令人较满意的结果。

  3. 向家坝水电站挠曲核部破碎带水泥-环氧树脂复合灌浆试验研究%Cement-epoxy Resin Grouting Treatment for the Flexural Fracture Zone in Xiangjiaba Hydropower Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏涛; 张健; 陈亮; 肖承京

    2015-01-01

    向家坝水电站坝址岩性岩相多变,地质条件非常复杂,坝右岸存在挠曲核部破碎带,对大坝的渗透稳定非常不利。现场施工发现水泥灌浆难以对坝基存在的挠曲核部破碎带进行有效处理,为解决挠曲核部破碎带地质缺陷,长江科学院在右岸二期基坑高程257 m 平台进行了水泥-环氧树脂复合灌浆试验。灌后检查显示:透水率由复合灌浆前的平均透水率3.05 Lu降为0.075 Lu,做全压力为2.265 MPa的疲劳压水试验,经72 h 透水率为0 Lu;水力破坏坡降比灌前提高了11.54倍;灌浆后平均波速比灌前提高16.8%。试验结果表明:湿磨细水泥-环氧树脂同孔复合灌浆的工艺是可行的,CW510环氧树脂灌浆材料能够浸润和渗透到挠曲核部破碎带不良地质体中,试验中所获得的工艺参数可以在向家坝水电站挠曲核部破碎处理中推广应用,并可为其他水工建筑物基础处理借鉴。%The geological conditions of Xiangjiaba hydropower station is very complicated with a flexural core frac-ture zone at the right side of dam foundation,detrimental to the seepage stability of the dam.It’s hard to mend these geological defects such as siltstone and argillaceous siltstone with cement grouting .In view of this we conduc-ted test on platform at elevation 257m on the right bank of second-stage foundation pit using cement-epoxy resin grouting to mend the geological defects.The quality inspection results after grouting are as follows:water permea-bility reduced from 3.05 Lu to 0.075 Lu;the water permeability of fatigue water pressure test with full pressure of 2.265 MPa is 0 Lu after 72h;the gradient of hydraulic damage is 11.54 times higher than that before grouting;the average wave velocity improved by 16.8% over the previous grouting.The test results indicate that the treatment of cement-epoxy resin compound grouting for flexural core fracture zone in Xiangjiaba

  4. Characteristics and performance analysis report of the major thermal hydraulic components in the high temperature/high pressure thermal hydraulic test facility (VISTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki Yong; Park, Hyun Sik; Cho, Seok; Lee, Sung Jae; Song, Chul Hwa; Park, Chun Kyong; Chung, Moon Ki

    2003-12-01

    The VISTA (Experimental Verification by Integral Simulation of Transients and Accidents) is an experimental facility to verify the performance and safety issues of the SMART-P (Pilot plant of the System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor). The basic design of the SMART-P has been completed by KAERI. The present report describes the characteristics and performance of the major thermal hydraulic components in the VISTA Facility.

  5. Technical Note: Example of the Application of Jet Grouting to the Neutralisation of Geotechnical Hazard in Shaft Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dybeł Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a geotechnical hazard neutralisation technology for shaft structures. The diagnosis of problems with uncontrolled subsidence of the ventilation duct provided by the authors enabled the development of a schedule of works required for the protection and reinforcement of foundation soil in the shaft area. The technology of protection works was selected after the analysis of the technical condition of shaft structures as well as hydrological and geomechanical conditions. Due to the closeness of the shaft lining, it was necessary to form grout columns using jet grouting and low-pressure grouting technologies. The article presents the issues related to the selected technology and its application to the neutralisation of the emergent geotechnical hazard. The method of performance of recommended works was also described together with their impact on the technical condition of structures discussed as well as their functionality and usage.

  6. Fatigue Life of High Performance Grout in Dry and Wet Environment for Wind Turbine Grouted Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    2011-01-01

    the fatigue life of a high performance cement based grout was tested by dynamic compressive loading of cylindrical specimens at varying levels of cyclic frequency and load. The fatigue tests were performed in two series, one with the specimens tested in air and one with the specimens submerged in water during...... the test. The fatigue life of the grout, in terms of the number of cycles to failure, was found to be significantly shorter when tested in water than when tested in air, particularly at low frequency....

  7. Intimal and medial contributions to the hydraulic resistance of the arterial wall at different pressures: a combined computational and experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chooi, K Y; Comerford, A; Sherwin, S J; Weinberg, P D

    2016-06-01

    The hydraulic resistances of the intima and media determine water flux and the advection of macromolecules into and across the arterial wall. Despite several experimental and computational studies, these transport processes and their dependence on transmural pressure remain incompletely understood. Here, we use a combination of experimental and computational methods to ascertain how the hydraulic permeability of the rat abdominal aorta depends on these two layers and how it is affected by structural rearrangement of the media under pressure. Ex vivo experiments determined the conductance of the whole wall, the thickness of the media and the geometry of medial smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and extracellular matrix (ECM). Numerical methods were used to compute water flux through the media. Intimal values were obtained by subtraction. A mechanism was identified that modulates pressure-induced changes in medial transport properties: compaction of the ECM leading to spatial reorganization of SMCs. This is summarized in an empirical constitutive law for permeability and volumetric strain. It led to the physiologically interesting observation that, as a consequence of the changes in medial microstructure, the relative contributions of the intima and media to the hydraulic resistance of the wall depend on the applied pressure; medial resistance dominated at pressures above approximately 93 mmHg in this vessel.

  8. Estimation of the fluid excess pressure of hydraulic fractures in paleo geothermal reservoirs; Abschaetzung des Fluidueberdrucks von hydraulischen Bruechen in palaeogeothermischen Reservoiren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp, Sonja L. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Geowissenschaftliches Zentrum

    2011-10-24

    In many geothermal reservoirs to low natural permeabilities have to be enhanced by opening or shearing the existing fractures or by generating artificial hydraulic fractures (reservoir stimulation). Such hydraulic fractures can also occur naturally and will remain in paleo geothermal reservoirs. Using the example of calcite passages in a Jurassic limestone-marl alternations in southwest England the author of the contribution under consideration shows that the fault zones (mainly normal faults) were used as fluid transport pathways for calcium carbonate containing water which was injected as hydraulic fractures in the host rock. Overall, in consensus with isotopic studies it was shown that geothermal waters with relatively local origin were within the sedimentary basin and did not come from great depths. The pore fluid pressure within the limestone beds is not sufficient as a reason for the formation of calcite passages.

  9. Experimental and Parametric Design of Petroleum Back-pressured Hydraulic Impactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN Guang-jie; YAO Zhen-qiang; CHEN Ping; HUANG Wan-zhi

    2005-01-01

    Percussive-rotary drilling technology was considered many years ago as one of the best approaches for hard rock drilling. It is a key for popularizing this technology on a large scale to design and make an impactor with excellent performance. This paper presents a suit of method to design the percussive parameters for the oil or gas field by introducing the working principle of back-pressured impactor, dividing the working periods of impactor into three phases and establishing the computer emulational model of percussive parameters. It draws a comparison between the results of model calculation and experiment on the basis of analyzing the experiment results of impactor.The conclude provides credible foundation for designing and further ameliorating the impactor.

  10. TANKS 18 AND 19-F STRUCTURAL FLOWABLE GROUT FILL MATERIAL EVALUATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanko, D.; Langton, C.

    2011-11-01

    Cementitious grout will be used to close Tanks 18-F and 19-F. The functions of the grout are to: (1) physically stabilize the final landfill by filling the empty volume in the tanks with a non compressible material; (2) provide a barrier for inadvertent intrusion into the tank; (3) reduce contaminant mobility by (a) limiting the hydraulic conductivity of the closed tank and (b) reducing contact between the residual waste and infiltrating water; and (4) providing an alkaline, chemically reducing environment in the closed tank to control speciation and solubility of selected radionuclides. The objective of this work was to identify a single (all-in-one) grout to stabilize and isolate the residual radionuclides in the tank, provide structural stability of the closed tank and serve as an inadvertent intruder barrier. This work was requested by V. A. Chander, High Level Waste (HLW) Tank Engineering, in HLW-TTR-2011-008. The complete task scope is provided in the Task Technical and QA Plan, SRNL-RP-2011-00587 Revision 0. The specific objectives of this task were to: (1) Identify new admixtures and dosages for formulating a zero bleed flowable tank fill material selected by HLW Tank Closure Project personnel based on earlier tank fill studies performed in 2007. The chemical admixtures used for adjusting the flow properties needed to be updated because the original admixture products are no longer available. Also, the sources of cement and fly ash have changed, and Portland cements currently available contain up to 5 wt. % limestone (calcium carbonate). (2) Prepare and evaluate the placement, compressive strength, and thermal properties of the selected formulation with new admixture dosages. (3) Identify opportunities for improving the mix selected by HLW Closure Project personnel and prepare and evaluate two potentially improved zero bleed flowable fill design concepts; one based on the reactor fill grout and the other based on a shrinkage compensating flowable fill mix

  11. 3D Numerical Simulation versus Experimental Assessment of Pressure Pulsations Using a Passive Method for Swirling Flow Control in Conical Diffusers of Hydraulic Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    TANASA, C.; MUNTEAN, S.; CIOCAN, T.; SUSAN-RESIGA, R. F.

    2016-11-01

    The hydraulic turbines operated at partial discharge (especially hydraulic turbines with fixed blades, i.e. Francis turbine), developing a swirling flow in the conical diffuser of draft tube. As a result, the helical vortex breakdown, also known in the literature as “precessing vortex rope” is developed. A passive method to mitigate the pressure pulsations associated to the vortex rope in the draft tube cone of hydraulic turbines is presented in this paper. The method involves the development of a progressive and controlled throttling (shutter), of the flow cross section at the bottom of the conical diffuser. The adjustable cross section is made on the basis of the shutter-opening of circular diaphragms, while maintaining in all positions the circular cross-sectional shape, centred on the axis of the turbine. The stagnant region and the pressure pulsations associated to the vortex rope are mitigated when it is controlled with the turbine operating regime. Consequently, the severe flow deceleration and corresponding central stagnant are diminished with an efficient mitigation of the precessing helical vortex. Four cases (one without diaphragm and three with diaphragm), are numerically and experimentally investigated, respectively. The present paper focuses on a 3D turbulent swirling flow simulation in order to evaluate the control method. Numerical results are compared against measured pressure recovery coefficient and Fourier spectra. The results prove the vortex rope mitigation and its associated pressure pulsations when employing the diaphragm.

  12. Thermal-hydraulic instabilities in pressure tube graphite - moderated boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsiklauri, G.; Schmitt, B.

    1995-09-01

    Thermally induced two-phase instabilities in non-uniformly heated boiling channels in RBMK-1000 reactor have been analyzed using RELAP5/MOD3 code. The RELAP5 model of a RBMK-1000 reactor was developed to investigate low flow in a distribution group header (DGH) supplying 44 fuel pressure tubes. The model was evaluated against experimental data. The results of the calculations indicate that the period of oscillation for the high power tube varied from 3.1s to 2.6s, over the power range of 2.0 MW to 3.0 MW, respectively. The amplitude of the flow oscillation for the high powered tube varied from +100% to -150% of the tube average flow. Reverse flow did not occur in the lower power tubes. The amplitude of oscillation in the subcooled region at the inlet to the fuel region is higher than in the saturated region at the outlet. In the upper fuel region and outlet connectors the flow oscillations are dissipated. The threshold of flow instability for the high powered tubes of a RBMK reactor is compared to Japanese data and appears to be in good agreement.

  13. Silicate grout curtains behaviour for the protection of coastal aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elektorowicz, M.; Chifrina, R.; Hesnawi, R. [Concordia Univ., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Tests were performed to evaluate the behaviour of silicate grout with different reagents (ethylacetate - formamide SA and calcium chloride SC) in pure silica sand and natural soils from coastal areas containing organic matter, clayey soil and silica sand. The grouted specimens were tested with simulated fresh and salt water. The setting process during chemical grouting in the soil and sand was studied. The grouting of soil and sand with SA caused a transfer to the environment of some compounds: sodium formate, sodium acetate, ammonia and part of the initial ethylacetate and formamide. This process had a tendency to decrease for approximately 4 months. The stability of specimens was low. The grouting of soil and sand with SC caused no significant contamination of the environment. The increase of pH of environmental water was even less than with SA grouting. Also, the stability of specimens is higher in comparison with SA grouting. Salt water protected the specimens grouted with SA and SC from destruction and prevented contamination.

  14. Mechanical Properties of High Performance Cementitious Grout Masterflow 9300

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

    The present report describes tests carried out on the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9300, developed by BASF Construction Chemicals A/S.......The present report describes tests carried out on the high performance grout MASTERFLOW 9300, developed by BASF Construction Chemicals A/S....

  15. Application of RELAP5/MOD3.3 to Calculate Thermal Hydraulic Behavior of the Pressurizer Safety Valve Performance Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Hyun; Kim, Young Ae; Oh, Seung Jong; Park, Jong Woon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    The increase of the acceptance tolerance of Pressurizer Safety Valve (PSV) test is vital for the safe operation of nuclear power plants because the frequent tests may make the valves decrepit and become a cause of leak. Recently, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) is building a PSV performance test facility to provide the technical background data for the relaxation of the acceptance tolerance of PSV including the valve pop-up characteristics and the loop seal dynamics (if the plant has the loop seal in the upstream of PSV). The discharge piping and supports must be designed to withstand severe transient hydrodynamic loads when the safety valve actuates. The evaluation of hydrodynamic loads is a two-step process: first the thermal hydraulic behavior in the piping must be defined, and then the hydrodynamic loads are calculated from the thermal hydraulic parameters such as pressure and mass flow. The hydrodynamic loads are used as input to the structural analysis.

  16. Evolution of technetium speciation in reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, Wayne W.; Bucher, Jerome J.; Shuh, David K.; Edelstein,Norman M.

    2003-11-24

    Cementitious waste forms (CWFs) are an important component of the strategy to immobilize high-level nuclear waste resulting from plutonium production by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant fission product of particular concern in CWFs due to the high solubility and mobility of pertechnetate, TcO4-, the stable form of technetium in aerobic environments. CWFs can more effectively immobilize 99Tc if they contain additives that reduce mobile TcO4- to immobile Tc(IV) species. Leaching of 99Tc from reducing CWFs that contain Tc(IV) is much slower than for CWFs containing TcO4-. Previous X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) studies showed that the Tc(IV) species were oxidized to TcO4- in reducing grout samples prepared on a laboratory scale. Whether the oxidizer was atmospheric O2 or NO3- in the waste simulant was not determined. In actual CWFs, rapid oxidation of Tc(IV) by NO3- would be a concern, whereas oxidation by atmospheric O2 would be of less concern due to the slow diffusion and reaction of O2 with the reducing CWF. To address this uncertainty, two series of reducing grouts were prepared using TcO4- containing waste simulants with and without NO3-. In the first series of samples, the TcO4- was completely reduced using Na2S, and the samples were placed in containers that permitted O2 diffusion. In these samples, all of the technetium was initially present as aTc(IV) sulfide compound, TcSx, which was characterized using extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy, and is likely Tc2S7. The TcSx initially present in the grout samples was steadily oxidized over 4 years. In the second series of samples, all of the TcO4- was not initially reduced, and the grout samples were placed in airtight containers. In these samples, the remaining TcO4- continued to be reduced as the samples aged, presumably due to the presence of reducing blast furnace slag. When samples in the second series were exposed to atmosphere, the

  17. Improvement of pressure text procedure for outside pour type hydraulic prop%外注式单体液压支柱试压工序的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧艳梅

    2001-01-01

    This paper introduces the improving process of outside pour type hydraulic prop.It can reduce labour strength,raise pressure text safety and work efficiency.%介绍了外注式单体液压支柱试压头的改造过程,对其进行改进可以降低劳动强度,提高试压安全性能和劳动效率。

  18. Reducing leaks in water distribution networks. Controlling pressure by means of automatic hydraulic valves; Reduccion de fugas en redes de distribucion de agua. Control de la presion mediante valvulas hidraulicas automaticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singla Font, S.

    2005-07-01

    Any water distribution network, bet it of drinking water or irrigation water, always loses an inevitable amount. One of the main ways to reduce leaks is to optimise the pressure in the network by means of hydraulic valves with different types of control devices. These can be either completely hydraulic or supplemented by electronic systems. (Author)

  19. Drip Sealing Grouting of Tunnels in Crystalline Rock: Conceptualisation and Technical Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butron, Christian

    2012-07-01

    A conceptual model of the groundwater hydraulic conditions around the tunnel contour in ancient brittle crystalline rocks has been developed and verified. The general aim has been to reach an understanding of the groundwater conditions in and close to the tunnel roof where dripping takes place and to propose technical and practical strategies for waterproofing. Dripping is accompanied by ice growth and icicle formation in cold regions, creating additional problems such as shotcrete fall-outs, icicle fall-outs, damage to vehicles, damage to trains, etc. The methodology for the development of the conceptual model is based mainly on transmissivity determinations from short-duration hydraulic tests and analyses of the connectivity of the fracture structure by means of semi-variogram analysis. The determination of the dimensionality of the flow in the fractures has also been found to be essential in order to describe the conductive system. This conceptual model describes the fracture systems as a combination of transmissive patches (2D-flow fractures) connected by less pervious channels (1D-flow fractures). It provides an understanding of the heterogeneity and connectivity of the fracture network and thus the groundwater conditions, not only in the roof but also around the tunnel contour. The pre-excavation grouting design process used in the tunnelling projects followed a structured approach and the evaluation showed that the grouting design reduced the inflow and fulfilled the environmental demands. However, dripping remained, making its characterisation very important when proposing a possible solution for its control. It is proposed that the remaining dripping comes from a channelised system that has been left unsealed and which would be extremely difficult to intersect with future boreholes, as well as from some ungrouted fractures with inconvenient orientations. Geomembrane lining and post-excavation grouting are possible solutions, although particular attention

  20. Fate of Contaminants in Contact with West Valley Grouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhrmann,M.; Gillow, J.

    2009-07-01

    The objective of the work described here is to determine to what extent a variety of contaminants, including fission products, actinides, and RCRA elements are sequestered by the two grout formulations. The conceptual model for this study is as follows: a large mass of grout having been poured into a high-level waste tank is in the process of aging and weathering for thousands of years. The waste remaining in the tank will contain radionuclides and other contaminants, much of which will adhere to tank walls and internal structures. The grout will encapsulate the contaminants. Initially the grout will be well sequestered, but over time rainwater and groundwater will gain access to it. Ultimately, the grout/waste environment will be an open system. In this condition water will move through the grout, exposing it to O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} from the air and HCO{sub 3}{sup -} from the groundwater. Thus we are considering an oxic environment containing HCO{sub 3}{sup -}. Initially the solubility of many contaminants, but not all, will be constrained by chemistry dominated by the grout, primarily by the high pH, around 11.8. This is controlled and buffered by the portland cement and blast furnace slag components of the grout, which by themselves maintain a solution pH of about 12.5. Slowly the pH will diminish as Ca(OH){sub 2} and KOH dissolve, are carried away by water, and CaCO{sub 3} forms. As these conditions develop, the behavior of these elements comes into question. In our conceptual model, although the grout is formulated to provide some reducing capacity, in order to be conservative this mechanism is not considered. In addition to solubility constraints imposed by pH, the various contaminants may be incorporated into a variety of solid phases. Some may be incorporated into newly forming compounds as the grout sets and cures. Others (like soddyite, (UO{sub 2}){sub 2}SiO{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}) are the result of slower reactions but may become important over time

  1. Latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried transuranic/mixed waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.L.

    1996-06-01

    The Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven national Laboratory was requested to investigate latex-modified grouts for in-situ stabilization of buried TRU/mixed waste for INEL. The waste exists in shallow trenches that were backfilled with soil. The objective was to formulate latex-modified grouts for use with the jet grouting technique to enable in-situ stabilization of buried waste. The stabilized waste was either to be left in place or retrieved for further processing. Grouting prior to retrieval reduces the potential release of contaminants. Rheological properties of latex-modified grouts were investigated and compared with those of conventional neat cement grouts used for jet grouting.

  2. Experimental studies on dynamic system characteristics of the high temperature/high pressure thermal-hydraulic test facility(VISTA) for the power variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, K. Y.; Park, H. S.; Joe, S.; Park, C. K.; Lee, S. J.; Song, C. W.; Jeong, M. K. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    Dynamic system characteristics tests were carried out for the power variation by using the high temperature/high pressure thermal-hydraulic test facility, VISTA(Experimental Verification by Integral Simulation of Transient and Accidents), which had been constructed to simulate the SMART-P by KAERI. Experimental tests have been performed to investigate the thermal-hydraulic dynamic characteristics of the primary and the secondary systems in the range of 5% to 85% power. Automatic PID control logics were developed and installed to the VISTA facility to control the major thermal hydraulic parameters. Power was changed with either a step or a ramp changing method from the reference power of 10%, 25%, 50% and 75% to 5% or 10% higher power. It was found that there is no noticeable difference in the responses between a step and a ramp changing method. When unique constants of P, I, and D were used in the range of 5% to 85% power, it was found to be liable to lose the system control. Further studies are required to quantify the controllability and the time constants of the major thermal hydraulic parameters.

  3. CsIX/TRU Grout Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. J. Losinski; C. M. Barnes; B. K. Grover

    1998-11-01

    A settlement agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Idaho mandates that liquid waste now stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC - formerly the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, ICPP) will be calcined by the end of year 2012. This study investigates an alternative treatment of the liquid waste that removes undissolved solids (UDS) by filtration and removes cesium by ion exchange followed by cement-based grouting of the remaining liquid into 55-gal drums. Operations are assumed to be from January 2008 through December 2012. The grouted waste will be contact-handled and will be shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico for disposal. The small volume of secondary wastes such as the filtered solids and cesium sorbent (resin) would remain in storage at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory for treatment and disposal under another project, with an option to dispose of the filtered solids as a r emote-handled waste at WIPP.

  4. 考虑滤过效应的卵砾石层浆液扩散研究%CEMENT GROUT DISPERSION CONSIDERING FILTRATION IN GRAVEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房凯; 夏唐代; 包柳青; 叶建梁; 陈士才

    2013-01-01

      Due to progressive blocking of cement grains within the soil matrix,filtration of grout plays a significant role during grout dispersion process. The influence of filtration on the grout dispersion in gravel is studied. The injectability criterion of the grout is first summarized. Then the linear filtration law is introduced into the mass balance relationships of water,cement and soil to develop a cement grout dispersion model in spherical coordinates with account for filtration. The comparison between model results and experimental data proves the validity of the given model and the necessity of considering the phenomenon of filtration. In addition,the influences of filtration on permeation grouting under different injection durations and water-cement ratios are also studied. The results reveal that the penetration resistance increases gradually due to grout filtration,leading to the increase in grouting pressure with time. For grout with smaller water-cement ratio,the grouting pressure is larger and the influence of filtration is more obvious.%  渗透注浆过程中水泥颗粒对土体孔隙的堵塞会产生滤过效应,滤过效应在浆液扩散过程中起着非常重要的作用。基于此,研究滤过效应对卵砾石层中注浆浆液扩散的影响。在总结浆液可注入性标准的基础上,考虑浆液滤过过程中水、水泥和土体的质量平衡,引入线性滤过定律,给出一种球孔扩散条件下考虑滤过效应的水泥浆浆液扩散模型,并通过模型理论结果和现场实测数据的对比,说明该方法的合理性和考虑滤过效应的必要性。不同注浆时间和水灰比条件下滤过效应对渗透注浆的影响分析表明,滤过效应导致土体的渗透阻力逐渐增大,土体中注浆压力随时间逐渐增加。浆液水灰比越小,注浆压力越大,滤过效应也越显著。

  5. Discussion on Methods of Proportional Pressure Control in Hydraulic System of Hydraulic Press%液压机液压系统比例压力控制方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贵闪; 翟华

    2011-01-01

    Three methods of proportional pressure control on hydraulic presses were introduced and compared, which were open-loop control, closed-loop control based on PID and PID control with addition of initial signals. Results of comparison showe that the closed-loop control algorithm which is added with initial signals has many advantages such as simple control structure, easy debugging operations, stable system and high precision, and etc. The requirements of this hydraulic press on pressure control can be fully satisfied.%介绍了液压机比例压力控制的3种方法,即开环控制、基于PID的闭环控制、加入初始信号的PID控制.并对3种控制方法进行了比较.结果表明:采取的加入初始信号的闭环控制算法具有控制结构简单、调试方便、系统稳定、精度高等优点,完全满足该液压机对压力控制的要求.

  6. Analysis report of the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the high temperature/high pressure thermal-hydraulic test facility (VISTA) in steady state conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Sik; Choi, Ki Yong; Cho, Seok; Lee, Sung Jae; Song, Chul Hwa; Park, Chun Kyong; Chung, Moon Ki

    2004-01-01

    The VISTA (Experimental Verification by Integral Simulation of Transients and Accidents) is an experimental facility to verify the performance and safety issues of the SMART-P (Pilot plant of the system-integrated modular advanced reactor). The basic design of the SMART-P has been completed by KAERI. The present report describes the experimental results on the water inventory distribution, the pressure distribution, and the differential pressure characteristics of the VISTA facility and on the heat transfer characteristics of the core simulating heater and the steam generator of the VISTA facility. There were little differences of their water inventories between the designed and the measured data. The pressure of the VISTA primary system kept near the steady-state operating pressure of 147 bar, and the differential pressures through the primary and secondary systems increased with the increase of their flow rates. Also the surface temperatures of core simulating heaters were measured, and the overall heat transfer coefficient of the VISTA steam generator was calculated to show a little higher values than that of the SMART-P.

  7. A paradigm shift in predicting stormflow responses in an active tectonic region through a similarity analysis of pressure propagation in a hydraulic continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Tani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil layers on hillslopes acts as systems in quasi-steady states generating rainfall-stormflow responses that are controlled by pressure propagation in a hydraulic continuum established when the rainfall volume is sufficiently large. A similarity analysis for quantifying the sensitivity of the stormflow response and recession limb to topographic and soil properties in a sloping permeable domain showed that the deviation of stormflow responses in the hydraulic continuum decreases due to the macropore effect. The rapid responses seem to be naturally derived from the evolution of the soil layer with the assistance of the vegetation-root system and effective drainage systems in zero-order catchments in active tectonic regions with heavy storms. To predict stormflow responses using distributed runoff models, a paradigm shift to consider this evolution process is needed because the simple stormflow responses and complex and heterogeneous catchment properties are poorly related, but may be mainly determined by soil evolution processes.

  8. Experimental studies on heat transfer characteristics and natural circulation performance of PRHRS of the high temperature and high pressure thermal-hydraulic test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H. S.; Choi, K. Y.; Joe, S.; Park, C. K.; Lee, S. J.; Song, C. W.; Jeong, M. K. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    Several experiments are performed to investigate the heat transfer characteristics and natural circulation performance of passive residual removal system (PRHRS) of the high temperature and high pressure thermal-hydraulic test facility. Especially the natural circulation performance of PRHRS, the heat transfer characteristics of PRHRS heat exchangers and emergency cooldown tank (ECT), and the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the primary loop are investigated in detail. The coolant flows steadily in the natural circulation loop which is composed of the steam generator (SG) primary side, the secondary system, and the PRHRS. The heat transfers through the PRHRS heat exchanger and ECT are sufficient enough to enable the natural circulation of the coolant. Also the experimental results show that the core decay heat are sufficiently removed with the operation of the PRHRS.

  9. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  10. Establishment and application of drilling sealing model in the spherical grouting mode based on the loosing-circle theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao; Zhiyong; Lin; Baiquan; Gao; Yabin; Cheng; Yanying

    2012-01-01

    There are quite a few studies that have been done on borehole sealing theory both domestically and internationally.The existing researches usually consider drilling of the surroundings as a dense homogeneous elastic body which does not meet the characteristics of real drilling of the fractured body.Based on the loosing-circle theory and analyses of the surrounding rock stress field,cracks and seepage fields,combined with Newtonian fluid spherical grouting model,we deduced the dynamic relationship between the seepage coefficient and rock or grouting parameters of the drilling sealing fluid mode of spherical fissure grouting.In this experiment,mucus was injected in the simulated coal seam and the permeability coefficient of the sealing body was calculated by using the model.To verify the validity of the model,the calculated sealing body number was compared with the extreme negative pressure that the sealing body could withstand.The theoretical model revealed the drilling sealing fluid mechanism,provided a method for the quantitative calculation of the drilling sealing fluid effect by grouting mode and a reference for the subsequent research of sealing mechanism.

  11. CLOSURE OF HLW TANKS FORMULATION FOR A COOLING COIL GROUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J; Vickie Williams, V; Erich Hansen, E

    2008-05-23

    The Tank Closure and Technology Development Groups are developing a strategy for closing the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Two Type IV tanks, 17 and 20 in the F-Area Tank Farm, have been successfully filled with grout. Type IV tanks at SRS do not contain cooling coils; on the other hand, the majority of the tanks (Type I, II, III and IIIA) do contain cooling coils. The current concept for closing tanks equipped with cooling coils is to pump grout into the cooling coils to prevent pathways for infiltrating water after tank closure. This task addresses the use of grout to fill intact cooling coils present in most of the remaining HLW tanks on Site. The overall task was divided into two phases. Phase 1 focused on the development of a grout formulation (mix design) suitable for filling the HLW tank cooling coils. Phase 2 will be a large-scale demonstration of the filling of simulated cooling coils under field conditions using the cooling coil grout mix design recommended from Phase 1. This report summarizes the results of Phase 1, the development of the cooling coil grout formulation. A grout formulation is recommended for the full scale testing at Clemson Environmental Technology Laboratory (CETL) that is composed by mass of 90% Masterflow (MF) 816 (a commercially available cable grout) and 10% blast furnace slag, with a water to cementitious material (MF 816 + slag) ratio of 0.33. This formulation produces a grout that meets the fresh and cured grout requirements detailed in the Task Technical Plan (2). The grout showed excellent workability under continuous mixing with minimal change in rheology. An alternative formulation using 90% MF 1341 and 10% blast furnace slag with a water to cementitious material ratio of 0.29 is also acceptable and generates less heat per gram than the MF 816 plus slag mix. However this MF 1341 mix has a higher plastic viscosity than the MF 816 mix due to the presence of sand in the MF 1341 cable grout and a

  12. Liquid Secondary Waste Grout Formulation and Waste Form Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Williams, B. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snyder, Michelle M. V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Guohui [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-23

    This report describes the results from liquid secondary waste (LSW) grout formulation and waste form qualification tests performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate new formulations for preparing a grout waste form with high-sulfate secondary waste simulants and the release of key constituents from these grout monoliths. Specific objectives of the LSW grout formulation and waste form qualification tests described in this report focused on five activities: 1.preparing new formulations for the LSW grout waste form with high-sulfate LSW simulants and solid characterization of the cured LSW grout waste form 2.conducting the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1313 leach test (EPA 2012) on the grout prepared with the new formulations, which solidify sulfate-rich Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) off-gas condensate secondary waste simulant, using deionized water (DIW) 3.conducting the EPA Method 1315 leach tests (EPA 2013) on the grout monoliths made with the new dry blend formulations and three LSW simulants (242-A evaporator condensate, Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF) leachate, and WTP off-gas condensate) using two leachants, DIW and simulated Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) Site vadose zone pore water (VZPW) 4.estimating the 99Tc desorption Kd (distribution coefficient) values for 99Tc transport in oxidizing conditions to support the IDF performance assessment (PA) 5.estimating the solubility of 99Tc(IV)-bearing solid phases for 99Tc transport in reducing conditions to support the IDF PA.

  13. 46 CFR 28.405 - Hydraulic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic equipment. 28.405 Section 28.405 Shipping... Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.405 Hydraulic equipment. (a) Each hydraulic system... than four times the system maximum operating pressure. (c) Each hydraulic system must be equipped...

  14. The physical model for research of behavior of grouting mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajovsky, Radovan; Pies, Martin; Lossmann, Jaroslav

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with description of physical model designed for verification of behavior of grouting mixtures when applied below underground water level. Described physical model has been set up to determine propagation of grouting mixture in a given environment. Extension of grouting in this environment is based on measurement of humidity and temperature with the use of combined sensors located within preinstalled special measurement probes around grouting needle. Humidity was measured by combined capacity sensor DTH-1010, temperature was gathered by a NTC thermistor. Humidity sensors measured time when grouting mixture reached sensor location point. NTC thermistors measured temperature changes in time starting from initial of injection. This helped to develop 3D map showing the distribution of grouting mixture through the environment. Accomplishment of this particular measurement was carried out by a designed primary measurement module capable of connecting 4 humidity and temperature sensors. This module also takes care of converting these physical signals into unified analogue signals consequently brought to the input terminals of analogue input of programmable automation controller (PAC) WinPAC-8441. This controller ensures the measurement itself, archiving and visualization of all data. Detail description of a complex measurement system and evaluation in form of 3D animations and graphs is supposed to be in a full paper.

  15. Pilot-scale grout production test with a simulated low-level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fow, C.L.; Mitchell, D.H.; Treat, R.L.; Hymas, C.R.

    1987-05-01

    Plans are underway at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington, to convert the low-level fraction of radioactive liquid wastes to a grout form for permanent disposal. Grout is a mixture of liquid waste and grout formers, including portland cement, fly ash, and clays. In the plan, the grout slurry is pumped to subsurface concrete vaults on the Hanford Site, where the grout will solidify into large monoliths, thereby immobilizing the waste. A similar disposal concept is being planned at the Savannah River Laboratory site. The underground disposal of grout was conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory between 1966 and 1984. Design and construction of grout processing and disposal facilities are underway. The Transportable Grout Facility (TGF), operated by Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) for the Department of Energy (DOE), is scheduled to grout Phosphate/Sulfate N Reactor Operations Waste (PSW) in FY 1988. Phosphate/Sulfate Waste is a blend of two low-level waste streams generated at Hanford's N Reactor. Other wastes are scheduled to be grouted in subsequent years. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is verifying that Hanford grouts can be safely and efficiently processed. To meet this objective, pilot-scale grout process equipment was installed. On July 29 and 30, 1986, PNL conducted a pilot-scale grout production test for Rockwell. During the test, 16,000 gallons of simulated nonradioactive PSW were mixed with grout formers to produce 22,000 gallons of PSW grout. The grout was pumped at a nominal rate of 15 gpm (about 25% of the nominal production rate planned for the TGF) to a lined and covered trench with a capacity of 30,000 gallons. Emplacement of grout in the trench will permit subsequent evaluation of homogeneity of grout in a large monolith. 12 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Literature survey of heat transfer and hydraulic resistance of water, carbon dioxide, helium and other fluids at supercritical and near-critical pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioro, I.L.; Duffey, R.B

    2003-04-01

    This survey consists of 430 references, including 269 Russian publications and 161 Western publications devoted to the problems of heat transfer and hydraulic resistance of a fluid at near-critical and supercritical pressures. The objective of the literature survey is to compile and summarize findings in the area of heat transfer and hydraulic resistance at supercritical pressures for various fluids for the last fifty years published in the open Russian and Western literature. The analysis of the publications showed that the majority of the papers were devoted to the heat transfer of fluids at near-critical and supercritical pressures flowing inside a circular tube. Three major working fluids are involved: water, carbon dioxide, and helium. The main objective of these studies was the development and design of supercritical steam generators for power stations (utilizing water as a working fluid) in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Carbon dioxide was usually used as the modeling fluid due to lower values of the critical parameters. Helium, and sometimes carbon dioxide, were considered as possible working fluids in some special designs of nuclear reactors. (author)

  17. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  18. Environmental Technology Verification Report: Grouts for Wastewater Collection Systems, Warren Environmental, Inc. 301-04 Epoxy Grout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Municipalities are discovering rapid degradation of infrastructures in wastewater collection and treatment facilities due to infiltration of leaking water from the surrounding environments. Rehabilitation of these facilities by in situ methods, including the use of grouting, is u...

  19. Data report on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Small-Scale Seal Performance Test, Series F grouting experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, E.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dale, T.F.; Van Pelt, R.S. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-03-01

    SSSPT-F was designed to evaluate sealing materials at WIPP. It demonstrated: (1) the ability to practically and consistently produce ultrafine cementitious grout at the grouting site, (2) successful, consistent, and efficient injection and permeation of the grout into fractured rock at the repository horizon, (3) ability of the grout to penetrate and seal microfractures, (4) procedures and equipment used to inject the grout. Also techniques to assess the effectiveness of the grout in reducing the gas transmissivity of the fractured rock were evaluated. These included gas-flow/tracer testing, post-grout coring, pre- and post-grout downhole televiewer logging, slab displacement measurements, and increased loading on jacks during grout injection. Pre- and post-grout diamond drill core was obtained for use in ongoing evaluations of grouting effectiveness, degradation, and compatibility. Diamond drill equipment invented for this test successfully prevented drill cuttings from plugging fractures in grout injection holes.

  20. 松软地层防渗灌浆帷幕结构性状实验研究%FIELD EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON TRAITS OF GROUTING IMPERVIOUS CURTAIN IN SOFT LAYER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵金; 潘烨; 彭春雷; 陈安重; 杨松林

    2015-01-01

    The high permeability of loose formation,the large consumption plasma of anti-seepage grouting and irregular diffusion have a great deal of uncertainty.So,it is very difficult to accurately grasp the structural traits of the formed impervious curtain,which contains impervious curtain thickness,mechanical properties,anti-seepage effect and other elements.Existing methods and techniques on the assessment of impervious quality mainly include that water pressure test,standard grout depth,coring,physical probe and other methods to access relevant information,which would impose a direct effect.In this study,injection test,hole skew measurement,coring test, whole section excavation and other methods are applied in field,the characters of anti-seepage structure include curtain effective thickness and its sphere of influence,curtain strength properties and permeability characteristic. They are revealed by experimental tests in various operating conditions.Under the condition of 1.5m pitch-row and 0.8m double-row distance,the experimental results show that it is very simple and efficient to adopt the technique of slurry sealing means and pulsating grouting ways to control the grouting process and the utilization of controllable clay grout material with appropriate grouting control parameters.Meanwhile,the periphery hole compaction zone, effective body and cemented stones curtain body are formed uniform and effective.The seepage coefficient reaches 5 lu below.The 28days stone strength after grouting reaches over 3.0MPa.In the effect contrast to pulp and stable slurry paste perfusion,it is found that if grout with stable slurry,it will be mainly with splitting permeability and the diffusion distance will be further than pulp.For higher seepage reinforcement requirements engineering,it will be the best to do the paste perfusion first,and then the stable slurry irrigation.Pulp veins mainly concentrate in the 1m radius around the grouting pipe,accounting for more than 60% of the

  1. 心墙水力劈裂与孔压关系的探讨%The analysis of the relationship between hydraulic fracture and the pore pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红日; 党发宁; 兰素恋; 魏见海

    2012-01-01

    基于Biot固结理论的有效应力二维数值模拟方法,研究了堆石坝的粘土心墙水力劈裂过程中孔隙水压力的变化.分析了坝体竣工期粘土心墙中的拱效应,探讨了从竣工固结到蓄水过程和稳定渗流期粘土心墙中孔隙水压力的变化分布特点,并对心墙发生水力劈裂的可能性进行判断.研究结果表明:堆石坝粘土心墙内部孔隙水压力梯度的模拟分析能更加合理地解释水力劈裂发生与蓄水速度和心墙低渗透性的关系,因此,分析考虑水位上升过程中粘土心墙内孔隙水压力分布情况是研究心墙水力劈裂发生机理的重点.%Based on the consolidation theory of Biot effective stress analysis method, two-dimensional numerical simulation is adopted to study the dam from the completion of the dam to the clay core run-time pore pressure changes in the process. Arching effect of the completion period and the changes with the completion of the process of consolidation on the stability of the water flow in the pore water pressure distribution are analyzed based on the analysis of clay core dams, the mechanism of hydraulic fracture on the basis of the core wall of the dam occurred in the hydraulic is determined with the possibility of splitting. The results show that the simulation of gradient internal pore water pressure for the clay core of rockfilled dam core can reasonably explain the occurrence of hydraulic fracturing with water speed, and the low permeability of the core wall has great effects. When hydraulic fracture occurred with the core wall mechanism of the core wall, the distribution of clay pore water pressure must be taken into account.

  2. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  3. Avoidance of transmission line pressure oscillations in discrete hydraulic systems – by shaping of valve opening characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Bech, Michael Møller

    2015-01-01

    The architecture of multi pressure line discrete fluid power force systems imposes rapid pressure shifts in the actuator volumes. These fast shifts between pressure levels often introduce pressure oscillations in the actuator chamber and connecting pipes. The topic of this paper is to perform...... pressure shifts by changing the connection between various fixed pressure lines without introducing significant pressure oscillation. As a case study a discrete force system is utilised is a Power Take Off(PTO) system of a wave energy converter. Four pressure shifting algorithms are proposed...

  4. Gas generation from Hanford grout samples. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonah, C.D.; Kapoor, S.: Matheson, M.S.; Mulac, W.A.; Meisel, D.

    1994-03-01

    The radiolytic yields of H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and CO from two batches of WHC-supplied samples of grouted simulated waste have been {gamma} irradiated at several dose rates (0.025, 0.63 and 130 krad/h for H{sub 2} and 130 krad/h for all other gases). In one batch, the liquid waste simulant that was added to the grout included the original components that were added to Tank 102-AP (labeled ``virgin``waste.) The second batch included a similar liquid waste simulant that was preirradiated to 35 Mrad prior to incorporation into the grout. It is believed that the preirradiated samples more closely represent radioactive waste that was stored in the tank for several years. The lowest dose rate corresponds approximately to that expected in the grout; with the high dose rate, doses equivalent to about 85 years storage in grout vaults were achieved. Most of the results on the batch of virgin samples have been reported recently (Report ANL 93/42). Here we report the results from the batch of preirradiated grout samples and compare the results from the two batches. The radiolytic yields of H{sub 2} and N{sub 2} are lower in the preirradiated than in the virgin grout. On the other hand G(O{sub 2}) is higher in the preirradiated samples: 0.078 vs. 0.026. The yield of nitrous oxide is essentially the same, G(N{sub 2}O) =0.010, in both. The yields measured from both batches are significantly higher than previously reported values. At 90{degrees}C similar amounts of H{sub 2} were generated thermally from both batches of grout, whereas the total amounts of N{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O were larger for the preirradiated than for the virgin grout samples. At lower temperatures the rate of generation was hardly measurable. Mass spectrometric analysis suggests that NO is thermally (but not radiolytically) released from the grout samples.

  5. Final report on supplementary comparison APMP.M.P-S7.TRI in hydraulic gauge pressure from 40 MPa to 200 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobata, Tokihiko; Olson, Douglas A.; Eltawil, Alaaeldin A.

    2017-01-01

    This report describes the results of a supplementary comparison of hydraulic high-pressure standards at three national metrology institutes (NMIs); National Metrology Institute of Japan, AIST (NMIJ/AIST), National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), USA and National Institute for Standards (NIS), Egypt, which was carried out at NIST during the period May 2001 to September 2001 within the framework of the Asia-Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP) in order to evaluate their degrees of equivalence at pressures in the range 40 MPa to 200 MPa for gauge mode. The pilot institute was NMIJ/AIST. Three working pressure standards from the institutes, in the form of piston-cylinder assemblies, were used for the comparison. The comparison and calculation methods used are discussed in this report. From the cross-float measurements, the differences between the working pressure standards of each institute were examined through an evaluation of the effective area of each piston-cylinder assembly with its uncertainty. From the comparison results, it was revealed that the values claimed by the participating institutes, NMIJ, NIST, and NIS, agree within the expanded (k = 2) uncertainties. The hydraulic pressure standards in the range 40 MPa to 200 MPa for gauge mode of the three participating NMIs were found to be equivalent within their claimed uncertainties. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  6. Stem Hydraulic Conductivity depends on the Pressure at Which It Is Measured and How This Dependence Can Be Used to Assess the Tempo of Bubble Pressurization in Recently Cavitated Vessels1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinyu; Tyree, Melvin T.

    2015-01-01

    Cavitation of water in xylem vessels followed by embolism formation has been authenticated for more than 40 years. Embolism formation involves the gradual buildup of bubble pressure (air) to atmospheric pressure as demanded by Henry’s law of equilibrium between gaseous and liquid phases. However, the tempo of pressure increase has not been quantified. In this report, we show that the rate of pressurization of embolized vessels is controlled by both fast and slow kinetics, where both tempos are controlled by diffusion but over different spatial scales. The fast tempo involves a localized diffusion from endogenous sources: over a distance of about 0.05 mm from water-filled wood to the nearest embolized vessels; this process, in theory, should take 17 h, with complete equilibrium requiring 1 to 2 d. The implications of these timescales for the standard methods of measuring percentage loss of hydraulic conductivity are discussed in theory and deserve more research in future. PMID:26468516

  7. INFLUENCES OF HYDRAULIC UPLIFT PRESSURES ON STABILITY OF GRAVITY DAM%坝底水浮力对重力坝稳定性的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    UTILI Stefano; 尹振宇; 蒋明镜

    2008-01-01

    着重研究一个典型的混凝土重力坝的坝底水浮力对大坝稳定性的影响,此大坝位于意大利的Cumbidanovu岛.大坝的基础由含有高度开裂的岩石所构成.首先,通过把大坝视为自由体的平衡分析法来评价大坝破坏前的最大水压力和有效排水系统对大坝稳定性的影响.然后,使用离散元方法来进一步评价开裂基岩中的水流状态,得到该水流产生的浮托力的分布,最终得到此水浮力对大坝稳定性的影响.对设计而言,上述分析考虑了岩基渗透,运用离散元方法进行模拟.研究结果表面,相比保守的平衡分析法,此模型可以得到更大的水浮力荷载.%A study of the influences of the hydraulic uplift pressures underneath the base of a typical concrete gravity dam on its stability is presented. The dam is located at Cumbidanovu(Sardegna,Italy). The foundation of the dam is made of heavily fractured rock. Firstly,analytical calculations about the equilibrium of the dam as a free body have been employed to evaluate the maximum hydraulic pressure before collapsing and to assess the impact of an effective drainage system on the stability of the dam in a simple way. Secondly,numerical analyses by the distinct element method(DEM) using the code UDEC have been carried out to evaluate the hydraulic flow taking place within the fractured rock foundation,the uplift pressure distribution generated by the calculated flow,and its influence on the stability of the dam. For design purposes,it emerges that availability of reliable data on the hydraulic permeability of rock foundations and a computationally advanced distinct element modeling might lead to the acceptance of loads significantly higher than the more conservative estimations obtained from equilibrium analyses.

  8. Rock grouting. Current competence and development for the final repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmelin, Ann (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE)); Brantberger, Martin (Ramboell (SE)); Eriksson, Magnus (Vattenfall Power Consultant (SE)); Gustafson, Gunnar (Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (SE)); Stille, Haakan (Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-06-15

    The report aims at presenting the overall state of grouting competence and development relating to the final repository and at motivating and giving detail to the grouting sections presented in the 2007 version of the overall SKB report 'Programme for research, development and demonstration of methods for the management and disposal of nuclear waste' that is presented to the government every three years. The report offers suggestions for principles for planning, design and execution of grouting and describes the further work thought to be necessary in order to meet the requirements of the final repository, that are currently given as working premises. This report does not aim to, and cannot, describe the grouting processes in detail. For details of current concepts, experience and development work, a list of references is provided. In Chapter 2, the task of sealing the underground repository is examined and an overall approach presented. Although the requirements related to this task are preliminary, it is made evident that they concern both the actual grouting results and the process leading to the achievement of these results. Chapter 3 is a conceptual description of grouting and the factors that govern the spreading of grout in the rock mass. It is intended as an introduction to Chapters 4-6, which describe the state of grouting competence and the tools available for the sealing of the final repository facility. Both common practice and cutting-edge research are dealt with in these chapters, mainly relying on references where available. Chapters 4 and 5 focus on the system consisting of the fundamental components the rock mass, the grout materials and the grouting technology, and how these system components interact whilst, in Chapter 6, the rock/grout technical system is viewed in a brief organizational context. Based on the requirements on results and the overall grouting process on the one hand and the current competence in grouting theory and

  9. Leach test of cladding removal waste grout using Hanford groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; Legore, V.L.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes laboratory experiments performed during 1986-1990 designed to produce empirical leach rate data for cladding removal waste (CRW) grout. At the completion of the laboratory work, funding was not available for report completion, and only now during final grout closeout activities is the report published. The leach rates serve as inputs to computer codes used in assessing the potential risk from the migration of waste species from disposed grout. This report discusses chemical analyses conducted on samples of CRW grout, and the results of geochemical computer code calculations that help identify mechanisms involved in the leaching process. The semi-infinite solid diffusion model was selected as the most representative model for describing leaching of grouts. The use of this model with empirically derived leach constants yields conservative predictions of waste release rates, provided no significant changes occur in the grout leach processes over long time periods. The test methods included three types of leach tests--the American Nuclear Society (ANS) 16.1 intermittent solution exchange test, a static leach test, and a once-through flow column test. The synthetic CRW used in the tests was prepared in five batches using simulated liquid waste spiked with several radionuclides: iodine ({sup 125}I), carbon ({sup 14}C), technetium ({sup 99}Tc), cesium ({sup 137}Cs), strontium ({sup 85}Sr), americium ({sup 241}Am), and plutonium ({sup 238}Pu). The grout was formed by mixing the simulated liquid waste with dry blend containing Type I and Type II Portland cement, class F fly ash, Indian Red Pottery clay, and calcium hydroxide. The mixture was allowed to set and cure at room temperature in closed containers for at least 46 days before it was tested.

  10. 高压旋喷桩加固后桩基水平静载原位试验研究%In Situ Experimental Study on Horizontal Load of Pile Foundation after Reinforcement by High -pressure Jet Grouting Piles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁雅谷; 王欢; 何奔; 陈国兴

    2015-01-01

    Properties of soil around piles at shallow level show great influences on horizontal carrying capacity of pile bodies,and reinforcement of soil around piles to improve horizontal carrying capacity of pile bodies is an economical and effective way,but at present studies on it are very few at home.This paper studies and analyzes horizontal static loading properties of pouring piles in soft soil after reinforcement by high -pressure jet pouring piles via site full -scale horizontal loading test to provide preconditions and essential bases for further dynamic calculation.The test results show that after soil mass which extension is 5 and 7.5 times the D (D is diameter of pouring piles)is reinforced by high -pressure jet pouring piles,the horizontal carrying capacity of pouring piles is increased by 2 /3 and 1 time respectively,and the bending moment of pile bodies decreases remarkably so as to anti -crack performance of jet pouring piles greatly and guarantee that sectional concrete of pile bodies does not crack at large horizontal action force.%浅层桩周土的性能对桩体水平承载力有很大影响,通过加固桩周土来提高桩体水平承载力是一种经济有效的手段,但目前国内其研究甚少。通过现场全尺度水平加载试验来研究、分析高压旋喷桩加固后灌注桩在软土中的水平静力加载性能,为进一步动力计算提供前提条件和基本依据。试验结果表明:将延深度5倍和7.5倍 D(D 为灌注桩桩径)范围内的土体进行高压旋喷桩加固后,灌注桩水平承载力分别提高了2/3和1倍,且其桩身弯矩显著下降,从而大大提高了旋喷桩的抗开裂性能,保证桩体能在较大水平作用力下截面混凝土不发生开裂。

  11. Final report on key comparison APMP.M.P-K13 in hydraulic gauge pressure from 50 MPa to 500 MPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajikawa, Hiroaki; Kobata, Tokihiko; Yadav, Sanjay; Jian, Wu; Changpan, Tawat; Owen, Neville; Yanhua, Li; Hung, Chen-Chuan; Ginanjar, Gigin; Choi, In-Mook

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the results of a key comparison of hydraulic high-pressure standards at nine National Metrology Institutes (NMIs: NMIJ/AIST, NPLI, NMC/A*STAR, NIMT, NMIA, NIM, CMS/ITRI, KIM-LIPI, and KRISS) within the framework of the Asia-Pacific Metrology Programme (APMP) in order to determine their degrees of equivalence in the pressure range from 50 MPa to 500 MPa in gauge mode. The pilot institute was the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ/AIST). All participating institutes used hydraulic pressure balances as their pressure standards. A set of pressure balance with a free-deformational piston-cylinder assembly was used as the transfer standard. Three piston-cylinder assemblies, only one at a time, were used to complete the measurements in the period from November 2010 to January 2013. Ten participants completed their measurements and reported the pressure-dependent effective areas of the transfer standard at specified pressures with the associated uncertainties. Since one of the participants withdrew its results, the measurement results of the nine participants were finally compared. The results were linked to the CCM.P-K13 reference values through the results of two linking laboratories, NMIJ/AIST and NPLI. The degrees of equivalence were evaluated by the relative deviations of the participants' results from the CCM.P-K13 key comparison reference values, and their associated combined expanded (k=2) uncertainties. The results of all the nine participating NMIs agree with the CCM.P-K13 reference values within their expanded (k=2) uncertainties in the entire pressure range from 50 MPa to 500 MPa. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  12. Florida Sinkholes and Grout Injection Stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Hunt Griffith II

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Florida has a major problem when it comes to sinkholes. These sinkholes can become very hazardous to people, homes, and to the landscape as a whole. Florida sits on a carbonate platform which is highly indicative of sinkholes. There are three main types of sinkholes which occur in Florida: dissolution, cover subsidence, and cover collapse. I will compare these types of sinkholes to the underlying formation beneath Florida to see if there is a connection between the types of sinkholes that occur. I will also create a 3D model of grout injection stabilization and calculate its volume to compare to the actual volume placed under the house. This information will help inform and bring attention to the problem in Florida and in turn, may help alleviate the problem if we can understand what causes these sinkholes. The 3D model may help engineering companies become more efficient in predicting the projected amount of volume to stabilize a house that may be in danger.

  13. Microstructural Effects of Sulphate Attack in Sustainable Grouts for Micropiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcos Ortega Álvarez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the use of micropiles has undergone a great development. In general, they are made with cement grout, reinforced with steel tubing. In Spain, these grouts are prepared using OPC, although the standards do not forbid the use of other cements, like sustainable ones. Micropiles are in contact with soils and groundwater, in which the presence of sulphates is common. Their deleterious effects firstly affect to the microstructure. Then, the aim of this research is to study the effects of sulphate attack in the microstructure of micropiles grouts, prepared with OPC, fly ash and slag commercial cements, compared to their behaviour when they are exposed to an optimum hardening condition. The microstructure evolution has been studied with the non-destructive impedance spectroscopy technique, which has never been used for detecting the effects of sulphate attack when slag and fly ash cements are used. Its results have been contrasted with mercury intrusion porosimetry and “Wenner” resistivity ones. The 28-day compressive strength of grouts has been also determined. The results of microstructure characterization techniques are in agreement, although impedance spectroscopy is the most sensitive for following the changes in the porous network of grouts. The results showed that micropiles made using fly ash and slag cements could have a good performance in contact with aggressive sodium sulphate media, even better than OPC ones.

  14. Protection against water or mud inrush in tunnels by grouting: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shucai Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Grouting is a major method used to prevent water and mud inrush in tunnels and underground engineering. In this paper, the current situation of control and prevention of water and mud inrush is summarized and recent advances in relevant theories, grout/equipment, and critical techniques are introduced. The time-variant equations of grout viscosity at different volumetric ratios were obtained based on the constitutive relation of typical fast curing grouts. A large-scale dynamic grouting model testing system (4000 mm × 2000 mm × 5 mm was developed, and the diffusions of cement and fast curing grouts in dynamic water grouting were investigated. The results reveal that the diffusions of cement grouts and fast curing grouts are U-shaped and asymmetric elliptical, respectively. A multi-parameter real-time monitoring system (ϕ = 1.5 m, h = 1.2 m was developed for the grouting process to study the diffusion and reinforcement mechanism of grouting in water-rich faulted zone. A high early strength cream-type reinforcing/plugging grout, a high permeability nano-scale silica gel grout, and a high-expansion filling grout were proposed for the control of water hazards in weak water-rich faulted zone rocks, water inrush in karst passages, and micro-crack water inrush, respectively. Complement technologies and equipment for industrial applications were also proposed. Additionally, a novel full-life periodic dynamic water grouting with the critical grouting borehole as the core was proposed. The key techniques for the control of water inrush in water-rich faulted zone, jointed fissures and karst passages, and micro-crack water inrush were developed.

  15. Urban tree species show the same hydraulic response to vapor pressure deficit across varying tree size and environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lixin; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Ewers, Brent E

    2012-01-01

    The functional convergence of tree transpiration has rarely been tested for tree species growing under urban conditions even though it is of significance to elucidate the relationship between functional convergence and species differences of urban trees for establishing sustainable urban forests in the context of forest water relations. We measured sap flux of four urban tree species including Cedrus deodara, Zelkova schneideriana, Euonymus bungeanus and Metasequoia glyptostroboides in an urban park by using thermal dissipation probes (TDP). The concurrent microclimate conditions and soil moisture content were also measured. Our objectives were to examine 1) the influence of tree species and size on transpiration, and 2) the hydraulic control of urban trees under different environmental conditions over the transpiration in response to VPD as represented by canopy conductance. The results showed that the functional convergence between tree diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree canopy transpiration amount (E(c)) was not reliable to predict stand transpiration and there were species differences within same DBH class. Species differed in transpiration patterns to seasonal weather progression and soil water stress as a result of varied sensitivity to water availability. Species differences were also found in their potential maximum transpiration rate and reaction to light. However, a same theoretical hydraulic relationship between G(c) at VPD = 1 kPa (G(cref)) and the G(c) sensitivity to VPD (-dG(c)/dlnVPD) across studied species as well as under contrasting soil water and R(s) conditions in the urban area. We concluded that urban trees show the same hydraulic regulation over response to VPD across varying tree size and environmental conditions and thus tree transpiration could be predicted with appropriate assessment of G(cref).

  16. 10 MW高温气冷堆反应堆压力容器的出厂水压试验%Hydraulic Pressure Test of Pressure Vessel of 10 MW High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊杰; 张征明; 何树延; 王金海

    2001-01-01

    The hydraulic pressure test of 10MW Hight Temperature Gas-cooled Reactorc(HTR-10) pressure vessel was successfully performed according to the requirement of the section NB-6200, ASME Ⅲ code. The test requirement, the test results and the test evaluations are described in detail. The test tension was effectively and rationally done through an hydraulic tensionor, which was developed at institue of nuclear energy technology of Tsinghua University. The strain and deformation of the HTR-10 pressure vessel were also measured.%根据ASME规范第Ⅲ卷NB-6200节的规定,对10MW高温气冷堆压力容器的水压试验要求、试验过程,试验结果及评价进行了叙述。用清华大学核能技术设计研究院研制的液压张拉机对主螺栓实施了合理及有效的张拉,对压力容器进行了应变和变形测量,取得了反应堆压力容器水压试验的圆满成功。

  17. Microbially Induced Carbonate Precipitation: a Novel Grout for Permeability Control in Subsurface Engineering Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minto, J. M.; Hingerl, F.; Lunn, R. J.; Benson, S. M.

    2016-12-01

    ContextWe utilise the urea hydrolysing capability of soil bacteria Sporosarcina pasteurii to precipitate CaCO3 in a process termed Microbially Induced Carbonate Precipitation (MICP). MICP injection fluid properties are low particle size and low viscosity giving excellent grout penetrability. The CaCO3 grout has been shown to be effective at reducing permeability in porous and fractured media. MICP has consequently been proposed as an alternative to more traditional cement and chemical grouts, particularly in the fields of radioactive waste disposal and geological sequestration of CO2. This study investigates the role of fluid flow/CaCO3 feedback during precipitation and accelerated dissolution to better understand the longevity of an MICP grout under low pH environmental conditions such as found in a carbon sequestration reservoir. MethodsExperiments were conducted on a single Berea sandstone core in a high pressure core holder to characterise permeability, porosity and multiphase flow behaviour at sequestration reservoir temperature and pressure. Characterisation was carried out before MICP, after MICP, and after accelerated dissolution with hydrochloric acid. At each step the entire core was scanned in a medical x-ray CT scanner to spatially resolve (with a resolution of 0.5x0.5x1mm) the changes in porosity and saturation with CaCO3 precipitation and dissolution. Finally, the dried core was scanned with μ-CT at 30μm (full core) and 10μm (sub-volume) resolutions to investigate structural changes to the Berea at near pore scale. ResultsSix MICP treatment cycles over two days reduced core permeability from 886 mDarcy to 40 mDarcy with a greater reduction in porosity at the inlet. Dissolution with acid restored much of the porosity, but did not restore permeability to the same extent. Preferential flow paths formed during the dissolution step were visible in the first 4mm of the 100mm core, but did not extend further into the core. DiscussionThis study provides

  18. Control arrangement for the actuation of hydraulic consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kussel, W.; Dettmers, M.; Weirich, W.

    1988-11-09

    An arrangement for controlling the actuation of hydraulic consumers, by selectively connecting the consumers to hydraulic pressure and return lines; the control arrangement comprising a respective hydraulically operated directional control valve associated with each of the hydraulic consumers, a respective electro-magnetically operated pre-control valve associated with each of the hydraulic directional control valves, and further electro-magnetically operated directional control valve means associated with the pre-control valves, each of the hydraulic consumers being connectible to the hydraulic pressure or return lines via the associated hydraulically operated directional control valve which is actuatable by a hydraulic control line leading from the output of the associated pre-control valve, wherein the inputs of the pre-control valves are connected directly to the hydraulic return line and indirectly, via the further control valve means, to the hydraulic return line or to a hydraulic control pressure line.

  19. Performance of Grouted Splice Sleeve Connector under Tensile Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alias

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The grouted splice sleeve connector system takes advantage of the bond-slip resistance of the grout and the mechanical gripping of reinforcement bars to provide resistance to tensile force. In this system, grout acts as a load-transferring medium and bonding material between the bars and sleeve. This study adopted the end-to-end rebars connection method to investigate the effect of development length and sleeve diameter on the bonding performance of the sleeve connector. The end-to-end method refers to the condition where reinforcement bars are inserted into the sleeve from both ends and meet at the centre before grout is filled. Eight specimens of grouted splice sleeve connector were tested under tensile load to determine their performance. The sleeve connector was designed using 5 mm thick circular hollow section (CHS steel pipe and consisted of one external and two internal sleeves. The tensile test results show that connectors with a smaller external and internal sleeve diameter appear to provide better bonding performance. Three types of failure were observed in this research, which are bar fracture (outside the sleeve, bar pullout, and internal sleeve pullout. With reference to these failure types, the development length of 200 mm is the optimum value due to its bar fracture type, which indicates that the tensile capacity of the connector is higher than the reinforcement bar. It is found that the performance of the grouted splice sleeve connector is influenced by the development length of the reinforcement bar and the diameter of the sleeve.

  20. Hydraulic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sheng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the planning, design, construction and management of hydraulic structures, covering dams, spillways, tunnels, cut slopes, sluices, water intake and measuring works, ship locks and lifts, as well as fish ways. Particular attention is paid to considerations concerning the environment, hydrology, geology and materials etc. in the planning and design of hydraulic projects. It also considers the type selection, profile configuration, stress/stability calibration and engineering countermeasures, flood releasing arrangements and scouring protection, operation and maintenance etc. for a variety of specific hydraulic structures. The book is primarily intended for engineers, undergraduate and graduate students in the field of civil and hydraulic engineering who are faced with the challenges of extending our understanding of hydraulic structures ranging from traditional to groundbreaking, as well as designing, constructing and managing safe, durable hydraulic structures that are economical ...

  1. Research on the Grouting Reinforcement Technique in the Fault of Liudian Coal Mine%刘店矿过断层注浆加固技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代礼永

    2015-01-01

    为解决刘店煤矿北翼东回风大巷掘进过程中遇DF2正断层问题,基于巷道围岩控制原理,提出巷道注浆加固技术,并从注浆加固技术原理、注浆材料选择、注浆孔布置、注浆参数四个方面,研究巷道过DF2正断层时注浆加固方案。结果表明:北翼东回风大巷过DF2正断层时提前对迎头断层带煤体进行预注浆加固,改善了围岩条件;采用注浆加固技术,掘进过程中片帮冒顶次数减小,压力显现现象明显降低。%In order to solve the problem of DF2 positive fault in the process of digging, based on the principle of the control of roadway surrounding rock, the roadway grouting reinforcement technique was proposed in this paper. From the aspects of technique principle, material, grouting hole arrangement and grouting parameter, the grouting reinforcement scheme for DF2 positive fault was studied. The results showed that grouting reinforcement can improve the conditions of surrounding rock. In the process of excavating, through grouting reinforcement technique, there were fewer roof fall and rib spalling accidents and pressure appeared phenomenon was decreased obviously.

  2. Determination of the biodegradation rate of asphalt for the Hanford grout vaults. Hanford Grout Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luey, J.; Li, S.W.

    1993-04-01

    Testing was initiated in March 1991 and completed in November 1992 to determine the rate at which asphalt is biodegraded by microorganisms native to the Hanford Site soils. The asphalt tested (AR-6000, US Oil, Tacoma, Washington) is to be used in the construction of a diffusion barrier for the Hanford grout vaults. Experiments to determine asphalt biodegradation rates were conducted using three separate test sets. These test sets were initiated in March 1991, January 1992, and June 1992 and ran for periods of 6 months, 11 months, and 6 months, respectively. The experimental method used was one originally developed by Bartha and Pramer (1965), and further refined by Bowerman et al. (1985), that determined the asphalt biodegradation rate through the measurement of carbon dioxide evolved.

  3. OPERATIONAL AND COMPOSITIONAL FACTORS THAT AFFECT THE PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF ARP/MCU SALTSTONE GROUT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M.; Edwards, T.; Pickenheim, B.

    2012-02-15

    The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) receives low level waste (LLW) salt solution from Tank 50H for treatment and disposal. Tank 50H receives transfers from the Effluent Treatment Project (ETP), the H-Canyon General Purpose Evaporator, and the Actinide Removal Process/Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (ARP/MCU) Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSS-HT). At the SPF, the LLW is mixed with premix (a cementitious mixture of portland cement (PC), blast furnace slag (BFS) and Class F fly ash (FA)) in a Readco mixer to produce fresh (uncured) saltstone that is transferred to the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) vaults. The saltstone formulation (mix design) must produce a grout waste form that meets both placement and performance properties. In previous simulated saltstone studies, multiple compositional factors were identified that drive the performance properties of saltstone made from the projected ARP/MCU salt solution. This composition was selected as salt solution simulant since ARP/MCU is the primary influent into Tank 50H. The primary performance property investigated was hydraulic conductivity since it is a variable input property to the saltstone Performance Assessment (PA) transport model. In addition, the porosity, also referred to as void structure, is another variable that impacts the PA response. In addition, Young's modulus and cured density are other performance properties analyzed in this report; however they are indicators of the performance of saltstone and not direct inputs into the PA. The data from previous studies showed that the largest impact on the performance properties of saltstone was due to curing temperature, followed by aluminate concentration in the salt solution, water to premix ratio and premix composition. However, due to the scope of the previous studies, only a few mixes were cured and analyzed at higher temperatures. The samples cured at 60 C had an increased hydraulic conductivity of approximately 600

  4. Cavitation in Hydraulic Machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, M.

    1996-11-01

    The main purpose of this doctoral thesis on cavitation in hydraulic machinery is to change focus towards the coupling of non-stationary flow phenomena and cavitation. It is argued that, in addition to turbulence, superimposed sound pressure fluctuations can have a major impact on cavitation and lead to particularly severe erosion. For the design of hydraulic devices this finding may indicate how to further limit the cavitation problems. Chapter 1 reviews cavitation in general in the context of hydraulic machinery, emphasizing the initial cavitation event and the role of the water quality. Chapter 2 discusses the existence of pressure fluctuations for situations common in such machinery. Chapter 3 on cavitation dynamics presents an algorithm for calculating the nucleation of a cavity cluster. Chapter 4 describes the equipment used in this work. 53 refs., 55 figs.,10 tabs.

  5. Thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts for geothermal heat pumps. Progress report FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, M.L.

    1997-11-01

    Grout is used to seal the annulus between the borehole and heat exchanger loops in vertical geothermal (ground coupled, ground source, GeoExchange) heat pump systems. The grout provides a heat transfer medium between the heat exchanger and surrounding formation, controls groundwater movement and prevents contamination of water supply. Enhanced heat pump coefficient of performance (COP) and reduced up-front loop installation costs can be achieved through optimization of the grout thermal conductivity. The objective of the work reported was to characterize thermal conductivity and other pertinent properties of conventional and filled cementitious grouts. Cost analysis and calculations of the reduction in heat exchanger length that could be achieved with such grouts were performed by the University of Alabama. Two strategies to enhance the thermal conductivity of cementitious grouts were used simultaneously. The first of these was to incorporate high thermal conductivity filler in the grout formulations. Based on previous tests (Allan and Kavanaugh, in preparation), silica sand was selected as a suitable filler. The second strategy was to reduce the water content of the grout mix. By lowering the water/cement ratio, the porosity of the hardened grout is decreased. This results in higher thermal conductivity. Lowering the water/cement ratio also improves such properties as permeability, strength, and durability. The addition of a liquid superplasticizer (high range water reducer) to the grout mixes enabled reduction of water/cement ratio while retaining pumpability. Superplasticizers are commonly used in the concrete and grouting industry to improve rheological properties.

  6. Thermal-Hydraulic Integral Effect Test with ATLAS for an Intermediate Break Loss of Coolant Accident at a Pressurizer Surge Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Seok Cho; Park, Hyun Sik; Choi, Nam Hyun; Park, Yu Sun; Kim, Jong Rok; Bae, Byoung Uhn; Kim, Yeon Sik; Kim, Kyung Doo; Choi, Ki Yong; Song, Chul Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The main objectives of this test were not only to provide physical insight into the system response of the APR1400 during the pressurizer surge line break accident but also to produce an integral effect test data to validate the SPACE code. In order to simulate a double-ended guillotine break of a pressurizer surge line in the APR1400, the IB-SUR-01R test was performed with ATLAS. The major thermal-hydraulic phenomena such as the system pressures, the collapsed water levels, and the break flow rate were presented and discussed. Despite the core was uncovered, no excursion in the cladding temperature was observed. The pressurizer surge line break can be classified as a hot leg break from a break location point of view. Compared with a cold leg break, coolability in the core may be better in case of a hot leg break due to the enhanced flow in the core region. This integral effect test data will be used to evaluate the prediction capability of existing safety analysis codes of the MARS and the RELAP5 as well as the SPACE code. Furthermore, this data can be utilized to identify any code deficiency for an IBLOCA simulation, especially for DVI-adapted plants. Redefinition of break size for design basis accident (DBA) based on risk information is being extensively investigated due to the potential for safety benefits and unnecessary burden reduction from current LBLOCA (large break loss of coolant accident)-based ECC (Emergency Core Cooling) Acceptance Criteria. As a transition break size (TBS), the rupture of medium-size pipe is considered to be more important than ever in risk-informed regulation (RIR)-relevant safety analysis. As plants age, are up-rated, and continue to seek improved operating efficiencies, the small break and intermediate break LOCA (IBLOCA) can become a concern. In particular, IBLOCA with DVI (Direct Vessel Injection) features will be addressed to support redefinition of a design-basis LOCA. With an aim of expanding code validation to address small

  7. Geoelectric response of porous media in water and grout injection processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙强; 刘盛东; 姜春露; 王勃

    2014-01-01

    Significant changes in spontaneous potential and exciting currents are observed during water and grout injection in a simulated porous media. Obvious correlations between the seepage flow field and the electric field in the porous media are identified. In this work, a detailed experimental study of geoelectric field variation occurring in water migration was reported by analyzing water and grout injection processes in a simulated porous media. The spontaneous potential varies linearly with the thickness of unsaturated porous media. Very interestingly, the spontaneous potential generated in the second grout injection exhibits some“memory”of previous grouting paths. The decreases in spontaneous potential observed during grout injection is very probably due to that the spontaneous potential variations are primarily caused by electro-filtration potential, as indicated by the far larger viscosity of grout compared to that of water. The geoelectric response can be utilized to effectively identify the grouting paths in water-bearing rocks.

  8. Hydraulic hoist-press

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babayev, Z.B.; Abashev, Z.V.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency expert of the Angrenskiy production-technological administration of the production association Sredazugol A. V. Bubnov has suggested a hydraulic hoist-press for repairing road equipment which is a device consisting of lifting mechanism, press and test stand for verifying the high pressure hoses and pumps.

  9. Multipoint Grout Injection System. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-09-01

    At the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), radioactive waste contained in the 16 cylindrical Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAATs) must retrieved so the tanks can be closed. In many cases, removing the small amounts of sludge that remain in the tank after the bulk of the waste is retrieved is extremely costly and provides little benefit from site health and environmental standpoints. The Tanks Focus Area is working with ORR's M and I contractor (Bechtel-Jacobs), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Ground Environmental Services to demonstrate the application of multi-point-injection (MPI) grout emplacement technology for horizontal cylindrical tanks during a cold demonstration in FY99. GAAT TH-4 has been identified as the tank to be used for the hot demonstration in FY00. Evaluation efforts continue on the effect of slag on strength performance of the grout to be used in TH-4 tank closure. The site must find out what level of slag can be accommodated in the grout while maintaining strength performance requirements. Other efforts in support of the utilization of MPI TM technology in large-scale waste tanks will continue. Also, ORR is collaborating with SRS to evaluate the use this technology to support grouting of the Old Burial Ground tanks at SRS.

  10. 适用于动静压试验的综合液压源的设计%A Multifunctional Pump Station Designed for Dynamic and Static Pressure Hydraulic Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔炫畅

    2015-01-01

    分析了液压元件动静压试验的测试需求,据此进行了液压泵站的设计。液压泵站液压能由电动泵和手动泵提供,满足不同性质的液压实验需求。实践证明,对于实验类型较多,特别是静压实验较多的场合,综合液压源与常规液压源相比,具有明显优势。%Based on the dynamic and static pressure test requirement of hydraulic components, the pump station is designed. The hydraulic power of the pump station is provided by its motor pump and hand pump in accordance with different hydraulic tests. It is proved in practice that the pump station is more adequate than normal hydraulic power source to tests which need the hydraulic pressure to be hold for a long time, such as a leak test.

  11. 桩底后压浆浆液扩散问题研究%Study on Grout Diffusion of Pile-bottom Post Grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭仕奇

    2013-01-01

      采用钻探取样方法,对渗透性地层中桩底后注浆浆液扩散及固结状态进行检验。实物样品表明,在相对均匀的地层中,浆液扩散呈现出向下、向侧、向上不同的渗透能力:向下最强,向侧次之,向上最弱。在粗细交互地层中,颗粒越粗,渗透更好,扩散更远;水泥浆的含量更高。在同一地层中,距注浆出口越近,水泥浆含量越高。取样结果还表明:在桩底,压力、温度不同于地表,特别是有丰富地下水的环境下,水泥浆的凝结固化时间延迟非常显著。%  In permeable formation, the diffusion and consolidation states of pile-bottom post grout were inspected with the sampling method.The practicality samples showed that in relatively homogeneous strata, grout diffusion were with different downward, sideward and upward penetration ability, each was the strongest, the second place and the weakest.In the al-ternating strata of coarse and fine particles, more coarse was the particle, the better was the permeability, the farther was the diffusion and the higher was the cement content;and in the same strata, the nearer to the grout outlet, the higher was the cement content.The sampling also indicates that the pressure and temperature at the pile bottom are different from the surface;especially in the environment with plentiful groundwater, the time delay for cement slurry condensation curing was very obvious.

  12. Experimental study on thermal-hydraulic behaviors of a pressure balanced coolant injection system for a passive safety light water reactor JPSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Takashi; Watanabe, Hironori; Araya, Fumimasa; Nakajima, Katsutoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Iwamura, Takamichi; Murao, Yoshio

    1998-02-01

    A conceptual design study of a passive safety light water reactor JPSR has been performed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute JAERI. A pressure balanced coolant injection experiment has been carried out, with an objective to understand thermal-hydraulic characteristics of a passive coolant injection system which has been considered to be adopted to JPSR. This report summarizes experimental results and data recorded in experiment run performed in FY. 1993 and 1994. Preliminary experiments previously performed are also briefly described. As the results of the experiment, it was found that an initiation of coolant injection was delayed with increase in a subcooling in the pressure balance line. By inserting a separation device which divides the inside of core make-up tank (CMT) into several small compartments, a diffusion of a high temperature region formed just under the water surface was restrained and then a steam condensation was suppressed. A time interval from an uncovery of the pressure balance line to the initiation of the coolant injection was not related by a linear function with a discharge flow rate simulating a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) condition. The coolant was injected intermittently by actuation of a trial fabricated passive valve actuated by pressure difference for the present experiment. It was also found that the trial passive valve had difficulties in setting an actuation set point and vibrations noises and some fraction of the coolant was remained in CMT without effective use. A modification was proposed for resolving these problems by introducing an anti-closing mechanism. (author)

  13. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  14. Flame AAS/flame AES for trace determination in fresh and used lubricating oils with sample introduction by hydraulic high-pressure nebulization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, H; Schaldach, G; Kägler, S H

    1996-04-01

    In hydraulic high-pressure nebulization (HHPN) an aerosol is produced by means of an HPLC-pump and a special nebulization nozzle, applying a pressure of about 200 bar. This spray technique has been employed for sample introduction of mineral oil samples in flame atomic absorption/flame emission spectrometry. The determination of the trace elements Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Na, Ni, Pb, Si and V has been investigated. Viscosity hardly acts upon the sensitivity of the determination, thereby avoiding a time consuming dilution of oil samples. By means of two interconnecting sampling valves a calibration method based on the standard addition technique can be performed which is both simple and easy to carry out. In samples of used oils, results for Cu and Pb equalled those of XRF-analysis. Regarding Fe traces, data obtained from AAS and XRF measurement correlate. In comparison with sample uptake by pneumatic nebulization, which is restricted to diluted oil samples, detection limits decrease by a factor of 2 to 4, indicating the dilution required in pneumatic nebulization.

  15. TRAC-PF1/MOD1: an advanced best-estimate computer program for pressurized water reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liles, D.R.; Mahaffy, J.H.

    1986-07-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) to provide advanced best-estimate predictions of postulated accidents in light-water reactors. The TRAC-PF1/MOD1 program provides this capability for pressurized water reactors and for many thermal-hydraulic test facilities. The code features either a one- or a three-dimensional treatment of the pressure vessel and its associated internals, a two-fluid nonequilibrium hydrodynamics model with a noncondensable gas field and solute tracking, flow-regime-dependent constitutive equation treatment, optional reflood tracking capability for bottom-flood and falling-film quench fronts, and consistent treatment of entire accident sequences including the generation of consistent initial conditions. The stability-enhancing two-step (SETS) numerical algorithm is used in the one-dimensional hydrodynamics and permits this portion of the fluid dynamics to violate the material Courant condition. This technique permits large time steps and, hence, reduced running time for slow transients.

  16. Grout for closure of the demonstration vault at the US DOE Hanford Facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeley, L.D.; Ernzen, J.J.

    1992-08-01

    The Waterways Experiment Station (WES) developed a grout to be used as a cold- (nonradioactive) cap or void-fill grout between the solidified low-level waste and the cover blocks of a demonstration vault for disposal of phosphate-sulfate waste (PSW) at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Facility. The project consisted of formulation and evaluation of candidate grouts and selection of the best candidate grout, followed by a physical scale-model test to verify grout performance under project-specific conditions. Further, the project provided data to verify numerical models (accomplished elsewhere) of stresses and isotherms inside the Hanford demonstration vault. Evaluation of unhardened grout included obtaining data on segregation, bleeding, flow, and working time. For hardened grout, strength, volume stability, temperature rise, and chemical compatibility with surrogate wasteform grout were examined. The grout was formulated to accommodate unique environmental boundary conditions (vault temperature = 45 C) and exacting regulatory requirements (mandating less than 0.1% shrinkage with no expansion and no bleeding); and to remain pumpable for a minimum of 2 hr. A grout consisting of API Class H oil-well cement, an ASTM C 618 Class F fly ash, sodium bentonite clay, and a natural sand from the Hanford area met performance requirements in laboratory studies. It is recommended for use in the DOE Hanford demonstration PSW vault.

  17. 水平注浆在盾构隧道接收洞口中的应用%Application of horizontal grouting method in receipt well of shield-driven tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广仁; 曹会清; 杜伟; 尹昆仑; 郝永杰

    2013-01-01

    以某泥水平衡式盾构接收洞口地层加固工程为例,对盾构隧道接收洞口周边土体加固技术进行研究.通过对比分析地面垂直注浆、高压旋喷和水平注浆等加固方案的优缺点,择优选择水平注浆加固工艺.介绍了根据实际地质情况优化注浆孔位的平面布置,井壁钻孔与埋设孔口管工艺,注浆孔口管的使用方法及注浆工艺与参数等.通过井壁预留孔检查注浆固结情况,效果良好,有效防止了涌水、涌砂及倒灌等,可为后续盾构机顺利进洞提供保障.实践表明:水平注浆工艺有效缩短了施工时间,对于砂卵石层有较好的可操作性和可灌入性,提高了地层固结的成功率.%Taking the reinforced engineering of receipt well in cement-water balance type shield-driven tunnel as an example, the paper researches the reinforcement technology for the soil around the receipt well. By comparing and different reinforcement schemes, such as surface vertical grouting, high-pressure rotary jet grouting, and horizontal grouting, etc, the reinforcement process of horizontal grouting was selected. The plane arrangement of grouting location was determined and optimized according to actual geological condition, process in well wall bore and buried borehole orifice-pipe, method of grouting orifice pipe and grouting process and parameters, etc. Grouting consolidation situation was checked out through preserved bores of well wall. Results showed that this method had a sound project effectiveness, preventing the water burst, sand gushing, back flushing, etc, which can provide protection to the operation of subsequent shield machines. Practices prove that the horizontal grouting method can shorten the construction time, have better operability and grouting ability for sand and gravel layer, and have improved the success rate of formation consolidation.

  18. Application of double faced pressure hydraulic molding press in the production of automobile interiors%双面对压成形液压机在汽车生产中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾玉红

    2012-01-01

    The status of traditional hydraulic molding press in the production of automobile interiors has been introduced. The advantages and development trend of double faced pressure hydraulic molding press in the production of same domain have been put forward.%介绍了普通成形液压机在汽车内饰件生产中的应用现状.在此基础上介绍了双面对压成形液压机在该领域中的优势及其发展趋势.

  19. 浅谈复合式高低压缸液力端在四缸试压泵中的应用%On Application of Compound High and Low Pressure Cylinder Hydraulic Side in the Four Cylinder Hydraulic Test Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋金泉

    2014-01-01

    复合式高低压缸液力端,是将泵体上两平行的复合缸分别与一根大小直径的阶梯柱塞配合,形成大流量低压缸和小流量高压缸,解决了现有四缸往复式试压泵存在的问题。%Compound high and low pressure cylinder hydraulic side means to match the two parallel composite cylinder on the pump body, respectively with ladder plunger with big diameter on one side and small diameter on the other side, forming large flow low pressure cylinder and small flow high pressure cylinder, which has solved the existing problems of four cylinder reciprocating hydraulic test pump.

  20. Hydraulic Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required whenever hydraulic structures are shown in the flood profile. It is also required if levees are shown on the FIRM, channels containing the...

  1. Flow field and pressure loss analysis of junction and its structure optimization of aircraft hydraulic pipe system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xin; Wang Shaoping

    2013-01-01

    The flow field in junction is complicated due to the ripple property of oil flow velocity and different frequencies of two pumps in aircraft.In this study,the flow fields of T-junction and Y-junction were analyzed using shear stress transport (SST) model in ANSYS/CFX software.The simulation results identified the variation rule of velocity peak in T-junction with different frequencies and phase-differences,meanwhile,the eddy and velocity shock existed in the corner of the T-junction,and the limit working state was obtained.Although the eddy disappeared in Y-junction,the velocity shock and pressure loss were still too big.To address these faults,an arc-junction was designed.Based on the flow fields of arc-junction,the eddy in the junction corner disappeared and the maximum of velocity peak declined compared to T-and Y-junction.Additionally,8 series of arcjunction with different radiuses were tested to get the variation rule of velocity peak.Through the computation of the pressure loss of three junctions,the arc-junction had a lowest loss value,and its pressure loss reached the minimum value when the curvature radius is 35.42 mm,meanwhile,the velocity shock has decreased in a low phase.

  2. An experimental study on single phase convection heat transfer and pressure drop in two brazed plate heat exchangers with different chevron shapes and hydraulic diameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Man Bae; Park, Chang Yong [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    An experimental study on heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics was performed at single phase flow in two Brazed plate heat exchangers (BPHEs) with different geometries. The corrugation density of one of the BPHE (Type II) was two times as high as that of the other BPHE (Type I). The hydraulic diameter of the type II BPHE was 2.13 mm, which was 38 % smaller than that of the type I BPHE. Also, the cross section shape of the flow channels for the type II BPHE was different from that for conventional BPHEs due to the unusual corrugation patterns and brazing points. The experimental conditions for temperatures were varied from 4.6 °C to 49.1 °C, and for mass flow rates were changed from 0.07 kg/s to 1.24 kg/s. The measured results showed that pressure drop in the type II BPHE was about 110 % higher than that in the type I BPHE. Nu of the type II was higher than that of the type I BPHE and the enhancement became larger with the increase of Re at the ranges above 800. New correlations for fF and Nu were proposed by this study and their prediction accuracy could be improved by considering the surface enlargement factor in the correlations. The performance evaluation of the two BPHEs was performed by (j/f{sub F}1{sup /3}) which represented the ratio of heat transfer and pressure drop performance. Also, a new parameter, the capacity compactness of PHE, was proposed and it presented the PHE capacity per unit volume and unit log mean temperature difference. The comparison showed that the two BPHEs had similar values of the (j/f{sub F}1{sup /3}), whereas they had significantly different values of the capacity compactness. The capacity compactness of the type II BPHE was 1.5 times higher than that for the type I BPHE.

  3. 液压冲击器氮气室预充压力对冲击性能的影响研究%Influence of Precharge Pressure of Nitrogen Chamber on Hydraulic Impactor's Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁翠平; 杨国平; 王亮; 丁冲冲

    2011-01-01

    Based on analyzing the working principle and characteristics of hydraulic impactor, the nonlinear mathematical model of a hydraulic impactor system was established. By using MATLAB/ Simulink, the simulation of two processes including the accelerated return stroke and travel stroke of the hydraulic impactor were researched, and the influence of precharge pressure of nitrogen chamber on the percussion performance was analyzed. The results show that: if the precharge pressure of nitrogen chamber is too Large , it will result in hydraulic fluid can not move the piston to return, and hydraulic impactor can not start up; if the pressure is too small, it will induce difficulty to raise the impacting pressure, and the impacting energy will be small.%在分析液压冲击器工作原理及特点的基础上,建立液压冲击器系统的非线性数学模型.运用MATLAB/Simulink 分别对液压冲击器的回程加速过程和冲程过程进行仿真研究,分析氮气室预充压力对冲击器冲击性能的影响程度.结果表明:氮气室预充压力过大,会导致液压油不能推动活塞进行回程,液压冲击器起动不了;压力过小,则很容易使冲击压力升不上去,冲击能小.

  4. Analysis on Infiltration Capacity in Asphalt Pavement Subjected to Dynamic Hydraulic Pressure%动水压力作用下沥青路面渗水量影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高俊启; 盛余祥; 张世铎; 于凤强; 蒋泽民

    2013-01-01

    It is important of infiltration capacity for the drainage design in asphalt pavement.In order to calculate infiltration capacity in asphalt pavement subjected to dynamic hydraulic pressure,the dynamic hydraulic pressures in asphalt pavement at some running speeds are measured,and the relationship of the hydraulic pressure and car speed is built.Furthermore,a falling head permeameter method is used to measure the permeability coefficients of asphalt mixture exposed to hydraulic pressures whose peak values are from 40 to 350 kPa,and the correlation between permeability and hydraulic pressure is obtained.In addition,a dynamic permeability test system is presented to measure the dynamic permeability of asphalt mixture subjected to vehicle impulsive pressures,and the calculation formula for calculating infiltration capacity in asphalt pavement subjected to dynamic hydraulic pressure is established.The results show that the infiltration capacity is proportionate to the permeability coefficient and effective tire ground area respectively,and is inversely proportional to the thickness of asphalt pavement.The infiltration capacity decreases with the increment of car's speed.%沥青路面渗水量对于沥青路面内部排水设计非常重要.为计算动水压力作用下沥青路面渗水量,实地测试了不同车速下沥青路面表面的动态水压力数值,建立了动态水压力与车速的关系.根据变水头试验方法,测试了沥青混合料芯样在40~350 kPa水压力下的渗透系数,建立了沥青混合料渗透系数与水压力的关系.为研究路面在交通荷载作用下的动态渗透性能,设计了动态渗透试验测量系统.建立了动水压力作用下沥青路面渗水量的计算模型.结果表明:沥青路面渗水量与路面渗透系数、轮胎有效接地面积成正比,与路面厚度成反比;随车速增加,动水压力作用下沥青路面渗水量减小.

  5. Trend of hydraulic units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshimaru, Jun' ichi

    1988-11-01

    The gear, vane and piston pumps occupy a more then 90% share in the hydraulic pumps. Comparatively large pumps are mainly variable delivery piston pumps. The piston pumps are comparatively high in output density (output per unit weight), indicating the hydraulic pump in performance, and tend to become higher and higher in it. Though they are mainly 210 to 350kgf/cm/sup 2/ in rated pressure, some of them come to surpass 400kgf/cm/sup 3/ in it. While the progress in computation also requires the high speed operation, high accuracy and other severe conditions for the hydraulic units, which accordingly and increasingly intensify the requirement for hydraulic oil in abrasion resistibility, oxidation stability and response characteristics. While cavitation comes to easily occur, which considerably and disadvantageously influences hydraulic oil in life through degradation, noise level and respondingness. From now on, the development of high performance oil and study of mechanical structure are important. 19 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  6. 深厚砂砾石地层固结灌浆在实际工程中的应用%Consolidation Grouting of Deep Sand-gravel Stratum in Practical Engineering Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵健飞

    2014-01-01

    水利工程施工过程中,经常会遇到水工建筑物直接修建在砂砾石地层上,为了提高砂砾石地层的整体性、密实性并降低其透水率,一般需要对坝基采取全面的固结灌浆,必要时也在坝基上、下游一定范围内进行固结灌浆。结合水利枢纽的工程实践,对泄洪冲沙闸底板进行全面的固结灌浆处理,施工过程中采用自上而下分段灌浆方法,对现有的钻探与灌浆工艺技术进行优化组合,最终经灌后质量检查,结果满足深厚砂砾石覆盖层固结灌浆的设计要求,取得了良好的效果。%In the construction of hydraulic engineering projects ,the hydraulic structures are often directly built on the sand gravel stratum .In order to improve the integrity of sandy gravel stratum and reduce its permeability ,it is common to apply comprehensive consolidation grouting on the dam foundation ,sometimes consolidation grouting is also carried out in a certain range of the upstream and downstream of the dam foundation when necessary .In the construction of an engineer-ing project ,the comprehensive consolidation grouting was applied on the floor of the outlet sluice with descending stage grouting method during the construction process .This method combined the advantages of the existing drilling and grout-ing techniques and reached a optimum combination .The result of the quality inspection indicates that the outcome not on-ly meets the specifications of consolidation grouting of deep sand gravel stratum ,but also has excellent performance .

  7. Experimental Study on Post Grouting Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Bored Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Duanduan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post grouting can improve the inherent defects such as the formation of the mud cake at pile side and the sediment at pile end in the process of bored pile construction. Thus post grouting has been widely used in Engineering. The purpose of this paper is to research the influences of post grouting to pile bearing capacity more systematically and intuitively. Combined with the static load test of four test piles in Weihe River Bridge test area of new airport highway in Xi’an, the bearing capacity and settlement of routine piles and post grouting piles are comparatively analyzed. The test results show that under the same geological condition, post grouting can improve the properties of pile tip and pile shaft soil of bored piles significantly, enhance the ultimate resistance, improve the ultimate bearing capacity and reduce the pile tip settlement. Then post grouting can aim to optimize pile foundation.

  8. Characteristics of thermally-enhanced bentonite grouts for geothermal heat exchanger in South Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chulho; LEE; Kangja; LEE; Hangseok; CHOI; Hyo-Pum; CHOI

    2010-01-01

    The thermal conductivity and viscosity of bentonite grouts have been evaluated and compared each other to determine the suitability of these materials for backfilling vertical boreholes of ground heat exchangers.Seven bentonite grouts from different product sources were considered in this paper.Two additives,silica sand and graphite were added in bentonite grouts to enhance thermal performance.The bentonite grouts indicate that both the thermal conductivity and the viscosity increase with the content of silica sand and graphite.Therefore,it is recommended to select cautiously the amount of silica sand and graphite considering not only thermal conductivity but also viscosity for the optimum condition of backfilling.Finally,the effect of salinity in the pore water on the change of swelling potential of the bentonite-based grouts has been quantitatively evaluated to show the feasibility of bentonite grouts in the coastal area.

  9. APPLICATION OF TIME-VARYING VISCOUS GROUT IN GRAVEL- FOUNDATION ANTI-SEEPAGE TREATMENT*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Peng-da; LI Lu; TANG Ju; WANG Dao-zeng

    2011-01-01

    The time-varying viscosity of common grout and the controllable grout are measured with a rotation viscometer in experiments. The time-varying viscosity of grout is analyzed according to the characteristics in the process of anti-seepage treatment for gravel foundation. The principle of effective stress for porous medium is applied to analyzes the fluid-structure coupling in grouting. In the consideration of coupling physical variables, dynamic models of porosity, permeability and viscosity are constructed.The difiusion radius can thus be defined by the foundational porosity. The distribution of holes in field experiments is designed according to the diffusion radius of grout. Then, the permeability test is designed to verify the grout effect. The calculated diffusion radius coincides with experimental results, and the permeability meets the requirements of the project, which is valuable for the anti-seepage treatment in gravel foundation.

  10. A revised and unified pressure-clamp/relaxation theory for studying plant cell water relations with pressure probes: in-situ determination of cell volume for calculation of volumetric elastic modulus and hydraulic conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipfer, T; Fei, J; Gambetta, G A; Shackel, K A; Matthews, M A

    2014-10-21

    The cell-pressure-probe is a unique tool to study plant water relations in-situ. Inaccuracy in the estimation of cell volume (νo) is the major source of error in the calculation of both cell volumetric elastic modulus (ε) and cell hydraulic conductivity (Lp). Estimates of νo and Lp can be obtained with the pressure-clamp (PC) and pressure-relaxation (PR) methods. In theory, both methods should result in comparable νo and Lp estimates, but this has not been the case. In this study, the existing νo-theories for PC and PR methods were reviewed and clarified. A revised νo-theory was developed that is equally valid for the PC and PR methods. The revised theory was used to determine νo for two extreme scenarios of solute mixing between the experimental cell and sap in the pressure probe microcapillary. Using a fully automated cell-pressure-probe (ACPP) on leaf epidermal cells of Tradescantia virginiana, the validity of the revised theory was tested with experimental data. Calculated νo values from both methods were in the range of optically determined νo (=1.1-5.0nL) for T. virginiana. However, the PC method produced a systematically lower (21%) calculated νo compared to the PR method. Effects of solute mixing could only explain a potential error in calculated νo of cell turgor) of 19%, which is a fundamental parameter in calculating νo. It followed from the revised theory that the ratio of ΔV/ΔP was inversely related to the solute reflection coefficient. This highlighted that treating the experimental cell as an ideal osmometer in both methods is potentially not correct. Effects of non-ideal osmotic behavior by transmembrane solute movement may be minimized in the PR as compared to the PC method.

  11. Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2009-05-27

    This report summarizes information and data on the reaction behavior of uranium metal in water, in water-saturated simulated and genuine K Basin sludge, and in grout matrices. This information and data are used to establish the technical basis for metallic uranium reaction behavior for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP). The specific objective of this report is to consolidate the various sources of information into a concise document to serve as a high-level reference and road map for customers, regulators, and interested parties outside the STP (e.g., external reviewers, other DOE sites) to clearly understand the current basis for the corrosion of uranium metal in water, sludge, and grout.

  12. Uranium Metal Reaction Behavior in Water, Sludge, and Grout Matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2008-09-25

    This report summarizes information and data on the reaction behavior of uranium metal in water, in water-saturated simulated and genuine K Basin sludge, and in grout matrices. This information and data are used to establish the technical basis for metallic uranium reaction behavior for the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP). The specific objective of this report is to consolidate the various sources of information into a concise document to serve as a high-level reference and road map for customers, regulators, and interested parties outside the STP (e.g., external reviewers, other DOE sites) to clearly understand the current basis for the corrosion of uranium metal in water, sludge, and grout.

  13. Experimental Test Plan for Grouting H-3 Calcine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan K. Herbst

    2006-01-01

    Approximately 4400 cubic meters of solid high-level waste called calcine are stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Under the Idaho Cleanup Project, dual disposal paths are being investigated. The first path includes calcine retrieval, package "as-is", and ship to the Monitored Geological Repository (MGR). The second path involves treatment of the calcine with such methods as vitrification or grouting. This test plan outlines the hot bench scale tests to grout actual calcine and verify that the waste form properties meet the waste acceptance criteria. This is a necessary sequential step in the process of qualifying a new waste form for repository acceptance. The archive H-3 calcine samples at the Contaminated Equipment Maintenance Building attached to New Waste Calcining Facility will be used in these tests at the Remote Analytical Laboratory. The tests are scheduled for the second quarter of fiscal year 2007.

  14. Vibrations of hydraulic pump and their solution

    OpenAIRE

    Dobšáková Lenka; Nováková Naděžda; Habán Vladimír; Hudec Martin; Jandourek Pavel

    2017-01-01

    The vibrations of hydraulic pump and connected pipeline system are very problematic and often hardly soluble. The high pressure pulsations of hydraulic pump with the double suction inlet are investigated. For that reason the static pressure and accelerations are measured. The numerical simulations are carried out in order to correlate computed data with experimental ones and assess the main source of vibrations. Consequently the design optimization of the inner hydraulic part of pump is done ...

  15. Numerical Simulations of Settlement of Jet Grouting Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juzwa Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the comparison of results of numerical analyses of interaction between group of jet grouting columns and subsoil. The analyses were conducted for single column and groups of three, seven and nine columns. The simulations are based on experimental research in real scale which were carried out by authors. The final goal for the research is an estimation of an influence of interaction between columns working in a group.

  16. Environmental Assessment of Selected Cone Penetrometer Grouts and a Tracer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Geocem Section II-Chemical Data Chemical family: Calcium Salts Formula: Grout cement consists of finely ground portland cement clinker and limestone...Portland cement clinker is a sintered material produced by heating to high temperature (greater than 1200 degrees Celsius) a mixture of substances...provided by burning fossil fuels, trace , but detectable, amounts of naturally occurring, and possible harmful, elements may be found during chemical

  17. The Injector Solenoid Valve Hydraulic Study of High Pressure Common-Rail%高压共轨喷油器电磁阀液力特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国莹; 袁永先; 徐春龙; 吴小军

    2012-01-01

    高压共轨系统喷油器电磁阀是高压共轨系统的关键技术,为进一步了解其液力特性,本研究基于Hydsim软件平台,针对2进油量孔的大流量电磁阀喷油器结构建立仿真模型,通过试验校验了模型的准确性,并通过模拟仿真方法,分析了控制量孔的结构对大流量喷油器液力特性的影响.%Solenoid valve is the key technology of diesel engine high pressure common rail system. For knowing about the basic hydraulic concept, a common-rail injector simulation model has been developed with Hydsim software, which has 2 inlet orifices. The model shows good agreement with the measurements. The study shows the influence of the orifice structure to the injector.

  18. Monitoring of Grouting Compactness in a Post-Tensioning Tendon Duct Using Piezoceramic Transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tianyong; Kong, Qingzhao; Wang, Wenxi; Huo, Linsheng; Song, Gangbing

    2016-08-22

    A post-tensioning tendon duct filled with grout can effectively prevent corrosion of the reinforcement, maintain bonding behavior between the reinforcement and concrete, and enhance the load bearing capacity of concrete structures. In practice, grouting of the post-tensioning tendon ducts always causes quality problems, which may reduce structural integrity and service life, and even cause accidents. However, monitoring of the grouting compactness is still a challenge due to the invisibility of the grout in the duct during the grouting process. This paper presents a stress wave-based active sensing approach using piezoceramic transducers to monitor the grouting compactness in real time. A segment of a commercial tendon duct was used as research object in this study. One lead zirconate titanate (PZT) piezoceramic transducer with marble protection, called a smart aggregate (SA), was bonded on the tendon and installed in the tendon duct. Two PZT patch sensors were mounted on the top outside surface of the duct, and one PZT patch sensor was bonded on the bottom outside surface of the tendon duct. In the active sensing approach, the SA was used as an actuator to generate a stress wave and the PZT sensors were utilized to detect the wave response. Cement or grout in the duct functions as a wave conduit, which can propagate the stress wave. If the cement or grout is not fully filled in the tendon duct, the top PZT sensors cannot receive much stress wave energy. The experimental procedures simulated four stages during the grout pouring process, which includes empty status, half grouting, 90% grouting, and full grouting of the duct. Experimental results show that the bottom PZT sensor can detect the signal when the grout level increases towards 50%, when a conduit between the SA and PZT sensor is formed. The top PZT sensors cannot receive any signal until the grout process is completely finished. The wavelet packet-based energy analysis was adopted in this research to

  19. Monitoring of Grouting Compactness in a Post-Tensioning Tendon Duct Using Piezoceramic Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyong Jiang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A post-tensioning tendon duct filled with grout can effectively prevent corrosion of the reinforcement, maintain bonding behavior between the reinforcement and concrete, and enhance the load bearing capacity of concrete structures. In practice, grouting of the post-tensioning tendon ducts always causes quality problems, which may reduce structural integrity and service life, and even cause accidents. However, monitoring of the grouting compactness is still a challenge due to the invisibility of the grout in the duct during the grouting process. This paper presents a stress wave-based active sensing approach using piezoceramic transducers to monitor the grouting compactness in real time. A segment of a commercial tendon duct was used as research object in this study. One lead zirconate titanate (PZT piezoceramic transducer with marble protection, called a smart aggregate (SA, was bonded on the tendon and installed in the tendon duct. Two PZT patch sensors were mounted on the top outside surface of the duct, and one PZT patch sensor was bonded on the bottom outside surface of the tendon duct. In the active sensing approach, the SA was used as an actuator to generate a stress wave and the PZT sensors were utilized to detect the wave response. Cement or grout in the duct functions as a wave conduit, which can propagate the stress wave. If the cement or grout is not fully filled in the tendon duct, the top PZT sensors cannot receive much stress wave energy. The experimental procedures simulated four stages during the grout pouring process, which includes empty status, half grouting, 90% grouting, and full grouting of the duct. Experimental results show that the bottom PZT sensor can detect the signal when the grout level increases towards 50%, when a conduit between the SA and PZT sensor is formed. The top PZT sensors cannot receive any signal until the grout process is completely finished. The wavelet packet-based energy analysis was adopted in this

  20. Grout testing and characterization for shallow-land burial trenches at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallent, O.K.; Sams, T.L.; Tamura, T.; Godsey, T.T.; Francis, C.L.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1986-10-01

    An investigation was conducted to develop grout formulations suitable for in situ stabilization of low-level and transuranic (TRU) waste in shallow-land burial trenches at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The acceptabilities of soil, ordinary particulate, and fine particulate grouts were evaluated based on phase separation, compressive strength, freeze/thaw, penetration resistance, rheological, water permeability, column, and other tests. Soil grouts with soil-to-cement weight ratios from 0.91 to 1.60 were found to be suitable for open trench or drum disposal. Ordinary particulate grouts containing type I,II Portland cement, class C fly ash, bentonite, water, and a fluidizer were formulated to fill large voids within the soil/waste matrix of a closed shallow-land burial trench. Fine particulate grouts containing fine (mean particle size, 9.6 m) cement and water were formulated to fill smaller voids and to establish a grout-soil barrier to prevent water intrusion into the grouted waste trench. Solution, or chemical grouts, were evaluated as possible substitutes for the fine particulate grouts.

  1. Experimental Study of Contaminant Release from Reducing Grout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waiting D.J.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A column experiment was conducted to study the release behavior of technetium, uranium, and selenium initially sequestered in reducing grout similar in composition to Savannah River Site (SRS saltstone, a cementitious waste form made by mixing salt solution from SRS liquid waste storage tanks with a dry mix containing blast furnace slag, fly ash, and Portland cement. The data suggest that uranium was retained in the grout possibly as a CaUO4 phase, whereas most of the selenium was released. Technetium release initially was relatively constant, and then increased significantly after 26 pore volumes. The increase in technetium release was slightly delayed relative to the observed Eh increase. The system Eh-pH started under conditions in which technetium solubility is low, constrained by Tc3O4 solubility, but eventually transitioned into the stability field of the pertechnetate ion. The delay in technetium release relative to the Eh increase was possibly due to slow oxidation of technetium at depth within the grout particles, which in turn was likely controlled by O2 diffusion into the particles. In contrast to technetium and uranium, selenium release was not solubility limited and selenium likely was present in the pore solution initially as a HSe− species.

  2. Laboratory Evaluation of Underwater Grouting of CPP-603 Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, V.J.; Pao, J.H.; Demmer, R.L.; Tripp, J.L.

    2002-01-17

    A project is underway to deactivate a Fuel Storage Basin. The project specifies the requirements and identifies the tasks that will be performed for deactivation of the CPP- 603 building at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Fuel Receiving and Storage Building (CPP- 603) was originally used to receive and store spent nuclear fuel from various facilities. The area to undergo deactivation includes the three spent nuclear fuel storage basins and a transfer canal (1.5 million gallons of water storage). Deactivation operations at the task site include management of the hot storage boxes and generic fuel objects, removal of the fuel storage racks, basin sludge, water evaporation and basin grouting, and interior equipment, tanks, and associated components. This includes a study to develop a grout formulation and placement process for this deactivation project. Water will be allowed to passively evaporate to r educe the spread of contamination from the walls of the basin. The basins will be filled with grout, underwater, as the water evaporates to maintain the basin water at a safe level. The objective of the deactivation project is to eliminate potential exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials and eliminate potential safety hazards associated with the CPP-603 building.

  3. Laboratory Evaluation of Underwater Grouting of CPP-603 Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Virgil James; Pao, Jenn Hai; Demmer, Ricky Lynn; Tripp, Julia Lynn

    2002-02-01

    A project is underway to deactivate a Fuel Storage Basin. The project specifies the requirements and identifies the tasks that will be performed for deactivation of the CPP- 603 building at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The Fuel Receiving and Storage Building (CPP- 603) was originally used to receive and store spent nuclear fuel from various facilities. The area to undergo deactivation includes the three spent nuclear fuel storage basins and a transfer canal (1.5 million gallons of water storage). Deactivation operations at the task site include management of the hot storage boxes and generic fuel objects, removal of the fuel storage racks, basin sludge, water evaporation and basin grouting, and interior equipment, tanks, and associated components. This includes a study to develop a grout formulation and placement process for this deactivation project. Water will be allowed to passively evaporate to reduce the spread of contamination from the walls of the basin. The basins will be filled with grout, underwater, as the water evaporates to maintain the basin water at a safe level. The objective of the deactivation project is to eliminate potential exposure to hazardous and radioactive materials and eliminate potential safety hazards associated with the CPP-603 building.

  4. Experiments on Performance Sensitivity of SMART PRHRS using the High Temperature/High Pressure Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (VISTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Sik; Choi, Ki Yong; Cho, Seok; Lee, Sung Jae; Choi, Nam Hyun; Min, Kyong Ho; Song, Chul Hwa; Park, Chun Kyong; Chung, Moon Ki

    2005-07-15

    The VISTA (Experimental Verification by Integral Simulation of Transients and Accidents) is an experimental facility to verify the performance and safety issues of the SMART-P (Pilot plant of the System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor). The basic design of the SMART-P has been completed by KAERI. The present report describes the experimental results on the overall performance sensitivity of SMART PRHRS. During the reference test a stable flow occurs in a natural circulation loop which is composed of a steam generator secondary side, a secondary system, and a PRHRS, and it is ascertained by a repetition test. When the bypass valves of PRHRS are operated earlier than the isolation valves of secondary system, the primary system is effectively cooled but the inventory of PRHRS compensation tank is drained earlier. When the bypass valves of PRHRS are operated later than the isolation valves of secondary system, the primary system is not cooled. As the initial level of compensation tank is lowered to 16% of the full level, the steady natural circulation stops around 500 seconds. When the initial pressure of PRHRS is at 0.1 MPa, the natural circulation is not performed properly. When they are 2.5 and 3.5 MPa, it shows better performance than the reference test. Also when the isolation valve connecting the compensation tank is operated simultaneously with the PRHRS isolation valves, the primary system is more efficiently cooled but the inventory of PRHRS compensation tank is drained earlier.

  5. Constructing bottom barriers with met grouting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibazaki, M.; Yoshida, H. [Chemical Grouting Company, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    Installing a bottom barrier using conventional high pressure jetting technology and ensuring barrier continuity is challenging. This paper describes technology that has been developed and demonstrated for the emplacement of bottom barriers using pressures and flow rates above the conventional high pressure jetting parameters. The innovation capable of creating an improved body exceeding 5 meters in diameter has resulted in the satisfying connection and adherence between the treated columns. Besides, the interfaces among the improved bodies obtain the same strength and permeability lower than 1 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec as body itself. A wide variety of the thickness and the diameter of the improved mass optimizes the application, and the method is nearing completion. The paper explains an aspect and briefs case histories.

  6. Design of Hydraulic Gauge Head of Differential Pressure Type and Parameter Optimization of the Gauge Head%差压式液压测头的设计及参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    母德强; 崔博; 范以撒; 陈懿

    2014-01-01

    The design and working principle of a hydraulic gauge head is intruced in this paper, which is based on the differential pressure-measuring principle with liquid as working media. With the help of CFX, the differential pres-sure system characteristics curves are plotted and the influence level of the structure parameters on working perfor-mance of the hydraulic gauge head is also analyzed. Bsides, the parameters of the gauge head are optimized.%提出一种以液体为工作介质,基于差压法的液压测头的设计和工作原理。利用CFX软件绘制了Δp-s工作曲线图,分析了各参数对液压测头工作性能的影响,对液压测头的几个重要参数进行了优化。

  7. Thermal Hydraulic Performance of Tight Lattice Bundle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yasushi; Akiba, Miyuki; Morooka, Shinichi; Shirakawa, Kenetsu; Abe, Nobuaki

    Recently, the reduced moderation spectrum BWR has been studied. The fast neutron spectrum is obtained through triangular tight lattice fuel. However, there are few thermal hydraulic test data and thermal hydraulic correlation applicable to critical power prediction in such a tight lattice bundle. This study aims to enhance the database of the thermal hydraulic performance of the tight lattice bundle whose rod gap is about 1mm. Therefore, thermal hydraulic performance measurement tests of tight lattice bundles for the critical power, the pressure drop and the counter current flow limiting were performed. Moreover, the correlations to evaluate the thermal-hydraulic performance of the tight lattice bundle were developed.

  8. Design of hydraulic output Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, W. M.; Harvey, A. C.; Lee, K.

    1983-01-01

    A hydraulic output system for the RE-1000 free piston stirling engine (FPSE) was designed. The hydraulic output system can be readily integrated with the existing hot section of RE-1000 FPSE. The system has two simply supported diaphragms which separate the engine gas from the hydraulic fluid, a dynamic balance mechanism, and a novel, null center band hydraulic pump. The diaphragms are designed to endure more than 10 billion cycles, and to withstand the differential pressure load as high as 14 MPa. The projected thermodynamic performance of the hydraulic output version of RE-1000 FPSE is 1.87 kW at 29/7 percent brake efficiency.

  9. Grouting of the cracks in the Arch 5-6 Daniel Johnson dam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lariviere, R.; Routhier, L.; Roy, V.; Saleh, K.; Tremblay, S.

    1999-07-01

    The Daniel-Johnson dam is located 800 km northeast of Montreal, PQ, and is 1314 m in length and 214 m high. Just after completion of dam construction different types of cracks started to appear on the upstream and downstream faces. During and after the construction of the dam, numerous cracks and joints were grouted in order to reduce water infiltration. In some cases, as a result of high injection pressures and inaccurate methods, the injections provoked the propagation of the existing cracks or the initiation of new ones. Because of this situation and to determine the contribution of injection to dam safety, in 1985, Hydro-Quebec applied a moratorium on all future injection work on the dam. Research work was initiated in 1986 in the areas of grouting materials, methods, equipment and behavioral analysis to establish a safe method for the injection of the cracks. A committee was formed in 1993 with members from various groups, in order to: carry out extensive behavioral analysis of the Arch 5-6 dam, carry out an investigation program in order to determine the cause of the increase of the water infiltration, undertake a structural analysis program in order to evaluate the impact of an injection on the safety of the dam, and identify the proper method and injection products to use. In 1997, as a result of the progress of the structural analysis studies and the injection research project, a decision was made to proceed with the injection of the dam. A description is included of the results of the investigation, recommendations and results of the injection research project, as well as some details of the grouting campaign carried out in January 1999. On the whole, a better knowledge was acquired of the structure, of the plunging cracks and the behaviour of the dam during the injection. In the field of injection methods, materials and equipment, research work was invaluable when it came to the injection of micro-fine cracks in concrete dams. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  10. The Optimal Design of Articulated Point Location Articulated Mechanical Change Diretion Hydraulic Pressure Vat%铰接式机械转向液压缸铰接点位置的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张中元

    2001-01-01

    According to the most left and right side for front m achine frame, this paper introduces the optimal design of articulated point loca tion of change direction hydraulic pressure vat.%以前车架在最左和最右转向位置为计算点,对转向液压缸铰接点位置进行了优化设计。

  11. 基于AMESet的压力油箱供油系统建模与仿真研究%Research on Modeling and Simulation of Hydraulic Oil Supply System with Pressurized Tank Based on AMESet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕庆军; 杨庆俊; 朱冬

    2013-01-01

    Pressurized tank was used for hydraulic system in armoured vehicle to provide instantaneous high flow for hydraulic brake and to supply hydraulic oil to other branches such as lubricating systems.By mathematically modeling the pneumatic gear pump, hybrid relief valve for both air and oil,and pressurized tank,a complete simulation model for this hydraulic system with pressurized tank as its core element was established based on AMESet,which was easily embedded in the system established by AMESim for simu-lation.The simulation model shows that the model is correct to represent characteristics of the pneumatic pump,hybrid relief valve and the tank,and thus can be used for the optimization design of the pressurized tank.%装甲车辆的供油系统采用压力油箱以提供制动时所需的瞬时大流量液流,同时保证润滑等其他油路的用油。基于AMESet构建了以压力油箱为核心的供油系统仿真模型,对压力油箱中气动齿轮泵、气液混合溢流阀和油箱等子模型进行了数学建模,可以方便地嵌入到AMESim构建的总系统中进行仿真。该仿真模型能够正确仿真压力油箱中气泵、气液混合溢流阀等特性,为压力油箱的优化设计提供了依据。

  12. On the use of hydration heat for quality management of borehole heat exchanger grouting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suibert Oskar Seibertz, Klodwig; Händel, Falk; Dietrich, Peter; Vienken, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The ongoing energy transition from conventional, fossil fuel based energy generation, over to renewable energy sources led to an increase in geothermal energy use. Different systems for extracting heat from the subsurface are in use, whereas a commonly used system is the borehole heat exchanger (BHE). A BHE generally consist of a closed loop pipe system through which a heat exchanging fluid is circulated. The BHE is surrounded by grouting. The grouting, focus of this work, has two main objectives to fulfill: Firstly, to thermally couple the subsurface and the BHE pipes; and, secondly, to protect the pipes and to prevent the heat exchanging fluid from entering the subsurface in case of BHE mechanical failure. Therefore, to provide proper functionality, efficiency, and safety of a BHE, it has to be guaranteed that the grouting does not have defects. The hardening reaction (hydration) of the grouting is exothermic, whereas the grouting is mostly a variant of (thermally enhanced) cement. The hydration temperature depends on the type of grout as well as the possible dilutions (resulting in defects) of the grouting material by water, air or drilling debris, and the thermal transport potential of the subsurface. Therefore the quality of the grouting can be investigated by temperature measurements during the hardening process. To validate this further, tests on field and laboratory scale were conducted. For laboratory testing, different columns were built in which different defects of BHE grouting and pipes were simulated. For defect simulation isolation and mixing with drilling debris were chosen, representing inclusions of water and/or air during cement casting as well as partial collapse of the borehole. The temperature changes during installation and hardening of the grouting are measured by fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS). This allows for temporal and spatial high resolution, continuous temperature measurements at the interface of pipe to grout

  13. 玻璃酸钠注射加液压扩张治疗肩关节周围炎%Hydraulic pressure distersion and sodium hyluronate injection treatment for scapulohumeral periarthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘勇; 吴权; 瞿懿; 寿奎水; 殷渠东

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy of hydraulic pressure distersion and sodium hyluronate injection on scapulohumeral periarthritis. Methods 48 cases of scapulohumeral periarthritis were given hydraulic pressure distension with sodium hyaluronate and lidocaine injection,as well as properly exercises. Results 7 cases were lost, and the other patients were followed up for more than 5 months after surgery. The effective rate was 90 % , and the excellent rate was 89 % . Conclusion Hydraulic pressure distension is a reliable and highly effective treatment for scapulohumeral periarthritis in the slight or moderate patients.%目的 探讨玻璃酸钠注射加液压扩张疗法对肩周炎的疗效.方法 对64例肩周炎进行关节囊内液压扩张治疗,局麻加玻璃酸钠注射,适当辅助锻炼.结果 64例患者中,7例未能完成1个疗程治疗,其余术后5个月以上随访,有效率为90%,优良率为89 %.结论 液压扩张疗法是治疗肩周炎的有效方法,尤其对轻中型患者疗效明显.

  14. Low-pH injection grout for deep repositories. Summary report from a co-operation project between NUMO (Japan), Posiva (Finland) and SKB (Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Anders [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sievaenen, Ursula [JP-Suoraplan Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-06-01

    fineness, were modified in the present experiments. 5. Fly ash system was ruled out at an early stage due to expected problems concerning the availability and stability of the raw material properties as well as expected difficulties with the setting time of the mixes. The grouting related properties tested in laboratory were penetrability, bleeding, early age shear strength viscosity and yield value. For some selected mixes fluidity was also measured. The key uncertainties identified with respect to the use of cement in a repository are related to the uncertainties in the estimation of the range and effect of the pH-plume on the rock, as well as the possible detrimental effects on bentonite due to cement/bentonite interaction. In the present study the potential effects on the repository performance and the rock have been evaluated based on the composition of the materials and leaching tests, expert judgement and some simple mass balance and diffusion calculations. A first review of the potential effects of organic cement additives on the radionuclide mobility has also been done, although the preference at the outset of the project was to develop an injection grout without organic additives. Also the long-term durability of the low-pH cementitious material and the long-term phase changes/degradation and leaching of the grout is not yet known and need to be evaluated. The non-cementitious candidate materials were investigated regarding basic properties and long-term safety aspects in order to form the basis for the decision whether silica sol can be used in the deep repository and whether periclase (MgO) should be further investigated. In a small field-test it was also investigated if the penetration of silica sol can be predicted based on hydraulic tests, transmissivity and hydraulic aperture. Silica sol, colloidal silica, is a stable dispersion of discrete non porous particles of amorphous silicon dioxide. Rock grouting with silica sol is a relatively new application

  15. PLC control system of 1600-ton hydraulic pressure machine for abrasive products%1600吨磨料制品液压机的PLC控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭丽芳

    2012-01-01

    针对继电器控制的大型砂轮成型设备,1600吨液压机电气线路复杂和故障率高的状况,采用三菱FX2N系列的可编程逻辑控制器对原有的继电器控制系统进行改造,以软继电器的逻辑运算取代传统继电器的硬线连接;运用PLC的顺序控制设计法,并按照工艺流程,以输出元件的变化设计控制功能图和梯形图,简化了线路;采用硬件软件双重联锁提高了控制系统的可靠性.%In order to remedy the complex electrical circuits and high failure rate with the large wheel molding equipment of 1600 tons hydraulic pressure machines, which were controlled by relay, MITSUBISHI FX2N programmable logical controller was adopted to replace the original relay control system. The traditional relay's hard-wired connections were replaced by logical operation of soft relay. What's more, PLC sequential control method was adopted and circuits were simplified by changing design control function diagram and ladder chart of the output components according to the technological process. The reliability of the control system was improved with double chain of hardware and software.

  16. Integrity assessment of grouted posttensioning cables and reinforced concrete of a nuclear containment building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenton B.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Containment Buildings of CANDU Nuclear Generating Stations were designed to house nuclear reactors and process equipment and also to provide confinement of releases from a potential nuclear accident such as a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA. To meet this design requirement, a post-tensioning system was designed to induce compressive stresses in the structure to counteract the internal design pressure. The CANDU reactor building at Gentilly-1 (G-1, Quebec, Canada (250 MWe was built in the early 1970s and is currently in a decommissioned state. The structure at present is under surveillance and monitoring. In the year 2000, a field investigation was conducted as part of a condition assessment and corrosion was detected in some of the grouted post-tension cable strands. However, no further work was done at that time to determine the cause, nature, impact and extent of the corrosion. An investigation of the Gentilly-1 containment building is currently underway to assess the condition of grouted post-tensioning cables and reinforced concrete. At two selected locations, concrete and steel reinforcements were removed from the containment building wall to expose horizontal cables. Individual cable strands and reinforcement bars were instrumented and measurements were taken in-situ before removing them for forensic examination and destructive testing to determine the impact of ageing and corrosion. Concrete samples were also removed and tested in a laboratory. The purpose of the field investigation and laboratory testing, using this structure as a test bed, was also to collect material ageing data and to develop potential Nondestructive Examination (NDE methods to monitor Containment Building Integrity. The paper describes the field work conducted and the test results obtained for concrete, reinforcement and post-tensioning cables.

  17. Capacity and failure mechanism of laterally loaded jet-grouting reinforced piles: Field and numerical investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ben; WANG LiZhong; HONG Yi

    2016-01-01

    This study presents the results of field and numerical investigations of lateral stiffness,capacity,and failure mechanisms for plain piles and reinforced concrete piles in soft clay.A plastic-damage model is used to simulate concrete piles and jet-grouting in the numerical analyses.The field study and numerical investigations show that by applying jet-grouting surrounding the upper 7.5D (D =pile diameter) of a pile,lateral stiffness and bearing capacity of the pile are increased by about 110% and 100%,respectively.This is partially because the jet-grouting increases the apparent diameter of the pile,so as to enlarge the extent of failure wedge and hence passive resistance in front of the reinforced pile.Moreover,the jet-grouting provides a circumferential confinement to the concrete pile,which suppresses development of tensile stress in the pile.Correspondingly,tension-induced plastic damage in the concrete pile is reduced,causing less degradation of stiffness and strength of the pile than that of a plain pile.Effectiveness of the circumferential confinement provided by the jet-grouting,however,diminishes once the grouting cracks because of the significant vertical and circumferential tensile stress near its mid-depth.The lateral capacity of the jet-grouting reinforced pile is,therefore,governed by mobilized passive resistance of soil and plastic damage of jet-grouting.

  18. Calculation method of composite foundation sedimentation of grouting pile with cover plate under embankment load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾长存; 洪昌地; 马文彬; 李雪平

    2008-01-01

    Grouting pile is a new soft soil foundation treatment method with characteristics such as no vibration, no noise, no soil compaction, light construction machines and quick construction velocity and so on. At present, study on reinforcement mechanism and design calculation method of composite foundation of grouting pile is initially started without design specifications, so it is usually required to draw on design specifications of stump pile when designing composite foundation of grouting pile while grouting pile has its characteristics and difference although reinforcement mechanisms and construction processes of two types of piles are similar. Sedimentation formula of composite foundation of grouting pile with cover plate is educed and a suitable deformation mode is proposed by aiming to deformation characteristics of composite foundation of grouting pile with cover plate under embankment load on basis of relevant sedimentation theories of composite foundation by combination of characteristics of composite foundation of grouting pile. The sedimentation calculation formula of grouting pile with cover plate under embankment load is educed according to balance relation of force and displacement coordination conditions by elastic theory and sedimentation calculation model established is validated by sedimentation monitoring documents of one expressway in China.

  19. Durability of double-shell slurry feed grouts: FY-90 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokken, R.O.; Martin, P.F.C.

    1992-12-01

    Plans for disposal of the low-level fraction of selected double-shell tank wastes at Hanford include grouting. Grout disposal is the process of mixing low-level liquid waste with cementitious powders and pumping the slurry to near-surface, underground concrete vaults; hydration results in the formation of a solid product that binds/encapsulates the radioactive/hazardous constituents. In this durability program, previous studies have indicated a strong impact from curing temperature/time on strength and leach resistance of DSSF grouts. The current studies were expanded to determine whether these impacts could be attributed to other factors, such as dry blend composition and waste concentration. Major conclusions: grouts from dry blends with 40 wt% limestone had lower strengths; compressive strengths and leach resistance decreased with increased curing temperature/time; leach resistance increased for grouts prepared with dilute DSSF; nitrate leach resistance increased with high slag/cement ratios, dilute DSSF, and low curing temperatures; amount of drainable liquids for grouts using diluted DSSF was lowest when slag content was high; the 2 most significant factors affecting grout properties were the slag/cement ratio and waste dilution (slag-waste reactions appear to dominate the properties of DSSF grouts).

  20. Structural Health Monitoring of a Grouted Foundation Part for Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ronnie; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Pedersen, B. j.;

    2013-01-01

    a structural health monitoring (SHM) method for detecting failures in a grouted connection. A finite element model representing different assumed damage stages of the grout connection is established and acceleration time series are simulated. A time series model based on the SHM method indicates that minor...

  1. THERMALLY CONDUCTIVE CEMENTITIOUS GROUTS FOR GEOTHERMAL HEAT PUMPS. PROGRESS REPORT BY 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALLAN,M.L.; PHILIPPACOPOULOS,A.J.

    1998-11-01

    Research commenced in FY 97 to determine the suitability of superplasticized cement-sand grouts for backfilling vertical boreholes used with geothermal heat pump (GHP) systems. The overall objectives were to develop, evaluate and demonstrate cementitious grouts that could reduce the required bore length and improve the performance of GHPs. This report summarizes the accomplishments in FY 98.

  2. Experimental and Analysis for Self-excited Pressure Oscillations and Noise of Hydraulic Jet Pipe Servo-valve%液压射流管伺服阀自激振荡和噪声实验与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹贤珍

    2016-01-01

    在液压流场中,液压伺服阀的高频噪声主要来自于自身的震荡。采用压电式动态压力传感器和扩音器对液压射流管伺服阀的自激振荡和噪声进行检测。试验中,将伺服阀的进口压力控制在11~21 MPa。为了将实验数据精准化,利用FFT和小波分析法对压力震荡信号和噪声信号进行处理。根据分析结果找出自激振荡和噪声产生的原因,并为降低液压伺服阀的自激振荡和噪声提供了方法。%In the hydraulic flow field, the high frequency noise of the hydraulic servo-valve is mainly derived from its own shock. Using the piezoelectric dynamic pressure sensor and amplifier, hydraulic jet pipe servo-valve self-excited vibration and noise were de-tected.In the test, the inlet pressure of the servo-valve was controlled in 11~21 MPa.In order to make the experimental data accurate, FFT and wavelet analysis method were used to deal with the pressure oscillation signal and noise signal.According to the analysis re-sults, the causes of the self-excited oscillation and noise were found out.It provides method for reducing vibration and noise of hydrau-lic servo-valve.

  3. Experimental study on the compressive strength of grouted concrete block masonry based on nondestructive detection methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Hong-bin; LI Long-fei

    2009-01-01

    Existing nondestructive detection methods were adopted to test the compressive strength of grouted concrete block masonry, i.e. the rebound method, pulling-out method and core drilling method were employed to test the strength of block, mortar and grouted concrete, respectively. The suitability of these methods for the testing of strength of grouted concrete block masonry was discussed, and the comprehensive strength of block masonry was appraised by combining existing nondestructive or micro-destructive detection methods. The nondestructive detection test on 25 grouted concrete block masonry specimens was carried out. Experimental results show that these methods mentioned above are applicable for the strength detection of grouted concrete block masonry. Moreover, the formulas of compressive strength, detection methods and proposals are given as well.

  4. Practice and monitoring analysis of building lifting due to grouting%房屋注浆抬升实践与监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易小明; 张顶立; 逄铁铮; 骆建军

    2009-01-01

    厦门梧村山浅埋大跨隧道,要求下穿浦南片区密集建筑群,其工程难度国内外罕见.通过对现场房屋的抬升实践和监测分析发现:房屋注浆抬升可分为两个层次,即注浆止沉和注浆抬升.现场抬升试验表明:采用动态跟踪补偿注浆能够较好地实现房屋止沉,而房屋的抬升则极富挑战性.一方面房屋抬升必须以补偿注浆、止浆墙完成、地层加固密实为前提;另一方面还必须选取合适的注浆工艺、注浆量、压力、抬升孔分布、注浆深度等,才可能实现抬升.抬升过程监控还发现:地层抬升明显,房屋止沉效果良好;但房屋抬升呈波动趋势,最终房屋仍呈沉降趋势.该结果反应了注浆地层抬升与房屋抬升是不一致的,只有较大范围、稳定的、均匀的、不消散的地表抬升,才能形成安全有效的房屋抬升.通过相关的解析和数值方法,对抬升注浆参数进行初步优选以及对房屋抬升量进行预测,结果可以满足工程需要.%Wucunshan Tunnel of Xiamen which is designed as shallow large span structure needs to go through dense buildings in Punan territory, and construction difficulties is unusual both at home and abroad. By in-situ building lifting test and monitoring, two levels of building lifting by grouting can be seen: the first level is controlling and cutting building subsidence, the second is named building lifting strictly. The in-situ lifting tests show that the first level can be achieved with dynamic tracking and retrieving grouting successfully, whereas the second level requires much more refined grouting techniques. On one hand, the fulfilling of building lifting must be on the premise of the first level of retrieving grouting, finishing wall for grouting, and enforcing foundation soil. On the other hand, it depends on adequate grouting technologies, grouting amount, pressure, arrangement of grouting holes, holes and depths, etc. Related monitoring results

  5. A Computational Model of Hydraulic Volume Displacement Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pil'gunov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a computational model of industrial-purpose hydraulic drive with two hydraulic volume adjustable working chamber machines (pump and motor. Adjustable pump equipped with the pressure control unit can be run together with several adjustable hydraulic motors on the principle of three-phase hydraulic socket-outlet with high-pressure lines, drain, and drainage system. The paper considers the pressure-controlled hydrostatic transmission with hydraulic motor as an output link. It shows a possibility to create a saving hydraulic drive using a functional tie between the adjusting parameters of the pump and hydraulic motor through the pressure difference, torque, and angular rate of the hydraulic motor shaft rotation. The programmable logic controller can implement such tie. The Coulomb and viscous frictions are taken into consideration when developing a computational model of the hydraulic volume displacement drive. Discharge balance considers external and internal leakages in equivalent clearances of hydraulic machines, as well as compression loss volume caused by hydraulic fluid compressibility and deformation of pipe walls. To correct dynamic properties of hydraulic drive, the paper offers that in discharge balance are included the additional regulated external leakages in the open circuit of hydraulic drive and regulated internal leakages in the closed-loop circuit. Generalized differential equations having functional multipliers and multilinked nature have been obtained to describe the operation of hydraulic positioning and speed drive with two hydraulic volume adjustable working chamber machines. It is shown that a proposed computational model of hydraulic drive can be taken into consideration in development of LS («Load-Sensing» drives, in which the pumping pressure is tuned to the value required for the most loaded slave motor to overcome the load. Results attained can be used both in designing the industrial-purpose heavy

  6. Hydraulic wind energy conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to design, build and test a hydraulic wind energy system. This design used a three bladed turbine, which drove a hydraulic pump. The energy is transmitted from the pump through a long hose and into a hydraulic motor, where the energy is used. This wind system was built and tested during the winter of 1980-1981. The power train included a five meter, three bladed wind turbine, a 9.8:1 ratio gearbox, a 1.44 cubic inch displacement pump with a small supercharge gear pump attached. The hydraulic fluid was pumped through a 70', 3/4'' I-D-high pressure flexhose, then through a volume control valve and into a 1.44 cubic inch displacement motor. The fluid was returned through a 70', 1'' I-D-flexhose.

  7. “三软”煤层水力冲孔卸压增透技术研究%Study on pressure releasing and permeability improving technology with hydraulic flushing in “three soft”coal seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志龙; 孙谦; 宋大钊; 高勤琼

    2015-01-01

    针对糯东煤矿“三软”高瓦斯低透气性煤层易流变、难抽采的问题,提出了底板巷道穿层水力冲孔卸压增透技术,并在糯东煤矿11702掘进工作面进行了现场试验。结果表明:冲孔后比冲孔前抽采瓦斯浓度上升3.4倍,瓦斯抽采流量增加4.4倍,炮掘工作面回风流中的瓦斯(体积分数)由冲孔前0.8%的超限预警状态变成冲孔后的0.4%的安全范围,水力冲孔技术应用效果显著,在糯东煤矿取得了良好的卸压增透效果。%To solve the problem of easy rheology and hard drainage in"three soft"coal seam with high gas concentration and low permeability in Nuodong coal mine,the pressure releasing and permeability improving technology with hydraulic flushing in floor gateway was proposed,and corresponding field test at the No.11702 heading face of Nuodong coal mine was carried out.The re-sults show that the drained gas concentration after hydraulic flushing is 3.4 times as that without hydraulic flushing and the gas flow rate is increased by 4.4 times;and the gas concentration at the blasting working face changes from 0.8% (overrun warning state,before hydraulic flushing)to 0.4% (safety state,after hydraulic flushing).The application of hydraulic flushing technolo-gy is more effective and remarkable in releasing pressure and improving permeability in Nuodong coal mine.

  8. Borehole Heat Exchanger Systems: Hydraulic Conductivity and Frost-Resistance of Backfill Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbergen, Hauke; Sass, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    Ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems are economic solutions for both, domestic heating energy supply, as well as underground thermal energy storage (UTES). Over the past decades the technology developed to complex, advanced and highly efficient systems. For an efficient operation of the most common type of UTES, borehole heat exchanger (BHE) systems, it is necessary to design the system for a wide range of carrier fluid temperatures. During heat extraction, a cooled carrier fluid is heated up by geothermal energy. This collected thermal energy is energetically used by the heat pump. Thereby the carrier fluid temperature must have a lower temperature than the surrounding underground in order to collect heat energy. The steeper the thermal gradient, the more energy is transferred to the carrier fluid. The heat injection case works vice versa. For fast and sufficient heat extraction, even over long periods of heating (winter), it might become necessary to run the BHE with fluid temperatures below 0°C. As the heat pump runs periodically, a cyclic freezing of the pore water and corresponding ice-lens growth in the nearfield of the BHE pipes becomes possible. These so called freeze-thaw-cycles (FTC) are a critical state for the backfill material, as the sealing effect eventually decreases. From a hydrogeological point of view the vertical sealing of the BHE needs to be secured at any time (e.g. VDI 4640-2, Draft 2015). The vertical hydraulic conductivity of the BHE is influenced not only by the permeability of the grouting material itself, but by the contact area between BHE pipes and grout. In order to assess the sealing capacity of grouting materials a laboratory testing procedure was developed that measures the vertical hydraulic conductivity of the system BHE pipe and grout. The key features of the procedure are: • assessment of the systeḿs hydraulic conductivity • assessment of the systeḿs hydraulic conductivity after simulation of freeze-thaw-cycle

  9. Numerical simulation of water hammer in low pressurized pipe: comparison of SimHydraulics and Lax-Wendroff method with experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himr D.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Article describes simulation of unsteady flow during water hammer with two programs, which use different numerical approaches to solve ordinary one dimensional differential equations describing the dynamics of hydraulic elements and pipes. First one is Matlab-Simulink-SimHydraulics, which is a commercial software developed to solve the dynamics of general hydraulic systems. It defines them with block elements. The other software is called HYDRA and it is based on the Lax-Wendrff numerical method, which serves as a tool to solve the momentum and continuity equations. This program was developed in Matlab by Brno University of Technology. Experimental measurements were performed on a simple test rig, which consists of an elastic pipe with strong damping connecting two reservoirs. Water hammer is induced with fast closing the valve. Physical properties of liquid and pipe elasticity parameters were considered in both simulations, which are in very good agreement and differences in comparison with experimental data are minimal.

  10. Numerical simulation of water hammer in low pressurized pipe: comparison of SimHydraulics and Lax-Wendroff method with experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himr, D.

    2013-04-01

    Article describes simulation of unsteady flow during water hammer with two programs, which use different numerical approaches to solve ordinary one dimensional differential equations describing the dynamics of hydraulic elements and pipes. First one is Matlab-Simulink-SimHydraulics, which is a commercial software developed to solve the dynamics of general hydraulic systems. It defines them with block elements. The other software is called HYDRA and it is based on the Lax-Wendrff numerical method, which serves as a tool to solve the momentum and continuity equations. This program was developed in Matlab by Brno University of Technology. Experimental measurements were performed on a simple test rig, which consists of an elastic pipe with strong damping connecting two reservoirs. Water hammer is induced with fast closing the valve. Physical properties of liquid and pipe elasticity parameters were considered in both simulations, which are in very good agreement and differences in comparison with experimental data are minimal.

  11. MAGNESIUM MONO POTASSIUM PHOSPHATE GROUT FOR P-REACTOR VESSEL IN-SITU DECOMISSIONING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-01-05

    The objective of this report is to document laboratory testing of magnesium mono potassium phosphate grouts for P-Reactor vessel in-situ decommissioning. Magnesium mono potassium phosphate cement-based grout was identified as candidate material for filling (physically stabilizing) the 105-P Reactor vessel (RV) because it is less alkaline than portland cement-based grout (pH of about 12.4). A less alkaline material ({<=} 10.5) was desired to address a potential materials compatibility issue caused by corrosion of aluminum metal in highly alkaline environments such as that encountered in portland cement grouts. Information concerning access points into the P-Reactor vessel and amount of aluminum metal in the vessel is provided elsewhere. Fresh and cured properties were measured for: (1) commercially blended magnesium mono potassium phosphate packaged grouts, (2) commercially available binders blended with inert fillers at SRNL, (3) grouts prepared from technical grade MgO and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} and inert fillers (quartz sands, Class F fly ash), and (4) Ceramicrete{reg_sign} magnesium mono potassium phosphate-based grouts prepared at Argonne National Laboratory. Boric acid was evaluated as a set retarder in the magnesium mono potassium phosphate mixes.

  12. Bio-grout based on microbially induced sand solidification by means of asparaginase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Fu, Qing-Long; Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Achal, Varenyam; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2015-11-03

    Bio-grout, a new ground improvement method, has been recently developed to improve the mechanical properties, decrease the permeability of porous materials, reinforce or repair cementitious materials and modify the properties of soil or sand. Bio-grout production depends on microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP), which is driven mainly by an enzyme, urease. However, urease-based MICP process produces excessive ammonia, in addition to secondary pollution generated by urea that is used as substrate in it. In the present study, we reported asparaginase-based MICP process for sand bio-grout development using Bacillus megaterium, and results were also compared with urease-based bio-grouts. The asparaginase activity led to significantly less ammonia production compared to urease without compromising with desired properties of a novel grout. The UCS of bio-grout was obtained at 980 kPa, while the permeability was decreased substantially. The mineralogical composition of precipitated substance was identified as calcite using XRD and the crystal morphology was observed under SEM. The mass percentage of calcite in bio-grout was calculated by thermogravimetric analysis and XCT verified calcite precipitation in it. The results confirmed that biocalcification by means of bacterial asparaginase is a potential solution for geotechnical problems. The asparaginase-based MICP process could be of wider acceptance in future.

  13. Bio-grout based on microbially induced sand solidification by means of asparaginase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Fu, Qing-Long; Zhang, Qiuzhuo; Achal, Varenyam; Kawasaki, Satoru

    2015-11-01

    Bio-grout, a new ground improvement method, has been recently developed to improve the mechanical properties, decrease the permeability of porous materials, reinforce or repair cementitious materials and modify the properties of soil or sand. Bio-grout production depends on microbially induced calcite precipitation (MICP), which is driven mainly by an enzyme, urease. However, urease-based MICP process produces excessive ammonia, in addition to secondary pollution generated by urea that is used as substrate in it. In the present study, we reported asparaginase-based MICP process for sand bio-grout development using Bacillus megaterium, and results were also compared with urease-based bio-grouts. The asparaginase activity led to significantly less ammonia production compared to urease without compromising with desired properties of a novel grout. The UCS of bio-grout was obtained at 980 kPa, while the permeability was decreased substantially. The mineralogical composition of precipitated substance was identified as calcite using XRD and the crystal morphology was observed under SEM. The mass percentage of calcite in bio-grout was calculated by thermogravimetric analysis and XCT verified calcite precipitation in it. The results confirmed that biocalcification by means of bacterial asparaginase is a potential solution for geotechnical problems. The asparaginase-based MICP process could be of wider acceptance in future.

  14. Long-term degradation (or improvement?) of cementitious grout/concrete for waste disposal at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepho, M.G. [Daniel B. Stephens & Associates, Inc., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    If grout and/or concrete barriers and containments are considered for long-term (500 yrs to 100,000 ) waste disposal, then long-term degradation of grout/cement materials (and others) need to be studied. Long-term degradations of a cementitious grout monolith (15.4mW x 10.4mH x 37.6mL) and its containment concrete shell and asphalt shell (each 1-m thick) were analyzed. The main degradation process of the concrete shell was believed to be fractures due to construction joints, shrinkage, thermal stress, settlement, and seismic events. A scenario with fractures was modeled (flow and transport model) for long-term risk performance (out to a million yrs). Even though the concrete/grout is expected to fracture, the concrete/grout chemistry, which has high Ph value, is very beneficial in causing calcite deposits from calcium in the water precipitating in the fractures. These calcite deposits will tend to plug the fracture and keep water from entering. The effectiveness of such plugging needs to be studied more. It`s possible that the plugged fractures are more impermeable than the original concrete/grout. The long-term performance of concrete/grout barriers will be determined by its chemistry, not its mechanical properties.

  15. Laboratory leach tests of phosphate/sulfate waste grout and leachate adsorption tests using Hanford sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; McLaurine, S.B.; Airhart, S.P.; LeGore, V.L.; Treat, R.L.

    1987-12-01

    An assessment of the long-term risks posed by grout disposal at Hanford requires data on the ability of grout to resist leaching of waste species contained in the grout via contact with water that percolates through the ground. Additionally, data are needed on the ability of Hanford sediment (soil) surrounding the grout and concrete vault to retard migration of any wastes released from the grout. This report describes specific laboratory experiments that are producing empirical leach rate data and leachate-sediment adsorption data for Phosphate-Sulfate Waste (PSW) grout. The leach rate and adsorption values serve as inputs to computer codes used to forecast potential risk resulting from the use of ground water containing leached species. In addition, the report discusses other chemical analyses and geochemical computer code calculations that were used to identify mechanisms that control leach rates and adsorption potential. Knowledge of the controlling chemical and physical processes provides technical defensibility for using the empirical laboratory data to extrapolate the performance of the actual grout disposal system to the long time periods of interest. 59 refs., 83 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. Environmental Technology Verification Report: Grouts for Wastewater Collection Systems, Avanti International AV-118 Acrylic Chemical Grout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Municipalities are discovering rapid degradation of infrastructures in wastewater collection and treatment facilities due to the infiltration of water from the surrounding environments. Wastewater facilities are not only wet, but also experience hydrostatic pressure conditions un...

  17. Thermal hydraulic evaluation for an experimental facility to investigate pressurized thermal shock (PTS) in CDTN/CNEN; Avaliacao termo-hidraulica da montagem experimental de choque termico pressurizado do CDTN/CNEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmieri, Elcio T.; Navarro, Moyses A.; Aronne, Ivam D.; Terra, Jose L. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    The goal of the work presented in this paper is to provide necessary thermal hydraulics information to the design of an experimental installation to investigate the Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) to be implemented at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN). The envisaged installation has a test section that represents, in a small scale, a pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor. This test section will be heated and then exposed to a PTS in order to evaluate the appearance and development of cracks. To verify the behavior of the temperatures of the pressure vessel after a sudden flood through the annulus, calculations were made using the RELAP5/MOD 3.2.2 gamma code. Different outer radiuses were studied for the annular region. The results showed that the smaller annulus spacing (20 mm) anticipates the wetting of the surface and produces a higher cooling of the external surface, which stays completely wet for a longer time. (author)

  18. Undular Hydraulic Jump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Castro-Orgaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition from subcritical to supercritical flow when the inflow Froude number Fo is close to unity appears in the form of steady state waves called undular hydraulic jump. The characterization of the undular hydraulic jump is complex due to the existence of a non-hydrostatic pressure distribution that invalidates the gradually-varied flow theory, and supercritical shock waves. The objective of this work is to present a mathematical model for the undular hydraulic jump obtained from an approximate integration of the Reynolds equations for turbulent flow assuming that the Reynolds number R is high. Simple analytical solutions are presented to reveal the physics of the theory, and a numerical model is used to integrate the complete equations. The limit of application of the theory is discussed using a wave breaking condition for the inception of a surface roller. The validity of the mathematical predictions is critically assessed using physical data, thereby revealing aspects on which more research is needed

  19. Hydraulic mining method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Lester H.; Knoke, Gerald S.

    1985-08-20

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  20. GROUT TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS IN 105-R DISASSEMBLY BASIN D AND E CANAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogle, R.; Collins, M.; Guerrero, H.

    2010-06-03

    The 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin Grout Placement Strategy Report (SRNL-TR-2009-00157) identifies various portions of the facility that will undergo an in-situ decommissioning process. The estimated residual radioactive contamination in the 105-R facility is shown in Figure 1. Cementitious grout formulations developed by SRNL are being used to immobilize and isolate the radioactive contamination in existing below grade portions of the 105-R building as shown by the gray-hatched area in Figure 2. A Zero Bleed flowable fill was formulated for both dry placement and for underwater placement. The first major area in the 105-R Disassembly Basin to undergo the grouting process was the D&E Canal and an underlying void space known as the Chase. Grout temperature data was needed to ensure that the grout mix design was on the correct grout curing trajectory to meet the material compressive strength requirement of 50 pounds per square inch. Initial grout temperature measurements were needed to confirm and optimize grout mix design fresh property characteristics; i.e. material strength, and set time. Grout curing temperature is an integrating fresh property characteristic that is used to estimate cementitious material strength in accordance with the Standard Practice for Estimating Concrete Strength by the Maturity Method, ASTM C 1074. The Maturity Method is used in the construction industry to estimate in-place strength of concrete to allow the start of critical construction activities; e.g. formwork removal, removal of cold weather protection, opening of roadways to traffic, etc. Applying this methodology provides an expeditious means to estimate in-place grout strength based on compressive strength laboratory results. The Maturity Method results define the relationship between strength-time and age-time that may be utilized in the field for estimating strength after a given time of placement. Maturation curves were developed under the 105-R Reactor Disassembly Basin

  1. 底板巷水力冲孔卸压增透技术的研究与应用%Study and Application on Pressure Releasing and Permeability Improved Technology with Hydraulic Flushing in Floor Gateway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐东方; 黄渊跃; 罗治顺; 杨献东

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of the pressure releasing and permeability improved technology with hydraulic flushing in floor gateway to improve the seam permeability and to improve the gas drainage rate, a trial was conducted on the pressure releasing and permeability improved technology with hydraulic flushing in No. 1259(3) floor gateway of Puxijing.The results showed that the radius of the pressure releasing and permeability improvement with the hydraulic flushing borehole could reach 4~5 m and would be 1.6~2.0 times higher than the influence radius of the gas drainage with a conventional borehole. Within half month after the hydraulic flushing measures conducted, the average gas drainage concentration of the borehole was 2.77 times higher than the conventional borehole,the average gas flow value was 3.43 times higher than the conventional borehole,the effect of the pressure releasing and permeability improvement was relatively remarkable , the seam permeability was improved and the outburst danger was reduced.%为了考察底板巷水力冲孔卸压增透技术对增加煤层透气性,提高瓦斯抽采效果,在浦溪井1259(3)底板巷实施水力冲孔卸压增透技术试验.结果表明:水力冲孔卸压增透半径达到4~5m,为普通钻孔抽采影响半径的1.6~2.0倍;采取水力冲孔措施的半个月内,钻孔的平均瓦斯抽采浓度是普通钻孔的2.77倍,平均瓦斯流量是普通钻孔的3.43倍,卸压增透效果比较明显,提高了煤层透气性,降低了突出危险性.

  2. Curtain grouting gushing water treatment under special geological conditions%特殊地质条件下的帷幕灌浆涌水处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁时伟; 唐正前

    2013-01-01

      大型水电站的基础帷幕灌浆作为工程设计的重要组成部分,其施工质量关系到工程后期的安全运行。大多数工程坝基帷幕灌浆施工时,受坝基地质条件和承受的河床水头影响,涌水压力和涌水量不同。向家坝水电站因特殊的地质条件和河床水位较高,在帷幕灌浆施工中有近85%的孔段出现涌水,且涌水压力和涌水量较大,给施工造成很多困难,国内其它工程较为少见。通过对向家坝水电站坝基帷幕灌浆各类涌水情况施工详细研究和大量试验,取得了大涌水量和特殊地质条件下帷幕灌浆成功的施工技术和施工经验,供其他类似工程参考。%The foundation of large-scale hydropower curtain grouting as an important part of the engineering design,its construction quality is related to the safe operation of the project built.The most engineering Curtain Grouting construction,the dam foundation geological conditions and withstand the riverbed head impact,the gushing pressure and water inflow different.Xiangjiaba hydropower station because of the special geological conditions and the high water level of the river bed,curtain grouting nearly 85% of the hole section gushing and gushing water pressure and water inflow and cause a lot of difficulties to the construction and other do-mestic works.By a detailed study and a large number of tests of the various types of water gushing to the Xi-angjiaba hydropower dam foundation curtain grouting.It achieved many successful construction technologys and construction experiences in large inflow and special geological conditions curtain grouting,which provides ref-erence to similar projects.

  3. Measurement and evaluation of static characteristics of rotary hydraulic motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hružík Lumír

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes experimental equipment for measurement of static characteristics of rotary hydraulic motor. It is possible to measure flow, pressure, temperature, speed and torque by means of this equipment. It deals with measurement of static characteristics of a gear rotary hydraulic motor. Mineral oil is used as hydraulic liquid in this case. Flow, torque and speed characteristics are evaluated from measured parameters. Measured mechanical-hydraulic, flow and total efficiencies of the rotary hydraulic motor are adduced in the paper. It is possible to diagnose technical conditions of the hydraulic motor (eventually to recommend its exchange from the experimental measurements.

  4. WASTEWATER EFFLUENT GENERATED BY GROUT INDUSTRIES IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda C. Zola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Civil construction has grown inadvertently in Brazil, and, consequently, its demands for raw material. The production of such materials, as to any industrial process, yields wastewater effluents and has as destination, in general, water resources such as rivers and lakes. Nonetheless, government inspection cannot keep up with the number of starting companies, resulting in impunity due to lack of inspection. In the present work, the first of the kind, some chemical-physics aspects of wastewater effluents samples generated from grout industries were analyzed. The study shows that the pH of these samples lie outside the established limit by the national laws. The extremely alkaline pH and high conductivity of these effluents may cause severe damage to the aquatic environment in which they are disposed.

  5. Hydraulic Actuators with Autonomous Hydraulic Supply for the Mainline Aircrafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shumilov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Applied in the aircraft control systems, hydraulic servo actuators with autonomous hydraulic supply, so-called, hydraulic actuators of integrated configuration, i.e. combination of a source of hydraulic power and its load in the single unit, are aimed at increasing control system reliability both owing to elimination of the pipelines connecting the actuator to the hydraulic supply source, and owing to avoidance of influence of other loads failure on the actuator operability. Their purpose is also to raise control system survivability by eliminating the long pipeline communications and their replacing for the electro-conductive power supply system, thus reducing the vulnerability of systems. The main reason for a delayed application of the hydraulic actuators in the cutting-edge aircrafts was that such aircrafts require hydraulic actuators of considerably higher power with considerable heat releases, which caused an unacceptable overheat of the hydraulic actuators. Positive and negative sides of the hydraulic actuators, their alternative options of increased reliability and survivability, local hydraulic systems as an advanced alternative to independent hydraulic actuators are considered.Now to use hydraulic actuators in mainline aircrafts is inexpedient since there are the unfairly large number of the problems reducing, first and last, safety of flights, with no essential weight and operational advantages. Still works to create competitive hydraulic actuators ought to be continued.Application of local hydraulic systems (LHS will allow us to reduce length of pressure head and drain pipelines and mass of pipelines, as well as to raise their general fail-safety and survivability. Application of the LHS principle will allow us to use a majority of steering drive advantages. It is necessary to allocate especially the following:- ease of meeting requirements for the non-local spread of the engine weight;- essentially reducing length and weight of

  6. RESEARCH ON THE SEROSITY DURING INJECTING CLAY GROUTS INTO THE OVERLYING ROCK STRATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨逾; 范学理; 杨伦; 赵德深; 刘文生

    2000-01-01

    On the basis of the mechanism study of injecting clay grouts into overlying strata, the clay grouts are researched in greater detail from three aspects. The flowing state of clay grouts in the strata——the pattern of different direction flowing around a point source is advanced and the flowing equation is put forward which is correspond with experiment result, and the corresponding mechanical model is set up which has its formulistic study, and the function of clay grouts is also discussed after the water in it has been lost, at the same time the concept of similar rock in effective supporting zone is given. It would draw great positive inspiration from what studied in this paper for studying on drawing down the surface subsidence by injecting.

  7. Grouting techniques for the unfavorable geological conditions of Xiang'an subsea tunnel in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dingli Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges during subsea tunnel construction is to seal the potential water inflow. The paper presents a case study of Xiang'an subsea tunnel in Xiamen, the first subsea tunnel in China. During its construction, different grades of weathered geomaterials were encountered, which was the challenging issue for this project. To deal with these unfavorable geological conditions, grouting was adopted as an important measure for ground treatment. The grouting mechanism is first illustrated by introducing a typical grouting process. Then the site-specific grouting techniques employed in the Xiang'an subsea tunnel are elaborated. By using this ground reinforcement technique, the tunneling safety of the Xiang'an subsea tunnel was guaranteed.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL FOR HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING GROUTING OPERATIONS IN THE R- AND P-REACTOR VESSELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2009-12-29

    The R- and P-reactor buildings were retired from service and are now being prepared for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D). D&D activities will consist primarily of immobilizing contaminated components and structures in a grout-like formulation. Aluminum corrodes very rapidly when it comes in contact with the alkaline grout materials and as a result produces hydrogen gas. To address this potential deflagration/explosion hazard, the Materials Science and Technology Directorate (MS&T) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to review and evaluate existing experimental and analytical studies of this issue to determine if any process constraints on the chemistry of the fill material and the fill operation are necessary. Various options exist for the type of grout material that may be used for D&D of the reactor vessels. The grout formulation options include ceramicrete (pH 6-8), low pH portland cement + silica fume grout (pH 10.4), or Portland cement grout (pH 12.5). The assessment concluded that either ceramicrete or the silica fume grout may be used to safely grout the P-reactor vessel. The risk of accumulation of a flammable mixture of hydrogen between the grout-air interface and the top of the reactor is very low. Portland cement grout, on the other hand, for the same range of process parameters does not provide a significant margin of safety against the accumulation of flammable gas in the reactor vessel during grouting operations in the P-reactor vessel. It is recommended that this grout not be utilized for this task. The R-reactor vessel contains significantly less aluminum and thus a Portland cement grout may be considered as well. For example, if the grout fill rate is less than 1 inch/min and the grout temperature is maintained at 70 C or less, the risk of hydrogen accumulation in the R-reactor vessel is very low for the Portland cement. Alternatively, if the grout fill rate is less than 0.5 inch/min and the grout is maintained

  9. The grouting handbook a step-by-step guide for foundation design and machinery installation

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Donald M

    2013-01-01

    Minimize loss of revenue and the downtime of critical assets by avoiding foundation cracking, poor bonds, and initial alignment changes. After their successful introduction as a maintenance material, machinery grouts are now being used for equipment placement in new construction. While certainly suitable for both markets and applications, a successful installation depends on proper grout selection, application, foundation preparation, and forming methods. Therefore, guidelines on their uses and limitations are needed for engineers and maintenance personnel. Based on 45 years of field experi

  10. Development of Freshwater Grout Subsequent to the Bell Canyon Tests (BCT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    southeastern New Mex ic o. 1his salt-f ree grout, desi gnated BCT- I F, was Placed in the field in 1 981 (Site andl V rc 1iia ar%- Design Val idatiton, or...boreholes and sealing shafts through and near underground facilities for disposal of high-level *" wastes; b) to emplace test plugs that will prevent...7. Grouts placed underground at the WIPP site during the early 1980’s

  11. CONSIDERATIONS FOR GROUT FORMULATIONS FOR FACILITY CLOSURES USING IN SITU STRATEGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, J.; Serrato, M.; Langton, C.; Long, T.; Blankenship, J.; Hannah, G.; Stubblefield, R.; Szilagyi, A.

    2010-08-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting in situ closures (entombment) at a large number of facilities throughout the complex. Among the largest closure actions currently underway are the closures of the P and R Reactors at the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. In these facilities, subgrade open spaces are being stabilized with grout; this ensures the long term structural integrity of the facilities and permanently immobilizes and isolates residual contamination. The large size and structural complexity of these facilities present a wide variety of challenges for the identification and selection of appropriate fill materials. Considerations for grout formulations must account for flowability, long term stability, set times, heat generation and interactions with materials within the structure. The large size and configuration of the facility necessitates that grout must be pumped from the exterior to the spaces to be filled, which requires that the material must retain a high degree of flowability to move through piping without clogging while achieving the required leveling properties at the pour site. Set times and curing properties must be controlled to meet operations schedules, while not generating sufficient heat to compromise the properties of the fill material. The properties of residual materials can result in additional requirements for grout formulations. If significant quantities of aluminum are present in the facility, common formulations of highly alkaline grouts may not be appropriate because of the potential for hydrogen generation with the resultant risks. SRS is developing specialized inorganic grout formulations that are designed to address this issue. One circum-neutral chemical grout formulation identified for initial consideration did not possess the proper chemical characteristics, having exceptionally short set times and high heat of hydration. Research efforts are directed toward developing grout formulations

  12. Grout and Glass Performance Maximizing the Loading of ORNL Tank Sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, M.W.; Mattus, A.J.; Spence, R.D.; Travis, J.R.

    1999-03-01

    Grouting and vitrification are currently two likely stabilization and solidification alternatives for radioactive and hazardous mixed wastes stored at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Grouting has been used to stabilize and solidify hazardous and low-level radioactive waste for decades. Vitrification has been developed as a high-level radioactive alternative for decades and has been under development recently as a mixed-waste alternative disposal technology.

  13. Field lysimeter studies for performance evaluation of grouted Hanford defense wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Last, G.V.; Serne, R.J.; LeGore, V.L.

    1995-02-01

    The Grout Waste Test Facility (GWTF) consisted of four large field lysimeters designed to test the leaching and migration rates of grout-solidified low-level radioactive wastes generated by Hanford Site operations. Each lysimeter was an 8-m-deep by 2-media closed-bottom caisson that was placed in the ground such that the uppermost rim remained just above grade. Two of these lysimeters were used; the other two remained empty. The two lysimeters that were used (A-1 and B-1) were backfilled with a two-layer soil profile representative of the proposed grout disposal site. The proposed grout disposal site (termed the Grout Treatment Facility Landfill) is located immediately east of the Hanford Site`s 200 East Area. This soil profile consisted of a coarse sand into which the grout waste forms were placed and covered by 4 m of a very fine sand. The A-1 lysimeter was backfilled in March 1985, with a grout-solidified phosphate/sulfate liquid waste from N Reactor decontamination and ion exchange resin regeneration. The B-1 lysimeter was backfilled in September 1985 and received a grout-solidified simulated cladding removal waste representative of waste generated from fuel reprocessing operations at the head end of the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) plant. Routine monitoring and leachate collection activities were conducted for over three years, terminating in January 1989. Drainage was collected sporadically between January 1989 and December 1992. Decontamination and decommissioning of these lysimeters during the summer of 1994, confirmed the presence of a 15 to 20-cm-long hairline crack in one of the bottom plate welds. This report discusses the design and construction of the GWTF, presents the routine data collected from this facility through January 1989 and subsequent data collected sporadically between 1989 and 1993, and provides a brief discussion concerning preliminary interpretation of the results.

  14. 反转压水反应堆热工水力特性初步研究%The Preliminary Research of Thermal-Hydraulic Behavior of an Inverted Pressurized Water Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杰; 于涛; 谢金森; 曾正魁; 秦勉

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, CFD analysis is carried out to study the single fuel element and the coolant channel flow field of the Inverted Pressurized Water Reactor (IPWR) using commercial CFD code FLUENT,which analyses and compares the thermal-hydraulic char- acteristics of different grid size. The calculation results show that the dimensions of the IPWR fuel cell has greater influence on the temperature and heat transfer characteristics of coolant, and the study provides preliminary reference and basis for the next design of the IPWR fuel cell,fuel assembly, reactor core and the thermal-hydraulic analysis.%采用CFD软件FLUENT对反转压水反应堆(IPWR:Inverted PressurizedWaterReactor)单个燃料元件及冷却剂通道流场进行了数值模拟计算,分析比较了不同栅格尺寸情况下的热工水力特性.计算结果表明,栅格尺寸对IPWR燃料元件温度及冷却剂流动传热特性有较大影响,为今后IPWR燃料栅元、组件、堆芯设计和热工水力分析提供了初步参考和依据.

  15. Evaluating temporal changes in hydraulic conductivities near karst-terrain dams: Dokan Dam (Kurdistan-Iraq)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafny, Elad; Tawfeeq, Kochar Jamal; Ghabraie, Kazem

    2015-10-01

    Dam sites provide an outstanding opportunity to explore dynamic changes in the groundwater flow regime because of the high hydraulic gradient rapidly induced in their surroundings. This paper investigates the temporal changes of the hydraulic conductivities of the rocks and engineered structures via a thorough analysis of hydrological data collected at the Dokam Dam, Iraq, and a numerical model that simulates the Darcian component of the seepage. Analysis of the data indicates increased seepage with time and suggests that the hydraulic conductivity of the rocks increased as the conductivity of the grout curtain decreased. Conductivity changes on the order of 10-8 m/s, in a 20-yr period were quantified using the numerical analysis. It is postulated that the changes in hydraulic properties in the vicinity of Dokan Dam are due to suspension of fine materials, interbedded in small fissures in the rocks, and re-settlement of these materials along the curtain. Consequently, the importance of the grout curtain to minimize the downstream seepage, not only as a result of the conductivity contrast with the rocks, but also as a barrier to suspended clay sediments, is demonstrated. The numerical analysis also helped us to estimate the proportion of the disconnected karstic conduit flow to the overall flow.

  16. Use of a Paraffin Based Grout to Stabilize Buried Beryllium and Other Wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gretchen Matthern; Duane Hanson; Neal Yancey; Darrell Knudson

    2005-12-01

    The long term durability of WAXFIXi, a paraffin based grout, was evaluated for in situ grouting of activated beryllium wastes in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA), a radioactive landfill at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, part of the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The evaluation considered radiological and biological mechanisms that could degrade the grout using data from an extensive literature search and previous tests of in situ grouting at the INL. Conservative radioactive doses for WAXFIX were calculated from the "hottest" (i.e., highest-activity) Advanced Test Reactor beryllium block in the SDA.. These results indicate that WAXFIX would not experience extensive radiation damage for many hundreds of years. Calculation of radiation induced hydrogen generation in WAXFIX indicated that grout physical performance should not be reduced beyond the effects of radiation dose on the molecular structure. Degradation of a paraffin-based grout by microorganisms in the SDA is possible and perhaps likely, but the rate of degradation will be at a slower rate than found in the literature reviewed. The calculations showed the outer 0.46 m (18 in.) layer of each monolith, which represents the minimum expected distance to the beryllium block, was calculated to require 1,000 to 3,600 years to be consumed. The existing data and estimations of biodegradation and radiolysis rates

  17. Use of jet grouting to create a low permeability horizontal barrier below an incinerator ash landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furth, A.J.; Burke, G.K. [Hayward Baker Inc., Odenton, MD (United States); Deutsch, W.L. Jr. [Roy F. Weston, Inc., West Chester, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The City of Philadelphia`s Division of Aviation (DOA) has begun construction of a new commuter runway, designated as Runway 8-26, at the Philadelphia International Airport. A portion of this runway will be constructed over a former Superfund site known as the Enterprise Avenue Landfill, which for many years was used to dispose of solid waste incinerator ash and other hazardous materials. The site was clay capped in the 1980`s, but in order for the DOA to use the site, additional remediation was needed to meet US EPA final closure requirements. One component of the closure plan included installation of a low permeability horizontal barrier above a very thin (approximately 0.61 to 0.91 meters) natural clay stratum which underlies an approximately 1020 m{sup 2} area of the landfill footprint so as to insure that a minimum 1.52 meter thick low permeability barrier exists beneath the entire 150,000 m{sup 2} landfill. The new barrier was constructed using jet grouting techniques to achieve remote excavation and replacement of the bottom 0.91 meters of the waste mass with a low permeability grout. The grout was formulated to meet the low permeability, low elastic modulus and compressive strength requirements of the project design. This paper will discuss the advantages of using jet grouting for the work and details the development of the grout mixture, modeling of the grout zone under load, field construction techniques, performance monitoring and verification testing.

  18. Application of Distributed Optical Fiber Sensing Technology in the Anomaly Detection of Shaft Lining in Grouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunde Piao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The rupture of the shaft lining caused by grouting has seriously undermined the safety in coal mining. Based on BOTDR distributed optical fiber sensing technology, this paper studied the layout method of optical fiber sensors and the anomaly detection method of the deformation and obtained the evolution law of shaft deformation triggered by grouting. The research results showed that the bonding problem of optical fiber sensors in damp environment could be effectively solved, by applying the binder consisting of sodium silicate and cement. Through BOTDR-based deformation detection, the real-time deformation of the shaft lining caused by grouting was immediately spotted. By comparing the respective strain of shaft lining deformation and concrete deformation, the risk range of shaft lining grouting was identified. With the additional strain increment of the shaft lining triggered by each process of grouting, the saturated condition of grouting volume in strata was analyzed, providing an important technical insight into the field construction and the safety of the shaft lining.

  19. 组合式增压液压缸在立车横梁卸荷中的应用%The Application of Combined Pressurized Hydraulic Cylinder Using in Vertical Lathe Beams Unloading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冠田

    2014-01-01

    应用组合式增压液压缸对重型双柱立车横梁进行卸荷,使刀架50%的重量作用在横梁卸荷梁上,以减小横梁导轨的比压及变形,从而保证机床几何精度检验G5项规定要求。%A combined pressurized hydraulic cylinder is used to unload heavy-duty double column vertical lathe beams. In that way, 50%weight will act on unloading beams, in order to reduce the beam rails the pressure and de-formation. All these can guarantee geometric tests matching for machines G5 entry requirements.

  20. Development of a technical approach for assessing environmental release and migration characteristics of Hanford Grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Treat, R. L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lokken, R. O. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    1985-09-01

    A Transportable Grout Facility is being constructed at the Hanford Site to immobilize low-level liquid radioactive waste in grout. This report addresses the grout and sediment testing methodology that is being developed at PNL to support assessments of the long-term performance of the disposed grout. Sediment is the soil that surrounds and underlies the disposed grout. A goal of these efforts is to certify tests for application at Hanford. An assessment of the long-term risks posed by grout requires data on the ability of grout to resist leaching of wastes contained within the grout. Additionally, data are needed on the ability of the sediments to retard the mobility of any wastes released from grout. The effects of aging on the ability of grout to retain waste must also be understood. Aging of grout can reduce or enhance the ability of the grout to contain waste. Credible predictive modeling of the fate of hazardous constituents in disposed grout for periods of up to 10,000 years would best be performed using comprehensive, coupled hydrologic and chemical reaction codes based on knowledge of the mechanisms that control waste release and mobility. It is not clear yet how soon such codes will be available or which types of waste disposal options they will apply to. In the interim we must be content with simpler and separate models that address individual reactions such as leaching and adsorption. One of these models, the Semi-Infinite Solid Diffusion Leach Model, is a popular release model used to describe the leaching of grouts and other cemented waste forms. Because others have found success in describing laboratory leach experiments with cemented waste forms using this leach model and because it appears likely to err on the conservative side for the Hanford application, we currently endorse the use of this model and its supporting experimental methodology for approximations of grout waste release rates. At the present time it is believed that the leachate from

  1. Hydraulic Presses,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-09

    and storage tanks of liquids and gases under the low and high pressure (bottom, frontal walls, shell, etc.), part of housings and skin/ sheathing of...and workers under the severe conditions, frequently manufacture from alloy chrome -nickel and chrome -molybdenum steel; the hardness of the working

  2. 液力透平非定常压力脉动的数值计算与分析%Simulation and analysis of unsteady pressure fluctuation in hydraulic turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨孙圣; 孔繁余; 张新鹏; 黄志攀; 成军

    2012-01-01

    液力透平内部流场的非定常压力脉动是影响机组运行稳定性的关键因素之一,为了研究液力透平内部压力脉动,采用流场分析软件CFX对液力透平内部流场进行了三维非定常数值模拟,通过设置监测点,得到了不同位置处的压力脉动结果,并对压力脉动进行了频域分析.结果表明,液力透平内部压力沿着流道逐渐减弱;蜗壳环形部分入口位置和割舍处压力脉动较小,割舍前端和蜗壳中部位置处压力脉动较大,压力脉动主频为转频的2倍;叶轮内部的压力脉动在液力透平各过流部件的脉动中最为强烈,最大压力脉动发生在叶轮中间位置,压力脉动主频为叶频的2倍;尾水管内的压力脉动沿着尾水管流道逐渐减弱,压力脉动主频与蜗壳内部的压力脉动主频相同,为转频的2倍.%Pressure pulsation of internal flow field within pump as turbine is one of the major factors affecting the stability of turbine unit. To research the unsteady pressure field in pump as turbine, computational fluid dynamics software CFX was adopted in the unsteady flow field analysis. Pressure pulsation results at various monitoring points were acquired and frequency analyses were performed based on these results. Results show that the pressure value decreases along the flow channel of hydraulic turbine. The pressure pulsations at volute cut water and the inlet of volute spiral development part are small. The main frequency of pressure pulsation in volute is two times of the impeller rotational frequency. The most intensive pressure pulsation of hydraulic part in hydraulic turbine is impeller and the most intensive location happens at the middle of impeller passage. The main frequency of impeller pressure pulsation is two times of the blade passing frequency. The pressure pulsation in outlet pipe gradually decreases along the pipe, and its main frequency of pressure pulsation is two times of the impeller rotational

  3. Direct Grout Stabilization of High Cesium Salt Waste: Salt Alternative Phase III Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.A.

    1998-12-07

    The direct grout alternative is a viable option for treatment/stabilization and disposal of salt waste containing Cs-137 concentrations of 1-3 Ci/gal. The composition of the direct grout salt solution is higher in sodium salts and contains up to a few hundred ppm Cs-137 more than the current reference salt solution. However it is still similar to the composition of the current reference salt solution. Consequently, the processing, setting, and leaching properties (including TCLP for Cr and Hg) of the direct grout and current saltstone waste forms are very similar. The significant difference between these waste solutions is that the high cesium salt solution will contain between 1 and 3 Curies of Cs-137 per gallon compared to a negligible amount in the current salt solution. This difference will require special engineering and shielding for a direct grout processing facility and disposal units to achieve acceptable radiation exposure conditions. The Cs-137 concentration in the direct grout salt solution will also affect the long-term curing temperature of the waste form since 4.84 Watts of energy are generated per 1000 Ci of Cs-137. The temperature rise of the direct grout during long-term curing has been calculated by A. Shaddy, SRTC.1 The effect of curing temperature on the strength, leaching and physical durability of the direct grout saltstone is described in this report. At the present time, long term curing at 90 degrees C appears to be unacceptable because of cracking which will affect the structural integrity as evaluated in the immersion test. (The experiments conducted in this feasibility study do not address the effect of cracking on leaching of contaminants other than Cr, Hg, and Cs.) No cracking of the direct grout or reference saltstone waste forms was observed for samples cured at 70 degrees C. At the present time the implications of waste form cracking at elevated curing temperatures has not been fully addressed. The direct grout falls within the

  4. Study of evaluation for grouting effect in a borehole; Yakueki chunyu koka hyoka gijutsu ni okeru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H.; Matsuo, T. [Fukuoka Municipal Transportation Bureau, Fukuoka (Japan); Yamauchi, Y.; Imanishi, H. [Osaka Soil Test, Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    For the foundation improvement works by grouting in a borehole, evaluation of grouting effect is one of the most important management items. The grouting design and works are sometimes reconsidered depending on the evaluation of grouting effect during the test injection. The purpose of the evaluation of grouting effect is to grasp the range of improvement and consolidation after the injection, and to judge and estimate the strength and permeability of the consolidation part. This paper describes the judgment method of the strength using PS logging results and borehole televiewer (BHTV) logging results. The reflection intensity (Ir) by the BHTV logging increased after the grouting, which showed a same tendency as that using S-wave and P-wave velocities (Vs and Vp) before and after the grouting. This was considered to demonstrate the grouting effect. A relation was obtained between the Vs, Vp and Ir before and after the grouting, which was expressed by following equation. Ir=0.143{times}Vs-70=0.093{times}Vp-110. The relation with the dynamic elastic coefficient (Ed) was also obtained as follow; Ir=0.0013{times}Ed. 9 figs.

  5. 流体属性可变的水压轴向柱塞泵压力流量模型%Pressure and flow characteristic modeling of water hydraulic axial piston pump based on variable fluid properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟江; 周华

    2013-01-01

    Considering cavitation due to the high saturation vapor pressure of water and main fluid properties variation-with pressure, a mathematical model of the dynamic pressure and flow characteristics of a water hydraulic axial piston pump was built. The model was programmed in a MATLAB/Simulink platform and a prototype of water hydraulic pump was simulated as an example. The pressure,flow and cavitation characteristics of the prototype were analyzed based on simulation results. The investigation shows that the average discharge flow of the pump will decrease, obvious cavitation will occur in the cylinder chambers that are in suction process,flow and pressure ripple will be severe when the inlet pressure is low. As the inlet pressure increases, the cavitation in the cylinder chambers will reduce and only occur in transition regions between discharge and suction. The internal leakage of the pump is mainly due to the gap flow of the slipper/swash plate combination and the cylinder block/valve plate combination, and the effects of the piston/cylinder-block can be ignored.%考虑了由于水的高饱和蒸汽压引起的空化及水的主要流体属性随压力变化的特性,建立了水压轴向柱塞泵的压力流量特性模型.以研制的水压轴向柱塞泵样机为例在MATLAB/Simulink环境下编程仿真,分析了泵的压力、流量和空化等特性.研究结果表明:泵入口压力较低时会引起排水流量的下降,在吸水区的缸体柱塞腔内出现明显的空化,泵出口的流量脉动和压力脉动大幅增加;提高泵的入口压力能够减小缸体柱塞腔内的空化程度,此时空化主要发生在由排水向吸水变换的瞬间;泵的内泄漏主要以滑靴副和配流副的泄露为主,柱塞副的泄露可以忽略.

  6. Pressure Control Characteristics of Main Transmission System of Hydraulic Transmission Wind Energy Conversion System%液压型风力发电机组主传动系统压力控制特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾超; 叶壮壮; 孔祥东; 廖利辉

    2015-01-01

    Fixed displacement pump-variable displacement motor is the main drive system of hy-draulic type wind turbine,the system is controlled by a variable displacement mechanism after grid-connected.To study the pressure control characteristics,a mathematical model was built and the trans-fer function describing the pressure to the position of the motor swash plate was derived.Compared with the identified model obtained from data identification in MATLAB system,the built model was verified,which laid theoretical and test foundation for further maximum power point tracking(MPPT) based on pressure control in hydraulic type wind turbine.%液压型风力发电机组主传动系统为定量泵变量马达闭式系统,风机并网后依靠变量马达变排量机构对系统进行控制。研究了系统压力控制特性,建立了并网后主传动系统数学模型,得出了系统压力对马达斜盘摆角的传递函数。利用 MATLAB 辨识工具箱,根据实验数据,对系统压力控制模型进行数据辨识,并与理论模型进行对比,验证了理论模型的准确性,为液压型风力发电机组通过压力控制实现最佳功率追踪控制奠定理论与实验基础。

  7. Design of a laboratory hydraulic device for testing of hydraulic pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Máchal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution deals with solves problem of research of testing device to monitor of hydrostatic pumps durability about dynamic loading under laboratory conditions. When carrying out the design of testing device are based on load characteristics of tractor hydraulic circuit, the individual characteristics of hydraulic components and performed calculations. Load characteristics on the tractors CASE IH Magnum 310, JOHN DEERE 8100, ZETOR FORTERRA 114 41 and Fendt 926 Vario were measured. Design of a hydraulic laboratory device is based on the need for testing new types of hydraulic pumps or various types of hydraulic fluids. When creating of hydraulic device we focused on testing hydraulic pumps used in agricultural and forestry tractors. Proportional pressure control valve is an active member of the hydraulic device, which provides change of a continuous control signal into relative pressure of operating fluid. The advantage of a designed hydraulic system is possibility of simulation of dynamic operating loading, which is obtained by measurement under real conditions, and thereby creates laboratory conditions as close to real conditions as possible. The laboratory device is constructed at the Department of Transport and Handling, Faculty of Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra.

  8. Analysis on Seepage Field of Grouting Circle in Subsea Tunnel Based on Fluid-solid Coupling%基于流固耦合的海底隧道注浆圈渗流场影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪优; 王星华; 刘建华; 陈俊儒

    2012-01-01

    Taking fissured body of rock as the equivalent continuum, the seepage model of subsea tunnel was established and the characteristics of seepage field were analyzed. By case-study of the Subsea Tunnel Project of the Jiaozhou Bay, the law of influence of grouting circles on the seepage field was analyzed. The calculation results show as follows: The principle "to block mainly, to emit limitedly" should be taken in waterproofing amd drainage of subsea tunnel; the water plugging effect of the grouting circle is related to the thickness of the grouting circle, and the thickness of the grounting circle is in direct proportion to the permeability coefficient of the grouting circle; when the ratio between the permeability coefficient of rocks and the permeability coefficient of grouting consolidation circle is greater than 100 and the thickness of grouting circle is not smaller than10m. neither the permeability coefficient of grouting circle nor the thickness of grouting circle affects the volume of tunnel gushing water significantly; the larger the difference between the volume of tunnel gushing vatei amd the controlled drainage volume, the greater the external water pressure on tunnel lining; the grouting circle can be used to block seepage paths of groundwater so as to significantly reduce the external water pressure on. turn-nel lining; in the stage of free drainage, tunnel lining does not bear any water pressure and the volume of gush-ing water is equal to the volume of controlled drainage.%将存在裂隙的岩体视为等效连续介质,建立海底隧道稳定渗流分析计算模型,并对渗流场相关特性进行探讨;结合青岛胶州湾海底隧道工程计算注浆圈对渗流场影响.结果表明:海底隧道防排水应采取“以堵为主,限量排放”的原则;注浆圈堵水效果与其厚度相关,且注浆圈厚度与其渗透系数成正比.但当围岩渗透系数与注浆加固圈渗透系数之比大于100,且注浆圈厚度不小于10

  9. Modeling and Simulation of Hydraulic Engine Mounts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Shanzhong; Marshall McNea

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic engine mounts are widely used in automotive powertrains for vibration isolation.A lumped mechanical parameter model is a traditional approach to model and simulate such mounts.This paper presents a dynamical model of a passive hydraulic engine mount with a double-chamber,an inertia track,a decoupler,and a plunger.The model is developed based on analogy between electrical systems and mechanical-hydraulic systems.The model is established to capture both low and high frequency dynatmic behaviors of the hydraulic mount.The model will be further used to find the approximate pulse responses of the mounts in terms of the force transmission and top chamber pressure.The close form solution from the simplifiod linear model may provide some insight into the highly nonlinear behavior of the mounts.Based on the model,computer simulation has been carried out to study dynamic performance of the hydraulic mount.

  10. Mechatronic Hydraulic Drive with Regulator, Based on Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burennikov, Y.; Kozlov, L.; Pyliavets, V.; Piontkevych, O.

    2017-06-01

    Mechatronic hydraulic drives, based on variable pump, proportional hydraulics and controllers find wide application in technological machines and testing equipment. Mechatronic hydraulic drives provide necessary parameters of actuating elements motion with the possibility of their correction in case of external loads change. This enables to improve the quality of working operations, increase the capacity of machines. The scheme of mechatronic hydraulic drive, based on the pump, hydraulic cylinder, proportional valve with electrohydraulic control and programmable controller is suggested. Algorithm for the control of mechatronic hydraulic drive to provide necessary pressure change law in hydraulic cylinder is developed. For the realization of control algorithm in the controller artificial neural networks are used. Mathematical model of mechatronic hydraulic drive, enabling to create the training base for adjustment of artificial neural networks of the regulator is developed.

  11. Analysis on Performance and Fault Relation for Automatic Pressure Keeping Weight Type Hydraulic Control Butterfly Valve%自动保压重锤式液控蝶阀性能与故障关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈培兴; 狄翠霞

    2012-01-01

    自动保压重锤式液控蝶阀采用二阶段关闭,与普通阀门有所不同.简单介绍蝶阀可能出现的主要故障及其原因,通过具体实例说明如何根据二阶段液控蝶阀的最主要性能指标即开阀时间、快关时间、慢关时间的变化及相互之间的关系排除故障.%Because two-stage closing is adopted in automatic pressure keeping weight type hydraulic control butterfly valve, it is different from common valves. The main faults and causes of the butterfly valve were introduced. Through an example, it was shown that how to remove faults according to the main performance indexes changes of the hydraulic controlled butterfly valve and their mutual relations.

  12. Status and Trends of Thermal-Hydraulic System Codes for Nuclear Power Plants With Pressurized Water Reactors%压水堆核电站热工水力系统程序的研发现状与趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志弢; 秦本科; 解衡; 王炳华

    2009-01-01

    比较分析了目前世界上典型的压水堆核电站热工水力系统程序的研发历程、发展现状、应用范围,着重指出了最佳估算、程序耦合、程序评估在热工水力系统程序研发中的重要作用,阐述了各国热工水力系统程序研发模式对我国自主创新的借鉴意义.%Research and development of thermal-hydraulic system codes for nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors were analyzed on their history, status and application ranges. The important roles of best-estimate methodology, codes coupling and codes qualification were pointed out. The development models of thermal-hydraulic system codes around the world provide references to China's self-innovation.

  13. Hydraulic fracture during epithelial stretching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares, Laura; Vincent, Romaric; Zalvidea, Dobryna; Campillo, Noelia; Navajas, Daniel; Arroyo, Marino; Trepat, Xavier

    2015-03-01

    The origin of fracture in epithelial cell sheets subject to stretch is commonly attributed to excess tension in the cells’ cytoskeleton, in the plasma membrane, or in cell-cell contacts. Here, we demonstrate that for a variety of synthetic and physiological hydrogel substrates the formation of epithelial cracks is caused by tissue stretching independently of epithelial tension. We show that the origin of the cracks is hydraulic; they result from a transient pressure build-up in the substrate during stretch and compression manoeuvres. After pressure equilibration, cracks heal readily through actomyosin-dependent mechanisms. The observed phenomenology is captured by the theory of poroelasticity, which predicts the size and healing dynamics of epithelial cracks as a function of the stiffness, geometry and composition of the hydrogel substrate. Our findings demonstrate that epithelial integrity is determined in a tension-independent manner by the coupling between tissue stretching and matrix hydraulics.

  14. Evaluation of TASS/SMR with steady state analysis of high temperature/high pressure thermal-hydraulic test facility (VISTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Dong Ju; Choi, Yong Won; Park, Chang Hwan; Lee, Un Chul [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Young Dong; Lee, Kyu Hyung; Kim, Hee Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The TASS/SMR code is the revised version of the TASS code, which is the result of code development effort of KAERI since 1997, for safety analysis of NPP coolant system. Lately, it is scheduled to evaluate thermal-hydraulic phenomena during several transient periods of SMART-P with TASS/SMR. To establish the pertinence of the calculative results of TASS/SMR, there should be a process of validation and verification of TASS/SMR. The objective of this study is validating the numerical capability and reliability of TASS/SMR with steady state analysis of VISTA (Experimental Verification by Integral Simulation of Transient and Accidents) that was designed to simulate SMART-P.

  15. Formulation and Analysis of Compliant Grouted Waste Forms for SHINE Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, William [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heltemes, Thad A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Youker, Amanda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakhtang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Optional grouted waste forms were formulated for waste streams generated during the production of 99Mo to be compliant with low-level radioactive waste regulations. The amounts and dose rates of the various waste form materials that would be generated annually were estimated and used to determine the effects of various waste processing options, such as the of number irradiation cycles between uranium recovery operations, different combinations of waste streams, and removal of Pu, Cs, and Sr from waste streams for separate disposition (which is not evaluated in this report). These calculations indicate that Class C-compliant grouted waste forms can be produced for all waste streams. More frequent uranium recovery results in the generation of more chemical waste, but this is balanced by the fact that waste forms for those waste streams can accommodate higher waste loadings, such that similar amounts of grouted waste forms are required regardless of the recovery schedule. Similar amounts of grouted waste form are likewise needed for the individual and combined waste streams. Removing Pu, Cs, and Sr from waste streams lowers the waste form dose significantly at times beyond about 1 year after irradiation, which may benefit handling and transport. Although these calculations should be revised after experimentally optimizing the grout formulations and waste loadings, they provide initial guidance for process development.

  16. Field application of innovative grouting agents for in situ stabilization of buried waste sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, G.G.; Farnsworth, R.K. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents field applications for two innovative grouting agents that were used to in situ stabilize buried waste sites, via jet grouting. The two grouting agents include paraffin and a proprietary iron oxide based cement grout called TECT. These materials were tested in specially designed cold test pits that simulate buried transuranic waste at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The field demonstrations were performed at the INEL in an area referred to as the Cold Test Pit, which is adjacent to the INEL Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). At the RWMC, 56,000 m{sup 3} of transuranic (TRU) waste is co-mingled with over 170,000 m{sup 3} of soil in shallow land burial. Improving the confinement of this waste is one of the options for final disposition of this waste. Using jet-grouting technology to inject these materials into the pore spaces of buried waste sites results in the creation of buried monolithic waste forms that simultaneously protect the waste from subsidence, while eliminating the migratory potential of hazardous and radioactive contaminants in the waste.

  17. Grout performance in support of in situ stabilization/solidification of the GAAT tank sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kauschinger, J. L. [Ground Environmental Services, Inc., Alpharetta, GA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The Gunite{trademark} and associated tanks (GAATs) were constructed at ORNL between 1943 and 1951 and were used for many years to collect radioactive and chemical wastes. These tanks are currently inactive. Varying amounts of the sludge were removed and disposed of through the Hydrofracture Program. Thus, some tanks are virtually empty, while others still contain significant amounts of sludge and supernatant. In situ grouting of the sludges in the tanks using multi-point injection (MPI{trademark}), a patented, proprietary technique, is being investigated as a low-cost alternative to (1) moving the sludges to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) for later solidification and disposal, (2) ex situ grouting of the sludges followed by either disposal back in the tanks or containerizing and disposal elsewhere, and (3) vitrification of the sludges. The paper discusses the chemical characteristics of the GAATs and the type of chemical surrogate that was used during the leachability tests. T his is followed by the experimental work, which, consisted of scope testing and sensitivity testing. The scope testing explored the rheology of the proposed jetting slurries and the settling properties of the proposed grouts using sand-water mixes for the wet sludge. After establishing a jetting slurry and grout with an acceptable rheology and settling properties, the proposed in situ grout formulation was subjected to sensitivity testing for variations in the formulation.

  18. Hydraulic Calculation and Purging Coefficient Determination for High Pressure Steam Network%高压蒸汽管网的水力学计算及吹扫参数确定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁良正; 贾金洁

    2016-01-01

    Exampled with a large scale of coal-to-natural gas plant, hydraulic and purging parameters for high pressure and superheated steam pipe network were studied in this article. By using chemical process simulation software ASPEN HYSIS, the model of steam pipeline net was established and then it was calculated, with which the method based on quantitative analysis for calculating steam purging parameters was found.%以某大型煤制天然气项目为例,对高压过热蒸汽管网的水力学及吹扫参数进行研究。采用化工流程模拟软件ASPEN HYSYS对蒸汽管网进行建模计算,找到了一种定量分析计算蒸汽吹扫参数的方法。

  19. Low-pH injection grout for deep repositories. Summary report from a co-operation project between NUMO (Japan), Posiva (Finland) and SKB (Sweden)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, Anders [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Sievaenen, Ursula [JP-Suoraplan Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    2005-06-01

    fineness, were modified in the present experiments. 5. Fly ash system was ruled out at an early stage due to expected problems concerning the availability and stability of the raw material properties as well as expected difficulties with the setting time of the mixes. The grouting related properties tested in laboratory were penetrability, bleeding, early age shear strength viscosity and yield value. For some selected mixes fluidity was also measured. The key uncertainties identified with respect to the use of cement in a repository are related to the uncertainties in the estimation of the range and effect of the pH-plume on the rock, as well as the possible detrimental effects on bentonite due to cement/bentonite interaction. In the present study the potential effects on the repository performance and the rock have been evaluated based on the composition of the materials and leaching tests, expert judgement and some simple mass balance and diffusion calculations. A first review of the potential effects of organic cement additives on the radionuclide mobility has also been done, although the preference at the outset of the project was to develop an injection grout without organic additives. Also the long-term durability of the low-pH cementitious material and the long-term phase changes/degradation and leaching of the grout is not yet known and need to be evaluated. The non-cementitious candidate materials were investigated regarding basic properties and long-term safety aspects in order to form the basis for the decision whether silica sol can be used in the deep repository and whether periclase (MgO) should be further investigated. In a small field-test it was also investigated if the penetration of silica sol can be predicted based on hydraulic tests, transmissivity and hydraulic aperture. Silica sol, colloidal silica, is a stable dispersion of discrete non porous particles of amorphous silicon dioxide. Rock grouting with silica sol is a relatively new application

  20. HYDRAULICS, LOUISA COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic analysis for estimating flood stages for a flood insurance study. It...

  1. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  2. Hydraulics and pneumatics a technician's and engineer's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Parr, Andrew

    1991-01-01

    Hydraulics and Pneumatics: A Technician's and Engineer's Guide provides an introduction to the components and operation of a hydraulic or pneumatic system. This book discusses the main advantages and disadvantages of pneumatic or hydraulic systems.Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of industrial prime movers. This text then examines the three different types of positive displacement pump used in hydraulic systems, namely, gear pumps, vane pumps, and piston pumps. Other chapters consider the pressure in a hydraulic system, which can be quickly and easily controlled

  3. Evaluation of In Situ Grouting as a Potential Remediation Method for the Hanford Central Plateau Deep Vadose Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Pierce, Eric M.; Nimmons, Michael J.; Mattigod, Shas V.

    2011-01-11

    The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau report identifies in situ grouting as a potential remediation technology for the deep vadose zone and includes a planned effort to evaluate in situ grouting to provide information for future feasibility studies. This report represents the first step in this evaluation effort.

  4. 一体式电液复合制动系统轮缸压力的精细调节%Wheel cylinder pressure fine regulation for integrated electro-hydraulic brake system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杨; 孙泽昌; 邹小琼; 王猛

    2015-01-01

    Wheel cylinder pressure fine regulation was studied for electro‐hydraulic brake system with an integrated master cylinder .Pressure regulation process and system structural characteristics were analyzed .The impact of brake disc gap on pressure regulation was studied ,pressure control dividing point of non‐linear and linear region was determined ,using the ladder method and interpolation table method to estimate cylinder pressure ,also the impact of w heel cylinder piston hysteresis characteris‐tics on linear region was considered ,and then the segmented‐ladder‐lookup fine regulation strategy was developed .Hardware in the loop simulation bench was built using xPC target to verify the pres‐sure regulation performance by sine target pressure test and comparisons of single increase‐decrease interpolation table strategy and the proposed one .Test results show that the wheel cylinder pressure could keep up with the target curve ,and the proposed system structure and pressure regulation meth‐od could meet the pressure control requirements .%针对基于一体式主缸的电液复合制动系统,进行了轮缸压力的精细调节研究,分析了一体式复合制动系统轮缸压力调节过程及其结构特点。探讨了制动间隙对盘式制动器轮缸压力调节的影响,确定了轮缸压力控制的非线性区及线性区,采用阶梯估算和基本插值数表的方法对轮缸压力进行估计,并考虑了线性区轮缸活塞运动迟滞特性对插值数表的影响,综合上述因素制定了分段阶梯查表的轮缸压力精细调节策略。采用xPC target搭建了硬件在环仿真台架,进行了正弦曲线跟随和与单一增/减压数表法的对比试验。试验结果表明:轮缸压力能够实时跟随目标曲线变化,所提出的结构及控制方法能够满足轮缸压力精细调节的控制需求。

  5. An evaluation of calculation procedures affecting the constituent factors of equivalent circulating density for drilling hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, William J.

    1996-12-31

    This Dr. ing. thesis covers a study of drilling hydraulics offshore. The purpose of drilling hydraulics is to provide information about downhole pressure, suitable surface pump rates, the quality of hole cleaning and optimum tripping speeds during drilling operations. Main fields covered are drilling hydraulics, fluid characterisation, pressure losses, and equivalent circulating density. 197 refs., 23 figs., 22 tabs.

  6. Assessing the influence of jet-grouting underpinning on the nearby buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aleksandra Chepurnova

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the underpinning-induced ground movement due to jet-grouting. Jet-grouting technique can cause distortions as a result of an inaccurate processing sequence and/or errors made at different stages of work execution. The aim of this paper is to determine the minimum value of such movement on the basis of the findings obtained at two similar construction sites located in the Historical Center of Moscow, considering that the maximum value is usually unpredictable. Numerical simulation of the process of soil eroding agrees well with the observational data at the current stage. It was found that the minimum value of deformations (only settlement was considered in this study) due to jet-grouting is no less than 2e3 mm. By contrast, the negative scenario of deformation due to foundation underpinning is clearly demonstrated. Also, this paper provides some general solutions for excavation supporting system as well as for underpinning design.

  7. The radiation stability of ground granulated blast furnace slag/ordinary Portland cement grouts containing organic admixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, J.D.; Fairhall, G.A. [British Nuclear Fuels, Sellafield (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    At the British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL) Sellafield reprocessing plant in the United Kingdom, cement grouts based on ground granulated blast-furnace slag (BFS) and ordinary Portland cement (OPC) are used extensively for immobilizing radioactive wastes. These grouts have excluded organic admixtures in order to reduce process complexity and uncertainties, regarding the performance of organic admixtures with BFS/OPC grouts, particularly under irradiation. This study has investigated the effects of sulfonated melamine formaldehyde and naphthalene condensates on grout properties. The results show grout settlement and strengths increase on addition of additives, with the additives remaining largely in the pore solution. Under irradiation the additives breakdown liberating hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Strength and product dimensions are unaffected by irradiation.

  8. Analysis on contaminants transport process through clay-solidified grouting curtain in MSW landfills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yong-gui; ZHANG Ke-neng; HUANG Chang-bo

    2005-01-01

    Clay-solidified grouting curtains are commonly used for remediation by containment or pollution prevention, in addition to their use as a barrier to water flow in municipal solid waste(MSW) landfills. A hydrological model.of water flow and a hydrodynamic model of contaminant are presented to simulate the migration of leachate through clay-solidified grouting curtain in MSW landfills, with particular attention paid to the role of diffusive and adsorptive fluxes in contaminant transport. The models were applied to simulate the sensitivity of the curtain's behavior to changes in parameters, such as thickness, depth, permeability coefficient, diffusion coefficient,resistance coefficient and concentration, and also to demonstrate the contaminant distribution on the evolution of travel time and offset distance of clay-solidified grouting curtain in landfills. It is found that a part of leachate components stays or is retarded in clay-solidified grouting curtain by precipitate or exchange, the retention rate is closely related to composition of clay-solidified grouting curtain, more than 800%, and the maximum occurs at the cementclay ratio of 2: 4 under experimental conditions. Contamination distribution is variable on travel time and offset distance, the highest concentration takes place where the contamination intensity is nearest to the pollution resource or takes place at early middle period of transport, and the pollutant attenuates gradually. The results indicate that claysolidified grouting curtain with a proper thickness, a low permeability coefficient and a high resistance coefficient might serve as a sufficiently effective vertical barrier against leachate seepage and contamination migration in MSWlandfills.

  9. Hybrid life cycle assessment comparison of colloidal silica and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Patricia M; Spatari, Sabrina; Cucura, Jeffrey

    2013-04-15

    Site remediation involves balancing numerous costs and benefits but often neglects the environmental impacts over the entire project life cycle. Life cycle assessment (LCA) offers a framework for inclusion of global environmental "systems-level" decision metrics in combination with technological and cost analysis. We compare colloidal silica (CS) and cement grouted soil barrier remediation technologies for soils affected by low level radionuclides at a U.S. Superfund site using hybrid LCA methods. CS is a new, high performance grouting material installed using permeation grouting techniques. Cement, a more traditional grouting material, is typically installed using jet grouting techniques. Life cycle impacts were evaluated using the US EPA TRACI 2 model. Results show the highest life cycle environmental impacts for the CS barrier occur during materials production and transportation to the site. In general, the life cycle impacts for the cement barrier were dominated by materials production; however, in the extreme scenario the life cycle impacts were dominated by truck transportation of spoils to a distant, off-site radioactive waste facility. It is only in the extreme scenario tested in which soils are transported by truck (Option 2) that spoils waste transport dominates LCIA results. Life cycle environmental impacts for both grout barriers were most sensitive to resource input requirements for manufacturing volumes and transportation. Uncertainty associated with the efficacy of new technology such as CS over its required design life indicates that barrier replacement could increase its life cycle environmental impact above that of the cement barrier. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nuclear waste viewed in a new light; a synchrotron study of uranium encapsulated in grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stitt, C.A., E-mail: Camilla.stitt@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Hart, M., E-mail: oxford.mike@gmail.com [Diamond Light Source Limited, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Fermi Avenue, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Harker, N.J., E-mail: nicholas.harker@esrf.fr [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Hallam, K.R., E-mail: k.r.hallam@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); MacFarlane, J., E-mail: james.macfarlane@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Banos, A., E-mail: antonis.banos@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Paraskevoulakos, C., E-mail: cp13846@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Butcher, E., E-mail: ed.j.butcher@nnl.co.uk [National Nuclear Laboratory, Seascale, Cumbria CA20 1 PG (United Kingdom); Padovani, C., E-mail: cristiano.padovani@nda.gov.uk [Radioactive Waste Management Limited (formerly the Radioactive Waste Management Directorate of the UK Nuclear Decommissioning Authority), Curie Avenue, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0RH (United Kingdom); Scott, T.B., E-mail: t.b.scott@bristol.ac.uk [Interface Analysis Centre, H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-21

    Highlights: • Unirradiated Magnox uranium was encapsulated in grout and exposed to hydrogen. • Synchrotron X-ray tomography imaged the uranium corrosion before and after exposure. • Synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction identified the corrosion products; UH{sub 3} and UO{sub 2}. • Uranium encapsulated in grout oxidised via the anoxic U + H{sub 2}O regime. • Successful in-situ, non-invasive examination of pyrophoric and radioactive material - Abstract: How do you characterise the contents of a sealed nuclear waste package without breaking it open? This question is important when the contained corrosion products are potentially reactive with air and radioactive. Synchrotron X-rays have been used to perform micro-scale in-situ observation and characterisation of uranium encapsulated in grout; a simulation for a typical intermediate level waste storage packet. X-ray tomography and X-ray powder diffraction generated both qualitative and quantitative data from a grout-encapsulated uranium sample before, and after, deliberately constrained H{sub 2} corrosion. Tomographic reconstructions provided a means of assessing the extent, rates and character of the corrosion reactions by comparing the relative densities between the materials and the volume of reaction products. The oxidation of uranium in grout was found to follow the anoxic U + H{sub 2}O oxidation regime, and the pore network within the grout was observed to influence the growth of uranium hydride sites across the metal surface. Powder diffraction analysis identified the corrosion products as UO{sub 2} and UH{sub 3}, and permitted measurement of corrosion-induced strain. Together, X-ray tomography and diffraction provide means of accurately determining the types and extent of uranium corrosion occurring, thereby offering a future tool for isolating and studying the reactions occurring in real full-scale waste package systems.

  11. Experimental studies on the physico-mechanical properties of jet-grout columns in sandy and silty soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Muge K.

    2016-04-01

    The term of ground improvement states to the modification of the engineering properties of soils. Jet-grouting is one of the grouting methods among various ground improvement techniques. During jet-grouting, different textures of columns can be obtained depending on the characteristics of surrounding subsoil as well as the adopted jet-grouting system for each site is variable. In addition to textural properties, strength and index parameters of jet-grout columns are highly affected by the adjacent soil. In this study, the physical and mechanical properties of jet-grout columns constructed at two different sites in silty and sandy soil conditions were determined by laboratory tests. A number of statistical relationships between physical and mechanical properties of soilcrete were established in this study in order to investigate the dependency of numerous variables. The relationship between qu and γd is more reliable for sandy soilcrete than that of silty columns considering the determination coefficients. Positive linear relationships between Vp and γd with significantly high determination coefficients were obtained for the jet-grout columns in silt and sand. The regression analyses indicate that the P-wave velocity is a very dominant parameter for the estimation of physical and mechanical properties of jet-grout columns and should be involved during the quality control of soilcrete material despite the intensive use of uniaxial compressive strength test. Besides, it is concluded that the dry unit weight of jet-grout column is a good indicator of the efficiency of employed operational parameters during jet-grouting.

  12. Final report on key comparison EURAMET.M.P-K13 in the range 50 MPa to 500 MPa of hydraulic gauge pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocas, I.; Sabuga, W.; Bergoglio, M.; Eltaweel, A.; Korasie, C.; Farar, P.; Setina, J.; Waller, B.; Durgut, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The regional key comparison EURAMET.M.P-K13 for pressure measurements in liquid media from 50 MPa to 500 MPa was piloted by the TÜBİTAK UME Pressure Group Laboratories, Turkey. The transfer standard was a DH-Budenberg pressure balance with a free deformation piston-cylinder unit of 2 mm2 nominal effective area. Six laboratories from the EURAMET region, namely PTB, INRIM, SMU, IMT, NPL and UME, and two laboratories from the AFRIMETS region, NIS and NMISA participated in this comparison. Participant laboratories and countries are given in the bottom of the page. PTB participated in this comparison to provide a link to corresponding 500 MPa CCM key comparison CCM.P-K13. The results of all participants excepting NMISA and NPL were found to be consistent with the reference value of the actual comparison and of CCM.P-K13 within their claimed uncertainties (k = 2), at all pressures. Compared in pairs all laboratories with exception of NPL and NMISA demonstrate their agreement with each other within the expanded uncertainties (k = 2) at all pressures. The results are therefore considered to be satisfactory. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. Bolt-Grout Interactions in Elastoplastic Rock Mass Using Coupled FEM-FDM Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debasis Deb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical procedure based on finite element method (FEM and finite difference method (FDM for the analysis of bolt-grout interactions are introduced in this paper. The finite element procedure incorporates elasto-plastic concepts with Hoek and Brown yield criterion and has been applied for rock mass. Bolt-grout interactions are evaluated based on finite difference method and are embedded in the elasto-plastic procedures of FEM. The experimental validation of the proposed FEM-FDM procedures and numerical examples of a bolted tunnel are provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method for practical applications.

  14. Quantitative modelling of the degradation processes of cement grout. Project CEMMOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandia, Fidel; Galindez, Juan-Manuel; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge (Amphos21 Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    2010-05-15

    Grout cement is planned to be used in the sealing of water-conducting fractures in the deep geological storage of spent nuclear fuel waste. The integrity of such cementitious materials should be ensured in a time framework of decades to a hundred of years as mimum. However, their durability must be quantified since grout degradation may jeopardize the stability of other components in the repository due to the potential release of hyperalkaline plumes. The model prediction of the cement alteration has been challenging in the last years mainly due to the difficulty to reproduce the progressive change in composition of the Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (CSH) compounds as the alteration proceeds. In general, the data obtained from laboratory experiments show a rather similar dependence between the pH of pore water and the Ca-Si ratio of the CSH phases. The Ca-Si ratio decreases as the CSH is progressively replaced by Si-enriched phases. An elegant and reasonable approach is the use of solid solution models even keeping in mind that CSH phases are not crystalline solids but gels. An additional obstacle is the uncertainty in the initial composition of the grout to be considered in the calculations because only the recipe of low-pH clinker is commonly provided by the manufacturer. The hydration process leads to the formation of new phases and, importantly, creates porosity. A number of solid solution models have been reported in literature. Most of them assumed a strong non-ideal binary solid solution series to account for the observed changes in the Ca-Si ratios in CSH. However, it results very difficult to reproduce the degradation of the CSH in the whole Ca-Si range of compositions (commonly Ca/Si=0.5-2.5) by considering only two end-members and fixed nonideality parameters. Models with multiple non-ideal end-members with interaction parameters as a function of the solid composition can solve the problem but these can not be managed in the existing codes of reactive

  15. COMPUTATIONAL FLOW RATE FEEDBACK AND CONTROL METHOD IN HYDRAULIC ELEVATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Bing; Ma Jien; Lin Jianjie

    2005-01-01

    The computational flow rate feedback and control method, which can be used in proportional valve controlled hydraulic elevators, is discussed and analyzed. In a hydraulic elevator with this method, microprocessor receives pressure information from the pressure transducers and computes the flow rate through the proportional valve based on pressure-flow conversion real time algorithm. This hydraulic elevator is of lower cost and energy consumption than the conventional closed loop control hydraulic elevator whose flow rate is measured by a flow meter. Experiments are carried out on a test rig which could simulate the load of hydraulic elevator. According to the experiment results, the means to modify the pressure-flow conversion algorithm are pointed out.

  16. Hydraulic test for evaluation of hydrophone VSP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuuchi, Satoshi; Koide, Kaoru [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Toki, Gifu (Japan). Tono Geoscience Center

    1997-12-01

    This hydraulic test was carried out at the test site of Tono Geoscience Center, Mizunami-shi, Gifu Pref. in order to evaluate the reliability of the hydraulic conductivity estimated from hydrophone VSP experiment. From March to April 1997, we carried out measurements of pore-water pressure at five depths and permeability tests at seven depths down to G.L.-300m, within a borehole drilled in granitic rock. We compared the results of hydraulic test with hydrophone VSP experiment on condition that a single open fracture existed, and we obtained two notable results. First, for the granitic rock at which a single open fracture was found by BTV and also detected by hydrophone VSP experiment, the hydraulic conductivity was 1.54 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec, while for the same granitic rock at which another single open fracture was found by BTV but not detected by hydrophone VSP experiment, the hydraulic conductivity was less than 6 x 10{sup -10} cm/sec. Second, we converted the hydraulic conductivity of 1.54 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec which was obtained in a hydraulic test section of length 2.5 m into an equivalent value for a single open fracture of width 1 mm. The converted value (3.8 x 10{sup -4} cm/sec) was similar to the hydraulic conductivity estimated from hydrophone VSP experiment. In conclusion, the hydraulic test result shows that hydrophone VSP is useful to estimate an approximate hydraulic conductivity of a single open fracture. (author)

  17. ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL FOR HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING GROUTING OPERATIONS IN THE R AND P REACTOR VESSELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2009-10-29

    The R- and P-reactor buildings were retired from service and are now being prepared for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D). D&D activities will consist primarily of immobilizing contaminated components and structures in a grout-like formulation. Aluminum corrodes very rapidly when it comes in contact with the alkaline grout materials and as a result produces hydrogen gas. To address this potential deflagration/explosion hazard, the Materials Science and Technology Directorate (MS&T) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to review and evaluate existing experimental and analytical studies of this issue to determine if any process constraints on the chemistry of the fill material and the fill operation are necessary. Various options exist for the type of grout material that may be used for D&D of the reactor vessels. The grout formulation options include ceramicrete (pH 6-8), low pH portland cement + silica fume grout (pH 10.4), or portland cement grout (pH 12.5). The assessment concluded that either ceramicrete or the silica fume grout may be used to safely grout the R- and P- reactor vessels. The risk of accumulation of a flammable mixture of hydrogen between the grout-air interface and the top of the reactor is very low. Conservative calculations estimate that either ceramicrete or the silica fume grout may be used to safely grout the R- and P- reactor vessels. The risk of accumulation of a flammable mixture of hydrogen between the grout-air interface and the top of the reactor is very low. Although these calculations are conservative, there are some measures that may be taken to further minimize the potential for hydrogen evolution. (1) Minimize the temperature of the grout as much as practical. Lower temperatures will mean lower hydrogen generation rates. Grout temperatures less than 100 C should however, still provide an adequate safety margin for the pH 8 and pH 10.4 grout formulations. (2) Minimize the fill rate as much as

  18. 超高水材料覆岩离层及冒落裂隙带注浆充填技术%Grouting Backfill Technology with Super High Water Material for Overburden Bed-separation and Falling Fractured Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王成真; 冯光明

    2011-01-01

    In order to the problems occurred by the great amount pressurized flowing water in the bed-separation after the traditional grouting and subsidence control technology conducted in the overburden bed-separation, in combination with the basic performances of the super water material, based on the key strata theory of the strata control as the guide, the grouting backfill technology with the super water material was provided for the overburden strata bed-separation and falling fractured zone.The technology would fully fill with the super water material in the bed-separation space, the space between the falling rocks of the falling zone and the cracks of the fractured zone.After the grouting material solidified, the filled material could control the activities of the overburden strata.The previous practical results of the overburden strata grouting and the application of the grouting and backfill technology to an imaginary coal mining face showed that the grouting and backfill with the super water material in the overburden strata bed-separation and falling fractured zone would have a subsidence reduction rate between 80% ~ 90% and would have a high production and high efficient coal mining in seam under the buildings,railway line and water body.%为了解决传统覆岩离层注浆减沉技术实施后离层区内大量承压可流动水体所带来的问题,结合超高水材料基本性能,以岩层控制的关键层理论为指导,提出了超高水材料覆岩离层及冒落裂隙带注浆充填技术.该技术将超高水材料浆液充满关键层下的离层空间、冒落带垮落矸石间缝隙以及裂缝带裂隙,凝固后的充填体控制上覆岩活动.根据以往覆岩离层注浆实践结果及超高水材料注浆充填技术在假想工作面的应用可知:超高水材料覆岩离层及冒落裂隙带注浆充填的减沉率在80%~90%,有助实现"三下"压煤开采的高产高效.

  19. Mechanism Research on the Improvement of Bearing Capacity of Single Pile by Pile-base Post Grouting Technique and Estimation of Bearing Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The slurry wall bored grouting has some defects. The pile-base post grouting technique can efficiently make up these defects and greatly improve the bearing capacity. Based on the pile-base post grouting technique and its process analysis, this paper carries out a detailed analysis about the improvement of mechanism of bearing capacity and mechanism of spherical expansion by the use of pile-base post grouting technique, as well as the estimation method of the bearing capacity of pile-base post grouting pile, which has a certain reference value for theoretical research and technical application of the technique.

  20. Pressure shock analyses in a power plant cooling system and a hydraulic stowing system in a potassium mine; Druckstossanalysen am Beispiel eines Kraftwerkskuehlsystems und einer Spuelversatzanlage im Kalibergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, H. [Babcock Borsig Power Service GmbH, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Pressure shocks in pipeline systems are caused by acceleration or delaying of fluid flow. They depend on the acceleration or delay rate, the medium density, and the local sound velocity with which the pressure waves propagate. Pressure shocks cause dynamic external loads which may cause damage to pipes, connections or supports and should therefore precalculated already in the planning stage in order to prevent damage. The contribution shows how precalculation of the flow data in a complex, meshed pipeline system will help to optimize the sytem and to maintain its integrity in case of pressure shocks. [German] Druckstoesse in Leitungssystemen werden erzeugt, wenn ein Fluid beschleunigt oder abgebremst (verzoegert wird). Die Groesse dieser Druckstoesse haengt von der Verzoegerung (Beschleunigung) deren Mediumsdichte sowie von der oertlichen Schallgeschwindigkeit ab mit der sich diese Druckwellen fortpflanzen. Druckstoesse bewirken nicht nur eine kurzzeitige Druckaenderung im System, sondern erzeugen dynamische aeussere Lasten, die erhebliche Groessen annehmen und fuer diverse Schaeden an Leitungen, Anschluessen oder Unterstuetzungen verantwortlich sein koennen. Daher ist die Berechnung im voraus wuenschenswert und notwendig, um schon in der Planung entsprechende konstruktive Massnahmen einfliessen zu lassen, damit keine Ueberbeanspruchung des Systems eintreten kann. In den vorliegenden Analysen wird gezeigt, dass fuer ein komplexes, vermaschtes Rohrleitungssystem mit Rueckschlagklappen und Pumpen bei Pumpenausfall durch Vorausberechnungen der Stroemungsdaten, wie Massenstroeme, Stroemungsgeschwindigkeiten, Druecke usw., fuer verschiedene Lastfaelle eine Systemoptimierung durchgefuehrt werden kann. Ausserdem wird gezeigt, dass durch geeignete Massnahmen bei einer Spuelversatzanlage der Druckstoss so abgemindert werden kann, dass die Integritaet des Systems gewaehrleistet wird. (orig.)

  1. New technology and loading tests of horizontal jet grouting arch%水平旋喷拱棚新工艺与载荷试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳建国; 张慧东; 张慧乐; 赵琰飞; 钟冬波; 徐寒; 刘钟

    2011-01-01

    Based on the equipment performance and construction problems of horizontal jet grouting technique in China, a new construction method for rotary high pressure horizontal jet grouting and new equipments are developed based on field technology and loading tests by China Jingye Engineering Corporation Limited.In field tests, the seal equipment achieves good results.The excavation shows that jet grouting piles lap joints are close and have no cracks after 28 days' maintenance; and the construction effect is good.After cleaning out the overlaying soil, it can be seen that the texture of the jet grouting piles is uniform, the lateral and vertical lap joints are good, and the occlusion size is about 0.2 m.The compressive strength is of returning fluid sample blocks is about 60% of coring blocks.Based on the full scale tests, the Q-s curves are relatively stable.The cracks occur and are constantly extended, resulting in collapse of the jet grouting arch by cracks perforated.Numerical simulations and tests show that vertical and horizontal displacements of the jet grouting arch increase with the increase of load, and the maximum displacements occur at vault.%基于国内水平旋喷技术存在成桩质量差、加固体周围岩土体变形大等问题,以中国京冶工程技术有限公司开发的全方位高压喷射注浆新工法及相应设备为依托,进行了水平旋喷拱棚现场新工艺和载荷试验.新工艺现场施工过程中,孔口止浆器止浆效果良好;养护28 d后隧洞开挖显示,旋喷桩搭接紧密,开挖长度内无搭接裂缝,施工效果良好;清除上覆土层后,可见旋喷桩质地均匀,纵横向搭接良好,桩-桩咬合尺寸约0.2 m;返浆试块的抗压强度约为取芯试块的60%.拱棚结构载荷试验表明,Q-s曲线相对平稳;拱棚结构的破坏主要是由于旋喷桩体搭接处产生裂缝并不断扩展,最终贯通引起的剪切破坏.通过数值模拟与实测值的对比,拱棚结构的竖向位移和

  2. Hydraulic Conductivity Anisotropy of Heterogeneous Unsaturated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dongmin; Zhu, Jianting

    2010-05-01

    The effects of saturation degree (or capillary pressure) on hydraulic conductivity anisotropy in unsaturated soils have not been fully understood. This study developed an approach based on a conceptualization of combining the neural network based pedo-transfer function (PTF) results with the thin layer concept to explore the capillary pressure-dependent anisotropy in relation to soil texture and soil bulk density. The main objective is to examine how anisotropy characteristics are related to the relationships between hydraulic parameters and the basic soil attributes such as texture and bulk density. The hydraulic parameters are correlated with the texture and bulk density based on the pedo-transfer function (PTF) results. It is demonstrated that non-monotonic behavior of the unsaturated soil anisotropy in relation to the capillary pressure is only observed when the saturated hydraulic conductivity and the shape parameter are both related to the mean particle diameter. When only one hydraulic parameter is related to the grain diameter or when both are not related to the same attribute simultaneously, the unsaturated soil anisotropy increases monotonically with the increasing capillary pressure head. Therefore, it is suggested that this behavior is mainly due to the coupled dependence of the layer saturated hydraulic conductivities and the shape factors on the texture and bulk density. The correlation between the soil grain diameter and bulk density decreases the anisotropy effects of the unsaturated layered soils. The study illustrates that the inter-relationships of soil texture, bulk density, and hydraulic properties may cause vastly different characteristics of anisotropic unsaturated soils.

  3. Integrated hydraulic cooler and return rail in camless cylinder head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, Craig D [Clawson, MI; Neal, Timothy L [Ortonville, MI; Swain, Jeff L [Flushing, MI; Raimao, Miguel A [Colorado Springs, CO

    2011-12-13

    An engine assembly may include a cylinder head defining an engine coolant reservoir, a pressurized fluid supply, a valve actuation assembly, and a hydraulic fluid reservoir. The valve actuation assembly may be in fluid communication with the pressurized fluid supply and may include a valve member displaceable by a force applied by the pressurized fluid supply. The hydraulic fluid reservoir may be in fluid communication with the valve actuation assembly and in a heat exchange relation to the engine coolant reservoir.

  4. Analysis of clinical value of hydraulic pressure method in diagnosis of fallobian tube patency%输卵管通液测压诊断输卵管通畅性的临床价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王本立; 郝天然; 张学鸿; 徐自全

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical value of hydraulic pressure method in diagnosis of fallobian tube patency. Methods Summarize and analyze the hydrotubation diagnosis and hysterosal-pingography (HSG) data of 158 patients with infertility diseases. Use SJ - 1 fallobian tube hydraulic pressure diagnostic and therapeutic instrument to cany out hydrotubation and HSG diagnosis and compare the results of each diagnosis. The results of hydrotubation include patency, incomplete patency and tubal nowhere. The results of HSG diagnosis include normal, incomplete jam and jam. Then analyze the accuracy of the two methods in diagnosis of tubal patency and tubal diseases and conduct x2 examination. Results Using the hydrotubation method, among the 158 cases, we have found 100 cases of patency, 36 cases of incomplete patency and 22 cases of tubal nowhere. Using the HSG method, we have found 66 cases of normal, 7 cases of incomplete jam and 8 cases of jam in regard of light tubal diseases. In regard of serious tubal diseases and using the HSG method, we have found 39 cases of normal, 12 cases of incomplete jam and 18 cases of jam.x2 examination showed that the two methods differ significantly in diagnosis. Conclustions The hydraulic pressure method may cause many errors in diagnosis, for it is unable to distinguish the part, nature and degree of diseases. Thus it doesnt have much clinical vaulue and is not suitable in diagnosis.%目的 评价输卵管通液测压诊断输卵管通畅性的临床价值.方法 总结分析158例不孕症患者通液诊断和子宫输卵管造影( hysterosalpingography,HSG)资料,应用SJ -1宫腔输卵管注液测压诊疗仪分别进行通液诊断、HSG诊断,对比分析每例通液诊断结果与相应HSG诊断结果,通液诊断结果分通畅、不全通畅、不通,HSG相应诊断正常、不全阻塞、阻塞,分别评价两种检查方法诊断输卵管通畅性及输卵管病变的准确性,进行X2检验.结果 158例通液诊断通畅100

  5. 地铁深基坑工程抗突涌准幕灌浆技术研究%Study on Curtain Grouting Technology for Preventing Water Gushing in Works of Metro Deep Foundation Pit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宏宇

    2012-01-01

    杭州某地铁深基坑工程由于地连墙在圆砾层中成槽困难,使得地下连续墙(以下简称“地连墙”)插入深度减小,不能满足承压水抗突涌稳定性要求,基于此,依托该地铁深基坑实例,通过现场灌浆对比试验,确定帷幕灌浆参数,并按此参数设置帷幕灌浆,填充地连墙未隔断的圆砾层,与地连墙搭接形成封闭的阻水帷幕,解决承压水抗突涌问题。研究表明:圆砾层的孔隙度大、渗透性好,可进行灌浆处理;帷幕灌浆能够节省工期,节约造价,有效地解决圆砾层的承压水抗突涌问题。%Some difficulties occurred in trough work in the round gravel layer for metro deep foundation pit with floor- wall transition make the floor-wall insert depth reduced, therefore it can not meet the requirements on the stability under the pressure of water gushing. Based on these and by taking a metro deep fbundation pit as an instance, curtain grouting parameters are determined after the cornparison tests on the field grouting. The parameter is set to guide curtain grouting, fill the floor-wall no- separated gravel layer, and to form a closed water-blocking curtain of the floor-wall overlap to solve the problems occurred in pressure water to stop water gushing. The study shows that the satisfactory round gravel porosity and permeability help grouting treatment; and curtain grouting shortens construction duration with less cost, effectively providing gravel layers some solutions on pressure water preventing-gushing issues.

  6. Nuclear waste viewed in a new light; a synchrotron study of uranium encapsulated in grout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, C A; Hart, M; Harker, N J; Hallam, K R; MacFarlane, J; Banos, A; Paraskevoulakos, C; Butcher, E; Padovani, C; Scott, T B

    2015-03-21

    How do you characterise the contents of a sealed nuclear waste package without breaking it open? This question is important when the contained corrosion products are potentially reactive with air and radioactive. Synchrotron X-rays have been used to perform micro-scale in-situ observation and characterisation of uranium encapsulated in grout; a simulation for a typical intermediate level waste storage packet. X-ray tomography and X-ray powder diffraction generated both qualitative and quantitative data from a grout-encapsulated uranium sample before, and after, deliberately constrained H2 corrosion. Tomographic reconstructions provided a means of assessing the extent, rates and character of the corrosion reactions by comparing the relative densities between the materials and the volume of reaction products. The oxidation of uranium in grout was found to follow the anoxic U+H2O oxidation regime, and the pore network within the grout was observed to influence the growth of uranium hydride sites across the metal surface. Powder diffraction analysis identified the corrosion products as UO2 and UH3, and permitted measurement of corrosion-induced strain. Together, X-ray tomography and diffraction provide means of accurately determining the types and extent of uranium corrosion occurring, thereby offering a future tool for isolating and studying the reactions occurring in real full-scale waste package systems.

  7. Degree of saturation effect on the grout-soil interface shear strength of soil nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the grouted soil nailing system, the bonding strength of cement grout-soil interface offers the required resistance to maintain the stability of whole structure. In practice, soil nailing applications are often placed at unsaturated conditions, such as soil slopes, shallow foundations, retaining walls and pavement structures. In these cases, the water content in the soil nail zone may increase or decrease due to rain water or dry weather, and even cannot become saturated during their design service life. In this study, the effect of water content (degree of saturation on the shear strength of interface between cement grout and sand are experimentally investigated by means of direct shear test. Meanwhile the water retention curve was determined and interface microstructure was observed. Experimental results show that the shear strength of interface changes non-monotonously with degree of saturation when the interface was prepared, due to the non-monotonousness of the cohesiveness between soil particles. The less the cohesiveness between sand particles, the more grout was observed been penetrated into the voids, and thus the larger the interface shear stress.

  8. Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Investigations for Imaging the Grouting Injection in Shallow Subsurface Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farooq

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The highway of Yongweol-ri, Muan-gun, south-western part of the South Korean Peninsula, is underlain by the abandoned of subsurface cavities, which were discovered in 2005. These cavities lie at shallow depths with the range of 5∼15 meters below the ground surface. Numerous subsidence events have repeatedly occurred in the past few years, damaging infrastructure and highway. As a result of continuing subsidence issues, the Korean Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources (KIGAM was requested by local administration to resolve the issue. The KIGAM used geophysical methods to delineate subsurface cavities and improve more refined understanding of the cavities network in the study area. Cement based grouting has been widely employed in the construction industry to reinforce subsurface ground. In this research work, time-lapse electrical resistivity surveys were accomplished to monitor the grouting injection in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway, which have provided a quasi-real-time monitoring for modifying the subsurface cavities related to ground reinforcement, which would be difficult with direct methods. The results obtained from time-lapse electrical resistivity technique have satisfactory imaged the grouting injection experiment in the subsurface cavities beneath the highway. Furthermore, the borehole camera confirmed the presence of grouting material in the subsurface cavities, and hence this procedure increases the mechanical resistance of subsurface cavities below the highway.

  9. In-situ grouting of uranium-mill-tailings piles: an assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, T.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Passage in 1978 of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) initiated a program of remedial action for 22 existing mill tailings piles generated in the period 1940 to 1970 as part of the nation's defense and nuclear power programs. The presence of these piles poses potential health and environmental contamination concerns. Possible remedial actions proposed include multilayer covers over the piles to reduce water infiltration, reduce radon gas releases, and reduce airborne transport of tailings fines. In addition, suggested remedial actions include (1) the use of liners to prevent groundwater contamination by leachates from the piles and (2) chemical stabilization of the tailings to retain the radioactive and nonradioactive sources of contamination. Lining of the piles would normally be applicable only to piles that are to be moved from their present location such that the liner could be placed between the tailings and the groundwater. However, by using civil engineering techniques developed for grouting rocks and soils for strength and water control, it may be possible to produce an in situ liner for piles that are not to be relocated. The Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office requested that ORNL assess the potential application of grouting as a remedial action. This report examines the types of grouts, the equipment available, and the costs, and assesses the possibility of applying grouting technology as a remedial action alternative for uranium mill tailings piles.

  10. Test plan for formulation and evaluation of grouted waste forms with shine process wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jerden, J. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this experimental project is to demonstrate that waste streams generated during the production of Mo99 by the SHINE Medical Technologies (SHINE) process can be immobilized in cement-based grouted waste forms having physical, chemical, and radiological stabilities that meet regulatory requirements for handling, storage, transport, and disposal.

  11. Fractal Prediction of Grouting Volume for Treating Karst Caverns along a Shield Tunneling Alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chieh Cheng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Karst geology is common in China, and buried karst formations are widely distributed in Guangdong province. In the process of shield tunneling, the abundant water resources present in karst caverns could lead to the potential for high water ingress, and a subsequent in situ stress change-induced stratum collapse. The development and distribution of karst caverns should therefore be identified and investigated prior to shield tunnel construction. Grouting is an efficient measure to stabilize karst caverns. The total volume of karst caverns along the shield tunneling alignment, and its relationship with the required volume of grouts, should be evaluated in the preliminary design phase. Conventionally, the total volume of karst caverns is empirically estimated based on limited geological drilling hole data; however, accurate results are rarely obtained. This study investigates the hydrogeology and engineering geology of Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong province, and determines the fractal characteristics of the karst caverns along the tunnel section of Guangzhou metro line no. 9. The karst grouting coefficients (VR were found to vary from 0.11 in the case of inadequate drilling holes to 1.1 in the case where adequate drilling holes are provided. A grouting design guideline was furthermore developed in this study for future projects in karst areas.

  12. Grouting applications in civil engineering. Volume I and II. [800 references

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einstein, H.H.; Barvenik, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive description of grouting applications in civil engineering is presented that can serve as a basis for the selection of grouting methods in the borehole sealing problem. The breadth and depth of the study was assured by conducting the main part of the review, the collection and evaluation of information, without specifically considering the borehole sealing problem (but naturally incorporating any aspect of civil engineering applications that could be of potential use). Grouting is very much an art and not a science. In most cases, it is a trial and error procedure where an inexpensive method is initially tried and then a more expensive one is used until the desired results are obtained. Once a desired effect is obtained, it is difficult to credit any one procedure with the success because the results are due to the summation of all the methods used. In many cases, the method that proves successful reflects a small abnormality in the ground or structure rather than its overall characteristics. Hence, successful grouting relies heavily on good engineering judgement and experience, and not on a basic set of standard correlations or equations. 800 references. (JRD)

  13. Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

    2007-09-13

    The self-potential (SP) response during hydraulic fracturing of intact Sierra granite was investigated in the laboratory. Excellent correlation of pressure drop and SP suggests that the SP response is created primarily by electrokinetic coupling. For low pressures, the variation of SP with pressure drop is linear, indicating a constant coupling coefficient (Cc) of -200 mV/MPa. However for pressure drops >2 MPa, the magnitude of the Cc increases by 80% in an exponential trend. This increasing Cc is related to increasing permeability at high pore pressures caused by dilatancy of micro-cracks, and is explained by a decrease in the hydraulic tortuosity. Resistivity measurements reveal a decrease of 2% prior to hydraulic fracturing and a decrease of {approx}35% after fracturing. An asymmetric spatial SP response created by injectate diffusion into dilatant zones is observed prior to hydraulic fracturing, and in most cases this SP variation revealed the impending crack geometry seconds before failure. At rupture, injectate rushes into the new fracture area where the zeta potential is different than in the rock porosity, and an anomalous SP spike is observed. After fracturing, the spatial SP distribution reveals the direction of fracture propagation. Finally, during tensile cracking in a point load device with no water flow, a SP spike is observed that is caused by contact electrification. However, the time constant of this event is much less than that for transients observed during hydraulic fracturing, suggesting that SP created solely from material fracture does not contribute to the SP response during hydraulic fracturing.

  14. Engineering practice of reducing ground subsidence by grouting into overburden bed-separated and similar model experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yan-fa; ZHONG Ya-ping; LI Jian-min; WANG Su-hua; ZHANG Qing-song

    2007-01-01

    The subsidence prediction theory under the condition of grouting into bedseparated was developed. Reducing ground subsidence by grouting was carried out on eight fully-mechanized top-coal caving faces, by using the continuous grouting in multiple-layer to obtain experiment results of reducing subsidence under fully mining. The similar material model that can be dismantled under the condition of constant temperature and constant humidity was developed. The model was used to simulate the evolution of overburden bed-separated under such constraints of temperature and humidity, at the same time, and to test the hardening process of similar materials.

  15. Pulsating hydraulic fracturing technology in low permeability coal seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenchao; Li Xianzhong; Lin Baiquan; Zhai Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Based on the difficult situation of gas drainage in a single coal bed of high gas content and low perme-ability, we investigate the technology of pulsating hydraulic pressure relief, the process of crank plunger movement and the mechanism of pulsating pressure formation using theoretical research, mathematical modeling and field testing. We analyze the effect of pulsating pressure on the formation and growth of fractures in coal by using the pulsating hydraulic theory in hydraulics. The research results show that the amplitude of fluctuating pressure tends to increase in the case where the exit is blocked, caused by pulsating pressure reflection and frictional resistance superposition, and it contributes to the growth of fractures in coal. The crack initiation pressure of pulsating hydraulic fracturing is 8 MPa, which is half than that of normal hydraulic fracturing;the pulsating hydraulic fracturing influence radius reaches 8 m. The total amount of gas extraction is increased by 3.6 times, and reaches 50 L/min at the highest point. The extraction flow increases greatly, and is 4 times larger than that of drilling without fracturing and 1.2 times larger than that of normal hydraulic fracturing. The technology provides a technical measure for gas drainage of high gas content and low permeability in the single coal bed.

  16. Simulation and experiment on static characteristic of water hydraulic proportional pressure relief valve%纯水比例溢流阀静态特性的仿真与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张增猛; 周华; 高院安; 陈英龙

    2009-01-01

    A three-stage water hydraulic proportional pressure relief valve, with ball seat valve as the throttle control pilot stage, was investigated on the static characteristic. An AMESim model was built based on structure and mathematic analysis. The friction at spool, proportional electromagnetic actuator and steady flow force, which cause the valve hysteresis, were analyzed through simulation. The experiment results were also analyzed and compared to simulation results. The investigation shows that the large hysteresis mainly comes from flow force, hysteresis of electromagnetic actuator, and friction. Due to the static and coulomb friction and the structure of lever, the range of the input signal responding to pressure increasing section is narrower than pressure decreasing. The width of hysteresis is larger at low pressure than high pressure. For the reason of nonlinearity and large hysteresis of the valve, closed-loop control will be unstable and large oscillation may be induced. It should be improved through structure optimization or control compensation.%以带球阀比例节流先导级的三级座式纯水比例溢流阀为对象,在结构分析和数学建模的基础上,建立了阀的AMESim模型,仿真分析了稳态液动力、比例电磁铁、阀芯摩擦力等对阀静态特性的影响,并与试验对比. 结果表明:阀芯摩擦力及力放大杠杆结构降低了阀的静态性能,阀的滞环大,且随控制信号增大的可控线性段窄,阀在低压段的滞环大于高压工况. 阀的大滞环和严重的非线性降低了闭环系统稳定性,应通过改进结构和控制补偿等措施改善静态特性.

  17. Maintaining Optimum Pump Performance with Specially- Formulated Hydraulic Fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a battery of tests, and related results, that were performed under normal and severe conditions designed to demonstrate that hydraulic fluids formulated with Lubrizol' s high quality anti - wear hydraulic fluid technology can stand up to today's increasing demands for longer life and provide excellent performance under higher operating temperatures and pressures.

  18. Parametric study on effect of break size during LOCA on thermal hydraulic conditions in an indian pressurized heavy water reactor (220 MWe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, G.S.; Gupta, S.K.; Raj, V.V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1999-07-01

    Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in a Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) leads to coolant expulsion in a primary heat transport system resulting in depressurization and possible core voiding. This results in deterioration of cooling conditions in reactor channels and increase in power before reactor shutdown, leading to higher fuel temperatures. Coolant expulsion rates during LOCA are dictated by critical flow conditions governed by initial plant conditions prior to the accident, break geometry, location of break, etc. In addition the PHWRs have positive void-coefficient of reactivity for coolant resulting in reactor power rise in earlier part of LOCA, when the stored heat of the fuel has yet not been removed. If, in addition, heat transfer to the coolant drops sharply very high fuel surface temperatures are expected. The paper describes analyses carried out for three different break sizes. (author)

  19. ASSESSMENT OF THE POTENTIAL FOR HYDROGEN GENERATION DURING GROUTING OPERATIONS IN THE R AND P REACTOR VESSELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2010-05-24

    The R- and P-reactor buildings were retired from service and are now being prepared for deactivation and decommissioning (D and D). D and D activities consist primarily of immobilizing contaminated components and structures in a grout-like formulation. Aluminum corrodes very rapidly when it comes in contact with the alkaline grout materials and as a result produces hydrogen gas. To address this potential deflagration/explosion hazard, the Materials Science and Technology Directorate (MS and T) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to review and evaluate existing experimental and analytical studies of this issue to determine if any process constraints on the chemistry of the fill material and the fill operation are necessary. Various options exist for the type of grout material that may be used for D and D of the reactor vessels. The grout formulation options include ceramicrete (pH 6-8), low pH portland cement + silica fume grout (pH 10.4), or Portland cement groupt (pH 12.5). The assessment concluded that either ceramicrete or the silica fume grout may be used to safely grout the P-reactor vessel. The risk of accumulation of a flammable mixture of hydrogen between the grout-air interface and the top of the reactor is very low. Portland cement grout, on the other hand, for the same range of process parameters does not provide a margin of safety against the accumulation of flammable gas in the reactor vessel during grouting operations in the P-reactor vessel. It is recommended that this grout not be utilized for this task. The R-reactor vessel cotnains significantly less aluminum based on current facility process knowledge, surface observations, and drawings. Therefore, a Portland cement grout may be considered for grouting operations as well as the other grout formulations. For example, if the grout fill rate is less than 1 inch/min and the grout temperature is maintained at 70 C or less, the risk of hydrogen accumulation during fill

  20. 破碎围岩锚注加固浆液扩散规律研究%Slurry diffusion within cracked wall rock during the bolt-grouting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慎举; 王连国; 陆银龙; 张蓓

    2011-01-01

    基于连续介质力学和渗流力学理论,运用渗透张量法得出浆液在破碎围岩中扩散的基本方程;并通过对实际锚注支护工程进行假设与简化,建立锚注加固系统浆液在包含正交裂隙组的围岩中渗透扩散的数学模型.在此基础上,运用COMSOL软件对锚注支护工程进行实时模拟,研究了不同注浆压力和不同注浆锚杆布置方式对浆液流动扩散规律的影响.结果表明:对于巷道锚注支护工程,合理的注浆压力约为1.0~4.0MPa,合理的钻孔间距约为浆液扩散半径的1.3倍左右.将研究成果用于祁南煤矿新掘大巷锚注支护设计,取得了良好的效果.%Continuum mechanics were used with seepage theory to obtain a basic equation for slurry diffusion within cracked wall rock.The permeability tensor method was used to obtain the diffusion behavior.A mathematical model of slurry diffusion in a bolt grouting system within a wall rock having orthogonal fractures was developed.Certain assumptions and simplifications of field grouting and support methods were used during this derivation.A numerical simulation of the bolt grouting process was conducted using COMSOL.The slurry diffusion at different grouting pressures and for different bolt layouts were studied.The results show that a rational grouting pressure is from 1.0 to 4.0 MPa for roadway bolt supports.The borehole spacing should be nearly 1.3 times the slurry diffusion radius.These results were applied to the design of roadway supports in the Qinan coal of the Huaibei mine to good effect.

  1. Simulation Analysis of PID Optimization of Hydraulic Pressure System Based on Genetic Algorithm%基于遗传算法的液压压上系统的PID优化仿真分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐秀芬

    2013-01-01

    In order to improve the dynamic characteristics of cold rol ing temper mil hydraulic pres-sure system,a new PID parameter control method-genetic algorithm was proposed.By using MATLAB/SIMULINK software to solve the optimization model.the PID control parameter self-tun-ing was achieved.The optimized PID parameters and Z-N tuning PID control effects were com-pared and the results showed that:the genetic algorithm PID control is much better than that of the Z-N tuning PID control.Furthermore,the feasibility and practicality of the genetic algorithm were verified as wel .%为了进一步提高冷轧平整机液压压上系统的动态特性,提出了新的PID 参数设计方法:遗传算法。利用Matlab/SIMULINK软件求解优化模型,实现了PID控制参数自整定。对优化得到的PID参数和Z-N整定PID控制效果进行比较,结果表明:遗传算法PID控制优于Z-N整定PID控制,验证了遗传算法的可行性和实用性。

  2. Study on Vickers 20VQ5 High-Pressure Pump Bench Evaluation Method for the Oxidation Durability of Hydraulic Oils%液压油氧化耐久性Vickers 20VQ5高压泵台架评定方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄胜军; 王泽恩

    2012-01-01

    To study the oxidation durability of hydraulic oils,the Vickers 20VQ5 high pressure vane pump test-bed system and hydraulic oil oxidation durability evaluation method were designed to do air entrainment test under high temperature and high pressure.The situation of oil viscosity,acid value increase and sludge formation was investigated.Reference oil experiment showed that the bench system keeps smooth operation,and can be used to distinguish different hydraulic oil oxidation durability and sludge formation trend,and can meet the testing and evaluation requirements of the development of long-lived hydraulic oil new products.%为考察液压油的氧化耐久性能,设计建立了Vickers 20VQ5高压叶片泵台架系统及液压油氧化耐久性评定方法,在高温、高压下进行空气夹带试验。考察油品黏度变化、酸值增加和油泥生成情况。参比油实验表明,台架运行平稳,能较好地区分不同液压油品氧化耐久性能和油泥生成趋势,满足长寿命液压油新产品开发的试验评定需求。

  3. Research on the closure law of hydraulic control slow closing butterfly valve in pressure flow water diversion system%压力流输水系统中缓闭式液控蝶阀关闭规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奕朗; 高学平; 蒋琳琳

    2012-01-01

    Water diversion system of long - distance and high - lift pressure flow will produce serious damage once pump - stopping water hammer takes place. It is a simple and effective water hammer protection measure to set one hydraulic control slow closing butterfly valve at the outlet of pump with appropriate closure way. The thesis, combining practical engineering, solve the water hammer basic equations by the method of characteristics, compare the results of different valve closure way, including the envelope line of piezometric head, pressure change at outlet of pump station and rotate speed change, then proposes the appropriate way of valve closure. The results can provide a reference for the setting of pump - stopping water hammer protective measures.%对于长距离、高扬程压力流输水系统,一旦发生停泵水锤,将对输水系统产生严重危害.在泵出口设置缓闭式液控蝶阀并以适当的方式关阀是一种简单有效的水锤防护措施.本文结合实际工程,通过特征线法求解水锤基本方程,比较不同关阀方式下管路沿程压力变化、泵站出口断面压力变化及水泵转速变化,提出合适的关阀方式.研究成果可为停泵水锤防护措施的设置提供参考.

  4. SITMILARITY LAW FOR HYDRAULIC DISTORTED MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Newton's general similarity criterion was applied to the distorted model. The results for the similarities of gravity force, drag force and pressure force are identical with those derived from relevant differential equations of fluid flow. And the selected limits of the distorted ratio were studied and the simulation of roughness coefficient of distorted model was conducted by means of hydraulic test.

  5. Handbook of hydraulic fluid technology

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, George E

    2011-01-01

    ""The Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology"" serves as the foremost resource for designing hydraulic systems and for selecting hydraulic fluids used in engineering applications. Featuring new illustrations, data tables, as well as practical examples, this second edition is updated with essential information on the latest hydraulic fluids and testing methods. The detailed text facilitates unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including important hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants. Written by worldwide experts, the book also offers a rigorous overview of h

  6. Dynamic Analysis & Characterization of Conventional Hydraulic Power Supply Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Liedhegener, Michael; Bech, Michael Møller

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic power units operated as constant supply pres-sure systems remain to be widely used in the industry, to supply valve controlled hydraulic drives etc., where the hydraulic power units are constituted by variable pumps with mechanical outlet pressure control, driven by induction motors...... and drives will reduce the flow-to-pressure gain of the supply system, and hence increase the time constant of the sup-ply pressure dynamics. A consequence of this may be large vari-ations in the supply pressure, hence large variations in the pump shaft torque, and thereby the induction motor load torque......, with possible excitation of the induction motor dynamics as a result. In such cases, the coupled dynamics of the pressure controlled pump and induction motor may influence the supply pressure sig-nificantly, possibly affecting the dynamics of the supplied drives, especially in cases where pilot operated valves...

  7. The hydraulic performance and structural integrity of A-Jack armour layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William G.McDougal

    2010-01-01

    A-Jacks are concrete armor units that are used in both open channel and coastal applications.In open channel applications,they are used for bank and toe protection,flow and grade control,bridge pier scour protection,energy dissipation,and habitat.These small units may be fabricated in standard block machines.In coastal applications,A-Jacks are used in breakwaters,jetties,revetments,and habitat development.Coastal units are generally much larger and more robust than the small open channel units.This paper focuses on coastal applications and in particular,combines results on three topics: (1) recent hydraulic model studies, (2) ahemative fabrication methods,and(3) bundle placement construction methods.Hydraulic models studies were conducted that examined the standard random and uniform placement methods, and also the bundle placement method.In bundle placement, 3~20 A-Jacks are banded together,lifted with a spreader bar, and placed as a single crone pick.This significantly decreases installation time during construction.It also provides a more hydraulically stable placement technique.The hydraulic model tests examined the bundle stability fn random waves for cases where the binding remains in tack and is removed.The geometry of A-Jacks enables a variety of fabrication techniques.One option is to fabricate the A-Jacks as two pieces using flat forms and then grout the two pieces together.Flat forms may be used in conventional block machines for A-Jacks sizes up to 1.3 re.Larger sizes may be wet cast in flat forms or gang forms.The A-Jacks geometry has been recently modified to increase grouting efficient and strength.Large A-Jacks may also be east in a single piece using "clam shell" type forms.

  8. Trends in Design of Water Hydraulics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a R&D-view on trends in development and best practise in design of both low-pressure and high-pressure tap water hydraulic components and systems for motion control as well as open-ended solutions various industrial applications. The focus is on the advantages using...... ordinary tap water and the range of application areas are illustrated with examples, in particular within the food processing industry, humidification operations, water mist systems for fire fighting, high water pressure cleaners, water moisturising systems for wood processing, lumber drying process...... operate with pure water from the tap without additives of any kind. Hence water hydraulics takes the benefit of pure water as fluid being environmentally friendly, easy to clean sanitary design, non-toxic, non-flammable, inexpensive, readily available and easily disposable. The low-pressure tap water...

  9. Hydraulic Simulation and Safety Assessment of Secondary Water Supply System with Anti-Negative Pressure Facility%无负压供水模式下管网水力模拟与安全评价分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欢欢; 刘书明; 姜帅; 孟凡琳; 白璐

    2013-01-01

    近些年,无负压供水设备作为新型供水模式,在城市二次供水管网中广泛使用.本研究针对无负压供水对整个管网的影响并不明确的现状,分析了无负压供水模式对管网供水安全的影响,利用管网水力学模型,提出了一种无负压供水状态下的管网水力学模拟方法,应用该方法建立了一种用以确定管网可承受安装无负压供水设备的最大节点数的方法,将此方法应用于两个算例管网,其结果表明算例管网中分别有67%、89%的节点不适合安装无负压供水设备.该方法简单实用,推荐在管网设计与规划中使用,以提高管网供水安全性.%In the last few decades, anti-negative pressure facility ( ANPF) has been emerged as a revolutionary approach for sloving the pollution in the Second Water Supply System (SWSS) in China. This study analyzed implications of the safety in SWSS with ANPF, utilizing the water distribution network hydraulic model. A method of hydraulic simulation and security assessment was presented which was able to reflect the number and location of nodes that can be installed in ANPF. Benchmark results through two instance networks showed that 67% and 89% of nodes in each network did not fit the ANPFs for installation. The simple and pratical algorithm was recommended in the water distribution network design and planing in order to increase the security of SWSS.

  10. A THERMAL MODEL OF THE IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE AS GROUT IN CONCRETE VAULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadday, M

    2008-10-27

    Salt solution will be mixed with cement and flyash/slag to form a grout which will be immobilized in above ground concrete vaults. The curing process is exothermic, and a transient thermal model of the pouring and curing process is herein described. A peak temperature limit of 85 C for the curing grout restricts the rate at which it can be poured into a vault. The model is used to optimize the pouring.

  11. A THERMAL MODEL OF THE IMMOBILIZATION OF LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE AS GROUT IN CONCRETE VAULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shadday, M

    2008-10-27

    Salt solution will be mixed with cement and flyash/slag to form a grout which will be immobilized in above ground concrete vaults. The curing process is exothermic, and a transient thermal model of the pouring and curing process is herein described. A peak temperature limit of 85 C for the curing grout restricts the rate at which it can be poured into a vault. The model is used to optimize the pouring.

  12. The Potential Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing on Agriculture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beng Ong

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (or “fracking”) is a method of extracting oil and natural gas trapped in deep rock layers underground by pumping water, sand, and other chemicals/additives at high pressures into a well drilled vertically...

  13. Analysis of Innovative Design of Energy Efficient Hydraulic Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Osman Abdalla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic cylinder actuators are used extensively in industrial, construction and agricultural works. The small sized outlet ports of the cylinders resist the flow of discharged oil; and as a result the piston motion is slowed down. This causes a lot of heat generation and energy loss within the actuators. The study investigates and analyzes the possibilities of reducing the hydraulic resistance and increasing efficiency of the hydraulic actuator. Conventional hydraulic cylinders are simulated in FLUENT. Results show that the small outlet ports are the sources of energy loss in hydraulic cylinders. A new hydraulic system was proposed as a solution to relieve the hydraulic resistance in the actuators. The proposed system is a four ports hydraulic cylinder fitted with a novel flow control valve. The proposed four ports cylinder was simulated and parameters such as ports sizes, loads and pressures are varied during the simulation. The hydraulic resisting forces, piston speed and mass flow rates are computed. Results show that the hydraulic resistance is significantly reduced in the proposed four ports actuators; and the proposed cylinders run faster than the conventional cylinders and a considerable amount of energyis saved as well.

  14. Modeling and parameter estimation for hydraulic system of excavator's arm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Qing-hua; HAO Peng; ZHANG Da-qing

    2008-01-01

    A retrofitted electro-bydraulic proportional system for hydraulic excavator was introduced firstly. According to the principle and characteristic of load independent flow distribution(LUDV)system, taking boom hydraulic system as an example and ignoring the leakage of hydraulic cylinder and the mass of oil in it,a force equilibrium equation and a continuous equation of hydraulic cylinder were set up.Based On the flow equation of electro-hydraulic proportional valve, the pressure passing through the valve and the difference of pressure were tested and analyzed.The results show that the difference of pressure does not change with load, and it approximates to 2.0 MPa. And then, assume the flow across the valve is directly proportional to spool displacement andis not influenced by load, a simplified model of electro-hydraulic system was put forward. At the same time, by analyzing the structure and load-bearing of boom instrument, and combining moment equivalent equation of manipulator with rotating law, the estimation methods and equations for such parameters as equivalent mass and bearing force of hydraulic cylinder were set up. Finally, the step response of flow of boom cylinder was tested when the electro-hydraulic proportional valve was controlled by the stepcurrent. Based on the experiment curve, the flow gain coefficient of valve is identified as 2.825×10-4m3/(s·A)and the model is verified.

  15. Effective grouting area of jointed slope and stress deformation responses by numerical analysis with FLAC3D

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zi-qiang; LIU Qun-yi; ZENG Fan-he; QING Du-gan

    2009-01-01

    To study the grouting reinforcement mechanism in jointed rock slope, first, the theoretical deduction was done to calculate the critical length of slipping if the slope angle is larger than that of joint inclination; Second, the numerical calculation model was founded by FLAG3D, so as to find the stress and deformation responses of rock mass in the state before and after grouting, the analysis results show that the range between the boundary of critical slipping block and the joint plane that passes the slope toe is the effective grouting area (EGA). After excavation, large deformation occurs along the joint plane. After grouting, the displacements of rock particles become uniform and continuous, and large deformations along the joint plane are controlled; the dynamic displacement can reflect the deformation response of slope during excavation in the state before and after grouting, as well as the shear location of potential slip plane. After grouting, the dynamic displacement of each monitoring point reaches the peak value with very few time steps,which indicate that the parameters of the joint plane, such as strength and stiffness, are improved; the stress field becomes uniform. Tensile area reduces gradually; whole stability of the slope and its ability to resist tensile and shear stress are improved greatly.

  16. ANALYSIS AND ESTIMATION OF HYDRAULIC STABILITY OF FRANCIS HYDRO TURBINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Xi-de

    2004-01-01

    With the development of large-capacity hydro turbines, the hydraulic instability of bydro turbines has become one of the most important problems that affect the stable operation of the hydro-electric units. The hydraulic vibration and unstable operation of Francis hydro turbines are primarily caused by the unsteady pressure pulsations inside draft tubes.The forced rotating vortex core at the runner exit and the channel vortices inside Francis turbine runners are origins of the unsteady pressure pulsations when operating at partial load. This paper briefly analyzes the hydraulic instability of operation caused by the vortex core and channel vortices at partial load, then, presents a way to estimate the hydraulic stability by calculation of the flow behavior at the runner exit.The validity of estimation is examined by comparison with experimental data. This will be helpful to evaluate the alternative design and predict the hydraulic stability for both the prototype and model hydro turbines.

  17. Investigation of Valve Plate in Water Hydraulic Axial Piston Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂松林; 李壮云; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper has introduced the developments of water hydraulic axial piston equipments.According to the effects of physicochemical properties of water on water hydraulic components,a novel valve plate for water hydraulic axial motor has been put forward,whose moment exerted by the fluid field between valve plate and bearing plate is balanced entirely.The material screening experiment of valve plate is done on the test rig.Through numerical simulation the effects of some geometry parameters on the performance of water hydraulic motor have been studied.The silencing grooves on the valve plate in water hydraulic motor can reduce the pressure shock and the occurrence of cavitation effectively.It is evident that the appropriate structure should change the wear status between matching paris and reduces the wear and specific pressure of the matching pairs.The specimen with the new type valve plate is used in a tool system.

  18. Parameter Designing for Heave Compensation Hydraulic System Installed in Deepwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Teng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The function diagram of active heave compensation hydraulic system has been given, besides, the mathematics model for the principal hydraulic components of the compensation system has been built, and the input-output relation between components has been made clear. Aimed at compensating work capacity for the system, design and research on parameters as the bearing pressure, the initial state and the maximum flow of hydraulic cylinder, accumulator and other principal components have been made separately, and standardized design has been accomplished in accordance with relevant standards. Furthermore, calculus and verification for the capacity of the hydraulic system in different working stages have been made in order to calculate the pressure lose of the system and provide objective data for the hardware system design of the hydraulic components of the heave compensation system.

  19. Helical coil thermal hydraulic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramello, M.; Bertani, C.; De Salve, M.; Panella, B.

    2014-11-01

    A model has been developed in Matlab environment for the thermal hydraulic analysis of helical coil and shell steam generators. The model considers the internal flow inside one helix and its associated control volume of water on the external side, both characterized by their inlet thermodynamic conditions and the characteristic geometry data. The model evaluates the behaviour of the thermal-hydraulic parameters of the two fluids, such as temperature, pressure, heat transfer coefficients, flow quality, void fraction and heat flux. The evaluation of the heat transfer coefficients as well as the pressure drops has been performed by means of the most validated literature correlations. The model has been applied to one of the steam generators of the IRIS modular reactor and a comparison has been performed with the RELAP5/Mod.3.3 code applied to an inclined straight pipe that has the same length and the same elevation change between inlet and outlet of the real helix. The predictions of the developed model and RELAP5/Mod.3.3 code are in fairly good agreement before the dryout region, while the dryout front inside the helical pipes is predicted at a lower distance from inlet by the model.

  20. Non-stationary flow of hydraulic oil in long pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hružík Lumír

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with experimental evaluation and numerical simulation of non-stationary flow of hydraulic oil in a long hydraulic line. Non-stationary flow is caused by a quick closing of valves at the beginning and the end of the pipe. Time dependence of pressure is measured by means of pressure sensors at the beginning and the end of the pipe. A mathematical model of a given circuit is created using Matlab SimHydraulics software. The long line is simulated by means of segmented pipe. The simulation is verified by experiment.

  1. Thermal Hydraulic Stability in a Coaxial Thermosyphon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jianhui; LU Wenqiang; LI Qing; LI Qiang; ZHOU Yuan

    2005-01-01

    The heat transfer and thermal hydraulic stability in a two-phase thermosyphon with coaxial riser and down-comer has been experimentally investigated and theoretically analyzed to facilitate its application in cold neutron source. The flow in a coaxial thermosyphon was studied experimentally for a variety of heating rates, transfer tube lengths, charge capacities, and area ratios. A numerical analysis of the hydraulic balance between the driving pressure head and the resistance loss has also been performed. The results show that the presented coaxial thermosyphon has dynamic performance advantages relative to natural circulation in a boiling water reactor.

  2. The grout/glass performance assessment code system (GPACS) with verification and benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepho, M.G.; Sutherland, W.H.; Rittmann, P.D.

    1994-12-01

    GPACS is a computer code system for calculating water flow (unsaturated or saturated), solute transport, and human doses due to the slow release of contaminants from a waste form (in particular grout or glass) through an engineered system and through a vadose zone to an aquifer, well and river. This dual-purpose document is intended to serve as a user`s guide and verification/benchmark document for the Grout/Glass Performance Assessment Code system (GPACS). GPACS can be used for low-level-waste (LLW) Glass Performance Assessment and many other applications including other low-level-waste performance assessments and risk assessments. Based on all the cses presented, GPACS is adequate (verified) for calculating water flow and contaminant transport in unsaturated-zone sediments and for calculating human doses via the groundwater pathway.

  3. Ahorro energético en tándem de molinos de caña de azúcar mediante regulación de presiones hidráulicas//Energy saving in tandem of sugar cane mills by means regulation of hydraulic pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Michel Corrales‐Suárez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Entre las áreas de mayor consumo de energía en un central azucarero se encuentra el tándem de molinos. Una de las variables que influye sobre este consumo es la presión hidráulica aplicada a la maza superior. La investigación tuvo como objetivo determinar las posibilidades de reducir este consumo regulandoapropiadamente las presiones hidráulicas sin disminuir la eficiencia del proceso de extracción, se llevó a cabo en un tándem de seis molinos donde solo se varió las presiones en los molinos intermedios según un diseño estadístico factorial completo 24. Las variables independientes fueron: las presiones hidráulicasen los molinos intermedios; las dependientes: la demanda de potencia, el % pol y % humedad. Se concluyó que en las condiciones del experimento, el empleo de presiones hidráulicas de trabajo menores en 3,45 MPa en los molinos intermedios, no afectó el proceso de extracción de la sacarosa, pero disminuyó en un 8,12% la demanda de potencia.Palabras claves: presión hidráulica, molino de caña de azúcar, ahorro de energía, tándem.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractAmong the areas of more energy consumption in a sugar power station is the tandem of mills. One of the variables that influences on this consumption is the hydraulic pressure applied to the superior mass. The investigation had as objective to determine the possibilities to reduce this consumption regulating the hydraulic pressures appropriately without diminishing the efficiency of the extraction process, it was carried out in a tandem of six mills where alone it was varied the pressures in the intermediate mills according to a complete factorial statistical design 24. The independent variables were: the hydraulic pressures in the intermediate mills; the dependents: the demand of power, the %pol and %humidity. You concluded thatunder the conditions of the experiment, the employment of hydraulic pressures

  4. Durability and compressive strength of blast furnace slag-based cement grout for special geotechnical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortega, J. M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Special foundations, most prominently micropiles and soil anchors, are frequently used in construction today. In Spain, the grout for these special technical applications is generally prepared with portland cement, although the codes and standards in place stipulate only the minimum compressive strength required, with no mention of cement type. Those texts also establish a range of acceptable water:cement ratios. In the present study, durability and compressive strength in cement grout prepared with blast furnace slag cement at different w/c ratios are characterised and compared to the findings for a reference portland cement grout. The results show that slag grout exhibits greater durability than the portland cement material and complies with the compressive strength requirements laid down in the respective codes.Actualmente es muy frecuente el empleo de cimentaciones especiales, entre las que destacan los micropilotes y los anclajes. En España, las lechadas de cemento para estos trabajos geotécnicos especiales se preparan habitualmente con cemento Portland, aunque las diferentes normativas al respecto no restringen el tipo de cemento a emplear, siempre que se alcance una determinada resistencia a compresión. Respecto a la dosificación de las lechadas, la normativa permite emplear diferentes relaciones agua/cemento dentro de un determinado rango. En vista de ello, en este trabajo se han caracterizado las propiedades de durabilidad y resistencia a compresión de lechadas de cemento preparadas con un cemento con escoria de alto horno y con diferentes relaciones a/c, tomando como referencia de comportamiento lechadas de cemento Portland. El uso de un cemento con escoria conlleva una mejora en la durabilidad de las lechadas, cumpliendo los requisitos de resistencia a compresión establecidos por la normativa.

  5. Leach and EP (extraction procedure) toxicity tests on grouted waste from Tank 106-AN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R.J.; Martin, W.J.; Lokken, R.O.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; Martin, P.F.C.

    1989-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting laboratory experiments to produce leach rate data for various waste species that will be contained in grout at Hanford. In the work reported here, grout made from Tank 106-AN liquid waste was used to produce empirical leach rate data for several radionuclides ({sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {99}Tc, {129}I, {137}Cs, and {sup 241}Am), stable major components (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, F, Cl, and Na), and trace metals (Cr, Mo, and Ni). Two types of tests were used to produce leach rate data: an intermittent replacement leach test (ANS 16.1 leach test) and a static leach test. Measured effective diffusivities of key species are as follows: 4 to 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/sec for {sup 99}Tc, 3 to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} cm{sup 2}/sec for {sup 129}I, 4 to 6 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} cm{sup 2}/sec for nitrate, and 6 to 7 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} cm{sup 2}/sec for nitrite. The leach indices of all species studied are above (more favorable than) the waste form criteria. The leach indices for {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I are 7.4 {plus minus} 1.2 and 7.6 {plus minus} 0.4, respectively, and are being further investigated in continuing studies of double-shell slurry feed grouts. An Extraction Procedure (EP) toxicity test was also conducted and the grouted water is considered nontoxic per this test protocol. 19 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Experimental Study on Mechanical Characteristics of Cracked Rock Mass Reinforced by Bolting and Grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The stress hardening characteristics of the reinforced rock mass in uniaxial compression tests were revealed by means of the experimental study on mechanical characteristics of cracked rock mass reinforced by bolting and grouting. And the load-bearing mechanism of the reinforced rock mass was perfectly reflected by the experiment. The results can offer some useful advice for support design and stability analysis of deep drifts in unstable strata.

  7. Jet grouted cut-off is used at Pergau in Malaysia. [Dam construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-04-01

    One of the most important hydropower projects currently under way in South-East Asia is the 600 MW Pergau scheme in Kelantan, in the northeast corner of Malaysia. The project, which involves many complex construction difficulties, is being built on a design-and-construct basis. The 67 m-high main dam involves a cut-off which is being constructed by jet grouting. (author)

  8. FEMA DFIRM Hydraulic Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer and accompanying attribute table is required whenever hydraulic structures are shown in the flood profile. It is also required if levees are shown on the...

  9. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on......-going research projects on fluid power and mechatronics based on tap water hydraulic servovalves and linear servo actuators and rotary vane actuators for motion control and power transmission. Development and design a novel water hydraulic rotary vane actuator for robot manipulators. Proposed mathematical...... modelling, control and simulation of a water hydraulic rotary vane actuator applied to power and control a two-links manipulator and evaluate performance. The results include engineering design and test of the proposed simulation models compared with IHA Tampere University’s presentation of research...

  10. Assessing the influence of jet-grouting underpinning on the nearby buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Chepurnova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the underpinning-induced ground movement due to jet-grouting. Jet-grouting technique can cause distortions as a result of an inaccurate processing sequence and/or errors made at different stages of work execution. The aim of this paper is to determine the minimum value of such movement on the basis of the findings obtained at two similar construction sites located in the Historical Center of Moscow, considering that the maximum value is usually unpredictable. Numerical simulation of the process of soil eroding agrees well with the observational data at the current stage. It was found that the minimum value of deformations (only settlement was considered in this study due to jet-grouting is no less than 2–3 mm. By contrast, the negative scenario of deformation due to foundation underpinning is clearly demonstrated. Also, this paper provides some general solutions for excavation supporting system as well as for underpinning design.

  11. IMPACT OF ALUMINATE IONS ON THE PROPERTIES OF SALTSTONE GROUT MIXES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J; Tommy Edwards, T; Erich Hansen, E; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-02-21

    It is important to identify and control the operational and compositional variables that impact the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone grout mixes. The grout that is produced at the Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) is referred to as Saltstone and is a waste form that immobilizes low concentrations of radionuclides as well as certain toxic metals. The Saltstone will be disposed of in vaults at Savannah River Site (SRS). An effort referred to as the Saltstone Variability Study has been initiated to achieve this goal. The protocols developed in this variability study are also ideally suited as a tool to assess the impact of proposed changes to the processing flow sheet for Liquid Waste Operations at SRS. One such proposal that is currently under consideration is to introduce a leaching step in the treatment of the High Level Waste (HLW) sludge to remove aluminum prior to vitrification at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This leachate would significantly increase the soluble aluminate concentration in the salt feed that will be processed at the SPF. Consequently, an initial study of the impact of increased aluminate concentration on the Saltstone grout properties was performed. Prior work by Lukens (1) showed that aluminate in the salt solutions increases the amount of heat generation.

  12. Grout and glass performance in support of stabilization/solidification of ORNL tank sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R.D.; Mattus, C.H.; Mattus, A.J.

    1998-09-01

    Wastewater at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collected, evaporated, and stored in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and Bethel Valley Evaporator Storage Tanks (BVEST) pending treatment for disposal. In addition, some sludges and supernatants also requiring treatment remain in two inactive tank systems: the gunite and associated tanks (GAAT) and the old hydrofracture (OHF) tank. The waste consists of two phases: sludge and supernatant. The sludges contain a high amount of radioactivity, and some are classified as TRU sludges. Some Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metal concentrations are high enough to be defined as RCRA hazardous; therefore, these sludges are presumed to be mixed TRU waste. Grouting and vitrification are currently two likely stabilization/solidification alternatives for mixed wastes. Grouting has been used to stabilize/solidify hazardous and low-level radioactive waste for decades. Vitrification has been developed as a high-level radioactive alternative for decades and has been under development recently as an alternative disposal technology for mixed waste. The objective of this project is to define an envelope, or operating window, for grout and glass formulations for ORNL tank sludges. Formulations will be defined for the average composition of each of the major tank farms (BVEST/MVST, GAAT, and OHF) and for an overall average composition of all tank farms. This objective is to be accomplished using surrogates of the tank sludges with hot testing of actual tank sludges to check the efficacy of the surrogates.

  13. Simulation of a Hydraulic Pump Control Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molen, G. Vander; Akers, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the mode of operation of a control valve assembly that is used with a hydraulic pump. The operating system of the valve is modelled in a simplified form, and an analogy for hydraulic resonance of the pressure sensing system is presented. For the control valve investigated, air entrainment, length and diameter of the resonator neck, and valve mass produced the greatest shift in resonant frequency. Experimental work was conducted on the hydraulic system so that the resonance levels and frequencies could be measured and the accuracy of the theory verified. The results obtained make it possible to evaluate what changes to any of the variables considered would be most effective in driving the second harmonic frequency above the operating range.

  14. A low order adaptive control scheme for hydraulic servo systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Bech, Michael Møller;

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with high-performance position control of hydraulics servo systems in general. The hydraulic servo system used is a two link robotic manipulator actuated by two hydraulic servo cylinders. A non-linear model of the hydraulic system and a Newton-Euler based model of the mechanical...... system were constructed and linearized. Controllers are implemented and tested on the manipulator. Pressure feedback was found to greatly improve system stability margins. Passive gain feedforward shows improved tracking performance for small changes in load pressure. For large changes in load pressure......, active gain feedforward shows a slightly improved performance. Computed-Torque Control shows better performance, but requires a well described system for best performance. A novel Adaptive Inverse Dynamics Controller was tested and the performance was found to be similar to that of Computed...

  15. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Old Hydrofracture Facility Tank Closure Plan and Grout Development Status Report for FY 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.E.

    2000-05-08

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities across the country have radioactive waste underground storage tanks, which will require either complete removal of the tank contents and tank shells or in-place stabilization of sludge heels. Complete removal of the sludge and tank shells can become costly while providing little benefit to health, safety, and the environment. An alternative to the removal of the residual wastes and tank shells is the use of in situ solidification and stabilization techniques to immobilize the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and radioactive components present in waste storage tanks. One technology for in situ remediation of tank wastes is Ground Environmental Service's (GES's) Multi-Point-Injection (MPI.) technology. MPI technology is a patented delivery system, which uses simple and inexpensive injection tools for rapid delivery of grout or other treatment agents, as well as for the emplacement of subsurface barriers. Through the use of tailored grout formulations in conjunction with a system of specially designed grout injection tools, MPI technology is capable of producing a uniform mixture of sludge and grout. Grouts can be tailored for the immobilization of specific RCRA and radioactive constituents. The system of injection tools is designed to maximize the mixing efficiency of the grout with the wastes in the tank. MPI technology has been successfully demonstrated on the solidification of shallow buried wastes at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and in large-scale pumping and mixing tests in both cylindrical and horizontal simulated waste tanks. Hot demonstration of the technology will be accomplished during the closure of the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) tank at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in fiscal year 2000. This report describes the closure plan for the OHF tanks and presents the status of grout formulation development at ORNL.

  16. The numerical simulation based on CFD of hydraulic turbine pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, X. H.; Kong, F. Y.; Liu, Y. Y.; Zhao, R. J.; Hu, Q. L.

    2016-05-01

    As the functions of hydraulic turbine pump including self-adjusting and compensation with each other, it is far-reaching to analyze its internal flow by the numerical simulation based on CFD, mainly including the pressure field and the velocity field in hydraulic turbine and pump.The three-dimensional models of hydraulic turbine pump are made by Pro/Engineer software;the internal flow fields in hydraulic turbine and pump are simulated numerically by CFX ANSYS software. According to the results of the numerical simulation in design condition, the pressure field and the velocity field in hydraulic turbine and pump are analyzed respectively .The findings show that the static pressure decreases systematically and the pressure gradient is obvious in flow area of hydraulic turbine; the static pressure increases gradually in pump. The flow trace is regular in suction chamber and flume without spiral trace. However, there are irregular traces in the turbine runner channels which contrary to that in flow area of impeller. Most of traces in the flow area of draft tube are spiral.

  17. Hydraulic resistance of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.

    2013-02-01

    Biofilms may interfere with membrane performance in at least three ways: (i) increase of the transmembrane pressure drop, (ii) increase of feed channel (feed-concentrate) pressure drop, and (iii) increase of transmembrane passage. Given the relevance of biofouling, it is surprising how few data exist about the hydraulic resistance of biofilms that may affect the transmembrane pressure drop and membrane passage. In this study, biofilms were generated in a lab scale cross flow microfiltration system at two fluxes (20 and 100Lm-2h-1) and constant cross flow (0.1ms-1). As a nutrient source, acetate was added (1.0mgL-1 acetate C) besides a control without nutrient supply. A microfiltration (MF) membrane was chosen because the MF membrane resistance is very low compared to the expected biofilm resistance and, thus, biofilm resistance can be determined accurately. Transmembrane pressure drop was monitored. As biofilm parameters, thickness, total cell number, TOC, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were determined, it was demonstrated that no internal membrane fouling occurred and that the fouling layer actually consisted of a grown biofilm and was not a filter cake of accumulated bacterial cells. At 20Lm-2h-1 flux with a nutrient dosage of 1mgL-1 acetate C, the resistance after 4 days reached a value of 6×1012m-1. At 100Lm-2h-1 flux under the same conditions, the resistance was 5×1013m-1. No correlation of biofilm resistance to biofilm thickness was found; Biofilms with similar thickness could have different resistance depending on the applied flux. The cell number in biofilms was between 4×107 and 5×108 cellscm-2. At this number, bacterial cells make up less than a half percent of the overall biofilm volume and therefore did not hamper the water flow through the biofilm significantly. A flux of 100Lm-2h-1 with nutrient supply caused higher cell numbers, more biomass, and higher biofilm resistance than a flux of 20Lm-2h-1. However, the biofilm thickness

  18. 新近系松散一半胶结砂砾石含水层的注浆改造试验及效果%Neogene Loose-Weakly Cemented Sandy Gravel Aquifer Grouting Reformation Test and Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兰春; 李经海; 高祥川; 牛淑敏

    2012-01-01

    Safely driving through the Neogene sandy gravel is a common hard nut in inclined shaft opening out. To provide basis for surface advance grouting or concrete curtain grouting, the Xinwen Group has carried out special grouting test and pumping test, coring etc. to contrast and validated for Neogene gravel layer (intercalated with sandy clay) with total thickness 20~30m near the Heiliang coalmine main and auxiliary inclines, Shanghaimiao west mine area, Inner Mongolia. The result has demonstrated that although the loose-weakly cemented gravel layer has certain groutability beyond the IMPa grouting pressure "threshold" , but the slurry diffusive extent is less than 2~3m; also, the diffusive mode is irregular, uncontrollable and cannot form a reliable slurry diffusive consolidated ring, thus no improved effects on gravel layer water-bearing property and transmissibility have been found. Through this test, has grappled grouting performance in loose -weakly cemented gravel layer better, and obtained related grouting parameters and experiences, thus have guiding significance in grouting reformation and underground engineering construction safety in similar strata.%矿井斜井开拓安全通过新近系砂砾石含水层是一个普遍的难题,为给斜井地面预注浆或帷幕注浆法过砾石层提供依据,新矿集团在内蒙古自治区上海庙西矿区黑梁煤矿主副斜井附近对总厚20~30m的新近系砾石层(夹砂质粘土层)进行了专门注浆试验及抽水、取心等对比验证工作.结果表明,松散-半胶结砾石层虽然在超过1MPa的注浆压力“阀值”后具有一定的可注性,但浆液扩散范围小于2~3m,而且扩散方式不规则、不可控、形不成可靠的浆液扩散加固圈,对砾石层的含、导水性未发现有改善效果.通过本次试验,较好地掌握了松散-半胶结砾石层注浆性能,获得了有关注浆参数和经验,对类似地层的注浆改造和井巷工程的安全施工具有指导意义.

  19. Effect of Natural Fractures on Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Y.; Wang, Y.; Shi, G.

    2012-12-01

    Hydraulic Fracturing has been used successfully in the oil and gas industry to enhance oil and gas production in the past few decades. Recent years have seen the great development of tight gas, coal bed methane and shale gas. Natural fractures are believed to play an important role in the hydraulic fracturing of such formations. Whether natural fractures can benefit the fracture propagation and enhance final production needs to be studied. Various methods have been used to study the effect of natural fractures on hydraulic fracturing. Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA) is a numerical method which belongs to the family of discrete element methods. In this paper, DDA is coupled with a fluid pipe network model to simulate the pressure response in the formation during hydraulic fracturing. The focus is to study the effect of natural fractures on hydraulic fracturing. In particular, the effect of rock joint properties, joint orientations and rock properties on fracture initiation and propagation will be analyzed. The result shows that DDA is a promising tool to study such complex behavior of rocks. Finally, the advantages of disadvantages of our current model and future research directions will be discussed.

  20. Quantitative modelling of the degradation processes of cement grout. Project CEMMOD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandia, Fidel; Galindez, Juan-Manuel; Arcos, David; Molinero, Jorge (Amphos21 Consulting S.L., Barcelona (Spain))

    2010-05-15

    Grout cement is planned to be used in the sealing of water-conducting fractures in the deep geological storage of spent nuclear fuel waste. The integrity of such cementitious materials should be ensured in a time framework of decades to a hundred of years as mimum. However, their durability must be quantified since grout degradation may jeopardize the stability of other components in the repository due to the potential release of hyperalkaline plumes. The model prediction of the cement alteration has been challenging in the last years mainly due to the difficulty to reproduce the progressive change in composition of the Calcium-Silicate-Hydrate (CSH) compounds as the alteration proceeds. In general, the data obtained from laboratory experiments show a rather similar dependence between the pH of pore water and the Ca-Si ratio of the CSH phases. The Ca-Si ratio decreases as the CSH is progressively replaced by Si-enriched phases. An elegant and reasonable approach is the use of solid solution models even keeping in mind that CSH phases are not crystalline solids but gels. An additional obstacle is the uncertainty in the initial composition of the grout to be considered in the calculations because only the recipe of low-pH clinker is commonly provided by the manufacturer. The hydration process leads to the formation of new phases and, importantly, creates porosity. A number of solid solution models have been reported in literature. Most of them assumed a strong non-ideal binary solid solution series to account for the observed changes in the Ca-Si ratios in CSH. However, it results very difficult to reproduce the degradation of the CSH in the whole Ca-Si range of compositions (commonly Ca/Si=0.5-2.5) by considering only two end-members and fixed nonideality parameters. Models with multiple non-ideal end-members with interaction parameters as a function of the solid composition can solve the problem but these can not be managed in the existing codes of reactive

  1. 浅析除险加固高压旋喷灌浆质量问题与对策%Primary Analysis on Quality Problems and Countermeasures of High Presure Rotating-jet Grouting in Reinforcement Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐猛勇

    2012-01-01

    通过对高压旋喷灌浆施工技术的特点、流程及施工质量控制、工艺要求等进行探讨,对高压旋喷灌浆施工质量问题进行分析并提出相应对策;为确保工程质量,高压旋喷灌浆应严格按照技术要求进行操作,重点对水压、水量、气量、浆液密度、进浆量、提升速度、回浆密度进行控制。通过具体项目实施,结果表明:高压旋喷注浆施工质量问题通过采取措施是能有效控制的,高喷灌浆对坝体防渗堵漏效果好,对类似的坝体防渗加固工程具有借鉴作用。%The construction quality problems of this grouting technology are discussed and analyzed such as the technical characteristics and process of the construction,as well as the quality control and work requirements of the construction,and finally the countermeasures are put forward,including strictly operating according to technical requirements and majorly controlling water pressure,water volume,gas,slurry density,slurry volume,speed,slurry-return density and so on.The implementation results of this project show that the construction quality of high pressure rotating-jet grouting could be controlled effectively by using some measures,this grouting technology has good effect for dam seepage control,at the same time,it could provide references for similar projects.

  2. Dynamic characteristics of hydraulic power steering system with accumulator in load-haul-dump vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨忠炯; 何清华; 柳波

    2004-01-01

    Using hydraulic power steering system of model EIMCO 922 load-haul-dump vehicle as a simulation example, the dynamic characteristics of hydraulic power steering system in load-haul-dump vehicle were simulated and discussed with SIMULINK software and hydraulic control theory. The results show that the dynamic characteristics of hydraulic power steering system are improved obviously by using bladder accumulator, the hydraulic power steering system of model EIMCO 922 load-haul-dump vehicle generates vibration at the initial stage under the normal steering condition of pulse input, and its static response time is 0.25 s shorter than that without bladder accumulator. Under the normal steering working condition, the capacity of steering accumulator for absorbing pulse is directly proportional to the cross section area of connecting pipeline, and inversely proportional to the length of connecting pipeline. At the same time, the precharge pressure of nitrogen in steering accumulator should be 60%- 80% of the rated minimum working pressure of hydraulic power steering system. Under the abnormal steering working condition, the steering cylinder piston may obtain higher motion velocity, and the dynamic response velocity of hydraulic power steering system can be increased by reducing the pressure drop of hydraulic pipelines between the accumulator and steering cylinder and by increasing the rated pressure of hydraulic power steering system, but the dynamic characteristics of hydraulic power steering system in load-haul-dump vehicle have nothing to do with the precharge pressure of nitrogen in steering accumulator.

  3. Elevator and hydraulics; Elevator to yuatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, I. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-07-15

    A hydraulic type elevator is installed in relatively lower buildings as compared with a rope type elevator, but the ratio in the number of installation of the former elevator is increasing. This paper explains from its construction and features to especially various control systems for the riding comfort and safety. A direct push-up system with hydraulic jacks arranged beneath a car, and an indirect push-up system that has hydraulic jacks arranged on flank of a car and transmits the movement of a plunger via a rope are available. The latter system eliminates the need of large holes to embed hydraulic jacks. While the speed is controlled by controlling flow rates of high-pressure oil, the speed, position, acceleration and even time differential calculus of the acceleration must be controlled severely. The system uses two-step control for the through-speed and the landing speed. Different systems that have been realized may include compensation for temperatures in flow rate control valves, load pressures, and oil viscosity, from learning control to fuzzy control for psychological effects, or control of inverters in motors. 13 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  4. 压密注浆顶升效应的研究%Research on lift effect of compaction grouting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明

    2012-01-01

    The paper adopts SIGMA/W formwork of Geostudio software to simulate the compaction grouting correction procedure of 4 000 t stored fluid tank in Shanghai, compares the influence of the various grouting depth on the lift effect and the grouting lift effect of four kinds of common soils in Shanghai, and illustrates the analysis results show the rectification magnitude of the compaction grouting is 10-1 m, its grouting depth should be less than the half of the bottom consolidation depth and the lift effect of the mucky soil with the minimal compression modulus is the best.%运用Geostudio软件中的SIGMA/W模块模拟了上海4 000 t储液槽的压密注浆纠偏过程,对比了不同注浆深度对顶升效应的影响,以及上海常见的四类土的注浆顶升效应,分析结果显示压密注浆的纠偏量级为10-1m,注浆深度宜不大于底层加固深度的一半,压缩模量最小的淤泥质土的顶升效果最好。

  5. Microfluidic parallel circuit for measurement of hydraulic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungyoung; Lee, Myung Gwon; Park, Je-Kyun

    2010-08-31

    We present a microfluidic parallel circuit that directly compares the test channel of an unknown hydraulic resistance with the reference channel with a known resistance, thereby measuring the unknown resistance without any measurement setup, such as standard pressure gauges. Many of microfluidic applications require the precise transport of fluid along a channel network with complex patterns. Therefore, it is important to accurately characterize and measure the hydraulic resistance of each channel segment, and determines whether the device principle works well. However, there is no fluidic device that includes features, such as the ability to diagnose microfluidic problems by measuring the hydraulic resistance of a microfluidic component in microscales. To address the above need, we demonstrate a simple strategy to measure an unknown hydraulic resistance, by characterizing the hydraulic resistance of microchannels with different widths and defining an equivalent linear channel of a microchannel with repeated patterns of a sudden contraction and expansion.

  6. Effect of cavitation bubble collapse on hydraulic oil temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈伟; 张健; 孙毅; 张迪嘉; 姜继海

    2016-01-01

    Cavitation bubble collapse has a great influence on the temperature of hydraulic oil. Herein, cone-type throttle valve experiments are carried out to study the thermodynamic processes of cavitation. First, the processes of growth and collapse are analysed, and the relationships between the hydraulic oil temperature and bubble growth and collapse are deduced. The effect of temperature is then considered on the hydraulic oil viscosity and saturated vapour pressure. Additionally, an improved form of the Rayleigh–Plesset equation is developed. The effect of cavitation on the hydraulic oil temperature is experimentally studied and the effects of cavitation bubble collapse in the hydraulic system are summarised. Using the cone-type throttle valve as an example, a method to suppress cavitation is proposed.

  7. COHESIVE ZONE FINITE ELEMENT-BASED MODELING OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuorong Chen; A.P. Bunger; Xi Zhang; Robert G. Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a powerful technology used to stimulate fluid production from reservoirs. The fully 3-D numerical simulation of the hydraulic fracturing process is of great importance to the efficient application of this technology, but is also a great challenge because of the strong nonlinear coupling between the viscous flow of fluid and fracture propagation. By taking advantage of a cohesive zone method to simulate the fracture process, a finite element model based on the existing pore pressure cohesive finite elements has been established to investigate the propagation of a penny-shaped hydraulic fracture in an infinite elastic medium. The effect of cohesive material parameters and fluid viscosity on the hydraulic fracture behaviour has been investigated. Excellent agreement between the finite element results and analytical solutions for the limiting case where the fracture process is dominated by rock fracture toughness demonstrates the ability of the cohesive zone finite element model in simulating the hydraulic fracture growth for this case.

  8. Method to Estimate the Dissolved Air Content in Hydraulic Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to verify the air content in hydraulic fluid, an instrument was needed to measure the dissolved air content before the fluid was loaded into the system. The instrument also needed to measure the dissolved air content in situ and in real time during the de-aeration process. The current methods used to measure the dissolved air content require the fluid to be drawn from the hydraulic system, and additional offline laboratory processing time is involved. During laboratory processing, there is a potential for contamination to occur, especially when subsaturated fluid is to be analyzed. A new method measures the amount of dissolved air in hydraulic fluid through the use of a dissolved oxygen meter. The device measures the dissolved air content through an in situ, real-time process that requires no additional offline laboratory processing time. The method utilizes an instrument that measures the partial pressure of oxygen in the hydraulic fluid. By using a standardized calculation procedure that relates the oxygen partial pressure to the volume of dissolved air in solution, the dissolved air content is estimated. The technique employs luminescent quenching technology to determine the partial pressure of oxygen in the hydraulic fluid. An estimated Henry s law coefficient for oxygen and nitrogen in hydraulic fluid is calculated using a standard method to estimate the solubility of gases in lubricants. The amount of dissolved oxygen in the hydraulic fluid is estimated using the Henry s solubility coefficient and the measured partial pressure of oxygen in solution. The amount of dissolved nitrogen that is in solution is estimated by assuming that the ratio of dissolved nitrogen to dissolved oxygen is equal to the ratio of the gas solubility of nitrogen to oxygen at atmospheric pressure and temperature. The technique was performed at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The technique could be theoretically carried out at higher pressures and elevated

  9. Study of Dynamic Characteristics for Hydraulic System on 300MN Die-forging Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoqiang; Tan, Jianping

    2017-06-01

    The faults such as seal breakdown and pressure sensor damage occur in 300MN Die-forging press frequently. First, the fault phenomenon and harm of the hydraulic system was compiled statistics, the theoretical analysis of the hydraulic impact of hydraulic system are carried out based on the momentum theorem; Then, the co-simulation model of hydraulic system was established by AMESim and Simulink software and the correctness was verified. Finally, the dynamic characteristics of hydraulic system for the key working condition “forging stroke changing to mold collision” was analyzed, the influences rules of system parameters such as the leak gap of valve, diameter of water way pipeline, emulsion temperature and air contain act on hydraulic system are obtained. This conclusions have a theoretical guiding significance to the improvement and maintains of high pressure and large flow hydraulic system.

  10. 液压机液压系统过滤器的选择与设计%Selection and design of hydraulic filter for hydraulic press

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔景海

    2012-01-01

    维护油液清洁对液压机液压系统十分重要.介绍了液压机液压系统中常用过滤器的种类及过滤器选型时应考虑的因素.%The cleanliness of the hydraulic oil is very important to the hydraulic system of hydraulic press.There are four common kinds of filter used in hydraulic system of hydraulic press as follows: high pressure filter,low pressure filter,water pressure filter,and air filter.Entry and exit size of filters,nominal pressure,filtering precision,and filter material should have been considered in the selection of the filter.

  11. Phenomenon of methane driven caused by hydraulic fracturing in methane-bearing coal seams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Bingxiang; Cheng Qingying; Chen Shuliang

    2016-01-01

    The methane concentration of the return current will always be enhanced to a certain degree when hydraulic fracturing with bedding drilling is implemented to a gassy coal seam in an underground coal mine. The methane in coal seam is driven out by hydraulic fracturing. Thus, the phenomenon is named as methane driven effect of hydraulic fracturing. After deep-hole hydraulic fracturing at the tunneling face of the gassy coal seam, the coal methane content exhibits a‘low-high-low”distribution along exca-vation direction in the following advancing process, verifying the existence of methane driven caused by hydraulic fracturing in methane-bearing coal seam. Hydraulic fracturing causes the change of pore-water and methane pressure in surrounding coal. The uneven distribution of the pore pressure forms a pore pressure gradient. The free methane migrates from the position of high pore (methane) pressure to the position of low pore (methane) pressure. The methane pressure gradient is the fundamental driving force for methane-driven coal seam hydraulic fracturing. The uneven hydraulic crack propagation and the effect of time (as some processes need time to complete and are not completed instantaneously) will result in uneven methane driven. Therefore, an even hydraulic fracturing technique should be used to avoid the negative effects of methane driven; on the other hand, by taking fully advantage of methane driven, two technologies are presented.

  12. Critically evaluate techniques for the in situ testing of steel tendon grouting effectiveness as a basis for reducing fall of ground injuries and fatalities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kelly, AM

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available The quality of installation and grouting of rock reinforcing tendons is seen as a serious problem by the mining industry. Up to half of all full-column grouted steel tendons or rock bolts installed in South African gold and platinum mines...

  13. CFD analysis of a hydraulic valve for cavitating flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, A.; Goyal, P.; Singh, R.K.; Gosh, A.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay, Mumbai (India). Reactor Safety Div.

    2012-03-15

    A successful design of high pressure hydraulic valves requires a thorough analysis of both velocity and pressure fields, with the aim of improving the geometry to avoid cavitation. Cavitation behavior prediction of hydraulic valves and its associated performance drop is of high interest for the manufacturers and for the users. The paper presents a CFD analysis of the flow inside a high pressure hydraulic valve. First, the analysis was carried out without using cavitation model (single phase). It was observed that absolute pressure was going below the vapor pressure. Hence, it was required to turn on the cavitation model. This model enables formation of vapor from liquid when the pressure drops below the vaporization pressure. Since the cavitation bubble grows in a liquid at low temperature, the latent heat of evaporation can be neglected and the system can be considered isothermal. Under these conditions the pressure inside the bubble remains practically constant and the growth of the bubble radius can be approximated by the simplified Rayleigh equation. For typical poppet valve geometry, of computational domain is assumed, with pressure inlet and outlet boundary conditions, and a steady flow solution is computed. Because of the highly complex geometry of the hydraulic valve, the computational domain was meshed using unstructured grids using tetrahedral cells only. The paper presents a numerical investigation of the flow inside a hydraulic valve using commercial CFD code CFD-ACE. The aim of the study is to provide a good basis for future designing of the hydraulic valve. The result indicated the cavitation zones which in turn suggest needs of modification of present geometry. (orig.)

  14. Hydraulics and pneumatics

    CERN Document Server

    Parr, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Nearly all industrial processes require objects to be moved, manipulated or subjected to some sort of force. This is frequently accomplished by means of electrical equipment (such as motors or solenoids), or via devices driven by air (pneumatics) or liquids (hydraulics).This book has been written by a process control engineer as a guide to the operation of hydraulic and pneumatic systems for all engineers and technicians who wish to have an insight into the components and operation of such a system.This second edition has been fully updated to include all recent developments su

  15. Popeye Project: Hydraulic umbilical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, K.G.; Williams, V.T.

    1996-12-31

    For the Popeye Project, the longest super-duplex hydraulic umbilical in the world was installed in the Gulf of Mexico. This paper reports on its selection and project implementation. Material selection addresses corrosion in seawater, water-based hydraulic fluid, and methanol. Five alternatives were considered: (1) carbon-steel with traditional coating and anodes, (2) carbon-steel coated with thermally sprayed aluminum, (3) carbon-steel sheathed in aluminum, (4) super-duplex, and (5) titanium. The merits and risks associated with each alternative are discussed. The manufacture and installation of the selected umbilical are also reported.

  16. Aircraft Hydraulic Systems Dynamic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    4400 PSIG OUTLET PRESSURE ~’f UM5 S1 l .( FIF ~0RV lR 1 .I. AP (c R (V) IFWM) APPROX C ASE !VPý :iI S ReUN N•;MRF.. r p kN i t, isI A! f IN, I:E • ’l...and 1F.GI pump modelo were assumed from data supplied by CECO. 165 _ -- --- - SECTION V HYDRAULIC MOTOR MODEL DEVELOPMENT AND VERIFICATION A fixed...3 70 P.,0 601 ~4 M24.0 3 1p ’, 4 r I 1 1 ISIS 2411 APPENDIX E (CONT.) HSFR TECHNICAL MANUAL (AFAPL-TR-76-43, VOL. IV) 4.15 VANE PU`MP SUBROUTINE 4.15A

  17. Hydraulic Arm Modeling via Matlab SimHydraulics

    OpenAIRE

    Věchet, Stanislav; Krejsa, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    System modeling is a vital tool for cost reduction and design process speed up in most engineering fields. The paper is focused on modeling of hydraulic arm as a part of intelligent prosthesis project, in the form of 2DOF open kinematic chain. The arm model combines mechanical, hydraulic and electric subsystems and uses Matlab as modeling tool. SimMechanics Matlab extension is used for mechanical part modeling, SimHydraulics toolbox is used for modeling of hydraulic circuit used for actuating...

  18. In-situ grouting of the low-level radioactive waste disposal silos at ORNL`s Solid Waste Storage Area Six

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C.W.; Farmer, C.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Stansfield, R.G. [Stansfield (Robert G.), Knoxville, TN (US)

    1993-07-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), one method of solid low-level radioactive waste disposal has been disposed of in below-grade cylindrical concrete silos. Located in Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6), each silo measures 8 ft in diameter and 20 ft deep. Present day operations involve loading the silos with low-level radioactive waste and grouting the remaining void space with a particulate grout of low viscosity. Initial operations involving the disposal of wastes into the below-grade silos did not include the grouting process. Grouting was stated as a standard practice (in late 1988) after discovering that {approximately}75% of the silos accumulated water in the bottom of the silos in the {approximately}2 years after capping. Silo water (leachate) contained a wide range of types and concentrations of radionuclides. The migration of contaminated leachate out of the silo into adjoining soil and groundwater was considered to be a serious environmental concern. This report describes how a specially designed particulate-base grout was used to grout 54 silos previously filled with low-level radioactive waste. Grouting involved three steps: (1) silo preparation, (2) formulation and preparation of the grout mixture, and (3) injection of the grout into the silos. Thirty-five of the 54 silos grouted were equipped with a 3-in.-diam Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) pipe used to monitor water levels in the silos. A method for rupturing the bottom section of these PVC wells was developed so that grout could be pumped to the bottom of those silos. Holes (2-in. diam) were drilled through the {approximately}18 in. thick concrete to fill the remaining 19 wells without the PVC monitoring wells. The formulation of grout injected into the silos was based on a Portland Type I cement, flyash, sand, and silica fume admixture. Compressive strength of grout delivered to SWSA6 during grouting operations averaged 1,808 lb/in{sup 2} with a bulk density of 3,549 lb/yd{sup 3}.

  19. 松软地层脉动灌浆封孔浆体止浆机制初步研究%Mechanism of stemming slurry materials for pulsating grouting in soft strata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵金; 梁经纬; 杨东升; 潘烨; 彭春雷

    2016-01-01

    The pulsating grouting with slurry materials is an effective method for anti-seepage and reinforcement in soft strata, but the mechanism of stemming slurry materials is not clear.Based on the engineering fracture mechanics and Bingham fluid concentric annular narrow gap flow model, the mechanism of stemming slurry materials is analyzed qualitatively, andbased on the conservation of energy, the governing equation for the stemming slurry materials is deduced. The relationship among the limit loading pressure of slurry materials in pulsating grouting, the rheological properties of grouting slurry, the performance of sealing slurry and the pulsating frequency is analyzed. The limit loading pressure of the slurry materials increases with the increase of plastic viscosity of slurry, yield stress plastic strength of sealing slurry and interval time of pulse, and decreases with the increase of duration time of pulse. The effect increases with the increase of the height of hole sealing. The mechanism of stemming slurry materials is verified by the self-made indoor experimental device. For the anti-seepage project in the slope of the diversion canal in Hebi of Henan, which is in the Middle Route Project of South-to-North Water Diversion, in view of the soft geological conditions, the stemming slurry technology of slurry materials is applied to the slope project by means of segmented pulsating grouting from bottom to top. The pumping tests after grouting indicate that the permeability reaches 10-5~10-6 cm/s, and the amount of work of 20% is saved compared to that of the traditional grouting technology.%浆体封闭脉动灌浆是松软地层防渗加固的有效手段,但封孔浆体的止浆机制尚不明确。基于工程断裂力学以及宾汉姆流体同心环状劈裂流动模型,对脉动灌浆封孔浆体的止浆机制进行了定性分析,并基于能量守恒,推导出了脉动灌浆封孔浆体止浆的控制方程。分析了脉动灌浆封孔浆体的

  20. ELECTRO-HYDRAULIC SERVO SYSTEM IN THE CENTRIFUGE FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Longlei; Yan Guirong; Li Ronglin

    2004-01-01

    The mechanical characteristics of the electro-hydraulic servo system in the centrifuge field are analyzed.The hydraulic pressure law in the centrifuge field indicates the existence of the centrifuge hydraulic pressure.The mechanical characteristics of the slide-valve and the dual nozzle flapper valve are studied,and it is found that the centrifuge field can not only increase the driving force or moment of the function units,but also decrease the stability of the components.Finally by applying Gauss minimum constraint principle,the dynamic model of the electro-hydraulic vibrator in the centrifuge field is established,and the mechanical restriction of the system is also presented.The study will be helpful for the realization of the combined vibration and centrifuge test system.

  1. Development of grout formulations for 106-AN waste: Mixture-experiment results and analysis. Volume 1, Narrative and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, R.D.; McDaniel, E.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Anderson, C.M.; Lokken, R.O.; Piepel, G.F. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Twenty potential ingredients were identified for use in developing a 106-AN grout formulation, and 18 were subsequently obtained and tested. Four ingredients-Type II-LA (moderate heat of hydration) Portland cement, Class F fly ash, attapulgite 150 drilling clay, and ground air-cooled blast-furnace slag (GABFS) were selected for developing the 106-AN grout formulations. A mixture experiment was designed and conducted around the following formulation: 2.5 lb of cement per gallon, 1.2 lb of fly ash per gallon, 0.8 lb of attapulgite per gallon, and 3.5 lb of GABFS per gallon. Reduced empirical models were generated from the results of the mixture experiment. These models were used to recommend several grout formulations for 106-AN. Westinghouse Hanford Company selected one of these formulations to be verified for use with 106-AN and a backup formulation in case problems arise with the first choice.

  2. Effects of Using Silica Fume and Polycarboxylate-Type Superplasticizer on Physical Properties of Cementitious Grout Mixtures for Semiflexible Pavement Surfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Mahmud, Hilmi; Mashaan, Nuha S.; Katman, Herdayati; Husain, Nadiah Md

    2014-01-01

    Semi-flexible pavement surfacing is a composite pavement that utilizes the porous pavement structure of the flexible bituminous pavement, which is subsequently grouted with appropriate cementitious materials. This study aims to investigate the compressive strength, flexural strength, and workability performance of cementitious grout. The grout mixtures are designed to achieve high strength and maintain flow properties in order to allow the cement slurries to infiltrate easily through unfilled compacted skeletons. A paired-sample t-test was carried out to find out whether water/cement ratio, SP percentages, and use of silica fume influence the cementitious grout performance. The findings showed that the replacement of 5% silica fume with an adequate amount of superplasticizer and water/cement ratio was beneficial in improving the properties of the cementitious grout. PMID:24526911

  3. Gravity-Driven Hydraulic Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanovich, L. N.; Garagash, D.; Murdoch, L. C.; Robinowitz, M.

    2014-12-01

    This study is motived by a new method for disposing of nuclear waste by injecting it as a dense slurry into a hydraulic fracture that grows downward to great enough depth to permanently isolate the waste. Disposing of nuclear waste using gravity-driven hydraulic fractures is mechanically similar to the upward growth of dikes filled with low density magma. A fundamental question in both applications is how the injected fluid controls the propagation dynamics and fracture geometry (depth and breadth) in three dimensions. Analog experiments in gelatin [e.g., Heimpel and Olson, 1994; Taisne and Tait, 2009] show that fracture breadth (the short horizontal dimension) remains nearly stationary when the process in the fracture "head" (where breadth is controlled) is dominated by solid toughness, whereas viscous fluid dissipation is dominant in the fracture tail. We model propagation of the resulting gravity-driven (buoyant or sinking), finger-like fracture of stationary breadth with slowly varying opening along the crack length. The elastic response to fluid loading in a horizontal cross-section is local and can be treated similar to the classical Perkins-Kern-Nordgren (PKN) model of hydraulic fracturing. The propagation condition for a finger-like crack is based on balancing the global energy release rate due to a unit crack extension with the rock fracture toughness. It allows us to relate the net fluid pressure at the tip to the fracture breadth and rock toughness. Unlike the PKN fracture, where breadth is known a priori, the final breadth of a finger-like fracture is a result of processes in the fracture head. Because the head is much more open than the tail, viscous pressure drop in the head can be neglected leading to a 3D analog of Weertman's hydrostatic pulse. This requires relaxing the local elasticity assumption of the PKN model in the fracture head. As a result, we resolve the breadth, and then match the viscosity-dominated tail with the 3-D, toughness

  4. HYDRAULICS, TUSCARAWAS COUNTY, OHIO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  5. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant low-level waste grout stabilization development program FY-96 status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbst, A.K.

    1996-09-01

    The general purpose of the Grout Stabilization Development Program is to solidify and stabilize the liquid low-level wastes (LLW) generated at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). It is anticipated that LLW will be produced from the following: (1) chemical separation of the tank farm high-activity sodium-bearing waste; (2) retrieval, dissolution, and chemical separation of the aluminum, zirconium, and sodium calcines; (3) facility decontamination processes; and (4) process equipment waste. The main tasks completed this fiscal year as part of the program were chromium stabilization study for sodium-bearing waste and stabilization and solidification of LLW from aluminum and zirconium calcines. The projected LLW will be highly acidic and contain high amounts of nitrates. Both of these are detrimental to Portland cement chemistry; thus, methods to precondition the LLW and to cure the grout were explored. A thermal calcination process, called denitration, was developed to solidify the waste and destroy the nitrates. A three-way blend of Portland cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash was successfully tested. Grout cubes were prepared at various waste loadings to maximize loading while meeting compressive strength and leach resistance requirements. For the sodium LLW, a 25% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 3.5 and a compressive strength of 2,500 pounds per square inch while meeting leach, mix, and flow requirements. It was found that the sulfur in the slag reduces the chromium leach rate below regulatory limits. For the aluminum LLW, a 15% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.5 and a compressive strength of 4,350 pounds per square inch while meeting leach requirements. Likewise for zirconium LLW, a 30% waste loading achieves a volume reduction of 8.3 and a compressive strength of 3,570 pounds per square inch.

  6. Review and prospect of research on hydraulic pulsation attenuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Chang-ji; Zhao, Qi-jun; Dai, Ting-ting; Bian, Yi-duo; Cai, Yan

    2017-09-01

    The pressure pulsation attenuator is able to decrease the fluid fluctuation of the hydraulic pump effectively, so it is widely used in construction machinery. This paper reviews the history and progresses of the research on the pressure pulsation attenuator in China and overseas, summarizes its two types: H-type rigid structure and built-in flexible material, meanwhile, discusses its future research area.

  7. Characterization of Hydraulic Fracture with Inflated Dislocation Moving Within a Semi-infinite Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OUYANG Zhi-hua; ELSWORTH Derek; LI Qiang

    2007-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is accompanied by a change in pore fluid pressure. As a result, this may be conveniently represented as inflated dislocation moving within a semi-infinite medium. Theory is developed to describe the pore pressures that build up around an inflated volumetric dislocation migrating within a saturated porous-elastic semi-infinite medium as analog to hydraulic fracturing emplacement. The solution is capable of evaluating the system behavior of both constant fluid pressure and zero flux surface conditions through application of a superposition. Characterization of horizontal moving dislocation processes is conducted as an application of these techniques. Where the mechanical and hydraulic parameters are defined, a priori, type curve matching of responses may be used to evaluate emplacement location uniquely. Pore pressure response elicited at a dilation, subject to pressure control is of interest in representing hydraulic fracturing where leak-off is an important component. The effect of hydraulic fracturing on fracture fluid pressure is evaluated in a poroelastic hydraulic fracture model utilizing dislocation theory. A minimum set of dimensionless parameters are defined that describe the system. Pore fluid pressures recorded during hydraulic fracturing of a well in the San Joaquin Valley of Central California is examined using the proposed model. The estimated geometry of the hydraulic fracture is matched with reasonable fidelity with the measured data.

  8. Modelling of Hydraulic Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Zhou, Jianjun; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of identifying the physical model (or the grey box model) of a hydraulic test robot. The obtained model is intended to provide a basis for model-based control of the robot. The physical model is formulated in continuous time and is derived by application...

  9. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  10. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on-going...

  11. Modified-sulfur cements for use in concretes, flexible pavings, coatings, and grouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, W. C.; Sullivan, T. A.; Jong, B. W.

    1981-05-01

    A family of modified-sulfur cements was developed for the preparation of construction materials with improved properties. Various types of sulfur cements were prepared by reacting sulfur with mixtures of dicyclopentadiene and oligomers of cyclopentadiene. Durable cements were prepared with structural characteristics ranging from rigid to flexible. These cements were used to prepare corrosion-resistant materials for use in a wide variety of industrial applications where resistance to acidic and salt conditions is needed. These materials were prepared as rigid concretes, flexible pavings, spray coatings, and grouts. Production of modified-sulfur cements in a commercial-size plant was demonstrated.

  12. Hydraulic characteristics of HANARO fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S.; Chung, H. J.; Chun, S. Y.; Yang, S. K.; Chung, M. K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the hydraulic characteristics measured by using LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry) in subchannels of HANARO, KAERI research reactor, fuel bundle. The fuel bundle consists of 18 axially finned rods with 3 spacer grids, which are arranged in cylindrical configuration. The effects of the spacer grids on the turbulent flow were investigated by the experimental results. Pressure drops for each component of the fuel bundle were measured, and the friction factors of fuel bundle and loss coefficients for the spacer grids were estimated from the measured pressure drops. Implications regarding the turbulent thermal mixing were discussed. Vibration test results measured by using laser vibrometer were presented. 9 refs., 12 figs. (Author)

  13. Determining the