WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydraulic power coal

  1. The power of Indonesian coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosiak, T. [Duke/Fluor Daniel (United States)

    2003-02-01

    The paper presents three Indonesian projects carried out by Duke/Fluor Daniel whose unique construction and operation have demonstrated the versatility and value of coal-fired power generation. These are: the construction of units 7 and 8 of the Paiton Private Power Project, a 1230 MW pulverised coal plant in Paiton, East Java; construction of a coal fired generation plant and transmission system to provide power for the expansion of a copper and gold mine on the island of Papua; and construction of four 28 MW pulverized coal units to provide 'heavy lifting' for a new mine at Batu Hijau on the island of Sumbawa. Coal was found to cost less than diesel for power generation. 2 photos.

  2. Power Generation from Coal 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report focuses mainly on developments to improve the performance of coal-based power generation technologies, which should be a priority -- particularly if carbon capture and storage takes longer to become established than currently projected. A close look is taken of the major ongoing developments in process technology, plant equipment, instrumentation and control. Coal is an important source of energy for the world, particularly for power generation. To meet the growth in demand for energy over the past decade, the contribution from coal has exceeded that of any other energy source. Additionally, coal has contributed almost half of total growth in electricity over the past decade. As a result, CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generation have increased markedly and continue to rise. More than 70% of CO2 emissions that arise from power generation are attributed to coal. To play its role in a sustainable energy future, its environmental footprint must be reduced; using coal more efficiently is an important first step. Beyond efficiency improvement, carbon capture and storage (CCS) must be deployed to make deep cuts in CO2 emissions. The need for energy and the economics of producing and supplying it to the end-user are central considerations in power plant construction and operation. Economic and regulatory conditions must be made consistent with the ambition to achieve higher efficiencies and lower emissions. In essence, clean coal technologies must be more widely deployed.

  3. Power Generation from Coal 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Coal is the biggest single source of energy for electricity production and its share is growing. The efficiency of converting coal into electricity matters: more efficient power plants use less fuel and emit less climate-damaging carbon dioxide. This book explores how efficiency is measured and reported at coal-fired power plants. With many different methods used to express efficiency performance, it is often difficult to compare plants, even before accounting for any fixed constraints such as coal quality and cooling-water temperature. Practical guidelines are presented that allow the efficiency and emissions of any plant to be reported on a common basis and compared against best practice. A global database of plant performance is proposed that would allow under-performing plants to be identified for improvement. Armed with this information, policy makers would be in a better position to monitor and, if necessary, regulate how coal is used for power generation. The tools and techniques described will be of value to anyone with an interest in the more sustainable use of coal.

  4. 40 CFR 147.52 - State-administered program-Hydraulic Fracturing of Coal Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Fracturing of Coal Beds. 147.52 Section 147.52 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... PROGRAMS Alabama § 147.52 State-administered program—Hydraulic Fracturing of Coal Beds. The UIC program for hydraulic fracturing of coal beds in the State of Alabama, except those on Indian lands, is the program...

  5. Power generation costs. Coal - nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This supplement volume contains 17 separate chapters investigating the parameters which determine power generation costs on the basis of coal and nuclear power and a comparison of these. A detailed calculation model is given. The complex nature of this type of cost comparison is shown by a review of selected parameter constellation for coal-fired and nuclear power plants. The most favourable method of power generation can only be determined if all parameters are viewed together. One quite important parameter is the load factor, or rather the hours of operation. (UA) 891 UA/UA 892 AMO [de

  6. Hydraulically powered dissimilar teleoperated system controller design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper will address two issues associated with the implementation of a hydraulically powered dissimilar master-slave teleoperated system. These issues are the overall system control architecture and the design of robust hydraulic servo controllers for the position control problem. Finally, a discussion of overall system performance on an actual teleoperated system will be presented

  7. Analysis and selection of a system for hydraulic transport of slags in the Mironovskii power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirgorodskii, V.G.; Mova, M.E.; Korenev, V.E.; Grechikhin, Yu.A. (Donetskii Politekhnicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1991-01-01

    Discusses systems for hydraulic transport of ashes and slags from combustion of black coal (with an ash content of 40.5%) in the Mironovskii power plant. Three systems are comparatively evaluated: hydraulic transport under influence of gravity, hydraulic transport with a system of dredging pumps, or an airlift pump system. Design of each system, its operation and types of pumps or airlift systems are discussed. The evaluation concentrates on the hydraulic transport system with 1 to 3 airlift pumps each with a capacity ranging from 110 to 890 m{sup 3}/h. Optimum design of the airlift hydraulic system for slag and ash transport is described.

  8. Disposal of coal combustion wastes in the hydraulic backfill process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierzyna, Piotr

    2017-11-01

    This article presents the results of studies regarding the physical properties of selected combustion by-products (CCPs) currently produced in the energy production industry. These properties have been compared with the requirements of the technologies applied in the Polish underground mines. The article gives special consideration to the application of the products in the hydraulic backfill technology. The possibility of using bottom-ashes and slags was considered. The amount of CCPs disposed in Polish hard coal mines is approximately 1.1 million Mg and the tendency is decreasing. In the past two years, approximately 100-150 thousand Mg of CCPs was used in the hydraulic backfill technology. The percentage of the fraction smaller than 0.1 mm is determining for the possibility of using a given type of CCPs in the backfill material. This practically excludes the possibility of using any fly ashes in that technology. In slags from conventional boilers and bottom ashes from fluidized bed boilers the fraction below 0.1 mm constitutes 25% of the total at maximum, which allows for their use in the materials used in hydraulic backfill as a component comprising from 30% to 60%, respectively. Slags (10 01 01) are characterized by the lack of bonding properties, which, in case of open backfill systems that are exposed to atmospheric conditions, constitutes an advantage in comparison to bottom ashes (10 01 24), which in turn definitely exhibit bonding properties. The solution of the problem of using bottom ashes is their supply and application on a current basis.

  9. Longwall top coal caving (LTCC) mining technologies with roof softening by hydraulic fracturing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klishin, V.; Nikitenko, S.; Opruk, G.

    2018-05-01

    The paper discusses advanced top coal caving technologies for thick coal seams and addresses some issues of incomplete coal extraction, which can result in the environmental damage, landscape change, air and water pollution and endogenous fires. The authors put forward a fundamentally new, having no equivalent and ecology-friendly method to difficult-to-cave roof coal – directional hydraulic fracturing and nonexplosive disintegration.

  10. The micro hydraulic power, a sure value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The micro hydroelectricity is a proven technology which has now reached maturity. Ideal for electrification of remote sites, it also serves a complement to national electric production. A recent study carried out by the ESHA estimates the potential which still available in terms of micro hydraulic power plants at 5939 MW. The small hydro power capacity (>10 MW) installed in European union and the available potential of small hydro power are presented. (A.L.B.)

  11. Virginia Power thermal-hydraulics methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.C.; Basehore, K.L.; Harrell, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    Virginia Power's nuclear safety analysis group is responsible for the safety analysis of reload cores for the Surry and North Anna power stations, including the area of core thermal-hydraulics. Postulated accidents are evaluated for potential departure from nucleate boiling violations. In support of these tasks, Virginia Power has employed the COBRA code and the W-3 and WRB-1 DNB correlations. A statistical DNBR methodology has also been developed. The code, correlations and statistical methodology are discussed

  12. Power Management in Mobile Hydraulic Applications - An Approach for Designing Hydraulic Power Supply Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the last three decades energy consumption has become one of the primary design aspects in hydraulic systems, especially for mobile hydraulic systems, as power and cooling capacity here is at limited disposal. Considering the energy usage, this is dependent on component efficiency, but ...... the hydraulic power supply in the most energy efficient way, when considering a number of load situations. Finally an example of the approach is shown to prove its validity.}......Throughout the last three decades energy consumption has become one of the primary design aspects in hydraulic systems, especially for mobile hydraulic systems, as power and cooling capacity here is at limited disposal. Considering the energy usage, this is dependent on component efficiency...

  13. MHD power station with coal gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brzozowski, W.S.; Dul, J.; Pudlik, W.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of the proposed operating method of a MHD-power station including a complete coal gasification into lean gas with a simultaneous partial gas production for the use of outside consumers. A comparison with coal gasification methods actually being used and full capabilities of power stations heated with coal-derived gas shows distinct advantages resulting from applying the method of coal gasification with waste heat from MHD generators working within the boundaries of the thermal-electric power station. (author)

  14. Power management in hydraulically actuated mobile equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2008-01-01

    The focus of the current paper is on the control of hydraulic systems when utilizing the advances that electronic control may bring with regard to power management, prioritized flow sharing and anti-stall, arising from being able to control both pump, valves and engine electronically. A simple mo...

  15. Planning new coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benesch, W.A. [STEAG encotec GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    When considering fossil energy sources, it can be seen that natural gas and oil will become much scarcer than coal. Therefore, one practical option is to investigate and further develop coal-based energy supplies for the future. However, the existing coal stocks must be used very sparingly. Consequently, the conversion efficiency of the chemically-bonded energy in power and heat needs to be improved. By these means, and also by modern environmental engineering, power can be generated from coal without harming the environment. (orig.)

  16. Spatio-temporal evolution of apparent resistivity during coal-seam hydraulic flushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dexing; Wang, Enyuan; Song, Dazhao; Qiu, Liming; Kong, Xiangguo

    2018-06-01

    Hydraulic flushing in gas predrainage is widely used, but the hydraulic-flushing effect is evaluated in a traditional way, by determining the desorption volume, moisture content, gas drainage rate and other conventional indices. To verify the rationality and feasibility of the multielectrode resistivity method in the evaluation of coal-seam hydraulic flushing and to research the spatio-temporal evolution of apparent resistivity during hydraulic flushing, a field test was conducted in 17# coal seam at Nuodong Mine, Guizhou. During hydraulic flushing, four stages were defined according to the variation in coal rock resistivity with time, namely, the preparation stage, the sharply decreasing stage, the rapidly increasing stage and the steady stage. The apparent resistivity of the coal rock mass is affected mainly by its own degree of fragmentation and flushing volume. A more serious rupture and a greater flushing volume yield a smaller apparent resistivity during the sharply decreasing stage and a higher resistivity during the stable stage. After three months of gas predrainage, the residual gas content and the gas pressure at different points in the expected affected area decrease below the critical value. Changes in the residual gas content and gas pressure at these points are consistent with the apparent resistivity, which validates the rationality and feasibility of the multielectrode resistivity method in evaluating coal-seam hydraulic flushing.

  17. Problems of coal-based power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noskievic, P.

    1996-01-01

    Current problems of and future trends in coal-based power generation are discussed. The present situation is as follows: coal, oil and gas contribute to world fossil fuel resources 75%, 14%, and 11%, respectively, and if the current trend will continue, will be depleted in 240, 50, and 60 years, respectively; the maximum resource estimates (including resources that have not yet been discovered) are 50% higher for oil and 100% higher for gas, for coal such estimates have not been made. While the world prices of coal are expected to remain virtually constant, the prices of gas will probably increase to be twice as high in 2010. Thus, the role of coal may be higher in the next century than it is now, provided that due attention is paid to improving the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reducing their adverse environmental effects. A comparison of economic data for coal-fired and gas-fired power plants is as follows: Investment cost (USD/kW): 1400, 800; fixed running cost (USD/kW.y): 33.67, 9.0; variable running cost (USD/kWh): 0.30, 0.15; power use (kJ/kWh): 10.29, 7.91; annual availability (%): 70, 50; fuel price (USD/GJ): 1.00, 4.30; power price (USD/kWh): 4.28, 5.52. The investment cost for coal-fired plants covers new construction including flue gas purification. The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) seems to be the future of coal-based power generation. The future problems to be addressed include ways to reduce air pollution, improving the efficiency of the gas-steam cycle, and improving the combustion process particularly with a view to reducing substantially its environmental impact. (P.A.). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 9 refs

  18. Coal gasification and the power production market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howington, K.; Flandermeyer, G.

    1995-01-01

    The US electric power production market is experiencing significant changes sparking interest in the current and future alternatives for power production. Coal gasification technology is being marketed to satisfy the needs of the volatile power production industry. Coal gasification is a promising power production process in which solid coal is burned to produce a synthesis gas (syn gas). The syn gas may be used to fuel combustion integrated into a facility producing electric power. Advantages of this technology include efficient power production, low flue gas emissions, flexible fuel utilization, broad capability for facility integration, useful process byproducts, and decreased waste disposal. The primary disadvantages are relatively high capital costs and lack of proven long-term operating experience. Developers of coal gasification intend to improve on these disadvantages and lop a strong position in the power generation market. This paper is a marketing analysis of the partial oxidation coal gasification processes emerging in the US in response to the market factors of the power production industry. A brief history of these processes is presented, including the results of recent projects exploring the feasibility of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) as a power production alternative. The current power generation market factors are discussed, and the status of current projects is presented including projected performance

  19. Stirling/hydraulic artificial heart power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.P.; Bennett, A.; Emigh, S.G.; Griffith, W.R.; Noble, J.E.; Perrone, R.E.; White, M.A.; Martini, W.R.; Alexander, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    The REL power source combines the high efficiency of Stirling engines with the reliability, efficiency, and flexibility of hydraulic power transfer and control to ensure long system life and physiological effectiveness. Extended life testing has been achieved with an engine (2.6 years) and hydraulic actuator/controller (1.6 years). Peak power source efficiency is 15.5 percent on 5 to 10 watts delivered to the blood pump push plate with 33 watts steady thermal input. Planned incorporation of power source output control is expected to reduce daily average thermal input to 18 watts. Animal in-vivo tests with an assist heart have consistently demonstrated required performance by biological synchronization and effective ventricle relief. Volume and weight are 0.93 liter and 2.4 kg (excluding blood pump) with an additional 0.4 liter of low temperature foam insulation required to preclude tissue thermal damage. Carefully planned development of System 7 is expected to produce major reductions in size

  20. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  1. Hydraulic Power Plant Machine Dynamic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Günther Poll

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method how to perform an entire structural and hydraulic diagnosis of prototype Francis power machines is presented and discussed in this report. Machine diagnosis of Francis units consists on a proper evaluation of acquired mechanical, thermal and hydraulic data obtained in different operating conditions of several rotary and non rotary machine components. Many different physical quantities of a Francis machine such as pressure, strains, vibration related data, water flow, air flow, position of regulating devices and displacements are measured in a synchronized way so that a relation of cause an effect can be developed for each operating condition and help one to understand all phenomena that are involved with such kind of machine. This amount of data needs to be adequately post processed in order to allow correct interpretation of the machine dynamics and finally these data must be compared with the expected calculated data not only to fine tuning the calculation methods but also to accomplish fully understanding of the influence of the water passages on such machines. The way how the power plant owner has to operate its Francis machines, many times also determined by a central dispatcher, has a high influence on the fatigue life time of the machine components. The diagnostic method presented in this report helps one to understand the importance of adequate operation to allow a low maintenance cost for the entire power plant. The method how to acquire these quantities is discussed in details together with the importance of correct sensor balancing, calibration and adequate correlation with the physical quantities. Typical results of the dynamic machine behavior, with adequate interpretation, obtained in recent measurement campaigns of some important hydraulic turbines were presented. The paper highlights the investigation focus of the hydraulic machine behavior and how to tailor the measurement strategy to accomplish all goals. Finally some

  2. Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Pedersen, Tom S.

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation...... of the plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture...

  3. Influence of coal slurry particle composition on pipeline hydraulic transportation behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-an, Zhao; Ronghuan, Cai; Tieli, Wang

    2018-02-01

    Acting as a new type of energy transportation mode, the coal pipeline hydraulic transmission can reduce the energy transportation cost and the fly ash pollution of the conventional coal transportation. In this study, the effect of average velocity, particle size and pumping time on particle composition of coal particles during hydraulic conveying was investigated by ring tube test. Meanwhile, the effects of particle composition change on slurry viscosity, transmission resistance and critical sedimentation velocity were studied based on the experimental data. The experimental and theoretical analysis indicate that the alter of slurry particle composition can lead to the change of viscosity, resistance and critical velocity of slurry. Moreover, based on the previous studies, the critical velocity calculation model of coal slurry is proposed.

  4. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  5. Geochemistry of coals, coal ashes and combustion wastes from coal-fired power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassilev, S.V.; Vassileva, C.G.

    1997-01-01

    Contents, concentration trends, and modes of occurrence of 67 elements in coals, coal ashes, and combustion wastes at eleven Bulgarian thermoelectric power stations (TPS) were studied. A number of trace elements in coal and coal ash have concentrations greater than their respective worldwide average contents (Clarke values). Trace elements are concentrated mainly in the heavy accessory minerals and organic matter in coal. In decreasing order of significance, the trace elements in coal may occur as: element-organic compounds; impurities in the mineral matter; major components in the mineral matter; major and impurity components in the inorganic amorphous matter; and elements in the fluid constituent. A number of trace elements in the waste products, similar to coal ashes, exceed known Clarke contents. Trace elements are mainly enriched in non-magnetic, heavy and fine-grained fractions of fly ash. They are commonly present as impurities in the glass phases, and are included in the crystalline components. Their accessory crystalline phases, element-organic compounds, liquid and gas forms, are of subordinate importance. Some elements from the chalcophile, lithophile and siderophile groups may release into the atmosphere during coal burning. For others, the combustion process appears to be a powerful factor causing their relative enrichment in the fly ash and rarely in the bottom ash and slag. 65 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs

  6. Chances of coal in European power industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukaszczyk, Zygmunt; Badura, Henryk

    2017-11-01

    Poland's accession to the European Union has reduced the remnants of import barriers. Moreover, the consolidation and commercialization of the energy sector, the implementation of climate package elements and a whole host of other determinants have caused hard coal mining to begin functioning in a highly competitive market, and its negotiating position, as well as the possibility of survival, depends not only on the level of coal prices in international markets, but also on internal competition. This paper discusses the position of power coal on international markets and presents some current problems concerning the functioning of particular segments of the hard coal market in the European Union and Poland in terms of opportunities and threats that are a result of climate and energy policy.

  7. Analysis on the Initial Cracking Parameters of Cross-Measure Hydraulic Fracture in Underground Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyu Lu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Initial cracking pressure and locations are important parameters in conducting cross-measure hydraulic fracturing to enhance coal seam permeability in underground coalmines, which are significantly influenced by in-situ stress and occurrence of coal seam. In this study, stress state around cross-measure fracturing boreholes was analyzed using in-situ stress coordinate transformation, then a mathematical model was developed to evaluate initial cracking parameters of borehole assuming the maximum tensile stress criterion. Subsequently, the influences of in-situ stress and occurrence of coal seams on initial cracking pressure and locations in underground coalmines were analyzed using the proposed model. Finally, the proposed model was verified with field test data. The results suggest that the initial cracking pressure increases with the depth cover and coal seam dip angle. However, it decreases with the increase in azimuth of major principle stress. The results also indicate that the initial cracking locations concentrated in the second and fourth quadrant in polar coordinate, and shifted direction to the strike of coal seam as coal seam dip angle and azimuth of maximum principle stress increase. Field investigation revealed consistent rule with the developed model that the initial cracking pressure increases with the coal seam dip angle. Therefore, the proposed mathematical model provides theoretical insight to analyze the initial cracking parameters during cross-measure hydraulic fracturing for underground coalmines.

  8. Tap Water Hydraulic Systems for Medium Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of new range of developed tap water hydraulic componets and applications for medium power up to 4 kW and 50 bar.......Presentation of new range of developed tap water hydraulic componets and applications for medium power up to 4 kW and 50 bar....

  9. Coal-fired power materials - Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, V.; Purgert, R.; Rawls, P. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Part 1 discussed some general consideration in selection of alloys for advanced ultra supercritical (USC) coal-fired power plant boilers. This second part covers results reported by the US project consortium, which has extensively evaluated the steamside oxidation, fireside corrosion, and fabricability of the alloys selected for USC plants. 3 figs.

  10. The world behind electricity from coal. The dubious origin of coal for Dutch coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Five energy companies in the Netherlands want to build additional coal-fired power plants: Essent and Nuon, the German company RWE and E.ON and the Belgian company Electrabel. Coal-fired power plants emit 70 percent more CO2 than gas-fired power plants. Especially because of the threat to the climate Greenpeace believes that no more coal-fired power plants should be built. In this publication Greenpeace explores the pollution, the working conditions and human rights with regard to the exploitation of coal. That has been elaborated for the three countries from which Dutch energy companies import coal: South Africa, Colombia and Indonesia. In addition to information about the origin of coal also insight is given into the coal market (stocks and use), the enormous coal transport and the world trade [nl

  11. Hydraulic power take-off for wave energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg

    2001-01-01

    Investigation and laboratory experiments with a hydraulic power conversion system for converting forces from a 2.5m diamter float to extract energy from seawaves. The test rig consists of a hydraulic wave simulator and a hydraulic point absorber. The absorber converts the incomming forces to a co...... to a continous rotation of an electric generator. The experiments document efficiencies and losses for the conversion process. The experiments are used for verification and update of a computer model.......Investigation and laboratory experiments with a hydraulic power conversion system for converting forces from a 2.5m diamter float to extract energy from seawaves. The test rig consists of a hydraulic wave simulator and a hydraulic point absorber. The absorber converts the incomming forces...

  12. Control issues for a hydraulically powered dissimilar teleoperated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper will address two issues associated with the implementation of a hydraulically powered dissimilar master-slave teleoperated system. These issues are the overall system control architecture and the design of robust hydraulic servo controllers for the position control problem. Finally, a discussion of overall system performance on an actual teleoperated system will be presented. (Schilling's Titan II hydraulic manipulators are the slave manipulators and the master manipulators are from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory-developed Advanced Servo Manipulator.)

  13. Combined hydraulic and biomass power - an answer to economic and ecological adaptation pressure on the energy supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistauer, M.

    1991-01-01

    On the large scale, there will be an economic pressure in the European Communities on coal and oil from the CO 2 taxes. The economic and ecological advantages of a combination of hydraulic and biomass power in Austria are emphasized. In particular a biomass remote heating pilot project is announced. (Quittner)

  14. Competitive economics: nuclear and coal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, R.

    1984-01-01

    Ignorance of the comparative economics and prematurity in adopting light water reactors characterize the nuclear industry, which has defied the laws of logic for learning. The absence of valid authoritative data to determine the economics of a newly ordered nuclear power plant is what leads to the methodological problems in making comparisons with coal. The author's solution adjusts the four most authoritative studies to reality: by the Atomic Energy Commission in 1975, a team of TRW and Mitre Corp. for ERDA in 1976, by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1979, and by Exxon. The adjustments, which include original costs adjusted for lifetime; capital adjustments for sufflation, construction time, unit life, and capacity factor; fuel adjustments, and other adjustments involving management, replacement, maintenance, fuel prices, waste disposal, etc.) show that the total busbar cost per kWh from nuclear power units is 2.2 times that of coal. 7 references, 1 table

  15. Efficiency improvement of thermal coal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourfar, D. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr Ag, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The discussion concerning an increase of the natural greenhouse effect by anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere has increased over the past years. The greenhouse effect has become an issue of worldwide debate. Carbon dioxide is the most serious emission of the greenhouse gases. Fossil-fired power plants have in the recent past been responsible for almost 30 % of the total CO{sub 2} emissions in Germany. Against this background the paper will describe the present development of CO{sub 2} emissions from power stations and present actual and future opportunities for CO{sub 2} reduction. The significance attached to hard coal as one of today`s prime sources of energy with the largest reserves worldwide, and, consequently, its importance for use in power generation, is certain to increase in the years to come. The further development of conventional power plant technology, therefore, is vital, and must be carried out on the basis of proven operational experience. The main incentive behind the development work completed so far has been, and continues to be, the achievement of cost reductions and environmental benefits in the generation of electricity by increasing plant efficiency, and this means that, in both the short and the long term, power plants with improved conventional technology will be used for environmentally acceptable coal-fired power generation.

  16. Stirling engine with hydraulic power output for powering artificial hearts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.P.; Noble, J.E.; Emigh, S.G.; White, M.A.; Griffith, W.R.; Perrone, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    The DWDL heart power source combines the high efficiency of Stirling engines with the reliability, efficiency, and flexibility of hydraulic power transfer and control to ensure long system life and physiological effectiveness. Extended life testing has already been achieved with an engine module; animal in-vivo tests with an assist heart have consistently demonstrated required performance by biological synchronization and effective ventricle relief. The present System 5 can reliably meet near-term thousand-hour animal in-vivo test goals as far as the durability and efficacy of the power source are concerned. Carefully planned development of System 6 has produced major reductions in size and required input power. Research engine tests have provided the basis for achieving performance goals and the approach for further improvement is well established. The near term goal is 33 W heat input with 16 W input projected for normal physical activity. The goal of reduction of engine module volume to 0.9 liter has been achieved. Demonstrated reliability of 292 d for the engine and 35 d for the full system, as well as effectiveness of the artificial heart power source in short-term in-vivo tests indicate that life-limiting problems are now blood pump reliability and the machine-animal interface

  17. Fault Detection in Coal Mills used in Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    In order to achieve high performance and efficiency of coal-fired power plants, it is highly important to control the coal flow into the furnace in the power plant. This means suppression of disturbances and force the coal mill to deliver the required coal flow, as well as monitor the coal mill...... in order to detect faults in the coal mill when they emerge. This paper deals with the second objective. Based on a simple dynamic model of the energy balance a residual is formed for the coal mill. An optimal unknown input observer is designed to estimate this residual. The estimated residual is following...... tested on measured data of a fault in a coal mill, it can hereby be concluded that this residual is very useful for detecting faults in the coal mill....

  18. Economic and environmental aspects of coal preparation and the impact on coal use for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockhart, N.C.

    1995-01-01

    Australia is the world's largest coal exporter, and coal is the nation's largest export and dominant revenue earner. The future competitiveness of coal will be maintained through improved preparation of coal for traditional markets, by upgrading for new markets, and via coal utilization processes that are more efficient and environmentally acceptable. Australia is also a niche supplier of technologies and services with the potential to expand. This potential extends to the increasing vertical integration of coal supplies (whether Australian, indigenous or blended) with downstream utilization such as power generation. Technological advancement is a key element of industry strategy and coal preparation research and development, and clean coal technologies are critical aspects. This paper summarizes these issues, linking the economic and environmental aspects across the coal production and utilization chain. (author). 2 tabs., 1 fig., 6 refs

  19. Coal price prospects and availability of coal in the U.K. power generation market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, M.J.

    1983-02-01

    The availability and cost of National Coal Board coal is discussed with respect to the CEGB's economic case for Sizewell B nuclear power station. It is concluded that an investment which depended for its viability on an early or rapid escalation in international coal prices, or upon this escalation continuing indefinitely into the future, would not be sound. (U.K.)

  20. Coal and nuclear power: Illinois' energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This conference was sponsored by the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago; the US Department of Energy; the Illinois Energy Resources Commission; and the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. The theme for the conference, Coal and Nuclear Power: Illinois' Energy Future, was based on two major observations: (1) Illinois has the largest reserves of bituminous coal of any state and is surpassed in total reserves only by North Dakota, and Montana; and (2) Illinois has made a heavy commitment to the use of nuclear power as a source of electrical power generation. Currently, nuclear power represents 30% of the electrical energy produced in the State. The primary objective of the 1982 conference was to review these two energy sources in view of the current energy policy of the Reagan Administration, and to examine the impact these policies have on the Midwest energy scene. The conference dealt with issues unique to Illinois as well as those facing the entire nation. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 30 individual presentations

  1. Automated Hydraulic System Design and Power Management in Mobile Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    force, torque and power density. One of these areas is the mobile hydraulic area, which generally comprise all type of off-highway machinery, such as construction equipment, agricultural equipment etc. But where hydraulic systems earlier was designed with primary focus on cost, dynamic performance...... and accuracy, energy consumption is becoming an ever more important design parameter. At the same time as the first oil crisis the first hydraulic load sensing (LS) systems also emerged on the market, which, compared to the other systems of the time, offered significant energy saving potentials and which today...... are found on most medium and high-end mobile hydraulic machinery. Despite the energy saving potentials that these systems posses, compared to the other open-circuit hydraulic system topologies, LS-system may still be subject to very low system efficiencies if not designed correctly. This is typically...

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.; Kerr, D. R.

    1999-09-01

    Coal has the largest share of utility power generation in the US, accounting for approximately 56% of all utility-produced electricity (US DOE, 1998). Therefore, understanding the environmental implications of producing electricity from coal is an important component of any plan to reduce total emissions and resource consumption. A life cycle assessment (LCA) on the production of electricity from coal was performed in order to examine the environmental aspects of current and future pulverized coal boiler systems. Three systems were examined: (1) a plant that represents the average emissions and efficiency of currently operating coal-fired power plants in the US (this tells us about the status quo), (2) a new coal-fired power plant that meets the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and (3) a highly advanced coal-fired power plant utilizing a low emission boiler system (LEBS).

  3. The future of integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R.; Termuehlen, H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the future of integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants as affected by various technical, economical and environmental trends in power generation. The topics of the paper include a description of natural gas-fired combined cycle power plants, IGCC plants, coal gasifier concepts, integration of gasifiers into combined cycle power plants, efficiency, environmental impacts, co-products of IGCC power plants, economics of IGCC power plants, and a review of IGCC power plant projects

  4. Is There Any Future For Coal Power Plants In Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zimakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the policies of EU countries towards coal power plants as well as practical steps taken by their governments. Coal power plants are widely considered to be environmentally harmful which confronts with environmental policies of the EU suggesting Europe-wide cuts of greenhouse gas emissions. Based on that assumption a number of EU countries such asBelgium,Austria,Portugal,Dania,Finland,SwedenandUKare striving to phase out coal power plants and achieved significant progress on this path replacing coal with other generation sources. On the other hand, other EU members are lagging behind as coal phase-out is not an urgent item of their political agenda. This situation is typical forIreland,Netherlands,Italy,Croatia,SloveniaandSlovakia. Domestic coal extracting industry can pose a significant hindering factor for a coal power plants phase-out and can effectively block the process. This is the case inBulgaria,Romania,Hungary,CzechRepublic,GreeceandPoland. ButGermany, which also has a well-developed coal industry, transforms its energy sector towards a green one cutting the share of coal in the generation mix. If this effort of the German government proves successful it will deliver a positive transformation model for other EU countries with a large share of coal in generation-mix due to domestic coal extraction industry. The analysis of the political and economic (both macro and micro processes leads to conclusion that there is no unity among EU member states in their approach towards coal fired power plants phase-out. This will allow for coal power plants to retain their market share in a short to medium term. But in the longer run one can expect a significant decrease of coal fired generation inEurope, even in the countries traditionally dependent on coal.

  5. Environmental impact assessment of coal power plants in operation

    OpenAIRE

    Bartan Ayfer; Kucukali Serhat; Ar Irfan

    2017-01-01

    Coal power plants constitute an important component of the energy mix in many countries. However, coal power plants can cause several environmental risks such as: climate change and biodiversity loss. In this study, a tool has been proposed to calculate the environmental impact of a coal-fired thermal power plant in operation by using multi-criteria scoring and fuzzy logic method. We take into account the following environmental parameters in our tool: CO, SO2, NOx, particulate matter, fly as...

  6. Coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissie, J.; Bourgogne, D. de; Bautin, F.

    2001-12-01

    Coal world production represents 3.5 billions of tons, plus 900 millions of tons of lignite. 50% of coal is used for power generation, 16% by steel making industry, 5% by cement plants, and 29% for space heating and by other industries like carbo-chemistry. Coal reserves are enormous, about 1000 billions of tons (i.e. 250 years of consumption with the present day rate) but their exploitation will be in competition with less costly and less polluting energy sources. This documents treats of all aspects of coal: origin, composition, calorific value, classification, resources, reserves, production, international trade, sectoral consumption, cost, retail price, safety aspects of coal mining, environmental impacts (solid and gaseous effluents), different technologies of coal-fired power plants and their relative efficiency, alternative solutions for the recovery of coal energy (fuel cells, liquefaction). (J.S.)

  7. The economics of coal power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Changhong; Zhang, Weirong; Wang, Yang; Liu, Qilin; Guo, Jingsheng; Xiong, Minpeng; Yuan, Jiahai

    2017-01-01

    The Chinese government recently released the 13th FYP (five-year plan) power development plan and proposed a capacity installation target of 1100 GW for coal power. Considering the weak demand growth of coal power since 2014, continuous decline in the annual utilisation hour and the coming market competition, such a planning target is unwelcome and could further the economic deterioration of coal power. In this paper, we employ LCOE (levelised cost of electricity) and project evaluation models to conduct a nationwide survey on the economics of coal power. The economic analysis has clearly indicated that the recent boom of coal power investment in China, which is absurd in many perspectives, is largely the aftermath of uncompleted market reform in the power sector. However, the fundamentals of electricity demand and supply are changing at a speed beyond the imagination of power generators and have foreboded a gloomy prospect for coal power. Our study shows that by 2020, with several exceptions, in most provinces the internal rate of return for coal power will drop below the social average return rate or will even be negative. In this regard, the 13th FYP capacity planning target for coal power is economically untenable and requires radical revision. - Highlights: • Conduct a first-of-its-kind nationwide economic analysis for coal power in China. • Distorted price by improper regulation is the root of investment bubble since 2014. • Cost uplift and market competition foretell a gloomy prospect of coal power. • The 1100 GW capacity planning target for coal power should be abandoned.

  8. Epoxy-coal hydraulic insulation for structures of the Nurek Hydroelectric Powerplant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakharov, V I; Segal, M S; Solov' ev, I N; Yazev, R E

    1978-03-01

    The design of the Nurek Powerplant exposed the base of the core of the dam to a head of 270 m. To avoid seepage, it was decided to construct an antiseepage screen. Given the total hydraulic insulation area required, 26,540 m/sup 2/, the use of a metal screen would be quite expensive. It was therefore decided to use an epoxy-coal material consisting of a primer, varnish and enamel based on epoxy resins modified by the addition of coal tar, a waste product from the dry distillation of coal. A typical hydraulic insulation layer consists of a coat of primer, three or four coats of varnish and a coat of enamel. Glass-reinforced fabric is used with the first through third coats of varnish to increase crack resistance. The coating thus produced is found to be resistant to overbearing soil pressure of up to 600 t/m/sup 2/, hydrostatic head of up to 300 m and constant shear forces of up to 100 t/m/sup 2/. The method also saves labor and expensive metal.

  9. International technologies market for coal thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports a general framework of potential market of clean coal combustion technologies in thermal power plants, specially for commercialization and market penetration in developing countries [it

  10. Hydraulic Bureaucracies and the Hydraulic Mission: Flows of Water, Flows of Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molle, F.; Mollinga, P.P.; Wester, P.

    2009-01-01

    Anchored in 19th century scientism and an ideology of the domination of nature, inspired by colonial hydraulic feats, and fuelled by technological improvements in high dam constructions and power generation and transmission, large-scale water resources development has been a defining feature of the

  11. Clean coal technology and advanced coal-based power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Clean Coal Technology is an arbitrary terminology that has gained increased use since the 1980s when the debate over acid raid issues intensified over emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. In response to political discussions between Prime Minister Brian Mulroney of Canada and President Ronald Reagan in 1985, the US government initiated a demonstration program by the Department of Energy (DOE) on Clean Coal Technologies, which can be categorized as: 1. precombustion technologies wherein sulfur and nitrogen are removed before combustion, combustion technologies that prevent or lower emissions as coal is burned, and postcombustion technologies wherein flue gas from a boiler is treated to remove pollutants, usually transforming them into solids that are disposed of. The DOE Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program is being carried out with $2.5 billion of federal funds and additional private sector funds. By the end of 1989, 38 projects were under way or in negotiation. These projects were solicited in three rounds, known as Clean Coal I, II, and III, and two additional solicitations are planned by DOE. Worldwide about 100 clean coal demonstration projects are being carried out. This paper lists important requirements of demonstration plants based on experience with such plants. These requirements need to be met to allow a technology to proceed to commercial application with ordinary risk, and represent the principal reasons that a demonstration project is necessary when introducing new technology

  12. European coal technology applied by the Danish power companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frydenberg, B. [Elsamprojekt A/S, Fredericia (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The development of coal-fired power plants has shown remarkable improvements with regard to efficiency and cleaner technology, and as coal remains the most important fuel for electric power production, it is important to make use of this technological development to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Of the three available technologies: Integrated Coal Gasification and Combined Cycle, Fluid Bed Combustion and Pulverised Coal with Ultra Supercritical Steam Data, the technology chosen by I/S ELSAM is the PC-USC with power production efficiencies growing from 45% to 50%. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Natural radioactivity level in coal and ash collected from Baoji coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xiaodan; Lu Xinwei

    2006-01-01

    Specific activities of natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were assessed in coal (3 samples), fly ash (17 samples) and bottom ash (6 samples) collected from Baoji coal-fired power plant. This paper analyzed the characteristics of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K contents in bottom ash and fly ash, and studied the concentration factors of these radionuclides in ash in relation to those in coal. The level of natural radionuclides 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K of coal collected from Baoji coal-fired power plant are in the range of radionuclides contents of Chinese coal. The natural radioactivity level of fly ash collected from Baoji coal-fired power plant is close to Beijing and Shanghai coal-fired power plants. The paper farther assessed the possibility of fly ash of Baoji coal-fired power plant used as building materials according to the state standard. The results show that there are 29% samples exceeding the state limit when fly ash used as building materials. So the usage of fly ash in building material should be controlled. (authors)

  14. Radioactivity of coals and ash and slag wastes at coal-fired thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, D. A.; Sidorova, G. P.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of published data on the content of radioactive nuclides in coals originating from various coal deposits, and in ash and slag wastes produced at coal-fired thermal power plants, as well as in fly ash emitted from thermal power plants into the atmosphere. Problems related to the use of coals with an elevated content of natural radionuclides (NRNs) and methods of their solution implemented at the Urtuyskoe coalfield are dealt with. Data on the analysis of Transbaikal coals for the NRN content, as well as weighted mean content of uranium and thorium in coals from the Siberian Region, are given. In order to reduce irradiation of plant personnel and the population of the areas where coal producers and coal-fired thermal power plants are located, it is necessary to organize very careful control of the NRN content in both coals and products of their combustion that are released into the environment. To solve the problem related to the control of radioactivity, the centralized approach and creation of a proper normative base are needed. Experience gained in developing the Urtuyskoe coalfield shows that it is possible to create an efficient system of coal quality control with respect to the radiation hygiene factor and provide protection of the environment and health of the population.

  15. Gas and coal competition in the EU Power Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2014-06-01

    Despite its many assets, a confluence of factors - including flat electricity demand, rising use of renewable energy sources, falling wholesale electricity market prices, high gas prices relative to coal and low CO 2 prices - has eroded the competitiveness of natural gas in the EU power sector. The share of natural gas in the EU electricity mix has decreased from 23% in 2010 to 20.5% in 2012. By contrast, coal-fired power stations have been operating at high loads, increasing coal demand by the sector. This thorough analysis by CEDIGAZ of gas, coal and CO 2 dynamics in the context of rising renewables is indispensable to understand what is at stake in the EU power sector and how it will affect future European gas demand. Main findings of the report: - Coal is likely to retain its cost advantage into the coming decade: The relationship between coal, gas and CO 2 prices is a key determinant of the competition between gas and coal in the power sector and will remain the main driver of fuel switching. A supply glut on the international coal market (partly because of an inflow of US coal displaced by shale gas) has led to a sharp decline in coal prices while gas prices, still linked to oil prices to a significant degree, have increased by 42% since 2010. At the same time, CO 2 prices have collapsed, reinforcing coal competitiveness. Our analysis of future trends in coal, gas and CO 2 prices suggests that coal competitive advantage may well persist into the coming decade. - But coal renaissance may still be short-lived: Regulations on emissions of local pollutants, i.e. the Large Plant Combustion Directive (LCPD) and the Industrial Emissions Directive (IED) that will succeed it in 2016, will lead to the retirement of old, inefficient coal-fired power plants. Moreover, the rapid development of renewables, which so far had only impacted gas-fired power plants is starting to take its toll on hard coal plants' profitability. This trend is reinforced by regulation at EU or

  16. Dynamic Analysis & Characterization of Conventional Hydraulic Power Supply Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse; Liedhegener, Michael; Bech, Michael Møller

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic power units operated as constant supply pres-sure systems remain to be widely used in the industry, to supply valve controlled hydraulic drives etc., where the hydraulic power units are constituted by variable pumps with mechanical outlet pressure control, driven by induction motors....... In the analysis of supplied drives, both linear and rotary, emphasis is commonly placed on the drives themselves and the related loads, and the supply system dynamics is often given only little attention, and usually neglected or taken into account in a simplified fashion. The simplified supply system dynamics...... and drives will reduce the flow-to-pressure gain of the supply system, and hence increase the time constant of the sup-ply pressure dynamics. A consequence of this may be large vari-ations in the supply pressure, hence large variations in the pump shaft torque, and thereby the induction motor load torque...

  17. Beneficiation of power grade coals: its relevance to future coal use in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    With consumption increasing from the current level of 220 mt. to over 600 mt. by the year 2010 A.D., coal will continue to enjoy a prime position in the overall energy scene in India. India being endowed with coal resources of high ash content, the major coal consuming industries have, by and large, adjusted the combustion techniques to suit the quality of coal available. However, wide fluctuations in the quality of coal supplies adversely affect their plant performance. With the coal deposits being localised in the eastern and central parts of peninsular India, the load on railway network in carrying coal to other parts of the country will continue to increase and this will emerge as a major constraint in managing the coal supply to the consuming centres located away from the coal fields. It is in this context, the author has discussed the need of setting up of coal cleaning facilities at the pit heads. The extent to which the transport network will be relieved of carrying avoidable muck in coal has been quantified along with the benefits that will accrue in the form of extra transport capacity, better power plant performance and reduced air pollution and solid waste at consumer end. (author). 5 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs

  18. Radon in coal power plant areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauna, Traian; Mauna, Andriesica

    2006-01-01

    Radon, the radioactive colourless and inodorous noble gas, represents more than 55% of the natural average radioactivity. It is permanently released from the soil and majority of building materials, it builds up in the mine galleries, in dwelling houses and in other closed rooms. Radon gained increasingly in importance, particularly after 1990 when was doubtless identified as the second cause of lung cancer if a given concentration threshold is surpassed. This threshold is established differentially by each country as a function of the particular site and generally ranges between 150 Bq.m -3 and 600 Bq.m -3 . The telluric radon consists of two isotopes, 222 Rn, a daughter of radium descending from uranium, which induces 90% of the effects, and 220 Rn from thorium series which have too short a lifetime to count in the risk assessments of radon inhalation. The interest of the authorities and population for diminishing the radon effects was illustrated by specific studies which in USA were managed by the National Counsel of Research, the BEIR VI committee of which has issued a report concerning the lung cancer produced by radon and its descendants. Coal mining, the transport, processing, burning, slag and ash disposal are activities entailing radon release. The miners' dwellings are placed in areas with the high radon potential. The local building materials have a high content of radioactive elements from the uranium or thorium series so that radon can build up in the closed rooms of these buildings. Hence the social responsible authorities in the coal power industry zones should consider this aspect long time ignored in the Balkans macro zone so far. The radon issue must be differentially approached in different areas hence a zonal mapping of the radon emission should be first done. It is worth to underline that the gaseous radioactive emission from operational nuclear power plants amounts up to a few percents of the radon natural emissions what entails a

  19. Selection of powered roof support for weak coal roof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramayya, M.S.V.; Sudhakar, L. [Singareni Collieries Co. Ltd., Kothagudem (India)

    2002-04-01

    Singareni Collieries Company Ltd (SCCL) introduced mechanised longwall mining in 1983. The first few faces were worked with conventional and immediate forward supports (IFS), with capacities in the range of 360 to 450 t. These under capacity supports increased from abutment loads and there was breakage of roof in front of the supports which resulted in closure of powered roof supports, followed by face cavities. The cavities were more frequent and were difficult to negotiate especially in case of IFS supports. Subsequently, support capacity was increased at Padmavati Khani (PVK) mine and at GDK.10a and GKD.9LFP Inclines where the roof is composed of weak, coal, shale and clay. Problems related to failure of hydraulics/legs etc., which are repairable have occurred; though the problems are not totally eliminated, there was definite improvement in strata control with these higher capacity supports. Monitoring of supports was conducted all through the working of longwall panels. The data generated while working these longwall faces were analysed to study the suitability of other types of powered roof supports, namely 2 legged shield supports/4 legged supports for improved strata control. The analysis and practical experiences suggest that in weak, coaly, shale and clay roofs 2 legged shield supports offer better roof control. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Study on the coal mixing ratio optimization for a power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y. A.; Cheng, J. W.; Bai, Q.; Li, W. B.

    2017-12-01

    For coal-fired power plants, the application of blended coal combustion has been a great issue due to the shortage and rising prices of high-rank coal. This paper describes the optimization of blending methods between Xing'an lignite coal, Shaltala lignite coal, Ura lignite coal, and Inner Mongolia bituminous coal. The multi-objective decision-making method based on fuzzy mathematics was used to determine the optimal blending ratio to improve the power plant coal-fired economy.

  1. Relative radiation hazards of coal based and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, U.C.

    1983-04-01

    Coal, like most materials found in nature, contains trace quantities of naturally occurring radionuclides. However, low concentrations may become important if large quantities of coal are burnt in thermal power plants. Therefore a study was performed to determine the radioactivity in coal, in fly-ash and slag and assess the importance of radioactive emissions from thermal power plants. The results were compared to the radiological impact of nuclear power stations. Based on these data, theoretical estimates for the population living within 80km from power stations indicate that the collective dose commitments of coal-fired plants are one order of magnitude higher than those for BWR-type nuclear plants. Measurements taken in the vicinity of coal-fired plants were comparable to those for nuclear plants, i.e. within the range of variation of natural background radiation in India

  2. Status of Shanxi Province's power and coal reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, D.C.; Shang, J.Y.

    1995-01-01

    An introduction to Shanxi's coal reserve, production, transportation utilization, electric power generation and transmission capacities is presented with the intention of providing outsiders a clear understanding of Shanxi's coal and power industries. Quantitative sketches of Shanxi's role in China's energy resource production and power generation are included. The province of Shanxi invites investors to visit Shanxi to gain first-hand knowledge. The authors have also taken the liberty of providing the high points of Shanxi's indigenous sceneries and local customs. They believe that in the future, Shanxi's coal based power development will be one of the principal drivers of China's economic growth

  3. Hydraulic fluid used for power transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikkilae, M.; Pikulinsky, K.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    In early October another 50-kilowatt wind turbine was provided with new power transmission technology at the Kopparnaes Energy Park in Inkoo, Finland, west of Helsinki. The new technology is thought to make this wind turbine located on the south coast of Finland more efficient, lighter, and cheaper. Certain aspects of this new technology can be applied to older wind turbines. (orig.)

  4. Hydraulic Bureaucracies and the Hydraulic Mission: Flows of Water, Flows of Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Molle

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Anchored in 19th century scientism and an ideology of the domination of nature, inspired by colonial hydraulic feats, and fuelled by technological improvements in high dam constructions and power generation and transmission, large-scale water resources development has been a defining feature of the 20th century. Whether out of a need to increase food production, raise rural incomes, or strengthen state building and the legitimacy of the state, governments – North and South, East and West – embraced the 'hydraulic mission' and entrusted it to powerful state water bureaucracies (hydrocracies. Engaged in the pursuit of iconic and symbolic projects, the massive damming of river systems, and the expansion of large-scale public irrigation these hydrocracies have long remained out of reach. While they have enormously contributed to actual welfare, including energy and food generation, flood protection and water supply to urban areas, infrastructural development has often become an end in itself, rather than a means to an end, fuelling rent-seeking and symbolising state power. In many places projects have been challenged on the basis of their economic, social or environmental impacts. Water bureaucracies have been challenged internally (within the state bureaucracies or through political changes and externally (by critiques from civil society and academia, or by reduced funding. They have endeavoured to respond to these challenges by reinventing themselves or deflecting reforms. This paper analyses these transformations, from the emergence of the hydraulic mission and associated water bureaucracies to their adjustment and responses to changing conditions.

  5. Radioactive commitment due to use of coal in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenger, J. and H. Flyger.

    1980-11-01

    A short review of the literature on release of radioactivity due to use of coal in power plants with the emphasis on the stack effluent and waste products. It is concluded that during normal operation coal fired power plants give a larger dose commitment than nuclear power plants, but both types have insignificant effects. The problem of waste management has never been studied in detail; ash deposit should probably be monitored. (Auth)

  6. Corrosion protection pays off for coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, T.

    2006-11-15

    Zinc has long been used to hot-dip galvanise steel to deliver protection in harsh environments. Powder River Basin or eastern coal-fired plants benefit from using galvanized steel for conveyors, vibratory feeders, coal hoppers, chutes, etc. because maintenance costs are essentially eliminated. When life cycle costs for this process are compared to an alternative three-coal paint system for corrosion protection, the latter costs 5-10 times more than hot-dip galvanizing. An AEP Power Plant in San Juan, Puerto Rico and the McDuffie Coal Terminal in Mobile, AL, USA have both used hot-dip galvanized steel. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  7. Federal tax incentives affecting coal and nuclear power economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, D.

    1982-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of federal corporate income tax incentives on coal and nuclear power developments. It estimates (1) the magnitudes of tax incentives in relationship to utility costs, (2) the relative magnitude of benefits going to coal and nuclear facilities, and (3) the influence which the time paths of tax payments and after-tax net income have upon possible incentives for premature construction and excess capacity. Utility planners currently believe that nuclear power enjoys an after-tax competitive advantage over coal plants. Investigation of investment-related credits, deductions, and exclusions in the Internal Revenue Code shows that nuclear power enjoys a more favorable tax subsidy because of its greater capital intensity. In the absence of tax subsidies, no utility would prefer nuclear power to coal generation. Tax changes now under consideration could increase the tax benefits to both without disturbing the differential advantage held by nuclear power. 43 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  8. Comprehensive Report to Congress Clean Coal Technology Program: Clean power from integrated coal/ore reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report describes a clean coal program in which an iron making technology is paired with combined cycle power generation to produce 3300 tons per day of hot metal and 195 MWe of electricity. The COREX technology consists of a metal-pyrolyzer connected to a reduction shaft, in which the reducing gas comes directly from coal pyrolysis. The offgas is utilized to fuel a combined cycle power plant.

  9. Prospects for advanced coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, D.; Laag, P.C. van der; Oudhuis, A.B.J.; Ribberink, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    As part of ECN's in-house R and D programmes on clean energy conversion systems with high efficiencies and low emissions, system assessment studies have been carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with high-temperature fuel cells (IGFC). The studies also included the potential to reduce CO 2 emissions, and to find possible ways for CO 2 extraction and sequestration. The development of this new type of clean coal technology for large-scale power generation is still far off. A significant market share is not envisaged before the year 2015. To assess the future market potential of coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants, the promise of this fuel cell technology was assessed against the performance and the development of current state-of-the-art large-scale power generation systems, namely the pulverized coal-fired power plants and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. With the anticipated progress in gas turbine and gas clean-up technology, coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants will have to face severe competition from advanced IGCC power plants, despite their higher efficiency. (orig.)

  10. Dimensionless Energy Conversion Characteristics of an Air-Powered Hydraulic Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Dongkai Shen; Qilong Chen; Yixuan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Due to the advantages of resource conservation and less exhaust emissions, compressed air-powered vehicle has attracted more and more attention. To improve the power and efficiency of air-powered vehicle, an air-powered hydraulic vehicle was proposed. As the main part of the air-powered hydraulic vehicles, HP transformer (short for Hydropneumatic transformer) is used to convert the pneumatic power to higher hydraulic power. In this study, to illustrate the energy conversion characteristics of...

  11. 49 CFR 173.172 - Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. 173.172... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.172 Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tank. Aircraft hydraulic power unit fuel tanks containing a mixture of anhydrous hydrazine and monomethyl hydrazine (M86 fuel) and designed...

  12. Natural radionuclides in coal and waste material originating from coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, Gordana; Franic, Zdenko; Sencar, Jasminka; Petrinec, Branko; Bituh, Tomislav; Kovac, Jadranka

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents long-term investigations of natural radioactivity in coal, used for power production in the coal-fired power plant (CFPP) situated on the Adriatic coast, and resulting slag and ash. Activity concentrations of 40 K, 232 Th, 226 Ra and 238 U in used coal and resulting waste material have been measured for 25 years. As expected, it was demonstrated that the content of radionuclides in deposited bottom and filter ash material are closely related with radionuclide activity concentrations and mineral matter fraction in used coals. The external hazard index has been calculated and discussed for the slag and ash depository. During the first decade of operation of the CFPP has been used domestic coal produced in nearby area characterized by higher background radiation compared with the rest of Croatia. Therefore, the coal itself had relatively high 226 Ra and 238 U activity concentrations while potassium and thorium content was very low, 40 K activity concentrations being 2-9% and those of 232 Th 1-3% of total activity. As, in addition, the sulphur concentrations in coal were very high use of domestic coal was gradually abandoned till it was completely substituted by imported coal originated from various sources and of low natural radioactivity. Upon this, activity concentrations of uranium series radionuclides in deposited waste materials decreased significantly. Consequently, waste material i.e., slag and ash, generated in the last several years of coal fired power plant operation could be readily used in cement industry and as additive to other building materials, without any special restrictions according to the Croatian regulations dealing with building materials and European directives. (author)

  13. Environmental impacts of coal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, W.B.D. de; Souza, J.A.M. de

    1981-01-01

    The present work analyses the environmental impacts of coal and nuclear power plants. A comparison is made on a common basis considering the various activities involving the complete fuel cycle for both cases. (Author) [pt

  14. Coal-Fired Power Plant Heat Rate Reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    View a report that identifies systems and equipment in coal-fired power plants where efficiency improvements can be realized, and provides estimates of the resulting net plant heat rate reductions and costs for implementation.

  15. Power Generation from Sewage by a Micro-Hydraulic Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Tomomi Uchiyama; Tomoko Okayama; Yukio Ide

    2016-01-01

    This study is concerned with the development of a micro-hydraulic turbine for power generation installed in sewer pipes. The runner has a circular hollow around the central (rotating) axis so that solid materials included in water can be easily flow through the runner without blocking the turbine. The laboratory experiments are also conducted. The hollow is very effective to make polyester fibers pass through the turbine. The guide vane is useful to heighten the turbine performance. But it is...

  16. Carbon burnout of pulverised coal in power station furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.I. Backreedy; L.M. Fletcher; J.M. Jones; L. Ma; M. Pourkashanian; A. Williams; K. Johnson; D.J. Waldron; P. Stephenson [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    The degree of carbon burnout in pulverised fuel fired power stations is important because it is linked with power plant efficiency and coal ash suitability for construction purposes. The use of computational methods to calculate carbon burnout in such systems has been aided by the increasing availability of fast computers and improvements in computational methodologies. Despite recent advances in fluid flow, coal devolatilisation and coal combustion models, the use of CFD methods for detailed design purposes or for the selection of commercial coals is still limited. In parallel, industrial engineering codes, which combine simplified thermal models with advanced coal combustion models, are still undergoing development since they provide economic advantages over detailed CFD analysis. Although the major coal combustion processes are well established, an understanding regarding the role of coal macerals and the influence of ash on the combustion process is still lacking. A successful coal model must be able to handle all the complexities of combustion, from the details of the burner geometry through to the formation of unburnt carbon as well as NOx. The development of such a model is described here.

  17. Testing of marrow coal bed systems by hydraulic driving device for thin films of coal; Ensayo de un Sistema de Arranque con Cepillo mediante Accionamiento Hidraulico para Capas Estrechas de CArbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This researching project had the aim of: Testing a new mining system performance at narrow coal bed, which uses plough equipment with hydraulic driving devices. Minimising driving power group size to avoid problems regarding with the wall mining-heading transition, decreasing the needed room to house it and thus simplifying wall mining edge support The expected goals were: Take advantage of hydraulic driving devices to obtain a good efficiency with a variable and discontinuous load, bu t without loosing the electric driving devices advantages, consisting on increase driving torque, being the engine blocked Lengthen the mechanical equipment life (chains, driving sprockets, etc.) Reach and economic production rate Researching project was developed in El Bierzo basin (Leon, Spain), in Grupo Ampliacion, a mining group belonged to Viloria Hnos S. A.. (Author)

  18. Nuclear power plant thermal-hydraulic performance research program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The purpose of this program plan is to present a more detailed description of the thermal-hydraulic research program than that provided in the NRC Five-Year Plan so that the research plan and objectives can be better understood and evaluated by the offices concerned. The plan is prepared by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) with input from the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) and updated periodically. The plan covers the research sponsored by the Reactor and Plant Systems Branch and defines the major issues (related to thermal-hydraulic behavior in nuclear power plants) the NRC is seeking to resolve and provides plans for their resolution; relates the proposed research to these issues; defines the products needed to resolve these issues; provides a context that shows both the historical perspective and the relationship of individual projects to the overall objectives; and defines major interfaces with other disciplines (e.g., structural, risk, human factors, accident management, severe accident) needed for total resolution of some issues. This plan addresses the types of thermal-hydraulic transients that are normally considered in the regulatory process of licensing the current generation of light water reactors. This process is influenced by the regulatory requirements imposed by NRC and the consequent need for technical information that is supplied by RES through its contractors. Thus, most contractor programmatic work is administered by RES. Regulatory requirements involve the normal review of industry analyses of design basis accidents, as well as the understanding of abnormal occurrences in operating reactors. Since such transients often involve complex thermal-hydraulic interactions, a well-planned thermal-hydraulic research plan is needed

  19. Hydraulic plant generation forecasting in Colombian power market using ANFIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Julian [Computer Science Department, Carrera 80 No. 65-223 Bloque M8A, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin (Colombia)

    2009-05-15

    In this paper an ANFIS model (adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system) is proposed to forecast the monthly ideal generation of an agent with a hydraulic plant within the Colombian power market. The proposed model considers several factors as the plant's reservoir level, the expected hydraulic contributions of the rivers which feed it, and the expected weather conditions represented by the SST anomaly forecast in Nino 3.4 zone. The fitness of such model is measured with real data of a particular agent from period 2002-2007 and it is compared against a multiple linear regression model. The obtained results show a considerable decrease of the mean percentage error, which is an evidence of its validity and possible application to other agents. (author)

  20. Hydraulic plant generation forecasting in Colombian power market using ANFIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, Julian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper an ANFIS model (adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system) is proposed to forecast the monthly ideal generation of an agent with a hydraulic plant within the Colombian power market. The proposed model considers several factors as the plant's reservoir level, the expected hydraulic contributions of the rivers which feed it, and the expected weather conditions represented by the SST anomaly forecast in Nino 3.4 zone. The fitness of such model is measured with real data of a particular agent from period 2002-2007 and it is compared against a multiple linear regression model. The obtained results show a considerable decrease of the mean percentage error, which is an evidence of its validity and possible application to other agents. (author)

  1. Automatic coal sampling for thermoelectric power plants. Some remarks on moisture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanzi, M.

    1983-06-01

    The following topics are discussed: coal sampling and reference standards; coal moisture and sampling; main technical data of the coal sampling station built for the EWEL power plant in Brindisi, Italy.

  2. Technologically enhanced natural radioactivity around the coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, J.; Marovic, G.

    1997-01-01

    In some situations the exposure to natural radiation sources is enhanced as a result to technological developments. Burning of coal is one source of enhanced radiation exposure to naturally occurring elements, particularly radium, thorium and uranium. Most of the radioactive substances are concentrated in the ash and slag, which are heavy and drop to the bottom of a furnace. Lighter fly ash is carried up the chimney and into the atmosphere. The bottom ash and slag are usually deposited in a waste pile, from where some activity may leach into aquifers or be dispersed by wind.The main pathways through which the populations living around coal fired power plants are exposed to enhanced levels of natural radionuclides are inhalation and ingestion of the activity discharged into the Exosphere. For this reason, extensive investigations have been under way for several years in the coal fired power plant in Croatia, which uses an anthracite coal with a higher than usual uranium content. (authors)

  3. Return to coal at the Champagne Soise power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feger, M

    1981-03-01

    This power station, which comprises two 250 MW units, which came on stream in 1961 and 1965, burned coal until 1970 and fuel oil until 1977 when it was decided to revert to coal. The author describes the work and modifications carried out for this purpose: internal changes to the boilers and burners, to the coal handling and crushing arrangements and overhauling of the de-dusters and auxiliary circuits. Gives details of the organization and planning of the work involved, plus costs and distribution of expenditure. Gives the operating results and concludes that the reconversion costs were paid off within the year. (In French)

  4. Power generation from lignite coal in Bulgaria - problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batov, S.; Gadjanov, P.; Panchev, T.

    1997-01-01

    The bulk of lignite coal produced in Bulgaria is used as fuel for the thermal power plants (TPP) built in Maritsa East coal field. A small part of it goes to production of briquettes and to fuel the auxiliary power plants of industrial enterprises. The total installed capacity of the power plants in the region of Maritsa East is 2490 MW, and the electric power generated by them is about 30% of the total power generated in the country. It should be noted that these power plants were subjected to a number of rehabilitations aiming to improve their technical and economic parameters. Irrespective of that, however, solution has still to be sought to a number of problems related to utilisation of the low-grade lignite coal for power generation. On the whole, they can be divided in the following groups: Those related to lignite coal mining can be referred to the first group. Lignite coal is mined in comparatively complicated mining and geological conditions characterized mainly by earth creep and deformation. The second group of problems is related to coal quality control. It is a fact of major significance that the quality indices of coal keep changing all the time in uneven steps without any definite laws to govern it. That creates hard problems in the process of coal transportation, crushing and combustion. The next group of problems concerns operation and upgrading of the power generation equipment. That applies especially to the existing boilers which bum low-grade fuel in order to improve their operation in terms of higher thermal efficiency, controllability, reliability, improved environmental indices, etc. An increasingly high importance is attached to environmental impact problems incident to lignite coal utilisation. Abatement of sulphur oxide emissions and dust pollution is a problem solution of which cannot wait. The possibilities for partial solution of the environmental problems through increasing the thermal efficiency of facilities at the thermal Power

  5. Power generation from chemically cleaned coals: do environmental benefits of firing cleaner coal outweigh environmental burden of cleaning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten W.; Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Laurent, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from high-ash coals is a niche technology for power generation, but coal cleaning is deemed necessary to avoid problems associated with low combustion efficiencies and to minimize environmental burdens associated with emissions of pollutants originating from ash. Here, chemical...... beneficiation of coals using acid and alkali–acid leaching procedures is evaluated as a potential coal cleaning technology employing life cycle assessment (LCA). Taking into account the environmental benefits from firing cleaner coal in pulverized coal power plants and the environmental burden of the cleaning...... itself, it is demonstrated that for a wide range of cleaning procedures and types of coal, chemical cleaning generally performs worse than combustion of the raw coals and physical cleaning using dense medium separation. These findings apply for many relevant impact categories, including climate change...

  6. A new generation drilling rig: hydraulically powered and computer controlled

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, M.; Angman, P.; Oveson, D. [Tesco Corp., Calgary, AB, (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Development, testing and operation of a new generation of hydraulically powered and computer controlled drilling rig that incorporates a number of features that enhance functionality and productivity, is described. The rig features modular construction, a large heated common drilling machinery room, permanently-mounted draw works which, along with the permanently installed top drive, significantly reduces rig-up/rig-down time. Also featured are closed and open hydraulic systems and a unique hydraulic distribution manifold. All functions are controlled through a programmable logic controller (PLC), providing almost unlimited interlocks and calculations to increase rig safety and efficiency. Simplified diagnostic routines, remote monitoring and troubleshooting are also part of the system. To date, two rigs are in operation. Performance of both rigs has been rated as `very good`. Little or no operational problems have been experienced; downtime has averaged 0.61 per cent since August 1998 when the the first of the two rigs went into operation. The most important future application for this rig is for use with the casing drilling process which eliminates the need for drill pipe and tripping. It also reduces the drilling time lost due to unscheduled events such as reaming, fishing and taking kicks while tripping. 1 tab., 6 figs.

  7. Advances in coalbed methane reservoirs using integrated reservoir characterization and hydraulic fracturing in Karaganda coal basin, Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivakhnenko, Aleksandr; Aimukhan, Adina; Kenshimova, Aida; Mullagaliyev, Fandus; Akbarov, Erlan; Mullagaliyeva, Lylia; Kabirova, Svetlana; Almukhametov, Azamat

    2017-04-01

    Coalbed methane from Karaganda coal basin is considered to be an unconventional source of energy for the Central and Eastern parts of Kazakhstan. These regions are situated far away from the main traditional sources of oil and gas related to Precaspian petroleum basin. Coalbed methane fields in Karaganda coal basin are characterized by geological and structural complexity. Majority of production zones were characterized by high methane content and extremely low coal permeability. The coal reservoirs also contained a considerable natural system of primary, secondary, and tertiary fractures that were usually capable to accommodate passing fluid during hydraulic fracturing process. However, after closing was often observed coal formation damage including the loss of fluids, migration of fines and higher pressures required to treat formation than were expected. Unusual or less expected reservoir characteristics and values of properties of the coal reservoir might be the cause of the unusual occurred patterns in obtained fracturing, such as lithological peculiarities, rock mechanical properties and previous natural fracture systems in the coals. Based on these properties we found that during the drilling and fracturing of the coal-induced fractures have great sensitivity to complex reservoir lithology and stress profiles, as well as changes of those stresses. In order to have a successful program of hydraulic fracturing and avoid unnecessary fracturing anomalies we applied integrated reservoir characterization to monitor key parameters. In addition to logging data, core sample analysis was applied for coalbed methane reservoirs to observe dependence tiny lithological variations through the magnetic susceptibility values and their relation to permeability together with expected principal stress. The values of magnetic susceptibility were measured by the core logging sensor, which is equipped with the probe that provides volume magnetic susceptibility parameters

  8. Ways to Improve Russian Coal-Fired Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumanovskii, A. G.; Olkhovsky, G. G.

    2015-01-01

    Coal is an important fuel for the electric power industry of Russia, especially in Ural and the eastern part of the country. It is fired in boilers of large (200 – 800 MW) condensing power units and in many cogeneration power plants with units rated at 50 – 180 MW. Many coal-fired power plants have been operated for more than 40 – 50 years. Though serviceable, their equipment is obsolete and does not comply with the current efficiency, environmental, staffing, and availability standards. It is urgent to retrofit and upgrade such power plants using advanced equipment, engineering and business ideas. Russian power-plant engineering companies have designed such advanced power units and their equipment such as boilers, turbines, auxiliaries, process and environmental control systems similar to those produced by the world’s leading manufacturers. Their performance and ways of implementation are discussed

  9. Ways to Improve Russian Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumanovskii, A. G., E-mail: vti@vti.ru; Olkhovsky, G. G. [JSC “All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute,” (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    Coal is an important fuel for the electric power industry of Russia, especially in Ural and the eastern part of the country. It is fired in boilers of large (200 – 800 MW) condensing power units and in many cogeneration power plants with units rated at 50 – 180 MW. Many coal-fired power plants have been operated for more than 40 – 50 years. Though serviceable, their equipment is obsolete and does not comply with the current efficiency, environmental, staffing, and availability standards. It is urgent to retrofit and upgrade such power plants using advanced equipment, engineering and business ideas. Russian power-plant engineering companies have designed such advanced power units and their equipment such as boilers, turbines, auxiliaries, process and environmental control systems similar to those produced by the world’s leading manufacturers. Their performance and ways of implementation are discussed.

  10. Coal, an alternative to nuclear power in Europe's energy future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paillard, Christophe-Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    The impending demise of nuclear power in several European countries and the projected strong increase in world energy requirements are placing coal in the forefront again. From being the primary energy source in the 19. century, coal is making a quite remarkable come-back in the 21. century with the advent of 'clean coal' and with its dominance in the energy mix of rapidly emerging countries such as China. New mines should open in Europe. In France, the last mine closed in 2004, but there is potential for new ones in the centre of France in areas such as Auvergne and Bourgogne, as well as Midi Pyrenees. These could create new jobs and reduce France's energy dependency. Far from the topical scenes of the past described in books such as Germinal, with its tips and misery, coal is again a promising energy source, with potential to satisfy a rising share of Europe's energy demand. (author)

  11. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-11-01

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2016. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  12. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-11-01

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  13. 30 CFR 75.1907 - Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground coal mines. 75.1907 Section 75.1907 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1907 Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines. (a) As of...

  14. Environmental procedures for thermoelectric power plants by national mineral coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serra, M.T.F.; Verney Gothe, C.A. de; Silva Ramos, R. da

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents the environmental impacts decursive of utilization of South-Brazilian mineral coal to generation of electric energy. This environmental impacts and alternatives of attenuating measures are presented and evaluated, containing the totality of productive cycle: mining, processing, transport, stock piling and use in thermoelectric power plants. Environmental procedures are systematized for first time, in order to be observed in whole expansion of coal thermoelectric generator park. The conception of power plants and site studies of their useful lives are also included. (C.M.). 19 figs, 24 tabs

  15. Nuclear power aspects in an oil and coal producing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iljas, J.; Subki, I.

    1977-01-01

    In the near future the Government of Indonesia will face a crucial problem, when it has to decide which kinds of energy resources would be reasonably feasible to replace the oil which is currently being used in the country as the main source of energy supply. A description is given of the presently known energy reserves and its potential in the Indonesian Archipelago and specifically on the island of Java. These resources comprise, next to oil, a significant amount of bituminous coal, natural gas, and some hydro and geothermal power. Previous indications of the existence of radioactive minerals have been confirmed lately. The possible use of solar and wind energy on the eastern Indonesian islands is being discussed. A number of studies and opinions expressed at national scientific meetings on the topic of energy have suggested the use of coal and nuclear power as the most economical resources to replace oil as of the beginning of the eighties. A number of constraints, for both coal and nuclear power, are being discussed. They mostly touch the technical, economical, financial and political aspects. A comparison study is made of coal versus nuclear power under the present local conditions. The prospects of nuclear power are reviewed, including the initial steps leading thereto, which have already been taken. In this connection the role of a domestic nuclear industry is being discussed, and also the accelerating effect it may have in the distant future on the growth of electricity from nuclear energy

  16. Waste generation comparison: Coal-fired versus nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGuardia, T.S.

    1998-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste generation and disposal attract a great deal of attention whenever the nuclear industry is scrutinized by concerned parties, be it the media, the public, or political interests. It is therefore important to the nuclear industry that this issue be put into perspective relative to other current forms of energy production. Most of the country's fossil-fueled power comes from coal-fired plants, with oil and gas as other fuel sources. Most of the generated waste also comes from coal plants. This paper, therefore, compares waste quantities generated by a typical (1150-MW(electric)) pressurized water reactor (PWR) to that of a comparably sized coal-fired power plant

  17. The economics of coal and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    This paper is largely based on a comparison of electrical generating costs from coal-fired power plants and thermal nuclear reactors. Following an introductory section, the subject is considered under the following headings: methodology; cost basis (capital costs, fuel costs, plant factors); generating costs; the fast breeder reactor -general issues; the economics of fast breeder reactors; conclusions and questions. (U.K.)

  18. Coal fired power plant fireside problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, P.; Manolescu, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes the recent experience with fireside problems in coal fired subcritical boilers at Ontario Hydro*, and is concerned with boiler tube wastage. Problems with other components such as burners, air pre-heaters and ''back-end'' ductwork are not discussed. In most utilities, boiler tube failures account for a sizable portion of the total forced outages (typically about25%) as well as a very large part of the maintenance outages. The failures shown under the external deterioration category are of interest because they indicate the proportion of problems caused by the tube metal wastage processes initiated on the fireside of the boilers. Fireside problems remain an important cause of boiler tube failures year after year in spite of concentrated efforts to mitigate them

  19. Decommissioning of hot cells using a hydraulically powered servo manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asquith, J.D.; Loughborough, D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the preparations and initial trials involved in remotely dismantling the containment boxes within two concrete shielded hot cells at Harwell Laboratory using a hydraulically powered servo manipulator, ARTISAN. The manipulator deploys a variety of tools for cutting operations. The modular design has enabled it to be specifically configured for this application by adjusting the link lengths using spacers between the joints. In addition to the remote handling requirements, a new posting and ventilation system for the facility is outlined. Trials with ARTISAN in an in-active mock-up have now been successfully completed, and the manipulator is installed in the active facility. The considerations and approach adopted in this project are typical of many situations where remote techniques are required for decommissioning activities. (author)

  20. GROUNDING THE REDUCTION OF POWER OF THE HYDRAULIC DRIVE ELECTRIC MOTOR BY EQUIVALENT POWER METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hrygorov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors have analyzed the power consumption by a hydraulic drive and wound rotor motor of crane mechanisms at all stages of the operational cycle: acceleration, movement at nominal or intermediate speed and deceleration. The decrease of the rated capacity of electric motors is justified.

  1. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  2. A reactive transport modelling approach to assess the leaching potential of hydraulic fracturing fluids associated with coal seam gas extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallants, Dirk; Simunek, Jirka; Gerke, Kirill

    2015-04-01

    Coal Seam Gas production generates large volumes of "produced" water that may contain compounds originating from the use of hydraulic fracturing fluids. Such produced water also contains elevated concentrations of naturally occurring inorganic and organic compounds, and usually has a high salinity. Leaching of produced water from storage ponds may occur as a result of flooding or containment failure. Some produced water is used for irrigation of specific crops tolerant to elevated salt levels. These chemicals may potentially contaminate soil, shallow groundwater, and groundwater, as well as receiving surface waters. This paper presents an application of scenario modelling using the reactive transport model for variably-saturated media HP1 (coupled HYDRUS-1D and PHREEQC). We evaluate the fate of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and naturally occurring chemicals in soil as a result of unintentional release from storage ponds or when produced water from Coal Seam Gas operations is used in irrigation practices. We present a review of exposure pathways and relevant hydro-bio-geo-chemical processes, a collation of physico-chemical properties of organic/inorganic contaminants as input to a set of generic simulations of transport and attenuation in variably saturated soil profiles. We demonstrate the ability to model the coupled processes of flow and transport in soil of contaminants associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids and naturally occurring contaminants.

  3. Gas and coal competition in the EU power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornot-Gandolphe, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    According to a new report by CEDIGAZ, the International Centre for Natural Gas Information, gas has lost its attractiveness against coal in the EU power sector. Its demand by the sector decreased by one third during the past three years and its prospects are very weak in this decade. The Association warns that un-profitability of combined cycle gas turbines (CCGTs) and the retirement of old coal plants due to stringent air regulation may lead to the closure of one third of the current fleet and poses a serious security of supply issue that has to be addressed urgently

  4. Energy economics of nuclear and coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kee Won; Cho, Joo Hyun; Kim, Sung Rae; Choi, Hae Yoon

    1995-01-01

    The upturn of Korean nuclear power program can be considered to have started in early 70's while future plants for the construction of new nuclear power plants virtually came to a halt in United States. It is projected that power plant systems from combination of nuclear and coal fired types might shift to all coal fired type, considering the current trend of construction on the new plants in the United States. However, with the depletion of natural resources, it is desirable to understand the utilization of two competitive utility technologies in terms of of invested energy. Presented in this paper is a comparison between two systems, nuclear power plant and coal fired steam power plant in terms of energy investment. The method of comparison is Net Energy Analysis (NEA). In doing so, Input-Output Analysis (IOA) among industries and commodities is done. Using these information, net energy ratios are calculated and compared. NEA is conducted for power plants in U.S. because the availability of necessary data are limited in Korea. Although NEA does not offer conclusive solution, this method can work as a screening process in decision making. When considering energy systems, results from such analysis can be used as a general guideline. 2 figs., 12 tabs., 5 refs. (Author)

  5. Utilization of brown coal in FRG power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotler, V.R.

    1985-07-01

    FRG methods are studied for utilizing brown coal in view of the development of Kansk-Achinsk brown coal deposits. The use of brown coal in FRG power plants has increased from 15% in 1950- 1960 to 85% (total output) in 1982, providing 79.4 TWh of electrical energy. The remainder was used for briquetting, pulverization and breeze coke. In 1982 nearly 100 million tons of brown coal were burned by six large power stations (rated capacity 11,400 MW) to produce nearly 80 billion kWh of energy. Measures are discussed taken to reduce slagging and to remove excessive moisture content. Problems are analyzed associated with increased contamination of the atmosphere in areas with high population density (412/km/sup 2/) and cost of suppression is reviewed. According to available data, the cost of preventive measures taken by FRG, USA, Japan and the Netherlands is equal to 30% of the total cost of the energy. The most critical problem is suppression of sulfur dioxide, either by dry or wet scrubbers or by the addition of dry dolomite or lime to the furnace (75% of all SO/sub 2/ emissions in FRG comes from power stations). A method is described developed by RWE based on a series of distribution headers in the upper part of combustion chambers. At best, 70-80% reduction can be achieved. 14 references.

  6. Coal use expansion ahead for Pacific Rim power plants (Part 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahr, D.

    1991-01-01

    The growing importance of coal to Pacific Rim countries and their plans to greatly expand coal use in power generation are discussed. Coal acquisition and costs are considered. Cost, much of it freight, often dictates the selection of a coal source. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Natural radioactivity around the coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac, J.; Bajlo, M.

    1996-01-01

    By far the greatest part of the radiation received by the worlds population comes from natural sources, in some situations the exposure to natural radiation sources is enhanced as a result of technological developments. Burning of coal is one source of enhanced radiation exposure to naturally occurring elements, particularly radium, thorium and uranium. Extensive investigations have been performed in the coal-fired power plant (CFPP) Plomin in Croatia, using an anthracite coal with a higher than usual uranium content and normal thorium content. A network of TL dosimeters (TLD), working levels (WL) measurements, air pollution monitoring and monitoring of waste pile were organized. Some of the measurements have been repeated, and the results have shown decreased contamination. (author)

  8. Beyond coal: power, public health and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotta, K.

    2002-11-01

    The emphasis of this report was placed on the electricity sector in Ontario, examining its impact on air quality, human health and the environment. The huge changes taking place in this sector of activity, such as opening the market to competition in May 2002, presents risks and opportunities that need to be explored. The establishment of a proper regulatory framework could encourage the development of alternative energy sources, cogeneration and energy efficiency measures. Greenhouse gas emissions have an impact on global climate change, and coal-fired plants in Ontario were responsible for 20 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions in 2001. Approximately 23 per cent of sulphur dioxide and 14 per cent of nitrogen oxides released in the atmosphere in the province in 2001 were generated by coal-fired power plants. These substances cause smog which contributes to almost 1,900 premature deaths each year. A serious environmental problem is acid rain, and the author indicated that Ontario's coal-fired power plants were responsible for approximately 23 per cent of the sulphur dioxide and 14 per cent of the nitrogen oxides. Mercury contamination of the aquatic food chain has negative effects on the health of humans, especially children whose mothers ate fish during pregnancy. Emissions of mercury by Ontario's electricity sector have increased, and 23 per cent of mercury emissions in the province originate from coal-fired power plants. Adequate policies and regulations must be developed to encourage energy efficiency, promote renewable technologies, and phase out the use of coal-fired power plants. Various recommendations for both the federal and provincial governments to implement were also included. 108 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs

  9. Optimisation of Working Areas in Discrete Hydraulic Power Take off-system for Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Hansen, Rico Hjerm; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2012-01-01

    Fluid power is the leading technology in Power Take Off(PTO) systems in Wave Energy Converters(WEC’s), due to the capability of generating high force at low velocity. However, as hydraulic force controlling system may suffer from large energy losses the efficiency of the hydraulic PTO systems may...

  10. Estimation of environmental external costs between coal fired power plant and nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, G. H.; Kim, S. S.

    2000-01-01

    First of all, this study evaluated the impacts on the health and the environment of air pollutants emitted from coal power plant and nuclear power pant, two major electric power generating options in Korea. Then, the environmental external costs of those two options were estimated by transforming the health and environment impact into monetary values. To do this, AIRPACTS and Impacts of Atmospheric Release model developed by IAEA were used. The environmental external cost of Samcheonpo coal power plant was estimated about 25 times as much as that of Younggwang nuclear power plant. This result implies that nuclear power plant is a clean technology compared with coal power plant. This study suggests that the external cost should be reflected in the electric system expansion plan in order to allocate energy resources efficiently and to reduce economic impact stemming from the environmental regulation emerged recently on a global level

  11. Clean Coal Power at Toms Creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    On October 20, 1992 the US Department of Energy (DOE), through the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, entered into Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-21-93MC92444 with TAMCO Power Partners to implement the Toms Creek Integrated Gasification Combined - Cycle Demonstration Project. The process design is proceeding as scheduled, and a draft Environmental Information Volume has been produced. The overall project schedule, however, may have to be adjusted when the Power Sales Agreement has been finalized

  12. Environmental impact assessment of coal power plants in operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartan Ayfer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal power plants constitute an important component of the energy mix in many countries. However, coal power plants can cause several environmental risks such as: climate change and biodiversity loss. In this study, a tool has been proposed to calculate the environmental impact of a coal-fired thermal power plant in operation by using multi-criteria scoring and fuzzy logic method. We take into account the following environmental parameters in our tool: CO, SO2, NOx, particulate matter, fly ash, bottom ash, the cooling water intake impact on aquatic biota, and the thermal pollution. In the proposed tool, the boundaries of the fuzzy logic membership functions were established taking into account the threshold values of the environmental parameters which were defined in the environmental legislation. Scoring of these environmental parameters were done with the statistical analysis of the environmental monitoring data of the power plant and by using the documented evidences that were obtained during the site visits. The proposed method estimates each environmental impact factor level separately and then aggregates them by calculating the Environmental Impact Score (EIS. The proposed method uses environmental monitoring data and documented evidence instead of using simulation models. The proposed method has been applied to the 4 coal-fired power plants that have been operation in Turkey. The Environmental Impact Score was obtained for each power plant and their environmental performances were compared. It is expected that those environmental impact assessments will contribute to the decision-making process for environmental investments to those plants. The main advantage of the proposed method is its flexibility and ease of use.

  13. Environmental impact assessment of coal power plants in operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartan, Ayfer; Kucukali, Serhat; Ar, Irfan

    2017-11-01

    Coal power plants constitute an important component of the energy mix in many countries. However, coal power plants can cause several environmental risks such as: climate change and biodiversity loss. In this study, a tool has been proposed to calculate the environmental impact of a coal-fired thermal power plant in operation by using multi-criteria scoring and fuzzy logic method. We take into account the following environmental parameters in our tool: CO, SO2, NOx, particulate matter, fly ash, bottom ash, the cooling water intake impact on aquatic biota, and the thermal pollution. In the proposed tool, the boundaries of the fuzzy logic membership functions were established taking into account the threshold values of the environmental parameters which were defined in the environmental legislation. Scoring of these environmental parameters were done with the statistical analysis of the environmental monitoring data of the power plant and by using the documented evidences that were obtained during the site visits. The proposed method estimates each environmental impact factor level separately and then aggregates them by calculating the Environmental Impact Score (EIS). The proposed method uses environmental monitoring data and documented evidence instead of using simulation models. The proposed method has been applied to the 4 coal-fired power plants that have been operation in Turkey. The Environmental Impact Score was obtained for each power plant and their environmental performances were compared. It is expected that those environmental impact assessments will contribute to the decision-making process for environmental investments to those plants. The main advantage of the proposed method is its flexibility and ease of use.

  14. Combined compressed air storage-low BTU coal gasification power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartsounes, George T.; Sather, Norman F.

    1979-01-01

    An electrical generating power plant includes a Compressed Air Energy Storage System (CAES) fueled with low BTU coal gas generated in a continuously operating high pressure coal gasifier system. This system is used in coordination with a continuously operating main power generating plant to store excess power generated during off-peak hours from the power generating plant, and to return the stored energy as peak power to the power generating plant when needed. The excess coal gas which is produced by the coal gasifier during off-peak hours is stored in a coal gas reservoir. During peak hours the stored coal gas is combined with the output of the coal gasifier to fuel the gas turbines and ultimately supply electrical power to the base power plant.

  15. Competitive economics: Nuclear and coal power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellman, R.

    1984-01-01

    An extraordinary aspect of nuclear power is the fact that until 1974 no competent and authoritative study of its economics had been published, in or out of government. Yet well over $100 billion of orders have been given. Another extraordinary characteristic of the industry is prematurity. Light water reactors operate at about half the temperatures, a fourth the steam pressures and half the turbine speeds of fossil fuel units. They therefore must move 3.5 times the cubic feet of steam per hour to get the same power output, and this requires piping, valves, pumps, boilers, etc. which are so much bigger as to create serious technological problems of manufacture, installation, operation and maintenance. Instead of following normal sequences of test and proof, the industry rushed massive orders prematurely -- and this for a technology with enormous problems of radioactivity and economic unknowns

  16. Using plasma-fuel systems at Eurasian coal-fired thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, E. I.; Karpenko, Yu. E.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.

    2009-06-01

    The development of plasma technology for igniting solid fuels at coal-fired thermal power stations in Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and other Eurasian countries is briefly reviewed. Basic layouts and technical and economic characteristics of plasma-fuel systems installed in different coal-fired boiles are considered together with some results from using these systems at coal-fired thermal power stations.

  17. The Effect of Flywheel Unbalance on Gear Noise in the Hydraulic Power Plant Turbo-Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomeh Elias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Effect of Flywheel Unbalance on Gear Noise in the Hydraulic Power Plant Turbo-Generator. Hydraulic power plants are systems that produce electrical energy with high investment costs. In order to fulfil their goals, investments should create conditions for a safe production of energy in a long lasting and reliable way, and with the required power and quality. These goals are possible to reach by an optional control process linked to a systematic monitoring of the operating machinery state, using the method of vibration diagnostics. Lately, there has been an increase of noise level in the hydraulic power plants.

  18. The Increase of Power Efficiency of Underground Coal Mining by the Forecasting of Electric Power Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremenko, Vladimir; Belyaevsky, Roman; Skrebneva, Evgeniya

    2017-11-01

    In article the analysis of electric power consumption and problems of power saving on coal mines are considered. Nowadays the share of conditionally constant costs of electric power for providing safe working conditions underground on coal mines is big. Therefore, the power efficiency of underground coal mining depends on electric power expense of the main technological processes and size of conditionally constant costs. The important direction of increase of power efficiency of coal mining is forecasting of a power consumption and monitoring of electric power expense. One of the main approaches to reducing of electric power costs is increase in accuracy of the enterprise demand in the wholesale electric power market. It is offered to use artificial neural networks to forecasting of day-ahead power consumption with hourly breakdown. At the same time use of neural and indistinct (hybrid) systems on the principles of fuzzy logic, neural networks and genetic algorithms is more preferable. This model allows to do exact short-term forecasts at a small array of input data. A set of the input parameters characterizing mining-and-geological and technological features of the enterprise is offered.

  19. Environmental impact assessment of coal fired thermal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambi, K.S.V.; Sadasivan, S.; Negi, B.S.; Meenakshy, V.

    1992-01-01

    Coal fly ash samples collected from various thermal power plants and one lignite ash sample were analysed for various elements such as As, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Si, Sb, Sc, Sm, Sr, Ti, V, Yb and Zn using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence and instrumental neutron activation analysis methods. The two-step maximum leachability test was also performed on all fly ash samples. 13 refs, 9 tabs

  20. Dustfall design of open coal yard in the power plant-a case study on the closed reconstruction project of coal storage yard in shengli power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kunpeng; Ji, Weidong; Zhang, Feifei; Yu, Wei; Zheng, Runqing

    2018-02-01

    This thesis, based on the closed reconstruction project of the coal storage yard of Shengli Power Plant which is affiliated to Sinopec Shengli Petroleum Administration, first makes an analysis on the significance of current dustfall reconstruction of open coal yard, then summarizes the methods widely adopted in the dustfall of large-scale open coal storage yard of current thermal power plant as well as their advantages and disadvantages, and finally focuses on this project, aiming at providing some reference and assistance to the future closed reconstruction project of open coal storage yard in thermal power plant.

  1. A Feasibility Study of Power Generation from Sewage Using a Hollowed Pico-Hydraulic Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Tomomi Uchiyama; Satoshi Honda; Tomoko Okayama; Tomohiro Degawa

    2016-01-01

    This study is concerned with the feasibility of power generation using a pico-hydraulic turbine from sewage flowing in pipes. First, the sewage flow rate at two connection points to the Toyogawa River-Basin Sewerage, Japan, was explored for over a year to elucidate the hydraulic energy potential of the sewage. Second, the performance of the pico-hydraulic turbine was investigated via laboratory experiments that supposed the turbine to be installed in the sewage pipe at the connection points. ...

  2. Environmental impacts of nuclear and coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horyna, J.; Horynova, H.

    1984-01-01

    The current situation in the development of nuclear power in the world and in Czechoslovakia is briefly outlined and the possibilities are discussed of alternative energy resources. The environmental impact is described of conventional power plants firing coal; sulphur and nitrogen oxides are mentioned and their environmental impacts shown. Their quantities and the quantities of other gaseous, liquid and soid wastes produced by coal power plants are given. Annual estimates are presented of radioactive material emissions; trace amount emissions of toxic metals and their ecological risks are shown. Concern over the increasing concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere is voiced. For nuclear power plants, the amount of radionuclides in stack emission and of those released into water flows is tabulated. Their effect on the aqueous ecosystem is characterized as is thermal pollution of water flows and the environmental impact of cooling towers. Other factors are also mentioned, such as the increased industrial land use, the effect of high voltage transmission lines and aesthetic effects. The conclusion is arrived at that the construction of nuclear power plants will eliminate the adverse environmental impact of emissions while the other impacts of the two types of power plants are comparable. (A.K.)

  3. Innovation avenues for coal derived power essential for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkley, Mark; Cruz, Elizabet; Vatanakul, Maytinee; Hynes, Rory; Stickler, Alexander

    2010-09-15

    Current political climates are culminating in the conflict between economic development and environmental regulation -- Climate Change. Developed nations are driven by and dependent upon the cheap, abundant power of coal. Today, developing nations wish to duplicate this historical pathway, yet are subject to global scrutiny. The politico-economic conflict between nations may be alleviated by innovative technologies delivering power and improved environmental considerations. The long-term economic trend has been upward and thus targeting expanding and converting existing economies to utilize innovative technologies is fundamental to addressing the balance between socio-economic and environmental interests.

  4. Natural radionuclides near a coal-fired power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Briggs, J L

    1984-06-15

    An experiment was carried out to measure the specific activity of Pb-210 and Po-210 in livers from cattle that had grazed in a field near Didcot coal-fired power station. Livers from cattle in the Cotswold region were measured for comparison. The specific activities of Pb-210 and Po-210 in soil and grass samples from both areas were also measured at 3-monthly intervals over a year. No statistically significant increases were observed in the Pb-210 and Po-210 levels in liver, soil or grass samples which could be attributed to the operation of the power station.

  5. Improvements in electric power supply in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minovskii, Yu.P.; Nabokov, Eh.P.; Savel' ev, G.P.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews measures taken by major coal producing countries to increase output levels. Discusses research carried out into advance design of equipment in FRG, UK, USA and France and proposes establishment of central automatic control of electric power supply system in Soviet mines, improvement in underground power supply equipment, increase in reliability, stabilization of standby capacity in low voltage circuits, maintenance-free electrical equipment, and efficient spare part storage in underground workings. States that introduction of the proposed system (details are given) will ensure that Soviet mines will eventually reach the development level of foreign mines. 2 refs.

  6. Dimensionless Energy Conversion Characteristics of an Air-Powered Hydraulic Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongkai Shen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the advantages of resource conservation and less exhaust emissions, compressed air-powered vehicle has attracted more and more attention. To improve the power and efficiency of air-powered vehicle, an air-powered hydraulic vehicle was proposed. As the main part of the air-powered hydraulic vehicles, HP transformer (short for Hydropneumatic transformer is used to convert the pneumatic power to higher hydraulic power. In this study, to illustrate the energy conversion characteristics of air-powered hydraulic vehicle, dimensionless mathematical model of the vehicle’s working process was set up. Through experimental study on the vehicle, the dimensionless model was verified. Through simulation study on the vehicle, the following can be obtained: firstly, the increase of the hydraulic chamber orifice and the area ratio of the pistons can lead to a higher output power, while output pressure is just the opposite. Moreover, the increase of the output pressure and the aperture of the hydraulic chamber can lead to a higher efficiency, while area ratio of the pistons played the opposite role. This research can be referred to in the performance and design optimization of the HP transformers.

  7. An Optimisation Approach Applied to Design the Hydraulic Power Supply for a Forklift Truck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard

    2004-01-01

    -level optimisation approach, and is in the current paper exemplified through the design of the hydraulic power supply for a forklift truck. The paper first describes the prerequisites for the method and then explains the different steps in the approach to design the hydraulic system. Finally the results...

  8. Increasing flexibility of coal power plant by control system modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marušić Ante

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Expanding implementation of intermittent renewable energy sources has already started to change the role of thermal power plants in energy systems across Europe. Traditionally base load plants are now forced to operate as peaking plants. A familiar transition in upcoming years is expected in Croatia and coal power plant operators are preparing accordingly. To evaluate cycling capabilities and control system operation for flexible operation of selected 210 MW coal plant, series of tests with different load gradients were performed and results were thoroughly analyzed. Two possible “bottlenecks” are identified, thermal stress in superheater header, and achievable ramping rate considering operational limitations of coal feeders, firing system and evaporator dynamics. Several unexpected readings were observed, usually caused by malfunctioning sensors and equipment, resulting in unexpected oscillations of superheated steam temperature. Based on superheater geometry and experimental data, maximal steam temperature gradient during ramping was evaluated. Since thermal stress was well inside the safety margins, the simulation model of the whole boiler was used to evaluate achievable ramping on electric side.

  9. Coal conversion process by the United Power Plants of Westphalia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-08-01

    The coal conversion process used by the United Power Plants of Westphalia and its possible applications are described. In this process, the crushed and predried coal is degassed and partly gasified in a gas generator, during which time the sulfur present in the coal is converted into hydrogen sulfide, which together with the carbon dioxide is subsequently washed out and possibly utilized or marketed. The residual coke together with the ashes and tar is then sent to the melting chamber of the steam generator where the ashes are removed. After desulfurization, the purified gas is fed into an external circuit and/or to a gas turbine for electricity generation. The raw gas from the gas generator can be directly used as fuel in a conventional power plant. The calorific value of the purified gas varies from 3200 to 3500 kcal/cu m. The purified gas can be used as reducing agent, heating gas, as raw material for various chemical processes, or be conveyed via pipelines to remote areas for electricity generation. The conversion process has the advantages of increased economy of electricity generation with desulfurization, of additional gas generation, and, in long-term prospects, of the use of the waste heat from high-temperature nuclear reactors for this process.

  10. Bioremediation for coal-fired power stations using macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Bird, Michael I; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-15

    Macroalgae are a productive resource that can be cultured in metal-contaminated waste water for bioremediation but there have been no demonstrations of this biotechnology integrated with industry. Coal-fired power production is a water-limited industry that requires novel approaches to waste water treatment and recycling. In this study, a freshwater macroalga (genus Oedogonium) was cultivated in contaminated ash water amended with flue gas (containing 20% CO₂) at an Australian coal-fired power station. The continuous process of macroalgal growth and intracellular metal sequestration reduced the concentrations of all metals in the treated ash water. Predictive modelling shows that the power station could feasibly achieve zero discharge of most regulated metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in waste water by using the ash water dam for bioremediation with algal cultivation ponds rather than storage of ash water. Slow pyrolysis of the cultivated algae immobilised the accumulated metals in a recalcitrant C-rich biochar. While the algal biochar had higher total metal concentrations than the algae feedstock, the biochar had very low concentrations of leachable metals and therefore has potential for use as an ameliorant for low-fertility soils. This study demonstrates a bioremediation technology at a large scale for a water-limited industry that could be implemented at new or existing power stations, or during the decommissioning of older power stations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Coal resources of the eastern regions of Russia for power plants of the Asian super ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolov, Aleksander; Takaishvili, Liudmila

    2018-01-01

    The eastern regions of Russia have a substantial potential for expansion of steaming coal production. The majority of coal deposits in the eastern regions are located close enough to the objects of the Asian super ring. The large coal reserves make it possible to consider it as a reliable fuel source for power plants for a long-term horizon. The coal reserves suitable for using at power plants of the Asian super ring are estimated in the paper by subject of the federation of the eastern regions for operating and new coal producers. The coal deposits of the eastern regions that are promising for the construction of power plants of the Asian super ring are presented. The paper describes both the coal deposits of the eastern regions that are considered in the projects for power plant construction and included in the program documents and the coal deposits that are not included in the program documents. The coal reserves of these deposits and the possible volumes of its production are estimated. The key qualitative coal characteristics of the deposits: heating value, and ash, sulfur, moisture content are presented. The mining-geological and hydrological conditions for deposit development are briefly characterized. The coals of the eastern regions are showed to contain valuable accompanying elements. It is noted that the creation of industrial clusters on the basis of the coal deposits is the most effective from the standpoints of the economy and ecology. The favorable and restraining factors in development of the described coal deposits are estimated.

  12. Improved coal grinding and fuel flow control in thermal power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemczyk, Piotr; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2011-01-01

    A novel controller for coal circulation and pulverized coal flow in a coal mill is proposed. The design is based on optimal control theory for bilinear systems with additional integral action. The states are estimated from the grinding power consumption and the amount of coal accumulated in the m......A novel controller for coal circulation and pulverized coal flow in a coal mill is proposed. The design is based on optimal control theory for bilinear systems with additional integral action. The states are estimated from the grinding power consumption and the amount of coal accumulated...... as well as when parameter uncertainties and noise are present. The proposed controller lowers the grinding power consumption while in most cases exhibiting superior performance in comparison with the PID controller....

  13. Geomorphological and hydrological implications of a given hydraulic geometry relationship, beyond the power-law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, JongChun; Paik, Kyungrock

    2015-04-01

    Channel geometry and hydraulic characteristics of a given river network, i.e., spatio-temporal variability of width, depth, and velocity, can be described as power functional relationships of flow discharge, named 'hydraulic geometry' (Leopold and Maddock, 1953). Many studies have focused on the implication of this power-law itself, i.e., self-similarity, and accordingly its exponents. Coefficients of the power functional relationships, on the contrary, have received little attention. They are often regarded as empirical constants, determined by 'best fitting' to the power-law without significant scientific implications. Here, we investigate and claim that power-law coefficients of hydraulic geometry relationships carry vital information of a given river system. We approach the given problem on the basis of 'basin hydraulic geometry' formulation (Stall and Fok, 1968) which decomposes power-law coefficients into more elementary constants. The linkage between classical power-law relationship (Leopold and Maddock, 1953) and the basin hydraulic geometry is provided by Paik and Kumar (2004). On the basis of this earlier study, it can be shown that coefficients and exponents of power-law hydraulic geometry are interrelated. In this sense, we argue that more elementary constants that constitute both exponents and coefficients carry important messages. In this presentation, we will demonstrate how these elementary constants vary over a wide range of catchments provided from Stall and Fok (1968) and Stall and Yang (1970). Findings of this study can provide new insights on fundamental understanding about hydraulic geometry relationships. Further, we expect that this understanding can help interpretation of hydraulic geometry relationship in the context of flood propagation through a river system as well. Keywords: Hydraulic geometry; Power-law; River network References Leopold, L. B., & Maddock, T. J. (1953). The hydraulic geometry of stream channels and some physiographic

  14. The Mesaba Energy Project: Clean Coal Power Initiative, Round 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Richard; Gray, Gordon; Evans, Robert

    2014-07-31

    The Mesaba Energy Project is a nominal 600 MW integrated gasification combine cycle power project located in Northeastern Minnesota. It was selected to receive financial assistance pursuant to code of federal regulations (?CFR?) 10 CFR 600 through a competitive solicitation under Round 2 of the Department of Energy?s Clean Coal Power Initiative, which had two stated goals: (1) to demonstrate advanced coal-based technologies that can be commercialized at electric utility scale, and (2) to accelerate the likelihood of deploying demonstrated technologies for widespread commercial use in the electric power sector. The Project was selected in 2004 to receive a total of $36 million. The DOE portion that was equally cost shared in Budget Period 1 amounted to about $22.5 million. Budget Period 1 activities focused on the Project Definition Phase and included: project development, preliminary engineering, environmental permitting, regulatory approvals and financing to reach financial close and start of construction. The Project is based on ConocoPhillips? E-Gas? Technology and is designed to be fuel flexible with the ability to process sub-bituminous coal, a blend of sub-bituminous coal and petroleum coke and Illinois # 6 bituminous coal. Major objectives include the establishment of a reference plant design for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (?IGCC?) technology featuring advanced full slurry quench, multiple train gasification, integration of the air separation unit, and the demonstration of 90% operational availability and improved thermal efficiency relative to previous demonstration projects. In addition, the Project would demonstrate substantial environmental benefits, as compared with conventional technology, through dramatically lower emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, particulate matter and mercury. Major milestones achieved in support of fulfilling the above goals include obtaining Site, High Voltage

  15. Coal seam has boom - powering North Queensland industrial growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-01

    Reduced operating costs, lower greenhouse gas emissions and security of supply are being cited by North Queensland industry leaders as the reasons for investing more than A$550 million to expand operations and convert to coal seam gas as their preferred fuel source. The article, by Enertrade, reports that just a few months after commissioning its North Queensland Gas Pipeline to transport coal seam gas from Moranbah to Townsville, Enertrade has signed contracts that will see combined cycle gas-fired baseload electricity generated in Townsville and the Queensland Nickel Refinery, and Xstrata Copper Refinery switch from liquid fuels to gas. The development has been driven by state government policy that 13% of Queensland's electricity be sourced from gas-fired power generation from 1 January 2005. Further information is available from Enertrade on Tel +617 3331 9929. 2 photos.

  16. Hydraulic activity of belite cement from class C coal fly ash. Effect of curing and admixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Goñi, S., Guerrero, A.

    2006-01-01

    [EN] The effect of curing method and a water-reducing additive on the hydraulic activity of high lime content (ASTM type C) fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) is reported. A class C fly ash was subjected to hydrothermal treatment and subsequent calcination to synthesize FABC. Hydraulic activity was evaluated in the cement paste over 180 days from the physically bound water content as determined by thermogravimetric analysis and the degree of hydration, in turn found with...

  17. Technology Efficiency Study on Nuclear Power and Coal Power in Guangdong Province Based on DEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yinong Li; Dong Wang

    2006-01-01

    Guangdong Province has taken the lead in embarking on nuclear power development to resolve its dire lack of primary resources. With the deepening of the on-going structural reform in the electric power sector in China, the market competition scheme is putting electricity generation enterprises under severe strain. Consequently, it is incumbent upon the nuclear power producers to steadily upgrade management, enhance technical capabilities, reduce cost and improve efficiency. At present, gradual application of such efficiency evaluation methodology has already commenced in some sectors in China including the electric power industry. The purpose of this paper is to use the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is a cutting-edge approach in the efficiency evaluation field - to study the technological efficiency between nuclear power and coal power in Guangdong Province. The DEA results demonstrate that, as far as Guangdong Province is concerned, the technological efficiency of nuclear power is higher than that of coal power in terms of Technological Efficiency (TE), Pure Technology Efficiency (PTE) and Scale Efficiency (SE). The reason is that nuclear power technology is advanced with a much higher equipment availability factor. Under the same scale, the generation output of nuclear power is far higher than that of equivalent coal power generation. With the environmental protection and sustainable development requirements taken into full account, nuclear power constitutes a clean, safe and highly-efficient energy form which should be extensively harnessed in Guangdong Province to fuel its future continuing economic growth. (authors)

  18. Coal-fired power plant: airborne routine discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeevaert, T.

    2005-01-01

    The radiological impact from non-nuclear industries is a growing matter of concern to stake holders and regulators. It has been demonstrated that atmospheric discharges from coal-fired power plants can lead to higher dose-impacts to critical groups of the population than nuclear power plants. In Belgium, in the frame of an agreement between electricity producers and national authorities, measures were taken in conventional power plants to restrict airborne discharges of SO 2 , NO x and suspended particles. In the 500 MWe coal-fired power plant of Langerlo, a flue gas purification system was installed, consisting of a denitrification unit and a desulphurization unit, next to the electrostatic dust filter units. These measures have also an important effect on the radioactive atmospheric discharges. The objective of this study was to assess the radiological impact of the airborne releases of the power plant under normal working conditions and in particular the influence of the installation of the flue gas purification system. As a first step, we measured the natural radioactivity content of the coal and the radium content of the fly ash . The quantities of the other radioelements discharged through the chimney, were estimated, assuming the same behaviour as radium, except for the more volatile lead and polonium, which will condense preferably on finer ash particles, against which the electro filters are less effective. (A concentration factor of 4 has been adopted). The radon, present in the coal, is assumed to be discharged completely through the chimney. The atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition of the discharged radionuclides were modelled, applying the bi-Gaussian plume model IFDM. For the calculations, we used hourly averages of the meteorological observations at Mol over the year 1991. The transfers of the radionuclides from air and soil to the biospheric media, exposing man, were calculated with our biosphere model and the radiological impact to the

  19. Coal and nuclear power: Illinois' energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    This conference was sponsored by the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago; the US Department of Energy; the Illinois Energy Resources Commission; and the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. The theme for the conference, Coal and Nuclear Power: Illinois' Energy Future, was based on two major observations: (1) Illinois has the largest reserves of bituminous coal of any state and is surpassed in total reserves only by North Dakota, and Montana; and (2) Illinois has made a heavy commitment to the use of nuclear power as a source of electrical power generation. Currently, nuclear power represents 30% of the electrical energy produced in the State. The primary objective of the 1982 conference was to review these two energy sources in view of the current energy policy of the Reagan Administration, and to examine the impact these policies have on the Midwest energy scene. The conference dealt with issues unique to Illinois as well as those facing the entire nation. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 30 individual presentations.

  20. Assessment of inhalation risk due to radioactivity released from coal-based thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.; Shukla, V.K.; Puranik, V.D.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    In India, the coal based thermal power plants have been the major source of power generation in the past and would continue for decades to come. As the coal contains naturally occurring primordial radionuclides the burning of pulverized coal to produce energy for generation of electricity in thermal power plants will result in the emission of a variety of natural radioactive elements into the environment in the vicinity of thermal power plants. In this paper we have used two different methods for characterization of uncertainty in inhalation risk to the general public around 10 Kms radius in the neighborhood of a coal-fired thermal power plant. (author)

  1. Hydraulic simulation of the systems of a nuclear power plant for charges calculation in piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masriera, N.

    1990-01-01

    This work presents a general description of the methodology used by the ENACE S.A. Fluids Working Group for hydraulics simulation of a nuclear power plant system for the calculation charges in piping. (Author) [es

  2. Environmental impacts of coal mine and thermal power plant to the surroundings of Barapukuria, Dinajpur, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Nazir; Paul, Shitangsu Kumar; Hasan, Md Muyeed

    2015-04-01

    The study was carried out to analyse the environmental impacts of coal mine and coal-based thermal power plant to the surrounding environment of Barapukuria, Dinajpur. The analyses of coal, water, soil and fly ash were carried out using standard sample testing methods. This study found that coal mining industry and coal-based thermal power plant have brought some environmental and socio-economic challenges to the adjacent areas such as soil, water and air pollution, subsidence of agricultural land and livelihood insecurity of inhabitants. The pH values, heavy metal, organic carbon and exchangeable cations of coal water treated in the farmland soil suggest that coal mining deteriorated the surrounding water and soil quality. The SO4(2-) concentration in water samples was beyond the range of World Health Organisation standard. Some physico-chemical properties such as pH, conductivity, moisture content, bulk density, unburned carbon content, specific gravity, water holding capacity, liquid and plastic limit were investigated on coal fly ash of Barapukuria thermal power plant. Air quality data provided by the Barapukuria Coal Mining Company Limited were contradictory with the result of interview with the miners and local inhabitants. However, coal potentially contributes to the development of economy of Bangladesh but coal mining deteriorates the environment by polluting air, water and soil. In general, this study includes comprehensive baseline data for decision makers to evaluate the feasibility of coal power industry at Barapukuria and the coalmine itself.

  3. Exergetic and environmental analysis of a pulverized coal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Álvaro; Miyake, Raphael; Kleveston, Fábio; Bazzo, Edson

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of exergetic and environmental analysis of a typical pulverized coal power plant located in Brazil. The goal was to quantify both the exergy destruction and the environmental impact associated with a thermal power plant. The problem boundary consists of the entire coal delivery route, including mining and beneficiation, transport, pre-burning processes and the power plant. The used data were obtained mainly from field measurements taken in all system processes, from mining to the power plant. The study focused only on the operation period. Previous works have shown that the construction and decommissioning periods contribute less than 1% of the environmental impact. The exergetic analysis was based on the second law of thermodynamics while the environmental analysis was based on life cycle assessment (LCA) using SimaPro 7.2, focussing on the climate change and acidification impact categories. The CO 2 -eq emission was 1300 kg per MWh. The highest degree of environmental impact occurred during the combustion process. The exergetic and environmental analysis provides a tool to evaluate irreversibilities and the environmental impact, identifying the most significant stages and equipment of the entire power generation process. -- Highlights: ► Exergetic and environmental analysis of a typical Brazilian PC power plant. ► Environmental impact associated with the mining, transport and thermal power plant. ► Life cycle assessment used for environmental analysis. ► Acidification impact category evaluated using Eco-indicator 99. ► Climate change impact evaluation using (Global Warming Potential) GWP 100a.

  4. Radiological hazard from coal-fired power plants in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowina-Konopka, M.

    1991-01-01

    The radiobiological hazard of Polish population due to coal combustion for electric power production was assessed. Activity concentrations of the elementary radionuclides in coal and all kinds of ashes were measured. The ATMO computer program was applied to calculate the annual increase of the activity concentration in the air and of the annual increase of activity falling on the ground. Exposition by inhalation, oral ingestion and external irradiation was taken into account. The assessed value of irradiation was taken into account. The assessed value of individual effective dose equivalent commitments for the critical group is 0.1 mSv, i.e. 4% of the total dose rate from natural radiation. The collective effective dose equivalent commitments received of all sources by an inhabitant of Poland as a consequence of annual coal combustion in Polish CPP is 367 manSv/a (i.e. 47 manSv per GWa), i.e. 0.4% of the dose from natural radiation. (author). 11 refs, 3 figs, 8 tabs

  5. Impacts of TMDLs on coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-30

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) includes as one of its goals restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. The CWA established various programs to accomplish that goal. Among the programs is a requirement for states to establish water quality standards that will allow protection of the designated uses assigned to each water body. Once those standards are set, state agencies must sample the water bodies to determine if water quality requirements are being met. For those water bodies that are not achieving the desired water quality, the state agencies are expected to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) that outline the maximum amount of each pollutant that can be discharged to the water body and still maintain acceptable water quality. The total load is then allocated to the existing point and nonpoint sources, with some allocation held in reserve as a margin of safety. Many states have already developed and implemented TMDLs for individual water bodies or regional areas. New and revised TMDLs are anticipated, however, as federal and state regulators continue their examination of water quality across the United States and the need for new or revised standards. This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements its overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. One of the program missions of the DOE's NETL is to develop innovative environmental control technologies that will enable full use of the Nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. Some of the parameters for which TMDLs are being developed are components in discharges

  6. The clean coal technologies for lignitic coal power generation in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir, S.; Raza, Z.; Aziz-ur-Rehman, A.

    1995-01-01

    Pakistan contains huge reserves of lignitic coals. These are high sulphur, high ash coals. In spite of this unfortunate situation, the heavy demand for energy production, requires the development utilization of these indigenous coal reserves to enhance energy production. The central of the environmental pollution caused by the combustion of these coals has been a major hindrance in their utilization. Recently a substantial reduction in coal combustion emissions have been achieved through the development of clean coal technologies. Pakistan through the transfer and adaptation of the advanced clean coal technologies can utilize incurring the high sulphur coals for energy production without incurring the environmental effects that the developed countries have experienced in the past. The author discusses the recently developed clean coal utilization technologies, their applications economies and feasibility of utilization with specific reference to Pakistan''s coal. (author)

  7. Coal-fired high performance power generating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO[sub x] SO [sub x] and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW[sub e] combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO[sub x] production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

  8. The coal fired power plant of Vado Ligure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, V.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of radiological impact from radioactive effluents released by the forecast new coal-fired power plant of Vado Ligure, is examinated. Using health physic metodologies of evaluation, the highest levels of dose equivalents to the population are computed. Taken into account the possible errors due to conservative models adopted, it is concluded that the induced radiological risks are to be considered negligible, both referring to the actual natural radiological levels in the environment, and considering the maximum permissible levels stated in international raccomandations

  9. Quasi-open loop hydraulic ram incremental actuator with power conserving properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, E.T.; Robinson, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    An electric stepping motor, operated by command signals from a computer or a microprocessor, rotates a rotary control member of a distributor valve, for sequencing hydraulic pressure and hence flow to the cylinders of an axial piston hydraulic machine. A group of the cylinders are subjected to pressure and flow and the remaining cylinders are vented to a return line. Rotation of the rotary control valve member sequences pressurization by progressively adding a cylinder to the forward edge to the pressurized group and removing a cylinder from the trailing edge of the pressurized group. The double ended pistons of each new pressurized group function to drive a wobble plate into a new position of equilibrium and then hold it in such position until another change in the makeup of the pressurized group. These pistons also displace hydraulic fluid from the opposite cylinder head which serves as the output of a pumping element. An increment of displacement of the wobble plate occurs in direct response to each command pulse that is received by the stepping motor. Wobble plate displacement drives the rotary valve of the hydraulic power transfer unit, causing it to transfer hydraulic fluid from a first expansible chamber on one side of a piston in a hydraulic ram to a second expansible chamber on the opposite side of the piston. Reverse drive of the hydraulic power transfer unit reverses the direction of transfer of hydraulic fluid between the two expansible chambers

  10. Power technology complex for production of motor fuel from brown coals with power supply from NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyanov, M.F.; Poplavskij, V.M.; Sidorov, G.I.; Bondarenko, A.V.; Chebeskov, A.N.; Chushkin, V.N.; Karabash, A.A.; Krichko, A.A.; Maloletnev, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    With the present-day challenge of efficient use of low-grade coals and current restructuring of coal industry in the Russian Federation, it is urgent to organise the motor fuel production by the synthesis from low grade coals and heavy petroleum residues. With this objective in view, the Institute of Physics and Power Engineering of RF Minatom and Combustible Resources Institute of RF Mintopenergo proposed a project of a standard nuclear power technology complex for synthetic liquid fuel (SLF) production using fast neutron reactors for power supply. The proposed project has two main objectives: (1) Engineering and economical optimization of the nuclear power supply for SLF production; and (2) Engineering and economical optimization of the SLF production by hydrogenisation of brown coals and heavy petroleum residues with a complex development of advanced coal chemistry. As a first approach, a scheme is proposed with the use of existing reactor cooling equipment, in particular, steam generators of BN-600, limiting the effect on safety of reactor facility operation at minimum in case of deviations and abnormalities in the operation of technological complex. The possibility to exclude additional requirements to the equipment for nuclear facility cooling was also taken into account. It was proposed to use an intermediate steam-water circuit between the secondary circuit sodium and the coolant to heat the technological equipment. The only change required for the BN-600 equipment will be the replacement of sections of intermediate steam superheaters at the section of main steam superheaters. The economic aspects of synthetic motor fuel production proposed by the joint project depend on the evaluation of integral balances: thermal power engineering, chemical technology, the development of advanced large scale coal chemistry of high profitability; utilisation of ash and precious microelements in waste-free technology; production of valuable isotopes; radical solution of

  11. Power stations in Poland running on brown coal-development up to now and anticipated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twardy, L.; Zawadzki, M.

    1994-01-01

    Polish power plants fueled by lignite are shortly described. They generate almost 40% of electric power which is 32% cheaper than the power from plants fueled by black coal (taking into account generation unit cost). The program of modernization and reconstruction of brown coal sector is presented and its development is discussed. 1 tab

  12. Natural radionuclides from the coal in atmospheric environment of the coal fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, D.; Kostic-Soskic, M.; Milovanovic, S.; Telenta, B.

    1995-01-01

    The inhalation radiation exposure of the public in the vicinity of the selected coal fired power plants near from Belgrade (30-50 km) has been studied, using a set of data for natural radionuclides from the analysed power plants. A generalised model for analysis of radiological impact of an energy source, that includes the two-dimensional version of the cloud model, has been used for simulation of the transport of radionuclides released to the atmosphere. The inhalation dose rates for an adult are assessed and analysed during fast changeable meteorological conditions. A set of realistic meteorological conditions (wind, radiosonde sounding temperature, pressure, and humidity data) has been used for the numerical simulations. (author)

  13. Coal sector model: Source data on coal for the energy and power evaluation program (ENPEP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suwala, W [Mineral and Energy Economy Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland)

    1997-09-01

    Coal is the major primary energy source in Poland and this circumstances requires that the data on coal supply for use in energy planning models should be prepared properly. Economic sectors` development depends on many factors which are usually considered in energy planning models. Thus, data on the development of such sectors as coal mining should be consistent with the economic assumptions made in the energy planning model. Otherwise, coal data could bias the results of the energy planning model. The coal mining and coal distribution models which have been developed at the Polish Academy of Sciences could provide proper coal data of use in ENPEP and other energy planning models. The coal mining model optimizes the most important decisions related to coal productions, such as coal mines development, retirement of non-profitable mines, and construction of new mines. The model uses basic data forecasts of coal mine costs and coal production. Other factors such as demand for coal, world coal prices, etc., are parameters which constitute constraints and requirements for the coal mining development. The output of the model is the amount of coal produced and supply curves for different coal types. Such data are necessary for the coal distribution model and could also be used by ENPEP. This paper describes the model, its structure and how the results of the model could serve as coal-related data for ENPEP. Improvement of some input data forms of the BALANCE module of ENPEP are also suggested in order to facilitate data preparation. (author). 7 figs.

  14. Coal sector model: Source data on coal for the energy and power evaluation program (ENPEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwala, W.

    1997-01-01

    Coal is the major primary energy source in Poland and this circumstances requires that the data on coal supply for use in energy planning models should be prepared properly. Economic sectors' development depends on many factors which are usually considered in energy planning models. Thus, data on the development of such sectors as coal mining should be consistent with the economic assumptions made in the energy planning model. Otherwise, coal data could bias the results of the energy planning model. The coal mining and coal distribution models which have been developed at the Polish Academy of Sciences could provide proper coal data of use in ENPEP and other energy planning models. The coal mining model optimizes the most important decisions related to coal productions, such as coal mines development, retirement of non-profitable mines, and construction of new mines. The model uses basic data forecasts of coal mine costs and coal production. Other factors such as demand for coal, world coal prices, etc., are parameters which constitute constraints and requirements for the coal mining development. The output of the model is the amount of coal produced and supply curves for different coal types. Such data are necessary for the coal distribution model and could also be used by ENPEP. This paper describes the model, its structure and how the results of the model could serve as coal-related data for ENPEP. Improvement of some input data forms of the BALANCE module of ENPEP are also suggested in order to facilitate data preparation. (author). 7 figs

  15. Radiation exposure potential from coal-fired power plants in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botezatu, E.; Grecea, C.; Botezatu, G.; Capitanu, O.; Peic, T.; Sandor, G.

    1996-01-01

    In the investigated power plants they burn brown coal, lignite and/or mixture of different kinds of coal: brown coal, lignite, pit coal, pitch coal, bituminous coal. The activity concentrations measured in the coal samples varied over two orders of magnitude. The natural radionuclide concentrations in fly ash are significantly higher than the corresponding Concentrations in the coal. The normalized discharged activities for the investigated power plants are much higher than those estimated in the UNSCEAR 1988 Report for typical old and modern plants. Firstly, accounting for this is the low ash retention efficiency of the particulate control devices of power stations, especially for the older ones, and secondly, the high ash content of the coal: 26-60%. The low quality of coal leads to the higher coal consumption; thus the combustion of up to 20.109 Kg of coal is required to produce 1 Gwa of electrical energy. As a result, the activities of radon-222 and of radon-220 released per Gwa have been assessed at 25 to 770 GBq. (author)

  16. Method of gamma transmission analysis for controlling the hydraulic transport of raw coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepelnik, R.; Boessow, E.; Fanger, H.U.

    1978-01-01

    The capacity of the methods for measuring gamma absorption developed at GKSS to be used for the analysis of conweyer flows of water/coal/refuse mixtures has been studied. As only the absorption properties of the refuse are essentially different from those of water the refuce is detected with higher accuracy than the coal. In this way the sensitivity of the gamma transmission analysis method agrees with the fact that in coal mining the critical mining parameters are influenced by refuse. The results of the investigations indicate that for measuring times of about 10 sec, accounting for realisitic variations of the chemism of the refuse, the volume shares can be determined with an accuracy of about +- 4.7 V/O of coal and about +- . 5 V/O of refuse. The measuring arrangement for the drift velocity is capable to record also the size and the number of the refuse lumps. The methods described therefore are well suited for controlling an optimal conveying operation. (orig.) [de

  17. Determining the hydraulic and fracture properties of the Coal Seam Gas well by numerical modelling and GLUE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarimarnani, Sara; Willgoose, Garry; Fityus, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    Coal seam gas (CSG) is a form of natural gas that occurs in some coal seams. Coal seams have natural fractures with dual-porosity systems and low permeability. In the CSG industry, hydraulic fracturing is applied to increase the permeability and extract the gas more efficiently from the coal seam. The industry claims that it can design fracking patterns. Whether this is true or not, the public (and regulators) requires assurance that once a well has been fracked that the fracking has occurred according to plan and that the fracked well is safe. Thus defensible post-fracking testing methodologies for gas generating wells are required. In 2009 a fracked well HB02, owned by AGL, near Broke, NSW, Australia was subjected to "traditional" water pump-testing as part of this assurance process. Interpretation with well Type Curves and simple single phase (i.e. only water, no gas) highlighted deficiencies in traditional water well approaches with a systemic deviation from the qualitative characteristic of well drawdown curves (e.g. concavity versus convexity of drawdown with time). Accordingly a multiphase (i.e. water and methane) model of the well was developed and compared with the observed data. This paper will discuss the results of this multiphase testing using the TOUGH2 model and its EOS7C constitutive model. A key objective was to test a methodology, based on GLUE monte-carlo calibration technique, to calibrate the characteristics of the frack using the well test drawdown curve. GLUE involves a sensitivity analysis of how changes in the fracture properties change the well hydraulics through and analysis of the drawdown curve and changes in the cone of depression. This was undertaken by changing the native coal, fracture, and gas parameters to see how changing those parameters changed the match between simulations and the observed well drawdown. Results from the GLUE analysis show how much information is contained in the well drawdown curve for estimating field scale

  18. Uranium content of coal ashes from Southern Brazil coal fueled power stations, by the fission track registration technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, R.K.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of the application of the fission track registration technique for the determination of uranium in coal ashes was shown. The wet method was employed using as detector the Makrofol KG=10 μm, manufactured by Bayer. The coal ashes were originated from coal-fueled power stations localized in Southern Brazil. The results obtained ranged from 10 to 27 mg U/kg. Since the total error variation was from 18,4% to 23,8%, the method used was considered excellent. The determination of the uranium content in coal ashes is of considerable interest in environmental control in power stations, in their vicinity and wherever these ashes are used or stored. The technique used is the work proved to be very appropriate for the purpose aimed at. (Author) [pt

  19. High pressure axial flow fans for modern coal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyrus, Vaclav [AHT Energetika s.r.o., Praha (Czech Republic); Koci, Petr [ZVVZ Milevsko a.s. (Czech Republic)

    2008-07-01

    Brown coal fired power stations, located in Northern Bohemia, have mostly older boiler blocks with an output of 110 and 200 MWe. Flue gases are cleaned by the desulphurization plants installed between 1993 and 1997. Usually, each boiler block has two air fans and one to three flue gas fans. Flue gas fans operate in severe conditions; fan blades should be resistant to the flue gases containing sulphur and acid drops with the operating temperature at 170 C to 190 C. Additionally, flue gas also often contains ash particles. Currently, some boiler blocks are gradually being refurbished. New blocks with an electrical power output of 600 to 700 MWe are at the design stage. Submitted paper shows our design study of one stage axial flow fan for the new blocks. Results from the new aerodynamic research of the axial flow stages were used in the fan design. (orig.)

  20. Coal Power Systems strategic multi-year program plans; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE), through the Coal and Power Systems (C and PS) program, funds research to advance the scientific knowledge needed to provide new and improved energy technologies; to eliminate any detrimental environmental effects of energy production and use; and to maintain US leadership in promoting the effective use of US power technologies on an international scale. Further, the C and PS program facilitates the effective deployment of these technologies to maximize their benefits to the Nation. The following Strategic Plan describes how the C and PS program intends to meet the challenges of the National Energy Strategy to: (1) enhance American's energy security; (2) improve the environmental acceptability of energy production and use; (3) increase the competitiveness and reliability of US energy systems; and (4) ensure a robust US energy future. It is a plan based on the consensus of experts and managers from FE's program offices and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL)

  1. Radionuclide emissions from a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Y.M.; Uddin Khandaker, Mayeen; Shyen, A.K.S.; Mahat, R.H.; Nor, R.M.; Bradley, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Current study concerns measurement of radioactivity levels in areas surrounding a 2420 MW thermal power plant fueled predominantly by bituminous coal. The concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in onsite bottom-ash were found to be 139 Bq/kg, 108 Bq/kg and 291 Bq/kg, respectively, the levels for these radiolnuclides in soil decreasing with distance from the power plant. At the plant perimeter the respective radionuclide concentrations were 87 Bq/kg, 74 Bq/kg and 297 Bq/kg. In a nearby town, the corresponding concentrations were 104 Bq/kg, 52 Bq/kg and 358 Bq/kg, suggestive of use of TENORM affected soils. The mean radium equivalent activities (Ra eq ) in soil and ash sample in the town were 205 Bq/kg and 316 Bq/kg, respectively. The Kapar plant ash/slag appears to contain a higher level of TENORM than the world average. The degree of contamination is much higher inside the town where slag has been mixed with topsoil as landfill or as simple domestic waste. For the prevailing levels of exposure and a worst case senario, the predicted committed effective dose due to ingestion and inhalation for intake durations of 1- and 30 years would be 4.2 μSv and 220 μSv, respectively. - Highlights: • Detailed studies on naturally occuring radionuclide emissions due to a 2420 MW coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. • Assessment of radiation exposures to the public around the power plant due to an intake of the radionuclides. • The Kapar plant ash/slag appears to contain a higher level of TENORM than the world average. • The degree of contamination is much higher inside the town where slag has been mixed with topsoil as landfill or as simple domestic waste

  2. Steam Turbine Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, R.; Hawk, J.; Schwant, R.; Saha, D.; Totemeier, T.; Goodstine, S.; McNally, M.; Allen, D. B.; Purgert, Robert

    2009-06-30

    The Ultrasupercritical (USC) Steam Turbine Materials Development Program is sponsored and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ohio Coal Development Office, through grants to Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO), a non-profit organization contracted to manage and direct the project. The program is co-funded by the General Electric Company, Alstom Power, Siemens Power Generation (formerly Siemens Westinghouse), and the Electric Power Research Institute, each organization having subcontracted with EIO and contributing teams of personnel to perform the requisite research. The program is focused on identifying, evaluating, and qualifying advanced alloys for utilization in coal-fired power plants that need to withstand steam turbine operating conditions up to 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi). For these conditions, components exposed to the highest temperatures and stresses will need to be constructed from nickel-based alloys with higher elevated temperature strength than the highchromium ferritic steels currently used in today's high-temperature steam turbines. In addition to the strength requirements, these alloys must also be weldable and resistant to environmental effects such as steam oxidation and solid particle erosion. In the present project, candidate materials with the required creep strength at desired temperatures have been identified. Coatings that can resist oxidation and solid particle erosion have also been identified. The ability to perform dissimilar welds between nickel base alloys and ferritic steels have been demonstrated, and the properties of the welds have been evaluated. Results of this three-year study that was completed in 2009 are described in this final report. Additional work is being planned and will commence in 2009. The specific objectives of the future studies will include conducting more detailed evaluations of the weld-ability, mechanical properties and repair-ability of the selected candidate alloys for rotors

  3. Protective and control relays as coal-mine power-supply ACS subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostin, V. N.; Minakova, T. E.

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents instantaneous selective short-circuit protection for the cabling of the underground part of a coal mine and central control algorithms as a Coal-Mine Power-Supply ACS Subsystem. In order to improve the reliability of electricity supply and reduce the mining equipment down-time, a dual channel relay protection and central control system is proposed as a subsystem of the coal-mine power-supply automated control system (PS ACS).

  4. Approach to reducing the effect of bone—coal power station on radiation environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIShi-Ying; GUPei-Long; 等

    2002-01-01

    The effect of two bone-coal power stations(6MWe) on environment was investigated within the scope of the dose contribution caused by various radionucildes in different ways.It is found that the best measures to reduce the effect of bone-coal power station on radiation environment include to select a fine boiler system and a comprehensive utilization of the bone-coal cinder(BCC),soot and ash in the catchers.

  5. Approach to reducing the effect of bone-coal power station on radiation environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The effect of two bone-coal power stations (6 MWe) on environment wasinvestigated within the scope of the dose contribution caused by various radionucildes in different ways. It is found that the best measures to reduce the effect of bone-coal power station on radiation environment include to select a fine boiler system and a comprehensive utilization of the bone-coal cinder (BCC), soot and ash in the catchers.

  6. Development of life cycle water-demand coefficients for coal-based power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Babkir; Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop water consumption and withdrawals coefficients for coal power generation. • We develop life cycle water footprints for 36 coal-based electricity generation pathways. • Different coal power generation technologies were assessed. • Sensitivity analysis of plant performance and coal transportation on water demand. - Abstract: This paper aims to develop benchmark coefficients for water consumption and water withdrawals over the full life cycle of coal-based power generation. This study considered not only all of the unit operations involved in the full electricity generation life cycle but also compared different coal-based power generating technologies. Overall this study develops the life cycle water footprint for 36 different coal-based electricity generation pathways. Power generation pathways involving new technologies of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or ultra supercritical technology with coal transportation by conventional means and using dry cooling systems have the least complete life cycle water-demand coefficients of about 1 L/kW h. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to study the impact of power plant performance and coal transportation on the water demand coefficients. The consumption coefficient over life cycle of ultra supercritical or IGCC power plants are 0.12 L/kW h higher when conventional transportation of coal is replaced by coal-log pipeline. Similarly, if the conventional transportation of coal is replaced by its transportation in the form of a slurry through a pipeline, the consumption coefficient of a subcritical power plant increases by 0.52 L/kW h

  7. Relative population exposures from coal-fired and nuclear power plants in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, T.V.; Lalit, B.Y.; Mishra, U.C.

    1987-01-01

    Coal combustion for electric power generation results in dispersal of fly ash, and hence an additional radiation dose to the population living in the neighbourhood of the coal-fired power plants due to natural radioactivity present in coal. The radiation hazards of coal based and nuclear power plants operating in India are given. The dose commitments to the population living within an 88.5 km radius of the thermal and nuclear power plants in India have been computed using the method outlined in an ORNL report. The estimated dose rates for these two types of power plant were compared. The present study shows that the radiation dose from coal-fired and nuclear power plants are comparable.

  8. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  9. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, D.D.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; ET AL.

    2004-03-30

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. There are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows (Lopez et al. 2003)). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  10. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were

  11. Study of the Radiological Impact of the Coal Fired Power Plants on the Environment. The As Pontes coal-fired Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancio, D.; Robles, B.; Mora, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    As part of the Study carried out to determine the radiological impact of the four main Spanish coal-fired power plants, the Study on the As Pontes Coal-Fired Coal Power Plant was finalized. In the Report containing the study are included every measurement performed, as well as the modelling and evaluations carried out in order to assess the radiological impact. The general conclusion obtained is that under a radiological point of view, the impact of this installation on the public and the environment is very small. Also the radiological impact on the workers of the installation was assessed, obtaining too very small increases over the natural background. (Author) 61 refs.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Emission Reduction for the Indonesian Coal-Fired Power Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Handayani, Kamia; Krozer, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the result of research on the cost-effectiveness of emission reduction in the selected coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in Indonesia. The background of this research is the trend of more stringent environmental regulation regarding air emission from coal-fired power plants (CFPPs)

  13. Coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sens, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1986 Directorate-General XII 'Science, Research and Development' of the Commission of the European Communities has kept a watching brief on the development of coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electric power generation from the 'solid fuels' section of its non-nuclear energy R and D programme. It established, in 1987, the Faraday Working Group (FWG) to assess the development status of coal-fired MHD and to evaluate its potential contribution to the future electricity production in the Community. The FWG expressed as its opinion, at the end of 1987, that in sufficient data were available to justify a final answer to the question about MHD's potential contribution to future electricity production and recommended that studies be undertaken in three areas; (i) the lifetime of the generator, (ii) cost and performance of direct air preheating, (iii) cost and efficiency of seed recovery/reprocessing. These studies were contracted and results were presented in the extended FWG meeting on 15 November 1990, for an audience of about 70 people. The present volume contains the proceedings of this meeting. The introduction describes the reasons for establishing the FWG, its activities and the content of its extended meeting followed by the summary of the discussions and the concluding remarks of this meeting. The main part of the volume consists of the text either of the oral presentations during the meeting or of the final reports resulting from the studies under contract

  14. Alternatives to coal and candles: wind power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, Debra J.

    2000-01-01

    China is in a unique position to be able to exploit her vast wind resources to satisfy both the rapidly growing energy demand which fuels her economy as well as needs of approximately 72 million people who live in rural areas and have no access to conventional electricity services. China, mainly through the efforts of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, has already successfully disseminated over 150,000 small-scale wind electric generators which power households in rural areas, through a well-coordinated combination of local research and development, technology transfer, industry support, end-user incentives, and an infrastructure for information dissemination and technical training. In this paper, we review China's utilisation of wind energy and discuss how it can be increased for both rural electrification and the rapidly growing power sector. We find that novel approaches in technical implementation of wind power use may help to better meet China's needs. Use of hybrid systems may help to provide higher quality, more reliable power for rural households and villages than is currently provided through wind-only systems. Grid-connected wind power, which currently is more costly and less reliable than coal power, can become cost-competitive and more reliable through local, mass production of wind turbines combined with storage systems. We examine governmental support, through policy, infrastructure development and financial incentives, that have fostered the successes of dissemination of small-scale wind turbines and also the support, or lack thereof, that has hindered commercial development of large-scale wind power, We find that a better policy and regulatory framework is the most important measure that China can take to increase the use of this indigenous, clean resource. (Author)

  15. Overview of environmental assessment for China nuclear power industry and coal-fired power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shaodong; Pan Ziqiang; Zhang Yongxing

    1994-01-01

    A quantitative environmental assessment method and the corresponding computer code are introduced. By the consideration of all fuel cycle steps, it given that the public health risk of China nuclear power industry is 5.2 x 10 -1 man/(GW·a) the public health risk is 2.5 man/(GW·a), and the total health risk is 3.0 man/(GW·a). After the health risk calculation for coal mining, transport, burning up and ash disposal, it gives that the public health risk of China coal-fired power industry is 3.6 man/(GW·a), the occupational health risk is 50 man/(GW·a), and the total is 54 man/(GW·). Accordingly, the conclusion that China nuclear power industry is one with high safety and cleanness is derived at the end

  16. Comparative analysis of print media coverage of nuclear power and coal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nealey, S.M.; Rankin, W.L.; Montano, D.E.

    1978-10-01

    Nuclear power has been a more important topic than has coal for the print media, and has received somewhat different treatment. Compared to the number of coal articles, almost twice as many nuclear power articles were printed from 1972 through 1976. Also, while the number of nuclear power articles increased somewhat steadily from 1972 through 1976, the number of coal articles peaked in 1974 and has decreased since. The newspapers sampled gave more prominence to nuclear articles in terms of article type and article location. Also, nuclear articles were more often issue-oriented compared to coal articles. Coal articles were most often about coal mining, labor force concerns, and regulations controls. Nuclear power articles, on the other hand, were mostly about reactor operation. The main issues discussed in the coal articles pertained most to political decisions affecting coal use, to strikes, and to health and safety. The main nuclear issues pertained to economics, to health and safety, and to political decisions. Newspapers handled nuclear power articles in a more polarized manner compared to coal articles which were handled in a more neutral manner. Magazine articles were significantly more antinuclear than anticoal. Some qualifications about these conclusions are included

  17. Radiological effects of Yatagan coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlas, F.; Buke, T.

    2004-01-01

    Radiation dose calculations and also limit radiation dose calculations have been carried out by the code CAP88-PC around the Yatagan coal-fired power plant environment by using the result of previous studies about maximum measured gross alpha activity in the flying ash samples as radioactive sources. A modified Gaussian plume equation is used to estimate the average dispersion of radionuclides released from up to six emitting sources. The sources maybe either elevated stacks or uniform area sources. Assessments are done for a circular grid of distances and directions for a radius up to 80 kilometers, 16 wind sectors and 20 mesh distances around the facility in calculations. The limit doses obtained from the calculations and their radiological effects have been interpreted. Finally the effects of various radionuclides have been carried out and their results have been compared with each other. (author)

  18. Upgrading and efficiency improvement in coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    Improving the efficiencies of the large number of older coal-fired power plants operating around the world would give major savings in CO2 emissions together with significant other benefits. This report begins with a summary of the ways efficiency can become degraded and of the means available to combat the decrease in performance. These include improvements to operating and maintenance practices and more major techniques that are available, including boiler and turbine retrofits. There is also an update on fuel drying developments as a route to higher efficiency in plants firing high moisture lignites. The largest chapter of the report contains a number of descriptions of case study improvement projects, to illustrate measures that have been applied, benefits that have been achieved and identify best practices, which are summarised. Major national and international upgrading programmes are described.

  19. Coal geopolitics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, P.N.; Suissa, A.; Coiffard, J.; Cretin, D.

    1991-01-01

    This book divided into seven chapters, describes coal economic cycle. Chapter one: coals definition; the principle characteristics and properties (origin, calorific power, international classification...) Chapter two: the international coal cycle: coal mining, exploration, coal reserves estimation, coal handling coal industry and environmental impacts. Chapter three: the world coal reserves. Chapter four: the consumptions, productions and trade. Chapter five: the international coal market (exporting mining companies; importing companies; distributors and spot market operators) chapter six: the international coal trade chapter seven: the coal price formation. 234 refs.; 94 figs. and tabs [fr

  20. Effect of hydraulic retention time on the biodegradation of complex phenolic mixture from simulated coal wastewater in hybrid UASB reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramakrishnan, Anushuya [Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Gupta, Sudhir Kumar [Centre for Environmental Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)], E-mail: skgupta@iitb.ac.in

    2008-05-01

    This study describes the feasibility of anaerobic treatment of complex phenolics mixture from a simulated synthetic coal wastewater using four identical 13.5 L (effective volume) bench scale hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB) (combining UASB + anaerobic filter) reactors at four different hydraulic retention times (HRT) under mesophilic (27 {+-} 5 {sup o}C) conditions. Synthetic coal wastewater with an average chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2240 mg/L and phenolics concentration of 752 mg/L was used as substrate. The phenolics contained phenol (490 mg/L); m-, o-, p-cresols (123.0, 58.6, 42 mg/L); 2,4-, 2,5-, 3,4- and 3,5-dimethyl phenols (6.3, 6.3, 4.4 and 21.3 mg/L) as major phenolic compounds. The study demonstrated that at optimum HRT, 24 h, and phenolic loading rate of 0.75 g COD/(m{sup 3}-d), the phenolics and COD removal efficiency of the reactors were 96% and 86%, respectively. Bio-kinetic models were applied to data obtained from experimental studies in hybrid UASB reactor. Grau second-order multi-component substrate removal model was best fitted to the hybrid UASB reactor. The second-order substrate removal rate constant (k{sub 2(s)}) was found as 1.72 h{sup -1} for the hybrid reactor treating complex phenolic mixture. Morphological examination of the sludge revealed rod-type Methanothrix-like, cells to be dominant on the surface.

  1. Effect of hydraulic retention time on the biodegradation of complex phenolic mixture from simulated coal wastewater in hybrid UASB reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, Anushuya; Gupta, Sudhir Kumar

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the feasibility of anaerobic treatment of complex phenolics mixture from a simulated synthetic coal wastewater using four identical 13.5 L (effective volume) bench scale hybrid up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (HUASB) (combining UASB + anaerobic filter) reactors at four different hydraulic retention times (HRT) under mesophilic (27 ± 5 o C) conditions. Synthetic coal wastewater with an average chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 2240 mg/L and phenolics concentration of 752 mg/L was used as substrate. The phenolics contained phenol (490 mg/L); m-, o-, p-cresols (123.0, 58.6, 42 mg/L); 2,4-, 2,5-, 3,4- and 3,5-dimethyl phenols (6.3, 6.3, 4.4 and 21.3 mg/L) as major phenolic compounds. The study demonstrated that at optimum HRT, 24 h, and phenolic loading rate of 0.75 g COD/(m 3 -d), the phenolics and COD removal efficiency of the reactors were 96% and 86%, respectively. Bio-kinetic models were applied to data obtained from experimental studies in hybrid UASB reactor. Grau second-order multi-component substrate removal model was best fitted to the hybrid UASB reactor. The second-order substrate removal rate constant (k 2(s) ) was found as 1.72 h -1 for the hybrid reactor treating complex phenolic mixture. Morphological examination of the sludge revealed rod-type Methanothrix-like, cells to be dominant on the surface

  2. Water-hydraulic power transmission for offshore wind farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, N.F.B.; Jarquin Laguna, A.; Kempenaar, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    The current state of the art of offshore wind turbine power transmission technology is expensive, heavy and maintenance intensive. The Delft Offshore Turbine project considers a radically new concept for power transmission in an offshore wind farm: using seawater as power transmission medium. For

  3. Natural radionuclides near a coal-fired power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith-Briggs, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    A previous assessment of the radiological consequences of the emission of natural radionuclides from coal-fired power stations had indicated that 210 Pb was the main contributor to the maximum individual dose. This dose arose from the consumption of foodstuffs particularly cattle liver contaminated by deposited fly ash. Uncertainty surrounded some of the factors used in the assessment, and a limited environmental monitoring programme was recommended to improve it. An experiment has been performed to measure the specific activities of 210 Pb and 210 Po in livers from cattle that had grazed in a field near Didcot power station. Livers from cattle in the Cotswold region have been measured for comparison. The specific activities of 210 Pb and 210 Po in soil and grass samples from both areas have also been measured at three-monthly intervals over a year. No statistically significant increases were observed in the 210 Pb and 210 Po levels in liver, soil or grass samples which could be attributed to the operation of the power station. Transfer coefficients for 210 Pb from forage to liver were about two orders of magnitude less than that used in the original assessment, and the transfer coefficients for 210 Po about a factor a two less. (orig.)

  4. REAL TIME PULVERISED COAL FLOW SOFT SENSOR FOR THERMAL POWER PLANTS USING EVOLUTIONARY COMPUTATION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Raja Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulverised coal preparation system (Coal mills is the heart of coal-fired power plants. The complex nature of a milling process, together with the complex interactions between coal quality and mill conditions, would lead to immense difficulties for obtaining an effective mathematical model of the milling process. In this paper, vertical spindle coal mills (bowl mill that are widely used in coal-fired power plants, is considered for the model development and its pulverised fuel flow rate is computed using the model. For the steady state coal mill model development, plant measurements such as air-flow rate, differential pressure across mill etc., are considered as inputs/outputs. The mathematical model is derived from analysis of energy, heat and mass balances. An Evolutionary computation technique is adopted to identify the unknown model parameters using on-line plant data. Validation results indicate that this model is accurate enough to represent the whole process of steady state coal mill dynamics. This coal mill model is being implemented on-line in a 210 MW thermal power plant and the results obtained are compared with plant data. The model is found accurate and robust that will work better in power plants for system monitoring. Therefore, the model can be used for online monitoring, fault detection, and control to improve the efficiency of combustion.

  5. Gas to Coal Competition in the U.S. Power Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    With the newfound availability of natural gas due to the shale gas revolution in the United States, cheap gas now threatens coal’s longstanding position as the least costly fuel for generating electricity. But other factors besides cost come into play when deciding to switch from coal to gas. Electricity and gas transmission grid constraints, regulatory and contractual issues, as well as other factors determine the relative share of coal and gas in power generation. This paper analyzes competition between coal and gas for generating power in the United States and the factors explaining this dynamic. It also projects coal-to-gas switching in power generation for 18 states representing 75% of the surplus gas potential in the United States up to 2017, taking into consideration the impact of environmental legislation on retirement of coal-fired power plants.

  6. The use of mechanically activated micronized coal in thermal power engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burdukov Anatoliy P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal is one of the main energy resources and development of new promising technologies on its basis is certainly topical. This article discusses the use of new technology of gas and fuel oil replacement by mechanically activated micronized coal in power engineering: ignition and stabilization of pulverized coal flame combustion, as well as gasification of micronized coal in the flow. The new technology coal combustion with two stages of grinding is suggested. Optimization of the scheme of two-stage combustion is calculated. The first experimental data on the combustion process are obtained. The first demonstration tests on gas and heavy oil replacement by micronized coal during boiler ignition were carried out in the real power boiler with the capacity of 320 tons of steam per hour.

  7. Coal-fired power plants and the causes of high temperature corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oakey, J E; Simms, N J [British Coal Corporation, Coal Technology Development Div., Cheltenham, Glos (United Kingdom); Tomkings, A B [ERA Technology Ltd., Leatherhead, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    The heat exchangers in all types of coal-fired power plant operate in aggressive, high temperature environments where high temperature corrosion can severely limit their service lives. The extent of this corrosion is governed by the combined effects of the operating conditions of the heat exchanger and the presence of corrosive species released from the coal during operation. This paper reviews the coal-related factors, such as ash deposition, which influence the operating environments of heat exchangers in three types of coal-fired power plant - conventional pulverized coal boilers, fluidized bed boilers and coal gasification systems. The effects on the performance of the materials used for these heat exchangers are then compared. (au) 35 refs.

  8. Model and simulation of the hydraulic turbine speed regulator of the Atucha I nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copparoni, G.; Etchepareborda, A.; Urrutia, G.

    1992-01-01

    The hydraulics turbines of Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant takes advantage of condenser cooling water level difference between the plant and the river to recover about 2,5 MW e. It also supplies emergency power until diesel generators start up. Speed regulation is needed due to the transients that during this process occur. The purpose is to minimize the diesels start up time, and to avoid overshoots on the internal grid frequency. The hydraulic turbine, its speed regulator and the electric system associated with this transient have been modeled. The models and some simulation results are presented in this work. (author)

  9. Experimental Study on Methane Desorption from Lumpy Coal under the Action of Hydraulic and Thermal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Moisture and thermal are the key factors for influencing methane desorption during CBM exploitation. Using high-pressure water injection technology into coalbed, new fractures and pathways are formed to transport methane. A phenomenon of water-inhibiting gas flow existed. This study is focused on various water pressures impacted on gas-adsorbed coal samples, and then the desorption capacity could be revealed under different conditions. And the results are shown that methane desorption capacity was decreased with the increase in water pressure at room temperature and the downtrend would be steady until water pressure was large enough. Heating could promote gas desorption capacity effectively, with the increasing of water injection pressures, and the promotion of thermal on desorption became more obvious. These results are expected to provide a clearer understanding of theoretical efficiency of heat water or steam injection into coalbed, and they can provide some theoretical and experimental guidance on CBM production and methane control.

  10. Hydraulic activity of belite cement from class C coal fly ash. Effect of curing and admixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerrero, A.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of curing method and a water-reducing additive on the hydraulic activity of high lime content (ASTM type C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W is reported. A class C fly ash was subjected to hydrothermal treatment and subsequent calcination to synthesize FABC. Hydraulic activity was evaluated in the cement paste over 180 days from the physically bound water content as determined by thermogravimetric analysis and the degree of hydration, in turn found with X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. Mechanical strength, porosity and pore size distribution were also studied in equivalent mortar samples.En este trabajo se discute la influencia del tipo de curado y de un aditivo reductor de la demanda de agua en la actividad hidráulica de un cemento belítico de cenizas volantes de alto contenido en cal denominado (CBCV-2-A. Este cemento ha sido sintetizado por una ruta húmeda hidrotermal con posterior calcinación, empleando ceniza volante de alto contenido en cal (ASTM tipo C como materia prima. La actividad hidráulica se ha estudiado en la pasta de cemento, durante un periodo de 180 días, por medio del contenido de agua combinada, determinada por análisis termogravimétrico, y el grado de hidratación por difracción de rayos X (DRX. La resistencia mecánica y la porosidad total y distribución de tamaño de poro se han estudiado en probetas equivalentes de mortero

  11. The prospects for hard coal as a fuel for the Polish power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminski, Jacek; KudeLko, Mariusz

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the prospects for the development of the Polish hard coal sector from the perspective of the power sector. The most important issues determining the mid- and long-term future for domestic coal production are: (1) the development of the economy, hence the demand for electricity, (2) regulations (mostly environmental) affecting the power sector, (3) the competitiveness of coal-based technologies, and (4) the costs of domestic coal production. Since the range of issues and relations being considered is very broad, a specific method needs to be employed for the quantitative analysis. The tool applied in this study is the partial equilibrium model POWER-POL, in which both the coal and the power sectors are incorporated. The model focuses on energy-economy-environmental issues without capturing detailed macroeconomic links. The model was run under six scenario assumptions. The results show that the domestic coal sector should maintain its position as a key supplier of primary energy for the Polish power sector. However, the environmental regulations to which the domestic power sector has to conform will decrease the share of coal in the fuel-mix. Since the investment processes in this sector are usually long-term, the effects of changes will be noticeable from 2015 onwards. - Research highlights: →Application of the partial equilibrium model POWER-POL for a quantitative analysis. →Coal will maintain its dominant position in the Polish heat and electricity production fuel-mix at least up to 2020. →Attractiveness of domestic hard coal supplies will depend on the environmental regulations (mostly on the EU level) and development in the world coal market. →The first nuclear power plant will be put into operation in 2020.

  12. Development of an inexact optimization model for coupled coal and power management in North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Huang, G.H.; Cai, Y.P.; Cheng, G.H.; Niu, Y.T.; An, K.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an inexact coupled coal and power management (ICCPM) model was developed for planning coupled coal and power management systems through integrating chance-constrained programming (CCP), interval linear programming (ILP) and mixed integer linear programming (MILP) techniques. The ICCPM model can effectively handle uncertainties presented in terms of probability density functions and intervals. It can also facilitate dynamic analysis of capacity expansions, facility installation and coal inventory planning within a multi-period and multi-option context. Complexities in coupled coal and power management systems can be systematically reflected in this model, thus applicability of the modeling process would be highly enhanced. The developed ICCPM model was applied to a case of long-term coupled coal and power management systems planning in north China. Interval solutions associated with different risk levels of constraint violations have been obtained, which can be used for generating decision alternatives and helping identify desired policies. The generated results can also provide desired solutions for coal and power generation, capacity initiation and expansion, and coal blending with a minimized system cost, a maximized system reliability and a maximized coal transportation security. Tradeoffs between system costs and constraint-violation risks can also be tackled.

  13. Life cycle assessment of solar aided coal-fired power system with and without heat storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Rongrong; Li, Chao; Chen, Ying; Yang, Yongping; Patchigolla, Kumar; Oakey, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The comprehensive performances of three kinds of different systems were compared through LCA. • The comprehensive results of all systems were evaluated by grey relation theory. • The effects of life span, coal price, and solar collector field cost, among other factors, on the results were explored. - Abstract: Pollutant emissions from coal-fired power system have been receiving increasing attention over the past few years. Integration of solar thermal energy can greatly reduce pollutant emissions from these power stations. The performances of coal-fired power system (S1), solar aided coal-fired power system with thermal storage (S2), and solar aided coal-fired power system without thermal storage (S3) with three capacities of each kind of system (i.e., nine subsystems) were analyzed over the entire life span. The pollutant emissions and primary energy consumptions (PECs) of S1, S2, and S3 were estimated using life cycle assessment (LCA). The evaluation value of global warming potential (GWP), acidification potential (AP), respiratory effects potential (REP) and PEC were obtained based on the LCA results. Furthermore, the system investments were estimated, and grey relation theory was used to evaluate the performance of the three types of systems comprehensively. Finally, in order to find the effect of some main factors on the solar aided coal-fired power system (SACFPS), uncertainty analysis has been carried out. The LCA results show that the pollutant emissions and PEC mainly take place in the fuel processing and operation stages for all three system types, and S2 performs the best among the three systems based on the grey relation analysis results. And the uncertainty analysis shows that with longer life span, the power system have better performance; with higher coal price, the power system will have worse performance; with lower solar collector field cost, the solar aided coal-fired power system will be more profitable than the base

  14. Waterberg coal characteristics and SO2 minimum emissions standards in South African power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makgato, Stanford S; Chirwa, Evans M Nkhalambayausi

    2017-10-01

    Key characteristics of coal samples from the supply stock to the newly commissioned South African National Power Utility's (Eskom's) Medupi Power Station - which receives its supply coal from the Waterberg coalfield in Lephalale (Limpopo Province, South Africa) - were evaluated. Conventional coal characterisation such as proximate and ultimate analysis as well as determination of sulphur forms in coal samples were carried out following the ASTM and ISO standards. Coal was classified as medium sulphur coal when the sulphur content was detected in the range 1.15-1.49 wt.% with pyritic sulphur (≥0.51 wt.%) and organic sulphur (≥0.49 wt.%) accounted for the bulk of the total sulphur in coal. Maceral analyses of coal showed that vitrinite was the dominant maceral (up to 51.8 vol.%), whereas inertinite, liptinite, reactive semifusinite and visible minerals occurred in proportions of 22.6 vol.%, 2.9 vol.%, 5.3 vol.% and 17.5 vol.%, respectively. Theoretical calculations were developed and used to predict the resultant SO 2 emissions from the combustion of the Waterberg coal in a typical power plant. The sulphur content requirements to comply with the minimum emissions standards of 3500 mg/Nm 3 and 500 mg/Nm 3 were found to be ≤1.37 wt.% and ≤0.20 wt.%, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nighttime NOx Chemistry in Coal-Fired Power Plant Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Dube, W. P.; Veres, P. R.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Lee, B. H.; Green, J. R.; Fiddler, M. N.; Ebben, C. J.; Sparks, T.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D.; Campos, T. L.; Cohen, R. C.; Bililign, S.; Holloway, J. S.; Thornton, J. A.; Brown, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) play a key role in atmospheric chemistry. During the day, they catalyze ozone (O3) production, while at night they can react to form nitric acid (HNO3) and nitryl chloride (ClNO2) and remove O3 from the atmosphere. These processes are well studied in the summer, but winter measurements are more limited. Coal-fired power plants are a major source of NOx to the atmosphere, making up approximately 30% of emissions in the US (epa.gov). NOx emissions can vary seasonally, as well as plant-to-plant, with important impacts on the details of the plume chemistry. In particular, due to inefficient plume dispersion, nighttime NOx emissions from power plants are held in concentrated plumes, where rates of mixing with ambient O3 have a strong influence on plume evolution. We will show results from the aircraft-based WINTER campaign over the northeastern United States, where several nighttime intercepts of power plant plumes were made. Several of these intercepts show complete O3 titration, which can have a large influence on NOx lifetime, and thus O3 production, in the plume. When power plant NO emissions exceed background O3 levels, O3 is completely consumed converting NO to NO2. In the presence of O3, NO2 will be oxidized to NO3, which will then react with NO2 to form N2O5, which can then form HNO3 and/or ClNO2 and, ultimately, remove NOx from the atmosphere or provide next-day oxidant sources. If there is no O3 present, however, no further chemistry can occur and NO and NO2 will be transported until mixing with sufficient O3 for higher oxidation products. Modeling results of plume development and mixing, which can tell us more about this transport, will also be presented.

  16. Secure energy supply without coal and nuclear power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, W.

    2008-01-01

    The future of energy policy and energy supply is determined by the rising global demand for every kind of energy. Europe is being confronted with an ever growing dependence on imported oil and gas. We thus fall victim to the volatile ups and downs of oil and gas prices on the world markets. These risks to industry, and thus to jobs, are simply underrated, even ignored, in this country. Challenges of this kind require strategic solutions instead of case-by-case decisions which, in addition, more often than not are based on emotion rather than facts. Finding strategic solutions means that we must use all our scientific, technological and industrial potentials to achieve our ambitious goals in climate policy. We must use energy as intelligently as possible, i.e., we must develop and, above all, use CO 2 -free coal-fired power plants, safe nuclear power, renewable energy sources, and take measures to ensure a highly efficient management of energy. Only those four-pronged approach will enable us to ensure optimally competition, continuity of supply, and protection of the environment and the climate. Those who negate or ignore this interrelation are bound to fail in economic and ecological reality. (orig.)

  17. Coal Power Systems strategic multi-year program plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-02-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy (FE), through the Coal and Power Systems (C and PS) program, funds research to advance the scientific knowledge needed to provide new and improved energy technologies; to eliminate any detrimental environmental effects of energy production and use; and to maintain US leadership in promoting the effective use of US power technologies on an international scale. Further, the C and PS program facilitates the effective deployment of these technologies to maximize their benefits to the Nation. The following Strategic Plan describes how the C and PS program intends to meet the challenges of the National Energy Strategy to: (1) enhance American's energy security; (2) improve the environmental acceptability of energy production and use; (3) increase the competitiveness and reliability of US energy systems; and (4) ensure a robust US energy future. It is a plan based on the consensus of experts and managers from FE's program offices and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL).

  18. Life cycle assessment of coal-fired power plants and sensitivity analysis of CO2 emissions from power generation side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Libao; Liao, Yanfen; Zhou, Lianjie; Wang, Zhao; Ma, Xiaoqian

    2017-05-01

    The life cycle assessment and environmental impacts of a 1000MW coal-fired power plant were carried out in this paper. The results showed that the operation energy consumption and pollutant emission of the power plant are the highest in all sub-process, which accounts for 93.93% of the total energy consumption and 92.20% of the total emission. Compared to other pollutant emissions from the coal-fired power plant, CO2 reached up to 99.28%. Therefore, the control of CO2 emission from the coal-fired power plants was very important. Based on the BP neural network, the amount of CO2 emission from the generation side of coal-fired power plants was calculated via carbon balance method. The results showed that unit capacity, coal quality and unit operation load had great influence on the CO2 emission from coal-fired power plants in Guangdong Province. The use of high volatile and high heat value of coal also can reduce the CO2 emissions. What’s more, under higher operation load condition, the CO2 emissions of 1 kWh electric energy was less.

  19. The economics of coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-10-01

    Coal-fired plants are the most polluting way to produce electricity due to their high CO2 emissions. But are they a good choice from an economic point of view? According to Greenpeace the answer is no: the price of coal is rising, construction costs are increasing and CO2 emissions will be priced. Nevertheless, E.On is developing plans for a new coal-fired plant at the Maasvlakte with the support of the Dutch government. [mk] [nl

  20. Coal conversion and the HTR - basic elements of novel power supply concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, F.H.

    1985-01-01

    A meeting under this title was held in Dortmund on 16 to 19 September, 1985, jointly by the VGB Technische Vereinigung der Grosskraftwerksbetreiber e.V., Essen, and the Vereinigte Elektrizitaetswerke Westfalen AG (VEW), Dortmund. The meeting was held in two sections: 'Gersteinwerk power plant - the combination unit K and the KUV coal conversion system' and '7th International conference on HTR technology'. Three technologies were discussed that will have a significant role on the future energy market, i.e., the HTR reactor line (first applied in the Hamm-Uentrop THTR reactor), the new generation of coal-fired power plants with combined gas/steam turbines, and the coal gasification technology. All three systems will make more efficient and less-polluting use of domestic coal by using HTR process heat, by converting coal to widen its range of applications, and by providing more efficient combination units for power plants. (orig./UA) [de

  1. Hydrogen Fuel as Ecological Contribution to Operation of the Existing Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosic, D.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis is carried out of the application of a new hydrogen based alternative fuel as ecological contribution of the coal thermal power plants operation. Given the fact that coal thermal power plants are seen as the largest producers, not only of CO 2 , but of all others harmful gases, the idea is initiated to use the new alternative fuel as an additive to the coal which would result in much better performance of the coal power plants from an ecological point of view. It is possible to use such a fuel in relation of 10-30% of former coal use. The positive influence of such an application is much bigger than relative used quantity. This lecture has a goal to incite potential investors to create conditions for industrial testing of the new fuel. It will be very interesting to animate investors for large-scale production of the new fuel, too.(author).

  2. Proceedings of the advanced coal-fired power systems `95 review meeting, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Mollot, D.J.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1995-06-01

    This document contains papers presented at The advanced Coal-Fired Power Systems 1995 Review Meeting. Research was described in the areas of: integrated gasification combined cycle technology; pressurized fluidized-bed combustion; externally fired combined cycles; a summary stauts of clean coal technologies; advanced turbine systems and hot gas cleanup. Individual projects were processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  3. Hazards from radioactivity of fly ash of Greek coal power plants (CPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papastefanou, C.; Charalambous, S.

    1980-01-01

    Fly ash and fine dispersion releases from coal combustion in Greek coal power plants were studied. Concentrations in the fly ash up to 20 pCi/g and 10 pCi/g were measured for 238 U and 226 Ra respectively (not in secular equilibrium). Risk from the fly ash derives from its escape in particulate form or fine dispersion and from its use as a substitute for cement in concrete. The new data indicate that coal power plants discharge relatively larger quantities of radioactive material into the atmosphere than nuclear power plants of comparable size, during normal operation. (H.K.)

  4. Future CO2 emissions and electricity generation from proposed coal-fired power plants in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fofrich, R.; Shearer, C.; Davis, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    India represents a critical unknown in global projections of future CO2 emissions due to its growing population, industrializing economy, and large coal reserves. In this study, we assess existing and proposed construction of coal-fired power plants in India and evaluate their implications for future energy production and emissions in the country. In 2016, India had 369 coal-fired power plants under development totaling 243 gigawatts (GW) of generating capacity. These coal-fired power plants would increase India's coal-fired generating capacity by 123% and would exceed India's projected electricity demand. Therefore, India's current proposals for new coal-fired power plants would be forced to retire early or operate at very low capacity factors and/or would prevent India from meeting its goal of producing at least 40% of its power from renewable sources by 2030. In addition, future emissions from proposed coal-fired power plants would exceed India's climate commitment to reduce its 2005 emissions intensity 33% - 35% by 2030.

  5. Greenhouse gas emission factor for coal power chain in China and the comparison with nuclear power chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhonghai; Pan Ziqiang; He Huimin

    1999-01-01

    The Greenhouse Gas Emission for coal power chain in China is analyzed in detail and comprehensively by using the Life Cycle Analysis method. The Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors (GGEF) in each link and for the total power chain are calculated. The total GGEF for coal power chain is 1302.3 gCO 2 /kWh, about 40 times more than that for nuclear power chain. And consequently greenhouse effect could not be aggravated further by nuclear power. The energy strategy for nuclear power development is one of reality ways to retard the greenhouse effect, put resources into rational use and protect environment

  6. Trend analysis of troubles caused by thermal-hydraulic phenomena at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Teruo

    2010-01-01

    The Institute of Nuclear Safety System (INSS) is promoting researches to improve the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants. In the present study, our attention was focused on troubles attributed to thermal-hydraulic phenomena in particular, trend analysis were carried out to learn lessons from these troubles and to prevent their recurrence. Through our survey, we found the following two points. First, many thermal-hydraulics related troubles can be attributed to design faults, since we found some events in foreign countries took place after inadequate facility renovation. To ensure appropriate design verification, it is important to take account of state-of-the-art science and technology and at the same time to pay attention to the compatibility with the initial design concept. Second point, thermal-hydraulic related troubles are common and recurrent to nuclear power plants worldwide. Japanese utilities are planning to introduce some of overseas experiences to their plants, such as power uprate and renovations of aged facilities. It is important to learn lessons from experiences paying close attention continuously to overseas trouble events, including thermal-hydraulics related events, and to use them to improve safety and reliability of nuclear power plants. (author)

  7. Survey of thermal-hydraulic models of commercial nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Determan, J.C.; Hendrix, C.E.

    1992-12-01

    A survey of the thermal-hydraulic models of nuclear power plants has been performed to identify the NRC's current analytical capabilities for critical event response. The survey also supports ongoing research for accident management. The results of the survey are presented here. The PC database which records detailed data on each model is described

  8. Thermal-hydraulic calculation and analysis for QNPP (Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant) containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Hui; Zhou Jie; He Yingchao

    1993-01-01

    Three containment thermal-hydraulic codes CONTEMPT-LT/028, CONTEMPT-4/MOD3 and COMPARE are used to compute and analyse the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant (QNPP) containment response under LOCA or MSLB conditions. An evaluation of the capability of containment of QNPP is given

  9. Static Analysis of High-Performance Fixed Fluid Power Drive with a Single Positive-Displacement Hydraulic Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Nikitin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the static calculations in designing a high-performance fixed fluid power drive with a single positive-displacement hydraulic motor. Designing is aimed at using a drive that is under development and yet unavailable to find and record the minimum of calculations and maximum of existing hydraulic units that enable clear and unambiguous performance, taking into consideration an available assortment of hydraulic units of hydraulic drives, to have the best efficiency.The specified power (power, moment and kinematics (linear velocity or angular velocity of rotation parameters of the output element of hydraulic motor determine the main output parameters of the hydraulic drive and the useful power of the hydraulic drive under development. The value of the overall efficiency of the hydraulic drive enables us to judge the efficiency of high-performance fixed fluid power drive.The energy analysis of a diagram of the high-performance fixed fluid power drive shows that its high efficiency is achieved when the flow rate of fluid flowing into each cylinder and the magnitude of the feed pump unit (pump are as nearly as possible.The paper considers the ways of determining the geometric parameters of working hydromotors (effective working area or working volume, which allow a selection of the pumping unit parameters. It discusses the ways to improve hydraulic drive efficiency. Using the principle of holding constant conductivity allows us to specify the values of the pressure losses in the hydraulic units used in noncatalog modes. In case of no exact matching between the parameters of existing hydraulic power modes and a proposed characteristics of the pump unit, the nearest to the expected characteristics is taken as a working version.All of the steps allow us to create the high-performance fixed fluid power drive capable of operating at the required power and kinematic parameters with high efficiency.

  10. Natural Radionuclides in Slag/Ash Pile from Coal-Fired Power Plant Plomin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barisic, D.; Lulic, S.; Marovic, G.; Sencar, J.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The coal slag/ash pile contains about one million tons of different (bottom ash, filter ash, gypsum) waste material deposited in vicinity of Plomin coal-fired power plant. Activities of 40 K, 228 Ra, 226 Ra and 238 U in materials deposited on slag/ash pile as well as in used coals were occasionally measured during past more than two and half decades of Plomin coal-fired plant operation. The radionuclides content in deposited bottom and filter ash material are related with radionuclide activities and mineral matter fraction in coals used. Up to the middle of nineties, the majority of coal used was anthracite from Istrian local mines. In that period, deposited waste material was characterised with relatively high 226 Ra and 238 U activities while potassium and thorium content was very low. When Istrian coal has been completely substituted with imported coal, uranium series radionuclide concentrations in deposited waste materials decreased significantly. Meanwhile, potassium and thorium activities in slag/ash pile material increased. It seems that slag/ash pile material generated in the last several years of Plomin coal-fired power plant operation could be generally used in cement industry without any special restriction. (author)

  11. Fuel prices, emission standards, and generation costs for coal vs natural gas power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratson, Lincoln F; Haerer, Drew; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia

    2013-05-07

    Low natural gas prices and stricter, federal emission regulations are promoting a shift away from coal power plants and toward natural gas plants as the lowest-cost means of generating electricity in the United States. By estimating the cost of electricity generation (COE) for 304 coal and 358 natural gas plants, we show that the economic viability of 9% of current coal capacity is challenged by low natural gas prices, while another 56% would be challenged by the stricter emission regulations. Under the current regulations, coal plants would again become the dominant least-cost generation option should the ratio of average natural gas to coal prices (NG2CP) rise to 1.8 (it was 1.42 in February 2012). If the more stringent emission standards are enforced, however, natural gas plants would remain cost competitive with a majority of coal plants for NG2CPs up to 4.3.

  12. CEZ utility's coal-fired power plants: towards a higher environmental friendliness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindl, V.; Spilkova, T.; Vanousek, I.; Stehlik, J.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental efforts of the major Czech utility, CEZ a.s., are aimed at reducing air pollution arising from electricity and heat generating facilities. There are 3 main kinds of activity in this respect: phasing out of coal fired power plants; technological provisions to reduce emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides from those coal fired units that are to remain in operation after 1998; and completion of the Temelin nuclear power plant. In 1995, emissions of particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and carbon monoxide from CEZ's coal fired power plants were 19%, 79%, 59%, and 60%, respectively, with respect to the situation in 1992. The break-down of electricity generation by CEZ facilities (in GWh) was as follows in 1995: hydroelectric power plants 1673, nuclear power plants 12230, coal fired power plants without desulfurization equipment 30181, and coal fired power plants with desulfurization equipment 2277. Provisions implemented to improve the environmental friendliness of the individual CEZ's coal fired power plants are described in detail. (P.A.). 5 tabs., 1 fig

  13. Economic Decision-Making for Coal Power Flexibility Retrofitting and Compensation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunning Na

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In China, in order to integrate more renewable energy into the power grid, coal power flexibility retrofitting is imperative. This paper elaborates a generic method for estimating the flexibility potential from the rapid ramp rate and peak shaving operation using nonlinear programming, and defines three flexibility elastic coefficients to quantify the retrofitted targets. The optimized range of the retrofitted targets determined by the flexibility elastic coefficients have a reference significance on coal power flexibility retrofitting. Then, in order to enable economic decisions for coal power flexibility retrofitting, we address a profit maximizing issue regarding optimization decisions for coal power flexibility retrofitting under an assumption of perfect competition, further analyzing the characteristic roots of marginal cost equal to marginal revenue. The rationality of current compensation standards for peak shaving in China can also be judged in the analysis. The case study results show that economic decision-making depends on the compensation standard and the peak shaving depth and time. At a certain peak shaving depth and time, with rational compensation standard power plants are willing to carry out coal power flexibility retrofitting. The current compensation standard in Northeast China is high enough to carry out coal power flexibility retrofitting. These research conclusions have theoretical significance for China’s peak shaving compensation standards formulation.

  14. Evaluation criteria for enhanced solar–coal hybrid power plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yawen; Hong, Hui; Jin, Hongguang

    2014-01-01

    Attention has been directed toward hybridizing solar energy with fossil power plants since the 1990s to improve reliability and efficiency. Appropriate evaluation criteria were important in the design and optimization of solar–fossil hybrid systems. Two new criteria to evaluate the improved thermodynamic performances in a solar hybrid power plant were developed in this study. Correlations determined the main factors influencing the improved thermodynamic performances. The proposed criteria can be used to effectively integrate solar–coal hybridization systems. Typical 100 MW–1000 MW coal-fired power plants hybridized with solar heat at approximately 300 °C, which was used to preheat the feed water before entering the boiler, were evaluated using the criteria. The integration principle of solar–coal hybrid systems was also determined. The proposed evaluation criteria may be simple and reasonable for solar–coal hybrid systems with multi-energy input, thus directing system performance enhancement. - Highlights: • New criteria to evaluate the solar hybrid power plant were developed. • Typical solar–coal hybrid power plants were evaluated using the criteria. • The integration principle of solar–coal hybrid systems was determined. • The benefits of the solar–coal hybrid system are enhanced at lower solar radiation

  15. Investigations of heat-hydraulic noises in the equipment for creation of power-saving technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proskuryakov, K.N.

    2000-01-01

    The results of experimental and theoretical studies on the parameters of vibroacoustic signals, originating in the TPP and NPP thermal energy equipment, are presented. The methods for calculation and identification of the heat-hydraulic perturbation sources, intended for improving the means of early diagnostics of anomalies in the technological process, forecasting their development, increasing the maintenance work efficiency and operational safety, as well as for creating power-saving technologies in the power engineering, are developed [ru

  16. Power transients of Ghana research reactor-1 using PARET/ANL thermal hydraulic code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampomah-Amoaka, E.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Anim-Sampong, S.; Nyarko, B.J.B.

    2010-01-01

    PARET/ANL(Version 7.3 of 2007) thermal-hydraulic code was used to perform transient analysis of the Ghana Research Reactor-1.The reactivities inserted were 2.1mk and 4mk.The peak power of 5.81kW was obtained for 2.1 mk insertion whereas the peak power for 4mk insertion of reactivity was 92.32kW.These results compare closely with experiments and theoretical studies conducted previously.

  17. Main characteristics of the radioactive enrichment in ashes produced in coal-fired power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, Antonio; Corbacho, Jose A.; Cancio, David; Robles, Beatriz; Mora, Juan C.

    2008-01-01

    Under contract with the Spain's 'Nuclear Safety Council', a study is being conducted of the nation's largest nominal output coal-fired power stations. Its purpose is to assess the radiological impact on workers and local populations due to this source of NORM activity. One of the aspects of particular interest is the study of the radioactive enrichment in the combustion wastes relative to the different coals used as fuel (usually local bituminous coal or lignite, or imported coal). These wastes consist of fly ash (mostly fine particles collected in electrostatic precipitators), and bottom ash (larger in size, and collected wet or dry in hoppers below the boilers). In general terms, the enrichment factors measured were between 2 and 18 for the radionuclides 40 K, 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 210 Po. The magnitude of this enrichment factor depended mainly on the ash content of each coal, and hence on the type of coal used as fuel and the specific operation cycle in the different power stations. For the radionuclides 40 K, 226 Ra, and 232 Th, the enrichment was relatively similar in value in the fly and bottom ashes produced by the different types of coal used in the power stations studied. For 210 Po, however, as was expected, the enrichment was much greater in the fly ash than in the bottom ash for each coal analyzed. (author)

  18. 5. annual clean coal technology conference: powering the next millennium. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference focuses on presenting strategies and approaches that will enable clean coal technologies to resolve the competing, interrelated demands for power, economic viability, and environmental constraints associated with the use of coal in the post-2000 era. The program addresses the dynamic changes that will result from utility competition and industry restructuring, and to the evolution of markets abroad. Current projections for electricity highlight the preferential role that electric power will have in accomplishing the long-range goals of most nations. Increase demands can be met by utilizing coal in technologies that achieve environmental goals while keeping the cost- per-unit of energy competitive. Results from projects in the DOE Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program confirm that technology is the pathway to achieving these goals. The industry/government partnership, cemented over the past 10 years, is focused on moving the clean coal technologies into the domestic and international marketplaces. The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference provides a forum to discuss these benchmark issues and the essential role and need for these technologies in the post-2000 era. This volume contains technical papers on: advanced coal process systems; advanced industrial systems; advanced cleanup systems; and advanced power generation systems. In addition, there are poster session abstracts. Selected papers from this proceedings have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  19. Environmental external effects for wind power and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L; Meyer, H J; Morthorst, P E [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Dept.

    1996-12-31

    This article summarises some of the results achieved in a project carried out in Denmark with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The project has especially handled renewable energy versus energy based on fossil fuels. The project has been a collaboration between the Technical University of Denmark and Riso National Laboratory. The research institutions have considered different energy production technologies in the project. The energy production technologies that have been considered by Risoe National Laboratory and will be reported and compared in this article are the following: (1) Wind power, (2) A coal-fired condensing plant. In the project the environmental damages are thus compared, and externalities in the production of energy using renewable energy and fossil fuels are identified, estimated and monetized. The following result applies in general to the applied technologies. Only the environmental externalities have been assessed in the project. Social and economical externalities, e.g. related to changes in employment or depletion of resources, are not included in the project. The cost concept is based on marginal damage cost, in principle taking as starting point the level of pollution that exists today. The methodology, which has been used in order to find and monetize the environmental externalities, consists of the different processes like Identification, quantification, Dose-response and Valuation

  20. Environmental external effects for wind power and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schleisner, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Morthorst, P.E. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark). Systems Analysis Dept.

    1995-12-31

    This article summarises some of the results achieved in a project carried out in Denmark with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The project has especially handled renewable energy versus energy based on fossil fuels. The project has been a collaboration between the Technical University of Denmark and Riso National Laboratory. The research institutions have considered different energy production technologies in the project. The energy production technologies that have been considered by Risoe National Laboratory and will be reported and compared in this article are the following: (1) Wind power, (2) A coal-fired condensing plant. In the project the environmental damages are thus compared, and externalities in the production of energy using renewable energy and fossil fuels are identified, estimated and monetized. The following result applies in general to the applied technologies. Only the environmental externalities have been assessed in the project. Social and economical externalities, e.g. related to changes in employment or depletion of resources, are not included in the project. The cost concept is based on marginal damage cost, in principle taking as starting point the level of pollution that exists today. The methodology, which has been used in order to find and monetize the environmental externalities, consists of the different processes like Identification, quantification, Dose-response and Valuation

  1. Study on the radiological Impact of Coal Fired Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancio, D.; Robles, B.; Mora, J. C.; Baeza, A.; Corbacho, J. A.; Vasco, J.; Guillen, J.

    2008-01-01

    The study is part of the goal set forth in Title VII of the European Basic Safety Standards and the Spanish regulations on radiation protection related to work activities that may involve a significant increase in exposure of workers and the public to natural radiation. Coal contains small quantities of radionuclides in the series of uranium, thorium and potassium which in the industrial process can lead to radiological exposure. This work presents the measurements and evaluations conducted in one of the power plants object of study: The Unidad Termica de Produccion de Litoral in the Almeria Province. The maximum dose assessed for workers are in the order of 0.14 mSv per year and in the order of 0.05 mSv per year for the public in the realistic scenarios considered. These values are well below the 1mSv per year reference levels, recommended in Europe to have some interest from the radiation protection point of view. (Author) 52 refs

  2. Environmental external effects for wind power and coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleisner, L.; Meyer, H.J.; Morthorst, P.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article summarises some of the results achieved in a project carried out in Denmark with the purpose to assess the environmental damages and the external costs in the production of energy. The project has especially handled renewable energy versus energy based on fossil fuels. The project has been a collaboration between the Technical University of Denmark and Riso National Laboratory. The research institutions have considered different energy production technologies in the project. The energy production technologies that have been considered by Risoe National Laboratory and will be reported and compared in this article are the following: (1) Wind power, (2) A coal-fired condensing plant. In the project the environmental damages are thus compared, and externalities in the production of energy using renewable energy and fossil fuels are identified, estimated and monetized. The following result applies in general to the applied technologies. Only the environmental externalities have been assessed in the project. Social and economical externalities, e.g. related to changes in employment or depletion of resources, are not included in the project. The cost concept is based on marginal damage cost, in principle taking as starting point the level of pollution that exists today. The methodology, which has been used in order to find and monetize the environmental externalities, consists of the different processes like Identification, quantification, Dose-response and Valuation

  3. Failure analysis of boiler tubes in lakhra coal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, A.; Baluch, M.M.; Ali, A.

    2010-01-01

    Present work deals with the failure analysis of a boiler tube in Lakhra fluidized bed combustion power station. Initially, visual inspection technique was adopted to analyse the fractured surface. Detailed microstructural investigations of the busted boiler tube were carried out using light optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. The hardness tests were also performed. A 50 percent decrease in hardness of intact portion of the tube material and from area adjacent to failure was measured, which was found to be in good agreement with the wall thicknesses measured of the busted boiler tube i.e. 4 mm and 2 mm from unaffected portion and ruptured area respectively. It was concluded that the major cause of failure of boiler tube is erosion of material which occurs due the coal particles strike at the surface of the tube material. Since the temperature of boiler is not maintained uniformly. The variations in boiler temperature can also affect the material and could be another reason for the failure of the tube. (author)

  4. Emission of CO2 Gas and Radioactive Pollutant from Coal Fired Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, N.Finahari; Djati-HS; Heni-Susiati

    2006-01-01

    Energy utilization for power plant in Indonesia is still depending on burning fossil fuel such as coal, oil and gaseous fuel. The direct burning of coal produces CO 2 gas that can cause air pollution, and radioactive pollutant that can increase natural radioactive dosage. Natural radionuclide contained in coal is in the form of kalium, uranium, thorium and their decay products. The amount of CO 2 gas emission produced by coal fired power plant can be reduced by equipping the plant with waste-gas treatment facility. At this facility, CO 2 gas is reacted with calcium hydroxide producing calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate then can be used as basic material in food, pharmaceutical and construction industries. The alternative method to reduce impact of air pollution is by replacing coal fuel with nuclear fuel or new and renewable fuel. (author)

  5. Boiler materials for ultra supercritical coal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purgert, Robert [Energy Industries of Ohio, Independence, OH (United States); Shingledecker, John [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Pschirer, James [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (Untied States); Ganta, Reddy [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (Untied States); Weitzel, Paul [The Babcock & Wilcox Company, Baberton, OH (United States); Sarver, Jeff [The Babcock & Wilcox Company, Baberton, OH (United States); Vitalis, Brian [Riley Power Inc., Worchester, WA (United States); Gagliano, Michael [Foster Wheeler North America Corp., Hampton, NJ (United States); Stanko, Greg [Foster Wheeler North America Corp., Hampton, NJ (United States); Tortorelli, Peter [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-12-29

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have undertaken a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of advanced ultrasupercritical (A-USC) steam conditions up to 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi). A limiting factor to achieving these higher temperatures and pressures for future A-USC plants are the materials of construction. The goal of this project is to assess/develop materials technology to build and operate an A-USC boiler capable of delivering steam with conditions up to 760°C (1400°F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). The project has successfully met this goal through a focused long-term public-private consortium partnership. The project was based on an R&D plan developed by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and an industry consortium that supplemented the recommendations of several DOE workshops on the subject of advanced materials. In view of the variety of skills and expertise required for the successful completion of the proposed work, a consortium led by the Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO) with cost-sharing participation of all the major domestic boiler manufacturers, ALSTOM Power (Alstom), Babcock and Wilcox Power Generation Group, Inc. (B&W), Foster Wheeler (FW), and Riley Power, Inc. (Riley), technical management by EPRI and research conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developed. The project has clearly identified and tested materials that can withstand 760°C (1400°F) steam conditions and can also make a 700°C (1300°F) plant more economically attractive. In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys have been assessed to provide a basis for

  6. Coal-Fired Power Plants, Region 9, 2011, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Approximate locations of active coal-fired power plants located in US EPA's Region 9. Emission counts from the 2005 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) are included...

  7. Nuclear and coal-fired power plant capital costs 1978 -June 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harbour, R.T.

    1981-07-01

    This bibliography covers 16 papers dealing with the economics of power generation - mainly comparisons between the capital costs of nuclear and coal fired plants. Some of the papers additionally discuss fuel, operating and maintenance costs, and performance. (U.K.)

  8. CO2 reduction potential of future coal gasification based power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, D.; Oudhuis, A.B.J.; Van Veen, H.M.

    1992-03-01

    Assessment studies are carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with gas turbines (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) without and with CO 2 -removal. System elements include coal gasification, high-temperature gas-cleaning, molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines, CO shift, membrane separation, CO 2 recovery and a bottoming cycle. Various system configurations are evaluated on the basis of thermodynamic computations. The energy balances of the various system configurations clearly indicate that integrated coal gasification MCFC power plants (IGMCFC) with CO 2 removal have high efficiencies (42-47% LHV) compared to IGCC power plants with CO 2 -removal (33-38% LHV) and that the CO 2 -removal is simplified due to the specific properties of the molten carbonate fuel cells. IGMCFC is therefore an option with future prospective in the light of clean coal technologies for power generation with high energy efficiencies and low emissions. 2 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  9. Review and Comparison of Power Management Approaches for Hybrid Vehicles with Focus on Hydraulic Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Karbaschian

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main advantage of hybrid powertrains is based on the efficient transfer of power and torque from power sources to the powertrain as well as recapturing of reversible energies without effecting the vehicle performance. The benefits of hybrid hydraulic powertrains can be better utilized with an appropriate power management. In this paper, different types of power management algorithms like off-line and on-line methods are briefly reviewed and classified. Finally, the algorithms are evaluated and compared. Therefore, different related criteria are evaluated and applied.

  10. Hydraulic experiment for pollutant discharge characteristics in a Wolseong Nuclear Power Plant Port

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Byung Mo; Min, Byung Li; Park, Ki Hyun; Kim, Sora; Suh, Kyung Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Lyul [Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In this study, the dispersion process of pollutant substances in a port under wave and current environments was evaluated by a hydraulic experiment. Once the contaminants washed ashore into the port of Wolseong nuclear power plant, transport processes of pollutants were investigated by tracking the tracer according to the variations of experimental condition through a hydraulic experiment. Several hydraulic experiments were performed to analyze the pollutant discharge rate of the surface coming from the different coastal environments. From the hydraulic experiment results, the tracer concentration decreased exponentially. These results suggested that, after the tracer was transported to the open sea, a different gradient was shown under different conditions. For the case of a diluted condition, the half-life of flow rate was 2.70, 10.40, and 26.39 days for 30, 20 and 10 rpm in the left-side, respectively. The decrease of the tracer concentration under conditions of 30 rpm was much faster than that under conditions of 10 rpm. For the wave condition, the half-life of flow rate was 4.59 and 15.35 days for the right and left side of the port in a hydraulic scale prototype, respectively.

  11. Radioactivity of combustion residues from coal-fired power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vom Berg, W.; Puch, K.H.

    1996-01-01

    Each year in Germany, about 18 mill. t of combustion residues are produced from the combustion of bituminous coal and lignite. They are utilized to a great extent in the construction industry and in mining. During the combustion of coal, the radio-nuclides remain predominantly in the ash. The radionuclide concentration in lignite ash is within the range of that in natural soil. The combustion residues of bituminous coal contain radio-nuclides of a similar order of magnitude as also can occur in natural rock. The utilization of combustion residues in construction materials makes a negligible contribution to radiation exposure through retention in buildings. (orig.) [de

  12. Fuel management service for Tarapur Atomic Power Station core thermal hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, D.; Venkat Raj, V.; Markandeya, S.G.

    1977-01-01

    Core thermal hydraulic analysis forms an integral part of the fuel management service for the Tarapur reactors. A distinguishing feature of boiling water reactors is the dependence of core flow distribution on the power distribution. Because of the changes in the axial and radial power distribution from cycle to cycle as well as during the cycle and also the variations in leakage flow, it is necessary to evaluate the core thermal hydraulic parameters for every cycle. Some of the typical results obtained in the course of analysis for different cycles of both the units at Tarapur are presented. The use of MCPR (Minimum Critical Power Ratio), instead of MCHFR (Minimum Critical Heat Flux Ratio) as a figure of merit for fuel cladding integrity is also discussed. (K.B.)

  13. Performance of a hydraulic air compressor for use in compressed air energy storage power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berghmans, J. A.; Ahrens, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    A fluid mechanical analysis of a hydraulic air compression system for Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) application is presented. With this compression concept, air is charged into an underground reservoir, for later use in power generation, by entraining bubbles into a downward flow of water from a surface reservoir. Upon releasing the air in the underground reservoir, the water is pumped back to the surface. The analytical model delineated is used to predict the hydraulic compressor performance characteristics (pumping power, pump head, compression efficiency) as a function of water flow rate and system geometrical parameters. The results indicate that, although large water pumps are needed, efficiencies as high as 90% (relative to ideal isothermal compression) can be expected. This should result in lower compression power than for conventional compressor systems, while eliminating the need for the usual intercoolers and aftercooler.

  14. Technical report on NEDO-conducted Western US steam coal (for power generation and boiler) survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) conducted studies covering Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and North Dakota, all in the West. Illinois and Gulf-Texas are also included. The bituminous coal of Utah and Colorado is given the highest priority as coal to be exported to Japan. It is feared, however, that the price of the bituminous coal from these areas may soar if demand increases. As for sub-bituminous coal, its price is far more stable because its reserves are basically limitless. The sub-bituminous coal, however, is not expected to be imported to Japan in the very near future because it is low in calorific power and fails to meet the conditions prerequisite to Japan's boiler fuel. Illinois can receive large orders but its coal contains more sulfur than the Western coal and a longer distance has to be covered for its transportation. As for transportation to the West Cost, freight cars are available and the port capacity can be enlarged dependent on the magnitude of demand for coal. Loading a deep draft bulk ship off shore with coarse coal slurry by pipeline is an attractive scheme. (NEDO)

  15. Technical report on NEDO-conducted Western US steam coal (for power generation and boiler) survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    The New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) conducted studies covering Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and North Dakota, all in the West. Illinois and Gulf-Texas are also included. The bituminous coal of Utah and Colorado is given the highest priority as coal to be exported to Japan. It is feared, however, that the price of the bituminous coal from these areas may soar if demand increases. As for sub-bituminous coal, its price is far more stable because its reserves are basically limitless. The sub-bituminous coal, however, is not expected to be imported to Japan in the very near future because it is low in calorific power and fails to meet the conditions prerequisite to Japan's boiler fuel. Illinois can receive large orders but its coal contains more sulfur than the Western coal and a longer distance has to be covered for its transportation. As for transportation to the West Cost, freight cars are available and the port capacity can be enlarged dependent on the magnitude of demand for coal. Loading a deep draft bulk ship off shore with coarse coal slurry by pipeline is an attractive scheme. (NEDO)

  16. International coal and the future of nuclear power in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The future international price of coal is a central issue in the economic comparison of coal-fired and nuclear power stations. However, this is very difficult to estimate as prices are uncertain and subject to wide margins of error. Recent trends are discussed. The increase in the seaborne steam coal trade is one trend. Although only about 5% of steam coal is traded, this is mainly in the Far East and in Western Europe. It is steam coal prices which are relevant in considering nuclear economies. The structure of the international steam coal market is explained. An assessment of future prices of steam coal considers both demand and supply. The delivered cost of steam coal to N.W. Europe in 1986 is shown - the main suppliers being Australia, Colombia, South Africa and the USA. China and Poland are also exporters of steam coal. Currently, there is an over-supply which is keeping the price low. However, as demand increases prices are likely to rise in the 1990s but with upper limits depending on the total volume of trade. Thirteen graphs or maps illustrate the figures on which the discussion and conclusions are based. (UK)

  17. Water supply pipe dimensioning using hydraulic power dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreemathy, J. R.; Rashmi, G.; Suribabu, C. R.

    2017-07-01

    Proper sizing of the pipe component of water distribution networks play an important role in the overall design of the any water supply system. Several approaches have been applied for the design of networks from an economical point of view. Traditional optimization techniques and population based stochastic algorithms are widely used to optimize the networks. But the use of these approaches is mostly found to be limited to the research level due to difficulties in understanding by the practicing engineers, design engineers and consulting firms. More over due to non-availability of commercial software related to the optimal design of water distribution system,it forces the practicing engineers to adopt either trial and error or experience-based design. This paper presents a simple approach based on power dissipation in each pipeline as a parameter to design the network economically, but not to the level of global minimum cost.

  18. Chiyoda Thoroughbred CT-121 clean coal project at Georgia Power`s Plant Yates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burford, D.P. [Southern Company Services, Inc., Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Chiyoda Thoroughbred CT-121 flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process at Georgia Power`s Plant Yates completed a two year demonstration of its capabilities in late 1994 under both high- and low-particulate loading conditions. This $43 million demonstration was co-funded by Southern Company, the Electric Power Research Institute and the DOE under the auspices of the US Department of Energy`s Round II Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) program. The focus of the Yates Project was to demonstrate several cost-saving modifications to Chiyoda`s already efficient CT-121 process. These modifications included: the extensive use of fiberglass reinforced plastics (FRP) in the construction of the scrubber vessel and other associated vessels, the elimination of flue gas reheat through the use of an FRP wet chimney, and reliable operation without a spare absorber module. This paper focuses on the testing results from the last trimester of the second phase of testing (high-ash loading). Specifically, operation under elevated ash loading conditions, the effects of low- and high-sulfur coal, air toxics verification testing results and unexpected improvements in byproduct gypsum quality are discussed.

  19. Power-generating process of obtaining gas-energy carrier and reducer from coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tleugabulov, S.; Duncheva, E.; Zubkevich, M.

    1999-01-01

    The manufacture of power-generating gas has the important economic value for Kazakhstan having large territory, raw and fuel resources especially power coal and clean coal wastes. The technology of reception of gas-energy carrier and reducer from power coal is developed. The basic product of technological process is heated reducing gas. Reducing potential of the gas is characterized by a volumetric share of components (CO+H 2 )-RC in relation to volume of whole mix of gases received with gasification of coal. The value of parameter RC is regulated by a degree of enrichment of air by oxygen r 0 , and the temperature - by the charge of a parity of endothermic reaction in the chamber of gas regeneration. The dependence of the gas structure and temperature on the degree of enrichment of air by oxygen is shown and the circuit of the gas generator is given. (author)

  20. Environmental protection in coal utilization and its problems at Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Power Station, Kapar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, L.C. (Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Malaysia). Research and Development Dept.)

    1990-11-01

    Efforts to prevent and minimise pollution as well as to enhance the quality of the environment around the new coal-fired Sultan Salanuddin Power Station are described. Malaysian environmental regulations are mentioned and pollution-reducing elements designed into the power plant are listed. A Public Participation Forum was held to inform the public of the planned power station and the environmental considerations. An Environmental Audit was conducted which compared the measured impacts of the operational station with the predicted expectations. On-going air quality and wastewater discharge monitoring procedures are outlined. Measures to control coal dust and spontaneous combustion of coal, and methods used to dispose of coal ash are described. 3 figs.

  1. Developing an international consortium to build an 800 MW coal fired power plant in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.H.; Hashima, T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the cooperative construction of a fossil-fueled power plant in Indonesia. The topics discussed in the paper include energy use and the market for electric power, fuel resources, history of business activities, the role of joint resources and government business policy, and preparing for bidding an 800MW coal-fired power plant

  2. Technical, environmental, and economic assessment of deploying advanced coal power technologies in the Chinese context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lifeng; Xiao Yunhan; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Wang Bo; Xu Xiang

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the technical, environmental, and economic dimensions of deploying advanced coal-fired power technologies in China. In particular, we estimate the differences in capital cost and overall cost of electricity (COE) for a variety of advanced coal-power technologies based on the technological and economic levels in 2006 in China. This paper explores the economic gaps between Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and other advanced coal power technologies, and compares 12 different power plant configurations using advanced coal power technologies. Super critical (SC) and ultra super critical (USC) pulverized coal (PC) power generation technologies coupled with pollution control technologies can meet the emission requirements. These technologies are highly efficient, technically mature, and cost-effective. From the point of view of efficiency, SC and USC units are good choices for power industry. The net plant efficiency for IGCC has reached 45%, and it has the best environmental performance overall. The cost of IGCC is much higher, however, than that of other power generation technologies, so the development of IGCC is slow throughout the world. Incentive policies are needed if IGCC is to be deployed in China

  3. Investigation of coal dust explosion hazard at the Nikola Tesla-A thermal power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golubovic, D

    1987-10-01

    Reports on investigations into coal dust explosion hazards in working places with high coal dust exposure, done in the Tesla-A thermal power station by Mining Institute of Belgrade specialists. Settled and floating coal dust concentrations were monitored for six months and samples analyzed for explosibility under lab conditions. Samples from transport and preparation facilities and the power station boiler house were taken. The entire plant was divided into 4 zones, depending on intensity of dust settlement and ventilation system. Coal dust generation varied from 0.3-65 g/min. Daily dust settlement ranged between 40 and 300 g/m/sup 2/. Total quantity of accumulated coal dust in the power plant ranged from 0.8-650 kg/day; 250 g/m/sup 3/ of coal dust may cause an explosion. Thus, a dangerous amount of coal dust, depending on work-site, will settle in 3.3.-21.8 days. Disturbance of settled dust may create explodable clouds. Details of measurements taken and data evaluation are included. 4 refs.

  4. Relationship between Particle Size Distribution of Low-Rank Pulverized Coal and Power Plant Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajive Ganguli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of particle size distribution (PSD of pulverized, low rank high volatile content Alaska coal on combustion related power plant performance was studied in a series of field scale tests. Performance was gauged through efficiency (ratio of megawatt generated to energy consumed as coal, emissions (SO2, NOx, CO, and carbon content of ash (fly ash and bottom ash. The study revealed that the tested coal could be burned at a grind as coarse as 50% passing 76 microns, with no deleterious impact on power generation and emissions. The PSD’s tested in this study were in the range of 41 to 81 percent passing 76 microns. There was negligible correlation between PSD and the followings factors: efficiency, SO2, NOx, and CO. Additionally, two tests where stack mercury (Hg data was collected, did not demonstrate any real difference in Hg emissions with PSD. The results from the field tests positively impacts pulverized coal power plants that burn low rank high volatile content coals (such as Powder River Basin coal. These plants can potentially reduce in-plant load by grinding the coal less (without impacting plant performance on emissions and efficiency and thereby, increasing their marketability.

  5. Increasing coal-fired power generation efficiency to reduce electric cost and environmental emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrens, I.M.; Stenzel, W.C.

    1997-01-01

    New generating capacity required globally between 1993 and 2010 is estimated to be around 1500 GW, of which some two-thirds will be outside the OECD, and some 40 % in the Asian non-OECD countries. Coal is likely to account for a substantial fraction of this new generation. Today's state-of-the-art supercritical coal-fired power plant has a conversion efficiency of some 42-45 %. The capital cost increase associated with the supercritical or ultra-supercritical pulverized coal power plant compared to a conventional subcritical plant is small to negligible. The increased efficiency associated with the supercritical plant leads to an actual reduction in the total cost of electricity generated in cents/kWh, relative to a conventional plant. Despite this, the power sector continues to build subcritical plants and has no near term plans to increase the efficiency of power plants in the projects it is developing. Advanced clean coal technologies such as integrated gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion will be selected for independent power projects only in very specific circumstances. Advanced clean coal plants can be operated reliably and with superior performance, and specifically that their present estimated capital costs can be reduced substantially to a point where they are competitive with state-of-the-art pulverized coal technologies. (R.P.)

  6. Upgraded Coal Interest Group -- A vision for coal-based power in 1999 and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, E.; Battista, J.; Stopek, D.; Akers, D.

    1999-01-01

    The US is at a critical junction. Global competition is now a reality for a large number of US businesses and, ultimately, almost all US businesses will compete to one degree or another in the global marketplace. Under these circumstances, maintaining and improving the standard of living of US citizens requires a plentiful supply of low-cost electric energy to reduce the cost of providing goods and services both in the US an abroad. At the same time, segments of the public demand increased environmental restrictions on the utility industry. If the electric utility industry is to successfully respond to the goals of reducing electricity costs, maintaining reliability, and reducing emissions, fuels technology research is critical. For coal-fired units, fuel cost typically represents from 60--70% of operating costs. Reducing fuel cost, reduces operating costs. This can provide revenue that could be used to finance emissions control systems or advanced type of boilers resulting from post-combustion research. At the same time, improving coal quality reduces emissions from existing boilers without the need for substantial capital investment by the utility. If quality improvements can be accomplished with little or no increase in fuel costs, an immediate improvement in emissions can be achieved without an increase in electricity costs. All of this is directly dependent on continued and expanded levels of research on coal with the cooperation and partnership between government and industry. The paper describes enhanced fuel technologies (use of waste coal, coal water slurries, biomass/composite fuels, improved dewatering technologies, precombustion control of HAPs, dry cleaning technologies, and international coal characterization) and enhanced emission control technologies

  7. Integration of a hydraulic production plant in a weak power system on a long radial line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lariviere, P. [Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie, 5655 de Marseille, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Racine, M. [Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie, C.P. 10 000, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2009-03-15

    Integrating power plants on long lines and weak power systems requires some care. To this effect, a study was conducted to determine if severe disturbances could result when a hydraulic production plant is integrated along a very long radial transmission line. Frequency responses were evaluated to identify possible resonant system operating conditions. Many events such as faults, transformer energyzing and line opening were investigated. All power plant synchronous machines were represented including exciter and governor regulators. Impact of dynamic modeling of the load was examined. The study demonstrates that the overall protective strategy implemented will limit worst overvoltage constraints imposed to equipment and load within an acceptable level. (author)

  8. UNEP Demonstrations of Mercury Emission Reduction at Two Coal-fired Power Plants in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozewicz W.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP partnership area “Mercury releases from coal combustion” (The UNEP Coal Partnership has initiated demonstrations of mercury air emission reduction at two coal-fired power plants in Russia. The first project has modified the wet particulate matter (PM scrubber installed in Toliatti thermal plant to allow for addition of chemical reagents (oxidants into the closedloop liquid spray system. The addition of oxidant resulted in significant improvement of mercury capture from 20% total mercury removal (without the additive up to 60% removal (with the additive. It demonstrates the effectiveness of sorbent injection technologies in conjunction with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP. ESPs are installed at 60%, while wet PM scrubbers are installed at 30% of total coal-fired capacity in Russia. Thus, the two UNEP Coal Partnership projects address the majority of PM emission control configurations occurring in Russia.

  9. Mineralogical, Microstructural and Thermal Characterization of Coal Fly Ash Produced from Kazakhstani Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauanov, Z.; Abylgazina, L.; Spitas, C.; Itskos, G.; Inglezakis, V.

    2017-09-01

    Coal fly ash (CFA) is a waste by-product of coal combustion. Kazakhstan has vast coal deposits and is major consumer of coal and hence produces huge amounts of CFA annually. The government aims to recycle and effectively utilize this waste by-product. Thus, a detailed study of the physical and chemical properties of material is required as the data available in literature is either outdated or not applicable for recently produced CFA samples. The full mineralogical, microstructural and thermal characterization of three types of coal fly ash (CFA) produced in two large Kazakhstani power plants is reported in this work. The properties of CFAs were compared between samples as well as with published values.

  10. Analysis of radionuclides in airborne effluents from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, G.; Chatterjee, B.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1982-01-01

    In order to assess the level of radioactivity emitted by coal-fired power plants in detail, specific activities of several radionuclides have been measured in samples from a coal-fired and a brown coal-fired plant in the Federal Republic of Germany. Samples measured included coal, brown coal, bottom ash, collected fly ash from the various electrostatic precipitator stages and sieve fractions of collected fly ash as well as samples of escaping fly ash taken from the exhaust stream, all taken simultaneously on three operating days. Nuclides measured were U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-226, Pb-210, Po-210 and K-40. Methods applied included (i) direct gamma spectrometry, (ii) radiochemical separation with subsequent alpha spectrometry and (iii) direct alpha spectrometry. Methods are described and discussed. Finally, annual emission rates of airborne radionuclides are calculated for both plants.

  11. Analysis of radionuclides in airborne effluents from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Chatterjee, B.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1982-01-01

    In order to assess the level of radioactivity emitted by coal-fired power plants in detail, specific activities of several radionuclides have been measured in samples from a coal-fired and a brown coal-fired plant in the Federal Republic of Germany. Samples measured included coal, brown coal, bottom ash, collected fly ash from the various electrostatic precipitator stages and sieve fractions of collected fly ash as well as samples of escaping fly ash taken from the exhaust stream, all taken simultaneously on three operating days. Nuclides measured were U-238, U-234, Th-232, Th-230, Th-228, Ra-226, Pb-210, Po-210 and K-40. Methods applied included (i) direct gamma spectrometry, (ii) radiochemical separation with subsequent alpha spectrometry and (iii) direct alpha spectrometry. Methods are described and discussed. Finally, annual emission rates of airborne radionuclides are calculated for both plants. (orig.)

  12. Subsequent flue gas desulfurization of coal-fired power plant units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willibal, U.; Braun, Gy.

    1998-01-01

    The presently operating coal-fired power plant in Hungary do not satisfy the pollution criteria prescribed by the European Union norms. The main polluting agent is the sulfur dioxide emitted by some of the power plants in Hungary in quantities over the limit standards. The power plant units that are in good operating state could be made competitive by using subsequent desulfurization measures. Various flue gas desulfurization technologies are presented through examples that can be applied to existing coal-fired power plants. (R.P.)

  13. Scenario-Based Analysis on Water Resources Implication of Coal Power in Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahai Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently, 58% of coal-fired power generation capacity is located in eastern China, where the demand for electricity is strong. Serious air pollution in China, in eastern regions in particular, has compelled the Chinese government to impose a ban on the new construction of pulverized coal power plants in eastern regions. Meanwhile, rapid economic growth is thirsty for electric power supply. As a response, China planned to build large-scale coal power bases in six western provinces, including Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Xinjiang, Ningxia and Gansu. In this paper, the water resource implication of the coal power base planning is addressed. We find that, in a business-as-usual (BAU scenario, water consumption for coal power generation in these six provinces will increase from 1130 million m3 in 2012 to 2085 million m3 in 2020, experiencing nearly a double growth. Such a surge will exert great pressure on water supply and lead to serious water crisis in these already water-starved regions. A strong implication is that the Chinese Government must add water resource constraint as a critical point in its overall sustainable development plan, in addition to energy supply and environment protection. An integrated energy-water resource plan with regionalized environmental carrying capacity as constraints should be developed to settle this puzzle. Several measures are proposed to cope with it, including downsizing coal power in western regions, raising the technical threshold of new coal power plants and implementing retrofitting to the inefficient cooling system, and reengineering the generation process to waterless or recycled means.

  14. Overview of hydraulic ash and slag transport in the Power Plantt 'Oslomej': Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetanoski Radomir K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AD ELEM Skopje Subsidiary REK 'Oslomej' s. Oslomej is a part of the energy system with an installed power of 125 MW and the net average annual production of 500 GWh of electricity. The basic fuel is coal with an average of 7600 KJ/kg. Coal from the mine is provided Oslomej - west and old mine (Oslomej-east wherein 2009. excavated 1.156.709 t. The main aim of the project is solving environmental problems in Power Plant Oslomej and its surrounding area that creates the existing system of transport and disposal of ash and slag (transport of moist ash by conveyor belt at an open landfill, so the main task of this Project is introducing new technologies of transport and disposal of ash and slag in the form of hydro mixtures.

  15. Determination of minimum sample size for fault diagnosis of automobile hydraulic brake system using power analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Indira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic brake in automobile engineering is considered to be one of the important components. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of such a component is very essential for safety of passengers, vehicles and to minimize the unexpected maintenance time. Vibration based machine learning approach for condition monitoring of hydraulic brake system is gaining momentum. Training and testing the classifier are two important activities in the process of feature classification. This study proposes a systematic statistical method called power analysis to find the minimum number of samples required to train the classifier with statistical stability so as to get good classification accuracy. Descriptive statistical features have been used and the more contributing features have been selected by using C4.5 decision tree algorithm. The results of power analysis have also been verified using a decision tree algorithm namely, C4.5.

  16. On-Shore Central Hydraulic Power Generation for Wind and Tidal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lim, Steven; Murray, Luke; Armstrong, Richard; Kimbrall, Richard; Cook-Chenault, Kimberly; DeGennaro, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Tidal energy, offshore wind energy, and onshore wind energy can be converted to electricity at a central ground location by means of converting their respective energies into high-pressure hydraulic flows that are transmitted to a system of generators by high-pressure pipelines. The high-pressure flows are then efficiently converted to electricity by a central power plant, and the low-pressure outlet flow is returned. The Department of Energy (DOE) is presently supporting a project led by Sunlight Photonics to demonstrate a 15 kW tidal hydraulic power generation system in the laboratory and possibly later submerged in the ocean. All gears and submerged electronics are completely eliminated. A second portion of this DOE project involves sizing and costing a 15 MW tidal energy system for a commercial tidal energy plant. For this task, Atlantis Resources Corporation s 18-m diameter demonstrated tidal blades are rated to operate in a nominal 2.6 m/sec tidal flow to produce approximately one MW per set of tidal blades. Fifteen units would be submerged in a deep tidal area, such as in Maine s Western Passage. All would be connected to a high-pressure (20 MPa, 2900 psi) line that is 35 cm ID. The high-pressure HEPG fluid flow is transported 500-m to on-shore hydraulic generators. HEPG is an environmentally-friendly, biodegradable, watermiscible fluid. Hydraulic adaptations to ORPC s cross-flow turbines are also discussed. For 15 MW of wind energy that is onshore or offshore, a gearless, high efficiency, radial piston pump can replace each set of top-mounted gear-generators. The fluid is then pumped to a central, easily serviceable generator location. Total hydraulic/electrical efficiency is 0.81 at full rated wind or tidal velocities and increases to 0.86 at 1/3 rated velocities.

  17. Technology Roadmap: High-Efficiency, Low-Emissions Coal-Fired Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Coal is the largest source of power globally and, given its wide availability and relatively low cost, it is likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. The High-Efficiency, Low-Emissions Coal-Fired Power Generation Roadmap describes the steps necessary to adopt and further develop technologies to improve the efficiency of the global fleet of coal. To generate the same amount of electricity, a more efficient coal-fired unit will burn less fuel, emit less carbon, release less local air pollutants, consume less water and have a smaller footprint. High-efficiency, low emissions (HELE) technologies in operation already reach a thermal efficiency of 45%, and technologies in development promise even higher values. This compares with a global average efficiency for today’s fleet of coal-fired plants of 33%, where three-quarters of operating units use less efficient technologies and more than half is over 25 years old. A successful outcome to ongoing RD&D could see units with efficiencies approaching 50% or even higher demonstrated within the next decade. Generation from older, less efficient technology must gradually be phased out. Technologies exist to make coal-fired power generation much more effective and cleaner burning. Of course, while increased efficiency has a major role to play in reducing emissions, particularly over the next 10 years, carbon capture and storage (CCS) will be essential in the longer term to make the deep cuts in carbon emissions required for a low-carbon future. Combined with CCS, HELE technologies can cut CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generation plants by as much as 90%, to less than 100 grams per kilowatt-hour. HELE technologies will be an influential factor in the deployment of CCS. For the same power output, a higher efficiency coal plant will require less CO2 to be captured; this means a smaller, less costly capture plant; lower operating costs; and less CO2 to be transported and stored.

  18. Characterization of coal blends for effective utilization in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhosh Raaj, S.; Arumugam, S.; Muthukrishnan, M.; Krishnamoorthy, S.; Anantharaman, N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This work will assist utilities to decide on the choice of coals for blending. • Conventional and advanced analytical techniques were used for characterization. • Fuel ratio, burnout profile, ash chemistry and carbon burnout are key factors. • Basic properties were additive while carbon burnout was non additive for the blends. - Abstract: This paper deals with the characterization of coal blends using various conventional and advanced analytical techniques. There has been an increasing trend in utilizing imported coals for power generation in India and utilities are resorting to blended coal firing for various reasons, both financially as well as technically. Characterization studies were carried out on 2 combinations of Indian and imported coal blends. Conventional characterization such as proximate and ultimate analysis and determination of calorific value were carried out for the raw coals and blends as per ASTM standards. Following this thermal and mineral analysis of the samples were carried out using thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA), X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) and computer controlled scanning electron microscope (CCSEM). Combustion experiments were also conducted using drop tube furnace (DTF) to determine the burnout of the raw coals and blends. The selection of technically suitable coal combination for blending, based on these characterization studies, has been detailed.

  19. Coal-water slurries containing petrochemicals to solve problems of air pollution by coal thermal power stations and boiler plants: An introductory review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrienko, Margarita A; Strizhak, Pavel A

    2018-02-01

    This introductory study presents the analysis of the environmental, economic and energy performance indicators of burning high-potential coal water slurries containing petrochemicals (CWSP) instead of coal, fuel oil, and natural gas at typical thermal power stations (TPS) and a boiler plant. We focus on the most hazardous anthropogenic emissions of coal power industry: sulfur and nitrogen oxides. The research findings show that these emissions may be several times lower if coal and oil processing wastes are mixed with water as compared to the combustion of traditional pulverized coal, even of high grades. The study focuses on wastes, such as filter cakes, oil sludge, waste industrial oils, heavy coal-tar products, resins, etc., that are produced and stored in abundance. Their deep conversion is very rare due to low economic benefit. Effective ways are necessary to recover such industrial wastes. We present the cost assessment of the changes to the heat and power generation technologies that are required from typical power plants for switching from coal, fuel oil and natural gas to CWSPs based on coal and oil processing wastes. The corresponding technological changes pay off after a short time, ranging from several months to several years. The most promising components for CWSP production have been identified, which provide payback within a year. Among these are filter cakes (coal processing wastes), which are produced as a ready-made coal-water slurry fuel (a mixture of flocculants, water, and fine coal dust). These fuels have the least impact on the environment in terms of the emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides as well as fly ash. An important conclusion of the study is that using CWSPs based on filter cakes is worthwhile both as the main fuel for thermal power stations and boiler plants and as starting fuel. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. On the Potential of Hydrogen-Powered Hydraulic Pumps for Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbiens, Alexandre B; Bigué, Jean-Philippe Lucking; Véronneau, Catherine; Masson, Patrice; Iagnemma, Karl; Plante, Jean-Sébastien

    2017-12-01

    To perform untethered operations, soft robots require mesoscale power units (10-1000 W) with high energy densities. In this perspective, air-breathing combustion offers an interesting alternative to battery-powered systems, provided sufficient overall energy conversion efficiency can be reached. Implementing efficient air-breathing combustion in mesoscale soft robots is notoriously difficult, however, as it requires optimization of very small combustion actuators and simultaneous minimization of fluidic (e.g., hydraulic) losses, which are both inversely impacted by actuations speeds. To overcome such challenges, this article proposes and evaluates the potential of hydrogen-powered, hydraulic free-piston pump architecture. Experimental data, taken from two combustion-driven prototypes, reveal (1) the fundamental role of using hydrogen as the source of fuel to reduce heat losses, (2) the significant impact of compression ratio, equivalence ratio, and surface-to-volume ratio on energy conversion efficiency, and (3) the importance of load matching between combustion and fluidic transmission. In this work, a small-bore combustion actuator demonstrated a 20% efficiency and a net mean output power of 26 W, while a big-bore combustion actuator reached a substantially higher efficiency of 35% and a net mean output power of 197 W. Using the small-bore combustion actuator, the hydrogen-powered, hydraulic free-piston pump provided a 4.6% overall efficiency for a 2.34 W net mean output power, thus underlying the potential of the approach for mesoscale soft robotic applications.

  1. Application of hydraulic network analysis to motor operated butterfly valves in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldiwany, B.H.; Kalsi, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the application of hydraulic network analysis to evaluate the performance of butterfly valves in nuclear power plant applications. Required actuation torque for butterfly valves in high-flow applications is often dictated by peak dynamic torque. The peak dynamic torque, which occurs at some intermediate disc position, requires accurate evaluation of valve flow rate and pressure drop throughout the valve stroke. Valve flow rate and pressure drop are significantly affected by the valve flow characteristics and the hydraulic system characteristics, such as pumping capability, piping resistances, single and parallel flow paths, system hydrostatic pressure, and the location of the motor-operated valve (MOV) within the system. A hydraulic network analysis methodology that addresses the effect of these parameters on the MOV performance is presented. The methodology is based on well-established engineering principles. The application of this methodology requires detailed characteristics of both the MOV and the hydraulic system in which it is installed. The valve characteristics for this analysis can be obtained by flow testing or from the valve manufacturer. Even though many valve users, valve manufacturers, and engineering standards have recognized the importance of performing these analyses, none has provided a detailed procedure for doing so

  2. Partitioning of selected trace elements in coal combustion products from two coal-burning power plants in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Sharon M.; Engle, Mark A.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Affolter, Ronald H.; Jones, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    Samples of feed coal (FC), bottom ash (BA), economizer fly ash (EFA), and fly ash (FA) were collected from power plants in the Central Appalachian basin and Colorado Plateau to determine the partitioning of As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in coal combustion products (CCPs). The Appalachian plant burns a high-sulfur (about 3.9 wt.%) bituminous coal from the Upper Pennsylvanian Pittsburgh coal bed and operates with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), with flue gas temperatures of about 163 °C in the ESPs. At this plant, As, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in FA samples, compared to BA and EFA. A mass balance (not including the FGD process) suggests that the following percentages of trace elements are captured in FA: As (48%), Cr (58%), Pb (54%), Se (20%), and Hg (2%). The relatively high temperatures of the flue gas in the ESPs and low amounts of unburned C in FA (0.5% loss-on-ignition for FA) may have led to the low amount of Hg captured in FA. The Colorado Plateau plant burns a blend of three low-S (about 0.74 wt.%) bituminous coals from the Upper Cretaceous Fruitland Formation and operates with fabric filters (FFs). Flue gas temperatures in the baghouses are about 104 °C. The elements As, Cr, Pb, Hg, and Se have the greatest median concentrations in the fine-grained fly ash product (FAP) produced by cyclone separators, compared to the other CCPs at this plant. The median concentration of Hg in FA (0.0983 ppm) at the Colorado Plateau plant is significantly higher than that for the Appalachian plant (0.0315 ppm); this higher concentration is related to the efficiency of FFs in Hg capture, the relatively low temperatures of flue gas in the baghouses (particularly in downstream compartments), and the amount of unburned C in FA (0.29% loss-on-ignition for FA).

  3. Coal mining, social injustice and health: a universal conflict of power and priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrice, Emily; Colagiuri, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Given the current insatiable demand for coal to build and fuel the world's burgeoning cities the debate about mining-related social, environmental and health injustices remains eminently salient. Furthermore, the core issues appear universally consistent. This paper combines the theoretical base for defining these injustices with reports in the international health literature about the impact of coal mining on local communities. It explores and analyses mechanisms of coal mining related injustice, conflicting priorities and power asymmetries between political and industry interests versus inhabitants of mining communities, and asks what would be required for considerations of health to take precedence over wealth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Income risk of EU coal-fired power plants after Kyoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadie, Luis M.; Chamorro, Jose M.

    2009-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants enjoy a significant advantage relative to gas plants in terms of cheaper fuel cost. This advantage may erode (or turn into disadvantage) depending on CO 2 emission allowance price. Financial risks are further reinforced when the price of electricity is determined by natural gas-fired plants' marginal costs. We aim to empirically assess the risks in EU coal plants' margins up to the year 2020. Parameter values are derived from actual market data. Monte Carlo simulation allows compute the expected value and risk profile of coal plants' earnings. Future allowance prices may spell significant risks on utilities' balance sheets. (author)

  5. Indonesian government's policy on the use of domestic coal for electric power generation with special reference to private power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arismunandar, A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that Indonesia is amply endowed with all types of primary energy resources including: (1) conventional resources such as oil, gas and coal; (2) renewable resources such as water, geothermal and bioenergy; (3) new resources such as solar and wind. This wealth of primary energy resources and in particular the abundance of oil lead to excessive reliance on fuel oil and diesel fuel and to a much lesser degree on hydroelectric power. In the early 1980s the Government initiated a program of diversifying primary energy resources used for power generation. In this diversification program the use of coal was given a high priority. The Government has established that base-loaded coal fired power plants meet the least cost system expansion objectives. Therefore, significant additional coal fired capacity will be installed to meet the growing demand within the Java-Bali grid in particular and in other off-Java areas as well. In the Java-Bali grid 400 and 600 MW unit sizes will be used since these units offer the lowest cost per kW installed. The installed capacity within the grid facilitates the operation of these large units without jeopardizing the stability of the entire system. Off-Java smaller units, of 25 to 65 MW capacity will be used due to the relatively small size of the system within which these units will operate. Prime off-Java target areas for the installation of new coal-fired units are Sumatra and Kalimantan, two coal producing islands

  6. Complex analysis of hazards to the man and natural environment due to electricity production in nuclear and coal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strupczewski, A.

    1990-01-01

    The report presents a complex analysis of hazards connected with electrical energy production in nuclear power plants and coal power plants, starting with fuel mining, through power plant construction, operation, possible accidents and decommissioning to long term global effects. The comparison is based on contemporary, proven technologies of coal fired power plants and nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors. The hazards to environment and man due to nuclear power are shown to be much smaller than those due to coal power cycle. The health benefits due to electrical power availability are shown to be much larger than the health losses due to its production. (author). 71 refs, 17 figs, 12 tabs

  7. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public enquiry: proof of evidence on coal fired power station sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fothergill, S.; Witt, S.

    1988-11-01

    The Coalfield Communities Campaign (CCC) has argued that if a new base-load power station is required it should be coal-fired rather than nuclear, and that it should use UK coal. Proposals for new power stations at both Hinkley Point and at Fawley have encountered very considerable local and regional opposition, and this is increasingly likely to be the case at many other sites especially in Southern England. In contrast the CCC has sought to demonstrate that its member authorities would generally welcome the development of new coal-fired capacity on appropriate sites within their areas. In particular, this proof establishes that there is a prima facie case for considering three sites - Thorpe Marsh, Hams Hall and Uskmouth - as potential locations for a new large coal-fired power station as an alternative to Hinkley Point C. The relevant local authorities have expressed their willingness to co-operate in more detailed planning or technical investigations to secure a coal-fired power station on these sites. The CCC considers this to be a major and unprecedented offer to the CEGB and its successor bodies, which could greatly speed the development of new power staion capacity and be of considerable economic and social benefit to coalfield communities.

  8. Formation of the gaseous phase of impurity elements from coal combustion at a thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizil'shtein, L.Ya.; Levchenko, S.V.; Peretyakt'ko, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    Data are reported on the distribution of impurity elements in their principal carriers: organic matter, iron sulfides, and clays. Tests with high-temperature combustion of coals and argillites indicate that elements associated with clay minerals largely remain in ash and slag. They do not pass to the gas phase - a factor to be considered in assessment of environmental impact from thermal power plants and specification of toxic concentration levels of impurity elements in coal

  9. International cooperation and technology transfer for coal and power development in ASEAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husin, Z.A. (Tenaga Nasional Berhad (Malaysia))

    1991-12-01

    Coal resources in the ASEAN region are being developed to meet the forecast rise in electricity demand of 9% per year to 2000. From a virtual non-existence in the early 1980s, it is hoped that coal will provide up to 37% of increased power plant capacity. Close cooperation with industrialised countries outside the region are necessary to help overcome the pressures being put on available energy and financial resources, technological knowledge, and the environment. 13 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Elemental composition of coal fly ash: Malta coal power station in the Mpumalanga province in South Africa case study using nuclear and related analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, Ch.P.; Fatoba, O.; Madzivire, G.; Petrik, L.F.; Ostrovnaya, T.M.; Frontas'eva, M.V.; Nechaev, A.N.

    2013-01-01

    Epithermal neutron activation analysis along with ICP-OES, LA ICP-MS, and XRF were used to determine the elemental composition of coal fly ash from the Malta coal power station in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. A total of 54 major, trace and rare-earth elements were obtained by the four analytical techniques. The results were compared and the discrepancies discussed to show the merits and drawbacks of each of the techniques. It was shown that the elemental content of this particular coal fly ash is of the same order as the NIST standard reference material Coal Fly Ash 1633b

  11. Comparison of environmental impact of waste disposal from fusion, fission and coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, Bruno [Fichtner GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    The radiotoxic hazard of waste from fusion power plants has been compared with that of fission power and radioactive trace elements in coal ash within some research programs such as SEAFP and SEIF. Within another program, in 2005 a Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS) has been finalized investigating 4 fusion power plant models A to D. In this paper, the radiotoxicity of model B is compared with a fission power plant, concentrating on the production of wastes. The hazard of the respective masses of enriched uranium before use in a fission power plant and coal ash of a power plant generating the same amount of electricity are used as benchmarks. It is evident that the development of ingestion and inhalation hazard of the PPCS model B is different from the results of earlier studies because of different assumptions on material impurities and other constraints. An important aspect is the presence of actinides in fusion power plant waste. (orig.)

  12. Greenhouse gas emission factor development for coal-fired power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Eui-Chan; Myeong, Soojeong; Sa, Jae-Whan; Kim, Jinsu; Jeong, Jae-Hak

    2010-01-01

    Accurate estimation of greenhouse gas emissions is essential for developing an appropriate strategy to mitigate global warming. This study examined the characteristics of greenhouse gas emission from power plants, a major greenhouse gas source in Korea. The power plants examined use bituminous coal, anthracite, and sub-bituminous coal as fuel. The CO 2 concentration from power plants was measured using GC-FID with methanizer. The amount of carbon, hydrogen, and calorific values in the input fuel was measured using an elemental analyzer and calorimeter. For fuel analysis, CO 2 emission factors for anthracite, bituminous coal, and sub-bituminous coal were 108.9, 88.4, and 97.9 Mg/kJ, respectively. The emission factors developed in this study were compared with those for IPCC. The results showed that CO 2 emission was 10.8% higher for anthracite, 5.5% lower for bituminous coal, and 1.9% higher for sub-bituminous coal than the IPCC figures.

  13. Future CO2 emissions and electricity generation from proposed coal-fired power plants in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Christine; Fofrich, Robert; Davis, Steven J.

    2017-04-01

    With its growing population, industrializing economy, and large coal reserves, India represents a critical unknown in global projections of future CO2 emissions. Here, we assess proposed construction of coal-fired power plants in India and evaluate their implications for future emissions and energy production in the country. As of mid-2016, 243 gigawatts (GW) of coal-fired generating capacity are under development in India, including 65 GW under construction and an additional 178 GW proposed. These under-development plants would increase the coal capacity of India's power sector by 123% and, when combined with the country's goal to produce at least 40% of its power from non-fossil sources by 2030, exceed the country's projected future electricity demand. The current proposals for new coal-fired plants could therefore either "strand" fossil energy assets (i.e., force them to retire early or else operate at very low capacity factors) and/or ensure that the goal is not met by "locking-out" new, low-carbon energy infrastructure. Similarly, future emissions from the proposed coal plants would also exceed the country's climate commitment to reduce its 2005 emissions intensity 33% to 35% by 2030, which—when combined with the commitments of all other countries—is itself not yet ambitious enough to meet the international goal of holding warming well below 2°C relative to the pre-industrial era.

  14. Heavy metal atmospheric emissions from coal-fired power plants - Assessment and uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecuyer, I.; Ungar, A.; Peter, H.; Karl, U.

    2004-01-01

    Power generation using fossil fuel combustion (coal and fuel-oil) participates, with other sectors, to heavy metal atmospheric emissions. The dispersion of these hazardous pollutants throughout the environment is more and more regulated. In order to assess the annual flows emitted from EDF coal-fired power plants, a computerized tool has been developed, based on the methodology defined by IFARE/DFIU in 1997. The heavy metal partition factors within the plant unit are determined according to the type of unit and the coal characteristics. Heavy metals output flows, and especially those emitted with flue gas at the stack, are then deduced from the actual coal consumption and chemical composition. A first inventory of heavy metal emissions from EDF coal-fired power plants has been achieved for year 2001. Values are accurate (± 40 %) for nonvolatile elements (Cr, Cu, Co, Mn, Ni, V) and for PM 10 and PM 2.5 (particulate matter below 10 μm and 2.5 μm). The uncertainty is higher (± 80 %) for volatile elements (As, Pb, Zn). Excess indicative values are given for elements which are both volatile and at low concentrations in coal (Hg, Se, Cd). (author)

  15. The role of IGCC technology in power generation using low-rank coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juangjandee, Pipat

    2010-09-15

    Based on basic test results on the gasification rate of Mae Moh lignite coal. It was found that an IDGCC power plant is the most suitable for Mae Moh lignite. In conclusion, the future of an IDGCC power plant using low-rank coal in Mae Moh mine would hinge on the strictness of future air pollution control regulations including green-house gas emission and the constraint of Thailand's foreign currency reserves needed to import fuels, in addition to economic consideration. If and when it is necessary to overcome these obstacles, IGCC is one variable alternative power generation must consider.

  16. Comparison of electricity production costs of nuclear and coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltzer, M.

    1980-01-01

    Electricity production costs of nuclear and coal-fired power plants their structure and future development are calculated and compared. Assumed beginning of operation is in the mid-1980. The technical and economical data are based on a nuclear power unit of 1 300 MW and on a coal-fired twin plant of 2 x 750 MW. The study describes and discusses the calculational method and the results. The costs for the electricity generation show an economic advantage for nuclear power. A sensitivity analysis shows that these results are valid also for changed input parameters. (orig.) [de

  17. Cost structure of coal- and nuclear-fired electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmuth, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the cost structure of coal and nuclear electric power generation. The emphasis of the paper is to empirically estimate the direct costs of generating base-load electric power at the plant level. Empirically, the paper first investigates the relative comparative costs of nuclear and coal power generation, based on historical operating data. Consideration of the learning curve and other dynamic elements is incorporated in the analysis. The second empirical thrust is to inestigate economies of scale for both technologies. The results from the empirical studies give an indication as to the future and present cost viability of each technology. Implications toward energy policy are discussed

  18. Radiological impact from airborne routine discharges of Coal-Fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norasalwa Zakaria; Rohyiza Baan; Kathiravale, Sivapalan

    2010-01-01

    Radioactivity exists everywhere in nature. We are exposed to intense and continuous natural radiation coming from the sun, cosmic radiation, telluric radiation and even to the internal radiation of our own body. The fly ash emitted from burning coal for electricity by a power plant carries into the surrounding environment 100 times more radiation than a nuclear power plant producing the same amount of energy. This paper presents the information of studies on the radiological impact from airborne routine discharge of coal-fired power plants. (author)

  19. Regulator of Dust and Coal Burner of Power Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wujcik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The papers considers problems concerning introduction of neutron regulator into engineering practice. The regulator makes it possible to regulate CO, N0^ and O2 values with the purpose to optimize ejections into environment. The paper contains scheme of automation control of cyclone dust and coal burner with the help of a neutron regulator.

  20. Mercury emissions from South Africa’s coal-fired power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda L. Garnham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a persistent and toxic substance that can be bio-accumulated in the food chain. Natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to the mercury emitted in the atmosphere. Eskom’s coal-fired power stations in South Africa contributed just under 93% of the total electricity produced in 2015 (Eskom 2016. Trace amounts of mercury can be found in coal, mostly combined with sulphur, and can be released into the atmosphere upon combustion. Coal-fired electricity generation plants are the highest contributors to mercury emissions in South Africa. A major factor affecting the amount of mercury emitted into the atmosphere is the type and efficiency of emission abatement equipment at a power station. Eskom employs particulate emission control technology at all its coal-fired power stations, and new power stations will also have sulphur dioxide abatement technology. A co-beneficial reduction of mercury emissions exists as a result of emission control technology. The amount of mercury emitted from each of Eskom’s coal-fired power stations is calculated, based on the amount of coal burnt and the mercury content in the coal. Emission Reduction Factors (ERF’s from two sources are taken into consideration to reflect the co-benefit received from the emission control technologies at the stations. Between 17 and 23 tons of mercury is calculated to have been emitted from Eskom’s coal-fired power stations in 2015. On completion of Eskom’s emission reduction plan, which includes fabric filter plant retrofits at two and a half stations and a flue gas desulphurisation retrofit at one power station, total mercury emissions from the fleet will potentially be reduced by 6-13% by 2026 relative to the baseline. Mercury emission reduction is perhaps currently not the most pressing air quality problem in South Africa. While the focus should then be on reducing emissions of other pollutants which have a greater impact on human health, mercury emission reduction

  1. Techno-economic assessments of oxy-fuel technology for South African coal-fired power stations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available at the technical and economic viability of oxy-fuel technology for CO(sub2) capture for South African coal-fired power stations. This study presents a techno-economic analysis for six coal fired power stations in South Africa. Each of these power stations has a...

  2. Wood and coal cofiring in Alaska—operational considerations and combustion gas effects for a grate-fired power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; Zackery Wright; Daisy. Huang

    2018-01-01

    Coal is the primary fuel source for electrical power generation in interior Alaska, with more than 600,000 tons burned annually at five different power plants. Woody biomass could be used as part of this fuel mix, offering potential environmental and economic benefits. In this research, debarked chips were cofired with locally mined coal at the Aurora Power Plant...

  3. Discrete Displacement Hydraulic Power Take-Off System for the Wavestar Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Vidal

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Wavestar Wave Energy Converter (WEC is a multiple absorber concept, consisting of 20 hemisphere shaped floats attached to a single platform. The heart of the Wavestar WEC is the Power Take-Off (PTO system, converting the wave induced motion of the floats into a steady power output to the grid. In the present work, a PTO based on a novel discrete displacement fluid power technology is explored for the Wavestar WEC. Absorption of power from the floats is performed by hydraulic cylinders, supplying power to a common fixed pressure system with accumulators for energy smoothing. The stored pressure energy is converted into electricity at a steady pace by hydraulic motors and generators. The storage, thereby, decouples the complicated process of wave power absorption from power generation. The core for enabling this PTO technology is implementing a near loss-free force control of the energy absorbing cylinders. This is achieved by using special multi-chambered cylinders, where the different chambers may be connected to the available system pressures using fast on/off valves. Resultantly, a Discrete Displacement Cylinder (DDC is created, allowing near loss free discrete force control. This paper presents a complete PTO system for a 20 float Wavestar based on the DDC. The WEC and PTO is rigorously modeled from incident waves to the electric output to the grid. The resulting model of +600 states is simulated in different irregular seas, showing that power conversion efficiencies above 70% from input power to electrical power is achievable for all relevant sea conditions.

  4. Pollution control technologies applied to coal-fired power plant operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Rozpondek

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Burning of fossil fuels is the major source of energy in today's global economy with over one-third of the world's powergeneration derived from coal combustion. Although coal has been a reliable, abundant, and relatively inexpensive fuel source for mostof the 20th century, its future in electric power generation is under increasing pressure as environmental regulations become morestringent worldwide. Current pollution control technologies for combustion exhaust gas generally treat the release of regulatedpollutants: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulate matter as three separate problems instead of as parts of one problem. Newand improved technologies have greatly reduced the emissions produced per ton of burning coal. The term “Clean Coal CombustionTechnology” applies generically to a range of technologies designed to greatly reduce the emissions from coal-fired power plants.The wet methods of desulfurization at present are the widest applied technology in professional energetics. This method is economicand gives good final results but a future for clean technologies is the biomass. Power from biomass is a proven commercial optionof the electricity generation in the World. An increasing number of power marketers are starting to offer environmentally friendlyelectricity, including biomass power, in response to the consumer demand and regulatory requirements.

  5. Evaluation methods of solar contribution in solar aided coal-fired power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Yong; Zhai, Rongrong; Zhao, Miaomiao; Yang, Yongping; Yan, Qin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Five methods for evaluating solar contribution are analyzed. • Method based on the second law of thermodynamics and thermal economics is more suitable for SACPGS. • Providing reliable reference for the formulation of feed-in tariff policies in China. - Abstract: Solar aided coal-fired power plants utilize solar thermal energy to couple with coal-fired power plants of various types by adopting characteristics of different thermal needs of plants. In this way, the costly thermal storage system and power generating system will become unnecessary, meanwhile the intermittent and unsteady nature of power generation can be avoided. In addition, large-scale utilization of solar thermal power and energy saving can be achieved. With the ever-deepening analyses of solar aided coal-fired power plants, the contribution evaluating system of solar thermal power is worth further exploration. In this paper, five common evaluation methods of solar contribution are analyzed, and solar aided coal-fired power plants of 1000 MW, 600 MW and 330 MW are studied with these five methods in a comparative manner. Therefore, this study can serve as a theoretical reference for future research of evaluation methods and subsidies for new energy

  6. CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING OF THE FORMS OF MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2001-08-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk. EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in the Mercury Study Report to Congress (1) and the Utility Air Toxics Report to Congress (1). The first report addressed both the human health and environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second addressed the risk to public health posed by the emission of mercury and other hazardous air pollutants from steam-electric generating units. Given the current state of the art, these reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations would be required. However, they did indicate that EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. In fact, in December 2000, the EPA issued an intent to regulate for mercury from coal-fired boilers. However, it is clear that additional research needs to be done in order to develop economical and effective mercury control strategies. To accomplish this objective, it is necessary to understand mercury behavior in coal-fired power plants. The markedly different chemical and physical properties of the different mercury forms generated during coal combustion appear to impact the effectiveness of various mercury control strategies. The original Characterization and Modeling of the Forms of Mercury from Coal-Fired Power Plants project had two tasks. The first was to collect enough data such that mercury speciation could be predicted based on relatively simple inputs such as coal analyses and plant configuration. The second was to field-validate the Ontario Hydro mercury speciation method (at the time, it had only been validated at the pilot-scale level). However, after sampling at two power plants (the Ontario Hydro method was validated at one of them), the EPA issued

  7. 5. annual clean coal technology conference: powering the next millennium. Vol.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference focuses on presenting strategies and approaches that will enable clean coal technologies to resolve the competing, interrelated demands for power, economic viability, and environmental constraints associated with the use of coal in the post-2000 era. The program addresses the dynamic changes that will result from utility competition and industry restructuring, and to the evolution of markets abroad. Current projections for electricity highlight the preferential role that electric power will have in accomplishing the long-range goals of most nations. Increased demands can be met by utilizing coal in technologies that achieve environmental goals while keeping the cost- per-unit of energy competitive. Results from projects in the DOE Clean Coal technology Demonstration Program confirm that technology is the pathway to achieving these goals. The industry/government partnership, cemented over the past 10 years, is focused on moving the clean coal technologies into the domestic and international marketplaces. The Fifth Annual Clean Coal Technology Conference provides a forum to discuss these benchmark issues and the essential role and need for these technologies in the post-2000 era. This volume contains papers presented at the plenary session and panel sessions on; international markets for clean coal technologies (CCTs); role of CCTs in the evolving domestic electricity market; environmental issues affecting CCT deployment; and CCT deployment from today into the next millennium. In addition papers presented at the closing plenary session on powering the next millennium--CCT answers the challenge are included. Selected papers have been processed for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology database.

  8. Understanding coal quality and its relationship to power plant performance and costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennison, K.D.; Stallard, G.S. [Black & Veatch International, Overland Park, KS (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The availability of reliable, reasonably priced energy is a necessary cornerstone for established and emerging economies. In addition to addressing coal quality issues strictly at a plant level, it is now prudent to consider long-term performance and economics of particular fuel sources to be selected in the light of system economics and reliability. In order to evaluate coal quality issues in a more comprehensive manner, it is important to develop both an approach and a set of tools which can support the various phases of the planning/analysis processes. The processes must consider the following: (1) Cost/availability of other potential coal supplies, including {open_quotes}raw{close_quotes} domestic sources, {open_quotes}cleaned {close_quotes} domestic sources, and other internationally marketed coals. (2) Power plant performance issues as function of plant design and fuel properties. (3) System expansion plans, candidate technologies, and associated capital and operating costs. (4) Projected load demand, for system and for individual units within the system. (5) Legislative issues such as environmental pressures, power purchase agreements, etc. which could alter the solution. (6) Economics of potential plans/strategies based on overall cost-effectiveness of the utility system, not just individual units. (7) Anticipated unit configuration, including addition of environmental control equipment or other repowering options. The Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM{trademark}) is a PC-based computer program capable of predicting coal-related cost and performance impacts at electric power generating sites. The CQIM was developed for EPRI by Black & Veatch and represents over a decade of effort geared toward developing an extensible state-of-the-art coal quality assessment tool. This paper will introduce CQIM, its capabilities, and its application to Eastern European coal quality assessment needs.

  9. Coal-Powered Electric Generating Unit Efficiency and Reliability Dialogue: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Emmanuel [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Coal continues to play a critical role in powering the Nation’s electricity generation, especially for baseload power plants. With aging coal generation assets facing decreased performance due to the state of the equipment, and with challenges exacerbated by the current market pressures on the coal sector, there are opportunities to advance early-stage technologies that can retrofit or replace equipment components. These changes will eventually result in significant improvements in plant performance once further developed and deployed by industry. Research and development in areas such as materials, fluid dynamics, fuel properties and preparation characteristics, and a new generation of plant controls can lead to new components and systems that can help improve the efficiency and reliability of coal-fired power plants significantly, allowing these assets to continue to provide baseload power. Coal stockpiles at electricity generation plants are typically large enough to provide 30 to 60 days of power prior to resupply—significantly enhancing the stability and reliability of the U.S. electricity sector. Falling prices for non-dispatchable renewable energy and mounting environmental regulations, among other factors, have stimulated efforts to improve the efficiency of these coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). In addition, increased reliance on natural gas and non-dispatchable energy sources has spurred efforts to further increase the reliability of coal EGUs. The Coal Powered EGU Efficiency and Reliability Dialogue brought together stakeholders from across the coal EGU industry to discuss methods for improvement. Participants at the event reviewed performance-enhancing innovations in coal EGUs, discussed the potential for data-driven management practices to increase efficiency and reliability, investigated the impacts of regulatory compliance on coal EGU performance, and discussed upcoming challenges for the coal industry. This report documents the key

  10. Numerical modeling for the retrofit of the hydraulic cooling subsystems in operating power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSaqoor, S.; Alahmer, A.; Al Quran, F.; Andruszkiewicz, A.; Kubas, K.; Regucki, P.; Wędrychowicz, W.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents the possibility of using the numerical methods to analyze the work of hydraulic systems on the example of a cooling system of a power boiler auxiliary devices. The variety of conditions at which hydraulic system that operated in specific engineering subsystems requires an individualized approach to the model solutions that have been developed for these systems modernizing. A mathematical model of a series-parallel propagation for the cooling water was derived and iterative methods were used to solve the system of nonlinear equations. The results of numerical calculations made it possible to analyze different variants of a modernization of the studied system and to indicate its critical elements. An economic analysis of different options allows an investor to choose an optimal variant of a reconstruction of the installation.

  11. Control strategies of atmospheric mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Hezhong; Wang, Yan; Cheng, Ke; Qu, Yiping; Hao, Jiming; Xue, Zhigang; Chai, Fahe

    2012-05-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) emission from coal is one of the primary sources of anthropogenic discharge and pollution. China is one of the few countries in the world whose coal consumption constitutes about 70% of total primary energy, and over half of coals are burned directly for electricity generation. Atmospheric emissions of Hg and its speciation from coal-fired power plants are of great concern owing to their negative impacts on regional human health and ecosystem risks, as well as long-distance transport. In this paper, recent trends of atmospheric Hg emissions and its species split from coal-fired power plants in China during the period of 2000-2007 are evaluated, by integrating each plant's coal consumption and emission factors, which are classified by different subcategories of boilers, particulate matter (PM) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) control devices. Our results show that the total Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants have begun to decrease from the peak value of 139.19 t in 2005 to 134.55 t in 2007, though coal consumption growing steadily from 1213.8 to 1532.4 Mt, which can be mainly attributed to the co-benefit Hg reduction by electrostatic precipitators/fabric filters (ESPs/FFs) and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD), especially the sharp growth in installation of WFGD both in the new and existing power plants since 2005. In the coming 12th five-year-plan, more and more plants will be mandated to install De-NO(x) (nitrogen oxides) systems (mainly selective catalytic reduction [SCR] and selective noncatalytic reduction [SNCR]) for minimizing NO(x) emission, thus the specific Hg emission rate per ton of coal will decline further owing to the much higher co-benefit removal efficiency by the combination of SCR + ESPs/FFs + WFGD systems. Consequently, SCR + ESPs/FFs + WFGD configuration will be the main path to abate Hg discharge from coal-fired power plants in China in the near future. However advanced specific Hg removal technologies are necessary

  12. The prospective of coal power in China: Will it reach a plateau in the coming decade?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Jiahai; Lei, Qi; Xiong, Minpeng; Guo, Jingsheng; Hu, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Coal power holds the king position in China's generation mix and has resulted in ever-increasing ecological and environmental issues; hence, the development of the electric power sector is confronted with a series of new challenges. China has recently adopted a new economic principle of the “new economic normal,” which has a large effect on the projection electricity demand and power generation planning through 2020. This paper measures electricity demand based upon China's social and economic structure. The 2020 roadmap presents China's developing targets for allocating energy resources to meet new demands, and the 2030 roadmap is compiled based upon an ambitious expansion of clean energy sources. Results show that electricity demand is expected to reach 7500 TWh in 2020 and 9730 TWh in 2030. Coal power is expected to reach its peak in 2020 at around 970 GW, and will then enter a plateau, even with a pathway of active electricity substitution in place. - Highlights: • Conduct electricity demand scenario analysis for China during 2015–2030. • Outline China's power generation planning roadmaps for 2020 and 2030. • Analyze coal power prospective in China under “new economic normal”. • Coal power is expected to reach its peak at around 970 GW by 2020 in China.

  13. Shallow water effects on wave energy converters with hydraulic power take-off system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashank Sinha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of water depth on the power absorption by a single heaving point absorber wave energy converter, attached to a hydraulic power take-off system, is simulated and analysed. The wave energy flux for changing water depths is presented and the study is carried out at a location in the north-west Portuguese coast, favourable for wave power generation. This analysis is based on a procedure to modify the wave spectrum as the water depth reduces, namely, the TMA spectrum (Transformation spectrum. The present study deals with the effect of water depth on the spectral shape and significant wave heights. The reactive control strategy, which includes an external damping coefficient and a negative spring term, is used to maximize power absorption by the wave energy converter. The presented work can be used for making decisions regarding the best water depth for the installation of point absorber wave energy converters in the Portuguese nearshore.

  14. Experimental and Numerical Simulations Predictions Comparison of Power and Efficiency in Hydraulic Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On-site power and mass flow rate measurements were conducted in a hydroelectric power plant (Mexico. Mass flow rate was obtained using Gibson's water hammer-based method. A numerical counterpart was carried out by using the commercial CFD software, and flow simulations were performed to principal components of a hydraulic turbine: runner and draft tube. Inlet boundary conditions for the runner were obtained from a previous simulation conducted in the spiral case. The computed results at the runner's outlet were used to conduct the subsequent draft tube simulation. The numerical results from the runner's flow simulation provided data to compute the torque and the turbine's power. Power-versus-efficiency curves were built, and very good agreement was found between experimental and numerical data.

  15. Techno-economic Assessment of Coal to SNG Power Plant in Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riezqa Andika

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available As the most abundant and widely distributed fossil fuel, coal has become a key component of energy sources in worldwide. However, air pollutants from coal power plants contribute carbon dioxide emissions. Therefore, understanding how to taking care coal in industrial point of view is important. This paper focused on the feasibility study, including process design and simulation, of a coal to SNG power plant in Kalimantan in order to fulfill its electricity demand. In 2019, it is estimated that Kalimantan will need 2446 MW of electricity and it reaches 2518 MW in 2024. This study allows a thorough evaluation both in technology and commercial point of view. The data for the model is gathered through literature survey from government institution reports and academic papers. Aspen HYSYS is used for modelling the power plant consists of two blocks which are SNG production block and power block. The economic evaluation is vary depends on the pay-back period, capital and operational cost which are coal price, and electricity cost. The results of this study can be used as support tool for energy development plan as well as policy-making in Indonesia.

  16. Competition between coal and gas for large scale power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howieson, B.

    1997-01-01

    The relative competitiveness of coal- and gas-fired generation will be affected by distinctive country and market factors as well as site specific considerations, regarding such factors as environment, market structure and economics (such as fuel and plant costs). National and international politics have an impact on all three factors and any decision on the development of generation plant must take into account both current and future political climates. An analysis suggests that, at the present time, upgrading existing coal stations is attractive compared with new combined cycle gas turbines (CCGTs). However, this conclusion is highly dependent on the site specific nature of existing plant and the anticipated future environmental regime. Increased environmental pressure, particularly in the area of CO 2 emissions, would result in CCGTs being the first choice plant option. (R.P.)

  17. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of coal and its combustion residues from a power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, J.M.; Jeong, J.H.; Lee, J.H.

    2013-01-01

    A growing demand of electrical energy derived from coal combustion led to a significant increase of coal ash as residues. Approximately 70 % of the fly ashes are recycled, while most of the bottom ashes have been land-filled in the ash pond in Korea. In this work, to evaluate the potential impacts of the residues from a coal power plant on the environment, its inorganic elemental components were determined by INAA and PGAA. Coal ash samples were collected from the biggest power plant complex in Korea. These samples were analyzed by using the NAA facilities in the HANARO research reactor of the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. A total of 31 elements were analyzed in the samples, and certified reference materials were used for the analytical quality control. The enrichment status of a given metal in fuel coal and ashes was investigated by its concentration ratio. In order to assess the impact of the coal combustion residues on ecosystem, their concentrations determined for each respective type of the samples were compared to both reference data and nearby beach sand samples. (author)

  18. Recent advances in prediction of emission of hazardous air pollutants from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, C.L.; Helble, J.J.; Sarofim, A.F.

    2000-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants are a primary source of mercury discharge into the atmosphere along with fine particulates containing arsenic, selenium, cadmium, and other hazardous air pollutants. Information regarding the speciation of these toxic metals is necessary to accurately predict their atmospheric transport and fate in the environment. New predictive tools have been developed to allow utilities to better estimate the emissions of toxic metals from coal-fired power plants. These prediction equations are based on fundamental physics and chemistry and can be applied to a wide variety of fuel types and combustion conditions. The models have significantly improved the ability to predict the emissions of air toxic metals in fine particulate and gas-phase mercury. In this study, the models were successfully tested using measured mercury speciation and mass balance information collected from coal-fired power plants

  19. Utilization of underground coal gasification to provide electric power and emerging nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boysen, J.E.; Beaver, F.W.; Schmit, C.R.; Daly, D.J.; Groenewold, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a process conceived over a hundred years ago and used successfully, since the 1940s, to generate low-Btu gas for electric power production. The process is applicable to many coal resources that cannot, for a variety of reasons, be economically produced. While UCG cannot compete economically with conventional oil gas, and coal reserves, emerging nations requiring electric power for development of an industrial infrastructure may provide the niche market that is necessary for the commercial development of UCG. Recent UCG field testing, conducted in the United States, demonstrated that UCG could be successfully conducted without adverse environmental impact. This testing also resulted in increased understanding of the interactions between the UCG process and the local hydrogeological environment. With this knowledge, the probability of successful commercial UCG development can be increased by selecting a UCG site with hydrogeologically and economically favorable properties. And approach for commercial UCG development for producing electric power in emerging nations is presented

  20. Transmutation technology development; thermal hydraulic power analysis and structure analysis of the HYPER target beam window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. H.; Ju, E. S.; Song, M. K.; Jeon, Y. Z. [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    A thermal hydraulic power analysis, a structure analysis and optimization computation for some design factor for the design of spallation target suitable for HYPER with 1000 MW thermal power in this study was performed. Heat generation formula was used which was evaluated recently based on the LAHET code, mainly to find the maximum beam current under given computation conditions. Thermal hydraulic power of HYPER target system was calculated using FLUENT code, structure conducted by inputting the data into ANSYS. On the temp of beam windows and the pressure distribution calculated using FLUENT. Data transformation program was composed apply the data calculated using FLUENT being commercial CFD code and ANSYS being FEM code for CFX structure analysis. A basic study was conducted on various singular target to obtain fundamental data on the shape for optimum target design. A thermal hydraulic power analysis and structure analysis were conducted on the shapes of parabolic, uniform, scanning beams to choose the optimum shape of beam current analysis was done according to some turbulent model to simulate the real flow. To evaluate the reliability of numerical analysis result, benchmarking of FLUENT code reformed at SNU and Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology and it was compared to CFX in the possession of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and evaluated. Reliable deviation was observed in the results calculated using FLUENT code, but temperature deviation of about 200 .deg. C was observed in the result from CFX analysis at optimum design condition. Several benchmarking were performed on the basis of numerical analysis concerning conventional HYPER. It was possible to allow a beam arrests of 17.3 mA in the case of the {phi} 350 mm parabolic beam suggested to the optimum in nuclear transmutation when stress equivalent to VON-MISES was calculated to be 140 MPa. 29 refs., 109 figs. (Author)

  1. Numerical Hydraulic Study on Seawater Cooling System of Combined Cycle Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. Y.; Park, S. M.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, S. W.

    2010-06-01

    As the rated flow and pressure increase in pumping facilities, a proper design against surges and severe cavitations in the pipeline system is required. Pressure surge due to start-up, shut-down process and operation failure causes the water hammer in upstream of the closing valve and the cavitational hammer in downstream of the valve. Typical cause of water hammer is the urgent closure of valves by breakdown of power supply and unexpected failure of pumps. The abrupt changes in the flow rate of the liquid results in high pressure surges in upstream of the valves, thus kinetic energy is transformed into potential energy which leads to the sudden increase of the pressure that is called as water hammer. Also, by the inertia, the liquid continues to flow downstream of the valve with initial speed. Accordingly, the pressure decreases and an expanding vapor bubble known as column separation are formed near the valve. In this research, the hydraulic study on the closed cooling water heat exchanger line, which is the one part of the power plant, is introduced. The whole power plant consists of 1,200 MW combined power plant and 220,000 m3/day desalination facility. Cooling water for the plant is supplied by sea water circulating system with a capacity of 29 m3/s. The primary focus is to verify the steady state hydraulic capacity of the system. The secondary is to quantify transient issues and solutions in the system. The circuit was modeled using a commercial software. The stable piping network was designed through the hydraulic studies using the simulation for the various scenarios.

  2. Life cycle energy use and GHG emission assessment of coal-based SNG and power cogeneration technology in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Sheng; Gao, Lin; Jin, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Life cycle energy use and GHG emissions are assessed for SNG and power cogeneration. • A model based on a Chinese domestic database is developed for evaluation. • Cogeneration shows lower GHG emissions than coal-power pathway. • Cogeneration has lower life cycle energy use than supercritical coal-power pathway. • Cogeneration is a good option to implement China’s clean coal technologies. - Abstract: Life cycle energy use and GHG emissions are assessed for coal-based synthetic natural gas (SNG) and power cogeneration/polygenereation (PG) technology and its competitive alternatives. Four main SNG applications are considered, including electricity generation, steam production, SNG vehicle and battery electric vehicle (BEV). Analyses show that if SNG is produced from a single product plant, the lower limits of its life cycle energy use and GHG emissions can be comparable to the average levels of coal-power and coal-BEV pathways, but are still higher than supercritical and ultra supercritical (USC) coal-power and coal-BEV pathways. If SNG is coproduced from a PG plant, when it is used for power generation, steam production, and driving BEV car, the life cycle energy uses for PG based pathways are typically lower than supercritical coal-power pathways, but are still 1.6–2.4% higher than USC coal-power pathways, and the average life cycle GHG emissions are lower than those of all coal-power pathways including USC units. If SNG is used to drive vehicle car, the life cycle energy use and GHG emissions of PG-SNGV-power pathway are both much higher than all combined coal-BEV and coal-power pathways, due to much higher energy consumption in a SNG driven car than in a BEV car. The coal-based SNG and power cogeneration technology shows comparable or better energy and environmental performances when compared to other coal-based alternatives, and is a good option to implement China’s clean coal technologies.

  3. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2010; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2010. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, brown coal mining as well as the hard coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  4. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2013; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2013. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  5. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2014; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2014. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  6. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2016; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2017-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2016. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  7. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 2015; Der Kohlenbergbau in der Energiewirtschaft der Bundesrepublik Deutschland im Jahre 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-11-15

    The contribution under consideration reports on the coal mining in the Federal Republic of Germany in the year 2015. Statistical data are presented for the power market and coal market, hard coal mining as well as the brown coal mining. These data consider the energy consumption in Germany, power production, iron and steel production, utilization, re-cultivation and employees.

  8. Externalities of biomass based electricity production compared to power generation from coal in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faaij, A.; Meuleman, B.

    1997-12-01

    Externalities of electricity production from biomass and coal are investigated and compared for the Dutch context. Effects on economic activity and employment are investigated by means of Input/Output and multiplier tables. Valuations of damage from emissions to air are based on generic data from other studies. In addition, external costs are estimated for nitrogen leaching and for the use of agrochemicals for energy crop production. The average private costs for biomass and coal based power generation are projected to be 68 and 38 mECU/kWh respectively in the year 2005. It is assumed that biomass production takes place on fallow land. Coal mining is excluded from the analysis. If the quantified external damages and benefits are included the cost range for bio-electricity is 53-70 mECU/kWh and 45-72 mECU/kWh for coal. Indirect economic effects (increment of Gross Domestic Product) and the difference in CO2 emissions are the most important distinguishing factors between coal and biomass in economic terms. Damage costs of other emissions to air (NOx, SO2, dust and CO) are of the same order of magnitude for both coal and biomass (coal mining excluded). In this analysis environmental impacts of energy farming are compared mainly to fallow land focused on the use of fertilizers and agrochemicals. The related damage costs appear to be low but should be considered as a preliminary estimate only. The quantitative outcomes should not be considered as the external costs of the two fuel cycles studied. Many impacts have not been valued and large uncertainties persist e.g. with respect to the costs of climate change and numerous dose response relations. More detailed analysis is required with respect to macro-economic impacts. The results serve as a first indication, but the outcomes plead for the support of bio-electricity production and/or taxation of coal based power generation. 88 refs

  9. Nano-mineralogical investigation of coal and fly ashes from coal-based captive power plant (India): An introduction of occupational health hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marcos L.S.; Marostega, Fabiane; Taffarel, Silvio R.; Saikia, Binoy K.; Waanders, Frans B.; DaBoit, Kátia; Baruah, Bimala P.

    2014-01-01

    Coal derived nano-particles has been received much concern recently around the world for their adverse effects on human health and the environment during their utilization. In this investigation the mineral matter present in some industrially important Indian coals and their ash samples are addressed. Coal and fly ash samples from the coal-based captive power plant in Meghalaya (India) were collected for different characterization and nano-mineralogy studies. An integrated application of advanced characterization techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), High Resolution-Transmission Electron microscopy (HR-TEM)/(Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) EDS/(selected-area diffraction pattern) SAED, Field Emission-Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM)/EDS analysis, and Mössbauer spectroscopy were used to know their extent of risks to the human health when present in coal and fly ash. The study has revealed that the coals contain mainly clay minerals, whilst glass fragments, spinel, quartz, and other minerals in lesser quantities were found to be present in the coal fly ash. Fly ash carbons were present as chars. Indian coal fly ash also found to contain nanominerals and ultrafine particles. The coal-fired power plants are observed to be the largest anthropogenic source of Hg emitted to the atmosphere and expected to increase its production in near future years. The Multi Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes (MWCNTs) are detected in our fly ashes, which contains residual carbonaceous matter responsible for the Hg capture/encapsulation. This detailed investigation on the inter-relationship between the minerals present in the samples and their ash components will also be useful for fulfilling the clean coal technology principles. - Highlights: • We research changes in the level of ultrafine and nanoparticles about coal–ash quality. • Increasing dates will increase human health quality in this Indian coal area. • Welfare effects depend on ex-ante or ex-post assumptions about

  10. Imported mineral coal: competitiveness for electric power generation in northeast of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codeceira Neto, A.; Ribeiro Filho, A.P.R.; Silva, S.P.R. da

    1993-01-01

    With the hydroelectric potential exhaustion of northeast and with the increase of costs to the use of hydroelectric uses available in Brazil, the thermoelectric generation will be able to become a competitive solution to attend the market of electric power. This work has as purpose describe the options of imported coal use to Brazilian northeast its technological aspects, the environmental question, and the preliminary studies of localization and the costs associated on implantation of coal thermoelectric power plants. 7 refs, 3 figs, 6 tabs

  11. The Japanese and Italian power station markets: prospects for steam coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, S D

    1989-02-01

    The world market for steam coal seems likely to fall far short of the expectations of 1980. Two markets which appeared to offer considerable scope for expansion, the Italian and Japanese power station markets, are examined and the factors behind their disappointing performance analysed. The reasons behind the lack of investments in new power stations differ. Difficulties in obtaining sites and financial problems are most important in Italy, whilst environmental restrictions and the attractions of competing technologies dominate in Japan. It is concluded that these factors will not weaken significantly in the next decade and coal's prospects in these two markets are correspondingly restricted. 20 refs., 20 tabs.

  12. Balance of natural radionuclides in the brown coal based power generation and harmlessness of the residues and side product utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Hartmut; Kunze, Christian; Hummrich, Holger

    2017-01-01

    During brown coal combustion a partial enrichment of natural radionuclides occurs in different residues. Residues and side product from brown coal based power generation are used in different ways, for example filter ashes and gypsum from flue gas desulfurization facilities are used in the construction materials fabrication and slags for road construction. Detailed measurement and accounting of radionuclides in the mass throughputs in coal combustion power plants have shown that the utilized gypsum and filter ashes are harmless in radiologic aspects.

  13. Investigations on the enrichment behaviour of toxic heavy metals in the mass flows of a coal power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biehusen, U.

    1980-01-01

    In the present work solid sample material from a coal power plant has been analyzed, and by means of establishing a mass balance and calculating enrichment factors the question of how the heavy-metals having entered the power plant via the coal are distributed over the individual mass flows leaving the plant has been explained. Radioactive substances that get into the plant with the uranium and thorium contained in the coal have been considered in the same way. (orig./EF) [de

  14. Externality costs of the coal-fuel cycle: The case of Kusile Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonophile P. Nkambule

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal-based electricity is an integral part of daily life in South Africa and globally. However, the use of coal for electricity generation carries a heavy cost for social and ecological systems that goes far beyond the price we pay for electricity. We developed a model based on a system dynamics approach for understanding the measurable and quantifiable coal-fuel cycle burdens and externality costs, over the lifespan of a supercritical coal-fired power station that is fitted with a flue-gas desulfurisation device (i.e. Kusile Power Station. The total coal-fuel cycle externality cost on both the environment and humans over Kusile's lifespan was estimated at ZAR1 449.9 billion to ZAR3 279 billion or 91c/kWh to 205c/kWh sent out (baseline: ZAR2 172.7 billion or 136c/kWh. Accounting for the life-cycle burdens and damages of coal-derived electricity conservatively, doubles to quadruples the price of electricity, making renewable energy sources such as wind and solar attractive alternatives. Significance: The use of coal for electricity generation carries a heavy cost for social and ecological systems that goes far beyond the price we pay for electricity. The estimation of social costs is particularly important to the electric sector because of non-differentiation of electricity prices produced from a variety of sources with potentially very dissimilar environmental and human health costs. Because all electricity generation technologies are associated with undesirable side effects in their fuelcycle and lifespan, comprehensive comparative analyses of life-cycle costs of all power generation technologies is indispensable to guide the development of future energy policies in South Africa.

  15. Char characterization and DTF assays as tools to predict burnout of coal blends in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Ulloa; A.G. Borrego; S. Helle; A.L. Gordon; X. Garcia [Universidad de Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile). Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study is to predict efficiency deviations in the combustion of coal blends in power plants. Combustion of blends, as compared to its single coals, shows that for some blends the behavior is non-additive in nature. Samples of coal feed and fly ashes from combustion of blends at two power plants, plus chars of the parent coals generated in a drop-tube furnace (DTF) at temperatures and heating rates similar to those found in the industrial boilers were used. Intrinsic kinetic parameters, burning profiles and petrographic characteristics of these chars correlated well with the burnout in power plants and DTF experiments. The blend combustion in a DTF reproduces both positive and negative burnout deviations from the expected weighted average. These burnout deviations have been previously attributed to parallel or parallel-series pathways of competition for oxygen. No deviations were found for blends of low rank coals of similar characteristics yielding chars close in morphology, optical texture and reactivity. Negative deviations were found for blends of coals differing moderately in rank and were interpreted as associated with long periods of competition. In this case, fly-ashes were enriched in material derived from the least reactive char, but also unburnt material attributed to the most reactive char was identified. Improved burnout compared to the weighted average was observed for blends of coals very different in rank, and interpreted as the result of a short interaction period, followed by a period where the less reactive char burns under conditions that are more favorable to its combustion. In this case, only unburned material from the least reactive char was identified in the fly-ashes. 20 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhang, L.; Li, G. H.; Wu, Y.; Hao, J. M.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.; Ancora, M. P.

    2010-02-01

    Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitators (ESP), and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM). The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92-27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66-94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  17. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. X. Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR, electrostatic precipitators (ESP, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM. The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92–27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66–94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  18. Small, modular, low-cost coal-fired power plants for the international market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zauderer, B.; Frain, B.; Borck, B. [Coal Tech Corp., Merion Station, PA (United States); Baldwin, A.L. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents recent operating results of Coal Tech`s second generation, air cooled, slagging coal combustor, and its application to power plants in the 1 to 20 MW range. This 20 MMBtu/hour combustor was installed in a new demonstration plant in Philadelphia, PA in 1995. It contains the combustion components of a 1 MWe coal fired power plant, a 17,500 lb/hour steam boiler, coal storage and feed components, and stack gas cleanup components. The plant`s design incorporates improvements resulting from 2,000 hours of testing between 1987 and 1993 on a first generation, commercial scale, air cooled combustor of equal thermal rating. Since operations began in early 1996, a total of 51 days of testing have been successfully completed. Major results include durability of the combustor`s refractory wall, excellent combustion with high ash concentration in the fuel, removal of 95% to 100% of the slag in the combustor, very little ash deposition in the boiler, major reduction of in-plant parasitic power, and simplified power system control through the use of modular designs of sub-systems and computer control. Rapid fuel switching between oil, gas, and coal and turndown of up to a factor of three was accomplished. All these features have been incorporated in advanced coal fired plant designs in the 1 to 20 MWe range. Incremental capital costs are only $100 to $200/kW higher than comparable rated gas or oil fired steam generating systems. Most of its components and subsystems can be factory assembled for very rapid field installation. The low capital, low operating costs, fuel flexibility, and compatibility with very high ash fuels, make this power system very attractive in regions of the world having domestic supplies of these fuels.

  19. Numerical and field tests of hydraulic transients at Piva power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giljen, Z

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, a sophisticated field investigation was undertaken and later, in 2011, numerical tests were completed, on all three turbine units at the Piva hydroelectric power plant. These tests were made in order to assist in making decisions about the necessary scope of the reconstruction and modernisation of the Piva hydroelectric power plant, a plant originally constructed in the mid-1970s. More specifically, the investigation included several hydraulic conditions including both the start-up and stopping of each unit, load rejection under governor control from different initial powers, as well as emergency shut-down. Numerical results were obtained using the method of characteristics in a representation that included the full flow system and the characteristics of each associated Francis turbine. The impact of load rejection and emergency shut-down on the penstock pressure and turbine speed changes are reported and numerical and experimental results are compared, showing close agreement

  20. Thermal-hydraulics for space power, propulsion, and thermal management system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krotiuk, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    The present volume discusses thermal-hydraulic aspects of current space projects, Space Station thermal management systems, the thermal design of the Space Station Free-Flying Platforms, the SP-100 Space Reactor Power System, advanced multi-MW space nuclear power concepts, chemical and electric propulsion systems, and such aspects of the Space Station two-phase thermal management system as its mechanical pumped loop and its capillary pumped loop's supporting technology. Also discussed are the startup thaw concept for the SP-100 Space Reactor Power System, calculational methods and experimental data for microgravity conditions, an isothermal gas-liquid flow at reduced gravity, low-gravity flow boiling, computations of Space Shuttle high pressure cryogenic turbopump ball bearing two-phase coolant flow, and reduced-gravity condensation

  1. Validation studies of thermal-hydraulic code for safety analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapalehto, T.

    1995-01-01

    The thesis gives an overview of the validation process for thermal-hydraulic system codes and it presents in more detail the assessment and validation of the French code CATHARE for VVER calculations. Three assessment cases are presented: loop seal clearing, core reflooding and flow in a horizontal steam generator. The experience gained during these assessment and validation calculations has been used to analyze the behavior of the horizontal steam generator and the natural circulation in the geometry of the Loviisa nuclear power plant. Large part of the work has been performed in cooperation with the CATHARE-team in Grenoble, France. (41 refs., 11 figs., 8 tabs.)

  2. Fundamental study on thermo-hydraulic behaviors during power transient, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinano, M.; Inoue, A.

    1988-01-01

    Thermo-hydraulic behaviors during power transient of nuclear reactors are studied. Boiling around test rod heated transiently forces to flow out liquid in the test section and generates high pressure pulse. In this study, it is investigated experimentally and analytically that magnitude of pressure pulse and energy conversion efficiency to the mechanical works in cases of fragmentation and non-fragmentation. In analysis, effects of increasing of heat transfer and of interaction area due to fragmentation is considered. Consequently, 1) magnitude of pressure pulse on fragmentation is about 10 times greater than that on non-fragmentation. 2) analytical model can show characteristics of fragmentation processes qualitatively. (author)

  3. New coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    Specially dedicated to coal, this edition comprises a series of articles of general interest dealing with the position of the French coalmining industry (interview with M.P. Gardent), the coal market in France, the work of CERCHAR, etc. New techniques, in-situ gasification of deep coal, gasification of coal by nuclear methods, the conversion of coal into petrol, the Emile Huchet power plant of Houilleres du Bassin de Lorraine, etc., are dealt with.

  4. Dynamics of clean coal-fired power generation development in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, Li

    2012-01-01

    Coal-fired power technology will play an important role over a long period in China. Clean coal-fired power technology is essential for the global GHG emission reduction. Recently, advanced supercritical (SC)/ultra-supercritical (USC) technology has made remarkable progress in China and greatly contributed to energy saving and emission reduction. This study analyzes the dynamics of SC/USC development in China from an integrated perspective. The result indicates that, besides the internal demand, the effective implementation of domestic public policy and technology transfer contributed greatly to the development of SC/USC technology in China. In future low carbon scenario, SC/USC coal-fired power technology might still be the most important power generation technology in China until 2040, and will have a significant application prospect in other developing countries. The analysis makes a very useful introduction for other advanced energy technology development, including a renewable energy technology, in China and other developing countries. - Highlights: ► The US/USC technology is the key clean coal-fired power technology in current China. ► The domestic policy and technology transfer largely contributed to their development. ► This makes a useful introduction for the development of renewable energy in China.

  5. The exergy underground coal gasification technology for power generation and chemical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blinderman, M.S. [Ergo Exergy Technologies Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a gasification process carried out in non-mined coal seams using injection and production wells drilled from the surface, converting coal in situ into a product gas usable for chemical processes and power generation. The UCG process developed, refined and practised by Ergo Exergy Technologies is called the Exergy UCG Technology or {epsilon}UCG{trademark} technology. This paper describes the technology and its applications. The {epsilon}UCG technology is being applied in numerous power generation and chemical projects worldwide, some of which are described. These include power projects in South Africa, India, Pakistan and Canada, as well as chemical projects in Australia and Canada. A number of {epsilon}UCG{trademark} based industrial projects are now at a feasibility usage in India, New Zealand, USA and Europe. An {epsilon}UCG{trademark} IGCC power plant will generate electricity at a much lower cost than existing fossil fuel power plants. CO{sub 2} emissions of the plant can be reduced to a level 55% less than those of a supercritical coal-fired plant and 25% less than the emissions of NG CC. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Local deposition of mercury in topsoils around coal-fired power plants: is it always true?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Martin, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Grigoratos, Theodoros; Carbonell, Gregoria; Samara, Constantini

    2014-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere through human activities, mainly fossil fuel combustion. Hg accumulations in soil are associated with atmospheric deposition, while coal-burning power plants remain the most important source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. In this study, we analyzed the Hg concentration in the topsoil of the Kozani-Ptolemais basin where four coal-fired power plants (4,065 MW) run to provide 50 % of electricity in Greece. The study aimed to investigate the extent of soil contamination by Hg using geostatistical techniques to evaluate the presumed Hg enrichment around the four power plants. Hg variability in agricultural soils was evaluated using 276 soil samples from 92 locations covering an area of 1,000 km(2). We were surprised to find a low Hg content in soil (range 1-59 μg kg(-1)) and 50 % of samples with a concentration lower than 6 μg kg(-1). The influence of mercury emissions from the four coal-fired power plants on soil was poor or virtually nil. We associate this effect with low Hg contents in the coal (1.5-24.5 μg kg(-1)) used in the combustion of these power plants (one of the most Hg-poor in the world). Despite anthropic activity in the area, we conclude that Hg content in the agricultural soils of the Kozani-Ptolemais basin is present in low concentrations.

  7. Heavy metals in Parmelia sulcata collected in the neighborhood of a coal-fired power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    The epiphytic lichen Parmelia sulcata was collected in the neighborhood of a Portuguese coal-fired power station (Sines coal power station) as monitor for heavy metal air pollution. A study of the metal contents variability along 1991 and 1992 was performed. The heavy metals Ag, As, Br, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Sb, Se, and Zn were determined by k0-based instrumental neutron activation analysis. The concentrations found in 1991 and 1992 show an accumulating process of Co and Fe (approximately 5%/mo) and of Cr and Sb (approximately 7%/mo). Low accumulation is observed for Ag, Se, and Zn (approximately 2%/mo), and no concentration variation is observed for As, Br, and Hg. It is concluded that the metal accumulation observed is the result of the nearby ash and coal deposits

  8. Commerical electric power cost studies. Capital cost addendum multi-unit coal and nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-09-01

    This report is the culmination of a study performed to develop designs and associated capital cost estimates for multi-unit nuclear and coal commercial electric power stations, and to determine the distribution of these costs among the individual units. This report addresses six different types of 2400 MWe (nominal) multi-unit stations as follows: Two Unit PWR Station-1139 MWe Each, Two Unit BWR Station-1190 MWe Each, Two Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1232 MWe Each, Two Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1243 MWe Each, Three Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-794 MWe Each, Three Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-801 MWe Each. Recent capital cost studies performed for ERDA/NRC of single unit nuclear and coal stations are used as the basis for developing the designs and costs of the multi-unit stations. This report includes the major study groundrules, a summary of single and multi-unit stations total base cost estimates, details of cost estimates at the three digit account level and plot plan drawings for each multi-unit station identified

  9. Solar power. [comparison of costs to wind, nuclear, coal, oil and gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, A. L.; Hall, Darwin C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes categories of solar technologies and identifies those that are economic. It compares the private costs of power from solar, wind, nuclear, coal, oil, and gas generators. In the southern United States, the private costs of building and generating electricity from new solar and wind power plants are less than the private cost of electricity from a new nuclear power plant. Solar power is more valuable than nuclear power since all solar power is available during peak and midpeak periods. Half of the power from nuclear generators is off-peak power and therefore is less valuable. Reliability is important in determining the value of wind and nuclear power. Damage from air pollution, when factored into the cost of power from fossil fuels, alters the cost comparison in favor of solar and wind power. Some policies are more effective at encouraging alternative energy technologies that pollute less and improve national security.

  10. Coal in Asia-Pacific. Vo1 7, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    In China, there are bottle-necks of the coal transportation capacity in the major inter-regional routes. The Chinese Government`s eighth and ninth five-year plans intend to increase the capacity. In the 9% growth case, the planned railway transport capacity will be critical. Measures are considered, as to promotion of coal dressing, transport as electric power, construction of nuclear power plants and hydraulic power plants, and construction of coal water slurry pipe lines. Japan`s coal policy includes the structural adjustment of coal mining industry, and a new policy for coal in the total energy policy. To secure the stable overseas coal supply, NEDO has a leading part in overseas coal resources development. Coal demand and supply, mining technology, mine safety, coal preparation and processing technology, and comprehensive coal utilization technology including clean coal technology in Japan are described. At present, Thailand is progressing with the seventh plan, and the development of domestic energy emphasize lignite, natural gas, and oil. Thai import demand for high-quality coal is to be increasing. Japan`s cooperation is considered to be effective for the environmental problems. 12 figs., 40 tabs.

  11. Committed CO2 Emissions of China's Coal-fired Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suqin, J.

    2016-12-01

    The extent of global warming is determined by the cumulative effects of CO2 in the atmosphere. Coal-fired power plants, the largest anthropogenic source of CO2 emissions, produce large amount of CO2 emissions during their lifetimes of operation (committed emissions), which thus influence the future carbon emission space under specific targets on mitigating climate change (e.g., the 2 degree warming limit relative to pre-industrial levels). Comprehensive understanding of committed CO2 emissions for coal-fired power generators is urgently needed in mitigating global climate change, especially in China, the largest global CO2emitter. We calculated China's committed CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generators installed during 1993-2013 and evaluated their impact on future emission spaces at the provincial level, by using local specific data on the newly installed capacities. The committed CO2 emissions are calculated as the product of the annual coal consumption from newly installed capacities, emission factors (CO2emissions per unit crude coal consumption) and expected lifetimes. The sensitivities about generators lifetimes and the drivers on provincial committed emissions are also analyzed. Our results show that these relatively recently installed coal-fired power generators will lead to 106 Gt of CO2 emissions over the course of their lifetimes, which is more than three times the global CO2 emissions from fossil fuels in 2010. More than 80% (85 Gt) of their total committed CO2 will be emitted after 2013, which are referred to as the remaining emissions. Due to the uncertainties of generators lifetime, these remaining emissions would increase by 45 Gt if the lifetimes of China's coal-fired power generators were prolonged by 15 years. Furthermore, the remaining emissions are very different among various provinces owing to local developments and policy disparities. Provinces with large amounts of secondary industry and abundant coal reserves have higher committed

  12. Coal and carbon dioxide reduction: What does it mean for our power production future?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is not a pollutant. It is a limiting nutrient, like water and oxygen, necessary for life to exist on earth. It helps retain heat from the sun keeping the earth comfortably warm. Though scientifically controversial, some segments of the public are nonetheless concerned that increasing amounts of carbon dioxide (and other gases) emitted by mankind's activity may contribute to what they perceive as mankind-induced global warming trend, the so-called open-quotes greenhouse effect.close quotes The 1992 Earth Summit in Rio De Janeiro addressed this, and in response, the U.S. signed agreements to roll back its greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels. Carbon dioxide is of concern as a greenhouse gas because of the quantity produced by the combustion of fossil fuels. Because coal is mostly carbon, when burned, it produces more carbon dioxide per Btu of energy released of any of the common fossil fuels. With 54 percent of our electricity generated by coal, capping carbon dioxide emissions without disrupting the economy will be no mean feat for the United States. The U.S. also relies on its huge reserves for its energy independence, so altering policies that affect coal use must be carefully assessed. A growing population and economy demand more energy. One can use other fuels than coal: natural gas releases only 56 percent the carbon dioxide coal does, and nuclear energy produces none. One can also employ higher efficiency coal plants to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide produced for a given power output. The highest efficiency coal units projected are magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) plants the focus of this conference which are projected to produce electricity at 60 percent energy efficiency, extraordinary by today's standards. Does this mean that the Rio de Janeiro agreement then encourages the earlier introduction of MHD and other emerging high efficiency coal technologies?

  13. Exergetic and Parametric Study of a Solar Aided Coal-Fired Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Hu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A solar-aided coal-fired power plant realizes the integration of a fossil fuel (coal or gas and clean energy (solar. In this paper, a conventional 600 MW coal-fired power plant and a 600 MW solar-aided coal-fired power plant have been taken as the study case to understand the merits of solar-aided power generation (SAPG technology. The plants in the case study have been analyzed by using the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics principles. The solar irradiation and load ratio have been considered in the analysis. We conclude that if the solar irradiation was 925 W/m2 and load ratio of the SAPG plant was 100%, the exergy efficiency would be 44.54% and the energy efficiency of the plant (46.35%. It was found that in the SAPG plant the largest exergy loss was from the boiler, which accounted for about 76.74% of the total loss. When the load ratio of the unit remains at 100%, and the solar irradiation varies from 500 W/m2 to 1,100 W/m2, the coal savings would be in the range of 8.6 g/kWh to 15.8 g/kWh. If the solar irradiation were kept at 925 W/m2 while the load ratio of the plant changed from 30% to 100%, the coal savings could be in the range of 11.99 g/kWh to 13.75 g/kWh.

  14. Radiological impact assessment of coal and nuclear base power plants in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, T.V.

    2007-01-01

    Environmental problems concerned with the use of coal as a fuel in thermal power plants (TPS) is due to the production of fly ash. Coal contains tracers of primordial radionuclide and its burning is one of the sources of technologically enhanced exposure from natural radionuclides. When it is burnt in TPSs, the fly ash, emitted through the stack is enriched in radionuclide and so combustion of coal on a large scale for thermal power generation assumes importance. Many of these TPSs are located in thickly populated areas. Radioactivity content of the coal from the coalfields of eastern parts of the country is found to be higher than that of other coalfields. In India coal combustion accounts nearly 73% of the total installed capacity for power generation. A sample study was carried out by this center on coal and fly ash samples collected from more than 35 TPS spread all over the country with a total installed capacity of 10000 MW(e), for their-radioactivity content. Radiation doses to the population residing within 90 km radius of each TPS have been computed. Besides another set of 15 TPSs were studied for thermal pollution emission and trace element concentration. Operation of these TPSs has resulted in effective dose commitments from doses to bones, lungs and thyroid of 200 man-Sv.y -1 and from doses to the whole body, of 70 man-Sv.y -1 . Dose commitments to the population living within 90 km radius of the TPSs and NPPs in India have been computed and have been compared. Attempt is made to assess the inhalation dose from the radioactivity released from a typical 500 MW(e) TPS and its impact related to chemical pollutants. Impact in terms of Environmental Quality Index (EQI) due to conventional pollutions have been computed and compared with those due to the nuclear power plants (NPPs). Paper gives the summary of the study. (author)

  15. 21st century energy solutions. Coal and Power Systems FY2001 program briefing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The continued strength of American's economy depends on the availability of affordable energy, which has long been provided by the Nations rich supplies of fossil fuels. Forecasts indicate that fossil fuels will continue to meet much of the demand for economical electricity and transportation fuels for decades to come. It is projected that natural gas, oil, and coal will supply nearly 90% of US energy in 2020, with coal fueling around 50% of the electricity. It is essential to develop ways to achieve the objectives for a cleaner environment while using these low-cost, high-value fuels. A national commitment to improved technologies-for use in the US and abroad-is the solution. The Coal and Power Systems program is responding to this commitment by offering energy solutions to advance the clean, efficient, and affordable use of the Nations abundant fossil fuel resources. These solutions include: (1) Vision 21-A multi-product, pollution-free energy plant-producing electricity, fuels, and/or industry heat-could extract 80% or more of the energy value of coal and 85% or more of the energy value of natural gas; (2) Central Power Systems-Breakthrough turbines and revolutionary new gasification technologies that burn less coal and gas to obtain energy, while reducing emissions; (3) Distributed Generation-Fuel cell technology providing highly efficient, clean modular power; (4) Fuels-The coproduction of coal-derived transportation fuels and power from gasification-based technology; (5) Carbon Sequestration-Capturing greenhouse gases from the exhaust gases of combustion or other sources, or from the atmosphere itself, and storing them for centuries or recycling them into useful products; and (6) Advanced Research-Going beyond conventional thinking in the areas of computational science, biotechnology, and advanced materials

  16. Update on the modernization of 200 MW hard coal power plants in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, T.E.; Kopec, M.

    1993-01-01

    In June 1990, the Coalition of 200 MW, Hard Coal, Polish Power Plants representing an installed base of 10,240 MW, including 45 units of 200 MW, signed an agreement with the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Power Generation Business Unit, based in Orlando, Florida, to cooperate on developing a modernization program for the 200 MW units. Program funding was obtained with The United States Trade Development Program (TDP) providing approximately 2/3 of the cost, and the balance provided by Westinghouse. On March 5, 1992, the Polish-American (51% Westinghouse, 49% Seven (7) Hard Coal Power Plants), Joint Venture Company, MODELPOL, Ltd. (Polish acronym for 'MODernizacja ELektrowni POLskich' or Modernization of Polish Power Plants) was established with the goal to implement not only technically but financially the recommendations of the Modernization Study. The mission given MODELPOL, Ltd. by their Polish-American Shareholders was to: develop the specific modernization programs for each hard coal power plant; assist in identifying and obtaining the financial resources required for implementation; and provide technological preventative maintenance services to improve unit availability. Within these aims was the target to reduce SO 2 , and particulate emissions. The first program is taking place at the Laziska Power Plant, followed by Rybnik. Further projects are in the planning stages. Finance is a constant problem, this should be eased by the restructuring of the power industry. Future programmes include connection to the European Community Power Grid. 5 figs

  17. Comparative health risk assessment of nuclear power and coal power in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Tianshan; Li Yunxing; Fang Dong; Li Hong

    1998-01-01

    The public health risk of ionising radiation released from the coal-fired energy chain, 20 deaths (GW a) -1 , is about 18 times that of the nuclear energy chain, 1.1 deaths (GW a) -1 , in China. The main contributors to the fatality risk for the former are the public dose caused by the use of coal ash and the occupational exposure caused by radon and its progeny in coal mines. The total health risk (but excluding low probability/high consequence accidents) of the coal-fired energy chain, 57.1 deaths (GW a) -1 , is about 12 times of that of the nuclear energy chain, 4.6 deaths (GW a) -1 . The health risk of coal-fired energy chain could be significantly reduced if technique and management were improved. Even then the risk of the coal-fired energy chain is about 4.4 times that of the nuclear energy chain. (author)

  18. Qualitative analysis of coal combusted in boilers of the thermal power plants in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić Slavko N.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have looked into the qualitative analysis of coals in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B-H. The analysis includes the following characteristics: moisture (W, ash (A, combustible matter (Vg and lower heating value (Hd. From the statistic parameters we have determined: absolute range (R, arithmetic mean (X, standard deviation (S and variations coefficient (Cv. It has been shown that the coal characteristics (W, A, Vg, Hd have normal distribution. The analysis show that there are considerable deviations of ash characteristics: moisture (36.23%, ash (34.21%, combustible matter (16.15% and lower heating value (25.16% from the mean value which is shown by the variations coefficient (Cv. Large oscilations of mass portions: W, A, Vg and Hd around the mean value can adversely influence the function of a boiler plant and an electric filter plant in thermal power plants in B-H in which the mentioned types of coal burn. Large ash oscilations (34.21% around the mean value point out to the inability of application of dry procedures of desulphurisation of smoke gasses (FGD due to the additional quantity of ash. It has been shown that the characteristics of Bosnian types of coal do not deviate a lot from the characteristics of coal in the surrounding countries (coals of Serbia and Monte Negro. The results can be used in analysis of coal combustion in thermal power plants, optimisation of electrical-filtre, reduction of SO2 in smoke gas and other practical problems.

  19. Appropriate feed-in tariff of solar–coal hybrid power plant for China’s Inner Mongolia Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yawen; Hong, Hui; Jin, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The potential for the first 10 MWe level solar–coal hybrid power plant is estimated. • Economic feasibility analysis is performed based on the discounted cash flow model. • The appropriate feed-in tariff prices of different scenarios are provided. • The results provide suggestions for the development of solar–coal hybrid technology. - Abstract: Middle-temperature solar heat can be used to preheat feed water before it enters the boiler in a coal-fired power plant. Previous studies have shown that this approach can improve the performance of coal-fired power plants. The present study estimates the first solar–coal hybrid power plant in the Inner Mongolia Region. It will have a potential net solar power output of 10 MW on the basis of the operating data of a traditional 200 MW coal-fired power plant. Economic feasibility analysis is then performed on the solar–coal hybrid power plant. The appropriate feed-in tariff prices are provided on the basis of different financing scenarios, solar field cost, collector area size, and other conditions. The results obtained in this study are expected to provide suggestions for the further development of solar–coal hybrid technology.

  20. Development of Heavy-Duty and High-Precision Hydraulic Manipulator for Inspection, Maintenance and Decommission of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Uk; Seo, Yong-chil; Jung, Kyung Min; Kim, Chang-hoi; Choi, Byung-seon; Moon, Jei-kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Robotic manipulators have been used for inspection, maintenance and decommission of nuclear power plants because nuclear power plants have high radiation and human workers cannot easily access the plants. And also, to inspecting, maintaining and decommissioning nuclear power plants require various manipulators. Only one manipulator cannot response to many required tasks. The existing manipulators that was used at nuclear power plants can only operate only focused specific task and cannot be used at several tasks. The actuators used at manipulators are varied and many companies sell actuators depending on power, torque and speed. However, the commercial product is not standardized. Therefore, the development of manipulator is time consuming and expensive. The essential item of a manipulator is an actuator module. If actuator module is standardized, it’s easier to develop a manipulator and also maintain a manipulator. Recently, manipulator having high-radiation, high-duty and high-precision is necessary to inspection, maintain and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Hydraulic actuator has been used to development high-duty manipulator. But control performance of a hydraulic actuator is not better than that of an electric actuator so that hydraulic manipulator cannot easily satisfy the required precision. In this paper, we developed high-duty and high-precision actuator modules and hydraulic manipulator using the developed actuator modules. The developed hydraulic manipulator have a payload of 250kg and a precision of ±1mm. Four modularized hydraulic actuator modules were developed for inspection, maintenance and decommission. Using the developed actuator modules, the manipulator for decommissioning is easily developed. And also, various manipulators having different kinematic structure for specific tasks will be easily developed by using hydraulic modules.

  1. Development of Heavy-Duty and High-Precision Hydraulic Manipulator for Inspection, Maintenance and Decommission of Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Uk; Seo, Yong-chil; Jung, Kyung Min; Kim, Chang-hoi; Choi, Byung-seon; Moon, Jei-kwon

    2016-01-01

    Robotic manipulators have been used for inspection, maintenance and decommission of nuclear power plants because nuclear power plants have high radiation and human workers cannot easily access the plants. And also, to inspecting, maintaining and decommissioning nuclear power plants require various manipulators. Only one manipulator cannot response to many required tasks. The existing manipulators that was used at nuclear power plants can only operate only focused specific task and cannot be used at several tasks. The actuators used at manipulators are varied and many companies sell actuators depending on power, torque and speed. However, the commercial product is not standardized. Therefore, the development of manipulator is time consuming and expensive. The essential item of a manipulator is an actuator module. If actuator module is standardized, it’s easier to develop a manipulator and also maintain a manipulator. Recently, manipulator having high-radiation, high-duty and high-precision is necessary to inspection, maintain and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. Hydraulic actuator has been used to development high-duty manipulator. But control performance of a hydraulic actuator is not better than that of an electric actuator so that hydraulic manipulator cannot easily satisfy the required precision. In this paper, we developed high-duty and high-precision actuator modules and hydraulic manipulator using the developed actuator modules. The developed hydraulic manipulator have a payload of 250kg and a precision of ±1mm. Four modularized hydraulic actuator modules were developed for inspection, maintenance and decommission. Using the developed actuator modules, the manipulator for decommissioning is easily developed. And also, various manipulators having different kinematic structure for specific tasks will be easily developed by using hydraulic modules

  2. Partitioning behaviour of natural radionuclides during combustion of coal in thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, S.K.; Tiwari, M.; Bhangare, R.C.; Ajmal, P.Y.; Pandit, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    All fossil fuels contain low levels of naturally occurring radioactive substances. The environmental impact of radionuclide-containing waste products from coal combustion is an important issue. These radionuclides vaporize in the hot portions of the coal combustor and then return to the solid phase in cooler downstream zones. Indian coal used in power plants generally has high ash yield (35-45%) and is of low quality. In the burning process of coal, minerals undergo thermal decomposition, fusion, disintegration, and agglomeration. A major portion of elements in the boiler enter into slag or bottom ash, and the rest of the inorganic materials find their way into the flue gas, in fly ash or vapor. Fly and bottom ash are significant sources of exposure to these radionuclides. In the present study, coal and ash samples collected from six thermal power stations were analyzed to determine their natural radioactivity content and the partitioning behavior of these radionuclides was carried out by tracing their activities in fly and bottom ashes. The partitioning of radionuclides is strongly dependent on the size of associated ash particle. Polonium-210 was mostly associated with the finest fraction and showed large variation with particle size whereas 232 Th showed least dependence on the particle size. The high activities of all radionuclides in fly ashes than that of bottom ashes thus may be due to strong affinity of the nuclides towards the finer particle fractions. All the radionuclide distribution favored small particle sizes

  3. ANN-GA based optimization of a high ash coal-fired supercritical power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh, M.V.J.J.; Reddy, K.S.; Kolar, Ajit Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Neuro-genetic power plant optimization is found to be an efficient methodology. → Advantage of neuro-genetic algorithm is the possibility of on-line optimization. → Exergy loss in combustor indicates the effect of coal composition on efficiency. -- Abstract: The efficiency of coal-fired power plant depends on various operating parameters such as main steam/reheat steam pressures and temperatures, turbine extraction pressures, and excess air ratio for a given fuel. However, simultaneous optimization of all these operating parameters to achieve the maximum plant efficiency is a challenging task. This study deals with the coupled ANN and GA based (neuro-genetic) optimization of a high ash coal-fired supercritical power plant in Indian climatic condition to determine the maximum possible plant efficiency. The power plant simulation data obtained from a flow-sheet program, 'Cycle-Tempo' is used to train the artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the energy input through fuel (coal). The optimum set of various operating parameters that result in the minimum energy input to the power plant is then determined by coupling the trained ANN model as a fitness function with the genetic algorithm (GA). A unit size of 800 MWe currently under development in India is considered to carry out the thermodynamic analysis based on energy and exergy. Apart from optimizing the design parameters, the developed model can also be used for on-line optimization when quick response is required. Furthermore, the effect of various coals on the thermodynamic performance of the optimized power plant is also determined.

  4. Hazardous air pollutants emission from coal and oil-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deepak Pudasainee; Jeong-Hun Kim; Sang-Hyeob Lee; Ju-Myon Park; Ha-Na Jang; Geum-Ju Song; Yong-Chil Seo [Yonsei University, Wonju (Republic of Korea). Department of Environmental Engineering

    2010-03-15

    Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) emission characteristics from coal (anthracite, bituminous) and oil-fired power plants were studied in order to control pollutants by formulating US maximum achievable control technology (MACT)-like regulation in Korea. Sampling and analysis were carried out according to either Korean standard test method or US EPA method. Relatively lower levels of NOx and SOx were emitted from plants burning bituminous than the anthracite coal. Less dust was emitted from oil-fired power plants. Mercury, lead, and chromium were dominant in coal-fired power plants, following which, nickel and chromium were emitted from oil-fired power plants. The major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from coal-fired plants were 1,2-dichloroethane, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, trichloro-ethylene. The emission of mercury and other heavy metals in flue gas was attributed to fuel types, operating conditions, residence time in the control devices and the type of air pollution control devices. After emission tests in the field and on analysis of the continuous emission monitoring data collected from facilities under operation and consideration of other various factors, management guidelines will be suggested with special reference to US MACT-like regulation.

  5. Proceedings of the advanced coal-fired power systems `95 review meeting, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, H.M.; Mollot, D.J.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1995-06-01

    This report contains papers which were presented at the advanced coal-fired power sytems review meeting. This is volume II. Topics include: hot gas filter issues, hazardous air pollutants, sorbent development, and separation technologies. Individual papers were processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

  6. Occupational exposures during routine activities in coal-fueled power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mona J. Bird; David L. MacIntosh; Phillip L. Williams [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Environmental Health Science

    2004-06-15

    Limited information is available on occupational exposures during routine, nonoutage work activities in coal-fueled power plants. This study evaluated occupational exposures to the principal contaminants in the facilities, including respirable dust (coal dust), arsenic, noise, asbestos, and heat stress. The data were collected over a 3-month period, during the summer of 2001, in 5 representative power plants of a large southeastern power-generating company. From 4 of the 5 facilities, 392 air samples and 302 noise samples were collected with approximately 50 respirable coal dust, 32 arsenic, 15 asbestos, and 70 noise samples from each of the 4 plants. One of the previously surveyed facilities was also evaluated for heat stress, and 1 additional coal-fueled power plant was surveyed for a total of 20 personal heat stress samples. Of the nearly 400 air samples collected, only 1 exceeded the allowable occupational exposure value. For the noise samples, 55 were equal to or greater than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hour hearing conservation program level of 85 dBA, and 12 were equal to or greater than the OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure level of 90 dBA. The data concluded that some work sites were above the heat stress ceiling values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Four of the 20 employees personally monitored exceeded the recommended limits for heart rate or body core temperature.

  7. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure by radioactive emissions of coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobi, W.

    1981-03-01

    On the basis of measurements of the radioactive emissions of a 300 MW coal-fired power plant and of a 600 MW lignite-fired power plant the expected activity increase in air and soil in the environment of both plants is estimated and compared with the normal, natural activity level. Due to these emissions it results for the point of maximum immission a committed effective dose equivalent per GW x a of about 0.2 mrem = 0.002 mSv for the coal-fired plant and of about 0.04 mrem = 0.0004 mSv for the lignite-fired plant. This dose is caused to nearly equal parts by inhalation, ingestion and external γ-radiation. The normalized effective dose equivalent in the environment of the modern coal-fired power plant is in the same order of magnitude like that of a modern pressurized water reactor. The total, collective effective dose equivalent commitment by the annual radioactive emissions of coal-fired power plants in the F.R.Germany is estimated to 2000-6000 Man x rem = 20-60 Man x Sv. This corresponds to a mean per caput-dose in the population of the F.R.Germany of about 0.03-0.1 mrem = 0.0003-0.001 mSv; this is about 0.02-0.06% of the mean normal natural radiation exposure of the population. (orig.) [de

  8. Transport of the radionuclides and doses for some coal fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antic, D.; Telenta, B.; Sokcic-Kostic, M.

    1994-01-01

    The radiation exposure of the public in the vicinity of the selected coal fired power plants near from Belgrade has been studied. The contents of natural radionuclides according to experimental data have been used and dose rates from inhalation have been calculated using a two dimensional version of the cloud model. (author)

  9. CPICOR{trademark}: Clean power from integrated coal-ore reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintrell, R.; Miller, R.N.; Harbison, E.J.; LeFevre, M.O.; England, K.S.

    1997-12-31

    The US steel industry, in order to maintain its basic iron production, is thus moving to lower coke requirements and to the cokeless or direct production of iron. The US Department of Energy (DOE), in its Clean Coal Technology programs, has encouraged the move to new coal-based technology. The steel industry, in its search for alternative direct iron processes, has been limited to a single process, COREX{reg_sign}. The COREX{reg_sign} process, though offering commercial and environmental acceptance, produces a copious volume of offgas which must be effectively utilized to ensure an economical process. This volume, which normally exceeds the internal needs of a single steel company, offers a highly acceptable fuel for power generation. The utility companies seeking to offset future natural gas cost increases are interested in this clean fuel. The COREX{reg_sign} smelting process, when integrated with a combined cycle power generation facility (CCPG) and a cryogenic air separation unit (ASU), is an outstanding example of a new generation of environmentally compatible and highly energy efficient Clean Coal Technologies. This combination of highly integrated electric power and hot metal coproduction, has been designated CPICOR{trademark}, Clean Power from Integrated Coal/Ore Reduction.

  10. Environmental impact of coal industry and thermal power plants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, U C

    2004-01-01

    Coal is the only natural resource and fossil fuel available in abundance in India. Consequently, it is used widely as a thermal energy source and also as fuel for thermal power plants producing electricity. India has about 90,000 MW installed capacity for electricity generation, of which more than 70% is produced by coal-based thermal power plants. Hydro-electricity contributes about 25%, and the remaining is mostly from nuclear power plants (NPPs). The problems associated with the use of coal are low calorific value and very high ash content. The ash content is as high as 55-60%, with an average value of about 35-40%. Further, most of the coal is located in the eastern parts of the country and requires transportation over long distances, mostly by trains, which run on diesel. About 70% oil is imported and is a big drain on India's hard currency. In the foreseeable future, there is no other option likely to be available, as the nuclear power programme envisages installing 20,000 MWe by the year 2020, when it will still be around 5% of the installed capacity. Hence, attempts are being made to reduce the adverse environmental and ecological impact of coal-fired power plants. The installed electricity generating capacity has to increase very rapidly (at present around 8-10% per annum), as India has one of the lowest per capita electricity consumptions. Therefore, the problems for the future are formidable from ecological, radio-ecological and pollution viewpoints. A similar situation exists in many developing countries of the region, including the People's Republic of China, where coal is used extensively. The paper highlights some of these problems with the data generated in the author's laboratory and gives a brief description of the solutions being attempted. The extent of global warming in this century will be determined by how developing countries like India manage their energy generation plans. Some of the recommendations have been implemented for new plants

  11. A study on reliability of electro-hydraulic governor control system for large steam turbine in power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Gu Hwa; Lee, Tae Hoon; Moon, Seung Jae; Lee, Jae Heon; Yoo, Ho Seon

    2008-01-01

    In this work, the right management procedure for hydraulic power oil will be discussed and suggested. A thermal power plant turbine should respond to the change of load status. However, to satisfy the frequency of alternating current, the revolution per minute should be kept constant. Therefore, by controlling the flow rate of the steam to the turbine, the governor satisfies the load variation without alternating the revolution per minutes of the turbine. To protect the governor, the hydraulic power unit should be managed carefully by controlling the quality and the flow rate of the oil

  12. Fluid dynamics of acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation in hydraulic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, A.

    2017-03-01

    Cavitation is the transition from a liquid to a vapour phase, due to a drop in pressure to the level of the vapour tension of the fluid. Two kinds of cavitation have been reviewed here: acoustic cavitation and hydrodynamic cavitation. As acoustic cavitation in engineering systems is related to the propagation of waves through a region subjected to liquid vaporization, the available expressions of the sound speed are discussed. One of the main effects of hydrodynamic cavitation in the nozzles and orifices of hydraulic power systems is a reduction in flow permeability. Different discharge coefficient formulae are analysed in this paper: the Reynolds number and the cavitation number result to be the key fluid dynamical parameters for liquid and cavitating flows, respectively. The latest advances in the characterization of different cavitation regimes in a nozzle, as the cavitation number reduces, are presented. The physical cause of choked flows is explained, and an analogy between cavitation and supersonic aerodynamic flows is proposed. The main approaches to cavitation modelling in hydraulic power systems are also reviewed: these are divided into homogeneous-mixture and two-phase models. The homogeneous-mixture models are further subdivided into barotropic and baroclinic models. The advantages and disadvantages of an implementation of the complete Rayleigh-Plesset equation are examined.

  13. Shock Mechanism Analysis and Simulation of High-Power Hydraulic Shock Wave Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqiu Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The simulation of regular shock wave (e.g., half-sine can be achieved by the traditional rubber shock simulator, but the practical high-power shock wave characterized by steep prepeak and gentle postpeak is hard to be realized by the same. To tackle this disadvantage, a novel high-power hydraulic shock wave simulator based on the live firing muzzle shock principle was proposed in the current work. The influence of the typical shock characteristic parameters on the shock force wave was investigated via both theoretical deduction and software simulation. According to the obtained data compared with the results, in fact, it can be concluded that the developed hydraulic shock wave simulator can be applied to simulate the real condition of the shocking system. Further, the similarity evaluation of shock wave simulation was achieved based on the curvature distance, and the results stated that the simulation method was reasonable and the structural optimization based on software simulation is also beneficial to the increase of efficiency. Finally, the combination of theoretical analysis and simulation for the development of artillery recoil tester is a comprehensive approach in the design and structure optimization of the recoil system.

  14. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the coal combustion in a boiler of a thermal power plant using different kinds of the manufactured coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Cristiano Vitorino da; Lazzari, Luis Carlos; Ziemniczak, Aline; Beskow, Arthur Bortolin [Universidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missoes (URI), Erechim, RS (Brazil)], E-mails: cristiano@uricer.edu.br, arthur@uricer.edu.br

    2010-07-01

    The state of the art in computational fluid dynamics and the availability of commercial codes encourage numerical studies of combustion processes. In the present work the commercial software CFX Ansys Europe Ltd. has been used to study the combustion of pulverized coal into the boiler of a thermal power plant. The objective of this work is to obtain new information for process optimization. Different kinds of manufactured coals were numerically tested in a thermal power plant installed at the southeast region of Brazil. The simulations were made using the actual burning conditions of the boiler. Results include the residence time of the fuel into the combustion chamber, temperature fields, flow fluid mechanics, heat transfer and pollutant formation, as well as the CO and NOx concentrations, aiming to determinate the best conditions to burn the investigated coals. The numerical investigation of the phenomena involved on the coal combustion processes are used to complete the experimental information obtained in operational tests. Considering the characteristics of different kinds of manufactured coals used, with this study is possible to achieve the most efficient boiler operation parameters, with decreasing costs of electricity production and reduction of environmentally harmful emissions. It was verified that the different kinds of manufactured coals demand different operation conditions, and the kind of manufactured coal used on the combustion process has a significant effect on the pollutant formation, mainly in rel action with ash concentration. (author)

  15. Energy conservation strategy in Hydraulic Power Packs using Variable Frequency Drive IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, S.; Ashok, S. Denis; Nagaraj, Shanmukha; Reddy, M. Lohith Kumar; Naulakha, Niranjan Kumar; Adithyakumar, C. R.

    2018-02-01

    At present, energy consumption is to such an extent that if the same trend goes on then in the future at some point of time, the energy sources will all be exploited. Energy conservation in a hydraulic power pack refers to the reduction in the energy consumed by the power pack. Many experiments have been conducted to reduce the energy consumption and one of those methods is by introducing a variable frequency drive. The main objective of the present work is to reduce the energy consumed by the hydraulic power pack using variable frequency drive. Variable Frequency drive is used to vary the speed of the motor by receiving electrical signals from the pressure switch which acts as the feedback system. Using this concept, the speed of the motor can be varied between the specified limits. In the present work, a basic hydraulic power pack and a variable frequency drive based hydraulic power pack were designed and compared both of them with the results obtained. The comparison was based on the power consumed, rise in temperature, noise levels, and flow of oil through pressure relief valve, total oil flow during loading cycle. By comparing both the circuits, it is found that for the proposed system, consumption of power reduces by 78.4% and is as powerful as the present system.

  16. Steady state thermal hydraulic analysis of a boiling water reactor core, for various power distributions, using computer code THABNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkat Raj, V.; Saha, D.

    1976-01-01

    The core of a boiling water reactor may see different power distributions during its operational life. How some of the typical power distributions affect some of the thermal hydraulic parameters such as pressure drop minimum critical heat flux ratio, void distribution etc. has been studied using computer code THABNA. The effect of an increase in the leakage flow has also been analysed. (author)

  17. Scrubbing system design for CO{sub 2} capture in coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heischkamp, Elizabeth

    2017-07-01

    Within the last decades a continuous tightening of environmental regulations has been observed in several countries around the world. These include restriction of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions, since they are considered responsible for intensifying global warming. Coal-fired power plants represent a good possibility for capturing CO{sub 2} before it is emitted in the atmosphere, thereby contributing to combat global warming. This work focuses on reducing the CO{sub 2} emissions of such a power plant by 90 %. For this purpose a hard coal power plant is retrofitted with a chemical absorption using different solutions of piperazine promoted potassium carbonate. The resulting power plant's efficiency losses have been accounted for. A comparison of different scenarios such as the variation of operating parameters offer an insight in detecting suitable operating conditions that will allow to minimize efficiency penalties. Simulation details are provided along with a technical and an economic analysis.

  18. Scrubbing system design for CO2 capture in coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heischkamp, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Within the last decades a continuous tightening of environmental regulations has been observed in several countries around the world. These include restriction of anthropogenic CO 2 emissions, since they are considered responsible for intensifying global warming. Coal-fired power plants represent a good possibility for capturing CO 2 before it is emitted in the atmosphere, thereby contributing to combat global warming. This work focuses on reducing the CO 2 emissions of such a power plant by 90 %. For this purpose a hard coal power plant is retrofitted with a chemical absorption using different solutions of piperazine promoted potassium carbonate. The resulting power plant's efficiency losses have been accounted for. A comparison of different scenarios such as the variation of operating parameters offer an insight in detecting suitable operating conditions that will allow to minimize efficiency penalties. Simulation details are provided along with a technical and an economic analysis.

  19. Environmental aspects of influence of coal used in power plants on the vital and working environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovikj, Kostadin

    1997-01-01

    The quantity of the coal needed for production of electric energy and its quality are real causes of interest, above all because of the economic component in the protection of the living and working environment. In this work an effort is made, for the first time, some elements of the ecologization of the thermal energetic processes to be perceived. The methodology of perceiving and calculating the economical consequences of the coal burning in thermal power stations in Republic of Macedonia is stressed. In the course of the work some exact examples of the level of the economical consequences of its influence on the air, soil and water are presented. (Author)

  20. Economic evaluation of environmental externalities in China’s coal-fired power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Cai, Qiong; Ma, Chunbo; Hu, Yanan; Luo, Kaiyan; Li, William

    2017-01-01

    Serious environmental externalities exist in China’s power industry. Environmental economics theory suggests that the evaluation of environmental externality is the basis of designing an efficient regulation. The purposes of this study are: (1) to identify Chinese respondents’ preferences for green development of electric power industry and the socio-economic characteristics behind them; (2) to investigate the different attitudes of the respondents towards pollution and CO_2 reduction; (3) to quantitatively evaluate the environmental cost of China’s coal-fired power generation. Based on the method of choice experiments (CE) and the 411 questionnaires with 2466 data points, we found that Chinese respondents prefer PM2.5, SO_2 and NO_x reduction to CO_2 reduction and that the environment cost of coal-fired power plants in China is 0.30 yuan per kWh. In addition, we found that the socio-economic characteristics of income, education, gender, and environmental awareness have significant impacts on respondents’ choices. These findings indicate that the environmental cost of coal-fired power generation is a significant factor that requires great consideration in the formulation of electric power development policies. In addition, importance should also be attached to the implementation of green power price policy and enhancement of environmental protection awareness. - Highlights: • Chinese respondents have willingness to pay premium for green development. • The environment cost of coal-fired power plants in China is 0.30 yuan/kwh. • Chinese respondents prefer PM2.5, SO_2 and NO_x reduction to CO_2 reduction. • Environmental awareness has significant impacts on respondents’ preferences. • Income, education and gender affect the evaluation results.

  1. Analysis of oxy-fuel combustion power cycle utilizing a pressurized coal combustor

    OpenAIRE

    Gazzino, Marco; Hong, Jongsup; Chaudhry, Gunaranjan; Brisson II, John G; Field, Randall; Ghoniem, Ahmed F

    2009-01-01

    Growing concerns over greenhouse gas emissions have driven extensive research into new power generation cycles that enable carbon dioxide capture and sequestration. In this regard, oxy-fuel combustion is a promising new technology in which fuels are burned in an environment of oxygen and recycled combustion gases. In this paper, an oxy-fuel combustion power cycle that utilizes a pressurized coal combustor is analyzed. We show that this approach recovers more thermal energy from the flue gases...

  2. Refurbishment priorities at the Russian coal-fired power sector for cleaner energy production case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Grammelis; N. Koukouzas; G. Skodras; E. Kakaras; A. Tumanovsky; V. Kotler [Centre for Research and Technology Hellas/Institute of Solid Fuels Technology and Applications (CERTH/ISFTA), Ptolemaida (Greece)

    2006-11-15

    The paper reviews the current status of the coal-fired power sector in Russia, the prospects for renovation activities based on Clean Coal Technologies (CCT) and presents two case studies on potential refurbishment projects. Data were collected for 180 thermoelectric units with capacity higher than 100 MWe and the renovation needs of the power sector, among the retrofitting, repowering and reconstruction options, were estimated through a multi-criteria analysis. The most attractive system to renovate a power plant between the Supercritical Combustion (SC) and the Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) technologies was evaluated. The application of each of the aforementioned technologies at the Kashirskaya and Shaturskaya power plants was studied and their replication potential in the Russian coal-fired power plant park was examined. Nowadays, the installed capacity of coal-fired power plants in the Russian Federation is 29.3 GWe, while they account for about 19% of the total electricity generation in the area. The low efficiency and especially the advanced age are the determinant factors for renovation applications at the Russian units. Even in the more conservative modernization scenario, over 30% of the thermoelectric units have to be repowered or reconstructed. Concrete proposals about the profitable and reliable operation of two Russian thermoelectric units with minimized environmental effects were elaborated. A new unit of 315 MWe with supercritical steam parameters and reburning for NOx abatement is envisaged to upgrade Unit 1 of Kashirskaya power station, while new circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boilers of the same steam generation is the most promising renovation option for the boilers of Unit 1 in Shaturskaya power station. 11 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-09-30

    A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The

  4. Thermal-Hydraulic Performance of Cross-Shaped Spiral Fuel in High-Power-Density BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conboy, Thomas; Hejzlar, Pavel

    2006-01-01

    Power up-rating of existing nuclear reactors promises to be an area of great study for years to come. One of the major approaches to efficiently increasing power density is by way of advanced fuel design, and cross-shaped spiral-fuel has shown such potential in previous studies. Our work aims to model the thermal-hydraulic consequences of filling a BWR core with these spiral-shaped pins. The helically-wound pins have a cross-section resembling a 4-petaled flower. They fill an assembly in a tight bundle, their dimensions chosen carefully such that the petals of neighboring pins contact each other at their outer-most extent in a self-supporting lattice, absent of grid spacers. Potential advantages of this design raise much optimism from a thermal-hydraulic perspective. These spiral rods possess about 40% larger surface area than traditional rods, resulting in increased cooling and a proportional reduction in average surface heat flux. The thin petal-like extensions help by lowering thermal resistance between the hot central region of the pin and the bulk coolant flow, decreasing the maximum fuel temperature by 200 deg. C according to Finite Element (COSMOS) models. However, COSMOS models also predict a potential problem area at the 'elbow' region of two adjoining petals, where heat flux peaking is twice that along the extensions. Preliminary VIPRE models, which account only for the surface area increase, predict a 22% increase in critical power. It is also anticipated that the spiral twist would provide the flowing coolant with an additional radial velocity component, and likely promote turbulence and mixing within an assembly. These factors are expected to provide further margin for increased power density, and are currently being incorporated into the VIPRE model. The reduction in pressure drop inherent in any core without grid-spacers is also expected to be significant in aiding core stability, though this has not yet been quantified. Spiral-fuel seems to be a

  5. Water use at pulverized coal power plants with postcombustion carbon capture and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Haibo; Rubin, Edward S; Versteeg, Peter L

    2011-03-15

    Coal-fired power plants account for nearly 50% of U.S. electricity supply and about a third of U.S. emissions of CO(2), the major greenhouse gas (GHG) associated with global climate change. Thermal power plants also account for 39% of all freshwater withdrawals in the U.S. To reduce GHG emissions from coal-fired plants, postcombustion carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems are receiving considerable attention. Current commercial amine-based capture systems require water for cooling and other operations that add to power plant water requirements. This paper characterizes and quantifies water use at coal-burning power plants with and without CCS and investigates key parameters that influence water consumption. Analytical models are presented to quantify water use for major unit operations. Case study results show that, for power plants with conventional wet cooling towers, approximately 80% of total plant water withdrawals and 86% of plant water consumption is for cooling. The addition of an amine-based CCS system would approximately double the consumptive water use of the plant. Replacing wet towers with air-cooled condensers for dry cooling would reduce plant water use by about 80% (without CCS) to about 40% (with CCS). However, the cooling system capital cost would approximately triple, although costs are highly dependent on site-specific characteristics. The potential for water use reductions with CCS is explored via sensitivity analyses of plant efficiency and other key design parameters that affect water resource management for the electric power industry.

  6. Industry perspectives on increasing the efficiency of coal-fired power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrens, I.M. [Shell Coal International, London (United Kingdom); Stenzel, W.C.

    1997-12-31

    Independent power producers will build a substantial fraction of expected new coal-fired power generation in developing countries over the coming decades. To reduce perceived risk and obtain financing for their projects, they are currently building and plan to continue to build subcritical coal-fired plants with generating efficiency below 40%. Up-to-date engineering assessment leads to the conclusion that supercritical generating technology, capable of efficiencies of up to 45%, can produce electricity at a lower total cost than conventional plants. If such plants were built in Asia over the coming decades, the savings in carbon dioxide emissions over their lifetime would be measured in billions of tons. IPPs perceive supercritical technology as riskier and higher cost than conventional technology. The truth needs to be confirmed by discussions with additional experienced power engineering companies. Better communication among the interested parties could help to overcome the IPP perception issue. Governments working together with industry might be able to identify creative financing arrangements which can encourage the use of more efficient pulverized clean coal technologies, while awaiting the commercialization of advanced clean coal technologies like gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  7. Direct energy balance based active disturbance rejection control for coal-fired power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Hua, Qingsong; Li, Donghai; Pan, Lei; Xue, Yali; Lee, Kwang Y

    2017-09-01

    The conventional direct energy balance (DEB) based PI control can fulfill the fundamental tracking requirements of the coal-fired power plant. However, it is challenging to deal with the cases when the coal quality variation is present. To this end, this paper introduces the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) to the DEB structure, where the coal quality variation is deemed as a kind of unknown disturbance that can be estimated and mitigated promptly. Firstly, the nonlinearity of a recent power plant model is analyzed based on the gap metric, which provides guidance on how to set the pressure set-point in line with the power demand. Secondly, the approximate decoupling effect of the DEB structure is analyzed based on the relative gain analysis in frequency domain. Finally, the synthesis of the DEB based ADRC control system is carried out based on multi-objective optimization. The optimized ADRC results show that the integrated absolute error (IAE) indices of the tracking performances in both loops can be simultaneously improved, in comparison with the DEB based PI control and H ∞ control system. The regulation performance in the presence of the coal quality variation is significantly improved under the ADRC control scheme. Moreover, the robustness of the proposed strategy is shown comparable with the H ∞ control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Life cycle assessment of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-based power station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jingmin; Xu, Changqing; Hong, Jinglan; Tan, Xianfeng; Chen, Wei

    2013-09-01

    A life cycle assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental and economic effects of sewage sludge co-incineration in a coal-fired power plant. The general approach employed by a coal-fired power plant was also assessed as control. Sewage sludge co-incineration technology causes greater environmental burden than does coal-based energy production technology because of the additional electricity consumption and wastewater treatment required for the pretreatment of sewage sludge, direct emissions from sludge incineration, and incinerated ash disposal processes. However, sewage sludge co-incineration presents higher economic benefits because of electricity subsidies and the income generating potential of sludge. Environmental assessment results indicate that sewage sludge co-incineration is unsuitable for mitigating the increasing pressure brought on by sewage sludge pollution. Reducing the overall environmental effect of sludge co-incineration power stations necessitates increasing net coal consumption efficiency, incinerated ash reuse rate, dedust system efficiency, and sludge water content rate. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Regulation of suspended particulate matter (SPM) in Indian coal-based thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Ishita

    Air borne particulate matter, in major Indian cities is at least three times the standard prescribed by the WHO. Coal-based thermal power plants are the major emitters of particulate matter in India. The lack of severe penalty for non-compliance with the standards has worsened the situation and thus calls for an immediate need for investment in technologies to regulate particulate emissions. My dissertation studies the optimal investment decisions in a dynamic framework, for a random sample of forty Indian coal-based power plants to abate particulate emissions. I used Linear Programming to solve the double cost minimization problem for the optimal choices of coal, boiler and pollution-control equipment. A policy analysis is done to choose over various tax policies, which would induce the firms to adopt the energy efficient as well as cost efficient technology. The aim here is to reach the WHO standards. Using the optimal switching point model I show that in a dynamic set up, switching the boiler immediately is always the cost effective option for all the power plants even if there is no policy restriction. The switch to a baghouse depends upon the policy in place. Theoretically, even though an emission tax is considered the most efficient tax, an ash tax or a coal tax can also be considered to be a good substitute especially in countries like India where monitoring costs are very high. As SPM is a local pollutant the analysis here is mainly firm specific.

  10. Benefits of coal-fired power generation with flexible CCS in a future northwest European power system with large scale wind power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wijk, Pieter Cornelis; Brouwer, Anne Sjoerd|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/330822748; Van den Broek, Machteld|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/092946895; Slot, Thijs; Stienstra, Gerard; Van der Veen, Wim; Faaij, André P C

    Coal-fired power generation with carbon capture and storage (CCS) is projected as a cost-effective technology to decarbonize the power sector. Intermittent renewables could reduce its load factor and revenues, so flexible capture unit operation strategies (flexible CCS) have been suggested to

  11. Techniques to determine ignition, flame stability and burnout of blended coals in p.f. power station boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, S.; Pohl, J.H.; Holcombe, D.; Hart, J.A. [University of Queensland, Brisbane, Qld. (Australia). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2001-07-01

    The blending of coals has become popular to improve the performance of coals, to meet specifications of power plants and to reduce the cost of coals. This article reviews the results and provides new information on ignition, flame stability, and carbon burnout studies of blended coals. The reviewed studies were conducted in laboratory-, pilot-, and full-scale facilities. The new information was taken in pilot-scale studies. The results generally show that blending a high-volatile coal with a low-volatile coal or anthracite can improve the ignition, flame stability and burnout of the blends. This paper discusses two general methods to predict the performance of blended coals: (1) experiment; and (2) indices. Laboratory- and pilot-scale tests, at least, provide a relative ranking of the combustion performance of coal/blends in power station boilers. Several indices, volatile matter content, heating value and a maceral index, can be used to predict the relative ranking of ignitability and flame stability of coals and blends. The maceral index, fuel ratio, and vitrinite reflectance can also be used to predict the absolute carbon burnout of coal and blends within limits. 59 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Atmospheric dispersion modeling of primary pollutants from electric power plants: Application to a coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlvaine, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The normal operation of a power plant generally releases pollutants to the atmosphere. The objective of this paper is to describe a modeling method to estimate the changes in air pollutant concentrations that result from these emissions. This modeling approach is applicable to coal, biomass, oil, and natural gas technologies. As an example, this paper uses a hypothetical 500 megawatt (MW) coal-fired power plant, located at a Southeast Reference site in the U.S. and at a Southwest Reference Site. The pollutants resulting from the operation of the power plant may be classified as primary (emitted directly from the plant) or secondary (formed in the atmosphere from primary pollutants). The primary pollutants of interest in this paper are nitrogen oxides (NO x , sulfur dioxide SO 2 , particulate matter and metals

  13. The geochemistry and bioreactivity of fly-ash from coal-burning power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, T.; Wlodarczyk, A.; Koshy, L.; Brown, P.; Longyi, S.; BeruBe, K. [Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Earth & Ocean Science

    2009-07-01

    Fly-ash is a byproduct of the combustion of coal in power stations for the generation of electricity. The fly-ash forms from the melting of incombustible minerals found naturally in the coal. The very high coal combustion temperatures result in the formation of microscopic glass particles from which minerals such as quartz, haematite and mullite can later recrystallize. In addition to these minerals, the glassy fly-ash contains a number of leachable metals. Mullite is a well-known material in the ceramics industry and a known respiratory hazard. Macroscopically mullite can be found in a large range of morphologies; however microscopic crystals appear to favour a fibrous habit. Fly-ash is a recognized bioreactive material in rat lung, generating hydroxyl radicals, releasing iron, and causing DNA damage. However, the mechanisms of the bioreactivity are still unclear and the relative contributions of the minerals and leachable metals to that toxicity are not well known.

  14. Generating a representative signal of coal moisture content to anticipate combustion control in thermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto-Fernandez, Ismael; Luengo-Garcia, J. Carlos; Alonso-Hidalgo, Manuela; Ponte-Gutierrez, Daniel [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, Universidad de Oviedo, Campus Universitario s/n 33203, Asturias Gijon (Spain)

    2002-06-01

    This article describes the possibilities of continuously measuring coal moisture in the boiler feeding circuit of a thermal power station so that the measurement can be used as a signal for the boiler combustion control system. To do so, in the first place, the point through which coal would be fed into the boiler was chosen. After studying the different parts of the circuit, the feeder was selected. Then, an installation was designed, at semi-industrial scale, faithfully reproducing the operation of a belt conveyor. In order to measure the moisture content, a microwave system was installed, and a large number of coal samples with different ranks and grain sizes was tested showing eventually the likelihood of the objective.

  15. CO2 emission costs and Gas/Coal competition for power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santi, Federico

    2005-01-01

    This paper demonstrates how a CO 2 emission reduction programme can change the competition between the two power production technologies which will probably dominate the future of the Italian power industry: the coal fired USC steam power plant and the natural gas fired CCGT power plant. An economic value of the CO 2 emission is calculated, in order to make the short-run-marginal-cost (or the long-run-marginal-cost). equal for both technologies, under a CO 2 emission trading scheme and following a single-plant specific CO 2 emission homogenizing approach [it

  16. Economic assessment of coal-fired and nuclear power generation in the year 2000 -Equal health hazard risk basis-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Ki Bong; Lee, Byong Whi

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of equal health hazard risk, economic assessment of nuclear was compared with that of coal for the expansion planning of electric power generation in the year 2000. In comparing health risks, the risk of coal was roughly ten times higher than that of nuclear according to various previous risk assessments of energy system. The zero risk condition can never be achievable. Therefore, only excess relative health risk of coal over nuclear was considered as social cost. The social cost of health risk was estimated by calculation of mortality and morbidity costs. Mortality cost was $250,000 and morbidity cost was $90,000 in the year 2000.(1986US$) Through Cost/Benefit Analysis, the optimal emission standards of coal-fired power generation were predicted. These were obtained at the point of least social cost for power generation. In the year 2000, the optimal emission standard of SO x was analyzed as 165ppm for coal-fired power plants in Korea. From this assessment, economic comparison of nuclear and coal in the year 2000 showed that nuclear would be more economical than coal, whereas uncertainty of future power generation cost of nuclear would be larger than that of coal. (Author)

  17. Environmental implications of United States coal exports: a comparative life cycle assessment of future power system scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnengel, Barrett; Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Bergerson, Joule

    2014-08-19

    Stricter emissions requirements on coal-fired power plants together with low natural gas prices have contributed to a recent decline in the use of coal for electricity generation in the United States. Faced with a shrinking domestic market, many coal companies are taking advantage of a growing coal export market. As a result, U.S. coal exports hit an all-time high in 2012, fueled largely by demand in Asia. This paper presents a comparative life cycle assessment of two scenarios: a baseline scenario in which coal continues to be burned domestically for power generation, and an export scenario in which coal is exported to Asia. For the coal export scenario we focus on the Morrow Pacific export project being planned in Oregon by Ambre Energy that would ship 8.8 million tons of Powder River Basin (PRB) coal annually to Asian markets via rail, river barge, and ocean vessel. Air emissions (SOx, NOx, PM10 and CO2e) results assuming that the exported coal is burned for electricity generation in South Korea are compared to those of a business as usual case in which Oregon and Washington's coal plants, Boardman and Centralia, are retrofitted to comply with EPA emissions standards and continue their coal consumption. Findings show that although the environmental impacts of shipping PRB coal to Asia are significant, the combination of superior energy efficiency among newer South Korean coal-fired power plants and lower emissions from U.S. replacement of coal with natural gas could lead to a greenhouse gas reduction of 21% in the case that imported PRB coal replaces other coal sources in this Asian country. If instead PRB coal were to replace natural gas or nuclear generation in South Korea, greenhouse gas emissions per unit of electricity generated would increase. Results are similar for other air emissions such as SOx, NOx and PM. This study provides a framework for comparing energy export scenarios and highlights the importance of complete life cycle assessment in

  18. Performance of double source boiler with coal-fired and solar power tower heat for supercritical power generating unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Maolong; Du, Xiaoze; Pang, Liping; Xu, Chao; Yang, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    An approach of high-efficiency utilization of solar energy was proposed, by which the high concentrated heat received by the solar tower was integrated to the supercritical coal-fired boiler. Two schemes that solar energy was used to heat superheat steam or subcooled feed water were presented. The thermodynamic and heat transfer models were established. For a practical 660 MW supercritical power generating unit, the standard coal consumption of power generation could be decreased by more than 17 g/kWh by such double source boiler. The drawbacks of both schemes were found and then were amended by adding a flue gas bypass to the boiler. It also can be concluded that the maximum solar contribution of two schemes for the gross power generation are 6.11% and 4.90%, respectively. The solar power efficiency of the re-modified designs were demonstrated be superior to that of PS10. In terms of turbine efficiency, the comparisons with Solar Two plant having similar initial temperature found that the efficiency of Scheme I was 5.25% higher than that of Solar Two while the advantage of Scheme II was existing either. Additionally, in two schemes with flue bypass when the medium was extracted, the thermal efficiency of boiler could be improved as well. - Highlights: • High concentrated solar tower heat is integrated to the supercritical coal-fired boiler. • The double source boiler can use solar energy to heat superheat steam or subcooled feed water. • Power generating coal consumption can be reduced by more than 17 g/kWh by the double source boiler. • The solar contribution of double source boiler for the gross power generation can be as high as 6.11%.

  19. Biological CO2 mitigation from coal power plant by Chlorella fusca and Spirulina sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Jessica Hartwig; de Morais, Etiele Greque; Radmann, Elisângela Martha; Costa, Jorge Alberto Vieira

    2017-06-01

    CO 2 biofixation by microalgae and cyanobacteria is an environmentally sustainable way to mitigate coal burn gas emissions. In this work the microalga Chlorella fusca LEB 111 and the cyanobacteria Spirulina sp. LEB 18 were cultivated using CO 2 from coal flue gas as a carbon source. The intermittent flue gas injection in the cultures enable the cells growth and CO 2 biofixation by these microorganisms. The Chlorella fusca isolated from a coal power plant could fix 2.6 times more CO 2 than Spirulina sp. The maximum daily CO 2 from coal flue gas biofixation was obtained with Chlorella fusca (360.12±0.27mgL -1 d -1 ), showing a specific growth rate of 0.17±<0.01d -1 . The results demonstrated the Chlorella fusca LEB 111 and Spirulina sp. LEB 18 potential to fix CO 2 from coal flue gas, and sequential biomass production with different biotechnological destinations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of natural radioactivity in Yatağan coal – fired power plant in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altıkulaç Aydan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the coal in order to generate electricity increases the exposure of people to radiation. In this paper, the activity concentrations of nuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in samples of coal and bottom ash from the Yatagan Coal–Fired thermal power plant determined using gamma ray spectrometer with a NaI(Tl scintillation detector. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in the coal were found to be 37.2±2.8 Bqkg-1, 51.8±3.4 Bqkg-1 and 166.7±11.1 Bqkg-1, respectively. Whereas in the bottom ashes, the concentrations of the corresponding radionuclides were found to be 62.2±5.6 Bqkg-1, 87.4±5.9 Bqkg-1 and 221.0 ±12.5 Bqkg-1, respectively. The findings show that bottom ashes show higher activity concentrations of related radionuclide to coal samples. The absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor air DROUT and annual effective dose rate (AED from coal were calculated to define radıologıcal rısk. The average findings of annual effective doses were detected as 68.6±5.1 μSvy-1 and 110.3±11.2 μSvy-1, respectively.

  1. Southeast Asia - air pollution control and coal-fired power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soud, H.N.

    1997-12-01

    Coal-fired power generation in Southeast Asia continues to grow in order to satisfy the increasing demand for electricity throughout the region. Emissions standards have been adopted in some Southeast Asian countries. Particulate matter, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions are the main air pollutants for which standards have been introduced. Coal cleaning, and upgrading are not used much currently. Blending is used in Thailand and is being investigated in Indonesia. Pulverised coal combustion continues to dominate the coal-fired generating capacity. FBC is used at smaller scale and in a few cases. PFBC and IGCC are considered only as options for the future. Control priority is given to particulate matter and ESPs are installed on most (existing and new) coal-fired plants. Although FGD has been installed at Mae Moh in Thailand and is planned for Paiton in Indonesia and Sual in the Philippines, the technology is still considered expensive and its application is likely to remain limited. Boiler optimisation is the main NO{sub x} abatement method currently used. It is expected that low NO{sub x} burners will be used in the future especially in new plant. 166 refs., 1 fig., 40 tabs.

  2. The Research of Utilization Hours of Coal-Fired Power Generation Units Based on Electric Energy Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junhui; Yang, Jianlian; Wang, Jiangbo; Yang, Meng; Tian, Chunzheng; He, Xinhui

    2018-01-01

    With grid-connected scale of clean energy such as wind power and photovoltaic power expanding rapidly and cross-province transmission scale being bigger, utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units become lower and lower in the context of the current slowdown in electricity demand. This paper analyzes the influencing factors from the three aspects of demand, supply and supply and demand balance, and the mathematical model has been constructed based on the electric energy balance. The utilization hours of coal-fired power generation units have been solved considering the relationship among proportion of various types of power installed capacity, the output rate and utilization hours. By carrying out empirical research in Henan Province, the utilization hours of coal-fired units of Henan Province in 2020 has been achieved. The example validates the practicability and the rationality of the model, which can provide a basis for the decision-making for coal-fired power generation enterprises.

  3. Thermodynamic analyses of solar thermal gasification of coal for hybrid solar-fossil power and fuel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Yi Cheng; Lipiński, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    Thermodynamic analyses are performed for solar thermal steam and dry gasification of coal. The selected types of coal are anthracite, bituminous, lignite and peat. Two model conversion paths are considered for each combination of the gasifying agent and the coal type: production of the synthesis gas with its subsequent use in a combined cycle power plant to generate power, and production of the synthesis gas with its subsequent use to produce gasoline via the Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. Replacement of a coal-fired 35% efficient Rankine cycle power plant and a combustion-based integrated gasification combined cycle power plant by a solar-based integrated gasification combined cycle power plant leads to the reduction in specific carbon dioxide emissions by at least 47% and 27%, respectively. Replacement of a conventional gasoline production process via coal gasification and a subsequent Fischer–Tropsch synthesis with gasoline production via solar thermal coal gasification with a subsequent Fischer–Tropsch synthesis leads to the reduction in specific carbon dioxide emissions by at least 39%. -- Highlights: ► Thermodynamic analyses for steam and dry gasification of coal are presented. ► Hybrid solar-fossil paths to power and fuels are compared to those using only combustion. ► Hybrid power production can reduce specific CO 2 emissions by more than 27%. ► Hybrid fuel production can reduce specific CO 2 emissions by more than 39%.

  4. 3D thermal-hydraulic analysis on core of PWR nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Zhaohui; Wang Xuefang; Shen Mengyu

    1997-01-01

    Thermal hydraulic analysis of core is of great importance in reactor safety analysis. A computer code, thermal hydraulic analysis porous medium analysis (THAPMA), has been developed to simulate the flow and heat transfer characteristics of reactor components. It has been proved reliable by several numerical tests. In the THAPMA code, a new difference scheme and solution method have been studied in developing the computer software. For the difference scheme, a second order accurate, high resolution scheme, called WSUC scheme, has been proposed. This scheme is total variation bounded and unconditionally stable in convective numeral stability. Numerical tests show that the WSUC is better in accuracy and resolution than the 1-st order upwind, 2-nd order upwind, SOUCUP by Zhu and Rodi. In solution method, a modified PISO algorithm is used, which is not only simpler but also more accurate and more rapid in convergence than the original PISO algorithm. Moreover, the modified PISO algorithm can effectively solve steady and transient state problem. Besides, with the THAPMA code, the flow and heat transfer phenomena in reactor core have been numerically simulated in the light of the design condition of Qinshan PWR nuclear power station (the second-term project). The simulation results supply a theoretical basis for the core design

  5. China power - thermal coal and clean coal technology export. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binsheng Li

    1996-12-31

    China is the world`s fourth largest electric power producer, and is expected to surpass Japan within the next two years to become the third largest power producer. During the past 15 years, China`s total electricity generation more than tripled, increasing from about 300 TWh to about 1,000 TWh. Total installed generating capacity grew at an average of 8.2 percent per year, increasing from 66 to 214 GW. The share of China`s installed capacity in Asia increased from 21 to 31 percent. The Chinese government plans to continue China`s rapid growth rate in the power sector. Total installed capacity is planned to reach 300 GW by 2000, which will generate 1,400 TWh of electricity per year. China`s long-term power sector development is subject to great uncertainty. Under the middle scenario, total capacity is expected to reach 700 GW by 2015, with annual generation of 3,330 TWh. Under the low and high scenarios, total capacity will reach 527-1,005 GW by 2015. The high scenario representing possible demand. To achieve this ambitious scenario, dramatic policy changes in favor of power development are required; however, there is no evidence that such policy changes will occur at this stage. Even under the high scenario, China`s per capita annual electricity consumption would be only 3,000 kWh by 2015, less than half of the present per capita consumption for OECD countries. Under the low scenario, electricity shortages will seriously curb economic growth.

  6. Technology options for clean coal power generation with CO2 capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Song; Bergins, Christian; Kikkawa, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Hironobu; Kawasaki, Terufumi

    2010-09-15

    The state-of-the-art coal-fired power plant today is about 20% more efficient than the average operating power plants, and can reduce emissions such as SO2, NOx, and mercury to ultra-low levels. Hitachi is developing a full portfolio of clean coal technologies aimed at further efficiency improvement, 90% CO2 reduction, and near-zero emissions, including 700 deg C ultrasupercritical boilers and turbines, post-combustion CO2 absorption, oxyfuel combustion, and IGCC with CCS. This paper discusses the development status, performance and economic impacts of these technologies with focus on post combustion absorption and oxyfuel combustion - two promising CO2 solutions for new and existing power plants.

  7. Computer models and simulations of IGCC power plants with Canadian coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, L.; Furimsky, E.

    1999-07-01

    In this paper, three steady state computer models for simulation of IGCC power plants with Shell, Texaco and BGL (British Gas Lurgi) gasifiers will be presented. All models were based on a study by Bechtel for Nova Scotia Power Corporation. They were built by using Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) steady state simulation software together with Fortran programs developed in house. Each model was integrated from several sections which can be simulated independently, such as coal preparation, gasification, gas cooling, acid gas removing, sulfur recovery, gas turbine, heat recovery steam generation, and steam cycle. A general description of each process, model's overall structure, capability, testing results, and background reference will be given. The performance of some Canadian coals on these models will be discussed as well. The authors also built a computer model of IGCC power plant with Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse gasifier, however, due to limitation of paper length, it is not presented here.

  8. Soil to plant transfer factor in the vicinity of coal fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolic, J.; Todorovic, D.; Jankovic, M.; Radenkovic, M.; Joksic, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the monitoring of working and living environment results in 5 coal fired powered plants, for the period from 2004. to 2009. are presented. Soil-plant transfer factor, suitable for estimation of possible contamination of food chain was chosen, as a measure of influence of power plants on the environment. The results gathered over the years of monitoring of working and living environment in the vicinity of the coal fired power plant were analyzed, and it was determined that no significant discrepancy exists comparing to the results reported in world literature. Also, the basic mathematical analysis was conducted, in order to assess the model of the behavior of the results in respect to the frequency count. (author) [sr

  9. International Coal Report's coal year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCloskey, G [ed.

    1991-05-31

    Following introductory articles on factors affecting trade in coal and developments in the freight market, tables are given for coal exports and coal imports for major countries worldwide for 1989 and 1990. Figures are also included for coal consumption in Canada and the Eastern bloc,, power station consumption in Japan, coal supply and demand in the UK, electric utility coal consumption and stocks in the USA, coal production in Australia, Canada and USA by state, and world hard coal production. A final section gives electricity production and hard coal deliveries in the EEC, sales of imported and local coal and world production of pig iron and steel.

  10. Peak capacity analysis of coal power in China based on full-life cycle cost model optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Jinfang; Huang, Xinting

    2018-02-01

    13th five-year and the next period are critical for the energy and power reform of China. In order to ease the excessive power supply, policies have been introduced by National Energy Board especially toward coal power capacity control. Therefore the rational construction scale and scientific development timing for coal power are of great importance and paid more and more attentions. In this study, the comprehensive influence of coal power reduction policies is analyzed from diverse point of views. Full-life cycle cost model of coal power is established to fully reflect the external and internal cost. Then this model is introduced in an improved power planning optimization theory. The power planning and diverse scenarios production simulation shows that, in order to meet the power, electricity and peak balance of power system, China’s coal power peak capacity is within 1.15 ∼ 1.2 billion kilowatts before or after 2025. The research result is expected to be helpful to the power industry in 14th and 15th five-year periods, promoting the efficiency and safety of power system.

  11. ECONOMICS AND FEASIBILITY OF RANKINE CYCLE IMPROVEMENTS FOR COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard E. Waryasz; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2004-09-08

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), American Electric Company (AEP) and Parsons Energy and Chemical Group to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating coal fired steam power plants, known as Rankine Cycles, equipped with three different combustion systems: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}). Five steam cycles utilizing a wide range of steam conditions were used with these combustion systems. The motivation for this study was to establish through engineering analysis, the most cost-effective performance potential available through improvement in the Rankine Cycle steam conditions and combustion systems while at the same time ensuring that the most stringent emission performance based on CURC (Coal Utilization Research Council) 2010 targets are met: > 98% sulfur removal; < 0.05 lbm/MM-Btu NO{sub x}; < 0.01 lbm/MM-Btu Particulate Matter; and > 90% Hg removal. The final report discusses the results of a coal fired steam power plant project, which is comprised of two parts. The main part of the study is the analysis of ten (10) Greenfield steam power plants employing three different coal combustion technologies: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}) integrated with five different steam cycles. The study explores the technical feasibility, thermal performance, environmental performance, and economic viability of ten power plants that could be deployed currently, in the near, intermediate, and long-term time frame. For the five steam cycles, main steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,292 F and pressures from 2,400 psi to 5,075 psi. Reheat steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,328 F. The number of feedwater heaters varies from 7 to 9 and the associated feedwater temperature varies from 500 F to 626 F. The main part of the

  12. Hydraulic turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meluk O, G.

    1998-01-01

    The hydraulic turbines are defined according to the specific speed, in impulse turbines and in reaction turbines. Currently, the Pelton turbines (of impulse) and the Francis and Kaplan turbines (of reaction), they are the most important machines in the hydroelectric generation. The hydraulic turbines are capable of generating in short times, large powers, from its loads zero until the total load and reject the load instantly without producing damages in the operation. When the hydraulic resources are important, the hydraulic turbines are converted in the axle of the electric system. Its combination with thermoelectric generation systems, it allow the continuing supply of the variations in demand of energy system. The available hydraulic resource in Colombia is of 93085 MW, of which solely 9% is exploited, become 79% of all the electrical country generation, 21% remaining is provided by means of the thermoelectric generation

  13. Methodology for calculation of carbon emission and energy generation efficiency by fossil coal thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licks, Leticia A.; Pires, Marcal

    2008-01-01

    This work intends to evaluate the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emitted by the burning of fossil coal in Brazil. So, a detailed methodology is proposed for calculation of CO 2 emissions from the carbon emission coefficients specific for the Brazilian carbons. Also, the using of secondary fuels (fuel oil and diesel oil) were considered and the power generation for the calculation of emissions and efficiencies of each power plant as well. The obtained results indicate carbon emissions for the year 2002 approximately of the order of 1,794 Gg, with 20% less than the obtained by the official methodology (MCT). Such differences are related to the non consideration of the humidity containment of the coals as well as the using of generic coefficients not adapted to the Brazilian coals. The obtained results indicate the necessity to review the emission inventories and the modernization of the burning systems aiming the increase the efficiency and reduction of the CO 2 and other pollutants, as an alternative for maintaining the sustainable form of using the fossil coal in the country

  14. Study of boron behaviour in two Spanish coal combustion power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa-González, Raquel; Cuesta, Aida Fuente; Córdoba, Patricia; Díaz-Somoano, Mercedes; Font, Oriol; López-Antón, M Antonia; Querol, Xavier; Martínez-Tarazona, M Rosa; Giménez, Antonio

    2011-10-01

    A full-scale field study was carried out at two Spanish coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurisation (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of boron in coals, solid by-products, wastewater streams and flue gases. The results were obtained from the simultaneous sampling of solid, liquid and gaseous streams and their subsequent analysis in two different laboratories for purposes of comparison. Although the final aim of this study was to evaluate the partitioning of boron in a (co-)combustion power plant, special attention was paid to the analytical procedure for boron determination. A sample preparation procedure was optimised for coal and combustion by-products to overcome some specific shortcomings of the currently used acid digestion methods. In addition boron mass balances and removal efficiencies in ESP and FGD devices were calculated. Mass balance closures between 83 and 149% were obtained. During coal combustion, 95% of the incoming boron was collected in the fly ashes. The use of petroleum coke as co-combustible produced a decrease in the removal efficiency of the ESP (87%). Nevertheless, more than 90% of the remaining gaseous boron was eliminated via the FGD in the wastewater discharged from the scrubber, thereby causing environmental problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Integration of coal gasification and packed bed CLC for high efficiency and near-zero emission power generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spallina, V.; Romano, M.C.; Chiesa, P.; Gallucci, F.; Sint Annaland, van M.; Lozza, G.

    2014-01-01

    A detailed thermodynamic analysis has been carried out of large-scale coal gasification-based power plant cycles with near zero CO2 emissions, integrated with chemical looping combustion (CLC). Syngas from coal gasification is oxidized in dynamically operated packed bed reactors (PBRs), generating a

  16. The Hydraulic Mission and the Mexican Hydrocracy: Regulating and Reforming the Flows of Water and Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wester, P.; Rap, E.R.; Vargas-Velázquez, S.

    2009-01-01

    In Mexico, the hydraulic mission, the centralisation of water control, and the growth of the federal hydraulic bureaucracy (hydrocracy) recursively shaped and reinforced each other during the 20th century. The hydraulic mission entails that the state, embodied in an autonomous hydrocracy, takes the

  17. Coal upgrading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, S. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This report examines current technologies and those likely to be used to produce cleaner coal and coal products, principally for use in power generation and metallurgical applications. Consideration is also given to coal production in the leading coal producing countries, both with developed and developing industries. A range of technologies are considered. These include the coal-based liquid fuel called coal water mixture (CWM) that may compete with diesel, the production of ultra-clean coal (UCC) and coal liquefaction which competes with oil and its products. Technologies for upgrading coal are considered, especially for low rank coals (LRC), since these have the potential to fill the gap generated by the increasing demand for coal that cannot be met by higher quality coals. Potential advantages and downsides of coal upgrading are outlined. Taking into account the environmental benefits of reduced pollution achieved through cleaner coal and reduced transport costs, as well as other positive aspects such as a predictable product leading to better boiler design, the advantages appear to be significant. The drying of low rank coals improves the energy productively released during combustion and may also be used as an adjunct or as part of other coal processing procedures. Coal washing technologies vary in different countries and the implications of this are outlined. Dry separation technologies, such as dry jigging and electrostatic separation, are also described. The demonstration of new technologies is key to their further development and demonstrations of various clean coal technologies are considered. A number of approaches to briquetting and pelletising are available and their use varies from country to country. Finally, developments in upgrading low rank coals are described in the leading coal producing countries. This is an area that is developing rapidly and in which there are significant corporate and state players. 81 refs., 32 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Analysis of mercury in rock varnish samples in areas impacted by coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowinski, Piotr; Hodge, Vernon F.; Gerstenberger, Shawn; Cizdziel, James V.

    2013-01-01

    Rock varnish is a manganese–iron rich coating that forms on rocks, most often in arid climates. To assess its utility as an environmental monitor of mercury contamination, cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) was used for analysis. Samples were collected in the fallout patterns of two coal-fired power plants in southern Nevada: the defunct Mohave Power Plant (MPP) and the operating Reid Gardner Power Plant (RGPP). The resultant Hg concentrations in rock varnishes were plotted as a function of the distance from each power plant. The highest concentrations of Hg occurred at locations that suggest the power plants are the main source of pollutants. In addition, past tracer plume studies carried out at MPP show that the highest tracer concentrations coincide with the highest rock varnish Hg concentrations. However, additional samples are required to further demonstrate that power plants are indeed the sources of mercury in varnishes. -- Highlights: •We analyze desert varnish samples collected in the fallout patterns of two coal-fired and analyzed for Hg by CVAA. •The resultant Hg concentrations in the desert varnish samples were plotted as a function of the distance from each power plant. •The highest concentrations of Hg occurred at locations that suggest the power plants are the main source of pollutants. •Data indicate the utility of desert varnish as a passive environmental monitor for Hg atmospheric pollution. -- Cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) was used for analysis of mercury in varnished rocks collected in the fallout zones of two coal-fired power plants

  19. Coal mining in the power industry of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-11-01

    After an introductory text divided into the sections energy and coal market, Coal mining and brown coal mining, extensive tables containing the most important characteristic figures of German coal mining are shown. (orig.) [de

  20. Coal-92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillring, B.; Sparre, C.

    1992-11-01

    Swedish consumption of coal and coke during 1991 and trends in technology, environment and market aspects of coal use are reported. Steam coal use in the heating sector was unchanged from 1991, 1.2 Mtons. Reduced consumption in smaller district heating units (due to conversion to biofuels and gas) was compensated by increased use for power generation in cogeneration plants. Coal consumption in industry fell 0.10 Mton to 0.84 Mton due to lower production in one industry branch. Import of steam coal was 1.1 Mton (down 0.5 Mton from 1990) since new rules for strategic reserves allowed a reduction of stocks. During the last five years stocks have been reduced by 2 Mtons. Import of metallurgical coal was 1.6 Mton, unchanged from 1990. The report also gives statistics for the coal using plants in Sweden, on coal R and D, and on emission laws for coal firing. (9 tabs., 2 figs.)

  1. Environmental and health problems in connection with coal use in Romanian power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matei, M.

    1995-01-01

    Emission limits to solid fuel fired boilers are to be applied in Romania from January 1998; total airborne coal dust in RENEL (Romanian Electricity Authority) power plants handling areas is regulated by National Work Protection Norms to 8 mg/m 3 air; and maximum levels of radiation are regulated by Romanian Radio protection Norms. The article discusses RENEL's recent measurements of CO, NO x and SO 2 emissions in flue gas of their coal-fired power plants. Assessments of airborne dust concentrations in different work places within RENEL's power plants have been made and have helped identify the must dangerous sites and the causes of high dust concentrations. Experimental work on dust collection facilities is under way. Results are presented of natural radioactive concentrations of 238 U, 236 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K as well as β-total activity of coal samples collected from different RENEL power plants. Work is in progress to improve performance of electrostatic precipitators for collecting fly ash and to improve fly ash disposal. 2 figs., 7 tabs

  2. Conceptual designs of pressurized fluidized bed and pulverized coal fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doss, H.S.; Bezella, W.A.; Hamm, J.R.; Pietruszkiewicz, J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the major technical and economic characteristics of steam and air-cooled pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) power plant concepts, along with the characteristics of a pulverized coal fired power plant equipped with an adipic acid enhanced wet-limestone flue gas desulfurization system. Conceptual designs for the three plants were prepared to satisfy a set of common groundrules developed for the study. Grassroots plants, located on a generic plant site were assumed. The designs incorporate technologies projected to be commercial in the 1990 time frame. Power outputs, heat rates, and costs are presented

  3. Permits for coal-fired power plants under scrutiny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, B.

    2011-01-01

    The attorney-general of the European Court of Justice offered advice to the European Judge on the prejudicial questions of the Department of Administrative Law of the Council of State in the framework of appeal cases against environmental permits of three planned power plants in the Netherlands. The advice may have large consequences for these permits. [nl

  4. Thermodynamic evaluation of chemical looping combustion for combined cooling heating and power production driven by coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Junming; Hong, Hui; Zhu, Lin; Wang, Zefeng; Jin, Hongguang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An ex-situ coal gasification chemical looping combustion integrated with CCHP process has been presented. • This novel process maintains a maximum energy efficiency of 60.34%. • The fossil energy saving ratio of this process is optimize to be 27.20%. - Abstract: This study carries out an investigation concerning on the benefits of ex-situ coal gasification chemical looping combustion integrated with combined cooling, heating and power generation (CCHP-CLC) by means of thermodynamic evaluation. The coal gasification syngas is introduced into chemical looping combustion for inherent separation of CO_2 without extra energy consumed. The combustion flue gases from both air reactor and fuel reactor are sequentially fed into gas turbines for electricity production, a heat recovery vapor generator unit for further electricity generation with driving a LiBr-H_2O absorption chiller for cooling production in summer and finally a heat exchanger for daily heat water production. A preliminary parameter analysis helps to obtain the optimum operating condition, as steam-to-coal ratio (S/C) of 0.05, oxygen-to-coal ratio (O/C) of 0.75, and operating pressure of chemical looping combustion process of 5 bar. The overall energy efficiency of the CCHP-CLC process is calculated equal to 58.20% in summer compared with that of 60.34% in winter. Importantly, by utilization of such process, the reduction potential of fossil fuel (coal) consumption has been demonstrated to be 23.36% in summer and 27.20% in winter.

  5. Atmospheric emissions of F, As, Se, Hg, and Sb from coal-fired power and heat generation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Liu, Guijian; Kang, Yu; Wu, Bin; Sun, Ruoyu; Zhou, Chuncai; Wu, Dun

    2013-02-01

    Coal is one of the major energy resources in China, with nearly half of produced Chinese coal used for power and heat generation. The large use of coal for power and heat generation in China may result in significant atmospheric emissions of toxic volatile trace elements (i.e. F, As, Se, Hg, and Sb). For the purpose of estimating the atmospheric emissions from coal-fired power and heat generation in China, a simple method based on coal consumption, concentration and emission factor of trace element was adopted to calculate the gaseous emissions of elements F, As, Se, Hg, and Sb. Results indicate that about 162161, 236, 637, 172, and 33 t F, As, Se, Hg, and Sb, respectively, were introduced into atmosphere from coal combustion by power and heat generation in China in 2009. The atmospheric emissions of F, As, Se, Hg, and Sb by power and heat generation increased from 2005 to 2009 with increasing coal consumptions. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-30

    The objective of the main project is to identify the current developmental status of MCFC systems and address those technical issues that need to be resolved to move the technology from its current status to the demonstration stage in the shortest possible time. The specific objectives are separated into five major tasks as follows: Stack research; Power plant development; Test facilities development; Manufacturing facilities development; and Commercialization. This Final Report discusses the M-C power Corporation effort which is part of a general program for the development of commercial MCFC systems. This final report covers the entire subject of the Unocal 250-cell stack. Certain project activities have been funded by organizations other than DOE and are included in this report to provide a comprehensive overview of the work accomplished.

  7. Complete biocycle for solar energy conversion, storage, fuel and power generation, and coal conservation for future use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    A complete carbon biocycle has been described, starting from coal in in situ condition in coal seams underground. Various steps involved are: (i) Biogasification of coal to methane, using a consortia of bacteria, has been reported. A group of bacteria degrades complex structure of coal to simpler structure. This simpler structure of coal, is then converted to methane by methanogens; (ii) Biophotolysis of methane and associated biodegradation, results in products, such as hydrogen and oxygen for use in fuel cells for power generation; (iii) Bioconversion of products so obtained is carried out to produce methanol or methane that could be used as fuel or recycled; (iv) In complete biocycle some methane is converted to biomass. In order to replace this methane, coal is converted to methane using group of bacteria, only to the extent methane has been converted to biomass; (v) The biomass so produced could be dumped underground from where coal has been gasified. Alternatively it could be burnt as fuel or else used as substitute of protein in animal food. Detailed concept of proposed technology for: (a) an alternative to conventional coal mining, (b) generation of power using products of bioconversion in fuel cell, and (c) conversation of solar energy for generation of alternative source of fuel and power, has been discussed. Possibility of developing a biofuel cell for conversion of solar energy through bioelectrochemical route has been suggested. (author). 48 refs., 3 figs

  8. Forecast of advanced technology adoption for coal fired power generation towards the year of 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makino, Keiji [Japanese Center for Asia Pacific Coal Flow (JAPAC), Tokyo (Japan). Japan coal Energy Center (JCOAL)

    2013-07-01

    Needs for electricity is growing rapidly in many countries and it is expected the increase of electricity by 2030 is almost double. Fossil fuels, renewables, nuclear energy will play leading parts in the future, but fossil power generation will continue to play a major role. Especially, coal will be used continuously due to its stable supply and lower price. However, global warming countermeasures should be considered for large amount of coal use. High efficient systems and Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) will be most applicable solution for the problems. USC, IGCC and A-USC have higher efficiencies, but costs are normally higher. So it is very important to evaluate the future trend of the plants, that is the cost, performance and the share of each plant. It is also essential to evaluate high efficient plants which will be constructed mainly and which system investment should be paid to. But no less important is to evaluate each system from the neutral position. So Japan Coal Energy Center (JCOAL) constructed its own program to expect the future trend of each plant. JCOAL made a basic concept and the programming was done by SRI International of the United States. The considered systems of coal fired power generation are Supercritical Unit, Ultra Supercritical Unit, Advanced- Supercritical Unit, Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC). In order to compare with the natural gas case, Natural Gas Combined Cycle (NGCC) is included. Evaluation will be done for both without and with CCS cases. This program covers by the year of 2050. The results are trends of following items: capital cost, operational and maintenance cost, levelized cost of electricity, etc. We can also expect the future share of high efficient coal fired systems by 2050. Here the share will be decided by the levelized cost of electricity. The plant that has the lowest cost will get more share under the scenario of this program. This chapter summarizes

  9. Advanced pulverized-coal power plants: A U.S. export opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruth, L.A.; Ramezan, M.; Izsak, M.S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) power generation systems and its potential for generating power worldwide. Based on the fuel availability, power requirements, and environmental regulations, countries have been identified that need to build advanced, clean, efficient, and economical power generation, systems. It is predicted that ''more electrical generation capacity will be built over the next 25 years than was built in the previous century''. For example, China and India alone, with less than 10% of today's demand, plan to build what would amount to a quarter of the world's new capacity. For the near- to mid-term, the LEBS program of Combustion 2000 has the promise to fill some of the needs of the international coal-fired power generation market. The high efficiency of LEBS, coupled with the use of advanced, proven technologies and low emissions, make it a strong candidate for export to those areas whose need for additional power is greatest. LEBS is a highly advanced version of conventional coal-based power plants that have been utilized throughout the world for decades. LEBS employs proven technologies and doesn't require gasification and/or an unconventional combustion environment (e.g., fluidized bed). LEBS is viewed by the utility industry as technically acceptable and commercially feasible

  10. Assessment of 210Po deposition in moss species and soil around coal-fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nita Salina Abu Bakar; Ahmad Saat

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the depositions of 210 Po were assessed in the surface soil and some mosses species found in the area around coal fired power plant using radiochemical deposition and alpha spectrometry counting system. The purposes of the study were to determine activity concentrations of 210 Po in mosses and surface soil collected around coal-fired power plant in relation to trace the potential source of 210 Po and to identify most suitable moss species as a bio-indicator for 210 Po deposition. In this study, different species of mosses, Orthodontium imfractum, Campylopus serratus and Leucobryum aduncum were collected in May 2011 at the area around 15 km radius from Tanjung Bin coal-fired power plant located in Pontian, Johor. The 210 Po activity concentrations in mosses and soil varied in the range 102 ± 4 to 174 ± 8 Bq/kg dry wt. and 37 ± 2 to 184 ± 8 Bq/kg dry wt., respectively. Corresponding highest activity concentration of 210 Po observed in L. aduncum, therefore, this finding can be concluded this species was the most suitable as a bio-indicator for 210 Po deposition. On the other hand, it is clear the accumulation of 210 Po in mosses might be supplied from various sources of atmospheric deposition such as coal-fired power plant operation, industrial, plantation, agriculture and fertilizer activities, burned fuel fossil and forest; and other potential sources. Meanwhile, the main source of 210 Po in surface soil is supplied from the in situ deposition of radon decay and its daughters in the soil itself. (author)

  11. Dry cooling for coal fired power plants: the new state-of-the-art

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souvenir, C.; Nagel, P. [SPX Cooling Technologies (Belgium)

    2008-07-01

    In the first part of this paper an update is provided regarding the use of dry cooling in power plants. The evolution of the reasons leading to this technical solution, the trends in the market place, and the growth over the last 15 years are described. In the second part, the use of current advanced dry cooling technologies for coal-fired plants in China is illustrated. 34 figs.

  12. Natural radionuclides in soil profiles surrounding the largest coal-fired power plant in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Tanić Milan N.; Janković-Mandić Ljiljana J.; Gajić Boško A.; Daković Marko Z.; Dragović Snežana D.; Bačić Goran G.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the influence of the largest Serbian coal-fired power plant on radionuclide concentrations in soil profiles up to 50 cm in depth. Thirty soil profiles were sampled from the plant surroundings (up to 10 km distance) and analyzed using standard methods for soil physicochemical properties and gamma ray spectrometry for specific activities of natural radionuclides (40K, 226Ra and 232Th). Spatial and vertical distribution of radionuclides wa...

  13. A data envelopment analysis for energy efficiency of coal-fired power units in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chenxi; Li, Mingjia; Zhang, Fan; He, Ya-Ling; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two kinds of energy efficiency (EE) indices are analyzed and compared. • The influence degrees of different uncontrollable factors on EE are compared. • The influence of load factor on special EE is 82.6% larger than capacity factor. • The influence of cooling method on special EE is 90.32% larger than steam pressure. • The generalized EE indicator is more recommended by the authors. - Abstract: In this article, the non-parametric data envelopment analysis method (DEA) is employed to evaluate energy efficiency (EE) of 34 coal-fired power units in China. Input-oriented CCR (Charnes, Cooper and Rhodes) model is used for EE analysis. Two efficiency indices, generalized EE and special EE are defined and analyzed. The generalized EE is calculated based on four input parameters: coal consumption, oil consumption, water consumption and auxiliary power consumption by power units. The special EE is only based on two input parameters: coal consumption and auxiliary power consumption. Relations between these two EE indices and non-comparable factors including quality of coal, load factor, capacity factor, parameters of main steam and cooling method are studied. Comparison between EE evaluation results of the two indices is conducted. Results show that these two kinds of EE are more sensitive to the load factor than the capacity factor. The influence of the cooling method on EE is larger than that of main steam parameter. The influence of non-comparable factors on the special EE is stronger than that on the generalized EE

  14. Pressurized fluidized bed combustion combined cycle power plant with coal gasification: Second generation pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farina, G.L.; Bressan, L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the technical and economical background of a research and development program of a novel power generation scheme, which is based on coal gasification, pressurized fluid bed combustion and combined cycles. The participants in this program are: Foster Wheeler (project leader), Westinghouse, IGT and the USA Dept. of Energy. The paper describes the characteristics of the plant, the research program in course of implementation, the components of the pilot plant and the first results obtained

  15. Study on the Concentration Measurement of the Pollution Gases from Coal-Fired Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L J; Li, W

    2006-01-01

    CO 2 is a main kind of pollution gases discharged from coal-fired power station. The relationship between gas concentration and pressure, temperature is deduced base on the law of Beer-Lambert and the theory of gas line-shape. The tunable diode laser spectral technology is used to analyze the changing regularity of the peak, half-peak width of the absorption curve with pressure and temperature

  16. Committing to coal and gas: Long-term contracts, regulation, and fuel switching in power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Michael

    Fuel switching in the electricity sector has important economic and environmental consequences. In the United States, the increased supply of gas during the last decade has led to substantial switching in the short term. Fuel switching is constrained, however, by the existing infrastructure. The power generation infrastructure, in turn, represents commitments to specific sources of energy over the long term. This dissertation explores fuel contracts as the link between short-term price response and long-term plant investments. Contracting choices enable power plant investments that are relationship-specific, often regulated, and face uncertainty. Many power plants are subject to both hold-up in investment and cost-of-service regulation. I find that capital bias is robust when considering either irreversibility or hold-up due to the uncertain arrival of an outside option. For sunk capital, the rental rate is inappropriate for determining capital bias. Instead, capital bias depends on the regulated rate of return, discount rate, and depreciation schedule. If policies such as emissions regulations increase fuel-switching flexibility, this can lead to capital bias. Cost-of-service regulation can shorten the duration of a long-term contract. From the firm's perspective, the existing literature provides limited guidance when bargaining and writing contracts for fuel procurement. I develop a stochastic programming framework to optimize long-term contracting decisions under both endogenous and exogenous sources of hold-up risk. These typically include policy changes, price shocks, availability of fuel, and volatility in derived demand. For price risks, the optimal contract duration is the moment when the expected benefits of the contract are just outweighed by the expected opportunity costs of remaining in the contract. I prove that imposing early renegotiation costs decreases contract duration. Finally, I provide an empirical approach to show how coal contracts can limit

  17. A Study on the Air Vent Valve of the Hydraulic Servo Actuator for Steam Control of Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Lee, Jong Jik

    2016-01-01

    To produce adequate electricity in nuclear and thermal power plants, an optimal amount of steam should be supplied to a generator connected to high- and low-pressure steam turbines. A turbine output control device, which is a special steam valve employed to supply or interrupt the steam to the turbine, is operated using a hydraulic servo actuator. In power plants, the performance of servo actuators is degraded by the air generated from the hydraulic system, or causes frequent failures owing to an increase in the wear of the seal. This is due to the seal being burnt as generated heat using the produced compressed air. Some power plants have exhausted air using a fixed orifice, and thus they encounter power loss due to mass flow exhaust. Failures are generated in hydraulic pumps, electric motors, and valves, which are frequently operated. In this study, we perform modeling and analysis of the load-sensing air-exhaust valves, which can be passed through very fine flow under normal use conditions, and exhaust mass flow air at the beginning stage as with existing fixed orifices. Then, we propose a method to prevent failures due to the compressed air, and to ensure the control accuracy of hydraulic servo actuators.

  18. A Study on the Air Vent Valve of the Hydraulic Servo Actuator for Steam Control of Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    To produce adequate electricity in nuclear and thermal power plants, an optimal amount of steam should be supplied to a generator connected to high- and low-pressure steam turbines. A turbine output control device, which is a special steam valve employed to supply or interrupt the steam to the turbine, is operated using a hydraulic servo actuator. In power plants, the performance of servo actuators is degraded by the air generated from the hydraulic system, or causes frequent failures owing to an increase in the wear of the seal. This is due to the seal being burnt as generated heat using the produced compressed air. Some power plants have exhausted air using a fixed orifice, and thus they encounter power loss due to mass flow exhaust. Failures are generated in hydraulic pumps, electric motors, and valves, which are frequently operated. In this study, we perform modeling and analysis of the load-sensing air-exhaust valves, which can be passed through very fine flow under normal use conditions, and exhaust mass flow air at the beginning stage as with existing fixed orifices. Then, we propose a method to prevent failures due to the compressed air, and to ensure the control accuracy of hydraulic servo actuators.

  19. On the building of Momoyama hydraulic power station on Kiso river. Kisogawa Momoyama suiryoku hatsudensho no kenchiku ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotera, T [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1991-09-30

    This paper investigates Momoyama hydraulic power station built on the middle reaches of the Kiso River in Uematsu-cho, Kiso-gun, Nagano Prefecture in Japan, in 1923 by relating to the feature of the building of the hydraulic power station and the architect, Shiro Sato. The hydraulic power station originally was a functional and industrial building which puts a priority on the efficiency of business economy, at the same time it was often required to present a beautiful appearance. The building of Momoyama hydraulic power station was founded on the crane girder structure covered with reinforced concrete(RC) walls. A Hat roof of RC slab was applied to the roof of the building. It was generally designed in Neo-Gothic style. More specifically, however, the wall surface was designed in church style and the upper part was like a castle in the middle ages. Therefore the total design was eclectic. The outer surfaces of the building were remained to be bare concrete as cast. Such a multiple building symbolizes the situation of Japanes architecture in the 1920s. 4 figs.

  20. Feasibility Study for Bioethanol Co-Location with a Coal Fired Power Plant: 29 November 2001--28 July 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2002-12-01

    This study looks at the feasibility of co-locating 30, 50, and 70 million gallon per year bioethanol facilities with coal fired power plants in Indiana and Nebraska. Corn stover is the feedstock for ethanol production in both cases.

  1. PM1 particles at coal- and gas-fired power plant work areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Jeffrey B; McCarthy, Sheila A; Mezei, Gabor; Sayes, Christie M

    2012-03-01

    With the increased interest in the possible adverse health effects attributed to inhalation of fine particle matter, this study was conducted to gather preliminary information about workplace exposures at coal- and gas-fired power plants to fine particles (PM(1); i.e. <1 μm) and ultrafine particles (i.e. <0.1 μm). Combustion of fossil fuel is known to produce fine particles, and due to their proximity and durations of exposure, power plant workers could be a group of individuals who experience high chronic exposures to these types of particles. The results of a series of real-time instrument measurements showed that concentrations of PM(1) were elevated in some locations in power plants. The highest concentrations were in locations near combustion sources, indicating that combustion materials were leaking from conventional fossil fuel-fired boilers or it was associated with emission plume downwash. Concentrations were the lowest inside air-conditioned control rooms where PM(1) were present at levels similar to or lower than upwind concentrations. Microscopic examinations indicate that PM(1) at the coal-fired plants are dominated by vitrified spheres, although there were also unusual elongated particles. Most of the PM(1) were attached to larger coal fly ash particles that may affect where and how they could be deposited in the lung.

  2. Radioactivity level of soil around Baqiao coal-fired power plant in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xinwei; Zhao, Caifeng; Chen, Cancan; Liu, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Natural radioactivity level of soil around Baqiao coal-fired power plant in China was determined using gamma ray spectrometry. The concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the studied soil samples range from 27.6 to 48.8, 44.4 to 61.4 and 640.2 to 992.2 Bq kg −1 with an average of 36.1, 51.1 and 733.9 Bq kg −1 , respectively, which are slightly higher than the average values of Shaanxi soil. The radium equivalent activity, the air absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose rate were calculated and compared with the internationally reported or reference values. The radium equivalent activities of the studied samples are below the internationally accepted values. The air absorbed dose rate and the annual effective dose rate received by the local residents due to the natural radionuclides in soil are slightly higher than the mean value of Xi'an and worldwide. - Highlights: ► Natural radioactivity in soil around the coal-fired power plant was determined. ► Radiological parameters were used to assess radiation hazard. ► The coal-fired power plant has affected the local radioactivity level.

  3. Making concentrated solar power competitive with coal: The costs of a European feed-in tariff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williges, Keith; Lilliestam, Johan; Patt, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The European Union has yet to determine how exactly to reach its greenhouse gas emissions targets for the future. One potential answer involves large-scale development of concentrated solar power (CSP) in the North African region, transmitting the power to Europe. CSP is a relatively young and little utilized technology and is expensive when compared to other methods of generation. Feasibility studies have shown it is possible to generate enough power from CSP plants in Africa to spearhead the EUs climate goals. However, the costs of such a project are less well known. Currently, CSP must compete with low cost coal-fired electricity plants, severely hindering development. We examine the possible investment costs required for North African CSP levelized electricity cost to equal those of coal-fired plants and the potential subsidy costs needed to encourage growth until the technologies reach price parity. We also examine the sensitivity of investment and subsidies to changes in key factors. We find that estimates of subsidy amounts are reasonable for the EU and that sensitivity to such factors as perceived risk and learning rates would enable policy-makers to positively influence the cost of subsidies and time required for CSP to be competitive with coal.

  4. Mercury in coals and fly ashes from Republika and Bobov dol thermoelectric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostova, I.; Vassileva, C.; Hower, J.; Mastalerz, Maria; Vassilev, S.; Nikolova, N.

    2011-01-01

    Feed coal and y ash samples were collected at Republika and Bobov Dol thermoelectric power plants (TPPs). The y ashes (FAs) were collected fromthree rows of the hot-side electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) array. Each sam- ple was wet-screened at 100, 200, 325 and 500 mesh. The coals and y ashes were characterized with regard to their petrological and chemical composition (including mercury content) and to their surface area properties. The calculated enrichment factor (EF) shows that the Hg concentrations in the bulk coal samples from Republika and Bobov Dol TPPs are 2.19 and 1.41, respectively. In some coal size fractions the EF can be up to 4 times higher than the Clarke value. The calculated EF for fly ashes shows that the Hg concentrations in the bulk samples studied are lower (between 0.03 and 0.32) than the Clarke value. The most enriched in Hg are the fly ashes from the 3rd ESP row of Republika TPP. The Hg distribution in bulk FAs taken from dierent rows of the electrostatic precipitators of both TPPs studied shows well established tendency of gradual increase in the Hg content from the 1st to the 2nd and 3rd ESP rows. The correlation between Hg content and surface area, mesopore and micropore volume of y ashes was also done in the present investigation.

  5. Mercury capture within coal-fired power plant electrostatic precipitators: model evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Herek L

    2009-03-01

    Efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide have recently focused on a variety of sources, including mercury emitted during coal combustion. Toward that end, much research has been ongoing seeking to develop new processes for reducing coal combustion mercury emissions. Among air pollution control processes that can be applied to coal-fired boilers, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are by far the most common, both on a global scale and among the principal countries of India, China, and the U.S. that burn coal for electric power generation. A previously reported theoretical model of in-flight mercury capture within ESPs is herein evaluated against data from a number of full-scale tests of activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control. By using the established particle size distribution of the activated carbon and actual or estimated values of its equilibrium mercury adsorption capacity, the incremental reduction in mercury concentration across each ESP can be predicted and compared to experimental results. Because the model does not incorporate kinetics associated with gas-phase mercury transformation or surface adsorption, the model predictions representthe mass-transfer-limited performance. Comparing field data to model results reveals many facilities performing at or near the predicted mass-transfer-limited maximum, particularly at low rates of sorbent injection. Where agreement is poor between field data and model predictions, additional chemical or physical phenomena may be responsible for reducing mercury removal efficiencies.

  6. Assessment of direct radiological risk and indirect associated toxic risks originated by Coal-Fired Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Dinis, M. L.; Fiúza, António; Góis, Joaquim; Carvalho, José Soeiro de; Meira Castro, A C

    2011-01-01

    Over the past few decades there has been some discussion concerning the increase of the natural background radiation originated by coal-fired power plants, due to the uranium and thorium content present in combustion ashes. The radioactive decay products of uranium and thorium, such as radium, radon, polonium, bismuth and lead, are also released in addition to a significant amount of 40K. Since the measurement of radioactive elements released by the gaseous emissions of coal power plants i...

  7. Statistical modeling of an integrated boiler for coal fired thermal power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreepradha Chandrasekharan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The coal fired thermal power plants plays major role in the power production in the world as they are available in abundance. Many of the existing power plants are based on the subcritical technology which can produce power with the efficiency of around 33%. But the newer plants are built on either supercritical or ultra-supercritical technology whose efficiency can be up to 50%. Main objective of the work is to enhance the efficiency of the existing subcritical power plants to compensate for the increasing demand. For achieving the objective, the statistical modeling of the boiler units such as economizer, drum and the superheater are initially carried out. The effectiveness of the developed models is tested using analysis methods like R2 analysis and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance. The dependability of the process variable (temperature on different manipulated variables is analyzed in the paper. Validations of the model are provided with their error analysis. Response surface methodology (RSM supported by DOE (design of experiments are implemented to optimize the operating parameters. Individual models along with the integrated model are used to study and design the predictive control of the coal-fired thermal power plant. Keywords: Chemical engineering, Applied mathematics

  8. Statistical modeling of an integrated boiler for coal fired thermal power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, Sreepradha; Panda, Rames Chandra; Swaminathan, Bhuvaneswari Natrajan

    2017-06-01

    The coal fired thermal power plants plays major role in the power production in the world as they are available in abundance. Many of the existing power plants are based on the subcritical technology which can produce power with the efficiency of around 33%. But the newer plants are built on either supercritical or ultra-supercritical technology whose efficiency can be up to 50%. Main objective of the work is to enhance the efficiency of the existing subcritical power plants to compensate for the increasing demand. For achieving the objective, the statistical modeling of the boiler units such as economizer, drum and the superheater are initially carried out. The effectiveness of the developed models is tested using analysis methods like R 2 analysis and ANOVA (Analysis of Variance). The dependability of the process variable (temperature) on different manipulated variables is analyzed in the paper. Validations of the model are provided with their error analysis. Response surface methodology (RSM) supported by DOE (design of experiments) are implemented to optimize the operating parameters. Individual models along with the integrated model are used to study and design the predictive control of the coal-fired thermal power plant.

  9. Metal intoxication of atmospheric precipitations near coal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwapulinski, J.; Zielonka, U.; Kwapulinska, G.; Nowak, B.

    1989-01-01

    Intoxication of atmospheric precipitation near power stations is presented. The migration of some metals in air is described by intoxication coefficient, which in 1981 for Pb changed from 2.25 to 2.96, for Cd from 1.92 to 3.0, for Cu from 2.31 to 4.44, for Fe from 2.78 to 3.95, and for Mn from 1.77 to 3.76. The coefficient value defines potential ecotoxicity of a given metal in the region investigated. Rain or snow intoxication by Pb, Cu, Cd, Fe and Mn, depending o their amount, is described by equation y=ax b . (author). 4 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  10. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  11. Hydraulic Darrieus turbines efficiency for free fluid flow conditions versus power farms conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antheaume, Sylvain [Electricite de France, Recherche et Developpement, Laboratoire National d' Hydraulique et Environnement, 6 Quai Watier, 78400 Chatou (France); Maitre, Thierry; Achard, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire des Ecoulements Geophysiques et Industriels, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble (France)

    2008-10-15

    The present study deals with the efficiency of cross flow water current turbine for free stream conditions versus power farm conditions. In the first part, a single turbine for free fluid flow conditions is considered. The simulations are carried out with a new in house code which couples a Navier-Stokes computation of the outer flow field with a description of the inner flow field around the turbine. The latter is based on experimental results of a Darrieus wind turbine in an unbounded domain. This code is applied for the description of a hydraulic turbine. In the second part, the interest of piling up several turbines on the same axis of rotation to make a tower is investigated. Not only is it profitable because only one alternator is needed but the simulations demonstrate the advantage of the tower configuration for the efficiency. The tower is then inserted into a cluster of several lined up towers which makes a barge. Simulations show that the average barge efficiency rises as the distance between towers is decreased and as the number of towers is increased within the row. Thereby, the efficiency of a single isolated turbine is greatly increased when set both into a tower and into a cluster of several towers corresponding to possible power farm arrangements. (author)

  12. Study of thermal and hydraulic phenomena going along with the discharge of hot waters from a power generation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrmalenios, Panayotis

    1973-01-01

    This short research thesis aims at taking stock of problems raised by the discharge of high temperature water from a power plant into rivers, lakes and seas from a thermal and hydraulic point of view. The author proposes an overview of ecological, legal, and recirculation problems. He describes the various phenomena going along these discharges at the vicinity of the discharge and far from it. He also proposes an overview of methods used to study these thermal and hydraulic effects: 'in-situ' studies, experimental methods, theoretical methods. Appendices address floating jets and layered flows [fr

  13. Performance analysis of US coal-fired power plants by measuring three DEA efficiencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika; Ueno, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has been widely used for performance evaluation of many organizations in private and public sectors. This study proposes a new DEA approach to evaluate the operational, environmental and both-unified performance of coal-fired power plants that are currently operating under the US Clean Air Act (CAA). The economic activities of power plants examined by this study are characterized by four inputs, a desirable (good) output and three undesirable (bad) outputs. This study uses Range-Adjusted Measure (RAM) because it can easily incorporate both desirable and undesirable outputs in the unified analytical structure. The output unification proposed in this study has been never investigated in the previous DEA studies even though such a unified measure is essential in guiding policy makers and corporate leaders. Using the proposed DEA approach, this study finds three important policy implications. First, the CAA has been increasingly effective on their environmental protection. The increased environmental performance leads to the enhancement of the unified efficiency. Second, the market liberalization/deregulation was an important business trend in the electric power industry. Such a business trend was legally prepared by US Energy Policy Act (EPAct). According to the level of the market liberalization, the United States is classified into regulated and deregulated states. This study finds that the operational and unified performance of coal-fired power plants in the regulated states outperforms those of the deregulated states because the investment on coal-fired power plants in the regulated states can be utilized as a financial tool under the rate-of-return criterion of regulation. The power plants in the deregulated states do not have such a regulation premium. Finally, plant managers need to balance between their environmental performance and operational efficiency.

  14. [Macromolecular aromatic network characteristics of Chinese power coal analyzed by synchronous fluorescence and X-ray diffraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Cui-Ping; Feng, Jie; Li, Wen-Ying

    2012-07-01

    Coal structure, especially the macromolecular aromatic skeleton structure, has a strong influence on coke reactivity and coal gasification, so it is the key to grasp the macromolecular aromatic skeleton coal structure for getting the reasonable high efficiency utilization of coal. However, it is difficult to acquire their information due to the complex compositions and structure of coal. It has been found that the macromolecular aromatic network coal structure would be most isolated if small molecular of coal was first extracted. Then the macromolecular aromatic skeleton coal structure would be clearly analyzed by instruments, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), fluorescence spectroscopy with synchronous mode (Syn-F), Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) etc. Based on the previous results, according to the stepwise fractional liquid extraction, two Chinese typical power coals, PS and HDG, were extracted by silica gel as stationary phase and acetonitrile, tetrahydrofuran (THF), pyridine and 1-methyl-2-pyrollidinone (NMP) as a solvent group for sequential elution. GPC, Syn-F and XRD were applied to investigate molecular mass distribution, condensed aromatic structure and crystal characteristics. The results showed that the size of aromatic layers (La) is small (3-3.95 nm) and the stacking heights (Lc) are 0.8-1.2 nm. The molecular mass distribution of the macromolecular aromatic network structure is between 400 and 1 130 amu, with condensed aromatic numbers of 3-7 in the structure units.

  15. Description of the operation and radiological impact of a spanish coastal coal-fired power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbacho, Jose A.; Baeza, Antonio; Robles, Beatriz; Mora, Juan C.; Cancio, David

    2008-01-01

    The 'Litoral' Coal-Fired Power Plant (LCFPP) is situated in the town of Carboneras (Almeria) in southern Spain. Its nominal output power is 1589 M We. The fuel used is imported sub-bituminous coal supplied by collier vessels, and unloaded in a port annexed to the plant. The climate of the area is semi-arid mediterranean, with particularly low rainfall. The plant's radiological impact was studied considering various exposure pathways for the workers and the general public. In particular, inhalation and external exposure contributions to the effective dose due to the different materials involved in the operation (coals, fly ash, and bottom ash) were evaluated. Alpha spectrometry was used to characterize radiologically the airborne particulates collected in aerosol filters at points within the installation, and to determine 210 Po levels in aerosols collected in filters placed around the power station. High resolution gamma spectrometry was used to characterize coal and ash samples from the plant, and soil samples collected outside the installation within a radius of 5 km. A dose rate monitor was used to measure the ambient dose equivalent at different points inside and outside the plant. Samples of the seawater used in the plant and of products for human consumption produced nearby were also collected and characterized radiologically. The effective dose was evaluated following a realistic approach based principally on experimental measurements and in situ observations, complemented with mathematical models when necessary. The resulting estimated effective doses for selected representative groups of workers and general public were all below the reference levels used in this work. (author)

  16. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR EMISSION REDUCTIONS FROM THE COAL-FIRED POWER SECTOR IN GROWING ECONOMIES: THE CASE OF COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS IN RUSSIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    China, Russia and India together contribute over one-fourth of the total global greenhouse gas emissions from the combustion of fossil-fuels. This paper focuses on the Russian coal-fired power sector, and identifies potential opportunities for reducing emissions. The Russian powe...

  17. Detection of low caloric power of coal by pulse fast-thermal neutron analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu De-shan; Sang Hai-feng; Qiao Shuang; Liu Yu-ren, Liu Lin-mao; Jing Shi-wei; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun

    2004-01-01

    Analysis method and principle of pulse fast-thermal neutron analysis (PFTNA) are introduced. A system for the measurement of low caloric power of coal by PFTNA is also presented. The 14 MeV pulse neutron generator and BGO detector and 4096 MCA were applied in this system. A multiple linear regression method applied to the data solved the interferential problem of multiple elements. The error of low caloric power between chemical analysis and experiment was less than 0.4 MJ/kg. (author)

  18. Clean coal technology project to Polk Power Station, Tampa Electric Company, Florida, Volume 1: Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    Tampa Electric Company proposes to construct and operate a 1,150-MW power station in southwestern Polk County, Florida. The proposed Polk Power Station would require an EPA NPDES permit for a new source and would include a 260-MW IGCC unit as a DOE Clean Coal Technology demonstration project. This EIS document assesses the proposed project and alternatives with respect to environmental impacts. Mitigative measures are also evaluated for the preferred alternative. Included in this Volume I are the following: alternatives including Tampa Electric Companies proposed project (preferred alternative with DOE financial assistance); affected environment; environmental consequences of the alternatives

  19. Low flows and water temperature risks to Asian coal power plants in a warming world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Byers, E.; Parkinson, S.; Wanders, N.; Wada, Y.; Bielicki, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Thermoelectric power generation requires cooling, normally provided by wet cooling systems. The withdrawal and discharge of cooling water are subject to regulation. Therefore, operation of power plants may be vulnerable to changes in streamflow and rises in water temperatures. In Asia, about 489 GW of coal-fired power plants are currently under construction, permitted, or announced. Using a comprehensive dataset of these planned coal power plants (PCPPs) and cooling water use models, we investigated whether electricity generation at these power plants will be limited by streamflow and water temperature. Daily streamflow and water temperature time series are from the high-resolution (0.08ox0.08o) runs of the PCRGLOBWB hydrological model, driven by downscaled meteorological forcing from five global climate models. We compared three climate change scenarios (1.5oC, 2oC, and 3oC warming in global mean temperature) and three cooling system choice scenarios (freshwater once-through, freshwater cooling tower, and "business-as-usual" - where a PCPP uses the same cooling system as the nearest existing coal power plant). The potential available capacity of the PCPPs increase slightly from the 1.5oC to the 2oC and 3oC warming scenario due to increase in streamflow. The once-through cooling scenario results in virtually zero available capacity at the PCPPs. The other two cooling scenarios result in about 20% of the planned capacity being unavailable under all warming scenarios. Hotspots of the most water-limited PCPPs are in Pakistan, northwestern India, northwestern and north-central China, and northern Vietnam, where most of the PCPPs will face 30% to 90% unavailable nameplate capacity on annual average. Since coal power plants cannot operate effectively when the capacity factor falls below a minimum load level (about 20% to 50%), the actual limitation on generation capacity would be larger. In general, the PCPPs that will have the highest limitation on annual average

  20. Recurrent-neural-network-based identification of a cascade hydraulic actuator for closed-loop automotive power transmission control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Seung Han; Hahn, Jin Oh

    2012-01-01

    By virtue of its ease of operation compared with its conventional manual counterpart, automatic transmissions are commonly used as automotive power transmission control system in today's passenger cars. In accordance with this trend, research efforts on closed-loop automatic transmission controls have been extensively carried out to improve ride quality and fuel economy. State-of-the-art power transmission control algorithms may have limitations in performance because they rely on the steady-state characteristics of the hydraulic actuator rather than fully exploit its dynamic characteristics. Since the ultimate viability of closed-loop power transmission control is dominated by precise pressure control at the level of hydraulic actuator, closed-loop control can potentially attain superior efficacy in case the hydraulic actuator can be easily incorporated into model-based observer/controller design. In this paper, we propose to use a recurrent neural network (RNN) to establish a nonlinear empirical model of a cascade hydraulic actuator in a passenger car automatic transmission, which has potential to be easily incorporated in designing observers and controllers. Experimental analysis is performed to grasp key system characteristics, based on which a nonlinear system identification procedure is carried out. Extensive experimental validation of the established model suggests that it has superb one-step-ahead prediction capability over appropriate frequency range, making it an attractive approach for model-based observer/controller design applications in automotive systems

  1. Mine drivage in hydraulic mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehkber, B Ya

    1983-09-01

    From 20 to 25% of labor cost in hydraulic coal mines falls on mine drivage. Range of mine drivage is high due to the large number of shortwalls mined by hydraulic monitors. Reducing mining cost in hydraulic mines depends on lowering drivage cost by use of new drivage systems or by increasing efficiency of drivage systems used at present. The following drivage methods used in hydraulic mines are compared: heading machines with hydraulic haulage of cut rocks and coal, hydraulic monitors with hydraulic haulage, drilling and blasting with hydraulic haulage of blasted rocks. Mining and geologic conditions which influence selection of the optimum mine drivage system are analyzed. Standardized cross sections of mine roadways driven by the 3 methods are shown in schemes. Support systems used in mine roadways are compared: timber supports, roof bolts, roof bolts with steel elements, and roadways driven in rocks without a support system. Heading machines (K-56MG, GPKG, 4PU, PK-3M) and hydraulic monitors (GMDTs-3M, 12GD-2) used for mine drivage are described. Data on mine drivage in hydraulic coal mines in the Kuzbass are discussed. From 40 to 46% of roadways are driven by heading machines with hydraulic haulage and from 12 to 15% by hydraulic monitors with hydraulic haulage.

  2. The PurdueTracer: An Energy-Efficient Human-Powered Hydraulic Bicycle with Flexible Operation and Software Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Marinaro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrostatic transmissions (HT are widely applied to heavy-duty mobile applications because of the advantages of layout flexibility, power to weight ratio, and ease of control. Though applications of fluid power in light-duty vehicles face challenges, including the unavailability of off-the-shelf components suitable to the power scale, there are potential advantages for HTs in human-powered vehicles, such as bicycles, the most important one being the energy-saving advantage achievable through regenerative braking in a hybrid HT. This paper describes an innovative design for a hydraulic hybrid bicycle, i.e., the PurdueTracer. The PurdueTracer is an energy-efficient human-powered hydraulic bicycle with flexible operation and software aids. An open-circuit hydraulic hybrid transmission allows PurdueTracer to operate in four modes: Pedaling, Charging, Boost, and Regeneration, to satisfy users’ need for different riding occasions. An aluminum chassis that also functions as a system reservoir was customized for the PurdueTracer to optimize the durability, riding comfort, and space for components. The selection of the hydraulic components was performed by creating a model of the bicycle in AMESim simulation software and conducting a numerical optimization based on the model. The electronic system equipped users with informative feedback showing the bicycle performance, intuitive execution of functions, and comprehensive guidance for operation. This paper describes the design approach and the main results of the PurdueTracer, which also won the 2017 National Fluid Power Association Fluid Power Vehicle Challenge. This championship serves to prove the excellence of this vehicle in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, durability, and novelty.

  3. Technico-economic evaluation of abatement systems applying to air pollution resulting from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mounier, Marc.

    1981-09-01

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the analysis of the health care policies which could be considered in coal-fired power plants, in the comparative framework of the radiation protection in nuclear power plants. After a recall of the typical parameters of the air pollution due to the normal operation of a coal-fired power plant, we develop a heuristic model which allows, after having quantified the releases, to determine the theoretical health effects associated to a one-year operation of the power plant. The comparison of the various protection policies has been done with the help of a cost-effectiveness analysis. An examination of the results shows that the policy presently implemented forms a part of the cost-effective options. Nevertheless, it can be seen that the marginal protection cost is higher in nuclear power plants than in coal-fired power plants [fr

  4. Radiological Impact Study of the Coal-Fired Power Plant of Narcea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, B.; Baeza, A.; Mora, J. a.; Corbacho, J. a.; Trueba, C.; Guillen, J.; Rodriguez, Miralles, Y.

    2014-04-01

    Coal, fuel used in thermal power plants for electricity production, contains variable concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides from natural disintegration series of {sup 2}38U, {sup 2}35U, {sup 2}32Th and also the 40K, which are enhanced in the wastes and coproducts due to the industrial process. For this reason, natural radionuclides which are part of the noncombustible fraction of coal, except those volatiles which incorporate directly to the flue gases, concentrates and are partitioned between fly ashes and bottom ashes. This enhancement could cause, to the workers of the installation and to members of the public around the plant, an increase in the exposure which should be assessed under the radiation protection point of view. Present report collect the results obtained from a screening assessment of the radiological impact derived from the normal operation of the Narcea coal-fired power plant. The project where this assessment was performed is part of a bigger project which is jointly developed by the Unit of Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment (UPRPYMA) of CIEMAT and the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Extremadura University (LARUEX) in agreement with the Spanish Association of the Electrical Industry (ENUSA). (Author)

  5. Efficiency and environmental impacts of electricity restructuring on coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, H. Ron [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Economics; Fell, Harrison [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Division of Economics and Business; Lange, Ian [Stirling Univ. (United Kingdom). Division of Economics; Li, Shanjun [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Dyson School of Applied Economics and Management

    2013-03-15

    We investigate the impacts of electricity market restructuring on fuel efficiency, utilization and, new to this area, cost of coal purchases among coal-fired power plants using a panel data set from 1991 to 2005. Our study focuses exclusively on coal-fired power plants and uses panel data covering several years after implementation of restructuring. The estimation compares how investor-owned (IOs) plants in states with restructuring changed their behavior relative to IOs in states without. Our analysis finds that restructuring led to: (1) a two percent improvement in fuel efficiency for IOs, (2) a ten percent decrease in unit cost of heat input, and (3) a lower capacity factor even after adjusting for cross-plant generation re-allocation due to cost reductions. Based on these estimates, back-of-the-envelope calculations find that restructuring has led to about 6.5 million dollars in annual cost savings or nearly 12 percent of operating expenses and up to a 7.6 percent emissions reduction per plant.

  6. Soil as an archive of coal-fired power plant mercury deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos

    2016-05-05

    Mercury pollution is a global environmental problem that has serious implications for human health. One of the most important sources of anthropogenic mercury emissions are coal-burning power plants. Hg accumulations in soil are associated with their atmospheric deposition. Our study provides the first assessment of soil Hg on the entire Spanish surface obtained from one sampling protocol. Hg spatial distribution was analysed with topsoil samples taken from 4000 locations in a regular sampling grid. The other aim was to use geostatistical techniques to verify the extent of soil contamination by Hg and to evaluate presumed Hg enrichment near the seven Spanish power plants with installed capacity above 1000 MW. The Hg concentration in Spanish soil fell within the range of 1-7564 μg kg(-1) (mean 67.2) and 50% of the samples had a concentration below 37 μg kg(-1). Evidence for human activity was found near all the coal-fired power plants, which reflects that metals have accumulated in the basin over many years. Values over 1000 μg kg(-1) have been found in soils in the vicinity of the Aboño, Soto de Ribera and Castellon power plants. However, soil Hg enrichment was detectable only close to the emission source, within an approximate range of only 15 km from the power plants. We associated this effect with airborne emissions and subsequent depositions as the potential distance through fly ash deposition. Hg associated with particles of ash tends to be deposited near coal combustion sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Exergy analysis of a coal/biomass co-hydrogasification based chemical looping power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Linbo; Yue, Guangxi; He, Boshu

    2015-01-01

    Power generation from co-utilization of coal and biomass is very attractive since this technology can not only save the coal resource but make sufficient utilization of biomass. In addition, with this concept, net carbon discharge per unit electric power generation can also be sharply reduced. In this work, a coal/biomass co-hydrogasification based chemical looping power generation system is presented and analyzed with the assistance of Aspen Plus. The effects of different operating conditions including the biomass mass fraction, R_b, the hydrogen recycle ratio, R_h_r, the hydrogasification pressure, P_h_g, the iron to fuel mole ratio, R_i_f, the reducer temperature, T_r_e, the oxidizer temperature, T_o_x, and the fuel utilization factor, U_f of the SOFC (solid oxide fuel cell) on the system operation results including the energy efficiency, η_e, the total energy efficiency, η_t_e, the exergy efficiency, η_e_x, the total exergy efficiency, η_t_e_x and the carbon capture rate, η_c_c, are analyzed. The energy and exergy balances of the whole system are also calculated and the corresponding Sankey diagram and Grassmann diagram are drawn. Under the benchmark condition, exergy efficiencies of different units in the system are calculated. η_t_e, η_t_e_x and η_c_c of the system are also found to be 43.6%, 41.2% and 99.1%, respectively. - Highlights: • A coal/biomass co-hydrogasification based chemical looping power generation system is setup. • Sankey and Grassmann diagrams are presented based on the energy and exergy balance calculations. • Sensitivity analysis is done to understand the system operation characteristics. • Total energy and exergy efficiencies of this system can be 43.6% and 41.2%, respectively. • About 99.1% of the carbon contained in coal and biomass can be captured in this system.

  8. Impact of a coal fired power plant on 226Ra activity level in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, G.; Sencar, J.

    1999-01-01

    The paper deals with radioactivity contamination originating from a coal fired power plant which, due to its location, may present a remarkable environmental problem. The plant is situated in a bay of the Adriatic close to the densely populated area with highly developed touristic activity. Its operation may cause significant damage to rich marine ecosystem characteristic for this part of the Croatian Adriatic as well as endanger urban and touristic developmental prospects of the area. Investigations of coal used in regular plant operation and of solid incombustible ash and slag showed increased natural radioactivity levels which may cause general environmental contamination of the bay as well as contamination of the marine environment of this part of the Croatian Adriatic

  9. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies.

  10. Do emission ceilings ruin coal-fired power plants?; Emissieplafonds nekken kolencentrales?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijmenga, J. [Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    The case of the new coal-fired power plants has already racked the brains of many. The advice offered to the court by the attorney-general constitutes the next step in this process. A temporary solution has been found for the coal-fired plants, but one question remains unanswered so far: how should an emission ceiling be used as a test instrument for permits? This article provides a direction in which a solution can be found. [Dutch] De zaak betreffende de nieuwe kolencentrales heeft al tot heel wat hoofdbrekens geleid. Het advies dat de advocaat-generaal heeft uitgebracht aan het hof is een volgende stap in dit proces. Voor de kolencentrales is een tijdelijke oplossing gevonden, maar de vraag is nog niet beantwoord hoe een emissieplafond moet worden gebruikt als toetsinstrument voor vergunningen. In dit artikel wordt aangegeven in welke richting een oplossing kan worden gezocht.

  11. Comprehensive assessment of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.D.; Schmidt, C.E.; Radziwon, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has two current investigations, initiated before passage of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), that will determine the air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. DOE has contracted with Battelle Memorial Institute and Radian corporation to conduct studies focusing on the potential air toxics, both organic and inorganic, associated with different size fractions of fine particulate matter emitted from power plant stacks. Table 2 indicates the selected analytes to be investigated during these studies. PETC is also developing guidance on the monitoring of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPS) to be incorporated in the Environmental Monitoring plans for the demonstration projects in its Clean Coal Technology Program

  12. Observer and data-driven model based fault detection in Power Plant Coal Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh Odgaard, Peter; Lin, Bao; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2008-01-01

    model with motor power as the controlled variable, data-driven methods for fault detection are also investigated. Regression models that represent normal operating conditions (NOCs) are developed with both static and dynamic principal component analysis and partial least squares methods. The residual...... between process measurement and the NOC model prediction is used for fault detection. A hybrid approach, where a data-driven model is employed to derive an optimal unknown input observer, is also implemented. The three methods are evaluated with case studies on coal mill data, which includes a fault......This paper presents and compares model-based and data-driven fault detection approaches for coal mill systems. The first approach detects faults with an optimal unknown input observer developed from a simplified energy balance model. Due to the time-consuming effort in developing a first principles...

  13. Radiological impact of the storage of solid wastes from coal-fored power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugon, J.; Caries, J.C.; Patellis, A.; Roussel, S.

    1983-01-01

    Solid wastes from the coal-fired power plant of GARDANNE are stared in piles, outside near the unit. The coal contains a high proportion of sulfur, so the storage pile is a very reducing middle. The radium coming from the ore, which is mostly retained in the bottom ashes, could then be solubilized again, by physicochemical processes, leached by the rain and reach the nearest population through the food-chain pathways. Leaching-tests where made with three sampling series. The measurement datas show that only 15% of the 226 Ra can be solved and that the Ra 226 observed concentrations in vegetal samples come mostly from transportation of dust by the wind [fr

  14. Radioactivity level of the ambient environment of Anren bone-coal power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Jida; Liu Hongshi; Wu Zongmei; Wu Xiaofei

    2002-01-01

    The radioactivity level of the ambient environment of Anren Bone-coal Power Station (BCPS) was investigated systematically. The γ radiation dose rate level in the environment, the content of 238 U and 226 Ra in the ambient soil and the farmland in the direction of downwind, the concentrations of 238 U, 232 Th, 226 Ra, 40 K and 222 Rn, as well as α potential energy in air, and the concentrations of natural U and Th in effluent are all higher than the corresponding values of the reference site. The additional annual effective dose equivalent to the residents living in the houses made of bone-coal cinder brick is 2.7 mSv

  15. Environmental externalities: Applying the concept to Asian coal-based power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, C.B.; Gillette, J.L.

    1993-03-01

    This report examines the concept of environmental externality. It discusses various factors -- the atmospheric transformations, relationship of point-source emissions to ambient air quality, dose-response relationships, applicable cause-and-effect principles, and risk and valuation research -- that are considered by a number of state utilities when they apply the environmental externality concept to energy resource planning. It describes a methodology developed by Argonne National Laboratory for general use in resource planning, in combination with traditional methods that consider the cost of electricity production. Finally, it shows how the methodology can be applied in Indonesia, Thailand, and Taiwan to potential coal-fired power plant projects that will make use of clean coal technologies

  16. Coal industry annual 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs

  17. Coal industry annual 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  18. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  19. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995

  20. Effect of water side deposits on the energy performance of coal fired thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, M. Siddhartha

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of water side deposits in the 210 MW coal fired thermal power plant components (viz., boiler, turbine, feed water heaters, condensers and lube oil coolers) on the energy efficiency of these components and that of the overall system at 100% maximum continuous rating (MCR). The origin, composition and rate of build up of deposits on the water side are presented. A linear growth rate of deposits is assumed for simplicity. The effects of the reduction in heat transfer, increased pressure drop and increased pumping power/reduced power output in the components are quantified in the form of curve fits as functions of the deposit thickness (μm). The reduction in heat transfer in the boiler components is in the range of 0.2-2.0% under normal scaling. The increased pumping power is of the order of 0.6-7.6% in the boiler components, 29% in the BFP circuit, 26% in the LPH circuit, 21% in the HPH circuit and 18% in the lube oil cooler circuits. The effects on the overall coal fired plant is quantified through functional relations between the efficiencies and the notional deposit thickness. The sensitivity indices to the notional deposit thickness are: boiler efficiency: -0.0021% points/μm, turbine circuit efficiency: -0.0037% points/μm, auxiliary power efficiency: -0.00129% points/μm, gross overall efficiency: -0.0039% points/μm and net overall efficiency: -0.0040% points/μm. The overall effect of scale build up is either increased power input of ∼68 kW/μm (at a constant power output) or decreased power output ∼25 kW/μm (at a constant power input). Successful contaminant control techniques are highlighted. Capacity reduction effects due to water side deposits are negligible

  1. Compressed air storage with humidification (CASH) coal gasification power plant investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhamkin, M.; Patel, M.

    1991-08-01

    A study was performed to investigate and develop a hybrid coal gasification concept which utilizes an air saturator (AS) with an integrated coal gasification/compressed air energy storage (CGS/CAES) plant. This potentially attractive concept is designated as AS/CGS/CAES. In this concept, the coal gasification system provides fuel for the combustors of the CAES reheat turbomachinery train. Motive air from underground storage is humidified by saturators and thereby provides increased power production without additional air consumption. The heat for generating the hot water utilized in the saturators is extracted from waste heat within the overall plant. Multiple alternatives were considered and parametrically analyzed in the study in order to select the most thermodynamically and economically attractive concepts. The major alternatives were differentiated by the type of gasifier, type of CAES turbomachinery, mode of operation, and utilization of waste heat. The results of the study indicate that the use of the air saturation in AS/CGS/CAES plants might reduce capital costs of coal gasification based power used in intermediate load generation by $300 to $400 per kilowatt. Furthermore, heat rates might also be reduced by almost 1.5 cents per kilowatt hour, a major reduction. The major cause of the reduction in electricity costs is a 50% reduction in the required gasification capacity per net kW. In addition to being a load management tool, AS/CGS/CAES concepts provide a method to operate the CGS and turbomachinery in a continuous mode, improving the operation and potentially the life expectancy of both components. 3 refs., 18 figs., 4 tabs

  2. Evaluation of radionuclide contamination of soil, coal ash and zeolitic materials from Figueira thermoelectric power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fungaro, Denise Alves; Silva, Paulo Sergio Cardoso da; Campello, Felipe Arrelaro; Miranda, Caio da Silva; Izidoro, Juliana de Carvalho

    2017-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis and gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine 238 U, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb, 232 Th and 40 K contents in feed pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash from cyclone and baghouse filters, zeolites synthesized from the ashes and two different soil samples. All the samples used in the study was collected at Figueira thermoelectric power plant, located in the city of Figueira, Paraná State, which coal presents a significant amount of uranium concentration. The natural radionuclide concentrations in pulverized coal were 4216 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, 180 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 27 Bq kg -1 for 228 Ra, 28 Bq kg -1 for 232 Th and 192 Bq kg -1 for 40 K. The ashes fraction presented concentrations ranging from 683.5 to 1479 Bq kg -1 for 238 U, from 484 to 1086 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, from 291 to 1891 Bq kg -1 for 210 Pb, from 67 to 111 Bq kg -1 for 228 Ra, from 80 to 87 Bq -1 for 232 Th and from 489 to 718 Bq kg -1 for 40 K. Similar ranges were observed for zeolites. The activity concentration of 238 U was higher than worldwide average concentration for all samples. The concentration of the uranium series found in the ashes were lower than the values observed in similar studies carried out 10 years ago and under the limit adopted by the Brazilian guideline (CNEN-NN-4.01). Nevertheless, the concentrations of this specific area are higher than others coal mines and thermoelectric power plants in and out of Brazil, so it is advisable to evaluate the environmental impact of the installation. (author).

  3. Mechanism and kinetics of uranium adsorption onto soil around coal-fired power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasim, Nurzulaifa Shaheera Erne Mohd; Ariffin, Nik Azlin Nik; Mohammed, Noradila; Ayob, Syafina

    2017-11-01

    Coal is the largest source of energy in Malaysia providing approximately 80 % of all entire power needs. The combustion of coal concentrates a high content of heavy metals and radioactive elements in the ashes and sludge. Hazardous emissions from coal combustion were deposited into the soil and most likely transported into the groundwater system. The presence of radioactive materials in the ground water system can cause a wide range of environmental impacts and adverse health effects like cancer, impairment of neurological function and cardiovascular disease. However, the soil has a natural capability in adsorption of radioactive materials. Thus, this study was evaluated the adsorption capacity of Uranium onto the soil samples collected nearby the coal-fired power plants. In the batch experiment, parameters that were set constant include pH, the amount of soil and contact time. Various initial concentrations of radionuclides elements in the range of 2 mg/L - 10 mg/L were used. The equilibrium adsorption data was analyzed by the Freundlich isotherm and Langmuir isotherms. Then, the influences of solution pH, contact time and temperature on the adsorption process were investigated. The kinetics of radioactive materials was discussed by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order rate equation. Thus, the data from this study could provide information about the potentiality of soil in sorption of radioactive materials that can be leached into groundwater. Besides that, this study could also be used as baseline data for future reference in the development of adsorption modeling in the calculation of distribution coefficient.

  4. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193 tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39 tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Evaluation of radionuclide contamination of soil, coal ash and zeolitic materials from Figueira thermoelectric power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fungaro, Denise Alves; Silva, Paulo Sergio Cardoso da; Campello, Felipe Arrelaro; Miranda, Caio da Silva; Izidoro, Juliana de Carvalho, E-mail: dfungaro@ipen.br, E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Neutron activation analysis and gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K contents in feed pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash from cyclone and baghouse filters, zeolites synthesized from the ashes and two different soil samples. All the samples used in the study was collected at Figueira thermoelectric power plant, located in the city of Figueira, Paraná State, which coal presents a significant amount of uranium concentration. The natural radionuclide concentrations in pulverized coal were 4216 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U, 180 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 27 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra, 28 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and 192 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. The ashes fraction presented concentrations ranging from 683.5 to 1479 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 238}U, from 484 to 1086 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, from 291 to 1891 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb, from 67 to 111 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 228}Ra, from 80 to 87 Bq{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th and from 489 to 718 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 40}K. Similar ranges were observed for zeolites. The activity concentration of {sup 238}U was higher than worldwide average concentration for all samples. The concentration of the uranium series found in the ashes were lower than the values observed in similar studies carried out 10 years ago and under the limit adopted by the Brazilian guideline (CNEN-NN-4.01). Nevertheless, the concentrations of this specific area are higher than others coal mines and thermoelectric power plants in and out of Brazil, so it is advisable to evaluate the environmental impact of the installation. (author).

  6. The Net Climate Impact of Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, D.; Faluvegi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emission of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2) and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. Using a climate model, we perform the first study of the spatial and temporal pattern of radiative forcing specifically for coal plant emissions. Without substantial pollution controls, we find that near-term net global mean climate forcing is negative due to the well-known aerosol masking of the effects of CO2. Imposition of pollution controls on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides leads to a rapid realization of the full positive forcing from CO2, however. Long-term global mean forcing from stable (constant) emissions is positive regardless of pollution controls. Emissions from coal-fired power plants until 1970, including roughly 1/3 of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions, likely contributed little net global mean climate forcing during that period though they may have induce weak Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude (NHml) cooling. After that time many areas imposed pollution controls or switched to low sulfur coal. Hence forcing due to emissions from 1970 to 2000 and CO2 emitted previously was strongly positive and contributed to rapid global and especially NHml warming. Most recently, new construction in China and India has increased rapidly with minimal application of pollution controls. Continuation of this trend would add negative near-term global mean climate forcing but severely degrade air quality. Conversely, following the Western and Japanese pattern of imposing air quality pollution controls at a later time could accelerate future warming rates, especially at NHmls. More broadly, our results indicate that due to spatial and temporal inhomogeneities in forcing, climate impacts of multi-pollutant emissions can vary strongly from region to region and can include substantial effects on maximum rate-of-change, neither of which are captured by commonly used global metrics. The method we introduce here to estimate

  7. Current and future emissions of primary pollutants from coal-fired power plants in Shaanxi, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yong; Hu, Jianlin; Ying, Qi; Hao, Hongke; Wang, Dexiang; Zhang, Hongliang

    2017-10-01

    A high-resolution inventory of primary atmospheric pollutants from coal-fired power plants in Shaanxi in 2012 was built based on a detailed database compiled at unit level involving unit capacity, boiler size and type, commission time, corresponding control technologies, and average coal quality of 72 power plants. The pollutants included SO 2 , NO x , fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ), inhalable particulate matter (PM 10 ), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), carbon monoxide (CO) and non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC). Emission factors for SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 and PM 10 were adopted from standardized official promulgation, supplemented by those from local studies. The estimated annual emissions of SO 2 , NO x , PM 2.5 , PM 10 , EC, OC, CO and NMVOC were 152.4, 314.8, 16.6, 26.4, 0.07, 0.27, 64.9 and 2.5kt, respectively. Small units (emission rates compared to medium (≥100MW and emissions were decontamination efficiency, sulfur content and ash content of coal. Weinan and Xianyang were the two cities with the highest emissions, and Guanzhong Plain had the largest emission density. Despite the projected growth of coal consumption, emissions would decrease in 2030 due to improvement in emission control technologies and combustion efficiencies. SO 2 and NO x emissions would experience significant reduction by ~81% and ~84%, respectively. PM 2.5 , PM 10 , EC and OC would be decreased by ~43% and CO and NMVOC would be reduced by ~16%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Radiological impact of atmospheric releases from a coal-fired power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aigueperse, J.; Chalabreysse, J.; Coulon, R.; Grauby, A.; Uzzan, G.

    1982-01-01

    As the first stage of a study carried out under contract with the Commission of the European Communities for the comparative assessment of the risks to which the individuals of a regional population are exposed, the paper seeks to evaluate atmospheric releases from a coal-fired thermal power station. The station is of traditional design with an installed capacity of 415MW(e) and uses only lignite-type coal produced from a coal basin situated nearby. Gaseous effluents are released from four stacks. The area close to the station is rural in nature: there are a number of small farms, fairly abundant natural vegetation and some fairly well-populated zones with various industries. The main feature of the weather conditions is the strong prevailing winds in the optimum direction. A radiation measurement campaign involving the main 238 U and 232 Th daughter products was carried out focussing on: (1) the coal burnt in the power station; (2) the solid residues resulting from combustion (fly ash, wet ash); (3) gaseous effluents by means of direct sampling from the two release stacks. The information obtained on the releases has made it possible, with the help of dispersion and transfer models, to evaluate the atmospheric concentration of the different radionuclide released as well as their deposition and presence in the biotope in the plant vicinity. The effective dose equivalents received by persons living in the zone of maximum exposure and consuming food produced in that zone were assessed at approximately 7x10 -5 Sv.a -1 at the end of the plant's operating period. Finally, the main radionuclides were measured at a number of points near the plant with the aim of verifying the model evaluations for a particular situation. (author)

  9. Radiological impact of atmospheric releases from a coal-fired power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aigueperse, J; Chalabreysse, J; Coulon, R; Grauby, A [CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection; Uzzan, G [Association EURATOM-CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Dept. de Protection

    1982-01-01

    As the first stage of a study carried out under contract with the Commission of the European Communities for the comparative assessment of the risks to which the individuals of a regional population are exposed, the paper seeks to evaluate atmospheric releases from a coal-fired thermal power station. The station is of traditional design with an installed capacity of 415MW(e) and uses only lignite-type coal produced from a coal basin situated nearby. Gaseous effluents are released from four stacks. The area close to the station is rural in nature: there are a number of small farms, fairly abundant natural vegetation and some fairly well-populated zones with various industries. The main feature of the weather conditions is the strong prevailing winds in the optimum direction. A radiation measurement campaign involving the main /sup 238/U and /sup 232/Th daughter products was carried out focussing on: (1) the coal burnt in the power station; (2) the solid residues resulting from combustion (fly ash, wet ash); (3) gaseous effluents by means of direct sampling from the two release stacks. The information obtained on the releases has made it possible, with the help of dispersion and transfer models, to evaluate the atmospheric concentration of the different radionuclide released as well as their deposition and presence in the biotope in the plant vicinity. The effective dose equivalents received by persons living in the zone of maximum exposure and consuming food produced in that zone were assessed at approximately 7x10/sup -5/Sv.a/sup -1/ at the end of the plant's operating period. Finally, the main radionuclides were measured at a number of points near the plant with the aim of verifying the model evaluations for a particular situation.

  10. Output regulation of large-scale hydraulic networks with minimal steady state power consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jensen, Tom Nørgaard; Wisniewski, Rafał; De Persis, Claudio; Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose

    2014-01-01

    An industrial case study involving a large-scale hydraulic network is examined. The hydraulic network underlies a district heating system, with an arbitrary number of end-users. The problem of output regulation is addressed along with a optimization criterion for the control. The fact that the

  11. Local Impacts of Mercury Emissions from the Three Pennsylvania Coal Fired Power Plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan,T.; Adams,J.; Bender, M.; Bu, C.; Piccolo, N.; Campbell, C.

    2008-02-01

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury 'hot spots'. Soil and oak leaf samples from around three large U.S. coal-fired power plants in Western Pennsylvania were collected and analyzed for evidence of 'hot spots'. These three plants (Conemaugh, Homer City, and Keystone) are separated by a total distance of approximately 30 miles. Each emits over 500 pounds of mercury per year which is well above average for mercury emissions from coal plants in the U.S. Soil and oak leaf sampling programs were performed around each power plant. Sampling rings one-mile apart were used with eight or nine locations on each ring. The prevailing winds in the region are from the west. For this reason, sampling was conducted out to 10 miles from the Conemaugh plant which is southeast of the others. The other plants were sampled to a distance of five miles. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with wind patterns. The study

  12. Public attitudes to nuclear and coal power in site selection for a future energy centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baril, R.G.; Dobson, J.K.

    This paper discusses the results of a 1977 public attitude survey carried out as part of an Ontario Hydro generating site selection program along the North Channel of Lake Huron. The results of the survey are compared with those of two similar surveys conducted in 1974 and 1975. The main topics discussed include local citizen attitudes to a generating site in the area, nuclear power, attitude changes over three years, differences in attitudes to nuclear and to coal fired generation and the underlying reasons given for favouring or opposing nuclear power. The results of other surveys which have been conducted recently in Canada and internationally are discussed and compared with this survey. Most longitudinal studies point to a trend of declining public acceptance regarding nuclear power. If this trend continues, there are important implications for the nuclear power industry: they are discussed from a sociological and political perspective. (author)

  13. Non-greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired power plants in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-04-15

    Within the Twelth Five-Year Plan, the Chinese Government has made addressing air quality problems a key environmental priority, with an intention to accelerate the development of systems, institutions and a technical knowledge base for sustained improvement. A major focus is on the coal power sector for which standards have been introduced that require the installation of modern, very high efficiency SO2, NOx and particulates emissions control systems. Nine key regions, which are facing very significant air quality challenges, are the three major economic zones around the cities of Beijing, Shanghai (Yangtze River Delta) and Guangzhou (Pearl River Delta), together with six areas around the cities of Shenyang, Changsha, Wuhan, Chengdu Chongqing, the Shandong peninsula, and the coastal area west of the Taiwan strait. These regions comprise the population and economic centres of the country, accounting for 64% of national GDP, 43% of total energy use, and 39% of the population. In these locations, all existing and new coal-fired power plants will have to achieve particulate, SO2 and NOx emissions limits of 20, 50 and 100 mg/m3 respectively, with new plants expected to meet the standards from 1 January 2012 and existing plants by 1 July 2014. At the same time, there will be an increasing emphasis on limiting any new coal-fired power plants in these regions. For the rest of the country, the standards are not quite so strict and the SO2 limits for existing plants are less severe than for new plants. The new pollutant that will be regulated on coal-fired power plants is mercury and its compounds, for which the limit has been set at a level that represents a core control. This means that providing the power plant operator meets the new particulate, SO2 and NOx standards then the mercury standard should be met without the need to introduce an additional capture device, although the emissions level will have to be measured on a regular basis. From a global perspective, this

  14. Thermal-hydraulic studies on the safety of VVER-440 type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuunanen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The thesis includes several thermal-hydraulic analyses related to the Loviisa VVER-440 nuclear power plant units. The work consists of experimental studies, analysis of the experiments, analysis of some plant transients and development of a calculational model for calculation of boric concentrations in the reactor. In the first part of thesis, in the case of simulation of boric acid solution behaviour during long-term cooling period of LOCAs, experiments were performed in scaled-down test facilities. The experimental data together with the results of RELAP5/MOD3 simulations were used to develop a model for calculations of boric acid concentrations in the reactor during LOCAs. In the second part, in the case of simulation of horizontal generators, experiments were performed with PACTEL integral test loop to simulate loss of feedwater transients. The PACTEL experiments as well as earlier REWETT-III natural circulation tests, were analyzed with RELAP5/MOD3 Version 5m5 code. The third part of the work consists of simulations of Loviisa VVER reactor pump trip transients with RELAP5/MOD1-Eur, RELAP5/MOD3 and CATHARE codes. (56 refs., 9 figs.)

  15. Thermal hydraulic and power cycle analysis of liquid lithium blanket designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, B.; Stevens, H.C.; Maroni, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal hydraulic and power cycle analyses were performed for the first-wall and blanket systems of tokamak-type fusion reactors under a typical set of design and operating conditions. The analytical results for lithium-cooled blanket cells show that with stainless steel as construction material and with no divertor present, the maximum allowable neutron wall loading is approximately 2 MW/m 2 and is limited by thermal stress criteria. With vanadium alloy as construction material and no divertor present, the maximum allowable neutron wall loading is approximately 8 MW/m 2 and is limited by an interplay of constraints imposed on the maximum allowable structural temperature and the minimum allowable coolant inlet temperature. With a divertor these wall loadings can be increased by from 40 to 90 percent. The cost of the vanadium system is found to be competitive with the stainless steel system because of the higher allowable structural temperatures and concomitant higher thermal efficiencies afforded by the vanadium alloys

  16. Factors Determining the Size of Sealing Clearance in Hydraulic Legs of Powered Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buyalich Gennady

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The factors that directly influence the formation of a sealing clearance between the piston and the working cylinder in hydraulic legs of powered supports are considered in this article, the size thereof has a direct effect on the tightness of the legs and, as a result, on the safety of work at the production face. A detailed description of these factors is given, which is supported by the dependencies obtained from the results of finite element modeling of various types of legs under various strength and geometric parameters, external load types and locations in the support section. The problems of formation of radial deformations of a working cylinder loaded with working fluid pressure are considered, and their dependence on the level of this pressure and extension. Based on the simulation results, the mechanisms for the formation of additional clearances due to rod and cylinder misalignments are described, and the conditions and causes of the resonant phenomena development are given. The classification of these factors according to the degree of generalization and the functional interaction between each other is proposed.

  17. The role of clean coal technologies in post-2000 power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvador, L.A.; Bajura, R.A.; Mahajan, K.

    1994-01-01

    A substantial global market for advanced power systems is expected to develop early in the next century for both repowering and new capacity additions, Although natural gas-fueled systems, such as gas turbines, are expected to dominate in the 1990's, coal-fueled systems are expected to emerge in the 2000's as systems of choice for base-load capacity because of coal's lower expected cost. Stringent environmental regulations dictate that all advanced power systems must be clean, economical, and efficient in order to meet both the environmental and economic performance criteria of the future. Recognizing these needs, the DOE strategy is to carry out an effective RD ampersand D program, in partnership with the private sector, to demonstrate these technologies for commercial applications in the next century. These technologies are expected to capture a large portion of the future power generation market. The DOE: expects that, domestically, advanced power systems products will be selected on the basis of varying regional needs and the needs of individual utilities. A large international demand is also expected for the new products, especially in developing nations

  18. Tariff-based incentives for improving coal-power-plant efficiencies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikkatur, Ananth P.; Sagar, Ambuj D.; Abhyankar, Nikit; Sreekumar, N.

    2007-01-01

    Improving the efficiency of coal-based power plants plays an important role in improving the performance of India's power sector. It allows for increased consumer benefits through cost reduction, while enhancing energy security and helping reduce local and global pollution through more efficient coal use. A focus on supply-side efficiency also complements other ongoing efforts on end-use efficiency. The recent restructuring of the Indian electricity sector offers an important route to improving power plant efficiency, through regulatory mechanisms that allow for an independent tariff setting process for bulk purchases of electricity from generators. Current tariffs based on normative benchmarks for performance norms are hobbled by information asymmetry (where regulators do not have access to detailed performance data). Hence, we propose a new incentive scheme that gets around the asymmetry problem by setting performance benchmarks based on actual efficiency data, rather than on a normative basis. The scheme provides direct tariff-based incentives for efficiency improvements, while benefiting consumers by reducing electricity costs in the long run. This proposal might also be useful for regulators in other countries to incorporate similar incentives for efficiency improvement in power generation

  19. Electrostatic precipitators for coal thermal power plants energized by means of narrow pulse voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinelli, G.; Mattachini, F.; Bogani, V.; Baldacci, A.; Tarli, R. (ENEL-CRTN, Direzione Studi e Ricerche, Milan (Italy) ENEL, VDT Settore Tecnico, Direzione Produzione e Trasmissione, Rome (Italy))

    1990-09-01

    The efficiency of electrostatic precipitators, widely used in thermal power plants to clean flue gases from solid particulate, is strongly dependent both on the way particles are electrically charged and on the characteristics of the electric field within the interelectrodic space of the precipitator. Such operating may become inadequate under varying particle characteristics and operating conditions of the thermal plant, therefore bringing to a reduction in the precipitator collection efficiency. An innovative technique, by generating a pulsed corona in the precipitator, allows a substantial improvement of both the particle charging and the collection processes and an increase in the operation flexibility of the electrostatic precipitator. The narrow pulse voltage energization has been extensively tested at a coal thermal unit having the electrostatic precipitators equipped with both conventional and pulse power sets. The long duration tests confirmed the following results: 1) high reliability of the pulse power sets and a considerable improvement in the precipitator collection efficiency; 2) a decrease in the particulate emissions, with coals whose ashes are of difficult collection, ranging between 75% and 85% of those with conventional energization; 3) a reduction by a factor of about 5 in the consumption of electric power by the electrostatic precipitation process.

  20. Co-combustion of gasified contaminated waste wood in a coal fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This project demonstrates the technical and economical feasibility of the producing and cofiring of product gas from demolition waste wood. For this purpose LCV product gas is generated in an atmospheric circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification plant, cooled and cleaned and transported to the boiler of a 600 MWe pulverized coal fired power plant. Gas cooling and cleaning takes place in a waste heat boiler and a multi stage wet gas cleaning train. Steam raised in the waste heat boiler is exported to the power plant. On an annual basis 70,000 tons of steam coal are substituted by 150,000 tons of contaminated demolition waste wood (50,000 tons oil equivalent), resulting in a net CO2 emission reduction of 170,000 tons per year, while concurrently generating 205 GWh of electrical power. The wood gasification plant was built by NV EPZ (now incorporated in Essent Energi BV) for Amergas BV, now a 100% subsidiary of Essent Energie BV. The gasification plant is located at the Amer Power Station of NV EPZ Production (now Essent Generation) at Geertruidenberg, The Netherlands. Demonstrating several important design features in wood gasification, the plant started hot service in the Spring of 2000, with first gasification accomplished in the Summer of 2000 and is currently being optimized. (au)

  1. Comprehensive evaluation of coal-fired power plants based on grey relational analysis and analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Gang; Yang Yongping; Lu Shiyuan; Li Le; Song Xiaona

    2011-01-01

    In China, coal-fired power plants are the main supplier of electricity, as well as the largest consumer of coal and water resources and the biggest emitter of SO x , NO x , and greenhouse gases (GHGs). Therefore, it is important to establish a scientific, reasonable, and feasible comprehensive evaluation system for coal-fired power plants to guide them in achieving multi-optimisation of their thermal, environmental, and economic performance. This paper proposes a novel comprehensive evaluation method, which is based on a combination of the grey relational analysis (GRA) and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), to assess the multi-objective performance of power plants. Unlike the traditional evaluation method that uses coal consumption as a basic indicator, the proposed evaluation method also takes water consumption and pollutant emissions as indicators. On the basis of the proposed evaluation method, a case study on typical 600 MW coal-fired power plants is carried out to determine the relevancy rules among factors including the coal consumption, water consumption, pollutant, and GHG emissions of power plants. This research offers new ideas and methods for the comprehensive performance evaluation of complex energy utilisation systems, and is beneficial to the synthesised consideration of resources, economy, and environment factors in system optimising and policy making. - Research highlights: → We proposed a comprehensive evaluation method for coal-fired power plants. → The method is based on the grey relational analysis (GRA). → The method also introduces the idea of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). → The method can assess thermal, economic and environmental performance. → The method can play an active role in guiding power plants' improvements.

  2. Comprehensive evaluation of coal-fired power plants based on grey relational analysis and analytic hierarchy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Gang, E-mail: xg2008@ncepu.edu.c [Key Lab of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment of Ministry of Education, School of Energy Power and Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Yang Yongping, E-mail: yyp@ncepu.edu.c [Key Lab of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment of Ministry of Education, School of Energy Power and Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Lu Shiyuan; Li Le [Key Lab of Condition Monitoring and Control for Power Plant Equipment of Ministry of Education, School of Energy Power and Mechanical Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Song Xiaona [Electromechanical Practice Center, Beijing Information Science and Technology University, Beijing (China)

    2011-05-15

    In China, coal-fired power plants are the main supplier of electricity, as well as the largest consumer of coal and water resources and the biggest emitter of SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, and greenhouse gases (GHGs). Therefore, it is important to establish a scientific, reasonable, and feasible comprehensive evaluation system for coal-fired power plants to guide them in achieving multi-optimisation of their thermal, environmental, and economic performance. This paper proposes a novel comprehensive evaluation method, which is based on a combination of the grey relational analysis (GRA) and the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), to assess the multi-objective performance of power plants. Unlike the traditional evaluation method that uses coal consumption as a basic indicator, the proposed evaluation method also takes water consumption and pollutant emissions as indicators. On the basis of the proposed evaluation method, a case study on typical 600 MW coal-fired power plants is carried out to determine the relevancy rules among factors including the coal consumption, water consumption, pollutant, and GHG emissions of power plants. This research offers new ideas and methods for the comprehensive performance evaluation of complex energy utilisation systems, and is beneficial to the synthesised consideration of resources, economy, and environment factors in system optimising and policy making. - Research highlights: {yields} We proposed a comprehensive evaluation method for coal-fired power plants. {yields} The method is based on the grey relational analysis (GRA). {yields} The method also introduces the idea of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP). {yields} The method can assess thermal, economic and environmental performance. {yields} The method can play an active role in guiding power plants' improvements.

  3. Coal transitions in China's power sector: A plant-level assessment of stranded assets and retirement pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, Thomas; Berghmans, Nicolas; Sartor, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    This paper estimates the potential scale of stranded assets in the coal power sector in China under different policy scenarios. A number of factors are putting significant pressure on the coal-power sector: a recent investment bubble in new capacity, structural slowing in electricity demand growth, upcoming moves to liberalize electricity markets and introduce a carbon market, and continued support for renewable and low-carbon sources of electricity. Stranded assets in the Chinese coal-fired power sector are estimated at 90 billion USD 2015 under the current policy trajectory (NDC-Style Scenario). This situation threatens to increase the political economy challenges of China's electricity sector transition to a low-carbon system. This situation is not unique to China: other countries will also face coal-sector stress due to the competitiveness of renewables, and therefore managing existing coal power capacities needs to move to the forefront of climate and energy policy efforts. To turn this situation around, Chinese authorities should have a strategy for a managed phase-down of coal power assets. All new construction of coal power plants should cease: recent project cancellations have been a step in the right direction. A planned retirement schedule for old coal plants that have already made a return on investment should be developed to 2030. Existing, newer coal plants should be prepared to play a role and receive revenues for balancing a high renewables system. A managed 2 deg. C-compatible climate mitigation scenario, in which old plant are retired after 30 years, both puts China's electricity sector on an accelerated pathway to decarbonization, as well as lowering the risks of stranded assets compared to the NDC-Style Scenario, by a total of 12 billion USD 2015. Banking sector exposure to stranded assets in the Managed 2 deg. C Scenario are estimated at less than 10% of the banking sector's loan loss provisions: risks of financial disruption are

  4. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1993 on development of a jet flow bed gasification electric power plant. Investigative research on a technology to treat coals used for coal gasification (investigation for coal type selection); 1993 nendo funryusho gas ka hatsuden plant kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Sekitan gas kayotan no shori gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu (tanshu sentei chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1984-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1993 in the investigation for coal type selection. The investigation is purposed to elucidate the status of existence and resources of coals as the raw material for coal gasification and liquefaction, the coal quality features, and the gasification and liquefaction characteristics. The results will be used as the fundamental materials for technological development. Discussions will also be given on the coal applicability to the composite gasification power generation system in which liquefied residue generated in the process are mixed with the supplied coal. Coal quality analysis and a liquefaction test under the standard condition were completed on 389 test samples composed of 136 kinds of coals produced in Canada, Australia, the U.S.A., China and Indonesia. Coal types were enumerated according to the oil yield. A gasification test was performed on the specific gravity separated coals of Chinese coals to discuss the effect of change in the ash amount on the gasification characteristics. A partial coal combustion test revealed that fuel ratio, oxygen partial pressure, and oxygen molar fraction parameters affect the combustion characteristics. The micro-gravity field is effective in discussing the combustion characteristics of particulate groups of dust coal. A coal oxidizing test was performed, wherein oxidizing characteristics and spontaneous ignition performance were estimated successfully from temperature rise of heat stored in coal. The coal type matrix data were prepared. (NEDO)

  5. A novel solar energy integrated low-rank coal fired power generation using coal pre-drying and an absorption heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Cheng; Bai, Pu; Xin, Tuantuan; Hu, Yue; Xu, Gang; Yang, Yongping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •An improved solar energy integrated LRC fired power generation is proposed. •High efficient and economic feasible solar energy conversion is achieved. •Cold-end losses of the boiler and condenser are reduced. •The energy and exergy efficiencies of the overall system are improved. -- Abstract: A novel solar energy integrated low-rank coal (LRC) fired power generation using coal pre-drying and an absorption heat pump (AHP) was proposed. The proposed integrated system efficiently utilizes the solar energy collected from the parabolic trough to drive the AHP to absorb the low-grade waste heat of the steam cycle, achieving larger amount of heat with suitable temperature for coal’s moisture removal prior to the furnace. Through employing the proposed system, the solar energy could be partially converted into the high-grade coal’s heating value and the cold-end losses of the boiler and the steam cycle could be reduced simultaneously, leading to a high-efficient solar energy conversion together with a preferable overall thermal efficiency of the power generation. The results of the detailed thermodynamic and economic analyses showed that, using the proposed integrated concept in a typical 600 MW LRC-fired power plant could reduce the raw coal consumption by 4.6 kg/s with overall energy and exergy efficiencies improvement of 1.2 and 1.8 percentage points, respectively, as 73.0 MW th solar thermal energy was introduced. The cost of the solar generated electric power could be as low as $0.044/kW h. This work provides an improved concept to further advance the solar energy conversion and utilisation in solar-hybrid coal-fired power generation.

  6. The influence of PM2.5 coal power plant emissions on environment PM2.5 in Jilin Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ye; Li, Zhi; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, He; Zhang, Huafei

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, in the Northeast of China, the heating period comes with large range of haze weather. All the units of coal power plants in Jilin Province have completed the cogeneration reformation; they provide local city heat energy. Many people believe that coal power plants heating caused the heavy haze. In is paper, by compared concentration of PM2.5 in environment in heating period and non heating period, meanwhile the capacity of local coal power plants, conclude that the PM2.5 emission of coal power plants not directly cause the heavy haze in Changchun and Jilin in the end of October and early November. In addition, the water-soluble iron composition of PM2.5 coal power plant emissions is compared with environment, which further proves that the heating supply in coal power plants is not the cause of high concentration of PM2.5 in Jilin province.

  7. Study Improving Performance of Centrifugal Compressor In Paiton Coal Fired Power Plant Unit 1 And 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Yuriadi; Permana, Dadang S.

    2018-03-01

    The compressed air system becomes part of a very important utility system in a Plant, including the Steam Power Plant. In PLN’S coal fired power plant, Paiton units 1 and 2, there are four Centrifugal air compressor types, which produce compressed air as much as 5.652 cfm and with electric power capacity of 1200 kW. Electricity consumption to operate centrifugal compressor is 7.104.117 kWh per year. This study aims to measure the performance of Centrifugal Compressors operating in Paiton’s coal fired power plant units 1 and 2. Performance Compressor is expressed by Specific Power Consumption (SPC) in kW/100 cfm. For this purpose, we measure the compressed air flow rate generated by each compressor and the power consumed by each compressor. The result is as follows Air Compressor SAC 2B : 15.1 kW/100 cfm, Air Compressor SAC 1B : 15.31 kW/100 cfm,Air Compressor SAC 1A : 16.3 kW/100 cfm and air Compressor SAC 2C : 18.19 kW/100 cfm. From the measurement result, air compressor SAC 2B has the best performance that is 15.1 kW / 100 cfm. In this study we analyze efforts to improve the performance of other compressors to at least match the performance of the SAC 2B air compressor. By increasing the Specific Power Consumption from others Compressor, it will get energy saving up to 284,165 kWh per year.

  8. 煤层底板穿层钻孔水力冲孔技术的应用及效果考察%Coal Floor Layer of Drilling Hydraulic Punching Technology Application and Effect of Investigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷庆超; 廉有轩; 王恩营; 刘度

    2015-01-01

    End of the alley pumping wear layer drilling hydraulic punching pressure, the anti-reflection measures can effectively en-hance the permeability of coal seam, expanding radius of extraction and improve the effect of the gas extraction., on the basis of the principle of antireflection unloading hydraulic punching in for zhengzhou mining revitalization of two coal mine hydraulic punching plate wear layer, gas drainage concentration before and after the hydraulic punching, the change of coal seam permeability and the gas flow attenuation coefficient and so on.The test results show that the average single-hole gas drainage concentration is 11.02%, after hy-draulic punching is 2.14%, the anti-reflection measures of improve 4 times; Coefficient of permeability of coal seam after taking steps to improve the 39 times;The gas flow attenuation coefficient is reduced nearly 3 times.Using the method of pressure measured at the same time the mine hydraulic punching effective drainage radius to 10 m.%采用底抽巷穿层钻孔水力冲孔卸压增透措施,可以有效增强煤层的透气性、扩大抽采半径和提高瓦斯抽采效果。基于水力冲孔卸压增透原理,对郑州矿区振兴二矿突出煤层实施底板穿层水力冲孔,考察水力冲孔前后瓦斯抽放浓度、煤层透气性和瓦斯流量衰减系数等的变化。试验结果表明:单孔平均瓦斯抽放浓度在水力冲孔后为11.02%,较未采取增透措施时的2.14%,提高了4倍;煤层透气性系数在采取措施后提高了39倍;瓦斯流量衰减系数则减小了近3倍。同时运用压力法测得该矿水力冲孔有效抽放半径为10 m。

  9. “三软”煤层水力冲孔卸压增透技术研究%Study on pressure releasing and permeability improving technology with hydraulic flushing in “three soft”coal seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何志龙; 孙谦; 宋大钊; 高勤琼

    2015-01-01

    针对糯东煤矿“三软”高瓦斯低透气性煤层易流变、难抽采的问题,提出了底板巷道穿层水力冲孔卸压增透技术,并在糯东煤矿11702掘进工作面进行了现场试验。结果表明:冲孔后比冲孔前抽采瓦斯浓度上升3.4倍,瓦斯抽采流量增加4.4倍,炮掘工作面回风流中的瓦斯(体积分数)由冲孔前0.8%的超限预警状态变成冲孔后的0.4%的安全范围,水力冲孔技术应用效果显著,在糯东煤矿取得了良好的卸压增透效果。%To solve the problem of easy rheology and hard drainage in"three soft"coal seam with high gas concentration and low permeability in Nuodong coal mine,the pressure releasing and permeability improving technology with hydraulic flushing in floor gateway was proposed,and corresponding field test at the No.11702 heading face of Nuodong coal mine was carried out.The re-sults show that the drained gas concentration after hydraulic flushing is 3.4 times as that without hydraulic flushing and the gas flow rate is increased by 4.4 times;and the gas concentration at the blasting working face changes from 0.8% (overrun warning state,before hydraulic flushing)to 0.4% (safety state,after hydraulic flushing).The application of hydraulic flushing technolo-gy is more effective and remarkable in releasing pressure and improving permeability in Nuodong coal mine.

  10. Health and environmental effects of coal-fired electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, S.C.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1984-05-01

    This paper describes health and environmental impacts of coal-fired electric power plants. Effects on man, agriculture, and natural ecosystems are considered. These effects may result from direct impacts or exposures via air, water, and food chains. The paper is organized by geographical extent of effect. Occupational health impacts and local environmental effects such as noise and solid waste leachate are treated first. Then, regional effects of air pollution, including acid rain, are analyzed. Finally, potential global impacts are examined. Occupational health concerns considered include exposure to noise, dust, asbestos, mercury, and combustion products, and resulting injury and disease. Local effects considered include noise; air and water emissions of coal storage piles, solid waste operations, and cooling systems. Air pollution, once an acute local problem, is now a regional concern. Acute and chronic direct health effects are considered. Special attention is given to potential effects of radionuclides in coal and of acid rain. Finally, potential global impacts associated with carbon dioxide emissions are considered. 88 references, 9 tables

  11. Physical and Chemical Properties of Coal Bottom Ash (CBA) from Tanjung Bin Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzati Raihan Ramzi, Nurul; Shahidan, Shahiron; Zulkhairi Maarof, Mohamad; Ali, Noorwirdawati

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of Coal Bottom Ash (CBA) obtained from Tanjung Bin Power Plant Station and compare them with the characteristics of natural river sand (as a replacement of fine aggregates). Bottom ash is the by-product of coal combustion during the electricity generating process. However, excess bottom ash production due to the high production of electricity in Malaysia has caused several environmental problems. Therefore, several tests have been conducted in order to determine the physical and chemical properties of bottom ash such as specific gravity, density, particle size distribution, Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) and X- Ray Fluorescence (XRF) in the attempt to produce sustainable material from waste. The results indicated that the natural fine aggregate and coal bottom ash have very different physical and chemical properties. Bottom ash was classified as Class C ash. The porous structure, angular and rough texture of bottom ash affected its specific gravity and particle density. From the tests, it was found that bottom ash is recommended to be used in concrete as a replacement for fine aggregates.

  12. Elemental analysis of Indonesian and Australian bituminous coal used at Kapar Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muneer Saleh; Ahmad Suhaimi

    2008-01-01

    An instrumental neutron activation analytical (INAA) technique is used for the determination of thirty elements in five coal samples collected from Kapar power station, imported from Indonesia and Australia. Analyses of the samples are being associated with standards. All irradiation were performed in the nuclear reactor of Malaysia Nuclear Agency (MNA). samples were counted by Hyper Pure Germanium (HPGe) detector for short period irradiations at MNA, while for the long period irradiations the samples were counted at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM). The concentrations of thirty elements have been determined: The major components are Cl, Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Ti, and Na with the mean concentrations in the range between 70±69 ppm-6100±1639 ppm; and the trace elements are Zr, V, Mn, Sc, Cr, Co, As, Br, Rb, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Th, U and Ta with the mean concentrations in the range between 0.1381±0.0202 - 69.0±2.8 ppm. The results have been compared to the reported data of eight coal samples from the United States and the reported data of Australian bituminous coal. (Author)

  13. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  14. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  15. Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

    2008-12-31

    The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

  16. Isotopic Tracing of Thallium Contamination in Soils Affected by Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaněk, Aleš; Grösslová, Zuzana; Mihaljevič, Martin; Trubač, Jakub; Ettler, Vojtěch; Teper, Leslaw; Cabala, Jerzy; Rohovec, Jan; Zádorová, Tereza; Penížek, Vít; Pavlů, Lenka; Holubík, Ondřej; Němeček, Karel; Houška, Jakub; Drábek, Ondřej; Ash, Christopher

    2016-09-20

    Here, for the first time, we report the thallium (Tl) isotope record in moderately contaminated soils with contrasting land management (forest and meadow soils), which have been affected by emissions from coal-fired power plants. Our findings clearly demonstrate that Tl of anthropogenic (high-temperature) origin with light isotope composition was deposited onto the studied soils, where heavier Tl (ε(205)Tl ∼ -1) naturally occurs. The results show a positive linear relationship (R(2) = 0.71) between 1/Tl and the isotope record, as determined for all the soils and bedrocks, also indicative of binary Tl mixing between two dominant reservoirs. We also identified significant Tl isotope variations within the products from coal combustion and thermo-desorption experiments with local Tl-rich coal pyrite. Bottom ash exhibited the heaviest Tl isotope composition (ε(205)Tl ∼ 0), followed by fly ash (ε(205)Tl between -2.5 and -2.8) and volatile Tl fractions (ε(205)Tl between -6.2 and -10.3), suggesting partial Tl isotope fractionations. Despite the evident role of soil processes in the isotope redistributions, we demonstrate that Tl contamination can be traced in soils and propose that the isotope data represent a possible tool to aid our understanding of postdepositional Tl dynamics in surface environments for the future.

  17. Evaluation of NOX emissions from TVA coal-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.W.; Stamey-Hall, S.

    1991-01-01

    The paper gives results of a preliminary evaluation of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from 11 Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) coal-fired power plants. Current EPA AP-42 emission factors for NOx from coal-fired utility boilers do not account for variations either in these emissions as a function of generating unit load, or in designs of boilers of the same general type, particularly wall-fired boilers. The TVA has compiled short-term NOx emissions data from 30 units at 11 TVA coal-fired plants. These units include cyclone, cell burner, single wall, opposed wall, single tangential, and twin tangential boiler firing designs. Tests were conducted on 29 of the 30 units at high load; 18 were also tested at reduced load. NOx emissions rates were calculated for each test and compared to the calculated rate for each boiler type using AP-42. Preliminary analysis indicates that: (1) TVA cyclone-fired units emit more NOx than estimated using AP-42; (2) TVA cell burner units emit considerably more NOx than estimated; (3) most TVA single-wall-fired units emit slightly more NOx than estimated; (4) most TVA single-furnace tangentially fired units emit less NOx than estimated at high load, but the same as (or more than) estimated at reduced load; and (5) most TVA twin-furnace tangentially fired units, at high load, emit slightly more NOx than estimated using AP-42

  18. Rare earth elements in fly ashes created during the coal burning process in certain coal-fired power plants operating in Poland - Upper Silesian Industrial Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolka-Danielowska, Danuta

    2010-01-01

    The subject of the study covered volatile ashes created during hard coal burning process in ash furnaces, in power plants operating in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region, Southern Poland. Coal-fired power plants are furnished with dust extracting devices, electro precipitators, with 99-99.6% combustion gas extracting efficiency. Activity concentrations ofTh-232, Ra-226, K-40, Ac-228, U-235 and U-238 were measured with gamma-ray spectrometer. Concentrations of selected rare soil elements (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Y, Gd, Th, U) were analysed by means of instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Mineral phases of individual ash particles were identified with the use of scanning electron microscope equipped with EDS attachment. Laser granulometric analyses were executed with the use of Analyssette analyser. The activity of the investigated fly-ash samples is several times higher than that of the bituminous coal samples; in the coal, the activities are: 226Ra - 85.4 Bq kg -1 , 40 K-689 Bq kg -1 , 232Th - 100.8 Bq kg -1 , 235U-13.5 Bq kg -1 , 238U-50 Bq kg -1 and 228Ac - 82.4 Bq kg -1 .

  19. Rare earth elements in fly ashes created during the coal burning process in certain coal-fired power plants operating in Poland - Upper Silesian Industrial Region.

    Science.gov (Unite