WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydraulic machinery beijing

  1. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  2. Cavitation in Hydraulic Machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, M.

    1996-11-01

    The main purpose of this doctoral thesis on cavitation in hydraulic machinery is to change focus towards the coupling of non-stationary flow phenomena and cavitation. It is argued that, in addition to turbulence, superimposed sound pressure fluctuations can have a major impact on cavitation and lead to particularly severe erosion. For the design of hydraulic devices this finding may indicate how to further limit the cavitation problems. Chapter 1 reviews cavitation in general in the context of hydraulic machinery, emphasizing the initial cavitation event and the role of the water quality. Chapter 2 discusses the existence of pressure fluctuations for situations common in such machinery. Chapter 3 on cavitation dynamics presents an algorithm for calculating the nucleation of a cavity cluster. Chapter 4 describes the equipment used in this work. 53 refs., 55 figs.,10 tabs.

  3. FOREWORD: 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yulin; Wang, Zhengwei; Liu, Shuhong; Yuan, Shouqi; Luo, Xingqi; Wang, Fujun

    2012-11-01

    The 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, will be held in Beijing, China, 19-23 August 2012. It is jointly organized by Tsinghua University, State Key Laboratory of Hydro Science and Hydraulic Engineering, China, Jiangsu University, Xi'an University of Technology, China Agricultural University, National Engineering Research Center of Hydropower Equipment and Dongfang Electric Machinery Co., Ltd. It is the second time that China hosts such a symposium. By the end of 2011, the China electrical power system had a total of 1 050 GW installed power, out of which 220 GW was in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was 662.6 TWh from a total of 4,720 TWh electrical energy production in 2011. Moreover, in 2020, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 180 GW installed power and an estimated 708 TWh/year energy production. And in 2011, the installed power of pumped storage stations was about 25GW. In 2020, the data will be 70GW. At the same time, the number of pumps used in China is increasing rapidly. China produces about 29,000,000 pumps with more than 220 series per year. By the end of 2011, the Chinese pumping system has a total of 950 GW installed power. The energy consumed in pumping facilities was 530 TWh in 2011. The pump energy consumption accounted for about 12% of the national electrical energy production. Therefore, there is a large market in the field of hydraulic machinery including water turbines, pump turbines and a variety of pumps in China. There are also many research projects in this field. For example, we have conducted National Key Research Projects on 1000 MW hydraulic turbine, and on the pump turbines with high head, as well as on the large capacity pumps for water supply. Tsinghua University of Beijing is proud to host the 26th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems. Tsinghua University was established in 1911, after the founding of the People's Republic of China. It

  4. Optimization of Hydraulic Machinery Bladings by Multilevel CFD Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thum Susanne

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerical design optimization for complex hydraulic machinery bladings requires a high number of design parameters and the use of a precise CFD solver yielding high computational costs. To reduce the CPU time needed, a multilevel CFD method has been developed. First of all, the 3D blade geometry is parametrized by means of a geometric design tool to reduce the number of design parameters. To keep geometric accuracy, a special B-spline modification technique has been developed. On the first optimization level, a quasi-3D Euler code (EQ3D is applied. To guarantee a sufficiently accurate result, the code is calibrated by a Navier-Stokes recalculation of the initial design and can be recalibrated after a number of optimization steps by another Navier-Stokes computation. After having got a convergent solution, the optimization process is repeated on the second level using a full 3D Euler code yielding a more accurate flow prediction. Finally, a 3D Navier-Stokes code is applied on the third level to search for the optimum optimorum by means of a fine-tuning of the geometrical parameters. To show the potential of the developed optimization system, the runner blading of a water turbine having a specific speed n q = 41 1 / min was optimized applying the multilevel approach.

  5. Investigation and Development of the Thermal Preparation System of the Trailbuilder Machinery Hydraulic Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konev, V.; Polovnikov, E.; Krut, O.; Merdanov, Sh; Zakirzakov, G.

    2017-07-01

    It’s determined that the main part of trailbuilders operated in the North is the technology equipped by the hydraulic actuator. Further development of the northern territories will demand using of various means and ways machinery thermal preparation, and also the machinery of the northern fulfillment. On this basis problems in equipment operation are defined. One of the main is efficiency supplying of a hydraulic actuator. On the basis of the operating conditions’ analysis of trailbuilder hydraulic actuator operation it is determined, that under low negative temperatures the means of thermal preparation are necessary. The existing systems warm up only a hydraulic tank or warming up of the hydro equipment before the machinery operation is carried out under loading with intensive wears. Thus, with the purpose to raise the efficiency of thermal hydraulic actuator, operated far from stationary bases autonomous, energy saving, not expensive in creation and operation systems are necessary. In accordance with the analysis of means and ways of the thermal preparation of the hydraulic actuator and the thermal balance calculations of the (internal) combustion engine the system of the hydraulic actuator heating is offered and is being investigated. It contains a local hydraulic actuator warming up and the system of internal combustion engine heat utilization. Within research operation conditions of the local hydraulic actuator heating are viewed and determined, taking into account constructive changes to the local hydraulic actuator heating. Mathematical modelling of the heat technical process in the modernized hydraulic actuator is considered. As a result temperature changes of the heat-transfer and the hydraulic cylinder in time are determined. To check the theoretical researches and to define dependences on hydraulic actuator warming up, the experimental installation is made. It contains the measuring equipment, a small tank with the heat exchanger of the burnt gases

  6. FOREWORD: The XXV IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems marks half a century tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan-Resiga, Romeo

    2010-05-01

    IAHR75_logoUPT90_logoARFT_logo International Association of Hydro-Environment Engineering and Research'Politehnica' University of TimisoaraRomanian Academy - Timisoara Branch The 25th edition of the IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, held in Timisoara, Romania, 20-24 September 2010, jointly organized by the 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara and the Romanian Academy - Timisoara Branch, marks a half century tradition of these prestigious symposia. However, it is the first time that Romania hosts such a symposium, and for good reasons. The Romanian electrical power system has a total of 20,630 MW installed power, out of which 6,422 MW in hydropower plants. The energy produced in hydropower facilities was in 2008 of 17,105 GWh from a total of 64,772 GWh electrical energy production. Moreover, for the period 2009-2015, new hydropower capacities are going to be developed, with a total of 2,157 MW installed power and an estimated 5,770 GWh/year energy production. Within the same period of time, the refurbishment, modernization and repair programs will increase the actual hydropower production with an estimated 349 GWh/year. The 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara is proud to host the 25th IAHR Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems, in the year of its 90th anniversary. The 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara is one of the largest and most well-known technical universities from Central and Eastern Europe. It was founded in 1920, a short time after the union into one state of all the Romanian territories, following the end of the First World War, in order to respond to the need engineers felt by the Romanian society at that time, within the economical development framework. During its 90 years of existence, 'Politehnica' University of Timisoara educated over 100,000 engineers, greatly appreciated both in Romania and abroad, for their competence and seriousness. King Ferdinand I of Romania said while visiting the recently established

  7. Motion control of multi-actuator hydraulic systems for mobile machineries: Recent advancements and future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Cheng, Min

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a survey of recent advancements and upcoming trends in motion control technologies employed in designing multi-actuator hydraulic systems for mobile machineries. Hydraulic systems have been extensively used in mobile machineries due to their superior power density and robustness. However, motion control technologies of multi-actuator hydraulic systems have faced increasing challenges due to stringent emission regulations. In this study, an overview of the evolution of existing throttling control technologies is presented, including open-center and load sensing controls. Recent advancements in energy-saving hydraulic technologies, such as individual metering, displacement, and hybrid controls, are briefly summarized. The impact of energy-saving hydraulic technologies on dynamic performance and control solutions are also discussed. Then, the advanced operation methods of multi-actuator mobile machineries are reviewed, including coordinated and haptic controls. Finally, challenges and opportunities of advanced motion control technologies are presented by providing an overall consideration of energy efficiency, controllability, cost, reliability, and other aspects.

  8. Design of a Hydraulic Damper for Heavy Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Zaev

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A hydraulic unit consisting of an accumulator as energy storage element and an orifice providing friction was designed to damp oscillations of a machine during operation. In the first step, a model for the gas spring was developed from the ideal gas laws for the dimensioning the elements. To model the gas process with a graphical simulation tool it is necessary to find a form of the gas law which can be integrated with a numerical solver, such as Tustin, Runge-Kutta, or other. For simulating the working condition, the model was refined using the van der Waals equations for real gas. A unified model representation was found to be applied for any arbitrary state change. Verifications were made with the help of special state changes, adiabatic and isothermal. After determining the dimensional parameters, which are the accumulator capacity and the orifice size, the operational and the limiting parameters were to be found. The working process of a damper includes the gas pre-charging to a predefined pressure, the nearly isothermal static loading process, and the adiabatic change during the dynamic operation.

  9. HYDRAULIC UNITS FOR DRIVING SYSTEMS OF RUNNING EQUIPMENT IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ja. Kotlobai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational efficiency of multi-functional road construction machines depends on number of working bodies which are simultaneously performing technological operations. Systems for propulsion pto to the running equipment drive and active working bodies of road construction machines are developing in the way of using three-axis hydraulic drives. When designing a hydraulic system for road construction machinery dividing of power flow from propulsion to the running equipment drive and active working bodies is considered as rather essential problem. Leading companies do not pay attention to the development of flow divider designs, preferring to produce more expensive multi-flow pumps. One of the ways to increase efficiency of multi-functional road construction machinery is an implementation of running equipment hydraulic driving system based on a mono-aggregate pump unit which consists of a pump and a volumetric divider of power fluid flow. A principle of volumetric division and summing-up of power fluid flows, technical realization and methodology for calculation of key parameters of discrete flow distributors has been developed on the basis of discrete hydraulics regulations. The paper presents results of mathematical modeling of hydraulic systems equipped with the discrete flow distributor. Analysis of a dual-motor hydraulic drive operation has shown the following results: a discrete flow distributor ensures independent load mode of the current consumer circuit operation from the load mode of the second consumer circuit within a wide range of loads; rational value of working fluid flow discretization parameter is the following value interval k = 4–6, maximum value of parameter efficiency is reached when an angular velocity of a distributor rotor coincides with the angular velocity of a pump shaft; discrete flow distributor provides a possibility to change parameters of hydraulic flow feeding in consumers’ pressure lines within a wide range

  10. Simulation of the unsteady, turbulent flow in hydraulic machineries; Berechnung der instationaeren, turbulenten Stroemung in hydraulischen Stroemungsmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginter, F.

    1997-12-31

    The unsteady flow in a hydraulic machinery, affected by the interaction between guide vane and impeller, is simulated by a Finite-Element program. Based on the standard-k-{epsilon}-model modifications are investigated to model the turbulent flow. The low-Re-model of Lam-Brenhorst and a two-layer model is implemented for the calculation of the boundary layer. An algebraic Reynolds stress model is investigated for the simulation of the anisotropy of the turbulence structure. The turbulence models are compared by flows with characteristic properties. The pressure field of the incompressible flow is calculated by the mixed formulation and by solving the Poisson equation. The mixed formulation shows oscillations for the pressure field using elements with bilinear shape functions for the velocity and constant shape functions for the pressure, which are eliminated with a smoothing algorithm. An algorithm is implemented for the calculation of the unsteady interaction between fixed and moved blade rows, based on the method of overlapping regions, and is applied to the two-dimensional flow in an axial expansion turbine. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die instationaere Stroemung in einer hydraulischen Stroemungsmaschine, beruhend auf den Wechselwirkungen zwischen Leitrad und Laufrad, wird mit einem Finite-Elemente-Programm berechnet. Ausgehend vom Standard-k-{epsilon}-Modell werden Erweiterungen zur Modellierung der turbulenten Stroemung untersucht. Fuer die Berechnung der Grenzschicht werden das Low-Re-Modell nach Lam-Brenhorst und ein Zweischichtenmodell implementiert. Zur Erfassung der Anisotropie der Turbulenzstruktur wird ein algebraisches Reynoldsspannungsmodell untersucht. Die Turbulenzmodelle werden anhand von Stroemungen mit charakterischen Eigenschaften verglichen. Die Druckberechnung der inkompressiblen Stroemung erfolgt auf der Bais der gemischten Formulierung bzw. durch Loesung der Poissongleichung. Fuer die gemischte Formulierung zeigt das Druckfeld Oszillationen fuer

  11. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  12. Beijing Time

    OpenAIRE

    Dutton, Michael; Lo, Hsiu-ju Stacy; Wu, Dong Dong

    2010-01-01

    “Where is the market?” inquires the tourist one dark, chilly morning. “Follow the ghosts,” responds the taxi driver, indicating a shadowy parade of overloaded tricycles. “It’s not called the ghost market for nothing!” And indeed, Beijing is nothing if not haunted. Among the soaring skyscrapers, choking exhaust fumes, nonstop traffic jams, and towering monuments, one discovers old Beijing—newly styled, perhaps, but no less present and powerful than in its ancient incarnation. Beijing Time cond...

  13. Remembering Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ian Corbett

    2012-01-01

    Every General Assembly is remembered for something - in the past few years, Sydney for starting the International Year of Astronomy, Prague for Pluto, and Rio de Janeiro for the Strategic Plan. 1 thought that Beijing would be remembered for restructuring the Divisions and for the impressive progress we have made in implementing the Strategic Plan. But I was wrong! Above all, Beijing will be remembered for the unobtrusive but impeccable organization, the overwhelming generosity of our hosts, the smiling teams of volunteers, and the impressive CNCC.

  14. Boycott Beijing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Evan R.

    2008-01-01

    In the wake of China's harsh suppression of antigovernment protests in Tibet--among other human-rights abuses throughout its territory--world leaders have faced mounting pressure to boycott the opening ceremonies of the approaching Olympic Games in Beijing. The boycott has also become a hot topic on the presidential-campaign trail. John McCain and…

  15. Enhancing the safety and efficiency of the driving gear of coal mining machinery by using water as a hydraulic fluid and enhancing the reliability of scraper-chain conveyors; Erhoehung der Sicherheit und Leistungsfaehigkeit der Antriebstechnik von Arbeitsmaschinen durch Verwendung von Wasserhydraulik sowie Erhoehung der Zuverlaessigkeit der Kettenkratzerfoerderer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichel, J.; Boeing, R.; Graetz, A.; Loehning, H.D.; Plum, D.

    1997-12-31

    The objective pursued is to increasingly use water or high water-content fluids as a substitute for other hydraulic fluids in driving gear of mining machinery. The state of the art of the technology is represented only by individual solutions achieved for given purposes which are not suitable for other applications, let alone for coal mining machinery. The research project was to identify hydraulic components that will permit the use of water or watery substances as a hydraulic fluid in mining applications. The components have been found and further developed, and finally systems with linear and rotatory drives have been tested at various test facilities in order to derive information on the system behaviour of pressurized fluids and machinery components and their suitability for coal mining applications. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] In der untertaegigen Antriebstechnik sollen vermehrt Wasser und wasserhaltige Fluessigkeiten eingesetzt werden. Der Stand der Technik fuehrt bei der Anwendung von Wasserhydraulik immer wieder nur Einzelloesungen auf, die nicht allgemein und insbesondere im Steinkohlenbergbau angewendet werden koennen. Im Rahmen dieses Forschungsvorhabens wurden fuer die Wasserhydraulik geeignete Komponenten untersucht, weiterentwickelt und schliesslich Systeme mit linearen und rotatorischen Antrieben auf verschiedenen Pruefstaenden erprobt, um Aussagen ueber das Systemverhalten von Druckfluessigkeit und Bauelementen fuer Bergbauanwendungen zu bekommen. (orig./MSK)

  16. Improving machinery reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    1998-01-01

    This totally revised, updated and expanded edition provides proven techniques and procedures that extend machinery life, reduce maintenance costs, and achieve optimum machinery reliability. This essential text clearly describes the reliability improvement and failure avoidance steps practiced by best-of-class process plants in the U.S. and Europe.

  17. Famous Food in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    MORE than 3,000 years have passed since Shao Gongshi was granted territory at Yon (Beijing) by the King of Zhon in 1045 B.C. Ever since,Beijing has had a long and glorious history as the capital for five Chinese feudal dynasties--the Liao (907-1125), Jin (1115-1234),Yuan (1206-1368), Ming (1368-1644) and Qing(1644-1911). As a political, cultural and economic centre,Beijing has formed a unique taste on food with many long-lasting, wellknown eateries.

  18. Modeling and stability of electro-hydraulic servo of hydraulic excavator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wenhua; Yin, Chenbo; Li, Guo; Sun, Menghui

    2017-11-01

    The condition of the hydraulic excavator is complicated and the working environment is bad. The safety and stability of the control system is influenced by the external factors. This paper selects hydraulic excavator electro-hydraulic servo system as the research object. A mathematical model and simulation model using AMESIM of servo system is established. Then the pressure and flow characteristics are analyzed. The design and optimization of electro-hydraulic servo system and its application in engineering machinery is provided.

  19. Bacterial mitotic machineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Kenn; Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ebersbach, Gitte

    2004-01-01

    Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the P......M protein of plasmid R1 forms F actin-like filaments that separate and move plasmid DNA from mid-cell to the cell poles. Evidence from three different laboratories indicate that the morphogenetic MreB protein may be involved in segregation of the bacterial chromosome.......Here, we review recent progress that yields fundamental new insight into the molecular mechanisms behind plasmid and chromosome segregation in prokaryotic cells. In particular, we describe how prokaryotic actin homologs form mitotic machineries that segregate DNA before cell division. Thus, the Par...

  20. Hydraulic design development of Xiluodu Francis turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y L; Li, G Y; Shi, Q H; Wang, Z N

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic optimization design with CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) method, hydraulic optimization measures and model test results in the hydraulic development of Xiluodu hydropower station by DFEM (Dongfang Electric Machinery) of DEC (Dongfang Electric Corporation) of China were analyzed in this paper. The hydraulic development conditions of turbine, selection of design parameter, comparison of geometric parameters and optimization measure of turbine flow components were expatiated. And the measures of improving turbine hydraulic performance and the results of model turbine acceptance experiment were discussed in details.

  1. Matrix analysis of electrical machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Hancock, N N

    2013-01-01

    Matrix Analysis of Electrical Machinery, Second Edition is a 14-chapter edition that covers the systematic analysis of electrical machinery performance. This edition discusses the principles of various mathematical operations and their application to electrical machinery performance calculations. The introductory chapters deal with the matrix representation of algebraic equations and their application to static electrical networks. The following chapters describe the fundamentals of different transformers and rotating machines and present torque analysis in terms of the currents based on the p

  2. Pumping machinery theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Badr, Hassan M

    2014-01-01

    Pumping Machinery Theory and Practice comprehensively covers the theoretical foundation and applications of pumping machinery. Key features: Covers characteristics of centrifugal pumps, axial flow pumps and displacement pumpsConsiders pumping machinery performance and operational-type problemsCovers advanced topics in pumping machinery including multiphase flow principles, and two and three-phase flow pumping systemsCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine efficiency and energy consumptionCovers different methods of flow rate control and relevance to machine effi

  3. Safeness of radiological machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shun

    1979-01-01

    The human factors affecting the safeness of radiological machinery, which are often very big and complicated machines, are described from the stand point of handling. 20 to 50% of the troubles on equipments seem to be caused by men. This percentage will become even higher in highly developed equipments. Human factors have a great influence on the safeness of radiological equipments. As the human factors, there are sensory factors and knowledge factors as well as psychological factors, and the combination of these factors causes mishandling and danger. Medical services at present are divided in various areas, and consist of the teamwork of the people in various professions. Good human relationship, education and control are highly required to secure the safeness. (Kobatake, H.)

  4. Beijing Development Zones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Beijing Badaling Development Area The Development Area is planned to cover an area of 6.56 km2.Currently,more than 300 enterprises have located in the area.Their investments add up to about RMB 1 billion.Major business trades include machine building,mineral ore processing,medicine,electronic parts,foodstuff processing,and warehousing transportation.

  5. Necrosome core machinery: MLKL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yu; He, Wenyan; Sun, Liming

    2016-06-01

    In the study of regulated cell death, the rapidly expanding field of regulated necrosis, in particular necroptosis, has been drawing much attention. The signaling of necroptosis represents a sophisticated form of a death pathway. Anti-caspase mechanisms (e.g., using inhibitors of caspases, or genetic ablation of caspase-8) switch cell fate from apoptosis to necroptosis. The initial extracellular death signals regulate RIP1 and RIP3 kinase activation. The RIP3-associated death complex assembly is necessary and sufficient to initiate necroptosis. MLKL was initially identified as an essential mediator of RIP1/RIP3 kinase-initiated necroptosis. Recent studies on the signal transduction using chemical tools and biomarkers support the idea that MLKL is able to make more functional sense for the core machinery of the necroptosis death complex, called the necrosome, to connect to the necroptosis execution. The experimental data available now have pointed that the activated MLKL forms membrane-disrupting pores causing membrane leakage, which extends the prototypical concept of morphological and biochemical events following necroptosis happening in vivo. The key role of MLKL in necroptosis signaling thus sheds light on the logic underlying this unique "membrane-explosive" cell death pathway. In this review, we provide the general concepts and strategies that underlie signal transduction of this form of cell death, and then focus specifically on the role of MLKL in necroptosis.

  6. Hydraulic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sheng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the planning, design, construction and management of hydraulic structures, covering dams, spillways, tunnels, cut slopes, sluices, water intake and measuring works, ship locks and lifts, as well as fish ways. Particular attention is paid to considerations concerning the environment, hydrology, geology and materials etc. in the planning and design of hydraulic projects. It also considers the type selection, profile configuration, stress/stability calibration and engineering countermeasures, flood releasing arrangements and scouring protection, operation and maintenance etc. for a variety of specific hydraulic structures. The book is primarily intended for engineers, undergraduate and graduate students in the field of civil and hydraulic engineering who are faced with the challenges of extending our understanding of hydraulic structures ranging from traditional to groundbreaking, as well as designing, constructing and managing safe, durable hydraulic structures that are economical ...

  7. Hydraulic turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meluk O, G.

    1998-01-01

    The hydraulic turbines are defined according to the specific speed, in impulse turbines and in reaction turbines. Currently, the Pelton turbines (of impulse) and the Francis and Kaplan turbines (of reaction), they are the most important machines in the hydroelectric generation. The hydraulic turbines are capable of generating in short times, large powers, from its loads zero until the total load and reject the load instantly without producing damages in the operation. When the hydraulic resources are important, the hydraulic turbines are converted in the axle of the electric system. Its combination with thermoelectric generation systems, it allow the continuing supply of the variations in demand of energy system. The available hydraulic resource in Colombia is of 93085 MW, of which solely 9% is exploited, become 79% of all the electrical country generation, 21% remaining is provided by means of the thermoelectric generation

  8. Hydraulic Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required whenever hydraulic structures are shown in the flood profile. It is also required if levees are shown on the FIRM, channels containing the...

  9. Haze over Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Thick haze collected over the Beijing region in late March 2007. Earlier that month, the BBC News reported that an international team of scientists had documented how increasing pollution in China led to decreasing rainfall over the region. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying onboard the Aqua satellite captured these images of the Beijing region on March 22, 2007. The top image is a 'true-color' picture, similar to a digital photo. The bottom, 'false-color,' image uses a combination of visible and infrared light to more clearly show vegetation, water, and clouds. Even sparse vegetation appears bright green, while water appears deep blue (bright blue when tinged with sediment). Clouds dominated by water droplets appear white, while clouds made of ice crystals appear light blue. The false-color image highlights water bodies, perhaps aqua-culture ponds, that are all but invisible in the true-color image, especially along the shores of the Bo Hai. While vegetation and water show up more clearly in the false-color image, haze is much more transparent. Although dingy gray haze dominates the true-color picture, it is all but invisible in the false-color view. The haze 'disappears' in the infrared-enhanced image because tiny haze particles do not reflect longer-wavelength infrared light very well, making this type of image useful for distinguishing haze from clouds. The bank of clouds in the upper right corner shows up clearly in both pictures. As China industrializes, factories, power plants, and automobiles all contribute to pollution in the region. In examining pollutants and rainfall, the team of scientists examined records covering more than 50 years, concluding that pollution decreased precipitation at Mount Hua near Xi'an in central China. They concluded that when conditions are so hazy that visibility is reduced to less than 8 kilometers (5 miles), hilly precipitation can drop by 30 to 50 percent. When moist air passes over mountains

  10. Automated Hydraulic System Design and Power Management in Mobile Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    force, torque and power density. One of these areas is the mobile hydraulic area, which generally comprise all type of off-highway machinery, such as construction equipment, agricultural equipment etc. But where hydraulic systems earlier was designed with primary focus on cost, dynamic performance...... and accuracy, energy consumption is becoming an ever more important design parameter. At the same time as the first oil crisis the first hydraulic load sensing (LS) systems also emerged on the market, which, compared to the other systems of the time, offered significant energy saving potentials and which today...... are found on most medium and high-end mobile hydraulic machinery. Despite the energy saving potentials that these systems posses, compared to the other open-circuit hydraulic system topologies, LS-system may still be subject to very low system efficiencies if not designed correctly. This is typically...

  11. The electronic system of Beijing spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Deming

    1990-01-01

    Beijing Spectrometer (BES) in an experimental facility of high energy physics on Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC). A brief description including the global design, the read out circuits, the performances and the recent status of its electronic system is presented

  12. Strategies for Improving Enterprise Standardization Management of Tropical Crop Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ There are two categories of tropical crop machinery. One comprises operation machinery that is used for planting, managing and harvesting tropical crops, while the other comprises process machinery for processing tropical crops. Tropical crop machinery is distinguished from other agricultural machinery by the special crops that such machinery cultivates and processes.

  13. A Modelling Approach to Multibody Dynamics of Fluid Power Machinery with Hydrodynamic Lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Rømer, Daniel; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency potential of the digital displacement technology and the increasing interest in hydraulic transmissions in wind and wave energy applications has created an incentive for development of high efficiency fluid power machinery. Modelling and analysis of fluid power machinery loss...... mechanisms is necessary in order to accommodate this demand. At present fully coupled thermo-elastic models for various tribological interfaces has been presented. However, in order to analyse the interaction between tribological interfaces in fluid power pumps and motors, these interface models needs...

  14. Beijing 2008 Olympic Games Partners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ At Olympic times, many business giants try to expand their influence by sponsoring the Games. The Games is an opportunity for them to turn from a national to an international brand. Here are brief introductions to some of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games partners.

  15. Spring Dust Storm Smothers Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    A few days earlier than usual, a large, dense plume of dust blew southward and eastward from the desert plains of Mongolia-quite smothering to the residents of Beijing. Citizens of northeastern China call this annual event the 'shachenbao,' or 'dust cloud tempest.' However, the tempest normally occurs during the spring time. The dust storm hit Beijing on Friday night, March 15, and began coating everything with a fine, pale brown layer of grit. The region is quite dry; a problem some believe has been exacerbated by decades of deforestation. According to Chinese government estimates, roughly 1 million tons of desert dust and sand blow into Beijing each year. This true-color image was made using two adjacent swaths (click to see the full image) of data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on March 17, 2002. The massive dust storm (brownish pixels) can easily be distinguished from clouds (bright white pixels) as it blows across northern Japan and eastward toward the open Pacific Ocean. The black regions are gaps between SeaWiFS' viewing swaths and represent areas where no data were collected. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  16. Skoda Concern's cooperation with State Machinery Design Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valchar, J.; Kuhn, L.

    1988-01-01

    The main areas are presented of cooperation between the Skoda Plzen Concern and the State Machinery Design Research Institute in Prague-Bechovice. This is mainly the development of steam turbines, from 50 MW turbines to the present 1000 MW saturated steam turbines designed for nuclear power plants. Main attention is centred on conditions of the boiling crisis in the steam turbine circuit, and its consequences. This study is served by the experimental equipment of the institute and its computer. The cooperation of the two institutions in the field of testing and diagnostic equipment is centred on measuring natural oscillations of turbine blades, the diagnostics of vibrations of steam turbines, the measurement of the humidity of saturated steam, optical measurements of the parameters of saturated steam, ultrasound diagnostics and the measurement of turbine blade deformation caused by hydraulic effects. (Z.M.). 8 figs

  17. Diagnosing Beijing 2020: Mapping the Ungovernable City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Visser

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Beijing Municipality, characterised by the ‘off-ground’ architecture distinguishing neo-liberal privatisation, is attempting to mitigate the damaging effects of rampant development on the social fabric, cultural heritage, and the environment by adopting sustainable urban planning. I argue that the sustainability rhetoric in the Beijing Municipality 2020 Plans functions in part as strategic metaphors masking unnamed, imminent threats to governance. In this article I diagnose four Beijing plans (Beijing 2006-2015 ‘Rail Transit Plan’ for Compact City, Beijing 2005-2020 ‘Underground Space Plan’ for Alternative Space, Beijing 2006-2020 ‘Undeveloped Area Plan’ for Ecological Responsibility, and Beijing 2006-2010 ‘Low-income Housing Plan’ for Affordability and Liveability. A diagrammatics of the plans illuminates not so much a mapping of Beijing’s future as the forms of spontaneity preoccupying the nation at this historical juncture. The Beijing 2020 plan, as city mapping more generally, discloses the imminence of ungovernable city. The fact that citizens are demanding greater authority over Beijing governance suggests that radical alterations to its urban fabric and quality of life have incited the imminent sociability that is the city.

  18. Effect of Subsoil Compaction on Hydraulic Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Berisso, Feto Esimo; Schjønning, Per

    Soil compaction is a major threat to sustainable soil quality and is increasing since agricultural machinery is becoming heavier and is used more intensively. Compaction not only reduces pore volume, but also modifies the pore connectivity. The inter-Nordic research project POSEIDON (Persistent...... effects of subsoil compaction on soil ecological services and functions) put forward the hypothesis that due to a decrease in the hydraulic conductivity in the soil matrix, compaction increases the frequency of preferential flow events in macropores and therefore increases the leaching of otherwise....... In the field the near-saturated hydraulic conductivity was measured with a tension infiltrometer in the same treatments at a depth of 30 cm. In the laboratory saturated and near-saturated hydraulic conductivity and the bulk density were measured as well. Also, macropores in the large soil cores were made...

  19. Hydraulic manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, A.K.; Srikrishnamurty, G.

    1990-01-01

    Successful operation of nuclear plant is largely dependent on safe handling of radio-active material. In order to reduce this handling problem and minimise the exposure of radiation, various handling equipment and manipulators have been developed according to the requirements. Manufacture of nuclear fuel, which is the most important part of the nuclear industry, involves handling of uranium ingots weighing approximately 250 kg. This paper describes a specially designed hydraulic manipulator for handling of the ingots in a limited space. It was designed to grab and handle the ingots in any position. This has following drive motions: (1)gripping and releasing, (2)lifting and lowering (z-motion), (3)rotation about the horizontal axis (azimuth drive), (4)rotation about the job axis, and (5)rotation about the vertical axis. For horizontal motion (X and Y axis motion) this equipment is mounted on a motorised trolley, so that it can move inside the workshop. For all drives except the rotation about the job axis, hydraulic cylinders have been used with a battery operated power pack. Trolley drive is also given power from same battery. This paper describes the design aspects of this manipulator. (author). 4 figs

  20. Radiation technologies in metallurgy and machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkov, I.N.

    1990-01-01

    Applications of electron beam accelerators for technologies in metallurgy and machinery are discussed. Processes described are provided with special industrial accelerators, developed in the Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk. (author)

  1. People’s Olympics? (Beijing 2008)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chong, G.P.L.; de Kloet, J.; Zeng, G.; Bajc, V.

    2016-01-01

    Granted, the question mark was not included in this main slogan of the 2008 Beijing Olympics. The Beijing Olympics generated heated debates worldwide on China’s authoritarian governance, environmental pollution, human rights situation, alleged indulgence of humanitarian disaster in Darfur in

  2. Parent-School Councils in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Wayne D.; Bjork, Lars G.; Zhao, Yuru; Chi, Bin

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines how schools in Beijing have responded to a Chinese national policy mandate to establish and maintain parent councils. We surveyed principals and parent council members across schools in the Beijing municipality about the establishment and functions of their schools' parent councils. Survey results provide insights…

  3. American Jazz Cathedra Enters into Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    <正> On the evening of 25 June, 2003, an American Music Cathedra was held in the In ternational Friendship Hall of Beijing Jintai Art Museum. And its theme is "a form of American Art-Jazz". The Economic Department, Press Department of American Embassy and Beijing Jueshi Culture Development Co.Ltd. sponsored the activity.

  4. 46 CFR 58.01-50 - Machinery space, noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery space, noise. 58.01-50 Section 58.01-50... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS General Requirements § 58.01-50 Machinery space, noise. (a) Each machinery space must be designed to minimize the exposure of personnel to noise in accordance with IMO A.468(XII...

  5. Fault Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery: A Method based on Image Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lu

    Full Text Available Rotating machinery is one of the most typical types of mechanical equipment and plays a significant role in industrial applications. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery has gained wide attention for its significance in preventing catastrophic accident and guaranteeing sufficient maintenance. With the development of science and technology, fault diagnosis methods based on multi-disciplines are becoming the focus in the field of fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. This paper presents a multi-discipline method based on image-processing for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Different from traditional analysis method in one-dimensional space, this study employs computing method in the field of image processing to realize automatic feature extraction and fault diagnosis in a two-dimensional space. The proposed method mainly includes the following steps. First, the vibration signal is transformed into a bi-spectrum contour map utilizing bi-spectrum technology, which provides a basis for the following image-based feature extraction. Then, an emerging approach in the field of image processing for feature extraction, speeded-up robust features, is employed to automatically exact fault features from the transformed bi-spectrum contour map and finally form a high-dimensional feature vector. To reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector, thus highlighting main fault features and reducing subsequent computing resources, t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding is adopt to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector. At last, probabilistic neural network is introduced for fault identification. Two typical rotating machinery, axial piston hydraulic pump and self-priming centrifugal pumps, are selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method based on image-processing achieves a high accuracy, thus providing a highly effective means to fault diagnosis for

  6. Fault Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery: A Method based on Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chen; Wang, Yang; Ragulskis, Minvydas; Cheng, Yujie

    2016-01-01

    Rotating machinery is one of the most typical types of mechanical equipment and plays a significant role in industrial applications. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery has gained wide attention for its significance in preventing catastrophic accident and guaranteeing sufficient maintenance. With the development of science and technology, fault diagnosis methods based on multi-disciplines are becoming the focus in the field of fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. This paper presents a multi-discipline method based on image-processing for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Different from traditional analysis method in one-dimensional space, this study employs computing method in the field of image processing to realize automatic feature extraction and fault diagnosis in a two-dimensional space. The proposed method mainly includes the following steps. First, the vibration signal is transformed into a bi-spectrum contour map utilizing bi-spectrum technology, which provides a basis for the following image-based feature extraction. Then, an emerging approach in the field of image processing for feature extraction, speeded-up robust features, is employed to automatically exact fault features from the transformed bi-spectrum contour map and finally form a high-dimensional feature vector. To reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector, thus highlighting main fault features and reducing subsequent computing resources, t-Distributed Stochastic Neighbor Embedding is adopt to reduce the dimensionality of the feature vector. At last, probabilistic neural network is introduced for fault identification. Two typical rotating machinery, axial piston hydraulic pump and self-priming centrifugal pumps, are selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Results show that the proposed method based on image-processing achieves a high accuracy, thus providing a highly effective means to fault diagnosis for rotating machinery.

  7. Beijing: a conference of commitments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S

    1996-05-01

    The author of this article holds the view that the Declaration and Platform for Action at the UN Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995 was the product of the most highly participatory process ever organized under the auspices of the UN. The Declaration and Platform expressed the strongest views on gender equality, empowerment, and justice that governments have ever endorsed. These documents were the consolidation of gains made by women in previous UN conferences. The 135-page Platform can be used at all levels of decision making. Governments and international can be held accountable for its provisions. The Platform exposes the problems violence and exploitation against women and girls as well as the revelation that environmental destruction is due to an unsustainable pattern of consumption and production, particularly in developed countries. Conference participants included about 3000 nongovernmental groups (NGOs). The Women's Linkage Caucus and WEDO served to facilitate the advocacy process by providing briefings on text still under negotiation and providing on-line recommendations from the 1995 and 1994 Commission on the Status of Women preparatory committee meetings. A scoreboard that tracked government's commitment at the 1995 preparatory committee meetings was reinstated in Beijing. The information was conveyed on the Internet. The European Union is credited with diluting the language about government commitment to the Platform. Governments are still given responsibility for implementation, and the need for political will is stressed (paragraph 293). Paragraph 297 indicates the process for implementation of the Platform and coordination with NGOs. Although the Platform recognizes the importance of women's groups and other NGOs, the responsibility for implementation is still given to governments.

  8. Machinery condition monitoring principles and practices

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, Amiya Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Find the Fault in the MachinesDrawing on the author's more than two decades of experience with machinery condition monitoring and consulting for industries in India and abroad, Machinery Condition Monitoring: Principles and Practices introduces the practicing engineer to the techniques used to effectively detect and diagnose faults in machines. Providing the working principle behind the instruments, the important elements of machines as well as the technique to understand their conditions, this text presents every available method of machine fault detection occurring in machines in general, an

  9. Headquarters Of APSCO Opens In Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yansong

    2009-01-01

    @@ The headquarters of Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization (APSCO) has been inaugurated in Beijing.APSCO is the biggest space organization in Asia. Established in 2008, the organization has 9 members in the Asia-Pacific region.

  10. China's Economy and the Beijing Olympics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martin, Michael F

    2008-01-01

    China will host the 2008 Olympic Summer Games from August 8 to 24, 2008. Most of the events will be held in the vicinity of Beijing, with selected competitions held in Hong Kong, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shenyang, and Tianjin...

  11. Improvement of finishing antifriction treatment without abrasive of the rubbing parts surfaces of agricultural machineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Shepelenk

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The wear of machines and mechanisms after rubbing is a major concern. The costs of manufacturing and restoration parts for agricultural machinery are enormous such as the trunnions pinions of hydraulic pumps. Finishing treatment antifriction without abrasive (FTAA is the existing method of manufacturing and restoration, but it has disadvantages like low work efficiency and the frequent replacement of the instrument. That is why a new method of FTAA parts type ''tree'' has been developed called vibratory finishing treatment antifriction without abrasive, (VFTAA method. The study was conducted at the laboratory of the State Technical University of Kirovograd (Ukraine where turn 16K20, the profilograph-profilometer "Talysurf-5", the scanning electron microscope REM-106I, friction machine MI-1M and the stand KI-28097-02M were used respectively for machining, study of micro relief before and after the VFTAA, microstructure, wear resistance and the determination of the break-in period of parts. The results showed that the VFTAA helped reduce the roughness Ra of the samples studied by half compared to the samples processed by polishing and 1.3 times compared to those treated with the FTAA, the break-in period has been reduced four times , this leads to an increase in the life of the hydraulic pump. This technology can be recommended for manufacturing and repair of hydraulic units of agricultural machineries.

  12. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.

  13. CCPIT Machinery Exhibition Succeeded in Kuala Lumpur

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      From August 18 to 20, 2005, China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT) held China Machinery and Electronics Trade Exhibition, CME 2005 in Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia on behalf of China, a good job has been done.……

  14. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  15. Genomic diversity among Beijing and non-Beijing Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from Myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Stavrum

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Beijing family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is dominant in countries in East Asia. Genomic polymorphisms are a source of diversity within the M. tuberculosis genome and may account for the variation of virulence among M. tuberculosis isolates. Till date there are no studies that have examined the genomic composition of M. tuberculosis isolates from the high TB-burden country, Myanmar.Twenty-two M. tuberculosis isolates from Myanmar were screened on whole-genome arrays containing genes from M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis CDC1551 and M. bovis AF22197. Screening identified 198 deletions or extra regions in the clinical isolates compared to H37Rv. Twenty-two regions differentiated between Beijing and non-Beijing isolates and were verified by PCR on an additional 40 isolates. Six regions (Rv0071-0074 [RD105], Rv1572-1576c [RD149], Rv1585c-1587c [RD149], MT1798-Rv1755c [RD152], Rv1761c [RD152] and Rv0279c were deleted in Beijing isolates, of which 4 (Rv1572-1576c, Rv1585c-1587c, MT1798-Rv1755c and Rv1761c were variably deleted among ST42 isolates, indicating a closer relationship between the Beijing and ST42 lineages. The TbD1 region, Mb1582-Mb1583 was deleted in Beijing and ST42 isolates. One M. bovis gene of unknown function, Mb3184c was present in all isolates, except 11 of 13 ST42 isolates. The CDC1551 gene, MT1360 coding for a putative adenylate cyclase, was present in all Beijing and ST42 isolates (except 1. The pks15/1 gene, coding for a putative virulence factor, was intact in all Beijing and non-Beijing isolates, except in ST42 and ST53 isolates.This study describes previously unreported deletions/extra regions in Beijing and non-Beijing M. tuberculosis isolates. The modern and highly frequent ST42 lineage showed a closer relationship to the hypervirulent Beijing lineage than to the ancient non-Beijing lineages. The pks15/1 gene was disrupted only in modern non-Beijing isolates. This is the first report of an in-depth analysis on

  16. Open innovation and supply chain management in food machinery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open innovation and supply chain management in food machinery supply chain: a ... This paradigm describes a new approach to internal R&D management, which ... a picture of the adoption of open innovation in the food machinery industry.

  17. The Autophagic Machinery in Enterovirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jeffrey K F; Sam, I-Ching; Chan, Yoke Fun

    2016-01-27

    The Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family comprises many important human pathogens, including polioviruses, rhinovirus, enterovirus A71, and enterovirus D68. They cause a wide variety of diseases, ranging from mild to severe life-threatening diseases. Currently, no effective vaccine is available against enteroviruses except for poliovirus. Enteroviruses subvert the autophagic machinery to benefit their assembly, maturation, and exit from host. Some enteroviruses spread between cells via a process described as autophagosome-mediated exit without lysis (AWOL). The early and late phases of autophagy are regulated through various lipids and their metabolizing enzymes. Some of these lipids and enzymes are specifically regulated by enteroviruses. In the present review, we summarize the current understanding of the regulation of autophagic machinery by enteroviruses, and provide updates on recent developments in this field.

  18. 46 CFR 109.205 - Inspection of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of boilers and machinery. 109.205 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.205 Inspection of boilers and machinery. The chief engineer or engineer in charge, before he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a unit shall inspect...

  19. 46 CFR 252.33 - Hull and machinery insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 252.33 Section 252.33... Subsidy Rates § 252.33 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and machinery, increased value, excess general average...

  20. 46 CFR 282.23 - Hull and machinery insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull and machinery insurance. 282.23 Section 282.23... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.23 Hull and machinery insurance. (a) Subsidy items. The fair and reasonable net premium costs (including stamp taxes) of hull and machinery...

  1. 29 CFR 1910.215 - Abrasive wheel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be securely fastened to the spindle and the bearing surface shall run true. When more than one wheel... 29 Labor 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abrasive wheel machinery. 1910.215 Section 1910.215 Labor... OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Machinery and Machine Guarding § 1910.215 Abrasive wheel machinery. (a...

  2. 46 CFR 97.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 97.30-5 Section 97.30-5 Shipping... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 97.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of...

  3. 46 CFR 196.30-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 196.30-5 Section 196.30-5... Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 196.30-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident to a boiler, unfired pressure vessel, or machinery tending to render the further use of...

  4. Machinery prognostics and prognosis oriented maintenance management

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Jihong

    2014-01-01

    This book gives a complete presentatin of the basic essentials of machinery prognostics and prognosis oriented maintenance management, and takes a look at the cutting-edge discipline of intelligent failure prognosis technologies for condition-based maintenance.  Latest research results and application methods are introduced for signal processing, reliability moelling, deterioration evaluation, residual life prediction and maintenance-optimization as well as applications of these methods.

  5. Succession, Development and Innovation of the Master Plan of Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正> The Master Plan of Beijing (2004 - 2020),approved in January 2005 by the State Council, is an important strategic, holistic and comprehensive plan for Beijing to face the new century, to realize the stra-tegic proposition of"New Beijing, Great Olympics", and to fully push forward the harmonious and sustainable development of economy, society, population, resources and environment.

  6. Economic impact of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Peng

    2009-01-01

    It has been one year since Beijing successfully hosts the 2008 Olympic Games. It needs to stress the economic impacts of the city as the Olympic effect could boost economy of Beijing a long and lasting growth. In this paper, a large number of academic articles are reviewed given a general view of these impacts and put insights into the economic impacts of previous host cities. Both positive and negative effects are mentioned with rich discussions. Based on the statistical data, growth trend o...

  7. Machinery Vibration Monitoring Program at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potvin, M.M.

    1990-01-01

    The Reactor Maintenance's Machinery Vibration Monitoring Program (MVMP) plays an essential role in ensuring the safe operation of the three Production Reactors at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WRSC) Savannah River Site (SRS). This program has increased machinery availability and reduced maintenance cost by the early detection and determination of machinery problems. This paper presents the Reactor Maintenance's Machinery Vibration Monitoring Program, which has been documented based on Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI) NP-5311, Utility Machinery Monitoring Guide, and some examples of the successes that it has enjoyed

  8. Vicarious Calibration of Beijing-1 Multispectral Imagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengchao Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available For on-orbit calibration of the Beijing-1 multispectral imagers (Beijing-1/MS, a field calibration campaign was performed at the Dunhuang calibration site during September and October of 2008. Based on the in situ data and images from Beijing-1 and Terra/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS, three vicarious calibration methods (i.e., reflectance-based, irradiance-based, and cross-calibration were used to calculate the top-of-atmosphere (TOA radiance of Beijing-1. An analysis was then performed to determine or identify systematic and accidental errors, and the overall uncertainty was assessed for each individual method. The findings show that the reflectance-based method has an uncertainty of more than 10% if the aerosol optical depth (AOD exceeds 0.2. The cross-calibration method is able to reach an error level within 7% if the images are selected carefully. The final calibration coefficients were derived from the irradiance-based data for 6 September 2008, with an uncertainty estimated to be less than 5%.

  9. Municipal solid waste management in Beijing City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhenshan; Yang Lei; Qu XiaoYan; Sui Yumei

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste (MSW) management in Beijing City. Beijing, the capital of China, has a land area of approximately 1368.32 km 2 with an urban population of about 13.33 million in 2006. Over the past three decades, MSW generation in Beijing City has increased tremendously from 1.04 million tons in 1978 to 4.134 million tons in 2006. The average generation rate of MSW in 2006 was 0.85 kg/capita/day. Food waste comprised 63.39%, followed by paper (11.07%), plastics (12.7%) and dust (5.78%). While all other wastes including tiles, textiles, glass, metals and wood accounted for less than 3%. Currently, 90% of MSW generated in Beijing is landfilled, 8% is incinerated and 2% is composted. Source separation collection, as a waste reduction method, has been carried out in a total of 2255 demonstration residential and commercial areas (covering about 4.7 million people) up to the end of 2007. Demonstration districts should be promoted over a wider range instead of demonstration communities. The capacity of transfer stations and treatment plants is an urgent problem as these sites are seriously overloaded. These problems should first be solved by constructing more sites and converting to new treatment technologies. Improvements in legislation, public education and the management of waste pickers are problematic issues which need to be addressed.

  10. Reflections on Beijing: Meet the Lambacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushett, Travis

    2009-01-01

    This article reflects on the story of the Lambacks. Lantz Lamback is a gold medalist in the S7 cerebral palsy classification at the 2008 Paralympic Games in Beijing. Lantz can look intimidating; however, he is gentle and courteous. His family has been an important factor in Lantz's swimming career. For the Lambacks, Lantz's swimming is a family…

  11. The Beijing ISOL initial conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Baoqun; Gao, Yuan; Ge, Yucheng; Guo, Zhiyu; Li, Zhihong; Liu, Weiping; Peng, Shixiang; Peng, Zhaohua; Wang, Zhi; Yan, Sha; Ye, Yanlin; Zeng, Sheng; Zhang, Guohui; Zhu, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Peking University and China Institute of Atomic Energy are proposing to construct a facility called “Beijing ISOL”. • Beijing ISOL is aimed at both basic science and application goals. • Beijing ISOL is the double driver system, namely reactor driving (RD) and intense deuteron-beam driving (IDD). • Multi-beam, multi-energy and multi-terminal will be used to meet the users’ requirements. -- Abstract: Peking University (PKU) and China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) are jointly proposing to construct a large science facility, temporarily called “Beijing ISOL”. This facility aims at both basic science and application goals, and is based on the double driver system, namely reactor driving and intense deuteron-beam driving. On the basic science side, the radioactive ion beams produced from the isotope separation online (ISOL) device will be used to study the new physics and technologies at the limit of nuclear stability. On the other side regarding to the applications, the facility will be devoted to material research for the nuclear energy system by using typically the intense neutron and ion beams. In the whole process of design, construction and operation, an opening policy will be pursued, and the domestic and international cooperation will be emphasized. Through this project, a joint research and education mode will be established

  12. Fluid machinery application, selection, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Wright, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Published nearly a decade ago, Fluid Machinery: Performance, Analysis, and Design quickly became popular with students, professors, and professionals because of its comprehensive and comprehensible introduction to the fluid mechanics of turbomachinery. Renamed to reflect its wider scope and reorganized content, this second edition provides a more logical flow of information that will enhance understanding. In particular, it presents a consistent notation within and across chapters, updating material when appropriate. Although the authors do account for the astounding growth in the field of com

  13. Analysis of electric machinery and drive systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Paul C; Sudhoff, Scott D; Pekarek, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Introducing a new edition of the popular reference on machine analysis Now in a fully revised and expanded edition, this widely used reference on machine analysis boasts many changes designed to address the varied needs of engineers in the electric machinery, electric drives, and electric power industries. The authors draw on their own extensive research efforts, bringing all topics up to date and outlining a variety of new approaches they have developed over the past decade. Focusing on reference frame theory that has been at the core of this work since the first edition, th

  14. Electrification of agricultural machinery; Elektrifizierung von Landmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, Manuel; Grad, Karl; Weinmann, Olrik [ZF Friedrichshafen AG, Friedrichshafen (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    As early as 2009, ZF exhibited a generator system for agricultural machinery at Agritechnica under the name Terra+ which consisted of an electric motor in the transmission housing. As part of the ElecTra project, the company is now presenting its first tractor prototype with this generator system at Agritechnica 2011. The project involves combining the electrification of the tractor's auxiliary systems with electric drives for an attachment. The electrification of the implement was carried out in cooperation with Amazone, manufacturer of implements for the agricultural industry. (orig.)

  15. The Effect of Flywheel Unbalance on Gear Noise in the Hydraulic Power Plant Turbo-Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomeh Elias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Effect of Flywheel Unbalance on Gear Noise in the Hydraulic Power Plant Turbo-Generator. Hydraulic power plants are systems that produce electrical energy with high investment costs. In order to fulfil their goals, investments should create conditions for a safe production of energy in a long lasting and reliable way, and with the required power and quality. These goals are possible to reach by an optional control process linked to a systematic monitoring of the operating machinery state, using the method of vibration diagnostics. Lately, there has been an increase of noise level in the hydraulic power plants.

  16. Study on the Tribological Properties of MC Nylon Composites Filled with Hydraulic Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S.; Li, Y.; Wen, J.; Yin, L.; Zhang, Q.

    2018-03-01

    Mechanical parts utilized in machinery, such as nylon slider and pulley, should have certain mechanical properties and good tribological properties, so that equipments’ stability and smoothness can be assured. A kind of MC nylon (monomer cast nylon) composites filled with hydraulic oil was studied in this paper. The addition of hydraulic oil changed nylon’s mechanical properties and tribological properties significantly, and improved the material’s toughness and coefficient of friction. The composites have excellent strength, toughness and relatively low coefficient of friction when the content of the hydraulic oil is 4wt%.

  17. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  18. The RNAi Inheritance Machinery of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spracklin, George; Fields, Brandon; Wan, Gang; Becker, Diveena; Wallig, Ashley; Shukla, Aditi; Kennedy, Scott

    2017-07-01

    Gene silencing mediated by dsRNA (RNAi) can persist for multiple generations in Caenorhabditis elegans (termed RNAi inheritance). Here we describe the results of a forward genetic screen in C. elegans that has identified six factors required for RNAi inheritance: GLH-1/VASA, PUP-1/CDE-1, MORC-1, SET-32, and two novel nematode-specific factors that we term here (heritable RNAi defective) HRDE-2 and HRDE-4 The new RNAi inheritance factors exhibit mortal germline (Mrt) phenotypes, which we show is likely caused by epigenetic deregulation in germ cells. We also show that HRDE-2 contributes to RNAi inheritance by facilitating the binding of small RNAs to the inheritance Argonaute (Ago) HRDE-1 Together, our results identify additional components of the RNAi inheritance machinery whose conservation provides insights into the molecular mechanism of RNAi inheritance, further our understanding of how the RNAi inheritance machinery promotes germline immortality, and show that HRDE-2 couples the inheritance Ago HRDE-1 with the small RNAs it needs to direct RNAi inheritance and germline immortality. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  19. Availability analysis of selected mining machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodny Jarosław

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Underground extraction of coal is characterized by high variability of mining and geological conditions in which it is conducted. Despite ever more effective methods and tools, used to identify the factors influencing this process, mining machinery, used in mining underground, work in difficult and not always foreseeable conditions, which means that these machines should be very universal and reliable. Additionally, a big competition, occurring on the coal market, causes that it is necessary to take action in order to reduce the cost of its production, e.g. by increasing the efficiency of utilization machines. To meet this objective it should be pro-ceed with analysis presented in this paper. The analysis concerns to availability of utilization selected mining machinery, conducted using the model of OEE, which is a tool for quantitative estimate strategy TPM. In this article we considered the machines being part of the mechanized longwall complex and the basis of analysis was the data recording by the industrial automation system. Using this data set we evaluated the availability of studied machines and the structure of registered breaks in their work. The results should be an important source of information for maintenance staff and management of mining plants, needed to improve the economic efficiency of underground mining.

  20. Cell secretion machinery: Studies using the AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jena, Bhanu P.

    2006-01-01

    A new field in biology, 'nano-cell biology', has emerged from the successful use of force microscopy in understanding the structure and dynamics of cells and biomolecules, at nm resolution and in real time. Atomic force microscopy, in combination with conventional tools and approaches (electron microscopy, electrophysiology, X-ray diffraction, photon correlation spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, biochemistry, and molecular biology), has revealed for the first time, the universal molecular machinery and mechanism of secretion in cells. Secretion occurs in all living cells and involves the delivery of intracellular products to the cell exterior. Secretory products are packaged and stored in membranous sacs or vesicles within the cell. When the cell needs to secrete these products, the secretory vesicles containing them, dock and fuse at plasma membrane-associated supramolecular structures called Porosome, to release their contents. Specialized cells for neurotransmission, enzyme secretion, or hormone release utilize a highly regulated secretory process. During secretion, swelling of secretory vesicles results in a build-up of intravesicular pressure, allowing expulsion of vesicular contents. The extent of vesicle swelling dictates the amount of vesicular contents expelled. The discovery of the porosome as the universal secretory machinery, its isolation, its structure and dynamics at nm resolution and in real time, its biochemical composition and functional reconstitution into artificial lipid membrane, have been determined. The molecular mechanism of secretory vesicle swelling, and the fusion of opposing bilayers, i.e., the fusion of secretory vesicle membrane at the base of the porosome membrane, has also been resolved

  1. Welding technologies for nuclear machinery and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masahiro; Yokono, Tomomi.

    1991-01-01

    The main welding methods applied to nuclear machinery and equipment are shielded metal arc welding, submerged arc welding, MAG welding and TIG welding. But in the last 10 years, in order to improve the reliability required for the welding of nuclear machinery and equipment, the welding technologies aiming at the reduction of heat input, the decrease of the number of welding pass and the automatic control of welding factors have been applied for the main purpose of bettering the quality and excluding human errors. The merits and the technology of narrow gap, pulsed MAG welding and melt-through welding are explained. As the automation of TIG welding, image processing type narrow gap, hot wire TIG welding and remote control type automatic TIG welding are described. For the longitudinal welding of active metal sheet products, plasma key-hole welding is applied. Since the concentration of its arc is good, high speed welding with low heat input can be done. For the stainless steel cladding by welding, electroslag welding has become to be employed in place of conventional submerged arc welding. Arc is not generated in the electroslag welding, and the penetration into base metal is small. (K.I.)

  2. Rotating Machinery Predictive Maintenance Through Expert System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sarath Kumar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern rotating machines such as turbomachines, either produce or absorb huge amount of power. Some of the common applications are: steam turbine-generator and gas turbine-compressor-generator trains produce power and machines, such as pumps, centrifugal compressors, motors, generators, machine tool spindles, etc., are being used in industrial applications. Condition-based maintenance of rotating machinery is a common practice where the machine's condition is monitored constantly, so that timely maintenance can be done. Since modern machines are complex and the amount of data to be interpreted is huge, we need precise and fast methods in order to arrive at the best recommendations to prevent catastrophic failure and to prolong the life of the equipment. In the present work using vibration characteristics of a rotor-bearing system, the condition of a rotating machinery (electrical rotor is predicted using an off-line expert system. The analysis of the problem is carried out in an Object Oriented Programming (OOP framework using the finite element method. The expert system which is also developed in an OOP paradigm gives the type of the malfunctions, suggestions and recommendations. The system is implemented in C++.

  3. Digital switched hydraulics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Min; Plummer, Andrew

    2018-06-01

    This paper reviews recent developments in digital switched hydraulics particularly the switched inertance hydraulic systems (SIHSs). The performance of SIHSs is presented in brief with a discussion of several possible configurations and control strategies. The soft switching technology and high-speed switching valve design techniques are discussed. Challenges and recommendations are given based on the current research achievements.

  4. Hydraulic Structures : Caissons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorendt, M.Z.; Molenaar, W.F.; Bezuyen, K.G.

    These lecture notes on caissons are part of the study material belonging to the course 'Hydraulic Structures 1' (code CTB3355), part of the Bachelor of Science education and the Hydraulic Engineering track of the Master of Science education for civil engineering students at Delft University of

  5. On Development of Agricultural Machinery Operating Service in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongjing; TAN; Shi; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing takes on rapid increase in number of service organizations,diversified service methods,improvement in service level,and constant service income. However,there are some problems,including unreasonable composition and small scale of service organization,imbalanced development of four service methods,low service level,and low operating income of agricultural machinery households. To accelerate development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing,it is recommended to take following measures: adjusting subsidy for purchase and operation of agricultural machinery; improving fiscal and taxation and financial system; speeding up infrastructure construction,establishing agricultural machinery information network,and improving organizational form and methods of agricultural machinery operating service.

  6. Handbook of hydraulic fluid technology

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, George E

    2011-01-01

    ""The Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology"" serves as the foremost resource for designing hydraulic systems and for selecting hydraulic fluids used in engineering applications. Featuring new illustrations, data tables, as well as practical examples, this second edition is updated with essential information on the latest hydraulic fluids and testing methods. The detailed text facilitates unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including important hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants. Written by worldwide experts, the book also offers a rigorous overview of h

  7. Application of owner technical management in hydraulic machinery and electrical equipment investment target control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, H

    2012-01-01

    Using technical means in investment target control is an effective method to improve investment benefit of a construction project. Take the practice of construction and management in hydropower station as an example, the investment and management need of the owner is put forward through the investment target decision-making process of electromechanical equipment. Owner technical management in the specific application measures and effects of investment target control was discussed in the paper, and the revelation in investment target control application of owner technical management was also summarized. The paper is aimed to provide a useful reference for the investment target control work in the construction of electromechanical equipment.

  8. Application of a particle swarm optimization for shape optimization in hydraulic machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Prokop; Rudolf, Pavel

    A study of shape optimization has become increasingly popular in academia and industry. A typical problem is to find an optimal shape, which minimizes (or maximizes) a certain cost function and satisfies given constraints. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) has received a lot of attention in past years and is inspired by social behaviour of some animals such as flocking behaviour of birds. This paper focuses on a possibility of a diffuser shape optimization using particle swarm optimization (PSO), which is coupled with CFD simulation. Influence of main parameters of PSO-algorithm and later diffuser shapes obtained with this method are discussed and advantages/disadvantages summarized.

  9. Application of a particle swarm optimization for shape optimization in hydraulic machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moravec Prokop

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of shape optimization has become increasingly popular in academia and industry. A typical problem is to find an optimal shape, which minimizes (or maximizes a certain cost function and satisfies given constraints. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO has received a lot of attention in past years and is inspired by social behaviour of some animals such as flocking behaviour of birds. This paper focuses on a possibility of a diffuser shape optimization using particle swarm optimization (PSO, which is coupled with CFD simulation. Influence of main parameters of PSO-algorithm and later diffuser shapes obtained with this method are discussed and advantages/disadvantages summarized.

  10. Technical development of fluid machinery area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Kyung Nam; Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Yang Ik

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, recent research activity of Hyundai Heavy Industries in the fluid machinery area is introduced. Technical development has been carried out in pumps, turbines, construction equipment, side thrusters, engine lubrication flow, etc. Here the technology of pumps and cooling of construction equipment will be dealt with. We have actively used computational fluid dynamics in the performance analysis of pump models and the design of new models of various industrial pumps or marine pumps. And a cooling analysis system composed of 3D flow analysis and 1D cooling analysis has been established, and applied to the design of cooling systems of new models of excavators and wheel loaders. The above mentioned technology is presented in details, and some future works are mentioned

  11. Utility machinery vibration monitoring guide: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, T.T.; Thomas, C.C.

    1987-08-01

    Section I of this guide presents a methodology for developing machinery vibration monitoring programs specifically designed for application within the utility industry. The methodology is designed to enhance a monitoring program and can be used at the outset of program development or as a reference after programs have been started. Section I evaluates all aspects of the monitoring program, including Objectives and Goals, Information Type, Timing and Format, Data Analysis, Data Acquisition, Measurement and Transducer Selection, Personnel and Organization, Program Instrumentation, Program Costs, Program Justification, and Implementation of a Monitoring Program. The methodology is then applied to two host utility plants in Section II, which contains the monitoring programs developed by Gulf States Utilities and Philadelphia Electric Company using this guide. Section III contains the histories of several different types of existing utility monitoring programs. Some of the lessons learned, including the recommendations of these ''mature'' programs for persons starting new programs, are included

  12. Multiple Cylinder Free-Piston Stirling Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchowitz, David M.; Kwon, Yong-Rak

    In order to improve the specific power of piston-cylinder type machinery, there is a point in capacity or power where an advantage accrues with increasing number of piston-cylinder assemblies. In the case of Stirling machinery where primary energy is transferred across the casing wall of the machine, this consideration is even more important. This is due primarily to the difference in scaling of basic power and the required heat transfer. Heat transfer is found to be progressively limited as the size of the machine increases. Multiple cylinder machines tend to preserve the surface area to volume ratio at more favorable levels. In addition, the spring effect of the working gas in the so-called alpha configuration is often sufficient to provide a high frequency resonance point that improves the specific power. There are a number of possible multiple cylinder configurations. The simplest is an opposed pair of piston-displacer machines (beta configuration). A three-cylinder machine requires stepped pistons to obtain proper volume phase relationships. Four to six cylinder configurations are also possible. A small demonstrator inline four cylinder alpha machine has been built to demonstrate both cooling operation and power generation. Data from this machine verifies theoretical expectations and is used to extrapolate the performance of future machines. Vibration levels are discussed and it is argued that some multiple cylinder machines have no linear component to the casing vibration but may have a nutating couple. Example applications are discussed ranging from general purpose coolers, computer cooling, exhaust heat power extraction and some high power engines.

  13. The ecology of medical care in Beijing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Shao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We presented the pattern of health care consumption, and the utilization of available resources by describing the ecology of medical care in Beijing on a monthly basis and by describing the socio-demographic characteristics associated with receipt care in different settings. METHODS: A cohort of 6,592 adults, 15 years of age and older were sampled to estimate the number of urban-resident adults per 1,000 who visited a medical facility at least once in a month, by the method of three-stage stratified and cluster random sampling. Separate logistic regression analyses assessed the association between those receiving care in different types of setting and their socio-demographic characteristics. RESULTS: On average per 1,000 adults, 295 had at least one symptom, 217 considered seeking medical care, 173 consulted a physician, 129 visited western medical practitioners, 127 visited a hospital-based outpatient clinic, 78 visited traditional Chinese medical practitioners, 43 visited a primary care physician, 35 received care in an emergency department, 15 were hospitalized. Health care seeking behaviors varied with socio-demographic characteristics, such as gender, age, ethnicity, resident census register, marital status, education, income, and health insurance status. In term of primary care, the gate-keeping and referral roles of Community Health Centers have not yet been fully established in Beijing. CONCLUSIONS: This study represents a first attempt to map the medical care ecology of Beijing urban population and provides timely baseline information for health care reform in China.

  14. Beijing nuclear medicine survey 2005: general information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Jianhua; Si Hongwei; Chen Shengzu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the status of nuclear medicine department in Beijing area. Methods: Staff, equipment and clinical applications of nuclear medicine departments in Beijing area during 2005 were evaluated by postal questionnaires. Results: Thirty nuclear medicine departments responded to our survey. In these departments, 321 staff, 141 doctors, 122 technicians, 7 physicists, 22 nurses and 29 other staff were employed; and 41 large imaging equipments, 37 SPECT, 3 PET, 1 PET-CT were equipped. During 2005, 88135 radionuclide imaging (84734 for SPECT, 3401 for PET), 462246 radioimmunoassay and 2228 radionuclide therapies (the most for Graves' disease, the second for thyroid cancer, the third for bone metastasis) were performed. For only 41.5% and 22.0% equipments the daily quality control (QC) and weekly QC were conducted. Conclusions Staff, equipments and activities of nuclear medicine department in Beijing were in a considerable scale, but did not balance among hospitals. Most departments should increase the number of physicists and the equipment QC procedures to improve the image quality. (authors)

  15. Environmental impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    Huijuan, Cao; Fujii, Hidemichi; Managi, Shunsuke

    2013-01-01

    Beijing organized the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, and the main goal of the Chinese government regarding this event was to hold a Green Olympics. A difference-in-differences approach was used to estimate the environmental impact the Olympic Games on air quality improvement in Beijing, compared to improvements in other areas in China. The results indicate that compared to other regions, air quality in Beijing improved for a short period of time. These improvements were largely due to the impleme...

  16. Machinery failure analysis and troubleshooting practical machinery management for process plants

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    2012-01-01

    Solve the machinery failure problems costing you time and money with this classic, comprehensive guide to analysis and troubleshooting  Provides detailed, complete and accurate information on anticipating risk of component failure and avoiding equipment downtime Includes numerous photographs of failed parts to ensure you are familiar with the visual evidence you need to recognize Covers proven approaches to failure definition and offers failure identification and analysis methods that can be applied to virtually all problem situations Demonstr

  17. Regional Land Subsidence Analysis in Eastern Beijing Plain by InSAR Time Series and Wavelet Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Gao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Land subsidence is the disaster phenomenon of environmental geology with regionally surface altitude lowering caused by the natural or man-made factors. Beijing, the capital city of China, has suffered from land subsidence since the 1950s, and extreme groundwater extraction has led to subsidence rates of more than 100 mm/year. In this study, we employ two SAR datasets acquired by Envisat and TerraSAR-X satellites to investigate the surface deformation in Beijing Plain from 2003 to 2013 based on the multi-temporal InSAR technique. Furthermore, we also use observation wells to provide in situ hydraulic head levels to perform the evolution of land subsidence and spatial-temporal changes of groundwater level. Then, we analyze the accumulated displacement and hydraulic head level time series using continuous wavelet transform to separate periodic signal components. Finally, cross wavelet transform (XWT and wavelet transform coherence (WTC are implemented to analyze the relationship between the accumulated displacement and hydraulic head level time series. The results show that the subsidence centers in the northern Beijing Plain is spatially consistent with the groundwater drop funnels. According to the analysis of well based results located in different areas, the long-term groundwater exploitation in the northern subsidence area has led to the continuous decline of the water level, resulting in the inelastic and permanent compaction, while for the monitoring wells located outside the subsidence area, the subsidence time series show obvious elastic deformation characteristics (seasonal characteristics as the groundwater level changes. Moreover, according to the wavelet transformation, the land subsidence time series at monitoring well site lags several months behind the groundwater level change.

  18. Hydraulic Yaw System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Mørkholt, M.

    a hydraulic soft yaw system, which is able to reduce the loads on the wind turbine significantly. A full scale hydraulic yaw test rig is available for experiments and tests. The test rig is presented as well as the system schematics of the hydraulic yaw system....... the HAWC2 aeroelastic code and an extended model of the NREL 5MW turbine combined with a simplified linear model of the turbine, the parameters of the soft yaw system are optimized to reduce loading in critical components. Results shows that a significant reduction in fatigue and extreme loads to the yaw...... system and rotor shaft when utilizing the soft yaw drive concept compared to the original stiff yaw system. The physical demands of the hydraulic yaw system are furthermore examined for a life time of 20 years. Based on the extrapolated loads, the duty cycles show that it is possible to construct...

  19. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on......-going research projects on fluid power and mechatronics based on tap water hydraulic servovalves and linear servo actuators and rotary vane actuators for motion control and power transmission. Development and design a novel water hydraulic rotary vane actuator for robot manipulators. Proposed mathematical...... modelling, control and simulation of a water hydraulic rotary vane actuator applied to power and control a two-links manipulator and evaluate performance. The results include engineering design and test of the proposed simulation models compared with IHA Tampere University’s presentation of research...

  20. Hydraulic hoisting and backfilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauermann, H. B.

    In a country such as South Africa, with its large deep level mining industry, improvements in mining and hoisting techniques could result in substantial savings. Hoisting techniques, for example, may be improved by the introduction of hydraulic hoisting. The following are some of the advantages of hydraulic hoisting as against conventional skip hoisting: (1) smaller shafts are required because the pipes to hoist the same quantity of ore hydraulically require less space in the shaft than does skip hoisting equipment; (2) the hoisting capacity of a mine can easily be increased without the necessity of sinking new shafts. Large savings in capital costs can thus be made; (3) fully automatic control is possible with hydraulic hoisting and therefore less manpower is required; and (4) health and safety conditions will be improved.

  1. 46 CFR 169.315 - Ventilation (other than machinery spaces).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... section is satisfied, a vessel having only a natural ventilation system must satisfy the following: V/A≥1... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation (other than machinery spaces). 169.315... SCHOOL VESSELS Construction and Arrangement Hull Structure § 169.315 Ventilation (other than machinery...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.164 - Ship's propulsion machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's propulsion machinery. 1915.164 Section 1915.164 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS FOR SHIPYARD EMPLOYMENT Ship's Machinery and Piping Systems § 1915.164 Ship's...

  3. A Survey of Fish Production and Processing Machinery in Rivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survey of fish production and processing machinery in Port Harcourt City Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria was carried out to evaluate the followings: different machines used for fish production and processing, the most acceptable machine, effect of cost of machinery on the fish farmer, whether gender has ...

  4. 46 CFR 78.33-5 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 78.33-5 Section 78.33-5 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS OPERATIONS Reports of Accidents, Repairs, and Unsafe Equipment § 78.33-5 Accidents to machinery. (a) In the event of an accident...

  5. 46 CFR 185.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 185.208 Section 185.208 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing...

  6. 46 CFR 122.208 - Accidents to machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accidents to machinery. 122.208 Section 122.208 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... Voyage Records § 122.208 Accidents to machinery. The owner, managing operator, or master shall report...

  7. The hydraulic wheel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez Cardona, A.

    1985-01-01

    The present article this dedicated to recover a technology that key in disuse for the appearance of other techniques. It is the hydraulic wheel with their multiple possibilities to use their energy mechanical rotational in direct form or to generate electricity directly in the fields in the place and to avoid the high cost of transport and transformation. The basic theory is described that consists in: the power of the currents of water and the hydraulic receivers. The power of the currents is determined knowing the flow and east knowing the section of the flow and its speed; they are given you formulate to know these and direct mensuration methods by means of floodgates, drains and jumps of water. The hydraulic receivers or properly this hydraulic wheels that are the machines in those that the water acts like main force and they are designed to transmit the biggest proportion possible of absolute work of the water, the hydraulic wheels of horizontal axis are the common and they are divided in: you rotate with water for under, you rotate with side water and wheels with water for above. It is analyzed each one of them, their components are described; the conditions that should complete to produce a certain power and formulate them to calculate it. There are 25 descriptive figures of the different hydraulic wheels

  8. Verification of the machinery condition monitoring technology by fault simulation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maehara, Takafumi; Watanabe, Yukio; Osaki, Kenji; Higuma, Koji; Nakano, Tomohito

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows the test items and equipments introduced by Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization to establish the monitoring technique for machinery conditions. From the result of vertical pump simulation tests, it was confirmed that fault analysis was impossible by measuring the accelerations on both motor and pump column pipes, however, was possible by measuring of pump shaft vibrations. Because hydraulic whirls by bearing wear had significant influences over bearing misalignments and flow rates, the monitoring trends must be done under the same condition (on bearing alignments and flow rates). We have confirmed that malfunctions of vertical pumps can be diagnosed using measured shaft vibration by ultrasonic sensors from outer surface of pump casing on the floor. (author)

  9. Occupational Accidents with Agricultural Machinery in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogler, Robert; Quendler, Elisabeth; Boxberger, Josef

    2016-01-01

    The number of recognized accidents with fatalities during agricultural and forestry work, despite better technology and coordinated prevention and trainings, is still very high in Austria. The accident scenarios in which people are injured are very different on farms. The common causes of accidents in agriculture and forestry are the loss of control of machine, means of transport or handling equipment, hand-held tool, and object or animal, followed by slipping, stumbling and falling, breakage, bursting, splitting, slipping, fall, and collapse of material agent. In the literature, a number of studies of general (machine- and animal-related accidents) and specific (machine-related accidents) agricultural and forestry accident situations can be found that refer to different databases. From the database Data of the Austrian Workers Compensation Board (AUVA) about occupational accidents with different agricultural machinery over the period 2008-2010 in Austria, main characteristics of the accident, the victim, and the employer as well as variables on causes and circumstances by frequency and contexts of parameters were statistically analyzed by employing the chi-square test and odds ratio. The aim of the study was to determine the information content and quality of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) variables to evaluate safety gaps and risks as well as the accidental man-machine interaction.

  10. Accessing and operating agricultural machinery: Advancements in assistive technology for users with impaired mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Shawn G; Field, William E

    2018-02-14

    This research focused on the advancements made in enabling agricultural workers with impaired mobility to access and operate off-road agricultural machinery. Although not a new concept, technological advancements in remote-controlled lifts, electronic actuators, electric over hydraulic controllers, and various modes of hand controls have advanced significantly, allowing operators with limited mobility to resume a high level of productivity in agricultural-related enterprises. In the United States, approximately 1.7% of the population is living with some form of paralysis or significant mobility impairment. When paired with the 2012 USDA Agriculture Census of 3.2 million farmers, it can be extrapolated that these technologies could impact 54,000 agricultural workers who have encountered disabling injuries or disease, which inhibit their ability to access and operate tractors, combines, and other self-propelled agricultural machines. Advancements in agricultural-specific technologies can allow for many of these individuals to regain the ability to effectively operate machinery once more.

  11. CPAFFC Holds Activities to Greet Beijing Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Olympic Games are com-ing and really coming! We have been looking forward to this day for 100 years. At last, the Beijing Olympic Games will begin tomorrow with the attention of the whole world. To celebrate the one-day countdown to the Beijing Olympic Games, on the morning

  12. Beijing/W genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis and drug resistance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glynn, Judith R; Kremer, Kristin; Borgdorff, Martien W; Rodriguez, Mar Pujades; Soolingen, Dick van

    2006-01-01

    Beijing/W genotype Mycobacterium tuberculosis is widespread, may be increasing, and may have a predilection for drug resistance. Individual-level data on >29,000 patients from 49 studies in 35 countries were combined to assess the Beijing genotype's prevalence worldwide, trends over time and with

  13. Recent trend in family households in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z; Guo, L

    1997-01-01

    This study examined trends in household size and age structure in Beijing, China, in 1995. Data were reliably obtained from the 1% sample survey of China. Findings indicate that the average size of a family household was 3.15 persons, that is, 0.050 persons fewer than the 3.20 from the 1990 Census. Children aged 0-14 years in each household averaged 0.04 fewer children during 1990-95. 80% of the decline in household size was due to decreases in the number of children. The percentage of single-family and single-person households declined. Three-person households were the only size group that increased (23.2-40.7%). The household headship (HH) rate for males increased dramatically between the ages of 20 and 30 years and stabilized after 35 years. The HH rate for women grew slowly and continuously until age 50 years and then stabilized. The gender gap in HH appeared at an early age and remained thereafter. The HH rate declined at older ages. The HH rate in Beijing, compared to the national rate, suggests relative gender equity in Beijing. As a child ages, the percentage of three-generation households declines and the percentage of two-generation households rises. As a child becomes an adult, the percentages of single-person households and single-couple households increase. Single-couple households decreased among the middle-aged. 67.4% of the elderly lived in two- or three-generation households. 31.4% of elderly lived in single-person/couple households. The percentage of elderly living with their children declined by 2 points during 1990-95.

  14. Simplified monte carlo simulation for Beijing spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Taijie; Wang Shuqin; Yan Wuguang; Huang Yinzhi; Huang Deqiang; Lang Pengfei

    1986-01-01

    The Monte Carlo method based on the functionization of the performance of detectors and the transformation of values of kinematical variables into ''measured'' ones by means of smearing has been used to program the Monte Carlo simulation of the performance of the Beijing Spectrometer (BES) in FORTRAN language named BESMC. It can be used to investigate the multiplicity, the particle type, and the distribution of four-momentum of the final states of electron-positron collision, and also the response of the BES to these final states. Thus, it provides a measure to examine whether the overall design of the BES is reasonable and to decide the physical topics of the BES

  15. Automation facilities for agricultural machinery control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Izmaylov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of use of the automation equipment for agricultural machinery control is investigated. The authors proposed solutions on creation of the centralized unified automated information system for mobile aggregates management. In accordance with the modern requirements this system should be open, integrated into the general schema of agricultural enterprise control. Standard hardware, software and communicative features should be realized in tasks of monitoring and control. Therefore the schema should be get with use the unified modules and Russian standards. The complex multivariate unified automated control system for different objects of agricultural purpose based on block and modular creation should correspond to the following principles: high reliability, simplicity of service, low expenses in case of operation, the short payback period connected to increase in productivity, the reduced losses when harvesting, postharvest processing and storage, the improved energetic indices. Technological processes control in agricultural production is exercised generally with feedback. The example without feedback is program control by temperature in storage in case of the cooling mode. Feedback at technological processes control in agricultural production allows to optimally solve a problem of rational distribution of functions in man-distributed systems and forming the intelligent ergonomic interfaces, consistent with professional perceptions of decision-makers. The negative feedback created by the control unit allows to support automatically a quality index of technological process at the set level. The quantitative analysis of a production situation base itself upon deeply formalized basis of computer facilities that promotes making of the optimal solution. Information automated control system introduction increases labor productivity by 40 percent, reduces energetic costs by 25 percent. Improvement of quality of the executed technological

  16. Hydraulics and pneumatics

    CERN Document Server

    Parr, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Nearly all industrial processes require objects to be moved, manipulated or subjected to some sort of force. This is frequently accomplished by means of electrical equipment (such as motors or solenoids), or via devices driven by air (pneumatics) or liquids (hydraulics).This book has been written by a process control engineer as a guide to the operation of hydraulic and pneumatic systems for all engineers and technicians who wish to have an insight into the components and operation of such a system.This second edition has been fully updated to include all recent developments su

  17. HYDRAULIC SERVO CONTROL MECHANISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, R.B.; Gottsche, M.J. Jr.

    1963-09-17

    A hydraulic servo control mechanism of compact construction and low fluid requirements is described. The mechanism consists of a main hydraulic piston, comprising the drive output, which is connected mechanically for feedback purposes to a servo control piston. A control sleeve having control slots for the system encloses the servo piston, which acts to cover or uncover the slots as a means of controlling the operation of the system. This operation permits only a small amount of fluid to regulate the operation of the mechanism, which, as a result, is compact and relatively light. This mechanism is particuiarly adaptable to the drive and control of control rods in nuclear reactors. (auth)

  18. Hydraulic Arm Modeling via Matlab SimHydraulics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Věchet, Stanislav; Krejsa, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 4 (2009), s. 287-296 ISSN 1802-1484 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : simulatin modeling * hydraulics * SimHydraulics Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  19. Mine drivage in hydraulic mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehkber, B Ya

    1983-09-01

    From 20 to 25% of labor cost in hydraulic coal mines falls on mine drivage. Range of mine drivage is high due to the large number of shortwalls mined by hydraulic monitors. Reducing mining cost in hydraulic mines depends on lowering drivage cost by use of new drivage systems or by increasing efficiency of drivage systems used at present. The following drivage methods used in hydraulic mines are compared: heading machines with hydraulic haulage of cut rocks and coal, hydraulic monitors with hydraulic haulage, drilling and blasting with hydraulic haulage of blasted rocks. Mining and geologic conditions which influence selection of the optimum mine drivage system are analyzed. Standardized cross sections of mine roadways driven by the 3 methods are shown in schemes. Support systems used in mine roadways are compared: timber supports, roof bolts, roof bolts with steel elements, and roadways driven in rocks without a support system. Heading machines (K-56MG, GPKG, 4PU, PK-3M) and hydraulic monitors (GMDTs-3M, 12GD-2) used for mine drivage are described. Data on mine drivage in hydraulic coal mines in the Kuzbass are discussed. From 40 to 46% of roadways are driven by heading machines with hydraulic haulage and from 12 to 15% by hydraulic monitors with hydraulic haulage.

  20. Beijing Bubble, Beijing Bust: Inequality, Trade, and Capital Inflow into China Beijing Blase, Beijing Krise: Ungleichheit, Handel und Kapitalzufluss nach China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K. Galbraith

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationships between inequality, trade, and capital flows into China since the early 1990s and particularly in the first years of the present decade. We show that the rise in economic inequality in China has more to do directly with the activities associated with China’s financial and building boom, notably in Beijing, than with the massive growth in manufacturing employment and in Chinese exports since China joined the WTO in 2001. Nevertheless, it is likely that a flow of profits from the export boom did feed the speculative fires in the capital and elsewhere, and therefore it should be no surprise that the fall of one should be linked to the fall of the other, in a particularly painful reduction of economic inequality. In diesem Artikel werden die Beziehungen zwischen Ungleichheit, Handel und Kapitalzufluss nach China seit den frühen 1990er Jahren untersucht. Es wird aufgezeigt, dass die steigende wirtschaftliche Ungleichheit in China weit mehr mit Chinas Finanz- und Bauboom insbesondere in Beijing zu tun hat als mit dem großen Anstieg der Beschäftigung in der Produktion und in Chinas Exporten seit dem WTO-Beitritt im Jahr 2001.

  1. Estimation of site effects in Beijing City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Z.; Chen, Y.T.; Panza, G.F.

    2002-01-01

    For the realistic modeling of the seismic ground motion in lateral heterogeneous anelastic media, the database of 3-D geophysical structures for Beijing City has been built up to model the seismic ground motion in the City, caused by the 1976 Tangshan and the 1998 Zhangbei earthquakes. The hybrid method, that combines the modal summation and the finite difference algorithms, is used in the simulation. The modeling of the seismic ground motion for both the Tangshan and the Zhangbei earthquakes shows that the thick Quaternary sedimentary cover amplifies the peak values and increases the duration of the seismic ground motion in the northwest part of the City. Therefore the thickness of the Quaternary sediments in Beijing City is the key factor that controls the local ground effects, and four zones are defined on the base of the different thickness of the Quaternary sediments. The response spectra for each zone are computed, indicating that peak spectral values as high as 0.1g are compatible with past seismicity and can be well exceeded if an event similar to the 1697 Sanhe-Pinggu occurs. (author)

  2. Estimation of Site Effects in Beijing City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Z.; Chen, Y. T.; Panza, G. F.

    For the realistic modeling of the seismic ground motion in lateral heterogeneous anelastic media, the database of 3-D geophysical structures for Beijing City has been built up to model the seismic ground motion in the City, caused by the 1976 Tangshan and the 1998 Zhangbei earthquakes. The hybrid method, which combines the modal summation and the finite-difference algorithms, is used in the simulation. The modeling of the seismic ground motion, for both the Tangshan and the Zhangbei earthquakes, shows that the thick Quaternary sedimentary cover amplifies the peak values and increases the duration of the seismic ground motion in the northwestern part of the City. Therefore the thickness of the Quaternary sediments in Beijing City is the key factor controling the local ground effects. Four zones are defined on the base of the different thickness of the Quaternary sediments. The response spectra for each zone are computed, indicating that peak spectral values as high as 0.1 g are compatible with past seismicity and can be well exceeded if an event similar to the 1697 Sanhe-Pinggu occurs.

  3. The kinematics of machinery outlines of a theory of machines

    CERN Document Server

    Reuleaux, Franz

    2012-01-01

    A classic on the kinematics of machinery, this volume was written by the Father of Kinematics. Reuleaux writes with authority and precision, developing the subject from its fundamentals. 450 figures. 1876 edition.

  4. Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0644 TITLE: Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Chun-Ju...Targeting Cell Polarity Machinery to Exhaust Breast Cancer Stem Cells 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0644 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a cell population with acquired perpetuating self-renewal properties which

  5. Intelligence and the machinery of government: conceptualizing the intelligence community

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, PHJ

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that the failure to address intelligence agencies as public organizations part and parcel with the overt machinery of government constitutes a significant lacuna both in the specialist study of intelligence and the broader discipline of public administration studies. The role and status of intelligence institutions as aspects of the machinery of central government is examined, along with the prospects of certain key paradigms in the field for understanding those institutio...

  6. Hydraulic shock absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, G.; Davidson, D. F.

    1984-01-01

    A hydraulic shock absorber of the dash pot kind for use with electrically conducting liquid such as sodium, has magnet means for electro magnetically braking a stream of liquid discharged from the cylinder. The shock absorber finds use in a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor for arresting control rods

  7. Preparation of hydraulic cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-08-28

    A process for the preparation of hydraulic cement by the use of oil-shale residues is characterized in that the oil-shale refuse is mixed with granular basic blast-furnace slag and a small amount of portland cement and ground together.

  8. Small hydraulic turbine drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostafinski, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    Turbine, driven by the fluid being pumped, requires no external controls, is completely integrated into the flow system, and has bearings which utilize the main fluid for lubrication and cooling. Torque capabilities compare favorably with those developed by positive displacement hydraulic motors.

  9. Modelling of Hydraulic Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Zhou, Jianjun; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of identifying the physical model (or the grey box model) of a hydraulic test robot. The obtained model is intended to provide a basis for model-based control of the robot. The physical model is formulated in continuous time and is derived by application...

  10. Manual Hydraulic Structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, W.F.; Voorendt, M.Z.

    This manual is the result of group work and origins in Dutch lecture notes that have been used since long time. Amongst the employees of the Hydraulic Engineering Department that contributed to this work are dr.ir. S. van Baars, ir.K.G.Bezuijen, ir.G.P.Bourguignon, prof.ir.A.Glerum,

  11. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  12. Theoretical research for natural circulation operational characteristic of ship nuclear machinery under ocean conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Binghuo [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)], E-mail: yanbh1986@163.com; Yu Lei [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)], E-mail: yulei301@163.com

    2009-06-15

    Based on the two-phase drift flux model and the multi-pressure nodes matrix solving method, natural circulation thermal hydraulic analysis models for the Nuclear Machinery (NM) under ocean conditions are developed. The neutron physical activities and the responses of the reactivity control systems are described by the two-group, 3-dimensional space and time dependent neutron kinetics model. Reactivity feedback is calculated by coupling the neutron physics and thermal hydraulic codes, and is tested by comparison with experiments. Using the models developed, the natural circulation operating characteristics of NM in rolling and pitching motions and the transitions between forced circulation (FC) to natural circulation (NC) are analyzed. The results show that the influence of the rolling motion increases as the rolling amplitude is increased, and as the rolling period becomes shorter. The results also show that for this NM, with the same rolling period and rolling angle, the influence of pitching motion on natural circulation is greater than that of rolling motion. Furthermore, the oscillation period for pitching motion is the same as the pitching period, while the oscillation period for rolling is one half of the rolling period. In the ocean environment, excessive flow oscillation of the natural circulation may cause the control rods to respond so frequently that the NM would not be able to realize the transition from the FC to NC steadily. However, the influence of ocean environment on the transition from NC to FC is limited.

  13. Strain measurement in and analysis for hydraulic test of CPR1000 reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dan; Zhuang Dongzhen

    2013-01-01

    The strain measurement in hydraulic test of CPR1000 reactor pressure vessel performed in Dongfang Heavy Machinery Co., Ltd. is introduced. The detail test scheme and method was introduced and the measurement results of strain and stress was given. Meanwhile the finite element analysis was performed for the pressure vessel, which was generally matched with the measurement results. The reliability of strain measurement was verified and the high strength margin of vessel was shown, which would give a good reference value for the follow-up hydraulic tests and strength analysis of reactor pressure vessel. (authors)

  14. Cradle modification for hydraulic ram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koons, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of the cradle hydraulic system considers stress, weld strength, and hydraulic forces required to lift and support the cradle/pump assembly. The stress and weld strength of the cradle modifications is evaluated to ensure that they meet the requirements of the American Institute for Steel Construction (AISC 1989). The hydraulic forces are evaluated to ensure that the hydraulic system is capable of rotating the cradle and pump assembly to the vertical position (between 70 degrees and 90 degrees)

  15. [Identification of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage in Ecuador].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Patricia; Calvopiña, Karina; Herrera, Diana; Rojas, Carlos; Pérez-Lago, Laura; Grijalva, Marcelo; Guna, Remedios; García-de Viedma, Darío

    2017-06-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage isolates are considered to be especially virulent, transmissible and prone to acquire resistances. Beijing strains have been reported worldwide, but studies in Latin America are still scarce. The only multinational study performed in the region indicated a heterogeneous distribution for this lineage, which was absent in Chile, Colombia and Ecuador, although further studies found the lineage in Chile and Colombia. To search for the presence of the Beijing lineage in Ecuador, the only country in the region where it remains unreported. We obtained a convenience sample (2006-2012) from two hospitals covering different populations. The isolates were genotyped using 24-MIRU-VNTR. Lineages were assigned by comparing their patterns to those in the MIRU-VNTRplus platform. Isolates belonging to the Beijing lineage were confirmed by allele-specific PCR. We identified the first Beijing isolate in Ecuador in an unexpected epidemiological scenario: A patient was infected in the Andean region, in a population with low mobility and far from the borders of the neighboring countries where Beijing strains had been previously reported. This is the first report of the presence of the Beijing lineage in Ecuador in an unusual epidemiological context that deserves special attention.

  16. Hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Gaorong [Organization of the United Nations, Beijing (China). International Centre of Small Hydroelectric Power Plants

    1995-07-01

    This document presents a general overview on hydraulic turbines and auxiliary equipment, emphasizing the turbine classification, in accordance with the different types of turbines, standard turbine series in China, turbine selection based on the basic data required for the preliminary design, general hill model curves, chart of turbine series and the arrangement of application for hydraulic turbines, hydraulic turbine testing, and speed regulating device.

  17. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications The following technical papers and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hydraulic hybrid fleet vehicle evaluations . Refuse Trucks Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles. Bob

  18. Sustainable Development Strategies of Biomass Energy in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. Z.; Huang, B. R.

    2017-10-01

    The development of biomass energy industry can effectively improve the rural environment and alleviate the shortage of living energy in rural areas, especially in mountain areas. In order to make clear the current situation of biomass energy industry development in Beijing, this paper analyzed the status of biomass resources and biomass energy utilization and discussed the factors hindering the development of biomass energy industry in Beijing. Based on the analysis, suggestions for promoting sustainable development of Biomass Energy Industry in Beijing are put forward.

  19. Study on radon geological potential of Beijing city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qingcheng; Wu Xinmin; Liu Yujuan; Yang Yaxin; Zhang Ye

    2009-01-01

    According to elemental geochemistry in Beijing, the uranium content in the area was measured, and distribution of radon concentration was predicted. Based on the uranium-radium equilibrium coefficient, porosity and diffusion coefficient, which were either measured or calculated, the radon geological potential of Beijing city was studied using γ-ray spectroscopy or mass spectroscopy and certain models were used to calculate the relation between radon geological potential and lithology and geological structure. The results showed that radon geological potential of Beijing city could be divided into four zones, tend of every zone coincides with the main structure, and the potential values nearly relate with geological factors. (authors)

  20. Comparison of safety equipment between London underground and Beijing subway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.; Zhang, S. Y.; Zhao, L. Z.; Xia, J. J.; Fu, X. C.; Bao, Z. M.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Wang, R. J.; Hu, C.; Jing, L. S.; Wang, Y.

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to improve the safety equipment’s effectiveness through the comparison. Firstly, the history and safety accident of London Underground and Beijing Subway were shown. Secondly, fire equipment between these two cities was compared including station’s hardware installations and carriage’s hardware installations. Thirdly, the relative software installations were also compared such as emergency drills. The results showed that Beijing Subway’s hardware installations were better than London. However, London Underground’s some installations were more effective than Beijing. Both cities would pay more attention on anti-terrorist in tunnel.

  1. Beijing Bicycle - Stories from a Transformative Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger-Petersen, Mai Corlin

    2012-01-01

    Ideas, words, images and stories travel from west to east – and from east to west. Stories are chosen and retold in different settings and images are reproduced and appropriated into new contexts – and in new times. Cinema, in this case the mainland Chinese, becomes both a space of production...... and a production of space that reveals how transnational and translocal mechanisms affect the cinematic language, transforming the images and stories chosen for the cinematic representation. Wang Xiaoshuai’s Beijing Bicycle (Shiqi Sui de Danche) (2001) is a result of transnational currents weaving the carpet...... relevant in a new context – that of the Chinese mainland society in the 21st century. Doreen Massey (2005: 9) defines space as “a simultaneity of stories-so-far”, a space that is constantly exploding and imploding with the influx of new and old stories. Within this theoretical framework Wang Xiaoshuai...

  2. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F.; Love, L.J.

    1997-01-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL's flexible/prismatic test stand

  3. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  4. 46 CFR 91.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the..., respecting material and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification...

  5. 46 CFR 189.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery... inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels... chapter, respecting material and construction of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and certificate of...

  6. 46 CFR 71.15-1 - Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards in inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery..., boilers, and machinery. In the inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery of vessels, the standards... and inspection of hulls, boilers, and machinery, and the certificate of classification referring...

  7. Mechanics of Hydraulic Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detournay, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic fractures represent a particular class of tensile fractures that propagate in solid media under pre-existing compressive stresses as a result of internal pressurization by an injected viscous fluid. The main application of engineered hydraulic fractures is the stimulation of oil and gas wells to increase production. Several physical processes affect the propagation of these fractures, including the flow of viscous fluid, creation of solid surfaces, and leak-off of fracturing fluid. The interplay and the competition between these processes lead to multiple length scales and timescales in the system, which reveal the shifting influence of the far-field stress, viscous dissipation, fracture energy, and leak-off as the fracture propagates.

  8. Hydraulically actuated artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, M. A.; Tiwari, R.; Wajcs, K. B.; Moses, C.; Reveles, I.; Garcia, E.

    2012-04-01

    Hydraulic Artificial Muscles (HAMs) consisting of a polymer tube constrained by a nylon mesh are presented in this paper. Despite the actuation mechanism being similar to its popular counterpart, which are pneumatically actuated (PAM), HAMs have not been studied in depth. HAMs offer the advantage of compliance, large force to weight ratio, low maintenance, and low cost over traditional hydraulic cylinders. Muscle characterization for isometric and isobaric tests are discussed and compared to PAMs. A model incorporating the effect of mesh angle and friction have also been developed. In addition, differential swelling of the muscle on actuation has also been included in the model. An application of lab fabricated HAMs for a meso-scale robotic system is also presented.

  9. Undular Hydraulic Jump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Castro-Orgaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition from subcritical to supercritical flow when the inflow Froude number Fo is close to unity appears in the form of steady state waves called undular hydraulic jump. The characterization of the undular hydraulic jump is complex due to the existence of a non-hydrostatic pressure distribution that invalidates the gradually-varied flow theory, and supercritical shock waves. The objective of this work is to present a mathematical model for the undular hydraulic jump obtained from an approximate integration of the Reynolds equations for turbulent flow assuming that the Reynolds number R is high. Simple analytical solutions are presented to reveal the physics of the theory, and a numerical model is used to integrate the complete equations. The limit of application of the theory is discussed using a wave breaking condition for the inception of a surface roller. The validity of the mathematical predictions is critically assessed using physical data, thereby revealing aspects on which more research is needed

  10. Education for hydraulics and pneumatics in Nihon University; Nihon Daigaku ni okeru yukuatsu kyoiku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, M. [Nihon Univ., Chiba (Japan). Coll. of Industrial Technology

    2000-03-15

    Described herein is education of hydraulics and pneumatics in Nihon University. Department of Mechanical Engineering of Faculty of Production Engineering has been holding up the educational aims of bringing up engineers and researchers who have ability and intelligence to cope with internationalization and contribute to society, and of bringing about creativity, among others. Control equipment is an optional subject for the sophomore class in the second semester, and is centered by mechatronics, including hydraulic and pneumatic control systems and equipment. The related subjects include fluid dynamics, control engineering, system controlling, hydraulic machines, robotics and automobile engineering. The drill course includes disassembling and assembling gear pumps, drills on pneumatic devices, system behavior and mechatronics, experiments on fan and hydraulic control circuits and on servo mechanisms, and machinery designs and drawings. Seminars are led by full-time or part-time lecturers for the themes related to hydraulic power. Many students are interested in hydraulic and pneumatic themes for their graduation theses, because of their relations with control, environments, energy saving and so on. We are now in the age of composite technologies, and hydraulic power basics are prerequisite for engineers, and important for education of students. (NEDO)

  11. Energy modelling towards low carbon development of Beijing in 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Guangling; Guerrero, Josep M.; Jiang, Kejun

    2017-01-01

    Beijing, as the capacity capital of China, is under the pressure of climate change and pollution. Nonrenewable energy generation and consumption is one of the most important sources of CO2 emissions, which cause climate changes. This paper presents a study on the energy system modeling towards...... scenario 2030, (ii) BAU (business as usual) scenario 2030 and (iii) RES (renewable energies) scenario 2030. The results shows that the share of renewables can increase to 100% of electricity and heat production in the RE scenario. The primary fuel consumption is reduced to 155.9 TWh, which is 72 % of fuel...... renewable energy and low carbon development for the city of Beijing. The analysis of energy system modeling is organized in two steps to explore the potential renewable energy alternative in Beijing. Firstly, a reference energy system of Beijing is created based on the available data in 2014. The Energy...

  12. Factors affecting soil erosion in Beijing mountain forestlands

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-28

    Nov 28, 2011 ... Reserves and State/National Forest in Beijing's mountainous area. This study presents .... and bottom, the rectangle cutting rings are 1 cm high at one side and have blade orifices ... vegetation ecosystem. Different diameters ...

  13. Fault size classification of rotating machinery using support vector machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Y. S.; Lee, D. H.; Park, S. K. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Studies on fault diagnosis of rotating machinery have been carried out to obtain a machinery condition in two ways. First is a classical approach based on signal processing and analysis using vibration and acoustic signals. Second is to use artificial intelligence techniques to classify machinery conditions into normal or one of the pre-determined fault conditions. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is well known as intelligent classifier with robust generalization ability. In this study, a two-step approach is proposed to predict fault types and fault sizes of rotating machinery in nuclear power plants using multi-class SVM technique. The model firstly classifies normal and 12 fault types and then identifies their sizes in case of predicting any faults. The time and frequency domain features are extracted from the measured vibration signals and used as input to SVM. A test rig is used to simulate normal and the well-know 12 artificial fault conditions with three to six fault sizes of rotating machinery. The application results to the test data show that the present method can estimate fault types as well as fault sizes with high accuracy for bearing an shaft-related faults and misalignment. Further research, however, is required to identify fault size in case of unbalance, rubbing, looseness, and coupling-related faults.

  14. Fault size classification of rotating machinery using support vector machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. S.; Lee, D. H.; Park, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    Studies on fault diagnosis of rotating machinery have been carried out to obtain a machinery condition in two ways. First is a classical approach based on signal processing and analysis using vibration and acoustic signals. Second is to use artificial intelligence techniques to classify machinery conditions into normal or one of the pre-determined fault conditions. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is well known as intelligent classifier with robust generalization ability. In this study, a two-step approach is proposed to predict fault types and fault sizes of rotating machinery in nuclear power plants using multi-class SVM technique. The model firstly classifies normal and 12 fault types and then identifies their sizes in case of predicting any faults. The time and frequency domain features are extracted from the measured vibration signals and used as input to SVM. A test rig is used to simulate normal and the well-know 12 artificial fault conditions with three to six fault sizes of rotating machinery. The application results to the test data show that the present method can estimate fault types as well as fault sizes with high accuracy for bearing an shaft-related faults and misalignment. Further research, however, is required to identify fault size in case of unbalance, rubbing, looseness, and coupling-related faults

  15. Irradiation preservation study on Beijing roast duck by low dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiguo, Wang; Yongbao, Gu; Fengmei, Li [Beijing Normal Univ., BJ (China). Inst. of Low Energy Nuclear Physics; and others

    1989-02-01

    The irradiation technique combined with freezing has been used to control the microorganism in Beijing Roast Duck. Cobal-60 was chosen as {gamma}-ray source. The absorbed dose was 2 kGy on an average. After irrdiation, the microbe counts have reached the tolerable. Compared with untreated ducks, the irradiated ones showed no remarkable change in nutrition, chemistry, vitamin etc. It has been proved through test that the irradiated frozen Beijing Roast Duck is wholesome.

  16. Irradiation preservation study on Beijing roast duck by low dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Weiguo; Gu Yongbao; Li Fengmei

    1989-01-01

    The irradiation technique combined with freezing has been used to control the microorganism in Beijing Roast Duck. Cobal-60 was chosen as γ-ray source. The absorbed dose was 2 kGy on an average. After irrdiation, the microbe counts have reached the tolerable. Compared with untreated ducks, the irradiated ones showed no remarkable change in nutrition, chemistry, vitamin etc. It has been proved through test that the irradiated frozen Beijing Roast Duck is wholesome

  17. Analysis on Structure of Flower Market in Beijing

    OpenAIRE

    SUN, Xi; ZHANG, Yingying

    2015-01-01

    With the socio-economic development and people’s living condition improvement, the requirement for environment is higher and higher and the mental demand is also more and more. For this, Beijing Municipal Bureau of Landscape and Forestry listed survey programs of consumption demands of flower market in Beijing in 2014, and provided several recommendations in line with current situations, problems and environment of the flower industry, for future reference of flower decision making of Beiji...

  18. Multiscale singular value manifold for rotating machinery fault diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yi; Lu, BaoChun; Zhang, Deng Feng [School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology,Nanjing (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Time-frequency distribution of vibration signal can be considered as an image that contains more information than signal in time domain. Manifold learning is a novel theory for image recognition that can be also applied to rotating machinery fault pattern recognition based on time-frequency distributions. However, the vibration signal of rotating machinery in fault condition contains cyclical transient impulses with different phrases which are detrimental to image recognition for time-frequency distribution. To eliminate the effects of phase differences and extract the inherent features of time-frequency distributions, a multiscale singular value manifold method is proposed. The obtained low-dimensional multiscale singular value manifold features can reveal the differences of different fault patterns and they are applicable to classification and diagnosis. Experimental verification proves that the performance of the proposed method is superior in rotating machinery fault diagnosis.

  19. Hydraulic System Design of Hydraulic Actuators for Large Butterfly Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye HUANG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic control systems of butterfly valves are presently valve-controlled and pump-controlled. Valve-controlled hydraulic systems have serious power loss and generate much heat during throttling. Pump-controlled hydraulic systems have no overflow or throttling losses but are limited in the speed adjustment of the variable-displacement pump, generate much noise, pollute the environment, and have motor power that does not match load requirements, resulting in low efficiency under light loads and wearing of the variable-displacement pump. To overcome these shortcomings, this article designs a closed hydraulic control system in which an AC servo motor drives a quantitative pump that controls a spiral swinging hydraulic cylinder, and analyzes and calculates the structure and parameters of a spiral swinging hydraulic cylinder. The hydraulic system adjusts the servo motor’s speed according to the requirements of the control system, and the motor power matches the power provided to components, thus eliminating the throttling loss of hydraulic circuits. The system is compact, produces a large output force, provides stable transmission, has a quick response, and is suitable as a hydraulic control system of a large butterfly valve.

  20. Structural insights into the bacterial carbon - phosphorus lyase machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seweryn, Paulina; Van, Lan Bich; Kjeldgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus is required for all life and microorganisms can extract it from their environment through several metabolic pathways. When phosphate is in limited supply, some bacteria are able to use phosphonate compounds, which require specialized enzymatic machinery to break the stable carbon......–phosphorus (C–P) bond. Despite its importance, the details of how this machinery catabolizes phosphonates remain unknown. Here we determine the crystal structure of the 240-kilodalton Escherichia coli C–P lyase core complex (PhnG–PhnH–PhnI–PhnJ; PhnGHIJ), and show that it is a two-fold symmetric hetero...

  1. Densification of chipper harvested SRC using on-farm machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, M.

    2003-07-01

    This report gives details of a project to density wood chips using on-farm machinery in order to avoid problems encountered in bulk handling and storage of low density short rotation cultivation (SRC) wood chips - especially as some customers can only accept baled material. Trials using different lengths of chips produced by a standard SRC harvester are described, and the failure to produce acceptable bales is reported. The potential cost of modifying equipment is deemed to make the baling of SRC chips using standard farm machinery currently not viable.

  2. Hydraulic Stability of Accropode Armour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.; Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    The present report describes the hydraulic model tests of Accropode armour layers carried out at the Hydraulics Laboratory at Aalborg University from November 1995 through March 1996. The objective of the model tests was to investigate the hydraulic stability of Accropode armour layers...... with permeable core (crushed granite with a gradation of 5-8 mm). The outcome of this study is described in "Hydraulic Stability of Single-Layer Dolos and Accropode Armour Layers" by Christensen & Burcharth (1995). In January/February 1996, Research Assistant Thomas Jensen carried out a similar study...

  3. A new generation drilling rig: hydraulically powered and computer controlled

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurent, M.; Angman, P.; Oveson, D. [Tesco Corp., Calgary, AB, (Canada)

    1999-11-01

    Development, testing and operation of a new generation of hydraulically powered and computer controlled drilling rig that incorporates a number of features that enhance functionality and productivity, is described. The rig features modular construction, a large heated common drilling machinery room, permanently-mounted draw works which, along with the permanently installed top drive, significantly reduces rig-up/rig-down time. Also featured are closed and open hydraulic systems and a unique hydraulic distribution manifold. All functions are controlled through a programmable logic controller (PLC), providing almost unlimited interlocks and calculations to increase rig safety and efficiency. Simplified diagnostic routines, remote monitoring and troubleshooting are also part of the system. To date, two rigs are in operation. Performance of both rigs has been rated as `very good`. Little or no operational problems have been experienced; downtime has averaged 0.61 per cent since August 1998 when the the first of the two rigs went into operation. The most important future application for this rig is for use with the casing drilling process which eliminates the need for drill pipe and tripping. It also reduces the drilling time lost due to unscheduled events such as reaming, fishing and taking kicks while tripping. 1 tab., 6 figs.

  4. Hydraulic fracturing proppants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. P. de Campos

    Full Text Available Abstract Hydrocarbon reservoirs can be classified as unconventional or conventional depending on the oil and gas extraction difficulty, such as the need for high-cost technology and techniques. The hydrocarbon extraction from bituminous shale, commonly known as shale gas/oil, is performed by using the hydraulic fracturing technique in unconventional reservoirs where 95% water, 0.5% of additives and 4.5% of proppants are used. Environmental problems related to hydraulic fracturing technique and better performance/development of proppants are the current challenge faced by companies, researchers, regulatory agencies, environmentalists, governments and society. Shale gas is expected to increase USA fuel production, which triggers the development of new proppants and technologies of exploration. This paper presents a review of the definition of proppants, their types, characteristics and situation in the world market and information about manufacturers. The production of nanoscale materials such as anticorrosive and intelligent proppants besides proppants with carbon nanotubes is already carried out on a scale of tonnes per year in Belgium, Germany and Asia countries.

  5. Hydraulic jett mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerman, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Efficient mixing of reactants into a waste stream has always been a problem in that there has been no mixer capable of combining all the elements of enhanced mixing into a single piece of equipment. Through the development of a mixing system for the mining industry to treat acid mine water containing heavy metals, a versatile new hydraulic jetting static mixer has been developed that has no moving parts and a clean bore with no internal components. This paper reports that the main goal of the development of the hydraulic jett mixer was to reduce the size of the tankage required for an acid mine drainage (AMD) treatment plant through development of a static mixing device that could coincidentally aerate the treatment flow. This process equipment being developed would simultaneously adjust the pH and oxidize the metals allowing formation of the hydroxide sludges required for sedimentation and removal of the metals from the treatment stream. In effect, the device eliminates two reaction tanks, the neutralization/mixing tank and the aeration tank

  6. Applied hydraulic transients

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhry, M Hanif

    2014-01-01

    This book covers hydraulic transients in a comprehensive and systematic manner from introduction to advanced level and presents various methods of analysis for computer solution. The field of application of the book is very broad and diverse and covers areas such as hydroelectric projects, pumped storage schemes, water-supply systems, cooling-water systems, oil pipelines and industrial piping systems. Strong emphasis is given to practical applications, including several case studies, problems of applied nature, and design criteria. This will help design engineers and introduce students to real-life projects. This book also: ·         Presents modern methods of analysis suitable for computer analysis, such as the method of characteristics, explicit and implicit finite-difference methods and matrix methods ·         Includes case studies of actual projects ·         Provides extensive and complete treatment of governed hydraulic turbines ·         Presents design charts, desi...

  7. Nonurban aerosol composition near Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winchester, J.W.; Darzi, M.; Leslie, A.C.D.; Wang, M.; Ren, L.; Lue, W.; Hansson, H.C.; Lannefors, H.

    1981-01-01

    The urban aerosol plume of Beijing has been sampled as a function of particle size and time at a site 110 km NE of the city, 9-16 March 1980, during the season for space heating by coal combustion. A fine particle mode, contained mostly in the 0.5-2 μm aerodynamic diameter range, could be distinguished from a coarse mode of dust having terrestrial composition by reference to the size distribution of Ca. Elemental composition determined by PIXE analysis for 17 elements, including S and heavy metals, indicates fine mode concentrations higher than background aerosol but with a similarity to cleaner air with respect to both relative elemental abundances and elemental particle size distributions. The results indicate that elements contained in aged coal combustion aerosol occur mainly in 0.5-2 μMAD particles, not smaller, and the aerosol is not substantially different from background aerosol except in overall concentrations. This result may simplify the prediction of the impact of coal combustion on air quality. The results also hint that the background aerosol in more remote continental areas may also be combustion derived. (orig.)

  8. Potassium concentration in bone of Beijing residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lianqing

    1994-01-01

    The author presents the measuring results of K concentration in bone ash samples of 65 residents in Beijing area by atomic absorption spectrum. The results indicate that the K concentrations in bone ash is logarithmic normal distribution, ranging level is 0.75-8.44 g/kg ash, the average and standard deviation is respectively 2.40 and 1.52 g/kg ash. The highest concentration (4.88 g/kg ash) appears in infantile stage (< 1y), the lowest concentration (1.59 g/kg ash) appears in young stage (2-5 y). The lower concentration (1.88 g/kg ash) appears in adolescence (11-20 y). The K concentration in wet bone as a percentage of weight is 0.067%. The specific activities of K-40 in bone is about 22 mBq/g wet bone. The total radioactivity of K-40 in whole bone is 220 Bq. The annual absorbed dose is received in adult bone from K-40 is estimated to be 95 μGy

  9. What does Beijing Plus Five equal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, A

    2000-01-01

    In June 2000, the UN will conduct a review of the Beijing+5 (B+5) platform for action to assess the progress women have made since the Fourth World Conference on Women in 1995. This review is regarded by many women's rights advocates as an opportunity to advance the platform. Following the platform's 1995 recommendations, many countries began initiating new laws and policies addressing women's reproductive and sexual health needs as shown in the case of Brazil, France, Egypt, Japan, Cambodia and even the US. However, the B+5 platform is constantly challenged by concerted opposition and delaying tactics of the Vatican and a small group of Islamic and Catholic countries. Despite the progress made by the B+5 platform in the last 5 years, there are still some areas that need to be addressed particularly on the reproductive health needs of adolescents and young adults. Thus, it is hoped that the B+5 review will inspire women to continue to fight for freedom in exercising their reproductive rights.

  10. Water Quality Management of Beijing in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    At present, Beijing's water resources are insufficient and will become the limiting factor for sustainable development for the city in the near future. Although efforts have been made to control pollution, water quality degradation has occurred in some of the important surface water supplies, aggravating the water resource shortage. At present, approximately three quarters of the city's wastewater is discharged untreated into the urban river system, resulting in serious pollution and negatively influencing the urban landscape and quality of daily life. To counteract these measures, the city has implemented a comprehensive "Water Quality Management Plan" for the region, encompassing water pollution control, prevention of water body degradation, and improved water quality.The construction of municipal wastewater treatment plants is recognised as fundamental to controlling water pollution, and full secondary treatment is planned to be in place by the year 2015. Significant work is also required to expand the service area of the municipal sewage system and to upgrade and renovate the older sewer systems. The limitation on available water resources has also seen the emphasis shift to low water using industries and improved water conservation. Whilst industrial output has increased steadily over the past 10-15 years at around 10% per annum, industrial water usage has remained relatively constant. Part of the city's water quality management plan has been to introduce a strict discharge permit system, encouraging many industries to install on-site treatment facilities.

  11. Implications of material selection on the design of packaging machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, J P

    2009-01-01

    Material selection has significant implications on the design and cost of horizontal-form-fill-seal packaging machinery. To avoid excessive costs, machine redesigns and project delays, material selection must be reconciled early in the project and revisited throughout the construction of the machine.

  12. The Machinery for Enforcement of Domestic Arbitral Awards in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nnamdi Azikiwe University Journal of International Law and Jurisprudence ... Arbitration is a private means of resolving dispute which is resorted to, chiefly because the parties choose to avoid as much as possible employing the state machinery for dispute resolution, namely the court and its dreaded time consuming ...

  13. The capacity of sugar beet farms’ machinery and equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata BZOWSKA – BAKALARZ

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survey investigates into equipment of sugar beet farms of the Lublin region, Poland, with machinery – with reference to plantation size and yields. To assess the production potential of the farms, the authors determined the age structure of the machinery owned by the farmers and established the scale of investment in new equipment. The machinery most important for sugar beet production are pre-sowing and post-harvest tillage units, sprayers, seed drills, combine harvesters and self-unloading trailers. In most cases, the surveyed farmers own most of these machines, but they are often obsolete: 37% of them is in operation for more than 15 years. As for the machines dedicated solely to sugar beet growing (harvesters and seeders, their age structure is most unfavourable – 70% of them have been used for over 15 years. A trend towards increasing plantation sizes provides incentives for introducing innovation to cultivation methods. However, the scale of investment in new machinery is small, especially in the case of small and medium-sized farms that dominate in the region. The authors surveyed also the scale of using professional services in the field of tillage processes to determine changes in farming practices.

  14. Web-based Interactive Simulator for Rotating Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirohi, Vijayalaxmi

    1999-01-01

    Baroma (Balance of Rotating Machinery), the Web-based educational engineering interactive software for teaching/learning combines didactical and software ergonomical approaches. The software in tutorial form simulates a problem using Visual Interactive Simulation in graphic display, and animation is brought about through graphical user interface…

  15. Process of preparing hydraulic cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1919-12-11

    A process of preparing hydraulic cement from oil shale or shale coke is characterized in that the oil shale or shale coke after the distillation is burned long and hot to liberate the usual amount of carbonic acid and then is fine ground to obtain a slow hardening hydraulic cement.

  16. Control rod drive hydraulic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takekawa, Toru.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention can reliably prevent a possible erroneous withdrawal of control rod driving mechanism when the pressure of a coolant line is increased by isolation operation of hydraulic control units upon periodical inspection for a BWR type reactor. That is, a coolant line is connected to the downstream of a hydraulic supply device. The coolant line is connected to a hydraulic control unit. A coolant hydraulic detection device and a pressure setting device are disposed to the coolant line. A closing signal line and a returning signal line are disposed, which connect the hydraulic supply device and a flow rate control valve for the hydraulic setting device. In the device of the present invention, even if pressure of supplied coolants is elevated due to isolation of hydraulic control units, the elevation of the hydraulic pressure can be prevented. Accordingly, reliability upon periodical reactor inspection can be improved. Further, the facility is simplified and the installation to an existent facility is easy. (I.S.)

  17. Hydraulically centered control rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlacher, W.R.; Sampson, W.T.; Schukei, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    A control rod suspended to reciprocate in a guide tube of a nuclear fuel assembly has a hydraulic bearing formed at its lower tip. The bearing includes a plurality of discrete pockets on its outer surface into which a flow of liquid is continuously provided. In one embodiment the flow is induced by the pressure head in a downward facing chamber at the end of the bearing. In another embodiment the flow originates outside the guide tube. In both embodiments the flow into the pockets produces pressure differences across the bearing which counteract forces tending to drive the rod against the guide tube wall. Thus contact of the rod against the guide tube is avoided

  18. Equipment for hydraulic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsson, L.; Norlander, H.

    1981-07-01

    Hydraulic testing in boreholes is one major task of the hydrogeological program in the Stripa Project. A new testing equipment for this purpose was constructed. It consists of a downhole part and a surface part. The downhole part consists of two packers enclosing two test-sections when inflated; one between the packers and one between the bottom packer and the bottom of the borehole. A probe for downhole electronics is also included in the downhole equipment together with electrical cable and nylon tubing. In order to perform shut-in and pulse tests with high accuracy a surface controlled downhole valve was constructed. The surface equipment consists of the data acquisition system, transducer amplifier and surface gauges. In the report detailed descriptions of each component in the whole testing equipment are given. (Auth.)

  19. Atmospheric mercury monitoring survey in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shili; Nadim, Farhad; Perkins, Chris; Carley, Robert J; Hoag, George E; Lin, Yuhan; Chen, Letian

    2002-07-01

    With the aid of one industrial, two urban, two suburban, and two rural sampling locations, diurnal patterns of total gaseous mercury (TGM) were monitored in January, February and September of 1998 in Beijing, China. Monitoring was conducted in six (two urban, two suburban, one rural and the industrial sites) of the seven sampling sites during January and February (winter) and in four (two urban, one rural, and the industrial sites) of the sampling locations during September (summer) of 1998. In the three suburban sampling stations, mean TGM concentrations during the winter sampling period were 8.6, 10.7, and 6.2 ng/m3, respectively. In the two urban sampling locations mean TGM concentrations during winter and summer sampling periods were 24.7, 8.3, 10, and 12.7 ng/m3, respectively. In the suburban-industrial and the two rural sampling locations, mean mercury concentrations ranged from 3.1-5.3 ng/m3 in winter to 4.1-7.7 ng/m3 in summer sampling periods. In the Tiananmen Square (urban), and Shijingshan (suburban) sampling locations the mean TGM concentrations during the summer sampling period were higher than winter concentrations, which may have been caused by evaporation of soil-bound mercury in warm periods. Continuous meteorological data were available at one of the suburban sites, which allowed the observation of mercury concentration variations associated with some weather parameters. It was found that there was a moderate negative correlation between the wind speed and the TGM concentration at this suburban sampling location. It was also found that during the sampling period at the same site, the quantity of TGM transported to or from the sampling site was mainly influenced by the duration and frequency of wind occurrence from certain directions.

  20. [On the way to Beijing: Dakar Conference].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessis, S

    1994-10-01

    In November 1994 in Senegal, Dakar will host the regional conference on women. Its purpose is to develop a common action plan that Africa will present in Beijing. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and governments have already been preparing for this meeting. This conference had been organized by a series of meetings continent-wide, where governments and NGOs clarified their positions on the 3 themes: equality, development, and peace. The Ministry of Women and the Family has the task of preparing the Senegalese viewpoint of the operation. Senegalese authorities want to make the meeting in Dakar a success. They have decided to have expositions, cultural displays, a women's business forum, a village restaurant where representatives from each country will get to know the culinary wealth of other countries, and a gala event. Everyone is ready to discuss equality, women's access to decision making structures (especially in the education sector), and better distribution of income between the sexes. NGOs do not intend to sit back and do nothing at the conference, but intend to influence the editing of the action plan. Many women's and health-based NGOs are rising up against the gaps of the action plan which only consider women's biological and physical aspects but not their mental and psychological aspects. Participants should consider the disastrous effects of sexual abuse and early marriages. Are governments ready to reform their laws which tend to discriminate against women and institutionalize their low status? Do they have the political will to check the conservative forces, such as those that spoke out against women in the final report of the forum in Tunisia? The number of women in powerful posts in Africa is growing. They can certainly advance things more rapidly than in the recent past. Women at Dakar should work together to address conflicts in Africa. Women should insist that women participate in all peace negotiations.

  1. After Beijing: emphasis on poverty eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    In March 1996, during its first meeting since the Fourth World Conference on Women, the UN Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), called for a gender perspective to be integrated into policies and programs dealing with poverty, child and dependent care, and the media. Three expert panels examined each of these areas through a format which encouraged dialogue and led to the adoption of 17 resolutions, decisions, and agreed conclusions as well as a recommendation that the UN adopt a multi-year work program for the CSW to allow it to review progress in elimination of the 12 main obstacles to women's advancement identified at Beijing. Among the resolutions adopted by the CSW were calls to 1) take a broad and integrated approach to poverty eradication, 2) enhance women's empowerment and autonomy, 3) promote equity and equality in the public domain, 4) promote women's employment, 5) give women social and economic protection when they are unable to work, 6) counteract negative images of women and sex-stereotyping in the media, 7) reduce the representation of violence against women in the media, 8) strengthen the role of women in global communications, 9) encourage the participation of men in child and dependent care, and 10) recognize women's double burden of work. The CSW also agreed to pursue further discussions about drafting an optional protocol to the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Among its other actions, the CSW called for mechanisms to protect the rights of women migrant workers, to protect women and children during armed conflicts, to include gender-based human rights violations in UN activities, and to address the root factors which lead to social ills such as trafficking in women and girls. In addition, the CSW submitted a draft resolution demanding that Israel protect the rights of Palestinian women and their families.

  2. Flow-Induced Pulsation and Vibration in Hydroelectric Machinery Engineer’s Guidebook for Planning, Design and Troubleshooting

    CERN Document Server

    Dörfler, Peter; Coutu, André

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1970’s, an increasing amount of specialized research has focused on the problems created by instability of internal flow in hydroelectric power plants. However, progress in this field is hampered by the inter­disciplinary nature of the subject, between fluid mechanics, structural mechanics and hydraulic transients. Flow-induced Pulsation and Vibration in Hydroelectric Machinery provides a compact guidebook explaining the many different underlying physical mechanisms and their possible effects.   Typical phenomena are described to assist in the proper diagnosis of problems and various key strategies for solution are compared and considered with support from practical experience and real-life examples. The link between state-of the-art CFD computation and notorious practical problems is discussed  and quantitative data is provided on  normal levels of vibration and pulsation so realistic limits can be set for future projects. Current projects are also addressed as the possibilities and limitatio...

  3. In-use vehicle emissions in China: Beijing study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Hongyan H.; Gallagher, Kelly Sims (Energy Technology Innovation Policy Research Group, Harvard Kennedy School, Cambridge, MA (US)); Li, Mengliang; Qin, Kongjian; Zhang, Jianwei (China Automotive Research and Technology Center (CN)); Liu, Huan; He, Kebin (Department of Environmental Engineering and Science, Tsinghua Univ. (CN))

    2009-05-01

    China's economic boom in the last three decades has spurred increasing demand for transportation services and personal mobility. Consequently, vehicle population has grown rapidly since the early 1990s, especially in megacities such as Beijing, Guangzhou, and Tianjin. As a result, mobile sources have become more conspicuous contributors to urban air pollution in Chinese cities. Tianjin was our first focus city, and the study there took us about two years to complete. Building upon the experience and partnership generated through the Tianjin study, the research team carried out the Beijing study from fall 2007–fall 2008. Beijing was chosen to be our second focus city for several reasons: it has the largest local fleet and the highest percentage of the population owning vehicles among all Chinese cities, and it has suffered from severe air pollution, partially due to the ever-growing population of on-road vehicles.

  4. The economic impact of SARS in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutels, Philippe; Jia, Na; Zhou, Qing-Yi; Smith, Richard; Cao, Wu-Chun; de Vlas, Sake J

    2009-11-01

    To document the impact of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in Beijing on indicators of social and economic activity. Associations between time series of daily and monthly SARS cases and deaths and volume of public train, airplane and cargo transport, tourism, household consumption patterns and gross domestic product growth in Beijing were investigated using the cross-correlation function. Significant correlation coefficients were found for all indicators except wholesale accounts and expenditures on necessities, with the most significant correlations occurring with a delay of 1 day to 1 month. Especially leisure activities, local and international transport and tourism were affected by SARS particularly in May 2003. Much of this consumption was merely postponed; but irrecoverable losses to the tourist sector alone were estimated at about US$ 1.4 bn, or 300 times the cost of treatment for SARS cases in Beijing.

  5. Realistic Modeling of Seismic Wave Ground Motion in Beijing City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Z.; Romanelli, F.; Chen, Y. T.; Panza, G. F.

    Algorithms for the calculation of synthetic seismograms in laterally heterogeneous anelastic media have been applied to model the ground motion in Beijing City. The synthetic signals are compared with the few available seismic recordings (1998, Zhangbei earthquake) and with the distribution of observed macroseismic intensity (1976, Tangshan earthquake). The synthetic three-component seismograms have been computed for the Xiji area and Beijing City. The numerical results show that the thick Tertiary and Quaternary sediments are responsible for the severe amplification of the seismic ground motion. Such a result is well correlated with the abnormally high macroseismic intensity zone in the Xiji area associated with the 1976 Tangshan earthquake as well as with the ground motion recorded in Beijing city in the wake of the 1998 Zhangbei earthquake.

  6. Planning, Investment, Construction and Operation of Rail Transit in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In Beijing, the rail transit firstly came into existence in the mid 1960s and was officially put into operation for civil use in the early 1980s. It has entered a period of rapid development since 2001, with thanks to the coming of the Olympic Games in 2008, and has been playing a more and more important role in the passenger transport of Beijing since then on, as a key part of the public transportation. Based on a resume on the evolution of rail transit development in Beijing, this paper analyzes the mechanism of policy-making, the mode of investment and financing, the procedure of construction, and the management of operation of rail transit, all of which ensure its rapid development and effective performance.

  7. Realistic modeling of seismic wave ground motion in Beijing City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Z.; Chen, Y.T.; Romanelli, F.; Panza, G.F.

    2002-05-01

    Advanced algorithms for the calculation of synthetic seismograms in laterally heterogeneous anelastic media have been applied to model the ground motion in Beijing City. The synthetic signals are compared with the few available seismic recordings (1998, Zhangbei earthquake) and with the distribution of the observed macroseismic intensity (1976, Tangshan earthquake). The synthetic 3-component seismograms have been computed in the Xiji area and in Beijing town. The numerical results show that the thick Tertiary and Quaternary sediments are responsible of the severe amplification of the seismic ground motion. Such a result is well correlated with the abnormally high macroseismic intensity zone (Xiji area) associated to the 1976 Tangshan earthquake and with the records in Beijing town, associated to the 1998 Zhangbei earthquake. (author)

  8. [Distribution of virtual water of crops in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Rui; Dong, Yan-Yan; Wang, Jun-Hong; Wang, Yan; Han, Zhao-Xing

    2007-11-01

    Virtual water content of grains and vegetables in Beijing's districts is calculated and analyzed for many years by irrigating water quota method, which is compared with the distribution and exploitation of groundwater in Beijing. The results indicate the virtual water content of grains shows a downward trend in all the districts, but the grain production in Yanqing district brings great pressure to the local groundwater. Secondly, the virtual water content of vegetables shows an upward trend in Shunyi District, Daxing district and Pinggu District and is accounting for more and more gradually. Thirdly, the total virtual water volume of grains is decreasing, and the total virtual water volume of vegetables is increasing and the total virtual water volume of crops in Beijing is reducing in recent years, which corresponds with the structural adjustment of policies.

  9. Bank of China Becomes Banking Partner of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Beijing Olympic Committee announced recently that Bank of China become a partner of 2008 Olympic Games. Bank of China will provide abundant fund, banking financial products and related services for Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, and Paralympic Games, Beijing Olympic Organizing Committee and China Olympic Committee and China Sports team to participate in 2006 Winter Olympic Games and 2008 Olympic Games.

  10. An assessment of chain management practice within the industrial pork value chain: Beijing Ciity, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenzhao, M.

    2008-01-01

    The research assesses the value chain and quality control of the pork industry in Beijing municipality of China. Through interviewing all the actors of pork industrial value chain in Beijing, the roles functions and problems of each of the actor of the pork industrial value chain of Beijing were

  11. The Research of Computer Aided Farm Machinery Designing Method Based on Ergonomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiyin; Li, Xinling; Song, Qiang; Zheng, Ying

    Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software has not suitable human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, the farm machinery design have deviation in ergonomics analysis. This article puts forward that using the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which aims at the farm machinery design, and reading the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can product practical application virtual body, using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to analysis the ergonomics in farm machinery, thus computer aided farm machinery designing method based on engineering can be realized.

  12. Schaum’s outline of fluid mechanics and hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, Ranald V; Liu, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Tough Test Questions? Missed Lectures? Not Enough Time? Fortunately, there's Schaum's. More than 40 million students have trusted Schaum's to help them succeed in the classroom and on exams. Schaum's is the key to faster learning and higher grades in every subject. Each Outline presents all the essential course information in an easy-to-follow, topic-by-topic format. You also get hundreds of examples, solved problems, and practice exercises to test your skills. This Schaum's Outline gives you: 622 fully solved problems; extra practice on topics such as buoyancy and flotation, complex pipeline systems, fluid machinery, flow in open channels, and more; and support for all the major textbooks for fluidmechanics and hydraulics courses. Fully compatible with your classroom text, Schaum's highlights all the important facts you need to know. Use Schaum's to shorten your study time - and get your best test scores! Schaum's Outlines - Problem Solved.

  13. Compressed natural gas vehicles motoring towards a green Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming; Kraft-Oliver, T. [International Institute for Energy Conservation (IIEC) - Asia, Bangkok (Thailand); Guo Xiao Yan [China North Vehicle Research Institute (CNVRI), Beijing (China)

    1996-12-31

    This paper first describes the state-of-the-art of compressed natural gas (CNG) technologies and evaluates the market prospects for CNG vehicles in Beijing. An analysis of the natural gas resource supply for fleet vehicles follows. The costs and benefits of establishing natural gas filling stations and promoting the development of vehicle technology are evaluated. The quantity of GHG reduction is calculated. The objective of the paper is to provide information of transfer niche of CNG vehicle and equipment production in Beijing. This paper argues that the development of CNG vehicles is a cost-effective strategy for mitigating both air pollution and GHG.

  14. Beijing's nuclear strategy makes China a major player

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, J.

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses China's nuclear strategy which is a subject of debate among Asia experts, even as Sino-Soviet relations warm to a point unseen since the 1950s. China lags in the number and sophistication of its weapons. But modernization, national pride and the shrinking U.S. and Soviet arsenals have made Beijing and an increasingly important player. Beijing insists that its arsenal is strictly for defensive purposes; they have signed an agreement to make the South Pacific a nuclear-free zone

  15. Current Situation of Highway Daily Maintenance Management in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Feng Ming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined with the industry property, characteristics and management needs of highway maintenance project in Beijing, through investigation and research of the highway daily maintenance management, the present situation of highway repair and maintenance is expounded from the aspects such as the determination of maintenance funds and plan, maintenance management mode, and so on. Then in order to explore the new mechanisms for market management of highway maintenance, the advantages and disadvantages of highway maintenance and minor repairment of Beijing are analyzed.

  16. Scattering transform and LSPTSVM based fault diagnosis of rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shangjun; Cheng, Bo; Shang, Zhaowei; Liu, Geng

    2018-05-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery to overcome the shortcomings of classical techniques which are noise sensitive in feature extraction and time consuming for training. Based on the scattering transform and the least squares recursive projection twin support vector machine (LSPTSVM), the method has the advantages of high efficiency and insensitivity for noise signal. Using the energy of the scattering coefficients in each sub-band, the features of the vibration signals are obtained. Then, an LSPTSVM classifier is used for fault diagnosis. The new method is compared with other common methods including the proximal support vector machine, the standard support vector machine and multi-scale theory by using fault data for two systems, a motor bearing and a gear box. The results show that the new method proposed in this study is more effective for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery.

  17. 46 CFR 182.465 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... furnish natural or powered supply and exhaust ventilation. The total inlet area and the total outlet area... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. 182... Ventilation of spaces containing diesel machinery. (a) A space containing diesel machinery must be fitted with...

  18. 49 CFR 393.130 - What are the rules for securing heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery? (a) Applicability. The rules in this section apply to the transportation of heavy vehicles, equipment and machinery which operate on wheels or tracks, such as front end... heavy vehicles, equipment or machinery with crawler tracks or wheels. (1) In addition to the...

  19. 46 CFR 97.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 97.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 97.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to...

  20. 46 CFR 32.35-1 - Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boilers and machinery-TB/ALL. 32.35-1 Section 32.35-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Main and Auxiliary Machinery § 32.35-1 Boilers and machinery—TB/ALL. Boilers, main and auxiliary...

  1. 46 CFR 78.17-30 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 78.17-30 Section... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-30 Examination of boilers and machinery. It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when assuming charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel to examine...

  2. 46 CFR 196.15-15 - Examination of boilers and machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery. 196.15-15 Section... VESSELS OPERATIONS Test, Drills, and Inspections § 196.15-15 Examination of boilers and machinery. (a) It shall be the duty of the chief engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and machinery of a vessel...

  3. 46 CFR 169.631 - Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. 169.631 Section 169.631 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... machinery and fuel tank spaces from accommodation spaces. (a) Machinery and fuel tank spaces must be...

  4. 46 CFR 116.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 116.620... AND ARRANGEMENT Ventilation § 116.620 Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for spaces containing machinery or fuel tanks...

  5. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. 169.629 Section 169.629 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL... gasoline machinery or fuel tanks. Spaces containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks must have natural...

  6. 40 CFR 180.521 - Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fumigants for grain-mill machinery... Tolerances § 180.521 Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants may be safely used in or on grain-mill machinery in accordance with the following prescribed conditions...

  7. Hydraulic Actuators with Autonomous Hydraulic Supply for the Mainline Aircrafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shumilov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Applied in the aircraft control systems, hydraulic servo actuators with autonomous hydraulic supply, so-called, hydraulic actuators of integrated configuration, i.e. combination of a source of hydraulic power and its load in the single unit, are aimed at increasing control system reliability both owing to elimination of the pipelines connecting the actuator to the hydraulic supply source, and owing to avoidance of influence of other loads failure on the actuator operability. Their purpose is also to raise control system survivability by eliminating the long pipeline communications and their replacing for the electro-conductive power supply system, thus reducing the vulnerability of systems. The main reason for a delayed application of the hydraulic actuators in the cutting-edge aircrafts was that such aircrafts require hydraulic actuators of considerably higher power with considerable heat releases, which caused an unacceptable overheat of the hydraulic actuators. Positive and negative sides of the hydraulic actuators, their alternative options of increased reliability and survivability, local hydraulic systems as an advanced alternative to independent hydraulic actuators are considered.Now to use hydraulic actuators in mainline aircrafts is inexpedient since there are the unfairly large number of the problems reducing, first and last, safety of flights, with no essential weight and operational advantages. Still works to create competitive hydraulic actuators ought to be continued.Application of local hydraulic systems (LHS will allow us to reduce length of pressure head and drain pipelines and mass of pipelines, as well as to raise their general fail-safety and survivability. Application of the LHS principle will allow us to use a majority of steering drive advantages. It is necessary to allocate especially the following:- ease of meeting requirements for the non-local spread of the engine weight;- essentially reducing length and weight of

  8. Dedicated monitoring and machinery protection systems on reciprocating compressors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grande, Alvaro; Wenisch, Markus [Hoerbiger Ventilwerke GmbH and Co KG, Wien (Austria); Jacobs, Denis [HOERBIGER do Brasil Industria de Equipamentos, Cajamar, SP (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Growing demands on reciprocating compressors (recips) in the process gas industry require particular solutions for machinery protection and performance monitoring systems. Compared to rotating equipment, monitoring systems for recips have to consider the special mechanical and physical characteristics, such as oscillating masses, variable vibration behaviour and varying operating conditions. Furthermore, they provide valuable information about the performance of cylinder related components allowing the operator the optimization of efficiency and availability, and therefore increase production. (author)

  9. Abrasive Wear of Alloyed Cast Steels Applied for Heavy Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Studnicki A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the results and analysis of abrasive wear studies were shown for two grades of cast steels: low-alloyed cast steel applied for heavy machinery parts such as housing, covers etc. and chromium cast steels applied for kinetic nodes of pin-sleeve type. Studies were performed using the modified in Department of Foundry pin-on-disc method.

  10. Targeting Transcription Elongation Machinery for Breast Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    ABSTRACT: This project focuses on the important but under-studied role of the P-TEFb- dependent transcription elongation machinery in human breast...molecule CDK9 inhibitors can be used to halt breast cancer metastasis. 8 experimental groups to test various drug dosage and frequency regimes will...tumor cells, which are said to be ’ addicted ’ to this protein. Consistently, pharmacological inhibition of Hsp90 has demonstrated great promise in

  11. Electric machinery and drives in thermal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The following subjects were dealt with during the VDE meeting: 1) Requirements made by the electric network on the generators and their excitation equipment, and the influence thereof on their design; 2) requirements made by the power station process on the electric drives and the influence thereof on type and design; 3) requirements made on protective measures from the point of the electric power station machinery. (TK) [de

  12. Performance of machinery in potato production in one growing season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistics on the machinery performance are essential for farm managers to make better decisions. In this paper, the performance of all machineries in five sequential operations, namely bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying and harvesting in the potato production system, were investigated during one growing season. In order to analyse and decompose the recorded GPS data into various time and distance elements for estimation of the machinery performance, an automatic GPS analysis tool was developed. The field efficiency and field capacity were estimated for each operation. Specifically, the measured average field efficiency was 71.3% for bed forming, 68.5% for stone separation, 40.3% for planting, 69.7% for spraying, and 67.4% for harvesting. The measured average field capacities were 1.46 ha/h, 0.53 ha/h, 0.47 ha/h, 10.21 ha/h, 0.51 ha/h, for the bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying, and harvesting operations, respectively. These results deviate from the corresponding estimations calculated based on norm data from the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE. The deviations indicate that norms provided by ASABE cannot be used directly for the prediction of performance of the machinery used in this work. Moreover, the measured data of bed forming and stone separation could be used as supplementary data for the ASABE which does not provide performance norms for these two operations. The gained results can help farm managers to make better management and operational decisions that result in potential improvement in productivity and profitability as well as in potential environmental benefits.

  13. Progress in control equipment for fuel-handling machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutting, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    The paper outlines the development of the equipment used to control the fuel-handling machinery associated with nuclear reactors, from the early electromechanical equipment, through solid-state switching logic to programmable controllers and microprocessors. The control techniques have developed along with the technology, and modern systems offer versatility, reliability and ease of design, operation and maintenance. Future trends and developments are discussed together with possible limiting factors. (author)

  14. Designing a machinery control system (MCS) security testbed

    OpenAIRE

    Desso, Nathan H.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Industrial control systems (ICS) face daily cyber security threats, can have a significant impact to the security of our nation, and present a difficult challenge to defend. Critical infrastructures, including military systems like the machinery control systems (MCS) found onboard modern U.S. warships, are affected because of their use of commercial automation solutions. The increase of automated control systems within the U.S. Navy sa...

  15. Performance of machinery in potato production in one growing season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, K.; Jensen, A.L.; Bochtis, D.D.; Sørensen, C.G.

    2015-07-01

    Statistics on the machinery performance are essential for farm managers to make better decisions. In this paper, the performance of all machineries in five sequential operations, namely bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying and harvesting in the potato production system, were investigated during one growing season. In order to analyse and decompose the recorded GPS data into various time and distance elements for estimation of the machinery performance, an automatic GPS analysis tool was developed. The field efficiency and field capacity were estimated for each operation. Specifically, the measured average field efficiency was 71.3% for bed forming, 68.5% for stone separation, 40.3% for planting, 69.7% for spraying, and 67.4% for harvesting. The measured average field capacities were 1.46 ha/h, 0.53 ha/h, 0.47 ha/h, 10.21 ha/h, 0.51 ha/h, for the bed forming, stone separation, planting, spraying, and harvesting operations, respectively. These results deviate from the corresponding estimations calculated based on norm data from the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE). The deviations indicate that norms provided by ASABE cannot be used directly for the prediction of performance of the machinery used in this work. Moreover, the measured data of bed forming and stone separation could be used as supplementary data for the ASABE which does not provide performance norms for these two operations. The gained results can help farm managers to make better management and operational decisions that result in potential improvement in productivity and profitability as well as in potential environmental benefits. (Author)

  16. Fault diagnosis in rotating machinery by vibration analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behzad, M.; Asayesh, M.

    2002-01-01

    Dynamic behavior of unbalanced bent shaft has been investigated in this research. Finite element method is used for unbalance response calculation of a bent shaft. The result shows the effect of bent on the unbalance response. The angle between bent vector and unbalance force, position and type of supports, shaft diameter and disk position can affect the outcome. The results of this research can significantly help in fault diagnosis in rotating machinery

  17. Production method of hydrogen jet plasma process in hydro machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amini, F.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of present paper is to the process of plasma formation in hydro machinery when a hydro turbine operates at various conditions and load rejection. By investigation the power, shock pressure , and impact effects of hydro machinery, it is revealed that energy and hydrogen are generated by the plasma process. The investigation on several turbines of various hydro power plants reveals that cold fusion process in hydro machinery generates hydrogen. The hypothesis concerning the participation of alkaline metals in river water and the atomic nuclei of the runner blade material in the formation of hydrogen are considered. It is possible to assume hydrogen, deuterium, helium, and tritium atoms (based on Dr. Mizuno and Dr. Kanarev theories) that are formed, diffuse into cavitation bubbles. The plasma is generated during the collapse of the bubble; thus, the quantity of burnt hydrogen determine the volume of generating hydrogen and the impact force caused by hydrogen explosion (noise).There are five main notions, which can determine hydrogen and plasma process: (1) turbine power effect, (2) high shock pressure, (3) crack on turbine parts, (4) impacts effects and (4) the lift of rotating parts. The frequency of the excitation lies in a range from 0.786 to 1.095 Hz.In future, it may be possible to design hydro turbines based on the plasma process that generates hydrogen; or there may exist turbines that rotate with a mixture of hydrogen explosion and water energies

  18. On the reversed Brayton cycle with high speed machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, J.

    1996-12-31

    This work was carried out in the laboratory of Fluid Dynamics, at Lappeenranta University of Technology during the years 1991-1996. The research was a part of larger high speed technology development research. First, there was the idea of making high speed machinery applications with the Brayton cycle. There was a clear need to deepen the knowledge of the cycle itself and to make a new approach in the field of the research. Also, the removal of water from the humid air seemed very interesting. The goal of this work was to study methods of designing high speed machinery for the reversed Brayton cycle, from theoretical principles to practical applications. The reversed Brayton cycle can be employed as an air dryer, a heat pump or a refrigerating machine. In this research the use of humid air as a working fluid has an environmental advantage, as well. A new calculation method for the Brayton cycle is developed. In this method especially the expansion process in the turbine is important because of the condensation of the water vapour in the humid air. This physical phenomena can have significant effects on the level of performance of the application. Also, the influence of calculating the process with actual, achievable process equipment efficiencies is essential for the development of future machinery. The above theoretical calculations are confirmed with two different laboratory prototypes. (53 refs.)

  19. On the reversed Brayton cycle with high speed machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, J

    1997-12-31

    This work was carried out in the laboratory of Fluid Dynamics, at Lappeenranta University of Technology during the years 1991-1996. The research was a part of larger high speed technology development research. First, there was the idea of making high speed machinery applications with the Brayton cycle. There was a clear need to deepen the knowledge of the cycle itself and to make a new approach in the field of the research. Also, the removal of water from the humid air seemed very interesting. The goal of this work was to study methods of designing high speed machinery for the reversed Brayton cycle, from theoretical principles to practical applications. The reversed Brayton cycle can be employed as an air dryer, a heat pump or a refrigerating machine. In this research the use of humid air as a working fluid has an environmental advantage, as well. A new calculation method for the Brayton cycle is developed. In this method especially the expansion process in the turbine is important because of the condensation of the water vapour in the humid air. This physical phenomena can have significant effects on the level of performance of the application. Also, the influence of calculating the process with actual, achievable process equipment efficiencies is essential for the development of future machinery. The above theoretical calculations are confirmed with two different laboratory prototypes. (53 refs.)

  20. Structural design of nuclear reactor machinery and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Hideki

    1992-01-01

    Since the machinery, equipment and piping which compose nuclear power station facilities are diverse, when those are designed, consideration is given sufficiently to the objective of use and the importance of the object machinery and equipment so that those can maintain the soundness over the design life. In this report, on the contents and the design standard in the design techniques for nuclear reactor machinery and equipment, the way of thinking is shown, taking an example of reactor pressure vessel which is stipulated as the vessel kind 1 in the 'Technical standard of structures and others regarding nuclear facilities for electric power generation', Notice No. 501 of the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. The reactor pressure vessel of 1350 MWe improved type BWR (ABWR) is used under the condition of 87.9 kg/cm 2 and 302 degC, and the inside diameter is about 7.2 m, the inside height is about 21 m, and the wall thickness is about 170 mm. The design standard for reactor pressure vessels and its way of thinking, breakdown prevention design and the design techniques for reactor pressure vessels are described. (K.I.)

  1. Rotating machinery surveillance system reduces plant downtime and radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohanick, J.S.; Robinson, J.C.; Allen, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    A rotating machinery surveillance system (RMSS) was permanently installed at Grand Gulf nuclear station (GGNS) as part of a program sponsored by the US Department of Energy whose goal was to reduce radiation exposure to power plant personnel resulting from the inspection, maintenance, and repair of rotating machinery. The RMSS was installed at GGNS in 1983 to continuously monitor 173 analog vibration signals from proximity probes mounted on 26 machine trains and ∼450 process data points via a computer data link. Vibration frequency spectra, i.e., the vibration amplitude versus frequency of vibration, and various characterizations of these spectra are the fundamental data collected by the RMSS for performing machinery diagnostics. The RMSS collects vibration frequency spectra on a daily basis for all the monitored rotating equipment and automatically stores the collected spectra for review by the vibration engineer. Vibration spectra automatically stored by the RMSS fall into categories that include the last normal, alarm, minimum and maximum, past three-day data set, baseline, current, and user-saved spectra. During first and second fuel-cycle operation at GGNS, several significant vibration problems were detected by the RMSS. Two of these are presented in this paper: recirculation pumps and turbine-generator bearing degradation. The total reduction in personnel radiation exposure at GGNS from 1985 to 1987 due to the presence of the RMSS was estimated to be in the range from 49 to 54 person-rem

  2. Spatiotemporal Regulation of Nuclear Transport Machinery and Microtubule Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Naoyuki; Sato, Masamitsu

    2015-01-01

    Spindle microtubules capture and segregate chromosomes and, therefore, their assembly is an essential event in mitosis. To carry out their mission, many key players for microtubule formation need to be strictly orchestrated. Particularly, proteins that assemble the spindle need to be translocated at appropriate sites during mitosis. A small GTPase (hydrolase enzyme of guanosine triphosphate), Ran, controls this translocation. Ran plays many roles in many cellular events: nucleocytoplasmic shuttling through the nuclear envelope, assembly of the mitotic spindle, and reorganization of the nuclear envelope at the mitotic exit. Although these events are seemingly distinct, recent studies demonstrate that the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are substantially the same as explained by molecular interplay of the master regulator Ran, the transport factor importin, and its cargo proteins. Our review focuses on how the transport machinery regulates mitotic progression of cells. We summarize translocation mechanisms governed by Ran and its regulatory proteins, and particularly focus on Ran-GTP targets in fission yeast that promote spindle formation. We also discuss the coordination of the spatial and temporal regulation of proteins from the viewpoint of transport machinery. We propose that the transport machinery is an essential key that couples the spatial and temporal events in cells. PMID:26308057

  3. The Beijing HYFORUM 2004 - a lasting success!

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, C.-J.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' HYFORUM 2004 - The International Hydrogen Energy Forum 2004, Clean Energies for the 21st Century was well run. After HYFORUM 2000 in Munich, Germany, it was the second Forum of its kind. Some 600 attendees from all over the world discussed hydrogen and fuel cell matters. The newest R and D results went 'out of the labs, and onto the markets'. The first day, the Chinese Government invited the Forum into the Great Hall of the People and left no doubt on its clear hydrogen and fuel cell commitment for a future cleaner China and an indigenously secured energy supply for the nation via hydrogen and its technologies. 'Olympic Hydrogen', the singular world event in 2008 in Beijing with its outreach to billions of television viewers worldwide, is being planned for serving as an excellent vehicle for the early application of hydrogen supported clean transport, efficient combined heat and power supply via stationary fuel cells, and fuel cells aboard portable electronics such as laptops or television cameras of journalists. The Olympic Games 2008 are going to become a showcase for environmentally and climatically clean national or foreign investments. The HYFORUM 2004 was predominantly devoted to clean fuels in transport. Major European or US automakers served as sponsors and presented their papers. A whole bunch of dissimilar fuel options are still in the R and D pipelines, from pure high pressure or liquefied hydrogen to hydrogen rich compounds made from biomass. The agreement among the automotive industry on THE necessarily one future fuel is not in reach yet. Again, it was emphasized that clean production of hydrogen needs to get much more to the forefront of the agendas of coming HYFORUMs. Clean production either from CO2 sequestered fossil fuels, particularly non-'OPECizable' coal, or from renewable sources. Truly, the hydrogen energy conversion chains back end, utilization of hydrogen, is in good hands. The front end, however, production, storage, and

  4. Hydraulic design of Three Gorges right bank powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Q

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the hydraulic design of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability. The technical challenges faced in the hydraulic design of the turbine are given. The method of hydraulic design for improving the hydraulic stability and particularly for eliminating the upper part load pressure pulsations is clarified. The final hydraulic design results of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine based on modern hydraulic design techniques are presented.

  5. Hydraulic design of Three Gorges right bank powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Q, E-mail: qhshi@dfem.com.c [Dong Fang Electrical Machinery Co., Ltd., DEC 188, Huanghe West Road, Deyang, 618000 (China)

    2010-08-15

    This paper presents the hydraulic design of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability. The technical challenges faced in the hydraulic design of the turbine are given. The method of hydraulic design for improving the hydraulic stability and particularly for eliminating the upper part load pressure pulsations is clarified. The final hydraulic design results of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine based on modern hydraulic design techniques are presented.

  6. Hydraulic release oil tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mims, M.G.; Mueller, M.D.; Ehlinger, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a hydraulic release tool. It comprises a setting assembly; a coupling member for coupling to drill string or petroleum production components, the coupling member being a plurality of sockets for receiving the dogs in the extended position and attaching the coupling member the setting assembly; whereby the setting assembly couples to the coupling member by engagement of the dogs in the sockets of releases from and disengages the coupling member in movement of the piston from its setting to its reposition in response to a pressure in the body in exceeding the predetermined pressure; and a relief port from outside the body into its bore and means to prevent communication between the relief port and the bore of the body axially of the piston when the piston is in the setting position and to establish such communication upon movement of the piston from the setting position to the release position and reduce the pressure in the body bore axially of the piston, whereby the reduction of the pressure signals that the tool has released the coupling member

  7. Fault Diagnosis for Hydraulic Servo System Using Compressed Random Subspace Based ReliefF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Ding

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Playing an important role in electromechanical systems, hydraulic servo system is crucial to mechanical systems like engineering machinery, metallurgical machinery, ships, and other equipment. Fault diagnosis based on monitoring and sensory signals plays an important role in avoiding catastrophic accidents and enormous economic losses. This study presents a fault diagnosis scheme for hydraulic servo system using compressed random subspace based ReliefF (CRSR method. From the point of view of feature selection, the scheme utilizes CRSR method to determine the most stable feature combination that contains the most adequate information simultaneously. Based on the feature selection structure of ReliefF, CRSR employs feature integration rules in the compressed domain. Meanwhile, CRSR substitutes information entropy and fuzzy membership for traditional distance measurement index. The proposed CRSR method is able to enhance the robustness of the feature information against interference while selecting the feature combination with balanced information expressing ability. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed CRSR method, a hydraulic servo system joint simulation model is constructed by HyPneu and Simulink, and three fault modes are injected to generate the validation data.

  8. HYDRAULICS, SHELBY COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  9. HYDRAULICS, MEADE COUNTY, KENTUCKY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  10. The Process of Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing, know as fracking or hydrofracking, produces fractures in a rock formation by pumping fluids (water, proppant, and chemical additives) at high pressure down a wellbore. These fractures stimulate the flow of natural gas or oil.

  11. Steam generator thermal-hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inch, W.W.; Scott, D.A.; Carver, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses a code for detailed numerical modelling of steam generator thermal-hydraulics, and describes related experimental programs designed to promote in-depth understanding of three-dimensional two-phase flow. (auth)

  12. Students' Experiences with Popular Music: The Case of Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wai-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the establishment of a socialist market economy has quickened the pace of China's economic development; at the same time, increased modernization and globalization have influenced, to varying degrees, the development of music and music education. With reference to 12 secondary schools in Beijing, this empirical study examines…

  13. Keep on dreaming : Art in a changing Beijing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, L.; de Kloet, J.

    2017-01-01

    President Xi Jinping’s ‘China Dream’, promising prosperity and progress, is by and large mapped onto the city. In the case of Beijing, this dream can primarily be found within the fifth ring road, with its cultural heritage sites and fancy buildings designed by ‘starchitects’. But what about the

  14. Government support, innovation and productivity in the Haidian (Beijing) District

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, C.; Wu, Y.; Mohnen, P.; Zhao, Y.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines whether the government support in favour of firms located in the Haidian district of Beijing, which includes the Zhongguancun Science Park, was effective in terms of innovation and economic performance. We use a dataset of 500 manufacturing firms that results from a merger of the

  15. Strategies for controlling pollution from vehicular emissions in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qidong; He, Kebin; Li, Tiejun; Fu, Lixin

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the severe situation of vehicular emission in Beijing and discusses the following mitigation strategies: Improving fuel quality, controlling the exhaust from new vehicles, controlling the emissions from vehicles in use through e.g. Inspection Maintenance (I/M), renovating in-use vehicles and scrapping of old vehicles and road infrastructure and traffic policies. (Author)

  16. Scholars Convene to Discuss Ethics of Science in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Jointly organized by CAS and the World Commission on the Ethics of Scientific Knowledge and Technology (COMEST),a conference on ethics of science and technology was held on Oct.31 in Beijing. It is one of the worldwide meeting series "Ethics around the World" sponsored by COMEST, an advisory body to the UNESCO Director-General on issues in the field.

  17. Showcasing Colombia's Native Icons in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGJINGDE

    2004-01-01

    THE Object/Colombia Exhibition, the biggest ever held in China, went on display at the Beijing Jintai Art Museum in July of 2003. This exhibition structured as a journey across historic Colombia, featuring five uses of objects as icons: furniture, decorations, containers, clothes, and ritual and games relics, all grouped

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils around Guanting Reservoir, Beijing, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiao, W.T.; Lu, Y.L.; Wang, T.Y.; Li, J.; Han, Jingyi; Wang, G.; Hu, W.Y.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ( 16PAHs) were measured by gas chromatography equipped with a mass spectrometry detector (GC-MS) in 56 topsoil samples around Guanting Reservior (GTR), which is an important water source for Beijing. Low to medium levels of PAH contamination

  19. Beijing: A City in Search of Its Destiny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Liliana B.

    2015-01-01

    This article on the development of Beijing can introduce students to many topics found in the urban geography section of the AP Human Geography course outline published in 2013. The author provides lesson plans and a PowerPoint presentation as resources for teaching a unit about the city.

  20. Art Casting of China and 2008 Beijing Olympic Sculptures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Chunliang

    2009-01-01

    @@ The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, a major international multi-sport event, took place in Beijing, the People's Republic of China. It has well shown the Chinese people's dream and passion about the Games. Hosting an Olympic Games has been a century-old dream for the Chinese nation.

  1. Factors affecting soil erosion in Beijing mountain forestlands | Zhang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of regions, vegetation types and forest stand density in controlling soil erosion were investigated in Beijing mountain forest, China. The main objective was to develop some models to estimate soil erosion under different forest conditions including regions, vegetation type, and stand density as influenced by artificial ...

  2. Strategies for controlling pollution from vehicular emissions in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qidong; He, Kebin; Li, Tiejun; Fu, Lixin

    2002-07-01

    The paper describes the severe situation of vehicular emission in Beijing and discusses the following mitigation strategies: Improving fuel quality, controlling the exhaust from new vehicles, controlling the emissions from vehicles in use through e.g. Inspection Maintenance (I/M), renovating in-use vehicles and scrapping of old vehicles and road infrastructure and traffic policies. (Author)

  3. Nursery and nursery products in Beijing, Tianjin, Shandong and Shanghai

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.H.; Zhang XiaoYong, Xiaoyong

    2003-01-01

    The production and demand of nursery products is growing rapidly in China, particularly in big cities as Beijing, Tianjin, Shandong and Shanghai. The report describes the development and the prospects of production and demand of nursery products and the structure of the nursery sector in these

  4. Thinking Styles of Primary School Teachers in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Pang, Nicholas Sun-Keung

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies on teachers' thinking have usually related to teaching and learning, and concentrated on classroom-level outcomes. In this study, an organizational and administrative perspective was adopted in examining teachers' thinking style. Data collected were from a sample of 268 in-service teachers from 6 primary schools in Beijing, China.…

  5. Energy modelling towards low carbon development of Beijing in 2030

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Guangling; Guerrero, Josep M.; Jiang, Kejun

    2017-01-01

    Beijing, as the capital of China, is under the high pressure of climate change and pollution. The consumption of non-renewable energy is one of the most important sources of the CO2 emissions, which cause climate changes. This paper presents a study on the energy system modelling towards renewabl...

  6. Advanced Performance Hydraulic Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lam, Adrienne S.

    2013-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, has developed a novel advanced hydraulic wind energy design, which has up to 23% performance improvement over conventional wind turbine and conventional hydraulic wind energy systems with 5 m/sec winds. It also has significant cost advantages with levelized costs equal to coal (after carbon tax rebate). The design is equally applicable to tidal energy systems and has passed preliminary laboratory proof-of-performance tests, as funded by the Department of Energy.

  7. Robust Prediction of Hydraulic Roughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Manning’s n were required as input for further hydraulic analyses with HEC - RAS . HYDROCAL was applied to compare different estimates of resistance... River Restoration Science Synthesis (NRRSS) demonstrated that, in 2007, river and stream restoration projects and funding were at an all time high...behavior makes this parameter very difficult to quan- tify repeatedly and accurately. A fundamental concept of hydraulic theory in the context of river

  8. Preliminary interpretation of isotopic studies of geothermal waters from the Beijing region (P.R. China)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyan, Zheng; Da-Lei, Ma; Changfang, Xie; Shangyao, Huang; Jianghua, Feng; Jingshu, Wu

    1982-01-01

    Isotopic studies of thermal and cold surface waters sampled in Beijing region have shown that the thermal waters are meteoric waters which have been precipitated in the mountainous area lying to the NW of Beijing. ΔD and over distances of more than 150 km in Sinian basement rocks which are 3 to 5 km in the SE sector of the region. Significant 18 O exchange with basement rocks occurs in the Jizhong Depression about 60 km to the SE of Beijing. On a smaller scale, a SE flow of thermal waters in basement rocks in corroborated by Δ 34 S data for the Beijing area and the Beijing geothermal field. The Beijing geothermal field and other geothermal fields in the SE sector of the Beijing region are an example for low temperature systems where the heat is derived from a normal or slightly greater than normal, terrestrial heat flow

  9. Inducement of Design Parameters for Reliability Improvement of Servo Actuator for Hydraulic Valve Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Baek Ju; Kim, Do Sik [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The precision hydraulic valve is widely used in various industrial field like aircraft, automobile, and general machinery. Servo actuator is the most important device for driving the precise hydraulic valve. The reliable operation of servo actuator effects on the overall hydraulic system. The performance of servo actuator relies on frequency response and step response according to arbitrary input signal. In this paper, we performed the analysis for the components of servo actuator to satisfy the reliable operation and response characteristics through the reliability analysis, and also induced the design parameters to realize the reliable operation and fast response characteristics of servo actuator for hydraulic valve operation through the empirical knowledge of experts and electromagnetic theories. We suggested the design equations to determine the values of design parameters of servo actuator as like bobbin size, length of yoke and plunger and turn number of coil, and verified the achieved design values through FEM analysis and performance tests using some prototypes of servo actuators adapted in hydraulic valve.

  10. Source apportionment studies on particulate matter in Beijing/China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppan, P.; Shen, R.; Shao, L.; Schrader, S.; Schäfer, K.; Norra, S.; Vogel, B.; Cen, K.; Wang, Y.

    2013-05-01

    More than 15 million people in the greater area of Beijing are still suffering from severe air pollution levels caused by sources within the city itself but also from external impacts like severe dust storms and long range advection from the southern and central part of China. Within this context particulate matter (PM) is the major air pollutant in the greater area of Beijing (Garland et al., 2009). PM did not serve only as lead substance for air quality levels and therefore for adverse health impact effects but also for a strong influence on the climate system by changing e.g. the radiative balance. Investigations on emission reductions during the Olympic Summer Games in 2008 have caused a strong reduction on coarser particles (PM10) but not on smaller particles (PM2.5). In order to discriminate the composition of the particulate matter levels, the different behavior of coarser and smaller particles investigations on source attribution, particle characteristics and external impacts on the PM levels of the city of Beijing by measurements and modeling are performed: a) Examples of long term measurements of PM2.5 filter sampling in 2010/2011 with the objectives of detailed chemical (source attribution, carbon fraction, organic speciation and inorganic composition) and isotopic analyses as well as toxicological assessment in cooperation with several institutions (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (IfGG/IMG), Helmholtz Zentrum München (HMGU), University Rostock (UR), Chinese University of Mining and Technology Beijing, CUMTB) will be discussed. b) The impact of dust storm events on the overall pollution level of particulate matter in the greater area of Beijing is being assessed by the online coupled comprehensive model system COSMO-ART. First results of the dust storm modeling in northern China (2011, April 30th) demonstrates very well the general behavior of the meteorological parameters temperature and humidity as well as a good agreement between modeled and

  11. Risk assessments and safe machinery ensuring compliance with the EU directives

    CERN Document Server

    Jespen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the prerequisites for the placing on the market and the safe use of machinery in compliance with the relevant EU Directives, especially the Machinery Directive 2006/42. It provides readers with high-level knowledge concerning the Essential Health and Safety Requirements (EHSR) that machinery must fulfill. The approach and principles of the Machinery Directive were most recently made worldwide acknowledged in the ILO code of practice on safe machinery, released in 2013. The book addresses that code, as well as providing valuable insight into other EU Product and Workplace legislation. Focusing on the key aspect of safe machinery, the “machinery safety risk assessment”, which allows readers to better understand the more difficult aspects of risk assessments, the book equips readers to tackle problems at the manufacturing stage and in different use scenarios, introducing them to risk reduction techniques and functional safety aspects.

  12. Vibration vector monitoring of rotating machinery: A predictive/preventative maintenance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humes, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    Monitoring of overall vibration amplitudes to indicate machinery faults is a standard practice in most industries. The appearance of shaft cracks in machines retrofitted for extended life have prompted development of higher levels of machinery monitoring. Part 1 of this paper discusses vibration vector monitoring for machinery malfunction prediction and failure prevention. Machinery faults which can be diagnosed by this type of monitoring, such as rotor rubs, loose parts, shaft cracks, ..., are presented along with their most common characteristics. The newest, most effective methods of permanent machinery monitoring are presented and critiqued. An extensive case history is presented in Part 2 in which a potentially disastrous machinery fault was predicted using vibration vector monitoring and analysis. The addition of vector monitoring to the normal, overall vibration monitoring proved more effective in diagnosing the machinery fault and predicting impending failure

  13. Multifunctionality assessment of urban agriculture in Beijing City, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jian; Liu, Zhicong; Liu, Yanxu; Hu, Xiaoxu; Wang, An

    2015-12-15

    As an important approach to the realization of agricultural sustainable development, multifunctionality has become a hot spot in the field of urban agriculture. Taking 13 agricultural counties of Beijing City as the assessing units, this study selects 10 assessing index from ecological, economic and social aspects, determines the index weight using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method, and establishes an index system for the integrated agricultural function. Based on standardized data from agricultural census and remote sensing, the integrated function and multifunctionality of urban agriculture in Beijing City are assessed through the index grade mapping. The results show that agricultural counties with the highest score in ecological, economic, and social function are Yanqing, Changping, and Miyun, respectively; and the greatest disparity among those counties is economic function, followed by social and ecological function. Topography and human disturbance may be the factors that affect integrated agricultural function. The integrated agricultural function of Beijing rises at the beginning then drops later with the increase of mean slope, average altitude, and distance from the city. The whole city behaves balance among ecological, economic, and social functions at the macro level, with 8 out of the 13 counties belonging to ecology-society-economy balanced areas, while no county is dominant in only one of the three functions. On the micro scale, however, different counties have their own functional inclination: Miyun, Yanqing, Mentougou, and Fengtai are ecology-society dominant, and Tongzhou is ecology-economy dominant. The agricultural multifunctionality in Beijing City declines from the north to the south, with Pinggu having the most significant agricultural multifunctionality. The results match up well with the objective condition of Beijing's urban agriculture planning, which has proved the methodological rationality of the assessment to a certain extent

  14. Beijing Star River: An Elegant-Distinguished Pet Stone(International Marketing Masters Make Marketings for Beijing Star River)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yongjian

    2005-01-01

    @@ Star River(or Star Bay), an elite works of Hong Yu Group, is located in Sijixinghe Road, Chaoyang Beilu,Beijing. It is a distinguished residence area, occupying land of 300 thousand sq. Meters. The north side is a forest garden with 1600 or more mu, the eastern side is a green belt with 2000-more mu.

  15. Beijing Star River: An Elegant-Distinguished Pet Stone(International Marketing Masters Make Marketings for Beijing Star River)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun; Yongjian

    2005-01-01

      Star River(or Star Bay), an elite works of Hong Yu Group, is located in Sijixinghe Road, Chaoyang Beilu,Beijing. It is a distinguished residence area, occupying land of 300 thousand sq. Meters. The north side is a forest garden with 1600 or more mu, the eastern side is a green belt with 2000-more mu.……

  16. Hydraulic testing in crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almen, K.E.; Andersson, J.E.; Carlsson, L.; Hansson, K.; Larsson, N.A.

    1986-12-01

    Swedish Geolocical Company (SGAB) conducted and carried out single-hole hydraulic testing in borehole Fi 6 in the Finnsjoen area of central Sweden. The purpose was to make a comprehensive evaluation of different methods applicable in crystalline rocks and to recommend methods for use in current and scheduled investigations in a range of low hydraulic conductivity rocks. A total of eight different methods of testing were compared using the same equipment. This equipment was thoroughly tested as regards the elasticity of the packers and change in volume of the test section. The use of a hydraulically operated down-hole valve enabled all the tests to be conducted. Twelve different 3-m long sections were tested. The hydraulic conductivity calculated ranged from about 5x10 -14 m/s to 1x10 -6 m/s. The methods used were water injection under constant head and then at a constant rate-of-flow, each of which was followed by a pressure fall-off period. Water loss, pressure pulse, slug and drill stem tests were also performed. Interpretation was carried out using standard transient evaluation methods for flow in porous media. The methods used showed themselves to be best suited to specific conductivity ranges. Among the less time-consuming methods, water loss, slug and drill stem tests usually gave somewhat higher hydraulic conductivity values but still comparable to those obtained using the more time-consuming tests. These latter tests, however, provided supplementary information on hydraulic and physical properties and flow conditions, together with hydraulic conductivity values representing a larger volume of rock. (orig./HP)

  17. Energy Efficient Hydraulic Hybrid Drives

    OpenAIRE

    Rydberg, Karl-Erik

    2009-01-01

    Energy efficiency of propulsion systems for cars, trucks and construction machineries has become one of the most important topics in today’s mobile system design, mainly because of increased fuel costs and new regulations about engine emissions, which is needed to save the environment. To meet the increased requirements on higher efficiency and better functionality, components and systems have been developed over the years. For the last ten years the development of hybrid systems can be divid...

  18. Virtual prototype simulation of hydraulic shovel kinematics for spatial characterization in surface mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Frimpong; Y. Li [University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, MO (United States). Department of Mining and Nuclear Engineering

    2005-12-15

    Hydraulic shovels are large-capacity equipment for excavating and loading dump trucks in constrained surface mining environments. Kinematics simulation of such equipment allows mine planning engineers to plan, design and control their spatial environments to achieve operating safety and efficiency. In this study, a hydraulic shovel was modelled as a mechanical manipulator with five degrees of freedom comprising the crawler, upper, boom, stick, bucket and bucket door components. The model was captured in a schematic diagram consisting of a six-bar linkage using the symbolic notation of Denavit and Hartenberg (Ho and Sriwattanathmma 1989). Homogeneous transformation matrices were used to capture the spatial configuration between adjacent links. The forward kinematics method was used to formulate the kinematics equations by attaching Cartesian coordinates to the schematic shovel diagram. Based on the kinematics model, a 3D virtual prototype of the hydraulic shovel was built in the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems (ADAMS) environment to simulate the motions of the hydraulic shovel with selected time steps. The simulator was validated using real-world data with animation and numerical analysis of the digging, swinging and dumping motions of the shovel machinery. The superimposed display of the deployment of the hydraulic shovel in three phases allows a detailed motion examination of the system. The numerical results of linear and angular displacements of the bucket tip and bucket door can be used to analyse the kinematics motion of the hydraulic shovel for its optimization. This simulator provides a solid foundation for further dynamics modelling and dynamic hydraulic shovel performance studies.

  19. Human Machine Interaction by Simulation of Dynamics of Construction Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langer, Thomas Heegaard

    -body vibration exposure was more than 20 percent and at the same time the fuel consumption was reduced significant. Training of operators is hence beneficial for both employees and employers of the construction industry. The whole-body vibration exposure on operators of dump trucks are dominated by off-road......This industrial Ph.D. project concerns whole-body vibrations in human operated construction machinery. The emissions of these vibrations is closely related to the subjective experience of comfort and in some cases these vibrations can occur in a level which can cause the operator back disorders...

  20. Recent Advances in Precision Machinery and Manufacturing Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chien-Hung; Hsieh, Wen-Hsiang; Chang, Zong-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Precision machinery and manufacturing technology are be- coming more important in current and future technologies. New knowledge in this field will aid in the advancement of various technologies that are needed to gain industrial competitiveness. To this end, the special issue aims to disseminate...... the latest advancements of relevant fundamental and applied research works of high quality to the inter- national community. The topics of the accepted articles in the special issue include precision manufacturing pro- cesses, measurements and control, robotics and automation, machine tools, advanced...

  1. Hydraulic gradients in rock aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlblom, P.

    1992-05-01

    This report deals with fractured rock as a host for deposits of hazardous waste. In this context the rock, with its fractures containing moving groundwater, is called the geological barrier. The desired properties of the geological barrier are low permeability to water, low hydraulic gradients and ability to retain matter dissolved in the water. The hydraulic gradient together with the permeability and the porosity determines the migration velocity. Mathematical modelling of the migration involves calculation of the water flow and the hydrodynamic dispersion of the contaminant. The porous medium approach can be used to calculate mean flow velocities and hydrodynamic dispersion of a large number of fractures are connected, which means that a large volume have to be considered. It is assumed that the porous medium approach can be applied, and a number of idealized examples are shown. It is assumed that the groundwater table is replenished by percolation at a constant rate. One-dimensional analytical calculations show that zero hydraulic gradients may exist at relatively large distance from the coast. Two-dimensional numerical calculations show that it may be possible to find areas with low hydraulic gradients and flow velocities within blocks surrounded by areas with high hydraulic conductivity. (au)

  2. Inherent Limitations of Hydraulic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohling, Geoffrey C.; Butler, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    We offer a cautionary note in response to an increasing level of enthusiasm regarding high-resolution aquifer characterization with hydraulic tomography. We use synthetic examples based on two recent field experiments to demonstrate that a high degree of nonuniqueness remains in estimates of hydraulic parameter fields even when those estimates are based on simultaneous analysis of a number of carefully controlled hydraulic tests. We must, therefore, be careful not to oversell the technique to the community of practicing hydrogeologists, promising a degree of accuracy and resolution that, in many settings, will remain unattainable, regardless of the amount of effort invested in the field investigation. No practically feasible amount of hydraulic tomography data will ever remove the need to regularize or bias the inverse problem in some fashion in order to obtain a unique solution. Thus, along with improving the resolution of hydraulic tomography techniques, we must also strive to couple those techniques with procedures for experimental design and uncertainty assessment and with other more cost-effective field methods, such as geophysical surveying and, in unconsolidated formations, direct-push profiling, in order to develop methods for subsurface characterization with the resolution and accuracy needed for practical field applications. Copyright ?? 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  3. Selective perceptions of hydraulic fracturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarge, Melanie A; VanDyke, Matthew S; King, Andy J; White, Shawna R

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) is a focal topic in discussions about domestic energy production, yet the American public is largely unfamiliar and undecided about the practice. This study sheds light on how individuals may come to understand hydraulic fracturing as this unconventional production technology becomes more prominent in the United States. For the study, a thorough search of HF photographs was performed, and a systematic evaluation of 40 images using an online experimental design involving N = 250 participants was conducted. Key indicators of hydraulic fracturing support and beliefs were identified. Participants showed diversity in their support for the practice, with 47 percent expressing low support, 22 percent high support, and 31 percent undecided. Support for HF was positively associated with beliefs that hydraulic fracturing is primarily an economic issue and negatively associated with beliefs that it is an environmental issue. Level of support was also investigated as a perceptual filter that facilitates biased issue perceptions and affective evaluations of economic benefit and environmental cost frames presented in visual content of hydraulic fracturing. Results suggested an interactive relationship between visual framing and level of support, pointing to a substantial barrier to common understanding about the issue that strategic communicators should consider.

  4. Birth of a hydraulic jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Alexis; Bohr, Tomas; Andersen, Anders

    2017-11-01

    The hydraulic jump, i.e., the sharp transition between a supercritical and a subcritical free-surface flow, has been extensively studied in the past centuries. However, ever since Leonardo da Vinci asked it for the first time, an important question has been left unanswered: How does a hydraulic jump form? We present an experimental and theoretical study of the formation of stationary hydraulic jumps in centimeter wide channels. Two starting situations are considered: The channel is, respectively, empty or filled with liquid, the liquid level being fixed by the wetting properties and the boundary conditions. We then change the flow-rate abruptly from zero to a constant value. In an empty channel, we observe the formation of a stationary hydraulic jump in a two-stage process: First, the channel fills by the advancing liquid front, which undergoes a transition from supercritical to subcritical at some position in the channel. Later the influence of the downstream boundary conditions makes the jump move slowly upstream to its final position. In the pre-filled channel, the hydraulic jump forms at the injector edge and then moves downstream to its final position.

  5. Hydraulic resistance of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.

    2013-02-01

    Biofilms may interfere with membrane performance in at least three ways: (i) increase of the transmembrane pressure drop, (ii) increase of feed channel (feed-concentrate) pressure drop, and (iii) increase of transmembrane passage. Given the relevance of biofouling, it is surprising how few data exist about the hydraulic resistance of biofilms that may affect the transmembrane pressure drop and membrane passage. In this study, biofilms were generated in a lab scale cross flow microfiltration system at two fluxes (20 and 100Lm-2h-1) and constant cross flow (0.1ms-1). As a nutrient source, acetate was added (1.0mgL-1 acetate C) besides a control without nutrient supply. A microfiltration (MF) membrane was chosen because the MF membrane resistance is very low compared to the expected biofilm resistance and, thus, biofilm resistance can be determined accurately. Transmembrane pressure drop was monitored. As biofilm parameters, thickness, total cell number, TOC, and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were determined, it was demonstrated that no internal membrane fouling occurred and that the fouling layer actually consisted of a grown biofilm and was not a filter cake of accumulated bacterial cells. At 20Lm-2h-1 flux with a nutrient dosage of 1mgL-1 acetate C, the resistance after 4 days reached a value of 6×1012m-1. At 100Lm-2h-1 flux under the same conditions, the resistance was 5×1013m-1. No correlation of biofilm resistance to biofilm thickness was found; Biofilms with similar thickness could have different resistance depending on the applied flux. The cell number in biofilms was between 4×107 and 5×108 cellscm-2. At this number, bacterial cells make up less than a half percent of the overall biofilm volume and therefore did not hamper the water flow through the biofilm significantly. A flux of 100Lm-2h-1 with nutrient supply caused higher cell numbers, more biomass, and higher biofilm resistance than a flux of 20Lm-2h-1. However, the biofilm thickness

  6. Transportation of part supply improvement in agricultural machinery assembly plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saysaman, Anusit; Chutima, Parames

    2018-02-01

    This research focused on the problem caused by the transportation of part supply in agricultural machinery assembly plant in Thailand, which is one of the processes that are critical to the whole production process. If poorly managed, it will affect transportation of part supply, the emergence of sink cost, quality problems, and the ability to respond to the needs of the customers in time. Since the competition in the agricultural machinery market is more intense, the efficiency of part transportation process has to be improved. In this study, the process of transporting parts of the plant was studied and it was found that the efficiency of the process of transporting parts from the sub assembly line to its main assembly line was 83%. The approach to the performance improvement is done by using the Lean tool to limit wastes based on the ECRS principle and applying pull production system by changing the transportation method to operate as milkrun for transportation of parts to synchronize with the part demands of the main assembly line. After the transportation of parts from sub-assembly line to the main assembly line was improved, the efficiency raised to 98% and transportation process cost was saved to 540,000 Baht per year.

  7. Fault Severity Estimation of Rotating Machinery Based on Residual Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fault severity estimation is an important part of a condition-based maintenance system, which can monitor the performance of an operation machine and enhance its level of safety. In this paper, a novel method based on statistical property and residual signals is developed for estimating the fault severity of rotating machinery. The fast Fourier transformation (FFT is applied to extract the so-called multifrequency-band energy (MFBE from the vibration signals of rotating machinery with different fault severity levels in the first stage. Usually these features of the working conditions with different fault sensitivities are different. Therefore a sensitive features-selecting algorithm is defined to construct the feature matrix and calculate the statistic parameter (mean in the second stage. In the last stage, the residual signals computed by the zero space vector are used to estimate the fault severity. Simulation and experimental results reveal that the proposed method based on statistics and residual signals is effective and feasible for estimating the severity of a rotating machine fault.

  8. Advantages of Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitanidis, P. K.; Bakhos, T.; Cardiff, M. A.; Barrash, W.

    2012-12-01

    Characterizing the subsurface is significant for most hydrogeologic studies, such as those involving site remediation and groundwater resource explo¬ration. A variety of hydraulic and geophysical methods have been developed to estimate hydraulic conductivity and specific storage. Hydraulic methods based on the analysis of conventional pumping tests allow the estimation of conductivity and storage without need for approximate petrophysical relations, which is an advantage over most geophysical methods that first estimate other properties and then infer values of hydraulic parameters. However, hydraulic methods have the disadvantage that the head-change signal decays with distance from the pumping well and thus becomes difficult to separate from noise except in close proximity to the source. Oscillatory hydraulic tomography (OHT) is an emerging technology to im¬age the subsurface. This method utilizes the idea of imposing sinusoidally varying pressure or discharge signals at several points, collecting head observations at several other points, and then processing these data in a tomographic fashion to estimate conductivity and storage coefficients. After an overview of the methodology, including a description of the most important potential advantages and challenges associated with this approach, two key promising features of the approach will be discussed. First, the signal at an observation point is orthogonal to and thus can be separated from nuisance inputs like head fluctuation from production wells, evapotranspiration, irrigation, and changes in the level of adjacent streams. Second, although the signal amplitude may be weak, one can extract the phase and amplitude of the os¬cillatory signal by collecting measurements over a longer time, thus compensating for the effect of large distance through longer sampling period.

  9. Water hydraulic applications in hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siuko, M.; Koskinen, K.T.; Vilenius, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Water hydraulic technology provides several advantages for devices operating in critical environment. Though water hydraulics has traditionally been used in very rough applications, gives recent strong development of components possibility to build more sophisticated applications and devices with similar capacity and control properties than those of oil hydraulics without the disadvantages of oil hydraulic systems. In this paper, the basic principles, possibilities and advantages of water hydraulics are highlighted, some of the most important design considerations are presented and recent developments of water hydraulic technology are presented. Also one interesting application area, ITER fusion reactor remote handling devices, are discussed. (Author)

  10. Hydraulic lifter for an underwater drilling rig

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garan' ko, Yu L

    1981-01-15

    A hydraulic lifter is suggested for an underwater drilling rig. It includes a base, hydraulic cylinders for lifting the drilling pipes connected to the clamp holder and hydraulic distributor. In order to simplify the design of the device, the base is made with a hollow chamber connected to the rod cavities and through the hydraulic distributor to the cavities of the hydraulic cylinders for lifting the drilling pipes. The hydraulic distributor is connected to the hydrosphere through the supply valve with control in time or by remote control. The base is equipped with reverse valves whose outlets are on the support surface of the base.

  11. Hydraulic lifter of a drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikovskiy, L S; Demin, A V; Shadchinov, L M

    1979-01-08

    The invention refers to drilling equipment, in particular, devices for lowering and lifting operations during drilling. A hydraulic lifter of the drilling unit is suggested which contains a hydraulic cylinder, pressure line and hollow plunger whose cavities are hydraulically connected. In order to improve the reliability of the hydraulic lifter by balancing the forces of compression in the plunger of the hydraulic cylinder, a closed vessel is installed inside the plunger and rigidly connected to its ends. Its cavity is hydraulically connected to the pressure line.

  12. Controls of Hydraulic Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a hydraulic wind turbine generator system was proposed based on analysis the current wind turbines technologies. The construction and principles were introduced. The mathematical model was verified using MATLAB and AMsim. A displacement closed loop of swash plate of motor and a speed closed loop of generator were setup, a PID control is introduced to maintain a constant speed and fixed frequency at wind turbine generator. Simulation and experiment demonstrated that the system can connect grid to generate electric and enhance reliability. The control system demonstrates a high performance speed regulation and effectiveness. The results are great significant to design a new type hydraulic wind turbine system.

  13. Beijing Model of Gifted Education and Talent Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Zhongxiong; Zhang, Yi; Du, Xiangyun

    In China, talent development has been one of the key points in national plans for the development of science and technology, education, and other areas over the last three decades and is especially emphasized in the national outline for medium- and long-term educational reform and development....... Beijing is the leading city in educational reform, especially in the area of gifted education in mainland China. Over the past 35 years, through constant exploration and research, a comprehensive gifted education system called the Beijing Model of Gifted Education and Talent Development (BMGETD) has...... gradually been developed. This book is a summary of the educational practices used in and research done on the BMGETD over the decades. These include several patterns for gifted education, such as acceleration in special classes, special classes without acceleration, enrichment within regular classes...

  14. Cautionary tales on air-quality improvement in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuyi; Guo, Bin; Dong, Anlan; He, Jing; Xu, Ziping; Chen, Song Xi

    2017-09-01

    The official air-quality statistic reported that Beijing had a 9.9% decline in the annual concentration of PM2.5 in 2016. While this statistic offered some relief for the inhabitants of the capital, we present several analyses based on Beijing's PM2.5 data of the past 4 years at 36 monitoring sites along with meteorological data of the past 7 years. The analyses reveal the air pollution situation in 2016 was not as rosy as the 9.9% decline would convey, and improvement if any was rather uncertain. The paper also provides an assessment on the city's PM2.5 situation in the past 4 years.

  15. Beijing 798 Art Zone: A Maturing Creative Cluster?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waibel, Michael

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Beijing 798 Art Zone (北京798艺术区 is certainly the most famous cultural district within China. It is located on a spacious factory site of a former military-industrial project from the 1950s. At that time, it was realized with the support of architects from East Germany, who were responsible for designing many buildings in Bauhaus style. Already during the late 1990s, avant-garde Chinese artists and designers started to move into the mostly derelict area. The site soon became the blossoming epicenter of contemporary art in China. It was finally saved from bulldozing before the Beijing Olympic Games and has turned into a popular urban leisure area not only for the emerging bourgeois bohemians (Bobos, but also for an increasing amount of international tourists. As a pioneering art zone it became a role model for the development and management of many other creative spaces in China.

  16. Analysis on policies text of air pollution control in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHANG, Yujuan; WANG, Wen; ZHANG, Wei

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems, and it is also the inevitable result of the extensive economic development mode. The matter of air pollution in Beijing is becoming more and more serious since 2010, which has a great impact on the normal social production, living and human health. These hazards have been highly valued by the whole society. More than 30 years have been pasted since controlling the air pollution and the system of policies was relatively complete. These policies have improved the quality of atmospheric and prevented environment further deterioration. The policies performance is not obvious. It is urgent trouble to improve policy performance. This paper analyzes the 103 policies text of air pollution control in Beijing, and researches status, history and problems, and put forward suggestions on policy improvement and innovation at last.

  17. Revitalization of Cycling in a Former Bicycle Kingdom: Beijing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Chunli; Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Olafsson, Anton Stahl

    This paper scrutinizes and analyses the relevant historical policy documents chronologically - from the 1960s to the present - in order to figure out the potentials of revitalizing the bicycle mode share in Beijing. Firstly, we targeted two top-drawer conflicts of the bicycle use, which are travel......- or commuting distance and motorised vehicle-oriented urban development. Secondly, we analysed how the various related policies resulted in the changing landscape of the bicycle mode share, including increasing in the bicycle mode share, created the conflicts and declined the bicycle mode share. The results...... are revealed by collection and analysis of historical material and interviews with key stakeholders. The historical material is obtained from libraries, online resources, and reports from professionals including urban designers, transportation engineers, research centres and politicians of the Beijing...

  18. Three cases giant panda attack on human at Beijing Zoo

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Peixun; Wang, Tianbing; Xiong, Jian; Xue, Feng; Xu, Hailin; Chen, Jianhai; Zhang, Dianying; Fu, Zhongguo; Jiang, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    Panda is regarded as Chinese national treasure. Most people always thought they were cute and just ate bamboo and had never imagined a panda could be vicious. Giant panda attacks on human are rare. There, we present three cases of giant panda attacks on humans at the Panda House at Beijing Zoo from September 2006 to June 2009 to warn people of the giant panda’s potentially dangerous behavior.

  19. Three cases giant panda attack on human at Beijing Zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peixun; Wang, Tianbing; Xiong, Jian; Xue, Feng; Xu, Hailin; Chen, Jianhai; Zhang, Dianying; Fu, Zhongguo; Jiang, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    Panda is regarded as Chinese national treasure. Most people always thought they were cute and just ate bamboo and had never imagined a panda could be vicious. Giant panda attacks on human are rare. There, we present three cases of giant panda attacks on humans at the Panda House at Beijing Zoo from September 2006 to June 2009 to warn people of the giant panda's potentially dangerous behavior.

  20. Fish species diversity and conservation in Beijing and adjacent areas

    OpenAIRE

    Chunguang Zhang; Yahui Zhao; Yingchun Xing; Ruilu Guo; Qing Zhang; Yun Feng; Enyuan Fan

    2011-01-01

    Based on field surveys between 2002 and 2010, and fish collections in the National Zoological Museum, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, a total of 93 wild fish species including 12 in-troduced species had been recorded in Beijing and adjacent areas. Eighty five of these species, including some migratory and estuarine fishes, are native to the region. Only 43 native wild species were collected in our field work from 2002 to 2010. Compared with the historical records, nearly 50...

  1. Measurements of ozone and its precursors in Beijing in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. D.; Squires, F. A.; Dunmore, R.; Hamilton, J. F.; Hopkins, J. R.; Rickard, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past few years there have been substantial reductions in emission of primary pollutants (e.g. PM, NOx) in Beijing. However, levels of ozone (O3), which is produced from VOCs and NOxin the presence of sunlight, frequently break recommended exposure limits in Beijing and other large conurbations in China. In fact, it is suggested that ozone is likely to become the major air pollutant effecting human health in Beijing over the next 5-10 years. For 5 weeks in May and June 2017 O3 was measured, along with NOx, CO and a large range of VOCs (C2 - C13) at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences site, close to the 4th ring road in central Beijing. Elevated levels of O3 were regularly observed, with maximum concentrations of 180 ppbv. On 75% of days during this period, O3 breached the recommended WHO 8 hour exposure limit of 60 ppbv. Data will be presented showing the effect of different levels of precursor species and photolysis rates on O3. The peak concentration of O3 on each day seemed to have little correlation with NOx. Typically NO concentrations were elevated during the morning but often decreased to below 35oC meaning biogenic emissions also influenced the chemistry at the site, with several ppbv of isoprene measured during the afternoons. The importance of different VOCs for in-situ O3 formation is investigated using a simple steady state analysis of OH reactivity, along with a more detailed analysis using the Master Chemical Mechanism.

  2. Flash Flood Type Identification within Catchments in Beijing Mountainous Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, W.

    2017-12-01

    Flash flood is a common type of disaster in mountainous area, Flash flood with the feature of large flow rate, strong flushing force, destructive power, has periodically caused loss to life and destruction to infrastructure in mountainous area. Beijing as China's political, economic and cultural center, the disaster prevention and control work in Beijing mountainous area has always been concerned widely. According to the transport mechanism, sediment concentration and density, the flash flood type identification within catchment can provide basis for making the hazards prevention and mitigation policy. Taking Beijing as the study area, this paper extracted parameters related to catchment morphological and topography features respectively. By using Bayes discriminant, Logistic regression and Random forest, the catchments in Beijing mountainous area were divided into water floods process, fluvial sediment transport process and debris flows process. The results found that Logistic regression analysis showed the highest accuracy, with the overall accuracy of 88.2%. Bayes discriminant and Random forest had poor prediction effects. This study confirmed the ability of morphological and topography features to identify flash flood process. The circularity ratio, elongation ratio and roughness index can be used to explain the flash flood types effectively, and the Melton ratio and elevation relief ratio also did a good job during the identification, whereas the drainage density seemed not to be an issue at this level of detail. Based on the analysis of spatial patterns of flash flood types, fluvial sediment transport process and debris flow process were the dominant hazards, while the pure water flood process was much less. The catchments dominated by fluvial sediment transport process were mainly distributed in the Yan Mountain region, where the fault belts were relatively dense. The debris flow process prone to occur in the Taihang Mountain region thanks to the abundant

  3. Road fugitive dust emission characteristics in Beijing during Olympics Game 2008 in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou-bin, Fan; Gang, Tian; Gang, Li; Yu-hu, Huang; Jian-ping, Qin; Shui-yuan, Cheng

    2009-12-01

    Eighty road dust-fall (DF) monitoring sites and 14 background monitoring sites were established in the Beijing metropolitan area, and monitoring was conducted from January 2006 to December 2008. The dust-fall attributable to roads (ΔDF) showed a clear decline from 2006 to 2008. Dust-fall levels decreased across different road types from freeway > major arterial roads > minor arterial roads > collector roads > background sites. The ΔDF showed declines of 65%, 55%, 65% and 84% respectively for freeways, major arterial, minor arterial and collector roads from August 2007 to August 2008, and declines of 77%, 76%, 82% and 82% between August 2006 and August 2008. The ΔDF declined by 80%, 79%, 82% and 69% for freeways, major arterial, minor arterial and collector roads respectively between September 2007 and September 2008, and declined by 84%, 88%, 80% and 81% between September 2006 and September 2008. Eighty samples were collected in August 2007 and August 2008 and analyzed for silt loading. PM 10 emission factors and emission strengths were calculated using the AP-42 model. The silt loading reduced by 77%, 35%, 61%, 59% and 75% for freeways, major arterial, minor arterial, collector and local roads respectively. The PM 10 emission factors were reduced by 57%, 15%, 36%, 51% and 61% and the PM 10 emission strength declined by 70%, 40%, 55%, 65% and 72% for freeways, major arterial, minor arterial, collector and local roads respectively between August 2007 and August 2008. The decline is consistent with the reduction in road dust-fall.

  4. Emergency department characteristics and capabilities in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Leana S; Xu, Jun; Steptoe, Anne P; Sullivan, Ashley F; Walline, Joseph H; Yu, Xuezhong; Camargo, Carlos A

    2013-06-01

    Emergency Departments (EDs) are a critical, yet heterogeneous, part of international emergency care. We sought to describe the characteristics, resources, capabilities, and capacity of EDs in Beijing, China. Beijing EDs accessible to the general public 24 h per day/7 days per week were surveyed using the National ED Inventories survey instrument (www.emnet-nedi.org). ED staff were asked about ED characteristics during the calendar year 2008. Thirty-six EDs participated (88% response rate). All were located in hospitals and were independent hospital departments. Participating EDs saw a median of 80,000 patients (interquartile range 40,000-118,508). The vast majority (91%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 78-98%) had a contiguous layout, with medical and surgical care provided in one area. Most EDs (55%) saw only adults; 39% saw both adults and children, and 6% saw only children. Availability of technological and consultant resource in EDs was high. The typical ED length of stay was between 1 and 6 h in 49% of EDs (95% CI 32-67%), whereas in the other half, patients reportedly remained for over 6 h; 36% (95% CI 21-54%) of respondents considered their ED over capacity. Beijing EDs have high volume, long length of stay, and frequent reports of EDs being over capacity. To meet its rapidly growing health needs in urban areas, China should consider improving urban ED capacity and training more Emergency Medicine specialists capable of efficiently staffing its crowded EDs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Vibration Feature Extraction and Analysis for Fault Diagnosis of Rotating Machinery-A Literature Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Saleem Riaz; Hassan Elahi; Kashif Javaid; Tufail Shahzad

    2017-01-01

    Safety, reliability, efficiency and performance of rotating machinery in all industrial applications are the main concerns. Rotating machines are widely used in various industrial applications. Condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery faults are very important and often complex and labor-intensive. Feature extraction techniques play a vital role for a reliable, effective and efficient feature extraction for the diagnosis of rotating machinery. Therefore, deve...

  6. Bank of China Becomes Banking Partner of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

      Beijing Olympic Committee announced recently that Bank of China become a partner of 2008 Olympic Games. Bank of China will provide abundant fund, banking financial products and related services for Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, and Paralympic Games, Beijing Olympic Organizing Committee and China Olympic Committee and China Sports team to participate in 2006 Winter Olympic Games and 2008 Olympic Games.……

  7. Integrated logistics management system for operation of machinery and equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Frąś

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The main issue in the operations of machinery and equipment, which is the subject of theoretical and empirical research is to provide high reliability and durability with qualitative post-trade services of machinery and equipment. Quality of service can be achieved through planned maintenance activities supported by computer technology. The article presents the concept of an integrated system of logistics management operation of machinery and equipment, especially special one for stationary transport equipment. At the outset, it emphasized the importance and essence of technological transport and storage systems storage in modern manufacturing enterprise. Then the objective and the method of research have been set. An essential part of deliberations in the article is the concept of integrated logistics management system operation for stationary transport equipment. Authors of this article have presented the results the implementation and operation of the system. The results are presented in a descriptive and graphic form. Methods: The purpose of this article is to present the concept of implementing an integrated logistics management system for operation of stationary transport equipment. It goes through combination of planning, event logging service, warehouse management in the field of spare parts, account and records of the cost of service activities. The paper presents an analysis and evaluation method of brainstorming a new approach to logistics management operation stationary transport equipment. Authors takes into account the specific conditions of use of transport equipment and conduct the service, which have a significant impact on the time and place of cost and service as well. It should be noted that the developed system has been implemented. It was also carried out an assessment of its functionality and efficiency as the new IT tool for logistics management operation. Results and conclusions: The paper presents a new

  8. STUDY OF THE PARAMETERS OF EFFICIENCY IN CENTRES FOR REPAIR OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Stoyanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper makes a thorough study of the parameters of efficiency in the centers for the repair of agricultural machinery, considering production and technological structure, the basic principles for design of the process of service, the quantitative indicators for servicing. It presents a theoretical model for the management of services in the service business, taking into account the basic system requirements for maintenance of agricultural machinery, the main elements of the standards of customer service, choice of forms for maintenance of agricultural machinery. Opportunities are proposed for the optimization of repair activities in the centers for repair of agricultural machinery.

  9. Design of hydraulic recuperation unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandourek Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with design and measurement of hydraulic recuperation unit. Recuperation unit consist of radial turbine and axial pump, which are coupled on the same shaft. Speed of shaft with impellers are 6000 1/min. For economic reasons, is design of recuperation unit performed using commercially manufactured propellers.

  10. Tree Hydraulics: How Sap Rises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Trees transport water from roots to crown--a height that can exceed 100 m. The physics of tree hydraulics can be conveyed with simple fluid dynamics based upon the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and Murray's law. Here the conduit structure is modelled as conical pipes and as branching pipes. The force required to lift sap is generated mostly by…

  11. Tubing Cutter is Activated Hydraulically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsmith, D. G.; Richardson, J. I.

    1983-01-01

    Hydraulically-actuated tubing cutter severs tubing when operator squeezes handle grip. "Gooseneck" extension enables cutter to be used in areas where accessiblity is limited. Cutter has potential as flight-line tool and is useful in automobile and fire rescue work.

  12. Hydraulics calculation in drilling simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyugin, Aleksey A.; Kazunin, Dmitry V.

    2018-05-01

    The modeling of drilling hydraulics in the simulator system is discussed. This model is based on the previously developed quasi-steady model of an incompressible fluid flow. The model simulates the operation of all parts of the hydraulic drilling system. Based on the principles of creating a common hydraulic model, a set of new elements for well hydraulics was developed. It includes elements that correspond to the in-drillstring and annular space. There are elements controlling the inflow from the reservoir into the well and simulating the lift of gas along the annulus. New elements of the hydrosystem take into account the changing geometry of the well, loss in the bit, characteristics of the fluids including viscoplasticity. There is an opportunity specify the complications, the main one of which is gas, oil and water inflow. Correct work of models in cases of complications makes it possible to work out various methods for their elimination. The coefficients of the model are adjusted on the basis of incomplete experimental data provided by operators of drilling platforms. At the end of the article the results of modeling the elimination of gas inflow by a continuous method are presented. The values displayed in the simulator (drill pipe pressure, annulus pressure, input and output flow rates) are in good agreement with the experimental data. This exercise took one hour, which is less than the time on a real rig with the same configuration of equipment and well.

  13. Hydraulics submission for Middlesex County, NJ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for estimating base flood elevation for a flood insurance...

  14. DCS Hydraulics Submittal, Bullock County, Alabama, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...

  15. DCS Hydraulics Submittal, Butler County, Alabama, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...

  16. DCS Hydraulics Submittal, Covington County, Alabama, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data includes spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for computing flood elevations for a flood insurance...

  17. CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WITTEKIND WD

    2007-01-01

    This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% 239 Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: (sm b ullet)bare, (sm b ullet)1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or (sm b ullet)12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection

  18. Hydraulics submission for Gloucester County, NJ

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulics data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for estimating base flood elevation for a flood insurance...

  19. Effect of Hydraulic Accumulator on Pressure Surge of a Hydrostatic Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajit; Das, Jayanta; Dasgupta, Kabir; Barnwal, Manish Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Hydraulic power system is generally used in off-road vehicles for power transmission such as Heavy Earth Moving Machineries (HEMM). Their energy efficiency and unsubstantial failure becomes an extensive subject of analysis. Various arrangements in the system are compassed along with the utilization of some appropriate components. Application of a hydraulic accumulator is one among them. Benefits of accumulator is its multi-purpose usages like energy saving and pressure surge damping. This paper deals with the control of pressure surges in the hydraulic system and energy saving from the surges by using accumulator. For this purpose, the simulation of the hydraulic system is done in MATLAB/SimulinkR environment and an external disturbance is introduced to generate the pressure surge. The surge absorptivity of the accumulator is studied for different sizes at different pre-charged conditions of the accumulator. The discharge characteristics of different sized accumulators are also analyzed in this paper. It is observed that the ability to absorb the surge and stabilize the system is high in the smaller capacity accumulator. However the energy delivery time of larger sized accumulator is high.

  20. Study on stress characteristics of Francis hydraulic turbine runner based on two-way FSI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, W R; Xiao, R F; Yang, W; Wang, F J; Liu, J

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, cracking phenomenon occurs in many large-sized turbines both nationally and internationally, which has threatened the stable operation of hydraulic turbines. Consequently, Stress characteristics calculation and analysis of a Francis hydraulic turbine runner by application of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) technology become significantly important. In order to introduce two-way coupling technology to hydraulic machinery, two-way FSI technology is applied in this article to calculate and analyze stress characteristics. Through coordinate system transformation, the continuity equations and Navier-Stokes equations in the Cartesian coordinates system are firstly transformed to ALE coordinates system. The fluid field control equations are then constructed and discrete equations can be obtained by using flow-condition-based interpolation (FBIC-C). The structure static mechanics equations used are established in rotation coordinate system, and modeled with the finite method. Two-way coupling is computed by using iteration method. The fluid equations and structure equations are iterated until coupling coefficients converge. According to structure result, the maximum stress, displacement as well as its location can be found. As a result, the most easily wear position can be discovered which provides valuable basis for optimized design and stable operation of Francis hydraulic turbines. After comparing the results with that of one-way coupling, it is discovered that displacements is the key factors which affects the results of one-way and two-way coupling.

  1. Hydraulic characterization of " Furcraea andina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Velasquez, M. F.; Fallico, C.; Molinari, A.; Santillan, P.; Salazar, M.

    2012-04-01

    The present level of pollution, increasingly involving groundwaters, constitutes a serious risk for environment and human health. Therefore the remediation of saturated and unsaturated soils, removing pollutant materials through innovative and economic bio-remediation techniques is more frequently required. Recent studies on natural fiber development have shown the effectiveness of these fibers for removal of some heavy metals, due to the lignin content in the natural fibers which plays an important role in the adsorption of metal cations (Lee et al., 2004; Troisi et al., 2008; C. Fallico, 2010). In the context of remediation techniques for unsaturated and/or saturated zone, an experimental approach for the hydraulic characterization of the "Furcraea andina" (i.e., Cabuya Blanca) fiber was carried out. This fiber is native to Andean regions and grows easily in wild or cultivated form in the valleys and hillsides of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Fibers of "Furcraea andina" were characterized by experimental tests to determine their hydraulic conductivity or permeability and porosity in order to use this medium for bioremediation of contaminated aquifer exploiting the physical, chemical and microbial capacity of natural fiber in heavy metal adsorption. To evaluate empirically the hydraulic conductivity, laboratory tests were carried out at constant head specifically on the fibers manually extracted. For these tests we used a flow cell (used as permeameter), containing the "Furcraea andina" fibers to be characterized, suitably connected by a tygon pipe to a Marriott's bottle, which had a plastic tube that allow the adjustment of the hydraulic head for different tests to a constant value. By this experiment it was also possible to identify relationships that enable the estimation of permeability as a function of density, i.e. of the compaction degree of the fibers. Our study was carried out for three values of hydraulic head (H), namely 10, 18, and 25 cm and for each

  2. Hydraulic conductivity of rock fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, R.W.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1994-10-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada contains numerous geological units that are highly fractured. A clear understanding of the hydraulic conductivity of fractures has been identified as an important scientific problem that must be addressed during the site characterization process. The problem of the flow of a single-phase fluid through a rough-walled rock fracture is discussed within the context of rigorous fluid mechanics. The derivation of the cubic law is given as the solution to the Navier-Stokes equations for flow between smooth, parallel plates, the only fracture geometry that is amenable to exact treatment. The various geometric and kinetic conditions that are necessary in order for the Navier-Stokes equations to be replaced by the more tractable lubrication or Hele-Shaw equations are studied and quantified. Various analytical and numerical results are reviewed pertaining to the problem of relating the effective hydraulic aperture to the statistics of the aperture distribution. These studies all lead to the conclusion that the effective hydraulic aperture is always less than the mean aperture, by a factor that depends on the ratio of the mean value of the aperture to its standard deviation. The tortuosity effect caused by regions where the rock walls are in contact with each other is studied using the Hele-Shaw equations, leading to a simple correction factor that depends on the area fraction occupied by the contact regions. Finally, the predicted hydraulic apertures are compared to measured values for eight data sets from the literature for which aperture and conductivity data were available on the same fracture. It is found that reasonably accurate predictions of hydraulic conductivity can be made based solely on the first two moments of the aperture distribution function, and the proportion of contact area. 68 refs

  3. Subsea Hydraulic Leakage Detection and Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stavenes, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The motivation for this thesis is reduction of hydraulic emissions, minimizing of process emergency shutdowns, exploitation of intervention capacity, and reduction of costs. Today, monitoring of hydraulic leakages is scarce and the main way to detect leakage is the constant need for filling of hydraulic fluid to the Hydraulic Power Unit (HPU). Leakage detection and diagnosis has potential, which would be adressed in this thesis. A strategy towards leakage detection and diagnosis is given....

  4. Structural Insights Into The Bacterial Carbon-Phosphorus Lyase Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Ditlev Egeskov

    the proteins encoded in the phn operon act in concert to catabolise phosphonate remain unknown. We have determined the crystal structure of a 240 kDa Escherichia coli carbon-phosphorus lyase core complex at 1.7 Å and show that it comprises a highly intertwined network of subunits with several unexpected......Phosphonate compounds act as a nutrient source for some microorganisms when phosphate is limiting but require a specialised enzymatic machinery due to the presence of the highly stable carbon-phosphorus bond. Despite the fundamental importance to microbial metabolism, the details of how...... structural features. The complex contains at least two different active sites and suggest a revision of current models of carbon-phosphorus bond cleavage. Using electron microscopy, we map the binding site of an additional protein subunit, which may use ATP for driving conformational changes during...

  5. Vibration analysis for trending ageing in rotating machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, S.K.; Rama Rao, A.

    2006-01-01

    The need for condition monitoring system for important equipment and machinery is a growing requirement in every industry and more so in the nuclear power plants because of stringent safety requirements. This is largely because of the inherent benefit of being able to promote predictive maintenance practice rather than uneconomical preventive maintenance practice in the plant. Forerunner among the condition monitoring parameter is vibration signatures measured on a rotating machine. It is known that every moving element in a rotating machine generates vibration signal that is uniquely its own. Detection of such signals and monitoring the changing conditions in a machine through vibration analysis is a technique involving the knowledge of engineering art and the mathematical theory. This blend of sound engineering judgement and vibration data interpretation skill is in fact the basis of vibration diagnostic techniques. (author)

  6. Computer System For Diagnostics of Mobile Machinery Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Antipenko

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for diagnostics of mechanical transmissions of mobile machinery is proposed in the paper. The method presupposes an application of computing equipment and its purpose is to decrease labor-consumption of diagnostics procedure and increase diagnostics efficiency.The method is based on comparison of duration of impulse periods picked up at primary transducers which are installed at transmission input and output. A signal picked up at a flywheel ring gear is taken as a reference signal.While selecting clearances of one and then the direction in speed-up - braking transmission regime changes in number of reference impulses at output provide data on angular clearance value in every gearing. As data are supplied registration and processing of results and forecasting of residual resource are to be done with the help of a program on the basis of realized algorithms for every gearing.

  7. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...... 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology   Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk     Abstract   Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass...... and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17...

  8. C4 photosynthetic machinery: insights from maize chloroplast proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi eZhao

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available C4 plants exhibit much higher CO2 assimilation rates than C3 plants. The specialized differentiation of mesophyll cell (M and bundle sheath cell (BS type chloroplasts is unique to C4 plants and improves photosynthesis efficiency. Maize (Zea mays is an important crop and model with C4 photosynthetic machinery. Current high-throughput quantitative proteomics approaches (e.g., 2DE, iTRAQ, and shotgun proteomics have been employed to investigate maize chloroplast structure and function. These proteomic studies have provided valuable information on C4 chloroplast protein components, photosynthesis, and other metabolic mechanisms underlying chloroplast biogenesis, stromal and membrane differentiation, as well as response to salinity, high/low temperature, and light stress. This review presents an overview of proteomics advances in maize chloroplast biology.

  9. Mechatronics Applied to Fluid Film Bearings: Towards More Efficient Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier

    the machine is defined as a mechatronic system. This integrated approach comprises the usage of machine elements capable of modifying their characteristics, by using in a combined way mechanical elements, sensors, processing units and actuators. The research project entitled "Mechatronics Applied to Fluid......The current trends regarding turbomachinery design and operation demand for an expansion of the operational boundaries of these mechanical systems, regarding production rate, reliability and adaptability. In order to face the new requirements, it is necessary to migrate towards a new concept, where...... Film Bearings: Towards more Efficient Machinery" was aimed at improving the state of the art regarding the usage of fluid film bearings as "smart" machine elements. Specifically, this project dealt with a tilting pad journal bearing design that features a controllable lubrication system, capable...

  10. SKODA Nuclear Machinery - tradition and expertise in nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svitak, F.

    1997-01-01

    The SKODA Nuclear Machinery company is a major manufacturer of nuclear reactor assemblies and supplier of WWER type primary coolant circuits. In the past, the company was nearly a monopolistic manufacturer of WWER reactor assemblies supplied to the Central and East European countries (except the USSR) grouped in the former Council of Mutual Economic Assistance. Over the 1980-1993 period, 21 units of the WWER-440 type and 3 units of the WWER-1000 type were manufactured. The company keeps abreast of technological progress and has been switching to new manufacturing areas, such as compact storage racks for spent fuel pools, hermetic cable bushings, spent fuel storage and transport casks, and cooperation in the manufacture of neutron flux measuring channels. Technological services provided to nuclear power plants constitute another important field of the company's business. The company's combined expertise in Soviet and Western designed PWRs is a considerable asset. (P.A.)

  11. Stepwise Diagnosis for Rotating Machinery Using Force Identification Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shozo Kawamura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Machine condition monitoring and diagnosis have become increasingly important, and the application of these processes has been widely investigated. The authors previously proposed a stepwise diagnosis method for a beam structure. In that method, the location of the abnormality is first estimated using the force identification approach, and then the cause of the abnormality is identified. In this study, the stepwise diagnosis method was improved specifically for rotating machinery. The applicability of the proposed method was checked by using the experimental data. In the case of a rotor system with unbalance, it was shown that the location of the abnormality and its severity could be identified, and, in the case of a rotor system with stationary rubbing, the location of the abnormality could be accurately identified. Therefore, it was confirmed that the proposed diagnostic method is feasible for actual application.

  12. Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-R.; Lei, H.-Y.; Liu, M.-T.; Wang, J.-R.; Chen, S.-H.; Jiang-Shieh, Y.-F.; Lin, Y.-S.; Yeh, T.-M.; Liu, C.-C.; Liu, H.-S.

    2008-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication

  13. Engineering yeast transcription machinery for improved ethanol tolerance and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Hal; Moxley, Joel; Nevoigt, Elke; Fink, Gerald R; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2006-12-08

    Global transcription machinery engineering (gTME) is an approach for reprogramming gene transcription to elicit cellular phenotypes important for technological applications. Here we show the application of gTME to Saccharomyces cerevisiae for improved glucose/ethanol tolerance, a key trait for many biofuels programs. Mutagenesis of the transcription factor Spt15p and selection led to dominant mutations that conferred increased tolerance and more efficient glucose conversion to ethanol. The desired phenotype results from the combined effect of three separate mutations in the SPT15 gene [serine substituted for phenylalanine (Phe(177)Ser) and, similarly, Tyr(195)His, and Lys(218)Arg]. Thus, gTME can provide a route to complex phenotypes that are not readily accessible by traditional methods.

  14. Monitoring of vibrating machinery using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alguindigue, I.E.; Loskiewicz-Buczak, A.

    1991-01-01

    The primary source of vibration in complex engineering systems is rotating machinery. Vibration signatures collected from these components render valuable information about the operational state of the system and may be used to perform diagnostics. For example, the low frequency domain contains information about unbalance, misalignment, instability in journal bearing and mechanical looseness; analysis of the medium frequency range can render information about faults in meshing gear teeth; while the high frequency domain will contain information about incipient faults in rolling-element bearings. Trend analysis may be performed by comparing the vibration spectrum for each machine with a reference spectrum and evaluating the vibration magnitude changes at different frequencies. This form of analysis for diagnostics is often performed by maintenance personnel monitoring and recording transducer signals and analyzing the signals to identify the operating condition of the machine. With the advent of portable fast Fourier transform (FFT) analyzers and ''laptop'' computers, it is possible to collect and analyze vibration data an site and detect incipient failures several weeks or months before repair is necessary. It is often possible to estimate the remaining life of certain systems once a fault has been detected. RMS velocity, acceleration, displacements, peak value, and crest factor readings can be collected from vibration sensors. To exploit all the information embedded in these signals, a robust and advanced analysis technique is required. Our goal is to design a diagnostic system using neural network technology, a system such as this would automate the interpretation of vibration data coming from plant-wide machinery and permit efficient on-line monitoring of these components

  15. Cholinergic Machinery as Relevant Target in Acute Lymphoblastic T Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxana Dobrovinskaya

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Various types of non-neuronal cells, including tumors, are able to produce acetylcholine (ACh, which acts as an autocrine/paracrine growth factor. T lymphocytes represent a key component of the non-neuronal cholinergic system. T cells-derived ACh is involved in a stimulation of their activation and proliferation, and acts as a regulator of immune response. The aim of the present work was to summarize the data about components of cholinergic machinery in T lymphocytes, with an emphasis on the comparison of healthy and leukemic T cells. Cell lines derived from acute lymphoblastic leukemias of T lineage (T-ALL were found to produce a considerably higher amount of ACh than healthy T lumphocytes. Additionally, ACh produced by T-ALL is not efficiently hydrolyzed, because acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity is drastically decreased in these cells. Up-regulation of muscarinic ACh receptors was also demonstrated at expression and functional level, whereas nicotinic ACh receptors seem to play a less important role and not form functional channels in cells derived from T-ALL. We hypothesized that ACh over-produced in T-ALL may act as an autocrine growth factor and play an important role in leukemic clonal expansion through shaping of intracellular Ca2+ signals. We suggest that cholinergic machinery may be attractive targets for new drugs against T-ALL. Specifically, testing of high affinity antagonists of muscarinic ACh receptors as well as antagomiRs, which interfere with miRNAs involved in the suppression of AChE expression, may be the first choice options.

  16. Detection of cavitation vortex in hydraulic turbines using acoustic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candel, I; Ioana, C; Bunea, F; Politehnica University of Bucharest (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Power Engineering Faculty, Politehnica University of Bucharest (Romania))" >Dunca, G; Politehnica University of Bucharest (Romania))" data-affiliation=" (Power Engineering Faculty, Politehnica University of Bucharest (Romania))" >Bucur, D M; Division Technique Générale, Grenoble (France))" data-affiliation=" (Electricité de France, Division Technique Générale, Grenoble (France))" >Reeb, B; Ciocan, G D

    2014-01-01

    Cavitation phenomena are known for their destructive capacity in hydraulic machineries and are caused by the pressure decrease followed by an implosion when the cavitation bubbles find an adverse pressure gradient. A helical vortex appears in the turbine diffuser cone at partial flow rate operation and can be cavitating in its core. Cavity volumes and vortex frequencies vary with the under-pressure level. If the vortex frequency comes close to one of the eigen frequencies of the turbine, a resonance phenomenon may occur, the unsteady fluctuations can be amplified and lead to important turbine and hydraulic circuit damage. Conventional cavitation vortex detection techniques are based on passive devices (pressure sensors or accelerometers). Limited sensor bandwidths and low frequency response limit the vortex detection and characterization information provided by the passive techniques. In order to go beyond these techniques and develop a new active one that will remove these drawbacks, previous work in the field has shown that techniques based on acoustic signals using adapted signal content to a particular hydraulic situation, can be more robust and accurate. The cavitation vortex effects in the water flow profile downstream hydraulic turbines runner are responsible for signal content modifications. Basic signal techniques use narrow band signals traveling inside the flow from an emitting transducer to a receiving one (active sensors). Emissions of wide band signals in the flow during the apparition and development of the vortex embeds changes in the received signals. Signal processing methods are used to estimate the cavitation apparition and evolution. Tests done in a reduced scale facility showed that due to the increasing flow rate, the signal -- vortex interaction is seen as modifications on the received signal's high order statistics and bandwidth. Wide band acoustic transducers have a higher dynamic range over mechanical elements; the system

  17. Updating the model TREMOD - Mobile Machinery (TREMOD-MM); Aktualisierung des Modells TREMOD - Mobile Machinery (TREMOD-MM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, Hinrich; Lambrecht, Udo; Knoerr, Wolfram [ifeu - Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung Heidelberg gGmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    In the context of the project ''Development of a model for the computation of the air pollutant emissions and the fuel consumption of combustion engines in mobile devices and machines'', the Institute for Energy and Environmental Research GmbH (Heidelberg, Federal Republic of Germany) has created the model TREMOD-MM (TREMOD Mobile Machinery). Thus a detailed computation of the emissions from mobile devices and machines in the agriculture, construction industry, forestry and gardening as well as the sport shipping and passenger shipping can be accomplished. Strongly differentiated data are considered to the age structure, engine performance, use and emission behaviour. Thus it is possible to compute the emissions for different scenarios in high degree of detail.

  18. 46 CFR 35.25-1 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer-T/ALL... Engine Department § 35.25-1 Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer—T/ALL. It shall be the duty of an engineer when assuming charge of the boilers to examine the same forthwith and thoroughly. If...

  19. 46 CFR 111.103-1 - Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. 111.103-1 Section 111.103-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Power ventilation systems except machinery space ventilation systems. Each power ventilation system must...

  20. 46 CFR 167.65-60 - Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Examination of boilers and machinery by engineer. 167.65-60 Section 167.65-60 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL... machinery by engineer. It shall be the duty of an engineer when he assumes charge of the boilers and...

  1. 49 CFR 1242.47 - Machinery (account XX-27-40).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Machinery (account XX-27-40). 1242.47 Section 1242...-Equipment § 1242.47 Machinery (account XX-27-40). Separate common expenses on the basis of the freight/passenger separation of administration (account XX-27-01). ...

  2. 46 CFR 177.620 - Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of machinery and fuel tank spaces. 177.620... fuel tank spaces. In addition to the requirements of this subpart, ventilation systems for spaces containing machinery or fuel tanks must comply with the requirements of part 182 of this chapter. ...

  3. Advanced energy saving hydraulic elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido, A.; Sevilleja, J.; Servia, A.

    1993-08-24

    An hydraulic elevator is described comprising: a counterweighted elevator comprising a car, a counterweight, and a rope connecting the car and the counterweight; a ram having a first reaction surface for driving one of the car or the counterweight upwardly and a second reaction surface for driving one of the car or the counterweight downwardly; multiplier means for moving the car a distance greater than a stroke of the ram, the multiplier means connecting the ram to the counterweighted elevator, the multiplier means comprising: a first pulley; a second pulley; means for rigidly connecting the first and second pulley, the means having a length corresponding to a rise of the hydraulic elevator, the means attaching to the ram; and a pulley rope which: has a first end attaching to a first fixed point, extends about the first pulley, extends about the second pulley, and has a second end attaching to a second fixed point.

  4. Model for polygonal hydraulic jumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Watanabe, Shinya; Bohr, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    We propose a phenomenological model for the polygonal hydraulic jumps discovered by Ellegaard and co-workers [Nature (London) 392, 767 (1998); Nonlinearity 12, 1 (1999); Physica B 228, 1 (1996)], based on the known flow structure for the type-II hydraulic jumps with a "roller" (separation eddy...... nonhydrostatic pressure contributions from surface tension in light of recent observations by Bush and co-workers [J. Fluid Mech. 558, 33 (2006); Phys. Fluids 16, S4 (2004)]. The model can be analyzed by linearization around the circular state, resulting in a parameter relationship for nearly circular polygonal...... states. A truncated but fully nonlinear version of the model can be solved analytically. This simpler model gives rise to polygonal shapes that are very similar to those observed in experiments, even though surface tension is neglected, and the condition for the existence of a polygon with N corners...

  5. GCFR thermal-hydraulic experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, G.; Baxi, C.B.; Dalle Donne, M.; Gat, U.; Fenech, H.; Hanson, D.; Hudina, M.

    1980-01-01

    The thermal-hydraulic experimental studies performed and planned for the Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GCFR) core assemblies are described. The experiments consist of basic studies performed to obtain correlations, and bundle experiments which provide input for code validation and design verification. These studies have been performed and are planned at European laboratories, US national laboratories, Universities in the US, and at General Atomic Company

  6. Hysteresis phenomena in hydraulic measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran, H J; Farhat, M; Luo, X W; Chen, Y L; Xu, H Y

    2012-01-01

    Hysteresis phenomena demonstrate the lag between the generation and the removal of some physical phenomena. This paper studies the hysteresis phenomena of the head-drop in a scaled model pump turbine using experiment test and CFD methods. These lag is induced by complicated flow patterns, which influenced the reliability of rotating machine. Keeping the same measurement procedure is concluded for the hydraulic machine measurement.

  7. A Method of Rotating Machinery Fault Diagnosis Based on the Close Degree of Information Entropy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG Jun-bao; HUANG Shu-hong; JIN Jia-shan; CHEN Fei; LIU Wei

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a method of rotating machinery fault diagnosis based on the close degree of information entropy. In the view of the information entropy, we introduce four information entropy features of the rotating machinery, which describe the vibration condition of the machinery. The four features are, respectively, denominated as singular spectrum entropy, power spectrum entropy, wavelet space state feature entropy and wavelet power spectrum entropy. The value scopes of the four information entropy features of the rotating machinery in some typical fault conditions are gained by experiments, which can be acted as the standard features of fault diagnosis. According to the principle of the shorter distance between the more similar models, the decision-making method based on the close degree of information entropy is put forward to deal with the recognition of fault patterns. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach in an instance involving the fault pattern recognition of some rotating machinery.

  8. Computing in Hydraulic Engineering Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, J. G.

    2011-12-01

    Civil engineers, pioneers of our civilization, are rarely perceived as leaders and innovators in modern society because of retardations in technology innovation. This crisis has resulted in the decline of the prestige of civil engineering profession, reduction of federal funding on deteriorating infrastructures, and problems with attracting the most talented high-school students. Infusion of cutting-edge computer technology and stimulating creativity and innovation therefore are the critical challenge to civil engineering education. To better prepare our graduates to innovate, this paper discussed the adaption of problem-based collaborative learning technique and integration of civil engineering computing into a traditional civil engineering curriculum. Three interconnected courses: Open Channel Flow, Computational Hydraulics, and Sedimentation Engineering, were developed with emphasis on computational simulations. In Open Channel flow, the focuses are principles of free surface flow and the application of computational models. This prepares students to the 2nd course, Computational Hydraulics, that introduce the fundamental principles of computational hydraulics, including finite difference and finite element methods. This course complements the Open Channel Flow class to provide students with in-depth understandings of computational methods. The 3rd course, Sedimentation Engineering, covers the fundamentals of sediment transport and river engineering, so students can apply the knowledge and programming skills gained from previous courses to develop computational models for simulating sediment transport. These courses effectively equipped students with important skills and knowledge to complete thesis and dissertation research.

  9. Control rod driving hydraulic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugano, Hiroshi.

    1993-01-01

    In a control rod driving hydraulic device for an improved BWR type reactor, a bypass pipeline is disposed being branched from a scram pipeline, and a control orifice and a throttle valve are interposed to the bypass pipeline for restricting pressure. Upon occurrence of scram, about 1/2 of water quantity flowing from an accumulator of a hydraulic control unit to the lower surface of a piston of control rod drives by way of a scram pipeline is controlled by the restricting orifice and the throttle valve, by which the water is discharged to a pump suction pipeline or other pipelines by way of the bypass pipeline. With such procedures, a function capable of simultaneously conducting scram for two control rod drives can be attained by one hydraulic control unit. Further, an excessive peak pressure generated by a water hammer phenomenon in the scram pipeline or the control rod drives upon occurrence of scram can be reduced. Deformation and failure due to the excessive peak pressure can be prevented, as well as vibrations and degradation of performance of relevant portions can be prevented. (N.H.)

  10. Drug Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing Genotype and Association with MDR TB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Kate, Marian T.; de Knegt, Gerjo J.; Kremer, Kristin; Aarnoutse, Rob E.; Boeree, Martin J.; Verbrugh, Henri A.; van Soolingen, Dick; Bakker-Woudenberg, Irma A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    To determine differences in the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains to withstand antituberculosis drug treatment, we compared the activity of antituberculosis drugs against susceptible Beijing and East-African/Indian genotype M. tuberculosis strains. Beijing genotype strains showed high rates of mutation within a wide range of drug concentrations, possibly explaining this genotype’s association with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:22469099

  11. Residents' Perceived Social-Economic Impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mark; Chen, Li; Lei, Ouyang; Malone, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine whether the Olympic Games was a catalyst for changes to Beijing residents' quality of life based on social-economic perspectives and how these changes affected their continuous support for the Games. Residents who lived in Beijing 18 months or longer were invited to participate in this survey research (N = 412)…

  12. School-Based Primary School Sexuality Education for Migrant Children in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenli; Su, Yufen

    2014-01-01

    In May 2007, Beijing Normal University launched a programme of school-based sexuality education for migrant children in Xingzhi Primary School in Beijing. Over the past seven years, the project team has developed a school-based sexuality education curriculum using the "International Technical Guidance on Sexuality Education" published by…

  13. Financial and economic feasibility of decentralized wastewater reuse systems in Beijing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Liang (Xiao); M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMany decentralized wastewater reuse systems have been constructed in Beijing. However their performance is not as good as expected. The total amount of reclaimed water used in Beijing is much less than the designed capacity. In order to understand the reasons causing such

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Beijing genotype strains not associated with radiological presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, Martien W.; van Deutekom, Henk; de Haas, Petra E. W.; Kremer, Kristin; van Soolingen, Dick

    2004-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing genotype have been involved in various outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Some studies suggest that the infection with the Beijing genotype is associated with a different host immune response. Since this might also lead to a different

  15. Educational Equality in China: Analysing Educational Policies for Migrant Children in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuiyun; Liu, Fuxing; Yu, Yafeng

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the education of migrant children in Beijing. As of the late 1990s, the Chinese Government has developed several policies to address educational issues among migrant children. The present study analyses data from interviews with key education personnel in Beijing to explore the outcomes of the implementation of such migrant…

  16. Portrayals of Pro-Beijing Workers' Night Schools in Hong Kong from 1946 to Post-1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Chui Shan

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on the transformation of pro-Beijing labour education in the socio-political context of Hong Kong. It explores the reasons that Hong Kong pro-Beijing educators initiated Workers' Night Schools for adults; the organisation of schools in many locales and the transformation of labour education that workers received in these…

  17. Prevalence and characteristics of the metabolic syndrome among adults in Beijing, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Gang; de Courten, Maximilian; Jiao, Shufang

    2010-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome using a large representative sample in Beijing. Data from a total of 16442 adults (6489 men and 9953 women) aged > or =18 years from a survey of behavioral risk factors for chronic diseases in Beijing, in 2005, was a...

  18. Hydraulic Shearing and Hydraulic Jacking Observed during Hydraulic Stimulations in Fractured Geothermal Reservoir in Pohang, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, K. B.; Park, S.; Xie, L.; Kim, K. I.; Yoo, H.; Kim, K. Y.; Choi, J.; Yoon, K. S.; Yoon, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Song, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) relies on sufficient and irreversible enhancement of reservoir permeability through hydraulic stimulation and possibility of such desirable change of permeability is an open question that can undermine the universality of EGS concept. We report results of first hydraulic stimulation campaign conducted in two deep boreholes in fractured granodiorite geothermal reservoir in Pohang, Korea. Borehole PX-1, located at 4.22 km, was subjected to the injection of 3,907 m3 with flow rate of up to 18 kg/s followed by bleeding off of 1,207 m3. The borehole PX-2, located at 4.35 km, was subjected to the injection of 1,970 m3 with flow rate of up to 46 kg/sIn PX-1, a sharp distinct decline of wellhead pressure was observed at around 16 MPa of wellhead pressure which was similar to the predicted injection pressure to induce hydraulic shearing. Injectivity interpretation before and after the hydraulic shearing indicates that permanent increase of permeability was achieved by a factor of a few. In PX-2, however, injectivity was very small and hydraulic shearing was not observed due possibly to the near wellbore damage made by the remedying process of lost circulation such as using lost circulation material during drilling. Flow rate of larger than 40 kg/s was achieved at very high well head pressure of nearly 90 MPa. Hydraulic jacking, that is reversible opening and closure of fracture with change of injection pressure, was clearly observed. Although sharp increase of permeability due to fracture opening was achieved with elevated injection pressure, the increased permeability was reversed with decreased injection pressure.Two contrasting response observed in the same reservoir at two different boreholes which is apart only 600 m apart provide important implication that can be used for the stimulation strategy for EGS.This work was supported by the New and Renewable Energy Technology Development Program of the Korea Institute of Energy Technology

  19. Primary and secondary organic aerosols in summer 2016 in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rongzhi; Wu, Zepeng; Li, Xiao; Wang, Yujue; Shang, Dongjie; Xiao, Yao; Li, Mengren; Zeng, Limin; Wu, Zhijun; Hallquist, Mattias; Hu, Min; Guo, Song

    2018-03-01

    To improve air quality, the Beijing government has employed several air pollution control measures since the 2008 Olympics. In order to investigate organic aerosol sources after the implementation of these measures, ambient fine particulate matter was collected at a regional site in Changping (CP) and an urban site at the Peking University Atmosphere Environment Monitoring Station (PKUERS) during the Photochemical Smog in China field campaign in summer 2016. Chemical mass balance (CMB) modeling and the tracer yield method were used to apportion primary and secondary organic sources. Our results showed that the particle concentration decreased significantly during the last few years. The apportioned primary and secondary sources explained 62.8 ± 18.3 and 80.9 ± 27.2 % of the measured OC at CP and PKUERS, respectively. Vehicular emissions served as the dominant source. Except for gasoline engine emissions, the contributions of all the other primary sources decreased. In addition, the anthropogenic SOC, i.e., toluene SOC, also decreased, implying that deducting primary emissions can reduce anthropogenic SOA. In contrast to the SOA from other regions in the world where biogenic SOA was dominant, anthropogenic SOA was the major contributor to SOA, implying that deducting anthropogenic VOC emissions is an efficient way to reduce SOA in Beijing. Back-trajectory cluster analysis results showed that high mass concentrations of OC were observed when the air mass was from the south. However, the contributions of different primary organic sources were similar, suggesting regional particle pollution. The ozone concentration and temperature correlated well with the SOA concentration. Different correlations between day and night samples suggested different SOA formation pathways. Significant enhancement of SOA with increasing particle water content and acidity was observed in our study, suggesting that aqueous-phase acid-catalyzed reactions may be the important SOA formation

  20. Primary and secondary organic aerosols in summer 2016 in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve air quality, the Beijing government has employed several air pollution control measures since the 2008 Olympics. In order to investigate organic aerosol sources after the implementation of these measures, ambient fine particulate matter was collected at a regional site in Changping (CP and an urban site at the Peking University Atmosphere Environment Monitoring Station (PKUERS during the Photochemical Smog in China field campaign in summer 2016. Chemical mass balance (CMB modeling and the tracer yield method were used to apportion primary and secondary organic sources. Our results showed that the particle concentration decreased significantly during the last few years. The apportioned primary and secondary sources explained 62.8 ± 18.3 and 80.9 ± 27.2 % of the measured OC at CP and PKUERS, respectively. Vehicular emissions served as the dominant source. Except for gasoline engine emissions, the contributions of all the other primary sources decreased. In addition, the anthropogenic SOC, i.e., toluene SOC, also decreased, implying that deducting primary emissions can reduce anthropogenic SOA. In contrast to the SOA from other regions in the world where biogenic SOA was dominant, anthropogenic SOA was the major contributor to SOA, implying that deducting anthropogenic VOC emissions is an efficient way to reduce SOA in Beijing. Back-trajectory cluster analysis results showed that high mass concentrations of OC were observed when the air mass was from the south. However, the contributions of different primary organic sources were similar, suggesting regional particle pollution. The ozone concentration and temperature correlated well with the SOA concentration. Different correlations between day and night samples suggested different SOA formation pathways. Significant enhancement of SOA with increasing particle water content and acidity was observed in our study, suggesting that aqueous-phase acid-catalyzed reactions may be

  1. Evidence of Aerosol's Influence on Climate from Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S.; Fu, Q.; Huang, J.; Ge, J.; Su, J.

    2009-12-01

    Air pollution is a difficult problem during the process of industrialization in most developing countries. In China, the main air pollutants are inhaled aerosol particles. Because of the extremely high loading and rapid development, Beijing became a heavily polluted city, with a population of more than 16 million. The 2008 Olympic Summer Games provided a unique opportunity for the study of climate effects of aerosols due to many measurements taken to fight pollution caused by industrialization and economic growth.Surface temperature is the most intuitive meteorological factor and easy to get. Therefore, aerosol’s radiative effects on regional climate can be known by studying the relationship between aerosols and surface temperature in Beijing city in August 2008. However, many factors can affect the surface temperature and cloud is considered as a very important meteorological element in radiation balance. In order to remove the impact of clouds on surface temperature, here the ground temperature in clear sky days (when cloud cover is less than 2) are selected. Aerosol data from the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Earth Observing System (EOS) Aqua shows that aerosol concentration decreased significantly in the area of Olympic venues in August 2008. Meanwhile, the ground-based observation data shows the surface temperature during the day (14LT) and night (02LT) in August 2008 is higher and lower than the mean temperature in August from 2002 to 2008, respectively. It is discovered that the distribution of satellite-retrieved aerosol optical Depth (AOD) in the whole area of Beijing in August of 2003 and 2004 is similar to that in 2008. We chosen four meteorological stations to analyze surface temperature and found that the diurnal changes of surface temperature are consistent with that in August of 2003, 2004 and 2008. Meanwhile, the decrease of AOD in the area of Olympic venues in August 2008 leads to the increase of precipitation

  2. Natural radioactivity of geothermal water in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shufang Wang; Chao Ye; Jiurong Liu; Pei Lin; Kai Liu; Pei Dong; Ying Sun; Yuanzhang Liu; Liya Wang; Guifang Wang

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we collected 101 geothermal water samples to investigate comprehensively the radioactivity of geothermal water in Beijing. The concentrations of gross beta, 226 Ra and 222 Rn were measured and the obtained values were in the range of 0.032-7.060, 0.023-0.363 and 0.470-29.700 Bq/L, respectively. The samples with higher concentration of 222 Rn were found to be located near large faults. The effective dose of 222 Rn in the air for three cases were calculated to be greater than radiation dose limit of 1 mSv/a. (author)

  3. Contrasting VOC Composition in London, UK and Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunmore, R.; Hopkins, J. R.; Shaw, M.; Squires, F. A.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Hamilton, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    With an increasing fraction of the world's population now living in megacities, urban air quality in those locations has the potential to be one of the largest controllable factors for public health. Both London and Beijing are classified as megacities, with the latter almost twice as densely populated. The key drivers and trajectory of air pollution are unique to each location; London has substantially reduced PM10 concentrations over the past two decades but continues to have high urban NO2. Beijing has had well-reported high levels of PM, is now in a phase of gradual decline, and has proportionately low NO2. Both locations however, continue to emit a mix of gas phase pollutants with the potential to form photochemical ozone. Whilst the abundance of NOx in each city is relatively straightforward to quantify, the VOC mixtures that are present differ between these two cities and this has consequential impacts on the downwind ozone formation potential. This work reports a comprehensive assessment of VOC speciation, reactivity and abundance in the two cities using a common set of inter-comparable measurement approaches. Hourly observations of VOCs over the range C2 - C13+ were made using two gas chromatography (GC) instruments; a PLOT column based GC for the most volatile fraction (C2-C7) and a comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GCxGC) for VOCs with more than 7 carbons. London has atmospheric VOC concentrations that in mass and reactivity terms are dominated by longer chain VOCs from diesel fuel. The VOC mixture in ambient Beijing air is dominated by short chain VOCs, a mix of both alkenes from incomplete combustion sources and alkanes and aromatics from petrochemical sources. The substantial difference in the fleet proportions of gasoline and diesel powered vehicles between the two cities is clearly reflected in ambient VOCs. In summertime, isoprene was a notable contributor to VOC reactivity in both cities despite both being highly urbanised locations. The absolute

  4. Differential MicroRNA Expression in Human Macrophages with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection of Beijing/W and Non-Beijing/W Strain Types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zheng

    Full Text Available The role of microRNAs in association with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB infection and the immunology regulated by microRNAs upon MTB infection have not been fully unravelled. We examined the microRNA profiles of THP-1 macrophages upon the MTB infection of Beijing/W and non-Beijing/W clinical strains. We also studied the microRNA profiles of the host macrophages by microarray in a small cohort with active MTB disease, latent infection (LTBI, and from healthy controls.The results revealed that 14 microRNAs differentiated infections of Beijing/W from non-Beijing/W strains (P<0.05. A unique signature of 11 microRNAs in human macrophages was identified to differentiate active MTB disease from LTBI and healthy controls. Pathway analyses of these differentially expressed miRNAs suggest that the immune-regulatory interactions involving TGF-β signalling pathway take part in the dysregulation of critical TB processes in the macrophages, resulting in active expression of both cell communication and signalling transduction systems.We showed for the first time that the Beijing/W TB strains repressed a number of miRNAs expressions which may reflect their virulence characteristics in altering the host response. The unique signatures of 11 microRNAs may deserve further evaluation as candidates for biomarkers in the diagnosis of MTB and Beijing/W infections.

  5. Differential MicroRNA Expression in Human Macrophages with Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection of Beijing/W and Non-Beijing/W Strain Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lin; Leung, Eric; Lee, Nelson; Lui, Grace; To, Ka-Fai; Chan, Raphael C Y; Ip, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    The role of microRNAs in association with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection and the immunology regulated by microRNAs upon MTB infection have not been fully unravelled. We examined the microRNA profiles of THP-1 macrophages upon the MTB infection of Beijing/W and non-Beijing/W clinical strains. We also studied the microRNA profiles of the host macrophages by microarray in a small cohort with active MTB disease, latent infection (LTBI), and from healthy controls. The results revealed that 14 microRNAs differentiated infections of Beijing/W from non-Beijing/W strains (PmicroRNAs in human macrophages was identified to differentiate active MTB disease from LTBI and healthy controls. Pathway analyses of these differentially expressed miRNAs suggest that the immune-regulatory interactions involving TGF-β signalling pathway take part in the dysregulation of critical TB processes in the macrophages, resulting in active expression of both cell communication and signalling transduction systems. We showed for the first time that the Beijing/W TB strains repressed a number of miRNAs expressions which may reflect their virulence characteristics in altering the host response. The unique signatures of 11 microRNAs may deserve further evaluation as candidates for biomarkers in the diagnosis of MTB and Beijing/W infections.

  6. Condition monitoring of machinery using motor current signature analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryter, R.C.; Haynes, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    Motor current signature analysis (MCSA) is a powerful monitoring tool for motor-driven equipment that provides a nonintrusive means for detecting the presence of mechanical and electrical abnormalities in the motor and the driven equipment, including altered conditions in the process ''downstream'' of the motor-driven equipment. It was developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory as a means for determining the effects of aging and service wear systems, but it is applicable to a broad range of machinery. MCSA is based on the recognition that an electric motor (ac or dc) driving a mechanical load acts as an efficient and permanently available transducer by sensing mechanical load variations, large and small, long-term and rapid, and converting them into variations in the induced current generated in the motor windings. These motor current variations are carried by the electrical cables processes as desired. Motor current signatures, obtained in both time and over time to provide early indication of degradation. Successful applications of MCSA technology (patent applied for) include not only motor-operated valves but also pumps of various designs, blowers, and air conditioning systems. Examples are presented briefly, and speculation regarding the applicability of MCSA to a broader range of equipment monitoring and production line testing is also given. 1 ref., 13 figs

  7. Defective HLA class I antigen processing machinery in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Lei; Michelakos, Theodoros; Yamada, Teppei; Fan, Song; Wang, Xinhui; Schwab, Joseph H; Ferrone, Cristina R; Ferrone, Soldano

    2018-02-27

    Malignant transformation of cells is frequently associated with defective HLA class I antigen processing machinery (APM) component expression. This abnormality may have functional relevance, since it may have a negative impact on tumor cell recognition by cognate T cells. Furthermore, HLA class I APM abnormalities appear to have clinical significance, since they are associated with poor prognosis in several malignant diseases and may play a role in the resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitor-based immunotherapy. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature describing abnormalities in HLA class I APM component expression in many types of cancer. These abnormalities have been reported in all types of cancer analyzed with a frequency ranging between a minimum of 35.8% in renal cancer and a maximum of 87.9% in thyroid cancer for HLA class I heavy chains. In addition, we have described the molecular mechanisms underlying defects in HLA class I APM component expression and function by malignant cells. Lastly, we have discussed the clinical significance of HLA class I APM component abnormalities in malignant tumors.

  8. Radiation survey of aircraft and heavy machinery scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idriss, Hajo; Salih, Isam; Gumaa, Elsadig; Yassin, Abbas; Yousif, E H; Abdel Hamid, Saad Eldeen M; Sam, A K

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted primarily to survey aircraft and heavy machinery at 30 locations within Khartoum State using handheld radiation survey meters to detect and identify any radiation sources that might be present and to estimate radiation dose levels. The survey has resulted in detection of 16 sealed sources of (90)Sr and one of (226)Ra in aircraft scrap. Of course, (90)Sr sources are used in military aircraft as temperature sensors while (226)Ra is used for indicating fuel levels. These sources were found intact without spreading radioactivity contamination; however, none was detected in heavy machine scrap. The levels of radiation dose measured at 0.1m from the source fall within the range of 25.1-40.2 μSv/h with an average value of 33.52 ± 4.06 μSv/h. These orphan sources have been separated from the scrap, tested for possible leakage, conditioned and stored in waste management facility. The result of this study has revealed without doubt that the scrap constitute a serious source of public exposure and highlights the importance of legislation making radiation monitoring of scrap in the country mandatory before it is sold to metal industry for reprocessing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Customer relationship management in the agricultural machinery market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Letícia Pit Nunes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Customer Relationship Management can be regarded as a business approach. The objective was to know the customers, meet their expectations, and thus build customer loyalty. Although, the agricultural sector makes significant economic contributions to the Brazilian market and induces sharp competition among its companies, a huge opportunity still presents itself for the diffusion and implementation of CRM in the agricultural machinery sector. This study aimed to highlight the importance of customer management, by introducing the customer relationship management (CRM concept. This is possible in the event of reselling agricultural machines, with the intention of retaining the customers and raising the profitability of these companies. It is necessary to understand CRM as more than a mere a concept or a tool. It is a business strategy, an endeavor that must be endorsed by the entire company. The concessionaire must be perceived as greater than a mere reseller. It is to be viewed rather as a problem solver, as one who offers services that are high in quality and meet client specifics.

  10. Structure, Function and Regulation of the Hsp90 Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone which is essential in eukaryotes. It is required for the activation and stabilization of a wide variety of client proteins and many of them are involved in important cellular pathways. Since Hsp90 affects numerous physiological processes such as signal transduction, intracellular transport, and protein degradation, it became an interesting target for cancer therapy. Structurally, Hsp90 is a flexible dimeric protein composed of three different domains which adopt structurally distinct conformations. ATP binding triggers directionality in these conformational changes and leads to a more compact state. To achieve its function, Hsp90 works together with a large group of cofactors, termed co-chaperones. Co-chaperones form defined binary or ternary complexes with Hsp90, which facilitate the maturation of client proteins. In addition, posttranslational modifications of Hsp90, such as phosphorylation and acetylation, provide another level of regulation. They influence the conformational cycle, co-chaperone interaction, and inter-domain communications. In this review, we discuss the recent progress made in understanding the Hsp90 machinery.

  11. Comparison of methods for separating vibration sources in rotating machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Renata

    2017-12-01

    Vibro-acoustic signatures are widely used for diagnostics of rotating machinery. Vibration based automatic diagnostics systems need to achieve a good separation between signals generated by different sources. The separation task may be challenging, since the effects of the different vibration sources often overlap. In particular, there is a need to separate between signals related to the natural frequencies of the structure and signals resulting from the rotating components (signal whitening), as well as a need to separate between signals generated by asynchronous components like bearings and signals generated by cyclo-stationary components like gears. Several methods were proposed to achieve the above separation tasks. The present study compares between some of these methods. The paper also presents a new method for whitening, Adaptive Clutter Separation, as well as a new efficient algorithm for dephase, which separates between asynchronous and cyclo-stationary signals. For whitening the study compares between liftering of the high quefrencies and adaptive clutter separation. For separating between the asynchronous and the cyclo-stationary signals the study compares between liftering in the quefrency domain and dephase. The methods are compared using both simulated signals and real data.

  12. Vibration monitoring of EDF rotating machinery using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alguindigue, I.E.; Loskiewicz-Buczak, A.; Uhrig, R.E.; Hamon, L.; Lefevre, F.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration monitoring of components in nuclear power plants has been used for a number of years. This technique involves the analysis of vibration data coming from vital components of the plant to detect features which reflect the operational state of machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes, and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. Earlydetection is important because it can decrease the probability of catastrophic failures, reduce forced outgage, maximize utilization of available assets, increase the life of the plant, and reduce maintenance costs. This paper documents our work on the design of a vibration monitoring methodology based on neural network technology. This technology provides an attractive complement to traditional vibration analysis because of the potential of neural networks to operate in real-time mode and to handle data which may be distorted or noisy. Our efforts have been concentrated on the analysis and classification of vibration signatures collected by Electricite de France (EDF). Two neural networks algorithms were used in our project: the Recirculation algorithm and the Backpropagation algorithm. Although this project is in the early stages of development it indicates that neural networks may provide a viable methodology for monitoring and diagnostics of vibrating components. Our results are very encouraging

  13. Small machinery for pumping and compressing helium near 40K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, W.L.; Sixsmith, H.

    1984-01-01

    There is a significant need for small, reliable pumps and compressors suitable for circulating helium at temperatures near 4 0 K. Most pumps or compressors which have been developed to data for these applications are designed for relatively limited use. They are generally used in laboratory environments where life requirements for the experiments may be relatively short, being of the order of several hundred hours. In recent years, several applications have been identified where pumps or compressors (at liquid helium temperatures) must have high reliability if they are to be used successfully. These applications include liquid helium circulation systems through superconducting magnets and transmission lines, and cold compression applications where the compressor is used as a vacuum pump to lower the temperature of a liquid helium bath. This paper discusses the technical considerations which must be taken into account in the design and development of machinery to meet these needs. The design of a centrifugal machine which can act as a helium pump or compressor is presented

  14. Neural networks for the monitoring of rotating machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alguindigue, I.E.; Loskiewicz-Buczak

    1991-01-01

    Vibration monitoring of components in engineering systems and plants involves the collection of vibration data and detailed analysis to detect features which reflect the operational state of the machinery. The analysis leads to the identification of potential failures and their causes, and makes it possible to perform efficient preventive maintenance. This paper describes a methodology for the automation of some of the activities related to motion and vibration monitoring in these systems. The technique involves training a neural network to model the inter- relationship between signals from two related sensors mounted on an engineering system or component at a time when it is known to be operating properly. Then one signal (or its characteristics) is put into the neural network model to predict the second signal (or its characteristics). This predicted signal is continuously compared with the actual signal A deviation between the predicted and actual signal indicates a changing relationship, usually failure of the component or system. This deviation may be quantified and provides meaningful information about the degree of degradation and deterioration of the component

  15. Plate Waste in School Lunch Programs in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available School plate waste is of particular concern worldwide due to its adverse impacts not only on resource use and the environment, but also on students’ health, physical maturation, and academic achievement in the long term. Previous studies on school plate waste have all been conducted in industrialized countries, and more studies are badly needed in developing countries. In this paper, we report a pilot study on the patterns and causes of plate waste in school lunch programs in Beijing, China, by a combination of physical weighing, questionnaire survey, and semi-structured interview approaches. Our results show that the average amount of food waste generated by school students in Beijing in 2014 was 130 g/cap/meal, accounting for 21% of total food served. Staple food (43% and vegetables (42% were the dominant proportions. Buffet meals resulted in less plate waste than packed meals and set meals. Food supply patterns, the quality of canteen service, and the dietary habit and students’ knowledge of food production were the main influencing factors behind plate waste. To our best knowledge, our pilot study provides a first understanding of the overlooked plate waste in school lunch programs in China, and a good basis for further analysis in this field, and will be helpful in informing policy-making in relevant nutrition and education programs in schools in China.

  16. Vertical ozone characteristics in urban boundary layer in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiqiang; Xu, Honghui; Meng, Wei; Zhang, Xiaoling; Xu, Jing; Liu, Quan; Wang, Yuesi

    2013-07-01

    Vertical ozone and meteorological parameters were measured by tethered balloon in the boundary layer in the summer of 2009 in Beijing, China. A total of 77 tethersonde soundings were taken during the 27-day campaign. The surface ozone concentrations measured by ozonesondes and TEI 49C showed good agreement, albeit with temporal difference between the two instruments. Two case studies of nocturnal secondary ozone maxima are discussed in detail. The development of the low-level jet played a critical role leading to the observed ozone peak concentrations in nocturnal boundary layer (NBL). The maximum of surface ozone was 161.7 ppbv during the campaign, which could be attributed to abundant precursors storage near surface layer at nighttime. Vertical distribution of ozone was also measured utilizing conventional continuous analyzers on 325-m meteorological observation tower. The results showed the NBL height was between 47 and 280 m, which were consistent with the balloon data. Southerly air flow could bring ozone-rich air to Beijing, and the ozone concentrations exceeded the China's hourly ozone standard (approximately 100 ppb) above 600 m for more than 12 h.

  17. Application of DNA Machineries for the Barcode Patterned Detection of Genes or Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhixin; Luo, Guofeng; Wulf, Verena; Willner, Itamar

    2018-06-05

    The study introduces an analytical platform for the detection of genes or aptamer-ligand complexes by nucleic acid barcode patterns generated by DNA machineries. The DNA machineries consist of nucleic acid scaffolds that include specific recognition sites for the different genes or aptamer-ligand analytes. The binding of the analytes to the scaffolds initiate, in the presence of the nucleotide mixture, a cyclic polymerization/nicking machinery that yields displaced strands of variable lengths. The electrophoretic separation of the resulting strands provides barcode patterns for the specific detection of the different analytes. Mixtures of DNA machineries that yield, upon sensing of different genes (or aptamer ligands), one-, two-, or three-band barcode patterns are described. The combination of nucleic acid scaffolds acting, in the presence of polymerase/nicking enzyme and nucleotide mixture, as DNA machineries, that generate multiband barcode patterns provide an analytical platform for the detection of an individual gene out of many possible genes. The diversity of genes (or other analytes) that can be analyzed by the DNA machineries and the barcode patterned imaging is given by the Pascal's triangle. As a proof-of-concept, the detection of one of six genes, that is, TP53, Werner syndrome, Tay-Sachs normal gene, BRCA1, Tay-Sachs mutant gene, and cystic fibrosis disorder gene by six two-band barcode patterns is demonstrated. The advantages and limitations of the detection of analytes by polymerase/nicking DNA machineries that yield barcode patterns as imaging readout signals are discussed.

  18. Combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataperumal, R.R.; Mericle, G.E.

    1979-08-09

    A combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system and method for an electric vehicle is disclosed. The braking system is responsive to the applied hydraulic pressure in a brake line to control the braking of the vehicle to be completely hydraulic up to a first level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a constant braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly increasing braking force from the first level of applied brake line pressure to a higher second level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly decreasing braking force from the second level of applied line pressure to a third and higher level of applied line pressure, and to be completely hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force from the third level to all higher applied levels of line pressure.

  19. Optimization of hydraulic turbine diffuser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moravec Prokop

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic turbine diffuser recovers pressure energy from residual kinetic energy on turbine runner outlet. Efficiency of this process is especially important for high specific speed turbines, where almost 50% of available head is utilized within diffuser. Magnitude of the coefficient of pressure recovery can be significantly influenced by designing its proper shape. Present paper focuses on mathematical shape optimization method coupled with CFD. First method is based on direct search Nelder-Mead algorithm, while the second method employs adjoint solver and morphing. Results obtained with both methods are discussed and their advantages/disadvantages summarized.

  20. A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF NUCLEAR THERMAL HYDRAULICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Auria, F; Rohatgi, Upendra S.

    2017-01-12

    The nuclear thermal-hydraulics discipline was developed following the needs for nuclear power plants (NPPs) and, to a more limited extent, research reactors (RR) design and safety. As in all other fields where analytical methods are involved, nuclear thermal-hydraulics took benefit of the development of computers. Thermodynamics, rather than fluid dynamics, is at the basis of the development of nuclear thermal-hydraulics together with the experiments in complex two-phase situations, namely, geometry, high thermal density, and pressure.

  1. Calculation of saturated hydraulic conductivity of bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jun

    2006-01-01

    Hydraulic conductivity test has some defects such as weak repeatability, time-consuming. Taking bentonite as dual porous media, the calculation formula of the distance, d 2 , between montmorillonite in intraparticle pores is deduced. Improved calculated method of hydraulic conductivity is obtained using d 2 and Poiseuille law. The method is valid through the comparison with results of test and other methods. The method is very convenient to calculate hydraulic conductivity of bentonite of certain montmorillonite content and void ratio. (authors)

  2. Reactor Thermal Hydraulic Numerical Calculation And Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Ngoc Hai; Dang The Ba

    2008-01-01

    In the paper the results of analysis of thermal hydraulic state models using the numerical codes such as COOLOD, EUREKA and RELAP5 for simulation of the reactor thermal hydraulic states are presented. The calculations, analyses of reactor thermal hydraulic state and safety were implemented using different codes. The received numerical results, which were compared each to other, to experiment measurement of Dalat (Vietnam) research reactor and published results, show their appropriateness and capacity for analyses of different appropriate cases. (author)

  3. Molecular building blocks and their architecture in biologically/environmentally compatible soft matter chemical machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Taro; Banno, Taisuke; Nitta, Sachiko; Takinoue, Masahiro; Nomoto, Tomonori; Natsume, Yuno; Matsumura, Shuichi; Fujinami, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    This review briefly summarizes recent developments in the construction of biologically/environmentally compatible chemical machinery composed of soft matter. Since environmental and living systems are open systems, chemical machinery must continuously fulfill its functions not only through the influx and generation of molecules but also via the degradation and dissipation of molecules. If the degradation or dissipation of soft matter molecular building blocks and biomaterial molecules/polymers can be achieved, soft matter particles composed of them can be used to realize chemical machinery such as selfpropelled droplets, drug delivery carriers, tissue regeneration scaffolds, protocell models, cell-/tissuemarkers, and molecular computing systems.

  4. Genome-scale modeling of the protein secretory machinery in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feizi, Amir; Österlund, Tobias; Petranovic, Dina

    2013-01-01

    The protein secretory machinery in Eukarya is involved in post-translational modification (PTMs) and sorting of the secretory and many transmembrane proteins. While the secretory machinery has been well-studied using classic reductionist approaches, a holistic view of its complex nature is lacking....... Here, we present the first genome-scale model for the yeast secretory machinery which captures the knowledge generated through more than 50 years of research. The model is based on the concept of a Protein Specific Information Matrix (PSIM: characterized by seven PTMs features). An algorithm...

  5. Availability, functionality, and use of seat belts in Beijing taxis prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiter, Judy J; Gao, Liping; Qiu, Chen; Shi, Kan

    2009-03-01

    Use of driver seat belts and availability and functionality of passenger seat belts in a convenience sample of 231 Beijing taxis were examined in the months prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Driver and front passenger seat belt use was mandated in China from 2004 to help address the growing public health crisis of road trauma. Results from observations made by in-vehicle passengers revealed that 21.2% of drivers were correctly wearing a belt, approximately half were not, and one third were using the belt in a non-functional way. Over 3/4 of this sample of taxi drivers were unrestrained while working. The percentage of functionally available belts was higher for front than rear passengers (88.3% and 22.9%, respectively). This low rate of belt availability in rear seats calls into question the preparedness of the fleet to cater for the safety needs of foreign visitors to China, particularly those from countries with high levels of restraint use. Factors influencing the use/misuse of seat belts in China remain largely unexplored. Results of this pilot study support further investigations of barriers to using injury prevention mechanisms such as seat belts in less motorised countries.

  6. Modeling integrated cellular machinery using hybrid Petri-Boolean networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Berestovsky

    Full Text Available The behavior and phenotypic changes of cells are governed by a cellular circuitry that represents a set of biochemical reactions. Based on biological functions, this circuitry is divided into three types of networks, each encoding for a major biological process: signal transduction, transcription regulation, and metabolism. This division has generally enabled taming computational complexity dealing with the entire system, allowed for using modeling techniques that are specific to each of the components, and achieved separation of the different time scales at which reactions in each of the three networks occur. Nonetheless, with this division comes loss of information and power needed to elucidate certain cellular phenomena. Within the cell, these three types of networks work in tandem, and each produces signals and/or substances that are used by the others to process information and operate normally. Therefore, computational techniques for modeling integrated cellular machinery are needed. In this work, we propose an integrated hybrid model (IHM that combines Petri nets and Boolean networks to model integrated cellular networks. Coupled with a stochastic simulation mechanism, the model simulates the dynamics of the integrated network, and can be perturbed to generate testable hypotheses. Our model is qualitative and is mostly built upon knowledge from the literature and requires fine-tuning of very few parameters. We validated our model on two systems: the transcriptional regulation of glucose metabolism in human cells, and cellular osmoregulation in S. cerevisiae. The model produced results that are in very good agreement with experimental data, and produces valid hypotheses. The abstract nature of our model and the ease of its construction makes it a very good candidate for modeling integrated networks from qualitative data. The results it produces can guide the practitioner to zoom into components and interconnections and investigate them

  7. Liquid metal current collectors for high-speed rotating machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.L.

    1976-01-01

    Recent interest in superconducting motors and generators has created a renewed interest in homopolar machinery. Homopolar machine designs have always been limited by the need for compact, high-current, low-voltage, sliding electrical curent collectors. Conventional graphite-based solid brushes are inadequate for use in homopolar machines. Liquid metals, under certain conditions of relative sliding velocities, electrical currents, and magnetic fields are known to be capable of performing well in homopolar machines. An effort to explore the capabilities and limits of a tongue-and-groove style current collector, utilizing sodium-potassium eutectic alloy (NaK) as the working fluid in high sliding speed operation is reported here. A double current collector generator model with a 14.5-cm maximum rotor diameter, 20,000 rpm rotational capability, and electrical current carrying ability was constructed and operated successfully at a peripheral velocity of 125 m/s. The limiting factor in these experiments was a high-speed fluid-flow instability resulting in the ejection of the working fluid from the operating portions of the collectors. The effects of collector size and geometry, working fluid (NaK or water), and cover gas pressure are reported. Hydrodynamic frictional torque-speed curves are given for the two fluids and for several geometries. Electrical resistances as a function of peripheral velocity at 60 amperes are reported, and the phenomenology of the high-speed fluid-flow instabilities is discussed. The possibility of long-term high-speed operation of current collectors of the tongue-and-groove type, along with experimental and theoretical hydrodynamic friction losses at high peripheral velocities, is considered

  8. Radiation survey of aircraft and heavy machinery scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idriss, Hajo; Salih, Isam; Gumaa, Elsadig; Yassin, Abbas; Yousif, E.H.; Abdel Hamid, Saad Eldeen M.; Sam, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted primarily to survey aircraft and heavy machinery at 30 locations within Khartoum State using handheld radiation survey meters to detect and identify any radiation sources that might be present and to estimate radiation dose levels. The survey has resulted in detection of 16 sealed sources of 90 Sr and one of 226 Ra in aircraft scrap. Of course, 90 Sr sources are used in military aircraft as temperature sensors while 226 Ra is used for indicating fuel levels. These sources were found intact without spreading radioactivity contamination; however, none was detected in heavy machine scrap. The levels of radiation dose measured at 0.1 m from the source fall within the range of 25.1–40.2 μSv/h with an average value of 33.52±4.06 μSv/h. These orphan sources have been separated from the scrap, tested for possible leakage, conditioned and stored in waste management facility. The result of this study has revealed without doubt that the scrap constitute a serious source of public exposure and highlights the importance of legislation making radiation monitoring of scrap in the country mandatory before it is sold to metal industry for reprocessing. - Highlights: ► Sealed radioactive sources ( 90 Sr and 226 Ra) were detected in aircraft scrap. ► No source was detected in heavy machine scrap. ► Radiation dose measured at 0.1 m from the source can be used to estimate exposure to public. ► Monitoring of scrap was found to be useful for protection (from orphan sources).

  9. Hydraulic nuts (hydranuts) for critical bolted joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwell, S.

    2008-01-01

    HydraNuts replace the original nut and torquing equipment, combining the two functions into one system. Designed for simple installation and operation, HydraNuts are fitted to the stud bolts. Once all HydraNuts are fitted to the application, flexible hydraulic hoses are connected, forming a closed loop hydraulic harness, allowing simultaneous pressurization of all HydraNuts. Hydraulic pressure is obtained by the use of a pumping unit and the resultant load generated is transferred to the studs and flange closure is obtained. Locking rings are rotated into place, supporting the tensioned load mechanically after hydraulic pressure is released. The hose harness is removed. (author)

  10. Ozone and ozone injury on plants in and around Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Wuxing; Manning, W.J.; Wang, Xiaoke; Zhang, Hongxing; Sun, Xu; Zhang, Qianqian

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O 3 ) levels were assessed for the first time with passive samplers at 10 sites in and around Beijing in summer 2012. Average O 3 concentrations were higher at locations around Beijing than in the city center. Levels varied with site locations and ranged from 22.5 to 48.1 ppb and were highest at three locations. Hourly O 3 concentrations exceeded 40 ppb for 128 h and 80 ppb for 17 h from 2 to 9 in August at one site, where it had a real-time O 3 analyzer. Extensive foliar O 3 injury was found on 19 species of native and cultivated trees, shrubs, and herbs at 6 of the 10 study sites and the other 2 sites without passive sampler. This is the first report of O 3 foliar injury in and around Beijing. Our results warrant an extensive program of O 3 monitoring and foliar O 3 injury assessment in and around Beijing. - Highlights: • Plants have been threatened by high O 3 concentration in and around Beijing, China. • 19 plant species are reported as obvious ambient O 3 injury symptoms in Beijing. • The O 3 injury symptoms occur more often where ambient O 3 concentration is higher. • The results warrant more extensive and long-term study of ambient O 3 in China. - First report of ozone incidence and ozone injury on plants in and around Beijing, China

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing genotype are rarely observed in tuberculosis patients in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritacco, Viviana; López, Beatriz; Cafrune, Patricia I; Ferrazoli, Lucilaine; Suffys, Philip N; Candia, Norma; Vásquez, Lucy; Realpe, Teresa; Fernández, Jorge; Lima, Karla V; Zurita, Jeannete; Robledo, Jaime; Rossetti, Maria L; Kritski, Afranio L; Telles, Maria A; Palomino, Juan C; Heersma, Herre; van Soolingen, Dick; Kremer, Kristin; Barrera, Lucía

    2008-08-01

    The frequency of the Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a cause of tuberculosis (TB) in South America was determined by analyzing genotypes of strains isolated from patients that had been diagnosed with the disease between 1997 and 2003 in seven countries of the subcontinent. In total, 19 of the 1,202 (1.6%) TB cases carried Beijing isolates, including 11 of the 185 patients from Peru (5.9%), five of the 512 patients from Argentina (1.0%), two of the 252 Brazilian cases (0.8%), one of the 166 patients from Paraguay (0.6%) and none of the samples obtained from Chile (35), Colombia (36) and Ecuador (16). Except for two patients that were East Asian immigrants, all cases with Beijing strains were native South Americans. No association was found between carrying a strain with the Beijing genotype and having drug or multi-drug resistant disease. Our data show that presently transmission of M. tuberculosis strains of the Beijing genotype is not frequent in Latin America. In addition, the lack of association of drug resistant TB and infection with M. tuberculosis of the Beijing genotype observed presently demands efforts to define better the contribution of the virulence and lack of response to treatment to the growing spread of Beijing strains observed in other parts of the world.

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing genotype are rarely observed in tuberculosis patients in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Ritacco

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of the Beijing genotype of Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a cause of tuberculosis (TB in South America was determined by analyzing genotypes of strains isolated from patients that had been diagnosed with the disease between 1997 and 2003 in seven countries of the subcontinent. In total, 19 of the 1,202 (1.6% TB cases carried Beijing isolates, including 11 of the 185 patients from Peru (5.9%, five of the 512 patients from Argentina (1.0%, two of the 252 Brazilian cases (0.8%, one of the 166 patients from Paraguay (0.6% and none of the samples obtained from Chile (35, Colombia (36 and Ecuador (16. Except for two patients that were East Asian immigrants, all cases with Beijing strains were native South Americans. No association was found between carrying a strain with the Beijing genotype and having drug or multi-drug resistant disease. Our data show that presently transmission of M. tuberculosis strains of the Beijing genotype is not frequent in Latin America. In addition, the lack of association of drug resistant TB and infection with M. tuberculosis of the Beijing genotype observed presently demands efforts to define better the contribution of the virulence and lack of response to treatment to the growing spread of Beijing strains observed in other parts of the world.

  13. Numerical comparisons of the performance of a hydraulic coupling with different pump rotational speeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y; Feng, L H; Liu, S H; Chen, T J; Fan, H G

    2013-01-01

    A hydraulic coupling is a hydrodynamic device for transmitting rotating mechanical power. It is widely used in the machinery industry because of its advantages of high energy transmission efficiency, shock absorption and good adaptability, etc. In this paper, SIMPLEC algorithm and SST k-ω turbulence model were employed to simulate the steady state flows at operating conditions of two different rotational speeds (3000r/min and 7500 r/min) of the pump of a specified hydraulic coupling model. The results indicate the existence of similarity in the distributions of the flow fields between the two speeds, but the efficiency at the optimum condition is larger with higher rotational speed. It is concluded that the similarity principle of the efficiency of the hydraulic couplings does not apply in this case due to the relatively high rotating speed and small geometric specifications. It is also shown that the radially stratified pressure distribution on the torus section becomes more obvious with larger speed ratios, since the centrifugal movement plays more dominant roles over the circulating movement in these situations. When the speed ratio is small, with the completion of the circulating flow, the pressure distribution presents in a more circular pattern around the neutral zone of the torus section

  14. Rubella epidemic caused by genotype 1E rubella viruses in Beijing, China, in 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Zhu, Zhen; Liu, Donglei; Huang, Guohong; Huang, Fang; Wu, Jiang; Zhang, Tiegang; Xu, Wenbo; Pang, Xinghuo

    2013-04-18

    A series of different rubella vaccination strategies were implemented to control rubella and prevent congenital rubella virus infection in Beijing, China. The rubella vaccine was available in 1995 in Beijing, and was introduced into the Beijing immunization program (vaccine recipients at their own expense vaccination) in 2000, and was introduced into the National Expanded Program on Immunization (vaccine recipients free vaccination) in 2006. Rubella virological surveillance started in Beijing in 2007. The reported rubella incidence rate has decreased dramatically due to the introduction of the vaccine in Beijing since 1995. However, rubella epidemics occurred regardless in 2001 and 2007. The incidence rate among the floating population has gradually increased since 2002, reaching 2 or more times that in the permanent resident population. The peak age of rubella cases gradually changed from tree was constructed based on the World Health Organization standard sequence window for rubella virus isolates. All Beijing rubella virus isolates belong to genotype 1E/cluster1 and were clustered interspersed with viruses from other provinces in China. The effective number of infections indicated by a Bayesian skyline plot remained constant from 2007 to 2011. The proportion of rubella cases among the floating population has increased significantly in Beijing since 2002, and the disease burden gradually shifted to the older age group (15- to 39-year olds), which has become a major group with rubella infection since 2006. Genotype 1E rubella virus continuously caused a rubella epidemic in Beijing in 2007-2011 and was the predominant virus, and all Beijing genotype 1E viruses belong to cluster 1, which is also widely circulated throughout the country.

  15. Population growth, deforestation, and fuel substitution in Ming Beijing (Ecology, China)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, C.L. [Academy of Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2003-03-01

    This article investigates why people of Beijing started to burn coal instead of logs after the middle Ming Dynasty. The records of the city's population, illegal logging and the government's fuel policy showed the Beijing's population boom, which resulted in a stronger demand of cooking fuel and construction materials, had led to illegal logging. In the early 16th century, there were hardly any trees on the Yan Mountain north of Beijing. On the other hand, to provide huge amounts of fuel for the palace and offices, the government set up a charcoal works on the northern Tiahang Mountain, which is southwest of Beijing. In 1442, 57,000 tons firewood and charcoal were burned for official purposes. Even though the quantity declined later, it still consumed 30,000 tons firewood and charcoal a year during the middle of the 16th century. After the middle of the 15th century, forests around Beijing disappeared due to extensive logging. The prices of logs also went up. Therefore people started to use easily available coal. Since the late 15th century, written accounts of coal mining in the mountain west of Beijing were increasing. In the early Ming, Beijing's households burned logs. Since then, more and more adopted coal burning especially during the late Ming. The city became so dependent on West Mountain's coal mine that any northern invasion that crossed the Great Wall would cause a coal supply problem. Fuel substitution in Beijing throughout the Ming Dynasty was a good example of environmental change caused by urban development. After the loss of forests and the mass consumption of coal, the city's environment also changed. Ever since the late Ming, coal-burning-caused problems such as earth dumping and air pollution were worsening. Evidently, the city of Beijing was suffering from the decay of its environment since the late 16th century.

  16. Genetic Diversity and Transmission Characteristics of Beijing Family Strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Tomotada; Grandjean, Louis; Arikawa, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Noriko; Caviedes, Luz; Coronel, Jorge; Sheen, Patricia; Wada, Takayuki; Taype, Carmen A.; Shaw, Marie-Anne; Moore, David A. J.; Gilman, Robert H.

    2012-01-01

    Beijing family strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have attracted worldwide attention because of their wide geographical distribution and global emergence. Peru, which has a historical relationship with East Asia, is considered to be a hotspot for Beijing family strains in South America. We aimed to unveil the genetic diversity and transmission characteristics of the Beijing strains in Peru. A total of 200 Beijing family strains were identified from 2140 M. tuberculosis isolates obtained in Lima, Peru, between December 2008 and January 2010. Of them, 198 strains were classified into sublineages, on the basis of 10 sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). They were also subjected to variable number tandem-repeat (VNTR) typing using an international standard set of 15 loci (15-MIRU-VNTR) plus 9 additional loci optimized for Beijing strains. An additional 70 Beijing family strains, isolated between 1999 and 2006 in Lima, were also analyzed in order to make a longitudinal comparison. The Beijing family was the third largest spoligotyping clade in Peru. Its population structure, by SNP typing, was characterized by a high frequency of Sequence Type 10 (ST10), which belongs to a modern subfamily of Beijing strains (178/198, 89.9%). Twelve strains belonged to the ancient subfamily (ST3 [n = 3], ST25 [n = 1], ST19 [n = 8]). Overall, the polymorphic information content for each of the 24 loci values was low. The 24 loci VNTR showed a high clustering rate (80.3%) and a high recent transmission index (RTIn−1 = 0.707). These strongly suggest the active and on-going transmission of Beijing family strains in the survey area. Notably, 1 VNTR genotype was found to account for 43.9% of the strains. Comparisons with data from East Asia suggested the genotype emerged as a uniquely endemic clone in Peru. A longitudinal comparison revealed the genotype was present in Lima by 1999. PMID:23185395

  17. Characteristics and comparison of colorectal cancer incidence in Beijing with other regions in the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongmin; Yang, Lei; Du, Changzheng; Fang, Xuedong; Wang, Ning; Gu, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Background Population-based epidemiologic studies about colorectal cancer are lacking in China. This study aims to provide a basis for colorectal cancer screening and prevention, through analysis and comparisons the characteristics of the trends in colorectal cancer incidence in Beijing and selected representative regions. RESULTS The annual incidence rate in Beijing region increased significantly, from 9.40/100,000 in 1998 to 18.61/100,000 in 2012. The stratified rate showed that the incidence of distal colon adenocarcinoma increased substantially in men, especially in those aged > 75 years and residing in urban areas. Although the incidence rate in Beijing is still lower than in Shanghai, Jiashan, and Hong Kong in China, it is increasing rapidly. Further, the incidence rate in Beijing is lower than in New York, Oxford and Osaka, but higher than in Mumbai and Kyadondo. The incidence trend in Beijing is increasing especially in older groups, while in other regions such as New York, it is decreasing in these age groups. Materials and Methods Colorectal cancer incidence data were obtained from Beijing Cancer Registry and Cancer Incidence in Five Continents Plus database. All incidence rates were age-standardized according to Segi's world population. Incidence trends were characterized by calculating the annual percent changes using the Joinpoint Regression Program. Conclusions Compared with other regions, Beijing has a medium level of colorectal cancer incidence, however, it is increasing significantly. There are obvious differences in the cancer subsite, sex and age distributions between Beijing and other regions. Prevention and screening of colorectal cancer in Beijing should be strengthened. PMID:28445947

  18. Robust Control of Industrial Hydraulic Cylinder Drives - with Special Reference to Sliding Mode- & Finite-Time Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lasse

    In industry, performance requirements regarding machinery, applications etc., are constantly increasing, and with the development of reliable proportional flow control components to reasonable prices, the market is increasingly turning its attention toward controllable fluid power solutions....... For series produced systems such as presses etc., dedicated controls are often developed. However, the great majority of the hydraulic systems developed, are produced in limited numbers for specialized applications, and here stand alone economically feasible digital controllers with ease-of-use interfaces...... are widely used. Such controllers typically provide the possibility to employ traditional linear controls such as PID schemes, and variants of this, with parameters tunable via graphical user interfaces. However, due to the intrinsic nonlinearities of hydraulic systems as well as the often limited knowledge...

  19. Reductions of NO2 detected from space during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.; Boersma, K. F.; Van Roozendael, M.; De Smedt, I.; Kelder, H. M.

    2009-07-01

    During the 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games in Beijing (from 8 August to 17 September), local authorities enforced strong measures to reduce air pollution during the events. To evaluate the direct effect of these measures, we use the tropospheric NO2 column observations from the satellite instruments GOME-2 and OMI. We interpret these data against simulations from the regional chemistry transport model CHIMERE, based on a 2006 emission inventory, and find a reduction of NO2 concentrations of approximately 60% above Beijing during the Olympic period. The air quality measures were especially effective in the Beijing area, but also noticeable in surrounding cities of Tianjin (30% reduction) and Shijiazhuang (20% reduction).

  20. 2006 China Machinery and Electronical Products Trade Fair:Ample Fruits Shown

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ 2006 Malaysia China Machinery and Electronical Products Trade Fair, organized by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade(CCPIT), was held in August in Prince World Trade Center(PWTC), Kuala Lumpur.

  1. The accident analysis of mobile mine machinery in Indian opencast coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R; Ghosh, A K

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of large mining machinery related accidents in Indian opencast coal mines. The trends of coal production, share of mining methods in production, machinery deployment in open cast mines, size and population of machinery, accidents due to machinery, types and causes of accidents have been analysed from the year 1995 to 2008. The scrutiny of accidents during this period reveals that most of the responsible factors are machine reversal, haul road design, human fault, operator's fault, machine fault, visibility and dump design. Considering the types of machines, namely, dumpers, excavators, dozers and loaders together the maximum number of fatal accidents has been caused by operator's faults and human faults jointly during the period from 1995 to 2008. The novel finding of this analysis is that large machines with state-of-the-art safety system did not reduce the fatal accidents in Indian opencast coal mines.

  2. Guidelines for meeting emission regulations for rotating machinery with mechanical seals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanical seals have played a major role during many years in minimizing emissions to atmosphere in rotating machinery. A review is presented of the continuing innovations and new technologies to improve mechanical seal performance in terms of emissions.

  3. 49 CFR 1242.42 - Administration, repair and maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other casualties and insurance, lease rentals, joint facility rents, other rents, depreciation, joint facility, repairs billed to others... maintenance, machinery repair, equipment damaged, dismantling retired property, fringe benefits, other...

  4. Reconstitution of Biosynthetic Machinery for the Synthesis of the Highly Elaborated Indole Diterpene Penitrem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chengwei; Tagami, Koichi; Minami, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    KULNJ). Importantly, without conventional gene disruption, reconstitution of the biosynthetic machinery provided sufficient data to determine the pathway. It was thus demonstrated that the Aspergillus oryzae reconstitution system is a powerful method for studying the biosynthesis of complex natural products....

  5. Application of Choi—Williams Reduced Interference Time Frequency Distribution to Machinery Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard A. Gaberson

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses time frequency analysis of machinery diagnostic vibration signals. The short time Fourier transform, the Wigner, and the Choi–Williams distributions are explained and illustrated with test cases. Examples of Choi—Williams analyses of machinery vibration signals are presented. The analyses detect discontinuities in the signals and their timing, amplitude and frequency modulation, and the presence of different components in a vibration signal.

  6. An Association of Unique microRNA Turnover Machinery with Prostate Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    targeting of critical androgen receptor -604 coregulator interactions in prostate cancer . Nature communications 4, 1923, 605 doi:10.1038/ncomms2912 (2013...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0474 TITLE: An Association of Unique microRNA Turnover Machinery with Prostate Cancer Progression PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...14 Sep 2017 4. Title An Association of Unique microRNA Turnover Machinery with Prostate Cancer Progression 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  7. First description of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype in Argentina Primera descripción del genotipo Beijing de Mycobacterium tuberculosis en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Morcillo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available During a population-based study to genotype isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Buenos Aires Northern suburbs, we found isolates with molecular patterns related to those of the Beijing genotype. Five out of 590 (0.85% patients had isolates with spoligopattern identical to that of the Beijing family. Since two of these isolates showed identical IS6110RFLP pattern, we found only four different patterns containing 11 to 19 bands. The isolates were obtained from young people (including a 7 years-old child who were born in Argentina, and were living in a small area of our region. However, conventional contact tracing did not prove epidemiological linkage among them. These isolates were fully drug-susceptible to the first-line drugs. The comparison of the IS6110RFLP patterns from our isolates against a set of 19 reference Beijing patterns from the RIVM (The Netherlands confirmed that the strains belonged to the Beijing lineage. These findings might be partially explained by the important migration phenomena occurred during the last decade. Further surveillance studies would help in the following of Beijing family strain dissemination in our community.Durante un estudio poblacional para genotipificar aislamientos de Mycobacterium tuberculosis de Gran Buenos Aires Norte, se encontraron aislamientos con patrones moleculares relacionados con el genotipo Beijing. Cinco de 590 (0,85% pacientes tuvieron aislamientos con un patrón de spoligotyping idéntico al de la familia Beijing. Dos de esos aislamientos mostraron un patrón de IS6110 RFLP idéntico, por lo que finalmente fueron encontrados cuatro patrones diferentes conteniendo entre 11 y 19 bandas. Las cepas fueron aisladas de personas jóvenes incluyendo un niño de siete años de edad, todos ellos nacidos en Argentina y residentes en un pequeño distrito de nuestra región. Sin embargo, no pudo hallarse ninguna conexión epidemiológica entre ellos. La comparación de los patrones de IS6110

  8. Three-dimensional P velocity structure in Beijing area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiang-Wei; Chen, Yun-Tai; Wang, Pei-De

    2003-01-01

    A detail three-dimensional P wave velocity structure of Beijing, Tianjin and Tangshan area (BTT area) was determined by inverting local earthquake data. In total 16 048 P wave first arrival times from 16048 shallow and mid-depth crustal earthquakes, which occurred in and around the BTT area from 1992 to 1999 were used. The first arrival times are recorded by Northern China United Telemetry Seismic Network and Yanqing-Huailai Digital Seismic Network. Hypocentral parameters of 1 132 earthquakes with magnitude M L=1.7 6.2 and the three-dimensional P wave velocity structure were obtained simultaneously. The inversion result reveals the complicated lateral heterogeneity of P wave velocity structure around BTT area. The tomographic images obtained are also found to explain other seismological observations well.

  9. HEALTH OF URBAN POPULATION IN MOSCOW AND BEIJING AGGLOMERETIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana M. Malkhazova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results obtained under the joint Russian-Chinese RFBR project № 12-05-91175-ГФЕН_а aimed at assessment of the state of the environment and health of the population in urban areas in Russia and China. The paper presents the authors’ approach to a comprehensive evaluation of the impact of the environment on the populationhealth of urban agglomerations and a method of regional medico-geographical analysis. A series of analytical and synthetic maps was compiled and used for a comparative geographical analysis of medical and environmental situation in Moscow and Beijing – major metropolitan areas with different natural and socio-economic conditions. The paper discusses the influence of the environment on the state of public health and identifies the leading risk factors, both general and specific to each region.

  10. What Lee Raymond actually said in Beijing [15th WPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Lee.

    1997-01-01

    When Lee Raymond, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Exxon Corporation gave this keynote address at the recent World Petroleum Congress in Beijing, he drew attention to the way economic growth alleviates poverty and to the close linkage between economic growth and energy use. He also drew attention to the weakness of the scientific evidence for climate change being caused by fossil fuel burning and his doubts about the wisdom of setting targets for the reduction of CO 2 emissions. At a press conference after the presentation Lee Raymond assented to the suggestion that the European oil companies have been hijacked by the environmentalists. Petroleum Review has reproduced the full text of the speech so that readers can judge for themselves the merits of the arguments and their likely impact on the Kyoto conference. (UK)

  11. OL i Beijing - markedskræfternes sejr over moralen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørn

    2009-01-01

    to understand. Why did so many governments decide to support China and the Olympics in the end? This is one of the cricial questions to be answered in this article. The strating point of the analysis is the statement that the moral argument were overruled by economic interest and the politics of power. Thus...... the article examines and points out Cinas powerful economic role and the role of some of the most important Olympic sponsors in the world economy with the respect to questions of international politics.......Despite the servere criticism against Beijing as host of the Olympic Games the number of influential state reprsentatives from various countries at the opening ceremony had never been larger. In view of the strong moral criticism of the problems with the human rights in China this is difficult...

  12. Liquid metal thermal-hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottowski-Duemenil, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    This textbook is a report of the 26 years activity of the Liquid Metal Boiling Working Group (LMBWG). It summarizes the state of the art of liquid metal thermo-hydraulics achieved through the collaboration of scientists concerned with the development of the Fast Breeder Reactor. The first chapter entitled ''Liquid Metal Boiling Behaviour'', presents the background and boiling mechanisms. This section gives the reader a brief but thorough survey on the superheat phenomena in liquid metals. The second chapter of the text, ''A Review of Single and Two-Phase Flow Pressure Drop Studies and Application to Flow Stability Analysis of Boiling Liquid Metal Systems'' summarizes the difficulty of pressure drop simulation of boiling sodium in core bundles. The third chapter ''Liquid Metal Dry-Out Data for Flow in Tubes and Bundles'' describes the conditions of critical heat flux which limits the coolability of the reactor core. The fourth chapter dealing with the LMFBR specific topic of ''Natural Convection Cooling of Liquid Metal Systems''. This chapter gives a review of both plant experiments and out-of-pile experiments and shows the advances in the development of computing power over the past decade of mathematical modelling ''Subassembly Blockages Suties'' are discussed in chapter five. Chapter six is entitled ''A Review of the Methods and Codes Available for the Calculation on Thermal-Hydraulics in Rod-Cluster and other Geometries, Steady state and Transient Boiling Flow Regimes, and the Validation achieves''. Codes available for the calculation of thermal-hydraulics in rod-clusters and other geometries are reviewed. Chapter seven, ''Comparative Studies of Thermohydraulic Computer Code Simulations of Sodium Boiling under Loss of Flow Conditions'', represents one of the key activities of the LMBWG. Several benchmark exercises were performed with the aim of transient sodium boiling simulation in single channels and bundle blockages under steady state conditions and loss of

  13. [Air Quality Characteristics in Beijing During Spring Festival in 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Nian-liang; Chen, Tian; Zhang, Da-wei; Li, Yun-ting; Sun, Feng; Wei, Qiang; Liu, Jia-lin; Liu, Bao-xian; Sun, Rui-wen

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the impacts of emissions from fireworks on the air quality, monitoring data of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 chemical compositions of PM2.5 of automatic air quality stations in Beijing during Spring Festival(February 18th-24th) in 2015 were investigated. Moreover, we also estimated the fireworks on the New Year's Eve produced based on the ratio of PM.5 to CO. Analysis results showed that the concentrations of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 during 2015 Spring Festival was 116. 85, 184.71, 22. 14, and 36. 27 µg.m-3 respectively, which raised 52. 61%, 92. 41%, - 40. 15%, - 0.46% respectively compared to the same period in 2014; the concentration peaks of PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2 at 1 : 00 am on 19th was 412. 69, 541. 63, 152. 73, 51. 09 µg.m-3, respectively, which was increased 19. 02%, 14. 37%, 76. 57%, 11. 35% compared to that of 2014; the concentration peaks at dense population area were significantly higher than that in other districts; fireworks had great influence on the chemical compositions of PM2.5 especially on the concentrations of chloride ion, potassium ion, magnesian ion, which were 18. 85, 66. 72, and 70. 10 times than that in 2013-2014; fireworks resulted in severe air pollution in a short time and the estimated fireworks on the New Year's Eve was approximately 2. 13 x 10(5) kg of PM2.5. Reduction of pollutants during Spring Festival had a positive significant impact on air quality in Beijing.

  14. Assessment of hospital emergency management in the Beijing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yantao, Xin

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, the number of public health emergencies has increased. Improving hospital emergency management is an important challenge. This is a pilot study intended to assess hospital emergency management in the Beijing area, make recommendations to government health authorities and hospital managers, and offer references for similar studies. This was an observational, cross-sectional survey. Forty-five hospitals in the Beijing area were selected randomly. A self-administered questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. It comprised of three sections: (1) Section A was the introduction; (2) Section B asked for the respondent's personal information; and (3) Section C comprised the major part of the questionnaire and was intended to gather information regarding the hospital's general emergency management situation. The survey response rate was 44%, accounting for 29% of total hospitals that the study targeted. No hospital had an established emergency management department or full-time staff for emergency management. A total of 15-45% of the hospitals had established a hospital emergency management committee, performed a vulnerability analysis, or evaluated emergency management regularly. Twenty-five percent of respondents thought that the local government health authority had established an integrated hospital incident command system. A total of 40%-55% of hospitals contracted with outside institutions for supplements, backup of key functional systems and professional support. After the occurrence of the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic, Chinese hospital managers took many measures to improve hospital resilience. However, most of these efforts lacked the guidance of theories, concepts, principles, and methods. An integrated, standardized, operational hospital emergency management model has not been established. Although the survey response rate was relatively low, some clues for further study were discovered, and suggestions to the

  15. Design of Pumps for Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder; Olsen, Stefan; Bech, Thomas Nørgaard

    1999-01-01

    This paper considers the development of two pumps for water hydraulic applications. The pumps are based on two different working principles: The Vane-type pump and the Gear-type pump. Emphasis is put on the considerations that should be made to account for water as the hydraulic fluid.......KEYWORDS: water, pump, design, vane, gear....

  16. Uncertainty in hydraulic tests in fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Sung-Hoon; Koh, Yong-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Interpretation of hydraulic tests in fractured rock has uncertainty because of the different hydraulic properties of a fractured rock to a porous medium. In this study, we reviewed several interesting phenomena which show uncertainty in a hydraulic test at a fractured rock and discussed their origins and the how they should be considered during site characterisation. Our results show that the estimated hydraulic parameters of a fractured rock from a hydraulic test are associated with uncertainty due to the changed aperture and non-linear groundwater flow during the test. Although the magnitude of these two uncertainties is site-dependent, the results suggest that it is recommended to conduct a hydraulic test with a little disturbance from the natural groundwater flow to consider their uncertainty. Other effects reported from laboratory and numerical experiments such as the trapping zone effect (Boutt, 2006) and the slip condition effect (Lee, 2014) can also introduce uncertainty to a hydraulic test, which should be evaluated in a field test. It is necessary to consider the way how to evaluate the uncertainty in the hydraulic property during the site characterisation and how to apply it to the safety assessment of a subsurface repository. (authors)

  17. Hydraulically powered dissimilar teleoperated system controller design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, J.F.; Kress, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper will address two issues associated with the implementation of a hydraulically powered dissimilar master-slave teleoperated system. These issues are the overall system control architecture and the design of robust hydraulic servo controllers for the position control problem. Finally, a discussion of overall system performance on an actual teleoperated system will be presented

  18. Characteristics of Air Entrainment in Hydraulic Jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarkani, M. S. S.; Tan, L. W.; Al-Gheethi, A.

    2018-04-01

    The characteristics of hydraulic jump, especially the air entrainment within jump is still not properly understood. Therefore, the current work aimed to determine the size and number of air entrainment formed in hydraulic jump at three different Froude numbers and to obtain the relationship between Froude number with the size and number of air entrainment in hydraulic jump. Experiments of hydraulic jump were conducted in a 10 m long and 0.3 m wide Armfield S6MKII glass-sided tilting flume. Hydraulic jumps were produced by flow under sluice gate with varying Froude number. The air entrainment of the hydraulic jump was captured with a Canon Power Shot SX40 HS digital camera in video format at 24 frames per second. Three discharges have been considered, i.e. 0.010 m3/s, 0.011 m3/s, and 0.013 m3/s. For hydraulic jump formed in each discharge, 32 frames were selected for the purpose of analysing the size and number of air entrainment in hydraulic jump. The results revealed that that there is a tendency to have greater range in sizes of air bubbles as Fr1 increases. Experiments with Fr1 = 7.547. 7.707, and 7.924 shown that the number of air bubbles increases exponentially with Fr1 at a relationship of N = 1.3814 e 0.9795Fr1.

  19. Hydraulic loop: practices using open control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, J.A.; Alonso, L.; Sanchez, F.

    1998-01-01

    The Tecnatom Hydraulic Loop is a dynamic training platform. It has been designed with the purpose of improving the work in teams. With this system, the student can obtain a full scope vision of a system. The hydraulic Loop is a part of the Tecnatom Maintenance Centre. The first objective of the hydraulic Loop is the instruction in components, process and process control using open control system. All the personal of an electric power plant can be trained in the Hydraulic Loop with specific courses. The development of a dynamic tool for tests previous to plant installations has been an additional objective of the Hydraulic Loop. The use of this platform is complementary to the use of full-scope simulators in order to debug and to analyse advanced control strategies. (Author)

  20. Hydraulic jumps in a channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonn, D.; Andersen, Anders Peter; Bohr, Tomas

    2009-01-01

    We present a study of hydraulic jumps with flow predominantly in one direction, created either by confining the flow to a narrow channel with parallel walls or by providing an inflow in the form of a narrow sheet. In the channel flow, we find a linear height profile upstream of the jump as expected......'s mixing-length theory with a mixing length that is proportional to the height of the fluid layer. Using averaged boundary-layer equations, taking into account the friction with the channel walls and the eddy viscosity, the flow both upstream and downstream of the jump can be understood. For the downstream...... subcritical flow, we assume that the critical height is attained close to the channel outlet. We use mass and momentum conservation to determine the position of the jump and obtain an estimate which is in rough agreement with our experiment. We show that the averaging method with a varying velocity profile...

  1. On hydraulics of capillary tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Aloyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the laws of motion of water in the capillary tubes, taken as a model for flowing well, on the analogical net count device. For capillary tube the lower limit value of flow rate is empirically determined above which the total hydraulic resistance of the capillary is practically constant. The specificity of the phenomenon is that the regime of motion, by a Reynolds number, for a given flow rate still remains laminar. This circumstance can perplex the specialists, so the author invites them to the scientific debate on the subject of study. Obviously, to identify the resulting puzzle it is necessary to conduct a series of experiments using capillaries of different lengths and diameters and with different values of overpressure. The article states that in tubes with very small diameter the preliminary magnitude of capillary rise of water in the presence of flow plays no role and can be neglected.

  2. HANARO thermal hydraulic accident analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chul; Kim, Heon Il; Lee, Bo Yook; Lee, Sang Yong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-01

    For the safety assessment of HANARO, accident analyses for the anticipated operational transients, accident scenarios and limiting accident scenarios were conducted. To do this, the commercial nuclear reactor system code. RELAP5/MOD2 was modified to RELAP5/KMRR; the thermal hydraulic correlations and the heat exchanger model was changed to incorporate HANARO characteristics. This report summarizes the RELAP/KMRR calculation results and the subchannel analyses results based on the RELAP/KMRR results. During the calculation, major concern was placed on the integrity of the fuel. For all the scenarios, the important accident analysis parameters, i.e., fuel centerline temperatures and the minimum critical heat flux ratio(MCHFR), satisfied safe design limits. It was verified, therefore, that the HANARO was safely designed. 21 tabs., 89 figs., 39 refs. (Author) .new.

  3. Hydraulically amplified PZT mems actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Robin R.

    2004-11-02

    A hydraulically amplified microelectromechanical systems actuator. A piece of piezoelectric material or stacked piezo bimorph is bonded or deposited as a thin film. The piece is operatively connected to a primary membrane. A reservoir is operatively connected to the primary membrane. The reservoir contains a fluid. A membrane is operatively connected to the reservoir. In operation, energizing the piezoelectric material causing the piezoelectric material to bow. Bowing of the piezoelectric material causes movement of the primary membrane. Movement of the primary membrane results in a force in being transmitted to the liquid in the reservoir. The force in the liquid causes movement of the membrane. Movement of the membrane results in an operating actuator.

  4. Dolomitic lime containing hydraulic additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagzdina, S.; Sedmalis, U.; Bidermanis, L.; Liepins, J.; Grosvalds, I.

    1997-01-01

    To obtain qualitative dolomitic lime the optimum calcination temperature of dolomite containing about 9 % of clayey substances is 900 deg C. The mechanical strength of dolomitic lime containing 30 % of brick waste additive after 6-9 months of hardening is 1.4-1.5 times higher than that of samples without hydraulic additive, for calcium lime - 2.2-2.6 times higher. Generally the mechanical strength of dolomitic lime is higher than that one of calcium lime. It can be explained by the active role of MgO in the hydration and hardening processes of dolomitic lime. Xray diffraction phase analysis was performed by X-ray diffractometer DPON-3M with Cu-K α emission filter

  5. effective hydraulic conductivity for a soil of variable pore size

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: hydraulic conductivity, soil, infiltration, permeability, water. 1. INTRODUCTION. INTRODUCTION. INTRODUCTION. Accurate determination of hydraulic conductivity is very crucial for infiltration and runoff estimation. Factors which affect water infiltration in the soil include hydraulic conductivity, wetting front and soil.

  6. Light source for synchrotron radiation x-ray topography study at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (BSRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jiyong; Jiang Jianhua; Tian Yulian

    1992-01-01

    Characteristics of the synchrotron radiation source for X-ray topography study at Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (BSRL) is described, local geometrical resolution of topographies is discussed, and the diffracting intensities of white beam topography is given

  7. Economic evaluation of health losses from air pollution in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Yu, Xueying; Wang, Ying; Fan, Chunyang

    2016-06-01

    Aggravated air pollution in Beijing, China has caused serious health concern. This paper comprehensively evaluates the health losses from illness and premature death caused by air pollution in monetary terms. We use the concentration of PM10 as an indicator of the pollution since it constitutes the primary pollutant in Beijing. By our estimation, air pollution in Beijing caused a health loss equivalent to Ұ583.02 million or 0.03 % of its GDP. Most of the losses took the form of depreciation in human capital that resulted from premature death. The losses from premature deaths were most salient for people of either old or young ages, with the former group suffering from the highest mortality rates and the latter group the highest per capital losses of human capitals from premature death. Policies that target on PM10 emission reduction, urban vegetation expansion, and protection of vulnerable groups are all proposed as possible solutions to air pollution risks in Beijing.

  8. Comments on Ge Zhaoguang’s Reading of the "Yŏnhaeng-nok" (Journeys to Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hsin Yeh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ge Zhaoguang 葛兆光. Xiangxiang yiyu: Du Lichao Chaoxian hanwen Yanxing wenxian zhaji 葛兆光,想象异域:读李朝朝鲜韩文燕行文献札记 [Imagining a foreign place: Notes on Korean Yi-dynasty Beijing journals in classical Chinese]. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 2014. 302 pp., including three appendices and a reference bibliography. ISBN: 978-7101099430. Cross-Currents co-editor Wen-hsin Yeh (University of California, Berkeley discusses a contemporary Chinese commentary on the Yŏnhaeng-nok (Ch. Yanxinglu, Journeys to Beijing, a collection of Chosŏn-era travelogues written by Korean envoys to China (specifically, Beijing.

  9. The Temperament of a City: A Postscript to Post-Olympic Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Ruan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There are two kinds of amazement in art and architecture: one relies on the ingenuity of artifice to arouse a feeling of enchantment, while the other causes an awe-inspiring ecstasy through the shock of the new. Beijing may have won the race in the latter, with spectacles such as the Olympic Games, but does this prove that a new Beijing has been reinvented?This paper examines the two kinds of amazement to examine two pairs of showcase Olympic buildings: 1 Beijing International Airport’s Terminal 3 and the Olympic Tennis Centre and 2 the Olympic Stadium and the CCTV Tower – to ask what they say about Beijing, and its temperament. It also questions whether or not it is possible to reinvent a new city once its temperament has been formed, and in what way this temperament may be related to the creation of public space, or place.

  10. Land use-related chemical composition of street sediments in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Cen; Neumann, Thomas; Norra, Stefan; Stüben, Doris

    2004-01-01

    More than 10 million people are currently living in Beijing. This city faces severe anthropogenic air pollution caused by an intense vehicle increase (11% per year in China), coal combusting power plants, heavy industry, huge numbers of household and restaurant cookers, and domestic heating stoves. Additionally, each year dust storms are carrying particulate matter from the deserts of Gobi and Takla Makan towards Beijing, especially in spring. Other geogenic sources of particulate matter which contribute to the air pollution are bare soils, coal heaps and construction sites occurring in and around Beijing. Streets function as receptor surfaces for atmospheric dusts. Thus, street sediments consist of particles of different chemical compositions from many different sources, such as traffic, road side soils and industry. Distributions and concentrations of various chemical elements in street sediments were investigated along a rural-urban transect in Beijing, China. Chemical elements were determined with X-ray fluorescence analysis. Factor analysis was used to extract most important element sources contributing to particulate pollution along a main arterial route of the Chinese capital. The statistical evaluation of the data by factor analysis identifies three main anthropogenic sources responsible for the contamination of Beijing street sediments. The first source is a steel factory in the western part of Beijing. From this source, Mn, Fe, and Ti were emitted into the atmosphere through chimneys and by wind from coal heaps used as the primary energy source for the factory. The second source is a combination of traffic, domestic heating and some small factories in the center of Beijing discharging Cu, Pb, Zn and Sn. Calcium and Cr characterize a third anthropogenic element source of construction materials such as concrete and mortar. Beside the anthropogenic contamination, some elements like Y, Zr, Nb, Ce, and Rb are mainly derived from natural soils and from the

  11. A modeling analysis of a heavy air pollution episode occurred in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. An

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM and ozone in Beijing often exceed healthful levels in recent years, therefore China is to taking steps to improve Beijing's air quality for the 2008 Olympic Games. In this paper, the Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ Modeling System was used to investigate a heavy air pollution episode in Beijing during 3–7 April 2005 to obtain the basic information of how heavy air pollution formed and the contributions of local sources and surround emissions. The modeling domain covered from East Asia with four nested grids with 81 to 3 km horizontal resolution focusing on urban Beijing. This was coupled with a regional emissions inventory with a 10 km resolution and a local 1 km Beijing emissions database. The trend of predicted concentrations of various pollutants agreed reasonably well with the observations and captured the main features of this heavy pollution episode. The simulated column concentration distribution of PM was correlated well with the MODIS remote sensing products. Control runs with and without Beijing emissions were conducted to quantify the contributions of non-Beijing sources (NBS to the Beijing local air pollution. The contributions of NBS to each species differed spatially and temporally with the order of PM2.5>PM10>SO2> soil for this episode. The percentage contribution of NBS to fine particle (PM2.5 in Beijing was averaged about 39%, up to 53% at the northwest of urban Beijing and only 15% at southwest. The spatial distribution of NBS contributions for PM10 was similar to that for PM2.5, with a slightly less average percentage of about 30%. The average NBS contributions for SO2 and soil (diameter between 2.5 μm and 10 μm were 18% and 10%. In addition, the pollutant transport flux was calculated and compared at different levels to investigate transport pathway and magnitude. It was found

  12. A monitor system for end cap shower counter of Beijing spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Man; Xia Xiaomi; Lai Yuanfen; Cheng Baosen; Li Jin

    1993-01-01

    To keep a large-scale detector system running in a correct condition and to obtain some correct parameters, it is necessary to have a monitor system monitoring the detector system operation in real time. In the paper, the structure of End Cap Shower Counter monitor system of Beijing Spectrometer is described. Some properties of this monitor system and the real-time monitoring results during operation of Beijing Spectrometer are given

  13. Physics Accomplishments and Future Prospects of the BES Experiments at the Beijing Electron-Positron Collider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, Roy A.; Harris, Frederick A.; Mitchell, Ryan E.

    2016-10-01

    The cornerstone of the Chinese experimental particle physics program is a series of experiments performed in the τ-charm energy region. China began building e+e- colliders at the Institute for High Energy Physics in Beijing more than three decades ago. Beijing Electron Spectrometer (BES) is the common root name for the particle physics detectors operated at these machines. We summarize the development of the BES program and highlight the physics results across several topical areas.

  14. Properties of Aerosols during a Dust Storm over the Beijing Area,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-12

    THE BEIJING AREA by Zhou Mingyu , Qu Shaohou, et al DTIC S ELECTE JAN 04 1984 N Lum E Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 84 01 04 015...STORM OVER THE BEIJING AREA By: Zhou Mingyu , Qu Shaohou, et al. English~ pages: 22 Source: Huanjing Kexue Xuebao, Vol. 1, Nr. 3, September 1981, pp... Mingyu , Qu Shaohou, Song Ximing, Li Yuying, Yang Shaojin and Qian Qinfang Zhou, Qu, Song and Li of Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy

  15. Letters from Augustin Hallerstein, an eighteenth century Jesuit astronomer in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juznic, Stanislav

    2008-11-01

    Augustin Hallerstein (1703-1774) was the last astronomer sent to Beijing by the Society of Jesus. He left Europe for China in his mid-thirties, and continued to send letters back home until he died thirty-five years later. These letters and reports contained important information on Chinese astronomy, and were read in the courts of Europe; many were also published. Hallerstein was one of the most important European astronomers in Beijing, his European publications surpassing those of his predecessors.

  16. Tropospheric ozone trend over Beijing from 2002–2010: ozonesonde measurements and modeling analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Wang; P. Konopka; Y. Liu; H. Chen; R. Müller; F. Plöger; M. Riese; Z. Cai; D. Lü

    2012-01-01

    Using a combination of ozonesonde data and numerical simulations of the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS), the trend of tropospheric ozone (O3) during 2002–2010 over Beijing was investigated. Tropospheric ozone over Beijing shows a winter minimum and a broad summer maximum with a clear positive trend in the maximum summer ozone concentration over the last decade. The observed significant trend of tropospheric column ozone is mainly caused by photoche...

  17. The Climatology of Low-Level Jet in Beijing and Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yucong; Guo, Jianping; Liu, Shuhua; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Gen; Lin, Yanluan; Zhai, Panmao

    2018-03-01

    The important roles of low-level jet (LLJ) in transport of heat, moisture, and pollutants have long been recognized. However, partly due to the lack of long-term observations, the characteristics of LLJs in Beijing and Guangzhou have not been well understood. Using long-term wind profiler observations and numerical simulations, the basic climatological characteristics of LLJ in Beijing and Guangzhou were documented, and their relationships with large- and local-scale forcings were investigated. The occurrence frequencies of LLJ in both megacities approximately exhibit a bimodal distribution during an annual cycle. In terms of the seasonality, the LLJs in Beijing occur more often in spring and winter, and those in Guangzhou appear more frequently from October to December and from February to April. Pronounced diurnal variations of LLJ are found in Beijing, where most LLJs occurred during the nighttime, and the diurnal variations of LLJ in Guangzhou are less prominent. Favorable synoptic conditions for LLJ formations in Beijing are those having a southwest-northeast or southeast-northwest pressure gradient across Beijing. Dominant synoptic patterns associated with LLJs in Guangzhou are those having a low-pressure or high-pressure system to the northwest. Overall, the LLJs are primarily induced by synoptic forcings and modulated by the diurnal evolution of planetary boundary layer. The key findings from this study provide us a better understanding of the LLJs in these highly populated regions.

  18. Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jisong; Zhang Yongjie

    2008-01-01

    Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO 2 emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO 2 using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy

  19. [Research on the virtual water composition and virtual water trade for agriculture in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-rui; Wang, Yan; Wang, Jun-hong; Dong, Yan-yan; Han, Zhao-xing

    2007-12-01

    Based on the irrigation norm of typical district and county, and revised by the isoline map of Chinese crops water demand, the change of crops program was analyzed as well as the agricultural water use and its GDP benefits. Then the virtual water was calculated for years. At last, the input-output method was used to calculate the trade of virtual water in Beijing. As the results, the virtual water for cereal crops has been decreasing in Beijing, from 1.832 x 10(9) m3 in 1990 to 4.283 x 10(8) m3 in 2004. Otherwise the virtual water for technical crops has been increasing, which is from 9.06 x 10(8) m3 in 1990 to 1.492 x 10(9) m3 in 2004. On the whole, the virtual water for crops has been decreasing in Beijing. From the angle of primary products Beijing is a virtual water importing area. Virtual water importing of annual average is 2.37 x 10(8) m3, which is about 5.93% of the total water of Beijing. Virtual water has been an important supplement of local real water of Beijing.

  20. Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jisong [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)], E-mail: js_wub@buaa.edu.cn; Zhang Yongjie [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-09-15

    Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO{sub 2} emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO{sub 2} using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy.

  1. Olympic Games promote the reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases in Beijing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jisong; Zhang, Yongjie [China Centre of Recycle Economy Research, School of Economics and Management, Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2008-09-15

    Global climate change is one of the most serious global environmental problems faced by humankind at present. Serious attention should be paid and precautions should be taken before disasters occur. The amount of CO{sub 2} emissions in China has increased during the past few years and the Chinese government and people have attached great importance to this phenomenon and treated it seriously. With the instruction of scientific development viewpoint, Beijing has made significant progress in emissions reduction through technological innovation, industrial structure adjustment, promoting energy efficiency and utilization of renewable energy, and absorption of CO{sub 2} using forest and wetland, since bidding for Olympic Games. At the same time, energy conservation and emissions reduction measures taken in the construction of Beijing Olympic stadiums just incarnate the Beijing Green Olympics. Using the Beijing Olympic Games as a turning-point, adopting energy conservation and emissions reduction measures, Beijing will make contributions to reduction of greenhouse gases and slowing down climate changes and Beijing Olympic Games will leave behind an inheritance for future generations to enjoy. (author)

  2. Thermal-hydraulic unreliability of passive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzanos, C.P.; Saltos, N.T.

    1995-01-01

    Advanced light water reactor designs like AP600 and the simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR) use passive safety systems for accident prevention and mitigation. Because these systems rely on natural forces for their operation, their unavailability due to hardware failures and human error is significantly smaller than that of active systems. However, the coolant flows predicted to be delivered by these systems can be subject to significant uncertainties, which in turn can lead to a significant uncertainty in the predicted thermal-hydraulic performance of the plant under accident conditions. Because of these uncertainties, there is a probability that an accident sequence for which a best estimate thermal-hydraulic analysis predicts no core damage (success sequence) may actually lead to core damage. For brevity, this probability will be called thermal-hydraulic unreliability. The assessment of this unreliability for all the success sequences requires very expensive computations. Moreover, the computational cost increases drastically as the required thermal-hydraulic reliability increases. The required computational effort can be greatly reduced if a bounding approach can be used that either eliminates the need to compute thermal-hydraulic unreliabilities, or it leads to the analysis of a few bounding sequences for which the required thermal-hydraulic reliability is relatively small. The objective of this paper is to present such an approach and determine the order of magnitude of the thermal-hydraulic unreliabilities that may have to be computed

  3. Hydraulic Fracturing and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayatollahy Tafti, T.; Aminzadeh, F.; Jafarpour, B.; de Barros, F.

    2013-12-01

    In this presentation, we highlight two key environmental concerns of hydraulic fracturing (HF), namely induced seismicity and groundwater contamination (GC). We examine the induced seismicity (IS) associated with different subsurface fluid injection and production (SFIP) operations and the key operational parameters of SFIP impacting it. In addition we review the key potential sources for possible water contamination. Both in the case of IS and GC we propose modeling and data analysis methods to quantify the risk factors to be used for monitoring and risk reduction. SFIP include presents a risk in hydraulic fracturing, waste water injection, enhanced oil recovery as well as geothermal energy operations. Although a recent report (NRC 2012) documents that HF is not responsible for most of the induced seismicities, we primarily focus on HF here. We look into vaious operational parameters such as volume and rate of water injection, the direction of the well versus the natural fracture network, the depth of the target and the local stress field and fault system, as well as other geological features. The latter would determine the potential for triggering tectonic related events by small induced seismicity events. We provide the building blocks for IS risk assessment and monitoring. The system we propose will involve adequate layers of complexity based on mapped seismic attributes as well as results from ANN and probabilistic predictive modeling workflows. This leads to a set of guidelines which further defines 'safe operating conditions' and 'safe operating zones' which will be a valuable reference for future SFIP operations. We also illustrate how HF can lead to groundwater aquifer contamination. The source of aquifer contamination can be the hydrocarbon gas or the chemicals used in the injected liquid in the formation. We explore possible pathways of contamination within and discuss the likelihood of contamination from each source. Many of the chemical compounds used

  4. Hydraulic fracturing of rock-fill dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jie WANG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The condition in which hydraulic fracturing in core of earth-rock fill dam maybe induced, the mechanism by which the reason of hydraulic fracturing canbe explained, and the failure criterion by which the occurrence of hydraulicfracturing can be determined, were investigated. The condition dependson material properties such as, cracks in the core and low permeability ofcore soil, and “water wedging” action in cracks. An unsaturated core soiland fast impounding are the prerequisites for the formation of “waterwedging” action. The mechanism of hydraulic fracturing can be explainedby fracture mechanics. The crack propagation induced by water pressuremay follow any of mode I, mode II and mixed mode I-II. Based on testingresults of a core soil, a new criterion for hydraulic fracturing was suggested,from which mechanisms of hydraulic fracturing in the core of rock-fill damwere discussed. The results indicated that factors such as angle betweencrack surface and direction of principal stress, local stress state at thecrack, and fracture toughness KIC of core soil may largely affect theinduction of hydraulic fracturing and the mode of the propagation of thecrack.The condition in which hydraulic fracturing in core of earth-rock fill dam maybe induced, the mechanism by which the reason of hydraulic fracturing canbe explained, and the failure criterion by which the occurrence of hydraulicfracturing can be determined, were investigated. The condition dependson material properties such as, cracks in the core and low permeability ofcore soil, and “water wedging” action in cracks. An unsaturated core soiland fast impounding are the prerequisites for the formation of “waterwedging” action. The mechanism of hydraulic fracturing can be explainedby fracture mechanics. The crack propagation induced by water pressuremay follow any of mode I, mode II and mixed mode I-II. Based on testingresults of a core soil, a new criterion for hydraulic fracturing

  5. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A HYDRAULIC PISTON

    OpenAIRE

    Santos De la Cruz, Eulogio; Rojas Lazo, Oswaldo; Yenque Dedios, Julio; Lavado Soto, Aurelio

    2014-01-01

    A hydraulic system project includes the design, materials selection and construction of the hydraulic piston, hydraulic circuit and the joint with the pump and its accesories. This equiment will be driven by the force of moving fluid, whose application is in the devices of machines, tools, printing, perforation, packing and others. El proyecto de un sistema hidráulico, comprende el diseño, selección de materiales y construcción del pistón hidráulico, circuito hidráulico y el ensamble con l...

  6. Experimental thermal hydraulics in support of FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmakumar, G.; Anand Babu, C.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Vaidyanathan, G.

    2009-01-01

    The thermal hydraulic design plays a crucial role for the safe and economical deployment of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR). Robust experimental programmes are required in support of LMFBR thermal hydraulics design. The philosophy of testing has been to construct small scale models to understand the physical behaviour and to build larger scale models to optimize the component design. The experiments are conducted either in sodium or using a simulant like water/air. The paper gives a brief account of the various thermal hydraulic experiments carried out in support of the design of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR). (author)

  7. High myopia in Greater Beijing School Children in 2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Guo

    Full Text Available To assess prevalence and associated factors of myopia and high myopia in schoolchildren in Greater Beijing.The school-based, cross-sectional Greater Beijing School Children Myopia study was carried out in the year 2016 in 54 schools randomly selected from 15 districts in Beijing. Non-cycloplegic auto-refractometry of the right eyes was performed.The study included 35,745 (99.4% out of 35,968 eligible pupils with a mean age of 12.6±3.4 years (range 6-18 years. Prevalence of myopia defined as myopic refractive error of ≥-0.50 diopters (D,≥-1D,≥-6D,≥-8D and ≥-10D was 70.9%(95% confidence intervals (CI:70.5,71.4, 60.9% (95%CI:60.4,61.4, 8.6%(95%CI:8.4,8.9, 2.2%(95%CI:2.0,2.4, and 0.3% (95%CI:0.3,0.4, respectively. The frequency of high myopia (≥-6D, ≥-8D, ≥-10D increased from 1.5% (95%CI:1.0,2.0, 0.4% (95%CI:0.1,0.6 and 0.1% (95%CI:0.00,0.02, respectively in 10-year-olds to 19.4% (95%CI:17.3,21.6, 5.2% (95%CI:4.0,6.4 and 0.9% (95%CI:0.4,1.5, respectively, in 18-year-olds. Mean refractive error in the 18-year-olds was -3.74±2.56D (median:-3.63D;range:-19.6D to + 6.25D. Higher prevalence of high myopia (≥-6D and ≥-8D was correlated (all P<0.001 with older age (OR:1.18, and 1.15, respectively, female gender (OR: 1.44 and 1.40, respectively, higher body mass index (OR: 1.02 and 1.03, respectively, taller body height (OR: 1.03 and 1.02, respectively, urban region of habitation (OR: 1.26 and 1.33, respectively and higher school type (OR:1.57 and 2.22, respectively. Prevalence of severe high myopia (≥-10D was associated only with older age (P<0.001; OR: 1.44; 95%CI: 1.31, 1.59 but not with any education-related parameter such as higher school type (P = 0.48, urban region of habitation (P = 0.07 or female gender (P = 0.37.In this most recent survey, prevalence of high myopia (≥-6D:19.4%;≥-8D:5.2%;≥-10D:0.9% in 18-year-old school children was higher than in previous surveys from mainland China. In contrast to minor high myopia

  8. Micrometeorological flux measurements of aerosol and gases above Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemitz, Eiko; Langford, Ben; Mullinger, Neil; Cowan, Nicholas; Coyle, Mhairi; Acton, William Joe; Lee, James; Fu, Pingqing

    2017-04-01

    Air pollution is estimated to cause 1.6 million premature deaths in China every year and in the winter 2016/17 Beijing had to issue health alerts and put in place ad hoc limitations on industrial and vehicular activity. Much of this pollution is attributed to emissions from industrial processes and in particular coal combustion. By contrast, the diffuse pollutant sources within the city are less well understood. This includes, e.g., emissions from the Beijing traffic fleet, the sewage system, food preparation, solid fuel combustion in the streets and small industrial processes. Within the framework of a major UK-Chinese collaboration to study air pollution and its impact on human health in Beijing, we therefore measured fluxes of a large range of pollutants from a height of 102 m on the 325 m meteorological tower at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics. Several instruments were mounted at 102 m: fluxes of CO2 and H2O were measured with an infrared gas analyser (LiCOR 7500) and fluxes of ozone with a combination of a relative fast-response ozone analyser (ROFI) and a 2B absolute O3 instrument. Total particle number fluxes were measured with a condensation particle counter (TSI CPC 3785), and size-segregated fluxes over the size range 0.06 to 20 μm with a combination of an optical Ultrafine High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer (UHSAS) and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer Spectrometer (TSI APS3321). Ammonia (NH3) fluxes were measured for the first time above the urban environment using an Aerodyne compact quantum cascade laser (QCL). In addition, composition resolved aerosol fluxes were measured with an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), operated in a measurement container at the bottom of the tower, which subsampled from a 120 m long copper tube (15 mm OD). The analysis so far suggests that, due to often low wind speeds, fluxes were at times de-coupled from the surface. Fluxes normalised by CO2, a tracer for the amount of fossil fuel consumed, should be

  9. Hydrochemical and isotopic investigation of atmospheric precipitation in Beijing, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Yuanzheng, E-mail: diszyz@163.com [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100875 (China); Wang, Jinsheng, E-mail: wangjs@bnu.edu.cn [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang, Yang [College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Teng, Yanguo; Zuo, Rui; Huan, Huan [College of Water Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Engineering Research Center of Groundwater Pollution Control and Remediation, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2013-07-01

    Precipitation water samples were collected at an urban site in Beijing in a hydrological cycle (July 2008–July 2009), and analyzed for TDS, total alkalinity, total hardness, free CO{sub 2}, soluble SiO{sub 2}, bromide, sulfide, phosphate, major ions (K{sup +}, Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, HCO{sub 3}{sup −}, Cl{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, NO{sub 3}{sup −}), trace elements (CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}, Mn, Sr{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Al, F{sup −}, NO{sub 2}{sup −}), stable isotopes ({sup 2}H and {sup 18}O), and radioactive isotope ({sup 3}H). In addition, available published hydrochemical and isotopic data of precipitation of Beijing in the past were also collected and conjointly analyzed. Most of the parameters of samples tested varied considerably in the hydrological cycle. In general, HCO{sub 3}{sup −} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}, and Ca{sup 2+} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} are the dominant anions and cations, respectively. Using Na{sup +} as an indicator of marine origin, and Al for the terrestrial inputs, the proportions of major elements from sea salt and terrestrial sources were estimated by using the combination of statistical analysis methods and analogy method. More than 70.1% of Cl{sup −}, 98.1% of Ca{sup 2+}, and 93.6% of K{sup +} were non-sea-salt origin, while more than 98.4% of Na{sup +} was from marine sources. The LMWL (Local Meteoric Water Line) was obtained with an equation of δ{sup 2}H = 7.0181δ{sup 18}O + 3.5231 (‰, R{sup 2} = 0.86, n = 36), which was similar to GMWL (Global Meteoric Water Line). δ{sup 2}H, δ{sup 18}O and Δ-excess changed radically with month and season, but had no apparent seasonal effect, precipitation amount effect, and temperature effect. The annual mean values of Δ-excess for 1979 (16.5‰) and 1980 (16.3‰) were much bigger than that for 2007 (7.2‰), 2008 (2.1‰) and 2009 (4.5‰). The composition of {sup 2}H and {sup 18}O was probably intrinsically determined by the sources of water

  10. Multi-Index Attribution of Beijing's 2013 "Airpocalypse"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, C.; Diffenbaugh, N. S.; Horton, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    Poor air quality causes 2 to 4 million premature deaths per year globally. Individual high-impact events, like Beijing's January 2013 "airpocalypse," have drawn significant attention, as they have demonstrated that short-lived air quality events can have outsized effects on public health and economic vitality. Poor air quality events are the result of emission of pollutants and the meteorological conditions favorable to their accumulation in the near-surface environment. Accumulation occurs when pollutants are not dispersed or scavenged from the atmosphere. The most important meteorological precursors of these conditions include lack of precipitation, low wind speeds, and vertical temperature inversions. Recent reports of extreme air quality, in conjunction with projected future changes in some meteorological air quality indices, raise the question: have the meteorological conditions that shape air quality changed in frequency, intensity, or duration over the observational era? Here we assess whether anthropogenic climate change has altered meteorological conditions conducive to poor air quality. To gain a more complete picture of the effect of anthropogenic change on air quality, we use three indices that quantify poor air quality: the Pollution Potential Index (Zou et al, 2017), which measures temperature inversions and surface wind speeds, the Haze Weather Index (Cai et al, 2017), which measures temperature inversions and mid-level wind speeds, and the Air Stagnation Index (Horton et al, 2014), which measures precipitation, surface wind speeds, and mid-level wind speeds. Drawing on the attribution methods of Diffenbaugh et al (2017), we assess the contribution of observed meteorological trends to the magnitude of air quality events, the return interval of events in the observational record, historical simulated climate, and pre-industrial simulated climate, and the probability of the observed trend in historical and pre-industrial simulated climates. Particular

  11. Heavy-machinery traffic impacts methane emissions as well as methanogen abundance and community structure in oxic forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Beat; Niklaus, Pascal A; Kremer, Johann; Lüscher, Peter; Zimmermann, Stephan

    2011-09-01

    Temperate forest soils are usually efficient sinks for the greenhouse gas methane, at least in the absence of significant amounts of methanogens. We demonstrate here that trafficking with heavy harvesting machines caused a large reduction in CH(4) consumption and even turned well-aerated forest soils into net methane sources. In addition to studying methane fluxes, we investigated the responses of methanogens after trafficking in two different forest sites. Trafficking generated wheel tracks with different impact (low, moderate, severe, and unaffected). We found that machine passes decreased the soils' macropore space and lowered hydraulic conductivities in wheel tracks. Severely compacted soils yielded high methanogenic abundance, as demonstrated by quantitative PCR analyses of methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes, whereas these sequences were undetectable in unaffected soils. Even after a year after traffic compression, methanogen abundance in compacted soils did not decline, indicating a stability of methanogens here over time. Compacted wheel tracks exhibited a relatively constant community structure, since we found several persisting mcrA sequence types continuously present at all sampling times. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a rather large methanogen diversity in the compacted soil, and most mcrA gene sequences were mostly similar to known sequences from wetlands. The majority of mcrA gene sequences belonged either to the order Methanosarcinales or Methanomicrobiales, whereas both sites were dominated by members of the families Methanomicrobiaceae Fencluster, with similar sequences obtained from peatland environments. The results show that compacting wet forest soils by heavy machinery causes increases in methane production and release.

  12. Machinery and labour force requirements for forest chip production in Finland in 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerhae, K.; Strandsroem, M. (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), Email: kalle.karha@metsateho.fi, Email: markus.strandstrom@metsateho.fi; Lahtinen, P.; Elo, J. (Poeyry Energy Oy, Espoo (Finland)), Email: perttu.lahtinen@poyry.com, Email: juha.elo@poyry.com

    2009-07-01

    The research carried out by Metsaeteho Oy and Poeyry Energy Oy estimated how much machinery and labour would be needed for large-scale forest chip production if the use of forest chips increases extensively in Finland during the coming decade. If the production and consumption of forest chips are 25 to 30 TWh in Finland 2020, then 1,900 to 2,200 machinery units, i.e. machines and trucks, would be needed. This would mean total investments in production machinery of 530 to 630 million euro (VAT 0 %). The labour demand would be 3,400 to 4,000 machine operators and drivers, and 4,200 to 5,100 labour years including indirect labour. Respectively, if the production and consumption of forest chips is 15 to 20 TWh in Finland in 2020, then the production machinery requirement would be 1,100 to 1,500 machines and trucks. The total machinery investment cost would be 320 to 420 million euro (VAT 0 %) and the calculated labour demand 2,000 to 2,700 machine operators and drivers (2,500 to 3,400 labour years). The results of the study indicated that forest chip production resources will be a major bottleneck in reaching the consumption target of 12 million m3, i.e. around 24 TWh of forest chips in Finland by 2020. (orig.)

  13. Detection of Early Faults in Rotating Machinery Based on Wavelet Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Hee Lim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the application of wavelet analysis for the detection of early changes in rotor dynamics caused by common machinery faults, namely, rotor unbalance and minor blade rubbing conditions. In this paper, the time synchronised wavelet analysis method was formulated and its effectiveness to detect machinery faults at the early stage was evaluated based on signal simulation and experimental study. The proposed method provides a more standardised approach to visualise the current state of rotor dynamics of a rotating machinery by taking into account the effects of time shift, wavelet edge distortion, and system noise suppression. The experimental results showed that this method is able to reveal subtle changes of the vibration signal characteristics in both the frequency content distribution and the amplitude distortion caused by minor rotor unbalance and blade rubbing conditions. Besides, this method also appeared to be an effective tool to diagnose and to discriminate the different types of machinery faults based on the unique pattern of the wavelet contours. This study shows that the proposed wavelet analysis method is promising to reveal machinery faults at early stage as compared to vibration spectrum analysis.

  14. Design and Realization of Rotating Machinery Conditions Monitoring System Based on Labview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qiyuan

    Nonlinear dynamic analysis of rotating machinery system has always been the hot spot of the rotational dynamics research. This article sets up a rotating machinery condition monitoring system to realize the measurement of system dynamic characteristic parameters based on NI(National Instruments) virtual instruments technology. The measurement of vibration signal of rotating machinery system is achieved by using NI company general data acquisition module of NI company. Meanwhile, by analyzing and processing the acquired data using Labview 2012, the dynamic characteristics, such as .the speed of the rotating machinery system, the axis trajectory, spectrum parameters, are attained. The measurement results show that the rotating machinery condition monitoring system based on Labview is easy to operate, easy to realize the function extension and maintenance, and that it can be used in the industrial engineering projects with rotation characteristics. Labview as the development tools used by virtual instrument function, is very powerful data acquisition software products support is one of the features of it, so using Labview programming and data acquisition is simple and convenient [1].

  15. Non-machinery dialysis that achieves blood purification therapy without using full-scale dialysis machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takaya; Onoda, Mistutaka; Matsuura, Tomohiko; Sugimura, Jun; Obara, Wataru; Sato, Toshiya; Takahashi, Mihoko; Chiba, Kenta; Abe, Tomiya

    2017-09-01

    An electrical or water supply and a blood purification machine are required for renal replacement therapy. There is a possibility that acute kidney injury can occur in large numbers and on a wide scale in the case of a massive earthquake, and there is the potential risk that the current supply will be unable to cope with acute kidney injury cases. However, non-machinery dialysis requires exclusive circuits and has the characteristic of not requiring the full-scale dialysis machines. We performed perfusion experiments that used non-machinery dialysis and recent blood purification machines in 30-min intervals, and the effectiveness of non-machinery dialysis was evaluated by the assessing the removal efficiency of potassium, which causes lethal arrhythmia during acute kidney injury. The non-machinery dialysis potassium removal rate was at the same level as continuous blood purification machines with a dialysate flow rate of 5 L/h after 15 min and continuous blood purification machines with a dialysate flow rate of 3 L/h after 30 min. Non-machinery dialysis required an exclusive dialysate circuit, the frequent need to replace bags, and new dialysate exchanged once every 30 min. However, it can be seen as an effective renal replacement therapy for crush-related acute kidney injury patients, even in locations or facilities not having the full-scale dialysis machines.

  16. Emergence and modular evolution of a novel motility machinery in bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Luciano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria glide across solid surfaces by mechanisms that have remained largely mysterious despite decades of research. In the deltaproteobacterium Myxococcus xanthus, this locomotion allows the formation stress-resistant fruiting bodies where sporulation takes place. However, despite the large number of genes identified as important for gliding, no specific machinery has been identified so far, hampering in-depth investigations. Based on the premise that components of the gliding machinery must have co-evolved and encode both envelope-spanning proteins and a molecular motor, we re-annotated known gliding motility genes and examined their taxonomic distribution, genomic localization, and phylogeny. We successfully delineated three functionally related genetic clusters, which we proved experimentally carry genes encoding the basal gliding machinery in M. xanthus, using genetic and localization techniques. For the first time, this study identifies structural gliding motility genes in the Myxobacteria and opens new perspectives to study the motility mechanism. Furthermore, phylogenomics provide insight into how this machinery emerged from an ancestral conserved core of genes of unknown function that evolved to gliding by the recruitment of functional modules in Myxococcales. Surprisingly, this motility machinery appears to be highly related to a sporulation system, underscoring unsuspected common mechanisms in these apparently distinct morphogenic phenomena.

  17. Machinery fault diagnosis using joint global and local/nonlocal discriminant analysis with selective ensemble learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianbo

    2016-11-01

    The vibration signals of faulty machine are generally non-stationary and nonlinear under those complicated working conditions. Thus, it is a big challenge to extract and select the effective features from vibration signals for machinery fault diagnosis. This paper proposes a new manifold learning algorithm, joint global and local/nonlocal discriminant analysis (GLNDA), which aims to extract effective intrinsic geometrical information from the given vibration data. Comparisons with other regular methods, principal component analysis (PCA), local preserving projection (LPP), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and local LDA (LLDA), illustrate the superiority of GLNDA in machinery fault diagnosis. Based on the extracted information by GLNDA, a GLNDA-based Fisher discriminant rule (FDR) is put forward and applied to machinery fault diagnosis without additional recognizer construction procedure. By importing Bagging into GLNDA score-based feature selection and FDR, a novel manifold ensemble method (selective GLNDA ensemble, SE-GLNDA) is investigated for machinery fault diagnosis. The motivation for developing ensemble of manifold learning components is that it can achieve higher accuracy and applicability than single component in machinery fault diagnosis. The effectiveness of the SE-GLNDA-based fault diagnosis method has been verified by experimental results from bearing full life testers.

  18. Parker Hybrid Hydraulic Drivetrain Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collett, Raymond [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Howland, James [Parker-Hannifin Corporation, Cleveland, OH (United States); Venkiteswaran, Prasad [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-03-31

    This report examines the benefits of Parker Hannifin hydraulic hybrid brake energy recovery systems used in commercial applications for vocational purposes. A detailed background on the problem statement being addressed as well as the solution set specific for parcel delivery will be provided. Objectives of the demonstration performed in high start & stop applications included opportunities in fuel usage reduction, emissions reduction, vehicle productivity, and vehicle maintenance. Completed findings during the demonstration period and parallel investigations with NREL, CALSTART, along with a literature review will be provided herein on this research area. Lastly, results identified in the study by third parties validated the savings potential in fuel reduction of on average of 19% to 52% over the baseline in terms of mpg (Lammert, 2014, p11), Parker data for parcel delivery vehicles in the field parallels this at a range of 35% - 50%, emissions reduction of 17.4% lower CO2 per mile and 30.4% lower NOx per mile (Gallo, 2014, p15), with maintenance improvement in the areas of brake and starter replacement, while leaving room for further study in the area of productivity in terms of specific metrics that can be applied and studied.

  19. Cavitation instabilities in hydraulic machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujimoto, Y

    2013-01-01

    Cavitation instabilities in hydraulic machines, hydro turbines and turbopump inducers, are reviewed focusing on the cause of instabilities. One-dimensional model of hydro turbine system shows that the overload surge is caused by the diffuser effect of the draft tube. Experiments show that this effect also causes the surge mode oscillations at part load. One dimensional model of a cavitating turbopump inducer shows that the mass flow gain factor, representing the cavity volume increase caused by the incidence angle increase is the cause of cavitation surge and rotating cavitation. Two dimensional model of a cavitating turbopump inducer shows that various modes of cavitation instabilities start to occur when the cavity length becomes about 65% of the blade spacing. This is caused by the interaction of the local flow near the cavity trailing edge with the leading edge of the next blade. It was shown by a 3D CFD that this is true also for real cases with tip cavitation. In all cases, it was shown that cavitation instabilities are caused by the fundamental characteristics of cavities that the cavity volume increases with the decrease of ambient pressure or the increase of the incidence angle

  20. Kuala Kemaman hydraulic model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2005-01-01

    There The problems facing the area of Kuala Kemaman are siltation and erosion at shoreline. The objectives of study are to assess the best alignment of the groyne alignment, to ascertain the most stable shoreline regime and to investigate structural measures to overcome the erosion. The scope of study are data collection, wave analysis, hydrodynamic simulation and sediment transport simulation. Numerical models MIKE 21 are used - MIKE 21 NSW, for wind-wave model, which describes the growth, decay and transformation of wind-generated waves and swell in nearshore areas. The study takes into account effects of refraction and shoaling due to varying depth, energy dissipation due to bottom friction and wave breaking, MIKE 21 HD - modelling system for 2D free-surface flow which to stimulate the hydraulics phenomena in estuaries, coastal areas and seas. Predicted tidal elevation and waves (radiation stresses) are considered into study while wind is not considered. MIKE 21 ST - the system that calculates the rates of non-cohesive (sand) sediment transport for both pure content and combined waves and current situation

  1. Study on Characteristics of Hydraulic Servo System for Force Control of Hydraulic Robots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo-gon; Han, Changsoo; Lee, Jong-won; Park, Sangdeok

    2015-01-01

    Because a hydraulic actuator has high power and force densities, this allows the weight of the robot's limbs to be reduced. This allows for good dynamic characteristics and high energy efficiency. Thus, hydraulic actuators are used in some exoskeleton robots and quadrupedal robots that require high torque. Force control is useful for robot compliance with a user or environment. However, force control of a hydraulic robot is difficult because a hydraulic servo system is highly nonlinear from a control perspective. In this study, a nonlinear model was used to develop a simulation program for a hydraulic servo system consisting of a servo valve, transmission lines, and a cylinder. The problems and considerations with regard to the force control performance for a hydraulic servo system were investigated. A force control method using the nonlinear model was proposed, and its effect was evaluated with the simulation program

  2. Study on Characteristics of Hydraulic Servo System for Force Control of Hydraulic Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo-gon; Han, Changsoo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-won [Korea University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sangdeok [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Because a hydraulic actuator has high power and force densities, this allows the weight of the robot's limbs to be reduced. This allows for good dynamic characteristics and high energy efficiency. Thus, hydraulic actuators are used in some exoskeleton robots and quadrupedal robots that require high torque. Force control is useful for robot compliance with a user or environment. However, force control of a hydraulic robot is difficult because a hydraulic servo system is highly nonlinear from a control perspective. In this study, a nonlinear model was used to develop a simulation program for a hydraulic servo system consisting of a servo valve, transmission lines, and a cylinder. The problems and considerations with regard to the force control performance for a hydraulic servo system were investigated. A force control method using the nonlinear model was proposed, and its effect was evaluated with the simulation program.

  3. Advanced Hydraulic Studies on Enhancing Particle Removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Cheng

    clarifier. The inlet zone of an existing rectangular storm water clarifier was redesigned to improve the fluid flow conditions and reduce the hydraulic head loss in order to remove the lamellar plates and adapt the clarifier to the needs of high-rate clarification of storm water with flocculant addition...... excessive local head losses and helped to select structural changes to reduce such losses. The analysis of the facility showed that with respect to hydraulic operation, the facility is a complex, highly non-linear hydraulic system. Within the existing constraints, a few structural changes examined......The removal of suspended solids and attached pollutants is one of the main treatment processes in wastewater treatment. This thesis presents studies on the hydraulic conditions of various particle removal facilities for possible ways to increase their treatment capacity and performance by utilizing...

  4. Lower Monumental Spillway Hydraulic Model Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilhelms, Steven

    2003-01-01

    A 1:40 Froudian Scale model was used to investigate the hydraulic performance of the Lower Monumental Dam spillway, stilling basin, and tailrace for dissolved gas reduction and stilling basin apron scour...

  5. Toxicity Assessment for EPA's Hydraulic Fracturing Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains data used to develop multiple manuscripts on the toxicity of chemicals associated with the hydraulic fracturing industry. These manuscripts...

  6. Hydraulic fracturing chemicals and fluids technology

    CERN Document Server

    Fink, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    When classifying fracturing fluids and their additives, it is important that production, operation, and completion engineers understand which chemical should be utilized in different well environments. A user's guide to the many chemicals and chemical additives used in hydraulic fracturing operations, Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Fluids Technology provides an easy-to-use manual to create fluid formulations that will meet project-specific needs while protecting the environment and the life of the well. Fink creates a concise and comprehensive reference that enables the engineer to logically select and use the appropriate chemicals on any hydraulic fracturing job. The first book devoted entirely to hydraulic fracturing chemicals, Fink eliminates the guesswork so the engineer can select the best chemicals needed on the job while providing the best protection for the well, workers and environment. Pinpoints the specific compounds used in any given fracturing operation Provides a systematic approach to class...

  7. Pneumatic and hydraulic microactuators: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Volder, Michaël; Reynaerts, Dominiek

    2010-01-01

    The development of MEMS actuators is rapidly evolving and continuously new progress in terms of efficiency, power and force output is reported. Pneumatic and hydraulic are an interesting class of microactuators that are easily overlooked. Despite the 20 years of research, and hundreds of publications on this topic, these actuators are only popular in microfluidic systems. In other MEMS applications, pneumatic and hydraulic actuators are rare in comparison with electrostatic, thermal or piezo-electric actuators. However, several studies have shown that hydraulic and pneumatic actuators deliver among the highest force and power densities at microscale. It is believed that this asset is particularly important in modern industrial and medical microsystems, and therefore, pneumatic and hydraulic actuators could start playing an increasingly important role. This paper shows an in-depth overview of the developments in this field ranging from the classic inflatable membrane actuators to more complex piston–cylinder and drag-based microdevices. (topical review)

  8. National Laboratory of Hydraulics. 1996 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This progress report of the National Laboratory of Hydraulics (LNH) of Electricite de France (EdF) summarizes, first, the research and development studies carried out in 1996 for the development of research tools for industrial fluid mechanics and environmental hydraulics and for the development of computer tools (computer codes and softwares for fluid mechanics modeling, modeling of reactive, compressible, two-phase and turbulent flows and of complex chemical kinetics using finite elements and finite volume methods). A second parts describes the research studies performed for other services of EdF, concerning: the functioning of nuclear reactors (thermohydraulic studies of the reactor vessel and of the primary coolant circuit, gas flows following severe accidents, fluid-structure thermal coupling etc...), fossil fuel power plants, the equipment and operation of thermal power plants and hydraulic power plants, the use of electric power. A third part summarizes the river and marine hydraulic studies carried out for other companies. (J.S.)

  9. Transputer Control of Hydraulic Actuators and Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1996-01-01

    Results from a Danish mechatronics research program entitled IMCIA - Intelligent Control and Intelligent Actuators. The objective is development of intelligent actuators for intelligent motion control. A mechatronics test facility with a transputer controlled hydraulic robot suiteable for real...

  10. Hydraulic concrete composition and properties control system

    OpenAIRE

    PSHINKO O.M.; KRASNYUK A.V.; HROMOVA O.V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Scientific work aims at the development and testing of information system to meet the challenges of concrete composition design and control (for railway structures and buildings) based on the physico-analytical method algorithm for hydraulic concrete composition calculation. Methodology. The proposed algorithm of hydraulic concrete composition calculation is based on the physicochemical mechanics and in particular on the rheology of elastic–viscous–plastic bodies. The system of canon...

  11. Multimodel Robust Control for Hydraulic Turbine

    OpenAIRE

    Osuský, Jakub; Števo, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with the multimodel and robust control system design and their combination based on M-Δ structure. Controller design will be done in the frequency domain with nominal performance specified by phase margin. Hydraulic turbine model is analyzed as system with unstructured uncertainty, and robust stability condition is included in controller design. Multimodel and robust control approaches are presented in detail on hydraulic turbine model. Control design approaches are compared a...

  12. Data Analytics of Hydraulic Fracturing Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jovan Yang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Viswanathan, Hari [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hyman, Jeffery [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Middleton, Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    These are a set of slides on the data analytics of hydraulic fracturing data. The conclusions from this research are the following: they proposed a permeability evolution as a new mechanism to explain hydraulic fracturing trends; they created a model to include this mechanism and it showed promising results; the paper from this research is ready for submission; they devised a way to identify and sort refractures in order to study their effects, and this paper is currently being written.

  13. FEEDBACK LINEARISATION APPLIED ON A HYDRAULIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2005-01-01

    is on developing and applying several different feedback linearisation (FL) controllers to the individual servo actuators in a hydraulically driven servo robot to evaluate and compare their possiblities and limitations. This is done based on both simulation and experimental results.......Generally most hydraulic systems are intrensically non-linear, why applying linear control techniques typically results in conservatively dimensioned controllers to obtain stable performance. Non-linear control techniques have the potential of overcoming these problems, and in this paper the focus...

  14. Thermal hydraulics and mechanics core design programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinecke, J.

    1992-10-01

    The report documents the work performed within the Research and Development Task T hermal hydraulics and mechanics core design programs , funded by the German government. It contains the development of new codes, the extension of existing codes, the qualification and verification of codes and the development of a code library. The overall goal of this work was to adapt the system of thermal hydraulics and mechanics codes to the permanently growing requirements of the status of science and technology

  15. "Pseudo-Beijing": evidence for convergent evolution in the direct repeat region of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Fenner

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis has a global population structure consisting of six main phylogenetic lineages associated with specific geographic regions and human populations. One particular M. tuberculosis genotype known as "Beijing" has repeatedly been associated with drug resistance and has been emerging in some parts of the world. "Beijing" strains are traditionally defined based on a characteristic spoligotyping pattern. We used three alternative genotyping techniques to revisit the phylogenetic classification of M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC strains exhibiting the typical "Beijing" spoligotyping pattern.MTBC strains were obtained from an ongoing molecular epidemiological study in Switzerland and Nepal. MTBC genotyping was performed based on SNPs, genomic deletions, and 24-loci MIRU-VNTR. We identified three MTBC strains from patients originating from Tibet, Portugal and Nepal which exhibited a spoligotyping patterns identical to the classical Beijing signature. However, based on three alternative molecular markers, these strains were assigned to Lineage 3 (also known as Delhi/CAS rather than to Lineage 2 (also known as East-Asian lineage. Sequencing of the RD207 in one of these strains showed that the deletion responsible for this "Pseudo-Beijing" spoligotype was about 1,000 base pairs smaller than the usual deletion of RD207 in classical "Beijing" strains, which is consistent with an evolutionarily independent deletion event in the direct repeat (DR region of MTBC.We provide an example of convergent evolution in the DR locus of MTBC, and highlight the limitation of using spoligotypes for strain classification. Our results indicate that a proportion of "Beijing" strains may have been misclassified in the past. Markers that are more phylogenetically robust should be used when exploring strain-specific differences in experimental or clinical phenotypes.

  16. Tropospheric ozone climatology over Beijing: analysis of aircraft data from the MOZAIC program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Ding

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone (O3 profiles recorded over Beijing from 1995 to 2005 by the Measurement of Ozone and Water Vapor by Airbus In-Service Aircraft (MOZAIC program were analyzed to provide a first climatology of tropospheric O3 over Beijing and the North China Plains (NCPs, one of the most populated and polluted regions in China. A pooled method was adopted in the data analysis to reduce the influence of irregular sampling frequency. The tropospheric O3 over Beijing shows a seasonal and vertical distribution typical of mid-latitude locations in the Northern Hemisphere, but has higher daytime concentrations in the lower troposphere, when compared to New York City, Tokyo, and Paris at similar latitude. The tropospheric O3 over Beijing exhibits a common summer maximum and a winter minimum, with a broad summer maximum in the middle troposphere and a narrower early summer (June peak in the lower troposphere. Examination of meteorological and satellite data suggests that the lower tropospheric O3 maximum in June is a result of strong photochemical production, transport of regional pollution, and possibly also more intense burnings of biomass in Central-Eastern China. Trajectory analysis indicates that in summer the regional pollution from the NCPs, maybe mixed with urban plumes from Beijing, played important roles on the high O3 concentrations in the boundary layer, but had limited impact on the O3 concentrations in the middle troposphere. A comparison of the data recorded before and after 2000 reveals that O3 in the lower troposphere over Beijing had a strong positive trend (approximately 2% per year from 1995 to 2005 in contrast to a flat or a decreasing trend over Tokyo, New York City, and Paris, indicating worsening photochemical pollution in Beijing and the NCPs.

  17. BWR 9 X 9 Fuel Assembly Thermal-Hydraulic Tests (2): Hydraulic Vibration Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiaki Tsukuda; Katsuichiro Kamimura; Toshiitsu Hattori; Akira Tanabe; Noboru Saito; Masahiko Warashina; Yuji Nishino

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) conducted thermal-hydraulic projects for verification of thermal-hydraulic design reliability for BWR high-burnup 8 x 8 and 9 x 9 fuel assemblies, entrusted by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI). As a part of the NUPEC thermal-hydraulic projects, hydraulic vibration tests using full-scale test assemblies simulating 9 x 9 fuel assemblies were carried out to evaluate BWR fuel integrity. The test data were applied to development of a new correlation for the estimation of fuel rod vibration amplitude. (authors)

  18. Beijing international welding fair report. Kokusaika ni ugokidashita chugoku yosetsukai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    This paper reports the affairs at the Beijing International Scientific Conference for Welding and the International Welding Fair held in May 1991, including visitors{prime} comments on their impression. The Scientific Conference was held for three days in eleven sessions, where 135 theses were presented, most of which were related to high-tech areas including robotization, automation, laser welding and cutting, and ceramic bonding. The total attendance numbered 231 members, including 30 from Germany, 20 from Japan, 17 from Soviet, 7 from Korea, and one each from Finland and Switzerland, plus 150 from China. It was the third meeting for the Scientific Conference, which had the number of attendance jumped from the previous one showing the increased interest by the international welding industry toward China. Exhibits from overseas countries were few, a possible effect from the Tiananmen incident, only three from Japan. Welding machines exhibited by China were those made in or licensed by Japan. Strong impression was felt on the spread in use of CO{sub 2} semi-automatic welding machines. 3 figs.

  19. Plate waste in school lunch programs in Beijing, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yao; Cheng, Shengkui; Liu, Xiaojie

    2016-01-01

    School plate waste is of particular concern worldwide due to its adverse impacts not only on resource use and the environment, but also on students' health, physical maturation, and academic achievement in the long term. Previous studies on school plate waste have all been conducted in industrial...... in China, and a good basis for further analysis in this field, and will be helpful in informing policy-making in relevant nutrition and education programs in schools in China.......School plate waste is of particular concern worldwide due to its adverse impacts not only on resource use and the environment, but also on students' health, physical maturation, and academic achievement in the long term. Previous studies on school plate waste have all been conducted...... in industrialized countries, and more studies are badly needed in developing countries. In this paper, we report a pilot study on the patterns and causes of plate waste in school lunch programs in Beijing, China, by a combination of physical weighing, questionnaire survey, and semi-structured interview approaches...

  20. "No place like home": Aging in post-reform Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Rosenberg, Mark W

    2017-07-01

    This study shows the Western theorization and interpretation of aging, place and health are not well suited to a non-western case. The current generation of older Chinese has experienced the transition from a planned economy to a socialist market economy. Urban changes have taken place in various ways. This study explains the spatio-temporal processes of older people with their changing places by conducting in-depth interviews with 47 older people living at home in Beijing. Their generational consciousness and old place identities are deeply rooted in pre-reform Collectivism and shaped by socialist ideologies of the past. The representation of the old identity among older people is circumscribed by their living situations and selectively manifested. In most cases, there are limited mechanisms formed to recreate positive place meanings and reintegrate older people and place. The processes reflect the growing social inequality and changing cultural values in a society in transition. Growing social inequality and changing cultural values have a great impact on older people's health and well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Running from Paris to Beijing: biomechanical and physiological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Guillaume Y; Morin, Jean-Benoît; Degache, Francis; Edouard, Pascal; Feasson, Léonard; Verney, Julien; Oullion, Roger

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physiological and biomechanical changes occurring in a subject after running 8,500 km in 161 days (i.e. 52.8 km daily). Three weeks before, 3 weeks after (POST) and 5 months after (POST+5) running from Paris to Beijing, energy cost of running (Cr), knee flexor and extensor isokinetic strength and biomechanical parameters (using a treadmill dynamometer) at different velocities were assessed in an experienced ultra-runner. At POST, there was a tendency toward a 'smoother' running pattern, as shown by (a) a higher stride frequency and duty factor, and a reduced aerial time without a change in contact time, (b) a lower maximal vertical force and loading rate at impact and (c) a decrease in both potential and kinetic energy changes at each step. This was associated with a detrimental effect on Cr (+6.2%) and a loss of strength at all angular velocities for both knee flexors and extensors. At POST+5, the subject returned to his original running patterns at low but not at high speeds and maximal strength remained reduced at low angular velocities (i.e. at high levels of force). It is suggested that the running pattern changes observed in the present study were a strategy adopted by the subject to reduce the deleterious effects of long distance running. However, the running pattern changes could partly be linked to the decrease in maximal strength.

  2. Measurements of thoron and radon progeny concentrations in Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Liu Cuihong; Guo Qiuju

    2008-01-01

    It has been reported that thoron levels in China are above the world average and may therefore make a significant contribution to the natural background radiation dose. We therefore conducted a pilot study of concentrations of both thoron and radon progeny during the spring of 2006 in the Beijing area, China. A new type of portable 24 h integrating monitor with a CR-39 detector was used during the survey. Seventy dwellings and eight outdoor sites were measured during the survey. For country houses built of red bricks and slurry, the average equilibrium equivalent concentrations (EEC) of thoron and radon were 1.02 ± 0.48 and 16.41 ± 9.02 Bq m -3 , respectively, whereas for city dwellings built of cement blocks and floor slabs, the results were 0.48 ± 0.47 and 11.50 ± 6.99 Bq m -3 for thoron and radon, respectively. For outdoor air, concentrations of thoron and radon progeny were 0.29 ± 0.28 and 7.05 ± 2.68 Bq m -3 , respectively. Radiation exposures from thoron and radon progeny were also evaluated; the ratio of dose contribution from thoron progeny to that of radon progeny was evaluated to be 28% and 17% in country houses and city dwellings, respectively. (note)

  3. Source apportionment of fine organic aerosols in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Guo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Fine particles (PM2.5, i.e., particles with an aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5 μm were collected from the air in August 2005, August–September 2006, and January–February 2007, in Beijing, China. The chemical compositions of particulate organic matter in the ambient samples were quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The dominant compounds identified in summertime were n-alkanoic acids, followed by dicarboxylic acids and sugars, while sugars became the most abundant species in winter, followed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, n-alkanes, and n-alkanoic acids. The contributions of seven emission sources (i.e., gasoline/diesel vehicles, coal burning, wood/straw burning, cooking, and vegetative detritus to particulate organic matter in PM2.5 were estimated using a chemical mass balance receptor model. The model results present the seasonal trends of source contributions to organic aerosols. Biomass burning (straw and wood had the highest contribution in winter, followed by coal burning, vehicle exhaust, and cooking. The contribution of cooking was the highest in summer, followed by vehicle exhaust and biomass burning, while coal smoke showed only a minor contribution to ambient organic carbon.

  4. Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in Topsoil around Beijing Metropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ranhao; Chen, Liding

    2016-01-01

    The topsoil around Beijing metropolis, China, is experiencing impacts of rapid urbanization, intensive farming, and extensive industrial emissions. We analyzed the concentrations of Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr from 87 topsoil samples in the pre-rainy season and 115 samples in the post-rainy season. These samples were attributed to nine land use types: forest, grass, shrub, orchard, wheat, cotton, spring maize, summer maize, and mixed farmland. The pollution index (PI) of heavy metals was calculated from the measured and background concentrations. The ecological risk index (RI) was assessed based on the PI values and toxic-response parameters. The results showed that the mean PI values of Pb, Cr, and Cd were > 1 while those of Cu, Ni, and Zn were heavy metal concentrations and the impact of atmospheric transport on heavy metal concentrations varied according to the heavy metal types. The concentrations of Cu, Cd, and Cr decreased from the pre- to post-rainy season, while those of Ni, Pb, and Zn increased during this period. Future research should be focused on the underlying atmospheric processes that lead to these spatial and seasonal variations in heavy metals. The policymaking on environmental management should pay close attention to potential ecological risks of Cd as well as identifying the transport pathways of different heavy metals. PMID:27159454

  5. Carbon dioxide fluxes from an urban area in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tao; Wang, Yuesi

    2012-03-01

    A better understanding of urban carbon dioxide (CO 2) emissions is important for quantifying urban contributions to the global carbon budget. From January to December 2008, CO 2 fluxes were measured, by eddy covariance at 47 m above ground on a meteorological tower in a high-density residential area in Beijing. The results showed that the urban surface was a net source of CO 2 in the atmosphere. Diurnal flux patterns were similar to those previously observed in other cities and were largely influenced by traffic volume. Carbon uptake by both urban vegetation during the growing season and the reduction of fuel consumption for domestic heating resulted in less-positive daily fluxes in the summer. The average daily flux measured in the summer was 0.48 mg m - 2 s - 1 , which was 82%, 35% and 36% lower than those in the winter, spring and autumn, respectively. The reduction of vehicles on the road during the 29th Olympic and Paralympic Games had a significant impact on CO 2 flux. The flux of 0.40 mg m - 2 s - 1 for September 2008 was approximately 0.17 mg m - 2 s - 1 lower than the flux for September 2007. Annual CO 2 emissions from the study site were estimated at 20.6 kg CO 2 m - 2 y - 1 , considerably higher than yearly emissions obtained from other urban and suburban landscapes.

  6. Charge Pricing Optimization Model for Private Charging Piles in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingping Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a charge pricing model for private charging piles (PCPs by considering the environmental and economic effects of private electric vehicle (PEV charging energy sources and the impact of PCP charging load on the total load. This model simulates users’ responses to different combinations of peak-valley prices based on the charging power of PCPs and user charging transfer rate. According to the regional power structure, it calculates the real-time coal consumption, carbon dioxide emissions reduction, and power generation costs of PEVs on the power generation side. The empirical results demonstrate that the proposed peak-valley time-of-use charging price can not only minimize the peak-valley difference of the total load but also improve the environmental effects of PEVs and the economic income of the power system. The sensitivity analysis shows that the load-shifting effect of PCPs will be more obvious when magnifying the number of PEVs by using the proposed charging price. The case study indicates that the proposed peak, average, and valley price in Beijing should be 1.8, 1, and 0.4 yuan/kWh, which can promote the large-scale adoption of PEVs.

  7. [Emission Characteristics of VOCs from Typical Restaurants in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Tong; Cheng, Jing-chen; He, Wan-qing; Ren, Pei-fang; Nie, Lei; Xu, Dong-yao; Pan, Tao

    2015-05-01

    Using the EPA method, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) , sampled from barbecue, Chinese and Western fast-food, Sichuan cuisine and Zhejiang cuisine restaurants in Beijing was investigated. VOCs concentrations and components from different cuisines were studied. The results indicated that based on the calibrated baseline ventilation volume, the VOCs emission level from barbecue was the highest, reaching 12.22 mg · m(-3), while those from fast-food of either Chinese or Western, Sichuan cuisine and Zhejiang cuisine were about 4 mg · m(-3). The components of VOCs from barbecue were different from those in the other cuisines, which were mainly propylene, 1-butene, n-butane, etc. The non-barbecue cuisines consisted of high concentration of alcohols, and Western fast-food contained relatively high proportion of aldehydes and ketones organic compounds. According to emission concentration of baseline ventilation volume, barbecue released more pollutants than the non-barbecue cuisines at the same scale. So, barbecue should be supervised and controlled with the top priority.

  8. Paris to Beijing by bike: they made it!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The challenge, a 12,623 km cycle trip to Beijing for the inauguration of the Olympic Games, was no easy ride, but they made it there on time. "I can do nothing for those who do not ask themselves questions" (Confucius -551-479 BC) CERN’s Raymond Cambarrat and Peter Dreesen arrived in the Chinese capital on 3 August after an incredible human and sporting adventure that began in Paris on 16 March (see Bulletin No. 20 & 21, 8 May 2008). The two cyclists, who set off on their journey with 102 other enthusiasts, rode for a total of 120 days with only ten days’ rest along the way. The greatest distance they covered in a single day was a 192 km leg in Russia, one of 12 countries their expedition took them through. From the arid steppes of Kirghizstan through the fog of Mount Hua to the snowy wind-swept pass of Kampa, the group covered roads of varying quality, some of them untarmacked, notchi...

  9. Research on bearing fault diagnosis of large machinery based on mathematical morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu

    2018-04-01

    To study the automatic diagnosis of large machinery fault based on support vector machine, combining the four common faults of the large machinery, the support vector machine is used to classify and identify the fault. The extracted feature vectors are entered. The feature vector is trained and identified by multi - classification method. The optimal parameters of the support vector machine are searched by trial and error method and cross validation method. Then, the support vector machine is compared with BP neural network. The results show that the support vector machines are short in time and high in classification accuracy. It is more suitable for the research of fault diagnosis in large machinery. Therefore, it can be concluded that the training speed of support vector machines (SVM) is fast and the performance is good.

  10. Managing the exploitation life of the mining machinery for an unlimited duration of time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Slobodan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of determining the optimum exploitation life of machinery, namely, the optimum time for machinery and equipment replacement, represents a complex and highly responsible engineering task. Taking into consideration the situation prevailing at coal pit mines in Serbia, the tasks of this rank are very complex and difficult. To make a decision on the replacement of capital equipment and machinery, such as bucket wheel excavators within the mentioned systems, implies a management task of utmost responsibility. It requires high professional and analytical knowledge as well as reliable arguments, based on a multidisciplinary professional approach. In this paper, the authors present their views on the problem of establishing the optimum exploitation life of bucket wheel excavators, offering an algorithm, based on dynamic programming, as a solution.

  11. Power electronics and electric machinery challenges and opportunities in electric and hybrid vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.J.; Hsu, J.S.; Young, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Peng, F.Z. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The development of power electronics and electric machinery presents significant challenges to the advancement of electric and hybrid vehicles. Electronic components and systems development for vehicle applications have progressed from the replacement of mechanical systems to the availability of features that can only be realized through interacting electronic controls and devices. Near-term applications of power electronics in vehicles will enable integrated powertrain controls, integrated chassis system controls, and navigation and communications systems. Future applications of optimized electric machinery will enable highly efficient and lightweight systems. This paper will explore the areas where research and development is required to ensure the continued development of power electronics and electric machines to meet the rigorous demands of automotive applications. Additionally, recent advances in automotive related power electronics and electric machinery at Oak Ridge National Laboratory will be explained. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  12. The experimental study on efficiency improvement of turbo machinery supported with magnetic bearings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, In Hwang; Park, Young Ho; Han, Dong Chul

    2007-01-01

    To implement a conventional electromagnetic bearing in small turbo machinery, it has problems such as load capacity and size. Therefore, in this paper, these problems are resolved by using a permanent magnet biased electromagnetic bearing as a thrust bearing of small turbo machinery. Because the flux path of the bearing is designed by reluctance path modulation using an electromagnet and a permanent magnet, the bearing improves upon non-linearity, power consumption, size and load capacity of a conventional electromagnetic bearing. Test rotating the shaft over 500,000DN were carried out to verify the performance of the proposed small turbo machinery. In addition, the relationships between mass flow rate and pressure rise were measured as changing the tip clearance to verify the feasibility of efficiency improvement and active surge control and these results were compared with theoretical results

  13. Application of Functional Link Artificial Neural Network for Prediction of Machinery Noise in Opencast Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Nanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional link-based neural network models were applied to predict opencast mining machineries noise. The paper analyzes the prediction capabilities of functional link neural network based noise prediction models vis-à-vis existing statistical models. In order to find the actual noise status in opencast mines, some of the popular noise prediction models, for example, ISO-9613-2, CONCAWE, VDI, and ENM, have been applied in mining and allied industries to predict the machineries noise by considering various attenuation factors. Functional link artificial neural network (FLANN, polynomial perceptron network (PPN, and Legendre neural network (LeNN were used to predict the machinery noise in opencast mines. The case study is based on data collected from an opencast coal mine of Orissa, India. From the present investigations, it could be concluded that the FLANN model give better noise prediction than the PPN and LeNN model.

  14. ERGONOMIC AND ECOLOGICALSAFETY - FACTORSNESSARY TO IMPROVETHE COMPETITIVENESS OF THE DOMESTIC CONSTRUCTION MACHINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkov Andrey Anatol’evich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of output and domestic used construction machinery showed that the most vulnerable link remains a problem of underreporting of ergonomics and environmental safety requirements. Compliance with ergonomic requirements enhances the performance of mechanized operations, leading to a decrease in construction costs. Increased environmental requirements reduce the negative impact on air basin. These results suggest the need to improve the structures of building machines. Made recommendations for a comprehensive solution to the problem. The measures to improve environmental safety, ergonomic design requirements of construction machinery, mechanisms of the optimal development of the domestic construction machinery, through the development and implementation of appropriate measures. Keywords: ergonomics of construction equipment, environmental safety of construction equipment

  15. Directional Wigner-Ville distribution and its application for rotating-machinery condition monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Wan; Ha, Jae HOng; Shin, Hae Gon; Lee, Yoon Hee; Kim, Young Baik

    1996-01-01

    Vibration analysis is one of the most powerful tools available for the detection and isolation of incipient faults in mechanical systems. The methods of vibration analysis in use today and under continuous study are broad band vibration monitoring, time domain analysis, and frequency domain analysis. In recent years, great interest has been generated concerning the use of time-frequency representation and its application for a machinery diagnostics and condition monitoring system. The objective of the research described in this paper was to develop a new diagnostic tool for the rotating machinery. This paper introduces a new time-frequency representation, Directional Wigner-Ville Distribution, which analyses the time-frequency structure of the rotating machinery vibration

  16. Noise test system of rotating machinery in nuclear power station based on microphone array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xincai; Guan, Jishi; Qi, Liangcai

    2017-12-01

    Rotating machinery plays an important role in all walks of life. Once the equipment fails, equipment maintenance and shutdown will cause great social harm and economic losses. Equipment safety operations at nuclear power stations have always been of top priority. It is prone to noise when the equipment is out of order or aging. Failure to find or develop equipment at the initial stage of equipment failure or ageing will pose a serious threat to the safety of the plant’s equipment. In this paper, sound imaging diagnosis technology is applied as a supplementary method to the condition monitoring and diagnosis system of rotating machinery in nuclear power stations. It provides a powerful guarantee for the condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery in nuclear power stations.

  17. Hsc70/Hsp90 chaperone machinery mediates ATP-dependent RISC loading of small RNA duplexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Shintaro; Kobayashi, Maki; Yoda, Mayuko; Sakaguchi, Yuriko; Katsuma, Susumu; Suzuki, Tsutomu; Tomari, Yukihide

    2010-07-30

    Small silencing RNAs--small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) or microRNAs (miRNAs)--direct posttranscriptional gene silencing of their mRNA targets as guides for the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Both siRNAs and miRNAs are born double stranded. Surprisingly, loading these small RNA duplexes into Argonaute proteins, the core components of RISC, requires ATP, whereas separating the two small RNA strands within Argonaute does not. Here we show that the Hsc70/Hsp90 chaperone machinery is required to load small RNA duplexes into Argonaute proteins, but not for subsequent strand separation or target cleavage. We envision that the chaperone machinery uses ATP and mediates a conformational opening of Ago proteins so that they can receive bulky small RNA duplexes. Our data suggest that the chaperone machinery may serve as the driving force for the RISC assembly pathway. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Testing | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Evaluations Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Evaluations How Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles Work Hydraulic hybrid systems can capture up to 70% of the kinetic energy that would -pressure reservoir to a high-pressure accumulator. When the vehicle accelerates, fluid in the high-pressure

  19. 46 CFR 112.50-3 - Hydraulic starting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... POWER SYSTEMS Emergency Diesel and Gas Turbine Engine Driven Generator Sets § 112.50-3 Hydraulic starting. A hydraulic starting system must meet the following: (a) The hydraulic starting system must be a... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydraulic starting. 112.50-3 Section 112.50-3 Shipping...

  20. A low order adaptive control scheme for hydraulic servo systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Ole; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Bech, Michael Møller

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with high-performance position control of hydraulics servo systems in general. The hydraulic servo system used is a two link robotic manipulator actuated by two hydraulic servo cylinders. A non-linear model of the hydraulic system and a Newton-Euler based model of the mechanical...

  1. Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationary Operations : Proceedings of the Second International Conference "Condition Monitoring of Machinery in Non-Stationnary Operations"

    CERN Document Server

    Bartelmus, Walter; Chaari, Fakher; Zimroz, Radoslaw; Haddar, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Condition monitoring of machines in non-stationary operations (CMMNO) can be seen as the major challenge for research in the field of machinery diagnostics. Condition monitoring of machines in non-stationary operations is the title of the presented book and the title of the Conference held in Hammamet - Tunisia March 26 – 28, 2012. It is the second conference under this title, first took place in Wroclaw - Poland , March 2011. The subject CMMNO comes directly from industry needs and observation of real objects. Most monitored and diagnosed objects used in industry works in non-stationary operations condition. The non-stationary operations come from fulfillment of machinery tasks, for which they are designed for. All machinery used in different kind of mines, transport systems, vehicles like: cars, buses etc, helicopters, ships and battleships and so on work in non-stationary operations. The papers included in the book are shaped by the organizing board of the conference and authors of the papers. The papers...

  2. Modern principles used in conformity assessment of machinery from forestry sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonov Anca Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is aiming to implement the general principles of risk prevention at employer’s level, with respect to occupational risks evaluation, the elimination of risk and accident factors, and information of workers which are using the machinery in the forestry sector. For the use of machinery in the forestry sector in terms of economic performance and a level of maximum safety, it is necessary to ensure the user guides set by the manufacturer in terms of commissioning, use and to provide appropriate safe working operations and interventions and to guarantee the technical and environmental requirements, including appropriate measures and means of protection against accidents and occupational disease. The impact of occupational risks for machinery used in this sector can be reduced through the application of modern principles in conformity assessment and certification and, where appropriate, through technical diagnostics and inspection, taking into account the provisions of the new Machinery Directive 2006/42 / EC which is imposing the obligation of manufacturer to implement conformity assessment procedures in accordance with the methods of assessment and verification of safety at the certification bodies, notified at the European Commission. The paper aims to develop modern technical tools for conformity assessment and verification of this category of machines used in the forestry sector that would provide prerequisite for increasing competitiveness of employers in the market economy. Applying these tools of modern technology for manufacturers and users of this category of machinery provides the necessary conditions for placing on the market of safe products with a appropriate safety level, in the intended using conditions, in order to guarantee the essential requirements for safety and health, technical and environmental conditions, including measures and means of protection. The result of this research is to develop technical tools needed to

  3. Proceedings of the 1991 national conference on hydraulic engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shane, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 1991 National Conference of Hydraulic Engineering. The conference was held in conjunction with the International Symposium on Ground Water and a Software Exchange that facilitated exchange of information on recent software developments of interest to hydraulic engineers. Also included in the program were three mini-symposia on the Exclusive Economic Zone, Data Acquisition, and Appropriate Technology. Topics include sedimentation; appropriate technology; exclusive economic zone hydraulics; hydraulic data acquisition and display; innovative hydraulic structures and water quality applications of hydraulic research, including the hydraulics of aerating turbines; wetlands; hydraulic and hydrologic extremes; highway drainage; overtopping protection of dams; spillway design; coastal and estuarine hydraulics; scale models; computation hydraulics; GIS and expert system applications; watershed response to rainfall; probabilistic approaches; and flood control investigations

  4. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy for degradation monitoring of machinery lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnovski, Oleg; Suresh, Pooja; Dudelzak, Alexander E.; Green, Benjamin

    2018-02-01

    Lubrication oil is a vital component of heavy rotating machinery defining the machine's health, operational safety and effectiveness. Recently, the focus has been on developing sensors that provide real-time/online monitoring of oil condition/lubricity. Industrial practices and standards for assessing oil condition involve various analytical methods. Most these techniques are unsuitable for online applications. The paper presents the results of studying degradation of antioxidant additives in machinery lubricants using Fluorescence Excitation-Emission Matrix (EEM) Spectroscopy and Machine Learning techniques. EEM Spectroscopy is capable of rapid and even standoff sensing; it is potentially applicable to real-time online monitoring.

  5. Industry sector analysis, Mexico: Oil and gas field machinery and equipment. Export Trade Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Industry Sector Analyses (I.S.A.) for oil and gas field machinery and equipment contains statistical and narrative information on projected market demand, end-users, receptivity of Mexican consumers to U.S. products, the competitive situation - Mexican production, total import market, U.S. market position, foreign competition, and competitive factors, and market access - Mexican tariffs, non-tariff barriers, standards, taxes and distribution channels. The I.S.A. provides the United States industry with meaningful information regarding the Mexican market for oil and gas field machinery and equipment

  6. Aerosol surface area concentration: a governing factor in new particle formation in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Cai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The predominating role of aerosol Fuchs surface area, AFuchs, in determining the occurrence of new particle formation (NPF events in Beijing was elucidated in this study. The analysis was based on a field campaign from 12 March to 6 April 2016 in Beijing, during which aerosol size distributions down to  ∼  1 nm and sulfuric acid concentrations were simultaneously monitored. The 26 days were classified into 11 typical NPF days, 2 undefined days, and 13 non-event days. A dimensionless factor, LΓ, characterized by the relative ratio of the coagulation scavenging rate over the condensational growth rate (Kuang et al., 2010, was applied in this work to reveal the governing factors for NPF events in Beijing. The three parameters determining LΓ are sulfuric acid concentration, the growth enhancement factor characterized by contribution of other gaseous precursors to particle growth, Γ, and AFuchs. Different from other atmospheric environments, such as in Boulder and Hyytiälä, the daily-maximum sulfuric acid concentration and Γ in Beijing varied in a narrow range with geometric standard deviations of 1.40 and 1.31, respectively. A positive correlation between the estimated new particle formation rate, J1.5, and sulfuric acid concentration was found with a mean fitted exponent of 2.4. However, the maximum sulfuric acid concentrations on NPF days were not significantly higher (even lower, sometimes than those on non-event days, indicating that the abundance of sulfuric acid in Beijing was high enough to initiate nucleation, but may not necessarily lead to NPF events. Instead, AFuchs in Beijing varied greatly among days with a geometric standard deviation of 2.56, whereas the variabilities of AFuchs in Tecamac, Atlanta, and Boulder were reported to be much smaller. In addition, there was a good correlation between AFuchs and LΓ in Beijing (R2 = 0.88. Therefore, it was AFuchs that fundamentally determined the occurrence of NPF events

  7. Experimental comparison of cavitation erosion rates of different steels used in hydraulic turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ton-That, L

    2010-01-01

    The prediction of cavitation erosion rates has an important role in order to evaluate the exact life of components in fluid machineries. Hydro-Quebec has studied this phenomenon for several years, in particular in hydraulic turbine runners, to try to understand the different degradation mechanisms related to this phenomenon. This paper presents part of this work. In this study, we carried out experimental erosion tests to compare different steels used in actual hydraulic turbine runners (carbon steels, austenitic and martensitic stainless steels) to high strength steels in terms of cavitation erosion resistance. The results for these different classes of steels are presented. The tests have been performed in a cavitating liquid jet apparatus according to the ASTM G134-95 standard to simulate the flow conditions. The mass loss has been followed during the exposure time. The maximum depth of erosion, the mean depth of erosion, and the mean depth erosion rate are determined. As a result we found that ASTM-A514 high strength steels present excellent cavitation erosion resistance properties. The cavitation eroded surface is followed by optical profilometry technique. Determination of mechanical properties and examinations of the eroded surfaces of the samples have also been carried out in order to identify the erosion mechanisms involved in the degradation of these kinds of materials.

  8. Dynamic strain measurement of hydraulic system pipeline using fibre Bragg grating sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue failure is a serious problem in hydraulic piping systems installed in the machinery and equipment working in harsh operational conditions. To alleviate this problem, health monitoring of pipes can be conducted by measuring and analysing vibration-induced strain. Fibre Bragg grating is considered as a promising sensing approach for dynamic load monitoring. In this article, dynamic strain measurements based on fibre Bragg grating sensors for small-bore metal pipes have been investigated. The quasi-distributed strain sensing of fibre Bragg grating sensors is introduced. Two comparison experiments were carried out under vibration and impact loads among the methods of electrical strain gauge, piezoelectric accelerometer and fibre Bragg grating sensor. Experimental results indicate that fibre Bragg grating sensor possesses an outstanding ability to resist electromagnetic interference compared with strain gauge. The natural frequency measurement results, captured by fibre Bragg grating sensor, agree well with the modal analysis results obtained from finite element analysis. In addition, the attached fibre Bragg grating sensor brings a smaller impact on the dynamic characteristics of the measured pipe than the accelerometer due to its small size and lightweight. Fibre Bragg grating sensors have great potential for the quasi-distributed measurement of dynamic strain for the dynamic characteristic research and health monitoring of hydraulic system pipeline.

  9. The response of the Beijing carbon emissions allowance price (BJC) to macroeconomic and energy price indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Shihong; Nan, Xin; Liu, Chao; Chen, Jiuying

    2017-01-01

    In 2013, China opened pilot carbon emission trading markets in seven provinces, where carbon emission allowances have now been traded for more than two years. In this paper, we employ a structural VAR model and the price of the Beijing carbon emission allowance to study the dynamic relationships among the price of the carbon emission allowance, economic development and the price of energy. This paper's data cover the period from April 2, 2014 to November 6, 2015. This paper provides information that will be helpful to both investors and governmental policy makers. The results show that (1) an increase of one standard deviation in the coal price leads to an initial increase of approximately 0.1% in the Beijing carbon price. After 2 days, there is a decrease of less than 0.1%, and the price gradually increases by approximately 0.1% after 30 days; (2) the price of the Beijing carbon emission allowance is mainly affected by its own historical price; (3) the Beijing carbon emission allowance price, crude oil price, natural gas price and economic development have positive – albeit non-significant – correlations. - Highlights: • This paper examines the response of the Beijing carbon emission allowance price. • A rise in coal prices will have different effects in different lag stages. • There are positive correlations between the BJC and economic development.

  10. Occurrence, distribution and risks of antibiotics in urban surface water in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenhui; Gao, Lihong; Shi, Yali; Liu, Jiemin; Cai, Yaqi

    2015-09-01

    The occurrence and distribution of 22 antibiotics, including eight fluoroquinolones, nine sulfonamides and five macrolides, were investigated in the urban surface waters in Beijing, China. A total of 360 surface water samples were collected from the main rivers and lakes in the urban area of Beijing monthly from July 2013 to June 2014 (except the frozen period). Laboratory analyses revealed that antibiotics were widely used and extensively distributed in the surface water of Beijing, and sulfonamides and fluoroquinolones were the predominant antibiotics with the average concentrations of 136 and 132 ng L(-1), respectively. A significant difference of antibiotic concentrations from different sampling sites was observed, and the southern and eastern regions of Beijing showed higher concentrations of antibiotics. Seasonal variation of the antibiotics in the urban surface water was also studied, and the highest level of antibiotics was found in November, which may be due to the low temperature and flow of the rivers during the period of cold weather. Risk assessment showed that several antibiotics might pose high ecological risks to aquatic organisms (algae and plants) in surface water, and more attention should be paid to the risk of antibiotics to the aquatic environment in Beijing.

  11. Travelling to china for the beijing 2008 olympic and paralympic games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Marc T M; Leggat, Peter A; Borwein, Sarah

    2007-11-01

    The 29th modern Olympic Summer Games, conducted once every 4 years since 1896, will be held in Beijing, China, from 8 to 24 August 2008. There will be approximately 28 major and 302 minor events in 37 venues in the prominent cities of Beijing, Hong Kong and Shanghai, and also in Qingdao (a coastal town in Shandong Province), Qinhuangdao (northeast of Beijing), Shanghai, Shenyang (an industrial city in Liaoning Province) and in Tianjin (on the coast near Beijing). Following the Olympic Games, the Paralympic Games will be conducted from 6 to 17 September 2008 in Beijing and 20 Paralympic Sports will be represented. This paper focuses on health and safety issues for travellers to China in general, although it makes specific references to advice for visiting Olympic and Paralympic athletes and team staff, who will be travelling to the games. It must be remembered that travel health advice can change, and that travellers should be advised to seek up-to-date travel health advice for China closer to their departure.

  12. Hydraulic Yaw System for Wind Turbines with New Compact Hydraulic Motor Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rasmus Mørk; Hansen, Michael Rygaard; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a new hydraulic yaw system for wind turbines. The basic component is a new type of hydraulic motor characterized by an extraordinary high specific displacement yielding high output torque in a compact form. The focus in the paper is the volumetric efficiency of the motor, which...

  13. Comparative study of methods to estimate hydraulic parameters in the hydraulically undisturbed Opalinus Clay (Switzerland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, C.; Matray, J.-M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses, (France); Yu, C.; Gonçalvès, J. [Aix Marseille Université UMR 6635 CEREGE Technopôle Environnement Arbois-Méditerranée Aix-en-Provence, Cedex 4 (France); and others

    2017-04-15

    The deep borehole (DB) experiment gave the opportunity to acquire hydraulic parameters in a hydraulically undisturbed zone of the Opalinus Clay at the Mont Terri rock laboratory (Switzerland). Three methods were used to estimate hydraulic conductivity and specific storage values of the Opalinus Clay formation and its bounding formations through the 248 m deep borehole BDB-1: application of a Poiseuille-type law involving petrophysical measurements, spectral analysis of pressure time series and in situ hydraulic tests. The hydraulic conductivity range in the Opalinus Clay given by the first method is 2 × 10{sup -14}-6 × 10{sup -13} m s{sup -1} for a cementation factor ranging between 2 and 3. These results show low vertical variability whereas in situ hydraulic tests suggest higher values up to 7 × 10{sup -12} m s{sup -1}. Core analysis provides economical estimates of the homogeneous matrix hydraulic properties but do not account for heterogeneities at larger scale such as potential tectonic conductive features. Specific storage values obtained by spectral analysis are consistent and in the order of 10{sup -6} m{sup -1}, while formulations using phase shift and gain between pore pressure signals were found to be inappropriate to evaluate hydraulic conductivity in the Opalinus Clay. The values obtained are globally in good agreement with the ones obtained previously at the rock laboratory. (authors)

  14. Isotopic constraints on heterogeneous sulfate production in Beijing haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Pengzhen; Alexander, Becky; Geng, Lei; Chi, Xiyuan; Fan, Shidong; Zhan, Haicong; Kang, Hui; Zheng, Guangjie; Cheng, Yafang; Su, Hang; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing

    2018-04-01

    Discerning mechanisms of sulfate formation during fine-particle pollution (referred to as haze hereafter) in Beijing is important for understanding the rapid evolution of haze and for developing cost-effective air pollution mitigation strategies. Here we present observations of the oxygen-17 excess of PM2.5 sulfate (Δ17O(SO42-)) collected in Beijing haze from October 2014 to January 2015 to constrain possible sulfate formation pathways. Throughout the sampling campaign, the 12-hourly averaged PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 16 to 323 µg m-3 with a mean of (141 ± 88 (1σ)) µg m-3, with SO42- representing 8-25 % of PM2.5 mass. The observed Δ17O(SO42-) varied from 0.1 to 1.6 ‰ with a mean of (0.9 ± 0.3) ‰. Δ17O(SO42-) increased with PM2.5 levels in October 2014 while the opposite trend was observed from November 2014 to January 2015. Our estimate suggested that in-cloud reactions dominated sulfate production on polluted days (PDs, PM2.5 ≥ 75 µg m-3) of Case II in October 2014 due to the relatively high cloud liquid water content, with a fractional contribution of up to 68 %. During PDs of Cases I and III-V, heterogeneous sulfate production (Phet) was estimated to contribute 41-54 % to total sulfate formation with a mean of (48 ± 5) %. For the specific mechanisms of heterogeneous oxidation of SO2, chemical reaction kinetics calculations suggested S(IV) ( = SO2 ⚫ H2O + HSO3- + SO32-) oxidation by H2O2 in aerosol water accounted for 5-13 % of Phet. The relative importance of heterogeneous sulfate production by other mechanisms was constrained by our observed Δ17O(SO42-). Heterogeneous sulfate production via S(IV) oxidation by O3 was estimated to contribute 21-22 % of Phet on average. Heterogeneous sulfate production pathways that result in zero-Δ17O(SO42-), such as S(IV) oxidation by NO2 in aerosol water and/or by O2 via a radical chain mechanism, contributed the remaining 66-73 % of Phet. The assumption about the thermodynamic state of aerosols

  15. Isotopic constraints on heterogeneous sulfate production in Beijing haze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. He

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Discerning mechanisms of sulfate formation during fine-particle pollution (referred to as haze hereafter in Beijing is important for understanding the rapid evolution of haze and for developing cost-effective air pollution mitigation strategies. Here we present observations of the oxygen-17 excess of PM2.5 sulfate (Δ17O(SO42− collected in Beijing haze from October 2014 to January 2015 to constrain possible sulfate formation pathways. Throughout the sampling campaign, the 12-hourly averaged PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 16 to 323 µg m−3 with a mean of (141  ±  88 (1σ µg m−3, with SO42− representing 8–25 % of PM2.5 mass. The observed Δ17O(SO42− varied from 0.1 to 1.6 ‰ with a mean of (0.9  ±  0.3 ‰. Δ17O(SO42− increased with PM2.5 levels in October 2014 while the opposite trend was observed from November 2014 to January 2015. Our estimate suggested that in-cloud reactions dominated sulfate production on polluted days (PDs, PM2.5  ≥  75 µg m−3 of Case II in October 2014 due to the relatively high cloud liquid water content, with a fractional contribution of up to 68 %. During PDs of Cases I and III–V, heterogeneous sulfate production (Phet was estimated to contribute 41–54 % to total sulfate formation with a mean of (48  ±  5 %. For the specific mechanisms of heterogeneous oxidation of SO2, chemical reaction kinetics calculations suggested S(IV ( =  SO2 ⚫ H2O + HSO3−  +  SO32− oxidation by H2O2 in aerosol water accounted for 5–13 % of Phet. The relative importance of heterogeneous sulfate production by other mechanisms was constrained by our observed Δ17O(SO42−. Heterogeneous sulfate production via S(IV oxidation by O3 was estimated to contribute 21–22 % of Phet on average. Heterogeneous sulfate production pathways that result in zero-Δ17O(SO42−, such as S(IV oxidation by NO2 in aerosol water and/or by O2 via a

  16. Rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinghong; Luo, Jie; Li, Lijun; Shi, Wei; Yu, Jinqian; Shen, Yingjie; Li, Li; Wang, Yajuan; Yao, Kaihu

    2018-03-15

    Rubella infection in pregnant women can result in serious effects, such as miscarriages, stillbirths, and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). However, very little is known about the rubella seroprevalence among pregnant women in China. This is a cross-sectional and hospital-based study. From June 2016 through March 2017, a total of 324 serum samples from healthy pregnant women were collected in the Shunyi Women and Children's Hospital of Beijing Children's Hospital. Rubella-specific IgG antibody was determined by ELISA (Euroimmun, Lübeck, Germany) kits. International assigned cut-off values of ≥10 IU/ml were used to assess the percentage of pregnant women with protective IgG concentrations. The total rate of protected individuals was 83.3% (95% CI: 78.9%-87.0%). The protective rates of pregnant women in 17-26 years group, 27-36 years group and 37-46 years group were 84.0% (95% CI: 75.3%-90.1%), 81.9% (95% CI: 74.9%-87.4%) and 84.9% (95% CI: 75.8%-90.9%) respectively. No significant difference in protective rates among the three age groups was found (P = 0.83). There were also no statistically significant correlations between protective rates and gravidity (P = 0.84), parity (P = 0.84), birth place (P = 0.16), residence area (P = 0.58), education (P = 0.40) or occupation (P = 0.65). Despite the generally low vaccination coverage for rubella, most of Chinese pregnant women had potent rubella immunity. However, at least 16.7% of pregnant women were susceptible to rubella, which suggested rubella immunization in Chinese women at or before child-bearing age.

  17. Crustal heterogeneity and seismotectonics of the region around Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinli; Zhao, Dapeng

    2004-07-01

    A detailed three-dimensional (3-D) P-wave velocity model of the crust and uppermost mantle under the Chinese capital (Beijing) region is determined with a spatial resolution of 25 km in the horizontal direction and 4-17 km in depth. We used 48,750 precise P-wave arrival times from 2973 events of local crustal earthquakes, controlled seismic explosions and quarry blasts. These events were recorded by a new digital seismic network consisting of 101 seismic stations equipped with high-sensitivity seismometers. The data are analyzed by using a 3-D seismic tomography method. Our tomographic model provides new insights into the geological structure and tectonics of the region, such as the lithological variations and large fault zones across the major geological terranes like the North China Basin, the Taihangshan and the Yanshan mountainous areas. The velocity images of the upper crust reflect well the surface geological and topographic features. In the North China Basin, the depression and uplift areas are imaged as slow and fast velocities, respectively. The Taihangshan and Yanshan mountainous regions are generally imaged as broad high-velocity zones, while the Quaternary intermountain basins show up as small low-velocity anomalies. Velocity changes are visible across some of the large fault zones. Large crustal earthquakes, such as the 1976 Tangshan earthquake ( M=7.8) and the 1679 Sanhe earthquake ( M=8.0), generally occurred in high-velocity areas in the upper to middle crust. In the lower crust to the uppermost mantle under the source zones of the large earthquakes, however, low-velocity and high-conductivity anomalies exist, which are considered to be associated with fluids. The fluids in the lower crust may cause the weakening of the seismogenic layer in the upper and middle crust and thus contribute to the initiation of the large crustal earthquakes.

  18. Environmental performance evaluation of Beijing's energy use planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lei; Xu Linyu; Song Huimin

    2011-01-01

    In line with rapid economic development, urban energy consumption is increasing rapidly, resulting in environmental problems. After considering several methods to evaluate the environmental performance of energy use, including: energy ecological footprint, input-output analysis, emergy-exergy analysis, and multi-criteria decision-making, an environmental performance evaluation model is proposed, which combines the analytical hierarchy process, fuzzy extent analysis, and membership degree analysis. In the model, 18 sub-indicators of environmental performance from energy use planning are classified into four categories: structure of energy use and industry, technology and efficiency of energy use, environmental impacts caused by energy use, and the socio-economic benefits of energy use. Membership degree analysis is applied to each indicator. Three energy use scenarios which are, respectively, environment-friendly, technology-led, and economic policy-led are evaluated. The results show that the technology-led energy use planning is best. The sustainable energy use policies are proposed from three aspects, including optimizing the energy use and industrial structure, encouraging development of energy-saving and air pollution control technologies, and enhancing legislation on energy use management. The policies are helpful to optimize the trade-offs between economic growth and environmental protection in Beijing. - Highlights: → Our paper establishes a system of indicators according to the structure of urban energy use planning. → We have created a comprehensive environmental performance evaluation model in the research. → The model and results can serve as an important basis for decision-making to guide local government.

  19. Temporal coherence of phenological and climatic rhythmicity in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoqiu; Zhang, Weiqi; Ren, Shilong; Lang, Weiguang; Liang, Boyi; Liu, Guohua

    2017-10-01

    Using woody plant phenological data in the Beijing Botanical Garden from 1979 to 2013, we revealed three levels of phenology rhythms and examined their coherence with temperature rhythms. First, the sequential and correlative rhythm shows that occurrence dates of various phenological events obey a certain time sequence within a year and synchronously advance or postpone among years. The positive correlation between spring phenophase dates is much stronger than that between autumn phenophase dates and attenuates as the time interval between two spring phenophases increases. This phenological rhythm can be explained by positive correlation between above 0 °C mean temperatures corresponding to different phenophase dates. Second, the circannual rhythm indicates that recurrence interval of a phenophase in the same species in two adjacent years is about 365 days, which can be explained by the 365-day recurrence interval in the first and last dates of threshold temperatures. Moreover, an earlier phenophase date in the current year may lead to a later phenophase date in the next year through extending recurrence interval. Thus, the plant phenology sequential and correlative rhythm and circannual rhythm are interacted, which mirrors the interaction between seasonal variation and annual periodicity of temperature. Finally, the multi-year rhythm implies that phenophase dates display quasi-periodicity more than 1 year. The same 12-year periodicity in phenophase and threshold temperature dates confirmed temperature controls of the phenology multi-year rhythm. Our findings provide new perspectives for examining phenological response to climate change and developing comprehensive phenology models considering temporal coherence of phenological and climatic rhythmicity.

  20. Power Management in Mobile Hydraulic Applications - An Approach for Designing Hydraulic Power Supply Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the last three decades energy consumption has become one of the primary design aspects in hydraulic systems, especially for mobile hydraulic systems, as power and cooling capacity here is at limited disposal. Considering the energy usage, this is dependent on component efficiency, but ...... the hydraulic power supply in the most energy efficient way, when considering a number of load situations. Finally an example of the approach is shown to prove its validity.}......Throughout the last three decades energy consumption has become one of the primary design aspects in hydraulic systems, especially for mobile hydraulic systems, as power and cooling capacity here is at limited disposal. Considering the energy usage, this is dependent on component efficiency...