WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydraulic laboratory investigation

  1. Hydraulic transportation of fly ash: a laboratory-scale investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.K.; Sastry, B.S. [Anna University, Chennai (India). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Flow behaviour of fly ash slurry is a very complex phenomenon. The present study tries to examine the relation between flow rate and pressure loss of fly ash slurry under laboratory-scale experiment set up in the light of available theoretical background. Pressure loss increases with the increase in flow rate and solid concentration but pressure losses can be saved by the addition of 2200 PPM (parts per million) concentration of polyacrylamide polymer. 6 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Should hydraulic tomography data be interpreted using geostatistical inverse modeling? A laboratory sandbox investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illman, Walter A.; Berg, Steven J.; Zhao, Zhanfeng

    2015-05-01

    The robust performance of hydraulic tomography (HT) based on geostatistics has been demonstrated through numerous synthetic, laboratory, and field studies. While geostatistical inverse methods offer many advantages, one key disadvantage is its highly parameterized nature, which renders it computationally intensive for large-scale problems. Another issue is that geostatistics-based HT may produce overly smooth images of subsurface heterogeneity when there are few monitoring interval data. Therefore, some may question the utility of the geostatistical inversion approach in certain situations and seek alternative approaches. To investigate these issues, we simultaneously calibrated different groundwater models with varying subsurface conceptualizations and parameter resolutions using a laboratory sandbox aquifer. The compared models included: (1) isotropic and anisotropic effective parameter models; (2) a heterogeneous model that faithfully represents the geological features; and (3) a heterogeneous model based on geostatistical inverse modeling. The performance of these models was assessed by quantitatively examining the results from model calibration and validation. Calibration data consisted of steady state drawdown data from eight pumping tests and validation data consisted of data from 16 separate pumping tests not used in the calibration effort. Results revealed that the geostatistical inversion approach performed the best among the approaches compared, although the geological model that faithfully represented stratigraphy came a close second. In addition, when the number of pumping tests available for inverse modeling was small, the geological modeling approach yielded more robust validation results. This suggests that better knowledge of stratigraphy obtained via geophysics or other means may contribute to improved results for HT.

  3. Hydraulic Features of the Excavation Disturbed Zone - Laboratory investigations of samples taken from the Q- and S-tunnels at Aespoe HRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericsson, Lars O.; Brinkhoff, Petra; Gustafson, Gunnar; Kvartsberg, Sara (Div. of GeoEngineering, Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    2009-12-15

    The general aim of the project has been to contribute to the SKB safety and assessment analysis with realistic figures of hydraulic properties in an excavation disturbed zone. The project had the following more detailed objectives: - Develop a laboratory method to determine fracture transmissivity under water-saturated conditions. - Provide magnitudes for realistic values for fracture transmissivity in the disturbed or damaged zone due to excavation. - Map micro cracks radially from the tunnel wall. - Map the spread of matrix porosity radially from the tunnel wall. - Develop single-hole hydraulic testing methodology in tunnel wall for saturated conditions. - Integration of fracture geometries and transmissivity investigations for conceptual hydraulic modelling of the bedrock along a tunnel wall

  4. Hydraulic rams; a comparative investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tacke, J.H.P.M.

    1988-01-01

    A mathematical model describing the essential features of hydraulic ram operation is developed in order to clarify the possibilities and limitations of the ram relative to its site and its adjustments. The model distinguishes three different periods in the pumping cycle of the hydraulic ram: acceler

  5. Design of a laboratory hydraulic device for testing of hydraulic pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Máchal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution deals with solves problem of research of testing device to monitor of hydrostatic pumps durability about dynamic loading under laboratory conditions. When carrying out the design of testing device are based on load characteristics of tractor hydraulic circuit, the individual characteristics of hydraulic components and performed calculations. Load characteristics on the tractors CASE IH Magnum 310, JOHN DEERE 8100, ZETOR FORTERRA 114 41 and Fendt 926 Vario were measured. Design of a hydraulic laboratory device is based on the need for testing new types of hydraulic pumps or various types of hydraulic fluids. When creating of hydraulic device we focused on testing hydraulic pumps used in agricultural and forestry tractors. Proportional pressure control valve is an active member of the hydraulic device, which provides change of a continuous control signal into relative pressure of operating fluid. The advantage of a designed hydraulic system is possibility of simulation of dynamic operating loading, which is obtained by measurement under real conditions, and thereby creates laboratory conditions as close to real conditions as possible. The laboratory device is constructed at the Department of Transport and Handling, Faculty of Engineering, Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra.

  6. Hydraulics national laboratory; Laboratoire national d`hydraulique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabard, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    The hydraulics national laboratory is a department of the service of applications of electric power and environment from the direction of studies and researches of Electricite de France. It has to solve the EDF problems concerning the fluids mechanics and hydraulics. Problems in PWR type reactors, fossil fuel power plants, circulating fluidized bed power plants, hydroelectric power plants relative to fluid mechanics and hydraulics studied and solved in 1995 are explained in this report. (N.C.)

  7. Workgroup for Hydraulic laboratory Testing and Verification of Hydroacoustic Instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Janice M.; Armstrong, Brandy N.; Thibodeaux, Kirk G.

    2015-01-01

    An international workgroup was recently formed for hydraulic laboratory testing and verification of hydroacoustic instrumentation used for water velocity measurements. The activities of the workgroup have included one face to face meeting, conference calls and an inter-laboratory exchange of two acoustic meters among participating laboratories. Good agreement was found among four laboratories at higher tow speeds and poorer agreement at the lowest tow speed.

  8. Comparison of Laboratory and Field Methods for Determining the Quasi-Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faybishenko, Boris

    1997-08-01

    Laboratory and field ponded infiltration tests in quasi-saturated soils (containing entrapped air) exhibit the same three-stage temporal variability for the flow rate and hydraulic conductivity. However, the values for the hydraulic conductivity may differ by as much as two orders of magnitude due to differences in the geometry and physics of flow when different laboratory and field methods are applied. The purpose of this paper is to investigate this variability using a comparison of results of ponded infiltration tests conducted under laboratory conditions using confined cores, with results of field tests conducted using partially isolated cores and double-ring infiltrometers. Under laboratory conditions in confined cores, during the firs stage, the water flux decreases over time because entrapped air plugs the largest pores in the soils; during the second stage, the quasi-saturated hydraulic conductivity increases by one to two orders of magnitude, essentially reaching the saturated hydraulic conductivity, when entrapped air is discharged from the soils; during the third stage, the hydraulic conductivity decreases to minimum values due to sealing of the soil surface and the effect of biofilms sealing the pores within the wetted zone. Under field conditions, the second stage is only partially developed, and when the surface sealing process begins, the hydraulic pressure drops below the air entry value, thereby causing atmospheric air to enter the soils. As a result, the soils become unsaturated with a low hydraulic conductivity, and the infiltration rate consequently decreases. Contrary to the laboratory experiments in confined cores, the saturated hydraulic conductivity cannot be reached under field conditions. In computations of infiltration one has to take into account the variations in the quasi-saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivities, moisture and entrapped air content, and the hydraulic gradient in the quasi-saturated or unsaturated soils.

  9. Laboratory tests of hydraulic fracturing and swell healing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunbo, Christensen Claes; Foged, Christensen Helle; Foged, Niels

    1998-01-01

    New laboratory test set-ups and test procedures are described - for testing the formation of hydraulically induced fractures as well as the potential for subsequent fracture closurefrom the relase of a swelling potential. The main purpose with the tests is to provide information on fracturing...

  10. Investigation of hydraulic transmission noise sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, Richard J.

    Advanced hydrostatic transmissions and hydraulic hybrids show potential in new market segments such as commercial vehicles and passenger cars. Such new applications regard low noise generation as a high priority, thus, demanding new quiet hydrostatic transmission designs. In this thesis, the aim is to investigate noise sources of hydrostatic transmissions to discover strategies for designing compact and quiet solutions. A model has been developed to capture the interaction of a pump and motor working in a hydrostatic transmission and to predict overall noise sources. This model allows a designer to compare noise sources for various configurations and to design compact and inherently quiet solutions. The model describes dynamics of the system by coupling lumped parameter pump and motor models with a one-dimensional unsteady compressible transmission line model. The model has been verified with dynamic pressure measurements in the line over a wide operating range for several system structures. Simulation studies were performed illustrating sensitivities of several design variables and the potential of the model to design transmissions with minimal noise sources. A semi-anechoic chamber has been designed and constructed suitable for sound intensity measurements that can be used to derive sound power. Measurements proved the potential to reduce audible noise by predicting and reducing both noise sources. Sound power measurements were conducted on a series hybrid transmission test bench to validate the model and compare predicted noise sources with sound power.

  11. Hydraulic manipulator design, analysis, and control at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Robotics and Process Systems Div.; Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States); Basher, A.M.H. [South Carolina State Univ., Orangeburg, SC (United States)

    1996-09-01

    To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned to hydraulics as a means of actuation. Hydraulics have always been the actuator of choice when designing heavy-life construction and mining equipment such as bulldozers, backhoes, and tunneling devices. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem) sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. To support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The hydraulics laboratory at ORNL has three different manipulators. First is a 6-Degree-of-Freedom (6-DoF), multi-planer, teleoperated, flexible controls test bed used for the development of waste tank clean-up manipulator controls, thermal studies, system characterization, and manipulator tracking. Finally, is a human amplifier test bed used for the development of an entire new class of teleoperated systems. To compliment the hardware in the hydraulics laboratory, ORNL has developed a hydraulics simulation capability including a custom package to model the hydraulic systems and manipulators for performance studies and control development. This paper outlines the history of hydraulic manipulator developments at ORNL, describes the hydraulics laboratory, discusses the use of the equipment within the laboratory, and presents some of the initial results from experiments and modeling associated with these hydraulic manipulators. Included are some of the results from the development of the human amplifier/de-amplifier concepts, the characterization of the thermal sensitivity of hydraulic systems, and end-point tracking accuracy studies. Experimental and analytical

  12. Simulation of the hydraulic performance of highway filter drains through laboratory models and stormwater management tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sañudo-Fontaneda, Luis A; Jato-Espino, Daniel; Lashford, Craig; Coupe, Stephen J

    2017-05-23

    Road drainage is one of the most relevant assets in transport infrastructure due to its inherent influence on traffic management and road safety. Highway filter drains (HFDs), also known as "French Drains", are the main drainage system currently in use in the UK, throughout 7000 km of its strategic road network. Despite being a widespread technique across the whole country, little research has been completed on their design considerations and their subsequent impact on their hydraulic performance, representing a gap in the field. Laboratory experiments have been proven to be a reliable indicator for the simulation of the hydraulic performance of stormwater best management practices (BMPs). In addition to this, stormwater management tools (SMT) have been preferentially chosen as a design tool for BMPs by practitioners from all over the world. In this context, this research aims to investigate the hydraulic performance of HFDs by comparing the results from laboratory simulation and two widely used SMT such as the US EPA's stormwater management model (SWMM) and MicroDrainage®. Statistical analyses were applied to a series of rainfall scenarios simulated, showing a high level of accuracy between the results obtained in laboratory and using SMT as indicated by the high and low values of the Nash-Sutcliffe and R (2) coefficients and root-mean-square error (RMSE) reached, which validated the usefulness of SMT to determine the hydraulic performance of HFDs.

  13. Investigation of possible wellbore cement failures during hydraulic fracturing operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers used the peer-reviewed TOUGH+ geomechanics computational software and simulation system to investigate the possibility of fractures and shear failure along vertical wells during hydraulic fracturing operations.

  14. Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Robert L.; Kirby, Klane

    This curriculum guide contains a course in hydraulics to train entry-level workers for automotive mechanics and other fields that utilize hydraulics. The module contains 14 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to hydraulics; (2) fundamentals of hydraulics; (3) reservoirs; (4) lines, fittings, and couplers; (5)…

  15. Studies investigate effects of hydraulic fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-11-01

    The use of hydraulic fracturing, also known as fracking, to enhance the retrieval of natural gas from shale has been increasing dramatically—the number of natural gas wells rose about 50% since 2000. Shale gas has been hailed as a relatively low-cost, abundant energy source that is cleaner than coal. However, fracking involves injecting large volumes of water, sand, and chemicals into deep shale gas reservoirs under high pressure to open fractures through which the gas can travel, and the process has generated much controversy. The popular press, advocacy organizations, and the documentary film Gasland by Josh Fox have helped bring this issue to a broad audience. Many have suggested that fracking has resulted in contaminated drinking water supplies, enhanced seismic activity, demands for large quantities of water that compete with other uses, and challenges in managing large volumes of resulting wastewater. As demand for expanded domestic energy production intensifies, there is potential for substantially increased use of fracking together with other recovery techniques for "unconventional gas resources," like extended horizontal drilling.

  16. Hydraulic and acoustic investigation of sintered glass beads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueven, Ibrahim; Luding, Stefan; Steeb, Holger

    2013-06-01

    In the present contribution, we are focussing on the hydraulical and acoustical charcterization of sintered glass beads. For the experiments sintered mono-and weakly polydisperse glass bead samples were applied. Depending on the particle size, degree of particle dispersion and sample treatment during the sintering process, the produced cylindircal samples exhibit different hydraulic and acoustic properties. The more general focus of our research lies on the physical behaviour of oil-water emulsions in porous media by means of combined electromagnetic and acoustic wave propagation. For this purpose, a hydraulic multi-task measuring cell was developed. This cell allows carrying out simple hydraulic permeability and challenging ultrasound experiments in porous materials saturated with Pickering emulsions. In the first phase of our experiments, hydraulical and acoustical measurements of cylindrical sintered glass bead samples were performed in order to determine their intrinsic permeabilities and effective ultrasound velocities. The intrinsic permeability ks, a coupling parameter between the solid matrix and the pore fluid, has a huge influence on wave propagation in fluid-saturated porous media. For the assessment of permeabilities, particle size distributions and porosities of the investigated glass beads were determined.

  17. IN-SERVICE HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY OF GCLS IN LANDFILL COVERS - LABORATORY AND FIELD STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory experiments using multi-species inorganic solutions (containing calcium and sodium) were conducted on specimens of a new geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) containing sodium bentonite to determine how cation exchange and desiccation affected the hydraulic conductivity. Calc...

  18. Investigation of Thermal Hydraulics of a Nuclear Reactor Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarchami, Araz

    A three-dimensional numerical modeling of the thermo hydraulics of Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) nuclear reactor is conducted. The moderator tank is a Pressurized heavy water reactor which uses heavy water as moderator in a cylindrical tank. The main use of the tank is to bring the fast neutrons to the thermal neutron energy levels. The moderator tank compromises of several bundled tubes containing nuclear rods immersed inside the heavy water. It is important to keep the water temperature in the moderator at sub-cooled conditions, to prevent potential failure due to overheating of the tubes. Because of difficulties in measuring flow characteristics and temperature conditions inside a real reactor moderator, tests are conducted using a scaled moderator in moderator test facility (MTF) by Chalk River Laboratories of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (CRL, AECL). MTF tests are conducted using heating elements to heat tube surfaces. This is different than the real reactor where nuclear radiation is the source of heating which results in a volumetric heating of the heavy water. The data recorded inside the MTF tank have shown levels of fluctuations in the moderator temperatures and requires in depth investigation of causes and effects. The purpose of the current investigation is to determine the causes for, and the nature of the moderator temperature fluctuations using three-dimensional simulation of MTF with both (surface heating and volumetric heating) modes. In addition, three dimensional simulation of full scale actual moderator tank with volumetric heating is conducted to investigate the effects of scaling on the temperature distribution. The numerical simulations are performed on a 24-processor cluster using parallel version of the FLUENT 12. During the transient simulation, 55 points of interest inside the tank are monitored for their temperature and velocity fluctuations with time.

  19. INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS DURING CO2 INJECTION IN HYDRAULICALLY AND NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Schechter

    2005-04-27

    This report describes the work performed during the fourth year of the project, ''Investigating of Efficiency Improvements during CO{sub 2} Injection in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs.'' The objective of this project is to perform unique laboratory experiments with artificially fractured cores (AFCs) and X-ray CT scanner to examine the physical mechanisms of bypassing in hydraulically fractured reservoirs (HFR) and naturally fractured reservoirs (NFR) that eventually result in more efficient CO{sub 2} flooding in heterogeneous or fracture-dominated reservoirs. In Chapter 1, we worked with DOE-RMOTC to investigate fracture properties in the Tensleep Formation at Teapot Dome Naval Reserve as part of their CO{sub 2} sequestration project. In Chapter 2, we continue our investigation to determine the primary oil recovery mechanism in a short vertically fractured core. Finally in Chapter 3, we report our numerical modeling efforts to develop compositional simulator with irregular grid blocks.

  20. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF CHARACTERISTIC FREQUENCY IN UNSTEADY HYDRAULIC BEHAVIOUR OF A LARGE HYDRAULIC TURBINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fu-jun; LI Xiao-qin; MA Jia-mei; YANG Min; ZHU Yu-liang

    2009-01-01

    The features of unsteady flow such as pressure variation and fluctuation in a large hydraulic turbine usually lead to the instability of operation.This article reports the recent in site investigation concerning the characteristic frequencies in pressure fluctuation,shaft torsional oscillation and structural vibration of a prototype 700 MW Francis turbine unit.The investigation was carried out for a wide load range of 200 MW-700 MW in the condition of water head 57 m-90 m.An extensive analysis of both time-history and frequency data of these unsteady hydraulic behaviours was conducted.It was observed that the pressure fluctuation in a draft tube is stronger than that in upstream flow passage.The low frequency with about one third of rotation frequency is dominative for the pressure fluctuation in part load range.Also the unsteady features of vibration of head cover and torsional oscillation of shaft exhibited the similar features.Numerical analysis showed that the vibration and oscillation are caused by vortex rope in the draft tube.In addition,a strong vibration with special characteristic frequency was observed for the head cover in middle load range.The pressure fluctuation in the draft tube with the same frequency was also recorded.Because this special vibration has appeared in the designed normal running condition,it should be avoided by carefully allocating power load in the future operation.

  1. Oscillatory hydraulic testing as a strategy for NAPL source zone monitoring: Laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, YaoQuan; Cardiff, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPLs) have a complex mode of transport in heterogeneous aquifers, which can result in pools and lenses of NAPLs (the ;source zone;) that are difficult to detect and can cause long-term contamination via slow dissolution into groundwater (the ;dissolved plume;). Characterizing the extent and evolution of NAPL contamination within the source zone is a useful strategy for designing and adapting appropriate remedial actions at many contaminated sites. As a NAPL flows into a given aquifer volume, the effective hydraulic conductivity (K) and specific storage (Ss) of the volume changes associated with the viscosity and compressibility of the impinging fluid, meaning that NAPL movement may be detectable with hydraulic testing. Recently, the use of oscillatory pumping tests - in which sinusoidal pumping variations are implemented and oscillatory pressure changes are detected at monitoring locations - has been suggested as a low-impact hydraulic testing strategy for characterizing aquifer properties (Cardiff et al., 2013; Zhou et al., 2016). Here, we investigate this strategy in an experimental laboratory sandbox where dyed vegetable oil is injected and allowed to migrate as a NAPL. Initial qualitative analyses demonstrate that measurable changes in pressure signal amplitude and phase provide clear evidence for NAPL plume emplacement and migration. Using the approach developed in Zhou et al. (2016), we then apply tomographic analyses to estimate the location of effective K changes (representing fluid changes) and their movement throughout time. This approach provides a method for monitoring ongoing NAPL movement without net extraction or injection of fluid, making it advantageous in field remediation applications.

  2. Laboratory evaporation experiments in undisturbed peat columns for determining peat soil hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmann, U.; Frahm, E.; Bechtold, M.

    2013-12-01

    Knowledge about hydraulic properties of organic soils is crucial for the interpretation of the hydrological situation in peatlands. This in turn is the basis for designing optimal rewetting strategies, for assessing the current and future climatic water balance and for quantifying greenhouse gas emissions of CO2, CH4 and N2O, which are strongly controlled by the depth of the peat water table. In contrast to mineral soils, the hydraulic properties of organic soils differ in several aspects. Due to the high amount of organic components, strong heterogeneity, and shrinkage and swelling of peat, accompanied by changing soil volume and bulk density, the applicability of standard hydraulic functions developed for mineral soils for describing peat soil moisture dynamics is often questioned. Hence, the objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of the commonly applied van Genuchten-Mualem (VGM) parameterization and to evaluate model errors for various peat types. Laboratory column experiments with undisturbed peat soils (diameter: 30 cm, height: 20 cm) from 5 different peatlands in Germany were conducted. In numerical simulations using HYDRUS-1D the experimental data were used for an inverse estimation of the soil hydraulic parameters. Using the VGM parameterization, the model errors between observed and measured pressure heads were quantified with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 20 - 65 cm. The RMSE increased for soils with higher organic carbon content and higher porosity. Optimizing the VGM 'tortuosity' parameter (τ) instead of fixing it to its default of 0.5 strongly reduced the RMSE, especially for the soils that showed high pressure head gradients during the experiment. Due to the fact, that very negative pressure heads in peatlands occur rarely, we reduced the range of pressured heads in the inversion to a 'field-relevant' range from 0 to -200 cm which strongly reduced the RMSE to 6 - 12 cm and makes the VGM parameterization applicable for all

  3. Laboratory investigation of longitudinal dispersion in anisotropic porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, S.E.; Konikow, L.F.; Voss, C.I.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, laboratory experiments were used to investigate mechanisms that may cause anisotropy in the dispersion coefficient and to investigate the relation between anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity and anisotropy in longitudinal dispersion. Measurements of sodium chloride concentration (used as a tracer) were made at 105 in situ sampling locations in a new type of sand box designed to allow flow in either of two perpendicular directions. Two types of hydraulic anisotropy were examined. The first consisted of structured zones of increased hydraulic conductivity within a lower-conductivity medium. The second type involved low-conductivity platelike inclusions within a homogeneous, isotropic medium. The plates were aligned such that the tortuosity was increased only in one principal direction of permeability. Results using two examples of the first type of media showed that the apparent longitudinal dispersivities for flow parallel to the high-conductivity direction were greater than those perpendicular to this direction. Two examples of the second type of media produced smaller apparent longitudinal dispersivities for flow parallel to the high-conductivity direction. The results suggest that the mechanisms causing dispersive anisotropy can be related, conceptually, to the factors causing hydraulic anisotropy.

  4. Standard laboratory hydraulic pressure drop characteristics of various solid and I&E fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, E.D.; Horn, G.R.

    1958-01-20

    The purpose of this report is to present a set of standard pressure-drop curves for various fuel elements in process tubes of Hanford reactors. The flow and pressures within a process tube assembly under normal conditions are dependent to a large extent on the magnitude of the pressure drop across the fuel elements. The knowledge of this pressure drop is important in determination of existing thermal conditions within the process tubes and in predicting conditions for new fuel element designs or changes in operating conditions. The pressure-flow relations for the different Hanford fuel element-process tube assemblies have all been determined at one time or another in the 189-D Hydraulics Laboratory but the data had never been collected into a single report. Such a report is presented now in the interest of establishing a set of ``standard curves`` as determined by laboratory investigations. It must be recognized that the pressure drops of fuel elements in actual process tubes in the reactors may be slightly different than those reported here. The data presented here were obtained in new process tubes while reactor process tubes are usually either corroded or filmed, depending on their past history.

  5. A Laboratory Investigation of Groupthink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtright, John A.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the groupthink phenomenon under controlled, laboratory conditions. Results indicate that the presence or absence of disagreement (conflict, hostility) among members may be the best discriminator between groupthink and nongroupthink groups. (JMF)

  6. Hydraulic Fracture Propagation Through an Orthogonal Discontinuity: A Laboratory, Analytical and Numerical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanos, Ella María; Jeffrey, Robert G.; Hillis, Richard; Zhang, Xi

    2017-08-01

    Rocks are naturally fractured, and lack of knowledge of hydraulic fracture growth through the pre-existing discontinuities in rocks has impeded enhancing hydrocarbon extraction. This paper presents experimental results from uniaxial and biaxial tests, combined with numerical and analytical modelling results to develop a criterion for predicting whether a hydraulic fracture will cross a discontinuity, represented at the laboratory by unbonded machined frictional interfaces. The experimental results provide the first evidence for the impact of viscous fluid flow on the orthogonal fracture crossing. The fracture elliptical footprint also reflects the importance of both the applied loading stress and the viscosity in fracture propagation. The hydraulic fractures extend both in the direction of maximum compressive stress and in the direction with discontinuities that are arranged to be normal to the maximum compressive stress. The modelling results of fracture growth across discontinuities are obtained for the locations of slip starting points in initiating fracture crossing. Our analysis, in contrast to previous work on the prediction of frictional crossing, includes the non-singular stresses generated by the finite pressurised hydraulic fracture. Experimental and theoretical outcomes herein suggest that hydraulic fracture growth through an orthogonal discontinuity does not depend primarily on the interface friction coefficient.

  7. Investigation of Valve Plate in Water Hydraulic Axial Piston Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂松林; 李壮云; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper has introduced the developments of water hydraulic axial piston equipments.According to the effects of physicochemical properties of water on water hydraulic components,a novel valve plate for water hydraulic axial motor has been put forward,whose moment exerted by the fluid field between valve plate and bearing plate is balanced entirely.The material screening experiment of valve plate is done on the test rig.Through numerical simulation the effects of some geometry parameters on the performance of water hydraulic motor have been studied.The silencing grooves on the valve plate in water hydraulic motor can reduce the pressure shock and the occurrence of cavitation effectively.It is evident that the appropriate structure should change the wear status between matching paris and reduces the wear and specific pressure of the matching pairs.The specimen with the new type valve plate is used in a tool system.

  8. Analytical Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Analytical Labspecializes in Oil and Hydraulic Fluid Analysis, Identification of Unknown Materials, Engineering Investigations, Qualification Testing (to support...

  9. SHynergie: Development of a virtual project laboratory for monitoring hydraulic stimulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Jörg; Friederich, Wolfgang; Meschke, Günther; Müller, Thomas; Steeb, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Hydraulic stimulations are the primary means of developing subsurface reservoirs regarding the extent of fluid transport in them. The associated creation or conditioning of a system of hydraulic conduits involves a range of hydraulic and mechanical processes but also chemical reactions, such as dissolution and precipitation, may affect the stimulation result on time scales as short as hours. In the light of the extent and complexity of these processes, the steering potential for the operator of a stimulation critically depends on the ability to integrate the maximum amount of site-specific information with profound process understanding and a large spectrum of experience. We report on the development of a virtual project laboratory for monitoring hydraulic stimulations within the project SHynergie (http://www.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/shynergie/). The concept of the laboratory envisioned product that constitutes a preparing and accompanying rather than post-processing instrument ultimately accessible to persons responsible for a project over a web-repository. The virtual laboratory consists of a data base, a toolbox, and a model-building environment. Entries in the data base are of two categories. On the one hand, selected mineral and rock properties are provided from the literature. On the other hand, project-specific entries of any format can be made that are assigned attributes regarding their use in a stimulation problem at hand. The toolbox is interactive and allows the user to perform calculations of effective properties and simulations of different types (e.g., wave propagation in a reservoir, hydraulic test). The model component is also hybrid. The laboratory provides a library of models reflecting a range of scenarios but also allows the user to develop a site-specific model constituting the basis for simulations. The laboratory offers the option to use its components following the typical workflow of a stimulation project. The toolbox incorporates simulation

  10. Investigation of a hydraulic impact: a technology in rock breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Genet, Martin; Tran-Cong, Thanh

    2009-01-01

    The finite element method and dimensional analysis have been applied in the present paper to study a hydraulic impact, which is utilized in a non-explosive rock breaking technology in mining industry. The impact process of a high speed piston on liquid water, previously introduced in a borehole drilled in rock, is numerically simulated. The research is focused on the influences of all the parameters involved in the technology on the largest principal stress in the rock, which is considered as one of the key factors to break the rock. Our detailed parametric investigation reveals that the variation of the isotropic rock material properties, especially its density, has no significant influence on the largest principal stress. The influences of the depth of the hole and the depth of the water column are also very small. On the other hand, increasing the initial kinetic energy of the piston can dramatically increase the largest principal stress and the best way to increase the initial kinetic energy of the piston...

  11. Investigation and Development of the Thermal Preparation System of the Trailbuilder Machinery Hydraulic Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konev, V.; Polovnikov, E.; Krut, O.; Merdanov, Sh; Zakirzakov, G.

    2017-07-01

    It’s determined that the main part of trailbuilders operated in the North is the technology equipped by the hydraulic actuator. Further development of the northern territories will demand using of various means and ways machinery thermal preparation, and also the machinery of the northern fulfillment. On this basis problems in equipment operation are defined. One of the main is efficiency supplying of a hydraulic actuator. On the basis of the operating conditions’ analysis of trailbuilder hydraulic actuator operation it is determined, that under low negative temperatures the means of thermal preparation are necessary. The existing systems warm up only a hydraulic tank or warming up of the hydro equipment before the machinery operation is carried out under loading with intensive wears. Thus, with the purpose to raise the efficiency of thermal hydraulic actuator, operated far from stationary bases autonomous, energy saving, not expensive in creation and operation systems are necessary. In accordance with the analysis of means and ways of the thermal preparation of the hydraulic actuator and the thermal balance calculations of the (internal) combustion engine the system of the hydraulic actuator heating is offered and is being investigated. It contains a local hydraulic actuator warming up and the system of internal combustion engine heat utilization. Within research operation conditions of the local hydraulic actuator heating are viewed and determined, taking into account constructive changes to the local hydraulic actuator heating. Mathematical modelling of the heat technical process in the modernized hydraulic actuator is considered. As a result temperature changes of the heat-transfer and the hydraulic cylinder in time are determined. To check the theoretical researches and to define dependences on hydraulic actuator warming up, the experimental installation is made. It contains the measuring equipment, a small tank with the heat exchanger of the burnt gases

  12. INVESTIGATION OF HYDRAULIC CONSTRUCTION BUILDINGS ON FOREST ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Çalışkan

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, a large part of forest is scattered on the mountainous land. Whole forestry activity and particulary, producing of woody raw material in forest and its transportation to the consumption centres by constructed forest roads regularly and steadily can only be possible thanks to adequately firm forest roads and establishing of hydraulic construction buildings. As a study field, 35 km forest road within the Yesiltepe Forest District boundary was selected. On this forest road, totaly 31 existent hydraulic construction buildings, consisting of 16 pipes, 7 culverts, 3 bridges and 5 hamps were found and its was determined that only 40% of hydraulic construction buildings can fulfil the their functions. Hydraulic construction buildings technique viewpoint, in spite of the fact that dimentions of hydraulic construction buildings were found appropirate they had same problems. It was become apperent that especially constructed concrete pipes and culverts had lack of cement. Furthermore, their maintanances were inadequate and some of them were almost losing their functions.

  13. INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS DURING CO2 INJECTION IN HYDRAULICALLY AND NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Schechter

    2004-04-26

    This report describes the work performed during the second year of the project, ''Investigating of Efficiency Improvements during CO{sub 2} Injection in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs.'' The objective of this project is to perform unique laboratory experiments with artificial fractured cores (AFCs) and X-ray CT to examine the physical mechanisms of bypassing in HFR and NFR that eventually result in less efficient CO{sub 2} flooding in heterogeneous or fracture-dominated reservoirs. To achieve this objective, in this period we concentrated our effort on investigating the effect of CO{sub 2} injection rates in homogeneous and fractured cores on oil recovery and a strategy to mitigate CO{sub 2} bypassing in a fractured core.

  14. Evaluation of the use of surrogate Laminaria digitata in eco-hydraulic laboratory experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAUL Maike; HENRY Pierre-Yves T

    2014-01-01

    Inert surrogates can avoid husbandry and adaptation problems of live vegetation in laboratories. Surrogates are generally used for experiments on vegetation-hydrodynamics interactions, but it is unclear how well they replicate field conditions. Here, surrogates for the brown macroalgae Laminaria digitata were developed to reproduce its hydraulic roughness. Plant shape, stiffness and buoyancy of L. digitata were evaluated and compared to the properties of inert materials. Different surrogate materials and shapes were exposed to unidirectional flow. It is concluded that buoyancy is an important factor in low flow conditions and a basic shape might be sufficient to model complex shaped plants resulting in the same streamlined shape.

  15. A Laboratory Study of the Effects of Interbeds on Hydraulic Fracture Propagation in Shale Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiheng Zhao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate how the characteristics of interbeds affect hydraulic fracture propagation in the continental shale formation, a series of 300 mm × 300 mm × 300 mm concrete blocks with varying interbeds, based on outcrop observation and core measurement of Chang 7-2 shale formation, were prepared to conduct the hydraulic fracturing experiments. The results reveal that the breakdown pressure increases with the rise of thickness and strength of interbeds under the same in-situ field stress and injection rate. In addition, for the model blocks with thick and high strength interbeds, the hydraulic fracture has difficulty crossing the interbeds and is prone to divert along the bedding faces, and the fracturing effectiveness is not good. However, for the model blocks with thin and low strength interbeds, more long branches are generated along the main fracture, which is beneficial to the formation of the fracture network. What is more, combining the macroscopic descriptions with microscopic observations, the blocks with thinner and lower strength interbeds tend to generate more micro-fractures, and the width of the fractures is relatively larger on the main fracture planes. Based on the experiments, it is indicated that the propagation of hydraulic fractures is strongly influenced by the characteristics of interbeds, and the results are instructive to the understanding and evaluation of the fracability in the continental shale formation.

  16. Test investigation on hydraulic losses in the discharge passage of an axial-flow pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Baoyun; CAO Haihong; JIANG Wei; GAO Zhaohui; WANG Fei

    2007-01-01

    In a discharge passage with a guide blade dis- charge circulation and secondary flow because of bend pipe, the flow in a 1-channel discharge passage of an axial flow pump is a complicated spiral flow. For a 2-channel passage, the discharge in the left channel is bigger than that in the fight, and the passage hydraulic losses are abnormal. In this study, the section current energy of the passage is accurately mea- sured and determined with a 5-hole probe. The hydraulic loss characteristics are determined and analyzed. The methods deducing the hydraulic losses are investigated. The results indicate that the passage hydraulic losses are not proportional to the flow discharge. Compared with a circular pipe, the hydraulic losses of a divergent discharge passage are smaller and the pump assembly efficiency is 10%-30% higher. As for the 1-channel passage, the axial-flow pump outlet circulation is usually too big; the passage hydraulic losses are also big, but a small circulation can slightly reduce hydraulic losses. As for the 2-channel passage, discharges in the two channels are not equal and the hydraulic losses increase. The outlet guide blade with a small discharge circulation or without circulation could reduce discharge passage hydraulic losses and increase pump assembly efficiency by 6%-11%.

  17. Natural hazard management high education: laboratory of hydrologic and hydraulic risk management and applied geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosa, L.; Margiotta, M. R.; Sdao, F.; Sole, A.; Albano, R.; Cappa, G.; Giammatteo, C.; Pagliuca, R.; Piccolo, G.; Statuto, D.

    2009-04-01

    The Environmental Engineering Faculty of University of Basilicata have higher-level course for students in the field of natural hazard. The curriculum provides expertise in the field of prediction, prevention and management of earthquake risk, hydrologic-hydraulic risk, and geomorphological risk. These skills will contribute to the training of specialists, as well as having a thorough knowledge of the genesis and the phenomenology of natural risks, know how to interpret, evaluate and monitor the dynamic of environment and of territory. In addition to basic training in the fields of mathematics and physics, the course of study provides specific lessons relating to seismic and structural dynamics of land, environmental and computational hydraulics, hydrology and applied hydrogeology. In particular in this course there are organized two connected examination arguments: Laboratory of hydrologic and hydraulic risk management and Applied geomorphology. These course foresee the development and resolution of natural hazard problems through the study of a real natural disaster. In the last year, the work project has regarded the collapse of two decantation basins of fluorspar, extracted from some mines in Stava Valley, 19 July 1985, northern Italy. During the development of the course, data and event information has been collected, a guided tour to the places of the disaster has been organized, and finally the application of mathematical models to simulate the disaster and analysis of the results has been carried out. The student work has been presented in a public workshop.

  18. Property-Transfer Modeling to Estimate Unsaturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Deep Sediments at the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kim S.; Winfield, Kari A.

    2007-01-01

    The unsaturated zone at the Idaho National Laboratory is complex, comprising thick basalt flow sequences interbedded with thinner sedimentary layers. Understanding the highly nonlinear relation between water content and hydraulic conductivity within the sedimentary interbeds is one element in predicting water flow and solute transport processes in this geologically complex environment. Measurement of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of sediments is costly and time consuming, therefore use of models that estimate this property from more easily measured bulk-physical properties is desirable. A capillary bundle model was used to estimate unsaturated hydraulic conductivity for 40 samples from sedimentary interbeds using water-retention parameters and saturated hydraulic conductivity derived from (1) laboratory measurements on core samples, and (2) site-specific property transfer regression models developed for the sedimentary interbeds. Four regression models were previously developed using bulk-physical property measurements (bulk density, the median particle diameter, and the uniformity coefficient) as the explanatory variables. The response variables, estimated from linear combinations of the bulk physical properties, included saturated hydraulic conductivity and three parameters that define the water-retention curve. The degree to which the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity curves estimated from property-transfer-modeled water-retention parameters and saturated hydraulic conductivity approximated the laboratory-measured data was evaluated using a goodness-of-fit indicator, the root-mean-square error. Because numerical models of variably saturated flow and transport require parameterized hydraulic properties as input, simulations were run to evaluate the effect of the various parameters on model results. Results show that the property transfer models based on easily measured bulk properties perform nearly as well as using curve fits to laboratory-measured water

  19. A Hydraulic Stress Measurement System for Deep Borehole Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, Maria; Ask, Daniel; Cornet, Francois; Nilsson, Tommy

    2017-04-01

    Luleå University of Technology (LTU) is developing and building a wire-line system for hydraulic rock stress measurements, with funding from the Swedish Research Council and Luleå University of Technology. In this project, LTU is collaborating with University of Strasbourg and Geosigma AB. The stress state influences drilling and drillability, as well as rock mass stability and permeability. Therefore, knowledge about the state of in-situ stress (stress magnitudes, and orientations) and its spatial variation with depth is essential for many underground rock engineering projects, for example for underground storage of hazardous material (e.g. nuclear waste, carbon dioxide), deep geothermal exploration, and underground infrastructure (e.g. tunneling, hydropower dams). The system is designed to conduct hydraulic stress testing in slim boreholes. There are three types of test methods: (1) hydraulic fracturing, (2) sleeve fracturing and (3) hydraulic testing of pre-existing fractures. These are robust methods for determining in situ stresses from boreholes. Integration of the three methods allows determination of the three-dimensional stress tensor and its spatial variation with depth in a scientific unambiguously way. The stress system is composed of a downhole and a surface unit. The downhole unit consists of hydraulic fracturing equipment (straddle packers and downhole imaging tool) and their associated data acquisition systems. The testing system is state of the art in several aspects including: (1) Large depth range (3 km), (2) Ability to test three borehole dimensions (N=76 mm, H=96 mm, and P=122 mm), (3) Resistivity imager maps the orientation of tested fracture; (4) Highly stiff and resistive to corrosion downhole testing equipment; and (5) Very detailed control on the injection flow rate and cumulative volume is obtained by a hydraulic injection pump with variable piston rate, and a highly sensitive flow-meter. At EGU General Assembly 2017, we would like to

  20. INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS DURING CO2 INJECTION IN HYDRAULICALLY AND NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Schechter

    2003-10-01

    This report describes the work performed during the second year of the project, ''Investigating of Efficiency Improvements during CO{sub 2} Injection in Hydraulically and Naturally Fractured Reservoirs.'' The objective of this project is to perform unique laboratory experiments with artificial fractured cores (AFCs) and X-ray CT to examine the physical mechanisms of bypassing in HFR and NFR that eventually result in less efficient CO{sub 2} flooding in heterogeneous or fracture-dominated reservoirs. To achieve this objective, in this period we concentrated our effort on modeling the fluid flow in fracture surface, examining the fluid transfer mechanisms and describing the fracture aperture distribution under different overburden pressure using X-ray CT scanner.

  1. Hydraulic Monitoring of Low-Permeability Argillite at the Meuse/Haute Marne Underground Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delay, Jacques; Cruchaudet, Martin

    ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour la Gestion de Déchets Radioactifs) has developed an electromagnetic permanent gauge (EPG) for long term monitoring of pore pressures in low permeability Callovo-Oxfordian argillites. The EPG is a pressure gauge that is permanently cemented into a borehole with no wire or tubing connections. The EPG transmits its data electromagnetically through the rock. Improvements in batteries have extended the life of the EPG to six years or more. Data from EPG installations in two holes near ANDRAs underground laboratory provide information on hydraulic conductivity and head. The heads in the argillites of the laboratory site are higher than heads in the two encasing carbonate units. These anomalous overpressures provide evidence for the very low permeability of the rock. Possible mechanisms for the overpressure include osmotic flows due to chemical potential gradients or delayed responses to the evolution of the regional groundwater hydrodynamics.

  2. Investigation of Possible Wellbore Cement Failures During Hydraulic Fracturing Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jihoon; Moridis, George

    2014-11-01

    We model and assess the possibility of shear failure, using the Mohr-Coulomb model ? along the vertical well by employing a rigorous coupled flow-geomechanic analysis. To this end, we vary the values of cohesion between the well casing and the surrounding cement to representing different quality levels of the cementing operation (low cohesion corresponds to low-quality cement and/or incomplete cementing). The simulation results show that there is very little fracturing when the cement is of high quality.. Conversely, incomplete cementing and/or weak cement can causes significant shear failure and the evolution of long fractures/cracks along the vertical well. Specifically, low cohesion between the well and cemented areas can cause significant shear failure along the well, but the same cohesion as the cemented zone does not cause shear failure. When the hydraulic fracturing pressure is high, low cohesion of the cement can causes fast propagation of shear failure and of the resulting fracture/crack, but a high-quality cement with no weak zones exhibits limited shear failure that is concentrated near the bottom of the vertical part of the well. Thus, high-quality cement and complete cementing along the vertical well appears to be the strongest protection against shear failure of the wellbore cement and, consequently, against contamination hazards to drinking water aquifers during hydraulic fracturing operations.

  3. Investigation of carbonate rocks appropriate for the production of natural hydraulic lime binders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafyllou, George; Panagopoulos, George; Manoutsoglou, Emmanouil; Christidis, George; Přikryl, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Cement industry is facing growing challenges in conserving materials and conforming to the demanding environmental standards. Therefore, there is great interest in the development, investigation and use of binders alternatives to Portland cement. Natural hydraulic lime (NHL) binders have become nowadays materials with high added value, due to their advantages in various construction applications. Some of them include compatibility, suitability, workability and the versatility in applications. NHL binders are made from limestones which contain sufficient argillaceous or siliceous components fired at relatively low temperatures, with reduction to powder by slaking with or without grinding. This study is focused in developing technology for small-scale production of cementitious binders, combining the knowledge and experience of geologists and mineral resources engineers. The first step of investigation includes field techniques to the study the lithology, texture and sedimentary structure of Neogene carbonate sediments, from various basins of Crete Island, Greece and the construction of 3D geological models, in order to determine the deposits of each different geological formation. Sampling of appropriate quantity of raw materials is crucial for the investigation. Petrographic studies on the basis of the study of grain type, grain size, types of porosity and depositional texture, are necessary to classify effectively industrial mineral raw materials for this kind of application. Laboratory tests should also include the study of mineralogical and chemical composition of the bulk raw materials, as well as the content of insoluble limestone impurities, thus determining the amount of active clay and silica components required to produce binders of different degree of hydraulicity. Firing of the samples in various temperatures and time conditions, followed by X-ray diffraction analysis and slaking rate tests of the produced binders, is essential to insure the

  4. Correlating laboratory observations of fracture mechanical properties to hydraulically-induced microseismicity in geothermal reservoirs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen L. Karner, Ph.D

    2006-02-01

    To date, microseismicity has provided an invaluable tool for delineating the fracture network produced by hydraulic stimulation of geothermal reservoirs. While the locations of microseismic events are of fundamental importance, there is a wealth of information that can be gleaned from the induced seismicity (e.g. fault plane solutions, seismic moment tensors, source characteristics). Closer scrutiny of the spatial and temporal evolution of seismic moment tensors can shed light on systematic characteristics of fractures in the geothermal reservoir. When related to observations from laboratory experiments, these systematic trends can be interpreted in terms of mechanical processes that most likely operate in the fracture network. This paper reports on mechanical properties that can be inferred from observations of microseismicity in geothermal systems. These properties lead to interpretations about fracture initiation, seismicity induced after hydraulic shut-in, spatial evolution of linked fractures, and temporal evolution of fracture strength. The correlations highlight the fact that a combination of temperature, stressing rate, time, and fluid-rock interactions can alter the mechanical and fluid transport properties of fractures in geothermal systems.

  5. Correlating laboratory observations of fracture mechanical properties to hydraulically-induced microseismicity in geothermal reservoirs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen L. Karner, Ph.D

    2006-02-01

    To date, microseismicity has provided an invaluable tool for delineating the fracture network produced by hydraulic stimulation of geothermal reservoirs. While the locations of microseismic events are of fundamental importance, there is a wealth of information that can be gleaned from the induced seismicity (e.g. fault plane solutions, seismic moment tensors, source characteristics). Closer scrutiny of the spatial and temporal evolution of seismic moment tensors can shed light on systematic characteristics of fractures in the geothermal reservoir. When related to observations from laboratory experiments, these systematic trends can be interpreted in terms of mechanical processes that most likely operate in the fracture network. This paper reports on mechanical properties that can be inferred from observations of microseismicity in geothermal systems. These properties lead to interpretations about fracture initiation, seismicity induced after hydraulic shut-in, spatial evolution of linked fractures, and temporal evolution of fracture strength. The correlations highlight the fact that a combination of temperature, stressing rate, time, and fluid-rock interactions can alter the mechanical and fluid transport properties of fractures in geothermal systems.

  6. National Laboratory of Hydraulics. 1996 progress report; Laboratoire National d`Hydraulique. Rapport d`activite 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This progress report of the National Laboratory of Hydraulics (LNH) of Electricite de France (EdF) summarizes, first, the research and development studies carried out in 1996 for the development of research tools for industrial fluid mechanics and environmental hydraulics and for the development of computer tools (computer codes and softwares for fluid mechanics modeling, modeling of reactive, compressible, two-phase and turbulent flows and of complex chemical kinetics using finite elements and finite volume methods). A second parts describes the research studies performed for other services of EdF, concerning: the functioning of nuclear reactors (thermohydraulic studies of the reactor vessel and of the primary coolant circuit, gas flows following severe accidents, fluid-structure thermal coupling etc...), fossil fuel power plants, the equipment and operation of thermal power plants and hydraulic power plants, the use of electric power. A third part summarizes the river and marine hydraulic studies carried out for other companies. (J.S.) 63 refs.

  7. Statistical investigation of hydraulic driven circular interpolation motions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmet Murat Pinar; Abdulkadir Gullu; Sezai Taskin

    2012-10-01

    In this study, a twin-axis gantry has been structured to examine hydraulic driven positioning skills of the curvilinear motions based on ISO 230-4 standard entitled ‘Circular tests for numerically controlled machine tools’. The system is controlled by a path and position control module of a PLC device. As a result of the experiments conducted based on the full factorial design, the effects of piston diameter, feed rate, radius and their two-way interactions on the circularity error are determined through analysis of variance. Accordingly, minimum circularity error is obtained with the piston diameter of 63 mm, inertia load of 12.5 kg, radius of 5 mm and feed rate of 50 mm/min as 0.345 mm. Circularity error increases with the increase of inertia load, radius and feed rate, and declines with the increase of piston diameter. Lastly, piston diameter has the greatest effect on the circularity error change and followed by radius, feed rate, piston diameter–radius, radius–feed rate, piston diameter-feed-rate, inertia load, piston diameter–inertia load, and inertia load–radius factors and interactions.

  8. Use of field and laboratory methods for estimating unsaturated hydraulic properties under different land-use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Siltecho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adequate water management is required to improve the efficiency and sustainability of agricultural systems when water is scarce or over-abundant, especially in the case of land-use changes. In order to quantify, to predict and eventually to control water and solute transport into soil, soil hydraulic properties need to be determined precisely. As their determination is often tedious, expensive and time-consuming, many alternative field and laboratory techniques are now available. The aim of this study was to determine unsaturated soil hydraulic properties under different land-uses and to compare the results obtained with different measurement methods (Beerkan, Disk infiltrometer, Evaporation, pedotransfer function. The study has been realised on a tropical sandy soil in a mini watershed in NE Thailand. The experimental plots were positioned in a rubber tree plantation in different positions along a slope, in ruzi grass pasture and in an original forest site. Non parametric statistics demonstrated that van Genuchten unsaturated soil parameters (Ks, α and n, were significantly different according to the measurement methods employed whereas location was not a significant discriminating factor when all methods were considered together. However within each method, parameters n and α were statistically different according to the sites. These parameters were used with Hydrus1D for a one year simulation and computed pressure head did not show noticeable differences for the various sets of parameters, highlighting the fact that for modelling, any of these measurement method could be employed. The choice of the measurement method would therefore be motivated by the simplicity, robustness and its low cost.

  9. Deriving hydraulic roughness from camera-based high resolution topography in field and laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Neugirg, Fabian; Ebert, Louisa; Haas, Florian; Schmidt, Jürgen; Becht, Michael; Schindewolf, Marcus

    2016-04-01

    The hydraulic roughness, represented by Manning's n, is an essential input parameter in physically based soil erosion modeling. In order to acquire the roughness values for certain areas, on-site flow experiments have to be carried out. These results are influenced by the selection of the location of the test plot and are thereby based on the subjectiveness of the researchers. The study aims on the methodological development to acquire Manning's n by creating very high-resolution surface models with structure-from-motion approaches. Data acquisition took place during several field experiments in the Lainbach valley, southern Germany, and on agricultural sites in Saxony, eastern Germany, and in central Brazil. Rill and interrill conditions were simulated by flow experiments. In order to validate our findings stream velocity as an input for the manning equation was measured with coloured dye. Grain and aggregate sizes were derived by measuring distances from a best fit line to the reconstructed soil surface. Several diameters from D50 to D90 were tested with D90 showing best correlation between tracer experiments and photogrammetrically acquired data. A variety of roughness parameters were tested (standard deviation, random roughness, Garbrecht's n and D90). Best agreement in between the particle size and the hydraulic roughness was achieved with a non-linear sigmoid function and D90 rather than with the Garbrecht equation or statistical parameters. To consolidate these findings a laboratory setup was created to reproduce field data under controlled conditions, excluding unknown influences like infiltration and changes in surface morphology by erosion.

  10. Use of field and laboratory methods for estimating unsaturated hydraulic properties under different land uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siltecho, S.; Hammecker, C.; Sriboonlue, V.; Clermont-Dauphin, C.; Trelo-ges, V.; Antonino, A. C. D.; Angulo-Jaramillo, R.

    2015-03-01

    Adequate water management is required to improve the efficiency and sustainability of agricultural systems when water is scarce or over-abundant, especially in the case of land use changes. In order to quantify, to predict and eventually to control water and solute transport into soil, soil hydraulic properties need to be determined precisely. As their determination is often tedious, expensive and time-consuming, many alternative field and laboratory techniques are now available. The aim of this study was to determine unsaturated soil hydraulic properties under different land uses and to compare the results obtained with different measurement methods (Beerkan, disc infiltrometer, evaporation, pedotransfer function). The study has been realized on a tropical sandy soil in a mini-watershed in northeastern Thailand. The experimental plots were positioned in a rubber tree plantation in different positions along a slope, in ruzi grass pasture and in an original forest site. Non-parametric statistics demonstrated that van Genuchten unsaturated soil parameters (Ks, α and n) were significantly different according to the measurement methods employed, whereas the land use was not a significant discriminating factor when all methods were considered together. However, within each method, parameters n and α were statistically different according to the sites. These parameters were used with Hydrus1D for a 1-year simulation and computed pressure head did not show noticeable differences for the various sets of parameters, highlighting the fact that for modeling, any of these measurement methods could be employed. The choice of the measurement method would therefore be motivated by the simplicity, robustness and its low cost.

  11. Use of field and laboratory methods for estimating unsaturated hydraulic properties under different land-use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siltecho, S.; Hammecker, C.; Sriboonlue, V.; Clermont-Dauphin, C.; Trelo-ges, V.; Antonino, A. C. D.; Angulo-Jaramillo, R.

    2014-06-01

    Adequate water management is required to improve the efficiency and sustainability of agricultural systems when water is scarce or over-abundant, especially in the case of land-use changes. In order to quantify, to predict and eventually to control water and solute transport into soil, soil hydraulic properties need to be determined precisely. As their determination is often tedious, expensive and time-consuming, many alternative field and laboratory techniques are now available. The aim of this study was to determine unsaturated soil hydraulic properties under different land-uses and to compare the results obtained with different measurement methods (Beerkan, Disk infiltrometer, Evaporation, pedotransfer function). The study has been realised on a tropical sandy soil in a mini watershed in NE Thailand. The experimental plots were positioned in a rubber tree plantation in different positions along a slope, in ruzi grass pasture and in an original forest site. Non parametric statistics demonstrated that van Genuchten unsaturated soil parameters (Ks, α and n), were significantly different according to the measurement methods employed whereas location was not a significant discriminating factor when all methods were considered together. However within each method, parameters n and α were statistically different according to the sites. These parameters were used with Hydrus1D for a one year simulation and computed pressure head did not show noticeable differences for the various sets of parameters, highlighting the fact that for modelling, any of these measurement method could be employed. The choice of the measurement method would therefore be motivated by the simplicity, robustness and its low cost.

  12. Experimental investigation of the dielectric properties of soil under hydraulic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Tilman; Bore, Thierry; Wagner, Norman; Karlovšek, Jurij; Scheuermann, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    An experimental set-up was developed in order to determine the coupled hydraulic, dielectric and mechanical properties of granular media under hydraulic loading. The set-up consisted of a modified column for permeability tests involving a flow meter and pressure transducers along the sample to quantify the hydraulic gradient. A newly developed open-ended coaxial probe allowed the measurement of the frequency dependent dielectric permittivity of the material under test. The shear strength of the sample within the column was measured using a conventional vane shear device. In this paper, the overall set-up is introduced with focus on the open-ended coaxial probe. The design and calibration of the probe are introduced in detail. A numerical study showed that the sensitive cylindrical volume of the probe was approximately 150 mm in diameter with a depth of 65 mm. An investigation with glass beads showed that the set-up allowed the parameterization of the hydraulic, mechanic and dielectric parameters of granular materials under the influence of vertical flow. A satisfactorily good correlation between porosity and the real part of the dielectric permittivity was detected. The critical hydraulic gradient defining the transition of a fixed bed of particles to fluidization was characterized by a sharp peak in the evolution of the hydraulic conductivity and could easily be determined from the measurements. The shear strength of the material under test reduces linearly with increasing hydraulic gradient. Future investigations will be carried out to provide the required parameterizations for experimental and numerical investigations of the internal erosion of granular media.

  13. Thermal Hydraulic Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations and Experimental Investigation of Deformed Fuel Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, Brian [AREVA Federal Services, Lynchburg, VA (United States); Jackson, R. Brian [TerraPower, Bellevue, WA (United States)

    2017-03-08

    The project, Toward a Longer Life Core: Thermal Hydraulic CFD Simulations and Experimental Investigation of Deformed Fuel Assemblies, DOE Project code DE-NE0008321, was a verification and validation project for flow and heat transfer through wire wrapped simulated liquid metal fuel assemblies that included both experiments and computational fluid dynamics simulations of those experiments. This project was a two year collaboration between AREVA, TerraPower, Argonne National Laboratory and Texas A&M University. Experiments were performed by AREVA and Texas A&M University. Numerical simulations of these experiments were performed by TerraPower and Argonne National Lab. Project management was performed by AREVA Federal Services. The first of a kind project resulted in the production of both local point temperature measurements and local flow mixing experiment data paired with numerical simulation benchmarking of the experiments. The project experiments included the largest wire-wrapped pin assembly Mass Index of Refraction (MIR) experiment in the world, the first known wire-wrapped assembly experiment with deformed duct geometries and the largest numerical simulations ever produced for wire-wrapped bundles.

  14. National laboratory of hydraulics. 1997 progress report; Laboratoire national d`hydraulique. Rapport d`activite 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report summaries the 1997 activity of the national laboratory of hydraulics from the direction of studies and researches (DER) of Electricite de France (EdF). The report comprises two parts. Part 1 gives an overview of the studies carried out for other EdF departments or for other companies or partners (functioning of nuclear reactors and fossil fuel power plants, equipments and operation of fossil fuel, nuclear and hydraulic power plants, studies related to the use of electric power, maritime and fluvial studies). Part 2 concerns the research and development of tools for industrial fluid mechanics and environmental hydraulics and the development of computer codes. A selection of relevant publications is given. (J.S.) 23 refs.

  15. Hydraulic pressure variations of groundwater in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory during Amatrice earthquake of August 24th, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano De Luca

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since May 2015, hydraulic pressure, temperature and electrical conductivity of groundwater are in continuos recording near the deep underground laboratories of Gran Sasso of INFN. We used the S13 borehole that have pressure varying in the range of 24-28 bar during the year; these values mean that we have at least 300 m of water table above. The sampling of these parameters was brought until to 50 Hz using a 3 channels 24-bit ADC. During the period May 2015 – September 2016 (17 months we detected hydraulic pressure signals from 12 earthquakes at different surface distances (from 12.000 to 30 km and different magnitudes (from 8.3 to 4.3 Mw. For the Amatrice mainshock, we present, as first results, the hydroseismograph recorded at the S13 hydraulic pressure device compared to the time history recorded at GIGS station located both in the deep core of the Gran Sasso chain.

  16. Erosion Control of Scour during Construction. Report 4. Stability of Underlayer Material Placed in Advance of Construction to Prevent Scour; Hydraulic Model Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    CONSTRUCTION TO PREVENT SCOUR Hydraulic Model Investigation by Lyndell Z . Hales, James R. Houston S.Hydraulics Laboratory .’, ! 1- N U.S. Army Engineer...hiVeStI9.e e1(_____________________________ 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(ek) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(.) Lyodlell Z . Hiles James R...us t tO geerate ’ the reIpre-senatativye stonle weight, W it it the itlet-eayt’ tsectiatte. The e-xptressioni tir this- ctiese-rvi v- stabiltity

  17. Changes in soil hydraulic properties caused by construction of a simulated waste trench at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakofsky, S.

    1995-03-01

    In order to assess the effect of filled waste disposal trenches on transport-governing soil properties, comparisons were made between profiles of undisturbed soil and disturbed soil in a simulated waste trench. The changes in soil properties induced by the construction of a simulated waste trench were measured near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in the semiarid southeast region of Idaho. The soil samples were collected, using a hydraulically-driven sampler to minimize sample disruption, from both a simulated waste trench and an undisturbed area nearby. Results show that the undisturbed profile has distinct layers whose properties differ significantly, whereas the soil profile in the simulated waste trench is, by comparison, homogeneous. Porosity was increased in the disturbed cores, and, correspondingly, saturated hydraulic conductivities were on average three times higher. With higher soil-moisture contents (greater than 0.32), unsaturated hydraulic conductivities for the undisturbed cores were typically greater than those for the disturbed cores. With lower moisture contents, most of the disturbed cores had greater hydraulic conductivities. The observed differences in hydraulic conductivities are interpreted and discussed as changes in the soil pore geometry.

  18. Investigation on hydraulic properties of compacted GMZ bentonite used as buffer/backfill material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye W. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, GMZ bentonite has been widely investigated for its use as buffer/backfill materials in China. Based on a comprehensive review of the former studies, achievements on experimental and theoretic works on the hydraulic aspects of compacted GMZ bentonite with consideration of temperature effects are presented in this paper. Water retention property of compacted GMZ bentonite depends on constraint conditions. Temperature effects on water-retention depend on constraint conditions and suction. The hysteresis behaviour is not obvious. Based on the test results, a revised water retention model was developed for considering the temperature effect. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of the densely compacted GMZ bentonite increases as dry density and temperature increases. A revised model, which considers temperature influence on water viscosity and the effective flow cross-sectional area of porous channels, for prediction of saturated hydraulic conductivity have been developed and verified. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of confined densely compacted GMZ bentonite samples decreases first and then increases with suction decrease from an initial value of 80 MPa to zero. With consideration of temperature effects and microstructure changes, a revised model for prediction of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of compacted GMZ01 bentonite was proposed.

  19. Investigating Coccolithophorid Biology in the Sedimentary Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, H. L. O.; Barbarin, N.; Beaufort, L.; Hermoso, M.; Rickaby, R. E. M.

    2014-12-01

    Coccolithophores are the ocean's dominant calcifying phytoplankton; they play an important, but poorly understood, role in long-term biogeochemical climatic feedbacks. Calcite producing marine organisms are likely to calcify less in a future world where higher carbon dioxide concentrations will lead to ocean acidification (OA), but coccolithophores may be the exception. In coccolithophores calcification occurs in an intracellular vesicle, where the site of calcite precipitation is buffered from the external environment and is subject to a uniquely high degree of biological control. Culture manipulation experiments mimicking the effects of OA in the laboratory have yielded empirical evidence for phenotypic plasticity, competition and evolutionary adaptation in asexual populations. However, the extent to which these results are representative of natural populations, and of the response over timescales of greater than a few hundred generations, is unclear. Here we describe a new sediment-based proxy for the PIC:POC (particulate inorganic to particulate organic carbon ratio) of coccolithophore biomass, which is equivalent to the fractional energy contribution to calcification at constant pH, and a biologically meaningful measure of the organism's tendency to calcify. Employing the geological record as a laboratory, we apply this proxy to sedimentary material from the southern Pacific Ocean to investigate the integrated response of real ancient coccolithophore populations to environmental change over many thousands of years. Our results provide a new perspective on phenotypic change in real populations of coccolithophorid algae over long timescales.

  20. FEATURES OF SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS CONDUCTED IN THE LABORATORIES OF THE DEPARTMENT OF WATER SUPPLY OF MGSU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikitina Irina Nikolaevna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the work of the laboratories of the Department of Water Supply of MGSU. The laboratory of pipe-lines, pumping equipment and sanitary equipment operates in MGSU affiliated to the department of water supply. A hydraulic stand for testing and defining the the hydraulic characteristics of pressure and free-flow pipelines of water supply and sewerage systems is installed there. There are also stands for investigating the sanitary equipment of the buildings, the fire and hot water supply systems. The main research directions of the department of water supply are diverse: hydraulics of water supply systems, recon-struction of pipelines using trenchless technologies, reliable water supply and distribution systems, purification of natural water for drinking and industrial water supply, post-treatment of natural water for domestic water supply, resource conservation in domes-tic water supply systems, etc. The laboratory also has a computer lab, able to simultane-ously hold up to 30 students. In collaboration with the laboratory there operates a scien-tific circle for students and Master students, which provides a lot of interesting and useful information on the latest developments.

  1. Novel method for the simultaneous quantification of soil hydraulic functions in the laboratory under consideration of shrinkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Uwe; Mueller, Lothar

    2013-04-01

    Knowledge about the soil hydraulic properties - water retention curve and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity - is required for soil water modelling and various soil hydrological studies. In general, soils and their pore size system are assumed to be rigid during the loss of water on drying. This is different from reality for many soils, especially for soils with high contents of clay or organic matter which are shrinking dependent on the pore pressure. As a result, the porosity, the pore size distribution and the bulk density of these soils are changing. Measurements of soil hydraulic functions with the classical methods are time consuming, the equipment is costly and the measuring results are affected by uncertainties. Methods enabling the quantification of soil hydraulic functions under consideration of shrinkage are missing. A method frequently used for the simultaneous determination of both the hydraulic functions of unsaturated soil samples is the evaporation method. Due to the limited range of common tensiometers, all methodological variations of the evaporation method in the past suffered from the limitation that the hydraulic functions could only be determined to a maximum tension of 50 kPa. The extended evaporation method (EEM) overcomes this restriction. Using new boyling delay tensiometers and applying the air-entry pressure of the tensiometer's porous ceramic cup as final tension value allows the quantification of the soil hydraulic functions in a range to close to the wilting point. Based on EEM a practicable method was developed which additionally allows the consideration of shrinkage. The experimental setup followed the system HYPROP which is a commercial device with vertically aligned tensiometers that is optimized to perform evaporation measurements. Preliminary investigations were conducted to study the geometrical change of 24 samples different in texture and origin. The samples were enwrapped with a rubber membrane impermeable for water and air

  2. Hydraulic Hybrid and Conventional Parcel Delivery Vehicles' Measured Laboratory Fuel Economy on Targeted Drive Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lammert, M. P.; Burton, J.; Sindler, P.; Duran, A.

    2014-10-01

    This research project compares laboratory-measured fuel economy of a medium-duty diesel powered hydraulic hybrid vehicle drivetrain to both a conventional diesel drivetrain and a conventional gasoline drivetrain in a typical commercial parcel delivery application. Vehicles in this study included a model year 2012 Freightliner P100H hybrid compared to a 2012 conventional gasoline P100 and a 2012 conventional diesel parcel delivery van of similar specifications. Drive cycle analysis of 484 days of hybrid parcel delivery van commercial operation from multiple vehicles was used to select three standard laboratory drive cycles as well as to create a custom representative cycle. These four cycles encompass and bracket the range of real world in-use data observed in Baltimore United Parcel Service operations. The NY Composite cycle, the City Suburban Heavy Vehicle Cycle cycle, and the California Air Resources Board Heavy Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck (HHDDT) cycle as well as a custom Baltimore parcel delivery cycle were tested at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Fuels and Lubricants Laboratory. Fuel consumption was measured and analyzed for all three vehicles. Vehicle laboratory results are compared on the basis of fuel economy. The hydraulic hybrid parcel delivery van demonstrated 19%-52% better fuel economy than the conventional diesel parcel delivery van and 30%-56% better fuel economy than the conventional gasoline parcel delivery van on cycles other than the highway-oriented HHDDT cycle.

  3. On the importance of geological data for hydraulic tomography analysis: Laboratory sandbox study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhanfeng; Illman, Walter A.; Berg, Steven J.

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the importance of geological data in Hydraulic Tomography (HT) through sandbox experiments. In particular, four groundwater models with homogeneous geological units constructed with borehole data of varying accuracy are jointly calibrated with multiple pumping test data of two different pumping and observation densities. The results are compared to those from a geostatistical inverse model. Model calibration and validation performances are quantitatively assessed using drawdown scatterplots. We find that accurate and inaccurate geological models can be well calibrated, despite the estimated K values for the poor geological models being quite different from the actual values. Model validation results reveal that inaccurate geological models yield poor drawdown predictions, but using more calibration data improves its predictive capability. Moreover, model comparisons among a highly parameterized geostatistical and layer-based geological models show that, (1) as the number of pumping tests and monitoring locations are reduced, the performance gap between the approaches decreases, and (2) a simplified geological model with a fewer number of layers is more reliable than the one based on the wrong description of stratigraphy. Finally, using a geological model as prior information in geostatistical inverse models results in the preservation of geological features, especially in areas where drawdown data are not available. Overall, our sandbox results emphasize the importance of incorporating geological data in HT surveys when data from pumping tests is sparse. These findings have important implications for field applications of HT where well distances are large.

  4. Fluid driven fracture mechanics in highly anisotropic shale: a laboratory study with application to hydraulic fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehne, Stephan; Benson, Philip; Koor, Nick; Enfield, Mark

    2017-04-01

    The finding of considerable volumes of hydrocarbon resources within tight sedimentary rock formations in the UK led to focused attention on the fundamental fracture properties of low permeability rock types and hydraulic fracturing. Despite much research in these fields, there remains a scarcity of available experimental data concerning the fracture mechanics of fluid driven fracturing and the fracture properties of anisotropic, low permeability rock types. In this study, hydraulic fracturing is simulated in a controlled laboratory environment to track fracture nucleation (location) and propagation (velocity) in space and time and assess how environmental factors and rock properties influence the fracture process and the developing fracture network. Here we report data on employing fluid overpressure to generate a permeable network of micro tensile fractures in a highly anisotropic shale ( 50% P-wave velocity anisotropy). Experiments are carried out in a triaxial deformation apparatus using cylindrical samples. The bedding planes are orientated either parallel or normal to the major principal stress direction (σ1). A newly developed technique, using a steel guide arrangement to direct pressurised fluid into a sealed section of an axially drilled conduit, allows the pore fluid to contact the rock directly and to initiate tensile fractures from the pre-defined zone inside the sample. Acoustic Emission location is used to record and map the nucleation and development of the micro-fracture network. Indirect tensile strength measurements at atmospheric pressure show a high tensile strength anisotropy ( 60%) of the shale. Depending on the relative bedding orientation within the stress field, we find that fluid induced fractures in the sample propagate in two of the three principal fracture orientations: Divider and Short-Transverse. The fracture progresses parallel to the bedding plane (Short-Transverse orientation) if the bedding plane is aligned (parallel) with the

  5. A mathematical model of the inline CMOS matrix sensor for investigation of particles in hydraulic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilin, DV; Kudryavtsev, IA

    2016-10-01

    One of the most effective ways to diagnose the state of hydraulic system is an investigation of the particles in their liquids. The sizes of such particles range from 2 to 200 gm and their concentration and shape reveal important information about the current state of equipment and the necessity of maintenance. In-line automatic particle counters (APC), which are built into hydraulic system, are widely used for determination of particle size and concentration. These counters are based on a single photodiode and a light emitting diode (LED); however, samples of liquid are needed for analysis using microscope or industrial video camera in order to get information about particle shapes. The act of obtaining the sample leads to contamination by other particles from the air or from the sample tube, meaning that the results are usually corrupted. Using the CMOS or CCD matrix sensor without any lens for inline APC is the solution proposed by authors. In this case the matrix sensors are put into the liquid channel of the hydraulic system and illuminated by LED. This system could be stable in arduous conditions like high pressure and the vibration of the hydraulic system; however, the image or signal from that matrix sensor needs to be processed differently in comparison with the signal from microscope or industrial video camera because of relatively short distance between LED and sensor. This paper introduces mathematical model of a sensor with CMOS and LED, which can be built into hydraulic system. It is also provided a computational algorithm and results, which can be useful for calculation of particle sizes and shapes using the signal from the CMOS matrix sensor.

  6. History of the 185-/189-D thermal hydraulics laboratory and its effects on reactor operations at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, M.S.

    1994-09-01

    The 185-D deaeration building and the 189-D refrigeration building were constructed at Hanford during 1943 and 1944. Both buildings were constructed as part of the influent water cooling system for D reactor. The CMS studies eliminated the need for 185-D function. Early gains in knowledge ended the original function of the 189-D building mission. In 1951, 185-D and 189-D were converted to a thermal-hydraulic laboratory. The experiments held in the thermal-hydraulic lab lead to historic changes in Hanford reactor operations. In late 1951, the exponential physics experiments were moved to the 189-D building. In 1958, new production reactor experiments were begun in 185/189-D. In 1959, Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor experiments were added to the 185/189-D facility. By 1960, the 185/189-D thermal hydraulics laboratory was one of the few full service facilities of its type in the nation. During the years 1961--1963 tests continued in the facility in support of existing reactors, new production reactors, and the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor. In 1969, Fast Flux Test Facility developmental testings began in the facility. Simulations in 185/189-D building aided in the N Reactor repairs in the 1980`s. In 1994 the facility was nominated to the National Register of Historic Places, because of its pioneering role over many years in thermal hydraulics, flow studies, heat transfer, and other reactor coolant support work. During 1994 and 1995 it was demolished in the largest decontamination and decommissioning project thus far in Hanford Site history.

  7. A multiscale approach to determine hydraulic conductivity in thick claystone aquitards using field, laboratory, and numerical modeling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. A.; Barbour, S. L.; Hendry, M. J.; Novakowski, K.; van der Kamp, G.

    2016-07-01

    Characterizing the hydraulic conductivity (K) of aquitards is difficult due to technical and logistical difficulties associated with field-based methods as well as the cost and challenge of collecting representative and competent core samples for laboratory analysis. The objective of this study was to produce a multiscale comparison of vertical and horizontal hydraulic conductivity (Kv and Kh, respectively) of a regionally extensive Cretaceous clay-rich aquitard in southern Saskatchewan. Ten vibrating wire pressure transducers were lowered into place at depths between 25 and 325 m, then the annular was space was filled with a cement-bentonite grout. The in situ Kh was estimated at the location of each transducer by simulating the early-time pore pressure measurements following setting of the grout using a 2-D axisymmetric, finite element, numerical model. Core samples were collected during drilling for conventional laboratory testing for Kv to compare with the transducer-determined in situ Kh. Results highlight the importance of scale and consideration of the presence of possible secondary features (e.g., fractures) in the aquitard. The proximity of the transducers to an active potash mine (˜1 km) where depressurization of an underlying aquifer resulted in drawdown through the aquitard provided a unique opportunity to model the current hydraulic head profile using both the Kh and Kv estimates. Results indicate that the transducer-determined Kh estimates would allow for the development of the current hydraulic head distribution, and that simulating the pore pressure recovery can be used to estimate moderately low in situ Kh (<10-11 m s-1).

  8. Preliminary rock mechanics laboratory: Investigation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oschman, K.P.; Hummeldorf, R.G.; Hume, H.R.; Karakouzian, M.; Vakili, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    This document presents the rationale for rock mechanics laboratory testing (including the supporting analysis and numerical modeling) planned for the site characterization of a nuclear waste repository in salt. This plan first identifies what information is required for regulatory and design purposes, and then presents the rationale for the testing that satisfies the required information needs. A preliminary estimate of the minimum sampling requirements for rock laboratory testing during site characterization is also presented. Periodic revision of this document is planned.

  9. Excavation Induced Hydraulic Response of Opalinus Clay - Investigations of the FE-Experiment at the Mont Terri URL in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, T.; Müller, H. R.; Garitte, B.; Sakaki, T.; Vietor, T.

    2013-12-01

    The Full-Scale Emplacement (FE) Experiment at the Mont Terri underground research laboratory in Switzerland is a full-scale heater test in a clay-rich formation (Opalinus Clay). Based on the Swiss disposal concept it simulates the construction, emplacement, backfilling, and post-closure thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) evolution of a spent fuel / vitrified high-level waste (SF / HLW) repository tunnel in a realistic manner. The main aim of this experiment is to investigate SF / HLW repository-induced THM coupled effects mainly in the host rock but also in the engineered barrier system (EBS), which consists of bentonite pellets and blocks. A further aim is to gather experience with full-scale tunnel construction and associated hydro-mechanical (HM) processes in the host rock. The entire experiment implementation (in a 50 m long gallery with approx. 3 m diameter) as well as the post-closure THM evolution will be monitored using a network of several hundred sensors (state-of-the-art sensors and measurement systems as well as fiber-optic sensors). The sensors are distributed in the host rock's near- and far-field, the tunnel lining, the EBS, and on the heaters. The heater emplacement and backfilling has not started yet, therefore only the host rock instrumentation is installed at the moment and is currently generating data. We will present the instrumentation concept and rationale as well as the first monitoring results of the excavation and ventilation phase. In particular, we investigated the excavation induced hydraulic response of the host rock. Therefore, the spatiotemporal evolution of porewater-pressure time series was analyzed to get a better understanding of HM coupled processes during and after the excavation phase as well as the impact of anisotropic geomechanic and hydraulic properties of the clay-rich formation on its hydraulic behavior. Excavation related investigations were completed by means of inclinometer data to characterize the non-elastic and time

  10. Numerical investigation of a turbulent hydraulic jump: Interface statistics and air entrainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Milad; Kim, Dokyun; Mani, Ali; Moin, Parviz

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study is to develop an understanding of formation of bubbles due to turbulence/interface interactions and nonlinear surface wave phenomena. As a model problem a statistically stationary turbulent hydraulic jump has been considered. Turbulent hydraulic jump with an inflow Froude number of 2 and Reynolds number of 88000-based on inflow height-has been numerically simulated. Based on typical air- water systems, a density ratio of 831 has been selected for our calculations. A refined level-set method is employed to track the detailed dynamics of the interface evolution. Comparison of flow statistics with experimental results of Murzyn et al. (Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 2005) will be presented. The probability density function of principal curvatures of the air- water interface and curvature distribution patterns in the chaotic regions are investigated. The importance of liquid impact events in bubble generation will be discussed. Supported by the Office of Naval Research, with Dr. Pat Purtell, program manager.

  11. Clogging development and hydraulic performance of the horizontal subsurface flow stormwater constructed wetlands: a laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ping; Yu, Bohai; Zhou, Yongchao; Zhang, Yiping; Li, Jin

    2017-04-01

    The horizontal subsurface constructed wetland (HSSF CW) is a highly effective technique for stormwater treatment. However, progressive clogging in HSSF CW is a widespread operational problem. The aim of this study was to understand the clogging development of HSSF CWs during stormwater treatment and to assess the influence of microorganisms and vegetation on the clogging. Moreover, the hydraulic performance of HSSF CWs in the process of clogging was evaluated in a tracer experiment. The results show that the HSSF CW can be divided into two sections, section I (circa 0-35 cm) and section II (circa 35-110 cm). The clogging is induced primarily by solid entrapment in section I and development of biofilm and vegetation roots in section II, respectively. The influence of vegetation and microorganisms on the clogging appears to differ in sections I and II. The tracer experiment shows that the hydraulic efficiency (λ) and the mean hydraulic retention time (t mean) increase with the clogging development; although, the short-circuiting region (S) extends slightly. In addition, the presence of vegetation can influence the hydraulic performance of the CWs, and their impact depends on the characteristics of the roots.

  12. Hydraulic power take-off for wave energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Georg Kronborg

    2001-01-01

    Investigation and laboratory experiments with a hydraulic power conversion system for converting forces from a 2.5m diamter float to extract energy from seawaves. The test rig consists of a hydraulic wave simulator and a hydraulic point absorber. The absorber converts the incomming forces...

  13. Investigating Optimal Foraging Theory in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Siegfried; Grilliot, Matthew E.

    2014-01-01

    Optimal foraging theory is a principle that is often presented in the community ecology section of biology textbooks, but also can be demonstrated in the laboratory. We introduce a lab activity that uses an interactive strategy to teach high school and/or college students about this ecological concept. The activity is ideal because it engages…

  14. Determination of hydraulic properties of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite at the bure site: Synthesis of the results obtained in deep boreholes using several in situ investigation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distinguin, Marc; Lavanchy, Jean-Marc

    Since 1991, ANDRA ( Agence Nationale pour la gestion des Déchets Radioactifs - National Radioactive Waste Management Agency) has been performing research on the possibility of geologic disposal of high level radioactive waste. In 1999, Andra began constructing an Underground Research Laboratory at Bure, a site located on the border of the Meuse-Haute-Marne departments, 300 km East of Paris. The laboratory is investigating the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite, a 130 m thick middle Jurassic stratum, at a depth of about 420 m. Argillite is a clay-rich sedimentary rock with low-permeability. Between 1994 and 2004, Andra collected from deep boreholes an impressive wealth of data covering a wide range of geosciences. This paper focuses on the hydraulic data related to argillite, including the results from short-term hydraulic packer tests and long-term monitoring of the formation pressures. Three types of tools are used on the site for investigations in deep boreholes. The first one is a conventional packer test tool used in the petroleum industry and adapted for hydrogeological purposes. The main objective is to determinate the permeability of the formation through short-term tests (24-72 h) at about 10 regular intervals. The two other types of tool are permanent monitoring devices. The electromagnetic pressure gauge (EPG) is totally isolated from the surface perturbations. There are no electric or hydraulic lines to the surface and the borehole is cemented. The advantage of this tool is that the formation almost recovers its initial pressure, avoiding disturbances from surface. Although the multi-packer equipment, installed in an open borehole can be affected by surface perturbations, it is used to measure pressure at different isolated levels in the same borehole ( i. e., 11 chambers in one borehole). Evaluations of the formation pressure (freshwater head) and hydraulic conductivity have been performed for all intervals investigated (19 short-term packer tests and 15 long

  15. Field investigation on consumer behavior and hydraulic performance of a district heating system in Tianjin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Baoping; Fu, Lin; Di, Hongfa [Department of Building Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2009-02-15

    With the implementation of heat reforms in China, the application of thermostatic radiator valves (TRVs) has been gaining popularity in the new-style district heating systems (DHSs). The objective of this study was to investigate consumer behavior (including regulation of TRVs and opening of windows) and its influences on the hydraulic performance and energy consumption of individuals and the whole system. The concurrence rate of individual behaviors and hydraulic interactions between individuals were analyzed. This study should be helpful to gain a comprehensive understanding of the new DHSs in China and consider a proper design/control strategy for these systems. Questionnaires and field observations of consumer behavior, tests of hydraulic performance, and surveys of energy consumption were carried out in a DHS in Tianjin, which was one of the heat metering and billing demonstration projects in China. The main results of the tests were as follows: water flow performance in apartment-level heating systems were diverse because consumers' behavior was varied and unpredictable, and the hydraulic interaction between consumers living along the line of a vertical pipe was obvious, and was stronger for terminal consumers with their TRVs set to higher values; however, flow variations in the whole DHS, which included 910 households, were relatively constant. A probability analysis was carried out to explain this phenomenon, and the conclusion was drawn that when there were more than 200 consumers, the stochastic consumer regulation behavior would bring less than 10% of total flow variations. Finally, the power consumption of the circulation pump, heat consumption and energy-saving potential of this type of DHS were discussed and some suggestions for TRV regulation and pump operation were made. (author)

  16. Measurement of unsaturated hydraulic properties and evaluation of property-transfer models for deep sedimentary interbeds, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kimberlie; Johnson, Brittany D.; Mirus, Benjamin B.

    2014-01-01

    Operations at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have the potential to contaminate the underlying Eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) aquifer. Methods to quantitatively characterize unsaturated flow and recharge to the ESRP aquifer are needed to inform water-resources management decisions at INL. In particular, hydraulic properties are needed to parameterize distributed hydrologic models of unsaturated flow and transport at INL, but these properties are often difficult and costly to obtain for large areas. The unsaturated zone overlying the ESRP aquifer consists of alternating sequences of thick fractured volcanic rocks that can rapidly transmit water flow and thinner sedimentary interbeds that transmit water much more slowly. Consequently, the sedimentary interbeds are of considerable interest because they primarily restrict the vertical movement of water through the unsaturated zone. Previous efforts by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have included extensive laboratory characterization of the sedimentary interbeds and regression analyses to develop property-transfer models, which relate readily available physical properties of the sedimentary interbeds (bulk density, median particle diameter, and uniformity coefficient) to water retention and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity curves.

  17. Geologic Controls of Hydraulic Conductivity in the Snake River Plain Aquifer At and Near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. R. Anderson; M. A. Kuntz; L. C. Davis

    1999-02-01

    The effective hydraulic conductivity of basalt and interbedded sediment that compose the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) ranges from about 1.0x10 -2 to 3.2x10 4 feet per day (ft/d). This six-order-of-magnitude range of hydraulic conductivity was estimated from single-well aquifer tests in 114 wells, and is attributed mainly to the physical characteristics and distribution of basalt flows and dikes. Hydraulic conductivity is greatest in thin pahoehoe flows and near-vent volcanic deposits. Hydraulic conductivity is least in flows and deposits cut by dikes. Estimates of hydraulic conductivity at and near the INEEL are similar to those measured in similar volcanic settings in Hawaii. The largest variety of rock types and the greatest range of hydraulic conductivity are in volcanic rift zones, which are characterized by numerous aligned volcanic vents and fissures related to underlying dikes. Three broad categories of hydraulic conductivity corresponding to six general types of geologic controls can be inferred from the distribution of wells and vent corridors. Hydraulic conductivity of basalt flows probably is increased by localized fissures and coarse mixtures of interbedded sediment, scoria, and basalt rubble. Hydraulic conductivity of basalt flows is decreased locally by abundant alteration minerals of probable hydrothermal origin. Hydraulic conductivity varies as much as six orders of magnitude in a single vent corridor and varies from three to five orders of magnitude within distances of 500 to 1,000 feet. Abrupt changes in hydraulic conductivity over short distances suggest the presence of preferential pathways and local barriers that may greatly affect the movement of ground water and the dispersion of radioactive and chemical wastes downgradient from points of waste disposal.

  18. Hydraulic Stability of Accropode Armour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.; Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    , and to assess the influence of core permeability on the hydraulic stability of Accropodes. Two structures were examined, one with a relatively permeable core and one with a relatively impermeable core. In November/December 1995, Ph.D.-student Marten Christensen carried out the model tests on the structure...... with permeable core (crushed granite with a gradation of 5-8 mm). The outcome of this study is described in "Hydraulic Stability of Single-Layer Dolos and Accropode Armour Layers" by Christensen & Burcharth (1995). In January/February 1996, Research Assistant Thomas Jensen carried out a similar study......The present report describes the hydraulic model tests of Accropode armour layers carried out at the Hydraulics Laboratory at Aalborg University from November 1995 through March 1996. The objective of the model tests was to investigate the hydraulic stability of Accropode armour layers...

  19. Hydraulic Stability of Accropode Armour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T.; Burcharth, H. F.; Frigaard, Peter

    , and to assess the influence of core permeability on the hydraulic stability of Accropodes. Two structures were examined, one with a relatively permeable core and one with a relatively impermeable core. In November/December 1995, Ph.D.-student Marten Christensen carried out the model tests on the structure...... with permeable core (crushed granite with a gradation of 5-8 mm). The outcome of this study is described in "Hydraulic Stability of Single-Layer Dolos and Accropode Armour Layers" by Christensen & Burcharth (1995). In January/February 1996, Research Assistant Thomas Jensen carried out a similar study......The present report describes the hydraulic model tests of Accropode armour layers carried out at the Hydraulics Laboratory at Aalborg University from November 1995 through March 1996. The objective of the model tests was to investigate the hydraulic stability of Accropode armour layers...

  20. Investigation of Self Yaw and its Potential using a Hydraulic Soft Yaw System for 5 MW Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of the current paper is on a hydraulic soft yaw system, designed to reduce the loading of the turbine structure, by absorbing wind guest via the hydraulic system, but which also enables the system to be used as a self-aligning yaw system. The system is analyzed with basis in the NREL 5-...... the behavior of the hydraulic system is analyzed and it is concluded that the hydraulic yaw system allows selfyaw under normal operating conditions for the turbine. Self-yaw control is possible in wind speeds above 12 m/s when yaw friction is kept below 1 MNm.......The focus of the current paper is on a hydraulic soft yaw system, designed to reduce the loading of the turbine structure, by absorbing wind guest via the hydraulic system, but which also enables the system to be used as a self-aligning yaw system. The system is analyzed with basis in the NREL 5-MW...... turbine, modeled in FAST, in which a new robust method for implementing Coulomb friction is utilized. Based on this model and a model of the hydraulic system, the influence of friction and wind speed is investigated in relation to the possibility to use the system as a self-aligning yaw system. Similarly...

  1. Experimental Investigation on the Basic Law of Hydraulic Fracturing After Water Pressure Control Blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bingxiang; Li, Pengfeng; Ma, Jian; Chen, Shuliang

    2014-07-01

    Because of the advantages of integrating water pressure blasting and hydraulic fracturing, the use of hydraulic fracturing after water pressure control blasting is a method that is used to fully transform the structure of a coal-rock mass by increasing the number and range of hydraulic cracks. An experiment to study hydraulic fracturing after water pressure blasting on cement mortar samples (300 × 300 × 300 mm3) was conducted using a large-sized true triaxial hydraulic fracturing experimental system. A traditional hydraulic fracturing experiment was also performed for comparison. The experimental results show that water pressure blasting produces many blasting cracks, and follow-up hydraulic fracturing forces blasting cracks to propagate further and to form numerous multidirectional hydraulic cracks. Four macroscopic main hydraulic cracks in total were noted along the borehole axial and radial directions on the sample surfaces. Axial and radial main failure planes induced by macroscopic main hydraulic cracks split the sample into three big parts. Meanwhile, numerous local hydraulic cracks were formed on the main failure planes, in different directions and of different types. Local hydraulic cracks are mainly of three types: local hydraulic crack bands, local branched hydraulic cracks, and axial layered cracks. Because local hydraulic cracks produce multiple local layered failure planes and lamellar ruptures inside the sample, the integrity of the sample decreases greatly. The formation and propagation process of many multidirectional hydraulic cracks is affected by a combination of water pressure blasting, water pressure of fracturing, and the stress field of the surrounding rock. To a certain degree, the stress field of surrounding rock guides the formation and propagation process of the blasting crack and the follow-up hydraulic crack. Following hydraulic fracturing that has been conducted after water pressure blasting, the integrity of the sample is found to

  2. Numerical Investigation into the Effect of Natural Fracture Density on Hydraulic Fracture Network Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Chong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is an important method to enhance permeability in oil and gas exploitation projects and weaken hard roofs of coal seams to reduce dynamic disasters, for example, rock burst. It is necessary to fully understand the mechanism of the initiation, propagation, and coalescence of hydraulic fracture network (HFN caused by fluid flow in rock formations. In this study, a coupled hydro-mechanical model was built based on synthetic rock mass (SRM method to investigate the effects of natural fracture (NF density on HFN propagation. Firstly, the geometrical structures of NF obtained from borehole images at the field scale were applied to the model. Secondly, the micro-parameters of the proposed model were validated against the interaction between NF and hydraulic fracture (HF in physical experiments. Finally, a series of numerical simulations were performed to study the mechanism of HFN propagation. In addition, confining pressure ratio (CPR and injection rate were also taken into consideration. The results suggested that the increase of NF density drives the growth of stimulated reservoir volume (SRV, concentration area of injection pressure (CAIP, and the number of cracks caused by NF. The number of tensile cracks caused by rock matrix decrease gradually with the increase of NF density, and the number of shear cracks caused by rock matrix are almost immune to the change of NF density. The propagation orientation of HFN and the breakdown pressure in rock formations are mainly controlled by CPR. Different injection rates would result in a relatively big difference in the gradient of injection pressure, but this difference would be gradually narrowed with the increase of NF density. Natural fracture density is the key factor that influences the percentages of different crack types in HFN, regardless of the value of CPR and injection rate. The proposed model may help predict HFN propagation and optimize fracturing treatment designs in

  3. Experimental investigation of influence of acid rain on leaching and hydraulic characteristics of cement-based solidified/stabilized lead contaminated clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan-Jun; Jiang, Ning-Jun; Shen, Shui-Long; Jin, Fei

    2012-07-30

    Remediation of contaminated lands in China urban areas is of great concern. Degradation of construction facilities caused by acid rain is a serious environmental pollution issue in China. This paper presents an investigation of the effects of acid rain on leaching and hydraulic properties of cement-based solidified/stabilized lead contaminated soil. Laboratory tests including infiltration test and soaking test are conducted. It is found that the soil hydraulic conductivity decreases with increase in the pore volume of flow of permeant liquids (acid rain and distilled water). The decreasing rate in the case of the acid rain is lower than that in the case of the distilled water. The soaking test results show that pH and the presence of sulfate ions of acid rain have considerable influence on the leached concentrations and leaching rate of calcium.

  4. Mars Science Laboratory Mission and Science Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotzinger, John P.; Crisp, Joy; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Anderson, Robert C.; Baker, Charles J.; Barry, Robert; Blake, David F.; Conrad, Pamela; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Ferdowski, Bobak; Gellert, Ralf; Gilbert, John B.; Golombek, Matt; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Hassler, Donald M.; Jandura, Louise; Litvak, Maxim; Mahaffy, Paul; Maki, Justin; Meyer, Michael; Malin, Michael C.; Mitrofanov, Igor; Simmonds, John J.; Vaniman, David; Welch, Richard V.; Wiens, Roger C.

    2012-09-01

    Scheduled to land in August of 2012, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mission was initiated to explore the habitability of Mars. This includes both modern environments as well as ancient environments recorded by the stratigraphic rock record preserved at the Gale crater landing site. The Curiosity rover has a designed lifetime of at least one Mars year (˜23 months), and drive capability of at least 20 km. Curiosity's science payload was specifically assembled to assess habitability and includes a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer and gas analyzer that will search for organic carbon in rocks, regolith fines, and the atmosphere (SAM instrument); an x-ray diffractometer that will determine mineralogical diversity (CheMin instrument); focusable cameras that can image landscapes and rock/regolith textures in natural color (MAHLI, MARDI, and Mastcam instruments); an alpha-particle x-ray spectrometer for in situ determination of rock and soil chemistry (APXS instrument); a laser-induced breakdown spectrometer to remotely sense the chemical composition of rocks and minerals (ChemCam instrument); an active neutron spectrometer designed to search for water in rocks/regolith (DAN instrument); a weather station to measure modern-day environmental variables (REMS instrument); and a sensor designed for continuous monitoring of background solar and cosmic radiation (RAD instrument). The various payload elements will work together to detect and study potential sampling targets with remote and in situ measurements; to acquire samples of rock, soil, and atmosphere and analyze them in onboard analytical instruments; and to observe the environment around the rover. The 155-km diameter Gale crater was chosen as Curiosity's field site based on several attributes: an interior mountain of ancient flat-lying strata extending almost 5 km above the elevation of the landing site; the lower few hundred meters of the mountain show a progression with relative age from clay-bearing to sulfate

  5. Laboratory-Measured and Property-Transfer Modeled Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Snake River Plain Aquifer Sediments at the Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kim S.

    2008-01-01

    Sediments are believed to comprise as much as 50 percent of the Snake River Plain aquifer thickness in some locations within the Idaho National Laboratory. However, the hydraulic properties of these deep sediments have not been well characterized and they are not represented explicitly in the current conceptual model of subregional scale ground-water flow. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the nature of the sedimentary material within the aquifer and to test the applicability of a site-specific property-transfer model developed for the sedimentary interbeds of the unsaturated zone. Saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) was measured for 10 core samples from sedimentary interbeds within the Snake River Plain aquifer and also estimated using the property-transfer model. The property-transfer model for predicting Ksat was previously developed using a multiple linear-regression technique with bulk physical-property measurements (bulk density [pbulk], the median particle diameter, and the uniformity coefficient) as the explanatory variables. The model systematically underestimates Ksat,typically by about a factor of 10, which likely is due to higher bulk-density values for the aquifer samples compared to the samples from the unsaturated zone upon which the model was developed. Linear relations between the logarithm of Ksat and pbulk also were explored for comparison.

  6. Thermal hydraulic investigations of primary coolant pipe rupture in an LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K. [Reactor Engineering Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)]. E-mail: natesan@igcar.ernet.in; Kasinathan, N. [Reactor Engineering Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Velusamy, K. [Reactor Engineering Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Selvaraj, P. [Reactor Engineering Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Chellapandi, P. [Reactor Engineering Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India); Chetal, S.C. [Reactor Engineering Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102 (India)

    2006-06-15

    High quality for primary coolant pipes in fast reactors is ensured through utmost care taken in the design and manufacture. Demonstration of high structural reliability of them by extensive experimental and theoretical studies renders the double-ended guillotine rupture (DEGR) of a primary pipe a highly improbable event. However, as a defense in depth approach instantaneous DEGR of one of the pipes has been considered in design. Thermal hydraulic analyses of this event in a typical liquid metal cooled fast breeder have been carried out to study its consequences and to establish the availability of safety margins. Various uncertainties relevant to the event have been analysed to evaluate the sensitivity of each parameter. For this purpose, one-dimensional plant dynamics studies using thermal and hydraulic models of core subassemblies and primary sodium circuit have been performed. Validity of the assumptions made in the one-dimensional model like, uniform flow through all subassemblies in core under pipe ruptured condition and non possibility of sodium boiling by flashing have also been investigated through detailed three-dimensional and pressure transient studies. Analyses indicate the availability of good margins against the design safety limits in all the parametric cases analysed.

  7. Numerical Investigation into the Influence of Bedding Plane on Hydraulic Fracture Network Propagation in Shale Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushi, Zou; Xinfang, Ma; Shicheng, Zhang; Tong, Zhou; Han, Li

    2016-09-01

    Shale formations are often characterized by low matrix permeability and contain numerous bedding planes (BPs) and natural fractures (NFs). Massive hydraulic fracturing is an important technology for the economic development of shale formations in which a large-scale hydraulic fracture network (HFN) is generated for hydrocarbon flow. In this study, HFN propagation is numerically investigated in a horizontally layered and naturally fractured shale formation by using a newly developed complex fracturing model based on the 3D discrete element method. In this model, a succession of continuous horizontal BP interfaces and vertical NFs is explicitly represented and a shale matrix block is considered impermeable, transversely isotropic, and linearly elastic. A series of simulations is performed to illustrate the influence of anisotropy, associated with the presence of BPs, on the HFN propagation geometry in shale formations. Modeling results reveal that the presence of BP interfaces increases the injection pressure during fracturing. HF deflection into a BP interface tends to occur under high strength and elastic anisotropy as well as in low vertical stress anisotropy conditions, which generate a T-shaped or horizontal fracture. Opened BP interfaces may limit the growth of the fracture upward and downward, resulting in a very low stimulated thickness. However, the opened BP interfaces favor fracture complexity because of the improved connection between HFs and NFs horizontally under moderate vertical stress anisotropy. This study may help predict the HF growth geometry and optimize the fracturing treatment designs in shale formations with complex depositional heterogeneity.

  8. Investigation of film boiling thermal hydraulics under FCI conditions. Results of a numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, T.N.; Dinh, A.T.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Sehgal, B.R. [Div. of Nuclear Power Safety Royal Inst. of Tech. (RIT), Brinellvaegen 60, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    Film boiling on the surface of a high-temperature melt jet or of a melt particle is one of key phenomena governing the physics of fuel-coolant interactions (FCIs) which may occur during the course of a severe accident in a light water reactor (LWR). A number of experimental and analytical studies have been performed, in the past, to address film boiling heat transfer and the accompanying hydrodynamic aspects. Most of the experiments have, however, been performed for temperature and heat flux conditions, which are significantly lower than the prototypic conditions. For ex-vessel FCIs, high liquid subcooling can significantly affect the FCI thermal hydraulics. Presently, there are large uncertainties in predicting natural-convection film boiling of subcooled liquids on high-temperature surfaces. In this paper, research conducted at the Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (RIT/NPS), Stockholm, concerning film-boiling thermal hydraulics under FCI condition is presented. Notably, the focus is placed on the effects of (1) water subcooling, (2) high-temperature steam properties, (3) the radiation heat transfer and (4) mixing zone boiling dynamics, on the vapor film characteristics. Numerical investigations are performed using a novel CFD modeling concept named as the local-homogeneous-slip model (LHSM). Results of the analytical and numerical studies are discussed with respect to boiling dynamics under FCI conditions. (author)

  9. Biochar-Induced Changes in Soil Hydraulic Conductivity and Dissolved Nutrient Fluxes Constrained by Laboratory Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rebecca T.; Gallagher, Morgan E.; Masiello, Caroline A.; Liu, Zuolin; Dugan, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    The addition of charcoal (or biochar) to soil has significant carbon sequestration and agronomic potential, making it important to determine how this potentially large anthropogenic carbon influx will alter ecosystem functions. We used column experiments to quantify how hydrologic and nutrient-retention characteristics of three soil materials differed with biochar amendment. We compared three homogeneous soil materials (sand, organic-rich topsoil, and clay-rich Hapludert) to provide a basic understanding of biochar-soil-water interactions. On average, biochar amendment decreased saturated hydraulic conductivity (K) by 92% in sand and 67% in organic soil, but increased K by 328% in clay-rich soil. The change in K for sand was not predicted by the accompanying physical changes to the soil mixture; the sand-biochar mixture was less dense and more porous than sand without biochar. We propose two hydrologic pathways that are potential drivers for this behavior: one through the interstitial biochar-sand space and a second through pores within the biochar grains themselves. This second pathway adds to the porosity of the soil mixture; however, it likely does not add to the effective soil K due to its tortuosity and smaller pore size. Therefore, the addition of biochar can increase or decrease soil drainage, and suggests that any potential improvement of water delivery to plants is dependent on soil type, biochar amendment rate, and biochar properties. Changes in dissolved carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) fluxes also differed; with biochar increasing the C flux from organic-poor sand, decreasing it from organic-rich soils, and retaining small amounts of soil-derived N. The aromaticity of C lost from sand and clay increased, suggesting lost C was biochar-derived; though the loss accounts for only 0.05% of added biochar-C. Thus, the direction and magnitude of hydraulic, C, and N changes associated with biochar amendments are soil type (composition and particle size) dependent

  10. Comparison of laboratory, in situ, and rock mass measurements of the hydraulic conductivity of metamorphic rock at the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marine, I W

    1980-01-01

    In situ testing of exploratory wells in metamorphic rock indicates that two types of fracturing occur in the rock mass. Rock containing small openings that permit only extremely slow movement of water is termed virtually impermeable rock. Rock containing openings of sufficient size to permit transmission of water at a significantly faster rate is termed hydraulically transmissive rock. Laboratory methods are unsuitable for measuring hydraulic conductivity in hydraulically transmissive rock; however, for the virtually impermeable rock, values comparable to the in situ tests are obtained. The hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass over a large region is calculated by using the hydraulic gradient, porosity, and regional velocity. This velocity is determined by dividing the inferred travel distance by the age of water which is determined by the helium content of the water. This rock mass hydraulic conductivity value is between the values measured for the two types of fractures, but is closer to the measured value for the virtually impermeable rock. This relationship is attributed to the control of the regional flow rate by the virtually impermeable rock where the discrete fractures do not form a continuous open connection through the entire rock mass. Thus, laboratory methods of measuring permeability in metamorphic rock are of value if they are properly applied.

  11. Comparison of Laboratory, in Situ, and Rock Mass Measurements of the Hydraulic Conductivity of Metamorphic Rock at the Savannah River Plant Near Aiken, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine, I. Wendell

    1981-06-01

    In situ testing of exploratory wells in metamorphic rock indicates that two types of fracturing occur in the rock mass. Rock containing small openings that permit only extremely slow movement of water is termed virtually impermeable rock. Rock containing openings of sufficient size to permit transmission of water at a significantly faster rate is termed hydraulically transmissive rock. Laboratory methods are unsuitable for measuring hydraulic conductivity in hydraulically transmissive rock; however, for the virtually impermeable rock, values comparable to those of the in situ tests are obtained. The hydraulic conductivity of the rock mass over a large region is calculated by using the hydraulic gradient, porosity, and regional velocity. This velocity is determined by dividing the inferred travel distance by the age of water, which is determined by the helium content of the water. This rock mass hydraulic conductivity value is between the values measured for the two types of fractures but is closer to the measured value for the virtually impermeable rock. This relationship is attributed to the control of the regional flow rate by the virtually impermeable rock where the discrete fractures do not form a continuous open connection through the entire rock mass. Thus laboratory methods of measuring permeability in metamorphic rock are of value if they are properly applied.

  12. Laboratory investigations in cell biology. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregman, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    This text contains 18 lab projects that explore the structural, biochemical, and physiological nature of eukaryotic cells. Topics are largely traditional, however, several investigations employ new methodologies. Offers extended coverage of biochemistry. Materials have been selected for availability and ease of handling: e.g. Project 4 - extraction of DNA and RNA done with calf liver, Project 9 - succinate dehydrogenase activity studied in mitochondria isolated from cauliflower. There is more procedural detail than found in most lab manuals, negating the need for constant instructional details. And a variety of methodologies is introduced, such as Cytochemistry, Spectrophotometry, Electrophoresis, Cell Fractionation, silver staining of active sites of RNA transcription, and many more. Pages are perforated for collecting and grading.

  13. Field investigation into directional hydraulic fracturing for hard roof in Tashan Coal Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Xiang HUANG; Bin YU; Feng FENG; Zhao LI; You-Zhuang WANG; Jin-Rong LIU

    2013-01-01

    Research and development of safe and effective control technology of hard roof is an inevitable trend at present.Directional hydraulic fracturing technology is expected to become a safe and effective way to control and manage hard roof.In order to make hard roof fracture in a directional way,a hydraulic fracture field test has been conducted in the third panel district of Tashan Coal Mine in Datong.First,two hydraulic fracturing drilling holes and four observing drilling holes were arranged in the roof,followed by a wedge-shaped ring slot in each hydraulic fracturing drilling hole.The hydraulic fracturing holes were then sealed and,hydraulic fracturing was conducted.The results show that the hard roof is fractured directionally by the hydraulic fracturing function of the two fracturing drilling holes; the sudden drop,or the overall downward trend of hydraulic pressure from hydraulic monitoring is the proof that the rock in the hard roof has been fractured.The required hydraulic pressure to fracture the hard roof in Tashan coal mine,consisting of carboniferous sandstone layer,is 50.09 MPa,and the fracturing radius of a single drilling hole is not less than 10.5 m.The wedge-shaped ring slot made in the bottom of the hydraulic fracturing drilling hole plays a guiding role for crack propagation.After the hydraulic fracturing drill hole is cracked,the propagation of the resulting hydraulic crack,affected mainly by the regional stress field,will turn to other directions.

  14. A method to investigate inter-aquifer leakage using hydraulics and multiple environmental tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, Stacey; Love, Andrew; Wohling, Daniel; Post, Vincent; Shand, Paul; Kipfer, Rolf; Tyroller, Lina

    2016-04-01

    Informed aquifer management decisions regarding sustainable yields or potential exploitation require an understanding of the groundwater system (Alley et al. 2002, Cherry and Parker 2004). Recently, the increase in coal seam gas (CSG) or shale gas production has highlighted the need for a better understanding of inter-aquifer leakage and contaminant migration. In most groundwater systems, the quantity or location of inter-aquifer leakage is unknown. Not taking into account leakage rates in the analysis of large scale flow systems can also lead to significant errors in the estimates of groundwater flow rates in aquifers (Love et al. 1993, Toth 2009). There is an urgent need for robust methods to investigate inter-aquifer leakage at a regional scale. This study builds on previous groundwater flow and inter-aquifer leakage studies to provide a methodology to investigate inter-aquifer leakage in a regional sedimentary basin using hydraulics and a multi-tracer approach. The methodology incorporates geological, hydrogeological and hydrochemical information in the basin to determine the likelihood and location of inter-aquifer leakage. Of particular benefit is the analysis of hydraulic heads and environmental tracers at nested piezometers, or where these are unavailable bore couplets comprising bores above and below the aquitard of interest within a localised geographical area. The proposed methodology has been successful in investigating inter-aquifer leakage in the Arckaringa Basin, South Australia. The suite of environmental tracers and isotopes used to analyse inter-aquifer leakage included the stable isotopes of water, radiocarbon, chloride-36, 87Sr/86Sr and helium isotopes. There is evidence for inter-aquifer leakage in the centre of the basin ~40 km along the regional flow path. This inter-aquifer leakage has been identified by a slight draw-down in the upper aquifer during pumping in the lower aquifer, overlap in Sr isotopes, δ2H, δ18O and chloride

  15. Laboratory Investigations of Lava Flow Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagents, S. A.; Rumpf, M. E.; Hamilton, C. W.

    2011-12-01

    To investigate the effectiveness with which lava can heat substrates of different types, we conducted a suite of experiments in which molten basalt was poured onto solid or particulate materials, and the downward propagation of the heat pulse was measured. The motivation for this work lies in seeking to understand how lava flows on the Moon would have heated the underlying regolith, and thus to determine the depths at which solar wind particles implanted in the regolith would have been protected from the heat of the overlying flow. Extraction and analysis of ancient solar wind samples would provide a wealth of information on the evolution and fate of the Sun. Our experimental device consists of a box constructed from 1"-thick calcium silicate sheeting with interior dimensions of 20 x 20 x 25 cm. The substrate material (a particulate lunar regolith simulant or solid basalt) occupies the lower 15 cm of the box, which is embedded with an array of 8 thermocouples. Up to 6 kg of crushed basalt collected from the 2010 Kilauea lava flows is heated to supraliquidus temperatures and poured directly onto the substrate. The evolution of the temperature profile within the lava flow and substrate is recorded as the basalt cools, and the surface temperature distribution is recorded using a Forward Looking Infrared Radiometer (FLIR) video camera. We have been using the experimental data sets to validate a numerical model of substrate heating. If the physics is appropriately formulated, the model will accurately predict both surface and internal temperature distribution as a function of time. A key issue has been incorporation of valid temperature-dependent thermophysical properties, because particulate materials are not well characterized at elevated temperatures. Regolith thermal conductivity in particular exerts a strong control over the depth of penetration of the thermal wave, so its accurate description is essential for a robust model. Comparison of experimental vs. modeled

  16. Hydroscoop - Bulletin of the small-scale hydraulic laboratory MHyLab; Hydroscoop - Bulletin d'information MHyLab laboratoire de petite hydraulique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis, V.

    2009-07-01

    This is issue Nr. 5 of the news bulletin of MHyLab, the small-scale hydraulic laboratory in Montcherand, Switzerland. The history of MHyLab development is recalled. The objective of the laboratory is given: the laboratory development of efficient and reliable turbines for the entire small-scale hydraulic range (power: 10 to 2000 kW, flow rate: 0.01 to 10 m{sup 3}/s, hydraulic head: 1 m up to more than 700 m). The first period (1997-2001) was devoted to Pelton turbines for high heads (60 to 70 m) and the second (2001-2009) to Kaplan turbines for low and very low heads (1 to 30 m). In the third period (beginning 2008) diagonal turbines for medium heads (25 to 100 m) are being developed. MHyLab designed, modelled and tested all these different types. The small-scale hydraulic market developed unexpectedly quickly. The potential of small-scale hydraulics in the Canton of Vaud, western Switzerland is presented. Three implemented projects are reported on as examples for MHyLab activities on the market place. The MHyLab staff is presented.

  17. Research and development program for PWR safety at the CEA reactor thermal hydraulics laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, M. [CEA, Grenoble (France)

    1995-04-15

    Since the start of the French electronuclear program, the three partners Fermate, EDF and Cea (DRN and IPSN) have devoted considerable effort to research and development for safety issues. In particular an important program on thermal hydraulics was initiated at the beginning of the seventies. It is illustrated by the development of the CATHARE thermalhydraulic safety code which includes physical models derived from a large experimental support program and the construction of the BETHSY integral facility which is aimed to assess both the CATHARE code and the physical relevance of the accident management procedures to be applied on reactors. The state of the art on this program is described with particular emphasis on the capabilities and the assessment of the last version of CATHARE and the lessons drawn from 50 BETHSY tests performed so far. The future plans for safety research cover the following strategy: - to solve the few problems identified on present computing tools and extend the assessment - to solve the few problems identified on present computing tools and extend the assessment - to perform safety studies on the basis of plant operation feedback - to contribute to treating the safety issues related to the future reactors and in particular the case of severe accidents which have to be taken into account from the design stage. The program on severe accidents is aimed to support the design studies performed by the industrial partners and to provide computing tools which model the various phases of severe accidents and will be validated on experiments performed with real and simulating materials. The main lines of the program are: - the development of the TOLBIAC 3D code for the thermal hydraulics of core melt pools, which will be validated against the Bali experiment presently under construction - the Sultan experiment, to study the capability of cooling by external flooding of the reactor vessel - the development of the MC-3D code for core melt

  18. Investigation of post hydraulic fracturing well cleanup physics in the Cana Woodford Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Rong

    Hydraulic fracturing was first carried out in the 1940s and has gained popularity in current development of unconventional resources. Flowing back the fracturing fluids is critical to a frac job, and determining well cleanup characteristics using the flowback data can help improve frac design. It has become increasingly important as a result of the unique flowback profiles observed in some shale gas plays due to the unconventional formation characteristics. Computer simulation is an efficient and effective way to tackle the problem. History matching can help reveal some mechanisms existent in the cleanup process. The Fracturing, Acidizing, Stimulation Technology (FAST) Consortium at Colorado School of Mines previously developed a numerical model for investigating the hydraulic fracturing process, cleanup, and relevant physics. It is a three-dimensional, gas-water, coupled fracture propagation-fluid flow simulator, which has the capability to handle commonly present damage mechanisms. The overall goal of this research effort is to validate the model on real data and to investigate the dominant physics in well cleanup for the Cana Field, which produces from the Woodford Shale in Oklahoma. To achieve this goal, first the early time delayed gas production was explained and modeled, and a simulation framework was established that included all three relevant damage mechanisms for a slickwater fractured well. Next, a series of sensitivity analysis of well cleanup to major reservoir, fracture, and operational variables was conducted; five of the Cana wells' initial flowback data were history matched, specifically the first thirty days' gas and water producing rates. Reservoir matrix permeability, net pressure, Young's modulus, and formation pressure gradient were found to have an impact on the gas producing curve's shape, in different ways. Some moderately good matches were achieved, with the outcome of some unknown reservoir information being proposed using the

  19. Numerical investigation of cavitating flow behind the cone of a poppet valve in water hydraulic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高红; 傅新; 杨华勇; TSUKIJITetsuhiro

    2002-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynarmics(CFD) simulations of cavitating flow throuth water hydraulic poppet valves were performed using advanced RNG κ-epsilon turbulence model. The flow was turbulent, incom-pressible and unsteady, for Reynolds nurnbers greater than 43 000.The working fluid was water, and the structure of the valve was simplified as a two dimensionl axisynmmetric gecomtrical model. Flow Field vlsual-ization was numerically achieved. The effects of inlet velocity, outlet pressure, opening size as wall as popet angle on cavitation intensity in the poppet valve were numerically investigated. Experimentall flow visualization was coonducted to capture cavitation images near the orifice in the poppet valve with 30° poppet angle using high speed video camera.The binary cavitafing flow field distrilxrdon obtalned frcra digital processing of the original cavitation image showed a gtxxt agreement with the ntmaerieal result

  20. Numerical investigation of cavitating flow behind the cone of a poppet valve in water hydraulic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of cavitating flow th rough water hydraulic poppet valves were performed using advanced RNG k-eps ilon turbulence model. The flow was turbulent, incompressible and unsteady, for Reyno lds numbers greater than 43 000. The working fluid was water, and the structure o f the valve was simplified as a two dimensional axisymmetric geometrical model. Flow field visualization was numerically achieved. The effects of inlet velocity , outlet pressure, opening size as well as poppet angle on cavitation intensity in the poppet valve were numerically investigated. Experimental flow visualization was conducted to capture cavitation images near the orifice in the poppet valve with 30° poppet angle using high speed video camera. The binary cavitating flo w field distribution obtained from digital processing of the original cavitation i mage showed a good agreement with the numerical result.

  1. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS OF CAVITATION EFFECTS ON FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF SMALL ORIFICES AND VALVES IN WATER HYDRAULICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The flow characteristics and cavitation effects of water passing through small sharp-edged cylindrical orificesand valves of different shapes in water hydraulics are investigated. The test results using orifices with different aspect ra-tios and different diameters show that the flow coefficients in the case of non-cavitating flow are larger than that of row inthe case of cavitation occurrence. The flow coefficients of flow with cavitation initially decrease as Reynolds number in-creases and ultimately tend to be of constant values close to contraction coefficient. Large aspect ratio has an effect ofsuppressing cavitation. The experimental results about disc valves illustrate that the valves with sharp edge at large open-ing are less affected by cavitation than that at small opening. Throttle with triangle notch has better anti-cavitation abilitythan that with square notch. The flowrate of the throttle with square notch is significantly affected by the flow direction orthe flow passage shape.

  2. Inquiry, Investigation, and Communication in the Student-Directed Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janners, Martha Y.

    1988-01-01

    Describes how to organize a student-directed laboratory investigation which is based on amphibian metamorphosis, lasts for nearly a term, and involves extensive group effort. Explains the assignment, student response and opinion, formal paper, and instructor responsibilities. (RT)

  3. The role of the laboratory in outbreak investigation of viral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of the laboratory in outbreak investigation of viral haemorrhagic fever in Nigeria, 2014. ... Pan African Medical Journal ... old female student who attended a private university in Nasarawa state from suspected VHF; presumably Ebola.

  4. Bed load proppant transport during slickwater hydraulic fracturing: insights from comparisons between published laboratory data and correlations for sediment and pipeline slurry transport

    CERN Document Server

    McClure, Mark W

    2016-01-01

    Bed load transport is the movement of particles along the top of a bed through rolling, saltation, and suspension created by turbulent lift above the bed surface. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in the idea that bed load transport is significant for proppant transport during hydraulic fracturing. However, scaling arguments suggest that bed load transport is only dominant in the laboratory and is negligible at the field scale. I review laboratory experiments that have been used to develop concepts of bed load transport in hydraulic fracturing. I also review the scaling arguments and laboratory results that have been used to argue that viscous drag, not bed load transport, is dominant at the field scale. I compare literature correlations for fluvial sediment transport and for pipeline slurry transport with published laboratory data on proppant transport in slot flow. The comparisons indicate that fluvial transport correlations are suitable for predicting the rate of sediment erosion due...

  5. Investigation and Parameter Optimization of a Hydraulic Ram Pump Using Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Dhrupad; Das, Monotosh; Brahma, Bipul; Pandwar, Deepak; Rongphar, Sermirlong; Rahman, Mafidur

    2016-10-01

    The main objective of this research work is to investigate the effect of Waste Valve height and Pressure Chamber height on the output flow rate of a Hydraulic ram pump. Also the second objective of this work is to optimize them for a hydraulic ram pump delivering water up to a height of 3.81 m (12.5 feet ) from the ground with a drive head (inlet head) of 1.86 m (6.11 feet). Two one-factor-at-a-time experiments have been conducted to decide the levels of the selected input parameters. After deciding the input parameters, an experiment has been designed using Taguchi's L9 Orthogonal Array with three repetitions. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is carried out to verify the significance of effect of the factors on the output flow rate of the pump. Results show that the height of the Waste Valve and height of the Pressure Chamber have significant effect on the outlet flow of the pump. For a pump of drive pipe diameter (inlet pipe) 31.75 mm (1.25 in.) and delivery pipe diameter of 12.7 mm (0.5 in.) the optimum setting was found out to be at a height of 114.3 mm (4.5 in.) of the Waste Valve and 406.4 mm (16 in.) of the Pressure vessel providing a delivery flow rate of 93.14 l per hour. For the same pump estimated range of output flow rate is, 90.65-94.97 l/h.

  6. Investigation and Parameter Optimization of a Hydraulic Ram Pump Using Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Dhrupad; Das, Monotosh; Brahma, Bipul; Pandwar, Deepak; Rongphar, Sermirlong; Rahman, Mafidur

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of this research work is to investigate the effect of Waste Valve height and Pressure Chamber height on the output flow rate of a Hydraulic ram pump. Also the second objective of this work is to optimize them for a hydraulic ram pump delivering water up to a height of 3.81 m (12.5 feet ) from the ground with a drive head (inlet head) of 1.86 m (6.11 feet). Two one-factor-at-a-time experiments have been conducted to decide the levels of the selected input parameters. After deciding the input parameters, an experiment has been designed using Taguchi's L9 Orthogonal Array with three repetitions. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is carried out to verify the significance of effect of the factors on the output flow rate of the pump. Results show that the height of the Waste Valve and height of the Pressure Chamber have significant effect on the outlet flow of the pump. For a pump of drive pipe diameter (inlet pipe) 31.75 mm (1.25 in.) and delivery pipe diameter of 12.7 mm (0.5 in.) the optimum setting was found out to be at a height of 114.3 mm (4.5 in.) of the Waste Valve and 406.4 mm (16 in.) of the Pressure vessel providing a delivery flow rate of 93.14 l per hour. For the same pump estimated range of output flow rate is, 90.65-94.97 l/h.

  7. Hydraulic properties and scale effects investigation in regional rock aquifers, south-western Quebec, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastev, M.; Savard, M. M.; Lapcevic, P.; Lefebvre, R.; Martel, R.

    This paper reports on the characterization of hydraulic properties of regional rock aquifers carried out within a groundwater resources assessment project in the St. Lawrence Lowlands of south-western Quebec. To understand the aquifer behavior at both the fracture level and at field scale, hydraulic investigations were carried out using various aquifer tests. The groundwater flow at the local scale is controlled mostly by the fracture system. Results of the constant-head injection tests show a weak decreasing trend of hydraulic conductivity with depth indicating that a major part of the groundwater flow occurs in the first meters of the rock sequence. At the regional scale, the equivalent porous media approach is applicable. The hydraulic conductivity measurements were correlated to the scale of the aquifer tests expressed with the investigated aquifer volume. A simple interpolation procedure for the hydraulic conductivity field was developed based on the distance between field measurements and the tested aquifer volumes. The regional distribution of the hydraulic conductivity for the major fractured aquifer units indicates that dolostone is the most permeable whereas sandstone and crystalline rocks are the least permeable units. Este artículo trata de la caracterización de las propiedades hidráulicas en acuíferos regionales rocosos, la cual se llevó a cabo dentro del proyecto de evaluación de los recursos de agua subterránea en St. Lawrence Lowlands al suroeste de Quebec. Para entender el comportamiento del acuífero tanto a nivel de fractura como a escala del campo, se ejecutaron investigaciones hidráulicas usando varias pruebas de acuífero. El flujo del agua subterránea a escala local está controlado principalmente por el sistema de fracturas. Los resultados de las pruebas de inyección con cabeza constante muestran una tendencia decreciente débil de la conductividad hidráulica con la profundidad, indicando que la mayor parte del flujo de agua

  8. Analysis of the hydraulic data from the MI fracture zone at the Grimsel Rock Laboratory, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davey, A.; Karasaki, K.; Long, J.C.S.; Landsfeld, M.; Mensch, A.; Martel, S.J.

    1989-10-01

    One of the major problems in analyzing flow and transport in fractured rock is that the flow may be largely confined to a poorly connected network of fractures. In order to overcome some of this problem, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) has been developing a new type of fracture hydrology model called an equivalent discontinuum model. In this model the authors represent the discontinuous nature of the problem through flow on a partially filled lattice. A key component in constructing an equivalent discontinuum model from this lattice is removing some of the conductive elements such that the system is partially connected in the same manner as the fracture network. This is done through a statistical inverse technique called simulated annealing. The fracture network model is annealed by continually modifying a base model, or template such that the modified systems behave more and more like the observed system. In order to see how the simulated annealing algorithm works, the authors have developed a series of synthetic real cases. In these cases, the real system is completely known so that the results of annealing to steady state data can be evaluated absolutely. The effect of the starting configuration has been studied by varying the percent of conducting elements in the initial configuration. Results have shown that the final configurations converge to about the same percentage of conducting elements. An example using Nagra field data from the Migration Experiment (MI) at Grimsel Rock Laboratory in Switzerland is also analyzed. 24 refs., 33 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Thermal hydraulic investigations and optimization on the EVC system of a PWR by CFD simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Mengmeng [Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, 710049 Xi’an (China); Zhang, Dalin, E-mail: dlzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, 710049 Xi’an (China); Tang, Mao [China Nuclear Power Design Engineering Co., Ltd., 518124 Shenzhen (China); Wang, Chenglong; Zheng, Meiyin; Qiu, Suizheng [Department of Nuclear Science and Technology, State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, 710049 Xi’an (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • This study constructs a full CFD model for the EVC system of a PWR. • The complex fluid and solid coupling is treated in the computation. • Primary characteristics of the velocity, pressure and temperature distributions in the EVC system are investigated. • The optimization of the EVC system with different inlet boundaries are performed. - Abstract: In order to optimize the design of Reactor Pit Ventilation (EVC) system in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR), it is necessary to study the characteristics of the velocity, pressure and temperature fields in the EVC system. A full computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for the EVC system is constructed by a commercial CFD code, where the complex fluid and solid coupling is treated. The Shear Stress Transport (SST) model is adopted to perform the turbulence calculation. This paper numerically investigates the characteristics of the velocity, pressure and temperature distributions in the EVC system. In particular, the effects of inlet air parameters on the thermal hydraulic characteristics and the reactor pit structure are also discussed for the EVC system optimization. Simulations are carried out with different mesh sizes and boundary conditions for sensitivity analysis. The computational results are important references to optimize the design and verify the rationality of the EVC system.

  10. CFD investigation the thermal-hydraulic behavior behind the flow blockage in SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Jin; Jeong, J. H.; Chang, W. P; Ha, K. S. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    It is evident that the flow blockage is basically a local phenomenon, and the main issue to investigate is the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the region downstream from the obstacle because it determines the clad temperature peak. For this reason, a local detailed CFD analysis has been carried out in order to assess the impacts of a flow blockage. The flow blockage events are classified into two types, internal and external blockage, depending on their locations. The objective of this paper is to investigate the influence caused by a flow blockage. A CFD analysis using fully resolved RANS simulations has been carried on the fluid flow and heat transfer in the case of a flow blockage for fuel assemblies in a PGSFR. A fuel assembly with 91 pins instead of all 217 pins was considered for this study. Two main effects can be distinguished in a flow blockage: a locally lower mass flow rate in the wake/recirculation region downstream of the blockage, and the peak temperature behind the blockage. Both of them are closely related. The recirculation region exists within a short distance downstream from the blockage, and it has an effect on the cladding integrity. The maximum cladding temperature is about 1000 .deg. C and is located in the central pins of the blockage region. It could lead to a rupture of the cladding. From these analysis results, the axial blockage size may have a significant impact on the clad integrity.

  11. An Investigative, Cooperative Learning Approach to the General Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Kyle; Fenster, Amy; Dilts, Judith A.; Temple, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Investigative- and cooperative-based learning strategies have been used effectively in a variety of classrooms to enhance student learning and engagement. In the General Microbiology laboratory for juniors and seniors at James Madison University, these strategies were combined to make a semester-long, investigative, cooperative learning experience…

  12. An Investigative, Cooperative Learning Approach to the General Microbiology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Kyle; Fenster, Amy; Dilts, Judith A.; Temple, Louise

    2009-01-01

    Investigative- and cooperative-based learning strategies have been used effectively in a variety of classrooms to enhance student learning and engagement. In the General Microbiology laboratory for juniors and seniors at James Madison University, these strategies were combined to make a semester-long, investigative, cooperative learning experience…

  13. An Experimental Investigation of Hydraulic Jet Fracturing Technology with Coiled Tubing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    To solve the increasingly serious problem of "many wells, but low productivity" in China, the hydraulic jetting fracturing technology with coiled tubing, as a new measure for effectively improving the production rate of individual well and enhancing oil and gas recovery, merits much attention nowa- days. On the basis of study of the hydraulic jetting fracturing mechanism with coiled tubing and numerical simulation of pressure distribution inside the pores, the mechanism of pressure rise inside the pores caused by the pressure boost action within the jetting pore and the hydraulic isolation action is examined, and the influence of main parameters on the pressure distribution inside the pores is analyzed. 3 kinds of operating methods of hydraulic jetting fracturing with coiled tubing are raised with the tubular diameter of coiled tub- ing as an important feature parameter. According to the experimental study, the fracturing mechanism and computational resuks of numerical simulation are both examined. It is considered that under the same pres- sure drop of jet nozzle, the pressure inside the pores increases with the confining pressure nearly at a line- ar state. When the vertical depth of the borehole is rather big and the rupture pressure of the formation is higher, it is recommended to use higher pressure drop of jet nozzle for achieving better pressure boost and hydraulic isolation effect. For the hydraulic jetting fracturing with coiled tubing, the coiled tubing with tu- bular diameter not less than 50. 8 mm (2 in. ) is usually used.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Micro Heat Pipes of Different Cross-Sections Having Same Hydraulic Diameter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Effects of micro heat pipe (MHP) cross-sections and orientations on its thermal perforrnance are experimentally investigated in this study. Tests are conducted using five different cross-sections (circular, semicircular, elliptical,semi-elliptical and rectangular) of micro heat pipes having same hydraulic diameter of 3 mm placed at three different inclination angles (0°, 45°, 90°), where water is used as the working fluid. Evaporator section of the MHP is heated by an electric heater and the condenser section is cooled by circulation of water in an annular space between condenser section and the water jacket. Temperatures at different locations of the MHP are measured using five calibrated K type thermocouples. Heat supply is varied using a voltage regulator which is measured by a precision ammeter and a voltmeter. It is found that thermal performance tends to deteriorate as the MHP is flattened.Thus among all cross-sections of MHP, circular one exhibits the best thermal performance in terms of heat flux dissipation followed by semi-elliptical, semi-circular, elliptical and rectangular cross-sections. Moreover, its heat transfer capability also decreases with decreasing of its inclination angle. Finally, a correlation is developed which covers all the experimental data within +7%.

  15. Investigation of Correlations for the Thermal-hydraulic Analysis of Liquid Metal Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Won Pyo; Jeong, Hae Yong; Lee, Yong Bum

    2007-08-15

    The present investigation is aimed at reducing favorable constitutive correlations from those developed for the thermal-hydraulic analysis of Liquid Metal Reactors (LMR), for reliable safety analyses of KALIMER. It is achieved by analyzing them in a point of their accuracies. The study is particularly important because its outcomes can provide an essential knowledge on their relative errors including their conservatisms to be analyzed in the future KALIMER licensing stage. The predictions of the correlations have been compared with available experimental data on both friction factors for the wired-wrapped rod bundles in the core and the heat transfer coefficients in the system. As a result, the heat transfer coefficient inside pipe currently featured in SSC-K has been found acceptable. It, however, has shown a discrepancy of about 60 % and thus an alternative one has been proposed for improvement. Meanwhile, the friction factor model in the current SSC-K has not shown a prominent discrepancy in prediction trend but it has not backed an enough theoretical basis so that another model has been proposed. A systematic assessment for effects of those factors to the conservatism must be fully understood for the future licensing stage, and systematic calculations must be followed by designing an assessment matrix. Besides, it is essential to conduct experiments under similar conditions for constitutive parts of geometries which represent the KALIMER design.

  16. Extra-terrestrial sprites: laboratory investigations in planetary gas mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Dubrovin, D.; Y. Yair; Price, C; Nijdam, Sander; Clevis, T. T. J.; Veldhuizen, van, H.T.; Ebert, Ute

    2012-01-01

    We investigate streamers in gas mixtures representing the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn (H2-He) and Venus (CO2-N2). Streamer diameters, velocities, radiance and overall morphology are investigated with fast ICCD camera images. We confirm experimentally the scaling of streamer diameters in these gases by studying streamers with minimal diameters. The brightness of laboratory streamers is investigated, and a scaling model for atmospheric sprites is proposed. Fitting the scaling model with meas...

  17. A Sequence of Laboratory Experiments for the Determination of Chemico-osmotic, Hydraulic and Diffusion Parameters of Rock Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, M.; Hiratsuka, T.; Manaka, M.; Finsterle, S.; Ito, K.

    2012-12-01

    One of the key issues in the hydrogeologic characterization of sedimentary formations is the uncertainties of fluid pressure anomalies which could be caused by chemical osmosis. Chemical osmosis is the migration of water through a semi-permeable membrane driven by the difference of chemical potentials between waters to compensate for the difference in water potentials, leading to an increase in the pressure gradient. Accordingly, if geologic media can act as semi-permeable membranes, and if salinity is not uniform in the formation, localized fluid pressures may be generated by chemical osmosis. In order to identify the possibility of chemical osmosis in formations, it is essential to evaluate the membrane properties of representative rock types. However, for the examination of the magnitude and the duration time of osmotically induced pressures, the parameters relevant to the migration of water and dissolved substances, such as the hydraulic and diffusion parameters, are also necessary since they control the spatial variation of salinity and the dissipation of osmotically induced pressures. In order to obtain the chemico-osmotic, hydraulic and diffusion parameters from a rock sample, this study developed a laboratory experimental system capable of performing chemical osmosis and permeability experiments under the confining pressure simulating in-situ effective stress conditions. The permeability and chemical-osmosis experiments are performed in sequence on a rock sample, and the progress of each experiment is monitored by measuring fluid pressures and salt concentrations in reservoirs contacting the ends of the disc-shaped rock sample. Analytical solutions for the permeability and chemical osmosis experiments were also derived for parameter determination. The semi-analytical solution for the chemical osmosis experiment involves five unknown parameters, i.e., the reflection coefficient, intrinsic permeability, specific storage and effective diffusion coefficient of

  18. Restructuring a General Microbiology Laboratory into an Investigative Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutch, Charles E.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an investigative laboratory sequence based upon the isolation and characterization of soil bacteria to aid microbiology teachers in providing students with activities that expose them to basic techniques of microbiology as well as demonstrates the scientific process and the experimental analysis of microorganisms. (ZWH)

  19. Integrating Field and Laboratory Investigations of Televised Violence and Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eron, Leonard D.; Huesmann, L. Rowell

    Longitudinal and intervention laboratory studies were conducted to investigate the effects of viewing televised violence on the aggressive behavior of elementary school children. In the longitudinal study 505 children were studied over a 3-year period. The measures used included peer nominated aggression, aggression anxiety and popularity,…

  20. Investigating the status and barriers of science laboratory activities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amy Stambach

    laboratory experiment and improvisation approach, students had the similar responses in all the investigated schools. Keywords: ... by the lecture method. ... motivating better practice of creating/use of science improvised materials in their future teaching. .... After attending a training workshop, the teachers improved their ...

  1. Laboratory investigation of the loading rate effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huy, N.Q.; Van Tol, A.F.; Hölscher, P.

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the interpretation of the quasi-static (e.g. Statnamic) pile load tests, a research project has been started to investigate effects of the loading rate on the bearing capacity of a pile in sand. A series of laboratory tests has been carried out. The testing program consists of a

  2. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) technical review of YGN 3 and 4 thermal-hydraulic relative size effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, L.W.; Fineman, C.P.; Gruen, G.E.

    1989-08-01

    Combustion Engineering, Inc., (CE) and the Korean Advanced Energy Research Institute (KAERI) are jointly designing two 2825 MW{sub t} System 80 nuclear steam supply systems for construction in Korea. The two 2825 MW{sub t} plants are similar in design to the larger System 80 class of plants but are reduced in size from 3817 MW{sub t}. These plants will be operated by the Korean Electric Power Company and have been designated as Yonggwang Nuclear Units 3 and 4. The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was selected by CE to perform a third party independent technical review of the thermal-hydraulic safety analyses for Yonggwang Units 3 and 4. The purpose of the review is to establish the acceptability of the safety analyses addressing the differences in size between the 2825 and 3817 MW{sub t} CE designed System 80 plants. The analysis methods used by Combustion Engineering, Inc. were also reviewed to assure that only United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved methods were used for the Yonggwang Units 3 and 4 safety analyses and that the methods were applied in a manner consistent with that for the Palo Verde System 80 plants, currently in operation in the US. In general, it was found that the differences between 3817 and 2825 MW{sub t} units led to increased margins except for the large break LOCA (LBLOCA) and boron dilution transient. For the LBLOCA, use of improved models enhanced performance which allowed an increase in peak linear heat generation rate relative to that for the 3817 MW{sub t} plant. For the boron dilution event, an increase in the shutdown margin was necessary to assure the same time to criticality as that for the 3817 MW{sub t} plant. 39 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Investigation of Appropriate Refractory Material for Laboratory Electritic Resistrance Furnance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.B Agboola

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There have been numerous efforts to increase the local content of furnaces; hence the choice of appropriate refractory material for lining of locally manufactured furnaces has remained a major concern. This research work investigates the choice of appropriate local refractory material for the lining of laboratory electric resistance furnace.Electric resistance furnaces are extensively used in the laboratory for heat treatment of metals and alloys. Refractory binders such as silicon carbide were experimented upon for strength and resistance to high temperature.The results obtained showed that Kankara fireclay containing 15% SiC ( 5.70 % linear shrinkage , 46.2% apparent porosity, 1.77gkm³ Bulk density, 18 cycles of spalling tests at 1300°C, 5.253KN/m² of cold strength has appropriate properties for producing grooved bricks for lining of laboratory electric resistance Furnace.

  4. E-SCAPE: A scale facility for liquid-metal, pool-type reactor thermal hydraulic investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Tichelen, Katrien, E-mail: kvtichel@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Mirelli, Fabio, E-mail: fmirelli@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Greco, Matteo, E-mail: mgreco@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Viviani, Giorgia, E-mail: giorgiaviviani@gmail.com [University of Pisa, Lungarno Pacinotti 43, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The E-SCAPE facility is a thermal hydraulic scale model of the MYRRHA fast reactor. • The focus is on mixing and stratification in liquid-metal pool-type reactors. • Forced convection, natural convection and the transition are investigated. • Extensive instrumentation allows validation of computational models. • System thermal hydraulic and CFD models have been used for facility design. - Abstract: MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is a flexible fast-spectrum research reactor under design at SCK·CEN. MYRRHA is a pool-type reactor with lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) as primary coolant. The proper understanding of the thermal hydraulic phenomena occurring in the reactor pool is an important issue in the design and licensing of the MYRRHA system and liquid-metal cooled reactors by extension. Model experiments are necessary for understanding the physics, for validating experimental tools and to qualify the design for the licensing. The E-SCAPE (European SCAled Pool Experiment) facility at SCK·CEN is a thermal hydraulic 1/6-scale model of the MYRRHA reactor, with an electrical core simulator, cooled by LBE. It provides experimental feedback to the designers on the forced and natural circulation flow patterns. Moreover, it enables to validate the computational methods for their use with LBE. The paper will elaborate on the design of the E-SCAPE facility and its main parameters. Also the experimental matrix and the pre-test analysis using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and system thermal hydraulics codes will be described.

  5. Investigation of Desso GrassMaster® as application in hydraulic engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, van der P.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.; Roex, E.; Mommer, L.

    2015-01-01

    Dessa GrassMaster® is a reinforced grass system which is applied successfully on sports fields and enables to use a sports field more intensively than a normal grass field. In this report the possibility of an application of Dessa GrassMaster®in hydraulic conditions, with a focus on grass dikes, is

  6. Analytical and experimental investigation of chlorine decay in water supply systems under unsteady hydraulic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Stoianov, Ivan; Graham, Nigel;

    2013-01-01

    coefficient is defined which depends upon the absolute value of shear stress and the rate of change of shear stress for quasi-unsteady and unsteady-state flows. By coupling novel instrumentation technologies for continuous hydraulic monitoring and water quality sensors for in-pipe water quality sensing...

  7. Numerical Investigation of Influence of In-Situ Stress Ratio, Injection Rate and Fluid Viscosity on Hydraulic Fracture Propagation Using a Distinct Element Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation is very useful for understanding the hydraulic fracturing mechanism. In this paper, we simulate the hydraulic fracturing using the distinct element approach, to investigate the effect of some critical parameters on hydraulic fracturing characteristics. The breakdown pressure obtained by the distinct element approach is consistent with the analytical solution. This indicates that the distinct element approach is feasible on modeling the hydraulic fracturing. We independently examine the influence of in-situ stress ratio, injection rate and fluid viscosity on hydraulic fracturing. We further emphasize the relationship between these three factors and their contributions to the hydraulic fracturing. With the increase of stress ratio, the fracture aperture increases almost linearly; with the increase of injection rate and fluid viscosity, the fracture aperture and breakdown pressure increase obviously. A low value of product of injection rate and fluid viscosity (i.e., Qμ will lead to narrow fracture aperture, low breakdown pressure, and complex or dispersional hydraulic fractures. A high value of Qμ would lead wide fracture aperture, high breakdown pressure, and simple hydraulic fractures (e.g., straight or wing shape. With low viscosity fluid, the hydraulic fracture geometry is not sensitive to stress ratio, and thus becomes a complex fracture network.

  8. Flood Water Crossing: Laboratory Model Investigations for Water Velocity Reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasnon N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of floods may give a negative impact towards road traffic in terms of difficulties in mobilizing traffic as well as causing damage to the vehicles, which later cause them to be stuck in the traffic and trigger traffic problems. The high velocity of water flows occur when there is no existence of objects capable of diffusing the water velocity on the road surface. The shape, orientation and size of the object to be placed beside the road as a diffuser are important for the effective flow attenuation of water. In order to investigate the water flow, a laboratory experiment was set up and models were constructed to study the flow velocity reduction. The velocity of water before and after passing through the diffuser objects was investigated. This paper focuses on laboratory experiments to determine the flow velocity of the water using sensors before and after passing through two best diffuser objects chosen from a previous flow pattern experiment.

  9. Investigation of the effect of groundwater flow in a complex hydraulic situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Szilvia; Balogh, Viktor; Tóth, Ádám; Mádl-Szönyi, Judit

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater flow systems are the subsurface elements of the hydrologic cycle, thus they have an important effect on surface water bodies and surface water-groundwater interaction processes. Moreover, groundwater flow systems are not simple, different driving forces govern and form different regimes with different behaviour. Their effects on surface systems differs, respectively. Based on this consideration, the characterization of the subsurface flow regimes and their operating mechanisms are crucial for the understanding of hydrological problems and situations at the surface. The Great Hungarian Plain can be handled as a natural laboratory, where several geological mechanisms act as groundwater driving forces. As a result, two main flow regimes, a gravity-driven, unconfined, and a confined, overpressured system could be separated (Tóth and Almási, 2001). The recharge and water budget of the systems, their spatial distribution, and their surface discharge features influence the possibilities of water withdrawal from them, their effect on the surface water bodies, vegetation, soil mechanisms and salinization etc. Numerical modelling with COMSOL Multiphysics was carried out for the Duna-Tisza Interfluve area of the Great Hungarian Plain, to characterize the two main flow regimes at three different scales. The aim of the study was to understand the flow distribution and their surface discharge character in quantitative way. The simulation was based on the understanding of the systems' operation from preproduction hydraulic head and pressure data analysis by Mádl-Szönyi and Tóth (2009). These data could serve as basis for the validation of the model. The results were interpreted and discussed focusing on the flow systems' possible influence on the surface salinization, lake water - groundwater interactions, inland water problems, land-use planning. It could be revealed that overpressured system is concentrated in the deep basin and the overpressure maintains

  10. Investigating the relationship between unsaturated hydraulic conductivity curve and confined compression curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Hossein; Sedaghat, Azadeh; Safari Sinegani, Ali Akbar; Gregory, Andrew S.

    2015-03-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the soil unsaturated hydraulic conductivity through the van Genuchten model using easy to measure soil properties by regression and artificial neural networks methods. In this study, 148 soil samples were taken from five provinces of Iran. Basic soil properties (clay, silt/sand and bulk density) and other soil properties were measured. Soil water retention curve was measured to obtain the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity curve using the van Genuchten-Mualem model. Confined compression curve was measured and the modified model of van Genuchten was fitted on its data. Two-thirds and one-third of the data were used for the training and testing steps, respectively. Confined compression curve parameters and other soil properties were used as predictors to estimate unsaturated hydraulic conductivity curve. Pedotransfer functions (PTFs) were developed in two separate parts: in 5 and 6 PTFs basic soil properties were or were not used as predictors, respectively. The artificial neural networks (ANNs) performed better than the regression methods. Among the ANN-developed PTFs which have not used basic soil properties as predictors, PTFa3, with the inputs of the parameters of confined compression curve (n∗, α∗ and e0), performed better than the others. Also, among the ANN-developed PTFs that used basic soil properties as predictors along with the other input variables, PTFb5 that used the σmc (stress at the maximum curvature) and σi (stress at the inflection point) as inputs along with basic soil properties, performed better than the other PTFs. The results showed a successful prediction of the hydraulic conductivity curve using confined compression curve.

  11. Fusion of Laboratory and Textual Data for Investigative Bioforensics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Corley, Courtney D.; McCue, Lee Ann; Wahl, Karen L.; Kreuzer, Helen W.

    2013-03-10

    Chemical and biological forensic programs focus on the identification of a threat and acquisition of laboratory measurements to determine how a threat agent may have been produced. However, to generate investigative leads, it might also be useful to identify institutions where the same agent has been produced by the same or a very similar process, since the producer of the agent may have learned methods at a university or similar institution. We have developed a Bayesian network framework that fuses hard and soft data sources to assign probability to production practices. It combines the results of laboratory measurements with an automatic text reader to scan scientific literature and rank institutions that had published papers on the agent of interest in order of the probability that the institution has the capability to generate the sample of interest based on laboratory data. We demonstrate the Bayesian network on an example case from microbial forensics, predicting the methods used to produce Bacillus anthracis spores based on mass spectrometric measurements and identifying institutions that have a history of growing Bacillus spores using the same or highly similar methods. We illustrate that the network model can assign a higher posterior probability than expected by random chance to appropriate institutions when trained using only a small set of manually analyzed documents. This is the first example of an automated methodology to integrate experimental and textual data for the purpose of investigative forensics.

  12. Thermal hydraulic investigations on porous blockage in a prototype sodium cooled fast reactor fuel pin bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, M.Naveen; Velusamy, K., E-mail: kvelu@igcar.gov.in; Maity, Ram Kumar

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • We simulate flow and temperature fields in FBR fuel bundle with porous blockage. • We perform RANS-based CFD simulation for 217 pin bundle of 7 axial pitch lengths. • Flow reduction in fuel bundle due to porous internal blockage is estimated. • Monitoring bulk sodium outlet temperature does not guarantee blockage detection. • Admissible blockage length to avoid sodium boiling is determined. - Abstract: Thermal hydraulic characteristics of sodium flow in a prototype fuel subassembly with porous internal blockage have been investigated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. CFD solutions for a subassembly having 217 pin bundle with seven helical pitch length were obtained by parallel processing. The CFD model has been validated against benchmark blockage experiment reported in literature. Wide parametric ranges for blockage radius, porosity, mean particle diameter and location of blockage have been considered. Critical length of blockage that would result in local sodium boiling as a function of aforementioned blockage parameters has been estimated and the parametric zone posing risk of sodium boiling has been identified. Attention has been paid to coolant mixing and flow and temperature fields downstream of the blockage zone. It is seen that for a prototype subassembly with various sections contributing to pressure loss, the total flow reduction is <2.5% for all blockages that can lead to local sodium boiling. This suggests, that global bulk sodium temperature monitoring at subassembly outlet is unlikely to detect slowly growing blockages. Comparing the sodium flow and temperature fields in unblocked and blocked bundles, it is found that the wake-induced temperature non-uniformity persist even upto 3 helical pitch length, highlighting that the sodium temperature non-uniformity at the bundle exit can serve as an efficient blockage indicator, provided that the cross-section temperature is mapped by a proper instrumentation. The peak

  13. Investigation of Input Signal Curve Effect on Formed Pulse of Hydraulic-Powered Pulse Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoseltseva, M. V.; Masson, I. A.; Pashkov, E. N.

    2016-04-01

    Well drilling machines should have as high efficiency factor as it is possible. This work proposes factors that are affected by change of input signal pulse curve. A series of runs are conducted on mathematical model of hydraulic-powered pulse machine. From this experiment, interrelations between input pulse curve and construction parameters are found. Results of conducted experiment are obtained with the help of the mathematical model, which is created in Simulink Matlab. Keywords - mathematical modelling; impact machine; output signal amplitude; input signal curve.

  14. Investigation of Control Model in a New Series Hybrid Hydraulic/Electric System for Heavy Vehicles Based on Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroosh Mahmoodi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An interesting model which was able to recuperate and reuse braking energy was investigated. It was named series hybrid hydraulic/electric system (SHHES. The innovated model was presented for heavy hybrid vehicles to overcome the existing drawbacks of single energy storage sources. The novelty of this paper was investigation of a new series hybrid vehicle with triple sources, combustion engine, electric motor, and hydraulic sources. It was simulated with MATLAB-Simulink and different operational mode of control system was investigated. The aim was to improve the efficiency of the energy-loading components in the power train system and the transmission system independently. The ability to store and reuse the kinetic energy was added to the system to prevent energy wasting while the vehicle was braking. Control models were also investigated to realize suitable control algorithms to offer the best efficiency in system components for different vehicle conditions. The torque control strategy based on fuzzy logic controller was proposed to achieve better vehicle performance while the fuel consumption was minimized. The results implied efficient storage and usage in the transmission system. A small vehicle model experimentally verified the simulation results.

  15. Laboratory Investigations on Estuary Salinity Mixing: Preliminary Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. Nuryazmeen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Estuaries are bodies of water along the coasts that are formed when fresh water from rivers flows into and mixes with salt water from the ocean. The estuaries serve as a habitat to some aquatic lives, including mangroves. Human-induced activities such as dredging of shipping lanes along the bottom estuarine, the disposal of industrial wastes into the water system and shoreline development influence estuarine dynamics which include mixing process. These activities might contribute to salinity changes and further adversely affect the estuarine ecosystem. In order to study at the characteristics of the mixing between salt water (estuary and freshwater (river, a preliminary investigation had been done in the laboratory. Fresh water was released from one end of the flume and overflowing at weir at the other end. Meanwhile, salt water was represented by the red dye tracer released through a weir and intruded upstream as a gravity current. The isohalines are plotted to see the salinity patterns. Besides, to examine the spatial and temporal salinity profiles along the laboratory investigations, the plotted graphs have been made. The results show that the changes in salinity level along the flume due to mixing between fresh water and salt water. This showed typical salt-wedge estuary characteristics.

  16. An investigation on the fuel savings potential of hybrid hydraulic refuse collection vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Frank A; Bosse, Thomas; Sawodny, Oliver

    2014-09-01

    Refuse trucks play an important role in the waste collection process. Due to their typical driving cycle, these vehicles are characterized by large fuel consumption, which strongly affects the overall waste disposal costs. Hybrid hydraulic refuse vehicles offer an interesting alternative to conventional diesel trucks, because they are able to recuperate, store and reuse braking energy. However, the expected fuel savings can vary strongly depending on the driving cycle and the operational mode. Therefore, in order to assess the possible fuel savings, a typical driving cycle was measured in a conventional vehicle run by the waste authority of the City of Stuttgart, and a dynamical model of the considered vehicle was built up. Based on the measured driving cycle and the vehicle model including the hybrid powertrain components, simulations for both the conventional and the hybrid vehicle were performed. Fuel consumption results that indicate savings of about 20% are presented and analyzed in order to evaluate the benefit of hybrid hydraulic vehicles used for refuse collection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of property-transfer models for estimating the hydraulic properties of deep sediments at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, Kari A.

    2005-01-01

    Because characterizing the unsaturated hydraulic properties of sediments over large areas or depths is costly and time consuming, development of models that predict these properties from more easily measured bulk-physical properties is desirable. At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, the unsaturated zone is composed of thick basalt flow sequences interbedded with thinner sedimentary layers. Determining the unsaturated hydraulic properties of sedimentary layers is one step in understanding water flow and solute transport processes through this complex unsaturated system. Multiple linear regression was used to construct simple property-transfer models for estimating the water-retention curve and saturated hydraulic conductivity of deep sediments at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The regression models were developed from 109 core sample subsets with laboratory measurements of hydraulic and bulk-physical properties. The core samples were collected at depths of 9 to 175 meters at two facilities within the southwestern portion of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory-the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, and the Vadose Zone Research Park southwest of the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. Four regression models were developed using bulk-physical property measurements (bulk density, particle density, and particle size) as the potential explanatory variables. Three representations of the particle-size distribution were compared: (1) textural-class percentages (gravel, sand, silt, and clay), (2) geometric statistics (mean and standard deviation), and (3) graphical statistics (median and uniformity coefficient). The four response variables, estimated from linear combinations of the bulk-physical properties, included saturated hydraulic conductivity and three parameters that define the water-retention curve. For each core sample,values of each water-retention parameter were

  18. INVESTIGATION OF EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENTS DURING CO2 INJECTION IN HYDRAULICALLY AND NATURALLY FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David S. Schechter

    2005-09-28

    The objective of this project is to perform unique laboratory experiments with artificial fractured cores (AFCs) and X-ray CT to examine the physical mechanisms of bypassing in HFR and NFR that eventually result in more efficient CO{sub 2} flooding in heterogeneous or fracture-dominated reservoirs. To achieve this objective, we divided the report into two chapters. The first chapter was to image and perform experimental investigation of transfer mechanisms during CO{sub 2} flooding in NFR and HFR using X-ray CT scanner. In this chapter, we emphasized our work on understanding the connection between fracture properties and fundamentals of transfer mechanism from matrix to fractures and fluid flow through fracture systems. We started our work by investigating the effect of different overburden pressures and stress-state conditions on rock properties and fluid flow. Since the fracture aperture is one of important parameter that governs the fluid flow through the fracture systems, the average fracture aperture from the fluid flow experiments and fracture aperture distribution derived from X-ray CT scan were estimated for our modeling purposes. The fracture properties and fluid flow have significant changes in response to different overburden pressures and stress-state conditions. The fracture aperture distribution follows lognormal distribution even at elevated stress conditions. Later, we also investigated the fluid transfers between matrix and fracture that control imbibition process. We evaluated dimensionless time for validating the scheme of upscaling laboratory experiments to field dimensions. In CO{sub 2} injection experiments, the use of X-ray CT has allowed us to understand the mechanisms of CO{sub 2} flooding process in fractured system and to take important steps in reducing oil bypassed. When CO{sub 2} flooding experiments were performed on a short core with a fracture at the center of the core, the gravity plays an important role in the recovery of oil

  19. Geological and hydrogeological conditions of the Aigion seismic active fault zone (Deep Geodynamic Laboratory Corinth) based on borehole data and hydraulic tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettenmaier, D.; Giurgea, V.; Pizzino, L.; Unkel, I.; Hoetzl, H.; Foerster, A.; Quattrocchi, F.; Nikas, K.

    2003-04-01

    The Gulf of Corinth and the northern part of the Peloponnesus/Greece, an area of asymmetric graben structure, step faults and tilted blocks, is one of the most active seismic zones in the world. Six major faults are known to be most responsible for the historic and present seismic activities in the area of Aigion. Our study focuses preliminarily on the area around the Aigion fault, whose trace runs E-W through the harbour of Aigion. Investigations of the stratigraphic sequence, tectonic structure and hydrogeologic conditions of the southern Corinth graben shoulder and first drilling activities there, have started in summer 2001. From July until September 2002 the International Continental Deep Drilling Project (ICDP) and the EU Project DGLab-Gulf of Corinth drilled the AIG10 borehole in the harbour of Aigion to a total depth of 1001 m. Our investigations in this ICDP/EU framework are aimed at studying the thermal-hydraulic conditions on the southern graben shoulder. Here we report the first results on sampling and hydraulic testing. The deep AIG10 borehole has successfully cored in approx. 760 m depth the fault plane, which separates fractured radiolarite in the hanging wall from highly fractured and karstified platy, micritic limestone (Olonos-Pindos Unit) in the footwall. A complete lithologic section is now available through the monitoring of cuttings and cores, which built a major cornerstone for defining an integrated regional tectonic and geologic model. Several pumping tests and hydrochemical investigations made in the region of Aigion and especially in the AIG10 borehole deliver together with geophysical borehole logging the database for a thermo-hydraulic heat flow model. The pumping test AIG10C in the conglomerates of the graben sediments show a hydraulic conductivity of about 2 x 10E-5 m/s - 3 x 10E-4 m/s at a depth of approximately 211 m. The result was a residual drawdown, which indicates a closed hydraulic system between the semi-permeable Aigion

  20. Protostellar jets the best laboratories for investigating astrophysical jets

    CERN Document Server

    De Gouveia dal Pino, E M

    1995-01-01

    Highly collimated supersonic jets are observed to emerge from a wide variety of astrophysical objects, ranging from Active Nuclei of Galaxies (AGN's) to Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) within our own Galaxy. Despite their different physical scales (in size, velocity, and amount of energy transported), they have strong morphological similarities. Thanks to the proximity and relatively small timescales, which permit direct observations of evolutionary changes, YSO jets are, perhaps, the best laboratories for cosmic jet investigation. In this lecture, the formation, structure, and evolution of the YSO jets are reviewed with the help of observational information, MHD and purely hydrodynamical modeling, and numerical simulations. Possible applications of the models to AGN jets are also addressed.

  1. On the Modelling and Control of a Laboratory Prototype of a Hydraulic Canal Based on a TITO Fractional-Order Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres San-Millan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a two-input, two-output (TITO fractional order mathematical model of a laboratory prototype of a hydraulic canal is proposed. This canal is made up of two pools that have a strong interaction between them. The inputs of the TITO model are the pump flow and the opening of an intermediate gate, and the two outputs are the water levels in the two pools. Based on the experiments developed in a laboratory prototype the parameters of the mathematical models have been identified. Then, considering the TITO model, a first control loop of the pump is closed to reproduce real-world conditions in which the water level of the first pool is not dependent on the opening of the upstream gate, thus leading to an equivalent single input, single output (SISO system. The comparison of the resulting system with the classical first order systems typically utilized to model hydraulic canals shows that the proposed model has significantly lower error: about 50%, and, therefore, higher accuracy in capturing the canal dynamics. This model has also been utilized to optimize the design of the controller of the pump of the canal, thus achieving a faster response to step commands and thus minimizing the interaction between the two pools of the experimental platform.

  2. Laboratory investigations into some parameters of water-ash mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Postawa, J.; Stryczek, F.; Kraj, L. (Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland). Instytut Gornictwa Podziemnego i Bezpieczenstwa Pracy)

    1990-06-01

    Presents results of laboratory investigations of certain parameters that are of essential importance in the utilization of water-ash mixtures in underground mining. Mixtures of fly ash and water were examined at 293 K. The following properties of the mixture were investigated: density, fluidity, relative viscosity, structural strength, water separation after 1, 2, 4 and 24 hours, rheological properties and plastic viscosity. The properties were measured by the AzNII cone, Ford cup, shear tester and Fonn viscosimeter. Results are presented for water to ash proportion: 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0. The conclusions are reached that water ash mixtures belong to the Bingham (rheostable) fluids, can be transported by gravitational methods and can fill cavities between lumps of caving rubble. Their ability to bind and harden creates a wide application range in mining (sealing caving rubble and fissured zones and execution of packing stoppings). The parameters found can be used in planning and designing stowing operations. 9 refs.

  3. Theoretical investigation of the thermal hydraulic behaviour of a slab-type liquid metal target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dury, T.V.; Smith, B.L. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-06-01

    The thermal hydraulics codes CFDS-FLOW3D and ASTEC have been used to simulate a slabtype design of ESS spallation target. This design is single-skinned, and of tapering form (in the beam direction), with rounded sides in a cross-section through a plane normal to the beam. The coolant fluid used is mercury, under forced circulation, with an inlet temperature of 180{degrees}C. The goal of these computer studies was to understand the behaviour of the coolant flow, and hence to arrive at a design which optimises the heat extraction for a given beam power - in the sense of: (1) minimising the peak local fluid temperature within the target, (2) maintaining an acceptable temperature level and distribution over and through the target outer wall, (3) keeping the overall fluid pressure loss through the complete target to a minimum, (4) staying within the physical limits of overall size required, particularly in the region of primary spallation. Two- and three-dimensional models have been used, with different arrangements and design of internal baffles, and different coolant flow distributions at the target inlet. Nominal total inlet mass flow was 245 kg/s, and a heat deposition profile used which was based on the proton beam energy distribution. This gave a nominal total heat load of 3.23 MW - of which 8.2kW were deposited in the window steel.

  4. Investigations of hydraulic operating conditions of air lift pump with three types of air-water mixers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalenik Marek

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigations of hydraulic operating conditions of air lift pump with three types of air-water mixers. The paper presents the analysis of results of the investigations concerning the influence of various constructive solutions of the air-water mixers on hydraulic operating conditions of the air lift pump. The scope of the investigations encompassed the determination of characteristics of delivery head and delivery rate for three types of air-water mixers applied in the constructed air lift pump. Using the obtained results, the efficiency of the three types of air-water mixers applied in this air lift pump was determined. The analysis was carried out and there was checked whether the improved analytical Stenning-Martin model can be used to design air lift pumps with the air-water mixers of these types. The highest capacity in the water transport was reached by the air lift pump with the 1st type air-water mixer, the lowest one – with the 3rd type air-water mixer. The water flow in the air lift pump increases along with the rise in the air flow. The lower are the hydraulic losses generated during flow of the air flux by the air-water mixer, the higher is the air lift pump capacity. Along with the rise in the water delivery head, the capacity of the air lift pump decreases. The highest efficiency is reached by the air lift pump with the 1st type air-water mixer, the lowest – with the 3st type air-water mixer. The efficiency of the air lift pump for the three investigated types of air-water mixers decreases along with the rise in air flow rate and water delivery head. The values of submergence ratio (h/L of the delivery pipe, calculated with the use of the improved analytical Stenning-Martin model, coincide quite well with the values of h/L determined from the measurements.

  5. Laboratory investigation of water extraction effects on saltwater wedge displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Noorabadi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a close connection between saltwater intrusion into aquifers and groundwater extraction. Freshwater extraction in coastal aquifers is one of the most important reasons for the saltwater intrusion into these aquifers. Condition of extraction system such as well depth, discharge rate, saltwater concentration and etc. could affect this process widely. Thus, investigating different extraction conditions comprises many management advantages.  In the present study, the effects of freshwater extraction on saltwater interface displacement have been investigated in a laboratory box. Three different well depths (H were considered with combinations of 3 different extraction rates (Q and 3 saltwater concentrations (C for detailed investigation of the effects of these factors variations on saltwater displacement. SEAWAT model has been used to simulate all the scenarios to numerically study of the process. The experimental and numerical results showed that when the C and Q rates were small and the well depth was shallow, the saltwater interface wouldn’t reach the extraction well, so the extracted water remained uncontaminated. When the C and Q rates were increased and the well was deepened, the salinity of the extracted water became higher. When the Q and C rates were high enough, in the shallow well depth, the final concentration of the extracted water was low but a huge part of the porous media was contaminated by the saltwater, furthermore when the well was deepened enough, the final concentration of the extracted water was increased but a small part of the porous media was contaminated by the saltwater. Finally, the results showed that when the Q and H rates were high enough, the extraction well behaved like a barrier and didn’t allow the advancing saltwater wedge toe to be intruded beyond the wells.

  6. Investigating Student Perceptions of the Chemistry Laboratory and Their Approaches to Learning in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Spencer Granett

    This dissertation explores student perceptions of the instructional chemistry laboratory and the approaches students take when learning in the laboratory environment. To measure student perceptions of the chemistry laboratory, a survey instrument was developed. 413 students responded to the survey during the Fall 2011 semester. Students' perception of the usefulness of the laboratory in helping them learn chemistry in high school was related to several factors regarding their experiences in high school chemistry. Students' perception of the usefulness of the laboratory in helping them learn chemistry in college was also measured. Reasons students provided for the usefulness of the laboratory were categorized. To characterize approaches to learning in the laboratory, students were interviewed midway through semester (N=18). The interviews were used to create a framework describing learning approaches that students use in the laboratory environment. Students were categorized into three levels: students who view the laboratory as a requirement, students who believe that the laboratory augments their understanding, and students who view the laboratory as an important part of science. These categories describe the types of strategies students used when conducting experiments. To further explore the relationship between students' perception of the laboratory and their approaches to learning, two case studies are described. These case studies involve interviews in the beginning and end of the semester. In the interviews, students reflect on what they have learned in the laboratory and describe their perceptions of the laboratory environment. In order to encourage students to adopt higher-level approaches to learning in the laboratory, a metacognitive intervention was created. The intervention involved supplementary questions that students would answer while completing laboratory experiments. The questions were designed to encourage students to think critically about the

  7. Investigating the traffic-related environmental impacts of hydraulic-fracturing (fracking) operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Paul S; Galatioto, Fabio; Thorpe, Neil; Namdeo, Anil K; Davies, Richard J; Bird, Roger N

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) has been used extensively in the US and Canada since the 1950s and offers the potential for significant new sources of oil and gas supply. Numerous other countries around the world (including the UK, Germany, China, South Africa, Australia and Argentina) are now giving serious consideration to sanctioning the technique to provide additional security over the future supply of domestic energy. However, relatively high population densities in many countries and the potential negative environmental impacts that may be associated with fracking operations has stimulated controversy and significant public debate regarding if and where fracking should be permitted. Road traffic generated by fracking operations is one possible source of environmental impact whose significance has, until now, been largely neglected in the available literature. This paper therefore presents a scoping-level environmental assessment for individual and groups of fracking sites using a newly-created Traffic Impacts Model (TIM). The model produces estimates of the traffic-related impacts of fracking on greenhouse gas emissions, local air quality emissions, noise and road pavement wear, using a range of hypothetical fracking scenarios to quantify changes in impacts against baseline levels. Results suggest that the local impacts of a single well pad may be short duration but large magnitude. That is, whilst single digit percentile increases in emissions of CO2, NOx and PM are estimated for the period from start of construction to pad completion (potentially several months or years), excess emissions of NOx on individual days of peak activity can reach 30% over baseline. Likewise, excess noise emissions appear negligible (fracking water and flowback waste requirements. The TIM model is designed to be adaptable to any geographic area where the required input data are available (such as fleet characteristics, road type and quality), and we suggest could be deployed as a

  8. Laboratory investigation of novel oil recovery method for carbonate reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousef, A.A.; Al-Saleh, S.; Al-Kaabi, A.; Al-Jawfi, M. [Saudi Aramco, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2010-07-01

    This paper described a core flooding laboratory study conducted using composite rock samples from a carbonate reservoir. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of salinity and ionic composition on oil, brine and rock interactions. Experimental parameters and procedures were designed to replicate reservoir conditions and current field injection practices. Results of the study demonstrated that alterations in the salinity and ionic composition of injected water can have a significant impact on the wettability of the rock surface. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies confirmed that injecting different salinity slugs of seawater in carbonate core samples can cause a significant alteration in the surface charges of the rock, and lead to increased interactions with water molecules. The constant reduction of pressure drop across the composite cores with the injection of different diluted versions of water also provided proof of brine, oil and rock alterations. Results of the study indicated that the driving mechanism for waterflooding recovery processes is wettability alteration, which can be triggered by alterations in carbonate rock surface charges, and improvements in the connectivity between rock pore systems that coexist in carbonate rock samples. 41 refs., 8 tabs., 16 figs.

  9. Relevance of laboratory investigations in monitoring patients with psoriasis on etanercept or adalimumab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumig, P.P.M. van; Driessen, R.J.B.; Roelofs-Thijssen, M.A.; Boezeman, J.B.M.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Jong, E.M.G.J. de

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines concerning biological treatment of patients with psoriasis recommend different pretreatment and monitoring laboratory panels in variable frequencies to monitor treatment. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relevance of laboratory investigations in monitoring patients with psoriasi

  10. An Investigation into Prospective Science Teachers' Attitudes towards Laboratory Course and Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Laboratory Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aka, Elvan Ince

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to identify the attitudes towards the laboratory course and self-efficacy beliefs in the laboratory use of prospective teachers who are attending Gazi University Gazi Education Faculty Primary Education Science Teaching program, and to investigate the relationship between the attitudes and self-efficacy beliefs.…

  11. Effects of hydraulic dredging on the physiological responses of the target species Chamelea gallina (Mollusca: Bivalvia: laboratory experiments and field surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Moschino

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mechanical stress in the Venus clam Chamelea gallina during hydraulic dredging were assessed in both laboratory and field studies in order to measure physiological biomarkers at organism level (clearance rate, respiration rate, scope for growth, and survival in air test. In the laboratory, mechanical stress was simulated by shaking clams in a vortex mixer. In the field, clams were collected seasonally at two sites along the northern Adriatic coast (Lido and Jesolo and four levels of stress were applied: the highest was that used in commercial fishing (i.e. high water pressure and mechanised sorting and the lowest manual sampling by SCUBA divers. Survival in air was the most sensitive biomarker in evaluating mechanical stress in the laboratory. Clearance rate also decreased significantly when shaking was applied. Field results indicated that high water pressure and mechanised sorting affected clearance, scope for growth and survival in air, all showing decreasing trends as mechanical stress increased at both sampling sites. The detrimental effects of mechanical disturbance may be emphasised depending on season, when exogenous and endogenous stress increases. A potential risk is highlighted mostly for undersized clams that are fished and then discarded.

  12. The hot cell laboratories for material investigations of the Institute for Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehrig, H.W.

    1998-10-01

    Special facilities for handling and testing of irradiated specimens are necessary, to perform the investigation of activated material. The Institute for Safety Research has two hot cell laboratories: - the preparation laboratory and - the materials testing laboratory. This report is intended to give an overview of the available facilities and developed techniques in the laboratories. (orig.)

  13. Development of a New Apparatus for Investigating Acoustic Effects on Hydraulic Properties of Low-Permeability Geo-Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, H.; Sawada, A.; Sugita, H.; Takeda, M.; Komai, T.; Zhang, M.

    2006-12-01

    Remediation of polluted soils and groundwater contaminated by heavy metals and non-aqueous phase liquids has been one of the challenging issues in the field of geo-environments. In-situ removal of the contaminants from low permeable soils, such as clay strata, is particularly difficult because of the low mobility, strong adsorption, and/or other various interactions within soils. Thus current remediation techniques, such as pump- and-treat method and even eletrokinetic method, generally suffer from low recovery rates and/or economically unacceptable long remediation periods. A perspective improvement in remediation technology is to couple the electrokinetic method with an application of acoustic waves. This so-called Electro-Acoustic Soil Decontamination (EASD) method has been proposed by Battelle Columbus Labs.(Muralidhara et al. 1990). Simultaneous application of an electric field and an acoustic field may produce a synergistic effect and result in further enhancement of water transport by electro-osmosis in principle, but there is still no fundamental data for the design of EASD method in practical applications. A number of investigations have shown that an application of acoustic waves can increase hydraulic conductivity and mobility of non-aqueous phase liquids in porous media. Most of the prior and ongoing researches in this area have been focused on increasing production from declining oil and gas reservoirs. During several field tests by the oil and gas industries, increases in oil production rates by 20% or more have been reported. However, underlying physical mechanisms for acoustically enhanced fluid transport are not adequately understood. In addition, majority of the past investigations has dealt with applications of large amplitude of acoustic waves to relatively permeable soils or fractured rocks, and there is little information if acoustic wave effectively enhances flow and contaminant transport for less permeable clayey soils. To evaluate the

  14. Hydraulic manipulator research at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, R.L.; Jansen, J.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Love, L.J. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Recently, task requirements have dictated that manipulator payload capacity increase to accommodate greater payloads, greater manipulator length, and larger environmental interaction forces. General tasks such as waste storage tank cleanup and facility dismantlement and decommissioning require manipulator life capacities in the range of hundreds of pounds rather than tens of pounds. To meet the increased payload capacities demanded by present-day tasks, manipulator designers have turned once again to hydraulics as a means of actuation. In order to successfully design, build, and deploy a new hydraulic manipulator (or subsystem), sophisticated modeling, analysis, and control experiments are usually needed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has a history of projects that incorporate hydraulics technology, including mobile robots, teleoperated manipulators, and full-scale construction equipment. In addition, to support the development and deployment of new hydraulic manipulators, ORNL has outfitted a significant experimental laboratory and has developed the software capability for research into hydraulic manipulators, hydraulic actuators, hydraulic systems, modeling of hydraulic systems, and hydraulic controls. The purpose of this article is to describe the past hydraulic manipulator developments and current hydraulic manipulator research capabilities at ORNL. Included are example experimental results from ORNL`s flexible/prismatic test stand.

  15. An Adaptable Investigative Graduate Laboratory Course for Teaching Protein Purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Christopher W.; Keller, Lani C.

    2014-01-01

    This adaptable graduate laboratory course on protein purification offers students the opportunity to explore a wide range of techniques while allowing the instructor the freedom to incorporate their own personal research interests. The course design involves two sequential purification schemes performed in a single semester. The first part…

  16. Naval Arctic Research Laboratory (NARL) Subsurface Containment Berm Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The former Navy Arctic Research Laboratory Airstrip Site in Barrow, Alaska, has a history of fuel spills. Various methods have been used to re- mediate ...or [− + −]) were ab- sent directly under the insulation/plywood and on the shoulder areas im- mediately adjacent to the insulation/plywood. The lack

  17. Students' Written Arguments in General Chemistry Laboratory Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Aeran; Hand, Brian; Greenbowe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the written arguments developed by college freshman students using the Science Writing Heuristic approach in inquiry-based general chemistry laboratory classrooms and its relationships with students' achievement in chemistry courses. Fourteen freshman students participated in the first year of the study while 19…

  18. Ribose 5-Phosphate Isomerase Investigations for the Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewett, Kathy; Sandwick, Roger K.

    2011-01-01

    The enzyme ribose 5-phosphate isomerase (RpiA) has many features that make it attractive as a focal point of a semester-long, advanced biochemistry laboratory for undergraduate students. The protein can easily and inexpensively be isolated from spinach using traditional purification techniques. Characterization of RpiA enzyme activity can be…

  19. Students' Written Arguments in General Chemistry Laboratory Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Aeran; Hand, Brian; Greenbowe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the written arguments developed by college freshman students using the Science Writing Heuristic approach in inquiry-based general chemistry laboratory classrooms and its relationships with students' achievement in chemistry courses. Fourteen freshman students participated in the first year of the study while 19…

  20. A Collaborative, Investigative Recombinant DNA Technology Course with Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzementi, Leo; Johnson, Joy F.

    2002-01-01

    A recombinant DNA technology course was designed to promote contextual, collaborative, inquiry-based learning of science where students learn from one another and have a sense of ownership of their education. The class stressed group presentations and critical reading and discussion of scientific articles. The laboratory consisted of two research…

  1. An investigative graduate laboratory course for teaching modern DNA techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lencastre, Alexandre; Thomas Torello, A; Keller, Lani C

    2017-02-16

    This graduate-level DNA methods laboratory course is designed to model a discovery-based research project and engages students in both traditional DNA analysis methods and modern recombinant DNA cloning techniques. In the first part of the course, students clone the Drosophila ortholog of a human disease gene of their choosing using Gateway(®) cloning. In the second part of the course, students examine the expression of their gene of interest in human cell lines by reverse transcription PCR and learn how to analyze data from quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments. The adaptability of the Gateway(®) cloning system is ideally suited for students to design and create different types of expression constructs to achieve a particular experimental goal (e.g., protein purification, expression in cell culture, and/or subcellular localization), and the genes chosen can be aligned to the research interests of the instructor and/or ongoing research in a department. Student evaluations indicate that the course fostered a genuine excitement for research and in depth knowledge of both the techniques performed and the theory behind them. Our long-term goal is to incorporate this DNA methods laboratory as the foundation for an integrated laboratory sequence for the Master of Science degree program in Molecular and Cellular Biology at Quinnipiac University, where students use the reagents and concepts they developed in this course in subsequent laboratory courses, including a protein methods and cell culture laboratory. © 2017 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2017.

  2. Hydrogeological Investigations in Deep Wells at the Meuse/Haute Marne Underground Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delay, Jacques; Distinguin, Marc

    ANDRA (Agence Nationale pour la Gestion de Déchets Radioactifs) has developed an integrated approach to characterizing the hydrogeology of the carbonate strata that encase the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite at the Meuse/Haute-Marne Laboratory site. The argillites are difficult to characterize due to their low permeability. The barrier properties of the argillites can be inferred from the flow and chemistry properties of the encasing Oxfordian and Dogger carbonates. Andras deep hole approach uses reverse air circulation drilling, geophysical logging, flow meter logging, geochemical sampling, and analyses of the pumping responses during sampling. The data support numerical simulations that evaluate the argillites hydraulic behaviour.

  3. CFD investigation of flow inversion in typical MTR research reactor undergoing thermal-hydraulic transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salama, Amgad, E-mail: asalama75@yahoo.com [Atomic Energy Authority, Reactors Department, 13759 Cairo (Egypt)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > The 3D, CFD simulation of FLOFA accident in the generic IAEA 10 MW research reactor is carried out. > The different flow and heat transfer mechanisms involved in this process were elucidated. > The transition between these mechanisms during the course of FLOFA is discussed and investigated. > The interesting inversion process upon the transition from downward flow to upward flow is shown. > The temperature field and the friction coefficient during the whole transient process were shown. - Abstract: Three dimensional CFD full simulations of the fast loss of flow accident (FLOFA) of the IAEA 10 MW generic MTR research reactor are conducted. In this system the flow is initially downward. The transient scenario starts when the pump coasts down exponentially with a time constant of 1 s. As a result the temperatures of the heating element, the clad, and the coolant rise. When the flow reaches 85% of its nominal value the control rod system scrams and the power drops sharply resulting in the temperatures of the different components to drop. As the coolant flow continues to drop, the decay heat causes the temperatures to increase at a slower rate in the beginning. When the flow becomes laminar, the rate of temperature increase becomes larger and when the pumps completely stop a flow inversion occurs because of natural convection. The temperature will continue to rise at even higher rates until natural convection is established, that is when the temperatures settle off. The interesting 3D patterns of the flow during the inversion process are shown and investigated. The temperature history is also reported and is compared with those estimated by one-dimensional codes. Generally, very good agreement is achieved which provides confidence in the modeling approach.

  4. Multilevel groundwater monitoring of hydraulic head and temperature in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2009–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Fisher, Jason C.

    2012-01-01

    During 2009 and 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Idaho National Laboratory Project Office, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected quarterly, depth-discrete measurements of fluid pressure and temperature in nine boreholes located in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Each borehole was instrumented with a multilevel monitoring system consisting of a series of valved measurement ports, packer bladders, casing segments, and couplers. Multilevel monitoring at the Idaho National Laboratory has been ongoing since 2006. This report summarizes data collected from three multilevel monitoring wells installed during 2009 and 2010 and presents updates to six multilevel monitoring wells. Hydraulic heads (heads) and groundwater temperatures were monitored from 9 multilevel monitoring wells, including 120 hydraulically isolated depth intervals from 448.0 to 1,377.6 feet below land surface. Quarterly head and temperature profiles reveal unique patterns for vertical examination of the aquifer’s complex basalt and sediment stratigraphy, proximity to aquifer recharge and discharge, and groundwater flow. These features contribute to some of the localized variability even though the general profile shape remained consistent over the period of record. Major inflections in the head profiles almost always coincided with low-permeability sediment layers and occasionally thick sequences of dense basalt. However, the presence of a sediment layer or dense basalt layer was insufficient for identifying the location of a major head change within a borehole without knowing the true areal extent and relative transmissivity of the lithologic unit. Temperature profiles for boreholes completed within the Big Lost Trough indicate linear conductive trends; whereas, temperature profiles for boreholes completed within the axial volcanic high indicate mostly convective heat transfer resulting from the vertical movement of groundwater. Additionally, temperature profiles

  5. Laboratory investigations of effective flow behavior in unsaturated heterogeneous sands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Dorthe; Høgh Jensen, Karsten

    1999-01-01

    such that on the average a uniform pressure profile was established and gravity flow applied. Solute breakthrough curves measured at discrete points in the tank using time domain reflectometry, as well as dye tracer paths, showed that flow and transport took place in a very tortuous pattern where several grid cells were...... controlled method. The heterogeneous sand systems were established in a laboratory tank for three realizations of random distributions of the homogeneous sands comprising a system of 207 grid cells. The water flux was controlled at the upper boundary, while a suction was applied at the lower boundary...

  6. Investigations of Solar Prominence Dynamics Using Laboratory Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul M Bellan

    2008-05-28

    Laboratory experiments simulating many of the dynamical features of solar coronal loops have been carried out. These experiments manifest collimation, kinking, jet flows, and S-shapes. Diagnostics include high-speed photography and x-ray detectors. Two loops having opposite or the same magnetic helicity polarities have been merged and it is found that counter-helicity merging provides much greater x-ray emission. A non-MHD particle orbit instability has been discovered whereby ions going in the opposite direction of the current flow direction can be ejected from a magnetic flux tube.

  7. The clinical laboratory in the investigation of hemoglobin disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lais Pinto de Almeida; Annelise Corrêa Wengerkievicz; Nilceia Maria Viviani; Dulcinéia Martins Albuquerque; Maria Elizabete Mendes; Nairo Massakazu Sumita

    2011-01-01

    As alterações na síntese da hemoglobina resultam em um grupo de distúrbios hereditários, os quais podem ser classificados como hemoglobina variante, se a alteração tiver origem em uma mutação no gene da hemoglobina, produzindo cadeias anormais, ou como talassemias, se a estrutura é normal, porém a síntese ocorre em quantidade alterada. Este trabalho tem como objetivo descrever a condução do diagnóstico laboratorial de quatro casos de distúrbios da hemoglobina, a fim de ilustrar o papel do lab...

  8. Hydraulic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sheng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the planning, design, construction and management of hydraulic structures, covering dams, spillways, tunnels, cut slopes, sluices, water intake and measuring works, ship locks and lifts, as well as fish ways. Particular attention is paid to considerations concerning the environment, hydrology, geology and materials etc. in the planning and design of hydraulic projects. It also considers the type selection, profile configuration, stress/stability calibration and engineering countermeasures, flood releasing arrangements and scouring protection, operation and maintenance etc. for a variety of specific hydraulic structures. The book is primarily intended for engineers, undergraduate and graduate students in the field of civil and hydraulic engineering who are faced with the challenges of extending our understanding of hydraulic structures ranging from traditional to groundbreaking, as well as designing, constructing and managing safe, durable hydraulic structures that are economical ...

  9. Extra-terrestrial sprites: laboratory investigations in planetary gas mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Dubrovin; Y. Yair; C. Price; S. Nijdam (Sander); T.T.J. Clevis; E.M. van Veldhuizen; U. Ebert (Ute)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate streamers in gas mixtures representing the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn (H2-He) and Venus (CO2-N2). Streamer diameters, velocities, radiance and overall morphology are investigated with fast ICCD camera images. We confirm experimentally the scaling of streamer diameters

  10. Extra-terrestrial sprites: laboratory investigations in planetary gas mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubrovin, D.; Yair, Y.; Price, C.; Nijdam, S.; Clevis, T.T.J.; Veldhuizen, E.M. van; Ebert, U.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate streamers in gas mixtures representing the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn (H2-He) and Venus (CO2-N2). Streamer diameters, velocities, radiance and overall morphology are investigated with fast ICCD camera images. We confirm experimentally the scaling of streamer diameters in these gas

  11. HYDRAULIC SERVO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, D.E.

    1962-05-01

    A hydraulic servo is designed in which a small pressure difference produced at two orifices by an electrically operated flapper arm in a constantly flowing hydraulic loop is hydraulically amplified by two constant flow pumps, two additional orifices, and three unconnected ball pistons. Two of the pistons are of one size and operate against the additional orifices, and the third piston is of a different size and operates between and against the first two pistons. (AEC)

  12. Monitoring the interaction of hydraulic fracturing fluid with Marcellus Shale using Sr isotopes: a comparison of laboratory experiments with field scale observations (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, A. J.; Hakala, A.; Marcon, V.; Joseph, C.

    2013-12-01

    Strontium isotopes have the potential to be an effective tool for differentiating Marcellus Shale derived-fluids from other sources in surface and ground waters (Chapman et al. 2012, doi: 10.1021/es204005g). Water that is co-produced during gas extraction is likely influenced by fluid/rock interactions during hydraulic fracturing (HF) and monitoring changes in Sr isotope ratios can provide insight into reactions occurring within the shale formation. However, questions persist as to what controls the Sr isotopic composition of Marcellus Shale fluids, especially during HF. Here we compare laboratory experiments, simulating the dissolution of the Marcellus Shale during HF, with a time-series of water samples taken from a Marcellus Shale gas wells after HF has occurred. For the laboratory experiments, a core sample of Marcellus Shale from Greene County, PA was crushed and placed into a high P and T reaction vessel. Solutions were added in two different experiments: one with synthetic brine, and another using brine+HF fluid. The HF fluid was made up of components listed on fracfocus.org. Experiments were run for ~16 days at 27.5 MPa and 130oC. Aqueous samples were periodically removed for analysis and Sr isotope ratios were measured by MC-ICP-MS. Using just brine, the pH of the solution decreased from 7.6 to 5.3 after 24 hrs, then reached a steady state at ~6.1. Sr/Ca molar ratios in the fluid started at 2.3 after 24 hours and decreased to 1.8 over ~16 days. During this time only 6% of the total inorganic carbon (TIC) dissolved from the shale. The ɛSr values started at +43.2 and decreased to +42.4. In the experiment using brine+HF fluid, the pH started at 1.8 and rose slowly to a steady value of 5.6 by day 6. The Sr and Ca concentrations were higher than the brine experiment, but the Sr/Ca ratios remained lower at ~0.3 through the experiment. The increased Ca release, as well as the dissolution of over 60% of the TIC, suggests the dissolution of a carbonate mineral

  13. Measurement of Sedimentary Interbed Hydraulic Properties and Their Hydrologic Influence near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kim S.

    2003-01-01

    Disposal of wastewater to unlined infiltration ponds near the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), formerly known as the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has resulted in the formation of perched water bodies in the unsaturated zone (Cecil and others, 1991). The unsaturated zone at INEEL comprises numerous basalt flows interbedded with thinner layers of coarse- to fine-grained sediments and perched ground-water zones exist at various depths associated with massive basalts, basalt-flow contacts, sedimentary interbeds, and sediment-basalt contacts. Perched ground water is believed to result from large infiltration events such as seasonal flow in the Big Lost River and wastewater discharge to infiltration ponds. Evidence from a large-scale tracer experiment conducted in 1999 near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC), approximately 13 km from the INTEC, indicates that rapid lateral flow of perched water in the unsaturated zone may be an important factor in contaminant transport at the INEEL (Nimmo and others, 2002b). Because sedimentary interbeds, and possibly baked-zone alterations at sediment-basalt contacts (Cecil and other, 1991) play an important role in the generation of perched water it is important to assess the hydraulic properties of these units.

  14. Investigation on the influence of leakage clearance on the flow field and performance of scroll hydraulic pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuaihui; Huang, Yi; Guo, Pengcheng; Zuo, Juanli; Luo, Xingqi

    2016-11-01

    In the present paper, the computer fluid dynamics(CFD) with dynamic mesh model had been applied in scroll hydraulic pump to obtain its flow field at different leakage clearance. The fluid force on the orbiting scroll, the mass flow rate and the hydraulic efficiency at different leakage clearance were calculated based on the flow field data. The results indicated that when the leakage clearance increased from 0.5mm to 1.5mm, the average pressure, maximum of pressure fluctuation, leakage jet flow velocity, shaft power, cavitation degree decreased and the leakage flow rate increased. If the leakage clearance was 2.0mm, the high pressure discharge fluid flowed through the clearance and led to the increase of the average pressure and fluid force. When the leakage clearance is 1.0mm, the average pressure is far lower than that at the 0.5mm clearance, and the hydraulic efficiency is the highest.

  15. Laboratory investigations of seismicity caused by iceberg calving and capsize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathles, L. M. M., IV; Kaluzienski, L. M.; Burton, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The calving and capsize of cubic kilometer-sized icebergs in both Greenland and Antarctica are known to be the source of long-period seismic events classified as glacial earthquakes. The ability to monitor both calving events and the mass of ice calved using the Global Seismographic Network is quite attractive, however, the basic physics of these large calving events must be understood to develop a robust relationship between seismic magnitude and mass of ice calved. The amplitude and duration of the seismic signal is expected to be related to the mass of the calved iceberg and the magnitude of the acceleration of the iceberg's center of mass, yet a simple relationship between these quantities has proved difficult to develop from in situ observations or numerical models. To address this, we developed and carried out a set of experiments on a laboratory scale model of iceberg calving. These experiments were designed to measure several aspects of the post-fracture calving process. Our results show that a combination of mechanical contact forces and hydrodynamic pressure forces are generated by the capsize of an iceberg adjacent to a glacier's terminus. These forces combine to produce the net horizontal centroid single force (CSF) which is often used to model glacial earthquake sources. We find that although the amplitude and duration of the force applied to the terminus generally increases with the iceberg mass, the details depend on the geometry of the iceberg and the depth of the water. The resulting seismic signal is thus crucially dependent on hydrodynamics of the capsize process.

  16. Laboratory investigations of the survivability of bacteria in hypervelocity impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchell, M J; Shrine, N R; Mann, J; Bunch, A W; Brandao, P; Zarnecki, J C; Galloway, J A

    2001-01-01

    It is now well established that material naturally moves around the Solar System, even from planetary surface to planetary surface. Accordingly, the idea that life is distributed throughout space and did not necessarily originate on the Earth but migrated here from elsewhere (Panspermia) is increasingly deemed worthy of consideration. If life arrived at the Earth from space, its relative speed will typically be of order many km s-1, and the resulting collision with the Earth and its atmosphere will be in the hypervelocity regime. A mechanism for the bacteria to survive such an impact is required. Therefore a programme of hypervelocity impacts in the laboratory at (4.5 +/- 0.6) km s-1 was carried out using bacteria (Rhodococcus) laden projectiles. After impacts on a variety of target materials (rock, glass and metal) attempts were made to culture Rhodococcus from the surface of the resulting craters and also from the target material ejected during crater formation. Control shots with clean projectiles yielded no evidence for Rhodococcus growth from any crater surface or ejecta. When projectiles doped with Rhodococcus were used no impact crater surface yielded colonies of Rhodococcus. However, for four shots of bacteria into rock (two on chalk and two on granite) the ejecta was afterwards found to give colonies of Rhodococcus. This was not true for shots onto glass. In addition, shots into aerogel (density 96 kg m-3) were also carried out (two with clean projectiles and two with projectiles with Rhodococcus). This crudely simulated aero-capture in a planetary atmosphere. No evidence for Rhodococcus growth was found from the projectiles captured in the aerogel from any of the four shots.

  17. An Investigative Laboratory Course in Human Physiology Using Computer Technology and Collaborative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzPatrick, Kathleen A.

    2004-01-01

    Active investigative student-directed experiences in laboratory science are being encouraged by national science organizations. A growing body of evidence from classroom assessment supports their effectiveness. This study describes four years of implementation and assessment of an investigative laboratory course in human physiology for 65…

  18. Devonian micritic limestones used in the historic production of Prague hydraulic lime (‘pasta di Praga’: characterization of the raw material and experimental laboratory burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlovcev, P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Devonian micritic limestones from the Prague Basin (Barrandian area, Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic, which were the primary raw material used for natural hydraulic lime burned in Prague, exhibit a feebly to eminently hydraulic character. Based on a laboratory experimental study, the burned product is composed of dominant free-lime (CaO and/or portlandite (Ca(OH2, larnite-belite (bicalcium silicate 2CaO.SiO2, and quartz (SiO2 - i.e. phases formed due to the decomposition of carbonate and quartz, present in the original limestones. Proportions of the newly formed phases depend on: the composition of the raw material, maximum burning temperature (the highest amount of larnite-belite appearing at a burning temperature of 1200 °C, and the granulometry of the experimental batches (a coarsely-ground batch exhibited a higher amount of larnite-belite compared to the finely-ground one. The presence of minor phyllosilicates in the raw material contributed to the formation of gehlenite, brownmillerite, wollastonite, calcium aluminate, and/or spurrite.Las calizas micríticas devonianas provenientes de la Cuenca de Praga (área de Barrand, macizo de Bohemia, República checa que fueron la principal materia prima utilizada para la producción de la cal hidráulica natural calcinada en Praga, presentan un carácter hidráulico desde débil hasta alto. El estudio experimental de laboratorio, ha determinado que el producto calcinado está compuesto de cal viva (CaO como componente predominante y/o cal hidratada (Ca(OH2, larnita-belita (silicato bicálcico 2CaO.SiO2 y cuarzo (SiO2 – es decir, fases formadas como resultado de la descomposición de carbonato y cuarzo presentes en las calizas originales. Las proporciones de las nuevas fases formadas dependen de: la composición de la materia prima, temperatura máxima de calcinación (la mayor cantidad de larnita-belita se produce a la temperatura de calcinación de 1200 °C, y la granulometría de las

  19. Laboratory investigation of antenna signals from dust impacts on spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternovsky, Zoltan; Collette, Andrew; Malaspina, David M.; Thayer, Frederick

    2016-04-01

    Electric field and plasma wave instruments act as dust detectors picking up voltage pulses induced by impacts of particulates on the spacecraft body. These signals enable the characterization of cosmic dust environments even with missions without dedicated dust instruments. For example, the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft performed the first detection of dust particles near Uranus, Neptune, and in the outer solar system [Gurnett et al., 1987, 1991, 1997]. The two STEREO spacecraft observed distinct signals at high rate that were interpreted as nano-sized particles originating from near the Sun and accelerated to high velocities by the solar wind [MeyerVernet et al, 2009a, Zaslavsky et al., 2012]. The MAVEN spacecraft is using the antennas onboard to characterize the dust environment of Mars [Andersson et al., 2014] and Solar Probe Plus will do the same in the inner heliosphere. The challenge, however, is the correct interpretation of the impact signals and calculating the mass of the dust particles. The uncertainties result from the incomplete understanding of the signal pickup mechanisms, and the variation of the signal amplitude with impact location, the ambient plasma environment, and impact speed. A comprehensive laboratory study of impact generated antenna signals has been performed recently using the IMPACT dust accelerator facility operated at the University of Colorado. Dust particles of micron and submicron sizes with velocities of tens of km/s are generated using a 3 MV electrostatic analyzer. A scaled down model spacecraft is exposed to the dust impacts and one or more antennas, connected to sensitive electronics, are used to detect the impact signals. The measurements showed that there are three clearly distinct signal pickup mechanisms due to spacecraft charging, antenna charging and antenna pickup sensing space charge from the expanding plasma cloud. All mechanisms vary with the spacecraft and antenna bias voltages and, furthermore, the latter two

  20. Advanced Performance Hydraulic Wind Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Bruce, Allan; Lam, Adrienne S.

    2013-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, has developed a novel advanced hydraulic wind energy design, which has up to 23% performance improvement over conventional wind turbine and conventional hydraulic wind energy systems with 5 m/sec winds. It also has significant cost advantages with levelized costs equal to coal (after carbon tax rebate). The design is equally applicable to tidal energy systems and has passed preliminary laboratory proof-of-performance tests, as funded by the Department of Energy.

  1. Laboratory investigations on continuous bio-methanization of energy crops as mono-substrate without supplementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirel, Burak [Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (HAW Hamburg), Lifetec Process Engineering, Lohbruegger Kirchstrasse 65, 21033 Hamburg-Bergedorf (Germany); Bogazici University, Institute of Environmental Sciences, Bebek, 34342 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-06-15

    Continuous bio-methanization of an energy crop, namely the beet silage, was investigated in this laboratory-scale work as mono-substrate, using a mesophilic biogas digester controlled by a fuzzy logic control (FLC) technique and without using any supplementing or buffering agent, despite the low pH of the substrate around 3.80. The temperature, pH, redox potential (ORP), daily biogas production and composition of digester biogas were continuously measured online. During the operation, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) varied between 24.8 and 9 days, as the organic loading rate (OLR) ranged from 2.6 to 4.7 g L{sup -1} d{sup -1}. The average pH, specific gas production rate (spec. GPR) and volumetric gas production rate (vol. GPR) were determined to be 7.12, 0.31 L g VS{sup -1} d{sup -1} and 1.084 L L{sup -1} d{sup -1}, respectively. The average methane (CH{sub 4}) content of digester biogas was about 56%. The FLC technique, which was developed at HAW Hamburg for anaerobic conversion of acidic energy crops to methane, determined the daily feeding volume ({proportional_to} OLR/HRT) for the biogas digester, depending on the feedback from online pH and methane measurements, and on the calculation of the spec. GPR. The spec. GPR was calculated by the corrected daily biogas production. Through online monitoring of pH, biogas production rate and composition, and by use of the FLC technique, the acidic beet silage could continuously be converted to biogas, without using manure or any other kind of buffering or supplementing agent(s). The lab-scale anaerobic biogas digester performed stable and safe, without encountering any problems of instability, as indicated by an adequate amount of buffering capacity, a VFA content below 0.5 g L{sup -1} and a neutral pH range throughout the study. (author)

  2. Inverse modelling of in situ soil water dynamics: investigating the effect of different prior distributions of the soil hydraulic parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Scharnagl; J.A. Vrugt; H. Vereecken; M. Herbst

    2011-01-01

    In situ observations of soil water state variables under natural boundary conditions are often used to estimate the soil hydraulic properties. However, many contributions to the soil hydrological literature have demonstrated that the information content of such data is insufficient to accurately and

  3. Laboratory investigations of in-situ gasification; Laboruntersuchungen zur Untertagevergasung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornbusch, H.

    1994-12-31

    In the framework of the ``Thermie`` research programme of the EC, an in-situ gasification experiment is going on in Andorra/Terual (Spain) 100 km south of Zaragoza. At the same time, the gasification characteristics of the hard lignite from Andorra are analyzed at the Metallurgical Institute of the RWTH Aachen. It was found that the ash contents of various seams were extremely high. The consequences for gasification are investigated in this report. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen des Forschungsprogrammes `Thermie` der Europaeischen Gemeinschaft findet in Andorra/Teruel (Spanien) ca. 100 km suedoestlich von Zaragoza ein Untertagevergasungsversuch statt. Projektbegleitend wird am Institut fuer Eisenhuettenkunde der RWTH Aachen die aus Andorra stammende Hartbraunkohle in den Versuchsanlagen des Instituts in der Abteilung Untertagevergasung hinsichtlich ihrer Vergasbarkeit untersucht. Bei der Analyse der Kohle faellt auf, dass einzelne Floeze extrem hohe Gehalte an Asche beinhalten. Die Auswirkung dieser Tatsache auf das Vergasungsverhalten soll in dieser Arbeit untersucht werden. (orig.)

  4. Inverse modelling of in situ soil water dynamics: investigating the effect of different prior distributions of the soil hydraulic parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Scharnagl

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In situ observations of soil water state variables under natural boundary conditions are often used to estimate the soil hydraulic properties. However, many contributions to the soil hydrological literature have demonstrated that the information content of such data is insufficient to accurately and precisely estimate all the soil hydraulic parameters. In this case study, we explored to which degree prior information about the soil hydraulic parameters can help improve parameter identifiability in inverse modelling of in situ soil water dynamics under natural boundary conditions. We used percentages of sand, silt, and clay as input variables to the ROSETTA pedotransfer function that predicts the parameters in the van Genuchten-Mualem (VGM model of the soil hydraulic functions. To derive additional information about the correlation structure of the predicted parameters, which is not readily provided by ROSETTA, we employed a Monte Carlo approach. We formulated three prior distributions that incorporate to different extents the prior information about the VGM parameters derived with ROSETTA. The inverse problem was posed in a formal Bayesian framework and solved using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC simulation with the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM algorithm. Synthetic and real-world soil water content data were used to illustrate the approach. The results of this study demonstrated that prior information about the soil hydraulic parameters significantly improved parameter identifiability and that this approach was effective and robust, even in case of biased prior information. To be effective and robust, however, it was essential to use a prior distribution that incorporates information about parameter correlation.

  5. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS OF SILICATE MUD CONTAMINATION WITH CALCIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The silicate-based drilling fluid is a low solids KCl/polymer system with the addition of soluble sodium or potassium silicate to enhance inhibition and wellbore stability. Silicate-based drilling fluids exhibit remarkable shale and chalk stabilizing properties, resulting in gauge hole and the formation of firm cuttings when drilling reactive shales and soft chalks. Silicates protect shales by in-situ gellation when exposed to the neutral pore fluid and precipitation, which occurs on contact with divalent ions present at the surface of the shale. Also, silicates prevent the dispersion and washouts when drilling soft chalk by reacting with the Ca2+ ions present on chalk surfaces of cutting and wellbore to form a protective film. The silicate-based drilling fluid can be used during drilling hole section through shale interbeded anhydrite formations because of its superior shale stabilizing characteristics. However, drilling through the anhydrite can decrease the silicate concentration and change rheological and filtration fluid properties. So, the critical concentration of calcium ions should be investigated by lab tests. This paper details the mechanism of shale inhibition using silicate-based drilling fluid, and presents results of lab tests conducted to ascertain the effect of Ca2+ ions on silicate level in the fluid and the fluid properties.

  6. Site Safety Plan for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory CERCLA investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bainer, R.; Duarte, J.

    1993-07-01

    The safety policy of LLNL is to take every reasonable precaution in the performance of work to protect the environment and the health and safety of employees and the public, and to prevent property damage. With respect to hazardous agents, this protection is provided by limiting human exposures, releases to the environment, and contamination of property to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). It is the intent of this Plan to supply the broad outline for completing environmental investigations within ALARA guidelines. It may not be possible to determine actual working conditions in advance of the work; therefore, planning must allow the opportunity to provide a range of protection based upon actual working conditions. Requirements will be the least restrictive possible for a given set of circumstances, such that work can be completed in an efficient and timely fashion. Due to the relatively large size of the LLNL Site and the different types of activities underway, site-specific Operational Safety Procedures (OSPs) will be prepared to supplement activities not covered by this Plan. These site-specific OSPs provide the detailed information for each specific activity and act as an addendum to this Plan, which provides the general plan for LLNL Main Site operation.

  7. Laboratory investigation of drinking water sources of Kangra, Himachal Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, S D; Panda, A K

    2012-06-01

    A total of 70 drinking water sources including piped water supply (n = 36), ground water sources (n = 24, hand pumps and bore wells) and natural water sources (n = 10, springs/step-wells) from various parts of district Kangra, Himachal Pradesh were investigated for their suitability for drinking purpose by presumptive coliform test. Three samples were collected from each source during different parts of the year. Piped water sources (91.7%) were most contaminated followed by natural water sources (90%) and ground water sources (62.5%). 70.5% of the total water samples (n = 210) were positive for coliforms. All the three samples from 8.3% (n = 3), 37.5% (n = 9) and 10% (n = 1) piped water, ground water and natural sources respectively, were negative for coliform organisms. A variety of organisms including Proteus, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pasteurella, Enterobacter and Serratia liquefaciens were isolated from water samples positive for coliforms in presumptive coliform test. Thermo-tolerant coliform organisms; Escherichia coli, Citrobacter, Klebsiella and Enterobacter were 71.2% (n = 52) of the total bacterial isolations. These findings suggest absence of adequate treatment and disinfection of the water sources supplying drinking water in district Kangra.

  8. Sesame seed allergy: Clinical manifestations and laboratory investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlollahi MR.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant-origin foods are among the most important sources of food allergic reactions. An increase in the incidence of sesame seed allergy among children and adults has been reported in recent years. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the prevalence, importance and clinical manifestations of sesame allergy among Iranian patients.Methods: In a cross-sectional survey, 250 patients with suspected IgE-mediated food allergies completed a questionnaire and underwent skin prick tests with sesame extract as well as cross-reacting foods (walnut, soya and peanut. Total IgE and sesame-specific IgE levels were measured. Patients with positive skin test reactions and/or IgE specific for sesame without clinical symptoms were considered sensitive to sesame. The patients who also had clinical symptoms with sesame consumption were diagnosed as allergic to sesame.Results: Of the 250 patients enrolled in this study, 129 were male and 121 female, with a mean age of 11.7 years. The most common food allergens were cow's milk, egg, curry, tomato and sesame. Sesame sensitivity was found in 35 patients (14.1%. Only five patients (2% had sesame allergy. Sesame-sensitive patients had a significantly higher frequency of positive prick test to cross-reacting foods when compared to non-sensitized patients (p=0.00. The type of symptom was independent of gender and age of the patients, but urticaria and dermatitis-eczema were significantly more frequent in sensitized patients (p=0.008.Conclusions: This is the first study addressing the prevalence of sesame seed allergy in Iranian population. We found sesame to be a common and important cause of food allergy. The panel of foods recommended for use in diagnostic allergy tests should be adjusted.

  9. Fundamental investigations for a OWC-tidal power plant with a conventional hydraulic turbine; Basisuntersuchungen fuer ein OWC-Wellenenergiekraftwerk mit konventioneller Hydroturbine. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graw, K.U.; Lengricht, J.; Schimmels, S.

    2001-07-01

    At the present the OWC-tidal power plant is the most forward-looking way of converting tidal energy into usable electric power. Current research works focus on the dimensions of the structures in terms of occurring loads, the minimisation of hydraulic losses and the development of new turbine-generator types. The development of all air-turbine systems, which have been investigated so far, is considered as problematic and the commercialisation is likely to be a hindrance. Based on international research results an inventory tata of available hydraulic turbines is supposed to be gathered and fundamental investigations are supposed to check, if the application of conventional hydraulic turbines are an energetic progress in the OWC-tidal power plant. In order to considerably increase the efficiency compared to current developments, small-scale investigations at a physical model are supposed to show if and how a hydraulic turbine can be realised in a OWC-tidal power plant and how a concept of flow rectification as well as a flow-optimised form of inflow and outflow chambers can be achieved. (orig.) [German] Das OWC-Wellenenergiekraftwerk ist der zur Zeit zukunftstraechtigste Typ zur Umwandlung von Wellenenergie in nutzbaren Strom. Die laufenden Forschungsarbeiten beschaeftigen sich insbesondere mit der Dimensionierung der Strukturen hinsichtlich auftretender Belastungen, der Minimierung der hydraulischen Verluste und der Entwicklung von neuartigen Turbinen-Generatoren-Typen. Die Entwicklung aller bisher untersuchten Luftturbinensysteme wird jedoch als problematisch und die Kommerzialisierung hindernd angesehen. Aufbauend auf den internationalen Forschungsergebnissen sollen eine Bestandaufnahme der verfuegbaren Hydroturbinen durchgefuehrt und mit Baisuntersuchungen geprueft werden, ob ein Einsatz konventionaller Hydroturbinen im OWC-Wellenenergiekraftwerk eine energetische Weiterentwicklung darstellen kann. Um den Wirkungsgrad gegenueber derzeitigen Entwicklungen

  10. Laboratory experimental investigation of heat transport in fractured media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Claudia; Pastore, Nicola; Giasi, Concetta I.; Allegretti, Nicoletta Maria

    2017-01-01

    Low enthalpy geothermal energy is a renewable resource that is still underexploited nowadays in relation to its potential for development in society worldwide. Most of its applications have already been investigated, such as heating and cooling of private and public buildings, road defrosting, cooling of industrial processes, food drying systems or desalination. Geothermal power development is a long, risky and expensive process. It basically consists of successive development stages aimed at locating the resources (exploration), confirming the power generating capacity of the reservoir (confirmation) and building the power plant and associated structures (site development). Different factors intervene in influencing the length, difficulty and materials required for these phases, thereby affecting their cost. One of the major limitations related to the installation of low enthalpy geothermal power plants regards the initial development steps that are risky and the upfront capital costs that are huge. Most of the total cost of geothermal power is related to the reimbursement of invested capital and associated returns. In order to increase the optimal efficiency of installations which use groundwater as a geothermal resource, flow and heat transport dynamics in aquifers need to be well characterized. Especially in fractured rock aquifers these processes represent critical elements that are not well known. Therefore there is a tendency to oversize geothermal plants. In the literature there are very few studies on heat transport, especially on fractured media. This study is aimed at deepening the understanding of this topic through heat transport experiments in fractured networks and their interpretation. Heat transfer tests have been carried out on the experimental apparatus previously employed to perform flow and tracer transport experiments, which has been modified in order to analyze heat transport dynamics in a network of fractures. In order to model the obtained

  11. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  12. Investigating the Effect of Argument-Driven Inquiry in Laboratory Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demircioglu, Tuba; Ucar, Sedat

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of argument-driven inquiry (ADI) based laboratory instruction on the academic achievement, argumentativeness, science process skills, and argumentation levels of pre-service science teachers in the General Physics Laboratory III class. The study was conducted with 79 pre-service science teachers.…

  13. Hydraulic Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required whenever hydraulic structures are shown in the flood profile. It is also required if levees are shown on the FIRM, channels containing the...

  14. On the Hydraulics of Flowing Horizontal Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, A.; Zhan, H.

    2003-12-01

    A flowing horizontal well is a special type of horizontal well that does not have pumping/injecting facility. The discharge rate of a flowing horizontal well is controlled by the hydraulic gradient between the aquifer and the well and it generally varies with time if the hydraulic head of the aquifer is transient. This type of well has been used in landslide control, mining dewatering, water table control, underground water transportation through a horizontal tunnel, agricultural water drainage, and other applications. Flowing horizontal wells have quite different hydrodynamic characteristics from horizontal wells with fixed pumping or injecting rates because their discharge rates are functions of the aquifer hydraulic heads (Zhan et al, 2001; Zhan and Zlotnik, 2002). Hydraulics of flowing horizontal wells have rarely been studied although the hydraulics of flowing vertical wells have been extensively investigated before. The purpose of this paper is to obtain analytical solutions of groundwater flow to a flowing horizontal-well in a confined aquifer, in a water table aquifer without precipitation, and in a water table aquifer with precipitation. The functions of the flowing horizontal well discharge rates versus time will be obtained under above mentioned different aquifer conditions. The relationships of the aquifer hydraulic heads versus the discharge rates of the well will be investigated. The rate of water table decline due to the dewatering of the well will also be computed, and this solution is particularly useful for landslide control and mining dewatering. The theoretical solutions will be compared with results of experiments that will be conducted in the hydrological laboratory at Texas A&M University. Reference: Zhan, H., Wang, L.V., and Park, E, On the horizontal well pumping tests in the anisotropic confined aquifers, J. hydrol., 252, 37-50, 2001. Zhan, H., and Zlotnik, V. A., Groundwater flow to a horizontal or slanted well in an unconfined aquifer

  15. Laboratory investigation of the performance properties of hot mix asphalt containing waste glass

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available CSIR is currently undertaking a study on potential utilization of crushed glass as a substitute material to natural aggregate in asphalt mixes. As part of the study, laboratory investigation is needed to determine the performance characteristics...

  16. Self-potential observations during hydraulic fracturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Jeffrey R.; Glaser, Steven D.

    2007-09-13

    The self-potential (SP) response during hydraulic fracturing of intact Sierra granite was investigated in the laboratory. Excellent correlation of pressure drop and SP suggests that the SP response is created primarily by electrokinetic coupling. For low pressures, the variation of SP with pressure drop is linear, indicating a constant coupling coefficient (Cc) of -200 mV/MPa. However for pressure drops >2 MPa, the magnitude of the Cc increases by 80% in an exponential trend. This increasing Cc is related to increasing permeability at high pore pressures caused by dilatancy of micro-cracks, and is explained by a decrease in the hydraulic tortuosity. Resistivity measurements reveal a decrease of 2% prior to hydraulic fracturing and a decrease of {approx}35% after fracturing. An asymmetric spatial SP response created by injectate diffusion into dilatant zones is observed prior to hydraulic fracturing, and in most cases this SP variation revealed the impending crack geometry seconds before failure. At rupture, injectate rushes into the new fracture area where the zeta potential is different than in the rock porosity, and an anomalous SP spike is observed. After fracturing, the spatial SP distribution reveals the direction of fracture propagation. Finally, during tensile cracking in a point load device with no water flow, a SP spike is observed that is caused by contact electrification. However, the time constant of this event is much less than that for transients observed during hydraulic fracturing, suggesting that SP created solely from material fracture does not contribute to the SP response during hydraulic fracturing.

  17. Measurement and modeling of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kim S.; Elango, Lakshmanan

    2011-01-01

    The unsaturated zone plays an extremely important hydrologic role that influences water quality and quantity, ecosystem function and health, the connection between atmospheric and terrestrial processes, nutrient cycling, soil development, and natural hazards such as flooding and landslides. Unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is one of the main properties considered to govern flow; however it is very difficult to measure accurately. Knowledge of the highly nonlinear relationship between unsaturated hydraulic conductivity (K) and volumetric water content is required for widely-used models of water flow and solute transport processes in the unsaturated zone. Measurement of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of sediments is costly and time consuming, therefore use of models that estimate this property from more easily measured bulk-physical properties is common. In hydrologic studies, calculations based on property-transfer models informed by hydraulic property databases are often used in lieu of measured data from the site of interest. Reliance on database-informed predicted values with the use of neural networks has become increasingly common. Hydraulic properties predicted using databases may be adequate in some applications, but not others. This chapter will discuss, by way of examples, various techniques used to measure and model hydraulic conductivity as a function of water content, K. The parameters that describe the K curve obtained by different methods are used directly in Richards’ equation-based numerical models, which have some degree of sensitivity to those parameters. This chapter will explore the complications of using laboratory measured or estimated properties for field scale investigations to shed light on how adequately the processes are represented. Additionally, some more recent concepts for representing unsaturated-zone flow processes will be discussed.

  18. Degradation of Phosphate Ester Hydraulic Fluid in Power Station Turbines Investigated by a Three-Magnet Unilateral Magnet Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Guo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A three-magnet array unilateral NMR sensor with a homogeneous sensitive spot was employed for assessing aging of the turbine oils used in two different power stations. The Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG sequence and Inversion Recovery-prepared CPMG were employed for measuring the 1H-NMR transverse and longitudinal relaxation times of turbine oils with different service status. Two signal components with different lifetimes were obtained by processing the transverse relaxation curves with a numeric program based on the Inverse Laplace Transformation. The long lifetime components of the transverse relaxation time T2eff and longitudinal relaxation time T1 were chosen to monitor the hydraulic fluid aging. The results demonstrate that an increase of the service time of the turbine oils clearly results in a decrease of T2eff,long and T1,long. This indicates that the T2eff,long and T1,long relaxation times, obtained from the unilateral magnetic resonance measurements, can be applied as indices for degradation of the hydraulic fluid in power station turbines.

  19. Laboratory investigations of moisture conditions in wood frame walls with wood fiber insulation

    OpenAIRE

    Geving, Stig; Lunde, Erik; Holme, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the moisture conditions in wood frame walls with wood fiber thermal insulation in a Nordic climate. Laboratory measurements were conducted on 15 different wall configurations. The test results showed that the wall configurations with wood fiber insulation performed rather similar as those with mineral wool, in regard to measured relative humidity at the external side of the insulation layer. The laboratory tests showed that wood fiber insu...

  20. A Feasibility Study of Power Generation from Sewage Using a Hollowed Pico-Hydraulic Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Uchiyama

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the feasibility of power generation using a pico-hydraulic turbine from sewage flowing in pipes. First, the sewage flow rate at two connection points to the Toyogawa River-Basin Sewerage, Japan, was explored for over a year to elucidate the hydraulic energy potential of the sewage. Second, the performance of the pico-hydraulic turbine was investigated via laboratory experiments that supposed the turbine to be installed in the sewage pipe at the connection points. This study indicates that the connection points have hydraulic potential that can be used for power generation throughout the year. It also demonstrates that the pico-hydraulic turbine can be usefully employed for power generation from sewage flowing in the pipe at the connection points.

  1. Non-invasive monitoring of the degradation of organic contaminants: A laboratory investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Perrine M.; Bloem, Esther; Philippe, Romain; Binley, Andrew; French, Helen K.

    2016-04-01

    Degradation of organic chemicals under various fluid saturation conditions is a process highly relevant to the protection of groundwater quality. Redox potential drives the degradation of organic compounds; its variation affects the water chemistry, gas release and also the geo-electrical signature. This study explores how non-invasive measurements sensitive to geo-electrical properties provides quantitative information about the in-situ redox conditions. Our laboratory experiment focuses on the degradation of de-icing chemicals commonly used, for example, in Norwegian airports. The experiment was conducted in a number of (1.0x0.5x0.4 m) sand boxes. Two ends of each box was contaminated with propylene glycol, an aircraft deicing fluid. Each source was placed near the water table under static hydraulic conditions. At one side of the tank, a conductor linking the contamination zone, near the water table and the unsaturated zone with a low water content, was placed to improve the degradation by facilitating the electron exchange. At the other side, degradation occurred under natural conditions. Each box was equipped with 288 electrodes, distributed on six faces to perform 3D resistivity measurements. In addition, self-potential measurements were taken from electrodes on the sand surface. Four observation wells were installed above and below the water table to provide more information on the degradation processes. Moreover, measurements of carbon dioxide on the surface were performed as higher concentrations were expected where the pollutant degraded. We would like to present and discuss a selection of the preliminary results of 3D electrical resistivity and self-potential techniques from our laboratory setup.

  2. Deep repository - Engineered barrier system. Erosion and sealing processes in tunnel backfill materials investigated in laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanden, Torbjoern; Boergesson, Lennart; Dueck, Ann; Goudarzi, Reza; Loennqvist, Margareta (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    SKB in Sweden and Posiva in Finland are developing and plan to implement similar disposal concepts for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel. Co-operation and joint development work between Posiva and SKB with the overall objective to develop backfill concepts and techniques for sealing and closure of the repository have been going on for several years. The investigation described in this report is intended to acquire more knowledge regarding the behavior of some of the candidate backfilling materials. Blocks made of three different materials (Friedland clay, Asha 230 or a bentonite/ballast 30/70 mixture) as well as different bentonite pellets have been examined. The backfill materials will be exposed to an environment simulating that in a tunnel, with high relative humidity and water inflow from the rock. The processes and properties investigated are: 1. Erosion properties of blocks and pellets (Friedland blocks, MX-80 pellets, Cebogel QSE pellets, Minelco and Friedland granules). 2. Displacements of blocks after emplacement in a deposition drift (Blocks of Friedland, Asha 230 and Mixture 30/70). 3. The ability of these materials to seal a leaking in-situ cast plug cement/rock but also other fractures in the rock (MX-80 pellets). 4. The self healing ability after a piping scenario (Blocks of Friedland, Asha 230 Mixture 30/70 and also MX-80 pellets). 5. Swelling and cracking of the compacted backfill blocks caused by relative humidity. The erosion properties of Friedland blocks were also investigated in Phase 2 of the joint SKBPosiva project 'Backfilling and Closure of the Deep Repository, BACLO, which included laboratory scale experiments. In this phase of the project (3) some completing tests were performed with new blocks produced for different field tests. These blocks had a lower density than intended and this has an influence on the erosion properties measured. The erosion properties of MX-80 pellets were also investigated earlier in the project but

  3. Experimental investigations of thermal-hydraulic processes arising during operation of the passive safety systems used in new projects of nuclear power plants equipped with VVER reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A. V.; Remizov, O. V.; Kalyakin, D. S.

    2014-05-01

    The results obtained from experimental investigations into thermal-hydraulic processes that take place during operation of the passive safety systems used in new-generation reactor plants constructed on the basis of VVER technology are presented. The experiments were carried out on the model rigs available at the Leipunskii Institute for Physics and Power Engineering. The processes through which interaction occurs between the opposite flows of saturated steam and cold water moving in the vertical steam line of the additional system for passively flooding the core from the second-stage hydro accumulators are studied. The specific features pertinent to undeveloped boiling of liquid on a single horizontal tube heated by steam and steam-gas mixture that is typical for of the condensing operating mode of a VVER reactor steam generator are investigated.

  4. Sprite discharges on Venus and Jupiter-like planets: a laboratory investigation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubrovin, S.; Nijdam, S.; Veldhuizen, E.M. van; Ebert, U.; Yair, Y.; Price, C.

    2010-01-01

    Large sprite discharges at high atmospheric altitudes have been found to be physically similar to small streamer discharges in air at sea level density. Based on this understanding, we investigate possible sprite discharges on Venus or Jupiter‐like planets through laboratory experiments on streamers

  5. Laboratory Experiment Investigating the Impact of Ocean Acidification on Calcareous Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Alokya P.; Bopegedera, A. M. R. P.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in ocean acidity since preindustrial times may have deleterious consequences for marine organisms, particularly those with calcareous structures. We present a laboratory experiment to investigate this impact with general, introductory, environmental, and nonmajors chemistry students. For simplicity and homogeneity, calcite was…

  6. Laboratory Experiment Investigating the Impact of Ocean Acidification on Calcareous Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Alokya P.; Bopegedera, A. M. R. P.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in ocean acidity since preindustrial times may have deleterious consequences for marine organisms, particularly those with calcareous structures. We present a laboratory experiment to investigate this impact with general, introductory, environmental, and nonmajors chemistry students. For simplicity and homogeneity, calcite was…

  7. Investigation of a Chaotic Double Pendulum in the Basic Level Physics Teaching Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanko, Peter

    2007-01-01

    First-year physics students at the Technical University of Budapest carry out a wide range of measurements in the Basic Level Physics Teaching Laboratory. One of the most exciting experiments is the investigation of a chaotic double pendulum by a V-scope, a powerful three-dimensional motion tracking system. After a brief introduction to the…

  8. Remedial investigation and feasibility study for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 Pit 7 Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taffet, M.J. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Oberdorfer, J.A. (San Jose State Univ., CA (USA)); McIlvride, W.A. (Weiss Associates, Oakland, CA (USA))

    1989-10-01

    This report summarizes the results and conclusions of the investigation of tritium and other compounds in ground water in the vicinity of landfills at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 Pit 7 Complex. 91 refs., 110 figs., 43 tabs.

  9. Laboratory study to investigate the development of stiffness in stabilized materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Paige-Green, P

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available information in this regard is available. A secondary problem is the difference in stiffness gain between different stabilizer types. Small field and laboratory investigations in which three sections of stabilized material using lime, CEM II B-V 32,5R and CEM V...

  10. Cloning Yeast Actin cDNA Leads to an Investigative Approach for the Molecular Biology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Michael W.; Tuan, Alice; Jonasson, Erin

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of molecular tools in multiple disciplines has elevated the importance of undergraduate laboratory courses that train students in molecular biology techniques. Although it would also be desirable to provide students with opportunities to apply these techniques in an investigative manner, this is generally not possible in the…

  11. Cloning Yeast Actin cDNA Leads to an Investigative Approach for the Molecular Biology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Michael W.; Tuan, Alice; Jonasson, Erin

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of molecular tools in multiple disciplines has elevated the importance of undergraduate laboratory courses that train students in molecular biology techniques. Although it would also be desirable to provide students with opportunities to apply these techniques in an investigative manner, this is generally not possible in the…

  12. Laboratory investigation of constitutive property up-scaling in volcanic tuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tidwell, V.C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Geohydrology Dept.

    1996-08-01

    One of the critical issues facing the Yucca Mountain site characterization and performance assessment programs is the manner in which property up-scaling is addressed. Property up-scaling becomes an issue whenever heterogeneous media properties are measured at one scale but applied at another. A research program has been established to challenge current understanding of property up-scaling with the aim of developing and testing improved models that describe up-scaling behavior in a quantitative manner. Up-scaling of constitutive rock properties is investigated through physical experimentation involving the collection of suites of gas-permeability data measured over a range of discrete scales. To date, up-scaling studies have been performed on a series of tuff and sandstone (used as experimental controls) blocks. Samples include a welded, anisotropic tuff (Tiva Canyon Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, upper cliff microstratigraphic unit), and a moderately welded tuff (Tiva Canyon Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, Caprock microstratigraphic unit). A massive fluvial sandstone (Berea Sandstone) was also investigated as a means of evaluating the experimental program and to provide a point of comparison for the tuff data. Because unsaturated flow is of prime interest to the Yucca Mountain Program, scoping studies aimed at investigating the up-scaling of hydraulic properties under various saturated conditions were performed to compliment these studies of intrinsic permeability. These studies focused on matrix sorptivity, a constitutive property quantifying the capillarity of a porous medium. 113 refs.

  13. An investigation of student understanding in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutsch, John Leo, Jr.

    Laboratory activities in organic chemistry involve a mixture of sophisticated logic and empirical observation that requires the integration of mechanistic thought, laboratory technique, and problem-solving skills. In an effort to understand how students develop the thought processes and problem-solving skills necessary for laboratory work in organic chemistry, student understanding of how the interaction between a reaction system (reactants or starting material(s), reagent(s), and/or solvent), experimental variables (pH, temperature, concentrations, etc), provides a result of interest (yield, selectivity, purity, etc.) for an experiment performed in the organic chemistry laboratory was investigated through the collection of responses to questions posed on pre-laboratory quizzes followed by in-depth interviews during which student volunteers discussed their responses along with their experiences in the laboratory. The conceptual change theory of learning which assumes new conceptions are understood, judged, acquired, or rejected in a conceptual context was used as a theoretical paradigm to examine students responses to questions posed on pre-laboratory quizzes and transcripts of the interviews with student volunteers. Students were found to not have developed a mechanistic understanding of how the interaction between a reaction system (reactants or starting material(s), reagent(s), and/or solvent), experimental variables (pH, temperature, concentrations, etc), provides a result of interest (yield, selectivity, purity, etc.) for an experiment performed in the organic chemistry laboratory. However, students' prior exposure to and understanding of chemical concepts was found to simultaneously assist and hinder in their development of a partial mechanistic understanding of how a reaction system (reactants or starting material(s), reagent(s), and/or solvent), experimental variables (pH, temperature, concentrations, etc), interact to provide a result of interest (yield

  14. The MSFC Noble Gas Research Laboratory (MNGRL): A NASA Investigator Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Noble-gas isotopes are a well-established technique for providing detailed temperature-time histories of rocks and meteorites. We have established the MSFC Noble Gas Research Laboratory (MNGRL) at Marshall Space Flight Center to serve as a NASA investigator facility in the wake of the closure of the JSC laboratory formerly run by Don Bogard. The MNGRL lab was constructed to be able to measure all the noble gases, particularly Ar-Ar and I-Xe radioactive dating to find the formation age of rocks and meteorites, and Ar/Kr/Ne cosmic-ray exposure ages to understand when the meteorites were launched from their parent planets.

  15. Clandestine laboratory scene investigation and processing using portable GC/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejczyk, Raymond J.

    1997-02-01

    This presentation describes the use of portable gas chromatography/mass spectrometry for on-scene investigation and processing of clandestine laboratories. Clandestine laboratory investigations present special problems to forensic investigators. These crime scenes contain many chemical hazards that must be detected, identified and collected as evidence. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry performed on-scene with a rugged, portable unit is capable of analyzing a variety of matrices for drugs and chemicals used in the manufacture of illicit drugs, such as methamphetamine. Technologies used to detect various materials at a scene have particular applications but do not address the wide range of samples, chemicals, matrices and mixtures that exist in clan labs. Typical analyses performed by GC/MS are for the purpose of positively establishing the identity of starting materials, chemicals and end-product collected from clandestine laboratories. Concerns for the public and investigator safety and the environment are also important factors for rapid on-scene data generation. Here is described the implementation of a portable multiple-inlet GC/MS system designed for rapid deployment to a scene to perform forensic investigations of clandestine drug manufacturing laboratories. GC/MS has long been held as the 'gold standard' in performing forensic chemical analyses. With the capability of GC/MS to separate and produce a 'chemical fingerprint' of compounds, it is utilized as an essential technique for detecting and positively identifying chemical evidence. Rapid and conclusive on-scene analysis of evidence will assist the forensic investigators in collecting only pertinent evidence thereby reducing the amount of evidence to be transported, reducing chain of custody concerns, reducing costs and hazards, maintaining sample integrity and speeding the completion of the investigative process.

  16. Inquiry-based laboratory investigations and student performance on standardized tests in biological science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patke, Usha

    Achievement data from the 3rd International Mathematics and Sciences Study and Program for International Student Assessment in science have indicated that Black students from economically disadvantaged families underachieve at alarming rates in comparison to White and economically advantaged peer groups. The study site was a predominately Black, urban school district experiencing underachievement. The purpose of this correlational study was to examine the relationship between students' use of inquiry-based laboratory investigations and their performance on the Biology End of Course Test, as well as to examine the relationship while partialling out the effects of student gender. Constructivist theory formed the theoretical foundation of the study. Students' perceived levels of experience with inquiry-based laboratory investigations were measured using the Laboratory Program Variable Inventory (LPVI) survey. LPVI scores of 256 students were correlated with test scores and were examined by student gender. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a small direct correlation between students' experience in inquiry-based laboratory investigation classes and standardized test scores on the Biology EOCT. A partial correlational analysis indicated that the correlation remained after controlling for gender. This study may prompt a change from teacher-centered to student-centered pedagogy at the local site in order to increase academic achievement for all students. The results of this study may also influence administrators and policy makers to initiate local, state, or nationwide curricular development. A change in curriculum may promote social change as students become more competent, and more able, to succeed in life beyond secondary school.

  17. Mercury Thermal Hydraulic Loop (MTHL) Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felde, David K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Crye, Jason Michael [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wendel, Mark W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yoder, Jr, Graydon L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Farquharson, George [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jallouk, Philip A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); McFee, Marshall T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pointer, William David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ruggles, Art E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Carbajo, Juan J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a high-power linear accelerator built at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) which incorporates the use of a flowing liquid mercury target. The Mercury Thermal Hydraulic Loop (MTHL) was constructed to investigate and verify the heat transfer characteristics of liquid mercury in a rectangular channel. This report provides a compilation of previously reported results from the water-cooled and electrically heated straight and curved test sections that simulate the geometry of the window cooling channel in the target nose region.

  18. Who Scared the Cat? A Molecular Crime Scene Investigation Laboratory Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Ott

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This introductory laboratory exercise gives first-year life science majors or nonmajors an opportunity to gain knowledge and experience in basic bioinformatics and molecular biology laboratory techniques and analysis in the context of a mock crime scene investigation. In this laboratory, students determine if a human (Lady or dog (Kona committed the fictional crime of scaring a cat. Students begin by performing in silico PCR using provided dog- and human-specific PCR primers to determine the sequences to be amplified and predict PCR amplicon sizes. They then BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool the in silico PCR results to confirm that the PCR primers are designed to amplify genomic fragments of the cardiac actin gene in both dogs and humans. Finally, they use DNA quantification techniques, PCR, and agarose gel electrophoresis to identify the culprit and they confirm results by analyzing Sanger sequencing. Student learning gains were demonstrated by successful execution of the lab and by analysis and interpretation of data in the completion of laboratory reports. The student learning gains were also demonstrated by increased performance on a post-laboratory assessment compared to the pre-assessment. A post-activity assessment also revealed that students perceived gains in the skills and conceptual knowledge associated with the student learning outcomes. Finally, assessment of this introductory molecular biology and bioinformatics activity reveals that it allows first-year students to develop higher-order data analysis and interpretation skills.

  19. Who Scared the Cat? A Molecular Crime Scene Investigation Laboratory Exercise†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Laura E.; Carson, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    This introductory laboratory exercise gives first-year life science majors or nonmajors an opportunity to gain knowledge and experience in basic bioinformatics and molecular biology laboratory techniques and analysis in the context of a mock crime scene investigation. In this laboratory, students determine if a human (Lady) or dog (Kona) committed the fictional crime of scaring a cat. Students begin by performing in silico PCR using provided dog- and human-specific PCR primers to determine the sequences to be amplified and predict PCR amplicon sizes. They then BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) the in silico PCR results to confirm that the PCR primers are designed to amplify genomic fragments of the cardiac actin gene in both dogs and humans. Finally, they use DNA quantification techniques, PCR, and agarose gel electrophoresis to identify the culprit and they confirm results by analyzing Sanger sequencing. Student learning gains were demonstrated by successful execution of the lab and by analysis and interpretation of data in the completion of laboratory reports. The student learning gains were also demonstrated by increased performance on a post-laboratory assessment compared to the pre-assessment. A post-activity assessment also revealed that students perceived gains in the skills and conceptual knowledge associated with the student learning outcomes. Finally, assessment of this introductory molecular biology and bio-informatics activity reveals that it allows first-year students to develop higher-order data analysis and interpretation skills. PMID:28101273

  20. Who Scared the Cat? A Molecular Crime Scene Investigation Laboratory Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Laura E; Carson, Susan D

    2016-12-01

    This introductory laboratory exercise gives first-year life science majors or nonmajors an opportunity to gain knowledge and experience in basic bioinformatics and molecular biology laboratory techniques and analysis in the context of a mock crime scene investigation. In this laboratory, students determine if a human (Lady) or dog (Kona) committed the fictional crime of scaring a cat. Students begin by performing in silico PCR using provided dog- and human-specific PCR primers to determine the sequences to be amplified and predict PCR amplicon sizes. They then BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool) the in silico PCR results to confirm that the PCR primers are designed to amplify genomic fragments of the cardiac actin gene in both dogs and humans. Finally, they use DNA quantification techniques, PCR, and agarose gel electrophoresis to identify the culprit and they confirm results by analyzing Sanger sequencing. Student learning gains were demonstrated by successful execution of the lab and by analysis and interpretation of data in the completion of laboratory reports. The student learning gains were also demonstrated by increased performance on a post-laboratory assessment compared to the pre-assessment. A post-activity assessment also revealed that students perceived gains in the skills and conceptual knowledge associated with the student learning outcomes. Finally, assessment of this introductory molecular biology and bio-informatics activity reveals that it allows first-year students to develop higher-order data analysis and interpretation skills.

  1. Laboratory Investigation on Lightning Flashes to High Voltage Transmission Lines%Laboratory Investigation on Lightning Flashes to High Voltage Transmission Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thongchai Disyadej; Stanislaw Grzybowski

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on the attractive width of high voltage transmission lines to lightning strikes. In order to design the optimal lightning protection, the estimated number of lightning flashes on the line, which is based on its attractive width, needs to be determined. The investigation was performed using experiments with model tests at the Mississippi State University High Voltage Laboratory. For laboratory experiments, a total of 2,100 negative and positive switching impulse voltages were applied to transmission line models from a conducting rod, which represented a lightning downward leader. Different tested models of transmission lines on a scale of 1:100 were used. The effects of overhead ground wires, phase conductors, tower structures, and the magnitude and polarity of lightning strokes were also studied. The attractive width increased gradually with the height of overhead ground wires and towers as well as the magnitude of the lightning stroke current. Impulse polarity had an impact on the at- tractive width, and the attractive width for negative polarity was larger than that {or positive polarity. The taller tower had more effect on flash distribution to transmission lines than the shorter one. The experimental results agree with the actual transmission line observations published in literature. The new expressions for the attractive width of transmission lines, based on the experimental results, were established. The accurate estimation of the attractive width can help electric power utilities plan transmission systems reliably and economically. The detailed description of the back- ground problem, proposed method, experimental results, and analysis are presented in this paper.

  2. Multilevel groundwater monitoring of hydraulic head and temperature in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jason C.; Twining, Brian V.

    2011-01-01

    During 2007 and 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected quarterly depth-discrete measurements of fluid pressure and temperature in six boreholes located in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer of Idaho. Each borehole was instrumented with a multilevel monitoring system consisting of a series of valved measurement ports, packer bladders, casing segments, and couplers. Hydraulic heads (head) and water temperatures in boreholes were monitored at 86 hydraulically-isolated depth intervals located 448.0 to 1,377.6 feet below land surface. The calculation of head is most sensitive to fluid pressure and the altitude of the pressure transducer at each port coupling; it is least sensitive to barometric pressure and water temperature. An analysis of errors associated with the head calculation determined the accuracy of an individual head measurement at +/- 2.3 feet. Many of the sources of measurement error are diminished when considering the differences between two closely-spaced readings of head; therefore, a +/- 0.1 foot measurement accuracy was assumed for vertical head differences (and gradients) calculated between adjacent monitoring zones. Vertical head and temperature profiles were unique to each borehole, and were characteristic of the heterogeneity and anisotropy of the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. The vertical hydraulic gradients in each borehole remained relatively constant over time with minimum Pearson correlation coefficients between head profiles ranging from 0.72 at borehole USGS 103 to 1.00 at boreholes USGS 133 and MIDDLE 2051. Major inflections in the head profiles almost always coincided with low permeability sediment layers. The presence of a sediment layer, however, was insufficient for identifying the location of a major head change in a borehole. The vertical hydraulic gradients were defined for the major inflections in the head profiles and were as much as 2.2 feet per foot. Head gradients

  3. An investigation into the effectiveness of problem-based learning in a physical chemistry laboratory course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürses, Ahmet; Açıkyıldız, Metin; Doğar, Çetin; Sözbilir, Mustafa

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a problem-based learning (PBL) approach in a physical chemistry laboratory course. The parameters investigated were students’ attitudes towards a chemistry laboratory course, scientific process skills of students and their academic achievement. The design of the study was one group pre-test post-test. Four experiments, covering the topics adsorption, viscosity, surface tension and conductivity were performed using a PBL approach in the fall semester of the 2003/04 academic year at Kazim Karabekir Education Faculty of Atatürk University. Each experiment was done over a three week period. A total of 40 students, 18 male and 22 female, participated in the study. Students took the Physical Chemistry Laboratory Concept Test (PCLCT), Attitudes towards Chemistry Laboratory (ATCL) questionnaire and Science Process Skills Test (SPST) as pre and post-tests. In addition, the effectiveness of the PBL approach was also determined through four different scales; Scales Specific to Students’ Views of PBL. A statistically significant difference between the students’ academic achievement and scientific process skills at p

  4. Laboratory and field testing for utilization of an excavated soil as landfill liner material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozbey, Ilknur; Guler, Erol

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of using a silty soil excavated in highway construction as landfill liner material. The tests were conducted both at laboratory and in situ scales, and the soil was tested in pure and lime treated forms. Different levels of compaction energy were used. For the field study, a test pad was constructed and in situ hydraulic conductivity experiments were conducted by sealed double ring infiltrometers (SDRI). Laboratory testing revealed that while lime treatment improved the shear strength, it resulted in higher hydraulic conductivity values compared to pure soil. It was observed that leachate permeation did not change the hydraulic conductivity of the pure and lime treated samples. Laboratory hydraulic conductivities were on the order of 10(-9) m/s and met the 1.0E-08 m/s criterion in the Turkish regulations, which is one order of magnitude higher than the value allowed in most developed countries. SDRI testing, which lasted for 6 mo, indicated that lime treatment increased the hydraulic conductivity of pure soil significantly in the field scale tests. In situ hydraulic conductivities were on the order of 1E-08 and 1E-07 m/s, and exceeded the allowable value in the Turkish regulations. Undisturbed samples collected from the test pad were not representative of field hydraulic conductivities. Contrary to laboratory findings, higher compaction efforts did not result in lower hydraulic conductivities in field scales. The study verified the importance of in situ hydraulic conductivity testing in compacted liners.

  5. The physics and chemistry of dusty plasmas: A laboratory and theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, E. C.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical work on dusty plasmas was conducted in three areas: collective effects in a dusty plasma, the role of dusty plasmas in cometary atmospheres, and the role of dusty plasmas in planetary atmospheres (particularly in the ring systems of the giant planets). Laboratory investigations consisted of studies of dust/plasma interactions and stimulated molecular excitation and infrared emission by charged dust grains. Also included is a list of current publications.

  6. Laboratory Investigation of High Temperature Corrosion in Straw fired Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie

    1998-01-01

    Corrosion in straw-fired power plants has been studied in the laboratory for Sandvik 8LR30 and Sanicro 28. The influence of HCl and SO2 was investigated at 600C metal temperature for upto 300 hours.In addition the corrosion behaviour of the same materials was examined in ash taken from a straw......-fired boiler. The corrosive potential of the individual components were thus evaluated...

  7. Investigating student learning in upper-division laboratory courses on analog electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetzer, Mackenzie

    2015-03-01

    There are many important learning goals associated with upper-division laboratory instruction; however, until recently, relatively little work has focused on assessing the impact of these laboratory-based courses on students. As part of an ongoing, in-depth investigation of student learning in upper-division laboratory courses on analog electronics, we have been examining the extent to which students enrolled in these courses develop a robust and functional understanding of both canonical electronics topics (e.g., diode, transistor, and op-amp circuits) and foundational circuits concepts (e.g., Kirchhoff's laws and voltage division). This focus on conceptual understanding is motivated in part by a large body of research revealing significant student difficulties with simple dc circuits at the introductory level and by expectations that students finish electronics courses with a level of understanding suitable for building common, practical circuits in a real-world environment. Recently, we have extended the scope of our investigation to include more laboratory-focused learning goals such as the development of (1) troubleshooting proficiency and (2) circuit chunking and design abilities. In this talk, I will highlight findings from written questions and interview tasks that have been designed to probe student understanding in sufficient depth to identify conceptual and reasoning difficulties. I will also use specific examples to illustrate the ways in which this research may inform instruction in upper-division laboratory courses on analog electronics. This work has been supported in part by the National Science Foundation under Grant Nos. DUE-1323426, DUE-1022449, DUE-0962805, and DUE-0618185.

  8. Hydraulic conductivity of organomodified soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, R.B.; Grant, J.M.; Voice, T.C.; Rakhshandehroo, G.; Xu, S.; Boyd, S.A. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The effects of organomodification on soil hydraulic conductivity were investigated. Hydraulic conductivity and porosity of treated and untreated samples of a sandy loam were measured as a function of effective stress. Batch treatment with hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium (HDTMA) and dry packing produced organomodified samples that were 79% less conducive than untreated samples prior to loading. Treated samples lost less hydraulic conductivity as a result of loading than untreated samples so that treated samples had higher conductivity at high loads. Observed differences in conductivity are explained in terms of the role of the treated and untreated clay in controlling initial effective pore size and its change during consolidation.

  9. Investigation of Valve Plate in Water Hydraulic Axial Piston Motor%水压轴向柱塞马达配流盘的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂松林; 李壮云; 杨曙东

    2002-01-01

    This paper has introduced the developments of water hydraulic axial piston equipments. According to the effects of physicochemical properties of water on water hydraulic components, a novel valve plate for water hydraulic axial motor has been put forward, whose moment exerted by the fluid field between valve plate and bearing plate is balanced entirely. The material screening experiment of valve plate is done on the test rig. Through numerical simulation the effects of some geometry parameters on the performance of water hydraulic motor have been studied. The silencing grooves on the valve plate in water hydraulic motor can reduce the pressure shock and the occurrence of cavitation effectively. It is evident that the appropriate structure should change the wear status between matching pairs and reduces the wear and specific pressure of the matching pairs. The specimen with the new type valve plate is used in a tool system.

  10. Thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in the nearfield around a HLW repository in argillaceous formations. Vol. I. Laboratory investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chun-Liang; Czaikowski, Oliver; Rothfuchs, Tilmann; Wieczorek, Klaus

    2013-06-15

    All over the world, clay formations are being investigated as host medium for geologic disposal of radioactive waste because of their favourable properties, such as very low hydraulic conductivity against fluid transport, good sorption capacity for retardation of radionuclides, and high potential of self-sealing of fractures. The construction of a repository, the disposal of heat-emitting high-level radioactive waste (HLW), the backfilling and sealing of the remaining voids, however, will inevitably induce mechanical (M), hydraulic (H), thermal (T) and chemical (C) disturbances to the host formation and the engineered barrier system (EBS) over very long periods of time during the operation and post-closure phases of the repository. The responses and resulting property changes of the clay host rock and engineered barriers are to be well understood, characterized, and predicted for assessing the long-term performance and safety of the repository.

  11. Hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, A Hakan; Ozdamar, Tuğçe

    2013-06-01

    Hydraulic conductivities of compacted zeolites were investigated as a function of compaction water content and zeolite particle size. Initially, the compaction characteristics of zeolites were determined. The compaction test results showed that maximum dry unit weight (γ(dmax)) of fine zeolite was greater than that of granular zeolites. The γ(dmax) of compacted zeolites was between 1.01 and 1.17 Mg m(-3) and optimum water content (w(opt)) was between 38% and 53%. Regardless of zeolite particle size, compacted zeolites had low γ(dmax) and high w(opt) when compared with compacted natural soils. Then, hydraulic conductivity tests were run on compacted zeolites. The hydraulic conductivity values were within the range of 2.0 × 10(-3) cm s(-1) to 1.1 × 10(-7) cm s(-1). Hydraulic conductivity of all compacted zeolites decreased almost 50 times as the water content increased. It is noteworthy that hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite was strongly dependent on the zeolite particle size. The hydraulic conductivity decreased almost three orders of magnitude up to 39% fine content; then, it remained almost unchanged beyond 39%. Only one report was found in the literature on the hydraulic conductivity of compacted zeolite, which is in agreement with the findings of this study.

  12. High school students' enactment of chemistry knowing in open-entry laboratory investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilane, Sentsetsa M.

    2003-10-01

    This study is an exploration of student meaning making in a non-traditional, high activity, hands-on grade 12 high school chemistry setting. The study focused on a sequence of three "open-entry" laboratory investigations (i.e., iodine clock reaction, pop-can cell and electroplating). These open-entry laboratory investigations were designed to be flexible and to take place in settings where students could make an impact. Students were responsible for devising their own problem and entry strategy, for making decisions about what reagents to use, what variables to manipulate, and how to proceed to develop the problem to a resolution acceptable to them and to the teacher. To explore students' meaning making in open-entry laboratory settings, their interactions were video taped and samples of their written laboratory reports were collected from time to time. Students were also requested to write reflective notes on their experiences of each investigation, some students were interviewed at the end of the course. This thesis consists of accounts and interpretations of what students did and said as they made meaning in these open-entry, hands-on laboratory investigations. The research uses an enactivist perspective to explore the meanings emerging from the study. From an enactivist view, cognition is seen as perceptually guided action in which a knower brings forth a world of significance with others. Enactivism suggests that students do not only express their knowing in what they say or write but also in their actions with others within this learning community. The research revealed that meaning making in these circumstances was highly complex. It involved systematic trial and error at various levels within the multiple iterative feedback loops. Students' interactions in this setting were mediated by the culture of chemistry which is embodied in the practices of the discipline. With students having to make decisions with every action, their meaning making was not only

  13. Investigation on Superior Performance by Fractional Controller for Cart-Servo Laboratory Set-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameya Anil Kesarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an investigation is made on the superiority of fractional PID controller (PI^alpha D^beta over conventional PID for the cart-servo laboratory set-up. The designed controllers are optimum in the sense of Integral Absolute Error (IAE and Integral Square Error (ISE. The paper contributes in three aspects: 1 Acquiring nonlinear mathematical model for the cart-servo laboratory set-up, 2 Designing fractional and integer order PID for minimizing IAE, ISE, 3 Analyzing the performance of designed controllers for simulated plant model as well as real plant. The results show a significantly superior performance by PI^alpha D^beta as compared to the conventional PID controller.

  14. Method to investigate and plan the application of low temperature district heating to existing hydraulic radiator systems in existing buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunzi, Michele; Østergaard, Dorte Skaarup; Svendsen, Svend;

    2016-01-01

    the required logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD) for a low temperature heating system. The results of the analysis are presented as the average reduction of LMTD over the heating season compared to the base case design conditions. Two scenarios were investigated based on the assumption of a likely...

  15. 21 CFR 312.160 - Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... research animals or in vitro tests. 312.160 Section 312.160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Drugs for Investigational Use in Laboratory Research Animals or In Vitro Tests § 312.160 Drugs for investigational use in laboratory research animals or in vitro tests. (a) Authorization to ship. (1)(i) A...

  16. Thermal-hydraulics of helium cooled First Wall channels and scoping investigations on performance improvement by application of ribs and mixing devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbeiter, Frederik, E-mail: frederik.arbeiter@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Bachmann, Christian [EUROfusion – Programme Management Unit, Garching (Germany); Chen, Yuming; Ilić, Milica; Schwab, Florian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute of Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Sieglin, Bernhard [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Wenninger, Ronald [EUROfusion – Programme Management Unit, Garching (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Existing first wall designs and expected plasma heat loads are reviewed. • Heat transfer enhancement methods are investigated by CFD. • The results for heat transfer and friction are given, compared and explained. • Relations for needed pumping power and gained thermal heat are shown. • A range for the maximum permissible heat loads from the plasma is estimated. - Abstract: The first wall (FW) of DEMO is a component with high thermal loads. The cooling of the FW has to comply with the material's upper and lower temperature limits and requirements from stress assessment, like low temperature gradients. Also, the cooling has to be integrated into the balance-of-plant, in a sense to deliver exergy to the power cycle and require a limited pumping power for coolant circulation. This paper deals with the basics of FW cooling and proposes optimization approaches. The effectiveness of several heat transfer enhancement techniques is investigated for the use in helium cooled FW designs for DEMO. Among these are wall-mounted ribs, large scale mixing devices and modified hydraulic diameter. Their performance is assessed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop are compared. Based on the results, an extrapolation to high heat fluxes is tried to estimate the higher limits of cooling capabilities.

  17. Pore Scale Thermal Hydraulics Investigations of Molten Salt Cooled Pebble Bed High Temperature Reactor with BCC and FCC Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixiong Song

    2014-01-01

    CFD results and empirical correlations’ predictions of pressure drop and local Nusselt numbers. Local pebble surface temperature distributions in several default conditions are investigated. Thermal removal capacities of molten salt are confirmed in the case of nominal condition; the pebble surface temperature under the condition of local power distortion shows the tolerance of pebble in extreme neutron dose exposure. The numerical experiments of local pebble insufficient cooling indicate that in the molten salt cooled pebble bed reactor, the pebble surface temperature is not very sensitive to loss of partial coolant. The methods and results of this paper would be useful for optimum designs and safety analysis of molten salt cooled pebble bed reactors.

  18. An investigative laboratory course in human physiology using computer technology and collaborative writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzPatrick, Kathleen A

    2004-12-01

    Active investigative student-directed experiences in laboratory science are being encouraged by national science organizations. A growing body of evidence from classroom assessment supports their effectiveness. This study describes four years of implementation and assessment of an investigative laboratory course in human physiology for 65 second-year students in sports medicine and biology at a small private comprehensive college. The course builds on skills and abilities first introduced in an introductory investigations course and introduces additional higher-level skills and more complex human experimental models. In four multiweek experimental modules, involving neuromuscular, reflex, and cardiovascular physiology, by use of computerized hardware/software with a variety of transducers, students carry out self-designed experiments with human subjects and perform data collection and analysis, collaborative writing, and peer editing. In assessments, including standard course evaluations and the Salgains Web-based evaluation, student responses to this approach are enthusiastic, and gains in their skills and abilities are evident in their comments and in improved performance.

  19. The colloid investigations conducted at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory during 2000-2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus [Geopoint AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Wold, Susanna [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry] (eds.)

    2005-12-15

    In 2000, SKB decided to initiate an international colloid project at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The objectives of the colloid project are to: (i) study the role of bentonite as a colloid source, (ii) verify the background colloid concentration at Aespoe HRL and, (iii) investigate the potential for colloid formation/transport in natural groundwater concentrations. The experimental concepts for the colloid project are: laboratory experiments with bentonite, background field measurements of natural colloids, borehole specific bentonite colloid stability experiments and a fracture specific transport experiment. The activities concerning the laboratory experiments and background field measurements are described in this work; the other activities are ongoing or planned. The following conclusions were made: The bentonite colloid stability is strongly dependent on the groundwater ionic strength. Natural colloids are organic degradation products such as humic and fulvic acids, inorganic colloids (clay, calcite, iron hydroxide) and microbes. Microbes form few but large particles and their concentration increase with increasing organic carbon concentrations. The small organic colloids are present in very low concentrations in deep granitic groundwater. The concentrations can be rather high in shallow waters. The colloid concentration decreases with depth and salinity, since colloids are less stable in saline waters. The colloid content at Aespoe is less than 300 ppb. The colloid content at repository level is less than 50 ppb. The groundwater variability obtained in the boreholes reflects well the natural groundwater variability along the whole HRL tunnel.

  20. Laboratory Investigation of Contact Freezing and the Aerosol to Ice Crystal Transformation Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Raymond A. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    2014-10-28

    This project has been focused on the following objectives: 1. Investigations of the physical processes governing immersion versus contact nucleation, specifically surface-induced crystallization; 2. Development of a quadrupole particle trap with full thermodynamic control over the temperature range 0 to –40 °C and precisely controlled water vapor saturation ratios for continuous, single-particle measurement of the aerosol to ice crystal transformation process for realistic ice nuclei; 3. Understanding the role of ice nucleation in determining the microphysical properties of mixed-phase clouds, within a framework that allows bridging between laboratory and field measurements.

  1. Experimental investigation of the thermal hydraulics in lead bismuth eutectic-helium experimental loop of an accelerator-driven system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Wenxuan; Wang, Yong Wei; Li, Xun Feng; Huai, Xiulan; Cal, Jun [Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2016-10-15

    The heat transfer characteristics between liquid lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) and helium are of great significance for the two-loop cooling system based on an accelerator-driven system (ADS). This paper presents an experimental study on the resistance characteristics and heat transfer performance in a LBE-helium experimental loop of ADS. Pressure drops in the LBE loop, the main heat transfer, and the coupled heat transfer characteristics between LBE and helium are investigated experimentally. The temperature of LBE has a significant effect on the LBE thermo-physical properties, and is therefore considered in the prediction of pressure drops. The results show that the overall heat transfer coefficient increases with the increasing helium flow rate and the decreasing inlet temperature of helium. Increasing the LBE Reynolds number and LBE inlet temperature promotes the heat transfer performance of main heat transfer and thus the overall heat transfer coefficient. The experimental results give an insight into the flow and heat transfer properties in a LBE-helium heat exchanger and are helpful for the optimization of an ADS system design.

  2. Measles Outbreak in High Risk Areas of Delhi: Epidemiological Investigation and Laboratory Confirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raoot, Amita; Dewan, Dharmendra Kumar; Dubey, A P; Batra, R K; Seth, Suresh

    2016-03-01

    To describe epidemiological and laboratory characteristics of the measles outbreaks recorded in the urban slums of Delhi (designated as high risk areas under the Polio program), from February through July 2014. As a part of surveillance and containment measures, an extensive field investigation for measles case search (WHO definition) through 'house to house survey' was conducted by district health teams and field volunteers of National Polio Surveillance Project (NPSP), WHO, Delhi from February through July, 2014. The data generated by the health teams was collected and analyzed. About 1.1 million households in the high risk areas of Delhi were surveyed for epidemiological investigations. A total of 1337 suspected measles cases were reported. The case fatality rate (CFR) was 1.2 %. Statistical analysis showed significant relation between age of the child (measles case) and immunization status. Higher numbers of reported cases were above 5 y and less than 9 mo of age. Measles IgM was detected in 132 cases and D8 strain was isolated on genotyping. The outbreak was predominantly localized to the high risk areas (urban slums) of the city. Low CFR was reported during the outbreaks. The outbreaks highlight the need to extend the reach of immunization services to urban slums and strengthen measles surveillance including laboratory based surveillance.

  3. Emission characteristics of PBDEs during flame-retardant plastics extruding process: field investigation and laboratorial simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Li, Ying; Li, Jinhui; Chen, Yuan; Li, Huafen

    2017-08-12

    Though mechanical recycling of WEEE plastics is supposed to be a promising method, PBDEs release and the resulting contamination during its processing remain unclear yet. The distribution of PBDEs pollution in production lines was investigated from two flame-retardant plastic modification plants in Southern China. This was followed by laboratory simulation experiments to characterize the emission processes. PBDEs concentrations ranged from 37 to 31,305 ng/L in cooling water and from 40,043 to 216,653 ng/g dry wt in solid samples taken during the field investigation. In the laboratory simulation, concentrations ranged from 146 to 433 ng/L in cooling water and from 411,436 to 747,516 ng/Nm(3) in flue gas. All samples were dominated by BDE-209 among the congeners. Temperatures and impurities in plastic substrate can significantly affect PBDEs release. Special attention should be paid to the risks of water directly discharge from the cooling system, especially for the biological sludge and sediments, as well as flue gas emissions to the environment.

  4. Thermal hydraulic parametric investigation of decay heat removal from degraded core of a sodium cooled fast Breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Lokesh [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Kumar Sharma, Anil, E-mail: aksharma@igcar.gov.in [Reactor Design Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, HBNI, Kalpakkam (India); Velusamy, K. [Reactor Design Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, HBNI, Kalpakkam (India)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Decay heat removal from degraded core of a typical SFR is highlighted. • Influence of number of DHXs in operation on PAHR is analyzed. • Investigations on structural integrity of the inner vessel and core catcher. • Feasibility study for retention of a part of debris in upper pool of SFR. - Abstract: Ensuring post accident decay heat removal with high degree of reliability following a Core Disruptive Accident (CDA) is very important in the design of sodium cooled fast reactors (SFR). In the recent past, a lot of research has been done towards the design of an in-vessel core catcher below the grid plate to prevent the core debris reaching the main vessel in a pool type SFR. However, during an energetic CDA, the entire core debris is unlikely to reach the core catcher. A significant part of the debris is likely to settle in core periphery between radial shielding subassemblies and the inner vessel. Failure of inner vessel due to the decay heat can lead to core debris reaching the main vessel and threatening its integrity. On the other hand, retention of a part of debris in core periphery can reduce the load on main core catcher. Towards achieving an optimum design of SFR and safety evaluation, it is essential to quantify the amount of heat generating core debris that can be retained safely within the primary vessel. This has been performed by a mathematical simulation comprising solution of 2-D transient form of the governing equations of turbulent sodium flow and heat transfer with Boussinesq approximations. The conjugate conduction-convection model adopted for this purpose is validated against in-house experimental data. Transient evolutions of natural convection in the pools and structural temperatures in critical components have been predicted. It is found that 50% of the core debris can be safely accommodated in the gap between radial shielding subassemblies and inner vessel without exceeding structural temperature limit. It is also

  5. WATER ENERGY IN HYDROAMELIORATIVE SYSTEMS USING THE HYDRAULIC TRANSFORMER TYPE A. BARGLAZAN AND THE HYDRAULIC HAMMER (HYDRAULIC PUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Eugen Man

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two examples of exploitation of water energy that can be used in the irrigation field. First of theseexamples is the hydraulic transformer type A. Barglazan used for irrigation, pumped water is taken directly from theriver’s well, using a hydraulic pump which simultaneously carried out a double transformation in this way: hydraulicenergy into mechanic energy and mechanical energy into hydraulic energy. Technology preparation and devices designwas done in record time, seeing that this constructive solution is more robust, reliable and with improved energyperformance versus the laboratory prototype. The experimental research which was made at 1:1 scale proved theirgood function over time. Another example is the hydraulic hammer (hydraulic pump that uses low-head energy topump water, with a global efficiency of about 10 - 50%. Currently, the new situation of private ownership of landprovides conditions for new pumping microstations to be made where irrigation is necessary and optimal hydrauliclocations exist.

  6. FEASIBILITY OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURING OF SOILS TO IMPROVE REMEDIAL ACTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing, a technique commonly used to increase the yields of oil wells, could improve the effectiveness of several methods of in situ remediation. This project consisted of laboratory and field tests in which hydraulic fractures were created in soil. Laboratory te...

  7. Multilevel groundwater monitoring of hydraulic head and temperature in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2011-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twining, Brian V.; Fisher, Jason C.

    2015-01-01

    From 2011 to 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Project Office, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected depth-discrete measurements of fluid pressure and temperature in 11 boreholes located in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Each borehole was instrumented with a multilevel monitoring system (MLMS) consisting of a series of valved measurement ports, packer bladders, casing segments, and couplers.

  8. VARIABILITY OF HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY DUE TO MULTIPLE FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjit K. Deb

    2012-01-01

    evaluated. Methods of measurements strongly impact variability, for example, saturated hydraulic conductivity measured using a single ring may produce significantly different mean and standard errors than those measured using a double ring. The sample support can also influence the variability, for example, increasing or decreasing the size of the infiltrometer rings can change the mean and variability of the saturated hydraulic conductivity. Similarly, hydraulic conductivity measured in the field could show a much larger variability than those measured in the laboratory. The spatial and temporal variations of hydraulic conductivity and interactions among soil characteristics, land uses, agricultural management, climatic and environmental conditions and measurement methods are rather complex, which should take into account multiple factors discussed in this review. Decisions and choices made by investigators during sampling, sampling designs, availability of resources, number of investigators involved in sampling and analysis, skill level of investigators, type and quality of tools and equipments used to collect samples and analyses, scale of the domain, availability of time, accessibility of sites, criteria of success and assumptions made for the sampling and analysis have profound influence on the variability of hydraulic conductivity.

  9. Vibrations of hydraulic pump and their solution

    OpenAIRE

    Dobšáková Lenka; Nováková Naděžda; Habán Vladimír; Hudec Martin; Jandourek Pavel

    2017-01-01

    The vibrations of hydraulic pump and connected pipeline system are very problematic and often hardly soluble. The high pressure pulsations of hydraulic pump with the double suction inlet are investigated. For that reason the static pressure and accelerations are measured. The numerical simulations are carried out in order to correlate computed data with experimental ones and assess the main source of vibrations. Consequently the design optimization of the inner hydraulic part of pump is done ...

  10. Investigating patterns and controls of groundwater up-welling in a lowland river by combining Fibre-optic Distributed Temperature Sensing with observations of vertical hydraulic gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krause

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the patterns and controls of aquifer–river exchange in a fast-flowing lowland river by the conjunctive use of streambed temperature anomalies identified with Fibre-optic Distributed Temperature Sensing (FO-DTS and observations of vertical hydraulic gradients (VHG.

    FO-DTS temperature traces along this lowland river reach reveal discrete patterns with "cold spots" indicating groundwater up-welling. In contrast to previous studies using FO-DTS for investigation of groundwater–surface water exchange, the fibre-optic cable in this study was buried in the streambed sediments, ensuring clear signals despite fast flow and high discharges. During the observed summer baseflow period, streambed temperatures in groundwater up-welling locations were found to be up to 1.5 °C lower than ambient streambed temperatures. Due to the high river flows, the cold spots were sharp and distinctly localized without measurable impact on down-stream surface water temperature.

    VHG patterns along the stream reach were highly variable in space, revealing strong differences even at small scales. VHG patterns alone are indicators of both, structural heterogeneity of the stream bed as well as of the spatial heterogeneity of the groundwater–surface water exchange fluxes and are thus not conclusive in their interpretation. However, in combination with the high spatial resolution FO-DTS data we were able to separate these two influences and clearly identify locations of enhanced exchange, while also obtaining information on the complex small-scale streambed transmissivity patterns responsible for the very discrete exchange patterns. The validation of the combined VHG and FO-DTS approach provides an effective strategy for analysing drivers and controls of groundwater–surface water exchange, with implications for the quantification of biogeochemical cycling and contaminant transport at aquifer–river interfaces.

  11. Comparison of four methods to assess hydraulic conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, C.H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Gunter, J.A. [Gunter (John A.), Round Rock, TX (United States); Boutwell, G.P. [STE, Inc., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Trautwein, S.J. [Trautwein Soil Testing Equipment Co., Houston, TX (United States); Berzanskis, P.H. [Hoechst-Celanese, Inc., Pampa, TX (United States)

    1997-10-01

    A hydraulic conductivity assessment that was conducted on four test pads constructed to the same specifications with soil from the same source by four different contractors is described. The test pads had distinctly different field hydraulic conductivities, even though they were constructed with similar soil, to similar compaction conditions, and with similar machinery. Adequate hydration time was key in achieving low field hydraulic conductivity. More extensive processing was another factor responsible for low field hydraulic conductivity. Four different test methods were used to assess the hydraulic conductivity of each test pad: (1) sealed double-ring infiltrometers (SDRIs); (2) two-stage borehole permeameters; (3) laboratory hydraulic conductivity tests on large block specimens; and (4) laboratory hydraulic conductivity tests on small specimens collected in thin-wall sampling tubes. The tests were conducted independently by each of the writers. After the tests were completed, the results were submitted and compared. Analysis of the test results show that the three large-scale test methods generally yield similar hydraulic conductivities. For two of the test pads, however, the hydraulic conductivities of the specimens collected in sampling tubes were significantly lower than the field hydraulic conductivities. Both of these test pads had high field hydraulic conductivity. Thus, there is little value in using small specimens to assess field hydraulic conductivity.

  12. A laboratory investigation of thermally induced pore pressures in the Callovo-Oxfordian Claystone

    CERN Document Server

    Mohajerani, Mehrdokht; Sulem, Jean; Monfared, Mohammad; Tang, Anh-Minh; Gatmiri, Behrouz

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of research into radioactive waste disposal, it was decided to investigate the thermally induce pore pressure occurring in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystone, a possible host rock in which the ANDRA underground laboratory of Bure (East of France) has been excavated. Thermal pore pressures appear in low permeability soils and rocks because the thermal expansion coefficient of water is significantly higher than that of the solid grains (Campanella and Mitchell; 1968 [1], Ghabezloo and Sulem; 2009 [2]). This phenomenon has clearly been observed in various in-situ heating tests conducted in Opalinus claystone in the Mont-Terri Underground Research Laboratory (URL) in Switzerland (HE-D test) and in Callovo-Oxfordian (COx) claystone in the Bure URL in France (TER test, Wileveau and Su; 2007 [3]) The processes of coring, transportation, storage and specimen trimming induce some desaturation in the sample. Due to the very low permeability (10-20 m2) of the COx claystone, a long period of time is necessa...

  13. Rapid shoot‐to‐root signalling regulates root hydraulic conductance via aquaporins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    VANDELEUR, REBECCA K; SULLIVAN, WENDY; ATHMAN, ASMINI; JORDANS, CHARLOTTE; GILLIHAM, MATTHEW; KAISER, BRENT N; TYERMAN, STEPHEN D

    2014-01-01

    Investigating the relationship between transpiration and root hydraulic conductance Vandeleur et al report that leaf area reduction reduces root hydraulic conductance in grapevine, soybean and maize...

  14. Laboratory investigation of self-healing properties on geosynthetic clay liners with flaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Guang-Wei

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to evaluate the self- healing properties of a commercially-available geosynthetic clay liner (GCL using flexible-wall permeameter. The GCLs are produced by the same factory, but the contents of bentonite are different. Also the hydraulic conductivities (HC of GCLs with no defect are different. In this study, specimens were completely saturated under the backpressure of 20 kPa before the test. Permeability tests were performed on GCL specimens with penetrating flaw and also on specimens permeated with distilled water and CaCl2 solutions. The test results were presented and discussed. Experimental results showed that the GCL with penetrating flaw did not exhibit complete self-healing in the case of flaw. After 120 days, the hydraulic conductivity increased by approximately an order of magnitude. In addition, CaCl2 solutions had a significant influence on the hydraulic conductivity. The research findings might be of interest to researchers and engineers who design liners for landfills and other liquid containment facilities

  15. Laboratory Investigation of Rivers State Clay Samples for Drilling Mud Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nmegbu, Chukwuma Godwin Jacob

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drilling fluids are an integral part of any oil and gas industry, providing the ease to which wells are drilled to access subsurface reservoir fluids. Certain rheology and mineralogical properties of the clay material used for drilling mud preparation must be critically investigated since clay deposits in different location exhibits different characteristics. Clay samples were collected from three different geographical locations namely; Egbamini (Emolga, Afam Street (Port Harcourt and Oboboru (onelga local government areas in Rivers state. Their rheological and wall building properties were measured in the laboratory to determine their suitability for drilling mud formulation. Results showed that in their respective native states, they proved unsuitable for drilling mud preparation when compared to standard Bentonite because they were observed to show responses far below the required API standards for mud formulation.

  16. Investigating sea level rise due to global warming in the teaching laboratory using Archimedes’ principle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen; Pearce, Darren

    2015-11-01

    A teaching laboratory experiment is described that uses Archimedes’ principle to precisely investigate the effect of global warming on the oceans. A large component of sea level rise is due to the increase in the volume of water due to the decrease in water density with increasing temperature. Water close to 0 °C is placed in a beaker and a glass marble hung from an electronic balance immersed in the water. As the water warms, the weight of the marble increases as the water is less buoyant due to the decrease in density. In the experiment performed in this paper a balance with a precision of 0.1 mg was used with a marble 40.0 cm3 and mass of 99.3 g, yielding water density measurements with an average error of -0.008 ± 0.011%.

  17. Ice Crystal Icing Engine Testing in the NASA Glenn Research Center's Propulsion Systems Laboratory: Altitude Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a full scale ice crystal icing turbofan engine test using an obsolete Allied Signal ALF502-R5 engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) at NASA Glenn Research Center. The test article used was the exact engine that experienced a loss of power event after the ingestion of ice crystals while operating at high altitude during a 1997 Honeywell flight test campaign investigating the turbofan engine ice crystal icing phenomena. The test plan included test points conducted at the known flight test campaign field event pressure altitude and at various pressure altitudes ranging from low to high throughout the engine operating envelope. The test article experienced a loss of power event at each of the altitudes tested. For each pressure altitude test point conducted the ambient static temperature was predicted using a NASA engine icing risk computer model for the given ambient static pressure while maintaining the engine speed.

  18. Remedial investigation of the High-Explosives (HE) Process Area, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, N.B.; Lamarre, A.L.

    1990-08-01

    This report presents the results of a Remedial Investigation (RI) to define the extent of high explosives (HE) compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in the soil, rocks, and ground water of the HE Process Area of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Site 300 Facility. The report evaluates potential public health environmental risks associated with these compounds. Hydrogeologic information available before February 15, 1990, is included; however, chemical analyses and water-level data are reported through March 1990. This report is intended to assist the California Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB)--Central Valley Region and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in evaluating the extent of environmental contamination of the LLNL HE Process Area and ultimately in designing remedial actions. 90 refs., 20 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Contact pressure distribution during the polishing process of ceramic tiles: A laboratory investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, A. S. A.; Sousa, F. J. P.; Hamedon, Z.; Azhari, A.

    2016-02-01

    During the polishing process of porcelain tiles the difference in scratching speed between innermost and peripheral abrasives leads to pressure gradients linearly distributed along the radial direction of the abrasive tool. The aim of this paper is to investigate such pressure gradient in laboratory scale. For this purpose polishing tests were performed on ceramic tiles according to the industrial practices using a custom-made CNC tribometer. Gradual wear on both abrasives and machined surface of the floor tile were measured. The experimental results suggested that the pressure gradient tends to cause an inclination of the abraded surfaces, which becomes stable after a given polishing period. In addition to the wear depth of the machined surface, the highest value of gloss and finest surface finish were observed at the lowest point of the worn out surface of the ceramic floor tile corresponding to the point of highest pressure and lowest scratching speed.

  20. Design of a hydraulic bending machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven G. Hankel; Marshall Begel

    2004-01-01

    To keep pace with customer demands while phasing out old and unserviceable test equipment, the staff of the Engineering Mechanics Laboratory (EML) at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, designed and assembled a hydraulic bending test machine. The EML built this machine to test dimension lumber, nominal 2 in. thick and up to 12 in. deep, at spans up to...

  1. Spanish participation in the Haw Project: Laboratory investigations on Gamma irradiation effects in rock salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuevas, C. de las; Miralles, L.; Teixidor, P.; Garcia Veigas, J.; Dies, X.; Ortega, X.; Pueyo, J.J.

    1993-12-31

    In order to prove the safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HAW) in salt rock, a five years test disposal of thirty highly radioactive radiation sources is planned in the Asse salt mine, in the Federal Republic of Germany. The thirty radiation sources consist of steel canisters containing the vitrified radionuclides Caesium 137 and Strontium 90 in quantities sufficient to cover the bandwidth of heat generation and gamma radiation of real HAW. The radiation sources will be emplaced in six boreholes located in two galleries at the 800 m level. Two electrical heater tests were already started in November 1988 and are continuosly surveyed in respect of the rock mass. Also the handling system necessary for the emplacement of the radioactive canisters was developed and succesfully tested. A laboratory investigation programme on radiation effects in salt is being performed in advance to the radioactive canister emplacement. This programme includes the investigation of thermally and radiolytically induced water and gas release from the rock salt and the radiolytical decomposition of salt minerals. Part of this programme has been carried out since 1988 at the University of Barcelona, basically what refers to colloidal sodium determinations by light absorption measurements and microstructural studies on irradiated salt samples. For gamma dose and dose rate measurements in the test field, measuring systems consisting of ionisation chambers as well as solid state dosemeters were developed and tested. Thermomechanical computer code validation is performed by calculational predictions and parallel investigation of the stress and displacement fields in the underground test field.

  2. Bubble visualization in a simulated hydraulic jump

    CERN Document Server

    Witt, Adam; Shen, Lian

    2013-01-01

    This is a fluid dynamics video of two- and three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations carried out at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory. A transient hydraulic jump is simulated using OpenFOAM, an open source numerical solver. A Volume of Fluid numerical method is employed with a realizable k-epsilon turbulence model. The goal of this research is to model the void fraction and bubble size in a transient hydraulic jump. This fluid dynamics video depicts the air entrainment characteristics and bubble behavior within a hydraulic jump of Froude number 4.82.

  3. Impact of ductility on hydraulic fracturing in shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMinn, Chris; Auton, Lucy

    2016-04-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a method for extracting natural gas and oil from low-permeability rocks such as shale via the high-pressure injection of fluid into the bulk of the rock. The goal is to initiate and propagate fractures that will provide hydraulic access deeper into the reservoir, enabling gas or oil to be collected from a larger region of the rock. Fracture is the tensile failure of a brittle material upon reaching a threshold tensile stress, but some shales have a high clay content and may yield plastically before fracturing. Plastic deformation is the shear failure of a ductile material, during which stress relaxes through irreversible rearrangements of the particles of the material. Here, we investigate the impact of the ductility of shales on hydraulic fracturing. We first consider a simple, axisymmetric model for radially outward fluid injection from a wellbore into a ductile porous rock. We use this model to show that plastic deformation greatly reduces the maximum tensile stress, and that this maximum stress does not always occur at the wellbore. We then complement these results with laboratory experiments in an analogue system, and with numerical simulations based on the discrete element method (DEM), both of which suggest that ductile failure can indeed dramatically change the resulting deformation pattern. These results imply that hydraulic fracturing may fail in ductile rocks, or that the required injection rate for fracking may be much larger than the rate predicted from models that assume purely elastic mechanical behavior.

  4. HYDRAULICS, LOUISA COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic analysis for estimating flood stages for a flood insurance study. It...

  5. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  6. Cultural Resource Investigations for a Multipurpose Haul Road on the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace; Cameron Brizzee; Hollie Gilbert; Clayton Marler; Julie Braun Williams

    2010-08-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is considering options for construction of a multipurpose haul road to transport materials and wastes between the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) and other Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site facilities. The proposed road will be closed to the public and designed for limited year-round use. Two primary options are under consideration: a new route south of the existing T-25 power line road and an upgrade to road T-24. In the Spring of 2010, archaeological field surveys and initial coordination and field reconnaissance with representatives from the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes were completed to identify any resources that may be adversely affected by the proposed road construction and to develop recommendations to protect any listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. The investigations showed that 24 archaeological resources and one historic marker are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation south of the T-25 powerline road and 27archaeological resources are located in the area of potential effects for road construction and operation along road T-24. Generalized tribal concerns regarding protection of natural resources were also documented in both road corridors. This report outlines recommendations for additional investigations and protective measures that can be implemented to minimize adverse impacts to the identified resources.

  7. Numerical Investigation and Experimental Reproduction of Fermi Acceleration in Laboratory Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, M.; Zhai, C.

    2015-12-01

    Fermi acceleration is widely accepted as the mechanism to explain power law of cosmic ray spectrum. Now this mechanism has been developed to first order Fermi acceleration and second order Fermi acceleration. In first order Fermi acceleration, also known as diffusive shock acceleration, particles are confined around the shock through scattering and accelerated by repeatedly crossing shock front. In second order Fermi acceleration, particles gain energy through statistical collisions with interstellar clouds. In this proposed work, we plan to carefully study these two kinds of acceleration numerically and experimentally. We first consider a single relativistic particle and investigate how it gains energy in Fermi-Ulam model and shock wave acceleration model respectively. We investigate collective behavior of particles with different kinds of wall-oscillation functions and try to find an optimal one in terms of efficiency of acceleration. Then, we plan to go further and consider a group of particles statistically, during which we borrow the correct generalization of Maxwell's velocity distribution in special relativity and compare the results with those in cases where we simply use Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. To this end, we try to provide a scheme to build an accelerator applying both laser technology and mirror effect in Laboratory to reproduce Fermi acceleration, which might be a promising source to obtain high energy particles and further study the mechanism of cosmic rays acceleration.

  8. Saliva specimen: a new laboratory tool for diagnostic and basic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappin, Silvia; Antonelli, Giorgia; Gatti, Rosalba; De Palo, Elio F

    2007-08-01

    The assay of saliva is an increasing area of research with implications for basic and clinical purposes. Although this biological fluid is easy to manipulate and collect, careful attention must be directed to limit variation in specimen integrity. Recently, the use of saliva has provided a substantial addition to the diagnostic armamentarium as an investigative tool for disease processes and disorders. In addition to its oral indications, the analysis of saliva provides important information about the functioning of various organs within the body. In this respect, endocrine research certainly occupies a central role. The present review considers the laboratory aspects of salivary assays with respect to the different analytes including ions, drugs and various non-protein/protein compounds such as hormones and immunoglobulins. This review also examines the consequences of preanalytical variation with respect to collection strategy and subsequent storage conditions. It is likely that the use of saliva in assays will continue to expand thus providing a new instrument of investigation for physiologic as well as pathophysiologic states.

  9. Laboratory investigation and phylogenetic analysis of an imported Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus case in Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Kossyvakis

    Full Text Available Rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis of persons suspected of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV infection is important for timely implementation of infection control practices and disease management. In addition, monitoring molecular changes in the virus can help elucidate chains of transmission and identify mutations that might influence virus transmission efficiency. This was illustrated by a recent laboratory investigation we conducted on an imported MERS-CoV case in Greece. Two oropharyngeal swab specimens were collected on the 1st and 2nd day of patient hospitalization and tested using two real-time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR assays targeting the UpE and Orf-1a regions of the MERS-CoV genome and RT-PCR and partial sequencing of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and nucleocapsid genes. Serum specimens were also collected and serological test were performed. Results from the first swab sample were inconclusive while the second swab was strongly positive for MERS-CoV RNA by rRT-PCR and confirmed positive by RT-PCR and partial gene sequencing. Positive serologic test results further confirmed MERS-CoV infection. Full-length nucleocapsid and spike gene coding sequences were later obtained from the positive swab sample. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus was closely related to recent human-derived MERS-CoV strains obtained in Jeddah and Makkah, Saudi Arabia, in April 2014 and dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia and Qatar. These findings were consistent with the patient's history. We also identified a unique amino acid substitution in the spike receptor binding domain that may have implications for receptor binding efficiency. Our initial inconclusive rRT-PCR results highlight the importance of collecting multiple specimens from suspect MERS-CoV cases and particularly specimens from the lower respiratory tract.

  10. Laboratory experiments investigating magnetic field production via the Weibel instability in interpenetrating plasma flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Channing; Fiuza, Frederico; Ross, James Steven; Zylstra, Alex; Pollock, Brad; Drake, R. Paul; Froula, Dustin; Gregori, Gianluca; Kugland, Nathan; Kuranz, Carolyn; Levy, Matthew; Li, Chikang; Meinecke, Jena; Petrasso, Richard; Remington, Bruce; Ryutov, Dmitri; Sakawa, Youichi; Spitkovsky, Anatoly; Takabe, Hideke; Turnbull, David; Park, Hye-Sook

    2015-08-01

    Astrophysical collisionless shocks are often associated with the presence of strong magnetic fields in a plasma flow. The magnetic fields required for shock formation may either be initially present, for example in supernova remnants or young galaxies, or they may be self-generated in systems such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). In the case of GRB outflows, the intense magnetic fields are greater than those seeded by the GRB progenitor or produced by misaligned density and temperature gradients in the plasma flow (the Biermann-battery effect). The Weibel instability is one candidate mechanism for the generation of sufficiently strong fields to create a collisionless shock. Despite their crucial role in astrophysical systems, observation of the magnetic fields produced by Weibel instabilities in experiments has been challenging. Using a proton probe to directly image electromagnetic fields, we present evidence of Weibel-generated magnetic fields that grow in opposing, initially unmagnetized plasma flows from laser-driven laboratory experiments. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations reveal that the instability efficiently extracts energy from the plasma flows, and that the self-generated magnetic energy reaches a few percent of the total energy in the system. This result demonstrates an experimental platform suitable for the investigation of a wide range of astrophysical phenomena, including collisionless shock formation in supernova remnants, large-scale magnetic field amplification, and the radiation signature from gamma-ray bursts.This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Hydraulic fracturing with distinct element method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruiksma, J.P.; Bezuijen, A.

    2002-01-01

    In this report, hydraulic fracturing is investigated using the distinct element code PFC2D from Itasca. Special routines were written to be able to model hydraulic fracturing. These include adding fluid flow to PFC2D and updating the fluid flow domains when fractures appear. A brief description of t

  12. The Comparison of Predicted and Measured Hydraulic Conductivities of Soils having Different Physical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengin, Enes; Abiddin Erguler, Zeynal; Karakuş, Hüseyin

    2015-04-01

    Hydraulic conductivity is one of the most important parameter of earth science related studies such as engineering geology, soil physics, agriculture etc. In order to estimate the ability of soils to transport fluid through particles, field and laboratory tests have been performed since last decades of 19th century. Constant and falling head tests are widely used to directly measure hydraulic conductivity values in laboratory conditions for soils having different particle size distributions. The determination of hydraulic conductivity of soils by performing these methods are time consuming processes and also requires undisturbed samples to reflect in-situ natural condition. Considering these limitations, numerous approaches have been proposed to practically estimate hydraulic conductivity of soils by utilizing empirical equations based on simple physical and index properties such as grain size distribution curves related parameters, porosity, void ratio, etc. Many previous studies show that the hydraulic conductivity values calculated by empirical equations deviate more than two order magnitude than the measured hydraulic conductivity values obtained from convenient permeability tests. In order to investigate the main controlling parameters on hydraulic conductivity of soils, a comprehensive research program was carried out on some disturbed and undisturbed soil samples collected from different locations in Turkey. The hydraulic conductivity values of samples were determined as changing between 10-6 and 10-9 m/s by using falling head tests. In addition to these tests, basic soil properties such as natural water content, Atterberg limits, specific gravity and grain size analyses of these samples were also defined to be used as an input parameters of empirical equations for prediction hydraulic conductivity values. In addition, data from previous studies were also used for the aim of this study. The measured hydraulic conductivity values were correlated with all

  13. Laboratory Investigations of Current Sheets at the Electron Skin Depth Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincena, S.; Gekelman, W.

    2005-12-01

    Laboratory Investigations of Current Sheets at the Electron Skin Depth Scale. Theoretical investigations, in situ spacecraft and rocket missions, and laboratory studies form an essential triad for understanding the variety of current sheet phenomena found in space plasmas. In the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA, the formation dynamics, equilibrium state, and wave-mediated disruptions of current sheets can be studied with great spatial and temporal resolution using a variety of probes as well as non-invasive laser induced fluorescence and other optical diagnostics. The LAPD is aptly suited for studying current sheets flowing in a magnetized background plasma which is capable of supporting Alfvén waves. The cylindrical device is 20m long and one meter in diameter with a solenoidal magnetic field as high as 3000 Gauss. For the parameters in this experiment, the plasma column is ten shear Alfvén wavelengths along the field and 100 electron inertial lengths (δe) (or 200 ρi) in the perpendicular direction. An electron current sheet is created in the plasma by placing a thin copper plate in the plasma column at one end of the device and pulsing this plate positive with respect to the chamber wall. The current sheet extends for the length of the device and has an initial cross-field size of roughly 45 δe by 0.5δe. A parallel flow of ions is observed with similar dimensions and moves in the same direction as the electrons in the current sheet with a velocity of 0.2 times the ion sound speed. A much weaker sheared perpendicular flow is also measured. Cross-sections of the ion flow are measured at several axial locations over a distance of six meters. Second, as the ion flow increases in magnitude, a much broader (8ρi) density depletion (n=0.25nO) develops around the flow. The gradient scale length of the depletion shortens until the spontaneous growth of drift waves occurs. This disrupts the electron current and ion flow, and leads to cross-field transport of

  14. A Preliminary Clinical Laboratory Investigation of Endemic Spiking Mortality Syndrome of Broiler Chickens in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Ram Neupane

    Full Text Available During the period of March-April-May 2008 first time a sudden and unexpected jump in mortality in Broiler of 8 to 16 days of age was reported from broiler farms from Chitwan and Kathmandu valley in Nepal.Affected birds become recumbent, depressed and often go into a star-gazing spasm. Those signs included, huddling of the birds, trembling, blindness, loud chirping, litter eating, ataxia, comatose, birds dead with breast down and feet and legs straight out behind birds. Death within two to six hours after the onset of the symptoms Postmortem Lesions found with this syndrome include hemorrhages in the liver with necrosis of liver cells, regressed thymus, regression of the bursa of Fabricius, dehydration with the accumulation of kidney urates, fluid in the crop, fluid in the lower gut and watery contents of the ceca.Yellow elastic shanks swollen joints. Molted appearance of brain. . The mortality lasted for three to five days, after which, the mortality patterns return to a relatively normal level. When treated with liquid toxin binders like toxol,toxolivum,livertonic like hepatocare,naturaliv, immunomodulaters like immunocare,promin,pentasol and antibiotics there was check in mortality but the body weight recovery was not satisfactory only half as in comparison of in other illness. During this period laboratory culture of total 298 tissue specimen from dead bird was conducted which revealed growth of fungus spp like Aspergillus and Penicillium in 182 specimen while mixed E.coli and Staphylococcus were recovered in 68 specimen 24 specimen revealed the growth of Salmonella spp of bacteria and 24 samples were turn out to be negative while the attempt to isolate the Avian encephalomyelitis virus as it might be the cause suspected also turnout negative. On the basis of all laboratory findings and response to the treatment attempted finding of this preliminary investigation work is suggestive that the above syndrome indicates that mycosis emerging as

  15. Laboratory investigation of spray generation mechanism in wind-wave interaction under strong wind conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandaurov, Alexander; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Sergeev, Daniil; Ermakova, Olga; Kazakov, Vassily

    2015-04-01

    The sea spray is considered as a possible mechanism of the reduction of sea surface aerodynamic drag coefficient at hurricane conditions [1]. In this paper the mechanism of generation of spray in the near-surface layer of the atmosphere in a strong wind through the mechanism of «bag-breakup instability» was investigated in laboratory conditions with the help of high-speed video shooting. The laboratory experiments were performed on the Thermostratified Wind-Wave Channel of the IAP RAS (length 10 m, cross section of air channel 0.4 x 0.4 m, wind velocity up to 24 m/s) [2]. Experiments were carried out for the wind speeds from 14 to 22 m/s. In this range spray generation characteristics change dramatically from almost no spray generation to so called catastrophic regime with multiple cascade breakups on each crest. Shooting was performed with High-speed digital camera NAC Memrecam HX-3 in two different setups to obtain both statistical data and detailed spray generation mechanism overview. In first setup bright LED spotlight with mate screen the side of a channel was used for horizontal shadow-method shooting. Camera was placed in semi-submerged box on the opposite side of the channel. Shooting was performed at the distance of 7.5 m from the beginning of the working section. Series of short records of the surface evolution were made at 10 000 fps with 55 to 119 µm/px scale revealed the dominant mechanism of spray generation - bag-breakup instability. Sequences of high resolution images allowed investigating the details of this "bags" evolution. Shadow method provided better image quality for such conditions than side illumination and fluorescence methods. To obtain statistical data on "bags" sizes and densities vertical shadow method was used. Submerged light box was created with two 300 W underwater lamps and mate screen places at the fetch of 6.5 m. Long records (up to 8 seconds) were made with 4500 fps at 124-256 µm/px scales. Specially developed software

  16. Evaluation of Hydraulic Response of the Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    The present study investigates the hydraulic response of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon. This is done by peforming model tests in a wave tank in the Hydraulics & Coastal Engineering Laboratory at Aalborg University. In the model tests a floating scale model (length scale 1:50) of the Wave...... Dragon is subjected to irregular, long crested irregular and short crested sea conditions corresponding to typical situations under which the Wave Dragon will produce power. Furthermore two situations corresponding to extreme storm conditions are tested. The objective of the study is to determine...... the wave induced forces in the moorings and in the junction between the reflectors and the reservoir part, and motions of the Wave Dragon situated in different sea conditions....

  17. Evaluation of Hydraulic Response of the Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    The present study investigates the hydraulic response of the wave energy converter Wave Dragon. This is done by peforming model tests in a wave tank in the Hydraulics & Coastal Engineering Laboratory at Aalborg University. In the model tests a floating scale model (length scale 1:50) of the Wave...... Dragon is subjected to irregular, long crested irregular and short crested sea conditions corresponding to typical situations under which the Wave Dragon will produce power. Furthermore two situations corresponding to extreme storm conditions are tested. The objective of the study is to determine...... the wave induced forces in the moorings and in the junction between the reflectors and the reservoir part, and motions of the Wave Dragon situated in different sea conditions....

  18. Further investigations of plasma armature performance in the Culham Laboratory HTF rail launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, N.; Spikings, C. R.; Oxley, C. M.; Beacham, J. R.; Putley, D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the results from an experimental investigation of plasma armature behavior in the Culham Laboratory HTF rail launcher. The object of this work was to gain further insight into the conditions which lead to the formation of secondary plasma arcs in the rail launcher. The railgun was operated with a 1 cm square bore formed from glass reinforced epoxy insulators and either stainless steel or copper rails. A 1 MJ, 8 kV capacitor bank was used as the power supply; this was arranged in five 200 kJ modules. The modules were sequentially fired, to produce a current waveform approximating to a linear ramp in the railgun. B-dot probes were used to measure the behavior of the plasma armatures in the launcher. A number of calibration checks were performed to assess the quality of the B-dot probe measurements, with regard to both spatial resolution and rail current measurement. Experimental results were obtained with projectile muzzle velocities ranging from 1.5 km/s to 3.0 km/s, two free arc shots also occurred during the test series. The results show that the launcher performed much better with copper rails than with stainless steel rails. The results also show that the glass epoxy insulators performed much better than the acetyl copolymer material previously used in HTF.

  19. Laboratory Investigation of Conventional Asphalt Mix Using Shell Thiopave for Indian Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaprakash B

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic performance of asphalt pavement always depends on the properties of bitumen, volumetric properties of asphalt mixtures. Bitumen is visco– elastic material where the temperature and rate of load application have a great influence on its behavior. There are different solutions to reduce the pavement distress such as using Thiopave (binder extender and asphalt mixture modifier in the mix design. Thiopave can significantly alter the performance properties of the mix and it is helpful to extend the life span of pavement. In this study, investigating use of thiopave and the change in the performance properties is dependent both on the percentage of virgin binder using VG-30 bitumen that is substituted with thiopave with different percentages. The study indicated that 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% replacement of binder was done with thiopave. The most notable impact of the addition of thiopave to a bituminous mixture is an increase in the stiffness of the mixture for better resistance to fatigue cracking and rutting. Thiopave materials can have a positive impact on laboratory mixture performance. The addition of thiopave has been shown to significantly increase Marshall Stability. From this study it is observed that thiopave can be utilized up to 30% to 40% as replacement to bitumen.

  20. Cultural Resource Investigations for the Remote Handled Low Level Waste Facility at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace; Hollie Gilbert; Julie Braun Williams; Clayton Marler; Dino Lowrey; Cameron Brizzee

    2010-06-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office is considering options for construction of a facility for disposal of Idaho National Laboratory (INL) generated remote-handled low-level waste. Initial screening has resulted in the identification of two recommended alternative locations for this new facility: one near the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Complex and one near the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Disposal Facility (ICDF). In April and May of 2010, the INL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, intensive archaeological field surveys, and initial coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify cultural resources that may be adversely affected by new construction within either one of these candidate locations. This investigation showed that construction within the location near the ATR Complex may impact one historic homestead and several historic canals and ditches that are potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No resources judged to be of National Register significance were identified in the candidate location near the ICDF. Generalized tribal concerns regarding protection of natural resources were also documented in both locations. This report outlines recommendations for protective measures to help ensure that the impacts of construction on the identified resources are not adverse.

  1. Site safety plan for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory CERCLA investigations at site 300. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilmer, J.

    1997-08-01

    Various Department of Energy Orders incorporate by reference, health and safety regulations promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). One of the OSHA regulations, 29 CFR 1910.120, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response, requires that site safety plans are written for activities such as those covered by work plans for Site 300 environmental investigations. Based upon available data, this Site Safety Plan (Plan) for environmental restoration has been prepared specifically for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300, located approximately 15 miles east of Livermore, California. As additional facts, monitoring data, or analytical data on hazards are provided, this Plan may need to be modified. It is the responsibility of the Environmental Restoration Program and Division (ERD) Site Safety Officer (SSO), with the assistance of Hazards Control, to evaluate data which may impact health and safety during these activities and to modify the Plan as appropriate. This Plan is not `cast-in-concrete.` The SSO shall have the authority, with the concurrence of Hazards Control, to institute any change to maintain health and safety protection for workers at Site 300.

  2. Raman Investigation of Temperature Profiles of Phospholipid Dispersions in the Biochemistry Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Norman C.

    2015-06-01

    The temperature dependence of self-assembled, cell-like dispersions of phospholipids is investigated with Raman spectroscopy in the biochemistry laboratory. Vibrational modes in the hydrocarbon interiors of phospholipid bilayers are strongly Raman active, whereas the vibrations of the polar head groups and the water matrix have little Raman activity. From Raman spectra increases in fluidity of the hydrocarbon chains can be monitored with intensity changes as a function of temperature in the CH-stretching region. The experiment uses detection of scattered 1064-nm laser light (Nicolet NXR module) by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Nicolet 6700). A thermoelectric heater-cooler device (Melcor) gives convenient temperature control from 5 to 95°C for samples in melting point capillaries. Use of deuterium oxide instead of water as the matrix avoids some absorption of the exciting laser light and interference with intensity observations in the CH-stretching region. Phospholipids studied range from dimyristoylphosphotidyl choline (C14, transition T = 24°C) to dibehenoylphosphotidyl choline (C22, transition T = 74°C).

  3. Comparative analysis of hospital and forensic laboratory ethanol concentrations: A 15 month investigation of antemortem specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitman, Alec; Estrada, Julio; Fitzgerald, Robert L; McIntyre, Iain M

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative serum alcohol concentrations from regional hospitals (from specimens collected at time of hospital admission) were compared to results from whole blood (from specimens collected at the time of hospital admission) concentrations measured at the San Diego County Medical Examiner's Office (SDCMEO). Over a 15 month period (January 2012 to March 2013), the postmortem forensic toxicology laboratory analyzed a total of 2,321 cases. Of these, 280 were hospital cases (antemortem) representing 12% of the overall Medical Examiner toxicology casework. 59 of the 280 hospital cases (or 21%) screened positive for alcohol (ethanol). 39 of these 59 cases were included in the study based on available specimens for quantitative analyses. This investigation indicated that serum hospital ethanol concentrations correlated well (R(2) = 0.942) with ethanol values determined at SDCMEO (generally measured in whole blood). There was an observed negative bias with an average of -14.1%. A paired t-test was applied to the data and it was shown that this observed bias is statistically significant. These differences in ethanol concentrations could result from differences in specimen, analytical techniques, and/or calibration. The potential for specimen contamination is also discussed.

  4. Laboratory investigation and simulation of breakthrough curves in karst conduits with pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoer; Chang, Yong; Wu, Jichun; Peng, Fu

    2017-07-01

    A series of laboratory experiments are performed under various hydrological conditions to analyze the effect of pools in pipes on breakthrough curves (BTCs). The BTCs are generated after instantaneous injections of NaCl tracer solution. In order to test the feasibility of reproducing the BTCs and obtain transport parameters, three modeling approaches have been applied: the equilibrium model, the linear graphical method and the two-region nonequilibrium model. The investigation results show that pools induce tailing of the BTCs, and the shapes of BTCs depend on pool geometries and hydrological conditions. The simulations reveal that the two-region nonequilibrium model yields the best fits to experimental BTCs because the model can describe the transient storage in pools by the partition coefficient and the mass transfer coefficient. The model parameters indicate that pools produce high dispersion. The increased tailing occurs mainly because the partition coefficient decreases, as the number of pools increases. When comparing the tracer BTCs obtained using the two types of pools with the same size, the more appreciable BTC tails that occur for symmetrical pools likely result mainly from the less intense exchange between the water in the pools and the water in the pipe, because the partition coefficients for the two types of pools are virtually identical. Dispersivity values decrease as flow rates increase; however, the trend in dispersion is not clear. The reduced tailing is attributed to a decrease in immobile water with increasing flow rate. It provides evidence for hydrodynamically controlled tailing effects.

  5. Poster 4: Investigating the first steps of hydrocarbon condensation in the laboratory and in Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biennier, Ludovic; Bourgalais, Jeremy; Benidar, Abdessamad; Le Picard, Sebastien

    2016-06-01

    Hydrocarbons formed in Titan's cold atmosphere, starting with ethane C2H6, ethylene C2H4, acetylene C2H2, propane C3H8,... up to benzene C6H6, play some role in aerosol production, cloud processes, rain generation and Titan's lakes formation. We have started to study in the laboratory the kinetics of the first steps of condensation of these hydrocarbons. Rate coefficients are very sensitive to the description of the potential interaction surfaces of the molecules involved. Combined theoretical and experimental studies at the molecular level of the homogenous nucleation of various small molecules should improve greatly our fundamental understanding. This knowledge will serve as a model for studying more complex nucleation processes actually taking places in planetary atmospheres. Here we present the first experimental kinetic study of the dimerization of two small hydrocarbons: ethane C2H6 and propane C3H8. We have performed experiments to identify the temperature and partial densities ranges over which small hydrocarbon clusters form in saturated uniform supersonic flows. Using our unique reactor based on a Laval nozzle expansions, the kinetics of the formation has also been investigated down to 23 K. The chemical species present in the reactor are probed by a time of flight mass spectrometer equipped with an electron gun for soft ionization of the neutral reagents and products. This work aims at putting some constraints on the role of small hydrocarbon condensation in the formation of haze particles in the dense atmosphere of Titan.

  6. Laboratory investigation on the different activation mechanisms for aluminum and zinc anodes in sea water environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    basir, Ali. EL.; Elazhari, Omar A.; Shartel, K.; Esmal, M.

    2013-12-01

    Cathodic protection (CP) is one practical and economical corrosion control option used to protect steel structures. The common sacrificial anodes used for CP system are aluminum (AL), and zinc (Zn) and their alloys. These three metals and their alloys can provide the starting basis for steel protection in sea water environment. actually many sacrificial anodes (SA) activation processes are widely used to improve the performance protection of steel . Based on the finding and the analysis of the results the aluminum and its alloys should be activated by the activation element rather than by cold working. However, activating the zinc and its alloys provides some improvement in the anode performance and could be considered as a reliable activation mechanism similar to the activation by alloying addition to zinc of similar purity. Finally, this paper discusses the use of cold working as a new activation mechanism, by using extensive laboratory investigation under simulated environmental conditions, and anode current capacity, polarization corrosion rates and protection ability were determined and discussed for this study.

  7. Workplace investigation of increased diagnosis of malignant melanoma among employees of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.H. II; Patterson, H.W.; Hatch, F.; Discher, D.; Schneider, J.S.; Bennett, D.

    1994-08-01

    Based on rates for the surrounding communities, the diagnosis rate of malignant melanoma for employees of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) during 1972 to 1977 was three to four times higher than expected. In 1984 Austin and Reynolds concluded, as a result of a case-control study, that five occupational factors were {open_quotes}causally associated{close_quotes} with melanoma risk at LLNL. These factors were: (1) exposure to radioactive materials, (2) work at Site 300, (3) exposure to volatile photographic chemicals, (4) presence at the Pacific Test Site, and (5) chemist duties. Subsequent reviews of the Austin and Reynolds report concluded that the methods used were appropriate and correctly carried out. These reports did determine, however, that Austin and Reynolds` conclusion concerning a causal relationship between occupational factors and melanoma among employees was overstated. There is essentially no supporting evidence linking the occupational factors with melanoma from animal studies or human epidemiology. Our report summarizes the results of further investigation of potential occupational factors.

  8. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FORMATION AND DESTRUCTION IN THE CIRCUMSTELLAR OUTFLOWS OF CARBON STARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, Cesar S.; Salama, Farid, E-mail: cesar.contreras@nasa.gov, E-mail: Farid.Salama@nasa.gov [Space Science and Astrobiology Division, NASA-Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The formation and destruction mechanisms of interstellar dust analogs formed from a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and hydrocarbon molecular precursors are studied in the laboratory. We used the newly developed facility COSmIC, which simulates interstellar and circumstellar environments, to investigate both PAHs and species that include the cosmically abundant atoms O, N, and S. The species generated in a discharge plasma are detected, monitored, and characterized in situ using highly sensitive techniques that provide both spectral and ion mass information. We report here the first series of measurements obtained in these experiments which focus on the characterization of the most efficient molecular precursors in the chemical pathways that eventually lead to the formation of carbonaceous grains in the stellar envelopes of carbon stars. We compare and discuss the relative efficiencies of the various molecular precursors that lead to the formation of the building blocks of carbon grains. We discuss the most probable molecular precursors in terms of size and structure and the implications for the expected growth and destruction processes of interstellar carbonaceous dust.

  9. Laboratory and numerical investigations of air sparging using MTBE as a tracer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, A. P.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Sonnenborg, T. O.

    2000-01-01

    , the experiments were simulated using the numerical multiphase flow code T2VOC, and the results compared to those obtained in the laboratory. The experiments with fine sand were simulated well, while for coarser sand types the volatilization was highly overestimated. The differences between model and laboratory...

  10. Investigating Affective Experiences in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: Students' Perceptions of Control and Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Malakpa, Zoebedeh; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2016-01-01

    Meaningful learning requires the integration of cognitive and affective learning with the psychomotor, i.e., hands-on learning. The undergraduate chemistry laboratory is an ideal place for meaningful learning to occur. However, accurately characterizing students' affective experiences in the chemistry laboratory can be a very difficult task. While…

  11. The development and testing of a 2D laboratory seismic modelling system for heterogeneous structure investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Yike; Greenhalgh, Stewart A.; Robertsson, Johan O. A.; Karaman, Hakki

    2015-05-01

    Lateral velocity variations and low velocity near-surface layers can produce strong scattered and guided waves which interfere with reflections and lead to severe imaging problems in seismic exploration. In order to investigate these specific problems by laboratory seismic modelling, a simple 2D ultrasonic model facility has been recently assembled within the Wave Propagation Lab at ETH Zurich. The simulated geological structures are constructed from 2 mm thick metal and plastic sheets, cut and bonded together. The experiments entail the use of a piezoelectric source driven by a pulse amplifier at ultrasonic frequencies to generate Lamb waves in the plate, which are detected by piezoelectric receivers and recorded digitally on a National Instruments recording system, under LabVIEW software control. The 2D models employed were constructed in-house in full recognition of the similitude relations. The first heterogeneous model features a flat uniform low velocity near-surface layer and deeper dipping and flat interfaces separating different materials. The second model is comparable but also incorporates two rectangular shaped inserts, one of low velocity, the other of high velocity. The third model is identical to the second other than it has an irregular low velocity surface layer of variable thickness. Reflection as well as transmission experiments (crosshole & vertical seismic profiling) were performed on each model. The two dominant Lamb waves recorded are the fundamental symmetric mode (non-dispersive) and the fundamental antisymmetric (flexural) dispersive mode, the latter normally being absent when the source transducer is located on a model edge but dominant when it is on the flat planar surface of the plate. Experimental group and phase velocity dispersion curves were determined and plotted for both modes in a uniform aluminium plate. For the reflection seismic data, various processing techniques were applied, as far as pre-stack Kirchhoff migration. The

  12. Analysis of Innovative Design of Energy Efficient Hydraulic Actuators

    OpenAIRE

    M Osman Abdalla

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic cylinder actuators are used extensively in industrial, construction and agricultural works. The small sized outlet ports of the cylinders resist the flow of discharged oil; and as a result the piston motion is slowed down. This causes a lot of heat generation and energy loss within the actuators. The study investigates and analyzes the possibilities of reducing the hydraulic resistance and increasing efficiency of the hydraulic actuator. Conventional hydraulic cylinders are simulate...

  13. Experimental investigation of flow field in a laboratory-scale compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Ma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The inner flow environment of turbomachinery presents strong three-dimensional, rotational, and unsteady characteristics. Consequently, a deep understanding of these flow phenomena will be the prerequisite to establish a state-of-the-art design system of turbomachinery. Currently the development of more accurate turbulence models and CFD tools is in urgent need for a high-quality database for validation, especially the advanced CFD tools, such as large eddy simulation (LES. Under this circumstance, this paper presents a detailed experimental investigation on the 3D unsteady flow field inside a laboratory-scale isolated-rotor with multiple advanced measurement techniques, including traditional aerodynamic probes, hotwire probes, unsteady endwall static pressure measurement, and stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV. The inlet boundary layer profile is measured with both hotwire probe and aerodynamic probe. The steady and unsteady flow fields at the outlet of the rotor are measured with a mini five-hole probe and a single-slanted hotwire probe. The instantaneous flow field in the rotor tip region inside the passage is captured with SPIV, and then a statistical analysis of the spatial distribution of the instantaneous tip leakage vortex/flow is performed to understand its dynamic characteristics. Besides these, the uncertainty analysis of each measurement technique is described. This database is quite sufficient to validate the advanced numerical simulation with LES. The identification process of the tip leakage vortex core in the instantaneous frames obtained from SPIV is performed deliberately. It is concluded that the ensemble-averaged flow field could not represent the tip leakage vortex strength and the trajectory trace. The development of the tip leakage vortex could be clearly cataloged into three phases according to their statistical spatial distribution. The streamwise velocity loss induced by the tip leakage flow increases until the

  14. Laboratory and Field Investigations of Dynamic Effects in Soil Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Yung-Chia; Tseng, Yen-Huiang; Ye, Jiun-Yan

    2015-04-01

    The unsaturated soil is a multi-phase system and the embedded physical mechanisms and chemical reactions are very complicated. The characteristics of groundwater flow and mechanisms of mass transport are still ambiguous so far. In order to fully understand the flow and transport in the unsaturated zone, the soil water retention curve plays an important role in description of water flow. However, the measurements and calculations of soil water retention curve are usually obtained under the static condition or steady state (equilibrium), in which the dynamic effects (non-equilibrium) are not considered, and the obtained relationship between capillary pressure and saturation is skeptical. Therefore, the sandbox experiments and field tests will be conducted to discuss the dynamic effects in the soil water retention curve and hysteresis effect in this study. In the laboratory, the relations between capillary pressure, saturation, the rate of change of water content, and dynamic constant are evaluated through different setting of boundary conditions and different sizes of particles. In the field, the tests are conducted to describe the soil water retention curve through the rain simulator and artificial evaporation. Besides, the dynamic dewpoint potentiameter is used to analyze the hysteresis effect of soil samples, and its results are compared with the results obtained from sandbox and field experiments. Finally, through a series of experiments, the relationship between capillary pressure and saturation under the dynamic effects is established, and the associated theories and mechanisms are discussed. The works developed in this study can provide as reference tools for the hydrogeological investigation and contaminated site remediation in the future. Keywords: capillary pressure, saturation, soil water retention curve, hysteresis, sandbox experiment, field test

  15. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mast cameras and Descent imager: Investigation and instrument descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Michal C.; Ravine, Michael A.; Caplinger, Michael A.; Tony Ghaemi, F.; Schaffner, Jacob A.; Maki, Justin N.; Bell, James F.; Cameron, James F.; Dietrich, William E.; Edgett, Kenneth S.; Edwards, Laurence J.; Garvin, James B.; Hallet, Bernard; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Heydari, Ezat; Kah, Linda C.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Minitti, Michelle E.; Olson, Timothy S.; Parker, Timothy J.; Rowland, Scott K.; Schieber, Juergen; Sletten, Ron; Sullivan, Robert J.; Sumner, Dawn Y.; Aileen Yingst, R.; Duston, Brian M.; McNair, Sean; Jensen, Elsa H.

    2017-08-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Mast camera and Descent Imager investigations were designed, built, and operated by Malin Space Science Systems of San Diego, CA. They share common electronics and focal plane designs but have different optics. There are two Mastcams of dissimilar focal length. The Mastcam-34 has an f/8, 34 mm focal length lens, and the M-100 an f/10, 100 mm focal length lens. The M-34 field of view is about 20° × 15° with an instantaneous field of view (IFOV) of 218 μrad; the M-100 field of view (FOV) is 6.8° × 5.1° with an IFOV of 74 μrad. The M-34 can focus from 0.5 m to infinity, and the M-100 from 1.6 m to infinity. All three cameras can acquire color images through a Bayer color filter array, and the Mastcams can also acquire images through seven science filters. Images are ≤1600 pixels wide by 1200 pixels tall. The Mastcams, mounted on the 2 m tall Remote Sensing Mast, have a 360° azimuth and 180° elevation field of regard. Mars Descent Imager is fixed-mounted to the bottom left front side of the rover at 66 cm above the surface. Its fixed focus lens is in focus from 2 m to infinity, but out of focus at 66 cm. The f/3 lens has a FOV of 70° by 52° across and along the direction of motion, with an IFOV of 0.76 mrad. All cameras can acquire video at 4 frames/second for full frames or 720p HD at 6 fps. Images can be processed using lossy Joint Photographic Experts Group and predictive lossless compression.

  16. The influence of varnish and high fluoride on erosion and abrasion in a laboratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sar Sancakli, H; Austin, R S; Al-Saqabi, F; Moazzez, R; Bartlett, D

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of concentrated fluoride varnishes to reduce enamel loss from repeated cycles of citric acid erosion and toothbrush abrasion in vitro. Polished human enamel samples were exposed to fluoride varnishes: Bifluorid10® (NaF&CaF2- 45,200 ppmF), Duraphat® (NaF 22,600 ppmF), Fluor-Protector® (difluorsilane 1000 ppmF) and a control coating of copal ether varnish (0 ppmF) group and a deionized water group. For each group of 16 samples, nine cycles of erosion and nine cycles of erosion-abrasion [1 cycle=erosion (0.3% citric acid, pH 3.2, 5 min)+artificial saliva (1 h, pH 7.0)+abrasion (120 linear strokes in artificial saliva from Oral B medium soft brushes 300 g loading]. The change in the enamel surface was evaluated using optical profilometry. Duraphat® and Bifluorid10® applications had a median (IQR) step height of 4.21 um (1.59) and 5.01 um (1.02). This was statistically significantly less than Fluor-Protector® 6.83 um (1.25), copal ether 7.22 um (1.97) and water 7.39 um (1.96) (pfluoride in a range of single-application topical varnishes was effective in reducing enamel wear from erosion and erosion-abrasion in this laboratory study. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  17. Analysis of chlorocarbon compounds identified in the SAM Investigation of the Mars Science Laboratory mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freissinet, Caroline; Mahaffy, P.; Glavin, D.; Buch, A.; Brunner, A.; Eigenbrode, J.; Martin, M.; Miller, K.; Steele, A.; Szopa, C.; SAM; MSL science Team

    2013-10-01

    The gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) mode of the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment was designed for the separation and identification of the chemical components of the gases released from a solid sample or trapped from the atmosphere. Gases from solid samples are either produced by heating a cell from ambient to >800-1100oC (EGA mode) or by wet chemistry extraction and reactions (not yet employed on Mars). Prior to EGA analysis of portions of the first 3 solid samples (Rocknest, John Klein and Cumberland) collected by MSL and delivered to SAM, an internal SAM blank run was carried out with an empty quartz cup. These blank analyses are required to understand the background signal intrinsic to the GCMS and its gas manifolds and traps. Several peaks have been identified as part of SAM background, some of them below the nmol level, which attests of the sensitivity of the instrument and as-designed performance of the GCMS. The origin of each peak has been investigated, and two major contributors are revealed; residual vapor from one of the chemicals used for SAM wet chemistry experiment: N-methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA), and the Tenax from the hydrocarbon trap. Supporting lab experiments are in progress to understand the reaction pathways of the molecules identified in the SAM background. These experiments help elucidate which molecules may be interpreted as indigenous to Mars. Of the three solid samples analyzed on 11 runs, it was possible to detect and identify several chlorinated compounds including several chlorohydrocarbons. The chlorine is likely derived from the decomposition of martian perchlorates or other indigenous Cl-containing species while the origin of the carbon is presently under investigation for each detected molecule. To date, a subset these molecules have been identified in lab studies and a terrestrial contribution to the observed products are more easily explained. The combined results from SAM and

  18. Study on Characteristics of Hydraulic Servo System for Force Control of Hydraulic Robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo-gon; Han, Changsoo [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong-won [Korea University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sangdeok [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Because a hydraulic actuator has high power and force densities, this allows the weight of the robot's limbs to be reduced. This allows for good dynamic characteristics and high energy efficiency. Thus, hydraulic actuators are used in some exoskeleton robots and quadrupedal robots that require high torque. Force control is useful for robot compliance with a user or environment. However, force control of a hydraulic robot is difficult because a hydraulic servo system is highly nonlinear from a control perspective. In this study, a nonlinear model was used to develop a simulation program for a hydraulic servo system consisting of a servo valve, transmission lines, and a cylinder. The problems and considerations with regard to the force control performance for a hydraulic servo system were investigated. A force control method using the nonlinear model was proposed, and its effect was evaluated with the simulation program.

  19. Scaling hydraulic properties of a macroporous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Binayak P.

    1999-06-01

    Macroporous soils exhibit significant differences in their hydraulic properties for different pore domains. Multimodal hydraulic functions may be used to describe the characteristics of multiporosity media. I investigated the usefulness of scaling to describe the spatial variability of hydraulic conductivity (K(-h)) functions of a macroporous soil in Las Nutrias, New Mexico. Piecewise-continuous hydraulic conductivity functions suitable for macroporous soils in conjunction with a hybrid similar media-functional normalization scaling approach were used. Results showed that gravity-dominated flow and the related hydraulic conductivity (K(minus;h) functions of the macropore region are more readily scalable than capillary-dominated flow properties of the mesopore and micropore regions. A possible reason for this behavior is that gravity-dominated flow in the larger pores is mostly influenced by the pore diameter which remains more uniform as compared to tortuous mesopores and micropores with variable neck and body sizes along the pore length.

  20. Laboratory investigations of mixed organic/inorganic particles: Ice nucleation and optical hygroscopic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Melinda R.

    The interactions of ambient aerosol particles with the atmosphere influence global climate and local visibility. Many of these atmospheric interactions are determined by the chemical composition of the aerosol particles. Ice nucleation in the upper troposphere is influenced and modified by the presence of anthropogenic aerosol particles. Also, interactions between particles and solar radiation are influenced by hygroscopic growth upon humidification. This thesis contains laboratory investigations into the role organic compounds play in ice nucleation and optical hygroscopic growth. Using an aerosol flow tube apparatus, we have studied the effects of aliphatic aldehydes (C3 to C10) and ketones (C 3 and C9) on ice nucleation in sulfuric acid aerosols. No acid-catalyzed reactions were observed under these conditions, and physical uptake was responsible for the organic content of the sulfuric acid aerosols. The physical properties of the organic compounds (primarily the solubility and melting point) were found to play a dominant role in determining the inferred mode of nucleation (homogenous or heterogeneous) and the specific freezing temperatures observed. Overall, very soluble, low-melting organics, such as acetone and propanal, caused a decrease in aerosol ice nucleation temperatures when compared with aqueous sulfuric acid aerosol. In contrast, sulfuric acid particles exposed to organic compounds of eight carbons and greater, of much lower solubility and higher melting temperatures, nucleate ice at temperatures above aqueous sulfuric acid aerosols. Organic compounds of intermediate carbon chain length, C4-C7, (of intermediate solubility and melting temperatures) nucleated ice at the same temperature as aqueous sulfuric acid aerosols. Light extinction by atmospheric particles is strongly dependent on the size, chemical composition, and water content of the aerosol. Since light extinction by particles directly impacts climate and visibility, measurements of

  1. Laboratory investigations of the hydroxyl radical-initiated oxidation of atmospheric volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, Deepali

    The hydroxyl radical (OH) is one of the most important oxidants in the atmosphere, because reaction with OH is the dominant atmospheric fate of most trace atmospheric species. OH is intimately involved in a complex non-linear photochemical pathway involving anthropogenic and biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides that are emitted from vehicular exhaust and industrial emissions. This chemistry generates secondary tropospheric ozone which is an important greenhouse gas as well as a component of photochemical smog. In addition, this chemistry leads to the formation of secondary organic aerosols in the atmosphere which have implications for public health and climate change. The focus of this dissertation is to improve our understanding of this complex chemistry by investigating the rate-limiting elementary reactions which are part of the OH-initiated oxidation of important VOCs. Experimental (discharge flow technique coupled with resonance fluorescence and laser induced fluorescence) and theoretical studies (Density Functional Theory computations) of the kinetics of three atmospheric VOCs, acetic acid, 1,3-butadiene and methyl ethyl ketone are discussed. The acetic acid and OH reaction has been thought to undergo a hydrogen-bonded complex mediated pathway instead of a direct one leading to faster rate constants at lower temperature. Our results for the experimental investigation between 263-373 K and pressures of 2-5 Torr for the gas phase reaction of acetic acid with OH confirm the complex mediated reaction mechanism and indicate that acetic acid can play an important role especially in the oxidative chemistry of upper troposphere. The 1,3-butadiene and OH reaction is thought to undergo electrophilicaddition by OH which could display a complex pressure dependence similar to isoprene and 232-butenol as noted earlier in this laboratory. However, our results for the kinetics of the reaction between 273-423 K and a pressure range of 1

  2. THE THEORETICAL MODEL FOR PREDICTING CIRCULATION VELOCITY OF HYDRAULIC BRAKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘英林; 侯春生

    1997-01-01

    By rational hypothesis of fluid flow pattern, applied the law of conservation of energy and integrated the laboratory test results, finished the prediction by the theoretical model of circulation velocity of hydraulic brake which is important parameter. Thus provide the theoritical basis for hydraulic brake of belt conveyor whose research has just been started.

  3. Hydraulic characterization of " Furcraea andina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Velasquez, M. F.; Fallico, C.; Molinari, A.; Santillan, P.; Salazar, M.

    2012-04-01

    The present level of pollution, increasingly involving groundwaters, constitutes a serious risk for environment and human health. Therefore the remediation of saturated and unsaturated soils, removing pollutant materials through innovative and economic bio-remediation techniques is more frequently required. Recent studies on natural fiber development have shown the effectiveness of these fibers for removal of some heavy metals, due to the lignin content in the natural fibers which plays an important role in the adsorption of metal cations (Lee et al., 2004; Troisi et al., 2008; C. Fallico, 2010). In the context of remediation techniques for unsaturated and/or saturated zone, an experimental approach for the hydraulic characterization of the "Furcraea andina" (i.e., Cabuya Blanca) fiber was carried out. This fiber is native to Andean regions and grows easily in wild or cultivated form in the valleys and hillsides of Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. Fibers of "Furcraea andina" were characterized by experimental tests to determine their hydraulic conductivity or permeability and porosity in order to use this medium for bioremediation of contaminated aquifer exploiting the physical, chemical and microbial capacity of natural fiber in heavy metal adsorption. To evaluate empirically the hydraulic conductivity, laboratory tests were carried out at constant head specifically on the fibers manually extracted. For these tests we used a flow cell (used as permeameter), containing the "Furcraea andina" fibers to be characterized, suitably connected by a tygon pipe to a Marriott's bottle, which had a plastic tube that allow the adjustment of the hydraulic head for different tests to a constant value. By this experiment it was also possible to identify relationships that enable the estimation of permeability as a function of density, i.e. of the compaction degree of the fibers. Our study was carried out for three values of hydraulic head (H), namely 10, 18, and 25 cm and for each

  4. RUBI -a Reference mUltiscale Boiling Investigation for the Fluid Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Nils; Stelzer, Marco; Schoele-Schulz, Olaf; Picker, Gerold; Ranebo, Hans; Dettmann, Jan; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Winter, Josef; Tadrist, Lounes; Stephan, Peter; Grassi, Walter; di Marco, Paolo; Colin, Catherine; Piero Celata, Gian; Thome, John; Kabov, Oleg

    Boiling is a two-phase heat transfer process where large heat fluxes can be transferred with small driving temperature differences. The high performance of boiling makes the process very interesting for heat transfer applications and it is widely used in industry for example in power plants, refrigeration systems, and electronics cooling. Nevertheless, due to the large number of involved phenomena and their often highly dynamic nature a fundamental understanding and closed theoretical description is not yet accomplished. The design of systems incorporating the process is generally based on empirical correlations, which are commonly accompanied by large uncertainties and, thus, has to be verified by expensive test campaigns. Hence, strong efforts are currently made to develop applicable numerical tools for a reliable prediction of the boiling heat transfer performance and limits. In order to support and validate this development and, in particular as a precondition, to enhance the basic knowledge about boiling the comprehensive multi-scale experiment RUBI (Reference mUlti-scale Boiling Investigation) for the Fluid Science Laboratory on board the ISS is currently in preparation. The scientific objectives and requirements of RUBI have been defined by the members of the ESA topical team "Boiling and Multiphase Flow" and addresses fundamental aspects of boiling phenomena. The main objectives are the measurement of wall temperature and heat flux distribution underneath vapour bubbles with high spatial and tem-poral resolution by means of IR thermography accompanied by the synchronized high-speed observation of the bubble shapes. Furthermore, the fluid temperature in the vicinity and inside of the bubbles will be measured by a micro sensor array. Additional stimuli are the generation of an electric field above the heating surface and a shear flow created by a forced convection loop. The objective of these stimuli is to impose forces on the bubbles and investigate the

  5. Investigating the impact of vegetation on alluvial fans using laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Lucy; McLelland, Stuart; Tom, Coutlhard

    2016-04-01

    Riparian vegetation can significantly influence the geomorphology of fluvial systems, affecting channel geometry and flow dynamics. However, there is still limited understanding of the role vegetation plays in the development of alluvial fans, despite the large number of vegetated fans located in temperate and humid climates. An understanding of the feedback loops between water flow, sediment dynamics and vegetation is key to understanding the geomorphological response of alluvial fans. But it is difficult to investigate these relationships in the natural world due to the complexity of the geomorphic and biological processes and timescales involved, whereas the controlled conditions afforded by laboratory experiments provide the ideal opportunity to explore these relationships. To examine the effects of vegetation on channel form, flow dynamics and morphology during fan evolution, a series of experiments were conducted using the Total Environment Simulator (operated by the University of Hull). The experiments followed a 'similarity of processes' approach and so were not scaled to a specific field prototype. Live vegetation (Medicago Sativa) was used to simulate the influence of vegetation on the fan development. A range of experiments were conducted on 2x2m fan plots, the same initial conditions and constant water discharge and sediment feed rates were used, but the vegetation density and amount of geomorphic time (when the sediment and water were running and there was active fan development) between seeding / vegetation growth varied between runs. The fan morphology was recorded at regular intervals using a laser scanner (at 1mm resolution) and high resolution video recording and overhead photography were used to gain near-continuous data quantifying fan topography, flow patterns, channel migration and avulsion frequency. Image analysis also monitored the spatial extent of vegetation establishment. The use of these techniques allowed collection of high resolution

  6. Seismological investigation of crack formation in hydraulic rock fracturing experiments and in natural geothermal environments. Progress report, September 1, 1980-August 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aki, K.

    1981-09-01

    Progress is reported on the following: interpretation of seismic data from hydraulic fracturing experiments at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Site, interpretation of 3-D velocity anomalies in the western US with special attention to geothermal areas, theoretical and observational studies of scattering and attenuation of high-frequency seismic waves, theoretical and observational studies of volcanic tremors in relation to magma transport mechanisms, and deployment and maintenance of 9 event-recorders around Mt. St. Helens. Abstracts of papers submitted for publication are included. (MHR)

  7. Inquiry-Based Laboratory Activity to Investigate Physical Growth Requirements of Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Furlong

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Standard "cookbook" laboratory activities that are used to teach students the optimal physical growth conditions of microorganisms should be modified so that they more effectively foster student's higher order cognitive skills and attract student interest.  This paper describes a laboratory activity that engages students in an inquiry-based approach to studying the physical growth requirements of microorganisms.  In this activity, students design and implement an experiment to obtain pure cultures of specific microorganisms, with distinct growth properties, that are provided to them in a mixed culture.

  8. Physics Laboratory Investigation of Vocational High School Field Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques in the Central Java Province (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwandari, Ristiana Dyah

    2015-01-01

    The investigation aims in this study were to uncover the observations of infrastructures and physics laboratory in vocational high school for Stone and Concrete Construction Techniques Expertise Field or Teknik Konstruksi Batu dan Beton (TKBB)'s in Purwokerto Central Java Province, mapping the Vocational High School or Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan…

  9. Fundamental investigations of natural and laboratory generated SAR dose response curves for quartz OSL in the high dose range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timar-Gabor, Alida; Constantin, Daniela; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter;

    2015-01-01

    SAR-OSL investigations on quartz from Romanian loess resulted in non concordant fine and coarse-grain ages for equivalent doses higher than ~100 Gy. The laboratory dose response for both grain sizes is well represented by a sum of two saturating exponential functions, fine and coarse grains chara...

  10. Treatment of waste incinerator air-pollution-control residues with FeSO4: Laboratory investigation of design parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Dorthe Lærke; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Lundtorp, Kasper

    2002-01-01

    The key design parameters of a new process for treatment of air-pollution-control (APC) residues (the Ferroxprocess) were investigated in the laboratory. The optimisation involved two different APC-residues from actual incinerator plants. The design parameters considered were: amount of iron oxide...

  11. Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory - feasibility and usefulness of site investigation methods. Experiences from the pre-investigation phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almen, K.E. [ed.] [KEA GEO-Konsult (Sweden); Olsson, Paer [SKANSKA, (Sweden); Rhen, I. [VBB VIAK AB, Malmoe (Sweden); Stanfors, R. [RS Consulting, (Sweden); Wikberg, P. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1994-08-01

    One of the main goals set up by SKB for the Aespoe HRL project is to `test the quality and appropriateness of different methods for characterizing the bedrock with respect to conditions of importance for a final repository`. An extensive investigation programme was carried out during the projects pre-investigation phase that in part was based in experience from SKBs previous site investigations and in part entailed the testing of new or other unestablished methods. Previous technical reports have described the methods that have been used and the results, models and predictions that have been produced. All the methods used are discussed in the present report in terms of how they have contributed in different analysis stages to the total geoscientific characterization of the rock at Aespoe. The usefulness of each method for modelling and prediction in different scales is evaluated, and aspects of the practical execution of the methods under different conditions are discussed. The report sheds light on the importance of dividing large investigation programmes such as this one into suitable stages to get an opportunity to evaluate the results obtained and plan in detail the investigations in the next stage. Furthermore, the way in which the characterization/modelling work in different geometric scales has been done for the different investigation stages is discussed, along with whether this has been found to be a suitable approach. The importance of pursuing an interdisciplinary strategy throughout the pre-investigation process cannot be overemphasized. For the planning, execution, analysis and reporting of the results of the pre-investigations, this has been guaranteed by an organization in which an interdisciplinary group has been in charge of the investigations, together with the project manager. 52 refs, numerous tabs and figs.

  12. [Investigation on HPV DNA detection and genotyping practices used in French laboratories in 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Isabelle; Favre, Michel; Fihman, Valentine

    2011-01-01

    The French National reference Laboratory for Human papillomavirus (HPV) performed in 2009 a national study in order to review the methods used to detect and identify HR HPV genotypes in microbiology laboratories. Results from this study show a great diversity in volumes of samples treated in laboratories. Among clinical indications, the most frequent is a result of ASC-US at a Pap smear. This indication in the only one covered by the National Public Insurance System and is mostly performed in laboratories from private sector. Other indications mainly correspond to research programs and are performed in public Hospitals. This study allowed also to review the adequacy between the liquid based cytology samples and the assays used for direct detection of HR HPV or identification of the genotypes present in the sample. The right tests were not carried in the right solution storage according to the recommendations from different HPV testing assays. National recommendations should be elaborated in order to improve the performance of the test used.

  13. Investigation of the Regioselectivity of Alkene Hydrations for the Undergraduate Organic Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichler, Katherine A.; Van Ornum, Scott G.; Franz, Margaret C.; Imhoff, Andrea M.

    2015-01-01

    Due to a lack of time and, thus, an inability to present every possibility in a chemical reaction, organic chemistry professors tend to present each reaction with a single outcome. In practice, this is clearly not the case. A first-semester, three-week laboratory experiment designed for undergraduate organic chemistry students is described in…

  14. Inquiry-based Investigation in Biology Laboratories: Does Neem Provide Bioprotection against Bean Beetles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Amy R.; Sale, Amanda Lovelace; Srivatsan, Malathi; Beck, Christopher W.; Blumer, Lawrence S.; Grippo, Anne A.

    2013-01-01

    We developed an inquiry-based biology laboratory exercise in which undergraduate students designed experiments addressing whether material from the neem tree ("Azadirachta indica") altered bean beetle ("Callosobruchus maculatus") movements and oviposition. Students were introduced to the bean beetle life cycle, experimental…

  15. Investigation of Macrophage Differentiation and Cytokine Production in an Undergraduate Immunology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkes, Charlotte; Chan, Leo Li-Ying

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a semester-long laboratory project for an undergraduate immunology course in which students study multiple aspects of macrophage biology including differentiation from progenitors in the bone marrow, activation upon stimulation with microbial ligands, expression of cell surface markers, and modulation of cytokine production. In…

  16. Male Mating Success: Preference or Prowess? Investigating Sexual Selection in the Laboratory Using "Drosophila melanogaster"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Seth; Jensen, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Sexual selection is the primary force affecting the evolution of the elaborate sexual displays common in animals, yet sexual selection experiments are largely absent from introductory biology laboratories. Here we describe the rationale, methodology, and results of several experiments using "Drosophila melanogaster" to demonstrate sexual selection…

  17. Investigating Issues in the Laboratory: The Behavior of Red Swamp Crayfish as an Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Krissi M.; Kayes, Lori J.; Hubert, David; Chouinard, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Recent reform initiatives in undergraduate biology call for curricula that prepare students for dealing with real-world issues and making important links between science and society. In response to this call, we have developed an issues-based laboratory module that uses guided inquiry to integrate the concepts of animal behavior and population…

  18. An Investigation into the Relationship between Academic Risk Taking and Chemistry Laboratory Anxiety in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öner Sünkür, Meral

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between academic risk taking and chemistry laboratory anxiety using a relational scanning model. The research sample consisted of 127 undergraduate students (sophomores, juniors and seniors) in the Chemistry Teaching Department at Dicle University. This research was done in the spring semester of the 2012 to…

  19. Investigating Issues in the Laboratory: The Behavior of Red Swamp Crayfish as an Invasive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Krissi M.; Kayes, Lori J.; Hubert, David; Chouinard, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Recent reform initiatives in undergraduate biology call for curricula that prepare students for dealing with real-world issues and making important links between science and society. In response to this call, we have developed an issues-based laboratory module that uses guided inquiry to integrate the concepts of animal behavior and population…

  20. Investigations using Laboratory Testbeds to Interpret Flight Instrument Datasets from Mars Robotic Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Sutter, B.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Achilles, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has laboratory instrumentation that mimic the capabilities of corresponding flight instruments to enable interpretation of datasets returned from Mars robotic missions. The lab instruments have been and continue to be applied to datasets for the Mössbauer Spectrometer (MB) on the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER), the Thermal & Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) on the Mars Phoenix Scout, the CRISM instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and will be applied to datasets for the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM), Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) and Chemistry & Camera (ChemCam) instruments onboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). The laboratory instruments can analyze analog samples at costs that are substantially lower than engineering models of flight instruments, but their success to enable interpretation of flight data depends on how closely their capabilities mimic those of the flight instrument. The JSC lab MB instruments are equivalent to the MER instruments except without flight qualified components and no reference channel Co-57 source. Data from analog samples were critical for identification of Mg-Fe carbonate at Gusev crater. Fiber-optic VNIR spectrometers are used to obtain CRISM-like spectral data over the range 350-2500 nm, and data for Fe-phyllosilicates show irreversible behavior in the electronic transition region upon dessication. The MB and VNIR instruments can be operated within chambers where, for example, the absolute H2O concentration can be measured and controlled. Phoenix's TEGA consisted of a calorimeter coupled to a mass spectrometer (MS). The JSC laboratory testbed instrument consisted of a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) coupled to a MS configured to operate under total pressure (12 mbar), heating rate (20 °C/min), and purge gas composition (N2) analogous to the flight TEGA. TEGA detected CO2 release at both low (400-680 °C) and

  1. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  2. Feasibility study for automating the analytical laboratories of the Chemistry Branch, National Enforcement Investigation Center, Environmental Protection Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, W.F.; Fisher, E.R.; Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1978-06-01

    The feasibility of automating the analytical laboratories of the Chemistry Branch of the National Enforcement Investigation Center, Environmental Protection Agency, Denver, Colorado, is explored. The goals of the chemistry laboratory are defined, and instrumental methods and other tasks to be automated are described. Five optional automation systems are proposed to meet these goals and the options are evaluated in terms of cost effectiveness and other specified criteria. The instruments to be automated include (1) a Perkin-Elmer AA spectrophotometer 403, (2) Perkin-Elmer AA spectrophotometer 306, (3) Technicon AutoAnalyzer II, (4) Mettler electronic balance, and a (5) Jarrell-Ash ICP emission spectrometer. (WHK)

  3. Life in Inner Space: Subsurface Microbiology Investigations in Underground Research Laboratories and Deep Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood Lollar, B.; Onstott, T. C.; van Heerden, E.; Kieft, T. L.; Ballentine, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    Chemolithotrophic communities, or microbes drawing their energy for life from geologically produced chemical species rather than from photosynthesis, were discovered in the late 1970's at the mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal vents. This discovery sparked a revolution in our understanding of the range of possible mechanisms for sustaining life and hence in our concept of where on this planet life could be found. Since that time, our understanding that life is not simply a thin veneer on the earth's surface but may permeate deep into the subsurface of this planet has evolved rapidly. Serpentinization of ultramafic rocks and alteration of basaltic ocean floor have been invoked as key mechanisms by which geochemical processes of water-rock interaction may provide energy and reducing power for chemoautotrophic microbial communities on the seafloor. In continental settings, H2-utilizing chemoautotrophic microbial communities have been identified in volcanic hot springs, and research in groundwater aquifers suggests that H2-fueled autotrophic microbial ecosystems might be widespread in continental flood basalts. A major gap remains in our understanding of life in the deep, but not so hot, biosphere. Investigations, particularly in the continental or terrestrial deep subsurface, are recognizing that chemosynthetic communities are not restricted to the high temperature hydrothermal vents and springs, but can be sustained under lower temperature regimes by similar types of water-rock reactions, albeit at slower rates. Dissolved H2 produced via radiolysis and/or serpentinization accumulates in hydrogeologically isolated fractures to concentrations up to 7mM - making these terrestrial environments, like the hydrothermal vents, some of the most H2-rich environments on the planet. The implications of this are profound, as it suggests much larger volumes of the Earth's subsurface may be habitable than previously recognized. These finding have impact on exploration for extant or

  4. Permeability Enhancement in Enhanced Geothermal System as a result of Hydraulic Fracturing and Jacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Mohammadreza; Klepikova, Maria; Fisch, Hansruedi; Amann, Florian; Loew, Simon

    2016-04-01

    A decameter-scale in-situ hydraulic stimulation and circulation (ISC) experiment has been initiated by the newly-founded Swiss Competence Centre for Energy Research - Supply of Electricity (SCCER-SoE) at Nagra's Grimsel Test Site (GTS) as a part of the work-package WP1 of the Deep Underground Laboratory (DUG-Lab) initiative. The experiment area is situated in the southern part of the GTS in a low fracture density volume of the Grimsel granodiorite. The hydraulic properties of the granitic rock mass are supposed to be similar to those expected in the crystalline basement of the alpine foreland where deep enhanced geothermal systems might be developed in future. The main objectives of the multi-disciplinary experiment are to provide a high resolution pre- and post-stimulation characterization of fracture permeability and connectivity, to investigate patterns of preferential flow paths, to describe the pressure propagation during the stimulation phases and to evaluate the efficiency of the fracture-matrix heat exchanger. A comprehensive test & monitoring layout including a fair number of boreholes instrumented with a variety of sensors (e.g. pressure, strain, displacement, temperature, and seismic sensors) is designed to collect detailed data during multiple hydraulic stimulation runs. The diffusion of fluid pressure is expected to be governed mainly by the properties and geometry of the existent fracture network. The hydraulic transmissivity of fractures are in the range of 10-7 to 10-9 m2/s whereas the matrix rock has a very low hydraulic conductivity (K ˜ 10-12 m/s). As part of the stress measurement campaign during the pre-stimulation phase of the ISC experiment, a series of hydraulic fracturing (HF) and hydraulic tests in pre-existing fractures (HTPF) were conducted. The tests were accompanied by micro-seismic monitoring within several observation boreholes to investigate the initiation and propagation of the induced fractures. Together with results from over

  5. Laboratory {open_quotes}proof of principle{close_quotes} investigation for the acoustically enhanced remediation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iovenitti, J.L.; Spencer, J.W. Jr.; Hill, D.G. [Weiss Associates, Emergyville, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Weiss Associates is conducting a three phase program investigating the systematics of using acoustic excitation fields (AEFs) to enhance the in-situ remediation of contaminated soil and ground water under both saturated and unsaturated conditions: Phase I - Laboratory Scale Parametric Investigation; Phase II - Technology Scaling Study; and Phase III - Large Scale Field Tests. Phase I, the subject of this paper, consisted primarily of a laboratory proof of principle investigation. The field deployment and engineering viability of acoustically enhanced remediation (AER) technology was also examined. Phase II is a technology scaling study addressing the scale up between laboratory size samples on the order of inches, and the data required for field scale testing, on the order of hundreds of feet. Phase III will consist of field scale testing at an non-industrialized, non-contaminated site and at a contaminated site to validate the technology. Summarized herein are the results of the Phase I {open_quotes}proof-of-principle{close_quotes} investigation, and recommendations for Phase H. A general overview of AER technology along with the plan for the Phase I investigation was presented.

  6. Electromagnetic Investigations and Power Converter Efficiency Studies on a Laboratory Made Induction Heating Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, M.; Sengupta, M.

    2013-09-01

    In this paper electromagnetic analysis and power converter efficiency has been studied on a laboratory prototype induction heating coil. An electromagnetic field based study was first done for the induction heating coil used in the experimental set-up using available Finite Element Analysis package software (FEMM 4.2). The results of the FEM based study are also used in the choice of the operating frequency depending on the applications. Thereafter verifications are done experimentally on a small-scale laboratory developed setup. The approach to be adopted for choice of induction heating operating frequency and the choice of converter type, based on the efficiency and performance, are also briefly presented here. Oscilloscope traces uphold the accuracy of the practical tests conducted.

  7. Investigation of salt distribution in porous stone material using paper pulp poultices under laboratory condititions and on site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egartner, Isabel; Sass, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    The presented investigation is part of a longer-term project which deals with the influence of salt and moisture on weathering of historic stonework. The main investigation object in the field is a part of the 300 hundred year old boundary wall of the Worchester College in Oxford, UK. A range of non-destructive techniques were applied in course of field campaigns, e.g. mapping of weathering phenomena; handheld moisture sensors; and salt sampling by paper pulp poultices. In a second step we investigated the behaviour and distribution of water and salt solution in a porous material, similar to the limestone of the College wall, under laboratory condititions. Limestone cube samples (5x5x5 cm) were soaked first with ultrapure H2O and second with different concentration of saline solutions of NaCl and Na2SO4. During the dehydration process of the stone cubes a multi-method approach including sampling by drilling, paper pulp poultices, handheld moisture sensor, conductivity sensor and Ion Chromatography (IC) were applied to investigate the moisture and salt content and distribution within the samples. The laboratory analyses were carried out at the department of applied geoscience of the Technical University of Graz, Austria. The main aim was to investigate the effectivity of the paper pulp poultices in soaking up salts from the stone samples and to use the results of the laboratory analysis to interpret and calibrate the field work results from the College wall in Oxford. Keywords: Salt weathering, paper pulp poultices, cultural heritage, field work and laboratory investigation

  8. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  9. Handbook of hydraulic fluid technology

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, George E

    2011-01-01

    ""The Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology"" serves as the foremost resource for designing hydraulic systems and for selecting hydraulic fluids used in engineering applications. Featuring new illustrations, data tables, as well as practical examples, this second edition is updated with essential information on the latest hydraulic fluids and testing methods. The detailed text facilitates unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including important hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants. Written by worldwide experts, the book also offers a rigorous overview of h

  10. Hydraulic Travel Time Tomography Appraisal Using Synthetic Data Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauchler, R.; Cheng, J.; Dietrich, P.; Everett, M.; Johnson, B.

    2003-12-01

    Hydraulic tomography is an aquifer characterization method allowing the two and three dimensional spatial identification of hydraulic properties in the subsurface. Such information is essential for rigorous analysis of a variety of engineering, geotechnical and hydrogeological problems within the context of water resources management. We propose a tomographic approach providing the inversion of travel times of multiwell slug tests. The inversion is based on the relation between the travel times of a recorded transient pressure curve and the diffusivity of the geological medium. Usually, just one value of a measured hydraulic signal, mostly the peak time, is used as the data for the inversion in order to reconstruct the diffusivity field of the investigated system. This situation is not satisfying because much information is lost. Therefore, we have developed a transformation factor allowing to apply our approach to several travel times characterizing each signal. Thereby, each travel time is inverted separately. The main focus is to appraise the influence of the various travel times on the inversion results. It can be assumed that early travel times are dominated by preferential flow along fast, high permeability paths, while the inversion results based on late travel times reflect an integration of the received signal over many flow paths. Synthetic data sets were created using the Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer Code (FEHM) from Los Alamos National Laboratory. The data base of the inversion comprises simulated slug tests, in which the position of the sources (injection ports) and the receivers (observation ports) isolated with packers, are varied between the tests. We also investigate the effects of input parameters such as the number of source-receiver positions used, borehole storage and permeability distribution. The hydraulic tomography appraisal shows a strong dependence of the inversion results on the used travel times and input parameters. Results of

  11. Determining the Porosity and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity of Binary Mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Ward, Anderson L.; Keller, Jason M.

    2009-09-27

    Gravels and coarse sands make up significant portions of some environmentally important sediments, while the hydraulic properties of the sediments are typically obtained in the laboratory using only the fine fraction (e.g., <2 mm or 4.75 mm). Researchers have found that the content of gravel has significant impacts on the hydraulic properties of the bulk soils. Laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the porosity and the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures with different fractions of coarse and fine components. We proposed a mixing-coefficient model to estimate the porosity and a power-averaging method to determine the effective particle diameter and further to predict the saturated hydraulic conductivity of binary mixtures. The proposed methods could well estimate the porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity of the binary mixtures for the full range of gravel contents and was successfully applied to two data sets in the literature.

  12. PETER loop. Multifunctional test facility for thermal hydraulic investigations of PWR fuel elements; PETER Loop. Multifunktionsversuchstand zur thermohydraulischen Untersuchung von DWR Brennelementen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganzmann, I.; Hille, D.; Staude, U. [AREVA NP GmbH (Germany). Materials, Fluid-Structure Interaction, Plant Life Management NTCM-G

    2009-07-01

    The reliable fuel element behavior during the complete fuel cycle is one of the fundamental prerequisites of a safe and efficient nuclear power plant operation. The fuel element behavior with respect to pressure drop and vibration impact cannot be simulated by means of fluid-structure interaction codes. Therefore it is necessary to perform tests using fuel element mock-ups (1:1). AREVA NP has constructed the test facility PETER (PWR fuel element tests in Erlangen) loop. The modular construction allows maximum flexibility for any type of fuel elements. Modern measuring instrumentation for flow, pressure and vibration characterization allows the analysis of cause and consequences of thermal hydraulic phenomena. PETER loop is the standard test facility for the qualification of dynamic fuel element behavior in flowing fluid and is used for failure mode analysis.

  13. Investigation of Yersinia pestis Laboratory Adaptation through a Combined Genomics and Proteomics Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owen P Leiser

    Full Text Available The bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague in humans and animals, normally has a sylvatic lifestyle, cycling between fleas and mammals. In contrast, laboratory-grown Y. pestis experiences a more constant environment and conditions that it would not normally encounter. The transition from the natural environment to the laboratory results in a vastly different set of selective pressures, and represents what could be considered domestication. Understanding the kinds of adaptations Y. pestis undergoes as it becomes domesticated will contribute to understanding the basic biology of this important pathogen. In this study, we performed a parallel serial passage experiment (PSPE to explore the mechanisms by which Y. pestis adapts to laboratory conditions, hypothesizing that cells would undergo significant changes in virulence and nutrient acquisition systems. Two wild strains were serially passaged in 12 independent populations each for ~750 generations, after which each population was analyzed using whole-genome sequencing, LC-MS/MS proteomic analysis, and GC/MS metabolomics. We observed considerable parallel evolution in the endpoint populations, detecting multiple independent mutations in ail, pepA, and zwf, suggesting that specific selective pressures are shaping evolutionary responses. Complementary LC-MS/MS proteomic data provide physiological context to the observed mutations, and reveal regulatory changes not necessarily associated with specific mutations, including changes in amino acid metabolism and cell envelope biogenesis. Proteomic data support hypotheses generated by genomic data in addition to suggesting future mechanistic studies, indicating that future whole-genome sequencing studies be designed to leverage proteomics as a critical complement.

  14. The erosion of carbonate stone by acid rain: Laboratory and field investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baedecker, P.A.; Reddy, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the goals of research on the effects of acidic deposition on carbonate stone surfaces is to define the incremental impact of acidic deposition relative to natural weathering processes on the rate of carbonate stone erosion. If rain that impacts carbonate stone surfaces is resident on the surface long enough to approach chemical equilibrium, the incremental effect of hydrogen ion is expected to be small (i.e., 6% for a rain of pH 4.0). Under nonequilibrium (i.e., high flow rate) conditions, kinetic considerations suggest that the incremental effect of hydrogen ion deposition could be quite significant. Field run-off experiments involving the chemical analysis of rain collected from inclined stone slabs have been used to evaluate stone dissolution processes under ambient conditions of wet and dry deposition of acidic species. The stoichiometry of the reaction of stone with hydrogen ion is difficult to define from the field data due to scatter in the data attributed to hydrodynamic effects. Laboratory run-off experiments show that the stoichiometry is best defined by a reaction with H+ in which CO2 is released from the system. The baseline effect caused by water in equilibrium with atmospheric CO2 is identical in the field and in laboratory simulation. The experiments show that the solutions are close enough to equilibrium for the incremental effect of hydrogen ion to be minor (i.e., 24% for marble for a rain of pH 4.0) relative to dissolution due to water and carbonic acid reactions. Stone erosion rates based on physical measurement are approximately double the recession rates that are due to dissolution (estimated from the observed calcium content of the run-off solutions). The difference may reflect the loss of granular material not included in recession estimates based on the run-off data. Neither the field nor the laboratory run-off experiments indicate a pH dependence for the grain-removal process.

  15. Laboratory and field investigations of particulate and carbon monoxide emissions from traditional and improved cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Christoph A.; Bond, Tami C.; Conway, Stuart; Osorto Pinel, Anibal Benjamin; MacCarty, Nordica; Still, Dean

    We implemented a program in which emission characterization is enabled through collaborations between academic, US and international non-governmental entities that focus on evaluation, dissemination, and in-use testing, of improved cookstoves. This effort resulted in a study of field and laboratory emissions from traditional and improved biofuel cookstoves. We found that field measured particulate emissions of actual cooking average three times those measured during simulated cooking in the laboratory. Emission factors are highly dependent on the care and skill of the operator and the resulting combustion; these do not appear to be accurately reproduced in laboratory settings. The single scattering albedo (SSA) of the emissions was very low in both lab and field measurements, averaging about 0.3 for lab tests and around 0.5 for field tests, indicating that the primary particles are climate warming. Over the course of three summers in Honduras, we measured field emissions from traditional cookstoves, relatively new improved cookstoves, and "broken-in" improved cookstoves. We found that well-designed improved cookstoves can significantly reduce PM and CO emission factors below traditional cookstoves. For improved stoves, the presence of a chimney generally resulted in lower emission factors but left the SSA unaffected. Traditional cookstoves had an average PM emission factor of 8.2 g kg -1 - significantly larger than previous studies. Particulate emission factors for improved cookstoves without and with chimneys averaged about 6.6 g kg -1 and 4.5 g kg -1, respectively. The elemental carbon (EC) fraction of PM varied significantly between individual tests, but averaged about 25% for each of the categories.

  16. Electromagnetic investigation at the site of the Matra Gravitational and Geophysical Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemperger, István; Wesztergom, Viktor; Lévai, Péter; Huba, Géza; Ván, Péter; Novák, Attila; Dávid, Ernő; Piri, Dániel; Vasúth, Mátyás

    2017-04-01

    The Matra Gravitational and Geophysical Laboratory (MGGL) has been established by the MTA Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics in 2015. The primary goal of the subsurface laboratory is to organize proper environment for accurate estimation of geophysical noise at the potential installation site of a third generation gravitational wave detector. Besides seismic and infrasound monitoring electromagnetic (EM) background noise measurement has also been performed by the Geodetic and Geophysical Institute, RCAES, HAS to ensure the expected sensitivity of the detector. In addition to 1kHz sampling of the local origin background signal, natural source EM spectral components has also been proposed to be identified at certain frequencies. The equipment of the MGGL has been complemented by a surface observation site too, to enable the accurate estimation of the EM transfer parameters of the overlying andesite rock. The focus interval of frequency is in the lower ELF. In the 1-20Hz range the natural origin signal is partly related to the global thunderstorm activity, which excites the Earth-ionosphere cavity and results in standing waves at its eigenfrequencies, the so called Schumann components. Individual lightning discharges also provide contribution to the natural background with few millisecond long broadband transient impulses, determined by the local meteorological conditions. Furthermore magnetotelluric exploration has also been performed to find out the spatial distribution of the electric conductivity in the close vicinity of the subsurface laboratory. In the presentation we provide a brief summary of this comprehensive electromagnetic study of the close environment of MGGL.

  17. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Apatite Investigation at the 100-NR-2 Quality Assurance Project Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fix, N. J.

    2008-03-28

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by staff working on the 100-NR-2 Apatite Project. The U.S. Department of Energy, Fluor Hanford, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at 100-N would include apatite sequestration as the primary treatment, followed by a secondary treatment. The scope of this project covers the technical support needed before, during, and after treatment of the targeted subsurface environment using a new high-concentration formulation.

  18. NIF laboratory astrophysics simulations investigating the effects of a radiative shock on hydrodynamic instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, A. A.; Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Huntington, C. M.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B. A.; Kalantar, D.; MacLaren, S.; Raman, K.; Miles, A.; Trantham, Matthew; Kline, J. L.; Flippo, K.; Doss, F. W.; Shvarts, D.

    2016-10-01

    This poster will describe simulations based on results from ongoing laboratory astrophysics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) relevant to the effects of radiative shock on hydrodynamically unstable surfaces. The experiments performed on NIF uniquely provide the necessary conditions required to emulate radiative shock that occurs in astrophysical systems. The core-collapse explosions of red supergiant stars is such an example wherein the interaction between the supernova ejecta and the circumstellar medium creates a region susceptible to Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instabilities. Radiative and nonradiative experiments were performed to show that R-T growth should be reduced by the effects of the radiative shocks that occur during this core-collapse. Simulations were performed using the radiation hydrodynamics code Hyades using the experimental conditions to find the mean interface acceleration of the instability and then further analyzed in the buoyancy drag model to observe how the material expansion contributes to the mix-layer growth. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas under Grant Number DE-FG52-09NA29548.

  19. Moisture impact on building rocks - the laboratory and in situ investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidríková, M. Sc.; Kubičár, D. Sc.

    2012-04-01

    Rocks are influenced by moisture that in combination with temperature, hydrological conditions, climatic conditions, etc. leads to changes of physical and chemical properties. These changes can be observed in the laboratory, where different conditions can be simulated in which the rocks can be found. This work is focused on water transport and moisture determination in various sandstones observed in laboratory conditions and also directly in environment. Porosity affects transport properties of rocks. Experiments are focused on the mechanism distributing the water in sandstones with different porosities. Measurements were carried out by thermal conductivity sensors (Hot-ball sensor) which measure local temperature and local thermal conductivity. The sensor in connection with the RTM device is used for monitoring of the moisture in various sandstones with different porosity. For in situ measurements a moisture sensor is constructed. The sensor is made of the original stone in a form of the cylinder (diameter and length around 20 mm) in which thermal conductivity sensor is placed. The moisture sensor must be calibrated for dry and water saturated state, and then it is inserted into the original site to start monitoring of the impact of surrounding weather conditions on the rock. Meteorological data are correlated to the measured data. Results from water transport and change of moisture in sandstones at various monitoring conditions are presented.

  20. A promising new device to assess key soil hydraulic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Abdallah; Schwilch, Gudrun

    2016-04-01

    . Concerning the paired variables of texture and infiltrated water volume, we found the best correlations to be exponential ones between clay and infiltrated water volume in all cases. Looking at a fixed time interval of 20 minutes, we assumed that the difference in the value of a given hydraulic parameter between samples of disturbed and undisturbed soil of the same texture is due to the additional coarse structures introduced by land use and land cover. This enabled us to determine a factor expressing the impact of structure for each parameter and each type of texture. Overall, the calibrated and validated data from our laboratory and field experiments showed that a simple 20-minute in situ infiltration measurement is sufficient to estimate the key hydraulic parameters. This opens up a new avenue for tackling soil heterogeneity, which is widely acknowledged as the greatest challenge in soil hydrology today. Further investigations are needed to extend our findings to other land uses and land covers.

  1. RCRA Facility Investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This report presents compiled information concerning a facility investigation of waste area group 6(WAG-6), of the solid waste management units (SWMU'S) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The WAG is a shallow ground disposal area for low-level radioactive wastes and chemical wastes. The report contains information on hydrogeological data, contaminant characterization, radionuclide concentrations, risk assessment from doses to humans and animals and associated cancer risks, exposure via food chains, and historical data. (CBS)

  2. RCRA Facility Investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This report presents compiled information concerning a facility investigation of waste area group 6(WAG-6), of the solid waste management units (SWMU's) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The WAG is a shallow ground disposal area for low-level radioactive wastes and chemical wastes. The report contains information on hydrogeological data, contaminant characterization, radionuclide concentrations, risk assessment and baseline human health evaluation including a toxicity assessment, and a baseline environmental evaluation.

  3. Laboratory Investigations of the Complex Refractory Organic Material Produced from Irradiation of Pluto Ice Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materese, Christopher K.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Sanford, Scott A.; Imanaka, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Much of Pluto's surface consists of N2 ice with smaller amounts of CH4 and CO ices. Despite the low temperature (approximately 45K), chemistry can be driven in the surface ices by radiation processing such as cosmic ray bombardment. When cosmic rays strike the surface, much of their energy is dispersed in the form of secondary electrons, which in turn drive much of the resulting chemical reactions. Laboratory experiments designed to simulate the conditions on these icy bodies may provide insight into this chemistry. Significant progress has been made in the laboratory toward understanding the smaller, simple compounds produced in the solid phase by radiation processing of (N2, CH4, CO) ices (Bohn et al. 1994; Moore & Hudson 2003; Hodyss et al. 2011; Kim and Kaiser 2012). Recently Materese et al. (2014) used a variety of techniques to better characterize the refractory materials produced from the UV photo-irradiation of N2:CH4:CO ices. However, because Pluto's atmosphere is optically thick to Lyman-alpha UV radiation it is important to re-examine the results using an alternate radiation source. Our latest work has consisted of the analysis of refractory materials produced from the electron bombardment of low temperature N2(-), CH4(-), and CO(-)containing ices (100:1:1). The ice mixture was chosen to be analogous to the known surface ices on Pluto and the radiation source was chosen to mimic the secondary electrons produced by cosmic rays bombardment. The residues were studied using multiple chemical techniques including, infrared (IR) spectroscopy, X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy, and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The organic residues produced in these experiments can be seen as an analog for the refractory component of the surface of Pluto, and are compared with the residues previously obtained from UV photo-irradiation. UV and near- IR spectroscopy of the surfaces of Pluto and Charon during the encounter with

  4. Memory amplification for trauma: Investigating the role of analogue PTSD symptoms in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulton, Jacinta M; Takarangi, Melanie K T; Strange, Deryn

    2016-08-01

    Victims of trauma often remember their experience as being more traumatic later, compared to immediately after, the event took place. This finding-the "memory amplification effect"-is associated with increased re-experiencing symptoms. However, the effect has been found almost exclusively in field-based studies. We examined whether the effect could be replicated in the laboratory. In two studies, we exposed participants to negative photographs and assessed their memory for the photographs and analogue PTSD symptoms on two occasions. In Study 1, analogue symptoms at follow-up were positively associated with remembering more negative photos over time. In Study 2, we focused on "memory amplifiers": people whose memory of the photos amplified over time. Consistent with field research, analogue re-experiencing symptoms were associated with memory amplification. Overall, our findings confirm that analogue PTSD symptoms are also associated with an amplified memory for a trauma analogue.

  5. Experimental Investigation of Multibunch, Multipass Beam Breakup in the Jefferson Laboratory Free Electron Laser Upgrade Driver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher Tennant; David Douglas; Kevin Jordan; Nikolitsa Merminga; Eduard Pozdeyev; Haipeng Wang; Todd I. Smith; Stefan Simrock; Ivan Bazarov; Georg Hoffstaetter

    2006-03-24

    In recirculating accelerators, and in particular energy recovery linacs (ERLs), the maximum current can be limited by multipass, multibunch beam breakup (BBU), which occurs when the electron beam interacts with the higher-order modes (HOMs) of an accelerating cavity on the accelerating pass and again on the energy recovering pass. This effect is of particular concern in the design of modern high average current energy recovery accelerators utilizing superconducting RF technology. Experimental characterization and observations of the instability at the Jefferson Laboratory 10 kW Free Electron Laser (FEL) are presented. Measurements of the threshold current for the instability are made under a variety of beam conditions and compared to the predictions of several BBU simulation codes. This represents the first time in which the codes have been experimentally benchmarked. With BBU posing a threat to high current beam operation in the FEL Driver, several suppression schemes were developed.

  6. Short-crested waves in deep water: a numerical investigation of recent laboratory experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuhrman, David R.; Madsen, Per A.

    2006-01-01

    A numerical study of quasi-steady, doubly-periodic monochromatic short-crested wave patterns in deep water is conducted using a high-order Boussinesq-type model. Simulations using linear wavemaker conditions in the nonlinear model are initially used to approximate conditions from recent laboratory...... experiments. The computed patterns share many features with those observed in wavetanks, including bending (both frontwards and backwards) of the wave crests, dipping at the crest centerlines, and a pronounced long modulation in the direction of propagation. A new and simple explanation for these features...... is provided, involving the release of spurious free first harmonics, due to the neglect of steady third-order components in the three-dimensional wave generation. A comparison with the experimentally observed beat length and amplitude matches the theoretical/numerical predictions well. Additionally, direct...

  7. The Status of Quality Control Investigation and Analysis for Maternal Serum Marker of Prenatal Screening Laboratories in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Falin; Wang, Wei; Zhong, Kun; Yuan, Shuai; Wang, Zhiguo

    2017-01-01

    This national survey was initiated to investigate the current status of quality control practice of prenatal screening by statistical analysis of the previous half year data of prenatal screening in 2015. Data were sent to all Chinese prenatal screening centers via the National Quality Assessment Scheme. This covered the software used, the risk cutoffs, monthly sample throughput, monthly median MoM of AFP, HCG, β-HCG, free β-HCG and uE3, monthly screening positive rates for trisomy 21, trisomy 18, and Open Neural Tube Defect (ONTD). Screening protocols were versatile, 73.5% (133/181) used the two-marker model, 24.3% (44/181) used the three-marker model, and 2.2% used the four-marker model. Regarding the software used, 350 laboratories never updated the screening parameters, 89 laboratories had updated their median or parameter by manufacturers, and 24 laboratories had updated the parameters by themselves. Cutoffs differ between laboratories. 59.9% (275/459) use 1/270 as their cutoffs for trisomy 21. 66.2% (296/447) use 1/350 as their cutoff for trisomy 18. 96.5% (361/374) use cutoffs between 2.0 - 2.5 MoM for ONTD. Regarding the results of the monthly median MoM, the percentage of laboratories for which all six monthly median MoMs were within the target of 0.90 - 1.10 was 46.7% (155/332) for AFP, 20.0% (4/20) for hCG, 29.2% (28/96) for β-HCG, 15.7% (31/198) for free β-HCG, and 4.8% (11/228) for uE3. The percentage of laboratories for which all six monthly median MoMs were within the target of 0.95 - 1.05 was 14.2% (47/332) for AFP, 0% (0/20) for HCG, 4.3% (4/96) for β-HCG, 12.6% (31/198) for free β-HCG, and 4.8% (11/228) for uE3. Regarding the screening positive rate, there was a difference in the trisomy 21 positive rate in the same laboratory within the six month. There were variations in the types of screening protocols, different kinds of soft platforms, randomness of choice or update of medians or other important parameters, and great difference in the

  8. A laboratory investigation into the aggregation efficiency of small ice crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Connolly

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aggregation of ice crystals and its temperature dependence is studied in the laboratory using a large ice cloud chamber. This process is important to the evolution of ice clouds in earth's atmosphere, yet there have been relatively few laboratory studies quantifying this parameter and its dependence on temperature. A detailed microphysical model is used to interpret the results from the experiments and derive best estimates for the aggregation efficiency as well as error bars. Our best estimates for the aggregation efficiency, at temperatures other than −15 °C, (in the interval −30≤T≤5 °C are mostly in agreement with previous findings, which were derived using a very different approach to that described here. While the errors associated with such experiments are reasonably large, statistically, at temperatures other than −15, we are able to rule out aggregation efficiencies larger than 0.5 at the 75th percentile and rule out non-zero values at −15 °C, whereas at −15 °C we can rule out values higher than 0.85 and values lower than 0.35. The values of the aggregation efficiency shown here may be used in model studies of aggregation, but care must be taken that they only apply for the initial stages of aggregate growth, with humidities at or close to water saturation, and for particles up to a maximum size of ~500 μm. They may therefore find useful application for modelling supercooled mid-level layer clouds that contain ice crystals, which are known to be important radiatively.

  9. Investigating Controls on Denitrification Rates During Managed Aquifer Recharge: Linking Field and Laboratory Column Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, G.; Beganskas, S.; Weir, W. B.; Karim, P.; Saltikov, C.; Hernandez, J.; Fisher, A. T.

    2016-12-01

    We present initial results from a series of laboratory column experiments aimed at elucidating the underlying controls on water quality improvement during managed aquifer recharge (MAR). During field infiltration experiments, we have observed decreases in nitrate (NO3-) concentrations of up to 20% at infiltration rates as high as 15 m/day in the presence of woodchips, but no nitrate removal in the absence of woodchips at slower infiltration rates. These results suggest that the extent of nitrate removal is strongly influenced by the rate of infiltrating water and the presence of a carbon amendment in the form of redwood chips or biochar, which facilitates microbial processing. We probe these relationships at a finer spatial scale with laboratory flow-through column experiments. The columns are constructed as analogues to field experiments, with fluid and substrate sampled directly from field sites. Each day, we sample fluid along the length of the column during experiments to analyze for nitrate, dissolved oxygen, and dissolved organic carbon, in order to track changes in redox conditions and biogeochemistry. The experimental setup allows us to finely control the fluid flow rate and fluid residence time, in order to quantify the relationship between nitrate removal rate and total infiltration rate over a wider range of conditions than is possible during field studies. To determine how the addition of reactive media might increase nitrate removal rates, we conduct side-by-side comparisons of native soil and soil amended with a carbon source. We also analyze changes in nitrate isotope enrichment and microbial ecology to gain a better understanding of the microbial processes and communities responsible for nitrate removal. These field and lab experiments are helping us learn how fluid flow rate, soil type, and availability of carbon sources influences nitrate removal during infiltration for MAR, which can improve the quality of MAR water resources.

  10. Laboratory Investigation on the Strength Gaining of Brick Aggregate Concrete Using Ordinary Portland Cement and Portland Composite Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoque M H, Numen E H, Islam N., Mohammed

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the laboratory investigation of strength variation of brick aggregate concrete made with ordinary Portland cement (OPC and Portland composite cement (PCC.The investigation was conducted by testing concrete cylinder specimens at different ages of concrete with concrete mix ratios: 1:1.5:3 and 1:2:4 by volume and with water cement ratios=0.45 and 0.60. The test result reveals that at the early age, concrete composed with OPC attained larger compressive strength than the concrete made of PCC. However, in the later age concrete made with PCC achieved higher strength than OPC.

  11. Concept Evaluation for Hydraulic Yaw System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2013-01-01

    a suspension system on a car, leading the loads away from the turbine structure. However, to realize a soft hydraulic yaw system a new design concept must be found. As a part of the development of the new concept a preliminary concept evaluation has been conducted, evaluating seven different hydraulic yaw...... concepts, ranging from a one-to-one copy of the electrical drive (electrical drives replaced by hydraulic dittos), to floating suspension systems mounted on hydraulic cylinders. Rough calculations of size and consequences of the different systems are presented ending up with the final concept for further...... investigation. Loads and yaw demands are based on the IEC 61400-1 standard for wind turbine design, and the loads for this examination are extrapolated from the HAWC2 aeroelastic design code. The concepts are based on a 5 MW off-shore turbine....

  12. Hydraulic characterization of hydrothermally altered Nopal tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, R.T.; Meyer-James, K.A. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States); Rice, G. [George Rice and Associates, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Understanding the mechanics of variably saturated flow in fractured-porous media is of fundamental importance to evaluating the isolation performance of the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository for the Yucca Mountain site. Developing that understanding must be founded on the analysis and interpretation of laboratory and field data. This report presents an analysis of the unsaturated hydraulic properties of tuff cores from the Pena Blanca natural analog site in Mexico. The basic intent of the analysis was to examine possible trends and relationships between the hydraulic properties and the degree of hydrothermal alteration exhibited by the tuff samples. These data were used in flow simulations to evaluate the significance of a particular conceptual (composite) model and of distinct hydraulic properties on the rate and nature of water flow.

  13. FEMA DFIRM Hydraulic Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer and accompanying attribute table is required whenever hydraulic structures are shown in the flood profile. It is also required if levees are shown on the...

  14. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on......-going research projects on fluid power and mechatronics based on tap water hydraulic servovalves and linear servo actuators and rotary vane actuators for motion control and power transmission. Development and design a novel water hydraulic rotary vane actuator for robot manipulators. Proposed mathematical...... modelling, control and simulation of a water hydraulic rotary vane actuator applied to power and control a two-links manipulator and evaluate performance. The results include engineering design and test of the proposed simulation models compared with IHA Tampere University’s presentation of research...

  15. Constant-Pressure Hydraulic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, C. W.

    1982-01-01

    Constant output pressure in gas-driven hydraulic pump would be assured in new design for gas-to-hydraulic power converter. With a force-multiplying ring attached to gas piston, expanding gas would apply constant force on hydraulic piston even though gas pressure drops. As a result, pressure of hydraulic fluid remains steady, and power output of the pump does not vary.

  16. Strategy for the use of laboratory methods in the site investigations programme for the transport properties of the rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widestrand, Henrik; Byegaard, Johan [Geosigma AB, Kungaelv (Sweden); Ohlsson, Yvonne [SWECO VIAK AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Tullborg, Eva-Lena [Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)

    2003-06-01

    This report comprises a strategy for the handling of laboratory investigations of diffusivity and sorption characteristics within the discipline-specific programme 'Transport Properties of the Rock' in the SKB site investigations. The aim of the transport programme is to investigate the solute transport properties at a site in order to acquire data that are required for an assessment of the long-term performance and radiological safety of the deep repository. The result of the transport programme is the Transport Properties Site Descriptive Model, i.e. a description of the site-specific properties for the transport of solutes in the groundwater at a site. A strategy for the methodology, control of sampling and characterisation programme and interpretation of the results, is proposed. The basis for the laboratory investigations is a conceptual geological model based on the geological model produced in the geology programme. Major and minor types of rock and fractures are defined and characterised according to the quality of the general database and site-specific needs. The selection of samples and analyses is determined in close co-operation with the geology, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and rock mechanics programmes. The result of the laboratory investigations is a retardation model, which is used as an input in the Transport Properties Site Descriptive Model. The interpretation and production of a retardation model is described and exemplified. Lastly, method-specific strategies and recommendations are given, including strategies for the selection of tracers in the experiments and for the treatment of the sampled geologic materials.

  17. Analysis of the spatiotemporal planform dynamics of braided rivers: a novel laboratory investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redolfi, Marco; Bertoldi, Walter; Tubino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Braided rivers are highly dynamic, labile environments which experience significant morphological changes even during moderate flow events. Recent remote sensing techniques enable to monitor the river morphology with great detail. However, capturing the rapid morphological changes of a large river with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution is still very challenging. As a consequence, quantitative analysis of the braided channel dynamics is often limited to local processes (e.g. a single bifurcation or confluence) and short time periods (e.g. a single flood). This work aims at providing quantitative, statistical description of the channel network dynamics in a braided network at larger spatial and temporal scales, namely the reach scale and the multiple flood scale. This can be achieved using a new technique based on time lapse imagery that we recently developed at the University of Trento. This technique provides high frequency, two dimensional maps of the bed load transport in a large laboratory model, thus allowing to capture the spatiotemporal variability of the transport processes with unprecedented detail. We performed a set of laboratory experiments in a 23 m long, 3 m wide flume, sand bed load flume, where self-formed braided networks can be reproduced. We run several experiments with different discharges and channel widths, lasting for a long time (from 20 to 65 hours) to enable a robust statistical description of the equilibrium morphodynamics. High-resolution pictures were taken at 1 min interval from two SLR cameras, then rectified and merged in order to cover a 7 m long reach. We processed a large number of images to obtain maps of bed load transport, and we developed an algorithm to automatically identifies active (i.e. transporting) channels, bifurcations and confluences. The statistical analysis we performed includes two dimensional correlations, spatial and temporal scales, channel migration rate, avulsion frequency, bank erosion rate. This

  18. Vitellogenin as a biomarker for estrogenic effects in brown trout, Salmo trutta: laboratory and field investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Poul; Hansen, Pernille R; Larsen, Katrine J; Erratico, Claudio; Korsgaard, Bodil; Holbech, Henrik

    2008-11-01

    The sensitivity of juvenile brown trout towards estrogenic chemicals (17beta-estradiol [E2], estrone [E1], 17alpha-ethinylestradiol [EE2], 4-tert-octylphenol [OP], and n-butylparaben [BP]) was tested in laboratory experiments with plasma and liver vitellogenin concentrations as endpoints. Vitellogenin concentrations were also assessed in juvenile brown trout collected in streams affected by agricultural runoff and discharges from scattered houses in the open land. In the laboratory, juvenile brown trout were exposed to the chemicals in flow-through tanks for 7 to 12 d and concentration-response relationships for the induction of vitellogenin synthesis were obtained. The actual exposure concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The median plasma vitellogenin concentration in first year control brown trout reared in recirculated groundwater was 165 ng/ml with 783 ng/ml as the highest value. The median effective concentration (EC50) values for vitellogenin induction (based on plasma concentrations) were 3.7 ng EE2/L, 15 ng E2/L, 88 ng E1/L, 68 microg BP/L, and 7 microg OP/L. Median effective concentrations derived from liver vitellogenin concentrations were similar. The 166 brown trout caught in the field were mainly first and second year fish and a few third year fish. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations were below 1000 ng/L in 146 of the fish, between 1000 ng/L and 4234 ng/L in 19 fish and 5.3 x 10(6) ng/L in one male fish. Vitellogenin concentrations did not differ between first and second year fish, but were elevated in third year fish. The data may indicate that juvenile (<2 years) trout with plasma vitellogenin concentrations above 1000 ng/ml have had their vitellogenin synthesis induced by exposure to estrogens in the environment. Plasma and liver vitellogenin concentrations were closely correlated in brown trout with elevated vitellogenin concentrations. It is noteworthy, however, that exposure to synthetic estrogens (EE2, BP

  19. Air quality investigations of the Sandia National Laboratories Sol se Mete Aerial Cable Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutman, W.M.; Silver, R.J. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Physical Science Lab.

    1994-12-01

    The air quality implications of the test and evaluation activities at the Sandia National Laboratories Sol se Mete Aerial Cable Facility are examined. All facets of the activity that affect air quality are considered. Air contaminants produced directly include exhaust products of rocket motors used to accelerate test articles, dust and gas from chemical explosives, and exhaust gases from electricity generators in the test arenas. Air contaminants produced indirectly include fugitive dust and exhaust contaminants from vehicles used to transport personnel and material to the test area, and effluents produced by equipment used to heat the project buildings. Both the ongoing program and the proposed changes in the program are considered. Using a reliable estimate of th maximum annual testing level, the quantities of contaminants released by project activities ar computed either from known characteristics of test items or from EPA-approved emission factors Atmospheric concentrations of air contaminants are predicted using EPA dispersion models. The predicted quantities and concentrations are evaluated in relation to Federal, New Mexico, an Bernalillo County air quality regulations and the human health and safety standards of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists.

  20. Thermal Contributions to the Degradation of Ground-Laboratory- and Space-Irradiated Teflon Investigated

    Science.gov (United States)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Martin, Morgana

    2003-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is covered with two primary types of thermal control materials, radiators and multilayer insulation blankets, which passively control temperatures during orbit. Both of these thermal control materials utilize back-surface metalized Teflon FEP (DuPont, fluorinated ethylene propylene) as the exterior (spacefacing) layer because of its excellent optical properties (low solar absorptance and high thermal emittance). The aluminized-FEP (Al-FEP) outermost layer of the multilayer insulation blankets on the HST has become embrittled while in space, resulting in severe on-orbit cracking (see the photographs). During the second servicing mission, an extremely embrittled piece of Al-FEP was retrieved that had curled, exposing the backsurface aluminum to space (see the photograph on the right). Because the aluminum surface has a lower thermal emittance than the FEP, this curled piece reached 200 C during orbit, 150 C higher than the nominal temperature extreme. To better understand the effect of temperature on the rate of degradation, and on the mechanism of degradation, of this insulation material in the low-Earth-orbit environment, researchers at the NASA Glenn Research Center conducted experiments to determine the effect of heating on the degradation of FEP that has been irradiated in a ground laboratory facility or in space on the HST. For this study, Teflon FEP retrieved from the HST during the third servicing mission after 9.7 years of space exposure was provided to Glenn by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center.

  1. Alternative buffer material. Status of the ongoing laboratory investigation of reference materials and test package 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Daniel [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Dueck, Ann; Nilsson, Ulf; Olsson, Siv; Sanden, Torbjoern [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Lydmark, Sara; Jaegerwall, Sara; Pedersen, Karsten [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden); Hansen, Staffan [LTH Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2011-07-15

    Bentonite clay is part of the Swedish KBS-3 design of final repositories for high level radioactive waste. Wyoming bentonite with the commercial name MX-80 (American Colloid Co) has long been the reference for buffer material in the KBS-3 concept. Extending the knowledge base of alternative buffer materials will make it possible to optimize regarding safety, availability and cost. For this reason the field experiment Alternative Buffer Material (ABM) was started at Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory during 2006. The experiment includes three medium-scale test packages, each consisting of a central steel tube with heaters, and a buffer of compacted clay. Eleven different clays were chosen for the buffers to examine effects of smectite content, interlayer cations and overall iron content. Also bentonite pellets with and without additional quartz are being tested. The buffer in package 1 had been subjected to wetting by formation water and heating for more than two years (at 130 deg C for {approx} 1 year) when it was retrieved and analyzed. The main purposes of the project were to characterise the clays with respect to hydro-mechanical properties, mineralogy and chemical composition and to identify any differences in behaviour or long term stability. The diversity of clays and the heater of steel also make the experiment suitable for studies of iron-bentonite interactions. This report concerns the work accomplished up to now and is not to be treated as any final report of the project.

  2. Laboratory investigation of aluminum solubility and solid-phase properties following alum treatment of lake waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Jacob; Anderson, Michael A; Graham, Robert C

    2005-10-01

    Water samples from two southern California lakes adversely affected by internal nutrient loading were treated with a 20 mg/L dose of Al3+ in laboratory studies to examine Al solubility and solid-phase speciation over time. Alum [Al2(SO4)3 . 18 H2O] applications to water samples from Big Bear Lake and Lake Elsinore resulted in a rapid initial decrease in pH and alkalinity followed by a gradual recovery in pH over several weeks. Dissolved Al concentrations increased following treatment, reaching a maximum of 2.54 mg/L after 17 days in Lake Elsinore water and 0.91 mg/L after 48 days in Big Bear Lake water; concentrations in both waters then decreased to Lake Elsinore water. Surface areas also decreased over time as crystals reordered to form gibbsite/microcrystalline gibbsite species. DSC-TGA results suggested that the initially formed amorphous Al(OH)3 underwent transformation to >45% gibbsite. These results were supported by geochemical modeling using Visual MINTEQ, with Al solubility putatively controlled by amorphous Al(OH)3 shortly after treatment and approaching that of microcrystalline gibbsite after about 150 days. These findings indicate that Al(OH)3 formed after alum treatment undergoes significant chemical and mineralogical changes that may alter its effectiveness as a reactive barrier to phosphorus release from lake sediments.

  3. Laboratory investigations of granular and hydrodynamic processes in tidewater glacial fjords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathles, Mac; Thompson, Oluwatoyin; Burton, Justin

    Accelerated warming in the past few decades has led to a dramatic increase in glacial activity. This is perhaps most apparent in tidewater glacial fjords, where gravitational flows from ice sheets are focused into narrow channels of thick, fast-flowing ice which terminate into the ocean. The result is a complex system involving both melting and iceberg calving which has a direct impact on the Earth's climate and sea level rise. However, there are numerous inherent difficulties in collecting field data from remote, ice-choked fjords. To address this, we use a laboratory scale model to measure aspects of tidewater glaciers which are not observable in nature. Our model has helped to uncover the source of glacial earthquakes, where floating, cubic-kilometer scaled icebergs capsize due to gravitational instability, and temporarily reverse the velocity of the glacier. In addition, we use our model to address two other important components of tidewater glaciers involving a granular ice mélange which applies stresses on the glacier, and the role of iceberg capsize in disrupting the stratified heat transport at the glacier's terminus. We acknowledge support from NSF DMR-1506446.

  4. The effects of emotion regulation strategies on the pain experience: a structured laboratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Amy J D; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Gagnon, Michelle M; Williams, Jaime; Clark, David

    2015-05-01

    Although emotion regulation modulates the pain experience, inconsistencies have been identified regarding the impact of specific regulation strategies on pain. Our goal was to examine the effects of emotion suppression and cognitive reappraisal on automatic (ie, nonverbal) and cognitively mediated (ie, verbal) pain expressions. Nonclinical participants were randomized into either a suppression (n = 58), reappraisal (n = 51), or monitoring control (n = 42) condition. Upon arrival to the laboratory, participants completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, to quantify self-reported suppression and reappraisal tendencies. Subsequently, they completed a thermal pain threshold and tolerance task. They were then provided with instructions to use, depending on their experimental condition, suppression, reappraisal, or monitoring strategies. Afterward, they were exposed to experimentally induced pain. Self-report measures of pain, anxiety, and tension were administered, and facial expressions, heart rate, and galvanic skin response were recorded. The Facial Action Coding System was used to quantify general and pain-related facial activity (ie, we defined facial actions that occurred during at least 5% of pain stimulation periods as "pain-related actions"). Reappraisal and suppression induction led to reductions in nonverbal and verbal indices of pain. Moreover, self-reported tendencies to use suppression and reappraisal (as measured by the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire) did not interact with experimental condition in the determination of participants' responses. Results suggest that consciously applying emotion regulation strategies during a painful task can moderate both cognitively mediated (e.g., verbal) and automatic (e.g., facial activity) expressions of pain.

  5. Investigation of forbidden transitions in argon ions. [in laboratory plasma for solar corona simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1976-01-01

    An attempt has been made to observe the visible forbidden argon coronal lines at 553.6 nm (Ar X), 691.7 nm (Ar XI), 847.6 nm (Ar XIII), and 441.2 nm (Ar XIV) in a deuterium-argon plasma produced in a large theta pinch. The electron temperature (250 eV) and the electron density (5 by 10 to the 16th power per cu cm) were measured by Thomson scattering of ruby laser radiation. This temperature is adequate to produce ionization stages up to Ar XIV, as was verified by photographic observation of Ar XIV lines. No line corresponding to the coronal lines was observed from the high-temperature plasma, but lines with wavelengths very nearly identical to those of two of the forbidden transitions were observed; these lines were due to allowed transitions of Ar II in a cooler portion of the plasma. Calculation of rate coefficients in the Coulomb-Born approximation shows that for laboratory experiments, electron collisions are much more important than radiative decay in depopulating the upper state of the forbidden lines.

  6. Laboratory-scale investigation of UV treatment of ammonia for livestock and poultry barn exhaust applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockafellow, Erin M; Koziel, Jacek A; Jenks, William S

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of using deep ultraviolet (UV) treatment for abatement of ammonia (NH(3)) in livestock and poultry barn exhaust air was examined in a series of laboratory-scale experiments. These experiments simulated moving exhaust air through an irradiation chamber with variables of UV wavelength and dose, NH(3) concentrations, humidity, and presence of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). Ammonia, initially at relevant barn exhaust concentrations in air, was substantially or completely reduced by irradiation with 185 nm light. Reactions were monitored using chemiluminescence detection, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, of which the latter was found to be the most informative and flexible. Detected nitrogen-containing products included N(2)O, NH(4)NO(3), and HNO(3). It was presumed that atomic oxygen is the primary photochemical product that begins the oxidative cascade. The data show that removal of NH(3) is plausible, but they highlight concerns over pollution swapping due to formation of ozone and N(2)O.

  7. Corrosion of carbon steel by bacteria from North Sea offshore seawater injection systems: laboratory investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipanicev, Marko; Turcu, Florin; Esnault, Loïc; Rosas, Omar; Basseguy, Régine; Sztyler, Magdalena; Beech, Iwona B

    2014-06-01

    Influence of sulfidogenic bacteria, from a North Sea seawater injection system, on the corrosion of S235JR carbon steel was studied in a flow bioreactor; operating anaerobically for 100days with either inoculated or filtrated seawater. Deposits formed on steel placed in reactors contained magnesium and calcium minerals plus iron sulfide. The dominant biofilm-forming organism was an anaerobic bacterium, genus Caminicella, known to produce hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. Open Circuit Potentials (OCP) of steel in the reactors was, for nearly the entire test duration, in the range -800corrosion rate, expressed as 1/(Rp/Ω), was lower in the inoculated seawater though they varied significantly on both reactors. Initial and final corrosion rates were virtually identical, namely initial 1/(Rp/Ω)=2×10(-6)±5×10(-7) and final 1/(Rp/Ω)=1.1×10(-5)±2.5×10(-6). Measured data, including electrochemical noise transients and statistical parameters (0.0545), suggested pitting on steel samples within the inoculated environment. However, the actual degree of corrosion could neither be directly correlated with the electrochemical data and nor with the steel corrosion in the filtrated seawater environment. Further laboratory tests are thought to clarify the noticed apparent discrepancies. © 2013.

  8. Strategies for Creating Prescribed Hydraulic Fractures in Cave Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q.; Suorineni, F. T.; Oh, J.

    2017-04-01

    The cave mining method was traditionally applied to massive low-grade, weak orebodies at shallow depths (less than 500 m) that favour cave propagation under gravity. Currently, this method is being applied to stronger orebodies and is taking place at depths of up to 2000 m below the surface. To ensure continuous cave propagation, preconditioning of the orebody is essential in this latter caving environment to improve rock mass caveability and to decrease fragmentation sizes. Hydraulic fracturing was initiated in the oil industry and is now being used in the cave mining industry as a preconditioning method and for stalled caves reactivation. A limitation of conventional hydraulic fracturing in the cave mining industry is that the hydraulic fracture orientation is uncontrollable and is dictated by the minimum in situ stress orientation. The preconditioning effectiveness of orientation-uncontrollable hydraulic fractures is limited in some geotechnical conditions, and the concept of creating orientation-controllable hydraulic fractures, here termed prescribed hydraulic fractures, is proposed to fill this gap. In this paper, the feasibility of the proposed approaches to creating prescribed hydraulic fractures is presented based on previous studies and numerical modelling. The numerical modelling code reliability in simulating the hydraulic fracture propagation and reorientation process was validated by comparing with laboratory results in the reported literature. In addition, the sensitivity of the prescribed hydraulic fracturing to the in situ stress condition and rock mass properties is examined.

  9. Health and safety plan for the Remedial Investigation and Site Investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cofer, G.H.; Holt, V.L.; Roupe, G.W.

    1993-11-01

    This health and safety plan (HASP) was developed by the members of the Measurement Applications and Development Group of the Health Science Research Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This plan was prepared to ensure that health and safety related items for the Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 Remedial Investigation (RI)/Feasibility Study and Site Investigation projects conform with the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.120 (April 18, 1992). The RI Plan calls for the characterization, monitoring, risk assessment, and identification of remedial needs and alternatives that have been structured and staged with short-term and long-term objectives. In early FY 1992, the WAG 2 RI was integrated with the ORNL Environmental Restoration (ER) Site Investigations program in order to achieve the complimentary objectives of the projects more effectively by providing an integrated basis of support. The combined effort was named the WAG 2 Remedial Investigation and Site Investigations Program (WAG 2 RI&SI). The Site Investigation activities are a series of monitoring efforts and directed investigations that support other ER activities by providing information about (1) watershed hydrogeology; (2) contaminants, pathways, and fluxes for groundwater at ORNL; (3) shallow subsurface areas that can act as secondary sources of contaminants; and (4) biological populations and contaminants in biota, in addition to other support and coordination activities.

  10. The bloody truth: Investigating nurse phlebotomy competencies at a private laboratory in Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizelle Crous

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: The reason for improving nurses' phlebotomy skills is to ensure accurate results that will assist clinicians caring for their patients. The results suggest that knowledge and skills were acquired, however further investigations are needed for guidance in the standardisation of training programmes and at what intervals should these training programmes be presented.

  11. Laboratory and field investigation of chemical disinfection of combined sewer overflow in Copenhagen area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Thornberg, Dines; Berner, Jesper;

    We investigated the possibility to apply performic acid (PFA) and peracetic acid (PAA) for disinfection of combined sewer overflow (CSO) in existing CSO management infrastructures. The disinfection power of PFA and PAA to Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterococcus were studied in batch scale...

  12. Laboratory Investigation of Rill Erosion on Compost Blankets under Concentrated Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A flume study was conducted using a soil, yard waste compost, and an erosion control compost to investigate the response to concentrated flow and determine if the shear stress model could be used to describe the response. Yard waste compost (YWC) and the bare Cecil soil (CS) cont...

  13. Laboratory investigation of bitumen based on round robin DSC and AFM tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soenen, H.; Besamusca, J.; Fischer, H.R.; Poulikakos, L.D.; Planche, J.P.; Das, P.K.; Kringos, N.; Grenfell, J.R.A.; Lu, X.; Chailleux, E.

    2014-01-01

    In the past years a wide discussion has been held among asphalt researchers regarding the existence and interpretation of observed microstructures on bitumen surfaces. To investigate this, the RILEM technical committee on nano bituminous materials 231-NBM has conducted a round robin study combining

  14. Laboratory Investigation of Rill Erosion on Compost Blankets under Concentrated Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A flume study was conducted using a soil, yard waste compost, and an erosion control compost to investigate the response to concentrated flow and determine if the shear stress model could be used to describe the response. Yard waste compost (YWC) and the bare Cecil soil (CS) cont...

  15. Laboratory Investigations in Support of Dioxide-Limestone Sequestration in the Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Golomb; Eugene Barry; David Ryan; Stephen Pennell; Carl Lawton; Peter Swett; Devinder Arora; John Hannon; Michael Woods; Huishan Duan; Tom Lawlor

    2008-09-30

    Research under this Project has proven that liquid carbon dioxide can be emulsified in water by using very fine particles as emulsion stabilizers. Hydrophilic particles stabilize a CO{sub 2}-in-H{sub 2}O (C/W) emulsion; hydrophobic particles stabilize a H{sub 2}O-in-CO{sub 2} (W/C) emulsion. The C/W emulsion consists of tiny CO{sub 2} droplets coated with hydrophilic particles dispersed in water. The W/C emulsion consists of tiny H{sub 2}O droplets coated with hydrophobic particles dispersed in liquid carbon dioxide. The coated droplets are called globules. The emulsions could be used for deep ocean sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Liquid CO{sub 2} is sparsely soluble in water, and is less dense than seawater. If neat, liquid CO{sub 2} were injected in the deep ocean, it is likely that the dispersed CO{sub 2} droplets would buoy upward and flash into vapor before the droplets dissolve in seawater. The resulting vapor bubbles would re-emerge into the atmosphere. On the other hand, the emulsion is denser than seawater, hence the emulsion plume would sink toward greater depth from the injection point. For ocean sequestration a C/W emulsion appears to be most practical using limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) particles of a few to ten ?m diameter as stabilizing agents. A mix of one volume of liquid CO{sub 2} with two volumes of H{sub 2}O, plus 0.5 weight of pulverized limestone per weight of liquid CO{sub 2} forms a stable emulsion with density 1087 kg m{sup -3}. Ambient seawater at 500 m depth has a density of approximately 1026 kg m{sup -3}, so the emulsion plume would sink by gravity while entraining ambient seawater till density equilibrium is reached. Limestone is abundant world-wide, and is relatively cheap. Furthermore, upon disintegration of the emulsion the CaCO{sub 3} particles would partially buffer the carbonic acid that forms when CO{sub 2} dissolves in seawater, alleviating some of the concerns of discharging CO{sub 2} in the deep ocean. Laboratory experiments showed

  16. Laboratory Investigations in Support of Dioxide-Limestone Sequestration in the Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Golomb; Eugene Barry; David Ryan; Stephen Pennell; Carl Lawton; Peter Swett; Devinder Arora; John Hannon; Michael Woods; Huishan Duan; Tom Lawlor

    2008-09-30

    Research under this Project has proven that liquid carbon dioxide can be emulsified in water by using very fine particles as emulsion stabilizers. Hydrophilic particles stabilize a CO{sub 2}-in-H{sub 2}O (C/W) emulsion; hydrophobic particles stabilize a H{sub 2}O-in-CO{sub 2} (W/C) emulsion. The C/W emulsion consists of tiny CO{sub 2} droplets coated with hydrophilic particles dispersed in water. The W/C emulsion consists of tiny H{sub 2}O droplets coated with hydrophobic particles dispersed in liquid carbon dioxide. The coated droplets are called globules. The emulsions could be used for deep ocean sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Liquid CO{sub 2} is sparsely soluble in water, and is less dense than seawater. If neat, liquid CO{sub 2} were injected in the deep ocean, it is likely that the dispersed CO{sub 2} droplets would buoy upward and flash into vapor before the droplets dissolve in seawater. The resulting vapor bubbles would re-emerge into the atmosphere. On the other hand, the emulsion is denser than seawater, hence the emulsion plume would sink toward greater depth from the injection point. For ocean sequestration a C/W emulsion appears to be most practical using limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) particles of a few to ten ?m diameter as stabilizing agents. A mix of one volume of liquid CO{sub 2} with two volumes of H{sub 2}O, plus 0.5 weight of pulverized limestone per weight of liquid CO{sub 2} forms a stable emulsion with density 1087 kg m{sup -3}. Ambient seawater at 500 m depth has a density of approximately 1026 kg m{sup -3}, so the emulsion plume would sink by gravity while entraining ambient seawater till density equilibrium is reached. Limestone is abundant world-wide, and is relatively cheap. Furthermore, upon disintegration of the emulsion the CaCO{sub 3} particles would partially buffer the carbonic acid that forms when CO{sub 2} dissolves in seawater, alleviating some of the concerns of discharging CO{sub 2} in the deep ocean. Laboratory experiments showed

  17. Noise and vibration investigations of the Sandia National Laboratories Sol se Mete Aerial Cable Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matise, B.K.; Gutman, W.M.; Cunniff, R.A.; Silver, R.J.; Stepp, W.E. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Physical Science Lab.

    1994-11-01

    This document is an assessment of the noise, vibration, and overpressure effects and fragmentation hazards of the operation of the Sandia National Laboratories Sol de Mete Aerial Cable Facility (ACF). Major noise sources associated with project operations and considered in this report include rocket motors, chemical explosions, 3-inch gun, 20-mm gun, vehicular traffic, and engines of electricity generators. In addition, construction equipment noise is considered. Noise exposure of ACF personnel is expressed as the equivalent sound level for the 8-hour work day, and is computed by scaling to the proper distance and combining the appropriate noise values for continuously operating equipment such as vehicles and generators. Explosions and gun firings are impulsive events, and overpressures are predicted and expressed as decibel (dB) at the control building, at other nearby facilities, at Sol se Mete. The conclusion reached in the noise analysis is that continuously operating equipment would not produce a serious noise hazard except in the immediate vicinity of the electricity generators and heavy equipment where hearing protection devices should be used. Rocket motors, guns, and detonations of less than 54 kilograms (kg) (120 lb) of explosives would not produce noise levels above the threshold for individual protection at the control building, other nearby test areas, or Sol se Mete Spring. Rare tests involving explosive weights between 54 and 454 kg (120 and 1,000 lb) could produce impulsive noise levels above 140 dB that would require evacuation or other provision for individual hearing protection at the ACF control building and at certain nearby facilities not associated with ACF. Other blast effects including overpressure, ground vibration, and fragmentation produce hazard radii that generally are small than the corresponding noise hazard radius, which is defined as the distance at which the predicted noise level drops to 140 dB.

  18. Laboratory investigations of the photochemical decay of alkylbromides trapped in ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrems, Otto; Okaikwei, Bismark; Bluszcz, Thaddäus

    2014-05-01

    Photochemical reactions of atmospheric trace gases taking place at the surface of atmospheric ice particles and in bulk ice are important in tropospheric chemistry but also in polar and alpine snowpack chemistry. Consequently, the understanding of the uptake und incorporation of tropospheric trace gases in water ice as well as their interactions with water molecules is very important for the understanding of processes which occur in ice particles and at the air/ice interface. Reactive atmospheric trace gases trapped in ice are subject of photochemical reactions when irradiated with solar UV radiation. Among such compounds bromine species are highly interesting due to their potential of depleting ozone both in the stratosphere and troposphere. Methyl bromide (CH3Br) is the largest bromine carrier to the stratosphere. It has both natural and anthropogenic sources. In this contribution we will present the results of our laboratory studies of alkyl bromides (methyl bromide (CH3Br), methyl dibromide (CH2Br2), n-propyl bromide (C3H7Br), 1,2-dibromoethane C2H4Br2)), trapped in water ice. We have simulated the UV photochemistry of these brominated alkanes isolated in ice films kept at 16 K and for comparison in solid argon matrices. The photoproducts formed in the ice have been identified by means of FTIR spectroscopy. Reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) is especially useful to study nascent ice surfaces, kinetics of adsorption/decomposition, and heterogeneous catalysis. Among the observed photoproducts we could identify carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for each alkyl bromide studied. The photoproduct HBr is dissociated in the bulk ice. Based on the experimental observations possible reaction mechanisms will be discussed.

  19. Laboratory investigations of the physics of steam flow in a porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herkelrath, W.N.; Moench, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in the laboratory to test a theory of transient flow of pure steam in a uniform porous medium. This theory is used extensively in modeling pressure-transient behavior in vapor-dominated geothermal systems. Transient, superheated steam-flow experiments were run by bringing a cylinder of porous material to a uniform initial pressure, and then making a step increase in pressure at one end of the sample, while monitoring the pressure-transient breakthrough at the other end. It was found in experiments run at 100?, 125?, and 146?C that the time required for steam-pressure transients to propagate through an unconsolidated material containing sand, silt, and clay was 10 to 25 times longer than predicted by theory. It is hypothesized that the delay in the steam-pressure transient was caused by adsorption of steam in the porous sample. In order to account for steam adsorption, a sink term was included in the conservation of mass equation. In addition, energy transfer in the system has to be considered because latent heat is released when steam adsorption occurs, increasing the sample temperature by as much as 10?C. Finally, it was recognized that the steam pressure was a function of both the temperature and the amount of adsorption in the sample. For simplicity, this function was assumed to be in equilibrium adsorption isotherm, which was determined by experiment. By solving the modified mass and energy equations numerically, subject to the empirical adsorption isotherm relationship, excellent theoretical simulation of the experiments was achieved. The experiments support the hypothesis that adsorption of steam can strongly influence steam pressure-transient behavior in porous media; the results suggest that the modified steam-flow theory, which includes steam adsorption terms, should be used in modeling steam flow in vapor-dominated geothermal systems.

  20. A laboratory investigation into the effects of slope on lava flow morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Tracy K. P.; Fink, Jonathan H.

    2000-03-01

    In an attempt to model the effect of slope on the dynamics of lava flow emplacement, four distinct morphologies were repeatedly produced in a series of laboratory simulations where polyethylene glycol (PEG) was extruded at a constant rate beneath cold sucrose solution onto a uniform slope which could be varied from 1° through 60°. The lowest extrusion rates and slopes, and highest cooling rates, produced flows that rapidly crusted over and advanced through bulbous toes, or pillows (similar to subaerial "toey" pahoehoe flows and to submarine pillowed flows). As extrusion rate and slope increased, and cooling rate decreased, pillowed flows gave way to rifted flows (linear zones of liquid wax separated by plates of solid crust, similar to what is observed on the surface of convecting lava lakes), then to folded flows with surface crusts buckled transversely to the flow direction, and, at the highest extrusion rates and slopes, and lowest cooling rates, to leveed flows, which solidified only at their margins. A dimensionless parameter, Ψ, primarily controlled by effusion rate, cooling rate and flow viscosity, quantifies these flow types. Increasing the underlying slope up to 30° allows the liquid wax to advance further before solidifying, with an effect similar to that of increasing the effusion rate. For example, conditions that produce rifted flows on a 10° slope result in folded flows on a 30° slope. For underlying slopes of 40°, however, this trend reverses, slightly owing to increased gravitational forces relative to the strength of the solid wax. Because of its significant influence on heat advection and the disruption of a solid crust, slope must be incorporated into any quantitative attempt to correlate eruption parameters and lava flow morphologies. These experiments and subsequent scaling incorporate key physical parameters of both an extrusion and its environment, allowing their results to be used to interpret lava flow morphologies on land, on the

  1. Laboratory investigation of inorganic carbon uptake by cryoconite debris from Werenskioldbreen, Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stibal, Marek; Tranter, Martyn

    2007-12-01

    Laboratory experiments were undertaken to determine the inorganic carbon uptake rate and the interactions between photosynthesis and water chemistry, particularly pH and nutrient concentrations, for cryoconite debris from Werenskioldbreen, a well-researched Svalbard glacier. Microorganisms in cryoconite debris took up inorganic carbon at rates between 0.6 and 15 μg C L-1 h-1 and fixed it as organic carbon. Cyanobacterial photosynthesis (75-93%) was the main process responsible for inorganic carbon fixation, while heterotrophic uptake (6-15%) only accounted for a minor part. The microbes in cryoconite debris were active shortly after melt and fixed carbon as long as there were favorable conditions. They were not truly psychrophilic: their physiological optimum temperature was higher than is prevalent in cryoconite holes. The pH was also a factor affecting photosynthesis in the cryoconite slurry. The highest dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) uptake rates per liter of slurry occurred at pH ˜7, and there was a significant correlation between the initial pH and DIC fixation on a per cell basis, showing increasing DIC uptake rates when pH increased from ˜5.5 to 9. Inorganic carbon fixation resulted in an increased pH in solution. However, the microbes were able to photosynthesize in a wide range of pH from ˜4 to ˜10. The average C:N:P molar ratios in solution were ˜350:75:1. Unlike nitrogen, phosphorus concentrations decreased with increasing carbon uptake, and when the rate approached ˜15 μg C L-1 h-1, all available dissolved phosphorus was utilized within 6 h. Hence phosphorus is probably biolimiting in this system.

  2. Protocol for further laboratory investigations into the distribution of infectivity of Atypical BSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Information on the pathogenesis and tissue distribution of Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE in cattle through the study of field cases and experimental transmission studies is lacking. The latter are limited to transmission of Atypical BSE through intracerebral (i.c. inoculation of cattle. All data currently available relate to the presence or absence of PrPSc, but do not quantify relative amounts of PrPSc or levels of infectivity. A laboratory protocol for further studies is recommended, to allow the assessment of the relative infectious titre, PrPSc accumulation and prion seeding activity in the tissues of cattle that developed H-BSE or L-BSE (using posterior brainstem as a reference. Tissues to be covered by those studies are categorised in three priorities, based on their inclusion in the list of specific risk material in cattle, on the presence of infectivity, or PrPSc presence, demonstrated in Atypical BSEs or other Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies (TSEs in ruminants, and on the importance in terms of input into the food chain in the EU. The protocol provides details in terms of the minimum number of animals to be tested, processing and preparation of tissues, and methods to be used to identify abnormal PrP and quantify infectivity, also depending on the expected level of infectivity and amount of tissue available for analysis. It is recommended that, through the implementation of the protocol, information should also be obtained on the performance of currently validated rapid tests for TSE active surveillance in cattle/bioassay for detecting H-BSE and L-BSE agents.

  3. Biological investigations of the Sandia National Laboratories Sol se Mete Aerial Cable Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides results of a comprehensive biological field survey performed on the Sandia National Laboratories Aerial Cable Facility, at the east end of Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB), Bernalillo County, New Mexico. This survey was conducted late September through October, 1991. ACF occupies a 440-acre tract of land withdrawn by the US Forest Service (USFS) for use by KAFB, and in turn placed under operational control of SNL by the Department of Energy (DOE). All land used by SNL for ACF is part of a 15,851-acre tract of land withdrawn by the US Forest Service. In addition, a number of different organizations use the 15,851-acre area. The project area used by SNL encompasses portions of approximately six sections (3,840 acres) of US Forest Service land located within the foothills of the west side of the Manzano Mountains (East Mesa). The biological study area is used by the KAFB, the US Department of Interior, and SNL. This area includes: (1) Sol se Mete Springs and Canyon, (2) East Anchor Access Road, (3) East Anchor Site, (4) Rocket Sled Track, (5) North Arena, (6) East Instrumentation Site and Access Road, (7) West Anchor Access Road, (8) West Anchor Site, (9) South Arena, (10) Winch Sites, (11) West Instrumentation Sites, (12) Explosive Assembly Building, (13) Control Building, (14) Lurance Canyon Road and vicinity. Although portions of approximately 960 acres of withdrawn US Forest Service land have been altered, only 700 acres have been disturbed by activities associated with ACF; approximately 2,880 acres consist of natural habitat. Absence of grazing by livestock and possibly native ungulates, and relative lack of human disturbance have allowed this area to remain in a more natural vegetative state relative to the condition of private range lands throughout New Mexico. This report evaluates threatened and endangered species found on ACF, as well as a comprehensive assessment of biological habitats.

  4. Updated one-dimensional hydraulic model of the Kootenai River, Idaho-A supplement to Scientific Investigations Report 2005-5110

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Christiana R.; Barton, Gary J.

    2011-01-01

    The Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, in cooperation with local, State, Federal, and Canadian agency co-managers and scientists, is assessing the feasibility of a Kootenai River habitat restoration project in Boundary County, Idaho. The restoration project is focused on recovery of the endangered Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population, and simultaneously targets habitat-based recovery of other native river biota. River restoration is a complex undertaking that requires a thorough understanding of the river and floodplain landscape prior to restoration efforts. To assist in evaluating the feasibility of this endeavor, the U.S. Geological Survey developed an updated one-dimensional hydraulic model of the Kootenai River in Idaho between river miles (RMs) 105.6 and 171.9 to characterize the current hydraulic conditions. A previously calibrated model of the study area, based on channel geometry data collected during 2002 and 2003, was the basis for this updated model. New high-resolution bathymetric surveys conducted in the study reach between RMs 138 and 161.4 provided additional detail of channel morphology. A light detection and ranging (LIDAR) survey was flown in the Kootenai River valley in 2005 between RMs 105.6 and 159.5 to characterize the floodplain topography. Six temporary gaging stations installed in 2006-08 between RMs 154.1 and 161.2, combined with five permanent gaging stations in the study reach, provided discharge and water-surface elevations for model calibration and verification. Measured discharges ranging from about 4,800 to 63,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) were simulated for calibration events, and calibrated water-surface elevations ranged from about 1,745 to 1,820 feet (ft) throughout the extent of the model. Calibration was considered acceptable when the simulated and measured water-surface elevations at gaging stations differed by less than (+/-)0.15 ft. Model verification consisted of simulating 10 additional events with

  5. RCRA Facility investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 6, Technical memorandums 06-13, 06-14, and 06-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannard, J. R.; Wilson, R. C.; Zondlo, T. F.

    1991-09-01

    This report describes the borehole geophysical logging performed at selected monitoring wells at waste area grouping (WAG) 6 of Oak Ridge National Laboratory in support of the WAG 6 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation (RFI). It identifies the locations and describes the methods, equipment used in the effort, and the results of the activity. The actual logs for each well logged are presented in Attachment 1 through 4 of the TM. Attachment 5 provide logging contractor service literature and Attachment 6 is the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Procedure for Control of a Nuclear Source Utilized in Geophysical logging. The primary objectives of the borehole geophysical logging program were to (1) identify water-bearing fractured bedrock zones to determine the placement of the screen and sealed intervals for subsequent installation, and (2) further characterize local bedrock geology and hydrogeology and gain insight about the deeper component of the shallow bedrock aquifer flow system. A secondary objective was to provide stratigraphic and structural correlations with existing logs for Hydraulic Head Monitoring Station (HHMS) wells, which display evidence of faulting.

  6. Biofuels spills in surface waters - a laboratory investigation of mixing and interfacial dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxiang; Cotel, Aline

    2016-11-01

    There are increasing risks of spills of ethanol-based biofuels in aquatic environments, however the environmental impact of such accidents is poorly understood and no adequate mitigation strategies are in place today. The interaction of water and biofuels is a complex dynamical problem and we aim to quantify the physical processes involved in such dynamics. A solution of ethanol and glycol is used to represent a typical ethanol-based fuel. A small-scale Plexiglas tank has been designed to investigate the effect of natural conditions on the mixing of water and biofuels, e.g. slope angle, flow rate, wave amplitude and frequency in wind driven conditions. Our previous work showed that the existence of two distinct mixing regimes; a first turbulence-driven fast mixing regime and a second regime driven by interface instabilities. We investigate these mixing regimes under an extended range of physical parameters representing more natural configurations. Funded by NSF.

  7. Cleaning Aged EPDM Rubber Roofing Membrane Material for Patching: Laboratory Investigations and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    membranes made from vulcanized cthylcne-propylenc-dienc terpolymer (EPDM) rubber as the waterproofing component of low-sloped roofing systems has...terpolymer). The use of vulcanized EPDM rubber for low-sloped roofing membranes has become common in the U.S. Current estimates indicate that more than 93...would provide a means for obtaining field data on this proposed tesi , which has not yet been investigated in the field. 45 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND

  8. An exploratory investigation of the translation of Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s print manuals system to an on-line manuals system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heubach, J.G.; Hunt, S.T.; Pond, L.R.

    1992-06-01

    Information management technology has proliferated in the past decade in response to the information explosion. As documentation accumulates, the need to access information residing in manuals, handbooks and regulations conveniently, accurately, and quickly has increased. However, studies show that only fractions of the available information is read (Martin, 1978). Consequently, one of the biggest challenges in linking information and electronic management of information is to use the power of communication technology to meet the information needs of the audience. Pacific Northwest Laboratories` (PNL) investigation of translating its print manual system to an on-line system fits this challenge precisely. PNL`s manuals contain a tremendous amount of information for which manual holders are responsible. To perform their tasks in compliance with policy and procedure guidelines, users need to access information accurately, conveniently, and quickly. In order to select and use information management tools wisely, answers must be sought to a few basic questions. Communication experts cite four key questions: What do users want? What do users need? What characteristics of an on-line information system affect its usefulness? Who are the users whose wants and needs are to be met? Once these questions are answered, attention can be focused on finding the best match between user requirements and technology characteristics and weighing the costs and benefits of proposed options.

  9. Surface radiological investigation of Trench 5 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, D.D.

    1991-08-01

    A surface radiological investigation of areas encompassing Trench 5 on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) was conducted from May 1990 through November 1990. This survey was led by the author, assisted by various members of the Measurement Applications and Development (MAD) group of the Health and Safety Research Division (HASRD) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the presence, nature, and extent of surface radiological contamination at Trench 5, the Homogeneous Reactor Experiment fuel wells, and surrounding areas. Based on the data obtained in the field, interim corrective measures were recommended to limit human exposure to radioactivity and to minimize insult to the environment. It should be stressed that this project was not intended to be a complete site characterization but rather to be a preliminary investigation into the potential contamination problem that might exist as a result of past operations at Trench 5.

  10. Hydraulic Model Investigation. Effects of Wave Action on a Hurricane Protection Structure for London Avenue Outfall Canal, Lake Pontchartrain New Orleans, Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-01

    Information Technology Laboratory, WES. COL D. G. Lee, CE, was Commander and Director of WES during the prepara- tion and publication of the report. Dr... MOBL LANPOI Al NE CHADELEUR )$EN OORLEANS 1 I.’ 3* i-I T 0A’M x INOEX --. LI~iTS I I * AI Figure~~~~~~~ 2. LoainoWodnAeu ufl aaI 5I.N RT f~~~C wraft

  11. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Tatiana; Zuniga Zamalloa, Carlo; Jackson, P Ryan; Murphy, Elizabeth A; Garcia, Marcelo H

    2015-01-01

    Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter) as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this research study

  12. A Laboratory Investigation of the Suspension, Transport, and Settling of Silver Carp Eggs Using Synthetic Surrogates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Garcia

    Full Text Available Asian carp eggs are semi-buoyant and must remain suspended in the water to survive, supported by the turbulence of the flow, until they hatch and develop the ability to swim. Analysis of the transport and dispersal patterns of Asian carp eggs will facilitate the development and implementation of control strategies to target the early life stages. Experimenting with Asian carp eggs is complicated due to practical issues of obtaining eggs in close proximity to experimental facilities and extensive handling of eggs tends to damage them. Herein, we describe laboratory experiments using styrene beads (4.85 mm diameter as synthetic surrogate eggs to mimic the physical properties of water-hardened silver carp eggs. The first set of experiments was completed in a rectangular vertical column filled with salt water. The salinity of the water was adjusted in an iterative fashion to obtain a close approximation of the fall velocity of the styrene beads to the mean fall velocity of silver carp water-hardened eggs. The terminal fall velocity of synthetic eggs was measured using an image processing method. The second set of experiments was performed in a temperature-controlled recirculatory flume with a sediment bed. The flume was filled with salt water, and synthetic eggs were allowed to drift under different flow conditions. Drifting behavior, suspension conditions, and settling characteristics of synthetic eggs were observed. At high velocities, eggs were suspended and distributed through the water column. Eggs that touched the sediment bed were re-entrained by the flow. Eggs saltated when they touched the bed, especially at moderate velocities and with a relatively flat bed. At lower velocities, some settling of the eggs was observed. With lower velocities and a flat bed, eggs were trapped near the walls of the flume. When bedforms were present, eggs were trapped in the lee of the bedforms in addition to being trapped near the flume walls. Results of this

  13. An experimental investigation of reacting and nonreacting coaxial jet mixing in a laboratory rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumaker, Stephen Alexander

    Coaxial jets are commonly used as injectors in propulsion and combustion devices due to both the simplicity of their geometry and the rapid mixing they provide. In liquid rocket engines it is common to use coaxial jets in the context of airblast atomization. However, interest exists in developing rocket engines using a full flow staged combustion cycle. In such a configuration both propellants are injected in the gaseous phase. In addition, gaseous coaxial jets have been identified as an ideal test case for the validation of the next generation of injector modeling tools. For these reasons an understanding of the fundamental phenomena which govern mixing in gaseous coaxial jets and the effect of combustion on these phenomena in coaxial jet diffusion flames is needed. A study was performed to better understand the scaling of the stoichiometric mixing length in reacting and nonreacting coaxial jets with velocity ratios greater than one and density ratios less than one. A facility was developed that incorporates a single shear coaxial injector in a laboratory rocket engine capable of ten atmospheres. Optical access allows the use of flame luminosity and laser diagnostic techniques such as Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF). Stoichiometric mixing lengths (LS), which are defined as the distance along the centerline where the stoichiometric condition occurs, were measured using PLIF. Acetone was seeded into the center jet to provide direct PLIF measurement of the average and instantaneous mixture fraction fields for a range of momentum flux ratios for the nonreacting cases. For the coaxial jet diffusion flames, LS was measured from OH radical contours. For nonreacting cases the use of a nondimensional momentum flux ratio was found to collapse the mixing length data. The flame lengths of coaxial jet diffusion flames were also found to scale with the momentum flux ratio but different scaling constants are required which depended on the chemistry of the reaction. The

  14. The laboratory investigation of surface envelope solitons: reflection from a vertical wall and collisions of solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slunyaev, Alexey; Klein, Marco; Clauss, Günther F.

    2016-04-01

    Envelope soliton solutions are key elements governing the nonlinear wave dynamics within a simplified theory for unidirectional weakly modulated weakly nonlinear wave groups on the water surface. Within integrable models the solitons preserve their structure in collisions with other waves; they do not disperse and can carry energy infinitively long. Steep and short soliton-like wave groups have been shown to exist in laboratory tests [1] and, even earlier, in numerical simulations [2, 3]. Thus, long-living wave groups may play important role in the dynamics of intense sea waves and wave-structure interactions. The solitary wave groups may change the wave statistics and can be taken into account when developing approaches for the deterministic forecasting of dangerous waves, including so-called rogue waves. An experimental campaign has been conducted in the wave basin of the Technical University of Berlin on simulations of intense solitary wave groups. The first successful experimental observation of intense envelope solitons took place in this facility [1]. The new experiments aimed at following main goals: 1) to reproduce intense envelope solitons with different carrier wave lengths; 2) to estimate the rate of envelope soliton dissipation; 3) to consider the reflection of envelope solitons on a vertical wall; 4) to consider head-on collisions of envelope solitons, and 5) to consider overtaking interactions of envelope solitons. Up to 9 wave gauges were used in each experimental run, which enabled registration of the surface movement at different distances from the wavemaker, at different locations across the wave flume and near the wall. Besides surface displacements, the group envelope shapes were directly recorded, with use of phase shifts applied to the modulated waves generated by the wavemaker. [1] A. Slunyaev, G.F. Clauss, M. Klein, M. Onorato, Simulations and experiments of short intense envelope solitons of surface water waves. Phys. Fluids 25, 067105

  15. In situ and laboratory investigations of fluid flow through an argillaceous formation at different scales of space and time, Tournemire tunnel, southern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisson, Jean-Yves; Bertrand, Lucien; Heitz, Jean-François; Golvan, Yann Moreau-Le

    2001-01-01

    In the context of a research and development program on waste disposal, an experimental site (Tournemire tunnel, Aveyron, France) was selected by the French Institute for Nuclear Protection and Safety (IPSN) in order to undertake studies on potential fluid flow at different scales of space and time within a 250-m-thick argillaceous formation. The argillite has a low natural water content ( 3-5%) and very low radii access porosity. Diffusion (tritiated water) coefficients (1×10-12 to 2×10-11 m2/s) and hydraulic conductivities derived from different types of laboratory tests (10-14 to 10-13 m/s) are characteristics of a very low-permeable rock. In situ hydraulic tests (including long-term hydraulic-head measurements) were used to obtain values for hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity at a scale of 1-10 m (10-13 to 10-11 m/s). Despite uncertainties on these data (due to a scale factor, presence of fissures, and possible artefacts due to hydro-chemo-mechanical coupling), it is expected that fluid flow is essentially governed by diffusion processes. Identification of possible natural flows at larger scales of time and space was investigated using natural isotopic tracers from interstitial fluids. Modelling, based on the deuterium profile along the clay formation and assuming pure diffusion processes, provides estimations of possible flow times. However, lack of knowledge concerning the past geological evolution of the site and the possible role of a fracture network do not permit reduction of uncertainties on these estimations at this stage. Résumé. Dans le cadre de son programme de recherche et développement sur les stockages de déchets, un site expérimental (tunnel de Tournemire, Aveyron, France) a été sélectionné par l'Institut de Protection et Sûreté Nucléaire (IPSN) pour conduire des études sur les possibilités de transferts de fluides à différentes échelles de temps et d'espace au sein d'une formation argileuse de 250 m d'épaisseur. L

  16. Fundamental investigations of natural and laboratory generated SAR dose response curves for quartz OSL in the high dose range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timar-Gabor, Alida; Constantin, Daniela; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2015-01-01

    SAR-OSL investigations on quartz from Romanian loess resulted in non concordant fine and coarse-grain ages for equivalent doses higher than ~100 Gy. The laboratory dose response for both grain sizes is well represented by a sum of two saturating exponential functions, fine and coarse grains chara...... equivalent dose of 2000e2500 Gy were found to be below the saturation level of the laboratory dose response curve for both grain sizes; this also applied to the luminescence signals measured after >5000 Gy given on top of natural doses. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....... characterised by D01 and D02 values of ~140 and ~1400 Gy and ~65 and ~650 Gy respectively. Pulsed OSL experiments confirmed that this behaviour is almost certainly inherent to quartz and not caused by contamination with another mineral. Natural doseeresponse curves do not follow the same pattern and enter...... saturation much earlier. Analysis of time resolved spectra indicated similar luminescence lifetimes for both fine and coarse quartz grains, and natural and laboratory generated OSL signals seem to use the same non-dosedependent recombination pathways. The natural signals of a sample with an expected...

  17. Investigation of discharged aerosol nanoparticles during chemical precipitation and spray pyrolysis for developing safety measures in the nano research laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, Еvgeny; Karunakaran, Gopalu; Godymchuk, Anna; Vera, Levina; Yudin, Andrey Grigorjevich; Gusev, Alexander; Kuznetsov, Denis

    2017-05-01

    Nowadays, the demands for the nanoparticles are increasing due to their tremendous applications in various fields. As a consequence, the discharge of nanoparticles into the atmosphere and environment is also increasing, posing a health threat and environmental damage in terms of pollution. Thus, an extensive research is essential to evaluate the discharge of these nanoparticles into the environment. Keeping this in mind, the present investigation aimed to analyze the discharge of aerosol nanoparticles that are synthesized in the laboratory via chemical precipitation and spray pyrolysis methods. The results indicated that the chemical precipitation method discharges a higher concentration of nanoparticles in the work site when compared to the spray pyrolysis method. The aerosol concentration also varied with the different steps involved during the synthesis of nanoparticles. The average particle's concentration in air for chemical precipitation and spray pyrolysis methods was around 1,037,476 and 883,421particles/cm(3). In addition, the average total discharge of nanoparticles in the entire laboratory was also examined. A significant variation in the concentration of nanoparticles was noticed, during the processing of materials and the concentration of particles (14-723nm) exceeding the daily allowed concentration to about 70-170 times was observed over a period of 6 months. Thus, the results of the present study will be very useful in developing safety measures and would help in organizing the rules for people working in nanotechnology laboratories to minimize the hazardous effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Laboratory and field investigation of chemical disinfection of combined sewer overflow in Copenhagen area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Thornberg, Dines; Berner, Jesper

    We investigated the possibility to apply performic acid (PFA) and peracetic acid (PAA) for disinfection of combined sewer overflow (CSO) in existing CSO management infrastructures. The disinfection power of PFA and PAA to Escherichia coli (E. coli) and enterococcus were studied in batch scale...... and pre-field experiment. There were no toxicological effect measured by Vibrio fischeri when CSO was disinfected with PFA, slight toxicological effect was observed on CSO disinfected with PAA. When the design for PFA based disinfection was applied to CSO collected from an authentic event. Disinfection...

  19. Using Solar Dynamics Observatory Data in the Classroom to Do Real Science -- A Community College Astronomy Laboratory Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, Deborah K.; Hildreth, S.; Lee, S.; Dave, T.; Scherrer, P. H.

    2013-07-01

    A partnership between Stanford University and Chabot Community College (Hayward, CA) has developed a series of laboratory exercises using SDO (AIA, HMI) data, targeted for community college students in an introductory astronomy lab class. The labs lead students to explore what SDO can do via online resources and videos. Students investigate their chosen solar events, generate their own online videos, prepare their own hypotheses relating to the events, and explore outcomes. Final assessment should be completed by the end of summer 2013. Should the labs prove valuable, they may be adapted for high school use.

  20. NNWSI [Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations] waste form testing at Argonne National Laboratory; Semiannual report, January--June 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, J.K.; Gerding, T.J.; Ebert, W.L.; Mazer, J.J.; Biwer, B.M. [Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)

    1990-04-01

    The Chemical Technology Division of Argonne National Laboratory is performing experiments in support of the waste package development of the Yucca Mountain Project (formerly the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations Project). Experiments in progress include (1) the development and performance of a durability test in unsaturated conditions, (2) studies of waste form behavior in an irradiated atmosphere, (3) studies of behavior in water vapor, and (4) studies of naturally occurring glasses to be used as analogues for waste glass behavior. This report documents progress made during the period of January--June 1988. 21 refs., 37 figs., 12 tabs.

  1. Hydraulic Conductivity Estimate via Tracer Test and Ensemble Kalman Filter Data Assimilation: Theoretical and Numerical Fundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, E.; Camporese, M.; Salandin, P.

    2011-12-01

    Hydraulic properties of natural aquifers, such as porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and storativity, exhibit an erratic spatial variability at different scales that is difficult to recognize without expensive in situ sampling campaigns, laboratory analyses, and, when available, spatially distributed pumping tests. Nevertheless, the importance of the heterogeneous structure of natural formations on solute transport is well recognized, being the non-Fickian evolution of contaminant plumes and the relevant dispersive phenomena controlled by the variability of the hydraulic conductivity K at the local scale. Tracer test analyses have been widely adopted to identify the complex distribution of in situ hydraulic properties. In particular, the use of geophysical methods like the borehole Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) have been in rapid increase, due to their potential to accurately describe the spatio-temporal evolution of the injected solute. Under the assumptions that the solute spreads as a passive tracer and with high values of the Peclet number, the plume evolution is controlled by the porosity and the spatial distribution of hydraulic conductivity. Combining the Lagrangian formulation of transport and the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) data assimilation technique, the purpose of this study is to infer the spatial distribution of K at the local scale from a sequence of time-lapse concentration imaging. The capabilities of the proposed approach are investigated simulating various assimilation experiments via synthetic tracer tests in a three-dimensional finite domain reproducing a heterogeneous aquifer. In a first scenario, all the available concentration measurements are assimilated and the entire hydraulic conductivity field is updated, while in the remaining scenarios the K values are updated only in a limited number of nodes by assimilating the concentrations in these same nodes, the hydraulic conductivity in the rest of the domain being the result of a

  2. Investigation of ISIS and Brookhaven National Laboratory ion source electrodes after extended operationa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettry, J.; Alessi, J.; Faircloth, D.; Gerardin, A.; Kalvas, T.; Pereira, H.; Sgobba, S.

    2012-02-01

    Linac4 accelerator of Centre Européen de Recherches Nucléaires is under construction and a RF-driven H- ion source is being developed. The beam current requirement for Linac4 is very challenging: 80 mA must be provided. Cesiated plasma discharge ion sources such as Penning or magnetron sources are also potential candidates. Accelerator ion sources must achieve typical reliability figures of 95% and above. Investigating and understanding the underlying mechanisms involved with source failure or ageing is critical when selecting the ion source technology. Plasma discharge driven surface ion sources rely on molybdenum cathodes. Deformation of the cathode surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. A metallurgical investigation of an ISIS ion source is presented. The origin of the deformation is twofold: Molybdenum sputtering by cesium ions digs few tenths of mm cavities while a growth of molybdenum is observed in the immediate vicinity. The molybdenum growth under hydrogen atmosphere is hard and loosely bound to the bulk. It is, therefore, likely to peel off and be transported within the plasma volume. The observation of the cathode, anode, and extraction electrodes of the magnetron source operated at BNL for two years are presented. A beam simulation of H-, electrons, and Cs- ions was performed with the IBSimu code package to qualitatively explain the observations. This paper describes the operation conditions of the ion sources and discusses the metallurgical analysis and beam simulation results.

  3. Investigation of ISIS and Brookhaven National Laboratory ion source electrodes after extended operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettry, J.; Gerardin, A.; Pereira, H.; Sgobba, S. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Alessi, J. [BNL, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Faircloth, D. [RAL, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Kalvas, T. [University of Jyvaskyla, P.O.Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)

    2012-02-15

    Linac4 accelerator of Centre Europeen de Recherches Nucleaires is under construction and a RF-driven H{sup -} ion source is being developed. The beam current requirement for Linac4 is very challenging: 80 mA must be provided. Cesiated plasma discharge ion sources such as Penning or magnetron sources are also potential candidates. Accelerator ion sources must achieve typical reliability figures of 95% and above. Investigating and understanding the underlying mechanisms involved with source failure or ageing is critical when selecting the ion source technology. Plasma discharge driven surface ion sources rely on molybdenum cathodes. Deformation of the cathode surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. A metallurgical investigation of an ISIS ion source is presented. The origin of the deformation is twofold: Molybdenum sputtering by cesium ions digs few tenths of mm cavities while a growth of molybdenum is observed in the immediate vicinity. The molybdenum growth under hydrogen atmosphere is hard and loosely bound to the bulk. It is, therefore, likely to peel off and be transported within the plasma volume. The observation of the cathode, anode, and extraction electrodes of the magnetron source operated at BNL for two years are presented. A beam simulation of H{sup -}, electrons, and Cs{sup -} ions was performed with the IBSimu code package to qualitatively explain the observations. This paper describes the operation conditions of the ion sources and discusses the metallurgical analysis and beam simulation results.

  4. Investigation of ISIS and Brookhaven National Laboratory ion source electrodes after extended operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettry J.; Alessi J.; Faircloth, D.; Gerardin, A.; Kalvas, T.; Pereira, H.; Sgobba, S.

    2012-02-23

    Linac4 accelerator of Centre Europeen de Recherches Nucleaires is under construction and a RF-driven H{sup -} ion source is being developed. The beam current requirement for Linac4 is very challenging: 80 mA must be provided. Cesiated plasma discharge ion sources such as Penning or magnetron sources are also potential candidates. Accelerator ion sources must achieve typical reliability figures of 95% and above. Investigating and understanding the underlying mechanisms involved with source failure or ageing is critical when selecting the ion source technology. Plasma discharge driven surface ion sources rely on molybdenum cathodes. Deformation of the cathode surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. A metallurgical investigation of an ISIS ion source is presented. The origin of the deformation is twofold: Molybdenum sputtering by cesium ions digs few tenths of mm cavities while a growth of molybdenum is observed in the immediate vicinity. The molybdenum growth under hydrogen atmosphere is hard and loosely bound to the bulk. It is, therefore, likely to peel off and be transported within the plasma volume. The observation of the cathode, anode, and extraction electrodes of the magnetron source operated at BNL for two years are presented. A beam simulation of H{sup -}, electrons, and Cs{sup -} ions was performed with the IBSimu code package to qualitatively explain the observations. This paper describes the operation conditions of the ion sources and discusses the metallurgical analysis and beam simulation results.

  5. Investigation of ISIS and Brookhaven National Laboratory ion source electrodes after extended operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettry, J; Alessi, J; Faircloth, D; Gerardin, A; Kalvas, T; Pereira, H; Sgobba, S

    2012-02-01

    Linac4 accelerator of Centre Européen de Recherches Nucléaires is under construction and a RF-driven H(-) ion source is being developed. The beam current requirement for Linac4 is very challenging: 80 mA must be provided. Cesiated plasma discharge ion sources such as Penning or magnetron sources are also potential candidates. Accelerator ion sources must achieve typical reliability figures of 95% and above. Investigating and understanding the underlying mechanisms involved with source failure or ageing is critical when selecting the ion source technology. Plasma discharge driven surface ion sources rely on molybdenum cathodes. Deformation of the cathode surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. A metallurgical investigation of an ISIS ion source is presented. The origin of the deformation is twofold: Molybdenum sputtering by cesium ions digs few tenths of mm cavities while a growth of molybdenum is observed in the immediate vicinity. The molybdenum growth under hydrogen atmosphere is hard and loosely bound to the bulk. It is, therefore, likely to peel off and be transported within the plasma volume. The observation of the cathode, anode, and extraction electrodes of the magnetron source operated at BNL for two years are presented. A beam simulation of H(-), electrons, and Cs(-) ions was performed with the IBSimu code package to qualitatively explain the observations. This paper describes the operation conditions of the ion sources and discusses the metallurgical analysis and beam simulation results.

  6. Thermal hydraulic evaluation for an experimental facility to investigate pressurized thermal shock (PTS) in CDTN/CNEN; Avaliacao termo-hidraulica da montagem experimental de choque termico pressurizado do CDTN/CNEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmieri, Elcio T.; Navarro, Moyses A.; Aronne, Ivam D.; Terra, Jose L. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    The goal of the work presented in this paper is to provide necessary thermal hydraulics information to the design of an experimental installation to investigate the Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) to be implemented at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN). The envisaged installation has a test section that represents, in a small scale, a pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor. This test section will be heated and then exposed to a PTS in order to evaluate the appearance and development of cracks. To verify the behavior of the temperatures of the pressure vessel after a sudden flood through the annulus, calculations were made using the RELAP5/MOD 3.2.2 gamma code. Different outer radiuses were studied for the annular region. The results showed that the smaller annulus spacing (20 mm) anticipates the wetting of the surface and produces a higher cooling of the external surface, which stays completely wet for a longer time. (author)

  7. Trend of hydraulic units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshimaru, Jun' ichi

    1988-11-01

    The gear, vane and piston pumps occupy a more then 90% share in the hydraulic pumps. Comparatively large pumps are mainly variable delivery piston pumps. The piston pumps are comparatively high in output density (output per unit weight), indicating the hydraulic pump in performance, and tend to become higher and higher in it. Though they are mainly 210 to 350kgf/cm/sup 2/ in rated pressure, some of them come to surpass 400kgf/cm/sup 3/ in it. While the progress in computation also requires the high speed operation, high accuracy and other severe conditions for the hydraulic units, which accordingly and increasingly intensify the requirement for hydraulic oil in abrasion resistibility, oxidation stability and response characteristics. While cavitation comes to easily occur, which considerably and disadvantageously influences hydraulic oil in life through degradation, noise level and respondingness. From now on, the development of high performance oil and study of mechanical structure are important. 19 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  8. In-situ investigations of magnetron sputtering processes with laboratory X-ray equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ringpfeil, Clemens [Fachbereich C-Physik, Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany)]. E-mail: Clemens@physik.uni-wuppertal.de; Luetzenkirchen-Hecht, Dirk [Fachbereich C-Physik, Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Frahm, Ronald [Fachbereich C-Physik, Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal, Gaussstr. 20, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany)

    2007-05-23

    An Fe-Al duplex film was prepared on a Si(111)-wafer by sputter deposition in a vacuum chamber with two integrated small magnetron sources. The chamber allows the in-situ investigation of such sputtering processes using grazing incidence X-ray reflectivity, X-ray scattering measurements and X-ray diffraction. We will present details of the new cell and present the first results obtained using reflectivity measurements of the Fe-Al thin films. Here we will focus on the detailed evaluation of the specular reflectivity data of the iron films only, which clearly indicates the presence of an iron oxide, the density and roughness of which were determined and their changes with the film thickness were discussed in the framework of thin film growth models.

  9. The potential for constructed wetlands to treat alkaline bauxite residue leachate: laboratory investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R, Buckley; T, Curtin; R, Courtney

    2016-07-01

    High alkalinity (pH > 12) of bauxite residue leachates presents challenges for the long-term storage and managements of the residue. Whilst the use of constructed wetlands is gaining in interest for its use in the treatment of alkaline waters, thus far, there is limited evidence of its suitability for treating NaOH dominated bauxite residue leachate. A series of batch trials were conducted to investigate the potential for constructed wetland conferred mechanisms (dilution water quality, contact with CO2, and substrate type) for treating NaOH solutions to levels permissible for discharge (p constructed wetland. Formation of a calcite precipitate was observed in some treatments and further characterisation by XRD and XPS suggested surface coating with Na2CO3. It is therefore suggested that, under suitable conditions, constructed wetland technology can reduce leachate pH to constructed wetland.

  10. Analysis of Innovative Design of Energy Efficient Hydraulic Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Osman Abdalla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic cylinder actuators are used extensively in industrial, construction and agricultural works. The small sized outlet ports of the cylinders resist the flow of discharged oil; and as a result the piston motion is slowed down. This causes a lot of heat generation and energy loss within the actuators. The study investigates and analyzes the possibilities of reducing the hydraulic resistance and increasing efficiency of the hydraulic actuator. Conventional hydraulic cylinders are simulated in FLUENT. Results show that the small outlet ports are the sources of energy loss in hydraulic cylinders. A new hydraulic system was proposed as a solution to relieve the hydraulic resistance in the actuators. The proposed system is a four ports hydraulic cylinder fitted with a novel flow control valve. The proposed four ports cylinder was simulated and parameters such as ports sizes, loads and pressures are varied during the simulation. The hydraulic resisting forces, piston speed and mass flow rates are computed. Results show that the hydraulic resistance is significantly reduced in the proposed four ports actuators; and the proposed cylinders run faster than the conventional cylinders and a considerable amount of energyis saved as well.

  11. Hydraulic downhill transport of solid matter of an extremely heterogeneous composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geller, F.J.; Abel, F.

    1978-06-01

    This is a report of a new type of process for hydraulic mining transport. Starting from theoretical studies of individual physical processes, this could be investigated both in a model and in the BAG Westphalian mine on an operational scale. The special conditions which occur in the individual phases of movement are described. Based on the knowledge of operational experiments, suitable investigations were subsequently carried out on the behaviour during falling of very heterogenous mining materials. There was a comparative calculation of the measured values of laboratory or operational experiments for hydraulic horizontal transport with various well known methods of calculation. The results are satisfactory and justify the decision, based on existing experience, to instal an operational plant in the shaft of a German coalmine.

  12. A 24-hour study to investigate persistent chemical exposures associated with clandestine methamphetamine laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDyke, Mike; Erb, Nicola; Arbuckle, Shawn; Martyny, John

    2009-02-01

    The clandestine manufacture of methamphetamine continues to be a concern across the United States. Although the exposures associated with the actual production process have been evaluated, the persistence of those exposures in a residential setting have not been investigated. This study was designed to document the contamination associated with two red phosphorous methamphetamine "cooks" conducted in a residence and the associated exposures up to 24 hours after the cook. The two cooks were conducted on the first day of the study, and exposures associated with different occupant activity levels were measured the following day. Airborne methamphetamine levels during the cook ranged from 520 microg/m(3) to 760 microg/m(3). On Day 2, airborne levels of methamphetamine ranged from 70 microg/m(3) to 210 microg/m(3) and increased with moderate to high activity levels within the residence. The majority of the methamphetamine measured during both days had a particle size of less than 1 mum, suggesting that the methamphetamine is formed as a condensation aerosol and is readily resuspended from contaminated surfaces. Significant methamphetamine contamination was found in the carpeting and likely was associated with the elevated levels of methamphetamine during activity. Levels of hydrogen chloride and iodine were also detected on Day 2 of the project although at very low levels. The study concluded that exposures may still present a significant inhalation exposure well after the actual cook.

  13. Laboratory investigations of the alpha-pinene/ozone gas-phase reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benner, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    In order to provide more insight into terpene photooxidation or ozonolysis reaction mechanisms, a radiotracer technique was developed. This technique was applied to an investigation of the /sup 14/C-alpha-pinene/ozone reaction. In the first phase of the research, the carbon distribution at the conclusion of the ozonolysis reaction was determined by separating carbon-14-labelled gaseous products from labelled aerosols, and counting each phase by liquid scintillation methods. The resulting carbon balance was 38% to 60% filtered aerosols, 6% to 20% gas phase compounds, and 11% to 29% products absorbed on the reaction chamber walls. Recoveries of the alpha-pinene carbon-14 ranging from 79% to 97% were achieved using this method. The alpha-pinene concentrations in these experiments were close to ambient (1 part per billion), yet the carbon balance was similar to that observed at much higher concentrations (>1 part per million). In the second phase of the alpha-pinene study, both gas and aerosol products of the ozonolysis reaction were collected on cartridges impregnated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine, then analyzed by HPLC. In the final experiments, alpha-pinene aerosol was reacted with a silylating agent to improve the detection of organic acids and alcohols. The gas chromatographic/mass spectrometric analysis of the silylated aerosol products showed evidence of dimer/polymer formation occurring in the ozonolysis reaction.

  14. Laboratory Investigation Of Partial Replacement Of Coarse Aggregate By Plastic Chips And Cement By Human Hair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.Balaji

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of plastic is increasing day by day, although steps were taken to reduce its consumption. The suitability of recycled plastics as coarse aggregate in concrete and its advantage are discussed here. Experimental investigation was done using M20 mix and tests were carried out as per recommended procedures by relevant codes. As 100% replacement of natural coarse aggregate (NCA with plastic coarse aggregate (PCA is not feasible, partial replacement were examined. And also Hair is used as a fibred reinforcing material in concrete as partial replacement of cement. It has a high tensile strength which is equal to that of a copper wire with similar diameter. It is also available in abundance and at a very low cost. Tests were conducted to determine the properties of plastic aggregate and human hair such as density, specific gravity and crushing value. Experiments were conducted on concrete cubes with various percentages of human hair i.e. 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, and 3% by weight of cement and with constant percentage of plastic aggregate as 20%.

  15. Laboratory investigation of oil-suspended particulate matter aggregation under different mixing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Juan; Khelifa, Ali; Zhao, Chaocheng; Zhao, Dongfeng; Wang, Zhendi

    2014-03-01

    Oil-suspended particulate matter aggregation (OSA) has been recognized by the oil spill remediation community to effectively enhance the cleansing of spilled oil in the marine environment. While studies have investigated the application of mineral fines as an effective method to facilitate oil dispersion, decision-makers still lack information on the role of mixing energy in OSA formation and its significance to oil dispersion in real spills. This work studied the effect of level and duration of mixing energy on OSA formation using the standard reference material 1,941 b and Arabian light crude oil. The results showed that dispersed small oil droplets increased with an increase of both the level and duration of mixing energy to form multi-droplet OSAs. The sizes of the dispersed droplets varied between 5 and 10 μm under different conditions studied. The maximum oil trapping efficiency increased from 23% to 33%, the oil to sediment ratio increased from 0.30 to 0.43 g oil/g sediment, and the required shaking time decreased from 2.3 to 1.1h as the shaking rate increased from 2.0 to 2.3 Hz. Based on the size measurement results, a breakage effect on the formed OSAs and sediment flocs was confirmed under high mixing energy level.

  16. Laboratory investigations of the impact of mineral dust aerosol on cold cloud formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, K. A.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Demott, P. J.; Petters, M. D.; Prenni, A. J.; Möhler, O.

    2010-12-01

    Dust particles represent a dominant source of particulate matter (by mass) to the atmosphere, and their emission from some source regions has been shown to be transported on regional and hemispherical scales. Dust particles' potential to interact with water vapor in the atmosphere can lead to important radiative impacts on the climate system, both direct and indirect. We have investigated this interaction for several types of dust aerosol, collected from the Southwestern United States and the Saharan region. A continuous flow diffusion chamber was operated to measure the ice nucleation ability of the dust particles in the temperature range of relevance to cirrus and mixed-phase clouds (-65ICIS, 2007) which indicated that ice nucleation on larger, polydisperse dust particles occurs at warmer temperatures than found for the smaller particles. When particles were coated with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) species, higher relative humidity was required for ice nucleation below -40 °C, similar to that required for homogeneous nucleation of sulfates. However, ice nucleation was still observed on SOA-coated dust at warmer temperatures than are required for homogeneous nucleation of sulfates, indicating that condensation freezing occurs without any apparent deactivation for temperatures between -25 and -35 °C.

  17. Geotechnical Field and Laboratory Investigation Procedures Pertinent to the Development of Commercial On-Shore Wind Farms in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Quille

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, both the Irish landscape and construction industry has seen a dramatic increase in the number of commercial on-shore wind farm developments. Geotechnicalfield and laboratory based testing procedures play a critical role in the development, design and construction of wind farms. A comprehensive knowledge of the ground conditionsand soil parameters prevailing across the development footprint are necessary to facilitate a site specific infrastructure and turbine foundation design; therefore, reducing associated construction risks and ensuring that an economic construction programme can be premeditated. This paper presents some geotechnical field and laboratory basedprocedures pertinent to both the development and design of commercial on-shore wind farms in Ireland. The various procedures are compared in terms of suitability of the testprocedure for the soil type encountered and geotechnical design soil parameters derived. Although each geotechnical site investigation scheme is both an iterative and uniqueprocess, a phased approach relating to a rough peat moor land typically encountered across wind farm sites in Ireland is presented.Keywords: Renewable Energy, Geotechnical, Site Investigation.

  18. Cavitation in Hydraulic Machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, M.

    1996-11-01

    The main purpose of this doctoral thesis on cavitation in hydraulic machinery is to change focus towards the coupling of non-stationary flow phenomena and cavitation. It is argued that, in addition to turbulence, superimposed sound pressure fluctuations can have a major impact on cavitation and lead to particularly severe erosion. For the design of hydraulic devices this finding may indicate how to further limit the cavitation problems. Chapter 1 reviews cavitation in general in the context of hydraulic machinery, emphasizing the initial cavitation event and the role of the water quality. Chapter 2 discusses the existence of pressure fluctuations for situations common in such machinery. Chapter 3 on cavitation dynamics presents an algorithm for calculating the nucleation of a cavity cluster. Chapter 4 describes the equipment used in this work. 53 refs., 55 figs.,10 tabs.

  19. Review of Hydraulic Fracturing for Preconditioning in Cave Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Q.; Suorineni, F. T.; Oh, J.

    2016-12-01

    induced stress shadow effect if prescribed hydraulic fractures are required. The feasibility of the proposed approaches will be investigated in future studies.

  20. Laboratory test reactor for the investigation of liquid reducing agents in the selective catalytic reduction of NOx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitz, D.; Bernhard, A.; Elsener, M.; Kröcher, O.

    2011-08-01

    A test reactor was designed and built for investigating liquid reducing agents in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process in the laboratory. The design of the experimental setup is described in detail and its performance was evaluated. Using a glass nebulizer, liquid reducing agents were sprayed directly onto a catalyst positioned in a heated glass reactor with a length of 250 mm and an internal diameter of 20.4 mm or 40 mm. Model exhaust gases were mixed from individual gas components and were heated up to 450 °C in a heat exchanger before entering the reactor. The off-gas was analyzed using two complimentary techniques, a multi-component online FTIR gas analysis and a liquid quench gas absorption setup, to detect higher molecular compounds and aerosols. Due to the versatility of construction, processes not related to SCR, but involving three-phase reactions with gases, liquids and a catalyst, can also be investigated.

  1. Laboratory investigation on streaming potential for sandy soil and weathered rock; Shitsunai jikken ni yoru sashitsu jiban oyobi fuka ganban no ryudo den`i no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, H.; Shima, H. [OYO Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Laboratory experiment on sandy soil and weathered rock was conducted to clarify the generation mechanism of streaming potential due to underground fluid. Streaming potential is caused by underground fluid flow, namely by fluid flow in porous substances as electrokinetic phenomenon. In experiment, Inagi sand, Toyoura sand and strongly decomposed weathered granite were used. In Inagi and Toyoura sands, positive streaming potential was observed downstream in fluid flow. Streaming potential could be nearly determined as primary function of fluid velocity, and generated streaming potential increased with fluid resistivity. Streaming potential was higher in Inagi sand than Toyoura sand, probably depending on hydraulic radius, size of bleeding channel, and conductivity of sand surface. In weathered granite, negative streaming potential was measured. In the case of positive {zeta} potential, negative streaming potential is theoretically generated downstream in fluid flow. This experiment suggested possible generation of negative streaming potential in some kinds of ground. 2 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Geoscience Perspectives in Carbon Sequestration - Educational Training and Research Through Classroom, Field, and Laboratory Investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wronkiewicz, David [Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Paul, Varum [Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Abousif, Alsedik [Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States); Ryback, Kyle [Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The most effective mechanism to limit CO2 release from underground Geologic Carbon Sequestration (GCS) sites over multi-century time scales will be to convert the CO2 into solid carbonate minerals. This report describes the results from four independent research investigations on carbonate mineralization: 1) Colloidal calcite particles forming in Maramec Spring, Missouri, provide a natural analog to evaluate reactions that may occur in a leaking GCS site. The calcite crystals form as a result of physiochemical changes that occur as the spring water rises from a depth of more than 190'. The resultant pressure decrease induces a loss of CO2 from the water, rise in pH, lowering of the solubility of Ca2+ and CO32-, and calcite precipitation. Equilibrium modelling of the spring water resulted in a calculated undersaturated state with respect to calcite. The discontinuity between the observed occurrence of calcite and the model result predicting undersaturated conditions can be explained if bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) are directly involved in precipitation process rather than just carbonate ions (CO32-). 2) Sedimentary rocks in the Oronto Group of the Midcontinent Rift (MCR) system contain an abundance of labile Ca-, Mg-, and Fe-silicate minerals that will neutralize carbonic acid and provide alkaline earth ions for carbonate mineralization. One of the challenges in using MCR rocks for GCS results from their low porosity and permeability. Oronto Group samples were reacted with both CO2-saturated deionized water at 90°C, and a mildly acidic leachant solution in flow-through core-flooding reactor vessels at room temperature. Resulting leachate solutions often exceeded the saturation limit for calcite. Carbonate crystals were also detected in as little as six days of reaction with Oronto Group rocks at 90oC, as well as experiments with forsterite

  3. Laboratory Investigation on Shear Behavior of Rock Joints and a New Peak Shear Strength Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Jiang, Qinghui; Chen, Na; Wei, Wei; Feng, Xixia

    2016-09-01

    In this study, shear tests on artificial rock joints with different roughness were conducted under five normal stress levels. Test results showed that the shear strength of rock joints had a positive correlation with roughness and the applied normal stress. Observation of joint specimens after shear tests indicated that asperity damage was mainly located in the steep areas facing the shear direction. The damaged joint surfaces tend to be rough, which implies that tensile failure plays an important role in shear behavior. As a result of the anisotropic characteristic of joint roughness, two quantitative 2D roughness parameters, i.e., the revised root-mean-square of asperity angle tan-1( Z 2r) and the maximum contact coefficient C m, were proposed considering the shear direction. The proposed roughness parameters can capture the difference of roughness in forward and reverse directions along a single joint profile. The normalized tensile strength and the proposed roughness parameters were used to perform a rational derivation of peak dilatancy angle. A negative exponential-type function was found to be appropriate to model the peak dilatancy angle. Using the new model of peak dilatancy angle, we obtained a new criterion for peak shear strength of rock joints. The good agreement between test results and predicted results by the new criterion indicated that the proposed criterion is capable of estimating the peak shear strength of rock joints. Comparisons between the new criterion and published models from available literature revealed that the proposed criterion has a good accuracy for predicting the peak shear strength of joints investigated in this study.

  4. Laboratory investigation on the formation of unsaturated nitriles in Titan's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balucani, N.; Asvany, O.; Osamura, Y.; Huang, L. C. L.; Lee, Y. T.; Kaiser, R. I.

    2000-04-01

    Crossed molecular beam experiments of ground state cyano radicals, CN(X 2Σ +), with hydrocarbons acetylene (C 2H 2), ethylene (C 2H 4), methylacetylene (CH 3CCH), allene (H 2CCCH 2), dimethylacetylene (CH 3CCCH 3), and benzene (C 6H 6,) were performed to investigate the formation of unsaturated nitriles in Titan's atmosphere. These radical-neutral reactions have no entrance barrier, depict an exit barrier well below the energy of the reactant molecules, and are all exothermic. The CN radical attacks the π electron density at the olefine, alkyne, and aromatic molecules; the formation of an initial addition complex is a common pathway on the involved potential energy surfaces for all reactions. A subsequent carbon-hydrogen bond rupture yields the unsaturated nitriles HCCCN, C 2H 3CN, CH 3CCCN, H 2CCCH(CN), H 2CCCH 2CN, and C 6H 5CN as detected in our experiments. The explicit identification of this CN vs H atom exchange pathway under single collision, makes this reaction-class a compelling candidate to synthesize unsaturated nitriles in Titan's atmosphere. This versatile concept makes it even possible to predict the formation of nitriles once the corresponding unsaturated hydrocarbons are identified in Titan. Here, the C 2H 2 as well as cyanoacetylene, HCCCN, have been already identified unambiguously in Titan's troposphere. Those nitriles as sampled in our crossed beam experiments resemble an ideal challenge to be detected in the framework of the NASA-ESA Cassini-Huygens mission to Titan.

  5. Role of Brittle Behaviour of Soft Calcarenites Under Low Confinement: Laboratory Observations and Numerical Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lollino, Piernicola; Andriani, Gioacchino Francesco

    2017-07-01

    The strength decay that occurs in the post-peak stage, under low confinement stress, represents a key factor of the stress-strain behaviour of rocks. However, for soft rocks this issue is generally underestimated or even neglected in the solution of boundary value problems, as for example those concerning the stability of underground cavities or rocky cliffs. In these cases, the constitutive models frequently used in limit equilibrium analyses or more sophisticated numerical calculations are, respectively, rigid-plastic or elastic-perfectly plastic. In particular, most of commercial continuum-based numerical codes propose a variety of constitutive models, including elasticity, elasto-plasticity, strain-softening and elasto-viscoplasticity, which are not exhaustive in simulating the progressive failure mechanisms affecting brittle rock materials, these being characterized by material detachment and crack opening and propagation. As a consequence, a numerical coupling with mechanical joint propagation is needed to cope with fracture mechanics. Therefore, continuum-based applications that treat the simulation of the failure processes of intact rock masses at low stress levels may need the adoption of numerical techniques capable of implementing fracture mechanics and rock brittleness concepts, as it is shown in this paper. This work is aimed at highlighting, for some applications of rock mechanics, the essential role of post-peak brittleness of soft rocks by means of the application of a hybrid finite-discrete element method. This method allows for a proper simulation of the brittle rock behaviour and the related mechanism of fracture propagation. In particular, the paper presents two ideal problems, represented by a shallow underground cave and a vertical cliff, for which the evolution of the stability conditions is investigated by comparing the solutions obtained implementing different brittle material responses with those resulting from the assumption of perfectly

  6. Organic electrospun nanofibers as vehicles toward intelligent pheromone dispensers: characterization by laboratory investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, I; Hein, D F; Breuer, M; Hummel, H E; Deuker, A; Vilcinskas, A; Leithold, G; Hellmann, C; Dersch, R; Wendorff, J H; Greiner, A

    2011-01-01

    range, several replications were averaged for statistical improvement. - Thermogravimetric analysis between ambient temperature and 500 degrees C provided a series of degradation curves where the diagram contained information on the evaporation of pheromone alone, polymer fiber alone and pheromone included in the fiber.- Microscopic investigations resulted in pictures of nanofibers from which the overall morphology and the fiber dimensions could be quantified. Organic nanofibers loaded with the grapevine moth pheromone have been well characterized by 5 different lab methods, followed by field bioassays reported elsewhere in these communications volumes (HUMMEL et al., 2011). This comprehensive analytical approach to fiber characterization is new and will be further refined. The federal agency JKI Berlin subjected the pheromone loaded organic fibers to various independent toxicological and ecotoxicological tests and found no adverse side effects.

  7. An investigation of the impact of selected prereading activities on student content learning through laboratory activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, Jesse (Shaya)

    This study investigated whether two prereading activities impacted student learning from hands-on science activities. The study was based on constructivist learning theory. Based on the work of Piaget, it was hypothesized that students who activated prior knowledge would learn more from the activities. Based on the work of Vygotsky it was hypothesized that students who talk more and write more would learn more from the activity. The K-W-L chart and anticipation guide strategies were used with eighth grade students at Graves Middle School in Whittier, California before learning about levers and convection currents. D. M. Ogle (1986) created the three-column K-W-L chart to have students activate prior knowledge. In the first column, the students write what they already know about a subject, in the second column, the students write what they want to know about the subject, and the students complete the third column after learning about a subject by writing answers to the questions that they asked in the second column. Duffelmeyer (1994) created the anticipation guide based on Herber's (1978) reasoning guide. In the anticipation guide, the teacher creates three or four sentences that convey the major ideas of the topic and the students either agree or disagree with the statements. After learning about the topic, students revisit their answers and decide if they were correct or incorrect and they must defend their choices. This research used the Solomon (1947) four-square design and compared both the experimental groups to a control group that simply discussed the concepts before completing the activity. The research showed no significant difference between the control group and either of the treatment groups. The reasons for the lack of significant differences are considered. It was hypothesized that since the students were unfamiliar with the prereading activities and did not have much experience with using either writing-to-learn or talking-to-learn strategies, the

  8. Hydraulics and pneumatics

    CERN Document Server

    Parr, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    Nearly all industrial processes require objects to be moved, manipulated or subjected to some sort of force. This is frequently accomplished by means of electrical equipment (such as motors or solenoids), or via devices driven by air (pneumatics) or liquids (hydraulics).This book has been written by a process control engineer as a guide to the operation of hydraulic and pneumatic systems for all engineers and technicians who wish to have an insight into the components and operation of such a system.This second edition has been fully updated to include all recent developments su

  9. Popeye Project: Hydraulic umbilical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, K.G.; Williams, V.T.

    1996-12-31

    For the Popeye Project, the longest super-duplex hydraulic umbilical in the world was installed in the Gulf of Mexico. This paper reports on its selection and project implementation. Material selection addresses corrosion in seawater, water-based hydraulic fluid, and methanol. Five alternatives were considered: (1) carbon-steel with traditional coating and anodes, (2) carbon-steel coated with thermally sprayed aluminum, (3) carbon-steel sheathed in aluminum, (4) super-duplex, and (5) titanium. The merits and risks associated with each alternative are discussed. The manufacture and installation of the selected umbilical are also reported.

  10. Using a Molecular-Genetic Approach to Investigate Bacterial Physiology in a Continuous, Research-Based, Semester-Long Laboratory for Undergraduates †

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremiah Foster Ault; Betsey Marie Renfro; Andrea Kirsten White

    2011-01-01

    Designing investigative laboratory exercises that encourage critical thinking, problem solving, and independent thought for upper-division biology courses is a difficult but worthwhile task. In an effort to do so, we developed a semester-long, continuous, research-based investigative laboratory that integrates numerous genetic and molecular biology methods into the investigation of a bacterial physiological process. In this lab, students use random Tn5 transposon mutagenesis to create prodigi...

  11. Considerations for Stationary Ice Covered Flows in Adaptive Hydraulics (ADH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Flows in Adaptive Hydraulics (ADH) by Gary L. Brown, Gaurav Savant , Charlie Berger, and David S. Smith Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...Road, Vicksburg, MS 39180 at 601-634-3628, e-mail: Gary.L.Brown@usace.army.mil, or Dr. Gaurav Savant , P.E., Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory, U.S...L., G. Savant , C.; Berger, and D. S. Smith. 2009. Considerations for stationary ice covered flows in ADaptive Hydraulics (ADH) ERDC TN-SWWRP- 09-4

  12. Hydraulic Arm Modeling via Matlab SimHydraulics

    OpenAIRE

    Věchet, Stanislav; Krejsa, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    System modeling is a vital tool for cost reduction and design process speed up in most engineering fields. The paper is focused on modeling of hydraulic arm as a part of intelligent prosthesis project, in the form of 2DOF open kinematic chain. The arm model combines mechanical, hydraulic and electric subsystems and uses Matlab as modeling tool. SimMechanics Matlab extension is used for mechanical part modeling, SimHydraulics toolbox is used for modeling of hydraulic circuit used for actuating...

  13. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS IN SUPPORT OF CARBON DIOXIDE-LIMESTONE SEQUESTRATION IN THE OCEAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dan Golomb; Eugene Barry; David Ryan; Carl Lawton; Peter Swett; Huishan Duan; Matthew Woodcock

    2005-04-01

    This semi-annual progress reports includes further findings on CO{sub 2}-in-Water (C/W) emulsions stabilized by fine particles. In previous reports we described C/W emulsions using pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), flyash, and a pulverized magnesium silicate mineral, lizardite, Mg{sub 3}Si{sub 2}O{sub 5}(OH){sub 4}, which has a similar composition as the more abundant mineral, serpentine. All these materials formed stable emulsions consisting of droplets of liquid or supercritical CO{sub 2} coated with a sheath of particles dispersed in water. During this semi-annual period we experimented with pulverized beach sand (10-20 {micro}m particle diameter). Pulverized sand produced an emulsion similar to the previously used materials. The globules are heavier than water, thus they accumulate at the bottom of the water column. Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis revealed that the sand particles consisted mainly of SiO{sub 2}. Sand is one of the most abundant materials on earth, so the economic and energy penalties of using it for ocean sequestration consist mainly of the cost of transporting the sand to the user, the capital and operating costs of the pulverizer, and the energy expenditure for mining, shipping and grinding the sand. Most likely, sand powder would be innocuous to marine organisms if released together with CO{sub 2} in the deep ocean. We examined the effects of methanol (MeOH) and monoethanolamine (MEA) on emulsion formation. These solvents are currently used for pre- and post-combustion capture of CO{sub 2}. A fraction of the solvents may be captured together with CO{sub 2}. A volume fraction of 5% of these solvents in a mix of CO{sub 2}/CaCO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O had no apparent effect on emulsion formation. Previously we have shown that a 3.5% by weight of common salt (NaCl) in water, simulating seawater, also had no appreciable effect on emulsion formation. We investigated the formation of inverted emulsions, where water droplets coated with pulverized

  14. Numerical Simulation Investigation on Hydraulic Performance of the Horizontal-Axis Tidal Current Turbine%水平轴潮流水轮机水力性能的数值模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖惠民

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the hydraulic characteristics of the hori -zontal-axis tidal current turbine with speed-up tube .Effects of the dimension parameters of the speed-up tube , such as the length-diameter ratio and the area ratio , on the turbine's performance are also studied .Results show that the horizon-tal-axis tidal current turbine is of high energy utilization rate and great self-starting performance , while it is sensitive to the variation of the tidal current velocity .The speed-up tube can significantly improve the hydraulic performance , espe-cially the output power , of the tidal current turbine .The optimum length-diameter ratio of the speed-up tube is also de-termined .%采用数值模拟方法对一种带增速管的水平轴潮流水轮机的流量特性和转速特性进行了研究,并分析了增速管长径比、面积比对该水轮机水力性能的影响。计算结果表明:该潮流水轮机能量转换效率较高,同时自启动性能好,但对潮流流速变化较敏感;增速管可显著提高水轮机的水力性能,特别是输出功率;对于一定结构形式的潮流水轮机,增速管具有最佳的长径比。

  15. Laboratory investigation and direct numerical simulation of wind effect on steep surface waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Sergeev, Daniil; Druzhinin, Oleg; Ermakova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    The small scale ocean-atmosphere interaction at the water-air interface is one of the most important factors determining the processes of heat, mass, and energy exchange in the boundary layers of both geospheres. Another important aspect of the air-sea interaction is excitation of surface waves. One of the most debated open questions of wave modeling is concerned with the wind input in the wave field, especially for the case of steep and breaking waves. Two physical mechanisms are suggested to describe the excitation of finite amplitude waves. The first one is based on the treatment of the wind-wave interaction in quasi-linear approximation in the frameworks of semi-empirical models of turbulence of the low atmospheric boundary layer. An alternative mechanism is associated with separation of wind flow at the crests of the surface waves. The "separating" and "non-separating" mechanisms of wave generation lead to different dependences of the wind growth rate on the wave steepness: the latter predicts a decrease in the increment with wave steepness, and the former - an increase. In this paper the mechanism of the wind-wave interaction is investigated basing on physical and numerical experiments. In the physical experiment, turbulent airflow over waves was studied using the video-PIV method, based on the application of high-speed video photography. Alternatively to the classical PIV technique this approach provides the statistical ensembles of realizations of instantaneous velocity fields. Experiments were performed in a round wind-wave channel at Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences. A fan generated the airflow with the centerline velocity 4 m/s. The surface waves were generated by a programmed wave-maker at the frequency of 2.5 Hz with the amplitudes of 0.65 cm, 1.4 cm, and 2 cm. The working area (27.4 × 10.7 cm2) was at a distance of 3 m from the fan. To perform the measurements of the instantaneous velocity fields, spherical polyamide

  16. INL Experimental Program Roadmap for Thermal Hydraulic Code Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn McCreery; Hugh McIlroy

    2007-09-01

    Advanced computer modeling and simulation tools and protocols will be heavily relied on for a wide variety of system studies, engineering design activities, and other aspects of the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), the DOE Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), and light-water reactors. The goal is for all modeling and simulation tools to be demonstrated accurate and reliable through a formal Verification and Validation (V&V) process, especially where such tools are to be used to establish safety margins and support regulatory compliance, or to design a system in a manner that reduces the role of expensive mockups and prototypes. Recent literature identifies specific experimental principles that must be followed in order to insure that experimental data meet the standards required for a “benchmark” database. Even for well conducted experiments, missing experimental details, such as geometrical definition, data reduction procedures, and manufacturing tolerances have led to poor Benchmark calculations. The INL has a long and deep history of research in thermal hydraulics, especially in the 1960s through 1980s when many programs such as LOFT and Semiscle were devoted to light-water reactor safety research, the EBRII fast reactor was in operation, and a strong geothermal energy program was established. The past can serve as a partial guide for reinvigorating thermal hydraulic research at the laboratory. However, new research programs need to fully incorporate modern experimental methods such as measurement techniques using the latest instrumentation, computerized data reduction, and scaling methodology. The path forward for establishing experimental research for code model validation will require benchmark experiments conducted in suitable facilities located at the INL. This document describes thermal hydraulic facility requirements and candidate buildings and presents examples of suitable validation experiments related

  17. The study of crosslinked fluid leakoff in hydraulic fracturing physical simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grothe, Vinicius Perrud; Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo; Sousa, Jose Luiz Antunes de Oliveira e [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Estruturas; Fernandes, Paulo Dore [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2000-07-01

    The fluid loss plays an important role in the design and execution of hydraulic fracturing treatments. The main objectives of this work were: the study of the fluid loss associated with the propagation of hydraulic fractures generated at laboratory; and the comparison of two distinct methods for estimating leakoff coefficients - Nolte analysis and the filtrate volume vs. square root of time plot. Synthetic rock samples were used as well as crosslinked hydroxypropyl guar (HPG) fluids in different polymer concentrations. The physical simulations comprised the confinement of (0.1 x 0.1 x 0.1) m{sup 3} rock samples in a load cell for the application of an in situ stress field. Different flow rates were employed in order to investigate shear effects on the overall leakoff coefficient. Horizontal radial fractures were hydraulically induced with approximate diameters, what was accomplished by controlling the injection time. Leakoff coefficients determined by means of the pressure decline analysis were compared to coefficients obtained from static filtration tests, considering similar experimental conditions. The research results indicated that the physical simulation of hydraulic fracturing may be regarded as an useful tool for evaluating the effectiveness of fracturing fluids and that it can supply reliable estimates of fluid loss coefficients. (author)

  18. Hydraulic characteristics of sedimentary deposits at the J-PARC proton-accelerator, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marui Atsunao

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic characteristics of sediments were investigated at J-PARC for the purpose of site characterization in relation with the construction of Japan's largest proton-accelerator. A total of 340 samples extracted from 9 exploratory wells were examined by standard laboratory tests and complemented with statistical analyses to quantitatively determine the main terrain attributes. Two main hydro-geological units were recognized, although a number of embedded layers defined a
    multilevel aquifer. Grain-size distribution derived from sieve analysis and the coefficient of uniformity showed that soils are poorly sorted. On the other hand, hydraulic conductivity was measured by a
    number of parameters such as a log-normal distribution. Conductivity was also predicted by empirical formulas, yielding values up to three orders of magnitude higher. Discrepancies were explained in
    terms of soil anisotropy and intrinsic differences in the calculation methods. Based on the Shepherd's approach, a power relationship between permeability and grain size was found at 2 wells. Hydraulic
    conductivity was also correlated to porosity. However, this  nterdependence was not systematic and therefore, properties at many parts of the profile were considered to be randomly distributed. Finally,
    logs of electrical conductivity suggested that variations of soil hydraulic properties can be associated to changes in water quality. In spite of the remaining uncertainties, results yielded from the study are useful to better understand the numerical modelling of the subsurface system in the site.

  19. HYDRAULICS, TUSCARAWAS COUNTY, OHIO, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydraulic data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydraulic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  20. Remedial investigation work plan for the Groundwater Operable Unit at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This Remedial Investigation (RI) Work Plan has been developed as part of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) investigation of the Groundwater Operable Unit (GWOU) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) located near Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The first iteration of the GWOU RI Work Plan is intended to serve as a strategy document to guide the ORNL GWOU RI. The Work Plan provides a rationale and organization for groundwater data acquisition, monitoring, and remedial actions to be performed during implementation of environmental restoration activities associated with the ORNL GWOU. It Is important to note that the RI Work Plan for the ORNL GWOU is not a prototypical work plan. The RI will be conducted using annual work plans to manage the work activities, and task reports will be used to document the results of the investigations. Sampling and analysis results will be compiled and reported annually with a review of data relative to risk (screening level risk assessment review) for groundwater. This Work Plan outlines the overall strategy for the RI and defines tasks which are to be conducted during the initial phase of investigation. This plan is presented with the understanding that more specific addenda to the plan will follow.

  1. Hydraulic hoist-press

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babayev, Z.B.; Abashev, Z.V.

    1982-01-01

    The efficiency expert of the Angrenskiy production-technological administration of the production association Sredazugol A. V. Bubnov has suggested a hydraulic hoist-press for repairing road equipment which is a device consisting of lifting mechanism, press and test stand for verifying the high pressure hoses and pumps.

  2. Modelling of Hydraulic Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Zhou, Jianjun; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of identifying the physical model (or the grey box model) of a hydraulic test robot. The obtained model is intended to provide a basis for model-based control of the robot. The physical model is formulated in continuous time and is derived by application...

  3. Water Treatment Technology - Hydraulics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on hydraulics provides instructional materials for three competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: head loss in pipes in series, function loss in…

  4. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on-going...

  5. Fish on Prozac: a simple, noninvasive physiology laboratory investigating the mechanisms of aggressive behavior in Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Sharon E; Egar, Joseph M; Walker, Brian G; Sperry, Todd S; Ramenofsky, Marilyn

    2007-12-01

    The neuromodulator serotonin is an important regulator of aggressive behavior in vertebrates. Experimentally increasing synaptic levels of serotonin with fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has been shown to reliably decrease the expression of aggressive behavior. Here, we describe a method by which fluoxetine can be noninvasively administered to male Betta splendens (an attractive model for the study of aggressive behavior) and describe a simple laboratory exercise that allows students to experimentally investigate the physiological mechanisms of aggressive behavior. We demonstrate that relatively short-term exposure (3 h) of male bettas to as little as 3 microg/ml of fluoxetine-treated aquarium water is sufficient to reduce the expression of specific aggressive behaviors. We emphasize the physiological concepts that can be addressed with this exercise, including the role of the serotonergic system in regulating aggression, and the interplay of environmental contaminants and physiology in regulating the expression of behavior. We also highlight important aspects of experimental design. This exercise can be flexibly altered to accommodate one or several laboratory periods. It is also low cost, is low impact to the animals, and requires minimal preparation time for instructors.

  6. RCRA Facility investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    This report provides a detailed summary of the activities carried out to sample groundwater at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6. The analytical results for samples collected during Phase 1, Activity 2 of the WAG 6 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation (RFI) are also presented. In addition, analytical results for Phase 1, activity sampling events for which data were not previously reported are included in this TM. A summary of the groundwater sampling activities of WAG 6, to date, are given in the Introduction. The Methodology section describes the sampling procedures and analytical parameters. Six attachments are included. Attachments 1 and 2 provide analytical results for selected RFI groundwater samples and ORNL sampling event. Attachment 3 provides a summary of the contaminants detected in each well sampled for all sampling events conducted at WAG 6. Bechtel National Inc. (BNI)/IT Corporation Contract Laboratory (IT) RFI analytical methods and detection limits are given in Attachment 4. Attachment 5 provides the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)/Analytical Chemistry Division (ACD) analytical methods and detection limits and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) quarterly compliance monitoring (1988--1989). Attachment 6 provides ORNL/ACD groundwater analytical methods and detection limits (for the 1990 RCRA semi-annual compliance monitoring).

  7. A Simple and Low-Cost Monitoring System to Investigate Environmental Conditions in a Biological Research Laboratory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Gurdita

    Full Text Available Basic equipment such as incubation and refrigeration systems plays a critical role in nearly all aspects of the traditional biological research laboratory. Their proper functioning is therefore essential to ensure reliable and repeatable experimental results. Despite this fact, in many academic laboratories little attention is paid to validating and monitoring their function, primarily due to the cost and/or technical complexity of available commercial solutions. We have therefore developed a simple and low-cost monitoring system that combines a "Raspberry Pi" single-board computer with USB-connected sensor interfaces to track and log parameters such as temperature and pressure, and send email alert messages as appropriate. The system is controlled by open-source software, and we have also generated scripts to automate software setup so that no background in programming is required to install and use it. We have applied it to investigate the behaviour of our own equipment, and present here the results along with the details of the monitoring system used to obtain them.

  8. A Simple and Low-Cost Monitoring System to Investigate Environmental Conditions in a Biological Research Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdita, Akshay; Vovko, Heather; Ungrin, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Basic equipment such as incubation and refrigeration systems plays a critical role in nearly all aspects of the traditional biological research laboratory. Their proper functioning is therefore essential to ensure reliable and repeatable experimental results. Despite this fact, in many academic laboratories little attention is paid to validating and monitoring their function, primarily due to the cost and/or technical complexity of available commercial solutions. We have therefore developed a simple and low-cost monitoring system that combines a "Raspberry Pi" single-board computer with USB-connected sensor interfaces to track and log parameters such as temperature and pressure, and send email alert messages as appropriate. The system is controlled by open-source software, and we have also generated scripts to automate software setup so that no background in programming is required to install and use it. We have applied it to investigate the behaviour of our own equipment, and present here the results along with the details of the monitoring system used to obtain them.

  9. Investigation of the fire at the Uranium Enrichment Laboratory. Analysis of samples and pressurization experiment/analysis of container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akabori, Mitsuo; Minato, Kazuo; Watanabe, Kazuo [eds.] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-05-01

    To investigate the cause of the fire at the Uranium Enrichment Laboratory of the Tokai Research Establishment on November 20, 1997, samples of uranium metal waste and scattered residues were analyzed. At the same time the container lid that had been blown off was closely inspected, and the pressurization effects of the container were tested and analyzed. It was found that 1) the uranium metal waste mainly consisted of uranium metal, carbides and oxides, whose relative amounts were dependent on the particle size, 2) the uranium metal waste hydrolyzed to produce combustible gases such as methane and hydrogen, and 3) the lid of the outer container could be blown off by an explosive rise of the inner pressure caused by combustion of inflammable gas mixture. (author)

  10. Cultural Resource Investigation for the Materials and Fuels Complex Wastewater System Upgrade at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace; Julie B raun Williams; Hollie Gilbert; Dino Lowrey; Julie Brizzee

    2010-05-01

    The Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) located in Bingham County at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho is considering several alternatives to upgrade wastewater systems to meet future needs at the facility. In April and May of 2010, the INL Cultural Resource Management Office conducted archival searches, archaeological field surveys, and coordination with the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes to identify cultural resources that may be adversely affected by the proposed construction and to provide recommendations to protect any resources listed or eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places. These investigations showed that one National Register-eligible archaeological site is located on the boundary of the area of potential effects for the wastewater upgrade. This report outlines protective measures to help ensure that this resource is not adversely affected by construction.

  11. Laboratory investigation of Colgate 360 degrees toothbrush and Oral-B indicator toothbrush for the removal of dental stains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleber, Carl J; Kemp, James H; Moore, Michael H; Mintel, Thomas E

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the stain-removal efficacy of a newly designed manual toothbrush, the Colgate 360 degrees, relative to a commercially available toothbrush, the Oral-B Indicator. A modification of Stookey et al was used to evaluate the stain-removal effects of toothbrushes instead of dentifrice on bovine teeth. A V.8 mechanical cross-brushing machine equipped with the test toothbrushes and adjusted to 500g to enamel surfaces evaluated stain removal using a dentifrice slurry and water after 800 double strokes. The overall results of this laboratory investigation indicate that the Colgate 360 degrees toothbrush is more effective, P < .05, than the commercial Oral-B Indicator toothbrush in removing dental stain and brightening teeth using a standard toothpaste or water.

  12. Remedial investigation report on Waste Area Grouping 5 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Technical summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    A remedial investigation (RI) was performed to support environmental restoration activities for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 5 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The WAG 5 RI made use of the observational approach, which concentrates on collecting only information needed to assess site risks and support future cleanup work. This information was interpreted and is presented using the framework of the site conceptual model, which relates contaminant sources and release mechanisms to migration pathways and exposure points that are keyed to current and future environmental risks for both human and ecological receptors. The site conceptual model forms the basis of the WAG 5 remedial action strategy and remedial action objectives. The RI provided the data necessary to verify this model and allows recommendations to be made to accomplish those objectives.

  13. Quality Assurance Plan for the remedial investigation of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atwood, G.P.; Miller, D.E. (Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States))

    1992-12-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 Site Investigation (SI)includes the lower portion of the White Oak Creek (WOC) drainage and enbayment, and associated floodplain and subsurface environment. The ORNL main plant and the major waste storage and disposal facilities at ORNL are located in the WOC watershed and are drained by the WOC system to the Clinch River, located off-site. Environmental media are contaminated and continue to receive contaminants from hydrologically upgradient WAGS. WAG 2 is important as a conduit from upgradient areas to the Clinch River. The general objectives of the WAG 2 SI Project are to conduct a multimedia monitoring and characterization program to define and monitor the input of contaminants from adjacent WAGS, monitor and gather sufficient information for processes controlling or driving contaminant fluxes to construct an appropriate conceptual model for WAG 2, and prepare for the eventual remediation of WAG 2.

  14. Investigating Sources of Toxicity in Stormwater: Algae Mortality in Runoff Upstream of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, C G; Folks, K; Mathews, S; Martinelli, R

    2003-10-06

    A source evaluation case study is presented for observations of algae toxicity in an intermittent stream passing through the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory near Livermore, California. A five-step procedure is discussed to determine the cause of water toxicity problems and to determine appropriate environmental management practices. Using this approach, an upstream electrical transfer station was identified as the probable source of herbicides causing the toxicity. In addition, an analytical solution for solute transport in overland flow was used to estimate the application level of 40 Kg/ha. Finally, this source investigation demonstrates that pesticides can impact stream water quality regardless of application within levels suggested on manufacturer labels. Environmental managers need to ensure that pesticides that could harm aquatic organisms (including algae) not be used within close proximity to streams or storm drainages and that application timing should be considered for environmental protection.

  15. FY 1995 Remedial Investigation Work Plan for Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, D.R.; Herbes, S.E. [eds.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide key information needed by decision makers to expedite the process of environmental restoration and to provide the data base required by the Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). WAG 2 is the major drainage system downgradient of other WAGs that contain significant sources of contamination at ORNL. Field activities to support the remedial investigation for the RI portion include characterization of the nature and extent of contamination in WAG 2 [consisting of White Oak Creek (WOC) and associated tributaries and floodplain, White Oak Lake (WOL), and White Oak Creek Embayment (WOCE)], specifically to support risk-based remediation decisions. The project consists of three phases: Phase 1, initial scoping characterization to determine the need for early action; Phase 2, interim activities during remediation of upslope WAGs to evaluate potential changes in the contamination status of WAG 2 that would necessitate revaluation of the need for early action; and Phase 3, completion of the RI process following remediation of upslope WAGs. Overall RI objectives, consistent with ORNL Environmental Restoration (ER) Program strategic objectives to reduce risks and comply with environmental regulations, are discussed in the WAG 2 Remedial Investigation Plan.

  16. Laboratory investigation of the distribution of travel distance and rest period of sediment particles from PTV data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rui M. L.; Antico, Federica

    2016-04-01

    We analyze paths of sediment particles on cohesionless granular bet subjected to a turbulent open-channel flow. The key objective is to provide further insights on particle dispersion including resting times. Hence, we focus on the spatial and temporal scale identified by Nikora et al. (2002) as the global range, defined as the particle path composed of many intermediate range paths, i.e with several "starts" and "stops". This requires the calculation of the probability distribution functions of particle travel distances and of rest periods. The experimental work was performed at the Hydraulics Laboratory of IST-UL in a 12.5 m long, 0.405 m wide glass-walled flume recirculating water and sediment through independent circuits. The granular bed was a 4.0 m long and 2.5 cm deep reach filled with 5 mm diameter glass beads packed (with some vibration) to a void fraction of 0.356, typical of random packing. Upstream the mobile bed reach the bed was composed of glued particles to ensure the development of a boundary layer with the same roughness. Laboratory tests were run under conditions of weak beadload transport with Shields parameter (θ) in the range 0.007 to 0.030, Froude numbers (Fr) between 0.630 and 0.950 and boundary Reynolds number (Re_ast) in the range 130 to 300. White-coated particles with 5.0 mm diameter were introduced in the flow 3 m upstream the mobile bed reach. Particle motion was registered from above using a high-speed camera AVT Bonito CL-400 with resolution set to 2320 × 1000 px2 and frame rate of 170 fps. The field of view recorded was 77.0 cm long and 38.0 cm wide, covering almost all the width of the flume. The maximum duration of the runs was 20 min, during which more than 500 particle paths, including resting times, were registered. The video footage was subjected to a PTV (Particle Tracking Velocimetry) developed for the problem at hand. The algorithm includes the application of Gaussian filters and thresholding operations to identify the

  17. Oscillatory Flow Testing in a Sandbox - Towards Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Lim, D.; Cupola, F.; Cardiff, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Detailed knowledge of subsurface hydraulic properties is important for predicting groundwater flow and contaminant transport. The spatial variation of hydraulic properties in the shallow subsurface has been extensively studied in the past two decades. A recent approach to characterize subsurface properties is hydraulic tomography, in which pressure data from multiple constant-rate pumping tests is inverted using a numerical model. Many laboratory sandbox studies have explored the performance of hydraulic tomography under different controlled conditions and shown that detailed heterogeneity information can be extracted (Liu et al., 2002, Illman et al., 2007, 2008, 2010a, 2010b, Liu et al., 2007, 2008, Xiang et al., 2009, Yin and Illman, 2009, Liu and Kitanidis, 2011, Berg and Illman, 2011a). Recently, Cardiff et al. (2013) proposed a modified approach of Oscillatory Hydraulic Tomography (OHT) - in which periodic pumping signals of different frequencies are used for aquifer stimulation - to characterize aquifer properties. The potential advantages of OHT over traditional hydraulic tomography include: 1) no net injection or extraction of water; 2) little movement of existing contamination; 3) minimal impact of model boundary conditions; and 4) robust extraction of oscillatory signals from noisy data. To evaluate the premise of OHT, we built a highly-instrumented 2-D laboratory sandbox and record pressure responses to periodic pumping tests. In our setup, the laboratory sandbox is filled with sand of known hydraulic properties, and we measure aquifer responses at a variety of testing frequencies. The signals recorded are processed using Fourier-domain analysis, and compared against expected results under linear (Darcian) theory. The responses are analyzed using analytical and numerical models, which provide key insights as to: 1) how "effective" hydraulic properties estimated using homogeneous models are associated with aquifer heterogeneity; and 2) how OHT is able to

  18. Guided-Inquiry Based Laboratory Instruction: Investigation of Critical Thinking Skills, Problem Solving Skills, and Implementing Student Roles in Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tanya

    2012-01-01

    Recent initiatives in the laboratory curriculum have encouraged an inquiry-based approach to learning and teaching in the laboratory. It has been argued that laboratory instruction should not just be hands-on, but it should portray the essence of inquiry through the process of experiential learning and reflective engagement in collaboration with…

  19. Thermal Hydraulic Stability in a Coaxial Thermosyphon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jianhui; LU Wenqiang; LI Qing; LI Qiang; ZHOU Yuan

    2005-01-01

    The heat transfer and thermal hydraulic stability in a two-phase thermosyphon with coaxial riser and down-comer has been experimentally investigated and theoretically analyzed to facilitate its application in cold neutron source. The flow in a coaxial thermosyphon was studied experimentally for a variety of heating rates, transfer tube lengths, charge capacities, and area ratios. A numerical analysis of the hydraulic balance between the driving pressure head and the resistance loss has also been performed. The results show that the presented coaxial thermosyphon has dynamic performance advantages relative to natural circulation in a boiling water reactor.

  20. Pinhole test for identifying susceptibility of soils to piping erosion: effect water quality and hydraulic head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadal Romero, E.; Verachtert, E.; Poesen, J.

    2009-07-01

    Piping has been observed in both natural and soils, as well as under different types of land uses and vegetation covers. Despite its importance, no standard widely-applied methodology exists to assess susceptibility of soils to piping. This study aims at evaluating the pinhole test for assessing the susceptibility of soils to piping under different conditions. More precisely, the effects of hydraulic head and water quality are being assessed. Topsoil samples (remoulded specimens) with a small range of water contents were taken in Central Belgium (Heverlee) and the susceptibility of these soil samples are investigated under standardized laboratory conditions with a pinhole test device. Three hydraulic heads (50,180 and 380 mm) and two water qualities (tap and distilled water) were used, reflecting dominant field conditions. (Author) 6 refs.

  1. Simulation of a Hydraulic Pump Control Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molen, G. Vander; Akers, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the mode of operation of a control valve assembly that is used with a hydraulic pump. The operating system of the valve is modelled in a simplified form, and an analogy for hydraulic resonance of the pressure sensing system is presented. For the control valve investigated, air entrainment, length and diameter of the resonator neck, and valve mass produced the greatest shift in resonant frequency. Experimental work was conducted on the hydraulic system so that the resonance levels and frequencies could be measured and the accuracy of the theory verified. The results obtained make it possible to evaluate what changes to any of the variables considered would be most effective in driving the second harmonic frequency above the operating range.

  2. Soil Structure and Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houskova, B.; Nagy, V.

    The role of soil structure on saturated hydraulic conductivity changes is studied in plough layers of texturally different soils. Three localities in western part of Slovakia in Zitny ostrov (Corn Island) were under investigation: locality Kalinkovo with light Calcaric Fluvisol (FAO 1970), Macov with medium heavy Calcari-mollic Fluvisol and Jurova with heavy Calcari-mollic Fluvisol. Soil structure was determined in dry as well as wet state and in size of macro and micro aggregates. Saturated hydraulic conductivity was measured by the help of double ring method. During the period of ring filling the soil surface was protected against aggregates damage by falling water drops. Spatial and temporal variability of studied parameters was evaluated. Cultivated crops were ensilage maize at medium heavy and heavy soil and colza at light soil. Textural composition of soil and actual water content at the beginning of measurement are one of major factor affecting aggregate stability and consequently also saturated hydraulic conductivity.

  3. COHESIVE ZONE FINITE ELEMENT-BASED MODELING OF HYDRAULIC FRACTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuorong Chen; A.P. Bunger; Xi Zhang; Robert G. Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is a powerful technology used to stimulate fluid production from reservoirs. The fully 3-D numerical simulation of the hydraulic fracturing process is of great importance to the efficient application of this technology, but is also a great challenge because of the strong nonlinear coupling between the viscous flow of fluid and fracture propagation. By taking advantage of a cohesive zone method to simulate the fracture process, a finite element model based on the existing pore pressure cohesive finite elements has been established to investigate the propagation of a penny-shaped hydraulic fracture in an infinite elastic medium. The effect of cohesive material parameters and fluid viscosity on the hydraulic fracture behaviour has been investigated. Excellent agreement between the finite element results and analytical solutions for the limiting case where the fracture process is dominated by rock fracture toughness demonstrates the ability of the cohesive zone finite element model in simulating the hydraulic fracture growth for this case.

  4. Sulfide Generation by Dominant Halanaerobium Microorganisms in Hydraulically Fractured Shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, Anne E.; Borton, Mikalya; Daly, Rebecca; Welch, Susan; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hoyt, David W.; Wilson, Travis; Purvine, Samuel O.; Wolfe, Richard; Sharma, Shihka; Mouser, Paula J.; Cole, David R.; Lipton, Mary S.; Wrighton, Kelly C.; Wilkins, Michael J.

    2017-07-05

    Hydraulic fracturing of black shale formations has greatly increased United States oil and natural gas recovery. However, the accumulation of biomass in subsurface reservoirs and pipelines is detrimental because of possible well souring, microbially induced corrosion, and pore clogging. Temporal sampling of produced fluids from a well in the Utica Shale revealed the dominance of Halanaerobium strains within the in situ microbial community and the potential for these microor- ganisms to catalyze thiosulfate-dependent sulfidogenesis. From these field data, we investigated biogenic sulfide production catalyzed by a Halanaerobium strain iso- lated from the produced fluids using proteogenomics and laboratory growth experi- ments. Analysis of Halanaerobium isolate genomes and reconstructed genomes from metagenomic data sets revealed the conserved presence of rhodanese-like proteins and anaerobic sulfite reductase complexes capable of converting thiosulfate to sul- fide. Shotgun proteomics measurements using a Halanaerobium isolate verified that these proteins were more abundant when thiosulfate was present in the growth medium, and culture-based assays identified thiosulfate-dependent sulfide produc- tion by the same isolate. Increased production of sulfide and organic acids during the stationary growth phase suggests that fermentative Halanaerobium uses thiosul- fate to remove excess reductant. These findings emphasize the potential detrimental effects that could arise from thiosulfate-reducing microorganisms in hydraulically fractured shales, which are undetected by current industry-wide corrosion diagnos- tics.

  5. Experimental methods for the simulation of supercritical CO2 injection at laboratory scale aimed to investigate capillary trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, L.; Illangasekare, T. H.; Rodriguez, D.; Sakaki, T.; Cihan, A.; Birkholzer, J. T.; Zhou, Q.

    2011-12-01

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide in deep geologic formations is being considered as a technical option to reduce greenhouse gas loading to the atmosphere. The processes associated with the movement and stable trapping are complex in deep naturally heterogeneous formations. Three primary mechanisms contribute to trapping; capillary entrapment due to immobilization of the supercritical fluid CO2 within soil pores, liquid CO2 dissolving in the formation water and mineralization. Natural heterogeneity in the formation is expected to affect all three mechanisms. A research project is in progress with the primary goal to improve our understanding of capillary and dissolution trapping during injection and post-injection process, focusing on formation heterogeneity. It is expected that this improved knowledge will help to develop site characterization methods targeting on obtaining the most critical parameters that capture the heterogeneity to design strategies and schemes to maximize trapping. This research combines experiments at the laboratory scale with multiphase modeling to upscale relevant trapping processes to the field scale. This paper presents the results from a set of experiments that were conducted in an intermediate scale test tanks. Intermediate scale testing provides an attractive alternative to investigate these processes under controlled conditions in the laboratory. Conducting these types of experiments is highly challenging as methods have to be developed to extrapolate the data from experiments that are conducted under ambient laboratory conditions to high temperatures and pressures settings in deep geologic formations. We explored the use of a combination of surrogate fluids that have similar density, viscosity contrasts and analogous solubility and interfacial tension as supercritical CO2-brine in deep formations. The extrapolation approach involves the use of dimensionless numbers such as Capillary number (Ca) and the Bond number (Bo). A set of

  6. Molecular microbial and chemical investigation of the bioremediation of two-phase olive mill waste using laboratory-scale bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo, J A; Aguilera, M; Antízar-Ladislao, B; Fuentes, S; Ramos-Cormenzana, A; Russell, N J; Monteoliva-Sánchez, M

    2008-05-01

    Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) is a semisolid effluent that is rich in contaminating polyphenols and is produced in large amounts by the industry of olive oil production. Laboratory-scale bioreactors were used to investigate the biodegradation of TPOMW by its indigenous microbiota. The effect of nutrient addition (inorganic N and P) and aeration of the bioreactors was studied. Microbial changes were investigated by PCR-temperature time gradient electrophoresis (TTGE) and following the dynamics of polar lipid fatty acids (PLFA). The greatest decrease in the polyphenolic and organic matter contents of bioreactors was concomitant with an increase in the PLFA fungal/bacterial ratio. Amplicon sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and 16S rDNA allowed identification of fungal and bacterial types, respectively, by comparative DNA sequence analyses. Predominant fungi identified included members of the genera Penicillium, Candida, Geotrichum, Pichia, Cladosporium, and Aschochyta. A total of 14 bacterial genera were detected, with a dominance of organisms that have previously been associated with plant material. Overall, this work highlights that indigenous microbiota within the bioreactors through stimulation of the fungal fraction, is able to degrade the polyphenolic content without the inoculation of specific microorganisms.

  7. Effect of drug precursors and chemicals relevant to clandestine laboratory investigation on plastic bags used for collection and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelot, Harmonie; Fu, Shanlin; Stuart, Barbara; Shimmon, Ronald; Raymond, Tony; Crandell, Tony; Roux, Claude

    2017-04-01

    In the area of clandestine laboratory investigations, plastic bags are used to collect and store evidence, such as solvents, precursors, and other compounds usually employed for the manufacturing of drugs (although liquids may be stored in glass containers within the bags first). In this study, three different types of plastic bags were provided by the NSW Police Force and investigated for their suitability for evidence collection: two different types of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bags and one type of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bag. Three different experiments were carried out: (1) storing relevant chemicals in the bags for up to three months; (2) exposing the bags including their content to accelerated conditions using a weatherometer, and (3) simulating an expected real case scenario. This study indicates that drugs and related chemicals stored in plastic bags may lead to a change in the composition of the chemical and an alteration or degradation of the plastic bag. All experiments led to the same conclusion: the polyvinyl chloride bags appeared to be the most affected. LDPE bags seem to be more appropriate for routine use, although it has been established they are not suitable for the collection of liquids (unless pre-packaged in, for instance, a glass container).

  8. Remotely Adjustable Hydraulic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouns, H. H.; Gardner, L. D.

    1987-01-01

    Outlet pressure adjusted to match varying loads. Electrohydraulic servo has positioned sleeve in leftmost position, adjusting outlet pressure to maximum value. Sleeve in equilibrium position, with control land covering control port. For lowest pressure setting, sleeve shifted toward right by increased pressure on sleeve shoulder from servovalve. Pump used in aircraft and robots, where hydraulic actuators repeatedly turned on and off, changing pump load frequently and over wide range.

  9. Undular Hydraulic Jump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Castro-Orgaz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The transition from subcritical to supercritical flow when the inflow Froude number Fo is close to unity appears in the form of steady state waves called undular hydraulic jump. The characterization of the undular hydraulic jump is complex due to the existence of a non-hydrostatic pressure distribution that invalidates the gradually-varied flow theory, and supercritical shock waves. The objective of this work is to present a mathematical model for the undular hydraulic jump obtained from an approximate integration of the Reynolds equations for turbulent flow assuming that the Reynolds number R is high. Simple analytical solutions are presented to reveal the physics of the theory, and a numerical model is used to integrate the complete equations. The limit of application of the theory is discussed using a wave breaking condition for the inception of a surface roller. The validity of the mathematical predictions is critically assessed using physical data, thereby revealing aspects on which more research is needed

  10. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Zohuri, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    This text covers the fundamentals of thermodynamics required to understand electrical power generation systems and the application of these principles to nuclear reactor power plant systems. It is not a traditional general thermodynamics text, per se, but a practical thermodynamics volume intended to explain the fundamentals and apply them to the challenges facing actual nuclear power plants systems, where thermal hydraulics comes to play.  Written in a lucid, straight-forward style while retaining scientific rigor, the content is accessible to upper division undergraduate students and aimed at practicing engineers in nuclear power facilities and engineering scientists and technicians in industry, academic research groups, and national laboratories. The book is also a valuable resource for students and faculty in various engineering programs concerned with nuclear reactors. This book also: Provides extensive coverage of thermal hydraulics with thermodynamics in nuclear reactors, beginning with fundamental ...

  11. Laboratory investigation of the effect of a new labyrinth with different length and width in the wing length of a triangular-shaped labyrinth weir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirreza Bahrebar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to minor changes in the static load on the crest in case of large fluctuations in flow rate, polyhedral weirs, compared with other types of weirs, are considered as economic structures to control water levels in the irrigation networks. Using labyrinth weirs is an effective and economical approach to improve the efficiency of the weir by increasing its effective crest length. In this case, for a constant hydraulic height and width, it passes a greater discharge in comparison with other types of weirs. In this study, the V-shaped plan-form weirs are studied [1, 2]. Tests are conducted on 30 models with 7 different discharges, and in a total of 210 tests. The models include 30 V-shaped weirs with various lengths. The models are investigated in a flume with 8 m length, 0.35 m width and height of 0.40 m. The results of this study indicate that for all triangular-shaped weirs the ratio of discharge coefficient to P/ ( : total hydraulic load, P: weir height is at first increased and after reaching a maximum, begins to be reduced. As the height of labyrinth on the weir wings increases, as a result of increases in effective length, the discharge coefficient is increased for a specific /P. The results also show that increasing the wing length reduces the discharge coefficient. Also, the discharge coefficient is greater for V-shaped weirs than linear ones.

  12. Laboratory investigations of the heat and momentum transfer in the stably stratified air turbulent boundary layer above the wavy surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, Daniil; Troitskaya, Yuliya; Vdovin, Maxim

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of small scale transfer processes between the ocean and atmosphere in the boundary and its parameterization on the meteorological conditions (wind and surface waves parameters) is very important for weather forecasts modeling [1]. The accuracy of the predictions taking in to account the so named bulk-formulas strongly depends on the quality empirical data. That is why the laboratory modeling sometimes is preferable (see [2]) then in situ measurements for obtaining enough ensembles of the data with a good accuracy in control conditions, first of all in a case of severe conditions (strong winds with intensive wave breaking and sprays generation). In this investigation laboratory modeling was performed on the Thermostratified Wind-Wave Channel of the IAP RAS (see. [3]). Experiments were carried out for the wind speeds up to 18.5 m/s (corresponding the equivalent 10-m wind speed 30 m/s). For the possibility of varying parameters of surface roughness independently on the wind flow a special system basing on the submerged mosquito mesh (cell of 2*2 mm) was used (see [4]). The roughness was controlled by the depth of the mesh installation under the free surface (no waves when the mesh was on the surface and maximum wave amplitude for the maximum depth). So, for each wind speed several cases of the waves parameters were investigated. During experiments a stable stratification of the boundary layer of air flow was obtained. Temperature of the heating air was 33-37 degrees (depending on the reference wind speed), and the water temperature was 14-16 degrees. The Pitote gauge and hotwire were used together for measuring velocity and temperature profiles. Also indirect estimations of the total volume of the phase of sprays were obtained by analyzing hotwire signals errors during droplets hits. Then aerodynamic drag CD and heat transfer Ch coefficients were obtained by profiling method. It was shown that that these parameters are very sensitive to the intensity of

  13. Hydraulic Press with LS System for Modelling of Plastic Working Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Pluta

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available At first, the paper describes destination of the presented hydraulic press. Next, the substance of load sensing (LS systems’ operation was introduced, and electro-hydraulic system of this type, installed in laboratory hydraulic press, was described. The control and measurement circuit of the device was also described, and exemplary test results obtained during plastic working operations on soft non-ferrous alloys were presented.

  14. Waste Area Grouping 4 Site Investigation Sampling and Analysis Plan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-01

    Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4 is one of 17 WAGs within and associated with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), on the Oak Ridge Reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. WAG 4 is located along Lagoon Road south of the main facility at ORNL. WAG 4 is a shallow-waste burial site consisting of three separate areas: (1) Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 4, a shallow-land burial ground containing radioactive and potentially hazardous wastes; (2) an experimental Pilot Pit Area, including a pilot-scale testing pit; and (3) sections of two abandoned underground pipelines formerly used for transporting liquid, low-level radioactive waste. In the 1950s, SWSA 4 received a variety of low-and high-activity wastes, including transuranic wastes, all buried in trenches and auger holes. Recent surface water data indicate that a significant amount of {sup 90}Sr is being released from the old burial trenches in SWSA 4. This release represents a significant portion of the ORNL off-site risk. In an effort to control the sources of the {sup 90}Sr release and to reduce the off-site risk, a site investigation is being implemented to locate the trenches containing the most prominent {sup 90}Sr sources. This investigation has been designed to gather site-specific data to confirm the locations of {sup 90}Sr sources responsible for most off-site releases, and to provide data to be used in evaluating potential interim remedial alternatives prepared to direct the site investigation of the SWSA 4 area at WAG 4.

  15. Site investigation report for Waste Area Grouping 4 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 1, Text: Environmental Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 4 is one of 17 WAGs within and associated with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). WAG 4 is located south of the main facility along Lagoon Road. WAG 4 consists of three separate areas: Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 4, a shallow-land-burial ground containing radioactive and potentially hazardous wastes; an experimental Pilot Pit Area, which includes a pilot-scale testing pit; and sections of two abandoned underground pipelines used for transporting liquid, low-level, radioactive waste. SWSA 4 is the largest site at WAG 4, covering approximately 23 acres. In the 1950s, SWSA 4 received a variety of low- and high-activity wastes, including transuranic wastes, all buried in trenches and auger holes. Recent surface water data, collected during monitoring of the tributary to White Oak Creek as part of WAG 2 investigations as well as during previous studies conducted at WAG 4, indicate that a significant amount of {sup 90}Sr is being released from the old burial trenches in SWSA 4. This release represents a significant portion of the ORNL off-site risk (DOE 1993). With recent corrective measures the proportion of the release has increased in 1995. A detailed discussion of the site history and previous investigations is presented in the WAG 4 Preliminary Assessment Report, ORNL/ER-271 (Energy Systems 1994b). In an effort to control the sources of the {sup 90}Sr release and to reduce the off-site risk, a site investigation was initiated to pinpoint those trenches that are the most prominent {sup 90}Sr sources.

  16. Effects of temperature and thermally-induced microstructure change on hydraulic conductivity of Boom Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Z. Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Boom Clay is one of the potential host rocks for deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive nuclear waste in Belgium. In order to investigate the mechanism of hydraulic conductivity variation under complex thermo-mechanical coupling conditions and to better understand the thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM coupling behaviour of Boom Clay, a series of permeability tests using temperature-controlled triaxial cell has been carried out on the Boom Clay samples taken from Belgian underground research laboratory (URL HADES. Due to its sedimentary nature, Boom Clay presents across-anisotropy with respect to its sub-horizontal bedding plane. Direct measurements of the vertical (Kv and horizontal (Kh hydraulic conductivities show that the hydraulic conductivity at 80 °C is about 2.4 times larger than that at room temperature (23 °C, and the hydraulic conductivity variation with temperature is basically reversible during heating–cooling cycle. The anisotropic property of Boom Clay is studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM tests, which highlight the transversely isotropic characteristics of intact Boom Clay. It is shown that the sub-horizontal bedding feature accounts for the horizontal permeability higher than the vertical one. The measured increment in hydraulic conductivity with temperature is lower than the calculated one when merely considering the changes in water kinematic viscosity and density with temperature. The nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR tests have also been carried out to investigate the impact of microstructure variation on the THM properties of clay. The results show that heating under unconstrained boundary condition will produce larger size of pores and weaken the microstructure. The discrepancy between the hydraulic conductivity experimentally measured and predicted (considering water viscosity and density changes with temperature can be attributed to the microstructural weakening effect on the thermal volume change

  17. Guided-inquiry based laboratory instruction: Investigation of critical thinking skills, problem solving skills, and implementing student roles in chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Tanya

    Recent initiatives in the laboratory curriculum have encouraged an inquiry-based approach to learning and teaching in the laboratory. It has been argued that laboratory instruction should not just be hands-on, but it should portray the essence of inquiry through the process of experiential learning and reflective engagement in collaboration with peers and in facilitation by the instructor. A student-centered active learning approach may be an effective way to enhance student understanding of concepts in the laboratory. The dissertation research work explores the impact of laboratory instruction and its relevance for college-level chemistry. Each chapter is different from the preceding chapter in terms of the purpose of the study and the research questions asked. However, the overarching idea is to address the importance of guided-inquiry based laboratory instruction in chemistry and its relevance in helping students to make connections with the chemistry content and in imparting skills to students. Such skills include problem solving, collaborative group work and critical thinking. The first research study (Chapter 2) concerns the impact of first year co-requisite general chemistry laboratory instruction on the problem-solving skills of students. The second research study (Chapter 3) examines the impact of implementing student roles also known as Student-Led Instructor Facilitated Guided-Inquiry based Laboratories, SLIFGIL) by modifying the Science Writing Heuristic approach of laboratory instruction. In the third research study (Chapter 4), critical thinking skills of first semester general chemistry laboratory students were compared to advanced (third or fourth year) chemistry laboratory students based on the analysis of their laboratory reports.

  18. Effects Of Evaporation Rate of Some Common Organic Contaminants on Hydraulic Conductivity of Aquifer Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saud, Q. J.; Hasan, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    As part of a larger study to investigate potential effects of hydrocarbons on the geotechnical properties of aquifer solids, a series of laboratory experiments were carried out to ascertain the influence of evaporation rate of some common and widespread organic contaminants on the hydraulic conductivity of aquifer sand. Gasoline and its constituent chemicals-benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX), isooctane- and trichloroethylene (TCE) were used to contaminate sand samples collected from the aquifer and vadose zone, at varying concentrations for extended periods of time. The goal was to study any change in the chemical makeup of the contaminants and its control on hydraulic conductivity of the sand. It was found that: (a) gasoline breaks down into constituent compounds when subjected to evaporation, e.g. during oil spills and leaks; and (b) lighter compounds volatilize faster and in the following order: TCE> benzene > isooctane > toluene > gasoline> ethylbenzene > xylene. In addition, these contaminants also caused a decrease in hydraulic conductivity of sand by up to 60% as compared to the uncontaminated sand. The inherent differences in the chemical structure of contaminating chemicals influenced hydraulic conductivity such that the observed decrease was greater for aliphatic than aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The presentation includes details of the experimental set up; evaporation rate, and geotechnical tests; X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope studies; and data analyses and interpretation. Rate of evaporation test indicates that residual LNAPLs will occupy a certain portion of the pores in the soil either as liquid or vapor phase in the vadose zone, and will create a coating on the adjacent solid mineral grains in the aquifer. Replacement of air by the LNAPLs along with grain coatings and the intramolecular forces would impede groundwater movement, thus affecting overall permeability of contaminated aquifers. Keywords: aquifer

  19. Hydraulic System Design of Hydraulic Actuators for Large Butterfly Valves

    OpenAIRE

    HUANG, Ye; Liu, Changsheng; Shiongur Bamed

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic control systems of butterfly valves are presently valve-controlled and pump-controlled. Valve-controlled hydraulic systems have serious power loss and generate much heat during throttling. Pump-controlled hydraulic systems have no overflow or throttling losses but are limited in the speed adjustment of the variable-displacement pump, generate much noise, pollute the environment, and have motor power that does not match load requirements, resulting in low efficiency under...

  20. Lubrication and tribology in seawater hydraulic piston pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong; LI Zhuang-yun; ZHU Yu-quan

    2003-01-01

    Water hydraulic systems have provoked major interest because of the human friendly and environmental safety aspects. Piston pump is one of the most frequently used hydraulic units in recent engineering technique. In water hydraulic piston pump, poor lubrication is more likely to happen than in oil hydraulic one because of difference in properties between water and oil. So there are some key problems such as corrosive wear and erosion, which are investigated briefly. Many new materials have been developed, which give longer life expectancies with water without corrosion and erosion. A new type of seawater hydraulic piston pumps with better suction characteristics had been developed at HUST. Much of this research has concentrated on new materials, structure and experiments, which are also specially introduced.

  1. Issues Related To Troubleshooting Of Avionic Hydraulic Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jastrzębski Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines workflows associated with troubleshooting of avionic hydraulic systems with detailed description of the troubleshooting algorithm and classification of diagnostic signals provided by avionic hydraulic systems and their subassemblies. Attention is paid to measurement sequences for diagnostic signals from hydraulic systems, circuits and units. Detailed description is dedicated to an innovative design of a troubleshooting device intended for direct measurements of internal leaks from avionic hydraulic units. Advantages of the proposed measurement method are summarized with benefits from use of the presented device and compared against the methods that are currently in use. Subsequent phases of the troubleshooting process are described with examples of measurement results that have been acquired from subassemblies of hydraulic systems of SU-22 aircrafts currently in service at Polish Air Forces with consideration given to cases when the permissible threshold of diagnostic signals were exceeded. Finally, all results from investigations are subjected to thorough analysis.

  2. Hydraulic System Design of Hydraulic Actuators for Large Butterfly Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye HUANG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic control systems of butterfly valves are presently valve-controlled and pump-controlled. Valve-controlled hydraulic systems have serious power loss and generate much heat during throttling. Pump-controlled hydraulic systems have no overflow or throttling losses but are limited in the speed adjustment of the variable-displacement pump, generate much noise, pollute the environment, and have motor power that does not match load requirements, resulting in low efficiency under light loads and wearing of the variable-displacement pump. To overcome these shortcomings, this article designs a closed hydraulic control system in which an AC servo motor drives a quantitative pump that controls a spiral swinging hydraulic cylinder, and analyzes and calculates the structure and parameters of a spiral swinging hydraulic cylinder. The hydraulic system adjusts the servo motor’s speed according to the requirements of the control system, and the motor power matches the power provided to components, thus eliminating the throttling loss of hydraulic circuits. The system is compact, produces a large output force, provides stable transmission, has a quick response, and is suitable as a hydraulic control system of a large butterfly valve.

  3. FY 1995 remedial investigation work plan for Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, D.R.; Herbes, S.E. [eds.

    1994-09-01

    Field activities to support the remedial investigation (RI) of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) include characterization of the nature and extent of contamination in WAG 2, specifically to support risk-based remediation decisions. WAG 2 is the major drainage system downgradient of other WAGs containing significant sources of contamination at ORNL. The RI of WAG 2 is developed in three phases: Phase 1, initial scoping characterization to determine the need for early action; Phase 2, interim activities during remediation of upgradient WAGs to evaluate potential changes in the contamination status of WAG 2 that would necessitate reevaluation of the need for early action; and Phase 3, completion of the RI process following remediation of upslope WAGs. Specifically, Phase 2 activities are required to track key areas to determine if changes have occurred in WAG 2 that would require (1) interim remedial action to protect human health and the environment or (2) changes in remedial action plans and schedules for WAG2 because of changing contaminant release patterns in upslope WAGs or because of the effects of interim remedial or removal actions in other WAGs. This report defines activities to be conducted in FY 1995 for completion of the Phase 1 RI and initiation of limited Phase 2 field work.

  4. Effect of Humic Acid on Migration, Distribution and Remediation of Dense Non-aqueous Phase Liquids: A laboratory investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Z.; Wu, J.; Xu, H.; Gao, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decades, dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) contamination in the subsurface increases with the rapid development of oil industry and becomes the focus of many studies. The migration, distribution and remediation efficiency of DNAPLs in the subsurface environment are greatly affected by the solution chemistry besides the physical heterogeneities of aquifers. Humic acid (HA), which is ubiquitous in natural environments, is a surface active substance exhibiting solubility enhancement behavior for hydrophobic organic compounds such as DNAPLs. Here we reported a laboratory investigation to study the effects of HA on the infiltration, immobilization and subsequent recovery of DNAPL in porous media. Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) was selected as the representative DNAPL in this study. Two-dimensional (2-D) sandbox experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of different HA concentrations on the transport, distribution of PCE and the remediation of PCE using surfactant (Tween 80) flushing in a saturated porous media system. The surfactant flushing of PCE was performed after the PCE transport and distribution had reached equilibrium. A light transmission visualization method with charge-coupled device (CCD) camera was adopted to visualize PCE distribution and quantify its saturation. In addition, the experiments were also designed to gather data for the validation of multiphase flow models. Effluent samples were collected to determine dissolved PCE concentrations. PCE solubilization and PCE-water interfacial tension were experimentally determined in aqueous solutions of varying HA concentrations. The experimental results showed that the presence of HA can have a dramatic impact on PCE flow and entrapment, and significantly improved the recovery of PCE during surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation (SEAR). The findings are of use for better understanding of the migration and entrapment of DNAPLs and developing of SEAR technology.

  5. Phase I remedial investigation report of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.E. [ed.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents the activities and findings of the first phase of a three-phase remedial investigation (RI) of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and updates the scope and strategy for WAG-2-related efforts. WAG 2 contains White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake, White Oak Creek Embayment on the Clinch River, and the associated floodplain and subsurface environment. Water, sediment, soil, and biota in WAG 2 are contaminated and continue to receive contaminants from upgradient WAGs. This report includes field activities completed through October 1992. The remediation of WAG 2 is scheduled to follow the cessation of contaminant input from hydrologically upgradient WAGs. While upgradient areas are being remediated, the strategy for WAG 2 is to conduct a long-term monitoring and investigation program that takes full advantage of WAG 2`s role as an integrator of contaminant fluxes from other ORNL WAGs and focuses on four key goals: (1) Implement, in concert with other programs, long-term, multimedia environmental monitoring and tracking of contaminants leaving other WAGs, entering WAG 2, and being transported off-site. (2) Provide a conceptual framework to integrate and develop information at the watershed-level for pathways and processes that are key to contaminant movement, and so support remedial efforts at ORNL. (3) Provide periodic updates of estimates of potential risk (both human health and ecological) associated with contaminants accumulating in and moving through WAG 2 to off-site areas. (4) Support the ORNL Environmental Restoration Program efforts to prioritize, remediate, and verify remedial effectiveness for contaminated sites at ORNL, through long-term monitoring and continually updated risk assessments.

  6. Phase I remedial investigation report of Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.E. [ed.

    1995-07-01

    This report presents the activities and findings of the first phase of a three-phase remedial investigation (RI) of Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and updates the scope and strategy for WAG-2-related efforts. WAG 2 contains White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the ORNL main plant area, White Oak Lake, White Oak Creek Embayment on the Clinch River, and the associated floodplain and subsurface environment. Water, sediment, soil, and biota in WAG 2 are contaminated and continue to receive contaminants from upgradient WAGs. This report includes field activities completed through October 1992. The remediation of WAG 2 is scheduled to follow the cessation of contaminant input from hydrologically upgradient WAGs. While upgradient areas are being remediated, the strategy for WAG 2 is to conduct a long-term monitoring and investigation program that takes full advantage of WAG 2`s role as an integrator of contaminant fluxes from other ORNL WAGs and focuses on four key goals: (1) Implement, in concert with other programs, long-term, multimedia environmental monitoring and tracking of contaminants leaving other WAGs, entering WAG 2, and being transported off-site. (2) Provide a conceptual framework to integrate and develop information at the watershed-level for pathways and processes that are key to contaminant movement, and so support remedial efforts at ORNL. (3) Provide periodic updates of estimates of potential risk (both human health and ecological) associated with contaminants accumulating in and moving through WAG 2 to off-site areas. (4) Support the ORNL Environmental Restoration Program efforts to prioritize, remediate, and verify remedial effectiveness for contaminated sites at ORNL, through long-term monitoring and continually updated risk assessments.

  7. Method to Estimate the Dissolved Air Content in Hydraulic Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to verify the air content in hydraulic fluid, an instrument was needed to measure the dissolved air content before the fluid was loaded into the system. The instrument also needed to measure the dissolved air content in situ and in real time during the de-aeration process. The current methods used to measure the dissolved air content require the fluid to be drawn from the hydraulic system, and additional offline laboratory processing time is involved. During laboratory processing, there is a potential for contamination to occur, especially when subsaturated fluid is to be analyzed. A new method measures the amount of dissolved air in hydraulic fluid through the use of a dissolved oxygen meter. The device measures the dissolved air content through an in situ, real-time process that requires no additional offline laboratory processing time. The method utilizes an instrument that measures the partial pressure of oxygen in the hydraulic fluid. By using a standardized calculation procedure that relates the oxygen partial pressure to the volume of dissolved air in solution, the dissolved air content is estimated. The technique employs luminescent quenching technology to determine the partial pressure of oxygen in the hydraulic fluid. An estimated Henry s law coefficient for oxygen and nitrogen in hydraulic fluid is calculated using a standard method to estimate the solubility of gases in lubricants. The amount of dissolved oxygen in the hydraulic fluid is estimated using the Henry s solubility coefficient and the measured partial pressure of oxygen in solution. The amount of dissolved nitrogen that is in solution is estimated by assuming that the ratio of dissolved nitrogen to dissolved oxygen is equal to the ratio of the gas solubility of nitrogen to oxygen at atmospheric pressure and temperature. The technique was performed at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The technique could be theoretically carried out at higher pressures and elevated

  8. An investigation of the use of microcomputer-based laboratory simulations in promoting conceptual understanding in secondary physics instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomshaw, Stephen G.

    Physics education research has shown that students bring alternate conceptions to the classroom which can be quite resistant to traditional instruction methods (Clement, 1982; Halloun & Hestenes, 1985; McDermott, 1991). Microcomputer-based laboratory (MBL) experiments that employ an active-engagement strategy have been shown to improve student conceptual understanding in high school and introductory university physics courses (Thornton & Sokoloff, 1998). These (MBL) experiments require a specialized computer interface, type-specific sensors (e.g. motion detectors, force probes, accelerometers), and specialized software in addition to the standard physics experimental apparatus. Tao and Gunstone (1997) have shown that computer simulations used in an active engagement environment can also lead to conceptual change. This study investigated 69 secondary physics students' use of computer simulations of MBL activities in place of the hands-on MBL laboratory activities. The average normalized gain in students' conceptual understanding was measured using the Force and Motion Conceptual Evaluation (FMCE). Student attitudes towards physics and computers were probed using the Views About Science Survey (VASS) and the Computer Attitude Scale (CAS). While it may be possible to obtain an equivalent level of conceptual understanding using computer simulations in combination with an active-engagement environment, this study found no significant gains in students' conceptual understanding ( = -0.02) after they completed a series of nine simulated experiments from the Tools for Scientific Thinking curriculum (Thornton & Sokoloff, 1990). The absence of gains in conceptual understanding may indicate that either the simulations were ineffective in promoting conceptual change or problems with the implementation of the treatment inhibited its effectiveness. There was a positive shift in students' attitudes towards physics in the VASS dimensions of structure and reflective thinking, while

  9. Scanning electron microscopy investigations of laboratory-grown gas clathrate hydrates formed from melting ice, and comparison to natural hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.; Circone, S.; Durham, W.B.

    2004-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate grain texture and pore structure development within various compositions of pure sI and sII gas hydrates synthesized in the laboratory, as well as in natural samples retrieved from marine (Gulf of Mexico) and permafrost (NW Canada) settings. Several samples of methane hydrate were also quenched after various extents of partial reaction for assessment of mid-synthesis textural progression. All laboratory-synthesized hydrates were grown under relatively high-temperature and high-pressure conditions from rounded ice grains with geometrically simple pore shapes, yet all resulting samples displayed extensive recrystallization with complex pore geometry. Growth fronts of mesoporous methane hydrate advancing into dense ice reactant were prevalent in those samples quenched after limited reaction below and at the ice point. As temperatures transgress the ice point, grain surfaces continue to develop a discrete "rind" of hydrate, typically 5 to 30 ??m thick. The cores then commonly melt, with rind microfracturing allowing migration of the melt to adjacent grain boundaries where it also forms hydrate. As the reaction continues under progressively warmer conditions, the hydrate product anneals to form dense and relatively pore-free regions of hydrate grains, in which grain size is typically several tens of micrometers. The prevalence of hollow, spheroidal shells of hydrate, coupled with extensive redistribution of reactant and product phases throughout reaction, implies that a diffusion-controlled shrinking-core model is an inappropriate description of sustained hydrate growth from melting ice. Completion of reaction at peak synthesis conditions then produces exceptional faceting and euhedral crystal growth along exposed pore walls. Further recrystallization or regrowth can then accompany even short-term exposure of synthetic hydrates to natural ocean-floor conditions, such that the final textures may closely mimic

  10. Modelling of Hydraulic Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Zhou, Jianjun; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of identifying the physical model (or the grey box model) of a hydraulic test robot. The obtained model is intended to provide a basis for model-based control of the robot. The physical model is formulated in continuous time and is derived by application...... of the laws of physics on the system. The unknown (or uncertain) parameters are estimated with Maximum Likelihood (ML) parameter estimation. The identified model has been evaluated by comparing the measurements with simulation of the model. The identified model was much more capable of describing the dynamics...... of the system than the deterministic model....

  11. Hydraulic mining method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Lester H.; Knoke, Gerald S.

    1985-08-20

    A method of hydraulically mining an underground pitched mineral vein comprising drilling a vertical borehole through the earth's lithosphere into the vein and drilling a slant borehole along the footwall of the vein to intersect the vertical borehole. Material is removed from the mineral vein by directing a high pressure water jet thereagainst. The resulting slurry of mineral fragments and water flows along the slant borehole into the lower end of the vertical borehole from where it is pumped upwardly through the vertical borehole to the surface.

  12. Spinning hydraulic jump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abderrahmane, Hamid; Kasimov, Aslan

    2013-11-01

    We report an experimental observation of a new symmetry breaking of circular hydraulic jump into a self-organized structure that consists of a spinning polygonal jump and logarithmic-spiral waves of fluid elevation downstream. The waves are strikingly similar to spiral density waves in galaxies. The fluid flow exhibits counterparts of salient morphological features of galactic flows, in particular the outflow from the center, jets, circum-nuclear rings, gas inflows toward the galactic center, and vortices. The hydrodynamic instability revealed here may have a counterpart that plays a role in the formation and sustainability of spiral arms in galaxies.

  13. Cultural Resource Investigations for the Resumption of Transient Testing of Nuclear Fuels and Material at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenda R. Pace; Julie B. Williams

    2013-11-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) has a need to test nuclear fuels under conditions that subject them to short bursts of intense, high-power radiation called ‘transient testing’ in order to gain important information necessary for licensing new nuclear fuels for use in U.S. nuclear power plants, for developing information to help improve current nuclear power plant performance and sustainability, for improving the affordability of new generation reactors, for developing recyclable nuclear fuels, and for developing fuels that inhibit any repurposing into nuclear weapons. To meet this mission need, DOE is considering alternatives for re-use and modification of existing nuclear reactor facilities to support a renewed transient testing program. One alternative under consideration involves restarting the Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) reactor located at the Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site in southeastern Idaho. This report summarizes cultural resource investigations conducted by the INL Cultural Resource Management Office in 2013 to support environmental review of activities associated with restarting the TREAT reactor at the INL. These investigations were completed in order to identify and assess the significance of cultural resources within areas of potential effect associated with the proposed action and determine if the TREAT alternative would affect significant cultural resources or historic properties that are eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. No archaeological resources were identified in the direct area of potential effects for the project, but four of the buildings proposed for modifications are evaluated as historic properties, potentially eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places. This includes the TREAT reactor (building #), control building (building #), guardhouse (building #), and warehouse (building #). The proposed re-use of these historic

  14. Uncertainty in the determination of soil hydraulic parameters and its influence on the performance of two hydrological models of different complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Baroni

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Data of soil hydraulic properties forms often a limiting factor in unsaturated zone modelling, especially at the larger scales. Investigations for the hydraulic characterization of soils are time-consuming and costly, and the accuracy of the results obtained by the different methodologies is still debated. However, we may wonder how the uncertainty in soil hydraulic parameters relates to the uncertainty of the selected modelling approach. We performed an intensive monitoring study during the cropping season of a 10 ha maize field in Northern Italy. The data were used to: i compare different methods for determining soil hydraulic parameters and ii evaluate the effect of the uncertainty in these parameters on different variables (i.e. evapotranspiration, average water content in the root zone, flux at the bottom boundary of the root zone simulated by two hydrological models of different complexity: SWAP, a widely used model of soil moisture dynamics in unsaturated soils based on Richards equation, and ALHyMUS, a conceptual model of the same dynamics based on a reservoir cascade scheme. We employed five direct and indirect methods