WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydraulic fluid pressure

  1. Interstitial hydraulic conductivity and interstitial fluid pressure for avascular or poorly vascularized tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L J; Schlesinger, M

    2015-09-07

    A correct description of the hydraulic conductivity is essential for determining the actual tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) distribution. Traditionally, it has been assumed that the hydraulic conductivities both in a tumor and normal tissue are constant, and that a tumor has a much larger interstitial hydraulic conductivity than normal tissue. The abrupt transition of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface leads to non-physical results (the hydraulic conductivity and the slope of the TIFP are not continuous at tumor surface). For the sake of simplicity and the need to represent reality, we focus our analysis on avascular or poorly vascularized tumors, which have a necrosis that is mostly in the center and vascularization that is mostly on the periphery. We suggest that there is an intermediary region between the tumor surface and normal tissue. Through this region, the interstitium (including the structure and composition of solid components and interstitial fluid) transitions from tumor to normal tissue. This process also causes the hydraulic conductivity to do the same. We introduce a continuous variation of the hydraulic conductivity, and show that the interstitial hydraulic conductivity in the intermediary region should be monotonically increasing up to the value of hydraulic conductivity in the normal tissue in order for the model to correspond to the actual TIFP distribution. The value of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface should be the lowest in value. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Loss-of-Fluid Test findings in pressurized water reactor core's thermal-hydraulic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, M.

    1983-01-01

    This paper summarizes the pressurized water reactor (PWR) core's thermal-hydraulic behavior findings from experiments performed at the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The potential impact of these findings on the safety and economics of PWR's generation of electricity is also discussed. Reviews of eight important findings in the core's physical behavior and in experimental methods are presented with supporting evidence

  3. Handbook of hydraulic fluid technology

    CERN Document Server

    Totten, George E

    2011-01-01

    ""The Handbook of Hydraulic Fluid Technology"" serves as the foremost resource for designing hydraulic systems and for selecting hydraulic fluids used in engineering applications. Featuring new illustrations, data tables, as well as practical examples, this second edition is updated with essential information on the latest hydraulic fluids and testing methods. The detailed text facilitates unparalleled understanding of the total hydraulic system, including important hardware, fluid properties, and hydraulic lubricants. Written by worldwide experts, the book also offers a rigorous overview of h

  4. Control system for the feed of pressurized fluid in a hydraulic circuit as a function of the state of the locking or unlocking of two mechanical organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Y.; Perichon, C.

    1985-01-01

    The control system comprises two hydraulic cylinders of which rods are integral with the mechanical organs. The piston of the first cylinder separates the chamber of this one in two parts. The piston of the second cylinder separates its chamber in three parts. The inlet chamber of the two cylinders are connected to pressurized fluid feed pipes, and the outlet chambers to a depressurization pipe. According to the position of the piston depending itself on the state of locking or unlocking of the rods, an interconnection pipe and a feed pipe of the pressurized fluid hydraulic circuit communicate with a chamber or another one. The feed of the hydraulic circuit is possible only the two rods are unlocked. The invention applies more particularly to the feed of the control circuit of an emergency seal of the primary pump of a pressurized water nuclear reactor [fr

  5. Literature survey of heat transfer and hydraulic resistance of water, carbon dioxide, helium and other fluids at supercritical and near-critical pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pioro, I.L.; Duffey, R.B

    2003-04-01

    This survey consists of 430 references, including 269 Russian publications and 161 Western publications devoted to the problems of heat transfer and hydraulic resistance of a fluid at near-critical and supercritical pressures. The objective of the literature survey is to compile and summarize findings in the area of heat transfer and hydraulic resistance at supercritical pressures for various fluids for the last fifty years published in the open Russian and Western literature. The analysis of the publications showed that the majority of the papers were devoted to the heat transfer of fluids at near-critical and supercritical pressures flowing inside a circular tube. Three major working fluids are involved: water, carbon dioxide, and helium. The main objective of these studies was the development and design of supercritical steam generators for power stations (utilizing water as a working fluid) in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. Carbon dioxide was usually used as the modeling fluid due to lower values of the critical parameters. Helium, and sometimes carbon dioxide, were considered as possible working fluids in some special designs of nuclear reactors. (author)

  6. CRITICALITY CURVES FOR PLUTONIUM HYDRAULIC FLUID MIXTURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WITTEKIND WD

    2007-01-01

    This Calculation Note performs and documents MCNP criticality calculations for plutonium (100% 239 Pu) hydraulic fluid mixtures. Spherical geometry was used for these generalized criticality safety calculations and three geometries of neutron reflection are: (sm b ullet)bare, (sm b ullet)1 inch of hydraulic fluid, or (sm b ullet)12 inches of hydraulic fluid. This document shows the critical volume and critical mass for various concentrations of plutonium in hydraulic fluid. Between 1 and 2 gallons of hydraulic fluid were discovered in the bottom of HA-23S. This HA-23S hydraulic fluid was reported by engineering to be Fyrquel 220. The hydraulic fluid in GLovebox HA-23S is Fyrquel 220 which contains phosphorus. Critical spherical geometry in air is calculated with 0 in., 1 in., or 12 inches hydraulic fluid reflection

  7. Method to Estimate the Dissolved Air Content in Hydraulic Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    In order to verify the air content in hydraulic fluid, an instrument was needed to measure the dissolved air content before the fluid was loaded into the system. The instrument also needed to measure the dissolved air content in situ and in real time during the de-aeration process. The current methods used to measure the dissolved air content require the fluid to be drawn from the hydraulic system, and additional offline laboratory processing time is involved. During laboratory processing, there is a potential for contamination to occur, especially when subsaturated fluid is to be analyzed. A new method measures the amount of dissolved air in hydraulic fluid through the use of a dissolved oxygen meter. The device measures the dissolved air content through an in situ, real-time process that requires no additional offline laboratory processing time. The method utilizes an instrument that measures the partial pressure of oxygen in the hydraulic fluid. By using a standardized calculation procedure that relates the oxygen partial pressure to the volume of dissolved air in solution, the dissolved air content is estimated. The technique employs luminescent quenching technology to determine the partial pressure of oxygen in the hydraulic fluid. An estimated Henry s law coefficient for oxygen and nitrogen in hydraulic fluid is calculated using a standard method to estimate the solubility of gases in lubricants. The amount of dissolved oxygen in the hydraulic fluid is estimated using the Henry s solubility coefficient and the measured partial pressure of oxygen in solution. The amount of dissolved nitrogen that is in solution is estimated by assuming that the ratio of dissolved nitrogen to dissolved oxygen is equal to the ratio of the gas solubility of nitrogen to oxygen at atmospheric pressure and temperature. The technique was performed at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The technique could be theoretically carried out at higher pressures and elevated

  8. Energy harvesting from hydraulic pressure fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunefare, K A; Skow, E A; Erturk, A; Savor, J; Verma, N; Cacan, M R

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art hydraulic hose and piping systems employ integral sensor nodes for structural health monitoring to avoid catastrophic failures. Energy harvesting in hydraulic systems could enable self-powered wireless sensor nodes for applications such as energy-autonomous structural health monitoring and prognosis. Hydraulic systems inherently have a high energy intensity associated with the mean pressure and flow. Accompanying the mean pressure is the dynamic pressure ripple, which is caused by the action of pumps and actuators. Pressure ripple is a deterministic source with a periodic time-domain behavior conducive to energy harvesting. An energy harvester prototype was designed for generating low-power electricity from pressure ripples. The prototype employed an axially-poled off-the-shelf piezoelectric stack. A housing isolated the stack from the hydraulic fluid while maintaining a mechanical coupling allowing for dynamic-pressure-induced deflection of the stack. The prototype exhibited an off-resonance energy harvesting problem since the fundamental resonance of the piezoelectric stack was much higher than the frequency content of the pressure ripple. The prototype was designed to provide a suitable power output for powering sensors with a maximum output of 1.2 mW. This work also presents electromechanical model simulations and experimental characterization of the piezoelectric power output from the pressure ripple in terms of the force transmitted into the harvester. (paper)

  9. TMI-2 in-vessel hydraulic systems utilize high water and high boron content fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baston, V.F.; Hofstetter, K.J.; Hofman, L.A.; Gallagher, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Choice of a hydraulic fluid for use in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor vessel defueling equipment required consideration of the following constraints for the hydraulic fluid given an accidental spill into the reactor coolant system (RCS). The TMI-2 RCS hydraulic fluid utilized in the hydraulic operations utilized a solution composition of 95 wt% water and 5 wt% of the above base fluid. The TMI-2 hydraulic system utilizes pressures up to 3500 psi. The selected hydraulic fluid has been in use since December 1986 with minimal operational difficulties

  10. Hydraulic fracturing chemicals and fluids technology

    CERN Document Server

    Fink, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    When classifying fracturing fluids and their additives, it is important that production, operation, and completion engineers understand which chemical should be utilized in different well environments. A user's guide to the many chemicals and chemical additives used in hydraulic fracturing operations, Hydraulic Fracturing Chemicals and Fluids Technology provides an easy-to-use manual to create fluid formulations that will meet project-specific needs while protecting the environment and the life of the well. Fink creates a concise and comprehensive reference that enables the engineer to logically select and use the appropriate chemicals on any hydraulic fracturing job. The first book devoted entirely to hydraulic fracturing chemicals, Fink eliminates the guesswork so the engineer can select the best chemicals needed on the job while providing the best protection for the well, workers and environment. Pinpoints the specific compounds used in any given fracturing operation Provides a systematic approach to class...

  11. Application study of fluid pressure energy recycling of decarbonisation process by C4H6O3 in ammonia synthesis systems by hydraulic turbochargers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yunguang; Xu, Yangyang; Li, Hongtao; Oklejas, Michael; Xue, Shuqi

    2018-01-01

    A new type of hydraulic turbocharger energy recovery system was designed and applied in the decarbonisation process by propylene carbonate of a 100k tons ammonia synthesis system firstly in China. Compared with existing energy recovery devices, hydraulic turbocharger energy recovery system runs more smoothly, has lower failure rate, longer service life and greater comprehensive benefits due to its unique structure, simpler adjustment process and better adaptability to fluid fluctuation.

  12. Understanding, Classifying, and Selecting Environmentally Acceptable Hydraulic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    traditional mineral oil; therefore, the life cycle costs over time may be reduced . REPLACEMENT OF EXISTING HYDRAULIC FLUIDS: Hydraulic fluids in existing...properly maintaining the fluid can extend the time interval between fluid changes, thus reducing the overall operating cost of the EA hydraulic fluid. It...Environmentally Acceptable Hydraulic Fluids by Timothy J. Keyser, Robert N. Samuel, and Timothy L. Welp INTRODUCTION: On a daily basis, the United States Army

  13. Fluid Temperature of Aero Hydraulic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Shumilov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern supersonic aircrafts due to aerodynamic skin heating a temperature of hydraulics environment significantly exceeds that of permissible for fluids used. The same problem exists for subsonic passenger aircrafts, especially for Airbuses, which have hydraulics of high power where convective heat transfer with the environment is insufficient and there is no required temperature control of fluid. The most significant in terms of heat flow is the flow caused by the loss of power to the pump and when designing the hydraulic system (HS it is necessary to pay very serious attention to it. To use a constant capacity pump is absolutely unacceptable, since HS efficiency in this case is extremely low, and the most appropriate are variable-capacity pumps, cut-off pumps, dual-mode pumps. The HS fluid cooling system should provide high reliability, lightweight, simple design, and a specified heat transfer in all flight modes.A system cooling the fluid by the fuel of feeding lines of the aircraft engines is the most effective, and it is widely used in supersonic aircrafts, where power of cooling system is essential. Subsonic aircrafts widely use convective heat exchangers. In thermal design of the aircraft hydraulics, the focus is generally given to the maximum and minimum temperatures of the HS fluid, the choice of the type of heat exchanger (convective or flow-through, the place of its installation. In calculating the operating temperature of a hydraulic system and its cooling systems it is necessary to determine an increase of the working fluid temperature when throttling it. There are three possible formulas to calculate the fluid temperature in throttling, with the error of a calculated temperature drop from 30% to 4%.The article considers the HS stationary and noon-stationary operating conditions and their calculation, defines temperatures of fluid and methods to control its specified temperature. It also discusses various heat exchanger schemes

  14. Measuring fluid pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for measuring the pressure of a fluid having characteristics that make it unsuitable for connection directly to a pressure gauge. The method is particularly suitable for the periodic measurement of the pressure of a supply of liquid Na to Na-lubricated bearings of pumps for pumping Na from a reservoir to the bearing via a filter, the reservoir being contained in a closed vessel containing an inert blanket gas, such as Ar, above the Na. (UK)

  15. Operation of a T63 Turbine Engine Using F24 Contaminated Skydrol 5 Hydraulic Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    hydraulic fluids were originally developed by the Douglas Aircraft Company during the 1940s to reduce fire risk from leaking high pressure mineral oil...thermal load demands in modern hydraulic systems and reduced density to lower weight impact on the aircraft. Eastman Chemical is the current producer of...AFRL-RQ-WP-TM-2016-0155 OPERATION OF A T63 TURBINE ENGINE USING F24 CONTAMINATED SKYDROL 5 HYDRAULIC FLUID Matthew J. Wagner (AFRL/RQTM) James

  16. Fluid Structure Interaction for Hydraulic Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souli, Mhamed; Aquelet, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Fluid Structure interaction plays an important role in engineering applications. Physical phenomena such as flow induced vibration in nuclear industry, fuel sloshing tank in automotive industry or rotor stator interaction in turbo machinery, can lead to structure deformation and sometimes to failure. In order to solve fluid structure interaction problems, the majority of numerical tests consists in using two different codes to separately solve pressure of the fluid and structural displacements. In this paper, a unique code with an ALE formulation approach is used to implicitly calculate the pressure of an incompressible fluid applied to the structure. The development of the ALE method as well as the coupling in a computational structural dynamic code, allows to solve more large industrial problems related to fluid structure coupling. (authors)

  17. Review of fluid and control technology of hydraulic wind turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Maolin; Wang, Yixuan; Jiao, Zongxia; Shi, Yan

    2017-09-01

    This study examines the development of the fluid and control technology of hydraulic wind turbines. The current state of hydraulic wind turbines as a new technology is described, and its basic fluid model and typical control method are expounded by comparing various study results. Finally, the advantages of hydraulic wind turbines are enumerated. Hydraulic wind turbines are expected to become the main development direction of wind turbines.

  18. Review of fluid and control technology of hydraulic wind turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maolin CAI; Yixuan WANG; Zongxia JIAO; Yan SHI

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the development of the fluid and control technology of hydraulic wind turbines.The current state of hydraulic wind turbines as a new technology is described,and its basic fluid model and typical control method are expounded by comparing various study results.Finally,the advantages of hydraulic wind turbines are enumerated.Hydraulic wind turbines are expected to become the main development direction of wind turbines.

  19. The hydraulics of the pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchter, J.C.; Barbier, D.; Caruso, A.

    1999-01-01

    The SFEN organized, the 10 june 1999 at Paris, a meeting in the domain of the PWR hydraulics and in particular the hydraulic phenomena concerning the vessel and the vapor generators. The papers presented showed the importance of the industrial stakes with their associated phenomena: cores performance and safety with the more homogenous cooling system, the rods and the control rods wear, the temperature control, the fluid-structure interactions. A great part was also devoted to the progresses in the domain of the numerical simulation and the models and algorithms qualification. (A.L.B.)

  20. Control rod driving hydraulic pressure device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Kazuo.

    1990-01-01

    Discharged water after actuating control rod drives in a BWR type reactor is once discharged to a discharging header, then returned to a master control unit and, subsequently, discharged to a reactor by way of a cooling water header. The radioactive level in the discharging header and the master control unit is increased by the reactor water to increase the operator's exposure. In view of the above, a riser is disposed for connecting a hydraulic pressure control unit incorporating a directional control valve and the cooling water head. When a certain control rod is inserted, the pressurized driving water is supplied through a hydraulic pressure control unit to the control rod drives. The discharged water from the control rod drives is entered by way of the hydraulic pressure control unit into the cooling water header and then returned to the reactor by way of other hydraulic pressure control unit and the control rod drives. Thus, the reactor water is no more recycled to the master control unit to reduce the radioactive exposure. (N.H.)

  1. Pressure Transient Model of Water-Hydraulic Pipelines with Cavitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Jiang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transient pressure investigation of water-hydraulic pipelines is a challenge in the fluid transmission field, since the flow continuity equation and momentum equation are partial differential, and the vaporous cavitation has high dynamics; the frictional force caused by fluid viscosity is especially uncertain. In this study, due to the different transient pressure dynamics in upstream and downstream pipelines, the finite difference method (FDM is adopted to handle pressure transients with and without cavitation, as well as steady friction and frequency-dependent unsteady friction. Different from the traditional method of characteristics (MOC, the FDM is advantageous in terms of the simple and convenient computation. Furthermore, the mechanism of cavitation growth and collapse are captured both upstream and downstream of the water-hydraulic pipeline, i.e., the cavitation start time, the end time, the duration, the maximum volume, and the corresponding time points. By referring to the experimental results of two previous works, the comparative simulation results of two computation methods are verified in experimental water-hydraulic pipelines, which indicates that the finite difference method shows better data consistency than the MOC.

  2. Disclosure of hydraulic fracturing fluid chemical additives: analysis of regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Alexis L; Makey, Colleen M; Benson, Eugene B; Burrows, Isaac J; Scammell, Madeleine K

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to extract natural gas from shale formations. The process involves injecting into the ground fracturing fluids that contain thousands of gallons of chemical additives. Companies are not mandated by federal regulations to disclose the identities or quantities of chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing operations on private or public lands. States have begun to regulate hydraulic fracturing fluids by mandating chemical disclosure. These laws have shortcomings including nondisclosure of proprietary or "trade secret" mixtures, insufficient penalties for reporting inaccurate or incomplete information, and timelines that allow for after-the-fact reporting. These limitations leave lawmakers, regulators, public safety officers, and the public uninformed and ill-prepared to anticipate and respond to possible environmental and human health hazards associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids. We explore hydraulic fracturing exemptions from federal regulations, as well as current and future efforts to mandate chemical disclosure at the federal and state level.

  3. Control rod driving hydraulic pressure device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Masahide.

    1993-01-01

    The present invention concerns a control rod driving hydraulic device of a BWR type reactor, and provides an improvement for a means for supplying mechanical seal flashing water of a pump. That is, a mechanical seal flashing pipeline is branched at the downstream of a pressure-reducing orifice and connected to a minimum flow pipeline. With such a constitution, the minimum flow pipeline is connected to a minimum flow pipeline of an auxiliary pump at the downstream of the pressure-reducing orifice and returned to a suction pipeline of the pump. Pressure at the downstream of the pressure-reducing orifice is set, in the orifice, to a pressure required for mechanical seal flashing. Accordingly, the mechanical seal flashing pipeline is connected and a part of minimum flow rate is utilized, thereby enabling to cool mechanical seals. As a result, flow rate of the mechanical flashing water which has been flown out can be saved. The exhaustion amount from the pump can be reduced, to decrease the shaft power and reduce the capacity of the motor. (I.S.)

  4. Influences of Hydraulic Fracturing on Fluid Flow and Mineralization at the Vein-Type Tungsten Deposits in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangchong Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolframite is the main ore mineral at the vein-type tungsten deposits in the Nanling Range, which is a world-class tungsten province. It is disputed how wolframite is precipitated at these deposits and no one has yet studied the links of the mechanical processes to fluid flow and mineralization. Finite element-based numerical experiments are used to investigate the influences of a hydraulic fracturing process on fluid flow and solubility of CO2 and quartz. The fluids are aqueous NaCl solutions and fluid pressure is the only variable controlling solubility of CO2 and quartz in the numerical experiments. Significant fluctuations of fluid pressure and high-velocity hydrothermal pulse are found once rock is fractured by high-pressure fluids. The fluid pressure drop induced by hydraulic fracturing could cause a 9% decrease of quartz solubility. This amount of quartz deposition may not cause a significant decrease in rock permeability. The fluid pressure decrease after hydraulic fracturing also reduces solubility of CO2 by 36% and increases pH. Because an increase in pH would cause a major decrease in solubility of tungsten, the fluid pressure drop accompanying a hydraulic fracturing process facilitates wolframite precipitation. Our numerical experiments provide insight into the mechanisms precipitating wolframite at the tungsten deposits in the Nanling Range as well as other metals whose solubility is strongly dependent on pH.

  5. Application study of magnetic fluid seal in hydraulic turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Z Y; Zhang, W

    2012-01-01

    The waterpower resources of our country are abundant, and the hydroelectric power is developed, but at present the main shaft sealing device of hydraulic turbine is easy to wear and tear and the leakage is great. The magnetic fluid seal has the advantages of no contact, no wear, self-healing, long life and so on. In this paper, the magnetic fluid seal would be used in the main shaft of hydraulic turbine, the sealing structure was built the model, meshed the geometry, applied loads and solved by using MULTIPHYSICS in ANSYS software, the influence of the various sealing structural parameters such as tooth width, height, slot width, sealing gap on the sealing property were analyzed, the magnetic fluid sealing device suitable for large-diameter shaft and sealing water was designed, the sealing problem of the hydraulic turbine main shaft was solved effectively which will bring huge economic benefits.

  6. Endurance Pump Test with MIL-PRF-83282 Hydraulic Fluid, Purified with Malabar Purifier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharma, Shashi

    2004-01-01

    .... Endurance aircraft hydraulic pump tests under carefully controlled conditions were previously conducted using hydraulic fluid purified with a rotating-disk and vacuum type purifier, the portable...

  7. Study of pore pressure reaction on hydraulic fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimonova, Mariia; Baryshnikov, Nikolay; Turuntaev, Sergey; Zenchenko, Evgeniy; Zenchenko, Petr

    2017-04-01

    We represent the results of the experimental study of the hydraulic fracture propagation influence on the fluid pore pressure. Initial pore pressure was induced by injection and production wells. The experiments were carried out according to scaling analysis based on the radial model of the fracture. All required geomechanical and hydrodynamical properties of a sample were derived from the scaling laws. So, gypsum was chosen as a sample material and vacuum oil as a fracturing fluid. The laboratory setup allows us to investigate the samples of cylindrical shape. It can be considered as an advantage in comparison with standard cubic samples, because we shouldn't consider the stress field inhomogeneity induced by the corners. Moreover, we can set 3D-loading by this setting. Also the sample diameter is big enough (43cm) for placing several wells: the fracturing well in the center and injection and production wells on two opposite sides of the central well. The experiment consisted of several stages: a) applying the horizontal pressure; b) applying the vertical pressure; c) water solution injection in the injection well with a constant pressure; d) the steady state obtaining; e) the oil injection in the central well with a constant rate. The pore pressure was recorded in the 15 points along bottom side of the sample during the whole experiment. We observe the pore pressure change during all the time of the experiment. First, the pore pressure changed due to water injection. Then we began to inject oil in the central well. We compared the obtained experimental data on the pore pressure changes with the solution of the 2D single-phase equation of pore-elasticity, and we found significant difference. The variation of the equation parameters couldn't help to resolve the discrepancy. After the experiment, we found that oil penetrated into the sample before and after the fracture initiation. This fact encouraged us to consider another physical process - the oil

  8. Theoretical aspects concerning working fluids in hydraulic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tița Irina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the properties of working fluid, viscosity is the most important as it regards especially to pumps. In order to study the behavior of hydrostatic transmission it is important to create a reliable research instrument for dynamic simulation. Our research expertise being in SimHydraulics consequently this instrument is the suitable block diagram. The purpose of this paper is to present the possible ways to customize the properties of the working fluid in the block diagram.

  9. Effect of rock rheology on fluid leak- off during hydraulic fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarushina, V. M.; Bercovici, D.; Oristaglio, M. L.

    2012-04-01

    In this communication, we evaluate the effect of rock rheology on fluid leak­off during hydraulic fracturing of reservoirs. Fluid leak-off in hydraulic fracturing is often nonlinear. The simple linear model developed by Carter (1957) for flow of fracturing fluid into a reservoir has three different regions in the fractured zone: a filter cake on the fracture face, formed by solid additives from the fracturing fluid; a filtrate zone affected by invasion of the fracturing fluid; and a reservoir zone with the original formation fluid. The width of each zone, as well as its permeability and pressure drop, is assumed to remain constant. Physical intuition suggests some straightforward corrections to this classical theory to take into account the pressure dependence of permeability, the compressibility or non-Newtonian rheology of fracturing fluid, and the radial (versus linear) geometry of fluid leak­off from the borehole. All of these refinements, however, still assume that the reservoir rock adjacent to the fracture face is non­deformable. Although the effect of poroelastic stress changes on leak-off is usually thought to be negligible, at the very high fluid pressures used in hydraulic fracturing, where the stresses exceed the rock strength, elastic rheology may not be the best choice. For example, calculations show that perfectly elastic rock formations do not undergo the degree of compaction typically seen in sedimentary basins. Therefore, pseudo-elastic or elastoplastic models are used to fit observed porosity profiles with depth. Starting from balance equations for mass and momentum for fluid and rock, we derive a hydraulic flow equation coupled with a porosity equation describing rock compaction. The result resembles a pressure diffusion equation with the total compressibility being a sum of fluid, rock and pore-space compressibilities. With linear elastic rheology, the bulk formation compressibility is dominated by fluid compressibility. But the possibility

  10. Savoir Fluide. A newsletter on computational hydraulics and fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This newsletter reports on computational works performed by the National Laboratory of Hydraulics (LNH) from Electricite de France (EdF). Two papers were selected which concern the simulation of the Paluel nuclear power plant plume and the computation of particles and droplets inside a cooling tower. (J.S.)

  11. Shallow Aquifer Vulnerability From Subsurface Fluid Injection at a Proposed Shale Gas Hydraulic Fracturing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M. P.; Worrall, F.; Davies, R. J.; Hart, A.

    2017-11-01

    Groundwater flow resulting from a proposed hydraulic fracturing (fracking) operation was numerically modeled using 91 scenarios. Scenarios were chosen to be a combination of hydrogeological factors that a priori would control the long-term migration of fracking fluids to the shallow subsurface. These factors were induced fracture extent, cross-basin groundwater flow, deep low hydraulic conductivity strata, deep high hydraulic conductivity strata, fault hydraulic conductivity, and overpressure. The study considered the Bowland Basin, northwest England, with fracking of the Bowland Shale at ˜2,000 m depth and the shallow aquifer being the Sherwood Sandstone at ˜300-500 m depth. Of the 91 scenarios, 73 scenarios resulted in tracked particles not reaching the shallow aquifer within 10,000 years and 18 resulted in travel times less than 10,000 years. Four factors proved to have a statistically significant impact on reducing travel time to the aquifer: increased induced fracture extent, absence of deep high hydraulic conductivity strata, relatively low fault hydraulic conductivity, and magnitude of overpressure. Modeling suggests that high hydraulic conductivity formations can be more effective barriers to vertical flow than low hydraulic conductivity formations. Furthermore, low hydraulic conductivity faults can result in subsurface pressure compartmentalization, reducing horizontal groundwater flow, and encouraging vertical fluid migration. The modeled worst-case scenario, using unlikely geology and induced fracture lengths, maximum values for strata hydraulic conductivity and with conservative tracer behavior had a particle travel time of 130 years to the base of the shallow aquifer. This study has identified hydrogeological factors which lead to aquifer vulnerability from shale exploitation.

  12. The study of crosslinked fluid leakoff in hydraulic fracturing physical simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grothe, Vinicius Perrud; Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo; Sousa, Jose Luiz Antunes de Oliveira e [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Estruturas; Fernandes, Paulo Dore [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas

    2000-07-01

    The fluid loss plays an important role in the design and execution of hydraulic fracturing treatments. The main objectives of this work were: the study of the fluid loss associated with the propagation of hydraulic fractures generated at laboratory; and the comparison of two distinct methods for estimating leakoff coefficients - Nolte analysis and the filtrate volume vs. square root of time plot. Synthetic rock samples were used as well as crosslinked hydroxypropyl guar (HPG) fluids in different polymer concentrations. The physical simulations comprised the confinement of (0.1 x 0.1 x 0.1) m{sup 3} rock samples in a load cell for the application of an in situ stress field. Different flow rates were employed in order to investigate shear effects on the overall leakoff coefficient. Horizontal radial fractures were hydraulically induced with approximate diameters, what was accomplished by controlling the injection time. Leakoff coefficients determined by means of the pressure decline analysis were compared to coefficients obtained from static filtration tests, considering similar experimental conditions. The research results indicated that the physical simulation of hydraulic fracturing may be regarded as an useful tool for evaluating the effectiveness of fracturing fluids and that it can supply reliable estimates of fluid loss coefficients. (author)

  13. Dynamic characteristics of Semi-active Hydraulic Engine Mount Based on Fluid-Structure Interaction FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Jiande

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of semi-active hydraulic engine mount is studied in this paper. After careful analysis of its structure and working principle, the FEA simulation of it was divided into two cases. One is the solenoid valve is open, so the air chamber connects to the atmosphere, and Fluid-Structure Interaction was used. Another is the solenoid valve is closed, and the air chamber has pressure, so Fluid-Structure-Gas Interaction was used. The test of this semi-active hydraulic engine mount was carried out to compare with the simulation results, and verify the accuracy of the model. Then the dynamic characteristics-dynamic stiffness and damping angle were analysed by simulation and test. This paper provides theoretical support for the development and optimization of the semi-active hydraulic engine mount.

  14. Endurance Pump Tests With Fresh and Purified MIL-PRF-83282 Hydraulic Fluid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharma, Shashi

    1999-01-01

    .... Two endurance pump tests were conducted with F-16 aircraft hydraulic pumps, using both fresh and purified MIL-PRF-83282 hydraulic fluid, to determine if fluid purification had any adverse effect on pump life...

  15. Static Analysis of High-Performance Fixed Fluid Power Drive with a Single Positive-Displacement Hydraulic Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Nikitin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the static calculations in designing a high-performance fixed fluid power drive with a single positive-displacement hydraulic motor. Designing is aimed at using a drive that is under development and yet unavailable to find and record the minimum of calculations and maximum of existing hydraulic units that enable clear and unambiguous performance, taking into consideration an available assortment of hydraulic units of hydraulic drives, to have the best efficiency.The specified power (power, moment and kinematics (linear velocity or angular velocity of rotation parameters of the output element of hydraulic motor determine the main output parameters of the hydraulic drive and the useful power of the hydraulic drive under development. The value of the overall efficiency of the hydraulic drive enables us to judge the efficiency of high-performance fixed fluid power drive.The energy analysis of a diagram of the high-performance fixed fluid power drive shows that its high efficiency is achieved when the flow rate of fluid flowing into each cylinder and the magnitude of the feed pump unit (pump are as nearly as possible.The paper considers the ways of determining the geometric parameters of working hydromotors (effective working area or working volume, which allow a selection of the pumping unit parameters. It discusses the ways to improve hydraulic drive efficiency. Using the principle of holding constant conductivity allows us to specify the values of the pressure losses in the hydraulic units used in noncatalog modes. In case of no exact matching between the parameters of existing hydraulic power modes and a proposed characteristics of the pump unit, the nearest to the expected characteristics is taken as a working version.All of the steps allow us to create the high-performance fixed fluid power drive capable of operating at the required power and kinematic parameters with high efficiency.

  16. High-water-base hydraulic fluid-irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, E.C.; Meacham, S.A.

    1981-10-01

    A remote system for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies is being designed under the direction of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP). The design incorporates a dual hydraulic fluid actuation system in which only one of the fluids, a high-water-base (HWBF), would be exposed to ionizing radiation and radioactive contamination. A commercially available synthetic, solution-type HWBF was selected as the reference. Single-sample irradiation experiments were conducted with three commercial fluids over a range of irradiation exposures. The physical and chemical properties of the irradiated HWBFs were analyzed and compared with unirradiated samples. In general, the results of the analyses showed increasing degradation of fluid properties with increasing irradiation dose. The results also indicated that a synthetic solution-type HWBF would perform satisfactorily in the remote shear system where irradiation doses up to 10 6 Gy (10 8 rad) are expected

  17. High-water-base hydraulic fluid-irradiation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, E.C.; Meacham, S.A.

    1981-10-01

    A remote system for shearing spent nuclear fuel assemblies is being designed under the direction of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP). The design incorporates a dual hydraulic fluid actuation system in which only one of the fluids, a high-water-base (HWBF), would be exposed to ionizing radiation and radioactive contamination. A commercially available synthetic, solution-type HWBF was selected as the reference. Single-sample irradiation experiments were conducted with three commercial fluids over a range of irradiation exposures. The physical and chemical properties of the irradiated HWBFs were analyzed and compared with unirradiated samples. In general, the results of the analyses showed increasing degradation of fluid properties with increasing irradiation dose. The results also indicated that a synthetic solution-type HWBF would perform satisfactorily in the remote shear system where irradiation doses up to 10/sup 6/ Gy (10/sup 8/ rad) are expected.

  18. Controlling a negative loaded hydraulic cylinder using pressure feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.R.; Andersen, T.O.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the inherent oscillatory nature of pressure compensated velocity control of a hydraulic cylinder subjected to a negative load and suspended by means of an over-center valve. Initially, a linearized stability analysis of such a hydraulic circuit is carried out clearly ...... in a nonlinear time domain simulation model validating the linear stability analysis....

  19. Hydraulic Fracturing and Production Optimization in Eagle Ford Shale Using Coupled Geomechanics and Fluid Flow Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppachoknirun, Theerapat; Tutuncu, Azra N.

    2017-12-01

    With increasing production from shale gas and tight oil reservoirs, horizontal drilling and multistage hydraulic fracturing processes have become a routine procedure in unconventional field development efforts. Natural fractures play a critical role in hydraulic fracture growth, subsequently affecting stimulated reservoir volume and the production efficiency. Moreover, the existing fractures can also contribute to the pressure-dependent fluid leak-off during the operations. Hence, a reliable identification of the discrete fracture network covering the zone of interest prior to the hydraulic fracturing design needs to be incorporated into the hydraulic fracturing and reservoir simulations for realistic representation of the in situ reservoir conditions. In this research study, an integrated 3-D fracture and fluid flow model have been developed using a new approach to simulate the fluid flow and deliver reliable production forecasting in naturally fractured and hydraulically stimulated tight reservoirs. The model was created with three key modules. A complex 3-D discrete fracture network model introduces realistic natural fracture geometry with the associated fractured reservoir characteristics. A hydraulic fracturing model is created utilizing the discrete fracture network for simulation of the hydraulic fracture and flow in the complex discrete fracture network. Finally, a reservoir model with the production grid system is used allowing the user to efficiently perform the fluid flow simulation in tight formations with complex fracture networks. The complex discrete natural fracture model, the integrated discrete fracture model for the hydraulic fracturing, the fluid flow model, and the input dataset have been validated against microseismic fracture mapping and commingled production data obtained from a well pad with three horizontal production wells located in the Eagle Ford oil window in south Texas. Two other fracturing geometries were also evaluated to optimize

  20. Relationships between fluid pressure and capillary pressure in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, the Bower's and Gardner's technique of velocity-to fluid pressure gradient methods were applied on seismic reflection data in order to predict fluid pressure of an X- oil field in Niger Delta Basin. Results show significant deflection common with fluid pressure zones . With average connate water saturation Swc ...

  1. Organic compounds in hydraulic fracturing fluids and wastewaters: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luek, Jenna L; Gonsior, Michael

    2017-10-15

    High volume hydraulic fracturing (HVHF) of shale to stimulate the release of natural gas produces a large quantity of wastewater in the form of flowback fluids and produced water. These wastewaters are highly variable in their composition and contain a mixture of fracturing fluid additives, geogenic inorganic and organic substances, and transformation products. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of organic compounds identified in HVHF fluids, flowback fluids, and produced waters are reviewed here to communicate knowledge gaps that exist in the composition of HVHF wastewaters. In general, analyses of organic compounds have focused on those amenable to gas chromatography, focusing on volatile and semi-volatile oil and gas compounds. Studies of more polar and non-volatile organic compounds have been limited by a lack of knowledge of what compounds may be present as well as quantitative methods and standards available for analyzing these complex mixtures. Liquid chromatography paired with high-resolution mass spectrometry has been used to investigate a number of additives and will be a key tool to further research on transformation products that are increasingly solubilized through physical, chemical, and biological processes in situ and during environmental contamination events. Diverse treatments have been tested and applied to HVHF wastewaters but limited information has been published on the quantitative removal of individual organic compounds. This review focuses on recently published information on organic compounds identified in flowback fluids and produced waters from HVHF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. MODEL TESTING OF LOW PRESSURE HYDRAULIC TURBINE WITH HIGHER EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Nedbalsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A design of low pressure turbine has been developed and it is covered by an invention patent and a useful model patent. Testing of the hydraulic turbine model has been carried out when it was installed on a vertical shaft. The efficiency was equal to 76–78 % that exceeds efficiency of the known low pressure blade turbines. 

  3. TRACKING CONTROL FOR A HYDRAULIC DRIVE WITH A PRESSURE COMPENSATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Aranovskiy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A problem of tracking control is considered for a hydraulic drive with a pressure compensator that is widespread in the equipment of heavy-duty machines. Method. The control problem is solved by means of a switching sliding-mode controller coupled with static nonlinear compensation and desired velocity feedforward. Main Results. Mathematical model of a hydraulic drive is given in view of the pressure compensator presence. Traditional model of a hydraulic drive is formulated for a system with a spool valve; purpose and principles of operation of the pressure compensator in hydraulic systems are described, and the extended model is presented illustrating compensator contribution to overall system dynamics. It is shown that the obtained model has an input static nonlinearity; the nonlinearity cancellation method is proposed giving the possibility for injection of a desired velocity feedforward term. The control law is chosen as a switching one and two chattering attenuation methods are studied: equivalent control estimation via filtering and sign function integration. Experimental studies are performed at a forestry hydraulic crane prototype and illustrate high tracking accuracy achieved for typical crane motions. Practical Significance. The results are suitable for heavy-duty hydraulic machines automation in construction, road building and forestry.

  4. Modeling Studies to Constrain Fluid and Gas Migration Associated with Hydraulic Fracturing Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, H.; Birdsell, D.; Lackey, G.; Karra, S.; Viswanathan, H. S.; Dempsey, D.

    2015-12-01

    The dramatic increase in the extraction of unconventional oil and gas resources using horizontal wells and hydraulic fracturing (fracking) technologies has raised concerns about potential environmental impacts. Large volumes of hydraulic fracturing fluids are injected during fracking. Incidents of stray gas occurrence in shallow aquifers overlying shale gas reservoirs have been reported; whether these are in any way related to fracking continues to be debated. Computational models serve as useful tools for evaluating potential environmental impacts. We present modeling studies of hydraulic fracturing fluid and gas migration during the various stages of well operation, production, and subsequent plugging. The fluid migration models account for overpressure in the gas reservoir, density contrast between injected fluids and brine, imbibition into partially saturated shale, and well operations. Our results highlight the importance of representing the different stages of well operation consistently. Most importantly, well suction and imbibition both play a significant role in limiting upward migration of injected fluids, even in the presence of permeable connecting pathways. In an overall assessment, our fluid migration simulations suggest very low risk to groundwater aquifers when the vertical separation from a shale gas reservoir is of the order of 1000' or more. Multi-phase models of gas migration were developed to couple flow and transport in compromised wellbores and subsurface formations. These models are useful for evaluating both short-term and long-term scenarios of stray methane release. We present simulation results to evaluate mechanisms controlling stray gas migration, and explore relationships between bradenhead pressures and the likelihood of methane release and transport.

  5. Pressure control of hydraulic servo system using proportional control valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Kyong Uk; Oh, In Ho; Lee, Ill Yeong

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a control scheme for the hydraulic servo system which can rapidly control the pressure in a hydraulic cylinder with very short stroke. Compared with the negligible stroke of the cylinder in the system, the flow gain of the proportional pressure control valve constituting the hydraulic servo system is relatively large and the time delay on the response of the valve is quite long. Therefore, the pressure control system, in this study tends to get unstable during operations. Considering the above mentioned characteristics of the system, a two-degree-of-freedom control scheme, composed of the I-PDD 2 ... feedback compensator and the feedforward controller, is proposed. The reference model scheme is used in deciding the parameters of the controllers. The validity of the proposed control scheme is confirmed through the experiments

  6. Thermal Hydraulic Integral Effect Tests for Pressurized Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, W. P.; Song, C. H.; Kim, Y. S. and others

    2005-02-15

    The objectives of the project are to construct a thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility and to perform various integral effect tests for design, operation, and safety regulation of pressurized water reactors. During the first phase of this project (1997.8{approx}2002.3), the basic technology for thermal-hydraulic integral effect tests was established and the basic design of the test facility was accomplished: a full-height, 1/300-volume-scaled full pressure facility for APR1400, an evolutionary pressurized water reactor that was developed by Korean industry. Main objectives of the present phase (2002.4{approx}2005.2), was to optimize the facility design and to construct the experimental facility. We have performed following researches: 1) Optimization of the basic design of the thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility for PWRs - ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation) - Reduced height design for APR1400 (+ specific design features of KSNP safety injection systems) - Thermal-hydraulic scaling based on three-level scaling methodology by Ishii et al. 2) Construction of the ATLAS facility - Detailed design of the test facility - Manufacturing and procurement of components - Installation of the facility 3) Development of supporting technology for integral effect tests - Development and application of advanced instrumentation technology - Preliminary analysis of test scenarios - Development of experimental procedures - Establishment and implementation of QA system/procedure.

  7. The coupled effect of fiber volume fraction and void fraction on hydraulic fluid absorption of quartz/BMI laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurdelbrink, Keith R.; Anderson, Jacob P.; Siddique, Zahed; Altan, M. Cengiz

    2016-03-01

    Bismaleimide (BMI) resin with quartz (AQ581) fiber reinforcement is a composite material frequently used in aerospace applications, such as engine cowlings and radomes. Various composite components used in aircrafts are exposed to different types of hydraulic fluids, which may lead to anomalous absorption behavior over the service life of the composite. Accurate predictive models for absorption of liquid penetrants are particularly important as the composite components are often exposed to long-term degradation due to absorbed moisture, hydraulic fluids, or similar liquid penetrants. Microstructural features such as fiber volume fraction and void fraction can have a significant effect on the absorption behavior of fiber-reinforced composites. In this paper, hydraulic fluid absorption characteristics of quartz/BMI laminates fabricated from prepregs preconditioned at different relative humidity and subsequently cured at different pressures are presented. The composite samples are immersed into hydraulic fluid at room temperature, and were not subjected to any prior degradation. To generate process-induced microvoids, prepregs were conditioned in an environmental chamber at 2% or 99% relative humidity at room temperature for a period of 24 hours prior to laminate fabrication. To alter the fiber volume fraction, the laminates were fabricated at cure pressures of 68.9 kPa (10 psi) or 482.6 kPa (70 psi) via a hot-press. The laminates are shown to have different levels of microvoids and fiber volume fractions, which were observed to affect the absorption dynamics considerably and exhibited clear non-Fickian behavior. A one-dimensional hindered diffusion model (HDM) was shown to be successful in predicting the hydraulic fluid absorption. Model prediction indicates that as the fabrication pressure increased from 68.9 kPa to 482.6 kPa, the maximum fluid content (M∞) decreased from 8.0% wt. to 1.0% wt. The degree of non-Fickian behavior, measured by hindrance coefficient (

  8. Schaum’s outline of fluid mechanics and hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, Ranald V; Liu, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Tough Test Questions? Missed Lectures? Not Enough Time? Fortunately, there's Schaum's. More than 40 million students have trusted Schaum's to help them succeed in the classroom and on exams. Schaum's is the key to faster learning and higher grades in every subject. Each Outline presents all the essential course information in an easy-to-follow, topic-by-topic format. You also get hundreds of examples, solved problems, and practice exercises to test your skills. This Schaum's Outline gives you: 622 fully solved problems; extra practice on topics such as buoyancy and flotation, complex pipeline systems, fluid machinery, flow in open channels, and more; and support for all the major textbooks for fluidmechanics and hydraulics courses. Fully compatible with your classroom text, Schaum's highlights all the important facts you need to know. Use Schaum's to shorten your study time - and get your best test scores! Schaum's Outlines - Problem Solved.

  9. Contamination Control and Monitoring of Tap Water as Fluid in Industrial Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems.......Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems....

  10. Hydraulic pressure control unit for control rod drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Yukio.

    1990-01-01

    The pressure invention concerns a hydraulic pressure control unit for control rod drives in BWR type reactors. The space above a floating piston possessed by an accumulator and the housing of control rod drives are connected by means of a pipeline. The pipeline has a scram valve which is opened upon occurrence of reactor scram. A pump is disposed between the accumulator and the scram valve for communicating a discharge port to apply a high pressure water to the accumulator. According to the present invention, a control unit is disposed between the scram valve and the housing of the control rod drives in the hydraulic pressure control unit for maintaining the cross sectional area of the flow channel of the pipeline to a usual size when the pressure in a pressure vessel is under a rated operation pressure, while limiting the cross sectional area of the flow channel when the pressure is lower than that in the rated operation. Thus, whole insertion of the control rod substantially at a constant speed is enabled irrespective of the level of the pressure in the pressure vessel. (I.S.)

  11. Overview of Chronic Oral Toxicity Values for Chemicals Present in Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids, Flowback and Produced Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    as part of EPA's Hydraulic Fracturing Drinking Water Assessment, EPA is summarizing existing toxicity data for chemicals reported to be used in hydraulic fracturing fluids and/or found in flowback or produced waters from hydraulically fractured wells

  12. Simulation of Thermal Hydraulic at Supercritical Pressures with APROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurki, Joona [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, P.O. Box 1000, FI02044 VTT (Finland)

    2008-07-01

    The proposed concepts for the fourth generation of nuclear reactors include a reactor operating with water at thermodynamically supercritical state, the Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR). For the design and safety demonstrations of such a reactor, the possibility to accurately simulate the thermal hydraulics of the supercritical coolant is an absolute prerequisite. For this purpose, the one-dimensional two-phase thermal hydraulics solution of APROS process simulation software was developed to function at the supercritical pressure region. Software modifications included the redefinition of some parameters that have physical significance only at the subcritical pressures, improvement of the steam tables, and addition of heat transfer and friction correlations suitable for the supercritical pressure region. (author)

  13. Thermal Hydraulic Integral Effect Tests for Pressurized Water Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Won Pil; Song, C. H.; Kim, Y. S.

    2007-02-01

    The objectives of the project are to construct a thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility and to perform the tests for design, operation, and safety regulation of pressurized water reactors. In the first phase of this project (1997.8∼2002.3), the basic technology for thermal-hydraulic integral effect tests was established and the basic design of the test facility was accomplished. In the second phase (2002.4∼2005.2), an optimized design of the ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation) was established and the construction of the facility was almost completed. In the third phase (2005.3∼2007.2), the construction and commission tests of the ATLAS are to be completed and some first-phase tests are to be conducted

  14. Modeling Thermal Pressurization Around Shallow Dikes Using Temperature-Dependent Hydraulic Properties: Implications for Deformation Around Intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Meredith R.

    2018-01-01

    Pressurization and flow of groundwater around igneous intrusions depend in part on the hydraulic diffusivity of the host rocks and processes that enhance diffusivity, such as fracturing, or decrease diffusivity, such as mineral precipitation during chemical alteration. Characterizing and quantifying the coupled effects of alteration, pore pressurization, and deformation have significant implications for deformation around intrusions, geothermal energy, contact metamorphism, and heat transfer at mid-ocean ridges. Fractures around dikes at Ship Rock, New Mexico, indicate that pore pressures in the host rocks exceeded hydrostatic conditions by at least 15 MPa following dike emplacement. Hydraulic measurements and petrographic analysis indicate that mineral precipitation clogged the pores of the host rock, reducing porosity from 0.25 to reducing permeability by 5 orders of magnitude. Field data from Ship Rock are used to motivate and constrain numerical models for thermal pore fluid pressurization adjacent to a meter-scale dike, using temperature-dependent hydraulic properties in the host rock as a proxy for porosity loss by mineral precipitation during chemical alteration. Reduction in permeability by chemical alteration has a negligible effect on pressurization. However, reduction in porosity by mineral precipitation increases fluid pressure by constricting pore volume and is identified as a potentially significant source of pressure. A scaling relationship is derived to determine when porosity loss becomes important; if permeability is low enough, pressurization by porosity loss outweighs pressurization by thermal expansion of fluids.

  15. Stimuli Responsive/Rheoreversible Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids for Enhanced Geothermal Energy Production (Part I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, C. A.; Jung, H. B.; Shao, H.; Bonneville, A.; Heldebrant, D.; Hoyt, D.; Zhong, L.; Holladay, J.

    2014-12-01

    Cost-effective yet safe creation of high-permeability reservoirs inside deep crystalline bedrock is the primary challenge for the viability of enhanced geothermal systems and unconventional oil/gas recovery. Current reservoir stimulation processes utilize brute force (hydraulic pressures in the order of hundreds of bar) to create/propagate fractures in the bedrock. Such stimulation processes entail substantial economic costs ($3.3 million per reservoir as of 2011). Furthermore, the environmental impacts of reservoir stimulation are only recently being determined. Widespread concerns about the environmental contamination have resulted in a number of regulations for fracturing fluids advocating for greener fracturing processes. To reduce the costs and environmental impact of reservoir stimulation, we developed an environmentally friendly and recyclable hydraulic fracturing fluid that undergoes a controlled and large volume expansion with a simultaneous increase in viscosity triggered by CO2 at temperatures relevant for reservoir stimulation in Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). The volume expansion, which will specifically occurs at EGS depths of interest, generates an exceptionally large mechanical stress in fracture networks of highly impermeable rock propagating fractures at effective stress an order of magnitude lower than current technology. This paper will concentrate on the presentation of this CO2-triggered expanding hydrogel formed from diluted aqueous solutions of polyallylamine (PAA). Aqueous PAA-CO2 mixtures also show significantly higher viscosities than conventional rheology modifiers at similar pressures and temperatures due to the cross-linking reaction of PAA with CO2, which was demonstrated by chemical speciation studies using in situ HP-HT 13C MAS-NMR. In addtion, PAA shows shear-thinning behavior, a critical advantage for the use of this fluid system in EGS reservoir stimulation. The high pressure/temperature experiments and their results as well

  16. Analysis of and H∞ Controller Design For An Electro-Hydraulic Servo Pressure Regulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkier, Søren; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2011-01-01

    -circuit pumps are still hydraulically controlled, there is however still a need for being able to generate a hydraulic pilot pressure. The focus of the current paper is on the analysis and controller design of an electrohydraulic servo pressure regulator, which generates a hydraulic LS-pressure for a variable...

  17. Characterization of the Oriskany and Berea Sandstones: Evaluating Biogeochemical Reactions of Potential Sandstone–Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verba, Circe [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Harris, Aubrey [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2016-07-07

    The Marcellus shale, located in the mid-Atlantic Appalachian Basin, has been identified as a source for natural gas and targeted for hydraulic fracturing recovery methods. Hydraulic fracturing is a technique used by the oil and gas industry to access petroleum reserves in geologic formations that cannot be accessed with conventional drilling techniques (Capo et al., 2014). This unconventional technique fractures rock formations that have low permeability by pumping pressurized hydraulic fracturing fluids into the subsurface. Although the major components of hydraulic fracturing fluid are water and sand, chemicals, such as recalcitrant biocides and polyacrylamide, are also used (Frac Focus, 2015). There is domestic concern that the chemicals could reach groundwater or surface water during transport, storage, or the fracturing process (Chapman et al., 2012). In the event of a surface spill, understanding the natural attenuation of the chemicals in hydraulic fracturing fluid, as well as the physical and chemical properties of the aquifers surrounding the spill site, will help mitigate potential dangers to drinking water. However, reports on the degradation pathways of these chemicals are limited in existing literature. The Appalachian Basin Marcellus shale and its surrounding sandstones host diverse mineralogical suites. During the hydraulic fracturing process, the hydraulic fracturing fluids come into contact with variable mineral compositions. The reactions between the fracturing fluid chemicals and the minerals are very diverse. This report: 1) describes common minerals (e.g. quartz, clay, pyrite, and carbonates) present in the Marcellus shale, as well as the Oriskany and Berea sandstones, which are located stratigraphically below and above the Marcellus shale; 2) summarizes the existing literature of the degradation pathways for common hydraulic fracturing fluid chemicals [polyacrylamide, ethylene glycol, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), glutaraldehyde

  18. Hydraulically driven control rod concept for integral reactors: fluid dynamic simulation and preliminary test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricotti, M.E.; Cammi, A.; Lombardi, C.; Passoni, M.; Rizzo, C.; Carelli, M.; Colombo, E.

    2003-01-01

    The paper deals with the preliminary study of the Hydraulically Driven Control Rod concept, tailored for PWR control rods (spider type) with hydraulic drive mechanism completely immersed in the primary water. A specific solution suitable for advanced versions of the IRIS integral reactor is under investigation. The configuration of the Hydraulic Control Rod device, made up by an external movable piston and an internal fixed cylinder, is described. After a brief description of the whole control system, particular attention is devoted to the Control Rod characterization via Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis. The investigation of the system behavior, including dynamic equilibrium and stability properties, has been carried out. Finally, preliminary tests were performed in a low pressure, low temperature, reduced length experimental facility. The results are compared with the dynamic control model and CFD simulation model, showing good agreement between simulations and experimental data. During these preliminary tests, the control system performs correctly, allowing stable dynamic equilibrium positions for the Control Rod and stable behavior during withdrawal and insertion steps. (author)

  19. Changes in entrapped gas content and hydraulic conductivity with pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinas, Maricris; Roy, James W; Smith, James E

    2013-01-01

    Water table fluctuations continuously introduce entrapped air bubbles into the otherwise saturated capillary fringe and groundwater zone, which reduces the effective (quasi-saturated) hydraulic conductivity, K(quasi), thus impacting groundwater flow, aquifer recharge and solute and contaminant transport. These entrapped gases will be susceptible to compression or expansion with changes in water pressure, as would be expected with water table (and barometric pressure) fluctuations. Here we undertake laboratory experiments using sand-packed columns to quantify the effect of water table changes of up to 250 cm on the entrapped gas content and the quasi-saturated hydraulic conductivity, and discuss our ability to account for these mechanisms in ground water models. Initial entrapped air contents ranged between 0.080 and 0.158, with a corresponding K(quasi) ranging between 2 and 6 times lower compared to the K(s) value. The application of 250 cm of water pressure caused an 18% to 26% reduction in the entrapped air content, resulting in an increase in K(quasi) by 1.16 to 1.57 times compared to its initial (0 cm water pressure) value. The change in entrapped air content measured at pressure step intervals of 50 cm, was essentially linear, and could be modeled according to the ideal gas law. Meanwhile, the changes in K(quasi) with compression-expansion of the bubbles because of pressure changes could be adequately captured with several current hydraulic conductivity models. © Ground Water 2012 and © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2012. Ground Water © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  20. Effects of hydraulic frac fluids and formation waters on groundwater microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Martin; Jimenez, Nuria

    2017-04-01

    Shale gas is being considered as a complementary energy resource to other fossil fuels. Its exploitation requires using advanced drilling techniques and hydraulic stimulation (fracking). During fracking operations, large amounts of fluids (fresh water, proppants and chemicals) are injected at high pressures into the formations, to create fractures and fissures, and thus to release gas from the source rock into the wellbore. The injected fluid partly remains in the formation, while up to 40% flows back to the surface, together with reservoir waters, sometimes containing dissolved hydrocarbons, high salt concentrations, etc. The aim of our study was to investigate the potential impacts of frac or geogenic chemicals, frac fluid, formation water or flowback on groudnwater microbial communities. Laboratory experiments under in situ conditions (i.e. at in situ temperature, high pressure) were conducted using groundwater samples from three different locations. Series of microcosms containing R2 broth medium or groundwater spiked with either single frac chemicals (including biocides), frac fluids, artificial reservoir water, NaCl, or different mixtures of reservoir water and frac fluid (to simulate flowback) were incubated in the dark. Controls included non-amended and non-inoculated microcosms. Classical microbiological methods and molecular analyses were used to assess changes in the microbial abundance, community structure and function in response to the different treatments. Microbial communities were quite halotolerant and their growth benefited from low concentrations of reservoir waters or salt, but they were negatively affected by higher concentrations of formation waters, salt, biocides or frac fluids. Changes on the microbial community structure could be detected by T-RFLP. Single frac components like guar gum or choline chloride were used as substrates, while others like triethanolamine or light oil distillate hydrogenated prevented microbial growth in

  1. Hydraulic High Pressure Valve Controller Using the In-Situ Pressure Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Hall, Jeffery L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hydraulic valve controller that uses an existing pressure differential as some or all of the power source for valve operation. In a high pressure environment, such as downhole in an oil or gas well, the pressure differential between the inside of a pipe and the outside of the pipe may be adequately large to drive a linear slide valve. The valve is operated hydraulically by a piston in a bore. When a higher pressure is applied to one end of the bore and a lower pressure to the other end, the piston moves in response to the pressure differential and drives a valve attached to it. If the pressure differential is too small to drive the piston at a sufficiently high speed, a pump is provided to generate a larger pressure differential to be applied. The apparatus is conveniently constructed using multiport valves, which can be rotary valves.

  2. Hydraulic testing in granite using the sinusoidal variation of pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.H.; Holmes, D.C.; Noy, D.J.

    1982-09-01

    Access to two boreholes at the Carwynnen test site in Cornwall enabled the trial of a number of innovative approaches to the hydrogeology of fractured crystalline rock. These methods ranged from the use of seisviewer data to measure the orientation of fractures to the use of the sinusoidal pressure technique to measure directional hydraulic diffusivity. The testing began with a short programme of site investigation consisting of borehole caliper and seisviewer logging followed by some single borehole hydraulic tests. The single borehole hydraulic testing was designed to assess whether the available boreholes and adjacent rock were suitable for testing using the sinusoidal method. The main testing methods were slug and pulse tests and were analysed using the fissured porous medium analysis proposed in Barker and Black (1983). Derived hydraulic conductivity (K) ranged from 2 x 10 -12 m/sec to 5 x 10 -7 m/sec with one near-surface zone of high K being perceived in both boreholes. The results were of the form which is typical of fractured rock and indicated a combination of high fracture frequency and permeable granite matrix. The results are described and discussed. (author)

  3. Fluid dynamics of acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation in hydraulic power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, A.

    2017-03-01

    Cavitation is the transition from a liquid to a vapour phase, due to a drop in pressure to the level of the vapour tension of the fluid. Two kinds of cavitation have been reviewed here: acoustic cavitation and hydrodynamic cavitation. As acoustic cavitation in engineering systems is related to the propagation of waves through a region subjected to liquid vaporization, the available expressions of the sound speed are discussed. One of the main effects of hydrodynamic cavitation in the nozzles and orifices of hydraulic power systems is a reduction in flow permeability. Different discharge coefficient formulae are analysed in this paper: the Reynolds number and the cavitation number result to be the key fluid dynamical parameters for liquid and cavitating flows, respectively. The latest advances in the characterization of different cavitation regimes in a nozzle, as the cavitation number reduces, are presented. The physical cause of choked flows is explained, and an analogy between cavitation and supersonic aerodynamic flows is proposed. The main approaches to cavitation modelling in hydraulic power systems are also reviewed: these are divided into homogeneous-mixture and two-phase models. The homogeneous-mixture models are further subdivided into barotropic and baroclinic models. The advantages and disadvantages of an implementation of the complete Rayleigh-Plesset equation are examined.

  4. [Arterial pressure curve and fluid status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestel, G; Fukui, K

    2009-04-01

    Fluid optimization is a major contributor to improved outcome in patients. Unfortunately, anesthesiologists are often in doubt whether an additional fluid bolus will improve the hemodynamics of the patient or not as excess fluid may even jeopardize the condition. This article discusses physiological concepts of liberal versus restrictive fluid management followed by a discussion on the respective capabilities of various monitors to predict fluid responsiveness. The parameter difference in pulse pressure (dPP), derived from heart-lung interaction in mechanically ventilated patients is discussed in detail. The dPP cutoff value of 13% to predict fluid responsiveness is presented together with several assessment techniques of dPP. Finally, confounding variables on dPP measurements, such as ventilation parameters, pneumoperitoneum and use of norepinephrine are also mentioned.

  5. Thickened water-based hydraulic fluid with reduced dependence of viscosity on temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deck, C. F.

    1985-01-01

    Improved hydraulic fluids or metalworking lubricants, utilizing mixtures of water, metal lubricants, metal corrosion inhibitors, and an associative polyether thickener, have reduced dependence of the viscosity on temperature achieved by the incorporation therein of an ethoxylated polyether surfactant.

  6. Averaging hydraulic head, pressure head, and gravitational head in subsurface hydrology, and implications for averaged fluxes, and hydraulic conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. de Rooij

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Current theories for water flow in porous media are valid for scales much smaller than those at which problem of public interest manifest themselves. This provides a drive for upscaled flow equations with their associated upscaled parameters. Upscaling is often achieved through volume averaging, but the solution to the resulting closure problem imposes severe restrictions to the flow conditions that limit the practical applicability. Here, the derivation of a closed expression of the effective hydraulic conductivity is forfeited to circumvent the closure problem. Thus, more limited but practical results can be derived. At the Representative Elementary Volume scale and larger scales, the gravitational potential and fluid pressure are treated as additive potentials. The necessary requirement that the superposition be maintained across scales is combined with conservation of energy during volume integration to establish consistent upscaling equations for the various heads. The power of these upscaling equations is demonstrated by the derivation of upscaled water content-matric head relationships and the resolution of an apparent paradox reported in the literature that is shown to have arisen from a violation of the superposition principle. Applying the upscaling procedure to Darcy's Law leads to the general definition of an upscaled hydraulic conductivity. By examining this definition in detail for porous media with different degrees of heterogeneity, a series of criteria is derived that must be satisfied for Darcy's Law to remain valid at a larger scale.

  7. Effect of Hydraulic Pressure on Warm Hydro Mechanical Deep Drawing of Magnesium Alloy Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Wu, Linzhi; Yuan, Shijian

    The uniaxial tensile test and hydraulic bulging test of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets were applied to study the influence of temperature on the material properties and obtain the forming limit curves at different temperatures. Numerical simulations of warm hydro mechanical deep drawing were carried out to investigate the effect of hydraulic pressure on the formability of a cylindrical cup, and the simplified hydraulic pressure profiles were used to simulate the loading procedure of hydraulic pressure. The optimal hydraulic pressure at different temperatures were given and verified by experimental studies at temperature 100°C and 170V.

  8. Temperature and Pressure Effects on Drilling Fluid Rheology and ECD in Very Deep Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rommetveit, R.; Bjoerkvoll, K.S.

    1997-12-31

    The rheological properties of drilling fluids are usually approximated to be independent of pressure and temperature. In many cases this is a good approximation. However, for wells with small margins between pore and fracture pressure, careful evaluations and analysis of the effects of temperature and pressure on well bore hydraulics and kick probability are needed. In this publication the effects of pressure and temperature are discussed and described for typical HPHT (High Pressure High Temperature) wells. Laboratory measurements show that rheology is very pressure and temperature dependent. The practical implications of these observations are illustrated through a series of calculations with an advanced pressure and temperature simulator. 10 refs., 15 figs.

  9. Thermal hydraulic behavior of SCWR sliding pressure startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Shengwei; Zhou Chong; Xu Zhihong; Yang Yanhua

    2011-01-01

    The modification to ATHLET-SC code is introduced in this paper, which realizes the simulation of trans-critical transients using two-phase model. With the modified code, the thermal-hydraulic dynamic behavior of the mixed SCWR core during the startup process is simulated. The startup process is similar to the design of SCLWR-H sliding pressure startup. The results show that maximum temperature of cladding-surface does not exceed 650℃ in the whole startup process, and the sudden change of water properties in the trans-critical transients will not cause harmful influence to the heat transfer of the fuel cladding. (authors)

  10. Fluid driven fracture mechanics in highly anisotropic shale: a laboratory study with application to hydraulic fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehne, Stephan; Benson, Philip; Koor, Nick; Enfield, Mark

    2017-04-01

    The finding of considerable volumes of hydrocarbon resources within tight sedimentary rock formations in the UK led to focused attention on the fundamental fracture properties of low permeability rock types and hydraulic fracturing. Despite much research in these fields, there remains a scarcity of available experimental data concerning the fracture mechanics of fluid driven fracturing and the fracture properties of anisotropic, low permeability rock types. In this study, hydraulic fracturing is simulated in a controlled laboratory environment to track fracture nucleation (location) and propagation (velocity) in space and time and assess how environmental factors and rock properties influence the fracture process and the developing fracture network. Here we report data on employing fluid overpressure to generate a permeable network of micro tensile fractures in a highly anisotropic shale ( 50% P-wave velocity anisotropy). Experiments are carried out in a triaxial deformation apparatus using cylindrical samples. The bedding planes are orientated either parallel or normal to the major principal stress direction (σ1). A newly developed technique, using a steel guide arrangement to direct pressurised fluid into a sealed section of an axially drilled conduit, allows the pore fluid to contact the rock directly and to initiate tensile fractures from the pre-defined zone inside the sample. Acoustic Emission location is used to record and map the nucleation and development of the micro-fracture network. Indirect tensile strength measurements at atmospheric pressure show a high tensile strength anisotropy ( 60%) of the shale. Depending on the relative bedding orientation within the stress field, we find that fluid induced fractures in the sample propagate in two of the three principal fracture orientations: Divider and Short-Transverse. The fracture progresses parallel to the bedding plane (Short-Transverse orientation) if the bedding plane is aligned (parallel) with the

  11. Near Wellbore Hydraulic Fracture Propagation from Perforations in Tight Rocks: The Roles of Fracturing Fluid Viscosity and Injection Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hassan Fallahzadeh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracture initiation and near wellbore propagation is governed by complex failure mechanisms, especially in cased perforated wellbores. Various parameters affect such mechanisms, including fracturing fluid viscosity and injection rate. In this study, three different fracturing fluids with viscosities ranging from 20 to 600 Pa.s were used to investigate the effects of varying fracturing fluid viscosities and fluid injection rates on the fracturing mechanisms. Hydraulic fracturing tests were conducted in cased perforated boreholes made in tight 150 mm synthetic cubic samples. A true tri-axial stress cell was used to simulate real far field stress conditions. In addition, dimensional analyses were performed to correspond the results of lab experiments to field-scale operations. The results indicated that by increasing the fracturing fluid viscosity and injection rate, the fracturing energy increased, and consequently, higher fracturing pressures were observed. However, when the fracturing energy was transferred to a borehole at a faster rate, the fracture initiation angle also increased. This resulted in more curved fracture planes. Accordingly, a new parameter, called fracturing power, was introduced to relate fracture geometry to fluid viscosity and injection rate. Furthermore, it was observed that the presence of casing in the wellbore impacted the stress distribution around the casing in such a way that the fracture propagation deviated from the wellbore vicinity.

  12. Vlasov fluid model with electron pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwin, R.

    1975-11-01

    The Vlasov-ion, fluid-electron model of Freidberg for studying the linear stability of hot-ion pinch configurations is here extended to include electron pressure. Within the framework of an adiabatic electron-gas picture, it is shown that this model is still amenable to the numerical methods described by Lewis and Freidberg

  13. Mechanical testing of hydraulic fluids II; Mechanische Pruefung von Hydraulikfluessigkeiten II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, M.; Feldmann, D.G.; Laukart, V.

    2001-09-01

    Since May 1996 the Institute for Mechanical Engineering Design 1 of Technical University of Hamburg-Harburg is working on the topic of ''Mechanical Testing of Hydraulic fluids''. The first project lasting 2 1/2 years was completed in 1999, the results are published as the DGMK report 514. Within these project a testing principle for the ''mechanical testing'' of hydraulic fluids has been derived, a prototype of a test rig was designed and set in operation at the authors' institute. This DGMK-report 514-1 describes the results of the second project, which investigates the operating behaviour of the test-rig more in detail. Several test-runs with a total number of 11 different hydraulic fluids show the dependence of the different lubricating behaviour of the tested fluids and their friction and wear behaviour during the tests in a reproducible way. The aim of the project was to derive a testing principle including the design of a suitable test-rig for the mechanical testing of hydraulic fluids. Based on the described results it can be stated that with the developed test it is possible to test the lubricity of hydraulic fluids reproducible and in correlation to field experiences within a relatively short time, so the target was reached. (orig.)

  14. Fluid Dynamics of Pressurized, Entrained Coal Gasifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Pressurized, entrained gasification is a promising new technology for the clean and efficient combustion of coal. Its principle is to operate a coal gasifier at a high inlet gas velocity to increase the inflow of reactants, and at an elevated pressure to raise the overall efficiency of the process. Unfortunately, because of the extraordinary difficulties involved in performing measurements in hot, pressurized, high-velocity pilot plants, its fluid dynamics are largely unknown. Thus the designer cannot predict with certainty crucial phenomena like erosion, heat transfer and solid capture. In this context, we are conducting a study of the fluid dynamics of Pressurized Entrained Coal Gasifiers (PECGs). The idea is to simulate the flows in generic industrial PECGs using dimensional similitude. To this end, we employ a unique entrained gas-solid flow facility with the flexibility to recycle--rather than discard--gases other than air. By matching five dimensionless parameters, suspensions in mixtures of helium, carbon dioxide and sulfur hexafluoride simulate the effects of pressure and scale-upon the fluid dynamics of PECGs. Because it operates under cold, atmospheric conditions, the laboratory facility is ideal for detailed measurements

  15. Analysis of an controller design for an electro-hydraulic servo pressure regulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Madsen, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Mobile hydraulics is in a transition phase, where electronic sensors and digital signal processors are starting to become standard on a high number of machines, hereby replacing hydraulic pilot lines and oering new possibilities with regard to both control and feasibility. For controlling some...... of the existing hydraulic components there are, however, still a need for being able to generate a hydraulic pilot pressure, as e.g. almost all open-circuit pumps are hydraulically controlled. The focus of the current paper is therefore on the analysis and controller design an electro-hydraulic servo pressure...... regulator, which generates a hydraulic LS-pressure based on an electrical reference, hereby synergistically integrating knowledge from all parts of the mechatronics area. The servo pressure regulator is used to generate the LS-signal for a variable displacement pump, and the paper rst presents...

  16. Study on acoustic emission signals of active defect in pressure piping under hydraulic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai Qiong; Liu Caixue; Wang Yao; He Pan; Song Jian

    2009-01-01

    Experimental investigations of acoustic emission (AE) of active defect in pressure piping with a prefabricated crack under hydraulic pressure tester were conducted. AE signals of fatigue-crack-growth in pressure piping were monitored incessantly in all processes, and all signals recorded were analyzed and processed. The result of signal processing show that the amplitude and energy of acoustic emission signals from defect in pressure pipeline increase gradually with the load time, and thus the active defects in pipeline can be identified; the amplitude, energy and count of acoustic emission signals increase sharply before the defect runs through, and we can forecast the penetrated leakage of pipeline. (authors)

  17. CONSIDERATIONS ON FLUID DYNAMICS INSIDE A HYDRAULIC SEISMIC ENERGY ABSORBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ȘCHEAUA Fănel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a method for obtaining a simplified model of a seismic energy dissipation device whose operating principle is based on viscous fluid as a solution for structural isolation against seismic actions. The device operation is based on the resistance force developed by the working fluid when the piston tends to move due to occurrence of a seismic motion. A 3D model achieved is introduced in CFD analysis for emphasize dynamic fluid flow inside the device dissipation cylinder.

  18. Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Testing | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Evaluations Hydraulic Hybrid Fleet Vehicle Evaluations How Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles Work Hydraulic hybrid systems can capture up to 70% of the kinetic energy that would -pressure reservoir to a high-pressure accumulator. When the vehicle accelerates, fluid in the high-pressure

  19. Estimating Hydraulic Conductivities in a Fractured Shale Formation from Pressure Pulse Testing and 3d Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courbet, C.; DICK, P.; Lefevre, M.; Wittebroodt, C.; Matray, J.; Barnichon, J.

    2013-12-01

    In the framework of its research on the deep disposal of radioactive waste in shale formations, the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) has developed a large array of in situ programs concerning the confining properties of shales in their underground research laboratory at Tournemire (SW France). One of its aims is to evaluate the occurrence and processes controlling radionuclide migration through the host rock, from the disposal system to the biosphere. Past research programs carried out at Tournemire covered mechanical, hydro-mechanical and physico-chemical properties of the Tournemire shale as well as water chemistry and long-term behaviour of the host rock. Studies show that fluid circulations in the undisturbed matrix are very slow (hydraulic conductivity of 10-14 to 10-15 m.s-1). However, recent work related to the occurrence of small scale fractures and clay-rich fault gouges indicate that fluid circulations may have been significantly modified in the vicinity of such features. To assess the transport properties associated with such faults, IRSN designed a series of in situ and laboratory experiments to evaluate the contribution of both diffusive and advective process on water and solute flux through a clay-rich fault zone (fault core and damaged zone) and in an undisturbed shale formation. As part of these studies, Modular Mini-Packer System (MMPS) hydraulic testing was conducted in multiple boreholes to characterize hydraulic conductivities within the formation. Pressure data collected during the hydraulic tests were analyzed using the nSIGHTS (n-dimensional Statistical Inverse Graphical Hydraulic Test Simulator) code to estimate hydraulic conductivity and formation pressures of the tested intervals. Preliminary results indicate hydraulic conductivities of 5.10-12 m.s-1 in the fault core and damaged zone and 10-14 m.s-1 in the adjacent undisturbed shale. Furthermore, when compared with neutron porosity data from borehole

  20. Research and Development (R&D) on Advanced Nonstructural Materials. Delivery Order 0001: Study of Hydraulic System Component Storage With Operational and Rust-Inhibited Hydraulic Fluids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gschwender, Lois J; Snyder Jr, Carl E; Sharma, Shashi K; Jenney, Tim; Campo, Angela

    2004-01-01

    .... Jars, containing bearings and pistons, as well as hydraulic pumps were stored for up to 3 years in a laboratory environment to determine if operational fluids would protect them from rusting during storage...

  1. Multi-parameter monitoring system for hydraulic fluids; Multi-Parameter Monitoring System fuer Hydraulische Fluessigkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, Sumit; Legner, Wolfgang; Hackner, Angelika; Mueller, Gerhard [EADS Innovation Works, Muenchen (Germany). Bereich Sensors, Electronics and Systems Integration; Baumbach, Volker [Airbus Operations GmbH, Bremen (Germany). Bereich Hydraulic Performance and Integrity

    2011-07-01

    A miniaturised sensor system for aviation hydraulic fluids is presented. The system consists of an optochemical sensor and a particle sensor. The optochemical sensor detects the form of the O-H absorption feature around 3500 cm{sup -1} to reveal the water and acid contamination in the fluid. The particle sensor uses a light barrier principle to derive its particle contamination number. (orig.)

  2. Influence of Concentration and Salinity on the Biodegradability of Organic Additives in Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouser, P. J.; Kekacs, D.

    2014-12-01

    One of the risks associated with the use of hydraulic fracturing technologies for energy development is the potential release of hydraulic fracturing-related fluids into surface waters or shallow aquifers. Many of the organic additives used in hydraulic fracturing fluids are individually biodegradable, but little is know on how they will attenuate within a complex organic fluid in the natural environment. We developed a synthetic hydraulic fracturing fluid based on disclosed recipes used by Marcellus shale operators to evaluate the biodegradation potential of organic additives across a concentration (25 to 200 mg/L DOC) and salinity gradient (0 to 60 g/L) similar to Marcellus shale injected fluids. In aerobic aqueous solutions, microorganisms removed 91% of bulk DOC from low SFF solutions and 57% DOC in solutions having field-used SFF concentrations within 7 days. Under high SFF concentrations, salinity in excess of 20 g/L inhibited organic compound biodegradation for several weeks, after which time the majority (57% to 75%) of DOC remained in solution. After SFF amendment, the initially biodiverse lake or sludge microbial communities were quickly dominated (>79%) by Pseudomonas spp. Approximately 20% of added carbon was converted to biomass while the remainder was respired to CO2 or other metabolites. Two alcohols, isopropanol and octanol, together accounted for 2-4% of the initial DOC, with both compounds decreasing to below detection limits within 7 days. Alcohol degradation was associated with an increase in acetone at mg/L concentrations. These data help to constrain the biodegradation potential of organic additives in hydraulic fracturing fluids and guide our understanding of the microbial communities that may contribute to attenuation in surface waters.

  3. Porphyry-Copper Ore Shells Form at Stable Pressure-Temperature Fronts Within Dynamic Fluid Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, P.; Driesner, T.; Heinrich, C. A.

    2012-12-01

    Porphyry-type ore deposits are major resources of copper and gold, precipitated from fluids expelled by crustal magma chambers. The metals are typically concentrated in confined ore shells within vertically extensive vein networks, formed through hydraulic fracturing of rock by ascending fluids. Numerical modeling shows that dynamic permeability responses to magmatic fluid expulsion can stabilize a front of metal precipitation at the boundary between lithostatically pressured up-flow of hot magmatic fluids and hydrostatically pressured convection of cooler meteoric fluids. The balance between focused heat advection and lateral cooling controls the most important economic characteristics, including size, shape, and ore grade. This self-sustaining process may extend to epithermal gold deposits, venting at active volcanoes, and regions with the potential for geothermal energy production.

  4. Replacement of petroleum based hydraulic fluids with renewable and environmental friendly resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Sani Wan Nik; Noraini Ali

    2000-01-01

    Rational self-interest and good environmental citizenship are forcing the development of renewable and environmentally acceptable hydraulic fluids. Fluids that are at least equivalent in performance plus biodegradable have been formulated in Europe and USA using vegetable oils as base stocks for innovative additive packages. While many of the differences in using vegetable based stocks in place of mineral oils have been adapted to by straightforward formulating changes, the oxidation stability of vegetable-based stock is still a challenging area. This work initiates the investigation in Malaysia in the use of environmentally friendly resource to replace partially the petroleum based hydraulic fluid. The study concentrates more in improving the oxidation stability of the vegetable based stocks. (Author)

  5. Failure Mode of the Water-filled Fractures under Hydraulic Pressure in Karst Tunnels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Water-filled fractures continue to grow after the excavation of karst tunnels, and the hydraulic pressure in these fractures changes along with such growth. This paper simplifies the fractures in the surrounding rock as flat ellipses and then identifies the critical hydraulic pressure values required for the occurrence of tensile-shear and compression-shear failures in water-filled fractures in the case of plane stress. The occurrence of tensile-shear fracture requires a larger critical hydraulic pressure than compression-shear failure in the same fracture. This paper examines the effects of fracture strike and lateral pressure coefficient on critical hydraulic pressure, and identifies compression-shear failure as the main failure mode of water-filled fractures. This paper also analyses the hydraulic pressure distribution in fractures with different extensions, and reveals that hydraulic pressure decreases along with the continuous growth of fractures and cannot completely fill a newly formed fracture with water. Fracture growth may be interrupted under the effect of hydraulic tensile shear.

  6. Response time verification of in situ hydraulic pressure sensors in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.G.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus for verifying response time in situ of hydraulic pressure and pressure differential sensing instrumentation in a nuclear circuit is disclosed. Hydraulic pressure at a reference sensor and at an in situ process sensor under test is varied according to a linear ramp. Sensor response time is then determined by comparison of the sensor electrical analog output signals. The process sensor is subjected to a relatively slowly changing and a relatively rapidly changing hydraulic pressure ramp signal to determine an upper bound for process sensor response time over the range of all pressure transients to which the sensor is required to respond. Signal linearity is independent of the volumetric displacement of the process sensor. The hydraulic signal generator includes a first pressurizable gas reservoir, a second pressurizable liquid and gas reservoir, a gate for rapidly opening a gas communication path between the two reservoirs, a throttle valve for regulating rate of gas pressure equalization between the two reservoirs, and hydraulic conduit means for simultaneously communicating a ramp of hydraulic pressure change between the liquid/gas reservoir and both a reference and a process sensor. By maintaining a sufficient pressure differential between the reservoirs and by maintaining a sufficient ratio of gas to liquid in the liquid/gas reservoir, excellent linearity and minimal transient effects can be achieved for all pressure ranges, magnitudes, and rates of change of interest

  7. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modelling of Hydraulics and Sedimentation in Process Reactors During Aeration Tank Settling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam Jensen, Mette; Ingildsen, Pernille; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    Aeration Tank Settling is a control method alowing settling in the process tank during high hydraulic load. The control method is patented. Aeration Tank Settling has been applied in several waste water treatment plant's using present design of the process tanks. Some process tank designs have...... shown to be more effective than others. To improve the design of less effective plants Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling of hydraulics and sedimentation has been applied. The paper discusses the results at one particular plant experiencing problems with partly short-circuiting of the inlet...

  8. Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and Geomechanics of Water-Based Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Gas Systems and Electromagnetic Geophysical Monitoring of Fluid Migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jihoon; Um, Evan; Moridis, George

    2014-12-01

    We investigate fracture propagation induced by hydraulic fracturing with water injection, using numerical simulation. For rigorous, full 3D modeling, we employ a numerical method that can model failure resulting from tensile and shear stresses, dynamic nonlinear permeability, leak-off in all directions, and thermo-poro-mechanical effects with the double porosity approach. Our numerical results indicate that fracture propagation is not the same as propagation of the water front, because fracturing is governed by geomechanics, whereas water saturation is determined by fluid flow. At early times, the water saturation front is almost identical to the fracture tip, suggesting that the fracture is mostly filled with injected water. However, at late times, advance of the water front is retarded compared to fracture propagation, yielding a significant gap between the water front and the fracture top, which is filled with reservoir gas. We also find considerable leak-off of water to the reservoir. The inconsistency between the fracture volume and the volume of injected water cannot properly calculate the fracture length, when it is estimated based on the simple assumption that the fracture is fully saturated with injected water. As an example of flow-geomechanical responses, we identify pressure fluctuation under constant water injection, because hydraulic fracturing is itself a set of many failure processes, in which pressure consistently drops when failure occurs, but fluctuation decreases as the fracture length grows. We also study application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical methods, because these methods are highly sensitive to changes in porosity and pore-fluid properties due to water injection into gas reservoirs. Employing a 3D finite-element EM geophysical simulator, we evaluate the sensitivity of the crosswell EM method for monitoring fluid movements in shaly reservoirs. For this sensitivity evaluation, reservoir models are generated through the coupled flow

  9. Reducing pressure oscillations in discrete fluid power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2016-01-01

    Discrete fluid power systems featuring transmission lines inherently include pressure oscillations. Experimental verification of a discrete fluid power power take off system for wave energy converters has shown the cylinder pressure to oscillate as force shifts are performed. This article investi...... investigates how cylinder pressure oscillations may be reduced by shaping the valve opening trajectory without the need for closed loop pressure feedback. Furthermore the energy costs of reducing pressure oscillations are investigated....

  10. Experimental study of the pressure discharge process for the hydraulic control rod drive system stepped cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jinhua; Bo, Hanliang; Zheng, Wenxiang

    2002-01-01

    The pressure discharge process from the stepped cylinder of the Hydraulic Control Rod Drive System (HCRDS) was studied experimentally in the HCRDS experimental loop for the 200 MW Nuclear Heating Reactor (NHR-200). The results showed that the differential pressure between the outside and the inside of the stepped cylinder increased rapidly to the desired value so that the force induced by the differential pressure which pushes the out tube of stepped cylinder was large enough. Therefore, if the hydraulic control rod were jammed, the pressure could push the hydraulic control rod to overcome the frictional resistance to insert the control rod into the reactor core. The experimental results verified that this design would solve the problem of hydraulic control rod jamming during an accident. (author)

  11. Estimation of changes in dynamic hydraulic force in a magnetically suspended centrifugal blood pump with transient computational fluid dynamics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuzawa, Toru; Ohta, Akiko; Tanaka, Nobuatu; Qian, Yi; Tsukiya, Tomonori

    2009-01-01

    The effect of the hydraulic force on magnetically levitated (maglev) pumps should be studied carefully to improve the suspension performance and the reliability of the pumps. A maglev centrifugal pump, developed at Ibaraki University, was modeled with 926 376 hexahedral elements for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses. The pump has a fully open six-vane impeller with a diameter of 72.5 mm. A self-bearing motor suspends the impeller in the radial direction. The maximum pressure head and flow rate were 250 mmHg and 14 l/min, respectively. First, a steady-state analysis was performed using commercial code STAR-CD to confirm the model's suitability by comparing the results with the real pump performance. Second, transient analysis was performed to estimate the hydraulic force on the levitated impeller. The impeller was rotated in steps of 1 degrees using a sliding mesh. The force around the impeller was integrated at every step. The transient analysis revealed that the direction of the radial force changed dynamically as the vane's position changed relative to the outlet port during one circulation, and the magnitude of this force was about 1 N. The current maglev pump has sufficient performance to counteract this hydraulic force. Transient CFD analysis is not only useful for observing dynamic flow conditions in a centrifugal pump but is also effective for obtaining information about the levitation dynamics of a maglev pump.

  12. Analysis of molten salt thermal-hydraulics using computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, B.; Csom, G.; Aszodi, A.

    2003-01-01

    To give a good solution for the problem of high level radioactive waste partitioning and transmutation is expected to be a pro missing option. Application of this technology also could extend the possibilities of nuclear energy. Large number of liquid-fuelled reactor concepts or accelerator driven subcritical systems was proposed as transmutors. Several of these consider fluoride based molten salts as the liquid fuel and coolant medium. The thermal-hydraulic behaviour of these systems is expected to be fundamentally different than the behaviour of widely used water-cooled reactors with solid fuel. Considering large flow domains three-dimensional thermal-hydraulic analysis is the method seeming to be applicable. Since the fuel is the coolant medium as well, one can expect a strong coupling between neutronics and thermal-hydraulics too. In the present paper the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics for three-dimensional thermal-hydraulics simulations of molten salt reactor concepts is introduced. In our past and recent works several calculations were carried out to investigate the capabilities of Computational Fluid Dynamics through the analysis of different molten salt reactor concepts. Homogenous single region molten salt reactor concept is studied and optimised. Another single region reactor concept is introduced also. This concept has internal heat exchanges in the flow domain and the molten salt is circulated by natural convection. The analysis of the MSRE experiment is also a part of our work since it may form a good background from the validation point of view. In the paper the results of the Computational Fluid Dynamics calculations with these concepts are presented. In the further work our objective is to investigate the thermal-hydraulics of the multi-region molten salt reactor (Authors)

  13. Thermal-Hydraulics analysis of pressurized water reactor core by using single heated channel model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Akbari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal hydraulics of nuclear reactor as a basis of reactor safety has a very important role in reactor design and control. The thermal-hydraulic analysis provides input data to the reactor-physics analysis, whereas the latter gives information about the distribution of heat sources, which is needed to perform the thermal-hydraulic analysis. In this study single heated channel model as a very fast model for predicting thermal hydraulics behavior of pressurized water reactor core has been developed. For verifying the results of this model, we used RELAP5 code as US nuclear regulatory approved thermal hydraulics code. The results of developed single heated channel model have been checked with RELAP5 results for WWER-1000. This comparison shows the capability of single heated channel model for predicting thermal hydraulics behavior of reactor core.

  14. Extensive use of computational fluid dynamics in the upgrading of hydraulic turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, M.; Eremeef, R.; De Henau, V.

    1995-12-31

    Computational fluid dynamics codes, based on turbulent Navier-Stokes equations, allow evaluation of the hydraulic losses of each turbine component with precision. Using those codes with the new generation of computers enables a wide variety of component geometries to be modelled and compared to the original designs under flow conditions obtained from testing, at a reasonable cost and in a relatively short time. This paper reviews the actual method used in the design of a solution to a turbine rehabilitation project involving runner replacement, redesign of upstream components (stay vanes and wicket gates), and downstream components (draft tubes and runner outlets). The paper shows how computational fluid dynamics can help hydraulic engineers to obtain valuable information not only on performance enhancement but also on the phenomena that produce the enhancement, and to reduce the variety of modifications to be tested.

  15. Potential Impacts of Spilled Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Chemicals on Water Resources: Types, volumes, and physical-chemical properties of chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing (HF) fluid chemicals spilled on-site may impact drinking water resources. While chemicals generally make up <2% of the total injected fluid composition by mass, spills may have undiluted concentrations. HF fluids typically consist of a mixture of base flui...

  16. Vegetable oils as hydraulic fluids for agricultural applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza, G.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The formulation of environmentally friendly lubricants following the criterion of the European EcoLabel is expensive owing to the lack of technological development in this area. The present work deals with the development of lubricant formulations from vegetable oils, in particular using high oleic sunflower oil as base fluid. These new biolubricants have to perform as good as the reference lubricants used in the real application (an agricultural tractor but with the additional condition and value of their biodegradability without toxicity. Formulation development has been performed by Verkol Lubricantes, involving the selection of the base oil and the design of the additive package. The investigation performed by Tekniker in the laboratory has covered different aspects, characterizing the most important physicochemical properties of the lubricants, including their behavior at low temperatures and their resistance to oxidation. The tribological properties of the new biolubricants have also been studied, analyzing their ability to protect the interacting surface from wear, as well as the level of friction generated during sliding. Moreover, the compatibility of the new formulated oil with all the seals present in the real application has been taken into consideration. The selected lubricant is now being tested in agricultural machinery from AGRIA.

    La formulación de lubricantes amigables con el medioambiente siguiendo los criterios Europeos de la EcoLabel resulta cara debido a la falta de desarrollo tecnológico en esta área. En el presente trabajo se han desarrollado formulaciones de lubricantes a partir de aceites de origen vegetal, en particular empleando como aceite base el GAO (Girasol de Alto Oleico. Estos nuevos lubricantes deben presentar un comportamiento tan bueno como el de los lubricantes de referencia empleados en la aplicación real (un tractor agrícola, pero con la condición y valor añadido de ser biodegradables y no t

  17. Pressure variation characteristics at trapping region in oil hydraulic piston pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ki; Jung, Jae Youn; Rho, Byung Joon; Song, Kyu Keun; Oh, Seok Hyung

    2003-01-01

    Pressure variation is one of the major sources on noise emission in the oil hydraulic piston pumps. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify about pressure variation characteristics of the oil hydraulic piston pumps to reduce noise. Pressure variations in a cylinder at trapping region were measured during pump working period with discharge pressures, rotational speeds. The effect of pre-compression of the discharge port with three types valve plates also investigated. It was found that the pressure variation characteristics of oil hydraulic piston pumps deeply related with pre-compression design of the discharge port. Also, it was found that the pressure overshoot at trapping region can reduce by use of pre-compression at the end of the discharge port in valve plate

  18. Measurement of fluid film thickness on the valve plate in oil hydraulic axial piston pumps (I): bearing pad effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ki; Jung, Jae Youn

    2003-01-01

    The tribological mechanism between the valve plate and the cylinder block in oil hydraulic axial piston pumps plays an important role on high power density. In this study, the fluid film thickness between the valve plate and the cylinder block was measured with discharge pressure and rotational speed by use of a gap sensor, and a slip ring system in the operating period. To investigate the effect of the valve plate shapes, we designed two valve plates with different shapes: the first valve plate was without a bearing pad, while the second valve plate had a bearing pad. It was found that both valve plates behaved differently with respect to the fluid film thickness characteristics. The leakage flow rates and the shaft torque were also experimented in order to clarify the performance difference between the valve plate without a bearing pad and the valve plate with a bearing pad. From the results of this study, we found out that in the oil hydraulic axial piston pumps, the valve plate with a bearing pad showed better film thickness contours than the valve plate without a bearing pad

  19. Vorticity and turbulence effects in fluid structure interaction an application to hydraulic structure design

    CERN Document Server

    Brocchini, M

    2006-01-01

    This book contains a collection of 11 research and review papers devoted to the topic of fluid-structure interaction.The subject matter is divided into chapters covering a wide spectrum of recognized areas of research, such as: wall bounded turbulence; quasi 2-D turbulence; canopy turbulence; large eddy simulation; lake hydrodynamics; hydraulic hysteresis; liquid impacts; flow induced vibrations; sloshing flows; transient pipe flow and air entrainment in dropshaft.The purpose of each chapter is to summarize the main results obtained by the individual research unit through a year-long activity on a specific issue of the above list. The main feature of the book is to bring state of the art research on fluid structure interaction to the attention of the broad international community.This book is primarily aimed at fluid mechanics scientists, but it will also be of value to postgraduate students and practitioners in the field of fluid structure interaction.

  20. Tree shoot bending generates hydraulic pressure pulses: a new long-distance signal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Rosana; Badel, Eric; Peraudeau, Sebastien; Leblanc-Fournier, Nathalie; Beaujard, François; Julien, Jean-Louis; Cochard, Hervé; Moulia, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    When tree stems are mechanically stimulated, a rapid long-distance signal is induced that slows down primary growth. An investigation was carried out to determine whether the signal might be borne by a mechanically induced pressure pulse in the xylem. Coupling xylem flow meters and pressure sensors with a mechanical testing device, the hydraulic effects of mechanical deformation of tree stem and branches were measured. Organs of several tree species were studied, including gymnosperms and angiosperms with different wood densities and anatomies. Bending had a negligible effect on xylem conductivity, even when deformations were sustained or were larger than would be encountered in nature. It was found that bending caused transient variation in the hydraulic pressure within the xylem of branch segments. This local transient increase in pressure in the xylem was rapidly propagated along the vascular system in planta to the upper and lower regions of the stem. It was shown that this hydraulic pulse originates from the apoplast. Water that was mobilized in the hydraulic pulses came from the saturated porous material of the conduits and their walls, suggesting that the poroelastic behaviour of xylem might be a key factor. Although likely to be a generic mechanical response, quantitative differences in the hydraulic pulse were found in different species, possibly related to differences in xylem anatomy. Importantly the hydraulic pulse was proportional to the strained volume, similar to known thigmomorphogenetic responses. It is hypothesized that the hydraulic pulse may be the signal that rapidly transmits mechanobiological information to leaves, roots, and apices.

  1. Microbial community changes in hydraulic fracturing fluids and produced water from shale gas extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali Mohan, Arvind; Hartsock, Angela; Bibby, Kyle J; Hammack, Richard W; Vidic, Radisav D; Gregory, Kelvin B

    2013-11-19

    Microbial communities associated with produced water from hydraulic fracturing are not well understood, and their deleterious activity can lead to significant increases in production costs and adverse environmental impacts. In this study, we compared the microbial ecology in prefracturing fluids (fracturing source water and fracturing fluid) and produced water at multiple time points from a natural gas well in southwestern Pennsylvania using 16S rRNA gene-based clone libraries, pyrosequencing, and quantitative PCR. The majority of the bacterial community in prefracturing fluids constituted aerobic species affiliated with the class Alphaproteobacteria. However, their relative abundance decreased in produced water with an increase in halotolerant, anaerobic/facultative anaerobic species affiliated with the classes Clostridia, Bacilli, Gammaproteobacteria, Epsilonproteobacteria, Bacteroidia, and Fusobacteria. Produced water collected at the last time point (day 187) consisted almost entirely of sequences similar to Clostridia and showed a decrease in bacterial abundance by 3 orders of magnitude compared to the prefracturing fluids and produced water samplesfrom earlier time points. Geochemical analysis showed that produced water contained higher concentrations of salts and total radioactivity compared to prefracturing fluids. This study provides evidence of long-term subsurface selection of the microbial community introduced through hydraulic fracturing, which may include significant implications for disinfection as well as reuse of produced water in future fracturing operations.

  2. Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Madsen, P

    1990-01-01

    Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure was measured in 10 patients undergoing drainage operations for painful chronic pancreatitis. The pressure was measured by the needle technique in the three anatomic regions of the pancreas before and at different stages of the drainage procedure, and the results...... a decrease in pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for pain in chronic pancreatitis. Regional pressure decrease were apparently unrelated to ERCP findings....

  3. Purification of Contaminated MIL-PRF-83282 Hydraulic Fluid Using the Pall Purifier and Multiple Process Configurations (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Snyder, Jr., Carl E; Gschwender, Lois J; Gunderson, Stephen L; Fultz, George W

    2006-01-01

    .... This report describes a project that evaluated the effectiveness of various hydraulic fluid purification process configurations on the removal of water and particulate contaminants from MIL-PRF-83282...

  4. Discussion on Stochastic Analysis of Hydraulic Vibration in Pressurized Water Diversion and Hydropower Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxu Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic vibration exists in various water conveyance projects and has resulted in different operating problems, but its obvious effects on system’s pressure head and stable operation have not been definitively addressed in the issued codes for engineering design, especially considering the uncertainties of hydraulic vibration. After detailed analysis of the randomness in hydraulic vibration and the commonly used stochastic approaches, in the basic equations for hydraulic vibration analysis, the random parameters and the formed stochastic equations were discussed for further probabilistic characteristic analysis of the random variables. Furthermore, preliminary investigation of the stochastic analysis of hydraulic vibration in pressurized pipelines and possible self-excited vibration in pumped-storage systems was presented for further consideration. The detailed discussion indicates that it is necessary to conduct further and systematic stochastic analysis of hydraulic vibration. Further, with the obtained frequencies and amplitudes in the form of a probability statement, the stochastic characteristics of various hydraulic vibrations can be investigated in detail and these solutions will be more reasonable for practical applications. Eventually, the stochastic analysis of hydraulic vibration will provide a basic premise to introduce its effect into the engineering design of water diversion and hydropower systems.

  5. Development of Proportional Pressure Control Valve for Hydraulic Braking Actuator of Automobile ABS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Pin Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This research developed a novel proportional pressure control valve for an automobile hydraulic braking actuator. It also analyzed and simulated solenoid force of the control valves, and the pressure relief capability test of electromagnetic thrust with the proportional valve body. Considering the high controllability and ease of production, the driver of this proportional valve was designed with a small volume and powerful solenoid force to control braking pressure and flow. Since the proportional valve can have closed-loop control, the proportional valve can replace a conventional solenoid valve in current brake actuators. With the proportional valve controlling braking and pressure relief mode, it can narrow the space of hydraulic braking actuator, and precisely control braking force to achieve safety objectives. Finally, the proposed novel proportional pressure control valve of an automobile hydraulic braking actuator was implemented and verified experimentally.

  6. Measuring the initial earth pressure of granite using hydraulic fracturing test; Goseong and Yuseong areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byoung Yoon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Chun Soo; Kim, Kyung Su; Koh, Young Kwon; Won, Kyung Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    This report provides the initial earth pressure of granitic rocks obtained from Deep Core Drilling Program which is carried out as part of the assessment of deep geological environmental condition. These data are obtained by hydraulic fracturing test in three boreholes drilled up to 350{approx}500 m depth at the Yuseong and Goseong sites. These sites were selected based on the result of preliminary site evaluation study. The boreholes are NX-size (76 mm) and vertical. The procedure of hydraulic fracturing test is as follows: - Selecting the testing positions by preliminary investigation using BHTV logging. - Performing the hydraulic fracturing test at each selected position with depth.- Estimating the shut-in pressure by the bilinear pressure-decay-rate method. - Estimating the fracture reopening pressure from the pressure-time curves.- Estimating the horizontal principal stresses and the direction of principal stresses. 65 refs., 39 figs., 12 tabs. (Author)

  7. The Process of Hydraulic Fracturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic fracturing, know as fracking or hydrofracking, produces fractures in a rock formation by pumping fluids (water, proppant, and chemical additives) at high pressure down a wellbore. These fractures stimulate the flow of natural gas or oil.

  8. New tracers identify hydraulic fracturing fluids and accidental releases from oil and gas operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, N R; Darrah, T H; Jackson, R B; Millot, R; Kloppmann, W; Vengosh, A

    2014-11-04

    Identifying the geochemical fingerprints of fluids that return to the surface after high volume hydraulic fracturing of unconventional oil and gas reservoirs has important applications for assessing hydrocarbon resource recovery, environmental impacts, and wastewater treatment and disposal. Here, we report for the first time, novel diagnostic elemental and isotopic signatures (B/Cl, Li/Cl, δ11B, and δ7Li) useful for characterizing hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids (HFFF) and distinguishing sources of HFFF in the environment. Data from 39 HFFFs and produced water samples show that B/Cl (>0.001), Li/Cl (>0.002), δ11B (25-31‰) and δ7Li (6-10‰) compositions of HFFF from the Marcellus and Fayetteville black shale formations were distinct in most cases from produced waters sampled from conventional oil and gas wells. We posit that boron isotope geochemistry can be used to quantify small fractions (∼0.1%) of HFFF in contaminated fresh water and likely be applied universally to trace HFFF in other basins. The novel environmental application of this diagnostic isotopic tool is validated by examining the composition of effluent discharge from an oil and gas brine treatment facility in Pennsylvania and an accidental spill site in West Virginia. We hypothesize that the boron and lithium are mobilized from exchangeable sites on clay minerals in the shale formations during the hydraulic fracturing process, resulting in the relative enrichment of boron and lithium in HFFF.

  9. Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Madsen, P

    1990-01-01

    Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure was measured in 10 patients undergoing drainage operations for painful chronic pancreatitis. The pressure was measured by the needle technique in the three anatomic regions of the pancreas before and at different stages of the drainage procedure, and the results...... were compared with preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) morphology. The preoperatively elevated pressure decreased in all patients but one, to normal or slightly elevated values. The median pressure decrease was 50% (range, 0-90%; p = 0.01). The drainage anastomosis (a...... a decrease in pancreatic tissue fluid pressure during drainage operations for pain in chronic pancreatitis. Regional pressure decrease were apparently unrelated to ERCP findings....

  10. GPU-Based Computation of Formation Pressure for Multistage Hydraulically Fractured Horizontal Wells in Tight Oil and Gas Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongwang Yin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for multistage hydraulically fractured horizontal wells (MFHWs in tight oil and gas reservoirs was derived by considering the variations in the permeability and porosity of tight oil and gas reservoirs that depend on formation pressure and mixed fluid properties and introducing the pseudo-pressure; analytical solutions were presented using the Newman superposition principle. The CPU-GPU asynchronous computing model was designed based on the CUDA platform, and the analytic solution was decomposed into infinite summation and integral forms for parallel computation. Implementation of this algorithm on an Intel i5 4590 CPU and NVIDIA GT 730 GPU demonstrates that computation speed increased by almost 80 times, which meets the requirement for real-time calculation of the formation pressure of MFHWs.

  11. Methodology to predict friction pressure drop in drilling fluid flows; Metodologia para previsao de perdas de carga em escoamentos de fluidos de perfuracao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheid, Claudia Miriam; Calcada, Luis Americo [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ). Departamento de Engenharia Quimica (Brazil)], e-mails: scheid@ufrrj.br, calcada@ufrrj.br; Rocha, Daniele Cristine [Centro de Pesquisas da Petrobras (CENPES). Engenharia Basica de Abastecimento - Gas e Energia (Brazil)], e-mail: drocha@petrobras.com.br; Aranha, Pedro Esteves [Centro de Pesquisas da Petrobras (CENPES). Gerencia de Perfuracao e Completacao de Pocos (Brazil)], e-mail: pearanha@petrobras.com.br; Aragao, Atila Fernando Lima [E and P Construcao de Pocos Maritimos. Gerencia de Tecnologia de Fluidos (Brazil)], e-mail: atila_aragao@petrobras.com.br

    2009-12-15

    An extensive experimental study is detailed to evaluate the friction pressure drop resulting from the flow through pipe and annular sections, accessories such as tool joints, bit jets and stabilizers of four different drilling fluids used in deep water operations. After a data analysis process, it was possible to compile a set of equations to predict relevant hydraulic friction pressure loss calculations, such as: hydraulic diameter for annular flows, friction factors for pipe and annular turbulent flows and discharge coefficients for accessories. (author)

  12. Strain measurement in and analysis for hydraulic test of CPR1000 reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dan; Zhuang Dongzhen

    2013-01-01

    The strain measurement in hydraulic test of CPR1000 reactor pressure vessel performed in Dongfang Heavy Machinery Co., Ltd. is introduced. The detail test scheme and method was introduced and the measurement results of strain and stress was given. Meanwhile the finite element analysis was performed for the pressure vessel, which was generally matched with the measurement results. The reliability of strain measurement was verified and the high strength margin of vessel was shown, which would give a good reference value for the follow-up hydraulic tests and strength analysis of reactor pressure vessel. (authors)

  13. PTA-1 computer program for treating pressure transients in hydraulic networks including the effect of pipe plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngdahl, C.K.; Kot, C.A.

    1977-01-01

    Pressure pulses in the intermediate sodium system of a liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor, such as may originate from a sodium/water reaction in a steam generator, are propagated through the complex sodium piping network to system components such as the pump and intermediate heat exchanger. To assess the effects of such pulses on continued reliable operation of these components and to contribute to system designs which result in the mitigation of these effects, Pressure Transient Analysis (PTA) computer codes are being developed for accurately computing the transmission of pressure pulses through a complicated fluid transport system, consisting of piping, fittings and junctions, and components. PTA-1 provides an extension of the well-accepted and verified fluid hammer formulation for computing hydraulic transients in elastic or rigid piping systems to include plastic deformation effects. The accuracy of the modeling of pipe plasticity effects on transient propagation has been validated using results from two sets of Stanford Research Institute experiments. Validation of PTA-1 using the latter set of experiments is described briefly. The comparisons of PTA-1 computations with experiments show that (1) elastic-plastic deformation of LMFBR-type piping can have a significant qualitative and quantitative effect on pressure pulse propagation, even in simple systems; (2) classical fluid-hammer theory gives erroneous results when applied to situations where piping deforms plastically; and (3) the computational model incorporated in PTA-1 for predicting plastic deformation and its effect on transient propagation is accurate

  14. Characterization of the chemicals used in hydraulic fracturing fluids for wells located in the Marcellus Shale Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huan; Carter, Kimberly E

    2017-09-15

    Hydraulic fracturing, coupled with the advances in horizontal drilling, has been used for recovering oil and natural gas from shale formations and has aided in increasing the production of these energy resources. The large volumes of hydraulic fracturing fluids used in this technology contain chemical additives, which may be toxic organics or produce toxic degradation byproducts. This paper investigated the chemicals introduced into the hydraulic fracturing fluids for completed wells located in Pennsylvania and West Virginia from data provided by the well operators. The results showed a total of 5071 wells, with average water volumes of 5,383,743 ± 2,789,077 gal (mean ± standard deviation). A total of 517 chemicals was introduced into the formulated hydraulic fracturing fluids. Of the 517 chemicals listed by the operators, 96 were inorganic compounds, 358 chemicals were organic species, and the remaining 63 cannot be identified. Many toxic organics were used in the hydraulic fracturing fluids. Some of them are carcinogenic, including formaldehyde, naphthalene, and acrylamide. The degradation of alkylphenol ethoxylates would produce more toxic, persistent, and estrogenic intermediates. Acrylamide monomer as a primary degradation intermediate of polyacrylamides is carcinogenic. Most of the chemicals appearing in the hydraulic fracturing fluids can be removed when adopting the appropriate treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The impact of hydraulic flow unit & reservoir quality index on pressure profile and productivity index in multi-segments reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salam Al-Rbeawi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is studying the impact of the hydraulic flow unit and reservoir quality index (RQI on pressure profile and productivity index of horizontal wells acting in finite reservoirs. Several mathematical models have been developed to investigate this impact. These models have been built based on the pressure distribution in porous media, depleted by a horizontal well, consist of multi hydraulic flow units and different reservoir quality index. The porous media are assumed to be finite rectangular reservoirs having different configurations and the wellbores may have different lengths. Several analytical models describing flow regimes have been derived wherein hydraulic flow units and reservoir quality index have been included in addition to rock and fluid properties. The impact of these two parameters on reservoir performance has also been studied using steady state productivity index.It has been found that both pressure responses and flow regimes are highly affected by the existence of multiple hydraulic flow units in the porous media and the change in reservoir quality index for these units. Positive change in the RQI could lead to positive change in both pressure drop required for reservoir fluids to move towards the wellbore and hence the productivity index.

  16. Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure and pain in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N

    1992-01-01

    A casual relation between pancreatic pressure and pain has been searched for decades but lack of appropriate methods for pressure measurements has hindered progress. During the 1980's the needle method has been used for direct intraoperative pancreatic tissue fluid pressure measurements and later...... for percutaneous sonographically-guided pressure measurements. Clinical and experimental evaluation of the method showed comparable results at intraoperative and percutaneous measurements and little week-to-week variation. Furthermore, comparable pressures in duct and adjacent pancreatic tissue were found, i.......e. the needle pressure mirrors the intraductal pressure. Comparisons of pain registrations, morphological and functional parameters with pancreatic tissue fluid pressure measurements have revealed a relation between pressure and pain which probably is causal. In patients with pain the high pressures previously...

  17. Thermal-hydraulics of the Loviisa reactor pressure vessel overcooling transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuomisto, Harri.

    1987-06-01

    In the Loviisa reactor pressure vessel safety analyses, the thermal-hydraulics of various overcooling transients has been evaluated to give pertinent initial data for fracture-mechanics calculations. The thermal-hydraulic simulations of the developed overcooling scenarios have been performed using best-estimate thermal-hydraulic computer codes. Experimental programs have been carried out to study phenomena related to natural circulation interruptions in the reactor coolant system. These experiments include buoyancy-induced phenomena such as thermal mixing and stratification of cold high-pressure safety injection water in the cold legs and the downcomer, and oscillations of the single-phase natural circulation. In the probabilistic pressurized thermal shock study, the Loviisa training simulator and the advanced system code RELAP5/MOD2 were utilized to simulate selected sequences. Flow stagnation cases were separately calculated with the REMIX computer program. The methods employed were assessed for these calculations against the plant data and own experiments

  18. Micro-hydromechanical deep drawing of metal cups with hydraulic pressure effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Liang; Jiang, Zhengyi; Wei, Dongbin; Wang, Xiaogang; Zhou, Cunlong; Huang, Qingxue

    2018-03-01

    Micro-metal products have recently enjoyed high demand. In addition, metal microforming has drawn increasing attention due to its net-forming capability, batch manufacturing potential, high product quality, and relatively low equipment cost. Micro-hydromechanical deep drawing (MHDD), a typical microforming method, has been developed to take advantage of hydraulic force. With reduced dimensions, the hydraulic pressure development changes; accordingly, the lubrication condition changes from the macroscale to the microscale. A Voronoi-based finite element model is proposed in this paper to consider the change in lubrication in MHDD according to open and closed lubricant pocket theory. Simulation results agree with experimental results concerning drawing force. Changes in friction significantly affect the drawing process and the drawn cups. Moreover, defined wrinkle indexes have been shown to have a complex relationship with hydraulic pressure. High hydraulic pressure can increase the maximum drawing ratio (drawn cup height), whereas the surface finish represented by the wear is not linearly dependent on the hydraulic pressure due to the wrinkles.

  19. Thermal-hydraulic and neutronic analysis of pressurized water reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, C.H.

    1982-01-01

    A computational code, named CANAL2, was developed for the simulation of the steady-state and transient behaviour of a Pressurized Water Reactor core. The conservation equations for the control volumes are obtained by area-averaging of the two-fluid model conservation equations and reducing them to the drift-flux model formulation. The resulting equations are aproximated by finite differences and solved by a marching-type numerical scheme. The model takes into account the exchange of mass, momentum and energy between adjacent subchannels of a fuel bundle. Turbulent mixing and diversion crossflow are considered. Correlations are provided for several heat trans and flow regimes and selected according to the local conditons. During transients core power can be evaluated by a point-Kinetics model. Fuel and coolant temperatures are feedback to the neutronics. The heat conduction equation is solved in the fuel using the Crank-Nicolson scheme. Temperature-dependent correlations are provided for the fuel and cladding thermal conductivities. Several runs were made with the code CANAL2 using the available experimental and calculated data in the open literature. Results indicate that CANAL2 is a good calculational tool for the thermal-hydraulics of PWR cores. A few refinements will make the code useful for design. (Author) [pt

  20. Stochastic estimation approach for the evaluation of thermal-hydraulic parameters in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, D.J.; Upadhyaya, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    A method based on the extended Kalman filter is developed for the estimation of the core coolant mass flow rate in pressurized water reactors. The need for flow calibration can be avoided by a direct estimation of this parameter. A reduced-order neutronic and thermal-hydraulic model is developed for the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) reactor. The neutron detector and core-exit coolant temperature signals from the LOFT reactor are used as measurements in the parameter estimation algorithm. The estimation sensitivity to model uncertainties was evaluated using the ambiguity function analysis. This also provides a lower bound on the measurement sample size necessary to achieve a certain estimation accuracy. A sequential technique was developed to minimize the computational effort needed to discretize the continuous time equations, and thus achieve faster convergence to the true parameter value. The performance of the stochastic approximation method was first evaluated using simulated random data, and then applied to the estimation of coolant flow rate using the operational data from the LOFT reactor at 100 and 65% flow rate conditions

  1. Effect of pressure on the physical properties of magnetorheological fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Spaggiari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, several applications of magnetorheological (MR fluids are present in the industrial world, nonetheless system requirements often needs better material properties. In technical literature a previous work shows that MR fluids exhibit a pressure dependency called squeeze strengthen effect. Since a lot of MR fluid based devices are rotary devices, this paper investigates the behaviour of MR fluids under pressure when a rotation is applied to shear the fluid. The system is designed in order to apply both the magnetic field and the pressure and follows a Design of Experiment approach. The experimental apparatus comprises a cylinder in which a piston is used both to apply the pressure and to shear the fluid. The magnetic circuit is designed to provide a nearly constant induction field in the MR fluid. The experimental apparatus measures the torque as a function of the variables considered and the yield shear stress is computed. The analysis of the results shows that there is a positive interaction between magnetic field and pressure, which enhances the MR fluid performances more than twice.

  2. Porous media fracturing dynamics: stepwise crack advancement and fluid pressure oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Toan D.; Hussain, Fazle; Schrefler, Bernhard A.

    2018-02-01

    We present new results explaining why fracturing in saturated porous media is not smooth and continuous but is a distinct stepwise process concomitant with fluid pressure oscillations. All exact solutions and almost all numerical models yield smooth fracture advancement and fluid pressure evolution, while recent experimental results, mainly from the oil industry, observation from geophysics and a very few numerical results for the quasi-static case indeed reveal the stepwise phenomenon. We summarize first these new experiments and these few numerical solutions for the quasi-static case. Both mechanical loading and pressure driven fractures are considered because their behaviours differ in the direction of the pressure jumps. Then we explore stepwise crack tip advancement and pressure fluctuations in dynamic fracturing with a hydro-mechanical model of porous media based on the Hybrid Mixture Theory. Full dynamic analyses of examples dealing with both hydraulic fracturing and mechanical loading are presented. The stepwise fracture advancement is confirmed in the dynamic setting as well as in the pressure fluctuations, but there are substantial differences in the frequency contents of the pressure waves in the two loading cases. Comparison between the quasi-static and fully dynamic solutions reveals that the dynamic response gives much more information such as the type of pressure oscillations and related frequencies and should be applied whenever there is a doubt about inertia forces playing a role - the case in most fracturing events. In the absence of direct relevant dynamic tests on saturated media some experimental results on dynamic fracture in dry materials, a fast hydraulic fracturing test and observations from geophysics confirm qualitatively the obtained results such as the type of pressure oscillations and the substantial difference in the behaviour under the two loading cases.

  3. Polyalkylene glycols, base fluids for special lubricants and hydraulic fluids; Polyalkylenglykole, Basisoele fuer Spezialschmierstoffe und Hydraulikfluessigkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellmann, K. [Clariant GmbH (Germany)

    2004-08-01

    For many years polyalkylene glycols have been used as base fluids for special lubricants. In this matter they compete with polyol esters and polyalphaolefines. Synthesis of polyalkylen glycols is founded upon the anionic polymerisation of ethyleneoxid, propyleneoxid and if necessary of other oxigen-containing monomeres. The flexibility of this synthesis is the reason that polyalkylene glycole is a collective term, including a broad group of base fluids with partly extreme different properties. Typical for polyalkylene glycols is a high viscosity-index, watersolubility and adsorbing power for water, low friction numbers, but also the incompatibility with current mineral-oil-soluble additive systems. Because of this quality profile there has been developped specific niche-applications in the lubricant-area for polyalkylene glycols in the last 30 years, where each of the specific benefits has been used. Among them are watercontaining HFC hydraulicfluids, refrigerator oils, and oils for ethylene-compressors. HFC fluids are formulated with high-viscous, water-soluble polyalkylene glycols. For refrigerator oils in motor-car conditioning the R 134A compatibility of water-insoluble polyalkylene glycols is essential. For the use in ethylene-compressors the crucial point is the insolubility of polyalkylene glycol in ethylene. (orig.)

  4. Thermal hydraulic stability in a pressure tube nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villani, A.; Ravetta, R.; Mansani, L.

    1986-01-01

    The CIRENE plant which will undergo preoperational tests in the near future is equipped with a 40 MW(e) Heavy Water moderated Boiling Light Water cooled Reactor (HWBLWR); at the start-up and up to about 30 % of nominal power, the necessary low coolant density is obtained injecting into the core a mixture of liquid and steam. To verify the thermal-hydraulic stability of the plant in this situation, tests have been carried out in a facility simulating two full scale power channels; the system stability has been confirmed in the reference conditions, and is not reduced by even a significant reduction of the liquid flowrate, where a decrease in liquid temperature has some negative effect and steam flowrate has a small influence. (author)

  5. The hydraulics of the pressurized water reactors; L'hydraulique des reacteurs a eau pressurisee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchter, J.C. [CEA Cadarache, SMET, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Barbier, D. [CEA/Grenoble, Dept. de Thermohydraulique et de Physique, DTP/SH2C, 38 (France); Caruso, A. [Electricite de France, Service Etudes et Projets Thermiques et Nucleaires, 75 - Paris (France)] [and others

    1999-07-02

    The SFEN organized, the 10 june 1999 at Paris, a meeting in the domain of the PWR hydraulics and in particular the hydraulic phenomena concerning the vessel and the vapor generators. The papers presented showed the importance of the industrial stakes with their associated phenomena: cores performance and safety with the more homogenous cooling system, the rods and the control rods wear, the temperature control, the fluid-structure interactions. A great part was also devoted to the progresses in the domain of the numerical simulation and the models and algorithms qualification. (A.L.B.)

  6. CT study in primary low spinal fluid pressure syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshino, Moritoshi; Okayama, Kenji; Kubo, Hiromasa; Watanabe, Hiromi; Endou, Riuko (Ohmiya Red Cross Hospital, Yono, Saitama (Japan))

    1991-02-01

    CT findings in primary low spinal fluid pressure syndrome were studied on the basis of 3 cases. Case 1 was a 43-year-old male with a complicated bilateral isodense subdural hematoma (SDH). Case 2 was a 45-year-old female with a complicated bilateral high dense SDH. Case 3 was a 36-year-old female discharged without any complications after spinal fluid pressure normalized. Slight downward displacement of the brain under low spinal fluid pressure was shown as the narrowing of a Sylvian fissures and infratentorial cisterns on CT. On the other hand, in this syndrome with a complicated bilateral isodense SDH, in addition to this finding, CT revealed distortion and narrowing of body lateral ventricles, which might be differential findings from this syndrome without complicated SDH. Under low spinal fluid pressure, bridging veins are more stretched by a downward displacement of the brain. And consequently they were easily injured and SDH was developed. (author).

  7. Computational fluid dynamics modelling of hydraulics and sedimentation in process reactors during aeration tank settling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, M D; Ingildsen, P; Rasmussen, M R; Laursen, J

    2006-01-01

    Aeration tank settling is a control method allowing settling in the process tank during high hydraulic load. The control method is patented. Aeration tank settling has been applied in several waste water treatment plants using the present design of the process tanks. Some process tank designs have shown to be more effective than others. To improve the design of less effective plants, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling of hydraulics and sedimentation has been applied. This paper discusses the results at one particular plant experiencing problems with partly short-circuiting of the inlet and outlet causing a disruption of the sludge blanket at the outlet and thereby reducing the retention of sludge in the process tank. The model has allowed us to establish a clear picture of the problems arising at the plant during aeration tank settling. Secondly, several process tank design changes have been suggested and tested by means of computational fluid dynamics modelling. The most promising design changes have been found and reported.

  8. Characterizing hydraulic fractures in shale gas reservoirs using transient pressure tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang

    2015-06-01

    This work presents an unconventional gas reservoir simulator and its application to quantify hydraulic fractures in shale gas reservoirs using transient pressure data. The numerical model incorporates most known physical processes for gas production from unconventional reservoirs, including two-phase flow of liquid and gas, Klinkenberg effect, non-Darcy flow, and nonlinear adsorption. In addition, the model is able to handle various types and scales of fractures or heterogeneity using continuum, discrete or hybrid modeling approaches under different well production conditions of varying rate or pressure. Our modeling studies indicate that the most sensitive parameter of hydraulic fractures to early transient gas flow through extremely low permeability rock is actually the fracture-matrix contacting area, generated by fracturing stimulation. Based on this observation, it is possible to use transient pressure testing data to estimate the area of fractures generated from fracturing operations. We will conduct a series of modeling studies and present a methodology using typical transient pressure responses, simulated by the numerical model, to estimate fracture areas created or to quantity hydraulic fractures with traditional well testing technology. The type curves of pressure transients from this study can be used to quantify hydraulic fractures in field application.

  9. Thermally Actuated Hydraulic Pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Ross, Ronald; Chao, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermally actuated hydraulic pumps have been proposed for diverse applications in which direct electrical or mechanical actuation is undesirable and the relative slowness of thermal actuation can be tolerated. The proposed pumps would not contain any sliding (wearing) parts in their compressors and, hence, could have long operational lifetimes. The basic principle of a pump according to the proposal is to utilize the thermal expansion and contraction of a wax or other phase-change material in contact with a hydraulic fluid in a rigid chamber. Heating the chamber and its contents from below to above the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to expand significantly, thus causing a substantial increase in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid out of the chamber. Similarly, cooling the chamber and its contents from above to below the melting temperature of the phase-change material would cause the material to contract significantly, thus causing a substantial decrease in hydraulic pressure and/or a substantial displacement of hydraulic fluid into the chamber. The displacement of the hydraulic fluid could be used to drive a piston. The figure illustrates a simple example of a hydraulic jack driven by a thermally actuated hydraulic pump. The pump chamber would be a cylinder containing encapsulated wax pellets and containing radial fins to facilitate transfer of heat to and from the wax. The plastic encapsulation would serve as an oil/wax barrier and the remaining interior space could be filled with hydraulic oil. A filter would retain the encapsulated wax particles in the pump chamber while allowing the hydraulic oil to flow into and out of the chamber. In one important class of potential applications, thermally actuated hydraulic pumps, exploiting vertical ocean temperature gradients for heating and cooling as needed, would be used to vary hydraulic pressures to control buoyancy in undersea research

  10. Osmotic generation of 'anomalous' fluid pressures in geological environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuzii, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    Osmotic pressures are generated by differences in chemical potential of a solution across a membrane. But whether osmosis can have a significant effect on the pressure of fluids in geological environments has been controversial, because the membrane properties of geological media are poorly understood. 'Anomalous' pressures - large departures from hydrostatic pressure that are not explicable in terms of topographic or fluid-density effects are widely found in geological settings, and are commonly considered to result from processes that alter the pore or fluid volume, which in turn implies crustal changes happening at a rate too slow to observe directly. Yet if osmosis can explain some anomalies, there is no need to invoke such dynamic geological processes in those cases. Here I report results of a nine- year in situ measurement of fluid pressures and solute concentrations in shale that are consistent with the generation of large (up to 20 MPa) osmotic-pressure anomalies which could persist for tens of millions of years. Osmotic pressures of this magnitude and duration can explain many of the pressure anomalies observed in geological settings. The require, however, small shale porosity and large contrasts in the amount of dissolved solids in the pore waters - criteria that may help to distinguish between osmotic and crystal-dynamic origins of anomalous pressures.

  11. The oil pressure test of the hydraulic impeller blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Wen-bo; Jia, Li-tao

    2017-12-01

    This article introduced the structure of the Kaplan runner in hydropower station and the operating process of the oil pressure test has been described. What’s more, the whole process, including filling oil to the runner hub, the movement of the runner blade, the oil circuit, have been presented in detail.Since the manipulation of the oil circuit which controlled by three Valve groups consisting of six valves was complicated, the author is planning to replace them with 3-position 3-way electromagnetic valves, so we can simplify the operation procedure.The author hopes this article can provide technical reference for the oil pressure test.

  12. Can introduction of hydraulic fracturing fluids induce biogenic methanogenesis in the shale reservoirs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S.; Wilson, T.; Wrighton, K. C.; Borton, M.; O'Banion, B.

    2017-12-01

    The hydraulic fracturing fluids (HFF) injected into the shale formation are composed primarily of water, proppant and some chemical additives ( 0.5- 2% by volume). The additives contain a lot of organic and inorganic compounds like ammonium sulfate, guar gum, boric acid, hydrochloric acid, citric acid, potassium carbonate, glutaraldehyde, ethylene glycols which serve as friction reducers, gelling agents, crosslinkers, biocides, corrosion/scale inhibitors, etc. The water and additives introduced into the formation ensue a variety of microbiogechmical reactions in the reservoir. For this study produced, water and gas samples were collected from several old and new Marcellus wells in SE Pennsylvania and NE West Virginia to better understand these microbe-water-rock interactions. The carbon isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC) in the produced fluids and CO2 in produced gas (δ13CCO2) are highly enriched with values > +10‰ and +14 ‰ V-PDB respectively. The injected hydraulic fracturing fluid had low δ13CDIC values of detectable carbon in them. The drilling mud and carbonate veins had δ13C values of -1.8 and < 2.0 ‰ V-PDB respectively. Therefore, the high δ13CDIC signatures in produced water are possibly due to the microbial utilization of lighter carbon (12C) by microbes or methanogenic bacteria in the reservoir. It is possible that introduction of C containing nutrients like guar, methanol, methylamines, etc. stimulates certain methanogen species in the reservoir to produce biogenic methane. Genomic analysis reveals that methanogen species like Methanohalophilus or Methanolobus could be the possible sources of biogenic methane in these shale reservoirs. The evidence of microbial methanogenesis raises the possibility of enhanced gas recovery from these shales using biological amendments.

  13. Experimental and modeling hydraulic studies of foam drilling fluid flowing through vertical smooth pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Saxena

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Foam has emerged as an efficient drilling fluid for the drilling of low pressure, fractured and matured reservoirs because of its the ability to reduce formation damage, fluid loss, differential sticking etc. However the compressible nature along with its complicated rheology has made its implementation a multifaceted task. Knowledge of the hydrodynamic behavior of drilling fluid within the borehole is the key behind successful implementation of drilling job. However, little effort has been made to develop the hydrodynamic models for the foam flowing with cuttings through pipes of variable diameter. In the present study, hydrodynamics of the foam fluid was investigated through the vertical smooth pipes of different pipe diameters, with variable foam properties in a flow loop system. Effect of cutting loading on pressure drop was also studied. Thus, the present investigation estimates the differential pressure loss across the pipe. The flow loop permits foam flow through 25.4 mm, 38.1 mm and 50.8 mm diameter pipes. The smaller diameter pipes are used to replicate the annular spaces between the drill string and wellbore. The developed model determines the pressure loss along the pipe and the results are compared with a number of existing models. The developed model is able to predict the experimental results more accurately.

  14. Maxillary sinus floor elevation via crestal approach: the evolution of the hydraulic pressure technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Michele Antonio; Andreasi Bassi, Mirko; Confalone, Luca; Carinci, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The current study describes an innovative protocol for the surgical maxillary sinus augmentation via a crestal approach that uses hydraulic pressure to lift the Schneiderian membrane and simultaneously fill the subantral space with a biomaterial for bone regeneration (nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite in aqueous solution). The technique in question combines the advantages of large amounts of grafted biomaterial with reduced trauma, high precision, and predictability.

  15. High-pressure fluid phase equilibria phenomenology and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Deiters, Ulrich K

    2012-01-01

    The book begins with an overview of the phase diagrams of fluid mixtures (fluid = liquid, gas, or supercritical state), which can show an astonishing variety when elevated pressures are taken into account; phenomena like retrograde condensation (single and double) and azeotropy (normal and double) are discussed. It then gives an introduction into the relevant thermodynamic equations for fluid mixtures, including some that are rarely found in modern textbooks, and shows how they can they be used to compute phase diagrams and related properties. This chapter gives a consistent and axiomatic approach to fluid thermodynamics; it avoids using activity coefficients. Further chapters are dedicated to solid-fluid phase equilibria and global phase diagrams (systematic search for phase diagram classes). The appendix contains numerical algorithms needed for the computations. The book thus enables the reader to create or improve computer programs for the calculation of fluid phase diagrams. introduces phase diagram class...

  16. Effect of Hydraulic Accumulator on Pressure Surge of a Hydrostatic Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajit; Das, Jayanta; Dasgupta, Kabir; Barnwal, Manish Kumar

    2018-04-01

    Hydraulic power system is generally used in off-road vehicles for power transmission such as Heavy Earth Moving Machineries (HEMM). Their energy efficiency and unsubstantial failure becomes an extensive subject of analysis. Various arrangements in the system are compassed along with the utilization of some appropriate components. Application of a hydraulic accumulator is one among them. Benefits of accumulator is its multi-purpose usages like energy saving and pressure surge damping. This paper deals with the control of pressure surges in the hydraulic system and energy saving from the surges by using accumulator. For this purpose, the simulation of the hydraulic system is done in MATLAB/SimulinkR environment and an external disturbance is introduced to generate the pressure surge. The surge absorptivity of the accumulator is studied for different sizes at different pre-charged conditions of the accumulator. The discharge characteristics of different sized accumulators are also analyzed in this paper. It is observed that the ability to absorb the surge and stabilize the system is high in the smaller capacity accumulator. However the energy delivery time of larger sized accumulator is high.

  17. Radium and barium removal through blending hydraulic fracturing fluids with acid mine drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondash, Andrew J; Warner, Nathaniel R; Lahav, Ori; Vengosh, Avner

    2014-01-21

    Wastewaters generated during hydraulic fracturing of the Marcellus Shale typically contain high concentrations of salts, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), and metals, such as barium, that pose environmental and public health risks upon inadequate treatment and disposal. In addition, fresh water scarcity in dry regions or during periods of drought could limit shale gas development. This paper explores the possibility of using alternative water sources and their impact on NORM levels through blending acid mine drainage (AMD) effluent with recycled hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids (HFFFs). We conducted a series of laboratory experiments in which the chemistry and NORM of different mix proportions of AMD and HFFF were examined after reacting for 48 h. The experimental data combined with geochemical modeling and X-ray diffraction analysis suggest that several ions, including sulfate, iron, barium, strontium, and a large portion of radium (60-100%), precipitated into newly formed solids composed mainly of Sr barite within the first ∼ 10 h of mixing. The results imply that blending AMD and HFFF could be an effective management practice for both remediation of the high NORM in the Marcellus HFFF wastewater and beneficial utilization of AMD that is currently contaminating waterways in northeastern U.S.A.

  18. Graph based hydraulic modelling of pressure in water distribution networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mpiana, LA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available given period of time and can be formulated as Where 𝐵 is the amount of incoming water at the node 𝑖 and 𝑡 is the delivery time period of time required. The amount of incoming water required at the node for a period of time is compared... to the water demand 𝐷𝑖 in order to decide on the operation of the pressure reduction valves. 𝐵𝑖𝑗 is the coefficient to evaluation in the required amount 𝐵 over a specific period of time. For a node 𝑖, 𝐵𝑖𝑗 is equal to 0...

  19. Acoustic emission in a fluid saturated heterogeneous porous layer with application to hydraulic fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, J.T. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1988-11-01

    A theoretical model for acoustic emission in a vertically heterogeneous porous layer bounded by semi-infinite solid regions is developed using linearized equations of motion for a fluid/solid mixture and a reflectivity method. Green's functions are derived for both point loads and moments. Numerically integrated propagators represent solutions for intermediate heterogeneous layers in the porous region. These are substituted into a global matrix for solution by Gaussian elimination and back-substitution. Fluid partial stress and seismic responses to dislocations associated with fracturing of a layer of rock with a hydraulically conductive fracture network are computed with the model. A constitutive model is developed for representing the fractured rock layer as a porous material, using commonly accepted relationships for moduli. Derivations of density, tortuosity, and sinuosity are provided. The main results of the model application are the prediction of a substantial fluid partial stress response related to a second mode wave for the porous material. The response is observable for relatively large distances, on the order of several tens of meters. The visco-dynamic transition frequency associated with parabolic versus planar fluid velocity distributions across micro-crack apertures is in the low audio or seismic range, in contrast to materials with small pore size, such as porous rocks, for which the transition frequency is ultrasonic. Seismic responses are predicted for receiver locations both in the layer and in the outlying solid regions. In the porous region, the seismic response includes both shear and dilatational wave arrivals and a second-mode arrival. The second-mode arrival is not observable outside of the layer because of its low velocity relative to the dilatational and shear wave propagation velocities of the solid region.

  20. A Comprehensive Prediction Model of Hydraulic Extended-Reach Limit Considering the Allowable Range of Drilling Fluid Flow Rate in Horizontal Drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Gao, Deli; Chen, Xuyue

    2017-06-08

    Hydraulic extended-reach limit (HERL) model of horizontal extended-reach well (ERW) can predict the maximum measured depth (MMD) of the horizontal ERW. The HERL refers to the well's MMD when drilling fluid cannot be normally circulated by drilling pump. Previous model analyzed the following two constraint conditions, drilling pump rated pressure and rated power. However, effects of the allowable range of drilling fluid flow rate (Q min  ≤ Q ≤ Q max ) were not considered. In this study, three cases of HERL model are proposed according to the relationship between allowable range of drilling fluid flow rate and rated flow rate of drilling pump (Q r ). A horizontal ERW is analyzed to predict its HERL, especially its horizontal-section limit (L h ). Results show that when Q min  ≤ Q r  ≤ Q max (Case I), L h depends both on horizontal-section limit based on rated pump pressure (L h1 ) and horizontal-section limit based on rated pump power (L h2 ); when Q min  drilling fluid flow rate, while L h2 keeps decreasing as the drilling fluid flow rate increases. The comprehensive model provides a more accurate prediction on HERL.

  1. The Role of Interstitial Fluid Pressurization in Articular Cartilage Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last two decades, considerable progress has been reported in the field of cartilage mechanics that impacts our understanding of the role of interstitial fluid pressurization on cartilage lubrication. Theoretical and experimental studies have demonstrated that the interstitial fluid of cartilage pressurizes considerably under loading, potentially supporting most of the applied load under various transient or steady-state conditions. The fraction of the total load supported by fluid pressurization has been called the fluid load support. Experimental studies have demonstrated that the friction coefficient of cartilage correlates negatively with this variable, achieving remarkably low values when the fluid load support is greatest. A theoretical framework that embodies this relationship has been validated against experiments, predicting and explaining various outcomes, and demonstrating that a low friction coefficient can be maintained for prolonged loading durations under normal physiological function. This paper reviews salient aspects of this topic, as well as its implications for improving our understanding of boundary lubrication by molecular species in synovial fluid and the cartilage superficial zone. Effects of cartilage degeneration on its frictional response are also reviewed. PMID:19464689

  2. Fluid dynamics of acoustic and hydrodynamic cavitation in hydraulic power systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrari, A.

    2017-01-01

    Cavitation is the transition from a liquid to a vapour phase, due to a drop in pressure to the level of the vapour tension of the fluid. Two kinds of cavitation have been reviewed here: acoustic cavitation and hydrodynamic cavitation. As acoustic cavitation in engineering systems is related to the propagation of waves through a region subjected to liquid vaporization, the available expressions of the sound speed are discussed. One of the main effects of hydrodynamic cavitation in the nozzles ...

  3. Device for regulating and controlling of fluid pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, H.N.; Singleton, N.R.; Frisch, E.; Stein, P.C.

    1972-01-01

    A pressure regulating valve for high pressures, suitable for PWR pressurisers, is based on controlled leakage. The valve may also function as a safety valve. The valve and seat surfaces are machined such that an annular space is formed towards the inner edge, and into this space cold fluid may be injected, thus preventing crud deposition and hindering steam formation. Fluid also leaks into the annular space between two bellows, which exert a closing force on the valve, in addition to the closing force provided by springs, whose force is adjustable by means of a screw arrangement. (JIW)

  4. Geothermal heat from solid rock - increased energy extraction through hydraulic pressurizing of drill wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramstad, Randi Kalskin; Hilmo, Bernt Olav; Skarphagen, Helge

    2005-01-01

    New equipment for hydraulic pressurizing, a double collar of the type FrakPak - AIP 410-550, is developed by the Broennteknologi AS. The equipment is tested in the laboratory and in the field at Lade in Trondheim. By the construction of two pilot plants for geothermal heat at Bryn and on the previous grounds of the energy company in Asker and Baerum (EAB) extensive studies connected to hydraulic pressurizing are carried out both with water and sand injection. The geothermal heat plants at Bryn and AEB were supposed to be based on pumped ground water from rock wells where increased effect was obtained through pumping up, returning and circulating the water. The aim of the study was to test and develop the methods for hydraulic pressurizing both with water and sand injection, document the effect of the various types of pressurizing as well as mapping the hydro- and rock geological conditions for this type of geothermal heat plants. In addition to stimulating 10 drill holes with hydraulic pressurizing with water and sand injection, the studies have carried out test pumping, water sampling, geophysical logging, measurements of alterations in the terrain, current and rock strain measurements and geothermal response tests. Furthermore an efficacy test and a theoretical model of the energy potential of the plants are carried out. The results from the pilot plant at Bryn show that the drill hole capacities are significantly increased both through hydraulic pressurizing with water and sand injection. There seems to be a greater need for sand as ''prepping agent'' or distance maker in cracks with high pressure resistance than in cracks with lower resistance. The grain size of the sand should be adapted to the resistance pressure and injection of coarser sand is recommended in cracks with lower resistance pressure. The rock strength and strain conditions determine the successes of hydraulic pressurizing at the reopening of existing or opening of new faults. Test pumping was

  5. Safety of 5 MW district heating reactor (DHR) and hydraulic dynamic pressure drive control rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuanqiang; Wang Dazhong

    1991-11-01

    The principles and movement characteristic of the hydraulic dynamic pressure drive for control rods in 5 MW district heating reactor are described with stress on analysis of its effects on reactor safety features. The drive is different from electric-magnetic drive for PWR or hydraulic drive for BWR. The drive cylinder is driven by dynamic pressure. In the new drive system, the reactor coolant (water) used as actuating medium is pressed by pump, then injected into a step cylinder which is set in the reactor core. The cylinder will move step by step by controlling flow, then the cylinder drives the neutron absorber and controls nuclear reaction. The drive is characterized by simplicity in structure, high reliability, inherent safety, reduction in reactor height, economy, etc

  6. Method for achieving hydraulic balance in typical Chinese building heating systems by managing differential pressure and flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lipeng; Xia, Jianjun; Thorsen, Jan Eric

    2017-01-01

    to a lack of pressure and flow control. This study investigated using pre-set radiator valves combined with differential pressure (DP) controllers to achieve hydraulic balance in building distribution systems, and consequently save energy and reduce the emissions. We considered a multi-storey building......Hydraulic unbalance is a common problem in Chinese district heating (DH) systems. Hydraulic unbalance has resulted in poor flow distribution among heating branches and overheating of apartments. Studies show that nearly 30% of the total heat supply is being wasted in Chinese DH systems due...... modelled in the IDA-ICE software, along with a self-developed mathematical hydraulic model to simulate its heat performance and hydraulic performance with various control scenarios. In contrast to the situation with no pressure or flow control, this solution achieves the required flow distribution...

  7. Integrated Experimental and Computational Study of Hydraulic Fracturing and the Use of Alternative Fracking Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, H.; Carey, J. W.; Karra, S.; Porter, M. L.; Rougier, E.; Zhang, D.; Makedonska, N.; Middleton, R. S.; Currier, R.; Gupta, R.; Lei, Z.; Kang, Q.; O'Malley, D.; Hyman, J.

    2014-12-01

    Shale gas is an unconventional fossil energy resource that is already having a profound impact on US energy independence and is projected to last for at least 100 years. Production of methane and other hydrocarbons from low permeability shale involves hydrofracturing of rock, establishing fracture connectivity, and multiphase fluid-flow and reaction processes all of which are poorly understood. The result is inefficient extraction with many environmental concerns. A science-based capability is required to quantify the governing mesoscale fluid-solid interactions, including microstructural control of fracture patterns and the interaction of engineered fluids with hydrocarbon flow. These interactions depend on coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes over scales from microns to tens of meters. Determining the key mechanisms in subsurface THMC systems has been impeded due to the lack of sophisticated experimental methods to measure fracture aperture and connectivity, multiphase permeability, and chemical exchange capacities at the high temperature, pressure, and stresses present in the subsurface. This project uses innovative high-pressure microfluidic and triaxial core flood experiments on shale to explore fracture-permeability relations and the extraction of hydrocarbon. These data are integrated with simulations including lattice Boltzmann modeling of pore-scale processes, finite-element/discrete element models of fracture development in the near-well environment, discrete-fracture modeling of the reservoir, and system-scale models to assess the economics of alternative fracturing fluids. The ultimate goal is to make the necessary measurements to develop models that can be used to determine the reservoir operating conditions necessary to gain a degree of control over fracture generation, fluid flow, and interfacial processes over a range of subsurface conditions.

  8. Calculation and analysis of thermal–hydraulics fluctuations in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmir, Hessam; Vosoughi, Naser

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Single-phase thermal–hydraulics noise equations are originally derived in the frequency domain. • The fluctuations of all the coolant parameters are calculated, without any simplifying assumptions. • The radial distribution of the temperature fluctuations in the fuel, gap and cladding are taken into account. • The closed-loop calculations are performed by means of the point kinetics noise theory. • Both the space- and frequency-dependence of the thermal–hydraulics fluctuations are analyzed. - Abstract: Analysis of thermal–hydraulics fluctuations in pressurized water reactors (e.g., local and global temperature or density fluctuations, as well as primary and charging pumps fluctuations) has various applications in calculation or measurement of the core dynamical parameters (temperature or density reactivity coefficients) in addition to thermal–hydraulics surveillance and diagnostics. In this paper, the thermal–hydraulics fluctuations in PWRs are investigated. At first, the single-phase thermal–hydraulics noise equations (in the frequency domain) are originally derived, without any simplifying assumptions. The fluctuations of all the coolant parameters, as well as the radial distribution of the temperature fluctuations in the fuel, gap and cladding are taken into account. Then, the derived governing equations are discretized using the finite volume method (FVM). Based on the discretized equations and the proposed algorithm of solving, a single heated channel noise calculation code (SHC-Noise) is developed, by which the steady-state and fluctuating parameters of PWR fuel assemblies can be calculated. The noise sources include the inlet coolant temperature and velocity fluctuations, in addition to the power density noises. The developed SHC-Noise code is benchmarked in different cases and scenarios. Furthermore, to show the effects of the power feedbacks, the closed-loop calculations are performed by means of the point kinetics noise

  9. Common hydraulic fracturing fluid additives alter the structure and function of anaerobic microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Adam C.; Akob, Denise M.; Klinges, J. Grace; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2018-01-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) resources results in the production of large volumes of wastewater containing a complex mixture of hydraulic fracturing chemical additives and components from the formation. The release of these wastewaters into the environment poses potential risks that are poorly understood. Microbial communities in stream sediments form the base of the food chain and may serve as sentinels for changes in stream health. Iron-reducing organisms have been shown to play a role in the biodegradation of a wide range of organic compounds, and so to evaluate their response to UOG wastewater, we enriched anaerobic microbial communities from sediments collected upstream (background) and downstream (impacted) of an UOG wastewater injection disposal facility in the presence of hydraulic fracturing fluid (HFF) additives: guar gum, ethylene glycol, and two biocides, 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA) and bronopol (C3H6BrNO4). Iron reduction was significantly inhibited early in the incubations with the addition of biocides, whereas amendment with guar gum and ethylene glycol stimulated iron reduction relative to levels in the unamended controls. Changes in the microbial community structure were observed across all treatments, indicating the potential for even small amounts of UOG wastewater components to influence natural microbial processes. The microbial community structure differed between enrichments with background and impacted sediments, suggesting that impacted sediments may have been preconditioned by exposure to wastewater. These experiments demonstrated the potential for biocides to significantly decrease iron reduction rates immediately following a spill and demonstrated how microbial communities previously exposed to UOG wastewater may be more resilient to additional spills.

  10. Earthquakes, fluid pressures and rapid subduction zone metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viete, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    High-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) metamorphism is commonly incomplete, meaning that large tracts of rock can remain metastable at blueschist- and eclogite-facies conditions for timescales up to millions of years [1]. When HP/LT metamorphism does take place, it can occur over extremely short durations (the role of fluids in providing heat for metamorphism [2] or catalyzing metamorphic reactions [1]. Earthquakes in subduction zone settings can occur to depths of 100s of km. Metamorphic dehydration and the associated development of elevated pore pressures in HP/LT metamorphic rocks has been identified as a cause of earthquake activity at such great depths [3-4]. The process of fracturing/faulting significantly increases rock permeability, causing channelized fluid flow and dissipation of pore pressures [3-4]. Thus, deep subduction zone earthquakes are thought to reflect an evolution in fluid pressure, involving: (1) an initial increase in pore pressure by heating-related dehydration of subduction zone rocks, and (2) rapid relief of pore pressures by faulting and channelized flow. Models for earthquakes at depth in subduction zones have focussed on the in situ effects of dehydration and then sudden escape of fluids from the rock mass following fracturing [3-4]. On the other hand, existing models for rapid and incomplete metamorphism in subduction zones have focussed only on the effects of heating and/or hydration with the arrival of external fluids [1-2]. Significant changes in pressure over very short timescales should result in rapid mineral growth and/or disequilibrium texture development in response to overstepping of mineral reaction boundaries. The repeated process of dehydration-pore pressure development-earthquake-pore pressure relief could conceivably produce a record of episodic HP/LT metamorphism driven by rapid pressure pulses. A new hypothesis is presented for the origins of HP/LT metamorphism: that HP/LT metamorphism is driven by effective pressure

  11. An improved apparatus for pressure-injecting fluid into trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garold F. Gregory; Thomas W. Jones

    1975-01-01

    Our original tree-injection apparatus was modified to be more convenient and efficient. The fluid reservoir consists of high-pressure plastic plumbing components. Quick couplers are used for all hose connections. Most important, the injector heads were modified for a faster and more convenient and secure attachment with double-headed nails.

  12. Osmotic pressure of the cutaneous surface fluid of Rana esculenta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid Larsen, Erik; Ramløv, Hans

    2012-01-01

    The osmotic pressure of the cutaneous surface fluid (CSF) in vivo was measured for investigating whether evaporative water loss (EWL) derives from water diffusing through the skin or fluid secreted by exocrine subepidermal mucous glands. EWL was stimulated by subjecting R. esculenta to 30–34 °C....../Kg, n = 16. Osmolality of lymph was, 239 ± 4 mosmol/Kg, n = 8. Thus the flow of water across the epidermis would be in the direction from CSF to the interstitial fluid driven by the above osmotic gradients and/or coupled to the inward active Na+ flux via the slightly hyperosmotic paracellular...... compartment [EH Larsen et al. (2009) Acta Physiologica 195: 171–186]. It is concluded that the source of EWL of the frog on land is the fluid secreted by the mucous glands and not water diffusing through the skin. The study supports the hypothesis [EH Larsen (2011) Acta Physiologica 202: 435–464] that volume...

  13. A switched energy saving position controller for variable-pressure electro-hydraulic servo systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivay, Ali; Zareinejad, Mohammad; Rezaei, S Mehdi; Baghestan, Keivan

    2014-07-01

    The electro-hydraulic servo system (EHSS) demonstrates a relatively low level of efficiency compared to other available actuation methods. The objective of this paper is to increase this efficiency by introducing a variable supply pressure into the system and controlling this pressure during the task of position tracking. For this purpose, an EHSS structure with controllable supply pressure is proposed and its dynamic model is derived from the basic laws of physics. A switching control structure is then proposed to control both the supply pressure and the cylinder position at the same time, in a way that reduces the overall energy consumption of the system. The stability of the proposed switching control system is guaranteed by proof, and its performance is verified by experimental testing. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hierarchical high-pressure hydraulic system for a continuously variable transmission; Mudan hensokuki no kaisoshiki koyuatsu system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tominaga, M; Wakahara, T; Hiraoka, Y; Ishimori, Y [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A belt CVT system requires a large oil flow during shifts compared with a conventional automatic transmission. And the hydraulic pressure is higher for high-powered engines. As a result the oil pump is bigger and efficiency is lower(fuel consumption is higher). This system develops high pressure in three stages first reducing the hydraulic control system so that a small oil pump is attained. 8 figs.

  15. Hydraulic Darrieus turbines efficiency for free fluid flow conditions versus power farms conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antheaume, Sylvain [Electricite de France, Recherche et Developpement, Laboratoire National d' Hydraulique et Environnement, 6 Quai Watier, 78400 Chatou (France); Maitre, Thierry; Achard, Jean-Luc [Laboratoire des Ecoulements Geophysiques et Industriels, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble (France)

    2008-10-15

    The present study deals with the efficiency of cross flow water current turbine for free stream conditions versus power farm conditions. In the first part, a single turbine for free fluid flow conditions is considered. The simulations are carried out with a new in house code which couples a Navier-Stokes computation of the outer flow field with a description of the inner flow field around the turbine. The latter is based on experimental results of a Darrieus wind turbine in an unbounded domain. This code is applied for the description of a hydraulic turbine. In the second part, the interest of piling up several turbines on the same axis of rotation to make a tower is investigated. Not only is it profitable because only one alternator is needed but the simulations demonstrate the advantage of the tower configuration for the efficiency. The tower is then inserted into a cluster of several lined up towers which makes a barge. Simulations show that the average barge efficiency rises as the distance between towers is decreased and as the number of towers is increased within the row. Thereby, the efficiency of a single isolated turbine is greatly increased when set both into a tower and into a cluster of several towers corresponding to possible power farm arrangements. (author)

  16. Exposure of aircraft maintenance technicians to organophosphates from hydraulic fluids and turbine oils: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Birgit Karin; Koslitz, Stephan; Weiss, Tobias; Broding, Horst Christoph; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Hydraulic fluids and turbine oils contain organophosphates like tricresyl phosphate isomers, triphenyl phosphate and tributyl phosphate from very small up to high percentages. The aim of this pilot study was to determine if aircraft maintenance technicians are exposed to relevant amounts of organophosphates. Dialkyl and diaryl phosphate metabolites of seven organophosphates were quantified in pre- and post-shift spot urine samples of technicians (N=5) by GC-MS/MS after solid phase extraction and derivatization. Pre- and post shift values of tributyl phosphate metabolites (dibutyl phosphate (DBP): median pre-shift: 12.5 μg/L, post-shift: 23.5 μg/L) and triphenyl phosphate metabolites (diphenyl phosphate (DPP): median pre-shift: 2.9 μg/L, post-shift: 3.5 μg/L) were statistically higher than in a control group from the general population (median DBP: <0.25 μg/L, median DPP: 0.5 μg/L). No tricresyl phosphate metabolites were detected. The aircraft maintenance technicians were occupationally exposed to tributyl and triphenyl phosphate but not to tricresyl phosphate, tri-(2-chloroethyl)- and tri-(2-chloropropyl)-phosphate. Further studies are necessary to collect information on sources, routes of uptake and varying exposures during different work tasks, evaluate possible health effects and to set up appropriate protective measures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermal Hydraulic Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations and Experimental Investigation of Deformed Fuel Assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, Brian [AREVA Federal Services, Lynchburg, VA (United States); Jackson, R. Brian [TerraPower, Bellevue, WA (United States)

    2017-03-08

    The project, Toward a Longer Life Core: Thermal Hydraulic CFD Simulations and Experimental Investigation of Deformed Fuel Assemblies, DOE Project code DE-NE0008321, was a verification and validation project for flow and heat transfer through wire wrapped simulated liquid metal fuel assemblies that included both experiments and computational fluid dynamics simulations of those experiments. This project was a two year collaboration between AREVA, TerraPower, Argonne National Laboratory and Texas A&M University. Experiments were performed by AREVA and Texas A&M University. Numerical simulations of these experiments were performed by TerraPower and Argonne National Lab. Project management was performed by AREVA Federal Services. The first of a kind project resulted in the production of both local point temperature measurements and local flow mixing experiment data paired with numerical simulation benchmarking of the experiments. The project experiments included the largest wire-wrapped pin assembly Mass Index of Refraction (MIR) experiment in the world, the first known wire-wrapped assembly experiment with deformed duct geometries and the largest numerical simulations ever produced for wire-wrapped bundles.

  18. Permeability - Fluid Pressure - Stress Relationship in Fault Zones in Shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, P.; Guglielmi, Y.; Morereau, A.; Seguy, S.; Castilla, R.; Nussbaum, C.; Dick, P.; Durand, J.; Jaeggi, D.; Donze, F. V.; Tsopela, A.

    2016-12-01

    Fault permeability is known to depend strongly on stress and fluid pressures. Exponential relationships between permeability and effective pressure have been proposed to approximate fault response to fluid pressure variations. However, the applicability of these largely empirical laws remains questionable, as they do not take into account shear stress and shear strain. A series of experiments using mHPP probes have been performed within fault zones in very low permeability (less than 10-19 m2) Lower Jurassic shale formations at Tournemire (France) and Mont Terri (Switzerland) underground laboratories. These probes allow to monitor 3D displacement between two points anchored to the borehole walls at the same time as fluid pressure and flow rate. In addition, in the Mont-Terri experiment, passive pressure sensors were installed in observation boreholes. Fracture transmissivity was estimated from single borehole pulse test, constant pressure injection tests, and cross-hole tests. It is found that the transmissivity-pressure dependency can be approximated with an exponential law, but only above a pressure threshold that we call the Fracture Opening Threshold (F.O.P). The displacement data show a change of the mechanical response across the F.O.P. The displacement below the F.O.P. is dominated by borehole response, which is mostly elastic. Above F.O.P., the poro-elasto-plastic response of the fractures dominates. Stress determinations based on previous work and on the analysis of slip data from mHPPP probe indicate that the F.O.P. is lower than the least principal stress. Below the F.O.P., uncemented fractures retain some permeability, as pulse tests performed at low pressures yield diffusivities in the range 10-2 to 10-5 m2/s. Overall, this dual behavior appears consistent with the results of CORK experiments performed in accretionary wedge decollements. Results suggest (1) that fault zones become highly permeable when approaching the critical Coulomb threshold (2

  19. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of High Injection Pressure Blended Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Amir; Jaat, Norrizam; Faisal Hushim, Mohd; Manshoor, Bukhari; Zaman, Izzuddin; Sapit, Azwan; Razali, Azahari

    2017-08-01

    Biodiesel have great potential for substitution with petrol fuel for the purpose of achieving clean energy production and emission reduction. Among the methods that can control the combustion properties, controlling of the fuel injection conditions is one of the successful methods. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of high injection pressure of biodiesel blends on spray characteristics using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Injection pressure was observed at 220 MPa, 250 MPa and 280 MPa. The ambient temperature was kept held at 1050 K and ambient pressure 8 MPa in order to simulate the effect of boost pressure or turbo charger during combustion process. Computational Fluid Dynamics were used to investigate the spray characteristics of biodiesel blends such as spray penetration length, spray angle and mixture formation of fuel-air mixing. The results shows that increases of injection pressure, wider spray angle is produced by biodiesel blends and diesel fuel. The injection pressure strongly affects the mixture formation, characteristics of fuel spray, longer spray penetration length thus promotes the fuel and air mixing.

  20. Physics based simulation of seismicity induced in the vicinity of a high-pressure fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, J.; NicBhloscaidh, M.; Murphy, S.; O'Brien, G. S.; Bean, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    High-pressure fluid injection into subsurface is known, in some cases, to induce earthquakes in the surrounding volume. The increasing importance of ';fracking' as a potential source of hydrocarbons has made the seismic hazard from this effect an important issue the adjudication of planning applications and it is likely that poor understanding of the process will be used as justification of refusal of planning in Ireland and the UK. Here we attempt to understand some of the physical controls on the size and frequency of induced earthquakes using a physics-based simulation of the process and examine resulting earthquake catalogues The driver for seismicity in our simulations is identical to that used in the paper by Murphy et al. in this session. Fluid injection is simulated using pore fluid movement throughout a permeable layer from a high-pressure point source using a lattice Boltzmann scheme. Diffusivities and frictional parameters can be defined independently at individual nodes/cells allowing us to reproduce 3-D geological structures. Active faults in the model follow a fractal size distribution and exhibit characteristic event size, resulting in a power-law frequency-size distribution. The fluid injection is not hydraulically connected to the fault (i.e. fluid does not come into physical contact with the fault); however stress perturbations from the injection drive the seismicity model. The duration and pressure-time function of the fluid injection can be adjusted to model any given injection scenario and the rate of induced seismicity is controlled by the local structures and ambient stress field as well as by the stress perturbations resulting from the fluid injection. Results from the rate and state fault models of Murphy et al. are incorporated to include the effect of fault strengthening in seismically quite areas. Initial results show similarities with observed induced seismic catalogues. Seismicity is only induced where the active faults have not been

  1. Hydraulic pressure pulses with elastic and plastic structural flexibility: test and analysis (LWBR Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwirian, R.E.

    1978-03-01

    Pressure pulse tests were conducted with a flexible test section in a test vessel filled with room temperature water. The pressure pulses were generated with a drop hammer and piston pulse generator and were of a sufficient magnitude to cause plastic deformation of the test section. Because of the strong pressure relief effect of the deforming test section, pressure pulse magnitudes were below 265 psig in magnitude and had durations of 50 to 55 msecs. Calculations performed with the FLASH-35 bi-linear hysteresis model of structural deformation show good agreement with experiment. In particular, FLASH 35 adequately predicts the decrease in peak pressure and the increase in pulse duration due to elastic and plastic deformation of the test section. Predictions of flexible member motion are good, but are less satisfactory than the pressure pulse results due to uncertainties in the values of yield point and beyond yield stiffness used to model the various flexible members. Coupled with this is a strong sensitivity of the FLASH 35 predictions to the values of yield point and beyond yield stiffness chosen for the various flexible members. The test data versus calculation comparisons presented here provide preliminary qualification for FLASH 35 calculations of transient hydraulic pressures and pressure differentials in the presence of flexible structural members which deform both elastically and plastically

  2. 4D synchrotron X-ray imaging to understand porosity development in shales during exposure to hydraulic fracturing fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, A. M.; Bargar, J.; Kohli, A. H.; Harrison, A. L.; Jew, A. D.; Lim, J. H.; Liu, Y.; Maher, K.; Zoback, M. D.; Brown, G. E.

    2016-12-01

    Unconventional (shale) reservoirs have emerged as the most important source of petroleum resources in the United States and represent a two-fold decrease in greenhouse gas emissions compared to coal. Despite recent progress, hydraulic fracturing operations present substantial technical, economic, and environmental challenges, including inefficient recovery, wastewater production and disposal, contaminant and greenhouse gas pollution, and induced seismicity. A relatively unexplored facet of hydraulic fracturing operations is the fluid-rock interface, where hydraulic fracturing fluid (HFF) contacts shale along faults and fractures. Widely used, water-based fracturing fluids contain oxidants and acid, which react strongly with shale minerals. Consequently, fluid injection and soaking induces a host of fluid-rock interactions, most notably the dissolution of carbonates and sulfides, producing enhanced or "secondary" porosity networks, as well as mineral precipitation. The competition between these mechanisms determines how HFF affects reactive surface area and permeability of the shale matrix. The resultant microstructural and chemical changes may also create capillary barriers that can trap hydrocarbons and water. A mechanistic understanding of the microstructure and chemistry of the shale-HFF interface is needed to design new methodologies and fracturing fluids. Shales were imaged using synchrotron micro-X-ray computed tomography before, during, and after exposure to HFF to characterize changes to the initial 3D structure. CT reconstructions reveal how the secondary porosity networks advance into the shale matrix. Shale samples span a range of lithologies from siliceous to calcareous to organic-rich. By testing shales of different lithologies, we have obtained insights into the mineralogic controls on secondary pore network development and the morphologies at the shale-HFF interface and the ultimate composition of produced water from different facies. These results

  3. An evaluation of calculation procedures affecting the constituent factors of equivalent circulating density for drilling hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, William J

    1997-12-31

    This Dr. ing. thesis covers a study of drilling hydraulics offshore. The purpose of drilling hydraulics is to provide information about downhole pressure, suitable surface pump rates, the quality of hole cleaning and optimum tripping speeds during drilling operations. Main fields covered are drilling hydraulics, fluid characterisation, pressure losses, and equivalent circulating density. 197 refs., 23 figs., 22 tabs.

  4. An evaluation of calculation procedures affecting the constituent factors of equivalent circulating density for drilling hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, William J.

    1996-12-31

    This Dr. ing. thesis covers a study of drilling hydraulics offshore. The purpose of drilling hydraulics is to provide information about downhole pressure, suitable surface pump rates, the quality of hole cleaning and optimum tripping speeds during drilling operations. Main fields covered are drilling hydraulics, fluid characterisation, pressure losses, and equivalent circulating density. 197 refs., 23 figs., 22 tabs.

  5. Common Hydraulic Fracturing Fluid Additives Alter the Structure and Function of Anaerobic Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumford, Adam C; Akob, Denise M; Klinges, J Grace; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M

    2018-04-15

    The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) resources results in the production of large volumes of wastewater containing a complex mixture of hydraulic fracturing chemical additives and components from the formation. The release of these wastewaters into the environment poses potential risks that are poorly understood. Microbial communities in stream sediments form the base of the food chain and may serve as sentinels for changes in stream health. Iron-reducing organisms have been shown to play a role in the biodegradation of a wide range of organic compounds, and so to evaluate their response to UOG wastewater, we enriched anaerobic microbial communities from sediments collected upstream (background) and downstream (impacted) of an UOG wastewater injection disposal facility in the presence of hydraulic fracturing fluid (HFF) additives: guar gum, ethylene glycol, and two biocides, 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA) and bronopol (C 3 H 6 BrNO 4 ). Iron reduction was significantly inhibited early in the incubations with the addition of biocides, whereas amendment with guar gum and ethylene glycol stimulated iron reduction relative to levels in the unamended controls. Changes in the microbial community structure were observed across all treatments, indicating the potential for even small amounts of UOG wastewater components to influence natural microbial processes. The microbial community structure differed between enrichments with background and impacted sediments, suggesting that impacted sediments may have been preconditioned by exposure to wastewater. These experiments demonstrated the potential for biocides to significantly decrease iron reduction rates immediately following a spill and demonstrated how microbial communities previously exposed to UOG wastewater may be more resilient to additional spills. IMPORTANCE Organic components of UOG wastewater can alter microbial communities and biogeochemical processes, which could alter the rates of

  6. MRI contrast agent concentration and tumor interstitial fluid pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L J; Schlesinger, M

    2016-10-07

    The present work describes the relationship between tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) and the concentration of contrast agent for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). We predict the spatial distribution of TIFP based on that of contrast agent concentration. We also discuss the cases for estimating tumor interstitial volume fraction (void fraction or porosity of porous medium), ve, and contrast volume transfer constant, K(trans), by measuring the ratio of contrast agent concentration in tissue to that in plasma. A linear fluid velocity distribution may reflect a quadratic function of TIFP distribution and lead to a practical method for TIFP estimation. To calculate TIFP, the parameters or variables should preferably be measured along the direction of the linear fluid velocity (this is in the same direction as the gray value distribution of the image, which is also linear). This method may simplify the calculation for estimating TIFP. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Orthogonal optimization of a water hydraulic pilot-operated pressure-reducing valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xuyao; Wu, Chao; Li, Bin; Wu, Di

    2017-12-01

    In order to optimize the comprehensive characteristics of a water hydraulic pilot-operated pressure-reducing valve, numerical orthogonal experimental design was adopted. Six parameters of the valve, containing diameters of damping plugs, volume of spring chamber, half cone angle of main spool, half cone angle of pilot spool, mass of main spool and diameter of main spool, were selected as the orthogonal factors, and each factor has five different levels. An index of flowrate stability, pressure stability and pressure overstrike stability (iFPOS) was used to judge the merit of each orthogonal attempt. Embedded orthogonal process turned up and a final optimal combination of these parameters was obtained after totally 50 numerical orthogonal experiments. iFPOS could be low to a fairly low value which meant that the valve could have much better stabilities. During the optimization, it was also found the diameters of damping plugs and main spool played important roles in stability characteristics of the valve.

  8. Aperiodic pressure pulsation under non optimal hydraulic turbine regimes at low swirl number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripkin, S. G.; Tsoy, M. A.; Kuibin, P. A.; Shtork, S. I.

    2017-09-01

    Off-design operating conditions of hydraulic turbines is hindered by pressure fluctuations in the draft tube of the turbine. A precessing helical vortex rope develops, which imperils the mechanical structure and limits the operation flexibility of hydropower station. Understanding of the underlying instabilities of precessing vortex rope at low swirl number is incomplete. In this paper flow regimes with different residual swirl is analysed, particular attention is paid to the regime with a small swirl parameter. Study defines upper and low boundaries of regime where aperiodic pressure surge is observed. Flow field at the runner exit is investigated by Laser Doppler Velocimetry and high-speed visualizations, which are complemented draft tube wall pressure measurements.

  9. Subchannel analysis with turbulent mixing rate of supercritical pressure fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jianhui; Oka, Yoshiaki

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Subchannel analysis with turbulent mixing rate law of supercritical pressure fluid (SPF) is carried out. • Turbulent mixing rate is enhanced, compared with that calculated by the law of pressurized water reactor (PWR). • Increase in maximum cladding surface temperature (MCST) is smaller comparing with PWR model. • The sensitivities of MCST on non-uniformity of subchannel area and power peaking are reduced by using SPF model. - Abstract: The subchannel analysis with turbulent mixing rate law of supercritical pressure fluid (SPF) is carried out for supercritical-pressurized light water cooled and moderated reactor (Super LWR). It is different from the turbulent mixing rate law of pressurized water reactor (PWR), which is widely adopted in Super LWR subchannel analysis study, the density difference between adjacent subchannels is taken into account for turbulent mixing rate law of SPF. MCSTs are evaluated on three kinds of fuel assemblies with different pin power distribution patterns, gap spacings and mass flow rates. Compared with that calculated by employing turbulent mixing rate law of PWR, the increase in MCST is smaller even when peaking factor is large and gap spacing is uneven. The sensitivities of MCST on non-uniformity of the subchannel area and power peaking are reduced

  10. Pressure Enhancement in Confined Fluids: Effect of Molecular Shape and Fluid-Wall Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepti; Santiso, Erik E; Gubbins, Keith E

    2017-10-24

    Recently, several experimental and simulation studies have found that phenomena that normally occur at extremely high pressures in a bulk phase can occur in nanophases confined within porous materials at much lower bulk phase pressures, thus providing an alternative route to study high-pressure phenomena. In this work, we examine the effect on the tangential pressure of varying the molecular shape, strength of the fluid-wall interactions, and pore width, for carbon slit-shaped pores. We find that, for multisite molecules, the presence of additional rotational degrees of freedom leads to unique changes in the shape of the tangential pressure profile, especially in larger pores. We show that, due to the direct relationship between the molecular density and the fluid-wall interactions, the latter have a large impact on the pressure tensor. The molecular shape and pore size have a notable impact on the layering of molecules in the pore, greatly influencing both the shape and scale of the tangential pressure profile.

  11. The Study on the Measurement and Testing Technology of the HMCVT Hydraulic Pressure Based on the Data Fusion Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, G W; Zhou, Z L; Men, Q Y; Deng, C N

    2006-01-01

    The pressure of the hydro-mechanical continuously variable transmission (HMCVT) is not only one of the major factors affecting the performance of the power train but also the major control parameter of the HMCVT control system. So how to improve the high accuracy hydraulic pressure parameter for the HMCVT control system will be one of the key technologies in system development. Based on the HMCVT test system for a certain tracked vehicle, the hydraulic pressure is studied, and multi-sensor data fusion technology based on Taylor polynomial regression equation is put forward, which turn out to improve the performance of the pressure sensor. Utilizing the above-mentioned method, the ability of antijamming of the hydraulic screen pressure system of the HMCVT is effectively improved, and the validity of the test data in the test system is improved too

  12. Coupled fluid-structure method for pressure suppression analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMaster, W.H.; Norris, D.M. Jr.; Goudreau, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    We have coupled an incompressible Eulerian hydrodynamic algorithm to a Lagrangian finite-element shell algorithm for the analysis of pressure suppression in boiling water reactors. The computer program calculates loads and structural response from air and steam blowdown and the oscillating condensation of steam bubbles in a water pool. The fluid, structure, and coupling algorithms have been verified by the calculation of solved problems from the literature and from air and steam blowdown experiments. The foundation of the program is the semi-implicit, two-dimensional SOLA algorithm. The shell structure algorithm uses conventional thin-shell theory with transverse shear. The finite-element spatial discretization employs piecewise-linear interpolation functions and one-point quadrature applied to conical frustra. We use the Newmark implicit time-integration method implemented as a one-step module. The algorithms are strongly coupled in the iteration loop using the iterated pressure in the fluid to drive the structure. The coupling algorithm requires normal velocity compatibility at the fluid-structure interface and incompressibility of the computational Eulerian zone overlaid by the structure. This is accomplished by iterating on the pressure field which is applied to the structure during each iteration until both conditions are satisfied

  13. A research program: The investigation of heat transfer and fluid flow at low pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Philbin, Jeffrey S.; Foushee, Fabian C.

    1986-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a multiyear joint research program being conducted at the University of New Mexico (UNM) with support from Sandia National Laboratories and GA Technologies. This research focuses on heat removal and fluid dynamics in flow regimes characterized by low pressure and low Reynolds number. The program was motivated by a desire to characterize and analyze cooling in a broad class of TRIGA-type reactors under: a) typical operating conditions, b) anticipated, new operating regimes, and c) postulated accident conditions. It has also provided experimental verification of analytical tools used in design analysis. The paper includes descriptions of the UNM thermal-hydraulics test facility and the experimental test sections. During the first two years experiments were conducted using single, electrically heated rod in water and air annuli. This configuration provides an observable and serviceable simulation of a fuel rod and its coolant channel. (author)

  14. Evaluation of steady flow torques and pressure losses in a rotary flow control valve by means of computational fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okhotnikov, Ivan; Noroozi, Siamak; Sewell, Philip; Godfrey, Philip

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel design of a rotary flow control valve driven by a stepper motor is proposed. • The intended use of the valve in the high flow rate independent metering hydraulic system is suggested. • Pressure drops, steady flow torques of the valve for various flow rates and orifice openings are studied by means of computational fluid dynamics. • The discharge coefficient and flow jet angles dependencies on the orifice opening are obtained. • A design method to decrease the flow forces without reducing the flow rate in single-staged valves is demonstrated. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel design of a rotary hydraulic flow control valve has been presented for high flow rate fluid power systems. High flow rates in these systems account for substantial flow forces acting on the throttling elements of the valves and cause the application of mechanically sophisticated multi-staged servo valves for flow regulation. The suggested design enables utilisation of single-stage valves in power hydraulics operating at high flow rates regimes. A spool driver and auxiliary mechanisms of the proposed valve design were discussed and selection criteria were suggested. Analytical expressions for metering characteristics as well as steady flow torques have been derived. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of steady state flow regimes was conducted to evaluate the hydraulic behaviour of the proposed valve. This study represents a special case of an independent metering concept applied to the design of power hydraulic systems with direct proportional valve control operating at flow rates above 150 litres per minute. The result gained using parametric CFD simulations predicted the induced torque and the pressure drops due to a steady flow. Magnitudes of these values prove that by minimising the number of spool's mobile metering surfaces it is possible to reduce the flow-generated forces in the new generation of hydraulic valves proposed in this study

  15. Theoretical study of hydraulic jump during circular horizontal hot leg injection in pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hawary, Shehab; Abu-Elyazeed, Osayed S.M.; Fahmy, Adel Alyan; Meglaa, Khairy

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The model is developed to predict the occurrence of onset hydraulic jump in a circular pipe. • Theoretical results are in agreement with experimental results and theory. • Effects of diameter of the injection pipe, Froude number and injected coolant mass are studied. - Abstract: One important phenomenon occurring during Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) is Counter-Current Flow Limitation (CCFL). The incidence of such CCFL is introduced by the onset of hydraulic jump. In the present work, a one dimensional model was modified to fit circular hot channel. The model was used to study the factors affecting the initial Froude number, the location of the occurrence of the hydraulic jump, and the critical coolant flow depth during circular horizontal hot leg injection in US-APWR Mitsubishi Reactor. The results showed good agreement with published experimental data of the Upper Plenum Test Facility (UPTF) at Mannheim, Germany. It was found that higher injected coolant mass flow rate increases the initial Froude number, the location of the occurrence of the hydraulic jump, and the critical injection depth divided by the diameter of the injection pipe. Such behavior is thought to be due to the increase of the inertia force by increasing of the injected coolant mass flow rate and the inverse of the diameter of the injection pipe. It was found also that, the location of the occurrence of hydraulic jump increases with decreasing load effect. Therefore, these results reveal that the avoidance of CCFL as well as hydraulic jump through hot leg at maximum load can be achieved by decreasing the distance between the injection point and the pressure vessel to below 0.3 m, and with diameter of 4 in (10.16 cm) as the design diameter of the injection pipe in US-APWR Mitsubishi Reactor. Moreover, the maximum critical depth (56 cm) is less than the diameter of the hot leg (78.74 cm) at an injected coolant mass flow of 400 kg/s, and with diameter of 4 in (10.16 cm) as the

  16. A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF NUCLEAR THERMAL HYDRAULICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Auria, F; Rohatgi, Upendra S.

    2017-01-12

    The nuclear thermal-hydraulics discipline was developed following the needs for nuclear power plants (NPPs) and, to a more limited extent, research reactors (RR) design and safety. As in all other fields where analytical methods are involved, nuclear thermal-hydraulics took benefit of the development of computers. Thermodynamics, rather than fluid dynamics, is at the basis of the development of nuclear thermal-hydraulics together with the experiments in complex two-phase situations, namely, geometry, high thermal density, and pressure.

  17. Thermal effects on fluid flow and hydraulic fracturing from wellbores and cavities in low-permeability formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarlong Wang [Petro-Geotech Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Papamichos, Euripides [IKU Petroleum Research, Trondheim (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    The coupled heat-fluid-stress problem of circular wellbore or spherical cavity subjected to a constant temperature change and a constant fluid flow rate is considered. Transient analytical solutions for temperature, pore pressure and stress are developed by coupling conductive heat transfer with Darcy fluid flow in a poroelastic medium. They are applicable to lower permeability porous media suitable for liquid-waste disposal and also simulating reservoir for enhanced oil recovery, where conduction dominates the heat transfer process. A full range of solutions is presented showing separately the effects of temperature and fluid flow on pore pressure and stress development. It is shown that injection of warm fluid can be used to restrict fracture development around wellbores and cavities and generally to optimise a fluid injection operation. Both the limitations of the solutions and the convective flow effect are addressed. (Author)

  18. Pressure-driven flow of a Herschel-Bulkley fluid with pressure-dependent rheological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaseti, Pandelitsa; Damianou, Yiolanda; Georgiou, Georgios C.; Housiadas, Kostas D.

    2018-03-01

    The lubrication flow of a Herschel-Bulkley fluid in a symmetric long channel of varying width, 2h(x), is modeled extending the approach proposed by Fusi et al. ["Pressure-driven lubrication flow of a Bingham fluid in a channel: A novel approach," J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 221, 66-75 (2015)] for a Bingham plastic. Moreover, both the consistency index and the yield stress are assumed to be pressure-dependent. Under the lubrication approximation, the pressure at zero order depends only on x and the semi-width of the unyielded core is found to be given by σ(x) = -(1 + 1/n)h(x) + C, where n is the power-law exponent and the constant C depends on the Bingham number and the consistency-index and yield-stress growth numbers. Hence, in a channel of constant width, the width of the unyielded core is also constant, despite the pressure dependence of the yield stress, and the pressure distribution is not affected by the yield-stress function. With the present model, the pressure is calculated numerically solving an integro-differential equation and then the position of the yield surface and the two velocity components are computed using analytical expressions. Some analytical solutions are also derived for channels of constant and linearly varying widths. The lubrication solutions for other geometries are calculated numerically. The implications of the pressure-dependence of the material parameters and the limitations of the method are discussed.

  19. Essentials of fluid dynamics with applications to hydraulics, aeronautics, meteorology and other subjets

    CERN Document Server

    Prandtl, Ludwig

    1953-01-01

    Equilibrium of liquids and gases ; kinematics : dynamics of frictionless fluids ; motion of viscous fluids : turbulence : fluid resistance : practical applications ; flow with appreciable volume changes (dynamics of gases) ; miscellaneous topics.

  20. Asymmetric fluid criticality. I. Scaling with pressure mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young C; Fisher, Michael E; Orkoulas, G

    2003-06-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of a fluid near a vapor-liquid and, hence, asymmetric critical point is discussed within a general "complete" scaling theory incorporating pressure mixing in the nonlinear scaling fields as well as corrections to scaling. This theory allows for a Yang-Yang anomaly in which mu(")(sigma)(T), the second temperature derivative of the chemical potential along the phase boundary, diverges like the specific heat when T-->T(c); it also generates a leading singular term, /t/(2beta), in the coexistence curve diameter, where t[triple bond](T-T(c))/T(c). The behavior of various special loci, such as the critical isochore, the critical isotherm, the k-inflection loci, on which chi((k))[triple bond]chi(rho,T)/rho(k) (with chi=rho(2)k(B)TK(T)) and C((k))(V)[triple bond]C(V)(rho,T)/rho(k) are maximal at fixed T, is carefully elucidated. These results are useful for analyzing simulations and experiments, since particular, nonuniversal values of k specify loci that approach the critical density most rapidly and reflect the pressure-mixing coefficient. Concrete illustrations are presented for the hard-core square-well fluid and for the restricted primitive model electrolyte. For comparison, a discussion of the classical (or Landau) theory is presented briefly and various interesting loci are determined explicitly and illustrated quantitatively for a van der Waals fluid.

  1. Pressurized thermal shock. Thermo-hydraulic conditions in the CNA-I reactor pressure vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ventura, Mirta A.; Rosso, Ricardo D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we analyze several reports issued by the Utility (Nucleo Electrica S.A.) and related to Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) phenomena in the CNA-I Nuclear Power Plant. These analyses are aimed at obtaining conclusions and establishing criteria ensuring the RPV integrity. Special attention was given to the effects ECCS cold-water injection at the RPV down-comer leading to pressurized thermal shock scenarios. The results deal with hypothetical primary system pipe breaks of different sizes, the inadvertent opening of the pressurizer safety valve, the double guillotine break of a live steam line in the containment and the inadvertent actuation pressurizer heaters. Modeling conditions were setup to represent experiments performed at the UPTF, under the hypothesis that they are representative of those that, hypothetically, may occur at the CNA-I. No system scaling analysis was performed, so this assertion and the inferred conclusions are no fully justified, at least in principle. The above mentioned studies, indicate that the RPV internal wall surface temperature will be nearly 40 degree. It was concluded that they allowed a better approximation of PTS phenomena in the RPV of the CNA-I. Special emphasis was made on the influence of the ECCS systems on the attained RPV wall temperature, particularly the low-pressure TJ water injection system. Some conservative hypothesis made, are discussed in this report. (author)

  2. A reactive transport modelling approach to assess the leaching potential of hydraulic fracturing fluids associated with coal seam gas extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallants, Dirk; Simunek, Jirka; Gerke, Kirill

    2015-04-01

    Coal Seam Gas production generates large volumes of "produced" water that may contain compounds originating from the use of hydraulic fracturing fluids. Such produced water also contains elevated concentrations of naturally occurring inorganic and organic compounds, and usually has a high salinity. Leaching of produced water from storage ponds may occur as a result of flooding or containment failure. Some produced water is used for irrigation of specific crops tolerant to elevated salt levels. These chemicals may potentially contaminate soil, shallow groundwater, and groundwater, as well as receiving surface waters. This paper presents an application of scenario modelling using the reactive transport model for variably-saturated media HP1 (coupled HYDRUS-1D and PHREEQC). We evaluate the fate of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and naturally occurring chemicals in soil as a result of unintentional release from storage ponds or when produced water from Coal Seam Gas operations is used in irrigation practices. We present a review of exposure pathways and relevant hydro-bio-geo-chemical processes, a collation of physico-chemical properties of organic/inorganic contaminants as input to a set of generic simulations of transport and attenuation in variably saturated soil profiles. We demonstrate the ability to model the coupled processes of flow and transport in soil of contaminants associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids and naturally occurring contaminants.

  3. Preliminary fluid channel design and thermal-hydraulic analysis of glow discharge cleaning permanent electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Lijun, E-mail: cailj@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Lin, Tao; Wang, Yingqiao; Wang, Mingxu [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Maruyama, So; Yang, Yu; Kiss, Gabor [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The plasma facing closure cap has to survive after 30,000 thermal heat load cycles. • 0.35 MW/m2 radiation heat load plus nuclear heat load are very challenging for stainless steel. • Multilayer structure has been designed by using advanced welding and drilling technology to solve the neutron heating problem. • Accurate volumetric load application in analysis model by CFX has been mastered. - Abstract: Glow discharge cleaning (GDC) shall be used on ITER device to reduce and control impurity and hydrogenic fuel out-gassing from in-vessel plasma facing components. After first plasma, permanent electrode (PE) will be used to replace Temporary Electrode (TE) for subsequent operation. Two fundamental scenarios i.e., GDC and Plasma Operation State (POS) should be considered for electrode design, which requires the heat load caused by plasma radiation and neutron heating must be taken away by cooling water flowing inside the electrode. In this paper, multilayer cooling channels inside PE are preliminarily designed, and snakelike route in each layer is adopted to improve the heat exchange. Detailed thermal-hydraulic analyses have been done to validate the design feasibility or rationality. The analysis results show that during GDC the cooling water inlet and outlet temperature difference is far less than the allowable temperature rise under water flow rate 0.15 kg/s compromised by many factors. For POS, the temperature rise and pressure drop are within the design goals, but high thermal stress occurs on the front surface of closure cap of electrode. After several iterations of optimization of the closure cap, the equivalent strain range after 30,000 loading cycles for POS is well below 0.3% design goals.

  4. Modelling of heat transfer to fluids at a supercritical pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuisheng, He

    2014-01-01

    A key feature of Supercritical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR) is that, by raising the pressure of the reactor coolant fluid above the critical value, a phase change crisis is avoided. However, the changes in water density as it flows through the core of an SCWR are actually much higher than in the current water-cooled reactors. In a typical design, the ratio of the density of water at the core inlet to that at exit is as high as 7:1. Other fluid properties also vary significantly, especially around the pseudo-critical temperature (at which the specific heat capacity peaks). As a result, turbulent flow and heat transfer behaviour in the core is extremely complex and under certain conditions, significant heat transfer deterioration can potentially occur. Consequently, understanding and being able to predict flow and heat transfer phenomena under normal steady operation conditions and in start-up and hypothetical fault conditions are fundamental to the design of SCWR. There have been intensive studies on flow and heat transfer to fluids at supercritical pressure recently and several excellent review papers have been published. In the talk, we will focus on some turbulence modelling issues encountered in CFD simulations. The talk will first discuss some flow and heat transfer issues related to fluids at supercritical pressures and their potential implications in SCWR, and some recent developments in the understanding and modelling techniques of such problems, which will be followed by an outlook for some future developments.Factors which have a major influence on the flow and will be discussed are buoyancy and flow acceleration due to thermal expansion (both are due to density variations but involve different mechanisms) and the nonuniformity of other fluid properties. In addition, laminar-turbulent flow transition coupled with buoyancy and flow acceleration plays an important role in heat transfer effectiveness and wall temperature in the entrance region but such

  5. Analytical solution for dynamic pressurization of viscoelastic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashemabadi, S.H.; Etemad, S.Gh.; Thibault, J.; Golkar Naranji, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    The flow of simplified Phan-Thien-Tanner model fluid between parallel plates is studied analytically for the case where the upper plate moves at constant velocity. Two forms of the stress coefficient, linear and exponential, are used in the constitutive equation. For the linear stress coefficient, the dimensionless pressure gradient, the velocity profile and the product of friction factor and Reynolds number are obtained for a wide range of flow rate, Deborah number and elongational parameter. The results indicate the strong effects of the viscoelastic parameter on the velocity profile, the extremum of the velocity, and the friction factor. A correlation for the maximum pressure rise in single screw extruders is proposed. For the exponential stress coefficient, only velocity profiles were obtained and compared with velocity profiles obtained with the linear stress coefficient

  6. Plastic reactor suitable for high pressure and supercritical fluid electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branch, Jack; Alibouri, Mehrdad; Cook, David A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes a reactor suitable for high pressure, particularly supercritical fluid, electrochemistry and electrodeposition at pressures up to 30 MPa at 115◦C. The reactor incorporates two key, new design concepts; a plastic reactor vessel and the use of o-ring sealed brittle electrodes...... by the deposition of Bi. The application of the reactor to the production of nanostructures is demonstrated by the electrodeposition of ∼80 nm diameter Te nanowires into an anodic alumina on silicon template. Key advantages of the new reactor design include reduction of the number of wetted materials, particularly...... glues used for insulating electrodes, compatability with reagents incompatible with steel, compatability with microfabricated planar multiple electrodes, small volume which brings safety advantages and reduced reagent useage, and a significant reduction in experimental time....

  7. Modeling Study of High Pressure and High Temperature Reservoir Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varzandeh, Farhad

    properties like saturation pressures, densities at reservoir temperature and Stock TankviOil (STO) densities, while keeping the n-alkane limit of the correlations unchanged. Apart from applying this general approach to PC-SAFT, we have also shown that the approach can be applied to classical cubic models...... approach to characterizing reservoir fluids for any EoS. The approach consists in developing correlations of model parameters first with a database for well-defined components and then adjusting the correlations with a large PVT database. The adjustment is made to minimize the deviation in key PVT...... method to SRK and PR improved the saturation pressure calculation in comparisonto the original characterization method for SRK and PR. Using volume translationtogether with the new characterization approach for SRK and PR gives comparable results for density and STO density to that of original...

  8. Normal pressure hydrocephalus. Influences on cerebral hemodynamic and cerebrospinal fluid pressure--chemical autoregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.S.; Tachibana, H.; Hardenberg, J.P.; Dowell, R.E. Jr.; Kitagawa, Y.; Mortel, K.F.

    1984-01-01

    Blood flow in the cerebral gray matter was measured in normal pressure hydrocephalus and Alzheimer disease by 133Xe inhalation. Flow values in the frontal and temporal gray matter increased after lowering cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure by lumbar puncture in normal pressure hydrocephalus (p less than 0.05) and also after shunting. One case with cerebral complications did not improve clinically. In Alzheimer disease the reverse (decreases in flow in the gray matter) occurred after removal of CSF. Normal pressure hydrocephalus was associated with impaired cerebral vasomotor responsiveness during 100% oxygen and 5% carbon dioxide inhalation. This complication was restored toward normal after CSF removal and/or shunting. Cerebral blood flow measurements appear to be useful for confirming the diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus and predicting the clinical benefit from shunting

  9. Variability of hydrostatic hepatic vein and ascitic fluid pressure, and of plasma and ascitic fluid colloid osmotic pressure in patients with liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1980-01-01

    The variability of hydrostatic hepatic vein and ascitic fluid pressures and of plasma and ascitic fluid colloid osmotic (oncotic) pressures was assessed during hepatic venous catheterization by repeated measurements on different days and at different locations in patients with cirrhosis...... of the liver. Furthermore, calculation of oncotic pressure from protein determinations was compared to the directly measured value of plasma and ascitic fluid samples. Repeated measurements of hydrostatic pressure in the same hepatic vein within 15 min showed a standard deviation (SD) below 1 mm......Hg. The variation in hydrostatic hepatic vein pressures, pressure differences and ascitic fluid pressures (when measured at different locations within the liver and peritoneal space during a single examination) was 1.5, 1.0 and 1.0 mmHg (SD), respectively. When measured on different days, the variation...

  10. Mechanics of Hydraulic Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detournay, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Hydraulic fractures represent a particular class of tensile fractures that propagate in solid media under pre-existing compressive stresses as a result of internal pressurization by an injected viscous fluid. The main application of engineered hydraulic fractures is the stimulation of oil and gas wells to increase production. Several physical processes affect the propagation of these fractures, including the flow of viscous fluid, creation of solid surfaces, and leak-off of fracturing fluid. The interplay and the competition between these processes lead to multiple length scales and timescales in the system, which reveal the shifting influence of the far-field stress, viscous dissipation, fracture energy, and leak-off as the fracture propagates.

  11. Suppression of Squeal Noise Excited by the Pressure Pulsation from the Flapper-Nozzle Valve inside a Hydraulic Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Squeal noise often occurs in a two-stage electrohydraulic servo-valve, which is an unfavorable issue of modern hydraulic energy systems. The root causes of such noise from the servo-valve are still unclear. The objective of this paper is to explore the noise mechanism in a servo-valve excited by the pressure pulsations from the hydraulic energy system perspective. The suppressing capability of squeal noise energy is investigated by changing the pressure pulsation frequency and natural frequency of the flapper-armature assembly. The frequencies of the pressure pulsations are adjusted by setting different speeds of the hydraulic pump varying from 10,400–14,400 rpm, and two flapper-armature assemblies with different armature lengths are used in the tested hydraulic energy system. The first eight vibration mode shapes and natural frequencies of the flapper-armature assembly are obtained by numerical modal analysis using two different armature lengths. The characteristics of pressure pulsations at the pump outlet and in the chamber of the flapper-nozzle valve, armature vibration and noise are tested and compared with the natural frequencies of the flapper-armature assembly. The results reveal that the flapper-armature assembly vibrates and makes the noise with the same frequencies as the pressure pulsations inside the hydraulic energy system. Resonance appears when the frequency of the pressure pulsations coincides with the natural frequency of the flapper-armature assembly. Therefore, it can be concluded that the pressure pulsation energy from the power supply may excite the vibration of the flapper-armature assembly, which may consequently cause the squeal noise inside the servo-valve. It is verified by the numerical simulations and experiments that setting the pressure pulsation frequencies different from the natural frequencies of the flapper-armature assembly can suppress the resonance and squeal noise.

  12. Effect of persistent high intraocular pressure on microstructure and hydraulic permeability of trabecular meshwork

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei Xi; Ren Lin; Xu Qiang; Liu Zhi-Cheng; Zheng Wei

    2015-01-01

    As the aqueous humor leaves the eye, it first passes through the trabecular meshwork (TM). Increased flow resistance in this region causes elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP), which leads to the occurrence of glaucoma. To quantitatively evaluate the effect of high IOP on the configuration and hydraulic permeability of the TM, second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy was used to image the microstructures of the TM and adjacent tissues in control (normal) and high IOP conditions. Enucleated rabbit eyes were perfused at a pressure of 60 mmHg to achieve the high IOP. Through the anterior chamber of the eye, in situ images were obtained from different depths beneath the surface of the TM. Porosity and specific surface area of the TM in control and high IOP conditions were then calculated to estimate the effect of the high pressure on the permeability of tissue in different depths. We further photographed the histological sections of the TM and compared the in situ images. The following results were obtained in the control condition, where the region of depth was less than 55 μm with crossed branching beams and large pores in the superficial TM. The deeper meshwork is a silk-like tissue with abundant fluorescence separating the small size of pores. The total thickness of pathway tissues composed of TM and juxtacanalicular (JCT) is more than 100 μm. After putting a high pressure on the inner wall of the eye, the TM region progressively collapses and decreases to be less than 40 μm. Fibers of the TM became dense, and the porosity at 34 μm in the high IOP condition is comparable to that at 105 μm in the control condition. As a consequent result, the permeability of the superficial TM decreases rapidly from 120 μm 2 to 49.6 μm 2 and that of deeper TM decreases from 1.66 μm 2 to 0.57 μm 2 . Heterogeneity reflected by descent in permeability reduces from 12.4 μm of the control condition to 3.74 μm of the high IOP condition. The persistently high IOP makes the

  13. Energy-saving analysis of hydraulic hybrid excavator based on common pressure rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wei; Jiang, Jihai; Su, Xiaoyu; Karimi, Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    Energy-saving research of excavators is becoming one hot topic due to the increasing energy crisis and environmental deterioration recently. Hydraulic hybrid excavator based on common pressure rail (HHEC) provides an alternative with electric hybrid excavator because it has high power density and environment friendly and easy to modify based on the existing manufacture process. This paper is focused on the fuel consumption of HHEC and the actuator dynamic response to assure that the new system can save energy without sacrificing performance. Firstly, we introduce the basic principle of HHEC; then, the sizing process is presented; furthermore, the modeling period which combined mathematical analysis and experiment identification is listed. Finally, simulation results show that HHEC has a fast dynamic response which can be accepted in engineering and the fuel consumption can be reduced 21% to compare the original LS excavator and even 32% after adopting another smaller engine.

  14. Effect of tilting on blood pressure and interstitial fluid pressures of bluefish and smooth dogfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvy, C S; DuBois, A B

    1982-01-01

    Tolerance of the circulatory system of fish for gravitational stress has not been measured previously. We examined this in bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) and smooth dogfish (Mustelus canis) by placing them horizontally on a V-board in air while their gills were perfused with aerated seawater, then tilting them head up for 0.5 h, and finally returning them to horizontal. Meanwhile, we recorded the blood pressure, pulse pressure, and heart rate in the ventral aorta, and interstitial fluid pressure in the head and tail. All four bluefish tolerated a 30 degrees tilt or even a 60 degrees tilt with little change in blood pressure or interstitial pressure in the anterior and posterior regions. All recovered afterward. However, in the seven dogfish examined, the posterior interstitial fluid pressure increased from 2.8 +/- 1.0 cmH2O before tilting to 11.8 +/- 3.3 cmH2O toward the end of a 30 degrees tilt lasting 30 min. The blood pressure decreased as the pulse pressure approached zero, showing that circulatory insufficiency had developed due to insufficient venous return to the heart. Most of the dogfish died within a few hours after the experiment. These findings are in keeping with the conclusion that the vasculature of bluefish has more rigidity, less permeability, and perhaps more compensatory tone than that of smooth dogfish. We speculate that bluefish may have evolved their circulatory tolerance for gravity as a cross-adaptation to the stresses imposed on the circulation by forward acceleration and by regional differences of transcutaneous pressure occurring during fast carangiform swimming.

  15. Lateral hydraulic forces calculation on PWR fuel assemblies with computational fluid dynamics codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corpa Masa, R.; Jimenez Varas, G.; Moreno Garcia, B.

    2016-01-01

    To be able to simulate the behavior of nuclear fuel under operating conditions, it is required to include all the representative loads, including the lateral hydraulic forces which were not included traditionally because of the difficulty of calculating them in a reliable way. Thanks to the advance in CFD codes, now it is possible to assess them. This study calculates the local lateral hydraulic forces, caused by the contraction and expansion of the flow due to the bow of the surrounding fuel assemblies, on of fuel assembly under typical operating conditions from a three loop Westinghouse PWR reactor. (Author)

  16. Intraperitoneal pressure: ascitic fluid and splanchnic vascular pressures, and their role in prevention and formation of ascites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Stage, J G; Schlichting, P

    1980-01-01

    Seventeen patients with ascites due to cirrhosis underwent hepatic venous catheterization and pressure measurement in the ascitic fluid. Intraperitoneal fluid hydrostatic pressure (IFP) ranged 3.5-22, mean 11.2 mm Hg, and correlated closely to the pressure in the inferior vena cava (r = 0.97, P ... that ascitic fluid stems the pressures in the splanchnic venous vascular bed up to a higher level, but that the transmural hydrostatic pressure difference decreases simultaneously. The results are discussed in relation to the local 'oedema-preventing' mechanisms: (a) increased interstitial hydrostatic fluid.......001), which was on average 1.8 mmHg above that of ascitic fluid (P pressure (WHVP) (range 19-43, mean 32 mmHg) correlated directly to IFP (0.89, P

  17. Parametric studies on containment thermal hydraulic loads during high pressure melt ejection in a BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silde, A.; Lindholm, I. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The containment thermal hydraulic loads during high pressure melt ejection in a Nordic BWR are studied parametrically with the CONTAIN and the MELCOR codes. The work is part of the Nordic RAK-2 project. The containment analyses were divided into two categories according to composition of the discharged debris: metallic and oxidic debris cases. In the base case with highly metallic debris, all sources from the reactor coolant system to the containment were based on the MELCOR/BH calculation. In the base case with the oxidic debris, the source data was specified assuming that {approx} 15% of the whole core material inventory and 34,000 kg of saturated water was discharged from the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) during 30 seconds. In this case, the debris consisted mostly of oxides. The highest predicted containment pressure peaks were about 8.5 bar. In the scenarios with highly metallic debris source, very high gas temperature of about 1900 K was predicted in the pedestal, and about 1400 K in the upper drywell. The calculations with metallic debris were sensititive to model parameters, like the particle size and the parameters, which control the chemical reaction kinetics. In the scenarios with oxidic debris source, the predicted pressure peaks were comparable to the cases with the metallic debris source. The maximum gas temperatures (about 450-500 K) in the containment were, however, significantly lower than in the respective metallic debris case. The temperatures were also insensitive to parametric variations. In addition, one analysis was performed with the MELCOR code for benchmarking of the MELCOR capabilities against the more detailed CONTAIN code. The calculations showed that leak tightness of the containment penetrations could be jeopardized due to high temperature loads, if a high pressure melt ejection occurred during a severe accident. Another consequence would be an early containment venting. (au). 28 refs.

  18. Pressure and compressibility factor of bidisperse magnetic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minina, Elena S.; Blaak, Ronald; Kantorovich, Sofia S.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we investigate the pressure and compressibility factors of bidisperse magnetic fluids with relatively weak dipolar interactions and different granulometric compositions. In order to study these properties, we employ the method of diagram expansion, taking into account two possible scenarios: (1) dipolar particles repel each other as hard spheres; (2) the polymer shell on the surface of the particles is modelled through a soft-sphere approximation. The theoretical predictions of the pressure and compressibility factors of bidisperse ferrofluids at different granulometric compositions are supported by data obtained by means of molecular dynamics computer simulations, which we also carried out for these systems. Both theory and simulations reveal that the pressure and compressibility factors decrease with growing dipolar correlations in the system, namely with an increasing fraction of large particles. We also demonstrate that even if dipolar interactions are too weak for any self-assembly to take place, the interparticle correlations lead to a qualitative change in the behaviour of the compressibility factors when compared to that of non-dipolar spheres, making the dependence monotonic.

  19. A Computational Model of Hydraulic Volume Displacement Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Pil'gunov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper offers a computational model of industrial-purpose hydraulic drive with two hydraulic volume adjustable working chamber machines (pump and motor. Adjustable pump equipped with the pressure control unit can be run together with several adjustable hydraulic motors on the principle of three-phase hydraulic socket-outlet with high-pressure lines, drain, and drainage system. The paper considers the pressure-controlled hydrostatic transmission with hydraulic motor as an output link. It shows a possibility to create a saving hydraulic drive using a functional tie between the adjusting parameters of the pump and hydraulic motor through the pressure difference, torque, and angular rate of the hydraulic motor shaft rotation. The programmable logic controller can implement such tie. The Coulomb and viscous frictions are taken into consideration when developing a computational model of the hydraulic volume displacement drive. Discharge balance considers external and internal leakages in equivalent clearances of hydraulic machines, as well as compression loss volume caused by hydraulic fluid compressibility and deformation of pipe walls. To correct dynamic properties of hydraulic drive, the paper offers that in discharge balance are included the additional regulated external leakages in the open circuit of hydraulic drive and regulated internal leakages in the closed-loop circuit. Generalized differential equations having functional multipliers and multilinked nature have been obtained to describe the operation of hydraulic positioning and speed drive with two hydraulic volume adjustable working chamber machines. It is shown that a proposed computational model of hydraulic drive can be taken into consideration in development of LS («Load-Sensing» drives, in which the pumping pressure is tuned to the value required for the most loaded slave motor to overcome the load. Results attained can be used both in designing the industrial-purpose heavy

  20. Experimental Validation of Modelled Fluid Forces in Fast Switching Hydraulic On/Off Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Christian; Bech, Michael Møller; Roemer, Daniel Beck

    2015-01-01

    A prototype of a fast switching valve for a digital hydraulic machine has been designed and manufactured. The valve is composed of an annular seat plunger connected with a moving coil actuator as the force producing element. The valve prototype is designed for flow rates of 600 l/min with less th...

  1. Degradation of phosphate ester hydraulic fluid in power station turbines investigated by a three-magnet unilateral magnet array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pan; He, Wei; García-Naranjo, Juan C

    2014-04-14

    A three-magnet array unilateral NMR sensor with a homogeneous sensitive spot was employed for assessing aging of the turbine oils used in two different power stations. The Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) sequence and Inversion Recovery-prepared CPMG were employed for measuring the ¹H-NMR transverse and longitudinal relaxation times of turbine oils with different service status. Two signal components with different lifetimes were obtained by processing the transverse relaxation curves with a numeric program based on the Inverse Laplace Transformation. The long lifetime components of the transverse relaxation time T₂eff and longitudinal relaxation time T₁ were chosen to monitor the hydraulic fluid aging. The results demonstrate that an increase of the service time of the turbine oils clearly results in a decrease of T₂eff,long and T₁,long. This indicates that the T₂eff,long and T₁,long relaxation times, obtained from the unilateral magnetic resonance measurements, can be applied as indices for degradation of the hydraulic fluid in power station turbines.

  2. Combined hydraulic and biomass power - an answer to economic and ecological adaptation pressure on the energy supply system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistauer, M.

    1991-01-01

    On the large scale, there will be an economic pressure in the European Communities on coal and oil from the CO 2 taxes. The economic and ecological advantages of a combination of hydraulic and biomass power in Austria are emphasized. In particular a biomass remote heating pilot project is announced. (Quittner)

  3. Avoidance of transmission line pressure oscillations in discrete hydraulic systems – by shaping of valve opening characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.; Bech, Michael Møller

    2015-01-01

    The architecture of multi pressure line discrete fluid power force systems imposes rapid pressure shifts in the actuator volumes. These fast shifts between pressure levels often introduce pressure oscillations in the actuator chamber and connecting pipes. The topic of this paper is to perform...... pressure shifts by changing the connection between various fixed pressure lines without introducing significant pressure oscillation. As a case study a discrete force system is utilised is a Power Take Off(PTO) system of a wave energy converter. Four pressure shifting algorithms are proposed...

  4. Thermo hydraulic analysis of narrow channel effect in supercritical-pressure light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tao; Chen Juan; Cheng Wanxu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Detailed thermal analysis with different narrow gaps between fuel rods is given. ► Special characteristics of narrow channels effect on heat transfer in supercritical pressure are shown. ► Reasonable size selection of gaps between fuel rods is proposed for SCWR. - Abstract: The size of the gap between fuel rods has important effects on flow and heat transfer in a supercritical-pressure light water reactor. Based on thermal analysis at different coolant flow rates, the reasonable value range of gap size between fuel rods is obtained, for which the maximum cladding temperature safety limits and installation technology are comprehensively considered. Firstly, for a given design flow rate of coolant, thermal hydraulic analysis of supercritical pressure light water reactor with different gap sizes is provided by changing the fuel rod pitch only. The results show that, by means of reducing the gap size between fuel rods, the heat transfer coefficients between coolant and fuel rod, as well as the heat transfer coefficient between coolant and water rod, would both increase noticeably. Furthermore, the maximum cladding temperature will significantly decrease when the moderator temperature is decreased but coolant temperature remains essentially constant. Meanwhile, the reduction in the maximum cladding temperature in the inner assemblies is much larger than that in the outer assemblies. In addition, the maximum cladding temperature could be further reduced by means of increasing coolant flow rate for each gap size. Finally, the characteristics of narrow channels effect are proposed, and the maximum allowable gap between fuel rods is obtained by making full use of the enhancing narrow channels effect on heat transfer, and concurrently considering installation. This could provide a theoretical reference for supercritical-pressure light water reactor design optimization, in which the effects of gap size and flow rate on heat transfer are both considered.

  5. Pressure, flow and hydraulic interference measurements in ONKALO at Olkiluoto, drillholes ONK-PP262 and ONK-PP274

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurmerinta, E.; Pekkanen, J.; Komulainen, J.; Rouhiainen, P.

    2012-01-01

    The general purpose of these studies is to characterize the fracture network and groundwater flow properties in a volume of rock, which is representative of the rock close to deposition holes. As a part of the studies hydraulic tests and flow measurements were applied in two drillholes in hydraulically poorly conductive bedrock. This report presents the principles of the methods as well as the results of the measurements carried out in the underground facilities of ONKALO. The measurements were conducted in drillholes ONK-PP262 and ONK-PP274 between May 9, 2010 and June 9, 2011. The aim of the measurements was to obtain pressure in the closed drillholes, to detect water yielding fractures by flow measurements, to obtain transmissivity with overpressure and drawdown tests and to study hydraulic interference between the drillholes by cross-hole hydraulic tests. The PFL DIFF probe was used to detect flow within single fractures in the drillhole. Transmissive water yielding fractures were found at depths 17.9 m, 16.9 m and 16.4 m in ONK-PP262 and at depths 19.8 m and 19.5 m in ONK-PP274. The cross-hole hydraulic tests included three basic phases. Flow was measured in one drillhole when the other drillhole was open, closed or overpressurized. The cross-hole hydraulic tests were carried out to both directions in the two drillholes. (orig.)

  6. Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Revisiting Factors Influencing Optic Nerve Head Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yi; Voorhees, Andrew P.; Sigal, Ian A.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To model the sensitivity of the optic nerve head (ONH) biomechanical environment to acute variations in IOP, cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), and central retinal artery blood pressure (BP). Methods We extended a previously published numerical model of the ONH to include 24 factors representing tissue anatomy and mechanical properties, all three pressures, and constraints on the optic nerve (CON). A total of 8340 models were studied to predict factor influences on 98 responses in a two-step process: a fractional factorial screening analysis to identify the 16 most influential factors, followed by a response surface methodology to predict factor effects in detail. Results The six most influential factors were, in order: IOP, CON, moduli of the sclera, lamina cribrosa (LC) and dura, and CSFP. IOP and CSFP affected different aspects of ONH biomechanics. The strongest influence of CSFP, more than twice that of IOP, was on the rotation of the peripapillary sclera. CSFP had similar influence on LC stretch and compression to moduli of sclera and LC. On some ONHs, CSFP caused large retrolamina deformations and subarachnoid expansion. CON had a strong influence on LC displacement. BP overall influence was 633 times smaller than that of IOP. Conclusions Models predict that IOP and CSFP are the top and sixth most influential factors on ONH biomechanics. Different IOP and CSFP effects suggest that translaminar pressure difference may not be a good parameter to predict biomechanics-related glaucomatous neuropathy. CON may drastically affect the responses relating to gross ONH geometry and should be determined experimentally. PMID:29332130

  7. Instance Analysis for the Error of Three-pivot Pressure Transducer Static Balancing Method for Hydraulic Turbine Runner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hanli; Li, Youping

    2017-04-01

    The working principle, process device and test procedure of runner static balancing test method by weighting with three-pivot pressure transducers are introduced in this paper. Based on an actual instance of a V hydraulic turbine runner, the error and sensitivity of the three-pivot pressure transducer static balancing method are analysed. Suggestions about improving the accuracy and the application of the method are also proposed.

  8. Basic data generation and pressure loss coefficient evaluation for HANARO core thermal-hydraulic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Hee Taek; Lee, Kye Hong

    1999-06-01

    MATRA-h, a HANARO subchannel analysis computer code, is used to evaluate thermal margin of the HANARO fuel. It's capability includes the assessments of CHF, ONB margin, and fuel temperature. In this report, basic input data and core design parameters required to perform the subchannel analysis with MATRA-h code are collected. These data include the subchannel geometric data, thermal-hydraulic correlations, empirical constants and material properties. The friction and form loss coefficients of the fuel assemblies were determined based on the results of the pressure drop test. At the same time, different form loss coefficients at the end plates and spacers are evaluated for various subchannels. The adequate correlations are applied to the evaluation of the form loss coefficients for various subchannels, which are corrected by measured values in order to have a same pressure drop at each flow channel. These basic input data and design parameters described in this report will be applied usefully to evaluate the thermal margin of the HANARO fuel. (author). 11 refs., 13 tabs., 11 figs

  9. Effects of transmembrane hydraulic pressure on performance of forward osmosis membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coday, Bryan D; Heil, Dean M; Xu, Pei; Cath, Tzahi Y

    2013-03-05

    Forward osmosis (FO) is an emerging membrane separation process that continues to be tested and implemented in various industrial water and wastewater treatment applications. The growing interests in the technology have prompted laboratories and manufacturers to adopt standard testing methods to ensure accurate comparison of membrane performance under laboratory-controlled conditions; however, standardized methods might not capture specific operating conditions unique to industrial applications. Experiments with cellulose triacetate (CTA) and polyamide thin-film composite (TFC) FO membranes demonstrated that hydraulic transmembrane pressure (TMP), common in industrial operation of FO membrane elements, could affect membrane performance. Experiments were conducted with three FO membranes and with increasing TMP up to a maximum of 50 psi (3.45 bar). The feed solution was a mixture of salts and the draw solution was either a NaCl solution or concentrated seawater at similar osmotic pressure. Results revealed that TMP minimally affected water flux, reverse salt flux (RSF), and solute rejection of the CTA membrane. However, water flux through TFC membranes might slightly increase with increasing TMP, and RSF substantially declines with increasing TMP. It was observed that rejection of feed constituents was influenced by TMP and RSF.

  10. Effect of portal hypertension and duct ligature on pancreatic fluid pressures in cats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Heyeraas, K J

    1990-01-01

    measured before and after acutely induced portal hypertension; in the other group of cats the pressures were measured after an overnight ligature of the pancreatic main duct. At rest the needle pressure was equal to duct pressure but significantly lower than interstitial fluid pressure and portal pressure...

  11. Analysis of thermo-hydraulic behavior of coolant during discharge of pressurized high-temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Sobajima, Makoto; Sasaki, Shinobu; Onishi, Nobuaki; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1978-01-01

    The present report describes results of the analysis of the LOFT semiscale experiment No. 1011 using remodeled RELAP-3 code, performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to simulate a postulated loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water reactor. It was clarified through the analysis that coolant behavior during blowdown was influenced variously by the system components in the primary loop, comparing with coolant discharge from a pressure vessel. Good agreement was obtained between experimental and analytical results when phase separation was assumed in upper plenum and downcomer, since experimental data indicated existence of liquid level in those parts. It was also found that the use of the Wilson's equation to calculate bubble rise velocity and the use of discharge coefficient as the function of fluid quality at break location to calculate discharge flow rate resulted in good agreement with experimental data. (auth.)

  12. Investigations into the use of water glycol as the hydraulic fluid in a servo system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, G.V.

    1984-07-01

    The effects of water glycol on the performance of a hydraulic system and on the life of the system components have been investigated and a guide to the design of systems using water glycol is given. The dynamic performance of the system using water-glycol was compared with that using mineral oil, then the system was endurance tested to determine its service life. (author)

  13. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid pressure in patients with Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fellmann Jere

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF production and turnover, seen in normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH and in Alzheimer's disease (AD, may be an important cause of amyloid retention in the brain and may relate the two diseases. There is a high incidence of AD pathology in patients being shunted for NPH, the AD-NPH syndrome. We now report elevated CSF pressure (CSFP, consistent with very early hydrocephalus, in a subset of AD patients enrolled in a clinical trial of chronic low-flow CSF drainage. Our objective was to determine the frequency of elevated CSFP in subjects meeting National Institutes of Neurological and Communicative Diseases and Stroke – Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association (NINCDS-ADRDA criteria for AD, excluding those with signs of concomitant NPH. Methods AD subjects by NINCDS-ADRDA criteria (n = 222, were screened by history, neurological examination, and radiographic imaging to exclude those with clinical or radiographic signs of NPH. As part of this exclusion process, opening CSFP was measured supine under general anesthesia during device implantation surgery at a controlled pCO2 of 40 Torr (40 mmHg. Results Of the 222 AD subjects 181 had pressure measurements recorded. Seven subjects (3.9% enrolled in the study had CSFP of 220 mmH20 or greater, mean 249 ± 20 mmH20 which was significantly higher than 103 ± 47 mmH2O for the AD-only group. AD-NPH patients were significantly younger and significantly less demented on the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (MDRS. Conclusion Of the AD subjects who were carefully screened to exclude those with clinical NPH, 4% had elevated CSFP. These subjects were presumed to have the AD-NPH syndrome and were withdrawn from the remainder of the study.

  14. Vertical hydraulic conductivity of a clayey-silt aquitard: accelerated fluid flow in a centrifuge permeameter compared with in situ conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, W. A.; Crane, R.; Anderson, D. J.; Bouzalakos, S.; Whelan, M.; McGeeney, D.; Rahman, P. F.; Guinea, A.; Acworth, R. I.

    2014-03-01

    Evaluating the possibility of leakage through low permeability geological strata is critically important for sustainable water supplies, extraction of fuels from strata such as coal beds, and confinement of waste within the earth. Characterizing low or negligible flow rates and transport of solutes can require impractically long periods of field or laboratory testing, but is necessary for evaluations over regional areas and over multi-decadal timescales. The current work reports a custom designed centrifuge permeameter (CP) system, which can provide relatively rapid and reliable hydraulic conductivity (K) measurement compared to column permeameter tests at standard gravity (1g). Linear fluid velocity through a low K porous sample is linearly related to g-level during a CP flight unless consolidation or geochemical reactions occur. The CP module is designed to fit within a standard 2 m diameter, geotechnical centrifuge with a capacity for sample dimensions of 30 to 100 mm diameter and 30 to 200 mm in length. At maximum RPM the resultant centrifugal force is equivalent to 550g at base of sample or a total stress of ~2 MPa. K is calculated by measuring influent and effluent volumes. A custom designed mounting system allows minimal disturbance of drill core samples and a centrifugal force that represents realistic in situ stress conditions is applied. Formation fluids were used as influent to limit any shrink-swell phenomena which may alter the resultant K value. Vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) results from CP testing of core from the sites in the same clayey silt formation varied (10-7 to 10-9 m s-1, n = 14) but higher than 1g column permeameter tests of adjacent core using deionized water (10-9 to 10-11 m s-1, n = 7). Results at one site were similar to in situ Kv values (3 × 10-9 m s-1) from pore pressure responses within a 30 m clayey sequence in a homogenous area of the formation. Kv sensitivity to sample heterogeneity was observed, and anomalous flow via

  15. Development of a computer code, PZRTR, for the thermal hydraulic analysis of a multi-cavity cold gas pressurizer for an integral reactor, SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jae Kwang; Yoon, J

    2003-12-01

    The concept of a Multi-cavity Cold Gas PressuriZeR (MCGPZR) is applied to the SMART: The pressurizer system includes in-vessel cavities and out-of-vessel gas cylinders holding the gas supply/vent system. The gas cylinders are connected to the one of the in-vessel cavities via piping with valves. A pressurizer is maintained at a cold temperature of less than about 100 .deg. C, which is realized with coolers installed in and with wet thermal insulators installed on one of the cavities located inside the hot reactor vessel, to minimize the contribution of a steam partial pressure and is filled with nitrogen gas as a pressure-absorbing medium. The working medium and working temperature of the MCGPZR is totally different from that of a hot steam pressurizer of the commercial PWR. In addition, the MCGPZR is intended to be designed to meet a pressure transient during normal power operation (by its gas volume capacity) without using an active control system and during plant heatup/cooldown operation by using an active gas control (filling/venting) system. Therefore in order to evaluate the feasibility of the concept of the MCGPZR and its intended design goal, the thermal hydraulic behaviors and controllability of the MCGPZR during transients especially a heatup/cooldown operation must be analyzed. In this study, a thermal hydraulic transient analysis computer code, PZRTR, for the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) of an integral reactor composed of the MCGPZR, modular Once-Through Steam Generators (OTSGs), a core and a reactor coolant loop is developed. The pressurizer module (MCGPZR module) of the PZRTR code is based on a two-fluid, nonhomogeneous, nonequilibrium model for the two-phase system behavior and the OTSG module is based on a homogeneous equilibrium model of the two-phase flow process. The core module is simply based on the axial power distributions and the reactor coolant loop is based on the temperature distributions. The code is currently dedicated for the

  16. Breakdown of Preservative Fluid MIL-PRF-46170 in Aircraft Hydraulic Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moorman, Jeffrey

    2001-01-01

    .... Additional information obtained from outside sources is also summarized for background. Laboratory pump testing showed rapid filter dogging with small amounts of preservative fluid (MU-PRF-46l70) in the system...

  17. Effectiveness of Sealed Double-Ring Infiltrometers trademark and effects of changes in atmospheric pressure on hydraulic conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullin, S.R.

    1994-01-01

    The Savannah River Site is currently evaluating some 40 hazardous and radioactive-waste sites for remediation. Among the remedial alternatives considered is closure using a kaolin clay cap. The hydraulic conductivity suggested by the US Environmental Protection Agency is 1.0 x 10 -7 cm/sec. One instrument to measure this value is the Sealed Double-Ring Infiltrometer trademark (SDRI). Six SDRI were recently installed on a kaolin test cap. Test results demonstrated uniform performance of these instruments. However, the test data showed as much as an order of magnitude of variation over time. This variation is attributed to both internal structural heterogeneity and variable external boundary conditions. The internal heterogeneity is caused by construction variability within a specified range of moisture and density. The external influences considered are temperature and barometric pressure. Temperature was discharged as a source of heterogeneity because of a lack of correlation with test data and a negligible impact from the range of variability. However, a direct correlation was found between changes in barometric pressure and hydraulic conductivity. This correlation is most pronounced when pressure changes occur over a short period of time. Additionally, this correlation is related to a single soil layer. When the wetting front passes into a more porous foundation layer, the correlation with pressure changes disappears. Conclusions are that the SDRI performs adequately, with good repeatability of results. The duration of test is critical to assure a statistically valid data set. Data spikes resulting from pressure changes should be identified, and professional judgment used to determine the representative hydraulic conductivity. Further evaluation is recommended to determine the impact of pressure change on the actual hydraulic conductivity

  18. Pressure drop effects on selectivity and resolution in packed-column supercritical fluid chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lou, X.W.; Janssen, J.G.M.; Snijders, H.M.J.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of pressure drop on retention, selectivity, plate height and resolution was investigated systematically in packed supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) using pure carbon dioxide as the mobile phase. Numerical methods developed previously which enabled the prediction of pressure

  19. Breakdown pressures and characteristic flaw sizes during fluid injection experiments in shale at elevated confining pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, M.; Mecklenburgh, J.; Rutter, E. H.; Taylor, R.; Fauchille, A. L.; Ma, L.; Lee, P. D.

    2017-12-01

    Fracture propagation trajectories in gas-bearing shales depend on the interaction between the anisotropic mechanical properties of the shale and the anisotropic in-situ stress field. However, there is a general paucity of available experimental data on their anisotropic mechanical, physical and fluid-flow properties, especially at elevated confining pressures. A suite of mechanical, flow and elastic measurements have been made on two shale materials, the Whitby mudrock and the Mancos shale (an interbedded silt and mudstone), as well as Pennant sandstone, an isotropic baseline and tight-gas sandstone analogue. Mechanical characterization includes standard triaxial experiments, pressure-dependent permeability, brazilian disk tensile strength, and fracture toughness determined using double-torsion experiments. Elastic characterisation was performed through ultrasonic velocities determined using a cross-correlation method. Additionally, we report the results of laboratory-scale fluid injection experiments for the same materials. Injection experiments involved the pressurisation of a blind-ending central hole in a dry cylindrical sample. Pressurisation is conducted under constant volume-rate control, using silicon oils of varying viscosities. Breakdown pressure is not seen to exhibit a strong dependence on rock type or orientation, and increases linearly with confining pressure. In most experiments, a small drop in the injection pressure record is observed at what is taken to be fracture initiation, and in the Pennant sandstone this is accompanied by a small burst of acoustic energy. The shale materials were acoustically quiet. Breakdown is found to be rapid and uncontrollable after initiation if injection is continued. A simplified 2-dimensional model for explaining this is presented in terms of the stress intensities at the tip of a pressurised crack, and is used alongside the triaxial data to derive a characteristic flaw size from which the fractures have initiated

  20. Development of a Computer Code, PZRTR rev 1, for the Thermal Hydraulic Analysis of a Multi-Cavity Cold Gas Pressurizer for an Integral Reactor, SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jae Kwang; Kang, H. O.; Yoon, J.; Kim, K. K

    2006-12-15

    The concept of a Multi-cavity Cold Gas PressuriZeR(MCGPZR) is applied to the SMART: The pressurizer system includes in-vessel cavities and out-of-vessel gas cylinders holding the gas supply/vent system. The gas cylinders are connected to the one of the in-vessel cavities via piping with valves. A pressurizer is maintained at a cold temperature of less than about 120 .deg. C which is realized with coolers installed in and with wet thermal insulators installed on one of the cavities located inside the hot reactor vessel, to minimize the contribution of a steam partial pressure and is filled with nitrogen gas as a pressure-absorbing medium. The working medium and working temperature of the MCGPZR is totally different from that of a hot steam pressurizer of the commercial PWR. In addition, the MCGPZR is intended to be designed to meet a pressure transient during normal power operation (by its gas volume capacity) without using an active control system and during plant heatup/cooldown operation by using an active gas control (filling/venting) system. Therefore in order to evaluate the feasibility of the concept of the MCGPZR and its intended design goal, the thermal hydraulic behaviors and controllability of the MCGPZR during transients especially a heatup/cooldown operation must be analyzed. In this study, a thermal hydraulic transient analysis computer code, PZRTR rev 1, for the Reactor Coolant System(RCS) of an integral reactor composed of the MCGPZR, modular Once-Through Steam Generators(OTSGs), a core and a reactor coolant loop is developed. The pressurizer module (MCGPZR module) of the PZRTR rev 1 code is based on a two-fluid, nonhomogeneous, nonequilibrium model for the two-phase system behavior and the OTSG module is based on a homogeneous equilibrium model of the two-phase flow process. The core module is simply based on the axial power distributions and the reactor coolant loop is based on the temperature distributions. The code is currently dedicated for the

  1. The enhanced local pressure model for the accurate analysis of fluid pressure driven fracture in porous materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remij, E.W.; Remmers, J.J.C.; Huyghe, J.M.R.J.; Smeulders, D.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present an enhanced local pressure model for modelling fluid pressure driven fractures in porous saturated materials. Using the partition-of-unity property of finite element shape functions, we describe the displacement and pressure fields across the fracture as a strong

  2. Study and modeling of fluctuating fluid forces exerted on fuel rods in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, Saptarshi

    2016-01-01

    Flow-induced vibrations in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) core can cause fretting wear in the fuel rods. Due to friction, wear occurs at the contact locations between the spacer grid and the fuel rod. This could compromise the first safety barrier of the nuclear reactor by damaging the fuel rod cladding. In order to ensure the integrity of the cladding, it is necessary to know the random fluctuating forces acting on the rods. However, the spectra for these fluid forces are not well known. The goal of this PhD thesis was to use simple geometrical elements to check the reproducibility of realistic pressurized water reactor spacer grids. As a first step, large eddy simulations were performed on a concentric annular pipe for different mesh refinements using the CFD code Trio CFD (previously Trio U) developed by CEA. A mesh sensitivity study was performed to obtain an acceptable mesh for reproducing standard literature results. This information on mesh resolution was used when carrying out simulations using various geometric obstacles inside the pipe, namely, mixing vanes, circular spacer grid and a combination of square spacer grid with mixing vanes. The last of the three configurations is the closest to a realistic PWR fuel assembly. Structured mesh was generated for the annular pipe case and circular grid case. An innovative hybrid mesh was used for the two remaining cases of the mixing vanes and the square grid: keeping unstructured mesh around the obstacles and structured mesh in the rest of the domain. The inner wall of the domain was representative of the fuel rod cladding. Both hydraulic and wall pressure characteristics were analyzed for each case. The results for the square grid case were found to be an approximate combination of the mixing vane case and circular grid case. Simulation results were compared with experiments performed at CEA Cadarache. Some preliminary comparisons were also made with classical semi-empirical models. (author) [fr

  3. Thermo-hydraulic consequence of pressure suppression containment vessel during blowdown, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aya, Izuo; Nariai, Hideki; Kobayashi, Michiyuki

    1980-01-01

    As a part of the safety research works for the integral-type marine reactor, an analytical code SUPPAC-2V was developed to simulate the thermo-hydraulic consequence of a pressure suppression containment system during blowdown and the code was applied to the Model Experimental Facility of the Safety of Integral Type Marine Reactors (explained already in Part 1). SUPPAC-2V is much different from existing codes in the following points. A nonhomogeneous model for the gaseous region in the drywell, a new correlation for condensing heat transfer coefficient at drywell wall based on existing data and approximation of air bubbles in wetwell water by one dimensional bubble rising model are adopted in this code. In comparing calculational results with experimental results, values of predominant input parameters were evaluated and discussed. Moreover, the new code was applied also to the NSR-7 marine reactor, conceptually designed at the Shipbuilding Research Association in Japan, of which suppression system had been already analysed by CONTEMPT-PS. (author)

  4. SATCAP-C : a program for thermal hydraulic design of pressurized water injection type capsule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harayama, Yasuo; Someya, Hiroyuki; Asoh, Tomokazu; Niimi, Motoji

    1992-10-01

    There are capsules called 'Pressure Water Injection Type Capsule' as a kind of irradiation devices at the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). A type of the capsules is a 'Boiling Water Capsule' (usually named BOCA). The other type is a 'Saturated Temperature Capsule' (named SATCAP). When the water is kept at a constant pressure, the water temperature does not become higher than the saturated temperature so far as the water does not fully change to steam. These type capsules are designed on the basis of the conception of applying the water characteristic to the control of irradiation temperature of specimens in the capsules. In designing of the capsules in which the pressurized water is injected, thermal performances have to be understood as exactly as possible. It is not easy however to predict thermal performances such as axially temperature distribution of water injected in the capsule, because there are heat-sinks at both side of inner and outer of capsule casing as the result that the water is fluid. Then, a program (named SATCAP-C) for the BOCA and SATCAP was compiled to grasp the thermal performances in the capsules and has been used the design of the capsules and analysis of the data obtained from some actual irradiation capsules. It was confirmed that the program was effective in thermal analysis for the capsules. The analysis found out the values for heat transfer coefficients at various surfaces of capsule components and some thermal characteristics of capsules. (author)

  5. Hydraulic experiment on evaluation method of tsunami wave pressure using inundation depth and velocity in front of land structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arimitsu, Tsuyoshi; Ooe, Kazuya; Kawasaki, Koji

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic experiments were conducted to estimate tsunami wave pressure acting on several different types of land structures and examine the influence of a seawall in front of the structure on tsunami wave pressure. Wave pressures were measured at some points on the structure. The existing hydrostatic formula tended to underestimate tsunami wave pressure under the condition of inundation flow with large Froude number. Estimation method of tsunami wave pressure using inundation depth and horizontal velocity at the front of the structure was proposed based on the experimental results. It was confirmed from comparison with the experiments that the vertical distribution of the maximum tsunami wave pressure can be reproduced by employing the proposed method in this study. (author)

  6. Extensive use of computational fluid dynamics in the upgrading of hydraulic turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, M.; De Henau, V. [GEC Alsthom Electromechanical Inc., Tracy, PQ (Canada); Eremeef, R. [GEC Alsthom Neyrpic, Grenoble (France)

    1995-12-31

    The use of computational fluid flow dynamics (CFD) and the Navier Stokes equations by GEC Alsthom for turbine rehabilitation were discussed. The process of runner rehabilitation was discussed from a fluid flow perspective, which accounts for the spiral case-distributor set and draft tube. The Kootenay turbine rehabilitation was described with regard to it spiral case and stay vane. The numerical analysis used to model upstream components was explained. The influence of draft tube effects was emphasized as an important efficiency factor. The differences between draft tubes at Sir Adam Beck 2 and La Grande 2 were discussed. Computational fluid flow modelling was claimed to have produced global performance enhancements in a reasonably short time, and at a reasonable cost. 6 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Validation of the thermal-hydraulic system code ATHLET based on selected pressure drop and void fraction BFBT tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Marcello, Valentino, E-mail: valentino.marcello@kit.edu; Escalante, Javier Jimenez; Espinoza, Victor Sanchez

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Simulation of BFBT-BWR steady-state and transient tests with ATHLET. • Validation of thermal-hydraulic models based on pressure drops and void fraction measurements. • TRACE system code is used for the comparative study. • Predictions result in a good agreement with the experiments. • Discrepancies are smaller or comparable with respect to the measurements uncertainty. - Abstract: Validation and qualification of thermal-hydraulic system codes based on separate effect tests are essential for the reliability of numerical tools when applied to nuclear power plant analyses. To this purpose, the Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) is involved in various validation and qualification activities of different CFD, sub-channel and system codes. In this paper, the capabilities of the thermal-hydraulic code ATHLET are assessed based on the experimental results provided within the NUPEC BFBT benchmark related to key Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) phenomena. Void fraction and pressure drops measurements in the BFBT bundle performed under steady-state and transient conditions which are representative for e.g. turbine trip and recirculation pump trip events, are compared with the numerical results of ATHLET. The comparison of code predictions with the BFBT data has shown good agreement given the experimental uncertainty and the results are consistent with the trends obtained with similar thermal-hydraulic codes.

  8. Two-fluid modeling of thermal-hydraulic phenomena for best-estimate LWR safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadigaroglu, G.; Andreani, M.

    1989-01-01

    Two-fluid formulation of the conservation equations has allowed modelling of the two-phase flow and heat transfer phenomena and situations involving strong departures in thermal and velocity equilibrium between the phases. The paper reviews the state of the art in modelling critical flows, and certain phase separation phenomena, as well as post-dryout heat transfer situations. Although the two-fluid models and the codes have the potential for correctly modelling such situations, this potential has not always been fully used in practice. (orig.)

  9. Bernoulli's Principle Applied to Brain Fluids: Intracranial Pressure Does Not Drive Cerebral Perfusion or CSF Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Eric; Ros, Maxime; Moyse, Emmanuel; Lorthois, Sylvie; Swider, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    In line with the first law of thermodynamics, Bernoulli's principle states that the total energy in a fluid is the same at all points. We applied Bernoulli's principle to understand the relationship between intracranial pressure (ICP) and intracranial fluids. We analyzed simple fluid physics along a tube to describe the interplay between pressure and velocity. Bernoulli's equation demonstrates that a fluid does not flow along a gradient of pressure or velocity; a fluid flows along a gradient of energy from a high-energy region to a low-energy region. A fluid can even flow against a pressure gradient or a velocity gradient. Pressure and velocity represent part of the total energy. Cerebral blood perfusion is not driven by pressure but by energy: the blood flows from high-energy to lower-energy regions. Hydrocephalus is related to increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) resistance (i.e., energy transfer) at various points. Identification of the energy transfer within the CSF circuit is important in understanding and treating CSF-related disorders. Bernoulli's principle is not an abstract concept far from clinical practice. We should be aware that pressure is easy to measure, but it does not induce resumption of fluid flow. Even at the bedside, energy is the key to understanding ICP and fluid dynamics.

  10. Basic hydraulics

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, P D

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Hydraulics aims to help students both to become proficient in the BASIC programming language by actually using the language in an important field of engineering and to use computing as a means of mastering the subject of hydraulics. The book begins with a summary of the technique of computing in BASIC together with comments and listing of the main commands and statements. Subsequent chapters introduce the fundamental concepts and appropriate governing equations. Topics covered include principles of fluid mechanics; flow in pipes, pipe networks and open channels; hydraulic machinery;

  11. Computer program TMOC for calculating of pressure transients in fluid filled piping networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siikonen, T.

    1978-01-01

    The propagation of a pressure wave in fluid filles tubes is significantly affected by the pipe wall motion and vice versa. A computer code TMOC (Transients by the Method of Characteristics) is being developed for the analysis of the coupled fluid and pipe wall transients. Because of the structural feedback, the pressure can be calculated more accurately than in the programs commonly used. (author)

  12. TRAC-PF1/MOD1: an advanced best-estimate computer program for pressurized water reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liles, D.R.; Mahaffy, J.H.

    1986-07-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) to provide advanced best-estimate predictions of postulated accidents in light-water reactors. The TRAC-PF1/MOD1 program provides this capability for pressurized water reactors and for many thermal-hydraulic test facilities. The code features either a one- or a three-dimensional treatment of the pressure vessel and its associated internals, a two-fluid nonequilibrium hydrodynamics model with a noncondensable gas field and solute tracking, flow-regime-dependent constitutive equation treatment, optional reflood tracking capability for bottom-flood and falling-film quench fronts, and consistent treatment of entire accident sequences including the generation of consistent initial conditions. The stability-enhancing two-step (SETS) numerical algorithm is used in the one-dimensional hydrodynamics and permits this portion of the fluid dynamics to violate the material Courant condition. This technique permits large time steps and, hence, reduced running time for slow transients

  13. TRAC-PF1/MOD1: an advanced best-estimate computer program for pressurized water reactor thermal-hydraulic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liles, D.R.; Mahaffy, J.H.

    1986-07-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) to provide advanced best-estimate predictions of postulated accidents in light-water reactors. The TRAC-PF1/MOD1 program provides this capability for pressurized water reactors and for many thermal-hydraulic test facilities. The code features either a one- or a three-dimensional treatment of the pressure vessel and its associated internals, a two-fluid nonequilibrium hydrodynamics model with a noncondensable gas field and solute tracking, flow-regime-dependent constitutive equation treatment, optional reflood tracking capability for bottom-flood and falling-film quench fronts, and consistent treatment of entire accident sequences including the generation of consistent initial conditions. The stability-enhancing two-step (SETS) numerical algorithm is used in the one-dimensional hydrodynamics and permits this portion of the fluid dynamics to violate the material Courant condition. This technique permits large time steps and, hence, reduced running time for slow transients.

  14. Do Arthroscopic Fluid Pumps Display True Surgical Site Pressure During Hip Arthroscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jeremy A; Marland, Jennifer D; Payne, Brayden; Whiting, Daniel R; West, Hugh S

    2018-01-01

    To report on the accuracy of 5 commercially available arthroscopic fluid pumps to measure fluid pressure at the surgical site during hip arthroscopy. Patients undergoing hip arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement were block randomized to the use of 1 of 5 arthroscopic fluid pumps. A spinal needle inserted into the operative field was used to measure surgical site pressure. Displayed pump pressures and surgical site pressures were recorded at 30-second intervals for the duration of the case. Mean differences between displayed pump pressures and surgical site pressures were obtained for each pump group. Of the 5 pumps studied, 3 (Crossflow, 24K, and Continuous Wave III) reflected the operative field fluid pressure within 11 mm Hg of the pressure readout. In contrast, 2 of the 5 pumps (Double Pump RF and FMS/DUO+) showed a difference of greater than 59 mm Hg between the operative field fluid pressure and the pressure readout. Joint-calibrated pumps more closely reflect true surgical site pressure than gravity-equivalent pumps. With a basic understanding of pump design, either type of pump can be used safely and efficiently. The risk of unfamiliarity with these differences is, on one end, the possibility of pump underperformance and, on the other, potentially dangerously high operating pressures. Level II, prospective block-randomized study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Reducing Fatigue Loading Due to Pressure Shift in Discrete Fluid Power Force Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2016-01-01

    power force system. The current paper investigates the correlation between pressure oscillations in the cylinder chambers and valve flow in the manifold. Furthermore, the correlation between the pressure shifting time and the pressure overshoot is investigated. The study therefore focus on how to shape......Discrete Fluid Power Force Systems is one of the topologies gaining focus in the pursuit of lowering energy losses in fluid power transmission systems. The cylinder based Fluid Power Force System considered in this article is constructed with a multi-chamber cylinder, a number of constant pressure...... oscillations in the cylinder chamber, especially for systems with long connections between the cylinder and the valve manifold. Hose pressure oscillations will induce oscillations in the produced piston force. Hence, pressure oscillations may increase the fatigue loading on systems employing a discrete fluid...

  16. Are separate-phase thermal-hydraulic models better than mixture-fluid approaches? It depends. Rather not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeld, A.

    2004-01-01

    The thermal-hydraulic theory of single- and especially two-phase flow systems used for plant transient analysis is dominated by separate-phase models. The corresponding mostly very comprehensive codes (TRAC, RELAP, CATHARE, ATHLET etc.) are looked as to be by far more efficient than a 3 eq. mixture-fluid approach and code also if they show deficiencies in describing flow situations within inner loops as for example the distribution into parallel channels (and thus the simulation of 3D thermal-hydraulic phenomena). This may be justified if comparing them to the very simple 'homogeneous equilibrium models (HEM)', but not if looking to the more refined non-homogeneous 'separate-region' mixture-fluid approaches based on appropriate drift-flux correlation packages which can have, on the contrary, enormous advantages with respect to such separate-phase models. Especially if comparing the basic (and starting) eqs. of such theoretical models of both types the differences are remarkable. Single-phase and mixture-fluid models start from genuine conservation eqs. for mass, energy and momentum, demanding (in case of two-phase flow) additionally an adequate drift flux package (in order to get a relation for a fourth independent variable), a heat transfer coefficients package (over the whole range of the possible fields of application) and correlations for single- and two-phase friction. The other types of models are looking at each phase separately with corresponding 'field' eqs. for each phase, connected by exchange (=closure) terms which substitute the classical constitutive packages for drift, heat transfer and friction. That the drift-flux, heat transfer into a coolant channel and friction along a wall and between the phases is described better by a separate-phase approach is at least doubtful. The corresponding mixture-fluid correlations are based over a wide range on a treasure of experience and measurements, their pseudo-stationary treatment can (due to their small time

  17. Adaptive Control System of Hydraulic Pressure Based on The Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilipenko, A. V.; Pilipenko, A. P.; Kanatnikov, N. V.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the authors highlight the problem of replacing an old heavy industrial equipment, and offer the replacement of obsolete control systems on the modern adaptive control system, which takes into account changes in the hydraulic system of the press and compensates them with a corrective action. The proposed system can reduce a water hammer and thereby increase the durability of the hydraulic system and tools.

  18. Predicting the Occurrence of Hydraulic Fracture in Grouting Operations Based on the Pressure in the Penetrated Cement Grout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Bakhshandeh Amnieh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cement grouting is an operation often carried out to consolidate and seal the rock mass in dam sites and tunnels. The quality and efficiency of a grouting operation depends on various factors such as water take, grout properties and grouting pressure. One of the parameters which have the highest effect is pressure since the application of excessive pressure causes the hydraulic fracture phenomenon to occur in the rock mass and too little pressure leads to incomplete grouting and failure to seal the site in a perfect manner. Mathematical modeling is used for the first time in this study to predict and determine the optimum pressure. Thus, the joints that exist in the rock mass are simulated using cylindrical shell model. The joint surroundings are also modeled through Pasternak environment. To obtain equations governing the joints and the surroundings, energy method is used accompanied by Hamilton principle. In the end, an analytical solution method is used to obtain the maximum grouting pressure. In order to validate the modeling, the grouting pressure values obtained by the model were used in the sites of Seymareh and Aghbolagh dams and the relative error rates were measured considering the differences between calculated and actual pressures. Modeling in the examined sections of Seymareh dam showed 29.61, 5.57, 21.98, 32.50 and 9.09 percent error rates and in the sections of Aghbolagh dam it rendered the values of 4.32, 5.40 and 2.96 percent. The results indicate that this modeling can be used to estimate the amount of pressure for hydraulic fracture in grouting, to predict it and to prevent it.

  19. Design and verification of additional filtration for the application of ecological transmission and hydraulic fluids in tractorc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Máchal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution presents the design and function verification of additional filtration. It is intended for the common transmission and hydraulic oil filling of tractors. The main role of this filtration concept is to ensure a high level of oil cleanness as a condition for the application of ecologic fluids in tractors. The next one is to decrease the wear of lubricated tractor components, the degradation of oil and eventually to extend the interval of oil change. The designed additional filtering is characterized by ease installation through the use of quick couplings and hoses to the external hydraulic circuit. Therefore, the filtration is suitable for various tractor types. Filter element has been designed with the filter ability 1micron and the ability to separate to 0.5 dm3 of water from oil. Function of additional filtration was verified during the 150 engine hours of tractor operation. During this time period the oil contamination was evaluated on the basis of chemical elements content such as Fe, Cu, Si, Al, Ni, Mo and Cr. The additive concentration was evaluated on the basis of chemical elements content such as Ca, P and Zn. During the test operation of tractor the concentration decrease of chemical elements reached the values 25.53 % (Fe, 23.53 % (Si, 25 % (Al and 5.5 % (Cu. The decrease of additive concentration reached only medium level (6.6 %. Therefore, the designed additional filtration doesn’t remove additives from oil. Based on the evaluation of the content of chemical elements (that representing contamination and additives, we can say that the designed filtering method is suitable for use in agricultural tractors.

  20. Thermal-hydraulic oscillations in a low pressure two-phase natural circulation loop at low powers and high inlet subcoolings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.B.; Wu, J.Y.; Chin Pan; Lin, W.K.

    2004-01-01

    The stability of a natural circulation boiling loop is of great importance and interests for both academic researches and many industrial applications, such as next generation boiling water reactors. The present study investigated the thermal-hydraulic oscillation behavior in a low pressure two-phase natural circulation loop at low powers and high inlet subcoolings. The experiments were conducted at atmospheric pressure with heating power ranging from 4 to 8 kW and inlet subcooling ranging from 27 to 75 deg. C. Significant oscillations in loop mass flow rate, pressure drop in each section, and heated wall and fluid temperatures are present for all the cases studied here. The oscillation is typically quasi-periodic and with flow reversal with magnitudes smaller than forward flows. The magnitude of wall temperature oscillation could be as high as 60 deg. C, which will be of serious concern for practical applications. It is found that the first fundamental oscillation (large magnitude oscillation) frequency increases with increase in heated power and with decrease in inlet subcooling. (author)

  1. Hydraulic regenerative system for a light vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Orpella Aceret, Jordi; Guinart Trayter, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    The thesis is based in a constructed light vehicle that must be improved by adding a hydraulic energy recovery system. This vehicle named as TrecoLiTH, participated in the Formula Electric and Hybrid competition (Formula EHI) 2009 in Italy -Rome- and won several awards. This system consists in two hydraulic motors hub mounted which are used to store fluid at high pressure in an accumulator when braking. Through a valve the pressure will flow from the high pressure accumulator to the low press...

  2. Design and Computational Fluid Dynamics Optimization of the Tube End Effector for Reactor Pressure Vessel Head Type VVER-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novosel, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper is presented development and optimization of the tube end effector design which should consist of 4 ultrasonic transducers, 4 Eddy Current's transducers and Radiation Proof Dot Camera. Basically, designing was conducted by main input requests, such as: inner diameter of a tested reactor pressure vessel head penetration tube, dimensions of a transducers and maximum allowable vertical movement of a manipulator connection rod in order to cover all inner tube surface. As is obvious, for ultrasonic testing should be provided the thin layer of liquid material (in our case water was chosen) which is necessary to make physical contact between transducer surface and investigated inner tube surface. By help of Computational Fluid Dynamics, determined were parameters of geometry, as the most important factor of transducer housing, hydraulically parameters for water supply and primary drain together implemented into this housing, movement of the end effectors (vertical and cylindrical) and finally, necessary equipment which has to provide all hydraulically and pneumatic requirements. As the cylindrical surface of the inner tube diameter was liquefied and contact between transducer housing and tested tube wasn't ideally covered, water leakage could occur in downstream direction. To reduce water leakage, which is highly contaminated, developed was second water drain by diffuser assembly which is driven by Venturi pipe, commercially called vacuum generator. Using the Computational Fluid Dynamic, obtained was optimized geometry of diffuser control volume with the highest efficiency, in other words, unobstructed fluid flux. Afterwards, the end effectors system was synchronized to the existing operable system for NDT methods all invented and designed by INETEC. (author)

  3. Nucleation of frictional instability caused by fluid pressurization in subducted blueschist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawai, M.; Niemeijer, A.R.; Plümper, O.; Hirose, T.; Spiers, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    Pore pressure is an important factor in controlling the slip instability of faults and thus the generation of earthquakes. Particularly slow earthquakes are widespread in subduction zones and usually linked to the occurrence of high pore pressure. Yet the influence of fluid pressure and effective

  4. Generation and maintenance of low effective pressures due to fluid flow in fractured rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garagash, D.; Brantut, N.; Schubnel, A.; Bhat, H. S.

    2017-12-01

    The pore fluid pressure is expected to increase with increasing depth in the crust, primarily due to gravity forces. Because direct measurements are impossible beyond a few kilometers depths, the pore pressure gradient is often assumed to be linear (e.g., hydrostatic). However, a number of processes can severely modify the fluid pressure distribution in the crust. Here, we investigate the effect of fluid flow coupled to nonlinear permeability-effective pressure relationship. We performed a set of laboratory fluid flow experiments on thermally cracked Westerly granite at confining pressures up to 200 MPa and pore fluid pressures up to 120 MPa. Fluid flow was generated by imposing very strong pore pressure differences, up to 120 MPa, between the ends of the sample. The vertical fluid pressure distribution inside the sample was inferred by a set of 8 radial strain gauges, and an array of 10 P- and S-wave transducers. When the effective stress is kept near zero at one end of the sample and maintained high at the other end, the steady-state pore pressure profile is nonlinear. The effective stress, as inferred from the strain gauge array, remains close to zero through 2/3 of the sample, and increases sharply near the drained end of the sample. The ultrasonic data are used to build a vertical P- and S-wave velocity structure. The wave velocity profiles are consistent with a nonlinear relationship between wave velocity and effective pressure, as expected in thermally cracked granite. Taken together, our experimental data confirm the theoretical prediction that near zero effective stress can be generated through significant sections of rocks as a response to an imposed fluid flow. This has strong implications for the state of stress of the Earth's crust, especially around major continental transform faults that act as conduits for deep volatiles.

  5. Comparative study of Thermal Hydraulic Analysis Codes for Pressurized Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yang Hoon; Jang, Mi Suk; Han, Kee Soo [Nuclear Engineering Service and Solution Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Various codes are used for the thermal hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactors. The use of some codes among these is limited by user and some codes are not even open to general person. Thus, the use of alternative code is considered for some analysis. In this study, simple thermal hydraulic behaviors are analyzed using three codes to show that alternative codes are possible for the analysis of nuclear reactors. We established three models of the simple u-tube manometer using three different codes. RELAP5 (Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program), SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis CodE for nuclear power Plants), GOTHIC (Generation of Thermal Hydraulic Information for Containments) are selected for this analysis. RELAP5 is widely used codes for the analysis of system behavior of PWRs. SPACE has been developed based on RELAP5 for the analysis of system behavior of PWRs and licensing of the code is in progress. And GOTHIC code also has been widely used for the analysis of thermal hydraulic behavior in the containment system. The internal behavior of u-tube manometer was analyzed by RELAP5, SPACE and GOTHIC codes. The general transient behavior was similar among 3 codes. However, the stabilized status of the transient period analyzed by REPAP5 was different from the other codes. It would be resulted from the different physical models used in the other codes, which is specialized for the multi-phase thermal hydraulic behavior analysis.

  6. Fast intraslab fluid-flow events linked to pulses of high pore fluid pressure at the subducted plate interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taetz, Stephan; John, Timm; Bröcker, Michael; Spandler, Carl; Stracke, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    A better understanding of the subduction zone fluid cycle and its chemical-mechanical feedback requires in-depth knowledge about how fluids flow within and out of descending slabs. Relicts of fluid-flow systems in exhumed rocks of fossil subduction zones allow for identification of the general relationships between dehydration reactions, fluid pathway formation, the dimensions and timescales of distinct fluid flow events; all of which are required for quantitative models for fluid-induced subduction zone processes. Two types of garnet-quartz-phengite veins can be distinguished in an eclogite-facies mélange block from the Pouébo Eclogite Mélange, New Caledonia. These veins record synmetamorphic internal fluid release by mineral breakdown reactions (type I veins), and infiltration of an external fluid (type II veins) with the associated formation of a reaction selvage. The dehydration and fluid migration documented by the type I veins likely occurred on a timescale of 105-106 years, based on average subduction rates and metamorphic conditions required for mineral dehydration and fluid flow. The timeframe of fluid-rock interaction between the external fluid and the wall-rock of the type II veins is quantified using a continuous bulk-rock Li-diffusion profile perpendicular to a vein and its metasomatic selvage. Differences in Li concentration between the internal and external fluid reservoirs resulted in a distinct diffusion profile (decreasing Li concentration and increasing δ7 Li) as the reaction front propagated into the host rock. Li-chronometric constraints indicate that the timescales of fluid-rock interaction associated with type II vein formation are on the order of 1 to 4 months (0.150-0.08+0.14 years). The short-lived, pulse-like character of this process is consistent with the notion that fluid flow caused by oceanic crust dehydration at the blueschist-to-eclogite transition contributes to or even dominates episodic pore fluid pressure increases at the

  7. Selection and use of fire-resistant hydraulic fluids for underground mining equipment. [Oil-in-water emulsions; water-in-oil emulsions; phosphate esters; chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, A J

    1981-02-01

    During the initial introduction of fire-resistant fluids to the Canadian underground mining industry, all hydraulic systems for which they were being considered were originally designed for operation with mineral oil. This meant that each system had to be individually examined and assessed with regard to its suitability in terms of acceptable component life and operation, at the same time as the selection of a fluid was being undertaken. Fluid selection by cost differential, toxicity content and fire resistancy was narrowed to types HFB and HFC, with HFB water-in-oil emulsion being the preferred fluid based on performance characteristics. By incorporating British mining industry experience and superior fluid types with practical trials, it was found that by modifing the design of some systems and slightly derating the operational parameters of individual components, it was possible to obtain a system performance comparable to that obtained when mineral oil was being used.

  8. Research of fluid-induced pressure fluctuation due to impeller-volute interaction in a centrifugal pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Q Z; Yang, K; Li, D Y; Gong, R Z

    2013-01-01

    The fluid pressure fluctuation generated by unsteady flow is a very important factor to induce vibration of the centrifugal pump. The relative movement between impeller and volute generates an unsteady interaction which affects not only the overall pump performance, but is also responsible for pressure fluctuations. Pressure fluctuations interact with the volute casing or even with the circuit and give rise to dynamic effects over the mechanical parts, which are one of the most important sources of vibration and hydraulic noise. To investigate the flow characteristic in the centrifugal pump, the unsteady flow is simulated by CFD methods in this paper. Unsteady flow characteristic in the centrifugal pump is obtained considering the impeller-volute interaction in the whole flow field. Based on the unsteady flow simulation, amplitude-frequency characteristics of the pressure fluctuation in the centrifugal pump are obtained through setting up monitoring point at the impeller outlet. The research shows that the frequency component include the blade passing frequency as the main component, the multiplication of blade passing frequency, and the harmonic interference due to the unsteady flow

  9. Thermo-hydraulic behavior of saturated steam-water mixture in pressure vessel during injection of cold water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aya, Izuo; Kobayashi, Michiyuki; Inasaka, Fujio; Nariai, Hideki.

    1983-01-01

    The thermo-hydraulic behavior of saturated steam water mixture in a pressure vessel during injection of cold water was experimentally investigated with the Facility for Mixing Effect of Emergency Core Cooling Water. The dimensions of the pressure vessel used in the experiments were 284mm ID and 1,971mm height. 11 experiments were conducted without blowdown in order to comprehend the basic process excluding the effect of blowdown at injection of cold water. The initial pressure and water level, the injection flow rate and the size of injection nozzle were chosen as experimental parameters. Temperatures and void fractions at 6 elevations as well as pressure in the pressure vessel were measured, and new data especially on the pressure undershoot just after the initation of water injection and the vertical distribution of temperature and void fraction were gotten. The transients of pressure, average temperature and void fraction were caluculated using single-volume analysis code BLODAC-1V which is based on thermal equilibrium and so-called bubble gradient model. Some input parameters included in the analysis code were evaluated through the comparison of analysis with experimental data. Moreover, the observed pressure undershoot which is evaluated to be induced by a time lag of vapourization in water due to thermal nonequilibrium, was also discussed with the aid of another simple analysis model. (author)

  10. Streaming Potential Modeling to Understand the Identification of Hydraulically Active Fractures and Fracture-Matrix Fluid Interactions Using the Self-Potential Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jougnot, D.; Roubinet, D.; Linde, N.; Irving, J.

    2016-12-01

    Quantifying fluid flow in fractured media is a critical challenge in a wide variety of research fields and applications. To this end, geophysics offers a variety of tools that can provide important information on subsurface physical properties in a noninvasive manner. Most geophysical techniques infer fluid flow by data or model differencing in time or space (i.e., they are not directly sensitive to flow occurring at the time of the measurements). An exception is the self-potential (SP) method. When water flows in the subsurface, an excess of charge in the pore water that counterbalances electric charges at the mineral-pore water interface gives rise to a streaming current and an associated streaming potential. The latter can be measured with the SP technique, meaning that the method is directly sensitive to fluid flow. Whereas numerous field experiments suggest that the SP method may allow for the detection of hydraulically active fractures, suitable tools for numerically modeling streaming potentials in fractured media do not exist. Here, we present a highly efficient two-dimensional discrete-dual-porosity approach for solving the fluid-flow and associated self-potential problems in fractured domains. Our approach is specifically designed for complex fracture networks that cannot be investigated using standard numerical methods due to computational limitations. We then simulate SP signals associated with pumping conditions for a number of examples to show that (i) accounting for matrix fluid flow is essential for accurate SP modeling and (ii) the sensitivity of SP to hydraulically active fractures is intimately linked with fracture-matrix fluid interactions. This implies that fractures associated with strong SP amplitudes are likely to be hydraulically conductive, attracting fluid flow from the surrounding matrix.

  11. Thermal - hydraulic analysis of pressurizer water reactors using the model of open lateral boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, R.C.

    1980-10-01

    A computational method is developed for thermal-hydraulic analysis, where the channel may be analysed by more than one independent steps of calculation. This is made possible by the incorporation of the model of open lateral boundary in the code COBRA-IIIP, which permits the determination of the subchannel of an open lattice PWR core in a multi-step calculation. The thermal-hydraulic code COBRA-IIIP, developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is used as the basic model for this study. (Author) [pt

  12. Development and Applications of a General Coupled Thermal-hydraulic/Neutronic Model for the Ringhals-3 Pressurized Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staalek, Mathias

    2008-03-01

    Coupled calculations are important for the simulation of nuclear power plants when there is a strong feedback between the neutron kinetics and the thermal-hydraulics. A general coupled model of the Ringhals-3 Pressurized Water Reactor has been developed for this purpose. The development is outlined in the thesis with details given in the appended papers. A PARCS model was developed for the core calculations and a RELAP5 model for the thermal-hydraulic calculations. The RELAP5 model has 157 channels for modelling the flow in the fuel assemblies. This means that there is a one-one correspondence radially between the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic nodalization. This detailed mapping between the neutron kinetics and the thermal-hydraulics makes it possible to use the model for all kinds of transient. To provide realistic material data to the PARCS model, a cross-section interface was developed. With this interface one can import material data from a binary CASMO-4 library file into PARCS. Due to the one-to-one mapping, any any core loading can easily be considered. The PARCS model was benchmarked against measurements of the steady-state power distribution of Ringhals-3. The power shape was well reproduced by the model. Validational work for steady-state conditions of the thermal-hydraulic was also successfully performed. The most challenging part of the validation of a coupled model is for transients. This is much more difficult since the dynamics of the system becomes very important. Two transients that occurred at Ringhals-3 were chosen for the validational work. The first transient was a Load Rejection Transient. In general the model gave good results but some problems were experienced, e.g. the pressurizer pressure turned out to be more difficult to be correctly simulated. The second transient was a Loss of Feed Water transient. A malfunctioning feed water control valve closed, and therefore shut down the feed water supply to the steam generator in one of the

  13. Development and Applications of a General Coupled Thermal-hydraulic/Neutronic Model for the Ringhals-3 Pressurized Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staalek, Mathias

    2008-03-15

    Coupled calculations are important for the simulation of nuclear power plants when there is a strong feedback between the neutron kinetics and the thermal-hydraulics. A general coupled model of the Ringhals-3 Pressurized Water Reactor has been developed for this purpose. The development is outlined in the thesis with details given in the appended papers. A PARCS model was developed for the core calculations and a RELAP5 model for the thermal-hydraulic calculations. The RELAP5 model has 157 channels for modelling the flow in the fuel assemblies. This means that there is a one-one correspondence radially between the neutronic and thermal-hydraulic nodalization. This detailed mapping between the neutron kinetics and the thermal-hydraulics makes it possible to use the model for all kinds of transient. To provide realistic material data to the PARCS model, a cross-section interface was developed. With this interface one can import material data from a binary CASMO-4 library file into PARCS. Due to the one-to-one mapping, any any core loading can easily be considered. The PARCS model was benchmarked against measurements of the steady-state power distribution of Ringhals-3. The power shape was well reproduced by the model. Validational work for steady-state conditions of the thermal-hydraulic was also successfully performed. The most challenging part of the validation of a coupled model is for transients. This is much more difficult since the dynamics of the system becomes very important. Two transients that occurred at Ringhals-3 were chosen for the validational work. The first transient was a Load Rejection Transient. In general the model gave good results but some problems were experienced, e.g. the pressurizer pressure turned out to be more difficult to be correctly simulated. The second transient was a Loss of Feed Water transient. A malfunctioning feed water control valve closed, and therefore shut down the feed water supply to the steam generator in one of the

  14. Heating of a fully saturated darcian half-space: Pressure generation, fluid expulsion, and phase change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, P.

    1984-01-01

    Analytical solutions are developed for the pressurization, expansion, and flow of one- and two-phase liquids during heating of fully saturated and hydraulically open Darcian half-spaces subjected to a step rise in temperature at its surface. For silicate materials, advective transfer is commonly unimportant in the liquid region; this is not always the case in the vapor region. Volume change is commonly more important than heat of vaporization in determining the position of the liquid-vapor interface, assuring that the temperatures cannot be determined independently of pressures. Pressure increases reach a maximum near the leading edge of the thermal front and penetrate well into the isothermal region of the body. Mass flux is insensitive to the hydraulic properties of the half-space. ?? 1984.

  15. Thermal hydraulic evaluation for an experimental facility to investigate pressurized thermal shock (PTS) in CDTN/CNEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, Elcio T.; Navarro, Moyses A.; Aronne, Ivam D.; Terra, Jose L.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the work presented in this paper is to provide necessary thermal hydraulics information to the design of an experimental installation to investigate the Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) to be implemented at Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN). The envisaged installation has a test section that represents, in a small scale, a pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor. This test section will be heated and then exposed to a PTS in order to evaluate the appearance and development of cracks. To verify the behavior of the temperatures of the pressure vessel after a sudden flood through the annulus, calculations were made using the RELAP5/MOD 3.2.2 gamma code. Different outer radiuses were studied for the annular region. The results showed that the smaller annulus spacing (20 mm) anticipates the wetting of the surface and produces a higher cooling of the external surface, which stays completely wet for a longer time. (author)

  16. Modeling the Effect of Fluid-Structure Interaction on the Impact Dynamics of Pressurized Tank Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-13

    This paper presents a computational framework that : analyzes the effect of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) on the : impact dynamics of pressurized commodity tank cars using the : nonlinear dynamic finite element code ABAQUS/Explicit. : There exist...

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of age-related environmental impact of biogenic hydraulic fluids; Life Cycle Assessment der alterungsbedingten Umweltvertraeglichkeit biogener Hydraulik-Schmierstoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressling, Jana

    2012-07-01

    Biogenic hydraulic fluids, based on synthetic esters (category: HEES), have an excellent environmental profile in the unused state, so that they are typically classified into water hazard class 1 or as ''not hazardous to water''. During storage at room temperature and tribological application, occurring chemical and toxicological changes take no account in the classification of lubricants until now. However, the ageing and oxidation stability gets increasing importance, since it determines the service life of lubricants in tribological systems in addition to the storage time. Since it always comes to direct and uncontrolled entries into the environment in case of accidents or hydraulic leaks, it is essential to assess whether there is an environmental hazard by waste oils. With an increased use of biogenic hydraulic fluids in environmentally sensitive areas, thus the need for an appropriate monitoring and assessment approach as part of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). The aquatic and miniaturised test procedures applied in this work with the Water Soluble Fraction (WSF) concept, allows a simple and quick screening of age-related ecotoxic potential of lubricants by oxidative processes and tribological application. For detection of genotoxic potential the umu-test is a suitable indicator test to detect geno- and cytotoxic effects by oxidative reactions. The determination of biodegradability is essential for the assessment of the environmental impact of hydraulic fluids. The optimised biodegradability test system ''O2/CO2-Headspace Test'' has proved itself as a suitable procedure for the investigation of biogenic lubricants within the scope of a LCA and shows therefore a comparable method of the required test procedures for the assignment of ecolabels. In addition, the combination of biological test procedures and chemical analysis allows a comprehensive investigation of effects and causes of age-related changes of hydraulic

  18. Analysis of buffering process of control rod hydraulic absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Jishi; Qin Benke; Bo Hanliang

    2011-01-01

    Control Rod Hydraulic Drive Mechanism(CRHDM) is a newly invented build-in control rod drive mechanism. Hydraulic absorber is the key part of this mechanism, and is used to cushion the control rod when the rod scrams. Thus, it prevents the control rod from being deformed and damaged. In this paper dynamics program ANSYS CFX is used to calculate all kinds of flow conditions in hydraulic absorber to obtain its hydraulic characteristics. Based on the flow resistance coefficients obtained from the simulation results, fluid mass and momentum equations were developed to get the trend of pressure change in the hydraulic cylinder and the displacement of the piston rod during the buffering process of the control rod. The results obtained in this paper indicate that the hydraulic absorber meets the design requirement. The work in this paper will be helpful for the design and optimization of the control rod hydraulic absorber. (author)

  19. Retrograde mineral and fluid evolution in high-pressure metapelites (Schistes Lustres unit, Western Alps).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agard, Ph.; Goffe, B.; Touret, J.L.R.; Vidal, O.

    2000-01-01

    Fluid inclusions have been analysed in successive generations of syn-metamorphic segregations within low-grade, high-pressure, low-temperature (HP-LT) metapelites from the Western Alps. Fluid composition was then compared to mass transfer deduced from outcrop-scale retrograde mineral reactions. Two

  20. Initial boundary-value problem for the spherically symmetric Einstein equations with fluids with tangential pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Irene; Mena, Filipe C

    2017-08-01

    We prove that, for a given spherically symmetric fluid distribution with tangential pressure on an initial space-like hypersurface with a time-like boundary, there exists a unique, local in time solution to the Einstein equations in a neighbourhood of the boundary. As an application, we consider a particular elastic fluid interior matched to a vacuum exterior.

  1. Comparison of regional pancreatic tissue fluid pressure and endoscopic retrograde pancreatographic morphology in chronic pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Madsen, P

    1990-01-01

    The relation between pancreatic tissue fluid pressure measured by the needle method and pancreatic duct morphology was studied in 16 patients with chronic pancreatitis. After preoperative endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) the patients were submitted to a drainage operation. The predrain......The relation between pancreatic tissue fluid pressure measured by the needle method and pancreatic duct morphology was studied in 16 patients with chronic pancreatitis. After preoperative endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) the patients were submitted to a drainage operation...

  2. Pressure in an exactly solvable model of active fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini Bettolo Marconi, Umberto; Maggi, Claudio; Paoluzzi, Matteo

    2017-07-01

    We consider the pressure in the steady-state regime of three stochastic models characterized by self-propulsion and persistent motion and widely employed to describe the behavior of active particles, namely, the Active Brownian particle (ABP) model, the Gaussian colored noise (GCN) model, and the unified colored noise approximation (UCNA) model. Whereas in the limit of short but finite persistence time, the pressure in the UCNA model can be obtained by different methods which have an analog in equilibrium systems, in the remaining two models only the virial route is, in general, possible. According to this method, notwithstanding each model obeys its own specific microscopic law of evolution, the pressure displays a certain universal behavior. For generic interparticle and confining potentials, we derive a formula which establishes a correspondence between the GCN and the UCNA pressures. In order to provide explicit formulas and examples, we specialize the discussion to the case of an assembly of elastic dumbbells confined to a parabolic well. By employing the UCNA we find that, for this model, the pressure determined by the thermodynamic method coincides with the pressures obtained by the virial and mechanical methods. The three methods when applied to the GCN give a pressure identical to that obtained via the UCNA. Finally, we find that the ABP virial pressure exactly agrees with the UCNA and GCN results.

  3. pressure analysis and fluid contact prediction for alpha reservoir

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    a pressure gradient profile such that the oil gradient line will intersect the hydrostatic line above the Water-Up-To. (WUT) line to define the OWC if present. The model was also calibrated with data from reservoirs with established contacts in the field. 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION. In the field, pressure typically increases ...

  4. Estimates of fluid pressure and tectonic stress in hydrothermal/volcanic areas:a methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vilardo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available An analytical approach to estimate the relative contribution of the fluid pressure and tectonic stress in hydrothermal/ volcanic areas is proposed assuming a Coulomb criterion of failure. The analytical procedure requires the coefficient of internal friction, cohesion, rock density, and thickness of overburden to be known from geological data. In addition, the orientation of the principal stress axes and the stress ratio must be determined from the inversion of fault-slip or seismic data (focal mechanisms. At first, the stress magnitude is calculated assuming that faulting occurs in 'dry' conditions (fluid pressure=0. In a second step, the fluid pressure is introduced performing a grid search over the orientation of 1 fault planes that slip by shear failure or 2 cracks that open under different values of fluid pressure and calculating the consistency with the observed fault planes (i.e. strike and dip of faults, cracks, nodal planes from focal mechanisms. The analytical method is applied using fault-slip data from the Solfatara volcano (Campi Flegrei, Italy and seismic data (focal mechanisms from the Vesuvius volcano (Italy. In these areas, the fluid pressure required to activate faults (shear fractures and cracks (open fractures is calculated. At Solfatara, the ratio between the fluid pressure and the vertical stress ?is very low for faults ( ?=0.16 and relatively high for cracks ( ?=0.5. At Vesuvius, ?=0.6. Limits and uncertainties of the method are also discussed.

  5. Quasi-open loop hydraulic ram incremental actuator with power conserving properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, E.T.; Robinson, C.W.

    1982-01-01

    An electric stepping motor, operated by command signals from a computer or a microprocessor, rotates a rotary control member of a distributor valve, for sequencing hydraulic pressure and hence flow to the cylinders of an axial piston hydraulic machine. A group of the cylinders are subjected to pressure and flow and the remaining cylinders are vented to a return line. Rotation of the rotary control valve member sequences pressurization by progressively adding a cylinder to the forward edge to the pressurized group and removing a cylinder from the trailing edge of the pressurized group. The double ended pistons of each new pressurized group function to drive a wobble plate into a new position of equilibrium and then hold it in such position until another change in the makeup of the pressurized group. These pistons also displace hydraulic fluid from the opposite cylinder head which serves as the output of a pumping element. An increment of displacement of the wobble plate occurs in direct response to each command pulse that is received by the stepping motor. Wobble plate displacement drives the rotary valve of the hydraulic power transfer unit, causing it to transfer hydraulic fluid from a first expansible chamber on one side of a piston in a hydraulic ram to a second expansible chamber on the opposite side of the piston. Reverse drive of the hydraulic power transfer unit reverses the direction of transfer of hydraulic fluid between the two expansible chambers

  6. Pressure-surge mitigation methods in fluid-conveying piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.W.; Youngdahl, C.K.; Wiedermann, A.H.

    1991-01-01

    Pressure surges in the heat transport system of nuclear reactor plants can affect the safety and reliability of the plants. Hence the pressure surges must be considered in the design, operation, and maintenance of the plants in order to minimize their occurrence and impacts. The objectives of this paper are to review various methods to control or mitigate the pressure surges, to analyze these methods to gain understanding of the mitigation mechanisms, and examine applicability of the methods to nuclear power plants. 6 refs., 13 figs

  7. Density functional study of the pressure tensor for inhomogeneous Lennard—Jones fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zong-Li; Liu Zhi-Cheng; Kang Yan-Shuang; Ma Heng-Xin; Kang Yan-Mei

    2012-01-01

    Based on classical density functional theory, an expression of the pressure tensor for inhomogeneous fluids is presented. This takes into account greater correlation between particles, especially for systems that are geometrically confined or involve an interface. The density and pressure components of Lennard-Jones fluids confined in hard and softened nano-cavities are calculated. A comparison between the results of this work and IK expression suggests that the agreement depends on temperature. The interfacial tension for hard sphere fluids agrees well with the Monte Carlo result when the bulk density is not too large. The results of the solid-fluid interfacial tension for Lennard—Jones fluids demonstrate that different types of external potentials modulate the interfacial tension in different manners. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  8. Hydraulics calculation in drilling simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyugin, Aleksey A.; Kazunin, Dmitry V.

    2018-05-01

    The modeling of drilling hydraulics in the simulator system is discussed. This model is based on the previously developed quasi-steady model of an incompressible fluid flow. The model simulates the operation of all parts of the hydraulic drilling system. Based on the principles of creating a common hydraulic model, a set of new elements for well hydraulics was developed. It includes elements that correspond to the in-drillstring and annular space. There are elements controlling the inflow from the reservoir into the well and simulating the lift of gas along the annulus. New elements of the hydrosystem take into account the changing geometry of the well, loss in the bit, characteristics of the fluids including viscoplasticity. There is an opportunity specify the complications, the main one of which is gas, oil and water inflow. Correct work of models in cases of complications makes it possible to work out various methods for their elimination. The coefficients of the model are adjusted on the basis of incomplete experimental data provided by operators of drilling platforms. At the end of the article the results of modeling the elimination of gas inflow by a continuous method are presented. The values displayed in the simulator (drill pipe pressure, annulus pressure, input and output flow rates) are in good agreement with the experimental data. This exercise took one hour, which is less than the time on a real rig with the same configuration of equipment and well.

  9. Fluid challenge: tracking changes in cardiac output with blood pressure monitoring (invasive or non-invasive).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhal, Karim; Ehrmann, Stephan; Perrotin, Dominique; Wolff, Michel; Boulain, Thierry

    2013-11-01

    To assess whether invasive and non-invasive blood pressure (BP) monitoring allows the identification of patients who have responded to a fluid challenge, i.e., who have increased their cardiac output (CO). Patients with signs of circulatory failure were prospectively included. Before and after a fluid challenge, CO and the mean of four intra-arterial and oscillometric brachial cuff BP measurements were collected. Fluid responsiveness was defined by an increase in CO ≥10 or ≥15% in case of regular rhythm or arrhythmia, respectively. In 130 patients, the correlation between a fluid-induced increase in pulse pressure (Δ500mlPP) and fluid-induced increase in CO was weak and was similar for invasive and non-invasive measurements of BP: r² = 0.31 and r² = 0.29, respectively (both p area under the receiver-operating curve (AUC) of 0.82 (0.74-0.88), similar (p = 0.80) to that of non-invasive Δ500mlPP [AUC of 0.81 (0.73-0.87)]. Outside large gray zones of inconclusive values (5-23% for invasive Δ500mlPP and 4-35% for non-invasive Δ500mlPP, involving 35 and 48% of patients, respectively), the detection of responsiveness or unresponsiveness to fluid was reliable. Cardiac arrhythmia did not impair the performance of invasive or non-invasive Δ500mlPP. Other BP-derived indices did not outperform Δ500mlPP. As evidenced by large gray zones, BP-derived indices poorly reflected fluid responsiveness. However, in our deeply sedated population, a high increase in invasive pulse pressure (>23%) or even in non-invasive pulse pressure (>35%) reliably detected a response to fluid. In the absence of a marked increase in pulse pressure (<4-5%), a response to fluid was unlikely.

  10. Combined Effect of Pressure and Temperature on the Viscous Behaviour of All-Oil Drilling Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermoso J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this research was to study the combined influence of pressure and temperature on the complex viscous behaviour of two oil-based drilling fluids. The oil-based fluids were formulated by dispersing selected organobentonites in mineral oil, using a high-shear mixer, at room temperature. Drilling fluid viscous flow characterization was performed with a controlled-stress rheometer, using both conventional coaxial cylinder and non-conventional geometries for High Pressure/High Temperature (HPHT measurements. The rheological data obtained confirm that a helical ribbon geometry is a very useful tool to characterise the complex viscous flow behaviour of these fluids under extreme conditions. The different viscous flow behaviours encountered for both all-oil drilling fluids, as a function of temperature, are related to changes in polymer-oil pair solvency and oil viscosity. Hence, the resulting structures have been principally attributed to changes in the effective volume fraction of disperse phase due to thermally induced processes. Bingham’s and Herschel-Bulkley’s models describe the rheological properties of these drilling fluids, at different pressures and temperatures, fairly well. It was found that Herschel-Bulkley’s model fits much better B34-based oil drilling fluid viscous flow behaviour under HPHT conditions. Yield stress values increase linearly with pressure in the range of temperature studied. The pressure influence on yielding behaviour has been associated with the compression effect of different resulting organoclay microstructures. A factorial WLF-Barus model fitted the combined effect of temperature and pressure on the plastic viscosity of both drilling fluids fairly well, being this effect mainly influenced by the piezo-viscous properties of the continuous phase.

  11. Computation of the effect of pipe plasticity on pressure-pulse propagation in a fluid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngdahl, C.K.; Kot, C.A.

    1975-04-01

    A simple computational model is developed for incorporating the effect of elastic-plastic deformation of piping on pressure-transient propagation in a fluid system. A computer program (PLWV) is described that incorporates this structural interaction model into a one-dimensional method-of-characteristics procedure for fluid-hammer analysis. Computed results are shown to be in good agreement with available experimental data. The most significant effect of plastic deformation is to limit the peak pressure of a pulse leaving a pipe to approximately the yield pressure of the pipe, if the pipe is sufficiently long. 7 references. (U.S.)

  12. Hydraulic fracture considerations in oil sand overburden dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, R.; Madden, B.; Danku, M. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed hydraulic fracture potential in the dry-filled temporary dams used in the oil sands industry. Hydraulic fractures can occur when reservoir fluid pressures are greater than the minimum stresses in a dam. Stress and strain conditions are influenced by pore pressures, levels of compaction in adjacent fills as well as by underlying pit floor and abutment conditions. Propagation pressure and crack initiation pressures must also be considered in order to provide improved hydraulic fracture protection to dams. Hydraulic fractures typically result in piping failures. Three cases of hydraulic fracture at oil sands operations in Alberta were presented. The study showed that hydraulic fracture failure modes must be considered in dam designs, particularly when thin compacted lift of dry fill are used to replace wetted clay cores. The risk of hydraulic fractures can be reduced by eliminating in situ bedrock irregularities and abutments. Overpressure heights, abutment sloping, and the sloping of fills above abutments, as well as the dam's width and base conditions must also be considered in relation to potential hydraulic fractures. It was concluded that upstream sand beaches and internal filters can help to prevent hydraulic fractures in dams in compacted control zones. 5 refs., 16 figs.

  13. Turbine airfoil cooling system with cooling systems using high and low pressure cooling fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Jan H.; Messmann, Stephen John; Scribner, Carmen Andrew

    2017-10-25

    A turbine airfoil cooling system including a low pressure cooling system and a high pressure cooling system for a turbine airfoil of a gas turbine engine is disclosed. In at least one embodiment, the low pressure cooling system may be an ambient air cooling system, and the high pressure cooling system may be a compressor bleed air cooling system. In at least one embodiment, the compressor bleed air cooling system in communication with a high pressure subsystem that may be a snubber cooling system positioned within a snubber. A delivery system including a movable air supply tube may be used to separate the low and high pressure cooling subsystems. The delivery system may enable high pressure cooling air to be passed to the snubber cooling system separate from low pressure cooling fluid supplied by the low pressure cooling system to other portions of the turbine airfoil cooling system.

  14. Labyrinth and cerebral-spinal fluid pressure changes in guinea pigs and monkeys during simulated zero G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, D. E.

    1977-01-01

    This study was undertaken to explore the hypothesis that shifts of body fluids from the legs and torso toward the head contribute to the motion sickness experienced by astronauts and cosmonauts. The shifts in body fluids observed during zero-G exposure were simulated by elevating guinea pigs' and monkeys' torsos and hindquarters. Cerebral-spinal fluid pressure was recorded from a transducer located in a brain ventricle; labyrinth fluid pressure was recorded from a pipette cemented in a hole in a semicircular canal. An anticipated divergence in cerebral-spinal fluid pressure and labyrinth fluid pressure during torso elevation was not observed. The results of this study do not support a fluid shift mechanism of zero-G-induced motion sickness. However, a more complete test of the fluid shift mechanism would be obtained if endolymph and perilymph pressure changes were determined separately; we have been unable to perform this test to date.

  15. Pressure sensor for use in the Loss-of-Fluid-Test (LOFT) reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billeter, T.R.

    1979-07-01

    Tests at temperatures up to 800 0 F and pressures up to 2500 psig were conducted at Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) to qualify an instrument for measurement of fuel-rod pressure in the Loss-of-Fluid-Test (LOFT) reactor. Operational characteristics of the selected pressure transducers are summarized for a series of static, quasi-static, and transient tests conducted for a period of about 700 hours

  16. A lattice Boltzmann investigation of steady-state fluid distribution, capillary pressure and relative permeability of a porous medium: Effects of fluid and geometrical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi; Galindo-Torres, Sergio; Yan, Guanxi; Scheuermann, Alexander; Li, Ling

    2018-06-01

    Simulations of simultaneous steady-state two-phase flow in the capillary force-dominated regime were conducted using the state-of-the-art Shan-Chen multi-component lattice Boltzmann model (SCMC-LBM) based on two-dimensional porous media. We focused on analyzing the fluid distribution (i.e., WP fluid-solid, NP fluid-solid and fluid-fluid interfacial areas) as well as the capillary pressure versus saturation curve which was affected by fluid and geometrical properties (i.e., wettability, adhesive strength, pore size distribution and specific surface area). How these properties influenced the relative permeability versus saturation relation through apparent effective permeability and threshold pressure gradient was also explored. The SCMC-LBM simulations showed that, a thin WP fluid film formed around the solid surface due to the adhesive fluid-solid interaction, resulting in discrete WP fluid distributions and reduction of the WP fluid mobility. Also, the adhesive interaction provided another source of capillary pressure in addition to capillary force, which, however, did not affect the mobility of the NP fluid. The film fluid effect could be enhanced by large adhesive strength and fine pores in heterogeneous porous media. In the steady-state infiltration, not only the NP fluid but also the WP fluid were subjected to the capillary resistance. The capillary pressure effect could be alleviated by decreased wettability, large average pore radius and improved fluid connectivity in heterogeneous porous media. The present work based on the SCMC-LBM investigations elucidated the role of film fluid as well as capillary pressure in the two-phase flow system. The findings have implications for ways to improve the macroscopic flow equation based on balance of force for the steady-state infiltration.

  17. Hydraulic fracture monitoring in hard rock at 410 m depth with an advanced fluid-injection protocol and extensive sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Arno; Stephansson, Ove; Stenberg, Leif; Plenkers, Katrin; Specht, Sebastian; Milkereit, Claus; Schill, Eva; Kwiatek, Grzegorz; Dresen, Georg; Zimmermann, Günter; Dahm, Torsten; Weber, Michael

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, an underground experiment at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) is described. Main goal is optimizing geothermal heat exchange in crystalline rock mass at depth by multistage hydraulic fracturing with minimal impact on the environment, that is, seismic events. For this, three arrays with acoustic emission, microseismicity and electromagnetic sensors are installed mapping hydraulic fracture initiation and growth. Fractures are driven by three different water injection schemes (continuous, progressive and pulse pressurization). After a brief review of hydraulic fracture operations in crystalline rock mass at mine scale, the site geology and the stress conditions at Äspö HRL are described. Then, the continuous, single-flow rate and alternative, multiple-flow rate fracture breakdown tests in a horizontal borehole at depth level 410 m are described together with the monitoring networks and sensitivity. Monitoring results include the primary catalogue of acoustic emission hypocentres obtained from four hydraulic fractures with the in situ trigger and localizing network. The continuous versus alternative water injection schemes are discussed in terms of the fracture breakdown pressure, the fracture pattern from impression packer result and the monitoring at the arrays. An example of multistage hydraulic fracturing with several phases of opening and closing of fracture walls is evaluated using data from acoustic emissions, seismic broad-band recordings and electromagnetic signal response. Based on our limited amount of in situ tests (six) and evaluation of three tests in Ävrö granodiorite, in the multiple-flow rate test with progressively increasing target pressure, the acoustic emission activity starts at a later stage in the fracturing process compared to the conventional fracturing case with continuous water injection. In tendency, also the total number and magnitude of acoustic events are found to be smaller in the progressive treatment with

  18. Adjoint sensitivity analysis of the RELAPS/MOD3.2 two-fluid thermal-hydraulic code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu-Bujor, M.

    2000-10-01

    This work presents the implementation of the Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis Procedure (ASAP) for the non-equilibrium, non-homogeneous two-fluid model, including boron concentration and non-condensable gases, of the RELAP5/MOD3.2 code. The end-product of this implementation is the Adjoint Sensitivity Model (ASM-REL/TF), which is derived for both the differential and discretized equations underlying the two-fluid model with non-condensable(s). The consistency requirements between these two representations are also highlighted. The validation of the ASM-REL/TF has been carried out by using sample problems involving: (i) liquid-phase only, (ii) gas-phase only, and (iii) two-phase mixture (of water and steam). Thus the 'Two-Loops with Pumps' sample problem supplied with RELAP5/MOD3.2 has been used to verify the accuracy and stability of the numerical solution of the ASM-REL/TF when only the liquid-phase is present. Furthermore, the 'Edwards Pipe' sample problem, also supplied with RELAP5/MOD3.2, has been used to verify the accuracy and stability of the numerical solution of the ASM-REL/TF when both (i.e., liquid and gas) phases are present. In addition, the accuracy and stability of the numerical solution of the ASM-REL/TF have been verified when only the gas-phase is present by using modified 'Two-Loops with Pumps' and the 'Edwards Pipe' sample problems in which the liquid and two-phase fluids, respectively, were replaced by pure steam. The results obtained for these sample problems depict typical sensitivities of junction velocities and volume-averaged pressures to perturbations in initial conditions, and indicate that the numerical solution of the ASM-REL/TF is as robust, stable, and accurate as the original RELAP5/MOD3.2 calculations. In addition, the solution of the ASM-REL/TF has been used to calculate sample sensitivities of volume-averaged pressures to variations in the pump head. (orig.) [de

  19. Model for polygonal hydraulic jumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Erik Andreas; Watanabe, Shinya; Bohr, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    We propose a phenomenological model for the polygonal hydraulic jumps discovered by Ellegaard and co-workers [Nature (London) 392, 767 (1998); Nonlinearity 12, 1 (1999); Physica B 228, 1 (1996)], based on the known flow structure for the type-II hydraulic jumps with a "roller" (separation eddy...... nonhydrostatic pressure contributions from surface tension in light of recent observations by Bush and co-workers [J. Fluid Mech. 558, 33 (2006); Phys. Fluids 16, S4 (2004)]. The model can be analyzed by linearization around the circular state, resulting in a parameter relationship for nearly circular polygonal...... states. A truncated but fully nonlinear version of the model can be solved analytically. This simpler model gives rise to polygonal shapes that are very similar to those observed in experiments, even though surface tension is neglected, and the condition for the existence of a polygon with N corners...

  20. The potential for spills and leaks of hydraulic fracturing related fluids on well sites and from road incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Sarah; Worrall, Fred; Davies, Richard; Gluyas, Jon

    2017-04-01

    recovered. The most common cause of leakage each year is equipment failure; these results highlight the need for good regulation and maintenance onsite. The UK's Institute of Directors suggests several shale gas production scenarios for the UK and how this would influence truck movement. One of their scenarios suggests the development of well pads with 10-wells and 40 laterals (one well pad with 10 well each with 4 laterals). This type of well pad would be projected to use 544,000 m3 of water, which would generate between 11155-31288 truck movements over 20 years, or 6.1-17.1 per day if averaged over 5 years. Dairy farmers in the UK produce 11 million m3 of milk a year, which if the tanker has a capacity of 30 m3, equates to approximately 366667 milk tanker journeys a year. This study assesses the number of road incidents and milk tanker spills and predicts the likelihood of such events for fluids involved in hydraulic fracturing.

  1. The Balance of Fluid and Osmotic Pressures across Active Biological Membranes with Application to the Corneal Endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Cheng

    Full Text Available The movement of fluid and solutes across biological membranes facilitates the transport of nutrients for living organisms and maintains the fluid and osmotic pressures in biological systems. Understanding the pressure balances across membranes is crucial for studying fluid and electrolyte homeostasis in living systems, and is an area of active research. In this study, a set of enhanced Kedem-Katchalsky (KK equations is proposed to describe fluxes of water and solutes across biological membranes, and is applied to analyze the relationship between fluid and osmotic pressures, accounting for active transport mechanisms that propel substances against their concentration gradients and for fixed charges that alter ionic distributions in separated environments. The equilibrium analysis demonstrates that the proposed theory recovers the Donnan osmotic pressure and can predict the correct fluid pressure difference across membranes, a result which cannot be achieved by existing KK theories due to the neglect of fixed charges. The steady-state analysis on active membranes suggests a new pressure mechanism which balances the fluid pressure together with the osmotic pressure. The source of this pressure arises from active ionic fluxes and from interactions between solvent and solutes in membrane transport. We apply the proposed theory to study the transendothelial fluid pressure in the in vivo cornea, which is a crucial factor maintaining the hydration and transparency of the tissue. The results show the importance of the proposed pressure mechanism in mediating stromal fluid pressure and provide a new interpretation of the pressure modulation mechanism in the in vivo cornea.

  2. Prevention of Pressure Oscillations in Modeling a Cavitating Acoustic Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Klenow

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Cavitation effects play an important role in the UNDEX loading of a structure. For far-field UNDEX, the structural loading is affected by the formation of local and bulk cavitation regions, and the pressure pulses resulting from the closure of the cavitation regions. A common approach to numerically modeling cavitation in far-field underwater explosions is Cavitating Acoustic Finite Elements (CAFE and more recently Cavitating Acoustic Spectral Elements (CASE. Treatment of cavitation in this manner causes spurious pressure oscillations which must be treated by a numerical damping scheme. The focus of this paper is to investigate the severity of these oscillations on the structural response and a possible improvement to CAFE, based on the original Boris and Book Flux-Corrected Transport algorithm on structured meshes [6], to limit oscillations without the energy loss associated with the current damping schemes.

  3. Properties of planetary fluids at high pressure and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellis, W.J.; Hamilton, D.C.; Holmes, N.C.; Radousky, H.B.; Ree, F.H.; Ross, M.; Young, D.A.; Nicol, M.

    1987-01-01

    In order to derive models of the interiors of Uranus, Neptune, Jupiter and Saturn, researchers studied equations of state and electrical conductivities of molecules at high dynamic pressures and temperatures. Results are given for shock temperature measurements of N 2 and CH 4 . Temperature data allowed demonstration of shock induced cooling in the the transition region and the existence of crossing isotherms in P-V space

  4. Energy Cost of Avoiding Pressure Oscillations in a Discrete Fluid Power Force System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen

    2015-01-01

    In secondary valve controlled discrete fluid power force systems the valve opening trajectory greatly influences the pressure dynamics in the actuator chambers. For discrete fluid power systems featuring hoses of significant length pressure oscillations due to fast valve switching is well......-known. This paper builds upon theoretical findings on how shaping of the valve opening may reduce the cylinder pressure oscillations. The current paper extents the work by implementing the valve opening characteristics reducing the pressure oscillations on a full scale power take-off test-bench for wave energy...... will present measurements comparing pressure dynamics for two valve opening algorithms. In addition the paper will give a theoretical investigation of the energy loss during valve shifting and finally measurements of average power output from the power take-off system in various sea states are compared...

  5. Study of high-pressure adsorption from supercritical fluids by the potential theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsalvo, Matias Alfonso; Shapiro, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    The multicomponent potential theory of adsorption (MPTA), which has been previously used to study low-pressure adsorption of subcritical fluids, is extended to adsorption equilibria from supercritical fluids up to high pressures. The MPTA describes an adsorbed phase as an inhomogeneous fluid...... the adsorbed and the gas phases. We have also evaluated the performance of the classical Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) EoS. The fluid-solid interactions are described by simple Dubinin-Radushkevich-Astakhov (DRA) potentials. In addition, we test the performance of the 10-4-3 Steele potential. It is shown...... that application of sPC-SAFT slightly improves the performance of the MPTA and that in spite of its simplicity, the DRA model can be considered as an accurate potential, especially, for mixture adsorption. We show that, for the sets of experimental data considered in this work, the MPTA is capable of predicting...

  6. Fluid-structure interaction dynamic simulation of spring-loaded pressure relief valves under seismic wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dongwei; Zhang, Jian; Yu, Xinhai

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a fluid-structure interaction dynamic simulation method of spring-loaded pressure relief valve was established. The dynamic performances of the fluid regions and the stress and strain of the structure regions were calculated at the same time by accurately setting up the contact pairs between the solid parts and the coupling surfaces between the fluid regions and the structure regions. A two way fluid-structure interaction dynamic simulation of a simplified pressure relief valve model was carried out. The influence of vertical sinusoidal seismic waves on the performance of the pressure relief valve was preliminarily investigated by loading sine waves. Under vertical seismic waves, the pressure relief valve will flutter, and the reseating pressure was affected by the amplitude and frequency of the seismic waves. This simulation method of the pressure relief valve under vertical seismic waves can provide effective means for investigating the seismic performances of the valves, and make up for the shortcomings of the experiment.

  7. Effect of initial fluid-system pressures on the behavior of a rupture-disc pressure-relief device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, B.J.; Shin, Y.W.; Kot, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    Rupture disc assemblies are used in piping network systems as a pressure-relief device to protect the system from being exposed to excess pressures. Among the various disc assemblies, the reverse-buckling type is chosen for application in the Clinch River Breeder Reactor. This rupture-disc assembly consists of a portion of a thin spherical shell with its convex side subjected to the fluid system. The reverse-buckling type rupture disc assemblies have been used successfully in environments where the fluid is gas, i.e. highly compressible, and their performances have been judged as adequate in the liquid environment. To analyze the piping system, an analysis method is needed taking into consideration of the fluid/disc interaction, the nonlinear dynamic buckling phenomenon of the disc, and the possible cavitation of the fluid. A computer code SWAAM-I had been written at the Components Technology Division, Argonne National Laboratory. Among its many functions, one is to compute the response of 1-dimensional pressure pulse propagation including the effects of many different types of boundary conditions and possible pipe plasticity

  8. VHBORE: A code to compute borehole fluid conductivity profiles with pressure changes in the borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, F.V.; Tsang, C.F.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes the code VHBORE which can be used to model fluid electric conductivity profiles in a borehole intersecting fractured rock under conditions of changing pressure in the well bore. Pressure changes may be due to water level variations caused by pumping or fluid density effects as formation fluid is drawn into the borehole. Previous reports describe the method of estimating the hydrologic behavior of fractured rock using a time series of electric conductivity logs and an earlier code, BORE, to generate electric conductivity logs under constant pressure and flow rate conditions. The earlier model, BORE, assumed a constant flow rate, q i , for each inflow into the well bore. In the present code the user supplies the location, constant pressure, h i , transmissivity, T i , and storativity, S i , for each fracture, as well as the initial water level in the well, h w (0), In addition, the input data contains changes in the water level at later times, Δh w (t), typically caused by turning a pump on or off. The variable density calculation also requires input of the density of each of the inflow fluids, ρ i , and the initial uniform density of the well bore fluid, ρ w (0). These parameters are used to compute the flow rate for each inflow point at each time step. The numerical method of Jacob and Lohman (1952) is used to compute the flow rate into or out of the fractures based on the changes in pressure in the wellbore. A dimensionless function relates flow rate as a function of time in response to an imposed pressure change. The principle of superposition is used to determine the net flow rate from a time series of pressure changes. Additional reading on the relationship between drawdown and flow rate can be found in Earlougher (1977), particularly his Section 4.6, open-quotes Constant-Pressure Flow Testingclose quotes

  9. Slip behaviour of experimental faults subjected to fluid pressure stimulation: carbonates vs. shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collettini, C.; Scuderi, M. M.; Marone, C.

    2017-12-01

    Fluid overpressure is one of the primary mechanisms for triggering tectonic fault slip and human-induced seismicity. This mechanism has been invoked to explain the dramatic increase in seismicity associated with waste water disposal in intra-plate setting, and it is appealing because fluids lubricate the fault and reduce the effective normal stress that holds the fault in place. Although, this basic physical mechanism is well understood, several fundamental questions remain including the apparent delay between fluid injection and seismicity, the role of fault zone rheology, and the relationship between injection volume and earthquake size. Moreover, models of earthquake nucleation predict that a reduction in normal stress, as expected for fluid overpressure, should stabilize fault slip. Here, we address these questions using laboratory experiments, conducted in the double direct shear configuration in a true-triaxial machine on carbonates and shale fault gouges. In particular, we: 1) evaluate frictional strength and permeability, 2) characterize the rate- and state- friction parameters and 3) study fault slip evolution during fluid pressure stimulations. With increasing fluid pressure, when shear and effective normal stresses reach the failure condition, in calcite gouges, characterized by slightly velocity strengthening behaviour, we observe an acceleration of slip that spontaneously evolves into dynamic failure. For shale gouges, with a strong rate-strengthening behaviour, we document complex fault slip behavior characterized by periodic accelerations and decelerations with slip velocity that remains slow (i.e. v 200 µm/s), never approaching dynamic slip rates. Our data indicate that fault rheology and fault stability is controlled by the coupling between fluid pressure and rate- and state- friction parameters suggesting that their comprehensive characterization is fundamental for assessing the role of fluid pressure in natural and human induced earthquakes.

  10. A Brief Review on the Baer-Nunziato type Multi-pressure Multi-fluid Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong; Park, Chan Eok; Lee, Gyu Cheon

    2010-01-01

    Single pressure two-fluid flow equations have complex characteristics. This causes ill-posedness problem. Even though some authors show that the numerical solutions are well behaved if the number of mesh points is sufficiently small, the stability of the solution is always challenged. There have been several attempts to overcome these problems. Multi-pressure multi-fluid models are one of them. Among them, Baer and Nunziato (BN) derived an interesting two-fluid model. BN model has independent phase pressures. It is closed by inserting volume fraction evolution equation. In this paper, several aspects of the BN type model will be reviewed and some suggestion for the future study will be made

  11. Thermal-hydraulic calculations for a fuel assembly in a European Pressurized Reactor using the RELAP5 code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypek Maciej

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main object of interest was a typical fuel assembly, which constitutes a core of the nuclear reactor. The aim of the paper is to describe the phenomena and calculate thermal-hydraulic characteristic parameters in the fuel assembly for a European Pressurized Reactor (EPR. To perform thermal-hydraulic calculations, the RELAP5 code was used. This code allows to simulate steady and transient states for reactor applications. It is also an appropriate calculation tool in the event of a loss-of-coolant accident in light water reactors. The fuel assembly model with nodalization in the RELAP5 (Reactor Excursion and Leak Analysis Program code was presented. The calculations of two steady states for the fuel assembly were performed: the nominal steady-state conditions and the coolant flow rate decreased to 60% of the nominal EPR flow rate. The calculation for one transient state for a linearly decreasing flow rate of coolant was simulated until a new level was stabilized and SCRAM occurred. To check the correctness of the obtained results, the authors compared them against the reactor technical documentation available in the bibliography. The obtained results concerning steady states nearly match the design data. The hypothetical transient showed the importance of the need for correct cooling in the reactor during occurrences exceeding normal operation. The performed analysis indicated consequences of the coolant flow rate limitations during the reactor operation.

  12. Fluid Pressures at the Shoe-Floor-Contaminant Interface During Slips: Effects of Tread & Implications on Slip Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beschorner, Kurt E.; Albert, Devon L.; Chambers, April J.; Redfern, Mark S.

    2018-01-01

    Previous research on slip and fall accidents has suggested that pressurized fluid between the shoe and floor is responsible for initiating slips yet this effect has not been verified experimentally. This study aimed to 1) measure hydrodynamic pressures during slipping for treaded and untreaded conditions; 2) determine the effects of fluid pressure on slip severity; and 3) quantify how fluid pressures vary with instantaneous resultant slipping speed, position on the shoe surface, and throughout the progression of the slip. Eighteen subjects walked on known dry and unexpected slippery floors, while wearing treaded and untreaded shoes. Fluid pressure sensors, embedded in the floor, recorded hydrodynamic pressures during slipping. The maximum fluid pressures (mean+/−standard deviation) were significantly higher for the untreaded conditions (124 +/−75 kPa) than the treaded conditions (1.1 +/−0.29 kPa). Maximum fluid pressures were positively correlated with peak slipping speed (r = 0.87), suggesting that higher fluid pressures, which are associated with untreaded conditions, resulted in more severe slips. Instantaneous resultant slipping speed and position of sensor relative to the shoe sole and walking direction explained 41% of the fluid pressure variability. Fluid pressures were primarily observed for untreaded conditions. This study confirms that fluid pressures are relevant to slipping events, consistent with fluid dynamics theory (i.e. the Reynolds equation), and can be modified with shoe tread design. The results suggest that the occurrence and severity of unexpected slips can be reduced by designing shoes/floors that reduce underfoot fluid pressures. PMID:24267270

  13. Enhancing the safety and efficiency of the driving gear of coal mining machinery by using water as a hydraulic fluid and enhancing the reliability of scraper-chain conveyors; Erhoehung der Sicherheit und Leistungsfaehigkeit der Antriebstechnik von Arbeitsmaschinen durch Verwendung von Wasserhydraulik sowie Erhoehung der Zuverlaessigkeit der Kettenkratzerfoerderer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichel, J.; Boeing, R.; Graetz, A.; Loehning, H.D.; Plum, D.

    1997-12-31

    The objective pursued is to increasingly use water or high water-content fluids as a substitute for other hydraulic fluids in driving gear of mining machinery. The state of the art of the technology is represented only by individual solutions achieved for given purposes which are not suitable for other applications, let alone for coal mining machinery. The research project was to identify hydraulic components that will permit the use of water or watery substances as a hydraulic fluid in mining applications. The components have been found and further developed, and finally systems with linear and rotatory drives have been tested at various test facilities in order to derive information on the system behaviour of pressurized fluids and machinery components and their suitability for coal mining applications. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] In der untertaegigen Antriebstechnik sollen vermehrt Wasser und wasserhaltige Fluessigkeiten eingesetzt werden. Der Stand der Technik fuehrt bei der Anwendung von Wasserhydraulik immer wieder nur Einzelloesungen auf, die nicht allgemein und insbesondere im Steinkohlenbergbau angewendet werden koennen. Im Rahmen dieses Forschungsvorhabens wurden fuer die Wasserhydraulik geeignete Komponenten untersucht, weiterentwickelt und schliesslich Systeme mit linearen und rotatorischen Antrieben auf verschiedenen Pruefstaenden erprobt, um Aussagen ueber das Systemverhalten von Druckfluessigkeit und Bauelementen fuer Bergbauanwendungen zu bekommen. (orig./MSK)

  14. Numerical investigation on hydraulic fracture cleanup and its impact on the productivity of a gas well with a non-Newtonian fluid model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedel, T. [Schlumberger Data and Consulting Services, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2006-07-01

    There are many damage mechanisms associated with hydraulically fractured gas wells. These include hydraulic damage caused by invading fluids during the treatment and damage due to the stresses exerted on the fracture face. Damage to the proppant pack can also reduce conductivity and non-Darcy flow. However, these are not the only impacts of impaired productivity in tight-gas reservoirs, which do not respond to hydraulic fracturing as expected. Some sustain a flat production profile or show only a slow increase in production rate for several weeks or months. This is due to poor rock quality, strong stress dependency in permeability, hydraulic and mechanical damage. Another reason for the poor performance is related to the cleanup of the cross-linked fracturing fluid with its non-Newtonian characteristics. This paper presented an improved 3-phase cleanup model for the investigation of polymer gel cleanup. Yield stress was considered according to the Herschel-Bulkley rheology model. The viscosity model is based on the exact analytical solution, including the plug flow zone. According to data in the published literature, half of the gel phase can be recovered. The gel saturation gradually increases towards the fracture tips, thereby lowering the fracture conductivities. The residing gel damages the permeability and porosity of the proppant pack or causes damage to the fracture face, thereby reducing production potential. These results are in agreement with field observations where fracture half-lengths, conductivities and productivity are also lower than expected. Preliminary results suggest that capillary forces and load-water recovery have little influence on gel cleanup. 16 refs., 2 tabs., 17 figs.

  15. Thermal fluid mixing behavior during medium break LOCA in evaluation of pressurized thermal shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Won; Bang, Young Seok; Seul, Kwang Won; Kim, Hho Jung [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    Thermal fluid mixing behavior during a postulated medium-size hot leg break loss of coolant accident is analyzed for the international comparative assessment study on pressurized thermal shock (PTS-ICAS) proposed by OECD-NEA. The applicability of RELAP5 code to analyze the thermal fluid mixing behavior is evaluated through a simple modeling relevant to the problem constraints. Based on the calculation result, the onset of thermal stratification is investigated using Theofanous`s empirical correlation. Sensitivity calculations using a fine node model and crossflow model are also performed to evaluate the modeling capability on multi-dimensional characteristics related to thermal fluid mixing. 6 refs., 8 figs. (Author)

  16. Thermal fluid mixing behavior during medium break LOCA in evaluation of pressurized thermal shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jae Won; Bang, Young Seok; Seul, Kwang Won; Kim, Hho Jung

    1998-01-01

    Thermal fluid mixing behavior during a postulated medium-size hot leg break loss of coolant accident is analyzed for the international comparative assessment study on pressurized thermal shock (PTS-ICAS) proposed by OECD-NEA. the applicability of RELAP5 code to analyze the thermal fluid mixing behavior is evaluated through a simple modeling relevant to the problem constraints. Based on the calculation result, the onset of thermal stratification is investigated using Theofanous's empirical correlation. Sensitivity calculations using a fine node model and crossflow model are also performed to evaluate the modeling capability on multi-dimensional characteristics related to thermal fluid mixing

  17. Mounting Pressure in the Microenvironment: Fluids, Solids, and Cells in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuFort, Christopher C; DelGiorno, Kathleen E; Hingorani, Sunil R

    2016-06-01

    The microenvironment influences the pathogenesis of solid tumors and plays an outsized role in some. Our understanding of the stromal response to cancers, particularly pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, has evolved from that of host defense to tumor offense. We know that most, although not all, of the factors and processes in the microenvironment support tumor epithelial cells. This reappraisal of the roles of stromal elements has also revealed potential vulnerabilities and therapeutic opportunities to exploit. The high concentration in the stroma of the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan, together with the large gel-fluid phase and pressures it generates, were recently identified as primary sources of treatment resistance in pancreas cancer. Whereas the relatively minor role of free interstitial fluid in the fluid mechanics and perfusion of tumors has been long appreciated, the less mobile, gel-fluid phase has been largely ignored for historical and technical reasons. The inability of classic methods of fluid pressure measurement to capture the gel-fluid phase, together with a dependence on xenograft and allograft systems that inaccurately model tumor vascular biology, has led to an undue emphasis on the role of free fluid in impeding perfusion and drug delivery and an almost complete oversight of the predominant role of the gel-fluid phase. We propose that a hyaluronan-rich, relatively immobile gel-fluid phase induces vascular collapse and hypoperfusion as a primary mechanism of treatment resistance in pancreas cancers. Similar properties may be operant in other solid tumors as well, so revisiting and characterizing fluid mechanics with modern techniques in other autochthonous cancers may be warranted. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Kitchen Physics: Lessons in Fluid Pressure and Error Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieyra, Rebecca Elizabeth; Vieyra, Chrystian; Macchia, Stefano

    2017-02-01

    Although the advent and popularization of the "flipped classroom" tends to center around at-home video lectures, teachers are increasingly turning to at-home labs for enhanced student engagement. This paper describes two simple at-home experiments that can be accomplished in the kitchen. The first experiment analyzes the density of four liquids using a waterproof case and a smartphone barometer in a container, sink, or tub. The second experiment determines the relationship between pressure and temperature of an ideal gas in a constant volume container placed momentarily in a refrigerator freezer. These experiences provide a ripe opportunity both for learning fundamental physics concepts as well as to investigate a variety of error analysis techniques that are frequently overlooked in introductory physics courses.

  19. Computer code for thermal-hydraulic simulation of heat pressurizer tanks operation (Simterm-H)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellos, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    It is presented the Simtherm-H computer code, developed for calculating the thermodynamic properties of the high pressure heating system and the feedwater tank in transient state for PWR nuclear power plants (1300 MWe). (E.G.) [pt

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers profile of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirinzi, Tommaso; Sancesario, Giulia Maria; Di Lazzaro, Giulia; D'Elia, Alessio; Imbriani, Paola; Scalise, Simona; Pisani, Antonio

    2018-04-01

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a disabling neurological disorder whose potential treatability is significantly limited by diagnostic uncertainty. In fact, typical clinical presentation occurs at late phases of disease, when CSF shunting could be ineffective. In recent years, measurement of different CSF proteins, whose concentration directly reflects neuropathological changes of CNS, has significantly improved both diagnostic timing and accuracy of neurodegenerative disease. Unfortunately iNPH lacks neuropathological hallmarks allowing the identification of specific disease biomarkers. However, neuropathology of iNPH is so rich and heterogeneous that many processes can be tracked in CSF, including Alzheimer's disease core pathology, subcortical degeneration, neuroinflammation and vascular dysfunction. Indeed, a huge number of CSF biomarkers have been analyzed in iNPH patients, but a unifying profile has not been provided yet. In this brief survey, we thus attempted to summarize the main findings in the field of iNPH CSF biomarkers, aimed at outlining a synthetic model. Although defined cut-off values for biomarkers are not available, a better knowledge of CSF characteristics may definitely assist in diagnosing the disease.

  1. Hydraulic performance evaluation of pressure compensating (pc) emitters and micro-tubing for drip irrigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangrio, A.G.; Asif, M.; Jahangir, I.

    2013-01-01

    Drip irrigation system is necessary for those areas, where the water scarcity issues are present. The present study was conducted at the field station of Climate Change, Alternate Energy and Water Resources Institute (CAEWRI), National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Islamabad, during 2013, regarding drip irrigation system. Drip irrigation system depends on uniform emitter application flow. All the emitters were tested and replicated thrice at pressure head (34 to 207Kpa) with an increment of 34 Kpa. The minimum and maximum discharges were 1.32 - 3.52, 3.36 - 5.42, and 43.22 - 100.99 Lph, with an average of 2.42, 4.63 and 73.66 Lph, for Bow Smith, RIS and Micro-tubing, respectively. It indicates that more than 90% of emission uniformity (EU) and uniformity coefficient (CU) for all Emitters, which shows excellent water application with least standard deviation, ranging 0.12 to 2.37, throughout the operating pressure heads in all emitters. An average coefficient of variation (CV) of all emitters were behaving less than 0.07, indicating an excellent class at all operating pressure heads between 34 to 207 Kpa. Moreover, the relationship of discharge and pressure of emitters indicates that discharge increased with the increase of pressure head. The Q-H curve plays key role in the selection of emitters. (author)

  2. Scaling of two-phase flow transients using reduced pressure system and simulant fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocamustafaogullari, G.; Ishii, M.

    1987-01-01

    Scaling criteria for a natural circulation loop under single-phase flow conditions are derived. Based on these criteria, practical applications for designing a scaled-down model are considered. Particular emphasis is placed on scaling a test model at reduced pressure levels compared to a prototype and on fluid-to-fluid scaling. The large number of similarty groups which are to be matched between modell and prototype makes the design of a scale model a challenging tasks. The present study demonstrates a new approach to this clasical problen using two-phase flow scaling parameters. It indicates that a real time scaling is not a practical solution and a scaled-down model should have an accelerated (shortened) time scale. An important result is the proposed new scaling methodology for simulating pressure transients. It is obtained by considerung the changes of the fluid property groups which appear within the two-phase similarity parameters and the single-phase to two-phase flow transition prameters. Sample calculations are performed for modeling two-phase flow transients of a high pressure water system by a low-pressure water system or a Freon system. It is shown that modeling is possible for both cases for simulation pressure transients. However, simulation of phase change transitions is not possible by a reduced pressure water system without distortion in either power or time. (orig.)

  3. Development of the pressure-time method as a relative and absolute method for low-head hydraulic machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Pontus [Poeyry SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Cervantes, Michel [Luleaa Univ. of Technology, Luleaa (Sweden)

    2013-02-15

    The pressure-time method is an absolute method common for flow measurements in power plants. The method determines the flow rate by measuring the pressure and estimating the losses between two sections in the penstock during a closure of the guide vanes. The method has limitations according to the IEC41 standard, which makes it difficult to use at Swedish plants where the head is generally low. This means that there is limited experience/knowledge in Sweden on this method, where the Winter-Kennedy is usually used. Since several years, Luleaa University of Technology works actively in the development of the pressure-time method for low-head hydraulic machines with encouraging results. Focus has been in decreasing the distance between both measuring sections and evaluation of the viscous losses. Measurements were performed on a pipe test rig (D=0.3 m) in a laboratory under well controlled conditions with 7pressure-time measurements (with L=5 m) performed on a 10 MW Kaplan turbine compared to transit-time flow measurements. The new formulation taking into account the unsteady losses allows a better estimation of the flow rate, up to 0.3%. As an alternative to the Winter-Kennedy widely used in Sweden, the pressure-time method was tested as a relative method by measuring the pressure between the free surface and a section in the penstock without knowing the exact geometry, i.e., pipe factor. Such measurements may be simple to perform as most of the inlet spiral casings have pressure taps. Furthermore, the viscous losses do not need to be accurately determined as long as they are handled similarly between the measurements. The pressure-time method may thus become an alternative to the Winter-Kennedy.

  4. Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, quantitative EEG findings, and the cerebrospinal fluid tap test: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jong-Geun; Kang, Kyunghun; Jung, Ji-Young; Park, Sung-Pa; Lee, Maan-Gee; Lee, Ho-Won

    2014-12-01

    In this pilot study, we analyzed relationships between quantitative EEG measurements and clinical parameters in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients, along with differences in these quantitative EEG markers between cerebrospinal fluid tap test responders and nonresponders. Twenty-six idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients (9 cerebrospinal fluid tap test responders and 17 cerebrospinal fluid tap test nonresponders) constituted the final group for analysis. The resting EEG was recorded and relative powers were computed for seven frequency bands. Cerebrospinal fluid tap test nonresponders, when compared with responders, showed a statistically significant increase in alpha2 band power at the right frontal and centrotemporal regions. Higher delta2 band powers in the frontal, central, parietal, and occipital regions and lower alpha1 band powers in the right temporal region significantly correlated with poorer cognitive performance. Higher theta1 band powers in the left parietal and occipital regions significantly correlated with gait dysfunction. And higher delta1 band powers in the right frontal regions significantly correlated with urinary disturbance. Our findings may encourage further research using quantitative EEG in patients with ventriculomegaly as a potential electrophysiological marker for predicting cerebrospinal fluid tap test responders. This study additionally suggests that the delta, theta, and alpha bands are statistically correlated with the severity of symptoms in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus patients.

  5. RELAP5 thermal-hydraulic analyses of overcooling sequences in a pressurized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolander, M.A.; Fletcher, C.D.; Davis, C.B.; Kullberg, C.M.; Stitt, B.D.; Waterman, M.E.; Burtt, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    In support of the Pressurized Thermal Shock Integration Study, sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory has performed analyses of overcooling transients using the RELAP5/MOD1.6 and MOD2.0 computer codes. These analyses were performed for the H.B. Robinson Unit 2 pressurized water reactor, which is a Westinghouse 3-loop design plant. Results of the RELAP5 analyses are presented. The capabilities of the RELAP5 computer code as a tool for analyzing integral plant transients requiring a detailed plant model, including complex trip logic and major control systems, are examined

  6. Pancreatic tissue fluid pressure in chronic pancreatitis. Relation to pain, morphology, and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbehøj, N; Borly, L; Bülow, J

    1990-01-01

    The relation between pancreatic tissue fluid pressure and pain, morphology, and function was studied in a cross-sectional investigation. Pressure measurements were performed by percutaneous fine-needle puncture. Thirty-nine patients with chronic pancreatitis were included, 25 with pain and 14...... without (p = 0.004 and p = 0.0003, respectively). The pressure was significantly related (inversely) to pancreatic duct diameter only in the group of 19 patients with earlier pancreatic surgery (R = -0.57, p = 0.02). The pressure was not related to functional factors or the presence of pancreatic...... without pain. The pressure was higher in patients with pain than in patients without pain (p = 0.000001), and this was significantly related to a pain score from a visual analogue scale (p less than 0.001). Patients with pancreatic pseudocysts had both higher pressure and higher pain score than patients...

  7. The Influence of Hydraulic Fracturing on Carbon Storage Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Pengcheng; Settgast, Randolph R.; Hao, Yue; Morris, Joseph P.; Ryerson, Frederick J.

    2017-12-01

    Conventional principles of the design and operation of geologic carbon storage (GCS) require injecting CO2 below the caprock fracturing pressure to ensure the integrity of the storage complex. In nonideal storage reservoirs with relatively low permeability, pressure buildup can lead to hydraulic fracturing of the reservoir and caprock. While the GCS community has generally viewed hydraulic fractures as a key risk to storage integrity, a carefully designed stimulation treatment under appropriate geologic conditions could provide improved injectivity while maintaining overall seal integrity. A vertically contained hydraulic fracture, either in the reservoir rock or extending a limited height into the caprock, provides an effective means to access reservoir volume far from the injection well. Employing a fully coupled numerical model of hydraulic fracturing, solid deformation, and matrix fluid flow, we study the enabling conditions, processes, and mechanisms of hydraulic fracturing during CO2 injection. A hydraulic fracture's pressure-limiting behavior dictates that the near-well fluid pressure is only slightly higher than the fracturing pressure of the rock and is insensitive to injection rate and mechanical properties of the formation. Although a fracture contained solely within the reservoir rock with no caprock penetration, would be an ideal scenario, poroelastic principles dictate that sustaining such a fracture could lead to continuously increasing pressure until the caprock fractures. We also investigate the propagation pattern and injection pressure responses of a hydraulic fracture propagating in a caprock subjected to heterogeneous in situ stress. The results have important implications for the use of hydraulic fracturing as a tool for managing storage performance.

  8. A thermodynamically consistent model for granular-fluid mixtures considering pore pressure evolution and hypoplastic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Julian; Wang, Yongqi

    2016-11-01

    A new mixture model for granular-fluid flows, which is thermodynamically consistent with the entropy principle, is presented. The extra pore pressure described by a pressure diffusion equation and the hypoplastic material behavior obeying a transport equation are taken into account. The model is applied to granular-fluid flows, using a closing assumption in conjunction with the dynamic fluid pressure to describe the pressure-like residual unknowns, hereby overcoming previous uncertainties in the modeling process. Besides the thermodynamically consistent modeling, numerical simulations are carried out and demonstrate physically reasonable results, including simple shear flow in order to investigate the vertical distribution of the physical quantities, and a mixture flow down an inclined plane by means of the depth-integrated model. Results presented give insight in the ability of the deduced model to capture the key characteristics of granular-fluid flows. We acknowledge the support of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) for this work within the Project Number WA 2610/3-1.

  9. Fluid mechanics of needle valves with rounded components Part III: Pressure distributions on walls

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tesař, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 248, September (2016), s. 138-147 ISSN 0924-4247 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23046S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : needle valves * pressure measurements * valves Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.499, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924424716303417

  10. Changes in myocardial fluid filtration are reflected in epicardial lymph pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanTeeffelen, J. W.; Merkus, D.; Vergroesen, I.; Spaan, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of increased fluid filtration on stopped-flow epicardial lymph pressure (P(lymph)), used as an indicator of myocardial interstitial volume, was investigated in the anesthetized open-chest dog. Histamine infusion resulted in an increased systolic peak in the P(lymph) signal together with

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid flow and production in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus studied by MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Ståhlberg, F; Thomsen, C

    1994-01-01

    An interleaved velocity-sensitised fast low-angle shot pulse sequence was used to study cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in the cerebral aqueduct, and supratentorial CSF production in 9 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) and 9 healthy volunteers. The peak aqueduct CSF flow, both caudal...

  12. Carbon capture from coal fired power plant using pressurized fluid bed technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Dennis; Christensen, Tor

    2010-09-15

    This presentation will discuss the use of a pressurized fluid bed boiler system and specialized carbon capture system to burn coal and generagte clean electricity. The paper will present the existing boiler and carbon capture technology and present economics, thermal performance and emissions reduction for a 100Mw module.

  13. X-ray Compton scattering experiments for fluid alkali metals at high temperatures and pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, K., E-mail: kazuhiro-matsuda@scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Fukumaru, T.; Kimura, K.; Yao, M. [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Tamura, K. [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Katoh, M. [A.L.M.T. Corp., Iwasekoshi-Machi 2, Toyama 931-8543 (Japan); Kajihara, Y.; Inui, M. [Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8521 (Japan); Itou, M.; Sakurai, Y. [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2015-08-17

    We have developed a high-pressure vessel and a cell for x-ray Compton scattering measurements of fluid alkali metals. Measurements have been successfully carried out for alkali metal rubidium at elevated temperatures and pressures using synchrotron radiation at SPring-8. The width of Compton profiles (CPs) of fluid rubidium becomes narrow with decreasing fluid density, which indicates that the CPs sensitively detect the effect of reduction in the valence electron density. At the request of all authors of the paper, and with the agreement of the Proceedings Editor, an updated version of this article was published on 10 September 2015. The original article supplied to AIP Publishing was not the final version and contained PDF conversion errors in Formulas (1) and (2). The errors have been corrected in the updated and re-published article.

  14. A low hydraulic capacitance pressure sensor for integration with a micro viscosity detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heyden, F.H.J.; Blom, M.T.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Chmela, E.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Tijssen, R.P; van den Berg, Albert

    2003-01-01

    A design is presented for a micromachined differential viscometer, that is suitable for integration into a planar hydrodynamic chromatography system (HDC) for polymer analysis. The viscometer consists of four equal flow restrictions and two pressure sensors, connected in a Wheatstone bridge

  15. Novel cavitation fluid jet polishing process based on negative pressure effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fengjun; Wang, Hui; Tang, Yu; Yin, Shaohui; Huang, Shuai; Zhang, Guanghua

    2018-04-01

    Traditional abrasive fluid jet polishing (FJP) is limited by its high-pressure equipment, unstable material removal rate, and applicability to ultra-smooth surfaces because of the evident air turbulence, fluid expansion, and a large polishing spot in high-pressure FJP. This paper presents a novel cavitation fluid jet polishing (CFJP) method and process based on FJP technology. It can implement high-efficiency polishing on small-scale surfaces in a low-pressure environment. CFJP uses the purposely designed polishing equipment with a sealed chamber, which can generate a cavitation effect in negative pressure environment. Moreover, the collapse of cavitation bubbles can spray out a high-energy microjet and shock wave to enhance the material removal. Its feasibility is verified through researching the flow behavior and the cavitation results of the negative pressure cavitation machining of pure water in reversing suction flow. The mechanism is analyzed through a computational fluid dynamics simulation. Thus, its cavitation and surface removal mechanisms in the vertical CFJP and inclined CFJP are studied. A series of polishing experiments on different materials and polishing parameters are conducted to validate its polishing performance compared with FJP. The maximum removal depth increases, and surface roughness gradually decreases with increasing negative outlet pressures. The surface becomes smooth with the increase of polishing time. The experimental results confirm that the CFJP process can realize a high material removal rate and smooth surface with low energy consumption in the low-pressure environment, together with compatible surface roughness to FJP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nonlinear fluid/structure interaction relating a rupture-disc pressure-relief device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, B.J.; Kot, C.A.; Shin, Y.W.; Youngdahl, C.K.

    1983-01-01

    Rupture disc assemblies are used in piping network systems as a pressure-relief device. The reverse-buckling type is chosen for application in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. This assembly is used successfully in systems in which the fluid is highly compressible, such as air; the opening up of the disc by the knife setup is complete. However, this is not true for a liquid system; it had been observed experimentally that the disc may open up only partially or not at all. Therefore, to realistically understand and represent a rupture disc assembly in a liquid environment, the fluid-structure interactions between the liquid medium and the disc assembly must be considered. The methods for analyzing the fluid and the disc and the mechanism interconnecting them are presented. The fluid is allowed to cavitate through a column-cavitation model and the disc is allowed to become plastically deformed through the classic Von Mises' yield criteria, when necessary

  17. Two-fluid effects on pressure-driven modes in a heliotron device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, H.; Ito, A.; Sato, M.; Goto, R.; Hatori, T.

    2014-10-01

    Two-fluid effects on the ballooning or pressure-driven unstable modes are studied numerically to understand physics in linear and nonlinear evolution of them in a heliotron device. Full 3D simulations for β 0 = 5% unstable magnetic configuration of the large helical device show that the introduction of the two-fluid term brings about broader radial profile and higher growth rate in the linear stage of the evolution, weakened parallel heat conduction, and lead to a saturation profile worse than that in the single-fluid MHD simulation. The numerical results show that suppression of high wave-number modes enhance the growth of low wave-number modes. The two-fluid effects and a plausible mild saturation of ballooning modes is discussed. (author)

  18. Multi-solid model modified to predict paraffin in petroleum fluids at high temperatures and pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar Remolina, Juan Carlos M; Barrios Ortiz, Wilson; Santoyo Ramirez Gildardo

    2009-01-01

    A thermodynamic structure has been modified in order to calculate cloud point, fluidity and amount of precipitated wax under a wide range of temperature conditions, composition, and high pressures. The model is based on a combination of ideal solution concepts, fluid characterization, and formation of multiple solid phases using Cubic State Equations. The experimental data utilized for testing the prediction capacity and potentiality of a model exhibit different characteristics: continuous series synthetic systems of heavy alkanes, discontinuous series, and dead or living petroleum fluids with indefinite fractions such as C7+, C10+, C20+, and C30+. The samples were taken from the literature, petroleum fluids from the main Colombian reservoirs, and some samples of Bolivian fluids. Results presented in this paper show the minimum standard deviations between experimental data and data calculated with a model. This allows a progress in decision-making processes for flow assurance in reservoirs, wells, and surface facilities in the petroleum industry.

  19. Modeling seismic stimulation: Enhanced non-aqueous fluid extraction from saturated porous media under pore-pressure pulsing at low frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wei-Cheng; Sposito, Garrison; Huang, Yu-Han

    2012-03-01

    Seismic stimulation, the application of low-frequency stress-pulsing to the boundary of a porous medium containing water and a non-aqueous fluid to enhance the removal of the latter, shows great promise for both contaminated groundwater remediation and enhanced oil recovery, but theory to elucidate the underlying mechanisms lag significantly behind the progress achieved in experimental research. We address this conceptual lacuna by formulating a boundary-value problem to describe pore-pressure pulsing at seismic frequencies that is based on the continuum theory of poroelasticity for an elastic porous medium permeated by two immiscible fluids. An exact analytical solution is presented that is applied numerically using elasticity parameters and hydraulic data relevant to recent proof-of-principle laboratory experiments investigating the stimulation-induced mobilization of trichloroethene (TCE) in water flowing through a compressed sand core. The numerical results indicated that significant stimulation-induced increases of the TCE concentration in effluent can be expected from pore-pressure pulsing in the frequency range of 25-100 Hz, which is in good agreement with what was observed in the laboratory experiments. Sensitivity analysis of our numerical results revealed that the TCE concentration in the effluent increases with the porous medium framework compressibility and the pulsing pressure. Increasing compressibility also leads to an optimal stimulation response at lower frequencies, whereas changing the pulsing pressure does not affect the optimal stimulation frequency. Within the context of our model, the dominant physical cause for enhancement of non-aqueous fluid mobility by seismic stimulation is the dilatory motion of the porous medium in which the solid and fluid phases undergo opposite displacements, resulting in stress-induced changes of the pore volume.

  20. Pressure Dependence of the Radial Breathing Mode of Carbon Nanotubes: The Effect of Fluid Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, M. J.; Quirke, N.

    2007-04-01

    The pressure dependence of shifts in the vibrational modes of individual carbon nanotubes is strongly affected by the nature of the pressure transmitting medium as a result of adsorption at the nanotube surface. The adsorbate is treated as an elastic shell which couples with the radial breathing mode (RBM) of the nanotube via van der Waal interactions. Using analytical methods as well as molecular simulation, we observe a low frequency breathing mode for the adsorbed fluid at ˜50cm-1, as well as diameter dependent upshifts in the RBM frequency with pressure, suggesting metallic nanotubes may wet more than semiconducting ones.

  1. FRACTURING FLUID CHARACTERIZATION FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhash Shah

    2000-08-01

    Hydraulic fracturing technology has been successfully applied for well stimulation of low and high permeability reservoirs for numerous years. Treatment optimization and improved economics have always been the key to the success and it is more so when the reservoirs under consideration are marginal. Fluids are widely used for the stimulation of wells. The Fracturing Fluid Characterization Facility (FFCF) has been established to provide the accurate prediction of the behavior of complex fracturing fluids under downhole conditions. The primary focus of the facility is to provide valuable insight into the various mechanisms that govern the flow of fracturing fluids and slurries through hydraulically created fractures. During the time between September 30, 1992, and March 31, 2000, the research efforts were devoted to the areas of fluid rheology, proppant transport, proppant flowback, dynamic fluid loss, perforation pressure losses, and frictional pressure losses. In this regard, a unique above-the-ground fracture simulator was designed and constructed at the FFCF, labeled ''The High Pressure Simulator'' (HPS). The FFCF is now available to industry for characterizing and understanding the behavior of complex fluid systems. To better reflect and encompass the broad spectrum of the petroleum industry, the FFCF now operates under a new name of ''The Well Construction Technology Center'' (WCTC). This report documents the summary of the activities performed during 1992-2000 at the FFCF.

  2. Atmospheric-pressure small-scale thermal-hydraulic experiment of a PIUS-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, Kanji; Tamaki, Masayoshi; Imai, Satoshi; Kohketsu, Hideto; Anoda, Yoshinari; Murata, Hideo; Kukita, Yutaka.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental small-scale low-pressure setup of a PIUS (Process Inherent Ultimate Safety)-type reactor was used for the examination of the stability during normal operation such as startup and load following operation and of the safety during accidents such as loss-of-feedwater and pump runaway. Automatic feedback pump control system based on differential pressure at lower honeycomb density lock was quite effective to maintain the stratified interface between primary and pool water in the honeycomb density lock during normal operation. The process inherent ultimate safety characteristics of the PIUS-type reactor was confirmed with pump-trip scram at the pump speed limit for the various simulated accidents such as a loss-of-feedwater and pump runaway. (author)

  3. Mitigation of pressure fluctuations in the discharge cone of hydraulic turbines using flow-feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanasa, C; Susan-Resiga, R; Bosioc, A; Muntean, S

    2010-01-01

    Our previous experimental and numerical investigations of decelerated swirling flows in conical diffusers have demonstrated that water jet injection along the symmetry axis mitigates the pressure fluctuations associated with the precessing vortex rope. However, for swirling flows similar to Francis turbines operated at partial discharge, the jet becomes effective when the jet discharge is larger than 10% from the turbine discharge, leading to large volumetric losses when the jet is supplied from upstream the runner. As a result, we introduce in this paper a new approach for supplying the jet by using a fraction of the discharge collected downstream the conical diffuser. We present the technical implementation of this flow-feedback approach, and we investigated experimentally its capability in mitigating the pressure fluctuations generated by the precessing vortex rope. The main advantage of this flow-feedback approach is that is does not require additional energy to supply the jet and it does not decrease the turbine efficiency.

  4. Estimating fault stability and sustainable fluid pressures for underground storage of CO2 in porous rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, J.E.; Hillis, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    Geomechanical modelling of fault stability is an integral part of Australia's GEODISC research program to ensure the safe storage of carbon dioxide in subsurface reservoirs. Storage of CO 2 in deep saline formations or depleted hydrocarbon reservoirs requires estimates of sustainable fluid pressures that will not induce fracturing or create fault permeability that could lead to CO 2 escape. Analyses of fault stability require the determination of fault orientations, ambient pore fluid pressures and in situ stresses in a potential storage site. The calculation of effective stresses that act on faults and reservoir rocks lead then to estimates of fault slip tendency and fluid pressures sustainable during CO 2 storage. These parameters can be visualized on 3D images of fault surfaces or in 2D projections. Faults that are unfavourably oriented for reactivation can be identified from failure plots. In depleted oil and gas fields, modelling of fault and rock stability needs to incorporate changes of the pre-production stresses that were induced by hydrocarbon production and associated pore pressure depletion. Such induced stress changes influence the maximum sustainable formation pressures and CO 2 storage volumes. Hence, determination of in situ stresses and modelling of fault stability are essential prerequisites for the safe engineering of subsurface CO 2 injection and the modelling of storage capacity. (author)

  5. Smart monitoring of fluid intake and bladder voiding using pressure sensitive mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-McFarlane, Madison; Green, James R; Knoefel, Frank; Goubran, Rafik

    2016-08-01

    Pressure sensitive mats have been used in noninvasive smart monitoring for a variety of problems including breathing rate monitoring, sleep monitoring, mobility, and weight. This paper describes a proof of concept application of pressure mats to monitor fluid intake/output (fluid cycle) events during the night. The ability to more accurately track such events has potential implications for monitoring those individuals who have nocturia, a condition where a person wakes at night to urinate. Data were collected from a healthy young female subject instructed to drink as much water as was comfortable (700mL) and lie in a supine position on a mattress located directly on three pressure mats. This was compared to an initial data set collected immediately after voiding but before drinking, 30 minutes after drinking, 60 minutes after drinking and a final data set after again voiding the bladder. The additional pressure from the 700mL of water was detectible and tracked over the course of the hour-long testing session under idealized conditions. This provides a proof-of-concept that nocturnal fluid intake and bladder voiding events can be tracked using non-invasive pressure-sensitive mats, however additional testing and development is required to achieve a deployable monitoring system.

  6. Low-pressure hydraulic technique for slurrying radioactive sludges in waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, R.F.; Parsons, F.A.; Goodlett, C.B.; Mobley, R.M.

    1977-11-01

    Present technology for the removal of sludges from radioactive liquid waste storage tanks at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) requires large volumes of fresh water added through high-pressure (approx.3000 psig) nozzles positioned to resuspend and slurry the sludge. To eliminate the cost of storing and evaporating these large volumes of water (several hundred thousand gallons per tank cleaned), a technique was developed at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to use recirculating, radioactive, supernate solution to resuspend the sludge. The system consists in part of a single-stage centrifugal pump operating in the sludge at approx.100 psia. Recirculating supernate is drawn into the bottom of the pump and forced out through two oppositely directed nozzles to give liquid jets with a sludge-slurrying capability equal to that obtained with the present high-pressure system. In addition to eliminating the addition of large quantities of water to the tanks, the low-pressure recirculating technique requires only approximately one-sixth of the power required by the high-pressure system. Test results with clay (as a simulant for sludge) in a waste tank mockup confirmed theoretical predictions that jets with the same momentum gave essentially the same sludge-slurrying patterns. The effective cleaning radius of the recirculating jet was directly proportional to the product of the nozzle velocity and the nozzle diameter (U 0 D). At the maximum U 0 D developed by the pump (approx.14 ft 2 /s), the effective cleaning radius in the tank mockup was approx.20 feet

  7. Thermal-hydraulic behaviors of vapor-liquid interface due to arrival of a pressure wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Akira; Fujii, Yoshifumi; Matsuzaki, Mitsuo [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    In the vapor explosion, a pressure wave (shock wave) plays a fundamental role for triggering, propagation and enhancement of the explosion. Energy of the explosion is related to the magnitude of heat transfer rate from hot liquid to cold volatile one. This is related to an increasing rate of interface area and to an amount of transient heat flux between the liquids. In this study, the characteristics of transient heat transfer and behaviors of vapor film both on the platinum tube and on the hot melt tin drop, under same boundary conditions have been investigated. It is considered that there exists a fundamental mechanism of the explosion in the initial expansion process of the hot liquid drop immediately after arrival of pressure wave. The growth rate of the vapor film is much faster on the hot liquid than that on the solid surface. Two kinds of roughness were observed, one due to the Taylor instability, by rapid growth of the explosion bubble, and another, nucleation sites were observed at the vapor-liquid interface. Based on detailed observation of early stage interface behaviors after arrival of a pressure wave, the thermal fragmentation mechanism is proposed.

  8. Multibody Dynamics of a Fluid Power Radial Piston Motor Including Transient Hydrodynamic Pressure Models of Lubricating Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Rømer, Daniel; Andersen, Torben Ole

    2014-01-01

    The increasing interest in hydraulic transmissions in wind and wave energy applications has created an incentive for the development of high efficiency fluid power machinery. Modeling and analysis of fluid power machinery loss mechanisms are necessary in order to accommodate this demand. At present...... fully coupled thermo-elastic models has been used to simulate and study loss mechanisms in various tribological interfaces. Consequently, a reasonable focus of further development is to couple the interface models and the rigid body mechanics of fluid power machinery. The focus of the current paper...

  9. Sound velocity and equation-of-state measurements in high pressure fluid and solid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebenberg, D.H.; Mills, R.L.; Bronson, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    A piston--cylinder apparatus was used to obtain P, V, T, and simultaneous values of longitudinal sound velocity in helium fluid throughout the ranges 75 to 300 0 K and 3 to 20 kbar. Some 670 data sets were obtained for the fluid and used in a double-process least-squares fit to an equation of state of the Benedict type. Additional measurements extended across the melting line into the solid phase at pressures up to 18 kbar. Measurements of the compressibility are compared with those obtained by Stewart along the 4 0 K isotherm up to 20 kbar. We discuss the use of helium as a pressure medium in high-pressure diamond anvil cells. Essentially no data are given

  10. Numerical Modeling of Pressurization of Cryogenic Propellant Tank for Integrated Vehicle Fluid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Alok K.; LeClair, Andre C.; Hedayat, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical model of pressurization of a cryogenic propellant tank for the Integrated Vehicle Fluid (IVF) system using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). The IVF propulsion system, being developed by United Launch Alliance, uses boiloff propellants to drive thrusters for the reaction control system as well as to run internal combustion engines to develop power and drive compressors to pressurize propellant tanks. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been running tests to verify the functioning of the IVF system using a flight tank. GFSSP, a finite volume based flow network analysis software developed at MSFC, has been used to develop an integrated model of the tank and the pressurization system. This paper presents an iterative algorithm for converging the interface boundary conditions between different component models of a large system model. The model results have been compared with test data.

  11. The effect of pressure on open-framework silicates: elastic behaviour and crystal-fluid interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, G. D.; Lotti, P.; Tabacchi, G.

    2018-02-01

    The elastic behaviour and the structural evolution of microporous materials compressed hydrostatically in a pressure-transmitting fluid are drastically affected by the potential crystal-fluid interaction, with a penetration of new molecules through the zeolitic cavities in response to applied pressure. In this manuscript, the principal mechanisms that govern the P-behaviour of zeolites with and without crystal-fluid interaction are described, on the basis of previous experimental findings and computational modelling studies. When no crystal-fluid interaction occurs, the effects of pressure are mainly accommodated by tilting of (quasi-rigid) tetrahedra around O atoms that behave as hinges. Tilting of tetrahedra is the dominant mechanism at low-mid P-regime, whereas distortion and compression of tetrahedra represent the mechanisms which usually dominate the mid-high P regime. One of the most common deformation mechanisms in zeolitic framework is the increase of channels ellipticity. The deformation mechanisms are dictated by the topological configuration of the tetrahedral framework; however, the compressibility of the cavities is controlled by the nature and bonding configuration of the ionic and molecular content, resulting in different unit-cell volume compressibility in isotypic structures. The experimental results pertaining to compression in "penetrating" fluids, and thus with crystal-fluid interaction, showed that not all the zeolites experience a P-induced intrusion of new monoatomic species or molecules from the P-transmitting fluids. For example, zeolites with well-stuffed channels at room conditions (e.g. natural zeolites) tend to hinder the penetration of new species through the zeolitic cavities. Several variables govern the sorption phenomena at high pressure, among those: the "free diameters" of the framework cavities, the chemical nature and the configuration of the extra-framework population, the partial pressure of the penetrating molecule in the

  12. The effect of ascitic fluid hydrostatic pressure on albumin extravasation rate in patients with cirrhosis of the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Parving, H H; Lassen, N A

    1981-01-01

    and pigs with posthepatic portal hypertension and intraperitoneally instilled fluid were studied before and after abdominal paracentesis in order to evaluate the effect of ascitic fluid hydrostatic pressure on the transvascular escape rate of albumin. TERalb of the ascitic patients (n = 6) were on average......, TERalb rose significantly to an average of 24.3% IVMalb.h-1. The increased albumin extravasation rate after removal of ascites is best explained by an increased sinusoidal-tissue pressure difference caused by a decreased hydrostatic fluid pressure in the liver interstitium (portal and subcapsular spaces......) due to the hydrostatic effect of the removed ascitic fluid....

  13. Wind tunnel experiments to prove a hydraulic passive rotor speed control concept for variable speed wind turbines (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepeveen, N.F.B.; Jarquin Laguna, A.

    2012-01-01

    As alternative to geared and direct drive solutions, fluid power drive trains are being developed by several institutions around the world. The common configuration is where the wind turbine rotor is coupled to a hydraulic pump. The pump is connected through a high pressure line to a hydraulic motor

  14. Thermal-hydraulic analyses of pressurized-thermal-shock-induced vessel ruptures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobranich, D.

    1982-05-01

    A severe overcooling transient was postulated to produce vessel wall temperatures below the nil-ductility transition temperature which in conjunction with system repressurization, led to vessel rupture at the core midplane. Such transients are referred to as pressurized-thermal-shock transients. A wide range of vessel rupture sizes were investigated to assess the emergency system's ability to cool the fuel rods. Ruptures greater than approximately 0.015 m 2 produced flows greater than those of the emergency system and resulted in core uncovery and subsequent core damage

  15. The use of paleo-thermo-barometers and coupled thermal, fluid flow and pore fluid pressure modelling for hydrocarbon and reservoir prediction in fold and thrust belts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roure, F.; Andriessen, P.A.M.; Callot, J.P.; Ferket, H.; Gonzales, E.; Guilhaumou, N.; Hardebol, N.J.; Lacombe, O.; Malandain, J.; Mougin, P.; Muska, K.; Ortuno, S.; Sassi, W.; Swennen, R.; Vilasi, N.

    2010-01-01

    Basin modelling tools are now more efficient to reconstruct palinspastic structural cross sections and compute the history of temperature, pore-fluid pressure and fluid flow circulations in complex structural settings. In many cases and especially in areas where limited erosion occurred, the use of

  16. Trends in Design of Water Hydraulics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    ordinary tap water and the range of application areas are illustrated with examples, in particular within the food processing industry, humidification operations, water mist systems for fire fighting, high water pressure cleaners, water moisturising systems for wood processing, lumber drying process...... operate with pure water from the tap without additives of any kind. Hence water hydraulics takes the benefit of pure water as fluid being environmentally friendly, easy to clean sanitary design, non-toxic, non-flammable, inexpensive, readily available and easily disposable. The low-pressure tap water...... and accessories running with sea-water as fluid are available. A unique solution is to use reverse osmosis to generate drinking water from sea-water, and furthermore for several off-shore applications. Furthermore, tap water hydraulic components of the Nessie® family and examples of measured performance...

  17. Finite element approximation of flow of fluids with shear-rate- and pressure-dependent viscosity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hirn, A.; Lanzendörfer, Martin; Stebel, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 4 (2012), s. 1604-1634 ISSN 0272-4979 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917; GA AV ČR IAA100300802; GA MŠk LC06052 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504; CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : non-Newtonian fluid * shear-rate- and pressure-dependent viscosity * finite element method * error analysis Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2012

  18. Hydraulic upright of a mine support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomakhin, A N; Il' in, V A; Ponomarenko, Yu F; Shakhmeyster, Yu L

    1979-04-30

    The hydraulic upright of a mine support, which includes a housing, piston with compacting element and dirt collector, rod and guide sleeve, is described. In order to improve protection of the piston element from abrasive particles and to reduce the pressure differential the piston of the upright is also equipped with a compaction ring, whose lateral surface has a groove beneath the compacting element. The surface on the side of the working fluid supply is made conical in order to remove dirt.

  19. Impact of CO2 injection protocol on fluid-solid reactivity: high-pressure and temperature microfluidic experiments in limestone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Martinez, Joaquin; Porter, Mark; Carey, James; Guthrie, George; Viswanathan, Hari

    2017-04-01

    Geological sequestration of CO2 has been proposed in the last decades as a technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere and mitigate the global climate change. However, some questions such as the impact of the protocol of CO2 injection on the fluid-solid reactivity remain open. In our experiments, two different protocols of injection are compared at the same conditions (8.4 MPa and 45 C, and constant flow rate 0.06 ml/min): i) single phase injection, i.e., CO2-saturated brine; and ii) simultaneous injection of CO2-saturated brine and scCO2. For that purpose, we combine a unique high-pressure/temperature microfluidics experimental system, which allows reproducing geological reservoir conditions in geo-material substrates (i.e., limestone, Cisco Formation, Texas, US) and high resolution optical profilometry. Single and multiphase flow through etched fracture networks were optically recorded with a microscope, while processes of dissolution-precipitation in the etched channels were quantified by comparison of the initial and final topology of the limestone micromodels. Changes in hydraulic conductivity were quantified from pressure difference along the micromodel. The simultaneous injection of CO2-saturated brine and scCO2, reduced the brine-limestone contact area and also created a highly heterogeneous velocity field (i.e., low velocities regions or stagnation zones, and high velocity regions or preferential paths), reducing rock dissolution and enhancing calcite precipitation. The results illustrate the contrasting effects of single and multiphase flow on chemical reactivity and suggest that multiphase flow by isolating parts of the flow system can enhance CO2 mineralization.

  20. The effect of vapour pressure deficit on stomatal conductance, sap pH and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance in Eucalyptus globulus clones grown under two watering regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Maria Jose; Montes, Fernando; Ruiz, Federico; Lopez, Gustavo; Pita, Pilar

    2016-05-01

    Stomatal conductance has long been considered of key interest in the study of plant adaptation to water stress. The expected increase in extreme meteorological events under a climate change scenario may compromise survival in Eucalyptus globulus plantations established in south-western Spain. We investigated to what extent changes in stomatal conductance in response to high vapour pressure deficits and water shortage are mediated by hydraulic and chemical signals in greenhouse-grown E. globulus clones. Rooted cuttings were grown in pots and submitted to two watering regimes. Stomatal conductance, shoot water potential, sap pH and hydraulic conductance were measured consecutively in each plant over 4 weeks under vapour pressure deficits ranging 0·42 to 2·25 kPa. Evapotranspiration, growth in leaf area and shoot biomass were also determined. There was a significant effect of both clone and watering regime in stomatal conductance and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance, but not in sap pH. Sap pH decreased as water potential and stomatal conductance decreased under increasing vapour pressure deficit. There was no significant relationship between stomatal conductance and leaf-specific hydraulic conductance. Stomata closure precluded shoot water potential from falling below -1·8 MPa. The percentage loss of hydraulic conductance ranged from 40 to 85 %. The highest and lowest leaf-specific hydraulic conductances were measured in clones from the same half-sib families. Water shortage reduced growth and evapotranspiration, decreases in evapotranspiration ranging from 14 to 32 % in the five clones tested. Changes in sap pH seemed to be a response to changes in atmospheric conditions rather than soil water in the species. Stomata closed after a considerable amount of hydraulic conductance was lost, although intraspecific differences in leaf-specific hydraulic conductance suggest the possibility of selection for improved productivity under water-limiting conditions

  1. Thermal-hydraulic instabilities in pressure tube graphite - moderated boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsiklauri, G.; Schmitt, B.

    1995-09-01

    Thermally induced two-phase instabilities in non-uniformly heated boiling channels in RBMK-1000 reactor have been analyzed using RELAP5/MOD3 code. The RELAP5 model of a RBMK-1000 reactor was developed to investigate low flow in a distribution group header (DGH) supplying 44 fuel pressure tubes. The model was evaluated against experimental data. The results of the calculations indicate that the period of oscillation for the high power tube varied from 3.1s to 2.6s, over the power range of 2.0 MW to 3.0 MW, respectively. The amplitude of the flow oscillation for the high powered tube varied from +100% to -150% of the tube average flow. Reverse flow did not occur in the lower power tubes. The amplitude of oscillation in the subcooled region at the inlet to the fuel region is higher than in the saturated region at the outlet. In the upper fuel region and outlet connectors the flow oscillations are dissipated. The threshold of flow instability for the high powered tubes of a RBMK reactor is compared to Japanese data and appears to be in good agreement.

  2. Thermal-hydraulic instabilities in pressure tube graphite-moderated boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsiklauri, G.; Schmitt, B.

    1995-09-01

    Thermally induced two-phase instabilities in non-uniformly heated boiling charmers in RBMK-1000 reactor have been analyzed using RELAP5/MOD3 code. The RELAP5 model of a RBMK-1000 reactor was developed to investigate low flow in a distribution group header (DGH) supplying 44 fuel pressure tubes. The model was evaluated against experimental data. The results of the calculations indicate that the period of oscillation for the high power tube varied from 3.1s to 2.6s, over the power range of 2.0 MW to 3.0 MW, respectively. The amplitude of the flow oscillation for the high powered tube varied from +100% to -150% of the tube average flow. Reverse flow did not occur in the lower power tubes. The amplitude of oscillation in the subcooled region at the inlet to the fuel region is higher than in the saturated region at the outlet. In the upper fuel region and outlet connectors the flow oscillations are dissipated. The threshold of flow instability for the high powered tubes of a RBMK reactor is compared to Japanese data and appears to be in good agreement

  3. Influence of intermittent pressure, fluid flow, and mixing on the regenerative properties of articular chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, S E; Heath, C A

    1999-11-05

    Equine articular chondrocytes, embedded within a polyglycolic acid nonwoven mesh, were cultured with various combinations of intermittent pressure, fluid flow, and mixing to examine the effects of different physical stimuli on neochondrogenesis from young cells. The cell/polymer constructs were cultured first in 125 ml spinner flasks for 1, 2, or 4 weeks and then in a perfusion system with intermittent pressure for a total of up to 6 weeks. Additional constructs were either cultured for all 6 weeks in the spinner flasks or for 1 week in spinners followed by 5 weeks in the perfusion system without intermittent pressure. Tissue constructs cultivated for 2 or 4 weeks in spinner flasks followed by perfusion with intermittent pressure had significantly higher concentrations of both sulfated glycosaminoglycan and collagen than constructs cultured entirely in spinners or almost entirely in the pressure/perfusion system. Initial cultivation in the spinner flasks, with turbulent mixing, enhanced both cell attachment and early development of the extracellular matrix. Subsequent culture with perfusion and intermittent pressure appeared to accelerate matrix formation. While the correlation was much stronger in the pressurized constructs, the compressive modulus was directly proportional to the concentration of sulfated glycosaminoglycan in all physically stressed constructs. Constructs that were not stressed beyond the 1-week seeding period lost mechanical integrity upon harvest, suggesting that physical stimulation, particularly with intermittent pressure, of immature tissue constructs during their development may contribute to their ultimate biomechanical functionality. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  4. An optimal control method for fluid structure interaction systems via adjoint boundary pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirco, L.; Da Vià, R.; Manservisi, S.

    2017-11-01

    In recent year, in spite of the computational complexity, Fluid-structure interaction (FSI) problems have been widely studied due to their applicability in science and engineering. Fluid-structure interaction systems consist of one or more solid structures that deform by interacting with a surrounding fluid flow. FSI simulations evaluate the tensional state of the mechanical component and take into account the effects of the solid deformations on the motion of the interior fluids. The inverse FSI problem can be described as the achievement of a certain objective by changing some design parameters such as forces, boundary conditions and geometrical domain shapes. In this paper we would like to study the inverse FSI problem by using an optimal control approach. In particular we propose a pressure boundary optimal control method based on Lagrangian multipliers and adjoint variables. The objective is the minimization of a solid domain displacement matching functional obtained by finding the optimal pressure on the inlet boundary. The optimality system is derived from the first order necessary conditions by taking the Fréchet derivatives of the Lagrangian with respect to all the variables involved. The optimal solution is then obtained through a standard steepest descent algorithm applied to the optimality system. The approach presented in this work is general and could be used to assess other objective functionals and controls. In order to support the proposed approach we perform a few numerical tests where the fluid pressure on the domain inlet controls the displacement that occurs in a well defined region of the solid domain.

  5. Numerical Modeling of an Integrated Vehicle Fluids System Loop for Pressurizing a Cryogenic Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClair, A. C.; Hedayat, A.; Majumdar, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical model of the pressurization loop of the Integrated Vehicle Fluids (IVF) system using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP). The IVF propulsion system, being developed by United Launch Alliance to reduce system weight and enhance reliability, uses boiloff propellants to drive thrusters for the reaction control system as well as to run internal combustion engines to develop power and drive compressors to pressurize propellant tanks. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) conducted tests to verify the functioning of the IVF system using a flight-like tank. GFSSP, a finite volume based flow network analysis software developed at MSFC, has been used to support the test program. This paper presents the simulation of three different test series, comparison of numerical prediction and test data and a novel method of presenting data in a dimensionless form. The paper also presents a methodology of implementing a compressor map in a system level code.

  6. Phase Envelope Calculations for Reservoir Fluids in the Presence of Capillary Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemus, Diego; Yan, Wei; Michelsen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    the bubble and dew point curves but also other quality lines with vapor fractions between 0 and 1. The algorithm has been used to calculate the phase envelopes of binary, multicomponent and reservoir fluid systems for pore radius from 10 to 50 nm. The presence of capillary pressure changes the saturation...... pressures in the whole phase envelope except at the critical point. The bubble point curve shows a negative change while the dew point curve shows positive and negative changes in the upper dew point branch and the lower dew point branch, respectively. In particular, the cricondentherm is also shifted...

  7. Relaxation and Numerical Approximation of a Two-Fluid Two-Pressure Diphasic Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambroso, A.; Chalons, Ch.; Galie, Th.; Chalons, Ch.; Coquel, F.; Coquel, F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the numerical approximation of the solutions of a two-fluid two-pressure model used in the modelling of two-phase flows. We present a relaxation strategy for easily dealing with both the nonlinearities associated with the pressure laws and the nonconservative terms that are inherently present in the set of convective equations and that couple the two phases. In particular, the proposed approximate Riemann solver is given by explicit formulas, preserves the natural phase space, and exactly captures the coupling waves between the two phases. Numerical evidences are given to corroborate the validity of our approach. (authors)

  8. Pressure Feedback in Fluid Power Systems--Active Damping Explained and Exemplified

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Clemmensen; Andersen, Torben O.

    2018-01-01

    Fluid power systems are inherently nonlinear and typically suffer from very poor damping. Despite these characteristics, it is not uncommon that traditional linear type controllers are applied. This typically results in conservative adjustment of the controllers, or when more advanced controllers...... a given system, and how to adjust the parameters of the pressure feedback to obtain the best results. This is done for both a traditional symmetric cylinder servo system and a system with a differential cylinder using both pressure and nonpressure compensated proportional valves. Based on the presented...

  9. Influence of Pressure Build-Up Time of Compression Chamber on Improving the Operation Frequency of a Single-Piston Hydraulic Free-Piston Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-bo Xie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A single-piston hydraulic free-piston engine with a two-cylinder four-stroke diesel engine as its driver is introduced. It takes the free-piston assembly a certain time to move after the pressure in the compression chamber starts to increase. The time difference between the pressure increasing and the piston starting to move is defined as the pressure build-up time. The characteristics of the pressure build-up time and its influence on the performance of the free-piston engine are introduced and analyzed. Based on the basic law of dynamics of the free-piston assembly, the parameters which influence the pressure build-up time are analyzed. And then improvement and optimization are proposed to shorten the pressure build-up time.

  10. Patient-ventilator asynchrony affects pulse pressure variation prediction of fluid responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Antonio; Colombo, Davide; Cammarota, Gianmaria; De Lucia, Marta; Cecconi, Maurizio; Antonelli, Massimo; Corte, Francesco Della; Navalesi, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    During partial ventilatory support, pulse pressure variation (PPV) fails to adequately predict fluid responsiveness. This prospective study aims to investigate whether patient-ventilator asynchrony affects PPV prediction of fluid responsiveness during pressure support ventilation (PSV). This is an observational physiological study evaluating the response to a 500-mL fluid challenge in 54 patients receiving PSV, 27 without (Synch) and 27 with asynchronies (Asynch), as assessed by visual inspection of ventilator waveforms by 2 skilled blinded physicians. The area under the curve was 0.71 (confidence interval, 0.57-0.83) for the overall population, 0.86 (confidence interval, 0.68-0.96) in the Synch group, and 0.53 (confidence interval, 0.33-0.73) in the Asynch group (P = .018). Sensitivity and specificity of PPV were 78% and 89% in the Synch group and 36% and 46% in the Asynch group. Logistic regression showed that the PPV prediction was influenced by patient-ventilator asynchrony (odds ratio, 8.8 [2.0-38.0]; P < .003). Of the 27 patients without asynchronies, 12 had a tidal volume greater than or equal to 8 mL/kg; in this subgroup, the rate of correct classification was 100%. Patient-ventilator asynchrony affects PPV performance during partial ventilatory support influencing its efficacy in predicting fluid responsiveness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Coherent Raman scattering in high-pressure/high-temperature fluids: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, S.C.; Moore, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The present understanding of high-pressure/high-temperature dense-fluid behavior is derived almost exclusively from hydrodynamic and thermodynamic measurements. Such results average over the microscopic aspects of the materials and are, therefore, insufficient for a complete understanding of fluid behavior. At the present, dense-fluid models can be verified only to the extend that they agree with the macroscopic measurements. Recently, using stimulated Raman scattering, Raman induced Kerr effect scattering, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, we have been able to probe some of the microscopic phenomenology of these dense fluids. In this paper, we discuss primarily the use of CARS in conjunction with a two-stage light-gas gun to obtain vibrational spectra of shock-compressed liquid N 2 , O 2 , CO, their mixtures, CH 3 NO 2 , and N 2 O. These experimental spectra are compared to synthetic spectra calculated using a semiclassical model for CARS intensities and best fit vibrational frequencies, peak Raman susceptibilities, and Raman linewidths. For O 2 , the possibility of resonance enhancement from collision-induced absorption is addressed. Shifts in the vibrational frequencies reflect the influence of increased density and temperature on the intramolecular motion. The derived parameters suggest thermal equilibrium of the vibrational levels is established less than a few nanoseconds after shock passage. Vibrational temperatures are obtained that agree with those derived from equation-of-state calculations. Measured linewidths suggest that vibrational dephasing times have decreased to subpicosecond values at the highest shock pressures

  12. Trends in hydraulic fracturing distributions and treatment fluids, additives, proppants, and water volumes applied to wells drilled in the United States from 1947 through 2010: data analysis and comparison to the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Tanya J.; Varela, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is presently the primary stimulation technique for oil and gas production in low-permeability, unconventional reservoirs. Comprehensive, published, and publicly available information regarding the extent, location, and character of hydraulic fracturing in the United States is scarce. This national spatial and temporal analysis of data on nearly 1 million hydraulically fractured wells and 1.8 million fracturing treatment records from 1947 through 2010 (aggregated in Data Series 868) is used to identify hydraulic fracturing trends in drilling methods and use of proppants, treatment fluids, additives, and water in the United States. These trends are compared to the literature in an effort to establish a common understanding of the differences in drilling methods, treatment fluids, and chemical additives and of how the newer technology has affected the water use volumes and areal distribution of hydraulic fracturing. Historically, Texas has had the highest number of records of hydraulic fracturing treatments and associated wells in the United States documented in the datasets described herein. Water-intensive horizontal/directional drilling has also increased from 6 percent of new hydraulically fractured wells drilled in the United States in 2000 to 42 percent of new wells drilled in 2010. Increases in horizontal drilling also coincided with the emergence of water-based “slick water” fracturing fluids. As such, the most current hydraulic fracturing materials and methods are notably different from those used in previous decades and have contributed to the development of previously inaccessible unconventional oil and gas production target areas, namely in shale and tight-sand reservoirs. Publicly available derivative datasets and locations developed from these analyses are described.

  13. 3D Numerical Simulation versus Experimental Assessment of Pressure Pulsations Using a Passive Method for Swirling Flow Control in Conical Diffusers of Hydraulic Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    TANASA, C.; MUNTEAN, S.; CIOCAN, T.; SUSAN-RESIGA, R. F.

    2016-11-01

    The hydraulic turbines operated at partial discharge (especially hydraulic turbines with fixed blades, i.e. Francis turbine), developing a swirling flow in the conical diffuser of draft tube. As a result, the helical vortex breakdown, also known in the literature as “precessing vortex rope” is developed. A passive method to mitigate the pressure pulsations associated to the vortex rope in the draft tube cone of hydraulic turbines is presented in this paper. The method involves the development of a progressive and controlled throttling (shutter), of the flow cross section at the bottom of the conical diffuser. The adjustable cross section is made on the basis of the shutter-opening of circular diaphragms, while maintaining in all positions the circular cross-sectional shape, centred on the axis of the turbine. The stagnant region and the pressure pulsations associated to the vortex rope are mitigated when it is controlled with the turbine operating regime. Consequently, the severe flow deceleration and corresponding central stagnant are diminished with an efficient mitigation of the precessing helical vortex. Four cases (one without diaphragm and three with diaphragm), are numerically and experimentally investigated, respectively. The present paper focuses on a 3D turbulent swirling flow simulation in order to evaluate the control method. Numerical results are compared against measured pressure recovery coefficient and Fourier spectra. The results prove the vortex rope mitigation and its associated pressure pulsations when employing the diaphragm.

  14. Hydraulic Properties of Closely Spaced Dipping Open Fractures Intersecting a Fluid-Filled Borehole Derived From Tube Wave Generation and Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minato, Shohei; Ghose, Ranajit; Tsuji, Takeshi; Ikeda, Michiharu; Onishi, Kozo

    2017-10-01

    Fluid-filled fractures and fissures often determine the pathways and volume of fluid movement. They are critically important in crustal seismology and in the exploration of geothermal and hydrocarbon reservoirs. We introduce a model for tube wave scattering and generation at dipping, parallel-wall fractures intersecting a fluid-filled borehole. A new equation reveals the interaction of tube wavefield with multiple, closely spaced fractures, showing that the fracture dip significantly affects the tube waves. Numerical modeling demonstrates the possibility of imaging these fractures using a focusing analysis. The focused traces correspond well with the known fracture density, aperture, and dip angles. Testing the method on a VSP data set obtained at a fault-damaged zone in the Median Tectonic Line, Japan, presents evidences of tube waves being generated and scattered at open fractures and thin cataclasite layers. This finding leads to a new possibility for imaging, characterizing, and monitoring in situ hydraulic properties of dipping fractures using the tube wavefield.

  15. Influence of Hydraulic Design on Stability and on Pressure Pulsations in Francis Turbines at Overload, Part Load and Deep Part Load based on Numerical Simulations and Experimental Model Test Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnoli, M V; Maiwald, M

    2014-01-01

    Francis turbines have been running more and more frequently in part load conditions, in order to satisfy the new market requirements for more dynamic and flexible energy generation, ancillary services and grid regulation. The turbines should be able to be operated for longer durations with flows below the optimum point, going from part load to deep part load and even speed-no-load. These operating conditions are characterised by important unsteady flow phenomena taking place at the draft tube cone and in the runner channels, in the respective cases of part load and deep part load. The current expectations are that new Francis turbines present appropriate hydraulic stability and moderate pressure pulsations at overload, part load, deep part load and speed-no-load with high efficiency levels at normal operating range. This study presents series of investigations performed by Voith Hydro with the objective to improve the hydraulic stability of Francis turbines at overload, part load and deep part load, reduce pressure pulsations and enlarge the know-how about the transient fluid flow through the turbine at these challenging conditions. Model test measurements showed that distinct runner designs were able to influence the pressure pulsation level in the machine. Extensive experimental investigations focused on the runner deflector geometry, on runner features and how they could reduce the pressure oscillation level. The impact of design variants and machine configurations on the vortex rope at the draft tube cone at overload and part load and on the runner channel vortex at deep part load were experimentally observed and evaluated based on the measured pressure pulsation amplitudes. Numerical investigations were employed for improving the understanding of such dynamic fluid flow effects. As example for the design and experimental investigations, model test observations and pressure pulsation curves for Francis machines in mid specific speed range, around n qopt = 50

  16. Effect of pressurization on helical guided wave energy velocity in fluid-filled pipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuc, Brennan; Ebrahimkhanlou, Arvin; Salamone, Salvatore

    2017-03-01

    The effect of pressurization stresses on helical guided waves in a thin-walled fluid-filled pipe is studied by modeling leaky Lamb waves in a stressed plate bordered by fluid. Fluid pressurization produces hoop and longitudinal stresses in a thin-walled pipe, which corresponds to biaxial in-plane stress in a plate waveguide model. The effect of stress on guided wave propagation is accounted for through nonlinear elasticity and finite deformation theory. Emphasis is placed on the stress dependence of the energy velocity of the guided wave modes. For this purpose, an expression for the energy velocity of leaky Lamb waves in a stressed plate is derived. Theoretical results are presented for the mode, frequency, and directional dependent variations in energy velocity with respect to stress. An experimental setup is designed for measuring variations in helical wave energy velocity in a thin-walled water-filled steel pipe at different levels of pressure. Good agreement is achieved between the experimental variations in energy velocity for the helical guided waves and the theoretical leaky Lamb wave solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Apparatus and method for fatigue testing of a material specimen in a high-pressure fluid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jy-An; Feng, Zhili; Anovitz, Lawrence M; Liu, Kenneth C

    2013-06-04

    The invention provides fatigue testing of a material specimen while the specimen is disposed in a high pressure fluid environment. A specimen is placed between receivers in an end cap of a vessel and a piston that is moveable within the vessel. Pressurized fluid is provided to compression and tension chambers defined between the piston and the vessel. When the pressure in the compression chamber is greater than the pressure in the tension chamber, the specimen is subjected to a compression force. When the pressure in the tension chamber is greater than the pressure in the compression chamber, the specimen is subjected to a tension force. While the specimen is subjected to either force, it is also surrounded by the pressurized fluid in the tension chamber. In some examples, the specimen is surrounded by hydrogen.

  18. Hip chondrolabral mechanics during activities of daily living: Role of the labrum and interstitial fluid pressurization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Jocelyn N; Maak, Travis G; Ateshian, Gerard A; Maas, Steve A; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2018-03-01

    Osteoarthritis of the hip can result from mechanical factors, which can be studied using finite element (FE) analysis. FE studies of the hip often assume there is no significant loss of fluid pressurization in the articular cartilage during simulated activities and approximate the material as incompressible and elastic. This study examined the conditions under which interstitial fluid load support remains sustained during physiological motions, as well as the role of the labrum in maintaining fluid load support and the effect of its presence on the solid phase of the surrounding cartilage. We found that dynamic motions of gait and squatting maintained consistent fluid load support between cycles, while static single-leg stance experienced slight fluid depressurization with significant reduction of solid phase stress and strain. Presence of the labrum did not significantly influence fluid load support within the articular cartilage, but prevented deformation at the cartilage edge, leading to lower stress and strain conditions in the cartilage. A morphologically accurate representation of collagen fibril orientation through the thickness of the articular cartilage was not necessary to predict fluid load support. However, comparison with simplified fibril reinforcement underscored the physiological importance. The results of this study demonstrate that an elastic incompressible material approximation is reasonable for modeling a limited number of cyclic motions of gait and squatting without significant loss of accuracy, but is not appropriate for static motions or numerous repeated motions. Additionally, effects seen from removal of the labrum motivate evaluation of labral reattachment strategies in the context of labral repair. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Thermal-hydraulics of wave propagation and pressure distribution under hypothetical steam explosion conditions in the ANS reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Georgevich, V.; N-Valenit, S.; Kim, S.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This paper describes salient aspects of the modeling and analysis framework for evaluation of dynamic loads, wave propagation, and pressure distributions (under hypothetical steam explosion conditions) around key structural boundaries of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor core region. A staged approach was followed, using simple thermodynamic models for bounding loads and the CTH code for evaluating realistic estimates in a staged multidimensional framework. Effects of nodalization, melt dispersal into coolant during explosion, single versus multidirectional dissipation, energy level of melt, and rate of energy deposition into coolant were studied. The importance of capturing multidimensional effects that simultaneously account for fluid-structural interactions was demonstrated. As opposed to using bounding loads from thermodynamic evaluations, it was revealed that the ANS reactor system will not be vulnerable to vertically generated missiles that threaten containment if realistic estimates of energetics are used (from CTH calculations for thermally generated steam explosions without significant aluminum ignition).

  20. Adsorption of hydraulic fracturing fluid components 2-butoxyethanol and furfural onto granular activated carbon and shale rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, Katherine E; Haerr, Gregory; Lucchesi, Jessica; Carter, Kimberly E

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the adsorption ability of a surfactant and a non-surfactant chemical additive used in hydraulic fracturing onto shale and GAC. Experiments were performed at varying temperatures and sodium chloride concentrations to establish these impacts on the adsorption of the furfural (a non-surfactant) and 2-Butoxyethanol (2-BE) (a surfactant). Experiments were carried out in continuously mixed batch experiments with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm modeling. The results of the experiments showed that adsorption of these compounds onto shale does not occur, which may allow these compounds to return to the surface in flowback and produced waters. The adsorption potential for these chemicals onto GAC follows the assumptions of the Langmuir model more strongly than those of the Freundlich model. The results show uptake of furfural and 2-BE occurs within 23 h in the presence of DI water, 0.1 mol L -1 sodium chloride, and in lab synthesized hydraulic fracturing brine. Based on the data, 83% of the furfural and 62% of the 2-BE was adsorbed using GAC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Application of RELAP5/MOD3.3 to Calculate Thermal Hydraulic Behavior of the Pressurizer Safety Valve Performance Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Hyun; Kim, Young Ae; Oh, Seung Jong; Park, Jong Woon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    The increase of the acceptance tolerance of Pressurizer Safety Valve (PSV) test is vital for the safe operation of nuclear power plants because the frequent tests may make the valves decrepit and become a cause of leak. Recently, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) is building a PSV performance test facility to provide the technical background data for the relaxation of the acceptance tolerance of PSV including the valve pop-up characteristics and the loop seal dynamics (if the plant has the loop seal in the upstream of PSV). The discharge piping and supports must be designed to withstand severe transient hydrodynamic loads when the safety valve actuates. The evaluation of hydrodynamic loads is a two-step process: first the thermal hydraulic behavior in the piping must be defined, and then the hydrodynamic loads are calculated from the thermal hydraulic parameters such as pressure and mass flow. The hydrodynamic loads are used as input to the structural analysis.

  2. Cerebrospinal fluid pressures resulting from experimental traumatic spinal cord injuries in a pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Claire F; Lee, Jae H T; Burstyn, Uri; Okon, Elena B; Kwon, Brian K; Cripton, Peter A

    2013-10-01

    Despite considerable effort over the last four decades, research has failed to translate into consistently effective treatment options for spinal cord injury (SCI). This is partly attributed to differences between the injury response of humans and rodent models. Some of this difference could be because the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) layer of the human spine is relatively large, while that of the rodents is extremely thin. We sought to characterize the fluid impulse induced in the CSF by experimental SCIs of moderate and high human-like severity, and to compare this with previous studies in which fluid impulse has been associated with neural tissue injury. We used a new in vivo pig model (n = 6 per injury group, mean age 124.5 days, 20.9 kg) incorporating four miniature pressure transducers that were implanted in pairs in the subarachnoid space, cranial, and caudal to the injury at 30 mm and 100 mm. Tissue sparing was assessed with Eriochrome Cyanine and Neutral Red staining. The median peak pressures near the injury were 522.5 and 868.8 mmHg (range 96.7-1430.0) and far from the injury were 7.6 and 36.3 mmHg (range 3.8-83.7), for the moderate and high injury severities, respectively. Pressure impulse (mmHg.ms), apparent wave speed, and apparent attenuation factor were also evaluated. The data indicates that the fluid pressure wave may be sufficient to affect the severity and extent of primary tissue damage close to the injury site. However, the CSF pressure was close to normal physiologic values at 100 mm from the injury. The high injury severity animals had less tissue sparing than the moderate injury severity animals; this difference was statistically significant only within 1.6 mm of the epicenter. These results indicate that future research seeking to elucidate the mechanical origins of primary tissue damage in SCI should consider the effects of CSF. This pig model provides advantages for basic and preclinical SCI research due to its

  3. On the Versatility of Rheoreversible, Stimuli-responsive Hydraulic-Fracturing Fluids for Enhanced Geothermal Systems: Effect of Reservoir pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Carlos A.; Shao, Hongbo; Bonneville, Alain; Varga, Tamas; Zhong, Lirong

    2016-04-25

    Abstract The primary challenge for the feasibility of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is to cost-effectively create high-permeability reservoirs inside deep crystalline bedrock. Although fracturing fluids are commonly used for oil/gas, standard fracturing methods are not developed or proven for EGS temperatures and pressures. Furthermore, the environmental impacts of currently used fracturing methods are only recently being determined. These authors recently reported an environmentally benign, CO2-activated, rheoreversible fracturing fluid that enhances permeability through fracturing due to in situ volume expansion and gel formation. The potential of this novel fracturing fluid is evaluated in this work towards its application at geothermal sites under different pH conditions. Laboratory-scale fracturing experiments using Coso Geothermal rock cores under different pH environments were performed followed by X-ray microtomography characterization. The results demonstrate that CO2-reactive aqueous solutions of environmentally amenable polyallylamine (PAA) consistently and reproducibly creates/propagates fracture networks through highly impermeable crystalline rock from Coso EGS sites at considerably lower effective stress as compared to conventional fracturing fluids. In addition, permeability was significantly enhanced in a wide range of formation-water pH values. This effective, and environmentally-friendly fracturing fluid technology represents a potential alternative to conventional fracturing fluids.

  4. Small hydraulic turbine drives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostafinski, W. A.

    1970-01-01

    Turbine, driven by the fluid being pumped, requires no external controls, is completely integrated into the flow system, and has bearings which utilize the main fluid for lubrication and cooling. Torque capabilities compare favorably with those developed by positive displacement hydraulic motors.

  5. Effects of turbine's selection on hydraulic transients in the long pressurized water conveyance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, J X; Hu, M; Cai, F L; Huang, X T

    2014-01-01

    For a hydropower station with longer water conveyance system, an optimum turbine's selection will be beneficial to its reliable and stable operation. Different optional turbines will result in possible differences of the hydraulic characteristics in the hydromechanical system, and have different effects on the hydraulic transients' analysis and control. Therefore, the premise for turbine's selection is to fully understand the properties of the optional turbines and their effects on the hydraulic transients. After a brief introduction of the simulation models for hydraulic transients' computation and stability analysis, the effects of hydraulic turbine's characteristics at different operating points on the hydro-mechanical system's free vibration analysis were theoretically investigated with the hydraulic impedance analysis of the hydraulic turbine. For a hydropower station with long water conveyance system, based on the detailed hydraulic transients' computation respectively for two different optional turbines, the effects of the turbine's selection on hydraulic transients were analyzed. Furthermore, considering different operating conditions for each turbine and the similar operating conditions for these two turbines, free vibration analysis was comprehensively carried out to reveal the effects of turbine's impedance on system's vibration characteristics. The results indicate that, respectively with two different turbines, most of the controlling parameters under the worst cases have marginal difference, and few shows obvious differences; the turbine's impedances under different operating conditions have less effect on the natural angular frequencies; different turbine's characteristics and different operating points have obvious effects on system's vibration stability; for the similar operating conditions of these two turbines, system's vibration characteristics are basically consistent with

  6. Sensor for measurement of fuel rod gas pressure during loss-of-fluid-tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billeter, T.R.

    1979-05-01

    Qualification tests have been conducted of a measurement system for determining the pressure of certain fuel rods in the loss-of-fluid-test (LOFT) reactor. Because of physical size (0.35-in. OD by 5.5-in length) and operational characteristics, an eddy current device was selected as the most promising measurement transducer for the application. The sensor must operate at pressure up to 17.2 MPa (2500 psig) and at temperatures up to 800 0 F. During the reactor transient caused by loss of coolant flow, sensor temperature and applied pressure will vary rapidly and significantly. Consequently, qualification tests included subjection of the sensor to rapid depressurization, temperature transients, and blowdowns in an autoclave, as well as to calibrations and various slow temperature cycles

  7. Pars-plana fluid aspiration for positive vitreous cavity pressure in anterior segment surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kuriakose

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive vitreous pressure due to misdirection of aqueous or choroidal effusion leads to shallowing of the anterior chamber (AC before or during anterior segment surgeries. This shallow AC if not addressed makes surgery difficult and increases the risk of surgical complications. Methods to prevent and manage this condition described in literature are not without problems. We describe a minimally invasive technique of passing a 30G needle through the pars-plana to aspirate misdirected fluid from vitreous cavity either as a prophylaxis just before surgery or during it, thereby decreasing positive vitreous pressure. This technique, used in 12 eyes, seems to be effective in patients with angle-closure glaucoma, malignant glaucoma, and per-operative sudden increase in vitreous pressure during surgery. Small-incision surgeries are ideally suited for this procedure. This minimally invasive technique is simple to perform and complications are unlikely to be more than what is seen with intravitreal injections.

  8. Combined Permeability Improvement Technology of High-pressure Hydraulic Slotting with Hydraulic Fracturing and Its Application%高压水力割缝和压裂联合增透技术及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦江涛; 陈玉涛

    2016-01-01

    针对白皎煤矿突出煤层构造应力高、透气性系数低、瓦斯抽采效果差等问题,在238底板瓦斯抽采巷对B4煤层采用了水力割缝和压裂联合增透技术,应用结果表明该技术相比水力压裂技术和普通抽采技术提高了煤层透气性,瓦斯抽采纯量较水力压裂钻孔提高了1.33倍,瓦斯体积分数是普通抽采钻孔的2.76倍,联合增透钻孔汇总瓦斯体积分数保持在30%以上且无衰减,具有良好的抽采效果.%To counter the problems of high structural stress, low air permeability coefficient and poor gas drainage effect of the outburst coal seam in Baijiao Mine, the gas drainage test in B4 seam by 238 floor drainage roadway was carried out with the combined permeability improvement technology of high-pressure hydraulic slotting with hydraulic fracturing. The application results showed that this technology improved the permeability of the coal seam as compared to the hydraulic fracturing technology and the conventional gas drainage technology. The pure gas drainage volume increased 1. 33 times to that by hydraulic fracturing, the volume fraction of gas was 2. 76 times higher than that by the conventional drainage boreholes, the summary volume fraction of gas with the combined permeability improvement technology maintained over 30% without any attenuation, so this technology has good drainage effect.

  9. Fluid-structure dynamics; Proceedings of the pressure vessels and piping conference, New Orleans, LA, June 23-26, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, D.C.; Moody, F.J.

    1985-01-01

    Aspects of seismic analysis and testing of fluid-structure systems are discussed, taking into account an earthquake response analysis method for a liquid-structure-ground coupled system using the finite element method, a seismic analysis of liquid-filled tanks with an eccentric core barrel, a study of the seismic response of fluid-coupled coaxial cylinder exciting by horizontal and vertical loading, the seismic analysis of fluid-structure systems including perforated circular plates on the basis of a use of the finite element method, and the uplifting of earthquake-loaded liquid-filled tanks. Computational methods for coupled fluid-structure analysis are considered along with the fluid structure wave motion, flow induced vibration, and the design for unsteady fluid flow in vessel and piping systems. Attention is given to hydraulic transient analysis as a tool in setting system control, a new model on transient wave propagation in fluid-filled tubes, an investigation of injector instability in rocket engine manifold, and the fluid structure response of axial cracked cylinders

  10. Numerical prediction of pressure loss in tight-lattice rod bundle by use of 3-dimensional two-fluid model simulation code ACE-3D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Takase, Kazuyuki; Suzuki, Takayuki

    2009-01-01

    Two-fluid model can simulate two-phase flow by computational cost less than detailed two-phase flow simulation method such as interface tracking method or particle interaction method. Therefore, two-fluid model is useful for thermal hydraulic analysis in large-scale domain such as a rod bundle. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) develops three dimensional two-fluid model analysis code ACE-3D that adopts boundary fitted coordinate system in order to simulate complex shape flow channel. In this paper, boiling two-phase flow analysis in a tight-lattice rod bundle was performed by the ACE-3D. In the results, the void fraction, which distributes in outermost region of rod bundle, is lower than that in center region of rod bundle. The tendency of void fraction distribution agreed with the measurement results by neutron radiography qualitatively. To evaluate effects of two-phase flow model used in the ACE-3D, numerical simulation of boiling two-phase in tight-lattice rod bundle with no lift force model was also performed. In the results, the lift force model has direct effects on void fraction concentration in gap region, and pressure distribution in horizontal plane induced by void fraction distribution cause of bubble movement from the gap region to the subchannel region. The predicted pressure loss in the section that includes no spacer accorded with experimental results with around 10% of differences. The predicted friction pressure loss was underestimated around 20% of measured values, and the effect of the turbulence model is considered as one of the causes of this underestimation. (author)

  11. RETRAN-02: a program for transient thermal-hydraulic analysis of complex fluid-flow systems. Volume 4. Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, C.E.; Gose, G.C.; McFadden, J.H.

    1983-01-01

    RETRAN-02 represents a significant achievement in the development of a versatile and reliable computer program for use in best estimate transient thermal-hydraulic analysis of light water reactor systems. The RETRAN-02 computer program is an extension of the RETRAN-01 program designed to provide analysis capabilities for 1) BWR and PWR transients, 2) small break loss of coolant accidents, 3) balance of plant modeling, and 4) anticipated transients without scram, while maintaining the analysis capabilities of the predecessor code. The RETRAN-02 computer code is constructed in a semimodular and dynamic dimensioned form where additions to the code can be easily carried out as new and improved models are developed. This report (the fourth of a five volume computer code manual) describes the verification and validation of RETRAN-02

  12. Comparison between gradient-dependent hydraulic conductivities of roots using the root pressure probe: the role of pressure propagations and implications for the relative roles of parallel radial pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, Helen; Turner, Neil C; Turner, David W; Tyerman, Stephen D

    2007-07-01

    Hydrostatic pressure relaxations with the root pressure probe are commonly used for measuring the hydraulic conductivity (Lp(r)) of roots. We compared the Lp(r) of roots from species with different root hydraulic properties (Lupinus angustifolius L. 'Merrit', Lupinus luteus L. 'Wodjil', Triticum aestivum L. 'Kulin' and Zea mays L. 'Pacific DK 477') using pressure relaxations, a pressure clamp and osmotic gradients to induce water flow across the root. Only the pressure clamp measures water flow under steady-state conditions. Lp(r) determined by pressure relaxations was two- to threefold greater than Lp(r) from pressure clamps and was independent of the direction of water flow. Lp(r) (pressure clamp) was two- to fourfold higher than for Lp(r) (osmotic) for all species except Triticum aestivum where Lp(r) (pressure clamp) and Lp(r) (osmotic) were not significantly different. A novel technique was developed to measure the propagation of pressure through roots to investigate the cause of the differences in Lp(r). Root segments were connected between two pressure probes so that when root pressure (P(r)) was manipulated by one probe, the other probe recorded changes in P(r). Pressure relaxations did not induce the expected kinetics in pressure in the probe at the other end of the root when axial hydraulic conductance, and probe and root capacitances were accounted for. An electric circuit model of the root was constructed that included an additional capacitance in the root loaded by a series of resistances. This accounted for the double exponential kinetics for intact roots in pressure relaxation experiments as well as the reduced response observed with the double probe experiments. Although there were potential errors with all the techniques, we considered that the measurement of Lp(r) using the pressure clamp was the most unambiguous for small pressure changes, and provided that sufficient time was allowed for pressure propagation through the root. The differences in

  13. Seismic monitoring of hydraulic fracturing: techniques for determining fluid flow paths and state of stress away from a wellbore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehler, M.; House, L.; Kaieda, H.

    1986-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has gained in popularity in recent years as a way to determine the orientations and magnitudes of tectonic stresses. By augmenting conventional hydraulic fracturing measurements with detection and mapping of the microearthquakes induced by fracturing, we can supplement and idependently confirm information obtained from conventional analysis. Important information obtained from seismic monitoring includes: the state of stress of the rock, orientation and spacing of the major joint sets, and measurements of rock elastic parameters at locations distant from the wellbore. While conventional well logging operations can provide information about several of these parameters, the zone of interrogation is usually limited to the immediate proximity of the borehole. The seismic waveforms of the microearthquakes contain a wealth of information about the rock in regions that are otherwise inaccessible for study. By reliably locating the hypocenters of many microearthquakes, we have inferred the joint patterns in the rock. We observed that microearthquake locations do not define a simple, thin, planar distribution, that the fault plane solutions are consistent with shear slippage, and that spectral analysis indicates that the source dimensions and slip along the faults are small. Hence we believe that the microearthquakes result from slip along preexisting joints, and not from tensile extension at the tip of the fracture. Orientations of the principal stresses can be estimated by using fault plane solutions of the larger microearthquakes. By using a joint earthquake location scheme, and/or calibrations with downhole detonators, rock velocities and heterogeneities thereof can be investigated in rock volumes that are far enough from the borehole to be representative of intrincis rock properties.

  14. Failure analysis of fire resistant fluid (FRF piping used in hydraulic control system at oil-fired thermal power generation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Akram

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a case study regarding frequent forced outages in an oil-fired power generating station due to failure of fire resistant fluid (FRF piping of material ASTM A-304. This analysis was done to find out the most probable cause of failure and to rectify the problem. Methods for finding and analyzing the cracks include nondestructive testing techniques such as visual testing (VT and dye penetrant testing (PT along with that periodic monitoring after rectification of problem. The study revealed that pitting and pit to crack transitions were formed in stainless steel piping containing high pressure (system pressure 115 bars fire resistant fluid. However, after replacement of piping the pitting and cracking reoccurred. It was observed that due to possible exposure to chlorinated moisture in surrounding environment pitting was formed which then transformed into cracks. The research work discussed in this paper illustrates the procedure used in detection of the problem and measures taken to solve the problem.

  15. The effect of intraocular gas and fluid volumes on intraocular pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, J N; Whitacre, M M

    1990-02-01

    Large increases in the intraocular pressure (IOP) of postoperative gas-containing eyes may require the removal of gas or fluid to reduce the IOP to the normal range. Application of the ideal gas law to Friedenwald's equation provides a mathematical model of the relationship between IOP, intraocular gas and fluid volumes, and the coefficient of scleral rigidity. This mathematic model shows that removal of a given volume of gas or fluid produces an identical decrease in IOP and that the more gas an eye contains, the greater the volume reduction necessary to reduce the pressure. Application of the model shows that the effective coefficient of scleral rigidity is low (mean K, 0.0021) in eyes with elevated IOP that have undergone vitrectomy and retinal cryopexy and very low (mean K, 0.0013) in eyes with elevated IOP that have undergone placement of a scleral buckle and band. By using the appropriate mean coefficient of rigidity, the volume of material to be aspirated to produce a given decrease in IOP can be predicted with clinically useful accuracy.

  16. How Pore-Fluid Pressure due to Heavy Rainfall Influences Volcanic Eruptions, Example of 1998 and 2008 Eruptions of Cerro Azul (Galapagos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, F.; Amelung, F.; Gregg, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    About 30 worldwide seismic studies have shown a strong correlation between rainfall and earthquakes in the past 22 years (e.g. Costain and Bollinger, 2010). Such correlation has been explained by the phenomenon of hydro-seismicity via pore pressure diffusion: an increase of pore-fluid in the upper crust reduces the normal stress on faults, which can trigger shear failure. Although this pore pressure effect is widely known for earthquakes, this phenomenon and more broadly poro-elasticity process are not widely studied on volcanoes. However, we know from our previous works that tensile failures that open to propagate magma through the surface are also pore pressure dependent. We have demonstrated that an increase of pore pressure largely reduces the overpressure required to rupture the magma reservoir. We have shown that the pore pressure has more influence on reservoir stability than other parameters such as the reservoir depth or the edifice loading. Here, we investigate how small pore-fluid changes due to hydrothermal or aquifer refill during heavy rainfall may perturb the conditions of failure around magma reservoirs and, what is more, if these perturbations are enough to trigger magma intrusions. We quantify the pore pressure effect on magmatic system by combining 1) 1D pore pressure diffusion model to quantify how pore pressure changes from surface to depth after heavy rainfall events and 2) 2D poro-elastic numerical model to provide the evolution of failure conditions of the reservoir as a consequence of these pore pressure changes. Sensitivity analysis is also performed to characterize the influence on our results of the poro-elastic parameters (hydraulic diffusivity, permeability and porosity) and the geometry of the magma reservoir and the aquifer (depth, size, shape). Finally, we apply our methodology to Cerro Azul volcano (Galapagos) where both last eruptions (1998 and 2008) occurred just after heavy rainfall events, without any pre-eruptive inflation. In

  17. Fluid and rock interactions in silicate and aluminosilicate systems at elevated pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mary Kathleen

    Understanding fluid chemistry in the subduction zone environment is key to unraveling the details of element transport from the slab to the surface. Solubilities of cations, such as silicon, in water strongly affect both the physical and chemical properties of supercritical metamorphic fluids. Modeling the thermodynamics of fluid-rock interactions requires therefore a profound understanding of cation dissolution and aqueous speciation. In situ Raman experiments of the silica-water, alumina-water, and alumina water systems were performed in an externally heated Bassett-type diamond-anvil cell at the Department of Geological Sciences, University of Michigan. Natural quartz samples and synthetic ruby samples were used in the experiments. Samples were loaded in the sample chamber with a water pressure medium. All experiments used rhenium gaskets of uniform thickness with a 500 mum drill hole for the sample chamber. Temperature was measured using K-type thermocouples encompassing both the upper and lower diamond anvils. Pressures are obtained on the basis of the Raman shift of the 464 cm-1 quartz mode where possible or the Raman shift of the tips of the diamond anvils according to a method developed in this work. This work characterizes the state of stress in the diamond anvil cell, which is used as the basis for the pressure calibration using only the diamond anvils. Raman measurements of silicate fluid confirm the presence of H4 SiO4 and H6Si2O7 in solution and expand the pressure range for in-situ structural observations in the silica-water system. Additionally, we identify the presence of another silica species present at mantle conditions, which occurs at long time scales in the diamond cell. This study provides the first in situ data in the alumina-water and alumina-silica-water systems at pressures and temperatures relevant to the slab environment. Al(OH) 3 appears to be the dominant form of alumina present under these conditions and in the alumina

  18. Risk Associated With The Decompression Of High Pressure High Temperature Fluids - Study On Black Oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, D. C.; Fosbøl, P. L.; Thomsen, K.

    2015-01-01

    Fluids produced from deep underground reservoirs may result in exponential increase in temperature. It is a consequence of adiabatic fluid decompression from the inverse Joule Thomson Effect (JTE). The phenomenon requires analysis in order to avoid any operational risks. This study evaluates...... the JTE upon decompression of black oil in high pressure-high temperature reservoirs. Also the effect caused by the presence of water and brine on the black oil is studied. The final temperature is calculated from the corresponding energy balance at isenthalpic and non-isenthalpic conditions. It is found...... that the final temperature of black oil increases upon adiabatic decompression. In the case of the isenthalpic process at initial conditions of the reservoir, e.g. 150°C and 1000 bars, it is found that the final temperature can increase to 173.7°C. At non-isenthalpic conditions the final temperature increases...

  19. Estimating thermodynamic properties by molecular dynamics simulations: The properties of fluids at high pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, D.G.; Refson, K.

    1992-01-01

    The molecular dynamics calculations reported above give calculated P-V-T properties for H 2 O up to 1500 K and 100 GPa, which agree remarkably well with the available experimental data. We also observe the phase transition to a crystalline, orientationally disordered cubic ice structure. No account was taken of molecular flexibility in these calculations nor of potential dissociation at high pressures as suggested by Hamman (1981). However, we note that the closest next-nearest-neighbour O-H approach remains significantly greater than the TIP4P fixed O-H bond length within the water molecule for all pressures studied. The equation of state proposed here should be useful for estimating the properties of H 2 O at up to 1500 K and 100 G Pa (1 Mbar) and is much easier to use in practice than modified Redlich Kwong equations. Extension of these methods to the studies of other fluids and of fluid mixtures at high temperatures and pressures will require good potential models for the species involved, and this is likely to involve a combination of good ab initio work and semiempirical modelling. Once developed, these models should allow robust predictions of thermodynamic properties beyond the range of the experimental data on the basis of fundamental molecular information

  20. Equivalent isentropic expansion efficiency of real fluid subject to concurrent pressure drop and heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, P.; Ganni, V.

    2017-12-01

    Concurrent pressure drop and cooling of a super-critical or sub-cooled liquid stream can have the same effect as adiabatic expansion even though there is no work extraction. A practical implementation is as straight forward as counter-flow heat exchange with a colder fluid. The concurrent pressure drop need not be continuous with respect to the heat exchange, but may occur in a step-wise manner, in between heat exchange. Two aspects of this effect of pressure drop with heat transfer are examined; a thermodynamic and a practical process equivalent isentropic expansion efficiency. This real fluid phenomenon is useful to understand in applications where work extraction is either not practical or has not been developed. A super-critical helium supply, often around 3 bar and 4.5 K, being ultimately used as a superfluid (usually around 1.8 to 2.1 K) to cool a Niobium superconducting radio frequency cavity or a superconducting magnet is one such particular application. This paper examines the thermodynamic nature of this phenomenon.

  1. Non-Newtonian fluids: Frictional pressure loss prediction for fully-developed flow in straight pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    ESDU 91025 discusses models used to describe the rheology of time independent pseudohomogeneous non-Newtonian fluids (power-law, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley and a generalized model due to Metzner and Reed); they are used to calculate the laminar flow pressure drop (which is independent of pipe roughness in this regime). Values of a generalized Reynolds number are suggested to define transitional and turbulent flow. For turbulent flow in smooth pipes, pressure loss is estimated on the basis of an experimentally determined rheogram using either the Dodge-Metzner or Bowen approach depending on the available measurements. Bowen requires results for at least two pipe diameters. The choice of Dodge-Metzner when data are limited is discussed; seven possible methods are assessed against five sets of experimental results drawn from the literature. No method is given for transitional flow, which it is suggested should be avoided, but the turbulent correlation is recommended because it will yield an overestimate. Suggestions are made for the treatment of roughness effects. Several worked examples illustrate the use of the methods and a flowchart guides the user through the process from experimentally characterizing the behavior of the fluid to determining the pressure drop. A computer program, ESDUpac A9125, is also provided.

  2. Determination of MIL-H-6083 Hydraulic Fluid In-Service Use Limits for Self-Propelled Artillery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    determined using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D1744 Karl Fischer Reagent method . The specification limit is 0.05% (500 pans per...cazefully controlled. TOTAL ACID NUMBER The acid number was determined by the ASTM D664 potentiometric titration test method . Unfortunately, data were...fluid condition t results with AOAP tent date was found. The Navy Patch Kit method for particle contamination meamrement was evaluated as a possible

  3. Solving the Fluid Pressure Poisson Equation Using Multigrid-Evaluation and Improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Christian; Rogowsky, Marcus; Westermann, Rudiger

    2016-11-01

    In many numerical simulations of fluids governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, the pressure Poisson equation needs to be solved to enforce mass conservation. Multigrid solvers show excellent convergence in simple scenarios, yet they can converge slowly in domains where physically separated regions are combined at coarser scales. Moreover, existing multigrid solvers are tailored to specific discretizations of the pressure Poisson equation, and they cannot easily be adapted to other discretizations. In this paper we analyze the convergence properties of existing multigrid solvers for the pressure Poisson equation in different simulation domains, and we show how to further improve the multigrid convergence rate by using a graph-based extension to determine the coarse grid hierarchy. The proposed multigrid solver is generic in that it can be applied to different kinds of discretizations of the pressure Poisson equation, by using solely the specification of the simulation domain and pre-assembled computational stencils. We analyze the proposed solver in combination with finite difference and finite volume discretizations of the pressure Poisson equation. Our evaluations show that, despite the common assumption, multigrid schemes can exploit their potential even in the most complicated simulation scenarios, yet this behavior is obtained at the price of higher memory consumption.

  4. Hydraulic design of Three Gorges right bank powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Q

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the hydraulic design of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability. The technical challenges faced in the hydraulic design of the turbine are given. The method of hydraulic design for improving the hydraulic stability and particularly for eliminating the upper part load pressure pulsations is clarified. The final hydraulic design results of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine based on modern hydraulic design techniques are presented.

  5. Hydraulic design of Three Gorges right bank powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Q, E-mail: qhshi@dfem.com.c [Dong Fang Electrical Machinery Co., Ltd., DEC 188, Huanghe West Road, Deyang, 618000 (China)

    2010-08-15

    This paper presents the hydraulic design of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine for improvement of hydraulic stability. The technical challenges faced in the hydraulic design of the turbine are given. The method of hydraulic design for improving the hydraulic stability and particularly for eliminating the upper part load pressure pulsations is clarified. The final hydraulic design results of Three Gorges Right Bank Powerhouse turbine based on modern hydraulic design techniques are presented.

  6. Central Pulsatile Pressure and Flow Relationship in the Time and Frequency Domain to Characterise Hydraulic Input to the Brain and Cerebral Vascular Impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Ok; O'Rourke, Michael F; Adji, Audrey; Avolio, Alberto P

    2016-01-01

    In the time domain, pulsatile flow and pressure can be characterised as the ratio of the late systolic boost of flow or pressure to the pulse amplitude so as to estimate the hydraulic input to the brain. While vascular impedance has been widely used to represent the load presented to the heart by the systemic circulation, it has not been applied to the cerebral circulation.We set out to study the relationship between the pressure and the flow augmentation index (AIx) in the time domain and to determine cerebral vascular impedance using aortic blood pressure and cerebral blood flow waveforms in the frequency domain. Twenty-four young subjects (aged 21-39 years) were recruited; aortic pressure was derived using SphygmoCor from radial pressure. Flow waveforms were recorded from the middle cerebral artery. In three subjects, we performed the Valsalva manoeuvre to investigate their response to physiological intervention. There was a linear relationship between flow and pressure AIx, and cerebral impedance values were similar to those estimated for low resistance vascular beds. Substantial change in pressure and flow wave contour was observed during the Valsalva manoeuvre; however, the relationship in both the time and the frequency domains were unchanged. This confirms that aortic pressure and cerebral flow waveform can be used to study cerebral impedance.

  7. A checking device for pipes in which a high pressure fluid is circulated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauerle, R.D.; Pitt, W.A.; White, M.A.

    1974-01-01

    A checking device for restricting the movements of a pipe in which a high pressure fluid is circulated, should said pipe happen to be ruptured. That device comprises a U-shaped checking, or retaining bar surrounding the pipe, and slightly spaced therefrom at each end of said bar a support member fixed to a frame member of the steam generator and an articulated connection between each of said ends and its respective support-member. That device can be applied to nuclear steam boilers [fr

  8. A computational method to predict fluid-structure interaction of pressure relief valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, S. K.; Lee, D. H.; Park, S. K.; Hong, S. R. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    An effective CFD (Computational fluid dynamics) method to predict important performance parameters, such as blowdown and chattering, for pressure relief valves in NPPs is provided in the present study. To calculate the valve motion, 6DOF (six degree of freedom) model is used. A chimera overset grid method is utilized to this study for the elimination of grid remeshing problem, when the disk moves. Further, CFD-Fastran which is developed by CFD-RC for compressible flow analysis is applied to an 1' safety valve. The prediction results ensure the applicability of the presented method in this study.

  9. Numerical prediction of pressure loss of fluid in a T-junction

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Abdulwahhab, Niranjan Kumar Injeti, Sadoun Fahad Dakhi

    2013-01-01

    This work presents a prediction of pressure loss of fluid with turbulent incompressible flow through a 90° tee junction was carried out and compared with analytical and experimental results. One turbulence model was used in the numerical simulations: k-ε model for two different values of area ratio between the main pipe and the branch pipe were 1.0 and 4.0, and flow rate ratios. The continuity, momentum and energy equations were discredited by means of a finite volume technique and the SIMPLE...

  10. Second-order perturbations of cosmological fluids: Relativistic effects of pressure, multicomponent, curvature, and rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim

    2007-01-01

    We present general relativistic correction terms appearing in Newton's gravity to the second-order perturbations of cosmological fluids. In our previous work we have shown that to the second-order perturbations, the density and velocity perturbation equations of general relativistic zero-pressure, irrotational, single-component fluid in a spatially flat background coincide exactly with the ones known in Newton's theory without using the gravitational potential. We also have shown the effect of gravitational waves to the second order, and pure general relativistic correction terms appearing in the third-order perturbations. Here, we present results of second-order perturbations relaxing all the assumptions made in our previous works. We derive the general relativistic correction terms arising due to (i) pressure, (ii) multicomponent, (iii) background spatial curvature, and (iv) rotation. In the case of multicomponent zero-pressure, irrotational fluids under the flat background, we effectively do not have relativistic correction terms, thus the relativistic equations expressed in terms of density and velocity perturbations again coincide with the Newtonian ones. In the other three cases we generally have pure general relativistic correction terms. In the case of pressure, the relativistic corrections appear even in the level of background and linear perturbation equations. In the presence of background spatial curvature, or rotation, pure relativistic correction terms directly appear in the Newtonian equations of motion of density and velocity perturbations to the second order; to the linear order, without using the gravitational potential (or metric perturbations), we have relativistic/Newtonian correspondences for density and velocity perturbations of a single-component fluid including the rotation even in the presence of background spatial curvature. In the small-scale limit (far inside the horizon), to the second-order, relativistic equations of density and

  11. A two-fluid two-phase model for thermal-hydraulic analysis of a U-tube steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Huanjen; Chieng, Chingchang; Pei, Baushei; Wang, Songfeng

    1993-01-01

    The Advanced Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis Code for Nuclear Steam Generators (ATHANS) was developed on the basis of the THERMIT-UTSG computer code for U-tube steam generators. The main features of the ATHANS model are as follows: (a) the equations are solved in cylindrical coordinates, (b) the number and the arrangement of the control volumes inside the steam generator can be chosen by the user, (c) the virtual mass effect is incorporated, and (d) the conjugate gradient squared method is employed to accelerate and improve the numerical convergence. The performance of the model is successfully validated by comparison with the test data from a Westinghouse model F steam generator at the Maanshan nuclear power plant. Better agreement with the test data can be obtained by a finer grid system using a cylindrical coordinate system and the virtual mass effect. With these advanced features, ATHANS provides the basic framework for further studies on the problems of steam generators, such as analyses of secondary-side corrosion and tube ruptures

  12. Isobaric thermal expansivity behaviour against temperature and pressure of associating fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navia, Paloma; Troncoso, Jacobo [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias de Ourense, Campus As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense (Spain); Romani, Luis, E-mail: romani@uvigo.e [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias de Ourense, Campus As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    In order to study the influence of association on the isobaric thermal expansivity, this magnitude has been experimentally determined for a set of associating fluids within the temperature and pressure intervals (278.15 to 348.15) K and (5 to 55) MPa by means of calorimetric measurements. The 1-alcohol series, from methanol to 1-decanol, 2-pentanol, 3-pentanol, and 1-pentylamine were selected. With a view on checking the quality of the experimental data, they are compared with available literature values; good coherence was obtained for most of the studied liquids. The analysis of the experimental results reveals that the association capability presents a strong influence not only on the value of the isobaric thermal expansivity itself, but also on its behaviour against temperature and pressure.

  13. Discussion of heat transfer phenomena in fluids at supercritical pressure with the aid of CFD models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharabi, Medhat; Ambrosini, Walter

    2009-01-01

    The paper discusses heat transfer enhancement and deterioration phenomena observed in experimental data for fluids at supercritical pressure. The results obtained by the application of various CFD turbulence models in the prediction of experimental data for water and carbon dioxide flowing in circular tubes are firstly described. On this basis, the capabilities of the addressed models in predicting the observed phenomena are shortly discussed. Then, the analysis focuses on further results obtained by a low-Reynolds number k - ε model addressing one of the considered experimental apparatuses by changing the operating conditions. In particular, the usual imposed heat flux boundary condition is changed to assigned wall temperature, in order to highlight effects otherwise impossible to point out. The obtained results, supported by considerations drawn from experimental information, allow comparing the trends observed for heat transfer deterioration at supercritical pressure with those typical of the thermal crisis in boiling systems, clarifying old concepts of similarity among them

  14. Isobaric thermal expansivity behaviour against temperature and pressure of associating fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navia, Paloma; Troncoso, Jacobo; Romani, Luis

    2010-01-01

    In order to study the influence of association on the isobaric thermal expansivity, this magnitude has been experimentally determined for a set of associating fluids within the temperature and pressure intervals (278.15 to 348.15) K and (5 to 55) MPa by means of calorimetric measurements. The 1-alcohol series, from methanol to 1-decanol, 2-pentanol, 3-pentanol, and 1-pentylamine were selected. With a view on checking the quality of the experimental data, they are compared with available literature values; good coherence was obtained for most of the studied liquids. The analysis of the experimental results reveals that the association capability presents a strong influence not only on the value of the isobaric thermal expansivity itself, but also on its behaviour against temperature and pressure.

  15. Properties of molecular solids and fluids at high pressures and temperatures. [Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etters, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Equilibrium structures and orientations, lattice vibrational and librational model frequencies, intramolecular vibron mode frequencies, sound velocities, equations of state, compressibilities, and structural and orientational phase transitions in molecular solids are determined over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. In the high temperature fluid phase the equations of state, vibron frequencies, the melting transition, specific heats, compressibilities, second virial coefficients, viscosities and other transport properties, and the nature of orientational and magnetic correlations are determined. The techniques used include several strategies to optimize multi-dimensional functions as a means to determine equilibrium structures and orientations, self consistent phonon lattice dynamics methods, constant pressure and constant volume Monte-Carlo strategies with continuously deformable boundary conditions, mean field approximations, and classical perturbation methods. Systems studied include N 2 , O 2 , CO, CO 2 , F 2 , N 2 O, benzine, nitromethane, HCL, HBr, and H 2 . 50 refs., 4 figs

  16. Implementation of wall film condensation model to two-fluid model in component thermal hydraulic analysis code CUPID - 15237

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Park, G.C.; Cho, H.K.

    2015-01-01

    In the containment of a nuclear reactor, the wall condensation occurs when containment cooling system and structures remove the mass and energy release and this phenomenon is of great importance to ensure containment integrity. If the phenomenon occurs in the presence of non-condensable gases, their accumulation near the condensate film leads to significant reduction in heat transfer during the condensation. This study aims at simulating the wall film condensation in the presence of non-condensable gas using CUPID, a computational multi-fluid dynamics code, which is developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) for the analysis of transient two-phase flows in nuclear reactor components. In order to simulate the wall film condensation in containment, the code requires a proper wall condensation model and liquid film model applicable to the analysis of the large scale system. In the present study, the liquid film model and wall film condensation model were implemented in the two-fluid model of CUPID. For the condensation simulation, a wall function approach with heat and mass transfer analogy was applied in order to save computational time without considerable refinement for the boundary layer. This paper presents the implemented wall film condensation model and then, introduces the simulation result using CUPID with the model for a conceptual condensation problem in a large system. (authors)

  17. Standardization of the methodology used for fuel pressure drop evaluation to improve hydraulic calculation of heterogeneous cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Borgne, E.; Mattei, A.; Rome, M.; Rodriguez, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The determination of hydraulic characteristics for fuel subassembly components is dependent on the hypotheses and the methodology considered. The results of hydraulic compatibility calculations using input data from different sources may thus be difficult to analyse, and their reliability will consequently be reduced. Electricite de France (EDF) and Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) have initiated a common program aiming at controlling the consequences of such a situation, increasing the reliability of the values used in the hydraulic compatibility calculations, and proposing a standardization of the operating procedures. In a first step, this program is based on the measurements performed in the CEA HERMES P facility. Extension of this program is expected to the equivalent experimental facilities for which sufficient information will be made available. (author)

  18. Modeling hydraulic conductivity and swelling pressure of several kinds of bentonites affected by concentration of saline water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yukihisa; Hasegawa, Takuma; Nakamura, Kunihiko

    2007-01-01

    In case of construction of repository for radioactive waste near the coastal area, the effect of brine on hydraulic conductivity of bentonite as an engineering barrier should be considered because it is known that the hydraulic conductivity of bentonite increases with increasing in salt concentration of water. Thus, the effect of salinity of water on hydraulic conductivity of bentonite has been conducted experimentally. However, it is necessary to elucidate and to model the mechanism of the phenomenon because various kinds of bentonites may possibly be placed in various salinity of salt water. In this study, a model for evaluating permeability of compacted bentonite is proposed considering a) increase in number of sheets of montomorillonite crystal because of cohesion, b) decrease in viscosity of water in interlayer between sheets of montmorillonite crystal. Quantitative evaluation method for permeability of several kinds of bentonite under brine is proposed based on the model mentioned above. (author)

  19. An XFEM Model for Hydraulic Fracturing in Partially Saturated Rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salimzadeh Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is a complex multi-physics phenomenon. Numerous analytical and numerical models of hydraulic fracturing processes have been proposed. Analytical solutions commonly are able to model the growth of a single hydraulic fracture into an initially intact, homogeneous rock mass. Numerical models are able to analyse complex problems such as multiple hydraulic fractures and fracturing in heterogeneous media. However, majority of available models are restricted to single-phase flow through fracture and permeable porous rock. This is not compatible with actual field conditions where the injected fluid does not have similar properties as the host fluid. In this study we present a fully coupled hydro-poroelastic model which incorporates two fluids i.e. fracturing fluid and host fluid. Flow through fracture is defined based on lubrication assumption, while flow through matrix is defined as Darcy flow. The fracture discontinuity in the mechanical model is captured using eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM while the fracture propagation criterion is defined through cohesive fracture model. The discontinuous matrix fluid velocity across fracture is modelled using leak-off loading which couples fracture flow and matrix flow. The proposed model has been discretised using standard Galerkin method, implemented in Matlab and verified against several published solutions. Multiple hydraulic fracturing simulations are performed to show the model robustness and to illustrate how problem parameters such as injection rate and rock permeability affect the hydraulic fracturing variables i.e. injection pressure, fracture aperture and fracture length. The results show the impact of partial saturation on leak-off and the fact that single-phase models may underestimate the leak-off.

  20. A Novel CO2-Responsive Viscoelastic Amphiphilic Surfactant Fluid for Fracking in Enhanced Oil/Gas Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L.; Wu, X.; Dai, C.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past decade, the rapid rise of unconventional shale gas and tight sandstone oil development through horizontal drilling and high volume hydraulic fracturing has expanded the extraction of hydrocarbon resources. Hydraulic fracturing fluids play very important roles in enhanced oil/gas recovery. However, damage to the reservoir rock and environmental contamination caused by hydraulic fracturing flowback fluids has raised serious concerns. The development of reservoir rock friendly and environmental benign fracturing fluids is in immediate demand. Studies to improve properties of hydraulic fracturing fluids have found that viscoelastic surfactant (VES) fracturing fluid can increase the productivity of gas/oil and be efficiently extracted after fracturing. Compared to conventional polymer fracturing fluid, VES fracturing fluid has many advantages, such as few components, easy preparation, good proppant transport capacity, low damage to cracks and formations, and environment friendly. In this work, we are developing a novel CO2-responsive VES fracking fluid that can readily be reused. This fluid has a gelling-breaking process that can be easily controlled by the presence of CO2 and its pressure. We synthesized erucamidopropyl dimethylamine (EA) as a thickening agent for hydraulic fracturing fluid. The influence of temperature, presence of CO2 and pressure on the viscoelastic behavior of this fluid was then investigated through rheological measurements. The fracturing fluid performance and recycle property were lastly studied using core flooding tests. We expect this fluid finds applications not only in enhanced oil/gas recovery, but also in areas such as controlling groundwater pollution and microfluidics.

  1. Paleostress and fluid-pressure regimes inferred from the orientations of Hishikari low sulfidation epithermal gold veins in southern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Guillaume D.; Yamaji, Atsushi; Yonezu, Kotaro; Tindell, Thomas; Watanabe, Koichiro

    2018-05-01

    The orientation distribution of dilational fractures is affected by the state of stress around the fractures and by the pressure of the fluid that opened the fractures. Thus, the distribution can be inverted to determine not only the stress but also the pressure condition at the time of vein formation. However, epithermal ore veins that we observe today are the results of a great number of intermittent upwelling of overpressured fluids with different pressures. Here, we define driving pressure index (DPI) as the representative non-dimensionalized fluid pressure for the fluids. We collected the orientations of ∼1000 ore veins in the Hishikari gold mine, which were deposited at around 1 Ma, in southern Kyushu, Japan. It was found that the majority of the veins were deposited under an extensional stress with a NW-SE-trending σ3-axis and a northeasterly-inclined σ1-axis with relatively high stress ratio. The representative driving pressure ratio was ∼0.2. Data sets obtained at different depths in the mine indicated a positive correlation of representative driving pressure ratios with the depths. The correlation suggests repeated formation and break of pressure seals during the mineralization. Our compilation of the Pliocene-Quaternary stress regimes in southern Kyushu, including the result of the present study, suggests that epithermal gold mineralization was associated with distributed extensional deformations in southern Kyushu, and strain localization into an intra-arc rift seems to have terminated the mineralization.

  2. Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Combustion Instability in Solid Rocket Motor : Implementation of Pressure Coupled Response Function

    OpenAIRE

    S. Saha; D. Chakraborty

    2016-01-01

    Combustion instability in solid propellant rocket motor is numerically simulated by implementing propellant response function with quasi steady homogeneous one dimensional formulation. The convolution integral of propellant response with pressure history is implemented through a user defined function in commercial computational fluid dynamics software. The methodology is validated against literature reported motor test and other simulation results. Computed amplitude of pressure fluctuations ...

  3. Numerical prediction of pressure loss of fluid in a T-junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulwahhab, Mohammed; Kumar Injeti, Niranjan [Department of Marin Engineering, Andhra University, AP (India); Fahad Dakhil, Sadoun [Department of Fuel and Energy, Basrah Technical College (Iraq)

    2013-07-01

    This work presents a prediction of pressure loss of fluid with turbulent incompressible flow through a 90° tee junction was carried out and compared with analytical and experimental results. One turbulence model was used in the numerical simulations: {kappa}-{epsilon} model for two different values of area ratio between the main pipe and the branch pipe were 1.0 and 4.0, and flow rate ratios. The continuity, momentum and energy equations were discredited by means of a finite volume technique and the SIMPLE algorithm scheme was applied to link the pressure and velocity fields inside the domain. A three dimensional steady state flow was solving by using CFX 5 code ANSYS FLUENT13. The effect of the flow rate ratio q (ratio between the flow rate in the branch and outlet pipes) on pressure drop and velocity profile was predicted at different Reynolds numbers. The results show that increasing the flow rate ratio the pressure and total energy losses increase because the presence of recirculation and the strong streamline curvature.

  4. Brachial cuff measurements of blood pressure during passive leg raising for fluid responsiveness prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhal, K; Ehrmann, S; Benzekri-Lefèvre, D; Runge, I; Legras, A; Dequin, P-F; Mercier, E; Wolff, M; Régnier, B; Boulain, T

    2012-05-01

    The passive leg raising maneuver (PLR) for fluid responsiveness testing relies on cardiac output (CO) measurements or invasive measurements of arterial pressure (AP) whereas the initial hemodynamic management during shock is often based solely on brachial cuff measurements. We assessed PLR-induced changes in noninvasive oscillometric readings to predict fluid responsiveness. Multicentre interventional study. In ICU sedated patients with circulatory failure, AP (invasive and noninvasive readings) and CO measurements were performed before, during PLR (trunk supine, not modified) and after 500-mL volume expansion. Areas under the ROC curves (AUC) were determined for fluid responsiveness (>10% volume expansion-induced increase in CO) prediction. In 112 patients (19% with arrhythmia), changes in noninvasive systolic AP during PLR (noninvasiveΔ(PLR)SAP) only predicted fluid responsiveness (cutoff 17%, n=21, positive likelihood ratio [LR] of 26 [18-38]), not unresponsiveness. If PLR-induced change in central venous pressure (CVP) was at least of 2 mm Hg (n=60), suggesting that PLR succeeded in altering cardiac preload, noninvasiveΔ(PLR)SAP performance was good: AUC of 0.94 [0.85-0.98], positive and negative LRs of 5.7 [4.6-6.8] and 0.07 [0.009-0.5], respectively, for a cutoff of 9%. Of note, invasive AP-derived indices did not outperform noninvasiveΔ(PLR)SAP. Regardless of CVP (i.e., during "blind PLR"), noninvasiveΔ(PLR)SAP more than 17% reliably identified fluid responders. During "CVP-guided PLR", in case of sufficient change in CVP, noninvasiveΔ(PLR)SAP performed better (cutoff of 9%). These findings, in sedated patients who had already undergone volume expansion and/or catecholamines, have to be verified during the early phase of circulatory failure (before an arterial line and/or a CO measuring device is placed). Copyright © 2012 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Fluid-structure interaction analysis for pressurizer surge line subjected to thermal stratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Gu; Jhung, Myung Jo; Chang, Soon Heung

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Temperature of surge line due to stratified flow is defined using CFD analysis. → Fluid-structure interaction analysis is performed to investigate the response characteristics due to thermal stress. → Fatigue usage factors due to thermal stratification are relatively low. → Simplifying temperature distribution in surge line is not always conservative. - Abstract: Serious mechanical damages such as cracks and plastic deformations due to excessive thermal stress caused by thermal stratification have been experienced in several nuclear power plants. In particular, the thermal stratification in the pressurizer surge line has been addressed as one of the significant safety and technical issues. In this study, a detailed unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis involving conjugate heat transfer analysis is performed to obtain the transient temperature distributions in the wall of the pressurizer surge line subjected to stratified internal flows either during out-surge or in-surge operation. The thermal loads from CFD calculations are transferred to the structural analysis code which is employed for the thermal stress analysis to investigate the response characteristics, and the fatigue analysis is ultimately performed. In addition, the thermal stress and fatigue analysis results obtained by applying the realistic temperature distributions from CFD calculations are compared with those by assuming the simplified temperature distributions to identify some requirements for a realistic and conservative thermal stress analysis from a safety point of view.

  6. An Experimental Investigation of Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Considering Anisotropy and Using Freshwater and Supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming He

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The process of hydraulic fracturing makes use of a liquid to fracture reservoir rocks for the exploitation of unconventional resources. Hence, it is vital to understand the processes that produce the fracture networks that occur during hydraulic fracturing. A shale reservoir is one of the largest unconventional resources and it displays obvious anisotropic characteristics due to its inherent sedimentary structures. The viscosity and flow ability of the fracturing fluid plays an important role in this process. We conducted a series of hydraulic fracturing tests on shale cores (from the southern Sichuan Basin using freshwater and supercritical CO2 (SCO2 as fracturing fluids to investigate the different modes of fracture propagation. The pump pressure curves that we obtained during the fracturing experiment show how the shale responded to each of the fracturing fluids. We examined the influence of the anisotropic characteristics on the propagation of hydraulic fractures by conducting a series of hydraulic fracturing experiments on the shale cores using different bedding orientations. The bedding orientation of the shale had a profound influence on the fracture propagation when using either freshwater or a SCO2 fluid. The breakdown pressure of the shale core was affected not only by the bedding orientation but also by the fracturing fluid. A macroscopic observation of the fractures revealed different fracture geometries and propagation patterns. The results demonstrated that the anisotropic structures and the fracturing fluids could influence the path of the hydraulic fracture.

  7. Computational Fluid Dynamic Pressure Drop Estimation of Flow between Parallel Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hyung Min; Yang, Soo Hyung; Park, Jong Hark [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Many pool type reactors have forced downward flows inside the core during normal operation; there is a chance of flow inversion when transients occur. During this phase, the flow undergo transition between turbulent and laminar regions where drastic changes take place in terms of momentum and heat transfer, and the decrease in safety margin is usually observed. Additionally, for high Prandtl number fluids such as water, an effect of the velocity profile inside the channel on the temperature distribution is more pronounced over the low Prandtl number ones. This makes the checking of its pressure drop estimation accuracy less important, assuming the code verification is complete. With an advent of powerful computer hardware, engineering applications of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods have become quite common these days. Especially for a fully-turbulent and single phase convective heat transfer, the predictability of the commercial codes has matured enough so that many well-known companies adopt those to accelerate a product development cycle and to realize an increased profitability. In contrast to the above, the transition models for the CFD code are still under development, and the most of the models show limited generality and prediction accuracy. Unlike the system codes, the CFD codes estimate the pressure drop from the velocity profile which is obtained by solving momentum conservation equations, and the resulting friction factor can be a representative parameter for a constant cross section channel flow. In addition, the flow inside a rectangular channel with a high span to gap ratio can be approximated by flow inside parallel plates. The computational fluid dynamics simulation on the flow between parallel plates showed reasonable prediction capability for the laminar and the turbulent regime.

  8. Skeletal nutrient vascular adaptation induced by external oscillatory intramedullary fluid pressure intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yi-Xian

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interstitial fluid flow induced by loading has demonstrated to be an important mediator for regulating bone mass and morphology. It is shown that the fluid movement generated by the intramedullary pressure (ImP provides a source for pressure gradient in bone. Such dynamic ImP may alter the blood flow within nutrient vessel adjacent to bone and directly connected to the marrow cavity, further initiating nutrient vessel adaptation. It is hypothesized that oscillatory ImP can mediate the blood flow in the skeletal nutrient vessels and trigger vasculature remodeling. The objective of this study was then to evaluate the vasculature remodeling induced by dynamic ImP stimulation as a function of ImP frequency. Methods Using an avian model, dynamics physiological fluid ImP (70 mmHg, peak-peak was applied in the marrow cavity of the left ulna at either 3 Hz or 30 Hz, 10 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 3 or 4 weeks. The histomorphometric measurements of the principal nutrient arteries were done to quantify the arterial wall area, lumen area, wall thickness, and smooth muscle cell layer numbers for comparison. Results The preliminary results indicated that the acute cyclic ImP stimuli can significantly enlarge the nutrient arterial wall area up to 50%, wall thickness up to 20%, and smooth muscle cell layer numbers up to 37%. In addition, 3-week of acute stimulation was sufficient to alter the arterial structural properties, i.e., increase of arterial wall area, whereas 4-week of loading showed only minimal changes regardless of the loading frequency. Conclusions These data indicate a potential mechanism in the interrelationship between vasculature adaptation and applied ImP alteration. Acute ImP could possibly initiate the remodeling in the bone nutrient vasculature, which may ultimately alter blood supply to bone.

  9. Operating problem of low specific speed pumps operating in closed hydraulic loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    Results of the studies of pressure pulsations caused by the centrifugal pump driving a typical sodium test loop are presented. The method of characteristics has been used for solving the equations of unsteady fluid flow in closed hydraulic loops with various boundary points, important of which are pump, control valve and heater tank (acting hydraulically as surge tank). Mathematical and computational models used for calculations are described. (M.G.B.)

  10. Numerical Modeling and Investigation of Fluid-Driven Fracture Propagation in Reservoirs Based on a Modified Fluid-Mechanically Coupled Model in Two-Dimensional Particle Flow Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing is a useful tool for enhancing rock mass permeability for shale gas development, enhanced geothermal systems, and geological carbon sequestration by the high-pressure injection of a fracturing fluid into tight reservoir rocks. Although significant advances have been made in hydraulic fracturing theory, experiments, and numerical modeling, when it comes to the complexity of geological conditions knowledge is still limited. Mechanisms of fluid injection-induced fracture initiation and propagation should be better understood to take full advantage of hydraulic fracturing. This paper presents the development and application of discrete particle modeling based on two-dimensional particle flow code (PFC2D. Firstly, it is shown that the modeled value of the breakdown pressure for the hydraulic fracturing process is approximately equal to analytically calculated values under varied in situ stress conditions. Furthermore, a series of simulations for hydraulic fracturing in competent rock was performed to examine the influence of the in situ stress ratio, fluid injection rate, and fluid viscosity on the borehole pressure history, the geometry of hydraulic fractures, and the pore-pressure field, respectively. It was found that the hydraulic fractures in an isotropic medium always propagate parallel to the orientation of the maximum principal stress. When a high fluid injection rate is used, higher breakdown pressure is needed for fracture propagation and complex geometries of fractures can develop. When a low viscosity fluid is used, fluid can more easily penetrate from the borehole into the surrounding rock, which causes a reduction of the effective stress and leads to a lower breakdown pressure. Moreover, the geometry of the fractures is not particularly sensitive to the fluid viscosity in the approximate isotropic model.

  11. Fluid Micro-Reservoirs Array Design with Auto-Pressure Regulation for High-Speed 3D Printers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshe Einat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Three dimensional (3D printing technology is rapidly evolving such that printing speed is now a crucial factor in technological developments and future applications. For printing heads based on the inkjet concept, the number of nozzles on the print head is a limiting factor of printing speed. This paper offers a method to practically increase the number of nozzles unlimitedly, and thus to dramatically ramp up printing speed. Fluid reservoirs are used in inkjet print heads to supply fluid through a manifold to the jetting chambers. The pressure in the reservoir’s outlet is important and influences device performance. Many efforts have been made to regulate pressure inside the fluid reservoirs so as to obtain a constant pressure in the chambers. When the number of nozzles is increased too much, the regulation of uniform pressure among all the nozzles becomes too complicated. In this paper, a different approach is taken. The reservoir is divided into an array of many micro-reservoirs. Each micro-reservoir supports one or a few chambers, and has a unique structure with auto-pressure regulation, where the outlet pressure is independent of the fluid level. The regulation is based on auto-compensation of the gravity force and a capillary force having the same dependence on the fluid level; this feature is obtained by adding a wedge in the reservoir with a unique shape. When the fluid level drops, the gravitational force and the capillary force decrease with it, but at similar rates. Terms for the force balance are derived and, consequently, a constant pressure in the fluid micro-reservoir segment is obtained automatically, with each segment being autonomous. This micro reservoir array is suggested for the enlargement of an inkjet print head and the achievement of high-speed 3D printing.

  12. HYDRAULIC SERVO CONTROL MECHANISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, R.B.; Gottsche, M.J. Jr.

    1963-09-17

    A hydraulic servo control mechanism of compact construction and low fluid requirements is described. The mechanism consists of a main hydraulic piston, comprising the drive output, which is connected mechanically for feedback purposes to a servo control piston. A control sleeve having control slots for the system encloses the servo piston, which acts to cover or uncover the slots as a means of controlling the operation of the system. This operation permits only a small amount of fluid to regulate the operation of the mechanism, which, as a result, is compact and relatively light. This mechanism is particuiarly adaptable to the drive and control of control rods in nuclear reactors. (auth)

  13. Thermal hydraulic analysis of aggressive secondary cooldown in a small break loss of coolant accident with a total loss of high pressure safety injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seok Jung; Lim, Ho Gon; Yang, Joon Eon

    2003-01-01

    To support the development of a Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) model usable in Riskinformed Applications (RIA) for Korea Standard Nuclear power Plants (KSNP), we have performed a thermal hydraulic analysis of Aggressive Secondary Cooldown (ASC) in a 2-inch Small Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) with a total loss of High Pressure Safety Injection (HPSI). The present study focuses on the estimation of the success criteria of ASC, and the enhanced understanding of the detailed thermal hydraulic behavior and phenomena. The results have shown that the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) pressure can be reduced to the Low Pressure Safety Injection (LPSI) operation conditions without core damage. It was also shown that more relaxed success criteria compared to those in the previous PSA models of KSNP could be used in the new PSA model. However, it was found that the results could be affected by various parameters related with ASC operation, i.e., reference temperature for the calculation of the cooldown rate and its control method

  14. Pressurized fluid extraction of essential oil from Lavandula hybrida using a modified supercritical fluid extractor and a central composite design for optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali, Hossein; Jalilvand, Mohammad Reza; Aminimoghadamfarouj, Noushin

    2012-06-01

    Essential oil components were extracted from lavandin (Lavandula hybrida) flowers using pressurized fluid extraction. A central composite design was used to optimize the effective extraction variables. The chemical composition of extracted samples was analyzed by a gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector column. For achieving 100% extraction yield, the temperature, pressure, extraction time, and the solvent flow rate were adjusted at 90.6°C, 63 bar, 30.4 min, and 0.2 mL/min, respectively. The results showed that pressurized fluid extraction is a practical technique for separation of constituents such as 1,8-cineole (8.1%), linalool (34.1%), linalyl acetate (30.5%), and camphor (7.3%) from lavandin to be applied in the food, fragrance, pharmaceutical, and natural biocides industries. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Proteomic Assessment of Fluid Shifts and Association with Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure in Twin Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Brinda K.; Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Macias, Brandon R.; Siamwala, Jamila; Piening, Brian Donald; Hook, Vivian; Ebert, Doug; Patel, Hemal; Smith, Scott; hide

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Astronauts participating in long duration space missions are at an increased risk of physiological disruptions. The development of visual impairment and intracranial pressure (VIIP) syndrome is one of the leading health concerns for crew members on long-duration space missions; microgravity-induced fluid shifts and chronic elevated cabin CO2 may be contributing factors. By studying physiological and molecular changes in one identical twin during his 1-year ISS mission and his ground-based co-twin, this work extends a current NASA-funded investigation to assess space flight induced "Fluid Shifts" in association with the development of VIIP. This twin study uniquely integrates physiological and -omic signatures to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying space flight-induced VIIP. We are: (i) conducting longitudinal proteomic assessments of plasma to identify fluid regulation-related molecular pathways altered by long-term space flight; and (ii) integrating physiological and proteomic data with genomic data to understand the genomic mechanism by which these proteomic signatures are regulated. PURPOSE: We are exploring proteomic signatures and genomic mechanisms underlying space flight-induced VIIP symptoms with the future goal of developing early biomarkers to detect and monitor the progression of VIIP. This study is first to employ a male monozygous twin pair to systematically determine the impact of fluid distribution in microgravity, integrating a comprehensive set of structural and functional measures with proteomic, metabolomic and genomic data. This project has a broader impact on Earth-based clinical areas, such as traumatic brain injury-induced elevations of intracranial pressure, hydrocephalus, and glaucoma. HYPOTHESIS: We predict that the space-flown twin will experience a space flight-induced alteration in proteins and peptides related to fluid balance, fluid control and brain injury as compared to his pre-flight protein

  16. Critical heat flux near the critical pressure in heater rod bundle cooled by R-134A fluid: Effects of unheated rods and spacer grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Se-Y.; Shin, C.W.; Hong, S. D.; Moon, S. K.

    2007-01-01

    A supercritical-pressure light water reactor (SCWR) is currently investigated as the next generation nuclear reactors. The SCWR, which is operated above the thermodynamic critical point of water (647 K, 22.1 MPa), have advantages over conventional light water reactors in terms of thermal efficiency as well as in compactness and simplicity. Many experimental studies have been performed on heat transfer in the boiler tubes of supercritical fossil fire power plants (FPPs). However, the thermal-hydraulic conditions of the SCWR core are different from those of the FPP boiler. In the SCWR core, the heat transfer to the cooling water occurs on the outside surface of fuel rods in rod bundle with spacers. In addition, the experimental studies in which the critical heat flux (CHF) has been carefully measured near the critical pressure have never yet been carried out, as far as we know. Therefore, we have recently conducted the CHF experiments with a vertical 5x5 heater rod bundle cooled by R- 134a fluid. The purpose of this work is to find out some novel knowledge for the CHF near the critical pressure, based on more careful experiments. The outer diameter, heated length and rod pitch of the heater rods are 9.5, 2000 and 12.85 mm, respectively. The critical power has been measured in a range of the pressure of 2.474.03 MPa (the critical pressure of R-134a is 4.059 MPa), the mass flux 502000 kg/m 2 s, and the inlet subcooling 4084 kJ/kg. For the mass fluxes of not less than 550 kg/m 2 s, the critical power decreases monotonously up to the pressure of about 3.63.8 MPa with increasing pressure, and then fall sharply at about 3.83.9 MPa as if the values of the critical power converge on zero at the critical pressure. For the low mass fluxes of 50 to 250 kg/m 2 , the sharp decreasing trend of the critical power near the critical pressure is not observed. The CHF phenomenon near the critical pressure no longer leads to an inordinate increase in the heated wall temperature such as

  17. Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation of Single Bubble Growth under High-Pressure Pool Boiling Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Murallidharan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Component-scale modeling of boiling is predominantly based on the Eulerian–Eulerian two-fluid approach. Within this framework, wall boiling is accounted for via the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI model and, within this model, the bubble is characterized using three main parameters: departure diameter (D, nucleation site density (N, and departure frequency (f. Typically, the magnitudes of these three parameters are obtained from empirical correlations. However, in recent years, efforts have been directed toward mechanistic modeling of the boiling process. Of the three parameters mentioned above, the departure diameter (D is least affected by the intrinsic uncertainties of the nucleate boiling process. This feature, along with its prominence within the RPI boiling model, has made it the primary candidate for mechanistic modeling ventures. Mechanistic modeling of D is mostly carried out through solving of force balance equations on the bubble. Forces incorporated in these equations are formulated as functions of the radius of the bubble and have been developed for, and applied to, low-pressure conditions only. Conversely, for high-pressure conditions, no mechanistic information is available regarding the growth rates of bubbles and the forces acting on them. In this study, we use direct numerical simulation coupled with an interface tracking method to simulate bubble growth under high (up to 45 bar pressure, to obtain the kind of mechanistic information required for an RPI-type approach. In this study, we compare the resulting bubble growth rate curves with predictions made with existing experimental data.

  18. The relationship between elevated interstitial fluid pressure and blood flow in tumors: a bioengineering analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, Michael F.; Fyles, Anthony W.; Hill, Richard P.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the hypothesis that elevated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) is a cause of reduced blood flow in tumors. Materials and Methods: A physiologic model of tumor blood flow was developed based on a semipermeable, compliant capillary in the center of a spherical tumor. The model incorporates the interaction between the tumor vasculature and the interstitium, as mediated by IFP. It also incorporates the dynamic behavior of the capillary wall in response to changes in transmural pressure, and the effect of viscosity on blood flow. Results: The model predicted elevated tumor IFP in the range of 0 to 56 mmHg. The capillary diameter in the setting of elevated IFP was greatest at the arterial end, and constricted to between 3.2 and 4.4 μm at the venous end. This corresponded to a 2.4- to 3.5-fold reduction in diameter along the length of the capillary. The IFP exceeded the intravascular pressure distally in the capillary, but vascular collapse did not occur. Capillary diameter constriction resulted in a 2.3- to 9.1-fold steady-state reduction in tumor blood flow relative to a state of near-zero IFP. Conclusion: The results suggest that steady-state vascular constriction occurs in the setting of elevated IFP, and leads to reduced tumor blood flow. This may in turn contribute to the development of hypoxia, which is an important cause of radiation treatment failure in many tumors

  19. On axial temperature gradients due to large pressure drops in dense fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgate, Sam O; Berger, Terry A

    2015-03-13

    The effect of energy degradation (Degradation is the creation of net entropy resulting from irreversibility.) accompanying pressure drops across chromatographic columns is examined with regard to explaining axial temperature gradients in both high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). The observed effects of warming and cooling can be explained equally well in the language of thermodynamics or fluid dynamics. The necessary equivalence of these treatments is reviewed here to show the legitimacy of using whichever one supports the simpler determination of features of interest. The determination of temperature profiles in columns by direct application of the laws of thermodynamics is somewhat simpler than applying them indirectly by solving the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. Both disciplines show that the preferred strategy for minimizing the reduction in peak quality caused by temperature gradients is to operate columns as nearly adiabatically as possible (i.e. as Joule-Thomson expansions). This useful fact, however, is not widely familiar or appreciated in the chromatography community due to some misunderstanding of the meaning of certain terms and expressions used in these disciplines. In fluid dynamics, the terms "resistive heating" or "frictional heating" have been widely used as synonyms for the dissipation function, Φ, in the NS energy equation. These terms have been widely used by chromatographers as well, but often misinterpreted as due to friction between the mobile phase and the column packing, when in fact Φ describes the increase in entropy of the system (dissipation, ∫TdSuniv>0) due to the irreversible decompression of the mobile phase. Two distinctly different contributions to the irreversibility are identified; (1) ΔSext, viscous dissipation of work done by the external surroundings driving the flow (the pump) contributing to its warming, and (2) ΔSint, entropy change accompanying decompression of

  20. Vibration of hydraulic machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yulin; Liu, Shuhong; Dou, Hua-Shu; Qian, Zhongdong

    2013-01-01

    Vibration of Hydraulic Machinery deals with the vibration problem which has significant influence on the safety and reliable operation of hydraulic machinery. It provides new achievements and the latest developments in these areas, even in the basic areas of this subject. The present book covers the fundamentals of mechanical vibration and rotordynamics as well as their main numerical models and analysis methods for the vibration prediction. The mechanical and hydraulic excitations to the vibration are analyzed, and the pressure fluctuations induced by the unsteady turbulent flow is predicted in order to obtain the unsteady loads. This book also discusses the loads, constraint conditions and the elastic and damping characters of the mechanical system, the structure dynamic analysis, the rotor dynamic analysis and the system instability of hydraulic machines, including the illustration of monitoring system for the instability and the vibration in hydraulic units. All the problems are necessary for vibration pr...

  1. Standardization of the methodology used for fuel pressure drop evaluation to improve hydraulic calculation of heterogeneous cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Borgne, E.; Mattei, A.

    1994-01-01

    Continuous searching for safer and more efficient fuel, and diversification of fuel supply have as a consequence a possible change in the characteristics of the fuel assemblies used in nuclear reactors. By partially refueling cores with new assemblies, nuclear power plant operators are confronted with the problem of heterogeneous cores. The complexity of the problem increases as products diversify in isotopic concentration, types of alloy, size and shape of structure components. This document will focus strictly on the differences in hydraulic resistance related to the modifications in grid structures having no effect on DNB correlations. Although this is an extremely simplified approach to the problem, establishing data to evaluate the hydraulic compatibility between two different assemblies can be difficult, and if not controlled closely, can lead to false conclusions that may affect the operation and safety of the reactor. (authors). 2 figs

  2. Avoidance of Pressure Oscillations in Discrete Fluid Power Systems with Transmission Lines - An Analytical Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Hedegaard; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2014-01-01

    Discrete fluid power technology attracts great attention because it enables energy efficiency and robust system architectures. However, the discrete nature of this technology naturally brings shifting phenomenons into the picture. For fluid power system the relative high inductance of fluid...

  3. Automated intracranial pressure-controlled cerebrospinal fluid external drainage with LiquoGuard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsler, Stefan; Schmidtke, Mareike; Steudel, Wolf Ingo; Kiefer, Michael; Oertel, Joachim

    2013-08-01

    LiquoGuard is a new device for intracranial pressure (ICP)-controlled drainage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This present study evaluates the accuracy of ICP measurement via the LiquoGuard device in comparison with Spiegelberg. Thus, we compared data ascertained from simultaneous measurement of ICP using tip-transducer and tip-sensor devices. A total of 1,764 monitoring hours in 15 patients (range, 52-219 h) were analysed. All patients received an intraventricular Spiegelberg III probe with the drainage catheter connected to the LiquoGuard system. ICP reading of both devices was performed on an hourly basis. Statistical analysis was done by applying Pearson correlation and Wilcoxon-matched pair test (p drainage. However, LiquoGuard tends to provide misleading results in slit ventricles. Thus, before these drawbacks are further analysed, the authors recommend additional ICP measurement with internal tip-sensor devices to avoid dangerous erroneous interpretation of ICP data.

  4. Small-Scale Metal Tanks for High Pressure Storage of Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Adam (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Small scale metal tanks for high-pressure storage of fluids having tank factors of more than 5000 meters and volumes of ten cubic inches or less featuring arrays of interconnected internal chambers having at least inner walls thinner than gage limitations allow. The chambers may be arranged as multiple internal independent vessels. Walls of chambers that are also portions of external tank walls may be arcuate on the internal and/or external surfaces, including domed. The tanks may be shaped adaptively and/or conformally to an application, including, for example, having one or more flat outer walls and/or having an annular shape. The tanks may have dual-purpose inlet/outlet conduits of may have separate inlet and outlet conduits. The tanks are made by fusion bonding etched metal foil layers patterned from slices of a CAD model of the tank. The fusion bonded foil stack may be further machined.

  5. Fluid-flow pressure measurements and thermo-fluid characterization of a single loop two-phase passive heat transfer device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilinca, A.; Mangini, D.; Mameli, M.; Fioriti, D.; Filippeschi, S.; Araneo, L.; Roth, N.; Marengo, M.

    2017-11-01

    A Novel Single Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe (SLPHP), with an inner diameter of 2 mm, filled up with two working fluids (Ethanol and FC-72, Filling Ratio of 60%), is tested in Bottom Heated mode varying the heating power and the orientation. The static confinement diameter for Ethanol and FC-72, respectively 3.4 mm and 1.7mm, is above and slightly under the inner diameter of the tube. This is important for a better understanding of the working principle of the device very close to the limit between the Loop Thermosyphon and Pulsating Heat Pipe working modes. With respect to previous SLPHP experiments found in the literature, such device is designed with two transparent inserts mounted between the evaporator and the condenser allowing direct fluid flow visualization. Two highly accurate pressure transducers permit local pressure measurements just at the edges of one of the transparent inserts. Additionally, three heating elements are controlled independently, so as to vary the heating distribution at the evaporator. It is found that peculiar heating distributions promote the slug/plug flow motion in a preferential direction, increasing the device overall performance. Pressure measurements point out that the pressure drop between the evaporator and the condenser are related to the flow pattern. Furthermore, at high heat inputs, the flow regimes recorded for the two fluids are very similar, stressing that, when the dynamic effects start to play a major role in the system, the device classification between Loop Thermosyphon and Pulsating Heat Pipe is not that sharp anymore.

  6. Stroke volume variation compared with pulse pressure variation and cardiac index changes for prediction of fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randa Aly Soliman

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: Baseline stroke volume variation ⩾8.15% predicted fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated patients with acute circulatory failure. The study also confirmed the ability of pulse pressure variation to predict fluid responsiveness.

  7. Prediction of wall friction for fluids at supercritical pressure with CFD models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelucci, M.; Ambrosini, W.; Forgione, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the STAR-CCM+ CFD code is used in the attempt to reproduce the values of friction factor observed in experimental data at supercritical pressures at various operating conditions. A short survey of available data and correlations for smooth pipe friction in circular pipes puts the basis for the discussion, reporting observed trends of friction factor in the liquid-like and the gas-like regions and within the transitional region around the pseudo-critical temperature. For smooth pipes, a general decrease of the friction factor in the transitional region is reported, constituting one of the relevant effects to be predicted by the computational fluid-dynamic models. A limited number of low-Reynolds number models is adopted, making use of refined near-wall discretisations as required by the constraint y + < 1 at the wall. In particular, the Lien k-ε and the SST k-ω models are considered. The values of the wall shear stress calculated by the code are then post-processed on the basis of bulk fluid properties to obtain the Fanning and then the Darcy-Weisbach friction factors, basing on their classical definitions. The obtained values are compared with those provided by experimental tests and correlations, finding a reasonable qualitative agreement. Expectedly, the agreement is better in the gas-like and liquid-like regions, where fluid property changes are moderate, than in the transitional region, where the trends provided by available correlations are reproduced only in a qualitative way. (author)

  8. Pressure and fluid saturation prediction in a multicomponent reservoir, using combined seismic and electromagnetic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoversten, G.M.; Gritto, Roland; Washbourne, John; Daley, Tom

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a method for combining seismic and electromagnetic measurements to predict changes in water saturation, pressure, and CO 2 gas/oil ratio in a reservoir undergoing CO 2 flood. Crosswell seismic and electromagnetic data sets taken before and during CO 2 flooding of an oil reservoir are inverted to produce crosswell images of the change in compressional velocity, shear velocity, and electrical conductivity during a CO 2 injection pilot study. A rock properties model is developed using measured log porosity, fluid saturations, pressure, temperature, bulk density, sonic velocity, and electrical conductivity. The parameters of the rock properties model are found by an L1-norm simplex minimization of predicted and observed differences in compressional velocity and density. A separate minimization, using Archie's law, provides parameters for modeling the relations between water saturation, porosity, and the electrical conductivity. The rock-properties model is used to generate relationships between changes in geophysical parameters and changes in reservoir parameters. Electrical conductivity changes are directly mapped to changes in water saturation; estimated changes in water saturation are used along with the observed changes in shear wave velocity to predict changes in reservoir pressure. The estimation of the spatial extent and amount of CO 2 relies on first removing the effects of the water saturation and pressure changes from the observed compressional velocity changes, producing a residual compressional velocity change. This velocity change is then interpreted in terms of increases in the CO 2 /oil ratio. Resulting images of the CO 2 /oil ratio show CO 2 -rich zones that are well correlated to the location of injection perforations, with the size of these zones also correlating to the amount of injected CO 2 . The images produced by this process are better correlated to the location and amount of injected CO 2 than are any of the individual

  9. Retinal vessel diameter and estimated cerebrospinal fluid pressure in arterial hypertension: the Beijing Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Jost B; Wang, Ningli; Wang, Shuang; Wang, Ya Xing; You, Qi Sheng; Yang, Diya; Wei, Wen Bin; Xu, Liang

    2014-09-01

    Hypertensive retinal microvascular abnormalities include an increased retinal vein-to-artery diameter ratio. Because central retinal vein pressure depends on cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), we examined whether the retinal vein-to-artery diameter ratio and other retinal hypertensive signs are associated with CSFP. Participants of the population-based Beijing Eye Study (n = 1,574 subjects) underwent measurement of the temporal inferior and superior retinal artery and vein diameter. CSFP was calculated as 0.44 × body mass index (kg/m(2)) + 0.16 × diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) - 0.18 × age (years) - 1.91. Larger retinal vein diameters and higher vein-to-artery diameter ratios were significantly associated with higher estimated CSFP (P = 0.001) in multivariable analysis. In contrast, temporal inferior retinal arterial diameter was marginally associated (P = 0.03) with estimated CSFP, and temporal superior artery diameter was not significantly associated (P = 0.10) with estimated CSFP; other microvascular abnormalities, such as arteriovenous crossing signs, were also not significantly associated with estimated CSFP. In a reverse manner, higher estimated CSFP as a dependent variable in the multivariable analysis was associated with wider retinal veins and higher vein-to-artery diameter ratio. In the same model, estimated CSFP was not significantly correlated with retinal artery diameters or other retinal microvascular abnormalities. Correspondingly, arterial hypertension was associated with retinal microvascular abnormalities such as arteriovenous crossing signs (P = 0.003), thinner temporal retinal arteries (P arterial hypertension, an increased retinal vein-to-artery diameter ratio depends on elevated CSFP, which is correlated with blood pressure. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Modelling the fluid structure interaction produced by a waterhammer during shutdown of high-pressure pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erath, W.; Nowotny, B.; Maetz, J.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of an experiment in a pipe system with pump shutdown and valve closing have been performed in the nuclear power plant KRB II (Gundremmingen, Germany). Comparative calculations of fluid and structure including interaction show an excellent agreement with the measured results. Theory and implementation of the fluid structure interaction (FSI) and the results of the comparison are described. The following measurements have been compared with calculations: (1) experiments in Delft, Netherlands to analyse the FSI; and (2) experiment with pump shutdown and valve closing in the nuclear power plant KRB II has been performed. It turns out, that the consideration of the FSI is necessary for an exact calculation of 'soft' piping systems. It has significant application in current waterhammer problems. For example, water column closure, vapour collapse, check valve slamming continues to create waterhammers in the energy industry. An important consequence of the FSI is mostly a significant increase of the effective structural damping. This mitigates - so far in all KED's calculations the FSI has taken into account - an amplification of pipe movements due to pressure waves in resonance with structural eigenvalues. To investigate the integrity of pipe systems pipe stresses are calculated. Taking FSI into account they are reduced by 10-40% in the actual case. (orig.)

  11. The effect of ascitic fluid hydrostatic pressure on albumin extravasation rate in patients with cirrhosis of the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Parving, H H; Christiansen, Lasse

    1981-01-01

    Overall transvascular escape rate of albumin [TERalb, i.e. the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin (IVMalb) passing to the extravascular space per unit time] was determined from the disappearance of i.v. injected radioiodinated serum albumin. Patients with tense ascites due to liver cirrhosis...... and pigs with posthepatic portal hypertension and intraperitoneally instilled fluid were studied before and after abdominal paracentesis in order to evaluate the effect of ascitic fluid hydrostatic pressure on the transvascular escape rate of albumin. TERalb of the ascitic patients (n = 6) were on average......, TERalb rose significantly to an average of 24.3% IVMalb.h-1. The increased albumin extravasation rate after removal of ascites is best explained by an increased sinusoidal-tissue pressure difference caused by a decreased hydrostatic fluid pressure in the liver interstitium (portal and subcapsular spaces...

  12. Unified fluid flow model for pressure transient analysis in naturally fractured media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babak, Petro; Azaiez, Jalel

    2015-01-01

    Naturally fractured reservoirs present special challenges for flow modeling with regards to their internal geometrical structure. The shape and distribution of matrix porous blocks and the geometry of fractures play key roles in the formulation of transient interporosity flow models. Although these models have been formulated for several typical geometries of the fracture networks, they appeared to be very dissimilar for different shapes of matrix blocks, and their analysis presents many technical challenges. The aim of this paper is to derive and analyze a unified approach to transient interporosity flow models for slightly compressible fluids that can be used for any matrix geometry and fracture network. A unified fractional differential transient interporosity flow model is derived using asymptotic analysis for singularly perturbed problems with small parameters arising from the assumption of a much smaller permeability of the matrix blocks compared to that of the fractures. This methodology allowed us to unify existing transient interporosity flow models formulated for different shapes of matrix blocks including bounded matrix blocks, unbounded matrix cylinders with any orthogonal crossection, and matrix slabs. The model is formulated using a fractional order diffusion equation for fluid pressure that involves Caputo derivative of order 1/2 with respect to time. Analysis of the unified fractional derivative model revealed that the surface area-to-volume ratio is the key parameter in the description of the flow through naturally fractured media. Expressions of this parameter are presented for matrix blocks of the same geometrical shape as well as combinations of different shapes with constant and random sizes. Numerical comparisons between the predictions of the unified model and those obtained from existing transient interporosity ones for matrix blocks in the form of slabs, spheres and cylinders are presented for linear, radial and spherical flow types for

  13. Thermal hydraulic analysis of aggressive secondary cooldown in small break loss of coolant accident with total loss of high pressure safety injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S. J.; Im, H. K.; Yang, J. U.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has being applied to various fields as a basic technique of Risk-Informed Applications (RIA). To use RIA, the present study focuses on the detailed thermal hydraulic analyses for major accident sequences and success criteria to support a development of PSA model for Korea Standard Nuclear Power plant (KSNP). The primary purpose of the present study is to evaluate the success criteria of Aggressive Secondary Cooldown (ASC) in Small Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) with total loss of High Pressure Safety Injection (HPSI) and to enhance the understanding of related thermal hydraulic behavior and phenomena. The accident scenario was 2 inch coldleg break LOCA without HPSI, with 1/2 Low Pressure Safety Injection (LPSI), and performing ASC limited by 55.6 .deg. C /hr (100 .deg. F/hr) cooldown rate at 15 minute after reactor trip, which successively reaches the LPSI condition for about 1.5hr after starting ASC operation with the Peak Cladding Temperature (PCT) of the hottest rod below the core damage criteria 1204.4 .deg. C (2200 .deg. F). In the present study, more relaxed success criteria than the previous PSA for KSNP could be generated under an assumption that operator should maintain the adequate ASC operation. However, it is necessary to evaluate uncertainties arisen from the related parameters of the ASC operation

  14. Cardiovascular fluid dynamics. Methods for flow and pressure field analysis from magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebbers, T.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiovascular blood flow is highly complex and incompletely understood. Blood flow patterns are expected to influence the opening and closing of normal and prosthetic heart valves, the efficiency of cardiac filling and ejection, and the resistance to thrombus formation within the heart. Conventional diagnostic techniques are poorly suited to the study of the three-dimensional (3D) blood flow patterns in the heart chambers and large vessels. Noninvasive methods have also been inadequate in studying intracardiac pressure differences, which are the driving force of flow and are critical in the evaluation of many cardiovascular abnormalities. This thesis focuses on the development of non-invasive methods for analysis of 3D cardiovascular blood flow. Simultaneous study of cardiovascular fluid dynamics allowed knowledge exchange across the two disciplines, facilitating the development process and broadening the applicability of the methods. A time-resolved 3D phase-contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique was used to acquire the velocity vector field in a 3D volume encompassing the entire heart or a large vessel. Cardiovascular blood flow patterns were visualized by use of particle traces, which revealed, for instance, vortical flow patterns in the left atrium. By applying the Navier-Stokes equation along a user-defined line in the 3D velocity vector field, the relative pressure could be obtained as an excellent supplement to the flow pattern visualization. Using a delineation of the blood pool, the time-varying 3D relative pressure field in the human left ventricle was obtained from the velocity field by use of the pressure Poisson equation. A delineation of the heart muscle, a task that is almost impossible to perform on 3D MRI either automatically or manually, was also achieved by usage of particle traces. This segmentation allows automatic calculation of the 3D relative pressure field, as well as calculation of well-established parameters such as

  15. Cardiovascular fluid dynamics. Methods for flow and pressure field analysis from magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbers, T

    2001-05-01

    Cardiovascular blood flow is highly complex and incompletely understood. Blood flow patterns are expected to influence the opening and closing of normal and prosthetic heart valves, the efficiency of cardiac filling and ejection, and the resistance to thrombus formation within the heart. Conventional diagnostic techniques are poorly suited to the study of the three-dimensional (3D) blood flow patterns in the heart chambers and large vessels. Noninvasive methods have also been inadequate in studying intracardiac pressure differences, which are the driving force of flow and are critical in the evaluation of many cardiovascular abnormalities. This thesis focuses on the development of non-invasive methods for analysis of 3D cardiovascular blood flow. Simultaneous study of cardiovascular fluid dynamics allowed knowledge exchange across the two disciplines, facilitating the development process and broadening the applicability of the methods. A time-resolved 3D phase-contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique was used to acquire the velocity vector field in a 3D volume encompassing the entire heart or a large vessel. Cardiovascular blood flow patterns were visualized by use of particle traces, which revealed, for instance, vortical flow patterns in the left atrium. By applying the Navier-Stokes equation along a user-defined line in the 3D velocity vector field, the relative pressure could be obtained as an excellent supplement to the flow pattern visualization. Using a delineation of the blood pool, the time-varying 3D relative pressure field in the human left ventricle was obtained from the velocity field by use of the pressure Poisson equation. A delineation of the heart muscle, a task that is almost impossible to perform on 3D MRI either automatically or manually, was also achieved by usage of particle traces. This segmentation allows automatic calculation of the 3D relative pressure field, as well as calculation of well-established parameters such as

  16. Aluminum speciation in aqueous fluids at deep crustal pressure and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookherjee, Mainak; Keppler, Hans; Manning, Craig E.

    2014-05-01

    We investigated aluminum speciation in aqueous fluids in equilibrium with corundum using in situ Raman spectroscopy in hydrothermal diamond anvil cells to 20 kbar and 1000 °C. We have studied aluminum species in (a) pure H2O, (b) 5.3 m KOH solution, and (c) 1 m KOH solution. In order to better understand the spectral features of the aqueous fluids, we used ab initio simulations based on density functional theory to calculate and predict the energetics and vibrational spectra for various aluminum species that are likely to be present in aqueous solutions. The Raman spectra of pure water in equilibrium with Al2O3 are devoid of any characteristic spectral features. In contrast, aqueous fluids with 5.3 m and 1 m KOH solution in equilibrium with Al2O3 show a sharp band at ˜620 cm-1 which could be attributed to the [ species. The band grows in intensity with temperature along an isochore. A shoulder on the high-frequency side of this band may be due to a hydrated, charge neutral Al(OH)3·H2O species. In the limited pressure, temperature and density explored in the present study, we do not find any evidence for the polymerization of the [ species to dimers [(OH)2-Al-(OH)2-Al(OH)2] or [(OH)3-Al-O-Al(OH)3]2-. This is likely due to the relatively low concentration of Al in the solutions and does not rule out significant polymerization at higher pressures and temperatures. Upon cooling of Al-bearing solutions to room temperatures, Raman bands indicating the precipitation of diaspore (AlOOH) were observed in some experiments. The Raman spectra of the KOH solutions (with or without dissolved alumina) showed a sharp OH stretching band at ˜3614 cm-1 and an in-plane OH bending vibration at ˜1068 cm-1, likely related to an OH- ion with the oxygen atom attached to a water molecule by hydrogen bonding. A weak feature at ˜935 cm-1 may be related to the out-of-plane bending vibration of the same species or to an OH species with a different environment.

  17. Stability analysis of fluid at supercritical pressure in a heated channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallaway, T.; Podowski, M. Z.

    2010-01-01

    The Supercritical Water Reactor (SCWR) is one of several reactor design concepts included in the Generation IV International Advanced Reactor Design Program. This reactor design is based upon current light water reactors and supercritical fossil-fuel power plants. Water at supercritical pressures is used as the reactor coolant. At these conditions, there is no phase change in the coolant; however the fluid properties undergo significant variation, particularly in the pseudo-critical region. The fluid density may decrease by a factor of six with increasing temperature. It has been seen before that variations in fluid density can lead to density-wave oscillations in two-phase flow systems in general and boiling water reactors in particular. Such instabilities may cause many undesired problems for reactor operation and safety. Similar issues must be addressed in the design and safety analysis of SCWRs. The objective of the present work has been the development of a detailed one-dimensional model of instabilities in a heated channel corresponding to the geometry and flow conditions in the proposed typical SCWRs. The new model is capable of analyzing in detail transient effects of local property variations in parallel channels subject to a constant pressure drop boundary condition. In particular, such a model can be used to establish SCWR power limits imposed by the onset of instabilities in the hot channel of the reactor. Both time and frequency-domain methods of stability analysis have been developed. The latter method is particularly important since it is not associated with any numerical issues, is very accurate, and allows for establishing general stability boundaries in a computationally effective manner. Model testing has included a study of dependence of the proposed spatial discretization scheme on the accuracy of calculations. A parametric study has also been performed on the effect of channel operating conditions on flow oscillations. Finally, a stability map

  18. Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents research results using IT-Tools for CAD and dynamic modelling, simulation, analysis, and design of water hydraulic actuators for motion control of machines, lifts, cranes and robots. Matlab/Simulink and CATIA are used as IT-Tools. The contributions include results from on......-going research projects on fluid power and mechatronics based on tap water hydraulic servovalves and linear servo actuators and rotary vane actuators for motion control and power transmission. Development and design a novel water hydraulic rotary vane actuator for robot manipulators. Proposed mathematical...... modelling, control and simulation of a water hydraulic rotary vane actuator applied to power and control a two-links manipulator and evaluate performance. The results include engineering design and test of the proposed simulation models compared with IHA Tampere University’s presentation of research...

  19. Investigation of SSME alternate high pressure fuel turbopump lift-off seal fluid and structural dynamic interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrod, David A.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) alternate turbopump development program (ATD) high pressure fuel turbopump (HPFTP) design utilizes an innovative lift-off seal (LOS) design that is located in close proximity to the turbine end bearing. Cooling flow exiting the bearing passes through the lift-off seal during steady state operation. The potential for fluid excitation of lift-off seal structural resonances is investigated. No fluid excitation of LOS resonances is predicted. However, if predicted LOS natural frequencies are significantly lowered by the presence of the coolant, pressure oscillations caused by synchronous whirl of the HPFTP rotor may excite a resonance.

  20. High pressure sample container for thermal neutron spectroscopy and diffraction on strongly scattering fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verkerk, P.; Pruisken, A.M.M.

    1979-01-01

    A description is presented of the construction and performance of a container for thermal neutron scattering on a fluid sample with about 1.5 cm -1 macroscopic cross section (neglecting absorption). The maximum pressure is about 900 bar. The container is made of 5052 aluminium capillary with inner diameter 0.75 mm and wall thickness 0.25 mm; it covers a neutron beam with a cross section of 9 X 2.5 cm 2 . The container has been successfully used in neutron diffraction and time-of-flight experiments on argon-36 at 120 K and several pressures up to 850 bar. It is shown that during these measurements the temperature gradient over the sample as well as the error in the absolute temperature were both less than 0.05 K. Subtraction of the Bragg peaks due to container scattering in diffraction experiments may be dfficult, but seems feasible because of the small amount of aluminium in the neutron beam. Correction for container scattering and multiple scattering in time-of-flight experiments may be difficult only in the case of coherently scattering samples and small scattering angles. (Auth.)

  1. Computational fluid dynamic simulation of pressurizer safety valve loop seal purge phenomena in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Woon

    2012-01-01

    In Korean 3 Loop plants a water loop seal pipe is installed containing condensed water upstream of a pressurizer safety valve to protect the valve disk from the hot steam environment. The loop seal water purge time is a key parameter in safety analyses for overpressure transients, because it delays valve opening. The loop seal purge time is uncertain to measure by test and thus 3-dimensional realistic computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed in this paper to predict the seal water purge time before full opening of the valve which is driven by steam after water purge. The CFD model for a typical pressurizer safety valve with a loop seal pipe is developed using the computer code of ANSYS CFX 11. Steady-state simulations are performed for full discharge of steam at the valve full opening. Transient simulations are performed for the loop seal dynamics and to estimate the loop seal purge time. A sudden pressure drop higher than 2,000 psia at the tip of the upper nozzle ring is expected from the steady-state calculation. Through the transient simulation, almost loop seal water is discharged within 1.2 second through the narrow opening between the disk and the nozzle of the valve. It can be expected that the valve fully opens at least before 1.2 second because constant valve opening is assumed in this CFX simulation, which is conservative because the valve opens fully before the loop seal water is completely discharged. The predicted loop seal purge time is compared with previous correlation. (orig.)

  2. Computational fluid dynamic simulation of pressurizer safety valve loop seal purge phenomena in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Woon [Dongguk Univ., Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of). Nuclear and Energy Engineering Dept.

    2012-11-15

    In Korean 3 Loop plants a water loop seal pipe is installed containing condensed water upstream of a pressurizer safety valve to protect the valve disk from the hot steam environment. The loop seal water purge time is a key parameter in safety analyses for overpressure transients, because it delays valve opening. The loop seal purge time is uncertain to measure by test and thus 3-dimensional realistic computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is developed in this paper to predict the seal water purge time before full opening of the valve which is driven by steam after water purge. The CFD model for a typical pressurizer safety valve with a loop seal pipe is developed using the computer code of ANSYS CFX 11. Steady-state simulations are performed for full discharge of steam at the valve full opening. Transient simulations are performed for the loop seal dynamics and to estimate the loop seal purge time. A sudden pressure drop higher than 2,000 psia at the tip of the upper nozzle ring is expected from the steady-state calculation. Through the transient simulation, almost loop seal water is discharged within 1.2 second through the narrow opening between the disk and the nozzle of the valve. It can be expected that the valve fully opens at least before 1.2 second because constant valve opening is assumed in this CFX simulation, which is conservative because the valve opens fully before the loop seal water is completely discharged. The predicted loop seal purge time is compared with previous correlation. (orig.)

  3. Urban tree species show the same hydraulic response to vapor pressure deficit across varying tree size and environmental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Chen

    Full Text Available The functional convergence of tree transpiration has rarely been tested for tree species growing under urban conditions even though it is of significance to elucidate the relationship between functional convergence and species differences of urban trees for establishing sustainable urban forests in the context of forest water relations.We measured sap flux of four urban tree species including Cedrus deodara, Zelkova schneideriana, Euonymus bungeanus and Metasequoia glyptostroboides in an urban park by using thermal dissipation probes (TDP. The concurrent microclimate conditions and soil moisture content were also measured. Our objectives were to examine 1 the influence of tree species and size on transpiration, and 2 the hydraulic control of urban trees under different environmental conditions over the transpiration in response to VPD as represented by canopy conductance. The results showed that the functional convergence between tree diameter at breast height (DBH and tree canopy transpiration amount (E(c was not reliable to predict stand transpiration and there were species differences within same DBH class. Species differed in transpiration patterns to seasonal weather progression and soil water stress as a result of varied sensitivity to water availability. Species differences were also found in their potential maximum transpiration rate and reaction to light. However, a same theoretical hydraulic relationship between G(c at VPD = 1 kPa (G(cref and the G(c sensitivity to VPD (-dG(c/dlnVPD across studied species as well as under contrasting soil water and R(s conditions in the urban area.We concluded that urban trees show the same hydraulic regulation over response to VPD across varying tree size and environmental conditions and thus tree transpiration could be predicted with appropriate assessment of G(cref.

  4. Urban tree species show the same hydraulic response to vapor pressure deficit across varying tree size and environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lixin; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Ewers, Brent E

    2012-01-01

    The functional convergence of tree transpiration has rarely been tested for tree species growing under urban conditions even though it is of significance to elucidate the relationship between functional convergence and species differences of urban trees for establishing sustainable urban forests in the context of forest water relations. We measured sap flux of four urban tree species including Cedrus deodara, Zelkova schneideriana, Euonymus bungeanus and Metasequoia glyptostroboides in an urban park by using thermal dissipation probes (TDP). The concurrent microclimate conditions and soil moisture content were also measured. Our objectives were to examine 1) the influence of tree species and size on transpiration, and 2) the hydraulic control of urban trees under different environmental conditions over the transpiration in response to VPD as represented by canopy conductance. The results showed that the functional convergence between tree diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree canopy transpiration amount (E(c)) was not reliable to predict stand transpiration and there were species differences within same DBH class. Species differed in transpiration patterns to seasonal weather progression and soil water stress as a result of varied sensitivity to water availability. Species differences were also found in their potential maximum transpiration rate and reaction to light. However, a same theoretical hydraulic relationship between G(c) at VPD = 1 kPa (G(cref)) and the G(c) sensitivity to VPD (-dG(c)/dlnVPD) across studied species as well as under contrasting soil water and R(s) conditions in the urban area. We concluded that urban trees show the same hydraulic regulation over response to VPD across varying tree size and environmental conditions and thus tree transpiration could be predicted with appropriate assessment of G(cref).

  5. Turbulent Motion of Liquids in Hydraulic Resistances with a Linear Cylindrical Slide-Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Velescu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the motion of viscous and incompressible liquids in the annular space of controllable hydraulic resistances with a cylindrical linear slide-valve. This theoretical study focuses on the turbulent and steady-state motion regimes. The hydraulic resistances mentioned above are the most frequent type of hydraulic resistances used in hydraulic actuators and automation systems. To study the liquids’ motion in the controllable hydraulic resistances with a linear cylindrical slide-valve, the report proposes an original analytic method. This study can similarly be applied to any other type of hydraulic resistance. Another purpose of this study is to determine certain mathematical relationships useful to approach the theoretical functionality of hydraulic resistances with magnetic controllable fluids as incompressible fluids in the presence of a controllable magnetic field. In this report, we established general analytic equations to calculate (i velocity and pressure distributions, (ii average velocity, (iii volume flow rate of the liquid, (iv pressures difference, and (v radial clearance.

  6. Influence of Pore-Fluid Pressure on Elastic Wave Velocity and Electrical Conductivity in Water-Saturated Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, A.; Watanabe, T.

    2013-12-01

    Pore-fluid pressure in seismogenic zones can play a key role in the occurrence of earthquakes (e.g., Sibson, 2009). Its evaluation via geophysical observations can lead to a good understanding of seismic activities. The evaluation requires a thorough understanding of the influence of the pore-fluid pressure on geophysical observables like seismic velocity and electrical conductivity. We have studied the influence of pore-fluid pressure on elastic wave velocity and electrical conductivity in water-saturated rocks. Fine grained (100-500μm) biotite granite (Aji, Kagawa pref., Japan) was used as rock samples. The density is 2.658-2.668 g/cm3, and the porosity 0.68-0.87%. The sample is composed of 52.8% plagioclase, 36.0% Quartz, 3.0% K-feldspar, 8.2% biotite. SEM images show that a lot of grain boundaries are open. Few intracrystalline cracks were observed. Following the method proposed by David and Zimmerman (2012), the distribution function of crack aspect ratio was evaluated from the pressure dependence of compressional and shear wave velocities in a dry sample. Cylindrical sample has dimensions of 25 mm in diameter and 30 mm in length, and saturated with 0.01 mol/l KCl aqueous solution. Compressional and shear wave velocities were measured with the pulse transmission technique (PZT transducers, f=2 MHz), and electrical conductivity the two-electrode method (Ag-AgCl electrodes, f=1 Hz-100 kHz). Simultaneous measurements of velocities and conductivity were made using a 200 MPa hydrostatic pressure vessel, in which confining and pore-fluid pressures can be separately controlled. The pore-fluid is electrically insulated from the metal work of the pressure vessel by using a newly designed plastic device (Watanabe and Higuchi, 2013). The confining pressure was progressively increased up to 25 MPa, while the pore-fluid pressure was kept at 0.1 MPa. It took five days or longer for the electrical conductivity to become stationary after increasing the confining pressure

  7. Pressure-temperature-fluid constraints for the Emmaville-Torrington emerald deposit, New South Wales, Australia: Fluid inclusion and stable isotope studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loughrey, Lara; Marshall, Dan; Jones, Peter; Millsteed, Paul; Main, Arthur

    2012-06-01

    The Emmaville-Torrington emeralds were first discovered in 1890 in quartz veins hosted within a Permian metasedimentary sequence, consisting of meta-siltstones, slates and quartzites intruded by pegmatite and aplite veins from the Moule Granite. The emerald deposit genesis is consistent with a typical granite-related emerald vein system. Emeralds from these veins display colour zonation alternating between emerald and clear beryl. Two fluid inclusion types are identified: three-phase (brine+vapour+halite) and two-phase (vapour+liquid) fluid inclusions. Fluid inclusion studies indicate the emeralds were precipitated from saline fluids ranging from approximately 33 mass percent NaCl equivalent. Formational pressures and temperatures of 350 to 400 °C and approximately 150 to 250 bars were derived from fluid inclusion and petrographic studies that also indicate emerald and beryl precipitation respectively from the liquid and vapour portions of a two-phase (boiling) system. The distinct colour zonations observed in the emerald from these deposits is the first recorded emerald locality which shows evidence of colour variation as a function of boiling. The primary three-phase and primary two-phase FITs are consistent with alternating chromium-rich `striped' colour banding. Alternating emerald zones with colourless beryl are due to chromium and vanadium partitioning in the liquid portion of the boiling system. The chemical variations observed at Emmaville-Torrington are similar to other colour zoned emeralds from other localities worldwide likely precipitated from a boiling system as well.

  8. Study on the application of energy storage system in offshore wind turbine with hydraulic transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yajun; Mu, Anle; Ma, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydraulic offshore wind turbine is capable of outputting near constant power. • Open loop hydraulic transmission uses seawater as the working fluid. • Linear control strategy distributes total flow according to demand and supply. • Constant pressure hydraulic accumulator stores/releases the surplus energy. • Simulations show the dynamic performance of the hybrid system. - Abstract: A novel offshore wind turbine comprising fluid power transmission and energy storage system is proposed. In this wind turbine, the conventional mechanical transmission is replaced by an open-loop hydraulic system, in which seawater is sucked through a variable displacement pump in nacelle connected directly with the rotor and utilized to drive a Pelton turbine installed on the floating platform. Aiming to smooth and stabilize the output power, an energy storage system with the capability of flexible charging and discharging is applied. The related mathematical model is developed, which contains some sub-models that are categorized as the wind turbine rotor, hydraulic pump, transmission pipeline, proportional valve, accumulator and hydraulic turbine. A linear control strategy is adopted to distribute the flow out of the proportional valve through comparing the demand power with captured wind energy by hydraulic pump. Ultimately, two time domain simulations demonstrate the operation of the hybrid system when the hydraulic accumulator is utilized and show how this system can be used for load leveling and stabilizing the output power.

  9. Model of pulmonary fluid traffic homeostasis based on respiratory cycle pressure, bidirectional bronchiolo-pulmonar shunting and water evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbel, Sven; Kurbel, Beatrica; Gulam, Danijela; Spajić, Borislav

    2010-06-01

    The main puzzle of the pulmonary circulation is how the alveolar spaces remain dry over a wide range of pulmonary vascular pressures and blood flows. Although normal hydrostatic pressure in pulmonary capillaries is probably always below 10 mmHg, well bellow plasma colloid pressure of 25 mmHg, most textbooks state that some fluid filtration through capillary walls does occur, while the increased lymph drainage prevents alveolar fluid accumulation. The lack of a measurable pressure drop along pulmonary capillaries makes the classic description of Starling forces unsuitable to the low pressure, low resistance pulmonary circulation. Here presented model of pulmonary fluid traffic describes lungs as a matrix of small vascular units, each consisting of alveoli whose capillaries are anastomotically linked to the bronchiolar capillaries perfused by a single bronchiolar arteriole. It proposes that filtration and absorption in pulmonary and in bronchiolar capillaries happen as alternating periods of low and of increased perfusion pressures. The model is based on three levels of filtration control: short filtration phases due to respiratory cycle of the whole lung are modulated by bidirectional bronchiolo-pulmonar shunting independently in each small vascular unit, while fluid evaporation from alveolar groups further tunes local filtration. These mechanisms are used to describe a self-sustaining regulator that allows optimal fluid traffic in different settings. The proposed concept is used to describe development of pulmonary edema in several clinical entities (exercise in wet or dry climate, left heart failure, people who rapidly move to high altitudes, acute cyanide and carbon monoxide poisoning, large pulmonary embolisms). .

  10. The influence of body position on cerebrospinal fluid pressure gradient and movement in cats with normal and impaired craniospinal communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarica, Marijan; Radoš, Milan; Erceg, Gorislav; Petošić, Antonio; Jurjević, Ivana; Orešković, Darko

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial hypertension is a severe therapeutic problem, as there is insufficient knowledge about the physiology of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure. In this paper a new CSF pressure regulation hypothesis is proposed. According to this hypothesis, the CSF pressure depends on the laws of fluid mechanics and on the anatomical characteristics inside the cranial and spinal space, and not, as is today generally believed, on CSF secretion, circulation and absorption. The volume and pressure changes in the newly developed CSF model, which by its anatomical dimensions and basic biophysical features imitates the craniospinal system in cats, are compared to those obtained on cats with and without the blockade of craniospinal communication in different body positions. During verticalization, a long-lasting occurrence of negative CSF pressure inside the cranium in animals with normal cranio-spinal communication was observed. CSF pressure gradients change depending on the body position, but those gradients do not enable unidirectional CSF circulation from the hypothetical site of secretion to the site of absorption in any of them. Thus, our results indicate the existence of new physiological/pathophysiological correlations between intracranial fluids, which opens up the possibility of new therapeutic approaches to intracranial hypertension.

  11. The influence of body position on cerebrospinal fluid pressure gradient and movement in cats with normal and impaired craniospinal communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Klarica

    Full Text Available Intracranial hypertension is a severe therapeutic problem, as there is insufficient knowledge about the physiology of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure. In this paper a new CSF pressure regulation hypothesis is proposed. According to this hypothesis, the CSF pressure depends on the laws of fluid mechanics and on the anatomical characteristics inside the cranial and spinal space, and not, as is today generally believed, on CSF secretion, circulation and absorption. The volume and pressure changes in the newly developed CSF model, which by its anatomical dimensions and basic biophysical features imitates the craniospinal system in cats, are compared to those obtained on cats with and without the blockade of craniospinal communication in different body positions. During verticalization, a long-lasting occurrence of negative CSF pressure inside the cranium in animals with normal cranio-spinal communication was observed. CSF pressure gradients change depending on the body position, but those gradients do not enable unidirectional CSF circulation from the hypothetical site of secretion to the site of absorption in any of them. Thus, our results indicate the existence of new physiological/pathophysiological correlations between intracranial fluids, which opens up the possibility of new therapeutic approaches to intracranial hypertension.

  12. Thallium pulmonary scintigraphy. Relationship to pulmonary fluid volumes during left atrial hypertension and the acute release of pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slutsky, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between thallium-201 lung activity and pulmonary fluid volumes, we compared thallium pulmonary scintigrams with measures of intravascular (PBV), extravascular (EVLW) and total lung water (TLW) during gradual left atrial (LA) hypertension and then serially after the acute release of pressure. The study group was composed of nine mongrel dogs who were each studied at seven levels of elevated LA pressure, and then every 15 minutes for 2 hours after the acute release of pressure. During LA pressure (congestion phase) elevation, lung counts (normalized for myocardial activity), correlated best with TLW (r . .91), rather than PBV (r . .84) or EVLW (r . .81). After the release of pressure (recovery phase), lung counts correlated well with EVLW (r . .92) and TLW (r . .82), but not with PBV (r . .28). Postmortem lung counts from 197 separate lung sections correlated well with the corresponding wet weight/dry weight ratio from that section (r . .81). Thus, we conclude that changes in pulmonary thallium emissions during cardiogenic pulmonary edema relate to corresponding changes in pulmonary fluid volumes. During congestion, the confounding effects of nonlinear increases in EVLW and PBV make thallium emissions more a marker of TLW than either the intravascular or extravascular pulmonary fluid compartment. After pressure release, PBV immediately returns to normal, at which time EVLW and pulmonary emissions correlate closely. These latter data, more applicable to postexercise stress thallium data, lend support to the hypothesis that elevated pulmonary emissions during postexercise thallium scintigrams reflect elevations in EVLW that develop during exercise

  13. Carbonation by fluid-rock interactions at high-pressure conditions: Implications for carbon cycling in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Francesca; Vitale Brovarone, Alberto; Beyssac, Olivier; Martinez, Isabelle; Ague, Jay J.; Chaduteau, Carine

    2016-07-01

    Carbonate-bearing lithologies are the main carbon carrier into subduction zones. Their evolution during metamorphism largely controls the fate of carbon, regulating its fluxes between shallow and deep reservoirs. Recent estimates predict that almost all subducted carbon is transferred into the crust and lithospheric mantle during subduction metamorphism via decarbonation and dissolution reactions at high-pressure conditions. Here we report the occurrence of eclogite-facies marbles associated with metasomatic systems in Alpine Corsica (France). The occurrence of these marbles along major fluid-conduits as well as textural, geochemical and isotopic data indicating fluid-mineral reactions are compelling evidence for the precipitation of these carbonate-rich assemblages from carbonic fluids during metamorphism. The discovery of metasomatic marbles brings new insights into the fate of carbonic fluids formed in subducting slabs. We infer that rock carbonation can occur at high-pressure conditions by either vein-injection or chemical replacement mechanisms. This indicates that carbonic fluids produced by decarbonation reactions and carbonate dissolution may not be directly transferred to the mantle wedge, but can interact with slab and mantle-forming rocks. Rock-carbonation by fluid-rock interactions may have an important impact on the residence time of carbon and oxygen in subduction zones and lithospheric mantle reservoirs as well as carbonate isotopic signatures in subduction zones. Furthermore, carbonation may modulate the emission of CO2 at volcanic arcs over geological time scales.

  14. Comparison for the interfacial and wall friction models in thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Moon Kyu; Park, Jee Won; Chung, Bub Dong; Kim, Soo Hyung; Kim, See Dal

    2007-07-01

    The average equations employed in the current thermal hydraulic analysis codes need to be closed with the appropriate models and correlations to specify the interphase phenomena along with fluid/structure interactions. This includes both thermal and mechanical interactions. Among the closure laws, an interfacial and wall frictions, which are included in the momentum equations, not only affect pressure drops along the fluid flow, but also have great effects for the numerical stability of the codes. In this study, the interfacial and wall frictions are reviewed for the commonly applied thermal-hydraulic system analysis codes, i.e. RELAP5-3D, MARS-3D, TRAC-M, and CATHARE

  15. High-pressure behavior and crystal–fluid interaction under extreme conditions in paulingite [PAU-topology

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gatta, G. D.; Scheidl, K. S.; Pippinger, T.; Skála, Roman; Lee, J.; Miletich, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 206, April (2015), s. 34-41 ISSN 1387-1811 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : paulingite * high pressure * X-ray diffraction * compressibility * crystal–fluid interaction Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 3.349, year: 2015

  16. Fluid Shifts Before, During and After Prolonged Space Flight and Their Association with Intracranial Pressure and Visual Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenger, Michael; Hargens, Alan; Dulchavsky, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Future human space travel will primarily consist of long duration missions onboard the International Space Station or exploration class missions to Mars, its moons, or nearby asteroids. Current evidence suggests that long duration missions might increase risk of permanent ocular structural and functional changes, possibly due to increased intracranial pressure resulting from a spaceflight-induced cephalad (headward) fluid shift.

  17. Beneficial effects of intermittent fluid pressure of low physiological magnitude on cartilage and inflammation in osteoarthritis. An in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Valburg, A. A.; van Roy, H. L.; Lafeber, F. P.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the in vitro effects of low physiological levels of intermittent fluid pressure (0-13 kPa; 0.33 Hz), in the absence of mechanical stress, on articular cartilage, inflammatory cells, and on the combination of these components, present in the osteoarthritic (OA) joint. Normal and OA

  18. Noninvasive pulse pressure variation and stroke volume variation to predict fluid responsiveness at multiple thresholds : a prospective observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Jaap Jan; Poterman, Marieke; Papineau Salm, Pieternel; Van Amsterdam, Kai; Struys, Michel M. R. F.; Scheeren, Thomas W. L.; Kalmar, Alain F.

    2015-01-01

    Pulse pressure variation (PPV) and stroke volume variation (SVV) are dynamic preload variables that can be measured noninvasively to assess fluid responsiveness (FR) in anesthetized patients with mechanical ventilation. Few studies have examined the effectiveness of predicting FR according to the

  19. Molybdenum cell for x-ray diffraction measurements of fluid alkali metals at high temperatures and high pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Kazuhiro; Tamura, Kozaburo; Katoh, Masahiro; Inui, Masanori

    2004-03-01

    We have developed a sample cell for x-ray diffraction measurements of fluid alkali metals at high temperatures and high pressures. All parts of the cell are made of molybdenum which is resistant to the chemical corrosion of alkali metals. Single crystalline molybdenum disks electrolytically thinned down to 40 μm were used as the walls of the cell through which x rays pass. The crystal orientation of the disks was controlled in order to reduce the background from the cell. All parts of the cell were assembled and brazed together using a high-temperature Ru-Mo alloy. Energy dispersive x-ray diffraction measurements have been successfully carried out for fluid rubidium up to 1973 K and 16.2 MPa. The obtained S(Q) demonstrates the applicability of the molybdenum cell to x-ray diffraction measurements of fluid alkali metals at high temperatures and high pressures.

  20. Thermodynamic and fluid mechanic analysis of rapid pressurization in a dead-end tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Ian H.

    1989-01-01

    Three models have been applied to very rapid compression of oxygen in a dead-ended tube. Pressures as high as 41 MPa (6000 psi) leading to peak temperatures of 1400 K are predicted. These temperatures are well in excess of the autoignition temperature (750 K) of teflon, a frequently used material for lining hoses employed in oxygen service. These findings are in accord with experiments that have resulted in ignition and combustion of the teflon, leading to the combustion of the stainless steel braiding and catastrophic failure. The system analyzed was representative of a capped off-high-pressure oxygen line, which could be part of a larger system. Pressurization of the larger system would lead to compression in the dead-end line, and possible ignition of the teflon liner. The model consists of a large plenum containing oxygen at the desired pressure (500 to 6000 psi). The plenum is connected via a fast acting valve to a stainless steel tube 2 cm inside diameter. Opening times are on the order of 15 ms. Downstream of the valve is an orifice sized to increase filling times to around 100 ms. The total length from the valve to the dead-end is 150 cm. The distance from the valve to the orifice is 95 cm. The models describe the fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of the flow, and do not include any combustion phenomena. A purely thermodynamic model assumes filling to be complete upstream of the orifice before any gas passes through the orifice. This simplification is reasonable based on experiment and computer modeling. Results show that peak temperatures as high as 4800 K can result from recompression of the gas after expanding through the orifice. An approximate transient model without an orifice was developed assuming an isentropic compression process. An analytical solution was obtained. Results indicated that fill times can be considerably shorter than valve opening times. The third model was a finite difference, 1-D transient compressible flow model. Results from

  1. Validation of two-phase CFD models for propellant tank self-pressurization: Crossing fluid types, scales, and gravity levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Kartuzova, Olga; Hylton, Sonya

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines our computational ability to capture the transport and phase change phenomena that govern cryogenic storage tank pressurization and underscores our strengths and weaknesses in this area in terms of three computational-experimental validation case studies. In the first study, 1g pressurization of a simulant low-boiling point fluid in a small scale transparent tank is considered in the context of the Zero-Boil-Off Tank (ZBOT) Experiment to showcase the relatively strong capability that we have developed in modelling the coupling between the convective transport and stratification in the bulk phases with the interfacial evaporative and condensing heat and mass transfer that ultimately control self-pressurization in the storage tank. Here, we show that computational predictions exhibit excellent temporal and spatial fidelity under the moderate Ra number - high Bo number convective-phase distribution regimes. In the second example, we focus on 1g pressurization and pressure control of the large-scale K-site liquid hydrogen tank experiment where we show that by crossing fluid types and physical scales, we enter into high Bo number - high Ra number flow regimes that challenge our ability to predict turbulent heat and mass transfer and their impact on the tank pressurization correctly, especially, in the vapor domain. In the final example, we examine pressurization results from the small scale simulant fluid Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TCPE) performed in microgravity to underscore the fact that in crossing into a low Ra number - low Bo number regime in microgravity, the temporal evolution of the phase front as affected by the time-dependent residual gravity and impulse accelerations becomes an important consideration. In this case detailed acceleration data are needed to predict the correct rate of tank self-pressurization.

  2. Predictive value of pulse pressure variation for fluid responsiveness in septic patients using lung-protective ventilation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, F G R; Bafi, A T; Nascente, A P M; Assunção, M; Mazza, B; Azevedo, L C P; Machado, F R

    2013-03-01

    The applicability of pulse pressure variation (ΔPP) to predict fluid responsiveness using lung-protective ventilation strategies is uncertain in clinical practice. We designed this study to evaluate the accuracy of this parameter in predicting the fluid responsiveness of septic patients ventilated with low tidal volumes (TV) (6 ml kg(-1)). Forty patients after the resuscitation phase of severe sepsis and septic shock who were mechanically ventilated with 6 ml kg(-1) were included. The ΔPP was obtained automatically at baseline and after a standardized fluid challenge (7 ml kg(-1)). Patients whose cardiac output increased by more than 15% were considered fluid responders. The predictive values of ΔPP and static variables [right atrial pressure (RAP) and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure (PAOP)] were evaluated through a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. Thirty-four patients had characteristics consistent with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome and were ventilated with high levels of PEEP [median (inter-quartile range) 10.0 (10.0-13.5)]. Nineteen patients were considered fluid responders. The RAP and PAOP significantly increased, and ΔPP significantly decreased after volume expansion. The ΔPP performance [ROC curve area: 0.91 (0.82-1.0)] was better than that of the RAP [ROC curve area: 0.73 (0.59-0.90)] and pulmonary artery occlusion pressure [ROC curve area: 0.58 (0.40-0.76)]. The ROC curve analysis revealed that the best cut-off for ΔPP was 6.5%, with a sensitivity of 0.89, specificity of 0.90, positive predictive value of 0.89, and negative predictive value of 0.90. Automatized ΔPP accurately predicted fluid responsiveness in septic patients ventilated with low TV.

  3. Fluid responsiveness predicted by transcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen in patients with circulatory failure: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingyuan; Peng, Xiao; Pan, Chun; Cai, Shixia; Zhang, Xiwen; Xue, Ming; Yang, Yi; Qiu, Haibo

    2017-12-01

    Significant effort has been devoted to defining parameters for predicting fluid responsiveness. Our goal was to study the feasibility of predicting fluid responsiveness by transcutaneous partial pressure of oxygen (PtcO 2 ) in the critically ill patients. This was a single-center prospective study conducted in the intensive care unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Shock patients who presented with at least one clinical sign of inadequate tissue perfusion, defined as systolic blood pressure 40 mmHg in previously hypertensive patients or the need for vasopressive drugs; urine output 4 mmol/l, for less than 24 h in the absence of a contraindication for fluids were eligible to participate in the study. PtcO 2 was continuously recorded before and during a passive leg raising (PLR) test, and then before and after a 250 ml rapid saline infusion in 10 min. Fluid responsiveness is defined as a change in the stroke volume ≥10% after 250 ml of volume infusion. Thirty-four patients were included, and 14 responded to volume expansion. In the responders, the mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume and PtcO 2 increased significantly, while the heart rate decreased significantly by both PLR and volume expansion. Changes in the stroke volume induced either by PLR or volume expansion were significantly greater in responders than in non-responders. The correlation between the changes in PtcO 2 and stroke volume induced by volume expansion was significant. Volume expansion induced an increase in the PtcO 2 of 14% and PLR induced an increase in PtcO 2 of 13% predicted fluid responsiveness. This study suggested the changes in PtcO 2 induced by volume expansion and a PLR test predicted fluid responsiveness in critically ill patients. Trial registration NCT02083757.

  4. Using an expiratory resistor, arterial pulse pressure variations predict fluid responsiveness during spontaneous breathing: an experimental porcine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Michael K; Vistisen, Simon T; Koefoed-Nielsen, Jacob; Larsson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Fluid responsiveness prediction is difficult in spontaneously breathing patients. Because the swings in intrathoracic pressure are minor during spontaneous breathing, dynamic parameters like pulse pressure variation (PPV) and systolic pressure variation (SPV) are usually small. We hypothesized that during spontaneous breathing, inspiratory and/or expiratory resistors could induce high arterial pressure variations at hypovolemia and low variations at normovolemia and hypervolemia. Furthermore, we hypothesized that SPV and PPV could predict fluid responsiveness under these conditions. Eight prone, anesthetized and spontaneously breathing pigs (20 to 25 kg) were subjected to a sequence of 30% hypovolemia, normovolemia, and 20% and 40% hypervolemia. At each volemic level, the pigs breathed in a randomized order either through an inspiratory and/or an expiratory threshold resistor (7.5 cmH2O) or only through the tracheal tube without any resistor. Hemodynamic and respiratory variables were measured during the breathing modes. Fluid responsiveness was defined as a 15% increase in stroke volume (DeltaSV) following fluid loading. Stroke volume was significantly lower at hypovolemia compared with normovolemia, but no differences were found between normovolemia and 20% or 40% hypervolemia. Compared with breathing through no resistor, SPV was magnified by all resistors at hypovolemia whereas there were no changes at normovolemia and hypervolemia. PPV was magnified by the inspiratory resistor and the combined inspiratory and expiratory resistor. Regression analysis of SPV or PPV versus DeltaSV showed the highest R2 (0.83 for SPV and 0.52 for PPV) when the expiratory resistor was applied. The corresponding sensitivity and specificity for prediction of fluid responsiveness were 100% and 100%, respectively, for SPV and 100% and 81%, respectively, for PPV. Inspiratory and/or expiratory threshold resistors magnified SPV and PPV in spontaneously breathing pigs during hypovolemia

  5. Dynamic Characteristics of Communication Lines with Distributed Parameters to Control the Throttle-controlled Hydraulic Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Popov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a mathematical model of the hydraulic line for remote control of electro-hydraulic servo drive (EHSD with throttle control. This type of hydraulic lines is designed as a backup to replace the electrical connections, which are used to control EHSD being remote from the site with devices located to form the control signals of any object. A disadvantage of electric connections is that they are sensitive to magnetic fields and thereby do not provide the required reliability of the remote control. Hydraulic lines have no this disadvantage and therefore are used in aircraft and other industrial systems. However, dynamic characteristics of hydraulic systems still have been investigated insufficiently in the case of transmitting control signals at a distance at which the signal may be distorted when emerging the wave processes.The article results of mathematical simulation, which are verified through physical experimentation, largely eliminate the shortcomings of said information.The mathematical model described in the paper is based on the theory of unsteady pressure compressible fluids. In the model there are formulas that provide calculation of frequency characteristics of the hydraulic lines under hydraulic oscillations of the laminar flow parameters of viscous fluid.A real mock-up of the system under consideration and an experimental ad hoc unit are used to verify the results of mathematically simulated hydraulic systems.Calculated logarithmic amplitude and phase frequency characteristics compared with those obtained experimentally prove, under certain conditions, the proposed theoretical method of calculation. These conditions have to ensure compliance with initial parameters of fluid defined under stationary conditions. The applied theory takes into consideration a non-stationary hydraulic resistance of the line when calculating frequency characteristics.The scientific novelty in the article material is presented in

  6. Hydraulic lifter of a drilling unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikovskiy, L S; Demin, A V; Shadchinov, L M

    1979-01-08

    The invention refers to drilling equipment, in particular, devices for lowering and lifting operations during drilling. A hydraulic lifter of the drilling unit is suggested which contains a hydraulic cylinder, pressure line and hollow plunger whose cavities are hydraulically connected. In order to improve the reliability of the hydraulic lifter by balancing the forces of compression in the plunger of the hydraulic cylinder, a closed vessel is installed inside the plunger and rigidly connected to its ends. Its cavity is hydraulically connected to the pressure line.

  7. Classification and modelling of functional outputs of computation codes. Application to accidental thermal-hydraulic calculations in pressurized water reactor (PWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auder, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    This research thesis has been made within the frame of a project on nuclear reactor vessel life. It deals with the use of numerical codes aimed at estimating probability densities for every input parameter in order to calculate probability margins at the output level. More precisely, it deals with codes with one-dimensional functional responses. The author studies the numerical simulation of a pressurized thermal shock on a nuclear reactor vessel, i.e. one of the possible accident types. The study of the vessel integrity relies on a thermal-hydraulic analysis and on a mechanical analysis. Algorithms are developed and proposed for each of them. Input-output data are classified using a clustering technique and a graph-based representation. A method for output dimension reduction is proposed, and a regression is applied between inputs and reduced representations. Applications are discussed in the case of modelling and sensitivity analysis for the CATHARE code (a code used at the CEA for the thermal-hydraulic analysis)

  8. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) round robin benchmark for a pressurized water reactor (PWR) rod bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Shin K., E-mail: paengki1@tamu.edu; Hassan, Yassin A.

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The capabilities of steady RANS models were directly assessed for full axial scale experiment. • The importance of mesh and conjugate heat transfer was reaffirmed. • The rod inner-surface temperature was directly compared. • The steady RANS calculations showed a limitation in the prediction of circumferential distribution of the rod surface temperature. - Abstract: This study examined the capabilities and limitations of steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) approach for pressurized water reactor (PWR) rod bundle problems, based on the round robin benchmark of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes against the NESTOR experiment for a 5 × 5 rod bundle with typical split-type mixing vane grids (MVGs). The round robin exercise against the high-fidelity, broad-range (covering multi-spans and entire lateral domain) NESTOR experimental data for both the flow field and the rod temperatures enabled us to obtain important insights into CFD prediction and validation for the split-type MVG PWR rod bundle problem. It was found that the steady RANS turbulence models with wall function could reasonably predict two key variables for a rod bundle problem – grid span pressure loss and the rod surface temperature – once mesh (type, resolution, and configuration) was suitable and conjugate heat transfer was properly considered. However, they over-predicted the magnitude of the circumferential variation of the rod surface temperature and could not capture its peak azimuthal locations for a central rod in the wake of the MVG. These discrepancies in the rod surface temperature were probably because the steady RANS approach could not capture unsteady, large-scale cross-flow fluctuations and qualitative cross-flow pattern change due to the laterally confined test section. Based on this benchmarking study, lessons and recommendations about experimental methods as well as CFD methods were also provided for the future research.

  9. Investigation of the effects of time periodic pressure and engpotential gradients on viscoelastic fluid flow in circular narrow confinements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Trieu; van der Meer, Devaraj; van den Berg, Albert

    2017-01-01

    -Boltzmann equation, together with the incompressible Cauchy momentum equation under no-slip boundary conditions for viscoelastic fluid in the case of a combination of time periodic pressure-driven and electro-osmotic flow. The resulting solutions allow us to predict the electrical current and solution flow rate...... conversion applications. We also found that time periodic electro-osmotic flow in many cases is much stronger enhanced than time periodic pressure-driven flow when comparing the flow profiles of oscillating PDF and EOF in micro-and nanochannels. The findings advance our understanding of time periodic......In this paper we present an in-depth analysis and analytical solution for time periodic hydrodynamic flow (driven by a time-dependent pressure gradient and electric field) of viscoelastic fluid through cylindrical micro-and nanochannels. Particularly, we solve the linearized Poisson...

  10. Hydraulic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sheng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the planning, design, construction and management of hydraulic structures, covering dams, spillways, tunnels, cut slopes, sluices, water intake and measuring works, ship locks and lifts, as well as fish ways. Particular attention is paid to considerations concerning the environment, hydrology, geology and materials etc. in the planning and design of hydraulic projects. It also considers the type selection, profile configuration, stress/stability calibration and engineering countermeasures, flood releasing arrangements and scouring protection, operation and maintenance etc. for a variety of specific hydraulic structures. The book is primarily intended for engineers, undergraduate and graduate students in the field of civil and hydraulic engineering who are faced with the challenges of extending our understanding of hydraulic structures ranging from traditional to groundbreaking, as well as designing, constructing and managing safe, durable hydraulic structures that are economical ...

  11. Subsea Hydraulic Leakage Detection and Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stavenes, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The motivation for this thesis is reduction of hydraulic emissions, minimizing of process emergency shutdowns, exploitation of intervention capacity, and reduction of costs. Today, monitoring of hydraulic leakages is scarce and the main way to detect leakage is the constant need for filling of hydraulic fluid to the Hydraulic Power Unit (HPU). Leakage detection and diagnosis has potential, which would be adressed in this thesis. A strategy towards leakage detection and diagnosis is given....

  12. Combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataperumal, R.R.; Mericle, G.E.

    1979-08-09

    A combined hydraulic and regenerative braking system and method for an electric vehicle is disclosed. The braking system is responsive to the applied hydraulic pressure in a brake line to control the braking of the vehicle to be completely hydraulic up to a first level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a constant braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly increasing braking force from the first level of applied brake line pressure to a higher second level of brake line pressure, to be partially hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force and partially regenerative at a linearly decreasing braking force from the second level of applied line pressure to a third and higher level of applied line pressure, and to be completely hydraulic at a linearly increasing braking force from the third level to all higher applied levels of line pressure.

  13. Thermo-hydraulic instability of natural circulation BWRs at low pressure star-up. Experimental estimation of instability region with test facility considering scaling law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, F.; Furuya, M.; Yasuo, A.; Tabata, H.; Yoshioka, Y.; Kim, H.T.

    1995-01-01

    In natural circulation BWRs developed for advanced light water reactors with simplified passive safety systems, thermo-hydraulic stability should be confirmed especially at low pressure start-up. In this paper, nondimensional parameters to estimate the hydrodynamic stability to reactors at low pressure start-up were obtained by transformation of the basic equations of drift-flux model in the two-phase region into nondimensional form. A test facility based on these parameters was then constructed. The height of the test facility is 70% of SBWR and many nondimensional test facility parameters are almost the same as those of the reactor. Reactor stability was estimated experimentally. Stability maps below 0.5MPa were obtained on the heat flux - channel inlet subcooling place. It was found that there were two stability boundaries, between which the flow became unstable. Flow was stable in the high and low channel inlet subcooling regions. Typical conditions of SBWR at low pressure start-up were noted in the high channel inlet subcooling stable region. The heat flux at typical SBWR start-up was about one fifth that of the stability boundary. Though some nondimensional parameters of the test facility did not exactly agree with those of SBWR, it was suggested that the flow in SBWR was stable below 0.5MPa because of the large margin. (author)

  14. Thermal-Hydraulic Integral Effect Test with ATLAS for an Intermediate Break Loss of Coolant Accident at a Pressurizer Surge Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Seok Cho; Park, Hyun Sik; Choi, Nam Hyun; Park, Yu Sun; Kim, Jong Rok; Bae, Byoung Uhn; Kim, Yeon Sik; Kim, Kyung Doo; Choi, Ki Yong; Song, Chul Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The main objectives of this test were not only to provide physical insight into the system response of the APR1400 during the pressurizer surge line break accident but also to produce an integral effect test data to validate the SPACE code. In order to simulate a double-ended guillotine break of a pressurizer surge line in the APR1400, the IB-SUR-01R test was performed with ATLAS. The major thermal-hydraulic phenomena such as the system pressures, the collapsed water levels, and the break flow rate were presented and discussed. Despite the core was uncovered, no excursion in the cladding temperature was observed. The pressurizer surge line break can be classified as a hot leg break from a break location point of view. Compared with a cold leg break, coolability in the core may be better in case of a hot leg break due to the enhanced flow in the core region. This integral effect test data will be used to evaluate the prediction capability of existing safety analysis codes of the MARS and the RELAP5 as well as the SPACE code. Furthermore, this data can be utilized to identify any code deficiency for an IBLOCA simulation, especially for DVI-adapted plants. Redefinition of break size for design basis accident (DBA) based on risk information is being extensively investigated due to the potential for safety benefits and unnecessary burden reduction from current LBLOCA (large break loss of coolant accident)-based ECC (Emergency Core Cooling) Acceptance Criteria. As a transition break size (TBS), the rupture of medium-size pipe is considered to be more important than ever in risk-informed regulation (RIR)-relevant safety analysis. As plants age, are up-rated, and continue to seek improved operating efficiencies, the small break and intermediate break LOCA (IBLOCA) can become a concern. In particular, IBLOCA with DVI (Direct Vessel Injection) features will be addressed to support redefinition of a design-basis LOCA. With an aim of expanding code validation to address small

  15. Thermal hydraulic analysis of aggressive secondary cooldown in a small break loss of coolant accident with a total loss of high pressure safety injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seok Jung; Lim, Ho Gon; Yang, Joon Eon

    2003-03-01

    Recently, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has being applied to various fields as a basic technique of Risk-Informed Applications (RIA). The present study focuses on detailed thermal hydraulic analyses for major accident sequences and success criteria to support a development of PSA model using RIA for Korea Standard Nuclear Power plant (KSNP). The primary purpose of the present study in this year is to evaluate the success cri-teria of Aggressive Secondary Cooldown (ASC) in a Small Size Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) without HPSI and to enhance the understanding of related thermal hydraulic behavior and phenomena. An effort was made to evaluate the system success criteria and a mission time for the recovery action by an operator to prevent the core damage for that accident scenario. The accident scenario for KSNP was a 2 inch coldleg break LOCA with a total loss of High Pressure Safety Injection (HPSI) and 1/2 Low Pressure Safety Injection (LPSI) available and perform-ing ASC limited by 55.6 .deg. C/hr (100 .deg. F/hr) cooldown rate at 15 minute after reactor trip. It successively reached the LPSI condition for about 1.5hr after starting the ASC operation with the Peak Cladding Temperature (PCT) of the hottest rod below the core damage criteria of 1204.4 .deg. C (2200 .deg. F). Sensitivity studies were performed for (1) cool-ant average temperature parameters, (2) ASC operation control method, (3) operation start time, (4) 1 inch break size. The present analysis identified thermal hydraulic phenomena and parameters affecting on the behavior, which consist of coolant break flow and inventory, parameters governing secondary heat removal, ASC operation control method, and its reference temperature parameters. In the present study, more relaxed success criteria than the previous PSA for KSNP could be generated under an assumption that an operator should maintain the ade-quate ASC operation. However, it is necessary to evaluate the uncertainties arisen from the

  16. Semi-analytical prediction of hydraulic resistance and heat transfer for pipe and channel flows of water at supercritical pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurien, E.

    2012-01-01

    Within the Generation IV International Forum the Supercritical Water Reactor is investigated. For its core design and safety analysis the efficient prediction of flow and heat transfer parameters such as the wall-shear stress and the heat-transfer coefficient for pipe and channel flows is needed. For circular pipe flows a numerical model based on the one-dimensional conservation equations of mass, momentum end energy in the radial direction is presented, referred to as a 'semi-analytical' method. An accurate, high-order numerical method is employed to evaluate previously derived analytical solutions of the governing equations. Flow turbulence is modeled using the algebraic approach of Prandtl/van-Karman, including a model for the buffer layer. The influence of wall roughness is taken into account by a new modified numerical damping function of the turbulence model. The thermo-hydraulic properties of water are implemented according to the international standard of 1997. This method has the potential to be used within a sub-channel analysis code and as wall-functions for CFD codes to predict the wall shear stress and the wall temperature. The present study presents a validation of the method with comparison of model results with experiments and multi-dimensional computational (CFD) studies in a wide range of flow parameters. The focus is laid on forced convection flows related to reactor design and near-design conditions. It is found, that the method can accurately predict the wall temperature even under deterioration conditions as they occur in the selected experiments (Yamagata el al. 1972 at 24.5 MPa, Ornatski et al. 1971 at 25.5 and Swenson et al. 1963 at 22.75 MPa). Comparison of the friction coefficient under high heat flux conditions including significant viscosity and density reductions near the wall with various correlations for the hydraulic resistance will be presented; the best agreement is achieve with the correlation of Pioro et al. 2004. It is

  17. Interstitial fluid pressure, vascularity and metastasis in ectopic, orthotopic and spontaneous tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunt, Sarah Jane; Kalliomaki, Tuula MK; Brown, Allison; Yang, Victor X; Milosevic, Michael; Hill, Richard P

    2008-01-01

    High tumour interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) has been adversely linked to poor drug uptake in patients, and to treatment response following radiotherapy in cervix cancer patients. In this study we measured IFP values in a selection of murine and xenograft models, spontaneously arising or transplanted either intramuscularly (i/m) or orthotopically and analysed their relationship to tumour vascularity and metastatic spread. KHT-C murine fibrosarcoma, ME180 and SiHa human cervix carcinoma were grown either intramuscularly (i/m), sub-cutaneously (s/c) or orthotopically. Polyoma middle-T (MMTV-PyMT) transgenic spontaneous mammary tumours were studied either as spontaneous tumours or following orthotopic or i/m transplantation. IFP was measured in all tumours using the wick-in-needle method. Spontaneous metastasis formation in the lungs or lymph nodes was assessed in all models. An immunohistochemical analysis of tumour hypoxia, vascular density, lymphatic vascular density and proliferation was carried out in ME180 tumours grown both i/m and orthotopically. Blood flow was also assessed in the ME180 model using high-frequency micro-ultrasound functional imaging. Tumour IFP was heterogeneous in all the models irrespective of growth site: KHT-C i/m: 2–42 mmHg, s/c: 1–14 mmHg, ME180: i/m 5–68 mmHg, cervix 4–21 mmHg, SiHa: i/m 20–56 mmHg, cervix 2–26 mmHg, MMTV-PyMT: i/m: 13–45 mmHg, spontaneous 2–20 mmHg and transplanted 2–22 mmHg. Additionally, there was significant variation between individual tumours growing in the same mouse, and there was no correlation between donor and recipient tumour IFP values. Metastatic dissemination to the lungs or lymph nodes demonstrated no correlation with tumour IFP. Tumour hypoxia, proliferation, and lymphatic or blood vessel density also showed no relationship with tumour IFP. Speckle variance analysis of ultrasound images showed no differences in vascular perfusion between ME180 tumours grown i/m versus orthotopically

  18. Impact of cerebrospinal fluid shunting for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus on the amyloid cascade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Moriya

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine whether the improvement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF flow dynamics by CSF shunting, can suppress the oligomerization of amyloid β-peptide (Aβ, by measuring the levels of Alzheimer's disease (AD-related proteins in the CSF before and after lumboperitoneal shunting. Lumbar CSF from 32 patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH (samples were obtained before and 1 year after shunting, 15 patients with AD, and 12 normal controls was analyzed for AD-related proteins and APLP1-derived Aβ-like peptides (APL1β (a surrogate marker for Aβ. We found that before shunting, individuals with iNPH had significantly lower levels of soluble amyloid precursor proteins (sAPP and Aβ38 compared to patients with AD and normal controls. We divided the patients with iNPH into patients with favorable (improvement ≥ 1 on the modified Rankin Scale and unfavorable (no improvement on the modified Rankin Scale outcomes. Compared to the unfavorable outcome group, the favorable outcome group showed significant increases in Aβ38, 40, 42, and phosphorylated-tau levels after shunting. In contrast, there were no significant changes in the levels of APL1β25, 27, and 28 after shunting. After shunting, we observed positive correlations between sAPPα and sAPPβ, Aβ38 and 42, and APL1β25 and 28, with shifts from sAPPβ to sAPPα, from APL1β28 to 25, and from Aβ42 to 38 in all patients with iNPH. Our results suggest that Aβ production remained unchanged by the shunt procedure because the levels of sAPP and APL1β were unchanged. Moreover, the shift of Aβ from oligomer to monomer due to the shift of Aβ42 (easy to aggregate to Aβ38 (difficult to aggregate, and the improvement of interstitial-fluid flow, could lead to increased Aβ levels in the CSF. Our findings suggest that the shunting procedure can delay intracerebral deposition of Aβ in patients with iNPH.

  19. Direct measurement of cerebrospinal fluid pressure through the cochlea in a congenitally deaf child with Mondini dysplasia undergoing cochlear implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, J M; Ashcroft, P

    1999-03-01

    Perilymph/cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) "gushers" may occur at cochleostomy during cochlear implant surgery, particularly in patients with congenital cochlear duct malformation in which CSF in the internal auditory meatus is in direct communication with the perilymphatic space in the cochlea. The object of the study was to measure the pressure and flow of a CSF gusher at cochleostomy. The design was a preoperative pressure measurement. The setting was a multidisciplinary cochlear implant program. A 4-year-old girl with bilateral Mondini deformity undergoing cochlear implantation was studied. A size 23 FG intravenous cannula was inserted into the cochlea and connected to a pediatric drip set to form an improvised manometer. Intracochlear fluid pressure was measured at 14 cm H2O, equivalent to the normal CSF pressure that would be recorded in a child of this age at lumbar puncture. An indirect measurement of the likely size of the CSF/perilymph defect was made. This technique may allow better assessment of the risk of postoperative CSF leakage and meningitis. This simple technique of measuring the pressure in a perilymph gusher can be used to assess the need for careful sealing of the cochleostomy, to measure the reduction in pressure produced by head elevation or a spinal drain, and to assess the probable size of a defect in the lamina cribrosa.

  20. Cavitation in Hydraulic Machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, M.

    1996-11-01

    The main purpose of this doctoral thesis on cavitation in hydraulic machinery is to change focus towards the coupling of non-stationary flow phenomena and cavitation. It is argued that, in addition to turbulence, superimposed sound pressure fluctuations can have a major impact on cavitation and lead to particularly severe erosion. For the design of hydraulic devices this finding may indicate how to further limit the cavitation problems. Chapter 1 reviews cavitation in general in the context of hydraulic machinery, emphasizing the initial cavitation event and the role of the water quality. Chapter 2 discusses the existence of pressure fluctuations for situations common in such machinery. Chapter 3 on cavitation dynamics presents an algorithm for calculating the nucleation of a cavity cluster. Chapter 4 describes the equipment used in this work. 53 refs., 55 figs.,10 tabs.

  1. Control rod drive hydraulic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takekawa, Toru.

    1994-01-01

    The device of the present invention can reliably prevent a possible erroneous withdrawal of control rod driving mechanism when the pressure of a coolant line is increased by isolation operation of hydraulic control units upon periodical inspection for a BWR type reactor. That is, a coolant line is connected to the downstream of a hydraulic supply device. The coolant line is connected to a hydraulic control unit. A coolant hydraulic detection device and a pressure setting device are disposed to the coolant line. A closing signal line and a returning signal line are disposed, which connect the hydraulic supply device and a flow rate control valve for the hydraulic setting device. In the device of the present invention, even if pressure of supplied coolants is elevated due to isolation of hydraulic control units, the elevation of the hydraulic pressure can be prevented. Accordingly, reliability upon periodical reactor inspection can be improved. Further, the facility is simplified and the installation to an existent facility is easy. (I.S.)

  2. A study on the pressure ripple characteristics in a bent-axis type oil hydraulic piston pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Ihn Sung; Jung, Jae Youn

    2013-01-01

    To improve the performance of a bent-axis type axial piston pump driven by tapered pistons, it is necessary to know the pressure ripple characteristics. The purpose of this paper is to understand the effect on the pressure ripple characteristics, and to predict by comparing experimental and theoretical analysis results. The simulation model of a bent-axis type axial piston pump is developed in the AMESim environment using the geometrical dimension, and the driving mechanism of the piston pump, such as the stroke of pump, the velocity of piston, the instantaneous volumetric flow, the overlap area of valve plate opening to cylinder bore, the angle of notch, and so on. The results show that theoretical analysis results of the bent-axis type axial piston pump by using the AMESim approximate the pressure ripple characteristic of the test pump, and through this, simulations can be obtained that predict the performance characteristics of a bentaxis type axial piston pump.