WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrated surface vanadium

  1. Vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duke, V.W.A.

    1983-07-01

    Although a relatively abundant element, vanadium occurs only rarely in sufficient concentration to be worked commercially. In most cases, vanadium is produced as a co-product of some other element, most commonly iron. The principal ore deposits of vanadium occur in titaniferous magnetites that have been formed by magnetic segregation. Important commercial deposits of vanadium also occur associated with uranium, and with phosphate deposits. The principal uses of vanadium are in the production of special purpose, particularly high-strength low-alloy steels, in the manufacture of titanium alloys, and as a catalyst, notably in the manufacture of sulphuric acid. Small quantities of vanadium, often in combination with niobium, are added to steel to bring about toughening through grain refinement, and increased tensile strength through precipitation hardening. Known world reserves of vanadium are very large and fully adequate to meet any foreseeable demand. By far the largest known deposits of vanadium occur in South Africa. Many other similar deposits are known, but are only exploited in the USSR and China. The present total world demand for vanadium amounts to about 40 000 tons of metal annually and this is produced primarily in four countries, South Africa, the USSR, the People's Republic of China and the United States of America, in that order. South Africa is the principal vanadium producing country in the world, supplying vanadium in various forms. Vanadium has a very low and non-accumulative toxicity; recovery plants can be operated in such a manner to ensure no air or steam pollution results

  2. Vanadium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Karen D.; Scott, Clinton T.; Polyak, Désirée E.; Kimball, Bryn E.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Vanadium is used primarily in the production of steel alloys; as a catalyst for the chemical industry; in the making of ceramics, glasses, and pigments; and in vanadium redox-flow batteries (VRBs) for large-scale storage of electricity. World vanadium resources in 2012 were estimated to be 63 million metric tons, which include about 14 million metric tons of reserves. The majority of the vanadium produced in 2012 was from China, Russia, and South Africa.Vanadium is extracted from several different types of mineral deposits and from fossil fuels. These deposits include vanadiferous titanomagnetite (VTM) deposits, sandstone-hosted vanadium (with or without uranium) deposits (SSV deposits), and vanadium-rich black shales. VTM deposits are the principal source of vanadium and consist of magmatic accumulations of ilmenite and magnetite containing 0.2 to 1 weight percent vanadium pentoxide (V2O5). SSV deposits are another important source; these deposits have average ore grades that range from 0.1 to greater than 1 weight percent V2O5. The United States has been and is currently the main producer of vanadium from SSV deposits, particularly those on the Colorado Plateau. Vanadium-rich black shales occur in marine successions that were deposited in epeiric (inland) seas and on continental margins. Concentrations in these shales regularly exceed 0.18 weight percent V2O5 and can be as high as 1.7 weight percent V2O5. Small amounts of vanadium have been produced from the Alum Shale in Sweden and from ferrophosphorus slag generated during the reduction of phosphate to elemental phosphorus in ore from shales of the Phosphoria Formation in Idaho and Wyoming. Because vanadium enrichment occurs in beds that are typically only a few meters thick, most of the vanadiferous black shales are not currently economic, although they may become an important resource in the future. Significant amounts of vanadium are recovered as byproducts of petroleum refining, and processing of coal, tar

  3. Partial thermodynamic functions of hydrogen in complex hydrated vanadium(5) and tungsten(6) oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V.L.; Zakharova, G.S.

    2003-01-01

    The partial thermodynamic characteristics of hydrogen in the complex hydrated vanadium(5) and tungsten(6) oxides, obtained through the sol-gel method, of the general formula H 2 V 12-y W y O 31+δ ·nH 2 O (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.33) are determined through the emf method. The changes in these values (ΔG-bar(H 2 ), ΔH-bar(H 2 ) and ΔS-bar(H 2 )) in dependence on the compound composition are discussed. It is established that ΔG-bar(H 2 ) phases, amorphous to X-rays are determined by the ΔS-bar(H 2 ) value and crystalline ones by ΔH-bar(H 2 ). The scheme of the phase relationships of the H 2 O-H-WO 3 -V 2 O 5 system, whereto the given phases are related are presented [ru

  4. Hydration effects on the molecular structure of silica-supported vanadium oxide catalysts: A combined IR, Raman, UV–vis and EXAFS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, D.E.; Visser, T.; Soulimani, F.; Koningsberger, D.C.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of hydration on the molecular structure of silica-supported vanadium oxide catalysts with loadings of 1–16 wt.% V has been systematically investigated by infrared, Raman, UV–vis and EXAFS spectroscopy. IR and Raman spectra recorded during hydration revealed the formation of V–OH groups,

  5. Roll-to-Roll Processing of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells using Hydrated Vanadium(V)Oxide as a PEDOT:PSS Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Nieves; Dam, Henrik Friis; Tanenbaum, David M; Andreasen, Jens W; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-11

    The use of hydrated vanadium(V)oxide as a replacement of the commonly employed hole transporting material PEDOT:PSS was explored in this work. Polymer solar cells were prepared by spin coating on glass. Polymer solar cells and modules comprising 16 serially connected cells were prepared using full roll-to-roll (R2R) processing of all layers. The devices were prepared on flexible polyethyleneterphthalate (PET) and had the structure PET/ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/V₂O₅·(H₂O) n /Ag. The ITO and silver electrodes were processed and patterned by use of screen printing. The zinc oxide, P3HT:PCBM and vanadium(V)oxide layers were processed by slot-die coating. The hydrated vanadium(V)oxide layer was slot-die coated using an isopropanol solution of vanadyl-triisopropoxide (VTIP). Coating experiments were carried out to establish the critical thickness of the hydrated vanadium(V)oxide layer by varying the concentration of the VTIP precursor over two orders of magnitude. Hydrated vanadium(V)oxide layers were characterized by profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) for completed modules was up to 0.18%, in contrast to single cells where efficiencies of 0.4% were achieved. Stability tests under indoor and outdoor conditions were accomplished over three weeks on a solar tracker.

  6. Roll-to-Roll Processing of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells using Hydrated Vanadium(VOxide as a PEDOT:PSS Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederik C. Krebs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of hydrated vanadium(Voxide as a replacement of the commonly employed hole transporting material PEDOT:PSS was explored in this work. Polymer solar cells were prepared by spin coating on glass. Polymer solar cells and modules comprising 16 serially connected cells were prepared using full roll-to-roll (R2R processing of all layers. The devices were prepared on flexible polyethyleneterphthalate (PET and had the structure PET/ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/V2O5·(H2On/Ag. The ITO and silver electrodes were processed and patterned by use of screen printing. The zinc oxide, P3HT:PCBM and vanadium(Voxide layers were processed by slot-die coating. The hydrated vanadium(Voxide layer was slot-die coated using an isopropanol solution of vanadyl-triisopropoxide (VTIP. Coating experiments were carried out to establish the critical thickness of the hydrated vanadium(Voxide layer by varying the concentration of the VTIP precursor over two orders of magnitude. Hydrated vanadium(Voxide layers were characterized by profilometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering. The power conversion efficiency (PCE for completed modules was up to 0.18%, in contrast to single cells where efficiencies of 0.4% were achieved. Stability tests under indoor and outdoor conditions were accomplished over three weeks on a solar tracker.

  7. Effect of iron on vanadium (001) strained surface magnetism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzain, M; Al-Barwani, M; Gismelseed, A; Al-Rawas, A; Yousif, A; Widatallah, H; Bouziane, K; Al-Omari, I, E-mail: elzain@squ.edu.o [Department of Physics, College Of Science, Box 36, Sultan Qaboos University, Al Khod 123 (Oman)

    2010-03-01

    The magnetism of the vanadium (001) surface has been a controversial subject on both theoretical and experiment fronts. Both strongly ferromagnetic and paramagnetic phases were reported. We have used the first principle full-potential linearized-augmented plane waves (FP-LAPW) as implemented in WIEN2k package to study the magnetic properties of strained surfaces of vanadium films as a function of film thickness. We found that for films thicker than about 11 monolayers, the magnetism of the strained surfaces converge to a constant value of about 0.15{mu}{sub B}. Introduction of Fe monolayers and impurities at the centre of the films affects the magnetic structure of thin films but has no influence on the surface magnetism of thicker films. For Fe monolayers positioned at the centre of thick films, the Fe atoms maintain magnetic moment of order 0.86{mu}{sub B}, a quadruple splitting of order -0.3 mm/s and a small negative isomer shift, while an Fe impurity has vanishing hyperfine fields and magnetic moment. In addition we have varied the location of the Fe monolayer and impurity within the V films and found that their position affects the surface magnetism.

  8. Characterizing heterogeneous dynamics at hydrated electrode surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Adam P.; Limmer, David T.; Madden, Paul A.; Chandler, David

    2013-05-01

    In models of Pt 111 and Pt 100 surfaces in water, motions of molecules in the first hydration layer are spatially and temporally correlated. To interpret these collective motions, we apply quantitative measures of dynamic heterogeneity that are standard tools for considering glassy systems. Specifically, we carry out an analysis in terms of mobility fields and distributions of persistence times and exchange times. In so doing, we show that dynamics in these systems is facilitated by transient disorder in frustrated two-dimensional hydrogen bonding networks. The frustration is the result of unfavorable geometry imposed by strong metal-water bonding. The geometry depends upon the structure of the underlying metal surface. Dynamic heterogeneity of water on the Pt 111 surface is therefore qualitatively different than that for water on the Pt 100 surface. In both cases, statistics of this ad-layer dynamic heterogeneity responds asymmetrically to applied voltage.

  9. Characterizing heterogeneous dynamics at hydrated electrode surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Adam P; Limmer, David T; Madden, Paul A; Chandler, David

    2013-05-14

    In models of Pt 111 and Pt 100 surfaces in water, motions of molecules in the first hydration layer are spatially and temporally correlated. To interpret these collective motions, we apply quantitative measures of dynamic heterogeneity that are standard tools for considering glassy systems. Specifically, we carry out an analysis in terms of mobility fields and distributions of persistence times and exchange times. In so doing, we show that dynamics in these systems is facilitated by transient disorder in frustrated two-dimensional hydrogen bonding networks. The frustration is the result of unfavorable geometry imposed by strong metal-water bonding. The geometry depends upon the structure of the underlying metal surface. Dynamic heterogeneity of water on the Pt 111 surface is therefore qualitatively different than that for water on the Pt 100 surface. In both cases, statistics of this ad-layer dynamic heterogeneity responds asymmetrically to applied voltage.

  10. Intercalation compounds of vanadium pentoxide hydrated with metalporphyrins and lanthanide ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Herenilton Paulino

    1994-01-01

    The lamellar structure of the vanadium pentoxide matrix allows the intercalation of organic molecules, ions and conductor polymers. It is important to emphasize that the vanadium oxide matrix is an intrinsic semiconductor and presents electrochromic properties. In the beginning of this work the method of synthesis and the electrochemical and electrochromic properties were extensively explored. The effect of alkaline metal and lanthanide ions on the structure of vanadium oxide matrix was studied by X-ray and infrared spectroscopy. Moreover, the influence of those ions in the electrochemical, spectro electrochemical and magnetic properties were studied. Finally, some intercalation compounds containing porphyrins were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, and electronic, vibrational, Moessbauer and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The electrochemical and spectro electrochemical properties were investigated. And the performance of an iron porphyrin based intercalation compound as catalyst for molecular oxygen reduction was evaluated using the rotating ring-disc electrode technique. (author)

  11. Roll-to-Roll Processing of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells using Hydrated Vanadium(V)Oxide as a PEDOT:PSS Replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Nieves Espinosa; Dam, Henrik Friis; Tanenbaum, David M.

    2011-01-01

    roll-to-roll (R2R) processing of all layers. The devices were prepared on flexible polyethyleneterphthalate (PET) and had the structure PET/ITO/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/V2O5·(H2O)n/Ag. The ITO and silver electrodes were processed and patterned by use of screen printing. The zinc oxide, P3HT:PCBM and vanadium(V)oxide......The use of hydrated vanadium(V)oxide as a replacement of the commonly employed hole transporting material PEDOT:PSS was explored in this work. Polymer solar cells were prepared by spin coating on glass. Polymer solar cells and modules comprising 16 serially connected cells were prepared using full...... layers were processed by slot-die coating. The hydrated vanadium(V)oxide layer was slot-die coated using an isopropanol solution of vanadyl-triisopropoxide (VTIP). Coating experiments were carried out to establish the critical thickness of the hydrated vanadium(V)oxide layer by varying the concentration...

  12. Spectroscopic determination of optimal hydration time of zircon surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez R, E. [ININ, Departamento de Quimica, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Garcia R, G. [Instituto Tecnologico de Toluca, Division de Estudios del Posgrado, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Ex-Rancho La Virgen, 52140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Garcia G, N., E-mail: eduardo.ordonez@inin.gob.m [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica, Av. Colon y Av. Tollocan, 50180 Toluca, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    When a mineral surface is immersed in an aqueous solution, it develops and electric charge produced by the amphoteric dissociation of hydroxyl groups created by the hydration of the solid surface. This is one influential surface property. The complete hydration process takes a time which is specific for each mineral species. The knowledge of the aqueous solution contact time for complete surface hydration is mandatory for further surface phenomena studies. This study deals with the optimal hydration time of the raw zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}) surface comparing the classical potentiometric titrations with a fluorescence spectroscopy technique. The latter is easy and rea liable as it demands only one sample batch to determine the optimal time to ensure a total hydration of the zircon surface. The analytical results of neutron activation analysis showed the presence of trace quantities of Dy{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+} and Er{sup 3} in the bulk of zircon. The Dy{sup 3+} is structured in the zircon crystalline lattice and undergoes the same chemical reactions as zircon. Furthermore, the Dy{sup 3+} has a good fluorescent response whose intensity is enhanced by hydration molecules. The results show that, according to the potentiometric analysis, the hydration process for each batch (at least 8 sample batches) takes around 2 h, while the spectrometric method indicates only 5 minutes from only one batch. Both methods showed that the zircon surface have a 16 h optimal hydration time. (Author)

  13. Spectroscopic determination of optimal hydration time of zircon surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez R, E.; Garcia R, G.; Garcia G, N.

    2010-01-01

    When a mineral surface is immersed in an aqueous solution, it develops and electric charge produced by the amphoteric dissociation of hydroxyl groups created by the hydration of the solid surface. This is one influential surface property. The complete hydration process takes a time which is specific for each mineral species. The knowledge of the aqueous solution contact time for complete surface hydration is mandatory for further surface phenomena studies. This study deals with the optimal hydration time of the raw zircon (ZrSiO 4 ) surface comparing the classical potentiometric titrations with a fluorescence spectroscopy technique. The latter is easy and rea liable as it demands only one sample batch to determine the optimal time to ensure a total hydration of the zircon surface. The analytical results of neutron activation analysis showed the presence of trace quantities of Dy 3+ , Eu 3+ and Er 3 in the bulk of zircon. The Dy 3+ is structured in the zircon crystalline lattice and undergoes the same chemical reactions as zircon. Furthermore, the Dy 3+ has a good fluorescent response whose intensity is enhanced by hydration molecules. The results show that, according to the potentiometric analysis, the hydration process for each batch (at least 8 sample batches) takes around 2 h, while the spectrometric method indicates only 5 minutes from only one batch. Both methods showed that the zircon surface have a 16 h optimal hydration time. (Author)

  14. Hydration dynamics near a model protein surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Daniela; Hura, Greg; Head-Gordon, Teresa

    2003-01-01

    The evolution of water dynamics from dilute to very high concentration solutions of a prototypical hydrophobic amino acid with its polar backbone, N-acetyl-leucine-methylamide (NALMA), is studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulation for both the completely deuterated and completely hydrogenated leucine monomer. We observe several unexpected features in the dynamics of these biological solutions under ambient conditions. The NALMA dynamics shows evidence of de Gennes narrowing, an indication of coherent long timescale structural relaxation dynamics. The translational water dynamics are analyzed in a first approximation with a jump diffusion model. At the highest solute concentrations, the hydration water dynamics is significantly suppressed and characterized by a long residential time and a slow diffusion coefficient. The analysis of the more dilute concentration solutions takes into account the results of the 2.0M solution as a model of the first hydration shell. Subtracting the first hydration layer based on the 2.0M spectra, the translational diffusion dynamics is still suppressed, although the rotational relaxation time and residential time are converged to bulk-water values. Molecular dynamics analysis shows spatially heterogeneous dynamics at high concentration that becomes homogeneous at more dilute concentrations. We discuss the hydration dynamics results of this model protein system in the context of glassy systems, protein function, and protein-protein interfaces

  15. Tuning surface porosity on vanadium surface by low energy He{sup +} ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathi, J.K., E-mail: jtripat@purdue.edu; Novakowski, T.J.; Hassanein, A.

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Surface nanostructuring on vanadium surface using novel He{sup +} ion irradiation process. • Tuning surface-porosity using high-flux, low-energy He{sup +} ion irradiation at constant elevated sample temperature (823–173 K). • Presented top-down approach guarantees good contact between different crystallites. • Sequential significant enhancement in surface-pore edge size (and corresponding reduction in surface-pore density) with increasing sample temperature. - Abstract: In the present study, we report on tuning the surface porosity on vanadium surfaces using high-flux, low-energy He{sup +} ion irradiation as function of sample temperature. Polished, mirror-finished vanadium samples were irradiated with 100 eV He{sup +} ions at a constant ion-flux of 7.2 × 10{sup 20} ions m{sup −2} s{sup −1} for 1 h duration at constant sample temperatures in the wide range of 823–1173 K. Our results show that the surface porosity of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} (naturally oxidized vanadium porous structure, after taking out from UHV) is strongly correlated to the sample temperature and is highly tunable. In fact, the surface porosity significantly increases with reducing sample temperature and reaches up to ∼87%. Optical reflectivity on these highly porous V{sub 2}O{sub 5} surfaces show ∼0% optical reflectivity at 670 nm wavelength, which is very similar to that of “black metal”. Combined with the naturally high melting point of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, this very low optical reflectivity suggests potential application in solar power concentration technology. Additionally, this top-down approach guarantees relatively good contact between the different crystallites and avoids electrical conductivity limitations (if required). Since V{sub 2}O{sub 5} is naturally a potential photocatalytic material, the resulting sub-micron-sized cube-shaped porous structures could be used in solar water splitting for hydrogen production in energy applications.

  16. XPS study of vanadium surface oxidation by oxygen ion bombardment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alov, N.; Kutsko, D.; Spirovová, Ilona; Bastl, Zdeněk

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 600, č. 8 (2006), s. 1628-1631 ISSN 0039-6028 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/04/0467 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : vanadium oxide * oxide film * ion-beam oxidation * X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.880, year: 2006

  17. Study on the state of a surface of compounds of vanadium with light elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povstugar, V.I.; Mikhajlova, S.S.; Trapeznikov, V.A.

    1976-01-01

    Roentgenoelectron study of powderlike compounds of vanadium with light elements (C, N, O, S) was carried out. The study was made in the temperature range of 70-500 deg C. The results were obtained in an electron magnetic spectrometer. Spectra of inner levels O 1S and V 2p and valance bands are presented. The experimental results can be employed for the study of synthesis problems of the given class of compounds. Due to high surface activity the study of catalytic properties of finely dispersed vanadium compounds by roentgenoelectron spectroscopy method gives much information about surface processes

  18. Efficiency improvement of multicrystalline silicon solar cells after surface and grain boundaries passivation using vanadium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derbali, L., E-mail: rayan.slat@yahoo.fr [Photovoltaiec Laboratory, Research and Technology Center of Energy, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Ezzaouia, H. [Photovoltaiec Laboratory, Research and Technology Center of Energy, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2012-08-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaporation of vanadium pentoxide onto the front surface leads to reduce the surface reflectivity considerably. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An efficient surface passivation can be obtained after thermal treatment of obtained films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficiency of the obtained solar cells has been improved noticeably after thermal treatment of deposited thin films. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of vanadium oxide deposition onto the front surface of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) substrat, without any additional cost in the fabrication process and leading to an efficient surface and grain boundaries (GBs) passivation that have not been reported before. The lowest reflectance of mc-Si coated with vanadium oxide film of 9% was achieved by annealing the deposited film at 600 Degree-Sign C. Vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) were thermally evaporated onto the surface of mc-Si substrates, followed by a short annealing duration at a temperature ranging between 600 Degree-Sign C and 800 Degree-Sign C, under O{sub 2} atmosphere. The chemical composition of the films was analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Surface and cross-section morphology were determined by atomic force microscope (AFM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The deposited vanadium oxide thin films make the possibility of combining in one processing step an antireflection coating deposition along with efficient surface state passivation, as compared to a reference wafer. Silicon solar cells based on untreated and treated mc-Si wafers were achieved. We showed that mc-silicon solar cells, subjected to the above treatment, have better short circuit currents and open-circuit voltages than those made from untreated wafers. Thus, the efficiency of obtained solar cells has been improved.

  19. Efficiency improvement of multicrystalline silicon solar cells after surface and grain boundaries passivation using vanadium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbali, L.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Evaporation of vanadium pentoxide onto the front surface leads to reduce the surface reflectivity considerably. ► An efficient surface passivation can be obtained after thermal treatment of obtained films. ► Efficiency of the obtained solar cells has been improved noticeably after thermal treatment of deposited thin films. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of vanadium oxide deposition onto the front surface of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) substrat, without any additional cost in the fabrication process and leading to an efficient surface and grain boundaries (GBs) passivation that have not been reported before. The lowest reflectance of mc-Si coated with vanadium oxide film of 9% was achieved by annealing the deposited film at 600 °C. Vanadium pentoxide (V 2 O 5 ) were thermally evaporated onto the surface of mc-Si substrates, followed by a short annealing duration at a temperature ranging between 600 °C and 800 °C, under O 2 atmosphere. The chemical composition of the films was analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Surface and cross-section morphology were determined by atomic force microscope (AFM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The deposited vanadium oxide thin films make the possibility of combining in one processing step an antireflection coating deposition along with efficient surface state passivation, as compared to a reference wafer. Silicon solar cells based on untreated and treated mc-Si wafers were achieved. We showed that mc-silicon solar cells, subjected to the above treatment, have better short circuit currents and open-circuit voltages than those made from untreated wafers. Thus, the efficiency of obtained solar cells has been improved.

  20. Transient-response study of CO insertion into CHx surface intermediates on a vanadium-promoted rhodium catalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koerts, T.; Santen, van R.A.

    1992-01-01

    The rate of CO insertion into surface CHx species was investigated on silica-supported rhodium and rhodium-vanadium catalysts. Isotopically labelled 13CO was used in a transient kinetic experiment under steady-state conditions. A main conclusion is that vanadium promotion does not affect the rate of

  1. Probing the hydration water diffusion of macromolecular surfaces and interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortony, Julia H; Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Franck, John M; Pavlova, Anna; Hunt, Jasmine; Han, Songi; Kausik, Ravinath

    2011-01-01

    We probe the translational dynamics of the hydration water surrounding the macromolecular surfaces of selected polyelectrolytes, lipid vesicles and intrinsically disordered proteins with site specificity in aqueous solutions. These measurements are made possible by the recent development of a new instrumental and methodological approach based on Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. This technique selectively amplifies 1 H NMR signals of hydration water around a spin label that is attached to a molecular site of interest. The selective 1 H NMR amplification within molecular length scales of a spin label is achieved by utilizing short-distance range (∼r -3 ) magnetic dipolar interactions between the 1 H spin of water and the electron spin of a nitroxide radical-based label. Key features include the fact that only minute quantities (<10 μl) and dilute (≥100 μM) sample concentrations are needed. There is no size limit on the macromolecule or molecular assembly to be analyzed. Hydration water with translational correlation times between 10 and 800 ps is measured within ∼10 A distance of the spin label, encompassing the typical thickness of a hydration layer with three water molecules across. The hydration water moving within this time scale has significant implications, as this is what is modulated whenever macromolecules or molecular assemblies undergo interactions, binding or conformational changes. We demonstrate, with the examples of polymer complexation, protein aggregation and lipid-polymer interaction, that the measurements of interfacial hydration dynamics can sensitively and site specifically probe macromolecular interactions.

  2. Hydration-controlled bacterial motility and dispersal on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dechesne, Arnaud; Wang, G.; Gulez, Gamze

    2010-01-01

    hydrated habitats, where water dynamics result in fragmented aquatic habitats connected by micrometric films, is debated. Here, we quantify the spatial dynamics of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and its nonflagellated isogenic mutant as affected by the hydration status of a rough porous surface using......Flagellar motility, a mode of active motion shared by many prokaryotic species, is recognized as a key mechanism enabling population dispersal and resource acquisition in microbial communities living in marine, freshwater, and other liquid-replete habitats. By contrast, its role in variably...... an experimental system that mimics aquatic habitats found in unsaturated soils. The flagellar motility of the model soil bacterium decreased sharply within a small range of water potential (0 to −2 kPa) and nearly ceased in liquid films of effective thickness smaller than 1.5 μm. However, bacteria could rapidly...

  3. Surface modification and characterization of magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate nanowhiskers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Chuanhui [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Li Xianguo, E-mail: chuanhuigao@foxmail.com [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China); Feng Lijuan; Lu Shaoyan; Liu Jinyan [Key Laboratory of Marine Chemistry Theory and Technology, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100 (China)

    2010-03-01

    In order to enhance the compatibility with plastic polymers, magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate (MHSH) nanowhiskers were modified through grafting methyl methacrylate (MMA) on the surface of the nanowhiskers by emulsion polymerization. The influences of the reaction time, MMA monomer content, adding speed of monomer and the reaction temperature on the grafting ratio were investigated. Thermogravimetry (TG), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and surface contact angle measurement were used to characterize the effect of surface modification. The results showed that the MHSH nanowhiskers were uniformly coated by polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), and a well-defined core-shell hybrid structure of MHSH/PMMA was obtained. The surface contact angle of the hybrid whiskers increased to 87.32 deg. from 12.71 deg. and the whiskers surface was changed from hydrophilic to lipophilic.

  4. The effects of surface modification on carbon felt electrodes for use in vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Jae; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Jae-Hun; Park, Min-Sik

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► We observed the physical and chemical changes on the surface of carbon felts after various surface modifications. ► The surface area and chemistry of functional groups formed on the surface of carbon felt are critical to determine the kinetics of the redox reactions of vanadium ions. ► By incorporation of the surface modifications into the electrode preparation, the electrochemical activity of carbon felts could be notably enhanced. - Abstract: The surface of carbon felt electrodes has been modified for improving energy efficiency of vanadium redox flow batteries. For comparative purposes, the effects of various surface modifications such as mild oxidation, plasma treatment, and gamma-ray irradiation on the electrochemical properties of carbon felt electrodes were investigated at optimized conditions. The cell energy efficiency was improved from 68 to 75% after the mild oxidation of the carbon felt at 500 °C for 5 h. This efficiency improvement could be attributed to the increased surface area of the carbon felt electrode and the formation of functional groups on its surface as a result of the modification. On the basis of various structural and electrochemical characterizations, a relationship between the surface nature and electrochemical activity of the carbon felt electrodes is discussed.

  5. A functionalized surface modification with vanadium nanoparticles of various valences against implant-associated bloodstream infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2017-04-01

    ions were released from these nano-VOx films in a sustained manner, and low-valence films possessed better biocompatibility with human fibroblasts. This work may provide new insights for biomedical applications of inorganic vanadium compounds and attract growing attention in this field. From the perspective of surface modification and functionalization, this study holds promise to avail the prophylaxis of bloodstream infections involving implantable biomedical devices. Keywords: surface modification, red blood cell, antibacterial activities, vanadium, nano­materials

  6. Electrochemical Properties of High Surface Area Vanadium Oxide Aerogels

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dong, Winny

    2001-01-01

    .... Traditional composite electrode structures have prevented truly quantitative analysis of surface area effects in nanoscale battery materials, as well as a study of their innate electrochemical behavior...

  7. Adsorption Mechanism of Inhibitor and Guest Molecules on the Surface of Gas Hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagasaki, Takuma; Matsumoto, Masakazu; Tanaka, Hideki

    2015-09-23

    The adsorption of guest and kinetic inhibitor molecules on the surface of methane hydrate is investigated by using molecular dynamics simulations. We calculate the free energy profile for transferring a solute molecule from bulk water to the hydrate surface for various molecules. Spherical solutes with a diameter of ∼0.5 nm are significantly stabilized at the hydrate surface, whereas smaller and larger solutes exhibit lower adsorption affinity than the solutes of intermediate size. The range of the attractive force is subnanoscale, implying that this force has no effect on the macroscopic mass transfer of guest molecules in crystal growth processes of gas hydrates. We also examine the adsorption mechanism of a kinetic hydrate inhibitor. It is found that a monomer of the kinetic hydrate inhibitor is strongly adsorbed on the hydrate surface. However, the hydrogen bonding between the amide group of the inhibitor and water molecules on the hydrate surface, which was believed to be the driving force for the adsorption, makes no contribution to the adsorption affinity. The preferential adsorption of both the kinetic inhibitor and the spherical molecules to the surface is mainly due to the entropic stabilization arising from the presence of cavities at the hydrate surface. The dependence of surface affinity on the size of adsorbed molecules is also explained by this mechanism.

  8. Surface Assisted Formation of methane Hydrates on Ice and Na Montmorillonite Clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Margaret Ellen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cygan, Randall Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Meserole, Stephen P. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Mark A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Methane hydrates are extremely important naturally-occurring crystalline materials that impact climate change, energy resources, geological hazards, and other major environmental issues. Whereas significant experimental effort has been completed to understanding the bulk thermodynamics of methane hydrate assemblies, little is understood on heterogeneous nucleation and growth of methane hydrates in clay-rich environments. Controlled synthesis experiments were completed at 265-285 K and 6.89 MPa to examine the impact of montmorillonite surfaces in clay-ice mixtures to nucleate and form methane hydrate. The results suggest that the hydrophilic and methane adsorbing properties of Namontmorillonite reduce the nucleation period of methane hydrate formation in pure ice systems.

  9. Specifics of adsorption and chemical processes on the surface of gamma-irradiated vanadium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaurkovskaya, V.N.; Dzyubenko, L.S.; Doroshenko, V.N.; Chujko, A.A.; Shakhov, A.P.

    2006-01-01

    Effect of γ-irradiation on electrophysical properties and processes of thermal desorption of water from the surface of vanadium oxides V 2 O 3 -VO 2-δ -VO 2+δ -V 2 O 5 was investigated by derivatography and electric conductivity. Content of adsorbed water at the surface and phase composition of the surface was demonstrated to change under the action of low radiation doses. Surface electric conductivity of the irradiated samples VO 2-δ in the process of chemical reactions of adsorbed following irradiation benzoic acid and ethanol was established to be much above than in irradiated-free ones. It is presumed that metal-semiconductor phase transition at the surface of VO 2-δ during chemical reaction is intensified by irradiation [ru

  10. Skin surface hydration decreases rapidly during long distance flights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéhenneux, Sabine; Gardinier, Sophie; Morizot, Frederique; Le Fur, Isabelle; Tschachler, Erwin

    2012-05-01

    Dehydration of the stratum corneum leads to sensations and symptoms of 'dry skin' such as skin tightness and itchiness. As these complaints are frequently experienced by airline travellers, the aim of this study was to investigate the changes in skin surface hydration during long distance flights. The study was performed on four healthy Caucasian, and on four Japanese women aged 29-39 years, travelling on long distance flights. They had stopped using skin care products at least 12 h before, and did not apply them during the flights. The air temperature and relative humidity inside the cabin, as well as skin capacitance of the face and forearm of participants, were registered at several time points before and during the flights. Relative humidity of the aircraft cabin dropped to levels below 10% within 2 h after take-off and stayed at this value throughout the flight. Skin capacitance decreased rapidly on both the face and forearms with most pronounced changes on the cheeks where it decreased by up to 37%. Our results demonstrate that during long distance flights, the aircraft cabin environment leads to a rapid decrease in stratum corneum hydration, an alteration, which probably accounts for the discomfort experienced by long distance aircraft travellers. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Molecular analysis of petroleum derived compounds that adsorb onto gas hydrate surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgund, Anna E.; Hoiland, Sylvi; Barth, Tanja; Fotland, Per; Askvik, Kjell M.

    2009-01-01

    Field observations have shown that some streams of water, gas and crude oil do not form gas hydrate plugs during petroleum production even when operating within thermodynamic conditions for hydrate formation. Also, when studied under controlled laboratory conditions, some oils are found to form hydrate dispersed systems whereas others form plugs. Oils with low tendency to form hydrate plugs are believed to contain natural hydrate plug inhibiting components (NICs) that adsorb onto the hydrate surface, making them less water-wet and preventing the particles from agglomerating into large hydrate clusters. The molecular structure of the NICs is currently unknown. In this work, hydrate adsorbing components were extracted from crude oils using freon hydrates as an extraction phase. The fractions were found to be enriched in polar material, and more polar material is associated with hydrates generated in biodegraded crude oils than in non-biodegraded oils. Various fractionation schemes and analytical techniques have been applied in the search for molecular characterisation. The average molecular weights were found to be approximately 500 g/mole. GC-MS chromatograms show a large UCM (Unresolved Complex Mixture). Thus, GC-MS has a limited potential for identification of compounds. A commercial biosurfactant was used as a model compound in the search for similar structures in the extracts. The results from analysis of the hydrate adsorbing components suggest that the type and structure are more important for hydrate morphology than the amount of material adsorbed.

  12. Origins of saccharide-dependent hydration at aluminate, silicate, and aluminosilicate surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin J; Rawal, Aditya; Funkhouser, Gary P; Roberts, Lawrence R; Gupta, Vijay; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Chmelka, Bradley F

    2011-05-31

    Sugar molecules adsorbed at hydrated inorganic oxide surfaces occur ubiquitously in nature and in technologically important materials and processes, including marine biomineralization, cement hydration, corrosion inhibition, bioadhesion, and bone resorption. Among these examples, surprisingly diverse hydration behaviors are observed for oxides in the presence of saccharides with closely related compositions and structures. Glucose, sucrose, and maltodextrin, for example, exhibit significant differences in their adsorption selectivities and alkaline reaction properties on hydrating aluminate, silicate, and aluminosilicate surfaces that are shown to be due to the molecular architectures of the saccharides. Solid-state (1)H, (13)C, (29)Si, and (27)Al nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy measurements, including at very high magnetic fields (19 T), distinguish and quantify the different molecular species, their chemical transformations, and their site-specific adsorption on different aluminate and silicate moieties. Two-dimensional NMR results establish nonselective adsorption of glucose degradation products containing carboxylic acids on both hydrated silicates and aluminates. In contrast, sucrose adsorbs intact at hydrated silicate sites and selectively at anhydrous, but not hydrated, aluminate moieties. Quantitative surface force measurements establish that sucrose adsorbs strongly as multilayers on hydrated aluminosilicate surfaces. The molecular structures and physicochemical properties of the saccharides and their degradation species correlate well with their adsorption behaviors. The results explain the dramatically different effects that small amounts of different types of sugars have on the rates at which aluminate, silicate, and aluminosilicate species hydrate, with important implications for diverse materials and applications.

  13. Mechanisms for adsorption of organic bases on hydrated smectite surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, D.A.; Fleming, P.D.

    1999-08-01

    The environmental fate of anthropogenic organic bases introduced to soils and sediments, either deliberately as pesticides or inadvertently as contaminants, depends, to a large extent, on reactions between those compounds and the surfaces of soil mineral and organic constituents. Mechanisms by which organic bases are adsorbed on hydrated smectite surfaces were investigated. Three Ca-saturated reference smectites (Otay, SPV, and Panther Creek) were dispersed in distilled water containing 5 {micro}mol of pyridine or 3-butylpyridine. The pH was adjusted to between 7.5 and 3 using 0.01 M HCl. After a 2-h equilibration, the amounts of pyridine or 3-butylpyridine adsorbed on the clay and the amount of Ca desorbed from the clay were determined. Negligible amounts of pyridine were adsorbed by the Ca-smectites in the neutral systems (pH > 7); however, most of the added pyridine was adsorbed on the smectites in the acidified systems (pH < 5). Equivalent amounts of Ca{sup 2+} were desorbed from the clays, indicating that pyridine was adsorbed as a protonated species by cation exchange. By contrast, 40 to 90% of added 3-butylpyridine was adsorbed on the smectites at neutral pHs, whereas only small amounts of Ca{sup 2+} were desorbed. The results suggest that 3-butylpyridine is initially retained by hydrophobic bonding between the alkyl side chain of the molecule and hydrophobic nanosites located between the charge sites on smectite surfaces. Surface acidity catalyzed protonation 1 to 1.5 pH units above the pK{sub a} of the bases.

  14. Arsenic, Fluoride and Vanadium in surface water (Chasicó Lake, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria laura ePuntoriero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chasicó Lake is the main water body in the southwest of the Chaco-Pampean plain. It shows some differences from the typical Pampean shallow lakes, such as high salinity and high arsenic and fluoride levels. The aim of this paper is to analyze the trace elements [arsenic (As, fluoride (F- and vanadium (V] present in Chasicó Lake. Surface and groundwater were sampled in dry and wet periods, during 2010 and 2011. Fluoride was determined with a selective electrode. As and V were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES. Significant correlation in surface water was only found for As and F- (r=0.978, p<0.01. The As, F- and V concentration values were higher and more widely dispersed in surface water than in groundwater, as a consequence of evaporation. The fact that these elements do not correlate in surface water may also indicates that groundwater would not be the main source of origin of As, F- and V in surface water. The origin of these trace elements is from volcanic glass from Pampean loess. As, F- and V concentration were higher than in national and international guideline levels for the protection of aquatic biota. Hence, this issue is relevant since the silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis is the most important commercial species in Chasicó Lake. This fish is both consumed locally and exported to other South-American countries through commercial and sport fishing.

  15. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Investigation of Growth Modifiers on Hydrate Crystal Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Thomas; Hutter, Jeffrey L.; Lin, M.; King, H. E., Jr.

    1998-03-01

    Hydrates are crystals consisting of small molecules enclathrated within an ice-like water cage. Suppression of their growth is important in the oil industry. The presence of small quantities of specific polymers during hydrate crystallization can induce a transition from an octahedral to planar growth habit. This symmetry breaking is surprising because of the suppression of two 111 planes relative to the other six crystallographically equivalent faces. To better understand the surface effects leading to this behavior, we have studied the surface adsorption of these growth-modifing polymers onto the hydrate crytals using SANS. The total hydrate surface area, as measured by Porod scattering, increases in the presence of the growth modifier, but, no significant increase in polymer concentration on the crystal surfaces is found. Implications for possible growth mechanisms will be discussed.

  16. Preparation, properties, and ESCA characterization of vanadium surface compounds on silicagel. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, B.; Strutz, J.; Geyer-Lippmann, J.; Horvath, E.G.

    1981-01-01

    Binding energies (BE) or 18 pure vanadium compounds (V 2psup(3/2) niveau) were measured in selected oxygen and chlorine environments, linearity of BE vs. oxidation states scrutinized and appropriate model compounds chosen as comparative standards. The general trend is an increase of BE with formal oxidation state; in particular, it could be counterbalanced by electron donating/withdrawing ligands on the V atom. A graphical (computerized) background substraction method was utilized to remove an interfering O 1s satellite peak and to enhance accuracy of BE values in surface compounds. BEs of (triple bond Si-O) 3 V=O, (triple bond Si-O) 3 V, and (triple bond Si-O) 3 V-(O 2 ) were determined. By comparison to standards positive BE shifts of about 2.1 eV were derived indicating the strong electron withdrawing ('electron sink') effect of the support on V in surface compounds. This is the first reported ESCA data on a surface peroxo complex. (author)

  17. A highly permeable and enhanced surface area carbon-cloth electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. L.; Zhao, T. S.; Zeng, Y. K.; An, L.; Wei, L.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a high-performance porous electrode, made of KOH-activated carbon-cloth, is developed for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The macro-scale porous structure in the carbon cloth formed by weaving the carbon fibers in an ordered manner offers a low tortuosity (∼1.1) and a broad pore distribution from 5 μm to 100 μm, rendering the electrode a high hydraulic permeability and high effective ionic conductivity, which are beneficial for the electrolyte flow and ion transport through the porous electrode. The use of KOH activation method to create nano-scale pores on the carbon-fiber surfaces leads to a significant increase in the surface area for redox reactions from 2.39 m2 g-1 to 15.4 m2 g-1. The battery assembled with the present electrode delivers an energy efficiency of 80.1% and an electrolyte utilization of 74.6% at a current density of 400 mA cm-2, as opposed to an electrolyte utilization of 61.1% achieved by using a conventional carbon-paper electrode. Such a high performance is mainly attributed to the combination of the excellent mass/ion transport properties and the high surface area rendered by the present electrode. It is suggested that the KOH-activated carbon-cloth electrode is a promising candidate in redox flow batteries.

  18. Effect of Surface Hydration on Antifouling Properties of Mixed Charged Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Chuan; Huang, Hao; Zhang, Kexin; Hung, Hsiang-Chieh; Xu, Yao; Li, Yaoxin; Jiang, Shaoyi; Chen, Zhan

    2018-05-07

    Interfacial water structure on a polymer surface in water (or surface hydration) is related to the antifouling activity of the polymer. Zwitterionic polymer materials exhibit excellent antifouling activity due to their strong surface hydration. It was proposed to replace zwitterionic polymers using mixed charged polymers because it is much easier to prepare mixed charged polymer samples with much lower costs. In this study, using sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, we investigated interfacial water structures on mixed charged polymer surfaces in water, and how such structures change while exposing to salt solutions and protein solutions. The 1:1 mixed charged polymer exhibits excellent antifouling property while other mixed charged polymers with different ratios of the positive/negative charges do not. It was found that on the 1:1 mixed charged polymer surface, SFG water signal is dominated by the contribution of the strongly hydrogen bonded water molecules, indicating strong hydration of the polymer surface. The responses of the 1:1 mixed charged polymer surface to salt solutions are similar to those of zwitterionic polymers. Interestingly, exposure to high concentrations of salt solutions leads to stronger hydration of the 1:1 mixed charged polymer surface after replacing the salt solution with water. Protein molecules do not substantially perturb the interfacial water structure on the 1:1 mixed charged polymer surface and do not adsorb to the surface, showing that this mixed charged polymer is an excellent antifouling material.

  19. Recovery of Vanadium from Magnetite Ore Using Direct Acid Leaching: Optimization of Parameters by Plackett-Burman and Response Surface Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, Davood Ghoddocy; Khanchi, Ali Reza; Taghizadeh, Majid

    2018-06-01

    Recovery of vanadium from magnetite ore by direct acid leaching is discussed. The proposed process, which employs a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids, avoids pyrometallurgical treatments since such treatment consumes a high amount of energy. To determine the optimum conditions of vanadium recovery, the leaching process is optimized through Plackett-Burman (P-B) design and response surface methodology (RSM). In this respect, temperature (80-95°C), liquid to solid ratio (L/S) (3-10 mL g-1), sulfuric acid concentration (3-6 M), nitric acid concentration (5-10 vol.%) and time (4-8 h) are considered as the independent variables. According to the P-B approach, temperature and acid concentrations are, respectively, the most effective parameters in the leaching process. These parameters are optimized using RSM to maximize recovery of vanadium by direct acid leaching. In this way, 86.7% of vanadium can be extracted from magnetic ore.

  20. Enhancement of Photovoltaic Performance by Utilizing Readily Accessible Hole Transporting Layer of Vanadium(V) Oxide Hydrate in a Polymer-Fullerene Blend Solar Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Youyu; Xiao, Shengqiang; Xu, Biao; Zhan, Chun; Mai, Liqiang; Lu, Xinhui; You, Wei

    2016-05-11

    Herein, a successful application of V2O5·nH2O film as hole transporting layer (HTL) instead of PSS in polymer solar cells is demonstrated. The V2O5·nH2O layer was spin-coated from V2O5·nH2O sol made from melting-quenching sol-gel method by directly using vanadium oxide powder, which is readily accessible and cost-effective. V2O5·nH2O (n ≈ 1) HTL is found to have comparable work function and smooth surface to that of PSS. For the solar cell containing V2O5·nH2O HTL and the active layer of the blend of a novel polymer donor (PBDSe-DT2PyT) and the acceptor of PC71BM, the PCE was significantly improved to 5.87% with a 30% increase over 4.55% attained with PSS HTL. Incorporation of V2O5·nH2O as HTL in the polymer solar cell was found to enhance the crystallinity of the active layer, electron-blocking at the anode and the light-harvest in the wavelength range of 400-550 nm in the cell. V2O5·nH2O HTL improves the charge generation and collection and suppress the charge recombination within the PBDSe-DT2PyT:PC71BM solar cell, leading to a simultaneous enhancement in Voc, Jsc, and FF. The V2O5·nH2O HTL proposed in this work is envisioned to be of great potential to fabricate highly efficient PSCs with low-cost and massive production.

  1. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the atomically smooth (001) surface of vanadium pentoxide V_2O_5 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muslimov, A. E.; Butashin, A. V.; Kanevsky, V. M.

    2017-01-01

    The (001) cleavage surface of vanadium pentoxide (V_2O_5) crystal has been studied by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STM). It is shown that the surface is not reconstructed; the STM image allows geometric lattice parameters to be determined with high accuracy. The nanostructure formed on the (001) cleavage surface of crystal consists of atomically smooth steps with a height multiple of unit-cell parameter c = 4.37 Å. The V_2O_5 crystal cleavages can be used as references in calibration of a scanning tunneling microscope under atmospheric conditions both along the (Ñ…, y) surface and normally to the sample surface (along the z axis). It is found that the terrace surface is not perfectly atomically smooth; its roughness is estimated to be ~0.5 Å. This circumstance may introduce an additional error into the microscope calibration along the z coordinate.

  2. Detection of hydrogen on metal surfaces. The interaction of H2 with polycrystalline vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benninghoven, A.; Mueller, K.H.; Schemmer, M.

    1978-01-01

    Studies are reported of the secondary ion emission from hydrogen-covered vanadium, as a typical case from which the capacities and limits of secondary ion mass spectroscopy in this field could be determined. Experimental results are given and discussed. (U.K.)

  3. Multi-scale cell/surface interaction on modified titanium aluminum vanadium surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbo

    This dissertation presents a series of experimental studies of the effects of multi-scale cell/surface interactions on modified Ti-6Al-4V surfaces. These include laser-grooved surfaces; porous structures and RGD-coated laser-grooved surfaces. A nano-second DPSS UV lasers with a Gaussian pulse energy profile was used to introduce the desired micro-groove geometries onto Ti-6Al-4V surfaces. This was done without inducing micro-cracks or significant changes in surface chemistry within the heat affected zones. The desired 8-12 mum groove depths and widths were achieved by the control of pulse frequency, scan speed, and the lens focal length that controls spot size. The interactions between human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells and laser-grooved Ti-6Al-4V surfaces were investigated after 48 hours of cell culture. The cell behavior, including cell spreading, alignment and adhesion, was elucidated using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), immuno-fluorescence staining and enzymatic detachment. Contact guidance was shown to increase as grooved spacing decreased. For the range of micro-groove geometries studied, micro-grooves with groove spacings of 20 mum provided the best combination of cell orientation and adhesion. Short-term adhesion experiments (15 mins to 1 day) also revealed that there is a positive correlation between cell orientation and cell adhesion. Contact guidance on the micro-grooved surfaces is shown to be enhanced by nano- and micro-scale asperities that provide sites for the attachment of lamellopodia during cell locomotion and spreading. Contact guidance is also promoted by the geometrical confinement provided by laser grooves. An experimental study of initial cell spreading and ingrowth into Ti-6Al-4V porous structures was also carried out on porous structures with different pore sizes and geometries. A combination of SEM, the tetrazolium salt (MTT) colorimetric assay and enzymatic detachment were used to study cell spreading and adhesion. The extent of cell

  4. The inhibition of methane hydrate formation by water alignment underneath surface adsorption of surfactants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ngoc N.; Nguyen, Anh V.; Dang, Liem X.

    2017-06-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) has been widely shown to strongly promote the formation of methane hydrate. Here we show that SDS displays an extraordinary inhibition effect on methane hydrate formation when the surfactant is used in sub-millimolar concentration (around 0.3 mM). We have also employed Sum Frequency Generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG) and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) to elucidate the molecular mechanism of this inhibition. The SFG and MDS results revealed a strong alignment of water molecules underneath surface adsorption of SDS in its sub-millimolar solution. Interestingly, both the alignment of water and the inhibition effect (in 0.3 mM SDS solution) went vanishing when an oppositely-charged surfactant (tetra-n-butylammonium bromide, TBAB) was suitably added to produce a mixed solution of 0.3 mM SDS and 3.6 mM TBAB. Combining structural and kinetic results, we pointed out that the alignment of water underneath surface adsorption of dodecyl sulfate (DS-) anions gave rise to the unexpected inhibition of methane hydration formation in sub-millimolar solution of SDS. The adoption of TBAB mitigated the SDS-induced electrostatic field at the solution’s surface and, therefore, weakened the alignment of interfacial water which, in turn, erased the inhibition effect. We discussed this finding using the concept of activation energy of the interfacial formation of gas hydrate. The main finding of this work is to reveal the interplay of interfacial water in governing gas hydrate formation which sheds light on a universal molecular-scale understanding of the influence of surfactants on gas hydrate formation. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences. The calculations were carried out using computer resources provided by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  5. Weakly hydrated surfaces and the binding interactions of small biological solutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, John W; Tavagnacco, Letizia; Ehrlich, Laurent; Chen, Mo; Schnupf, Udo; Himmel, Michael E; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Cesàro, Attilio

    2012-04-01

    Extended planar hydrophobic surfaces, such as are found in the side chains of the amino acids histidine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, exhibit an affinity for the weakly hydrated faces of glucopyranose. In addition, molecular species such as these, including indole, caffeine, and imidazole, exhibit a weak tendency to pair together by hydrophobic stacking in aqueous solution. These interactions can be partially understood in terms of recent models for the hydration of extended hydrophobic faces and should provide insight into the architecture of sugar-binding sites in proteins.

  6. Oil and gas pipelines with hydrophobic surfaces better equipped to deal with gas hydrate flow assurance issues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perfeldt, Christine Malmos; Sharifi, Hassan; von Solms, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Gas hydrate deposition can cause plugging in oil and gas pipelines with resultant flow assurance challenges. Presently, the energy industry uses chemical additives in order to manage hydrate formation, however these chemicals are expensive and may be associated with safety and environmental...... concerns. Here we show the effect of a hydrophobically coated surface on hydrate formation in the presence of an antifreeze protein type I (AFP I) and a biodegradable synthetic polymer (LuvicapBio) in a high pressure crystallizer setup. The hydrophobic surface increased the hydrate induction time...... crystallizer. This indicates that 10 to 14 times less KHI is needed in the presence of a hydrophobically coated surface. These experimental studies suggest that the use of hydrophobic surfaces or pipelines could serve as an alternative or additional flow assurance approach for gas hydration mitigation...

  7. Electrical measurement of the hydration state of the skin surface in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagami, H

    2014-09-01

    Healthy skin surface is smooth and soft, because it is covered by the properly hydrated stratum corneum (SC), an extremely thin and soft barrier membrane produced by the underlying normal epidermis. By contrast, the skin surfaces covering pathological lesions exhibit dry and scaly changes and the SC shows poor barrier function. The SC barrier function has been assessed in vivo by instrumentally measuring transepidermal water loss (TEWL). However, there was a lack of any appropriate method for evaluating the hydration state of the skin surface in vivo until 1980 when we reported the feasibility of employing high-frequency conductance or capacitance to evaluate it quickly and accurately. With such measurements, we can assess easily the moisturizing efficacy of various topical agents in vivo as well as the distribution pattern of water in the SC by combining it with a serial tape-stripping procedure of the skin surface. © 2014 The Author BJD © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. An effect of surface properties on detachment of adhered solid to cooling surface for formation of clathrate hydrate slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daitoku, Tadafumi; Utaka, Yoshio

    In air-conditioning systems, it is desirable that the liquid-solid phase change temperature of a cool energy storage material is approximately 10 °C from the perspective of improving coefficient of performance (COP). Moreover, a thermal storage material that forms slurry can realize large heat capacity of working fluids. Since the solid that adheres to the heat transfer surface forms a thermal resistance layer and remarkably reduces the rate of cold storage, it is important to avoid the adhesion of a thick solid layer on the surface so as to realize efficient energy storage. Considering a harvest type cooling unit, the force required for removing the solid phase from the heat transfer surface was studied. Tetra-n-butylammonium Bromide (TBAB) clathrate hydrate was used as a cold storage material. The effect of the heat transfer surface properties on the scraping force for detachment of adhered solid of TBAB hydrate to the heat transfer surface was examined experimentally.

  9. Hydration of excess electrons trapped in charge pockets on molecular surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbout, Abraham F.; Del Castillo, R.; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2007-01-01

    In this work we strive to design a novel electron trap located on a molecular surface. The process of electron trapping involves hydration of the trapped electron. Previous calculations on surface electron trapping revealed that clusters of OH groups can form stable hydrogen-bonded networks on one side of a hydrocarbon surface (i.e. cyclohexane sheets), while the hydrogen atoms on the opposite side of the surface form pockets of positive charge that can attract extra negative charge. The excess electron density on such surfaces can be further stabilized by interactions with water molecules. Our calculations show that these anionic systems are stable with respect to vertical electron detachment (VDE).

  10. Band energy control of molybdenum oxide by surface hydration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Keith T., E-mail: k.t.butler@bath.ac.uk; Walsh, Aron [Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Crespo-Otero, Rachel [School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary University London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Buckeridge, John; Scanlon, David O. [University College London, Kathleen Lonsdale Materials Chemistry, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); Bovill, Edward; Lidzey, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-07

    The application of oxide buffer layers for improved carrier extraction is ubiquitous in organic electronics. However, the performance is highly susceptible to processing conditions. Notably, the interface stability and electronic structure is extremely sensitive to the uptake of ambient water. In this study we use density functional theory calculations to asses the effects of adsorbed water on the electronic structure of MoO{sub x}, in the context of polymer-fullerene solar cells based on PCDTBT. We obtain excellent agreement with experimental values of the ionization potential for pristine MoO{sub 3} (010). We find that IP and EA values can vary by as much as 2.5 eV depending on the oxidation state of the surface and that adsorbed water can either increase or decrease the IP and EA depending on the concentration of surface water.

  11. Flux pinning by voids in surface-oxidized superconducting niobium and vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meij, G.P. van der.

    1984-03-01

    The volume pinning force in several niobium and vanadium samples with voids is determined at various temperatures. Reasonable agreement is found with the collective pinning theory of Larkin and Ovchinnikov above the field of maximum pinning, if the flux line lattice is assumed to be amorphous in this region and if the elementary pinning force is calculated from the quasi-classical theory of Thuneberg, Kurkijaervi, and Rainer. Also some history and relaxation effects are studied in an alternating field. A qualitative explanation is given in terms of flux line dislocations, which reduce the shear strength of the flux line lattice. (Auth.)

  12. Flux pinning by voids in surface-oxidized superconducting niobium and vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meij, G.P. van der.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis describes a study of flux pinning by small voids (roughly 10 nm) in the type II superconductors niobium and vanadium. These voids were created in rectangular foils (with typical dimensions of 30x3x0.2 mm) during an irradiation with fast neutrons in the High Flux Reactor at Petten at temperatures between 400 and 1000 0 C. The pinning force per unit volume is determined from the magnetic properties of the superconducting samples. The experiments were carried out in a slowly ramped magnetic field, as well as in a combination of a static and a much smaller alternating field. (Auth.)

  13. Onset and stability of gas hydrates under permafrost in an environment of surface climatic change : past and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majorowicz, J.A.; Osadetz, K.; Safanda, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presented a model designed to simulate permafrost and gas hydrate formation in a changing surface temperature environment in the Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin (BMB). The numerical model simulated surface forcing due to general cooling trends that began in the late Miocene era. This study modelled the onset of permafrost formation and subsequent gas hydrate formation in the changing surface temperature environment for the BMB. Paleoclimatic data were used. The 1-D model was constrained by deep heat flow from well bottom hole temperatures; conductivity; permafrost thickness; and the thickness of the gas hydrates. The model used latent heat effects for the ice-bearing permafrost and hydrate intervals. Surface temperatures for glacial and interglacial histories for the last 14 million years were considered. The model also used a detailed Holocene temperature history as well as a scenario in which atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) levels were twice as high as current levels. Two scenarios were considered: (1) the formation of gas hydrates from gas entrapped under geological seals; and (2) the formation of gas hydrates from gas located in free pore spaces simultaneously with permafrost formation. Results of the study showed that gas hydrates may have formed at a depth of 0.9 km only 1 million years ago. Results of the other modelling scenarios suggested that the hydrates formed 6 million years ago, when temperature changes caused the gas hydrate layer to expand both downward and upward. Detailed models of more recent glacial and interglacial histories showed that the gas hydrate zones will persist under the thick body of the BMB permafrost through current interglacial warming as well as in scenarios where atmospheric CO 2 is doubled. 28 refs., 13 figs

  14. Vanadium - 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, G.N.

    1977-01-01

    This report, with pertinent references, is a comprehensive description and analysis of the vanadium industry. Included is information on industry structure, size and organization; definitions, grades, and specifications; reserves and resources; geology; production and capacity; uses; technology; byproducts and coproducts; strategic considerations; economic and operating factors and problems; supply-demand relationships; and forecasts of supply and demand. Vanadium is used principally as an alloy in steel. Other important uses are in titanium alloys and in various chemical catalytic processes. The world supply of vanadium is sufficient to last far beyond the year 2000 at the present and projected rates of consumption. Almost all of the resources will economically yield vanadium only in conjunction with a coproduct

  15. VANADIUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1959-05-12

    This patent deals with vanadium based ternary alloys useful as fuel element jackets. According to the invention the ternary vanadium alloys, prepared in an arc furnace, contain from 2.5 to 15% by weight titanium and from 0.5 to 10% by weight niobium. Characteristics of these alloys are good thermal conductivity, low neutron capture cross section, good corrosion resistance, good welding and fabricating properties, low expansion coefficient, and high strength.

  16. Physicochemical properties of vanadium impregnated Al-PILCs: Effect of vanadium source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balci, Suna, E-mail: sunabalci@gazi.edu.tr; Tecimer, Aylin

    2015-03-01

    resulted in less structural deformation in the final solid. Loading of the vanadyl sulfate hydrate (VOSO{sub 4}·H{sub 2}O) resulted in a higher V/Si ratio in the solid since both settling and ion exchange mechanism occured. The vanadium was usually bonded in the +5 oxide form, and the particles were settled between these layers and onto the outer surface of the clay particles. The existence of V–O structural bonds and Bronsted and Lewis acid sites were observed in the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results. Up to 300 °C dehydration with high mass loss was observed, followed by the decreases in mass loss, and finally, at around 900 °C, hydroxylation reactions were observed in the TGA/DTA analyses.

  17. High surface area bio-waste based carbon as a superior electrode for vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, Makhan; Bhattarai, Arjun; Ulaganathan, Mani; Wai, Nyunt; Oo, Moe Ohnmar; Wang, Jing-Yuan; Lim, Tuti Mariana

    2017-09-01

    Activated carbon (AC) with high surface area (1901 m2 g-1) is synthesized from low cost bio-waste orange (Citrus sinensis) peel for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB). The composition, structure and electrochemical properties of orange peel derived AC (OP-AC) are characterized by elemental analyzer, field emission-scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. CV results show that OP-AC coated bipolar plate demonstrates improved electro-catalytic activity in both positive and negative side redox couples than the pristine bipolar plate electrode and this is ascribed to the high surface area of OP-AC which provides effective electrode area and better contact between the porous electrode and bipolar plate. Consequently, the performance of VRB in a static cell shows higher energy efficiency for OP-AC electrode than the pristine electrode at all current densities tested. The results suggest the OP-AC to be a promising electrode for VRB applications and can be incorporated into making conducting plastics electrode to lower the VRB cell stack weight and cost.

  18. Communication: Contrasting effects of glycerol and DMSO on lipid membrane surface hydration dynamics and forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrader, Alex M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Cheng, Chi-Yuan [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Israelachvili, Jacob N. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Han, Songi [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2016-07-28

    Glycerol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) are commonly used cryoprotectants in cellular systems, but due to the challenges of measuring the properties of surface-bound solvent, fundamental questions remain regarding the concentration, interactions, and conformation of these solutes at lipid membrane surfaces. We measured the surface water diffusivity at gel-phase dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer surfaces in aqueous solutions containing ≤7.5 mol. % of DMSO or glycerol using Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization. We found that glycerol similarly affects the diffusivity of water near the bilayer surface and that in the bulk solution (within 20%), while DMSO substantially increases the diffusivity of surface water relative to bulk water. We compare these measurements of water dynamics with those of equilibrium forces between DPPC bilayers in the same solvent mixtures. DMSO greatly decreases the range and magnitude of the repulsive forces between the bilayers, whereas glycerol increases it. We propose that the differences in hydrogen bonding capability of the two solutes leads DMSO to dehydrate the lipid head groups, while glycerol affects surface hydration only as much as it affects the bulk water properties. The results suggest that the mechanism of the two most common cryoprotectants must be fundamentally different: in the case of DMSO by decoupling the solvent from the lipid surface, and in the case of glycerol by altering the hydrogen bond structure and intermolecular cohesion of the global solvent, as manifested by increased solvent viscosity.

  19. Laser-tissue soldering with biodegradable polymer films in vitro: film surface morphology and hydration effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, B S; Welch, A J

    2001-01-01

    Previous research introduced the concept of using biodegradable polymer film reinforcement of a liquid albumin solder for improvement of the tensile strength of repaired incisions in vitro. In this study, the effect of creating small pores in the PLGA films on the weld breaking strength is studied. Additionally, the effect of hydration on the strength of the reinforced welds is investigated. A 50%(w/v) bovine serum albumin solder with 0.5 mg/mL Indocyanine Green dye was used to repair an incision in bovine aorta. The solder was coagulated with an 806-nm CW diode laser. A poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) film was used to reinforce the solder (the controls had solder but no reinforcement). Breaking strengths were measured acutely and after hydration in saline for 1 and 2 days. The data were analyzed by ANOVA (P < 0.05) and multiple comparisons of means were performed using the Newman-Keuls test. The creation of pores in the PLGA films qualitatively improved the film flexibility without having an apparent adverse effect on the breaking strength, while the actual technique of applying the film and solder had more of an effect. The acute maximum average breaking strengths of some of the film reinforced specimens (114.7 g-134.4 g) were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the acute maximum average breaking strength of the unreinforced control specimens (68.3 g). Film reinforced specimens were shown to have a statistically significantly higher breaking strength than unreinforced controls after 1- and 2-day hydration. Reinforcement of liquid albumin solders in laser-assisted incision repair appears to have advantages over conventional methods that do not reinforce the cohesive strength of the solder in terms of acute breaking strength and after immersion in moist environments for short periods of time. Using a film with the solder applied to one surface only may be advantageous over other techniques.

  20. Corrosion resistant surface for vanadium nitride and hafnium nitride layers as function of grain size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, C. A.; Caicedo, J. C.; Aperador, W.

    2014-01-01

    In this research it was studied vanadium nitride (VN) and hafnium nitride (HfN) film, which were deposited onto silicon (Si (100)) and AISI 4140 steel substrates via r.f. magnetron sputtering technique in Ar/N2 atmosphere with purity at 99.99% for both V and Hf metallic targets. Both films were approximately 1.2±0.1 μm thick. The crystallography structures that were evaluated via X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) showed preferential orientations in the Bragg planes VN (200) and HfN (111). The chemical compositions for both films were characterized by EDX. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to study the morphology; the results reveal grain sizes of 78±2 nm for VN and 58±2 nm for HfN and roughness values of 4.2±0.1 nm for VN and 1.5±0.1 nm for HfN films. The electrochemical performance in VN and HfN films deposited onto steel 4140 were studied by Tafel polarization curves and impedance spectroscopy methods (EIS) under contact with sodium chloride at 3.5 wt% solution, therefore, it was found that the corrosion rate decreased about 95% in VN and 99% for HfN films in relation to uncoated 4140 steel, thus demonstrating, the protecting effect of VN and HfN films under a corrosive environment as function of morphological characteristics (grain size). VN(grain size)=78±2.0 nm, VN(roughness)=4.2±0.1 nm, VN(corrosion rate)=40.87 μmy. HfN(grain size)=58±2.0 nm, HfN(roughness)=1.5±0.1 nm, HfN(corrosion rate)=0.205 μmy. It was possible to analyze that films with larger grain size, can be observed smaller grain boundary thus generating a higher corrosion rate, therefore, in this work it was found that the HfN layer has better corrosion resistance (low corrosion rate) in relation to VN film which presents a larger grain size, indicating that the low grain boundary in (VN films) does not restrict movement of the Cl- ion and in this way the corrosion rate increases dramatically.

  1. Using extremely halophilic bacteria to understand the role of surface charge and surface hydration in protein evolution, folding, and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Wouter; Deole, Ratnakar; Osu Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Halophilic Archaea accumulate molar concentrations of KCl in their cytoplasm as an osmoprotectant, and have evolved highly acidic proteomes that only function at high salinity. We examine osmoprotection in the photosynthetic Proteobacteria Halorhodospira halophila. We find that H. halophila has an acidic proteome and accumulates molar concentrations of KCl when grown in high salt media. Upon growth of H. halophila in low salt media, its cytoplasmic K + content matches that of Escherichia coli, revealing an acidic proteome that can function in the absence of high cytoplasmic salt concentrations. These findings necessitate a reassessment of two central aspects of theories for understanding extreme halophiles. We conclude that proteome acidity is not driven by stabilizing interactions between K + ions and acidic side chains, but by the need for maintaining sufficient solvation and hydration of the protein surface at high salinity through strongly hydrated carboxylates. We propose that obligate protein halophilicity is a non-adaptive property resulting from genetic drift in which constructive neutral evolution progressively incorporates weakly stabilizing K + binding sites on an increasingly acidic protein surface.

  2. Stratum corneum hydration and skin surface pH in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knor, Tanja; Meholjić-Fetahović, Ajša; Mehmedagić, Aida

    2011-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronically relapsing skin disease with genetic predisposition, which occurs most frequently in preschool children. It is considered that dryness and pruritus, which are always present in AD, are in correlation with degradation of the skin barrier function. Measurement of hydration and pH value of the stratum corneum is one of the noninvasive methods for evaluation of skin barrier function. The aim of the study was to assess skin barrier function by measuring stratum corneum hydration and skin surface pH of the skin with lesions, perilesional skin and uninvolved skin in AD patients, and skin in a healthy control group. Forty-two patients were included in the study: 21 young and adult AD patients and 21 age-matched healthy controls. Capacitance, which is correlated with hydration of stratum corneum and skin surface pH were measured on the forearm in the above areas by SM810/CM820/pH900 combined units (Courage AND Khazaka, Germany). The mean value of water capacitance measured in AD patients was 44.1 ± 11.6 AU (arbitrary units) on the lesions, 60.2 ± 12.4 AU on perilesional skin and 67.2 ± 8.8 AU on uninvolved skin. In healthy controls, the mean value was 74.1 ± 9.2 AU. The mean pH value measured in AD patients was 6.13 ± 0.52 on the lesions, 5.80 ± 0.41 on perilesional skin, and 5.54 ± 0.49 on uninvolved skin. In control group, the mean pH of the skin surface was 5.24 ± 0.40. The values of both parameters measured on lesional skin were significantly different (capacitance decreased and pH increased) from the values recorded on perilesional skin and uninvolved skin. The same held for the relation between perilesional and uninvolved skin. According to study results, the uninvolved skin of AD patients had significantly worse values of the measured parameters as compared with control group. The results of this study suggested the skin barrier function to be degraded in AD patients, which is specifically expressed in lesional skin.

  3. Inter- and intra-individual differences in skin hydration and surface lipids measured with mid-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezerskaia, A.; Pereira, S. F.; Urbach, H. P.; Varghese, B.

    2016-03-01

    Skin health is characterized by heterogeneous system of water and lipids in upper layers providing protection from external environment and preventing loss of vital components of the body. Skin hydration (moisture) and sebum (skin surface lipids) are considered to be important factors in skin health; a right balance between these components is an indication of healthy skin and plays a central role in protecting and preserving skin integrity. In this manuscript we present inter- and intra-individual variation in skin hydration and surface lipids measured with a home-built experimental prototype based on infrared spectroscopy. Results show good agreement with measurements performed by commercially available instruments Corneometer and Sebumeter used for skin hydration and sebum measurements respectively.

  4. Hydration of dicalcium silicate and diffusion through neo-formed calcium-silicate-hydrates at weathered surfaces control the long-term leaching behaviour of basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steelmaking slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Douglas I; Bray, Andrew W; Udoma, Gideon; Hobson, Andrew J; Mayes, William M; Rogerson, Mike; Burke, Ian T

    2018-04-01

    Alkalinity generation and toxic trace metal (such as vanadium) leaching from basic oxygen furnace (BOF) steel slag particles must be properly understood and managed by pre-conditioning if beneficial reuse of slag is to be maximised. Water leaching under aerated conditions was investigated using fresh BOF slag at three different particle sizes (0.5-1.0, 2-5 and 10 × 10 × 20 mm blocks) and a 6-month pre-weathered block. There were several distinct leaching stages observed over time associated with different phases controlling the solution chemistry: (1) free-lime (CaO) dissolution (days 0-2); (2) dicalcium silicate (Ca 2 SiO 4 ) dissolution (days 2-14) and (3) Ca-Si-H and CaCO 3 formation and subsequent dissolution (days 14-73). Experiments with the smallest size fraction resulted in the highest Ca, Si and V concentrations, highlighting the role of surface area in controlling initial leaching. After ~2 weeks, the solution Ca/Si ratio (0.7-0.9) evolved to equal those found within a Ca-Si-H phase that replaced dicalcium silicate and free-lime phases in a 30- to 150-μm altered surface region. V release was a two-stage process; initially, V was released by dicalcium silicate dissolution, but V also isomorphically substituted for Si into the neo-formed Ca-Si-H in the alteration zone. Therefore, on longer timescales, the release of V to solution was primarily controlled by considerably slower Ca-Si-H dissolution rates, which decreased the rate of V release by an order of magnitude. Overall, the results indicate that the BOF slag leaching mechanism evolves from a situation initially dominated by rapid hydration and dissolution of primary dicalcium silicate/free-lime phases, to a slow diffusion limited process controlled by the solubility of secondary Ca-Si-H and CaCO 3 phases that replace and cover more reactive primary slag phases at particle surfaces.

  5. Physical properties of hydrated tissue determined by surface interferometry of laser-induced thermoelastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dark, Marta L.; Perelman, Lev T.; Itzkan, Irving; Schaffer, Jonathan L.; Feld, Michael S.

    2000-02-01

    Knee meniscus is a hydrated tissue; it is a fibrocartilage of the knee joint composed primarily of water. We present results of interferometric surface monitoring by which we measure physical properties of human knee meniscal cartilage. The physical response of biological tissue to a short laser pulse is primarily thermomechanical. When the pulse is shorter than characteristic times (thermal diffusion time and acoustic relaxation time) stresses build and propagate as acoustic waves in the tissue. The tissue responds to the laser-induced stress by thermoelastic expansion. Solving the thermoelastic wave equation numerically predicts the correct laser-induced expansion. By comparing theory with experimental data, we can obtain the longitudinal speed of sound, the effective optical penetration depth and the Grüneisen coefficient. This study yields information about the laser-tissue interaction and determines properties of the meniscus samples that could be used as diagnostic parameters.

  6. Surface modification of magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate whiskers using a silane coupling agent by dry process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Donghai; Nai, Xueying; Lan, Shengjie; Bian, Shaoju; Liu, Xin; Li, Wu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dry process was adopted to modify the surface of MHSH whiskers using silane. • Si−O−Mg bonds were formed directly by the reaction between Si−OC 2 H 5 and −OH of MHSH. • Dispersibility and compatibility of modified whiskers greatly improved in organic phase. • Thermal stability of whiskers was enhanced after modified. - Abstract: In order to improve the compatibility of magnesium hydroxide sulfate hydrate (MHSH) whiskers with polymers, the surface of MHSH whiskers was modified using vinyltriethoxysilane (VTES) by dry process. The possible mechanism of the surface modification and the interfacial interactions between MHSH whiskers and VTES, as well as the effect of surface modification, were studied. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analyses showed that the agglomerations were effectively separated and a thin layer was formed on the surface of the whiskers after modification. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses showed that the VTES molecules were bound to the surface of MHSH whiskers after modification. Chemical bonds (Si−O−Mg) were formed by the reaction between Si−OC 2 H 5 or Si−OH and the hydroxyl group of MHSH whiskers. The effect of surface modification was evaluated by sedimentation tests, contact angle measurements and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the surface of MHSH whiskers was transformed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, and the dispersibility and the compatibility of MHSH whiskers were significantly improved in the organic phase. Additionally, the thermal stability of the VTES-modified MHSH whiskers was improved significantly.

  7. Effect of argon ion sputtering of surface on hydrogen permeation through vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamawaki, Michio; Namba, Takashi; Yoneoka, Toshiaki; Kanno, Masayoshi; Shida, Koji.

    1983-01-01

    In order to measure the hydrogen permeation rate through V with atomically cleaned surface, an Ar ion sputtering apparatus has been installed in the hydrogen permeability measuring system. The permeation rate of the initial specimen was found to be increased by about one order of magnitude after Ar ion sputtering of its upstream side surface. Repeating of such a sputter-cleaning was not so much effective in increasing the steady state permeation rate as the initial sputtering was, but it accelerated the transient response rate by a factor of 2 or 3. The transient response rate was also accelerated by the increase of hydrogen pressure, but this effect tended to be diminished by the sputter-cleaning of specimen surface. The surface impurity layer on the downstream side of specimen was also inferred to act as a diffusion barrier affecting the steady state permeation rate. The present value of activation energy for hydrogen permeation through V at temperatures below 873K was the smallest one ever obtained, showing that the surface effect was minimized in the present study on account of the surface sputter-cleaning in addition to the ultra high vacuum system. (author)

  8. Inter-and intra-individual differences in skin hydration and surface lipids measured with mid-infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezerskaia, A.; Pereira, S.F.; Urbach, Paul; Varghese, Babu; Coté, Gerard L.

    2016-01-01

    Skin health is characterized by heterogeneous system of water and lipids in upper layers providing protection from external environment and preventing loss of vital components of the body. Skin hydration (moisture) and sebum (skin surface lipids) are considered to be important factors in skin

  9. Hydration behavior at the ice-binding surface of the Tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midya, Uday Sankar; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2014-05-08

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out at two different temperatures (300 and 220 K) to study the conformational rigidity of the hyperactive Tenebrio molitor antifreeze protein (TmAFP) in aqueous medium and the structural arrangements of water molecules hydrating its surface. It is found that irrespective of the temperature the ice-binding surface (IBS) of the protein is relatively more rigid than its nonice-binding surface (NIBS). The presence of a set of regularly arranged internally bound water molecules is found to play an important role in maintaining the flat rigid nature of the IBS. Importantly, the calculations reveal that the strategically located hydroxyl oxygens of the threonine (Thr) residues in the IBS influence the arrangements of five sets of ordered waters around it on two parallel planes that closely resemble the basal plane of ice. As a result, these waters can register well with the ice basal plane, thereby allowing the IBS to preferentially bind at the ice interface and inhibit its growth. This provides a possible molecular reason behind the ice-binding activity of TmAFP at the basal plane of ice.

  10. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the atomically smooth (001) surface of vanadium pentoxide V{sub 2}O{sub 5} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muslimov, A. E., E-mail: amuslimov@mail.ru; Butashin, A. V.; Kanevsky, V. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The (001) cleavage surface of vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) crystal has been studied by scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STM). It is shown that the surface is not reconstructed; the STM image allows geometric lattice parameters to be determined with high accuracy. The nanostructure formed on the (001) cleavage surface of crystal consists of atomically smooth steps with a height multiple of unit-cell parameter c = 4.37 Å. The V{sub 2}O{sub 5} crystal cleavages can be used as references in calibration of a scanning tunneling microscope under atmospheric conditions both along the (Ñ…, y) surface and normally to the sample surface (along the z axis). It is found that the terrace surface is not perfectly atomically smooth; its roughness is estimated to be ~0.5 Å. This circumstance may introduce an additional error into the microscope calibration along the z coordinate.

  11. Vanadium and molybdenum oxide thin films on Au(111). Growth and surface characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimond, Sebastien

    2009-06-04

    The growth and the surface structure of well-ordered V{sub 2}O{sub 3}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and MoO{sub 3} thin films have been investigated in this work. These films are seen as model systems for the study of elementary reaction steps occurring on vanadia and molybdena-based selective oxidation catalysts. It is shown that well-ordered V{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) thin films can be prepared on Au(111). The films are terminated by vanadyl groups which are not part of the V{sub 2}O{sub 3} bulk structure. Electron irradiation specifically removes the oxygen atoms of the vanadyl groups, resulting in a V-terminated surface. The fraction of removed vanadyl groups is controlled by the electron dose. Such surfaces constitute interesting models to probe the relative role of both the vanadyl groups and the undercoordinated V ions at the surface of vanadia catalysts. The growth of well-ordered V{sub 2}O{sub 5}(001) and MoO{sub 3}(010) thin films containing few point defects is reported here for the first time. These films were grown on Au(111) by oxidation under 50 mbar O{sub 2} in a dedicated high pressure cell. Contrary to some of the results found in the literature, the films are not easily reduced by annealing in UHV. This evidences the contribution of radiation and surface contamination in some of the reported thermal reduction experiments. The growth of ultrathin V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and MoO{sub 3} layers on Au(111) results in formation of interface-specific monolayer structures. These layers are coincidence lattices and they do not correspond to any known oxide bulk structure. They are assumed to be stabilized by electronic interaction with Au(111). Their formation illustrates the polymorphic character and the ease of coordination units rearrangement which are characteristic of both oxides. The formation of a second layer apparently precedes the growth of bulk-like crystallites for both oxides. This observation is at odds with a common assumption that crystals nucleate as soon as a

  12. Vanadium and molybdenum oxide thin films on Au(111). Growth and surface characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimond, Sebastien

    2009-01-01

    The growth and the surface structure of well-ordered V 2 O 3 , V 2 O 5 and MoO 3 thin films have been investigated in this work. These films are seen as model systems for the study of elementary reaction steps occurring on vanadia and molybdena-based selective oxidation catalysts. It is shown that well-ordered V 2 O 3 (0001) thin films can be prepared on Au(111). The films are terminated by vanadyl groups which are not part of the V 2 O 3 bulk structure. Electron irradiation specifically removes the oxygen atoms of the vanadyl groups, resulting in a V-terminated surface. The fraction of removed vanadyl groups is controlled by the electron dose. Such surfaces constitute interesting models to probe the relative role of both the vanadyl groups and the undercoordinated V ions at the surface of vanadia catalysts. The growth of well-ordered V 2 O 5 (001) and MoO 3 (010) thin films containing few point defects is reported here for the first time. These films were grown on Au(111) by oxidation under 50 mbar O 2 in a dedicated high pressure cell. Contrary to some of the results found in the literature, the films are not easily reduced by annealing in UHV. This evidences the contribution of radiation and surface contamination in some of the reported thermal reduction experiments. The growth of ultrathin V 2 O 5 and MoO 3 layers on Au(111) results in formation of interface-specific monolayer structures. These layers are coincidence lattices and they do not correspond to any known oxide bulk structure. They are assumed to be stabilized by electronic interaction with Au(111). Their formation illustrates the polymorphic character and the ease of coordination units rearrangement which are characteristic of both oxides. The formation of a second layer apparently precedes the growth of bulk-like crystallites for both oxides. This observation is at odds with a common assumption that crystals nucleate as soon as a monolayer is formed dur-ing the preparation of supported vanadia

  13. Linking interfacial chemistry of CO2 to surface structures of hydrated metal oxide nanoparticles: hematite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshova, Irina V; Ponnurangam, Sathish; Somasundaran, Ponisseril

    2013-05-14

    A better understanding of interaction with dissolved CO2 is required to rationally design and model the (photo)catalytic and sorption processes on metal (hydr)oxide nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous media. Using in situ FTIR spectroscopy, we address this problem for rhombohedral 38 nm hematite (α-Fe2O3) nanoparticles as a model. We not only resolve the structures of the adsorbed carbonate species, but also specify their adsorption sites and their location on the nanoparticle surface. The spectral relationships obtained present a basis for a new method of characterizing the microscopic structural and acid-base properties (related to individual adsorption sites) of hydrated metal (hydr)oxide NPs using atmospherically derived CO2 as a probe. Specifically, we distinguish two carbonate species suggesting two principally different adsorption mechanisms. One species, which is more weakly adsorbed, has an inner-sphere mononuclear monodentate structure which is formed by a conventional ligand-exchange mechanism. At natural levels of dissolved carbonate and pH from 3 to 11, this species is attached to the most acidic/reactive surface cations (surface states) associated with ferrihydrite-like surface defects. The second species, which is more strongly adsorbed, presents a mixed C and O coordination of bent CO2. This species uniquely recognizes the stoichiometric rhombohedral {104} facets in the NP texture. Like in gas phase, it is formed through the surface coordination of molecular CO2. We address how the adsorption sites hosting these two carbonate species are affected by the annealing and acid etching of the NPs. These results support the nanosize-induced phase transformation of hematite towards ferrihydrite under hydrous conditions, and additionally show that the process starts from the roughened areas of the facet intersections.

  14. Cooperation in carbon source degradation shapes spatial self-organization of microbial consortia on hydrated surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecon, Robin; Or, Dani

    2017-03-06

    Mounting evidence suggests that natural microbial communities exhibit a high level of spatial organization at the micrometric scale that facilitate ecological interactions and support biogeochemical cycles. Microbial patterns are difficult to study definitively in natural environments due to complex biodiversity, observability and variable physicochemical factors. Here, we examine how trophic dependencies give rise to self-organized spatial patterns of a well-defined bacterial consortium grown on hydrated surfaces. The model consortium consisted of two Pseudomonas putida mutant strains that can fully degrade the aromatic hydrocarbon toluene. We demonstrated that obligate cooperation in toluene degradation (cooperative mutualism) favored convergence of 1:1 partner ratio and strong intermixing at the microscale (10-100 μm). In contrast, competition for benzoate, a compound degraded independently by both strains, led to distinct segregation patterns. Emergence of a persistent spatial pattern has been predicted for surface attached microbial activity in liquid films that mediate diffusive exchanges while permitting limited cell movement (colony expansion). This study of a simple microbial consortium offers mechanistic glimpses into the rules governing the assembly and functioning of complex sessile communities, and points to general principles of spatial organization with potential applications for natural and engineered microbial systems.

  15. Application of Response Surface Methodology in Development of Sirolimus Liposomes Prepared by Thin Film Hydration Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Ghanbarzadeh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present investigation was aimed to optimize the formulating process of sirolimus liposomes by thin film hydration method. Methods: In this study, a 32 factorial design method was used to investigate the influence of two independent variables in the preparation of sirolimus liposomes. The dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC /Cholesterol (Chol and dioleoyl phosphoethanolamine(DOPE /DPPC molar ratios were selected as the independent variables. Particle size (PS and Encapsulation Efficiency (EE % were selected as the dependent variables. To separate the un-encapsulated drug, dialysis method was used. Drug analysis was performed with a validated RP-HPLC method. Results: Using response surface methodology and based on the coefficient values obtained for independent variables in the regression equations, it was clear that the DPPC/Chol molar ratio was the major contributing variable in particle size and EE %. The use of a statistical approach allowed us to see individual and/or interaction effects of influencing parameters in order to obtain liposomes with desired properties and to determine the optimum experimental conditions that lead to the enhancement of characteristics. In the prediction of PS and EE % values, the average percent errors are found to be as 3.59 and 4.09%. This value is sufficiently low to confirm the high predictive power of model. Conclusion: Experimental results show that the observed responses were in close agreement with the predicted values and this demonstrates the reliability of the optimization procedure in prediction of PS and EE % in sirolimus liposomes preparation.

  16. Role of Aquaporin Water Channels in Airway Fluid Transport, Humidification, and Surface Liquid Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuanlin; Jayaraman, Sujatha; Yang, Baoxue; Matthay, Michael A.; Verkman, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Several aquaporin-type water channels are expressed in mammalian airways and lung: AQP1 in microvascular endothelia, AQP3 in upper airway epithelia, AQP4 in upper and lower airway epithelia, and AQP5 in alveolar epithelia. Novel quantitative methods were developed to compare airway fluid transport–related functions in wild-type mice and knockout mice deficient in these aquaporins. Lower airway humidification, measured from the moisture content of expired air during mechanical ventilation with dry air through a tracheotomy, was 54–56% efficient in wild-type mice, and reduced by only 3–4% in AQP1/AQP5 or AQP3/AQP4 double knockout mice. Upper airway humidification, measured from the moisture gained by dry air passed through the upper airways in mice breathing through a tracheotomy, decreased from 91 to 50% with increasing ventilation from 20 to 220 ml/min, and reduced by 3–5% in AQP3/AQP4 knockout mice. The depth and salt concentration of the airway surface liquid in trachea was measured in vivo using fluorescent probes and confocal and ratio imaging microscopy. Airway surface liquid depth was 45 ± 5 μm and [Na+] was 115 ± 4 mM in wild-type mice, and not significantly different in AQP3/AQP4 knockout mice. Osmotic water permeability in upper airways, measured by an in vivo instillation/sample method, was reduced by ∼40% by AQP3/AQP4 deletion. In doing these measurements, we discovered a novel amiloride-sensitive isosmolar fluid absorption process in upper airways (13% in 5 min) that was not affected by aquaporin deletion. These results establish the fluid transporting properties of mouse airways, and indicate that aquaporins play at most a minor role in airway humidification, ASL hydration, and isosmolar fluid absorption. PMID:11382807

  17. Selective permeability of uranyl peroxide nanocages to different alkali ions: influences from surface pores and hydration shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yunyi; Haso, Fadi; Zhou, Jing; Hu, Lang; Liu, Tianbo; Szymanowski, Jennifer E.S.; Burns, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    The precise guidance to different ions across the biological channels is essential for many biological processes. An artificial nanopore system will facilitate the study of the ion-transport mechanism through nanosized channels and offer new views for designing nanodevices. Herein we reveal that a 2.5 nm-sized, fullerene-shaped molecular cluster Li_4_8_+_mK_1_2(OH)_m[UO_2(O_2)(OH)]_6_0_-(H_2O)_n (m∼20 and n∼310) (U_6_0) shows selective permeability to different alkali ions. The subnanometer pores on the water-ligand-rich surface of U_6_0 are able to block Rb"+ and Cs"+ ions from passing through, while allowing Na"+ and K"+ ions, which possess larger hydrated sizes, to enter the interior space of U_6_0. An interestingly high entropy gain during the binding process between U_6_0 and alkali ions suggests that the hydration shells of Na"+/K"+ and U_6_0 are damaged during the interaction. The ion selectivity of U_6_0 is greatly influenced by both the morphologies of the surface nanopores and the dynamics of the hydration shells. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Three-dimensional hydration layer mapping on the (10.4) surface of calcite using amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marutschke, Christoph; Walters, Deron; Walters, Deron; Hermes, Ilka; Bechstein, Ralf; Kühnle, Angelika

    2014-08-22

    Calcite, the most stable modification of calcium carbonate, is a major mineral in nature. It is, therefore, highly relevant in a broad range of fields such as biomineralization, sea water desalination and oil production. Knowledge of the surface structure and reactivity of the most stable cleavage plane, calcite (10.4), is pivotal for understanding the role of calcite in these diverse areas. Given the fact that most biological processes and technical applications take place in an aqueous environment, perhaps the most basic - yet decisive - question addresses the interaction of water molecules with the calcite (10.4) surface. In this work, amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy is used for three-dimensional (3D) mapping of the surface structure and the hydration layers above the surface. An easy-to-use scanning protocol is implemented for collecting reliable 3D data. We carefully discuss a comprehensible criterion for identifying the solid-liquid interface within our data. In our data three hydration layers form a characteristic pattern that is commensurate with the underlying calcite surface.

  19. Three-dimensional hydration layer mapping on the (10.4) surface of calcite using amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marutschke, Christoph; Hermes, Ilka; Bechstein, Ralf; Kühnle, Angelika; Walters, Deron; Cleveland, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Calcite, the most stable modification of calcium carbonate, is a major mineral in nature. It is, therefore, highly relevant in a broad range of fields such as biomineralization, sea water desalination and oil production. Knowledge of the surface structure and reactivity of the most stable cleavage plane, calcite (10.4), is pivotal for understanding the role of calcite in these diverse areas. Given the fact that most biological processes and technical applications take place in an aqueous environment, perhaps the most basic—yet decisive—question addresses the interaction of water molecules with the calcite (10.4) surface. In this work, amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy is used for three-dimensional (3D) mapping of the surface structure and the hydration layers above the surface. An easy-to-use scanning protocol is implemented for collecting reliable 3D data. We carefully discuss a comprehensible criterion for identifying the solid–liquid interface within our data. In our data three hydration layers form a characteristic pattern that is commensurate with the underlying calcite surface. (paper)

  20. Topotactic synthesis of vanadium nitride solid foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, S.T.; Kapoor, R.; Oyama, H.T.; Hofmann, D.J.; Matijevic, E.

    1993-01-01

    Vanadium nitride has been synthesized with a surface area of 120 m 2 g -1 by temperature programmed nitridation of a foam-like vanadium oxide (35 m 2 g -1 ), precipitated from vanadate solutions. The nitridation reaction was established to be topotactic and pseudomorphous by x-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The crystallographic relationship between the nitride and oxide was {200}//{001}. The effect of precursor geometry on the product size and shape was investigated by employing vanadium oxide solids of different morphologies

  1. Significance of porous structure on degradatin of 2 2' dichloro diethyl sulphide and 2 chloroethyl ethyl sulphide on the surface of vanadium oxide nanostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Beer; Mahato, T.H.; Srivastava, A.K.; Prasad, G.K.; Ganesan, K.; Vijayaraghavan, R.; Jain, Rajeev

    2011-01-01

    Degradation of the king of chemical warfare agent, 2 2' dichloro diethyl sulphide (HD), and its simulant 2 chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES) were investigated on the surface of porous vanadium oxide nanotubes at room temperature (30 ± 2 ° C ). Reaction kinetics was monitored by GC-FID technique and the reaction products were characterized by GC-MS. Data indicates that HD degraded faster relative to CEES inside the solid decontaminant compared to the reported liquid phase degradation of CEES and HD. Data explores the role of hydrolysis, elimination and oxidation reactions in the detoxification of HD and CEES and the first order rate constant and t 1/2 were calculated to be 0.026 h -1 , 26.6 h for CEES and 0.052 h -1 , 13.24 h for HD. In this report faster degradation of HD compared to CEES was explained on the basis of porous structure.

  2. Trimetallic oxide nanocomposites of transition metals titanium and vanadium by sol-gel technique: synthesis, characterization and electronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Sachan, Komal; Ali, Md Asif; Soaham Gupta, Sachchidanand; Singh, Rajeev

    2018-04-01

    Novel titanium and vanadium based trimetallic oxide nanocomposites (TMONCs) have been synthesized using metal salts of titanium-vanadium along with three others metals viz. tin, aluminium and zinc as precursors by the sol-gel method. Aqueous ammonia and hydrazine hydrate were used as the reducing agents. The preparations of nanocomposites were monitored by observing the visual changes during each step of synthesis. The synthesized TMONCs were characterized using UV–vis, SEM, EDX, TEM and DLS. Band gap of the synthesized TMONCs ranges from 3–4.5 eV determined using tauc plot. FTIR study revealed the molecular stretching and bending peaks of corresponding M–O/M–O–M bonds thus confirming their formation. Molecular composition and particle size were determined using EDX and DLS respectively. Molecular shape, size and surface morphology have been examined by SEM and TEM.

  3. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Surface Sediments and methane hydrate-bearing sediments in the Shenhu area of South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; Shen, Z.; Jia, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Methane hydrates are superior energy resources and potential predisposing factors of geohazard. With the success in China's persistent exploitation of methane hydrates in the Shenhu area of South China Sea for 60 days, there is an increasing demand for detailed knowledge of sediment properties and hazard assessment in this area. In this paper, the physical and mechanical properties of both the surface sediments and methane hydrate-bearing sediments (MHBS) in the exploitation area, the Shenhu area of South China Sea, were investigated using laboratory geotechnical experiments, and triaxial tests were carried out on remolded sediment samples using a modified triaxial apparatus. The results show that sediments in this area are mainly silt with high moisture content, high plasticity, low permeability and low shear strength. The moisture content and permeability decrease while the shear strength increases with the increasing depth. The elastic modulus and peak strength of MHBS increase with the increasing effective confining pressure and higher hydrate saturation. The cohesion increases with higher hydrate saturation while the internal friction angle is barely affected by hydrate saturation. The obtained results demonstrate clearly that methane hydrates have significant impacts on the physical and mechanical properties of sediments and there is still a wide gap in knowledge about MHBS.

  4. Hofmeister Effect on PNIPAM in Bulk and at an Interface: Surface Partitioning of Weakly Hydrated Anions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghaddam, Saeed Zajforoushan; Thormann, Esben

    2017-01-01

    The effect of sodium fluoride, sodium trichloroacetate, and sodium thiocyanate on the stability and conformation of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), in bulk solution and at the gold-aqueous interface, is investigated by differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic light scattering, quartz crystal...... for thiocyanate and trichloroacetate, a salting-out effect is found for sodium trichloroacetate. This apparent contradiction is explained by a combination of previously suggested mechanisms for the salting-out effect by weakly hydrated anions....

  5. The effect of surface morphology on the response of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-loaded vanadium oxide nanotubes gas sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Wei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Chen Wen, E-mail: chenw@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Li Yue; Zhao Chunxia; Dai Ying [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2011-06-01

    The effect of surface morphology on the response of an ethanol sensor based on vanadium nanotubes surface loaded with Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/VONTs) was investigated in this work. The particle size of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} loaded on VONTs was varied by using novel citric acid-assisted hydrothermal method. In the synthesis progress, citric acid was used as a surfactant and chelate agent, which ensured the growth of a uniform Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} loading on the nanotubes surface. The ethanol sensing properties was then measured for these Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/VONTs at 230-300 deg. C. The results showed that the sensor response increased with the particles size and the loading amount of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. It appears that the load of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the VONTs surface increases the concentration of oxygen vacancies and decreases the concentration of free electrons. The effects of morphology on the sensor resistance were interpreted in terms of the Debye length and the difference in the number of active sites.

  6. Vanadium recovery process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrih, R.Z.; Rickard, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    A process for recovering vanadium values from carbonaceous type vanadium ores, and vanadium scrap, such as vanadium contaminated spent catalyst, is disclosed which comprises roasting the vanadium containing material in air at a temperature less than about 600 0 C to produce a material substantially devoid of organic matter, subjecting said roasted material to a further oxidizing roast in an oxygen atmosphere at a temperature of at least about 800 0 C for a period sufficient to convert substantially all of the vanadium to the soluble form, leaching the calcine with a suitable dilute mineral acid or water at a pH of neutral to about 2 to recover vanadium values, precipitating vanadium values as iron vanadate from the leach solution with a soluble iron compound at a pH from neutral to about 1, and recovering ferrovanadium from the iron vanadate by a reduction vacuum smelting operation. The conversion of vanadium in the ore to the soluble form by the oxidizing roast is accomplished without the addition of an alkaline salt during calcining

  7. Vanadium in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohrman, B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper deals briefly with the history of vanadium and its uses, price movement, and world resources. It then describes the titanomagnetite ore of the Bushveld Complex, and the production of vanadium from this ore at Highveld Steel and Vanadium Corporation Limited, giving details of the various processes used, including the roast-leach, rotary-kiln, electric-smelting, shaking-ladle, and basic-oxygen-furnace operations. The paper concludes with a very brief account of the treatment of Highveld slags in Europe for the production of vanadium pentoxide and ferrovanadium

  8. Exploring the role of water in molecular recognition: predicting protein ligandability using a combinatorial search of surface hydration sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Sinisa; Brennan, Paul E.; Huggins, David J.

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between any two biological molecules must compete with their interaction with water molecules. This makes water the most important molecule in medicine, as it controls the interactions of every therapeutic with its target. A small molecule binding to a protein is able to recognize a unique binding site on a protein by displacing bound water molecules from specific hydration sites. Quantifying the interactions of these water molecules allows us to estimate the potential of the protein to bind a small molecule. This is referred to as ligandability. In the study, we describe a method to predict ligandability by performing a search of all possible combinations of hydration sites on protein surfaces. We predict ligandability as the summed binding free energy for each of the constituent hydration sites, computed using inhomogeneous fluid solvation theory. We compared the predicted ligandability with the maximum observed binding affinity for 20 proteins in the human bromodomain family. Based on this comparison, it was determined that effective inhibitors have been developed for the majority of bromodomains, in the range from 10 to 100 nM. However, we predict that more potent inhibitors can be developed for the bromodomains BPTF and BRD7 with relative ease, but that further efforts to develop inhibitors for ATAD2 will be extremely challenging. We have also made predictions for the 14 bromodomains with no reported small molecule K d values by isothermal titration calorimetry. The calculations predict that PBRM1(1) will be a challenging target, while others such as TAF1L(2), PBRM1(4) and TAF1(2), should be highly ligandable. As an outcome of this work, we assembled a database of experimental maximal K d that can serve as a community resource assisting medicinal chemistry efforts focused on BRDs. Effective prediction of ligandability would be a very useful tool in the drug discovery process.

  9. Exploring the role of water in molecular recognition: predicting protein ligandability using a combinatorial search of surface hydration sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukovic, Sinisa; Brennan, Paul E; Huggins, David J

    2016-09-01

    The interaction between any two biological molecules must compete with their interaction with water molecules. This makes water the most important molecule in medicine, as it controls the interactions of every therapeutic with its target. A small molecule binding to a protein is able to recognize a unique binding site on a protein by displacing bound water molecules from specific hydration sites. Quantifying the interactions of these water molecules allows us to estimate the potential of the protein to bind a small molecule. This is referred to as ligandability. In the study, we describe a method to predict ligandability by performing a search of all possible combinations of hydration sites on protein surfaces. We predict ligandability as the summed binding free energy for each of the constituent hydration sites, computed using inhomogeneous fluid solvation theory. We compared the predicted ligandability with the maximum observed binding affinity for 20 proteins in the human bromodomain family. Based on this comparison, it was determined that effective inhibitors have been developed for the majority of bromodomains, in the range from 10 to 100 nM. However, we predict that more potent inhibitors can be developed for the bromodomains BPTF and BRD7 with relative ease, but that further efforts to develop inhibitors for ATAD2 will be extremely challenging. We have also made predictions for the 14 bromodomains with no reported small molecule K d values by isothermal titration calorimetry. The calculations predict that PBRM1(1) will be a challenging target, while others such as TAF1L(2), PBRM1(4) and TAF1(2), should be highly ligandable. As an outcome of this work, we assembled a database of experimental maximal K d that can serve as a community resource assisting medicinal chemistry efforts focused on BRDs. Effective prediction of ligandability would be a very useful tool in the drug discovery process.

  10. Miscibility, chain packing, and hydration of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine and other lipids in surface phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaby, J M; Brockman, H L

    1985-11-01

    The miscibility of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine with triolein, 1,2-diolein, 1,3-diolein, 1(3)-monoolein, oleyl alcohol, methyl oleate, oleic acid, and oleyl cyanide (18:1 lipids) was studied at the argon-water interface. The isothermal phase diagrams for the mixtures at 24 degrees were characterized by two compositional regions. At the limit of miscibility with lower mol fractions of 18:1 lipid, the surface pressure was composition-independent, but above a mixture-specific stoichiometry, surface pressure at the limit of miscibility was composition-dependent. From the two-dimensional phase rule, it was determined that at low mol fractions of 18:1 lipids, the surface consisted of phospholipid and a preferred packing array or complex of phospholipid and 18:1 lipid, whereas, above the stoichiometry of the complex, the surface phase consisted of complex and excess 18:1 lipids. In both regions of the phase diagram, mixing along the phase boundary was apparently ideal allowing application of an equation of state described earlier (J. M. Smaby and H. L. Brockman, 1984, Biochemistry, 23:3312-3316). From such analysis, apparent partial molecular areas and hydrations for phospholipid, complex, and 18:1 lipid were obtained. Comparison of these calculated parameters for the complexed and uncomplexed states shows that the aliphatic moieties behave independently of polar head group. The transition of each 18:1 chain to the complexed state involves the loss of about one interfacial water molecule and its corresponding area. For 18:1 lipids with more than one chain another two water molecules per additional chain are present in both states but contribute little to molecular area. In contrast to 18:1 lipids, the phospholipid area and hydration change little upon complexation. The uniformity of chain packing and hydration behavior among 18:1 lipid species contrasts with complex stoichiometries that vary from 0.04 to 0.65. This suggests that the stoichiometry of the

  11. Innovative coating of nanostructured vanadium carbide on the F/M cladding tube inner surface for mitigating the fuel cladding chemical interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yong [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Phillpot, Simon [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-11-29

    500 oC, respectively. The coating layer contains both carbon and vanadium elements as quantified by WED, and the phases mainly consist of a mixture of V2C and VC, which was confirmed using X-ray diffraction patterns. In addition, the ratio between V and C varies with processing temperature, and it was observed that a higher temperature promotes the carbon adsorption and increases thickness of the coating. With optimized deposition conditions, we can apply the coating technique toward the actual T91 cladding materials, and provide the possibilities for the real application in sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). Diffusion couple experiments were performed at both 550 oC and 690 oC, which corresponds to normal and aggressive operating temperatures, respectively. The results show that vanadium carbide coating with wider thickness (8 µm) and lower carbon concentration (27 at.%) reduced the width of the inter diffusion region, indicating that vanadium carbide coating can mitigate FCCI effectively. In specific, inter-diffusion between Fe and Ce was prohibited over most area, but Ce diffusion occurred toward the coating and the Fe substrate through thinner coating layer, which needs further optimization in terms of uniform coating thickness. Overall, it is concluded that this coating process can be successfully applied onto the inner surface of HT9 cladding tubes and the FCCI can be effectively mitigated if not totally eliminated.

  12. The vanadium/oxygen system in the analysis of sodium for oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.A.J.; Price, W.B.

    1981-05-01

    An investigation of the V-O-Na system at 1023 K is described for oxygen in sodium contents of 5 to 25 ppm. Electron spectroscopy combined with depth profiling is used to determine the vanadium/oxygen ratios inwards from the surface of vanadium foil and these ratios are compared with theoretical predictions. The validity of the vanadium wire technique as an analytical method is examined and a model for the vanadium oxidation is suggested. (author)

  13. Vanadium pentoxide nanoparticles mimic vanadium haloperoxidases and thwart biofilm formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalio, Filipe; André, Rute; Hartog, Aloysius F.; Stoll, Brigitte; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Wever, Ron; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2012-08-01

    Marine biofouling--the colonization of small marine microorganisms on surfaces that are directly exposed to seawater, such as ships' hulls--is an expensive problem that is currently without an environmentally compatible solution. Biofouling leads to increased hydrodynamic drag, which, in turn, causes increased fuel consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Tributyltin-free antifouling coatings and paints based on metal complexes or biocides have been shown to efficiently prevent marine biofouling. However, these materials can damage the environment through metal leaching (for example, of copper and zinc) and bacteria resistance. Here, we show that vanadium pentoxide nanowires act like naturally occurring vanadium haloperoxidases to prevent marine biofouling. In the presence of bromide ions and hydrogen peroxide, the nanowires catalyse the oxidation of bromide ions to hypobromous acid (HOBr). Singlet molecular oxygen (1O2) is formed and this exerts strong antibacterial activity, which prevents marine biofouling without being toxic to marine biota. Vanadium pentoxide nanowires have the potential to be an alternative approach to conventional anti-biofouling agents.

  14. Significance of porous structure on degradatin of 2 2' dichloro diethyl sulphide and 2 chloroethyl ethyl sulphide on the surface of vanadium oxide nanostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Beer, E-mail: beerbs5@rediffmail.com [Defence R and D Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior, M.P 474002 (India); Mahato, T.H.; Srivastava, A.K.; Prasad, G.K.; Ganesan, K.; Vijayaraghavan, R. [Defence R and D Establishment, Jhansi Road, Gwalior, M.P 474002 (India); Jain, Rajeev [School of Studies in Chemistry, Jiwaji University, Gwalior, M.P. 474011 (India)

    2011-06-15

    Degradation of the king of chemical warfare agent, 2 2' dichloro diethyl sulphide (HD), and its simulant 2 chloroethyl ethyl sulphide (CEES) were investigated on the surface of porous vanadium oxide nanotubes at room temperature (30 {+-} 2{sup Degree-Sign }C ). Reaction kinetics was monitored by GC-FID technique and the reaction products were characterized by GC-MS. Data indicates that HD degraded faster relative to CEES inside the solid decontaminant compared to the reported liquid phase degradation of CEES and HD. Data explores the role of hydrolysis, elimination and oxidation reactions in the detoxification of HD and CEES and the first order rate constant and t{sub 1/2} were calculated to be 0.026 h{sup -1}, 26.6 h for CEES and 0.052 h{sup -1}, 13.24 h for HD. In this report faster degradation of HD compared to CEES was explained on the basis of porous structure.

  15. Recovery of vanadium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bates, C.P.; Clark, N.E.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to the recovery of vanadium oxide from molten metal. The invention provides a method for recovering vanadium oxide from molten metal, which includes passing oxygen and at least one coolant gas or shroud into the molten metal by way of at least one elongate lance. The invention also provides an arrangement for the recovery of vanadium oxide from molten metal, which includes at least one elongate lance extending into the molten metal. The lance is provided with at least one elongate bore extending therethrough. Means are provided to allow at least oxygen and at least one coolant gas to pass through the lance and into the molten metal

  16. Formation of vanadium carbide precipitations at the surface of alloys: Thermodynamics and kinetics aspects; Bildung von Vanadiumcarbid-Ausscheidungen auf Legierungsoberflaechen: Thermodynamische und kinetische Aspekte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, A.; Uebing, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The paper describes the formation of vanadium carbides on the surface layers of Fe-3%V-C(100) alloys. The phase diagram calculated for this alloyed material using the ThermoCalc program package reveals a co-existence of ferritic matrix and V{sub 3}C{sub 2} at temperatures of T{<=}650 C. This carbide is instable at elevated temperatures, leading to co-existence of ferrite and the cubic VC{sub 1-x}. Experimental analyses revealed the formation of a 2D VC compound in the top layers of the surface of Fe-3%V-C(100) alloys, induced by equilibrium segregation. The paper explains the usefulness of thermodynamic and kinetic calculations for interpretation of precipitation phenomena in steels. Mathematically derived and experimental results of analyses for the case of non-equilibrium segregation showed excellent agreement in the determination of carbide thickness (nanometer scale) and time dependence of segregation under fast cooling conditions. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurde die Bildung von Vanadiumcarbiden auf Fe-3%V-C(100)-Legierungsoberflaechen beschrieben. Das anhand des ThermoCalc-Programmpakets fuer diese Legierungszusammensetzung berechnete Phasendiagramm zeigt bei niedrigen Temperaturen T{<=}650 C die Koexistenz von ferritischer Matrix und V{sub 3}C{sub 2}. Bei hoeheren Temperaturen ist dieses Carbid instabil und es liegt Koexistenz von Ferrit und dem kubischen VC{sub 1-x} vor. Die experimentellen Untersuchungen zeigen die Ausbildung einer zweidimensionalen VC-Oberflaechenverbindung auf Fe-3%V-C(100)-Legierungsoberflaechen durch Gleichgewichtssegregation. Diese Arbeit zeigt, dass thermodynamische und kinetische Rechnungen bei der Deutung von Ausscheidungsphaenomenen in Staehlen sinnvoll eingesetzt werden koennen. Bei der Nichtgleichgewichtssegregation wurde bezueglich Carbiddicke (im Nanometerbereich) und Zeitabhaengigkeit der Ausscheidung bei schneller Abkuehlung eine hervorragende Uebereinstimmung zwischen Simulation und Experiment gefunden

  17. Vanadium research recharged

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luntz, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    US President Barack Obama has described Maria Skyllas-Kazacos’ research as “one of the coolest things I’ve ever said out loud”. Vanadium redox batteries could be electricity’s ultimate storage mechanism.

  18. Absolute proton hydration free energy, surface potential of water, and redox potential of the hydrogen electrode from first principles: QM/MM MD free-energy simulations of sodium and potassium hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Thomas S.; Hünenberger, Philippe H.

    2018-06-01

    The absolute intrinsic hydration free energy GH+,w a t ◦ of the proton, the surface electric potential jump χwa t ◦ upon entering bulk water, and the absolute redox potential VH+,w a t ◦ of the reference hydrogen electrode are cornerstone quantities for formulating single-ion thermodynamics on absolute scales. They can be easily calculated from each other but remain fundamentally elusive, i.e., they cannot be determined experimentally without invoking some extra-thermodynamic assumption (ETA). The Born model provides a natural framework to formulate such an assumption (Born ETA), as it automatically factors out the contribution of crossing the water surface from the hydration free energy. However, this model describes the short-range solvation inaccurately and relies on the choice of arbitrary ion-size parameters. In the present study, both shortcomings are alleviated by performing first-principle calculations of the hydration free energies of the sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) ions. The calculations rely on thermodynamic integration based on quantum-mechanical molecular-mechanical (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations involving the ion and 2000 water molecules. The ion and its first hydration shell are described using a correlated ab initio method, namely resolution-of-identity second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation (RIMP2). The next hydration shells are described using the extended simple point charge water model (SPC/E). The hydration free energy is first calculated at the MM level and subsequently increased by a quantization term accounting for the transformation to a QM/MM description. It is also corrected for finite-size, approximate-electrostatics, and potential-summation errors, as well as standard-state definition. These computationally intensive simulations provide accurate first-principle estimates for GH+,w a t ◦, χwa t ◦, and VH+,w a t ◦, reported with statistical errors based on a confidence interval of 99%. The values obtained

  19. Anomalous surface behavior of hydrated guanidinium ions due to ion pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekholm, Victor; Vazdar, Mario; Mason, Philip E.; Bialik, Erik; Walz, Marie-Madeleine; Öhrwall, Gunnar; Werner, Josephina; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Jungwirth, Pavel; Björneholm, Olle

    2018-04-01

    Surface affinity of aqueous guanidinium chloride (GdmCl) is compared to that of aqueous tetrapropylammonium chloride (TPACl) upon addition of sodium chloride (NaCl) or disodium sulfate (Na2SO4). The experimental results have been acquired using the surface sensitive technique X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy on a liquid jet. Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to produce radial distribution functions and surface density plots. The surface affinities of both TPA+ and Gdm+ increase upon adding NaCl to the solution. With the addition of Na2SO4, the surface affinity of TPA+ increases, while that of Gdm+ decreases. From the results of MD simulations it is seen that Gdm+ and SO4 2 - ions form pairs. This finding can be used to explain the decreased surface affinity of Gdm+ when co-dissolved with SO4 2 - ions. Since SO4 2 - ions avoid the surface due to the double charge and strong water interaction, the Gdm+-SO4 2 - ion pair resides deeper in the solutions' bulk than the Gdm+ ions. Since TPA+ does not form ion pairs with SO4 2 -, the TPA+ ions are instead enriched at the surface.

  20. Determination of vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepin, V.V.; Kurbatova, V.I.; Fedorova, N.D.

    1980-01-01

    Titrimetric and potentiometric methods of vanadium determination in ferrovanadium are developed. The essence of the titrimetric method using phenylanthranilic acid as indicator is in the following. Ferrovanadium weighed amount is dissolved in H 2 SO 4 , vanadium is oxidated by potassium permanganate to V(5) and is titrated by a solution of double salt of sulfuric Fe(2) and ammonium in the presence of indicator. Potentiometric titration is carried out using the same indicator [ru

  1. Gas hydrates

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.

    , not all of them are white like snow. Some hydrates from the deep Gulf of Mexico are richly colored in shades of yellow, orange, or even red. The ice-like masses are beautiful, and contrast with the dull gray of deep sea muds. Hydrates from the Blake... volcanoes and associated gas hydrates: Marine Geology, v. 167, p. 29-42. Milkov, A.V. and R. Sassen, 2001a, Estimate of gas hydrate resource, northwestern Gulf of Mexico continental slope: Marine Geology, v. 179, pp. 71-83. Milkov, A.V., Sassen, R...

  2. Proton mobility on the surface of some acid salt crystal hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaroslavtsev, A.B.; Mirak'yan, A.L.; Chuvaev, V.F.; Sokolova, L.N.

    1997-01-01

    Mobility of proton-containing groupings on the surface of Zr(HPO 4 ) 2 xH 2 O and InH(SO 4 ) 2 x4H 2 O crystals of different dispersion has been studied by 1 H NMR and conductometry methods. It is shown that translational mobility of proton-containing groupings on the surface is much greater than in the sample bulk. A ratio describing the dependence of protonic conductivity on particle sizes of the compounds considered is suggested and its applicability is demonstrated. An increase in conductivity with a decrease in anion proton-accepting ability is pointed out

  3. Enhancement of the surface methane hydrate-bearing layer based on the specific microorganisms form deep seabed sediment in Japan Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, T.; Yoneda, J.; Yamamoto, K.

    2017-12-01

    A methane hydrate-bearing layer located near the Japan Sea has been investigated as a new potential energy resource. In this study examined the feasibility of the seabed surface sediment strength located in the Japan Sea improvement technologies for enhancing microbial induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) process. First, the authors cultivated the specific urease production bacterium culture medium from this surface methane hydrate-bearing layer in the seabed (-600m depth) of Japan Sea. After that, two types of the laboratory test (consolidated-drained triaxial tests) were conducted using this specific culture medium from the seabed in the Japan Sea near the Toyama Prefecture and high urease activities bacterium named Bacillus pasteurii. The main outcomes of this research are as follows. 1) Specific culture medium focused on the urease production bacterium can enhancement of the urease activities from the methane hydrate-bearing layer near the Japan Sea side, 2) This specific culture medium can be enhancement of the surface layer strength, 3) The microbial induced carbonate precipitation process can increase the particle size compared to that of the original particles coating the calcite layer surface, 4) The mechanism for increasing the soil strength is based on the addition of cohesion like a cement stabilized soil.

  4. Pathway and Surface Mechanism Studies of 1,3-butadiene Selective Oxidation Over Vanadium-Molybdenum-Oxygen Catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, William David [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The partial oxidation of 1,3-butadiene has been investigated over VMoO catalysts synthesized by sol-gel techniques. Surface areas were 9-14 m2/g, and compositions were within the solid solution regime, i.e. below 15.0 mol % MoO3/(MoO3 + V2O5). Laser Raman Spectroscopy and XRD data indicated that solid solutions were formed, and pre- and post-reaction XPS data indicated that catalyst surfaces contained some V+4 and were further reduced in 1,3-butadiene oxidation. A reaction pathway for 1,3-butadiene partial oxidation to maleic anhydride was shown to involve intermediates such as 3,4-epoxy-1-butene, crotonaldehyde, furan, and 2-butene-1,4-dial. The addition of water to the reaction stream substantially increased catalyst activity and improved selectivity to crotonaldehyde and furan at specific reaction temperatures. At higher water addition concentrations, furan selectivity increased from 12% to over 25%. The catalytic effects of water addition were related to competitive adsorption with various V2O5-based surface sites, including the vanadyl V=O, corner sharing V-O-V and edge sharing V-O oxygen. Higher levels of water addition were proposed to impose acidic character by dissociative adsorption. In addition, a novel combinatorial synthesis technique for VMoO was used to investigate the phase transitions of V2O5, solid solutions of Mo in V2O5, V9Mo6O40, and other reduced VMoO compounds, characterized by laser Raman spectroscopy. The natural composition gradient imposed by the sputter deposition apparatus was used to create VMoO arrays containing 225 samples ranging from 7.0-42 mol% MoO3/(V2O5 + MoO3), determined by EDS analysis.

  5. Microbial diversity in the hydrate-containing and -free surface sediments in the Shenhu area, South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Jiao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Microbial diversity in the hydrate-containing (sites SH3B and SH7B and -free (sites SH1B, SH5B, SH5C sediments collected from the Shenhu area of the South China Sea (SCS was investigated using 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic analysis. The phylogenetic results indicate difference in microbial communities between hydrate-containing and -free sediments. At the gas hydrate-containing sites, bacterial communities were dominated by Deltaproteobacteria (30.5%, and archaeal communities were dominated by Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (33.8%; In contrast, Planctomycetes was the major group (43.9% in bacterial communities, while Marine Benthic Group-D (MBG-D (32.4% took up the largest proportion in the archaeal communities. Moreover, the microbial communities have characteristics different from those in other hydrate-related sediments around the world, indicating that the presence of hydrates can affect the microbial distribution. In addition, the microbial community composition in the studied sediments has its own uniqueness, which may result from co-effect of geochemical characteristics and presence/absence of hydrate.

  6. Interaction of titanium and vanadium with carbon dioxide under heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasyuk, R.Z.; Kurovskij, V.Ya.; Lyapunov, V.P.; Radomysel'skij, I.D.

    1986-01-01

    The methods of gravitmetric and X-ray phase analysis as well as analysis of composition of gases in the heating chamber have been used to investigate the mechanism of titanium and vanadium interaction with carbon dioxide in the 300-1000 deg C temperature range. The analogy of mechanisms of the interaction of titanium and vanadium with carbon dioxide in oxides production on the metal surface with subsequent carbidizing treatment at temperatures above 800 deg C is shown. Temperature limits of material operation on the base of titanium or vanadium in carbon dioxide must not exceed 400 or 600 deg C, respectively

  7. Chloral Hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you are allergic to chloral hydrate, aspirin, tartrazine (a yellow dye in some processed foods and ... in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature, away from excess ...

  8. Electrical and optical properties of highly oriented nanocrystalline vanadium pentoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahgat, A.A.; Ibrahim, F.A.; El-Desoky, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Highly oriented nanocrystalline hydrated vanadium pentoxide, V 2 O 5 .nH 2 O, were grown epitaxially on a glass substrate along the c-axis to form a film of 200 nm thick. The films were prepared by dissolving V 2 O 5 powder in hydrogen peroxide, H 2 O 2 , solution. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron micrograph and electron diffraction were used to identify the structure of the obtained nanocrystals. Homogenous nanocrystals of 7.0 ± 1.0 nm in size were obtained and were closed packed and are distributed evenly. Electrical conductivity and thermoelectric power were measured in the temperature range 300-480 K for the as prepared films parallel to the substrate surface; i.e. normal to the c-axis. The obtained results showed an n-type semiconducting behavior within the whole temperature range. It is also clear to see that a reversible abnormality at about 340 K is realized during the cooling electrical conductivity measurements. On the other hand, optical transmission and reflection were used to evaluate different optical parameters such as; optical band gap, nature of donor levels and different absorption bands parameters. Both the electrical and optical data are correlated and accordingly the conduction mechanism is verified. Electronic parameters such as effective mass, carriers' type and concentration and drift mobility were evaluated

  9. Vanadium and affective disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naylor, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The oxidation reduction state of vanadium will influence its inhibitory effect, and it has been suggested that the control of this oxidation reduction could be a physiological means of controlling Na-K ATPase and hence membrane transport. However, there is no general agreement on this. For such a hypothesis to be true, tissue concentrations of vanadium would need to be sufficient to cause inhibition of Na-K ATPase. There has been considerable variation in the concentration of vanadium reported to be present in human blood and plasma - e.g., 8.4 μmoleliter, 0.11 μmoleliter, 0.04 μmoleliter and 0.0006-0.018 μmliter. Methods of assay have varied, even including enzymic methods, but the two major methods now used are neutron activation analysis and atomic absorption spectrophotometry using an electrical flameless atomizer. Using neutron activation analysis, difficulties arise from the short half-ife of V 52 (3.76 min) and for the need to separate Na 24 and Cl 36 from the sample since their radiation interfere with those from V 52 . Results from preirradiation separation agree well with those from atomic absorption spectrophotometry, but those from postirradiation separation are usually much lower. Though there is no agreement on the physiological role of vanadium there is evidence that it plays a part in the etiology of manic-depressive psychosis

  10. Variation of skin surface pH, sebum content and stratum corneum hydration with age and gender in a large Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, M Q; Xin, S J; Song, S P; Cho, S Y; Zhang, X J; Tu, C X; Feingold, K R; Elias, P M

    2009-01-01

    Evidence suggests the importance of skin biophysical properties in predicting diseases and in developing appropriate skin care. The results to date of studies on skin surface pH, stratum corneum (SC) hydration and sebum content in both genders and at various ages have been inconclusive, which was in part due to small sample size. Additionally, little is known about the skin physical properties of Asian, especially Chinese, subjects. In the present study, we assess the difference in skin surface pH, sebum content and SC hydration at various ages and in both genders in a large Chinese population without skin diseases. 713 subjects (328 males and 385 females) aged 0.5-94 years were enrolled in this study. The subjects were divided by age into 5 groups, i.e., 0-12, 13-35, 36-50, 51-70 and over 70 years old. A multifunctional skin physiology monitor was used to measure SC hydration, skin surface pH and sebum content on both the forehead and the forearms. In males, the highest sebum content was found on the forearm and the forehead in the age groups 36-50 (93.47 +/- 10.01 microg/cm(2)) and 51-70 years (9.16 +/- 1.95 microg/cm(2)), while in females, the highest sebum content was found on the forearm and the forehead in the age groups 13-35 (61.91 +/- 6.12 microg/cm(2)) and 51-70 years (7.54 +/- 2.55 microg/cm(2)). The forehead sebum content was higher in males aged 13-70 years than in age-matched females; the sebum content on the forehead in both males and females was higher than that on the forearm. Skin surface pH on the forehead of both males and females over the age of 70 years was higher than that in younger groups. SC hydration on the forehead in both males and females was lower above the age of 70, and the one in males aged 13-35 was higher than that in females (43.99 +/- 1.88 vs. 36.38 +/- 1.67 AU, p pH, sebum content and SC hydration vary with age, gender and body site. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Evaluation of the nanomechanical properties of vanadium and native oxide vanadium thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamun, M.A.; Zhang, K.; Baumgart, H.; Elmustafa, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • V films of 50, 75, 100 nm thickness were deposited on Si by RF magnetron sputtering. • We studied structural/mechanical properties by XRD, FE-SEM, AFM, and nanoindentation. • The hardness increased from 9.0 to 14.0 GPa for 100 to 50 nm. • The modulus showed no correlation with thickness or native oxide formation. • Native oxide formation resulted in grain enlargement and roughness reduction. - Abstract: Polycrystalline vanadium thin films of 50, 75, and 100 nm thickness were deposited by magnetron sputtering of a vanadium metal target of 2 inch diameter with 99.9% purity on native oxide covered Si substrates. One set of the fabricated samples were kept in moisture free environment and the other set was exposed to ambient air at room temperature for a long period of time that resulted in formation of native oxide prior to testing. The crystal structure and phase purity of the vanadium and the oxidized vanadium thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results yield a preferential (1 1 0), and (2 0 0) orientation of the polycrystalline V films and (0 0 4) vanadium oxide (V 3 O 7 ). The vanadium films thickness were verified using field emission scanning electron microscopy and the films surface morphologies were inspected using atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM images reveal surface roughness was observed to increase with increasing film thickness and also subsequent to oxidation at room temperature. The nanomechanical properties were measured by nanoindentation to evaluate the modulus and hardness of the vanadium and the oxidized vanadium thin films. The elastic modulus of the vanadium and the oxidized vanadium films was estimated as 150 GPa at 30% film thickness and the elastic modulus of the bulk vanadium target is estimated as 135 GPa. The measured hardness of the vanadium films at 30% film thickness varies between 9 and 14 GPa for the 100 and 50 nm films, respectively, exhibiting size effects

  12. Nanostructured Electrocatalysts for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minjoon; Ryu, Jaechan; Cho, Jaephil

    2015-10-01

    Vanadium redox reactions have been considered as a key factor affecting the energy efficiency of the all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). This redox reaction determines the reaction kinetics of whole cells. However, poor kinetic reversibility and catalytic activity towards the V(2+)/V(3+) and VO(2+)/VO2(+) redox couples on the commonly used carbon substrate limit broader applications of VRFBs. Consequently, modified carbon substrates have been extensively investigated to improve vanadium redox reactions. In this Focus Review, recent progress on metal- and carbon-based nanomaterials as an electrocatalyst for VRFBs is discussed in detail, without the intention to provide a comprehensive review on the whole components of the system. Instead, the focus is mainly placed on the redox chemistry of vanadium ions at a surface of various metals, different dimensional carbons, nitrogen-doped carbon nanostructures, and metal-carbon composites. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Slag recycling of irradiated vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental inductoslag apparatus to recycle irradiated vanadium was fabricated and tested. An experimental electroslag apparatus was also used to test possible slags. The testing was carried out with slag materials that were fabricated along with impurity bearing vanadium samples. Results obtained include computer simulated thermochemical calculations and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of the transmutation impurities. Analyses of the samples before and after testing were carried out to determine if the slag did indeed remove the transmutation impurities from the irradiated vanadium

  14. Phonon dispersion in vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, A.S.; Rumiantsev, A.Yu.

    1999-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Phonon dispersion curves in Vanadium metal are investigated by neutron inelastic scattering using three-axis spectrometers. Due to extremely low coherent scattering amplitude of neutrons in natural isotope mixture of vanadium the phonon frequencies could be determined in the energy range below about 15 meV. Several phonon groups were measured with the polarised neutron scattering set-up. It is demonstrated that the intensity of coherent inelastic scattering observed in the non-spin-flip channel vanishes in the spin-flip channel. The phonon density of states is measured on a single crystal keeping the momentum transfer equal to a vector of reciprocal lattice where the coherent inelastic scattering is suppressed. Phonon dispersion curves in vanadium, as measured by neutron and earlier by X-ray scattering, are described in frames of a charge-fluctuation model involving monopolar and dipolar degrees of freedom. The model parameters are compared for different transition metals with body-centred cubic-structure. (author)

  15. Low activation vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witzenburg, W. van.

    1991-01-01

    The properties and general characteristics of vanadium-base alloys are reviewed in terms of the materials requirements for fusion reactor first wall and blanket structures. In this review attention is focussed on radiation response including induced radioactivity, mechanical properties, compatibility with potential coolants, physical and thermal properties, fabricability and resources. Where possible, properties are compared to those of other leading candidate structural materials, e.g. austenitic and ferritic/martensitic steels. Vanadium alloys appear to offer advantages in the areas of long-term activation, mechanical properties at temperatures above 600 deg C, radiation resistance and thermo-hydraulic design, due to superior physical and thermal properties. They also have a potential for higher temperature operation in liquid lithium systems. Disadvantages are associated with their ability to retain high concentrations of hydrogen isotopes, higher cost, more difficult fabrication and welding. A particular concern regarding use of vanadium alloys relates their reactivity with non-metallic elements, such as oxygen and nitrogen. (author). 33 refs.; 2 figs.; 2 tabs

  16. Hydrate-CASM for modeling Methane Hydrate-Bearing Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente Ruiz, M.; Vaunat, J.; Marin Moreno, H.

    2017-12-01

    A clear understanding of the geomechanical behavior of methane hydrate-bearing sediments (MHBS) is crucial to assess the stability of the seafloor and submarine infrastructures to human and natural loading changes. Here we present the Hydrate-CASM, a new elastoplastic constitutive model to predict the geomechanical behavior of MHBS. Our model employs the critical state model CASM (Clay and Sand Model) because of its flexibility in describing the shape of the yield surface and its proven ability to predict the mechanical behavior of sands, the most commercially viable hydrate reservoirs. The model considers MHBS as a deformable elastoplastic continuum, and hydrate-related changes in the stress-strain behavior are predicted by a densification mechanism. The densification attributes the mechanical contribution of hydrate to; a reduction of the available void ratio; a decrease of the swelling line slope; and an increase of the volumetric yield stress. It is described by experimentally derived physical parameters except from the swelling slope coefficient that requires empirical calibration. The Hydrate-CASM is validated against published triaxial laboratory tests performed at different confinement stresses, hydrate saturations, and hydrate morphologies. During the validation, we focused on capturing the mechanical behavior of the host sediment and consider perturbations of the sediment's mechanical properties that could result from the sample preparation. Our model successfully captures the experimentally observed influence of hydrate saturation in the magnitude and trend of the stiffness, shear strength, and dilatancy of MHBS. Hence, we propose that hydrate-related densification changes might be a major factor controlling the geomechanical response of MHBS.

  17. Biodiesel production over copper vanadium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lei; Yin, Ping; Liu, Xiguang; Yang, Lixia; Yu, Zhongxi; Guo, Xin; Xin, Xinquan

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, copper vanadium phosphate (CuVOP) with three-dimensional network structure was synthesized by hydrothermal method, and was characterized by Infrared spectrum (IR), elemental analysis (EA), EDXRF (energy dispersive X ray fluorescence) etc. Moreover, soybean oil was used as feedstock for producing biodiesel, and biodiesel was produced by CuVOP-catalyzed transesterification process. Response surface methodology was employed to statistically evaluate and optimize the conditions for the maximum conversion to biodiesel, and the effects of amount of catalyst, ratio of methanol to oil, reaction time and reaction temperature were investigated by the 2 4 full-factorial central composite design. The maximum conversion is obtained at amount of catalyst of 1.5%, methanol/oil molar ratio of 6.75, reaction temperature of 65 o C and reaction time of 5 h. Copper vanadium phosphate CuVOP resulted very active in the transesterification reaction for biodiesel production. -- Research highlights: → Copper vanadium phosphate CuVOP with three-dimensional network structure was prepared successfully. Moreover, for the transesterification reaction of soybean oil with methanol under atmospheric pressure, CuVOP had higher catalytic activity and the effects of production conditions such as amount of catalysts etc. were analyzed by response surface methodology.

  18. Flow assurance intervention, hydrates remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Christopher S. [Oceaneering International Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This paper addresses the issues of removing hydrates in sub sea flow lines and associated equipment with an Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) of opportunity and a multi-service-vessel (MSV). The paper is split into three topics: the equipment used with the ROV, assessing the interface points and handling fluids produced from drawing down the pressure. Each section is explained thoroughly and backed up with real world experience. The equipment section details information from actual jobs performed and why the particular components were utilized. The system is generally contained in an ROV mounted skid. Pumps are utilized to draw down the pressure inside the hydrated section of equipment, removing one of the three necessary components for hydrates formation. Once the section is pumped down, several options exist for handling the fluids pumped out of the system: pumping to surface, re-injection into the well, or injection into an operating flow line. This method of hydrates remediation is both economical and timely. Hydrate blockages form in low temperatures and high pressures. Reducing the pressure or increasing the temperature so the conditions lie to the right of the hydrate dissociation curve will slowly decompose the blockage. Depressurization and the use of MEG or methanol will give favorable conditions to remove the hydrate plug. Oceaneering has the capabilities to remove hydrates using the FRS in conjunction with an installation vessel to dispose of the gas and fluid removed from the flow line. Hydrate remediation techniques should be implemented into the initial design to reduce costs later. The cost of stopped production combined with the day rate for equipment needed for hydrate removal outweighs the costs if no technique is utilized. (author)

  19. Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, I; Pierce, K L; Obradovich, J D; Long, W D

    1973-05-18

    Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow.

  20. Directed synthesis of bio-inorganic vanadium oxide composites using genetically modified filamentous phage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Michael; Baik, Seungyun; Jeon, Hojeong; Kim, Yuchan; Kim, Jungtae; Kim, Young Jun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Phage is an excellent seeding for bio-templates for environmentally benign vanadium oxide nanocomposite synthesis. • The synthesized bio-inorganic vanadium oxide showed photodegradation activities. • The fabricated wt phage/vanadium oxide composite exhibited bundle-like structure. • The fabricated RSTB-phage/vanadium oxide composite exhibited a ball with a fiber-like nanostructure. • The virus/vanadium oxide composite could be applied in photocatalysts, sensors and nanoelectronic applications. - Abstract: The growth of crystalline vanadium oxide using a filamentous bacteriophage template was investigated using sequential incubation in a V 2 O 5 precursor. Using the genetic modification of the bacteriophage, we displayed two cysteines that constrained the RSTB-1 peptide on the major coat protein P8, resulting in vanadium oxide crystallization. The phage-driven vanadium oxide crystals with different topologies, microstructures, photodegradation and vanadium oxide composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), quartz microbalance and dissipation (QCM-D) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Non-specific electrostatic attraction between a wild-type phage (wt-phage) and vanadium cations in the V 2 O 5 precursor caused phage agglomeration and fiber formation along the length of the viral scaffold. As a result, the addition of recombinant phage (re-phage) in V 2 O 5 precursors formed heterogeneous structures, which led to efficient condensation of vanadium oxide crystal formation in lines, shown by QCM-D analysis. Furthermore, re-phage/V x O x composites showed significantly enhanced photodegradation activities compared with the synthesized wt-phage-V 2 O 5 composite under illumination. This study demonstrates that peptide-mediated vanadium oxide mineralization is governed by a complicated interplay of peptide sequence, local structure, kinetics and the presence of a mineralizing

  1. Synthesis of vanadium oxide powders by evaporative decomposition of solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, S.A.; Theby, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    Powders of the vanadium oxides V 2 O 4 , V 6 O 13 , and V 2 O 5 were produced by thermal decomposition of aqueous solutions of vanadyl sulfate hydrate in atmospheres of N 2 , H 2 mixed with N 2 , or air. The composition of the oxide powder was determined by the reactor temperature and gas composition. Residual sulfur concentrations in powders produced by decomposition at 740 C were less than 1 at.%, and these powders consisted of hollow, roughly spherical aggregates of particles less than 1 microm in diameter

  2. [Artificial Cysteine Bridges on the Surface of Green Fluorescent Protein Affect Hydration of Its Transition and Intermediate States].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, T N; Nagibina, G S; Surin, A K; Glukhova, K A; Melnik, B S

    2018-01-01

    Studying the effect of cysteine bridges on different energy levels of multistage folding proteins will enable a better understanding of the process of folding and functioning of globular proteins. In particular, it will create prospects for directed change in the stability and rate of protein folding. In this work, using the method of differential scanning microcalorimetry, we have studied the effect of three cysteine bridges introduced in different structural elements of the green fluorescent protein on the denaturation enthalpies, activation energies, and heat-capacity increments when this protein passes from native to intermediate and transition states. The studies have allowed us to confirm that, with this protein denaturation, the process hardly damages the structure initially, but then changes occur in the protein structure in the region of 4-6 beta sheets. The cysteine bridge introduced in this region decreases the hydration of the second transition state and increases the hydration of the second intermediate state during the thermal denaturation of the green fluorescent protein.

  3. [Skin hydration and hydrating products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplan, H; Nocera, T

    2018-05-01

    One of the skin's principal functions is to protect the body against its environment by maintaining an effective epidermal barrier, not only against external factors, but also to prevent water loss from the body. Indeed, water homeostasis is vital for the normal physiological functioning of skin. Hydration levels affect not only visible microscopic parameters such as the suppleness and softness of skin, but also molecular parameters, enzyme activities and cellular signalling within the epidermis. The body is continually losing some of its water, but this phenomenon is limited and the optimal hydration gradient in skin is ensured via a set of sophisticated regulatory processes that rely on the functional and dynamic properties of the uppermost level of the skin consisting of the stratum corneum. The present article brings together data recently acquired in the fields of skin hydration and the characterisation of dehydrated or dry skin, whether through study of the regulatory processes involved or as a result of changes in the techniques used for in situ measurement, and thus in optimisation of management. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Alcohol cosurfactants in hydrate antiagglomeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, J Dalton; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2008-08-28

    Because of availability, as well as economical and environmental considerations, natural gas is projected to be the premium fuel of the 21st century. Natural gas production involves risk of the shut down of onshore and offshore operations because of blockage from hydrates formed from coproduced water and hydrate-forming species in natural gas. Industry practice has been usage of thermodynamic inhibitors such as alcohols often in significant amounts, which have undesirable environmental and safety impacts. Thermodynamic inhibitors affect bulk-phase properties and inhibit hydrate formation. An alternative is changing surface properties through usage of polymers and surfactants, effective at 0.5 to 3 weight % of coproduced water. One group of low dosage hydrate inhibitors (LDHI) are kinetic inhibitors, which affect nucleation rate and growth. A second group of LDHI are antiagglomerants, which prevent agglomeration of small hydrate crystallites. Despite great potential, work on hydrate antiagglomeration is very limited. This work centers on the effect of small amounts of alcohol cosurfactant in mixtures of two vastly different antiagglomerants. We use a model oil, water, and tetrahydrofuran as a hydrate-forming species. Results show that alcohol cosurfactants may help with antiagglomeration when traditional antiagglomerants alone are ineffective. Specifically, as low as 0.5 wt. % methanol cosurfactant used in this study is shown to be effective in antiagglomeration. Without the cosurfactant there will be agglomeration independent of the AA concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first report of alcohol cosurfactants in hydrate antiagglomerants. It is also shown that a rhamnolipid biosurfactant is effective down to only 0.5 wt. % in such mixtures, yet a quaternary ammonium chloride salt, i. e., quat, results in hydrate slurries down to 0.01 wt. %. However, biochemical surfactants are less toxic and biodegradable, and thus their use may prove beneficial even if at

  5. Interaction of titanium and vanadium with carbon dioxide in heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasyuk, R.Z.; Kurovskii, V.Y.; Lyapunov, A.P.; Radomysel'skii, I.D.

    1986-01-01

    To obtain prediction data on the change in properties of titaniumand vanadium-base powder metallurgy materials operating in a carbon dioxide atmosphere, and also to clarify the mechanism of their interaction with the gas in this work, gravimetric investigations of specimens heated at temperatures of 300-1000 C and an x-ray diffraction analysis of their surface were made and the composition of the gas in the heating chamber was studied. The results of the investigations indicate a similarity between the mechanisms of interaction of titanium and vanadium with carbon dioxide including the formation of oxides on the surface of the metal with subsequent carbidization at temperatures above 800 C. On the basis of the data obtained, it may be concluded that the operating temperature limits of titanium- or vanadium-base materials in carbon dioxide must not exceed 400 and 600 C, respectively

  6. Vanadium recycling for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.; Butterworth, G.J.

    1994-04-01

    Very stringent purity specifications must be applied to low activation vanadium alloys, in order to meet recycling goals requiring low residual dose rates after 50--100 years. Methods of vanadium production and purification which might meet these limits are described. Following a suitable cooling period after their use, the vanadium alloy components can be melted in a controlled atmosphere to remove volatile radioisotopes. The aim of the melting and decontamination process will be the achievement of dose rates low enough for ''hands-on'' refabrication of new reactor components from the reclaimed metal. The processes required to permit hands-on recycling appear to be technically feasible, and demonstration experiments are recommended. Background information relevant to the use of vanadium alloys in fusion reactors, including health hazards, resources, and economics, is provided

  7. Evaluation of skin surface hydration state and barrier function of stratum corneum of dorsa of hands and heels treated with PROTECT X2 skin protective cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Takahiro

    2012-06-01

    Skin roughness is a term commonly used in Japan to describe a poor skin condition related to a rough and dry skin surface that develops as a result of various damaging effects from the environment or skin inflammation. Recovery from skin roughness requires skin care for a long period, thus it is important to prevent development of such skin changes. PROTECT X2 contains agents used for a protective covering of the skin from frequent hand washing or use of alcohol-based disinfectants. These unique components are also thought to be effective to treat skin roughness of the dorsa of the hands and heels. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of PROTECT X2 to increase skin surface hydration state, as well as enhance the barrier function of the stratum corneum of the dorsa of the hands and heels in elderly individuals. A total of 8 elderly subjects and their caretakers without any skin diseases participated in the study. They applied PROTECT X2 by themselves to the dorsum area of 1 hand and heel 3 to 5 times daily for 1 month, while the opposite sides were left untreated. We measured stratum corneum (SC) hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) before beginning treatment, then 1 week and 1 month after the start of treatment to compare between the treated and untreated skin. SC hydration state after applications of PROTECT X2 was 1.5- to 3.0-fold higher than that of the untreated skin in the dorsa of both hands and heels, indicating that the moisturizing ingredients accompanied by water were replenished in those areas where the cream was applied. Also, TEWL in the dorsum of the hands was 17.0-27.9% lower on the treated side, indicating improvement in SC barrier function. On the basis of these findings, we concluded that PROTECT X2 enhances water-holding in the SC and aids the barrier function of the skin in the dorsum of the hands. In addition, we consider that this formulation is useful for not only protecting the hands from the effects of such agents

  8. Application of empirical hydration distribution functions around polar atoms for assessing hydration structures of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Daisuke; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Empirical distribution functions of water molecules in protein hydration are made. ► The functions measure how hydrogen-bond geometry in hydration deviate from ideal. ► The functions assess experimentally identified hydration structures of protein. - Abstract: To quantitatively characterize hydrogen-bond geometry in local hydration structures of proteins, we constructed a set of empirical hydration distribution functions (EHDFs) around polar protein atoms in the main and side chains of 11 types of hydrophilic amino acids (D. Matsuoka, M. Nakasako, Journal of Physical Chemistry B 113 (2009) 11274). The functions are the ensemble average of possible hydration patterns around the polar atoms, and describe the anisotropic deviations from ideal hydrogen bond geometry. In addition, we defined probability distribution function of hydration water molecules (PDFH) over the hydrophilic surface of a protein as the sum of EHDFs of solvent accessible polar protein atoms. The functions envelop most of hydration sites identified in crystal structures of proteins (D. Matsuoka, M. Nakasako, Journal of Physical Chemistry B 114 (2010) 4652). Here we propose the application of EHDFs and PDFHs for assessing crystallographically identified hydration structures of proteins. First, hydration water molecules are classified with respect to the geometry in hydrogen bonds in referring EHDFs. Difference Fourier electron density map weighted by PDFH of protein is proposed to identify easily density peaks as candidates of hydration water molecules. A computer program implementing those ideas was developed and used for assessing hydration structures of proteins

  9. Thermodynamic properties of vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    This work reviews and discusses the data and information on the various thermodynamic properties of vanadium available through March 1985. These include the heat capacity and enthalpy, enthalpy of melting, vapor pressure, and enthalpy of vaporization. The existing data have been critically evaluated and analyzed, and the recommended values for heat capacity, enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy function covering the temperature range from 1 to 3800 K have been generated. These values are referred to tempertures based on IPTS-1968. The units used for various properties are joules per mole (J. mol - 1 ). The estimated uncertainties in the heat capacity are +/-3% below 15 K, +/-10% from 15 to 150 K, +/-3% from 150 to 298.15 K, +/-2% from 298.15 to 1000 K, +/-3% from 1000 to the melting point (2202 K), and +/-5% in the liquid region

  10. Synthesis of vanadium trioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yankelevich, R.G.; Vinarov, I.V.; Sheka, I.A.; Pushek, N.G.

    1976-01-01

    There have been studied the conditions for production of vanadium trioxide in a single-stage process of V 2 O 5 reduction by gaseous ammonia. To determine the optimum conditions for V 2 O 5 reduction, there have been studied the temperature range of the reaction and the effect offered by the volumetric rate and time of ammonia injection. The following conditions have proved to be the optimum ones: temperature - 450 deg C, volumetric rate of NH 3 injection at a batch of 10 g - 4 l/h, time of recovery - 3 hours. In accordance with the adopted procedure there have been synthetized the samples containing 98 - 99% V 2 O 3 [ru

  11. Hydration water and microstructure in calcium silicate and aluminate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fratini, Emiliano; Ridi, Francesca; Chen, Sow-Hsin; Baglioni, Piero

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the state of the hydration water and the microstructure development in a cement paste is likely to be the key for the improvement of its ultimate strength and durability. In order to distinguish and characterize the reacted and unreacted water, the single-particle dynamics of water molecules in hydrated calcium silicates (C 3 S, C 2 S) and aluminates (C 3 A, C 4 AF) were studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering, QENS. The time evolution of the immobile fraction represents the hydration kinetics and the mobile fraction follows a non-Debye relaxation. Less sophisticated, but more accessible and cheaper techniques, like differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, and near-infrared spectroscopy, NIR, were validated through QENS results and they allow one to easily and quantitatively follow the cement hydration kinetics and can be widely applied on a laboratory scale to understand the effect of additives (i.e., superplasticizers, cellulosic derivatives, etc) on the thermodynamics of the hydration process. DSC provides information on the free water index and on the activation energy involved in the hydration process while the NIR band at 7000 cm -1 monitors, at a molecular level, the increase of the surface-interacting water. We report as an example the effect of two classes of additives widely used in the cement industry: superplasticizers, SPs, and cellulose derivatives. SPs interact at the solid surface, leading to a consistent increment of the activation energy for the processes of nucleation and growth of the hydrated phases. In contrast, the cellulosic additives do not affect the nucleation and growth activation energy, but cause a significant increment in the water availability: in other words the hydration process is more efficient without any modification of the solid/liquid interaction, as also evidenced by the 1 H-NMR. Additional information is obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultra small angle neutron scattering (USANS) and wide

  12. Effect of Exercise-induced Sweating on facial sebum, stratum corneum hydration, and skin surface pH in normal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siyu; Zhang, Guirong; Meng, Huimin; Li, Li

    2013-02-01

    Evidence demonstrated that sweat was an important factor affecting skin physiological properties. We intended to assess the effects of exercise-induced sweating on the sebum, stratum corneum (SC) hydration and skin surface pH of facial skin. 102 subjects (aged 5-60, divided into five groups) were enrolled to be measured by a combination device called 'Derma Unit SSC3' in their frontal and zygomatic regions when they were in a resting state (RS), at the beginning of sweating (BS), during excessive sweating (ES) and an hour after sweating (AS), respectively. Compared to the RS, SC hydration in both regions increased at the BS or during ES, and sebum increased at the BS but lower during ES. Compared to during ES, Sebum increased in AS but lower than RS. Compared to the RS, pH decreased in both regions at the BS in the majority of groups, and increased in frontal region during ES and in zygomatic region in the AS. There was an increase in pH in both regions during ES in the majority of groups compared to the BS, but a decrease in the AS compared to during ES. The study implies that even in summer, after we sweat excessively, lipid products should be applied locally in order to maintain stability of the barrier function of the SC. The study suggests that after a short term(1 h or less) of self adjustment, excessive sweat from moderate exercise will not impair the primary acidic surface pH of the facial skin. Exercise-induced sweating significantly affected the skin physiological properties of facial region. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Effects of dietary vanadium in mallard ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.H.; Dieter, M.P.

    1978-01-01

    Adult mallard ducks fed 0, 1, 10, or 100 ppm vanadyl sulfate in the diet were sacrificed after 12 wk on treatment; tissues were analyzed for vanadium. No birds died during the study and body weights did not change. Vanadium accumulated to higher concentrations in the bone and liver than in other tissues. Concentrations in bones of hens were five times those in bones of drakes, suggesting an interaction between vanadium and calcium mobilization in laying hens. Vanadium concentrations in most tissues were significantly correlated and increased with treatment level. Lipid metabolism was altered in laying hens fed 100 ppm vanadium. Very little vanadium accumulated in the eggs of laying hens.

  14. Bronsted acid site number evaluation using isopropylamine decomposition on Y-zeolite contaminated with vanadium in a simultaneous DSC-TGA analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio Perez, Yonnathan; Forero, Liliam Alexandra Palomeque; Torres, Diana Vanessa Cristiano; Trujillo, Carlos Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Acid-site catalyzed decomposition of isopropylamine was followed in a simultaneous DSC-TGA analyzer. USY zeolite samples with and without vanadium were studied. Results show that acid sites number decreases linearly with vanadium concentration in zeolite indicating that vanadium neutralizes acid sites on catalyst and the metal is able to move on the surface of the solid. The neutralizing species probably contain only one vanadium atom. The reaction enthalpy plus desorption heat of the products show that vanadium preferentially neutralizes the strongest acid sites on the zeolite. The application of the simultaneous DSC-TGA technique to quantify Bronsted acid sites on solids by this reaction is novel

  15. In silico approach to investigating the adsorption mechanisms of short chain perfluorinated sulfonic acids and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid on hydrated hematite surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hongru; Lin, Yuan; Sun, Yuzhen; Cao, Huiming; Fu, Jianjie; Gao, Ke; Zhang, Aiqian

    2017-05-01

    Short chain perfluorinated sulfonic acids (PFSAs) that were introduced as alternatives for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) have been widely produced and used. However, few studies have investigated the environmental process of short chain PFSAs, and the related adsorption mechanisms still need to be uncovered. The water-oxide interface is one of the major environmental interfaces that plays an important role in affecting the adsorption behaviour and transport potential of the environmental pollutant. In this study, we performed molecular dynamics simulations and quantum chemistry calculations to investigate the adsorption mechanisms of five PFSAs and their adsorption on hydrated hematite surface as well. Different to the vertical configuration reported for PFOS on titanium oxide, all PFSAs share the same adsorption configuration as the long carbon chains parallel to the surface. The formation of hydrogen bonds between F and inter-surface H helps to stabilize the unique configuration. As a result, the sorption capacity increases with increasing C-F chain length. Moreover, both calculated adsorption energy and partial density of states (PDOS) analysis demonstrate a PFSAs adsorption mechanism in between physical and chemical adsorption because the hydrogen bonds formed by the overlap of F (p) orbital and H (s) orbital are weak intermolecular interactions while the physical adsorption are mainly ascribed to the electrostatic interactions. This massive calculation provides a new insight into the pollutant adsorption behaviour, and in particular, may help to evaluate the environmental influence of pollutants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Analytical electron microscopy study of surface layers formed on the French SON68 nuclear waste glass during vapor hydration at 200 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, W.L.; Wang, L.M.; Ewing, R.C.; Bates, J.K.; Ebert, W.L.

    1998-01-01

    Extensive solid-state characterization (AEM/SEM/HRTEM) was completed on six SON68 (inactive R7T7) waste glasses which were altered in the presence of saturated water vapor (200 C) for 22, 91, 241, 908, 1000, 1013, and 1021 days. The samples were examined by AEM in cross-section (lattice-fringe imaging, micro-diffraction, and quantitative thin-film EDS analysis). The glass monoliths were invariably covered by a thin altered rind, and the surface layer thickness increased with increasing time of reaction, ranging from 0.5 to 30 μm in thickness. Six distinctive zones, based on phase chemistry and microstructure, were distinguished within the well-developed surface layers. Numerous crystalline phases such as analcime, gyrolite, tobermorite, apatite, and weeksite were identified on the surfaces of the reacted glasses as precipitates. The majority of the surface layer volume was composed of two basic structures that are morphologically and chemically distinct: The A-domain consisted of well-crystallized fibrous smectite aggregates; and the B-domain consisted of poorly-crystallized regions containing smectite, possibly montmorillonite, crystallites and a ZrO 2 -rich amorphous silica matrix. The retention of the rare-earth elements, Mo, and Zr mostly occurred within the B-domain; while transition metal elements, such as Zn, Cr, Ni, Mn, and Fe, were retained in the A-domain. The element partitioning among A-domains and B-domains and recrystallization of the earlier-formed B-domains into the A-domain smectites were the basic processes which have controlled the chemical and structural evolution of the surface layer. The mechanism of surface layer formation during vapor hydration are discussed based on these cross-sectional AEM results. (orig.)

  17. Analysis of vanadium slags, roasted and leached products. Determination of contents of total vanadium, chromium, sodium, and soluble vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasek, Z.

    1975-01-01

    Accurate, rapid and simple methods were elaborated of determining total vanadium, chromium, and sodium in vanadium slags, and in roasted and leached products in one sample batch. The analysis was conducted in a teflon vial using inorganic acids. A method od determining soluble vanadium in similar materials was also elaborated and verified. (B.S.)

  18. Determination of Leachable Vanadium (V) in Sediment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    A method for speciation of vanadium in solid samples was developed for quantification of ... Experimental ... Sediments for Trace Metals), obtained from the National Research ... Determination of vanadium is not a simple task using ET-AAS.

  19. Possible Cardiotoxic Effects of Vanadium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Parkash

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium, a ubiquitous element, is physiologically and pharmacologically an active substance and is present in most of mammalian tissues Jandhala and Horn, 1983. Large corpus of information exists on the mode of action of vanadium on cardiac muscles (Jandhala and Horn, 1983., Solaro et al, 1980, but the basis of pharma­cological lesion underlying its cardiac toxi­city is still poorly understood. Except for the solitary report of Lewis (1958 to best of our knowledge no information exists on the effect of vanadium on the functioning of heart as shown by electrocardiography.Large amounts of vanadium are relea­sed into atmosphere by combustion of fossil fuel (Vouk, 1979 and due to rapid indus­trialisation its environmental concentra­tion is reported to be increasing (Goldberg et al, 1974., Jaffe and Walters, 1977., Vouk, 1979. This necessitates the monitoring of its environmental and occupational hazards. In the present study cardiac side effects of vanadium, as revealed through ECG has been investigated in rabbits, since the electrocardiogram of rabbit resembles with of man in essential details (Weisborth et al, 1974.

  20. Thermophysical data of liquid vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pottlacher, G.; Huepf, T.; Wilthan, B.; Cagran, C.

    2007-01-01

    Although vanadium is commonly used as an additive in the steel production, literature data for thermophysical properties of vanadium around the melting point are sparse and show, where available a variation over a wide range. This manifests especially in the melting temperature (variation of ±30 K), heat of fusion, or specific enthalpy. This recent work presents the results of thermophysical measurements on vanadium including normal spectral emissivity at 684.5 nm. The aim was to obtain another full dataset of properties (enthalpy, heat of fusion, electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, emissivity) of liquid vanadium to either confirm existing recommendations for certain properties or presenting newer measurements for comparison leading towards such recommendations. Summarizing, the following results for thermophysical properties at the melting point have been obtained: radiance temperature at melting (650 nm) T r,m = 1993 K, melting temperature T m = 2199 K, normal spectral emissivity at melting (684.5 nm) ε = 0.353. An observed feature of all measured data and results is, that a much better agreement with literature references exists for the liquid phase than in the solid state, thus we have restricted the presentation to liquid vanadium

  1. Determination of vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepin, V.V.; Kurbatova, V.I.; Fedorova, N.D.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques of vanadium determination in steels and alloys are developed. Extraction-photometric method with N-phenyl-benzohydroxamic acid when V content is 0.005-0.5% is suggested. Molar coefficient of the complex quenching at lambdasub(max)=530 nm constitutes 5750. Optimum concentration is 15-150 μg per 25 ml of the solution, determination limit is 0.05 μg/ml. Chloroform is an extracting agent. A photometric method with acetohydrazide of anthranilic acid is suggested for the analysis of alloyed steels at V content 0.03-1%. The lower limit of V determination constitutes 0.64 μg/ml. Effect of Fe is removed using phosphoric acid. Amperometric method for steels and alloys at V content from 0.05 to 5% and for steels and alloys containing more than 3% W and Cr is also developed. The method is based on amperometric titration with solution of double sulfuric salt of Fe(2) and ammonium [ru

  2. Determination of Leachable Vanadium (V) in Sediment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    A method for speciation of vanadium in solid samples was developed for quantification of vanadium(+5) in solid samples of sediment Certified Reference Materials ... element in such environmental samples as soil, sediments and plants.3,4–5 Validation of the ... Sample Preparation for the Determination of. Vanadium(+5).

  3. Fine surface structure of unfixed and hydrated macrophages observed by laser-plasma x-ray contact microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshimasa; Friedman, Herman; Yoshimura, Hideyuki; Kinjo, Yasuhito; Shioda, Seiji; Debari, Kazuhiro; Shinohara, Kunio; Rajyaguru, Jayshree; Richardson, Martin

    2000-01-01

    A compact, high-resolution, laser-plasma, x-ray contact microscope using a table-top Nd:glass laser system has been developed and utilized for the analysis of the surface structure of live macrophages. Fine fluffy surface structures of murine peritoneal macrophages, which were live, hydrolyzed and not sliced and stained, were observed by the x-ray microscope followed by analysis using an atomic force microscopy. In order to compare with other techniques, a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to observe the surface structure of the macrophages. The SEM offered a fine whole cell image of the same macrophages, which were fixed and dehydrated, but the surfaces were ruffled and different from that of x-ray images. A standard light microscope was also utilized to observe the shape of live whole macrophages. Light microscopy showed some fluffy surface structures of the macrophages, but the resolution was too low to observe the fine structures. Thus, the findings of fine fluffy surface structures of macrophages by x-ray microscopy provide valuable information for studies of phagocytosis, cell spreading and adherence, which are dependent on the surface structure of macrophages. Furthermore, the present study also demonstrates the usefulness of x-ray microscopy for analysis of structures of living cells

  4. Thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Douglas D.; Martin, Ana I.; Yun, Tae Sup; Francisca, Franco M.; Santamarina, J. Carlos; Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2009-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for evaluating phase transformation processes that would accompany energy production from gas hydrate deposits and for estimating regional heat flow based on the observed depth to the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. The coexistence of multiple phases (gas hydrate, liquid and gas pore fill, and solid sediment grains) and their complex spatial arrangement hinder the a priori prediction of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments. Previous studies have been unable to capture the full parameter space covered by variations in grain size, specific surface, degree of saturation, nature of pore filling material, and effective stress for hydrate-bearing samples. Here we report on systematic measurements of the thermal conductivity of air dry, water- and tetrohydrofuran (THF)-saturated, and THF hydrate–saturated sand and clay samples at vertical effective stress of 0.05 to 1 MPa (corresponding to depths as great as 100 m below seafloor). Results reveal that the bulk thermal conductivity of the samples in every case reflects a complex interplay among particle size, effective stress, porosity, and fluid-versus-hydrate filled pore spaces. The thermal conductivity of THF hydrate–bearing soils increases upon hydrate formation although the thermal conductivities of THF solution and THF hydrate are almost the same. Several mechanisms can contribute to this effect including cryogenic suction during hydrate crystal growth and the ensuing porosity reduction in the surrounding sediment, increased mean effective stress due to hydrate formation under zero lateral strain conditions, and decreased interface thermal impedance as grain-liquid interfaces are transformed into grain-hydrate interfaces.

  5. The effect of coadsorbed oxygen on the reaction of methanol on Rh(111) and on a rhodium/vanadium surface alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schennach, R.; Krenn, G.; Rendulic, K.D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Molecular adsorption of methanol can be observed on all transition metal surfaces at low temperatures. Methanol is adsorbed on Rh (111) at 98 K. With increasing methanol exposure first a mono-layer and then multi-layers of methanol are formed at this surface temperature. During heating, desorption of the methanol from physisorbed multi-layers is detected at about 120 K, followed by desorption of methanol from a chemisorbed mono-layer at 170 K. About 50 % of the adsorbed methanol undergoes a dehydrogenation reaction to form hydrogen and carbon monoxide adsorbed on the surface. These reaction products desorb at 300 K and 480 K, respectively. Less than 0.05 monolayers of coadsorbed oxygen increases the amount of methanol that reacts on the surface to about 80 %. Experiments using a Rh/V surface alloy were performed, in order to distinguish between steric and electronic effects in the adsorption and reaction processes. Deposition of 0.3 monolayers of V on the Rh (111) surface leads to the formation of a subsurface alloy, with V atoms in the second atomic layer only. The initial reaction probability was measured as a function of surface temperature and molecular beam energy. A marked difference was found between the two surfaces. On the clean surface methanol adsorption and reaction stops above 198 K, whereas on the alloy surface adsorption and subsequent reaction occurs up to 473 K. The effects of coadsorbed oxygen are similar on both surfaces. The results are discussed in terms of the possible reactions of the adsorbed methanol on the surface. (author)

  6. Melting technique for vanadium containing steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishanov, M P; Gutovskij, I B; Vakhrushev, A S

    1980-04-28

    To descrease cost price of high-quality vanadium steels a method of their melting in open-hearth furnaces with acid lining using slag-metal fraction of vanadium, which is loaded in the content of 2.1-4.7% of melting mass, is suggested. Introduction of slag-metal fraction of vanadium ensures the formation of slag with composition that guarantees the necessary content of vanadium in steel and does not require introduction of expensive vanadium-containing ferroalloys into the melt.

  7. Enhanced Dynamics of Hydrated tRNA on Nanodiamond Surfaces: A Combined Neutron Scattering and MD Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhindsa, Gurpreet K; Bhowmik, Debsindhu; Goswami, Monojoy; O'Neill, Hugh; Mamontov, Eugene; Sumpter, Bobby G; Hong, Liang; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Chu, Xiang-Qiang

    2016-09-14

    Nontoxic, biocompatible nanodiamonds (ND) have recently been implemented in rational, systematic design of optimal therapeutic use in nanomedicines. However, hydrophilicity of the ND surface strongly influences structure and dynamics of biomolecules that restrict in situ applications of ND. Therefore, fundamental understanding of the impact of hydrophilic ND surface on biomolecules at the molecular level is essential. For tRNA, we observe an enhancement of dynamical behavior in the presence of ND contrary to generally observed slow motion at strongly interacting interfaces. We took advantage of neutron scattering experiments and computer simulations to demonstrate this atypical faster dynamics of tRNA on ND surface. The strong attractive interactions between ND, tRNA, and water give rise to unlike dynamical behavior and structural changes of tRNA in front of ND compared to without ND. Our new findings may provide new design principles for safer, improved drug delivery platforms.

  8. Global biogeochemical cycle of vanadium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, William H; Klein, Emily M; Vengosh, Avner

    2017-12-26

    Synthesizing published data, we provide a quantitative summary of the global biogeochemical cycle of vanadium (V), including both human-derived and natural fluxes. Through mining of V ores (130 × 10 9 g V/y) and extraction and combustion of fossil fuels (600 × 10 9 g V/y), humans are the predominant force in the geochemical cycle of V at Earth's surface. Human emissions of V to the atmosphere are now likely to exceed background emissions by as much as a factor of 1.7, and, presumably, we have altered the deposition of V from the atmosphere by a similar amount. Excessive V in air and water has potential, but poorly documented, consequences for human health. Much of the atmospheric flux probably derives from emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels, but the magnitude of this flux depends on the type of fuel, with relatively low emissions from coal and higher contributions from heavy crude oils, tar sands bitumen, and petroleum coke. Increasing interest in petroleum derived from unconventional deposits is likely to lead to greater emissions of V to the atmosphere in the near future. Our analysis further suggests that the flux of V in rivers has been incremented by about 15% from human activities. Overall, the budget of dissolved V in the oceans is remarkably well balanced-with about 40 × 10 9 g V/y to 50 × 10 9 g V/y inputs and outputs, and a mean residence time for dissolved V in seawater of about 130,000 y with respect to inputs from rivers.

  9. Investigations into surfactant/gas hydrate relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Rudy; Zhang, Guochang; Dearman, Jennifer; Woods, Charles [Swalm School of Chemical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Gas hydrates have unique physical properties portending useful industrial applications of gas storage, gas separation, or water desalination. When gas hydrates were found in the early 1990s to occur naturally and abundantly in seafloors, three other primary interests and concerns emerged: potential new energy source, climate threat from their greenhouse gases, and seafloor instabilities. This paper presents research showing how anionic synthetic surfactants helped develop an industrial gas hydrate storage process for natural gas and how naturally-occurring in-situ anionic biosurfactants influence the formation and placement of gas hydrates in ocean sediments. The catalytic effects, mechanisms, and surface specificities imparted by synthetic surfactants in the gas storage process and imparted by biosurfactants in porous media are discussed. The Bacillus subtilis bacterium that is indigenous to gas hydrate mounds in the Gulf of Mexico was cultured in the laboratory. Its biosurfactant was separated and found to catalyze gas hydrates in porous media. The experiments indicate that seafloor-biosurfactants can be produced rapidly in-situ to achieve threshold concentrations whereby hydrates are promoted. The biosurfactants accumulate and promote hydrate formation on specific mineral surfaces such as sodium montmorillonite. (author)

  10. On the lipid head group hydration of floating surface monolayers bound to self-assembled molecular protein layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lösche, M.; Erdelen, C.; Rump, E.

    1994-01-01

    kept at low surface pressure before protein adsorption. The introduction of dipole moments at the interface by the admixture of phospholipids or the application of lateral pressure on the lipid monolayer before protein adsorption were found to impose an extension of the spacer moieties. The biotin...

  11. Theoretical study on the interactions between chlordecone hydrate and acidic surface groups of activated carbon under basic pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchor-Rodríguez, Kenia; Gamboa-Carballo, Juan José; Ferino-Pérez, Anthuan; Passé-Coutrin, Nady; Gaspard, Sarra; Jáuregui-Haza, Ulises Javier

    2018-05-01

    A theoretical study of the influence of acidic surface groups (SG) of activated carbon (AC) on chlordecone hydrate (CLDh) adsorption is presented, in order to help understanding the adsorption process under basic pH conditions. A seven rings aromatic system (coronene) with a functional group in the edge was used as a simplified model of AC to evaluate the influence of SG in the course of adsorption from aqueous solution at basic pH conditions. Two SG were modeled in their deprotonated form: carboxyl and hydroxyl (COO - and O - ), interacting with CLDh. In order to model the solvation process, all systems under study were calculated with up to three water molecules. Multiple Minima Hypersurface (MMH) methodology was employed to study the interactions of CLDh with SG on AC using PM7 semiempirical Hamiltonian, to explore the potential energy surfaces of the systems and evaluate their thermodynamic association energies. The re-optimization of representative structures obtained from MMH was done using M06-2X Density Functional Theory. The Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) was used to characterize the interaction types. As result, the association of CLDh with acidic SG at basic pH conditions preferentially occurs between the two alcohol groups of CLDh with COO - and O - groups and by dispersive interactions of chlorine atoms of CLDh with the graphitic surface. On the other hand, the presence of covalent interactions between the negatively charged oxygen of SG and one hydrogen atom of CLDh alcohol groups (O - ⋯HO interactions) without water molecules, was confirmed by QTAIM study. It can be concluded that the interactions of CLDh with acidic SG of AC under basic pH conditions confirms the physical mechanisms of adsorption process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. On the conditions of preparation of hydrated rare earth orthovanadates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakhodnova, A P; Belousova, E E; Shuba, Yu I; Zaslavskij, L V

    1988-10-01

    The properties of Ln(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/-Na/sub 3/VO/sub 4/-H/sub 2/O solution series, where Ln is Er, Ho, Eu are investigated by the methods of residual concentrations, conductometry and potentiometry. It is found that at equivalent ratios of the initial components LnVO/sub 4/xmH/sub 2/O hydrated orthovanadates are formed. Deviations towards excess of rare earths or vanadium result in contamination of the compounds by products of side reactions. According to the data on X-ray phase analysis, hydrated erbium, holmium, europium orthovanadates have the zirconium crystal structure typical for anhydrous compounds. It is shown that hydrate water, being a component of orthovanadates, can be referred to adsorbed and interlayer water.

  13. On the conditions of preparation of hydrated rare earth orthovanadates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhodnova, A.P.; Belousova, E.E.; Shuba, Yu.I.; Zaslavskij, L.V.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of Ln(NO 3 ) 3 -Na 3 VO 4 -H 2 O solution series, where Ln is Er, Ho, Eu are investigated by the methods of residual concentrations, conductometry and potentiometry. It is found that at equivalent ratios of the initial components LnVO 4 xmH 2 O hydrated orthovanadates are formed. Deviations towards excess of rare earths or vanadium result in contamination of the compounds by products of side reactions. According to the data on X-ray phase analysis, hydrated erbium, holmium, europium orthovanadates have the zirconium crystal structure typical for anhydrous compounds. It is shown that hydrate water, being a component of orthovanadates, can be referred to adsorbed and interlayer water

  14. Artificial Hydration and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Your Health Resources Healthcare Management Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Share Print Patients who ...

  15. Characterization of vanadium-doped mesoporous titania and its adsorption of gaseous benzene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen-Phan, Thuy-Duong; Song, Myoung Bock; Yun, Hyunran; Kim, Eui Jung; Oh, Eun-Suok [School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, University of Ulsan, Mugeo-dong, Nam-gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Eun Woo, E-mail: ewshin@mail.ulsan.ac.kr [School of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering, University of Ulsan, Mugeo-dong, Nam-gu, Ulsan 680-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-01

    A series of vanadium-doped mesoporous titania with different metal contents was synthesized in the study via a sol-gel process with the assistance of a dodecylamine surfactant. The existence of vanadium ions not only suppressed crystallization and sintering but also enhanced the porosity of the mesoporous TiO{sub 2}. Varying the vanadium concentration led to significant changes in the chemical oxidation state of each component. The presence of metal dopants significantly improved the removal efficiency of benzene and the doping the titania with 5 mol% vanadium removed the most benzene, regardless of the adsorption temperature. The adsorption behavior was elucidated by the specific surface area, the interactions between surface hydroxyl groups and the {pi}-electrons of benzene, and the formation of {sigma}-bonding and d-{pi}* back-donation between the adsorbent and organic compounds.

  16. Researches on vanadium and its compounds; Recherches sur le Vanadium et ses composes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morette, Andre

    1937-06-03

    In this research thesis, the author proposes a new study of the action of some reduction agents on two groups of vanadium compounds, oxides and chlorides. Thus, he reports the study of the circumstances of reduction of vanadium oxides by carbon and of vanadium carburization from these compounds. He also reports the determination of the composition of vanadium melts obtained at high temperatures (either in a vacuum furnace or with an electric arc furnace). In order to determine in which conditions the processing of vanadium oxides could produce the pure metal, the author studied the action of calcium and magnesium on the vanadium pentoxide and trioxide. The second part of the thesis addresses the preparation of pure vanadium from vanadium anhydride chlorides. Then, the author reports the development of processes which could easily produce powdered vanadium [French] Nous nous sommes propose de reprendre l'etude de l'action de quelques reducteurs sur les deux groupes de composes du vanadium, oxydes et chlorures. Nous avons ete ainsi amene a preciser les circonstances de la reduction des oxydes de vanadium par le carbone et de la carburation du vanadium a partir de ceux-ci, puis a determiner la constitution des fontes de vanadium obtenues a haute temperature, soit au four a vide, soit au four a arc. D'autre part, en vue de determiner dans quelles conditions le traitement des oxydes de vanadium pourrait conduire au metal pur, nous avons repris et complete des travaux anterieurs concernant l'action du calcium et du magnesium sur le pentoxyde ou eventuellement le trioxyde de vanadium. Une seconde partie de notre these a ete consacree a la preparation du vanadium pur a partir des chlorures anhydres de vanadium. Nous nous sommes attache a trouver le mode operatoire le plus favorable pour l'obtention de chacun d'eux. Il nous a ete donne ainsi l'occasion de preciser certaines de leurs proprietes physiques et chimiques. Puis, a la suite d'essais systematiques, nous avons

  17. Vanadium Compounds as PTP Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Irving

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phosphotyrosine signaling is regulated by the opposing actions of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs. Here we discuss the potential of vanadium derivatives as PTP enzyme inhibitors and metallotherapeutics. We describe how vanadate in the V oxidized state is thought to inhibit PTPs, thus acting as a pan-inhibitor of this enzyme superfamily. We discuss recent developments in the biological and biochemical actions of more complex vanadium derivatives, including decavanadate and in particular the growing number of oxidovanadium compounds with organic ligands. Pre-clinical studies involving these compounds are discussed in the anti-diabetic and anti-cancer contexts. Although in many cases PTP inhibition has been implicated, it is also clear that many such compounds have further biochemical effects in cells. There also remain concerns surrounding off-target toxicities and long-term use of vanadium compounds in vivo in humans, hindering their progress through clinical trials. Despite these current misgivings, interest in these chemicals continues and many believe they could still have therapeutic potential. If so, we argue that this field would benefit from greater focus on improving the delivery and tissue targeting of vanadium compounds in order to minimize off-target toxicities. This may then harness their full therapeutic potential.

  18. Characterization of vanadium flow battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Ekman, C.; Gehrke, O.; Isleifsson, F.

    2010-10-15

    This report summarizes the work done at Risoe DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project 'Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries' (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risoe DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses are power conversion in cell stacks/electrolyte, power converter, and auxiliary power consumption from pumps and controller. The response time for the battery is limited at 20kW/s by the ramp rate of the power converter. The battery can thus provide power and frequency support for the power system. Vanadium battery is a potential technology for storage based services to the power system provided investment and O and M cost are low enough and long term operation is documented. (Author)

  19. The electron distribution in vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that the apparent discrepancy for b.c.c. vanadium metal between the charge density and small momentum density anisotropies can be resolved by contracting the 3d triply-degenerate radial wavefunctions which point towards the nearest neighbours and expanding the 3d doubly-degenerate radial wave-functions which point towards the second-nearest neighbours. (author)

  20. Quantitative LIBS analysis of vanadium in samples of hexagonal mesoporous silica catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouzar, Miloslav; Kratochvíl, Tomás; Capek, Libor; Smoláková, Lucie; Cernohorský, Tomás; Krejcová, Anna; Hromádko, Ludek

    2011-02-15

    The method for the analysis of vanadium in hexagonal mesoporous silica (V-HMS) catalysts using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry (LIBS) was suggested. Commercially available LIBS spectrometer was calibrated with the aid of authentic V-HMS samples previously analyzed by ICP OES after microwave digestion. Deposition of the sample on the surface of adhesive tape was adopted as a sample preparation method. Strong matrix effect connected with the catalyst preparation technique (1st vanadium added in the process of HMS synthesis, 2nd already synthesised silica matrix was impregnated by vanadium) was observed. The concentration range of V in the set of nine calibration standards was 1.3-4.5% (w/w). Limit of detection was 0.13% (w/w) and it was calculated as a triple standard deviation from five replicated determinations of vanadium in the real sample with a very low vanadium concentration. Comparable results of LIBS and ED XRF were obtained if the same set of standards was used for calibration of both methods and vanadium was measured in the same type of real samples. LIBS calibration constructed using V-HMS-impregnated samples failed for measuring of V-HMS-synthesized samples. LIBS measurements seem to be strongly influenced with different chemical forms of vanadium in impregnated and synthesised samples. The combination of LIBS and ED XRF is able to provide new information about measured samples (in our case for example about procedure of catalyst preparation). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Oxidation phase growth diagram of vanadium oxides film fabricated by rapid thermal annealing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamura KOZO; Zheng-cao LI; Yu-quan WANG; Jie NI; Yin HU; Zheng-jun ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Thermal evaporation deposited vanadium oxide films were annealed in air by rapid thermal annealing (RTP). By adjusting the annealing temperature and time, a series of vanadium oxide films with various oxidation phases and surface morphologies were fabricated, and an oxidation phase growth diagram was established. It was observed that different oxidation phases appear at a limited and continuous annealing condition range, and the morphologic changes are related to the oxidation process.

  2. Investigation of vanadium and nitride alloys thin layers deposited by PVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouveau C.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present the technique of magnetron vapor deposition and the effect of several deposition parameters on the structural and morphological properties of prepared thin films. It was noted that the deposition time has an effect on the crystallinity, mechanical properties such as residual stress, roughness surface and the layer composition from target products. Studies were carried out on layers of vanadium (V and the nitride vanadium (VN.

  3. Swelling and tensile properties of neutron-irradiated vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1990-07-01

    Vanadium-base alloys are candidates for use as structural material in magnetic fusion reactors. In comparison to other candidate structural materials (e.g., Type 316 stainless and HT-9 ferritic steels), vanadium-base alloys such as V-15Cr-5Ti and V-20Ti have intrinsically lower long-term neutron activation, neutron irradiation after-heat, biological hazard potential, and neutron-induced helium and hydrogen transmutation rates. Moreover, vanadium-base alloys can withstand a higher surface-heat, flux than steels because of their lower thermal stress factor. In addition to having these favorable neutronic and physical properties, a candidate alloy for use as structural material in a fusion reactor must have dimensional stability, i.e., swelling resistance, and resistance to embrittlement during the reactor lifetime at a level of structural strength commensurate with the reactor operating temperature and structural loads. In this paper, we present experimental results on the swelling and tensile properties of several vanadium-base alloys after irradiation at 420, 520, and 600 degree C to neutron fluences ranging from 0.3 to 1.9 x 10 27 neutrons/m 2 (17 to 114 atom displacements per atom [dpa])

  4. Formation rate of natural gas hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mork, Marit

    2002-07-01

    The rate of methane hydrate and natural gas hydrate formation was measured in a 9.5 litre stirred tank reactor of standard design. The experiments were performed to better understand the performance and scale-up of a reactor for continuous production of natural gas hydrates. The hydrate formation rate was measured at steady-state conditions at pressures between 70 and 90 bar and temperatures between 7 and 15 deg C. Between 44 and 56 % of the gas continuously supplied to the reactor was converted to hydrate. The experimental results show that the rate of hydrate formation is strongly influenced by gas injection rate and pressure. The effect of stirring rate is less significant and subcooling has no observable effect on the formation rate. Hydrate crystal concentration and gas composition do not influence the hydrate formation rate. Observations of produced hydrate crystals indicate that the crystals are elongated, about 5 micron in diameter and 10 micron long. Analysis of the results shows that the rate of hydrate formation is dominated by gas-liquid mass transfer. A mass transfer model, the bubble-to-crystal model, was developed for the hydrate formation rate in a continuous stirred tank reactor, given in terms of concentration driving force and an overall mass transfer coefficient. The driving force is the difference between the gas concentration at the gas-liquid interface and at the hydrate crystal surface. These concentrations correspond to the solubility of gas in water at experimental temperature and pressure and the solubility of gas at hydrate equilibrium temperature and experimental pressure, respectively. The overall mass transfer coefficient is expressed in terms of superficial gas velocity and impeller power consumption, parameters commonly used in study of stirred tank reactors. Experiments and modeling show that the stirred tank reactor has a considerable potential for increased production capacity. However, at higher hydrate production rates the

  5. Effectively suppressing vanadium permeation in vanadium redox flow battery application with modified Nafion membrane with nacre-like nanoarchitectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lesi; Ling, Ling; Xiao, Min; Han, Dongmei; Wang, Shuanjin; Meng, Yuezhong

    2017-06-01

    A novel self-assembled composite membrane, Nafion-[PDDA/ZrP]n with nacre-like nanostructures was successfully fabricated by a layer-by-layer (LbL) method and used as proton exchange membrane for vanadium redox flow battery applications. Poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) with positive charges and zirconium phosphate (ZrP) nanosheets with negative charges can form ultra-thin nacre-like nanostructure on the surface of Nafion membrane via the ionic crosslinking of tightly folded macromolecules. The lamellar structure of ZrP nanosheets and Donnan exclusion effect of PDDA can greatly decrease the vanadium ion permeability and improve the selectivity of proton conductivity. The fabricated Nafion-[PDDA/ZrP]4 membrane shows two orders of magnitude lower vanadium ion permeability (1.05 × 10-6 cm2 min-1) and 12 times higher ion selectivity than those of pristine Nafion membrane at room temperature. Consequently, the performance of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) assembled with Nafion-[PDDA/ZrP]3 membrane achieved a highly coulombic efficiency (CE) and energy efficiency (EE) together with a very slow self-discharge rate. When comparing with pristine Nafion VRFB, the CE and EE values of Nafion-[PDDA/ZrP]3 VRFB are 10% and 7% higher at 30 mA cm-2, respectively.

  6. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  7. Leaching characteristics of vanadium in mine tailings and soils near a vanadium titanomagnetite mining site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jinyan; Tang, Ya; Yang, Kai [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Rouff, Ashaki A. [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Queens College City University of New York, 65-30 Kissena Boulevard, Flushing, NY 11367 (United States); Elzinga, Evert J. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ (United States); Huang, Jen-How, E-mail: jen-how.huang@unibas.ch [Institute of Environmental Geosciences, University of Basel, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Vanadium in the soil and mine tailings has low solubility. • The leachability of vanadium in the mine tailings is lower than in the soil. • Low risk of vanadium migrating from the soil and mine tailings into the surrounding environment. • Drought and rewetting increase vanadium release from the soil and mine tailings. • Soil leaching processes control vanadium transport in soils overlain with mine tailings. -- Abstract: A series of column leaching experiments were performed to understand the leaching behaviour and the potential environmental risk of vanadium in a Panzhihua soil and vanadium titanomagnetite mine tailings. Results from sequential extraction experiments indicated that the mobility of vanadium in both the soil and the mine tailings was low, with <1% of the total vanadium readily mobilised. Column experiments revealed that only <0.1% of vanadium in the soil and mine tailing was leachable. The vanadium concentrations in the soil leachates did not vary considerably, but decreased with the leachate volume in the mine tailing leachates. This suggests that there was a smaller pool of leachable vanadium in the mine tailings compared to that in the soil. Drought and rewetting increased the vanadium concentrations in the soil and mine tailing leachates from 20 μg L{sup −1} to 50–90 μg L{sup −1}, indicating the potential for high vanadium release following periods of drought. Experiments with soil columns overlain with 4, 8 and 20% volume mine tailings/volume soil exhibited very similar vanadium leaching behaviour. These results suggest that the transport of vanadium to the subsurface is controlled primarily by the leaching processes occurring in soils.

  8. Exogenous origin of hydration on asteroid (16) Psyche: the role of hydrated asteroid families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdellidou, C.; Delbo', M.; Fienga, A.

    2018-04-01

    Asteroid (16) Psyche, which for a long time was the largest M-type with no detection of hydration features in its spectrum, was recently discovered to have a weak 3-μm band and thus it was eventually added to the group of hydrated asteroids. Its relatively high density, in combination with the high radar albedo, led researchers to classify the asteroid as a metallic object. It is believed that it is possibly a core of a differentiated body, a remnant of `hit-and-run' collisions. The detection of hydration is, in principle, inconsistent with a pure metallic origin for this body. Here, we consider the scenario in which the hydration on its surface is exogenous and was delivered by hydrated impactors. We show that impacting asteroids that belong to families whose members have the 3-μm band can deliver hydrated material to Psyche. We developed a collisional model with which we test all dark carbonaceous asteroid families, which contain hydrated members. We find that the major source of hydrated impactors is the family of Themis, with a total implanted mass on Psyche of the order of ˜1014 kg. However, the hydrated fraction could be only a few per cent of the implanted mass, as the water content in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, the best analogue for the Themis asteroid family, is typically a few per cent of their mass.

  9. Directed synthesis of bio-inorganic vanadium oxide composites using genetically modified filamentous phage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Michael; Baik, Seungyun [Environmental Safety Group, Korea Institute of Science and Technology Europe (KIST-Europe) Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Campus E 7 1, Saarbruecken (Germany); Jeon, Hojeong; Kim, Yuchan [Center for Biomaterials, Biomedical Research Institute Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Hwarangno 14-gil 5, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jungtae [Environmental Safety Group, Korea Institute of Science and Technology Europe (KIST-Europe) Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Campus E 7 1, Saarbruecken (Germany); Kim, Young Jun, E-mail: youngjunkim@kist-europe.de [Environmental Safety Group, Korea Institute of Science and Technology Europe (KIST-Europe) Forschungsgesellschaft mbH, Campus E 7 1, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Phage is an excellent seeding for bio-templates for environmentally benign vanadium oxide nanocomposite synthesis. • The synthesized bio-inorganic vanadium oxide showed photodegradation activities. • The fabricated wt phage/vanadium oxide composite exhibited bundle-like structure. • The fabricated RSTB-phage/vanadium oxide composite exhibited a ball with a fiber-like nanostructure. • The virus/vanadium oxide composite could be applied in photocatalysts, sensors and nanoelectronic applications. - Abstract: The growth of crystalline vanadium oxide using a filamentous bacteriophage template was investigated using sequential incubation in a V{sub 2}O{sub 5} precursor. Using the genetic modification of the bacteriophage, we displayed two cysteines that constrained the RSTB-1 peptide on the major coat protein P8, resulting in vanadium oxide crystallization. The phage-driven vanadium oxide crystals with different topologies, microstructures, photodegradation and vanadium oxide composites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), quartz microbalance and dissipation (QCM-D) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Non-specific electrostatic attraction between a wild-type phage (wt-phage) and vanadium cations in the V{sub 2}O{sub 5} precursor caused phage agglomeration and fiber formation along the length of the viral scaffold. As a result, the addition of recombinant phage (re-phage) in V{sub 2}O{sub 5} precursors formed heterogeneous structures, which led to efficient condensation of vanadium oxide crystal formation in lines, shown by QCM-D analysis. Furthermore, re-phage/V{sub x}O{sub x} composites showed significantly enhanced photodegradation activities compared with the synthesized wt-phage-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} composite under illumination. This study demonstrates that peptide-mediated vanadium oxide mineralization is governed by a complicated interplay of peptide sequence, local structure

  10. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donn McGuire; Steve Runyon; Richard Sigal; Bill Liddell; Thomas Williams; George Moridis

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. Hot Ice No. 1 was planned to test the Ugnu and West Sak sequences for gas hydrates and a concomitant free gas accumulation on Anadarko's 100% working interest acreage in section 30 of Township 9N, Range 8E of the Harrison Bay quadrangle of the North Slope of Alaska. The Ugnu and West Sak intervals are favorably positioned in the hydrate-stability zone over an area extending from Anadarko's acreage westward to the vicinity of the aforementioned gas-hydrate occurrences. This suggests that a large, north-to-south trending gas-hydrate accumulation may exist in that area. The presence of gas shows in the Ugnu and West Sak reservoirs in wells situated eastward and down dip of the Hot Ice location indicate that a free-gas accumulation may be trapped by gas hydrates. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was designed to core from the surface to the base of the West Sak interval using the

  11. Permeation of deuterium implanted into vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Longhurst, G.R.; Struttmann, D.A.

    1986-05-01

    Permeation of deuterium through the vanadium alloy, V-15Cr-5Ti, was investigated using 3-keV, D 3 + ion beams from a small accelerator. The experiments consisted of measurements of the deuterium reemission and permeation rates as a function of implantation fluence for 0.5-mm thick specimens heated to tempertures from 623 to 823 0 K. Implantation-side surface characterization was made by simultaneous measurements of sputtered ions with a secondary ion mass spectrometer (SIMS). Analyses of these measurements indicate that for the experimental conditions used, the steady-state deuterium permeation flux in V-15Cr-5Ti is approximately 18% of the implantation flux. This corresponds to approximately 1000 times that seen in the ferritic steel, HT-9, under comparable conditions. Measurement of deuterium diffusivity in V-15Cr-5Ti using permeation break-through times indicates D = 1.4 x 10 -8 exp(-.11 eV/kT) (m 2 /s)

  12. Analysis of molybdenum, tungsten, and vanadium in surface water of the Atlantic Ocean using solid phase extraction with 8-hydroxyquinoline and ICP MS determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimskaya-Korsakova, M. N.; Berezhnaya, E. D.; Dubinin, A. V.

    2017-07-01

    An analytical technique is proposed to determine ultratrace concentrations of Mo, V, and W found in seawater using mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP MS) after preliminary concentration by solid-phase extraction of metal complexes with 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) on C18 octadecyl silica. The technique utilizes 150 mL of a water sample. A preconcentration factor 50 is obtained. The detection limits are 0.25 nmol/kg, 0.041 nmol/kg, and 5 pmol/kg for Mo, V, and W, respectively. Dissolved Mo, V, and Wconcentrations in surface seawater from Atlantic Ocean transect were determined. The concentrations ranges along the transect were: 91-108 nmol/kg for Mo, 28-35 nmol/kg for V, and 55-75 pmol/kg for W. The Mo/W ratio varied from 1300 to 1800.

  13. Gas hydrate in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2018-01-17

    Gas hydrate is a naturally occurring, ice-like substance that forms when water and gas combine under high pressure and at moderate temperatures. Methane is the most common gas present in gas hydrate, although other gases may also be included in hydrate structures, particularly in areas close to conventional oil and gas reservoirs. Gas hydrate is widespread in ocean-bottom sediments at water depths greater than 300–500 meters (m; 984–1,640 feet [ft]) and is also present in areas with permanently frozen ground (permafrost). Several countries are evaluating gas hydrate as a possible energy resource in deepwater or permafrost settings. Gas hydrate is also under investigation to determine how environmental change may affect these deposits.

  14. Gas hydrate nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The overall aim of the project was to gain more knowledge about the kinetics of gas hydrate formation especially the early growth phase. Knowledge of kinetics of gas hydrate formation is important and measurements of gas hydrate particle size and concentration can contribute to improve this knowledge. An experimental setup for carrying out experimental studies of the nucleation and growth of gas hydrates has been constructed and tested. Multi wavelength extinction (MWE) was the experimental technique selected for obtaining particle diameter and concentration. The principle behind MWE is described as well as turbidity spectrum analysis that in an initial stage of the project was considered as an alternative experimental technique. Details of the experimental setup and its operation are outlined. The measuring cell consists of a 1 litre horizontal tube sustaining pressures up to 200 bar. Laser light for particle size determination can be applied through sapphire windows. A description of the various auxiliary equipment and of another gas hydrate cell used in the study are given. A computer program for simulation and analysis of gas hydrate experiments is based on the gas hydrate kinetics model proposed by Skovborg and Rasmussen (1993). Initial measurements showed that knowledge of the refractive index of gas hydrates was important in order to use MWE. An experimental determination of the refractive index of methane and natural gas hydrate is described. The test experiments performed with MWE on collectives of gas hydrate particles and experiments with ethane, methane and natural gas hydrate are discussed. Gas hydrate particles initially seem to grow mainly in size and at latter stages in number. (EG) EFP-94; 41 refs.

  15. Gas hydrate nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The overall aim of the project was to gain more knowledge about the kinetics of gas hydrate formation especially the early growth phase. Knowledge of kinetics of gas hydrate formation is important and measurements of gas hydrate particle size and concentration can contribute to improve this knowledge. An experimental setup for carrying out experimental studies of the nucleation and growth of gas hydrates has been constructed and tested. Multi wavelength extinction (MWE) was the experimental technique selected for obtaining particle diameter and concentration. The principle behind MWE is described as well as turbidity spectrum analysis that in an initial stage of the project was considered as an alternative experimental technique. Details of the experimental setup and its operation are outlined. The measuring cell consists of a 1 litre horizontal tube sustaining pressures up to 200 bar. Laser light for particle size determination can be applied through sapphire windows. A description of the various auxiliary equipment and of another gas hydrate cell used in the study are given. A computer program for simulation and analysis of gas hydrate experiments is based on the gas hydrate kinetics model proposed by Skovborg and Rasmussen (1993). Initial measurements showed that knowledge of the refractive index of gas hydrates was important in order to use MWE. An experimental determination of the refractive index of methane and natural gas hydrate is described. The test experiments performed with MWE on collectives of gas hydrate particles and experiments with ethane, methane and natural gas hydrate are discussed. Gas hydrate particles initially seem to grow mainly in size and at latter stages in number. (EG) EFP-94; 41 refs.

  16. Investigation of structural, morphological and electrical properties of APCVD vanadium oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadimitropoulos, Georgios; Trantalidis, Stelios; Tsiatouras, Athanasios; Vasilopoulou, Maria; Davazoglou, Dimitrios; Kostis, Ioannis

    2015-01-01

    Vanadium oxide films were chemically vapor deposited (CVD) on oxidized Si substrates covered with CVD tungsten (W) thin films and on glass substrates covered with indium tin oxide (ITO) films, using vanadium(V) oxy-tri-isopropoxide (C 9 H 21 O 4 V) vapors. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements showed that the deposited films were composed of a mixture of vanadium oxides; the composition was determined mainly by the deposition temperature and less by the precursor temperature. At temperatures up to 450 C the films were mostly composed by monoclinic VO 2 . Other peaks corresponding to various vanadium oxides were also observed. X-ray microanalysis confirmed the composition of the films. The surface morphology was studied with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These measurements revealed that the morphology strongly depends on the used substrate and the deposition conditions. The well-known metal-insulator transition was observed near 75 C for films mostly composed by monoclinic VO 2 . Films deposited at 450 C exhibited two transitions one near 50 C and the other near 60 C possibly related to the presence of other vanadium phases or of important stresses in them. Finally, the vanadium oxide thin films exhibited significant sensory capabilities decreasing their resistance in the presence of hydrogen gas with response times in the order of a few seconds and working temperature at 40 C. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Sol-gel growth of vanadium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speck, K.R.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis examines the chemical reactivity of vanadium (IV) tetrakis(t-butoxide) as a precursor for the sol-gel synthesis of vanadium dioxide. Hydrolysis and condensation of the alkoxide was studied by FTIR spectroscopy. Chemical modification of the vanadium tetraalkoxide by alcohol interchange was studied using 51 V NMR and FTIR. Vanadium dioxide thin films and powders were made from vanadium tetrakis(t-butoxide) by standard sol-gel techniques. Post-deposition heating under nitrogen was necessary to transform amorphous gels into vanadium dioxide. Crystallization of films and powders was studied by FTIR, DSC, TGA, and XRD. Gel-derived vanadium dioxide films undergo a reversible semiconductor-to-metal phase transition near 68C, exhibiting characteristic resistive and spectral changes. The electrical resistance decreased by two to three orders of magnitude and the infrared transmission sharply dropped as the material was cycled through this thermally induced phase transition. The sol-gel method was also used to make doped vanadium dioxide films. Films were doped with tungsten and molybdenum ions to effectively lower the temperature at which the transition occurs

  18. Methane hydrate stability and anthropogenic climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Archer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Methane frozen into hydrate makes up a large reservoir of potentially volatile carbon below the sea floor and associated with permafrost soils. This reservoir intuitively seems precarious, because hydrate ice floats in water, and melts at Earth surface conditions. The hydrate reservoir is so large that if 10% of the methane were released to the atmosphere within a few years, it would have an impact on the Earth's radiation budget equivalent to a factor of 10 increase in atmospheric CO2.

    Hydrates are releasing methane to the atmosphere today in response to anthropogenic warming, for example along the Arctic coastline of Siberia. However most of the hydrates are located at depths in soils and ocean sediments where anthropogenic warming and any possible methane release will take place over time scales of millennia. Individual catastrophic releases like landslides and pockmark explosions are too small to reach a sizable fraction of the hydrates. The carbon isotopic excursion at the end of the Paleocene has been interpreted as the release of thousands of Gton C, possibly from hydrates, but the time scale of the release appears to have been thousands of years, chronic rather than catastrophic.

    The potential climate impact in the coming century from hydrate methane release is speculative but could be comparable to climate feedbacks from the terrestrial biosphere and from peat, significant but not catastrophic. On geologic timescales, it is conceivable that hydrates could release as much carbon to the atmosphere/ocean system as we do by fossil fuel combustion.

  19. Peculiarities of powder metallurgy of vanadium and its alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radomysel'skij, I.D.; Solntsev, V.P.; Evtushenko, O.V.

    1987-01-01

    Literature data on preparation of vanadium powder and powder materials on the vanadium base are generalized. Application of powder metallurgy engineering, allowing simulaneously to introduce practically any strengthening and solid-lubricating components as well as to alloy vanadium, permits undoubtedly to develop composite materials on the vanadium base

  20. Tritium removal using vanadium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, F.B.; Wong, Y.W.; Chan, Y.N.

    1978-01-01

    The results of an initial examination of the feasibility of separation of tritium from gaseous protium-tritium mixtures using vanadium hydride in cyclic processes is reported. Interest was drawn to the vanadium-hydrogen system because of the so-called inverse isotope effect exhibited by this system. Thus the tritide is more stable than the protide, a fact which makes the system attractive for removal of tritium from a mixture in which the light isotope predominates. The initial results of three phases of the research program are reported, dealing with studies of the equilibrium and kinetics properties of isotope exchange, development of an equilibrium theory of isotope separation via heatless adsorption, and experiments on the performance of a single heatless adsorption stage. In the equilibrium and kinetics studies, measurements were made of pressure-composition isotherms, the HT--H 2 separation factors and rates of HT--H 2 exchange. This information was used to evaluate constants in the theory and to understand the performance of the heatless adsorption experiments. A recently developed equilibrium theory of heatless adsorption was applied to the HT--H 2 separation using vanadium hydride. Using the theory it was predicted that no separation would occur by pressure cycling wholly within the β phase but that separation would occur by cycling between the β and γ phases and using high purge-to-feed ratios. Heatless adsorption experiments conducted within the β phase led to inverse separations rather than no separation. A kinetic isotope effect may be responsible. Cycling between the β and γ phases led to separation but not to the predicted complete removal of HT from the product stream, possibly because of finite rates of exchange. Further experimental and theoretical work is suggested which may ultimately make possible assessment of the feasibility and practicability of hydrogen isotope separation by this approach

  1. Obsidian hydration profiles measured by sputter-induced optical emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsong, I S; Houser, C A; Yusef, N A; Messier, R F; White, W B; Michels, J W

    1978-07-28

    The variation of concentrations of hydrogen, sodium, potassium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, silicon, and aluminum as a function of depth in the hydration layer of obsidian artifacts has been determined by sputter-induced optical emission. The surface hydration is accompanied by dealkalization, and there is a buildup of alkaline earths, calcium and magnesium in the outermost layers. These results have clarified the phenomena underlying the obsidian hydration dating technique.

  2. LABORATORY STRATEGIES FOR HYDRATE FORMATION IN FINE-GRAINED SEDIMENTS

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, L.; Santamarina, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Fine‐grained sediments limit hydrate nucleation, shift the phase boundary and hinder gas supply. Laboratory experiments in this study explore different strategies to overcome these challenges, including the use of a more soluble guest molecule rather than methane, grain‐scale gas‐storage within porous diatoms, ice‐to‐hydrate transformation to grow lenses at predefined locations, forced gas injection into water saturated sediments, and long‐term guest molecule transport. Tomographic images, thermal and pressure data provide rich information on hydrate formation and morphology. Results show that hydrate formation is inherently displacive in fine‐grained sediments; lenses are thicker and closer to each other in compressible, high specific surface area sediments subjected to low effective stress. Temperature and pressure trajectories follow a shifted phase boundary that is consistent with capillary effects. Exo‐pore growth results in freshly formed hydrate with a striped and porous structure; this open structure becomes an effective pathway for gas transport to the growing hydrate front. Ice‐to‐hydrate transformation goes through a liquid stage at pre‐melt temperatures; then, capillarity and cryogenic suction compete, and some water becomes imbibed into the sediment faster than hydrate reformation. The geometry of hydrate lenses and the internal hydrate structure continue evolving long after the exothermal response to hydrate formation has completely decayed. Multiple time‐dependent processes occur during hydrate formation, including gas, water and heat transport, sediment compressibility, reaction rate and the stochastic nucleation process. Hydrate formation strategies conceived for this study highlight the inherent difficulties in emulating hydrate formation in fine‐grained sediments within the relatively short time‐scale available for laboratory experiments.

  3. LABORATORY STRATEGIES FOR HYDRATE FORMATION IN FINE-GRAINED SEDIMENTS

    KAUST Repository

    Lei, L.

    2018-04-02

    Fine‐grained sediments limit hydrate nucleation, shift the phase boundary and hinder gas supply. Laboratory experiments in this study explore different strategies to overcome these challenges, including the use of a more soluble guest molecule rather than methane, grain‐scale gas‐storage within porous diatoms, ice‐to‐hydrate transformation to grow lenses at predefined locations, forced gas injection into water saturated sediments, and long‐term guest molecule transport. Tomographic images, thermal and pressure data provide rich information on hydrate formation and morphology. Results show that hydrate formation is inherently displacive in fine‐grained sediments; lenses are thicker and closer to each other in compressible, high specific surface area sediments subjected to low effective stress. Temperature and pressure trajectories follow a shifted phase boundary that is consistent with capillary effects. Exo‐pore growth results in freshly formed hydrate with a striped and porous structure; this open structure becomes an effective pathway for gas transport to the growing hydrate front. Ice‐to‐hydrate transformation goes through a liquid stage at pre‐melt temperatures; then, capillarity and cryogenic suction compete, and some water becomes imbibed into the sediment faster than hydrate reformation. The geometry of hydrate lenses and the internal hydrate structure continue evolving long after the exothermal response to hydrate formation has completely decayed. Multiple time‐dependent processes occur during hydrate formation, including gas, water and heat transport, sediment compressibility, reaction rate and the stochastic nucleation process. Hydrate formation strategies conceived for this study highlight the inherent difficulties in emulating hydrate formation in fine‐grained sediments within the relatively short time‐scale available for laboratory experiments.

  4. Absorption of hydrogen in vanadium, enhanced by ion bombardment; Ionenbeschussunterstuetzte Absorption des Wasserstoffs in Vanadium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, H.; Lammers, M. [Inst. fuer Technologie- und Wissenstransfer, Soest (Germany); Mueller, K.H. [Inst. fuer Technologie- und Wissenstransfer, Soest (Germany)]|[Paderborn Univ. (Gesamthochschule), Soest (Germany). Fachbereich 16 - Elektrische Energietechnik; Kiss, G.; Kemeny, Z. [Technical Univ. Budapest (Hungary)

    1998-12-31

    Prior to hydrogen implantation into vanadium, the vanadium specimen usually is exposed to an activation process and is then heated at 1 atm hydrogen to temperatures between 500 and 600 C, subsequently cooled down in several steps. Within this temperature range, hydrogen solubility increases with declining temperature. A decisive factor determining hydrogen absorption is the fact that at temperatures above 250 C, oxygen desorbs from the material surface and thus no longer inhibits hydrogen absorption. Therefore a different approach was chosen for the experiments reported: Hydrogen absorption under UHV conditions at room temperature. After the usual activation process, the vanadium surface was cleaned by 5 keV Ar{sup +} ion bombardment. Thus oxygen absorption at the specimen surface (and new reactions with oxygen from the remaining gas) could be avoided, or removed. By means of thermal desorption mass spectrometry (TDMS), hydrogen absorption as a function of argon ion dose was analysed. TDMS measurements performed for specimens treated by ion bombardment prior to H{sup 2} exposure showed two H{sup 2} desorption peaks, in contrast to the profiles measured with specimens not exposed to ion bombardment. It is assumed that the ion bombardment disturbs the crystal structure so that further sites for hydrogen absorption are produced. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Bei der Beladung von Vandium mit Wasserstoff wird ueblicherweise die Probe nach einer Aktivierungsprozedur bei 1 atm Wasserstoff auf Temperaturen im Bereich von 500 bis 600 C hochgeheizt und danach schrittweise abgekuehlt. In diesem Temperaturbereich nimmt die Wasserstoffloeslichkeit mit abnehmender Temperatur zu. Entscheidend fuer die Beladung ist aber auch die Tatsache, dass bei Temperaturen groesser 250 C Sauerstoff von der Oberflaeche desorbiert und dadurch die Absorption von Wasserstoff nicht mehr blockieren kann. Im Rahmen der hier beschriebenen Untersuchungen sollte die Wasserstoffbeladung unter UHV-Bedingungen bei

  5. Skin physiology in men and women: in vivo evaluation of 300 people including TEWL, SC hydration, sebum content and skin surface pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebberding, S; Krueger, N; Kerscher, M

    2013-10-01

    Evidence is given that differences in skin physiological properties exist between men and women. However, despite an assessable number of available publications, the results are still inconsistent. Therefore, the aim of this clinical study is the first systematic assessment of gender-related differences in skin physiology in men and women, with a special focus on changes over lifetime. A total of 300 healthy male and female subjects (20-74 years) were selected following strict criteria including age, sun behaviour or smoking habits. TEWL, hydration level, sebum production and pH value were measured with worldwide-acknowledged biophysical measuring methods at forehead, cheek, neck, volar forearm and dorsum of hand. Until the age of 50 men's TEWL is significantly lower than the water loss of women of the same age, regardless of the location. With ageing gender-related differences in TEWL assimilate. Young men show higher SC hydration in comparison with women. But, whereas SC hydration is stable or even increasing in women over lifetime, the skin hydration in men is progressively decreasing, beginning at the age of 40. Sebum production in male skin is always higher and stays stable with increasing age, whereas sebum production in women progressively decreases over lifetime. Across all localizations and age groups, the pH value in men is below 5, the pH value of female subjects is, aside from limited expectations, higher than 5. Skin physiological distinctions between the sexes exist and are particularly remarkable with regard to sebum production and pH value. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  6. Methods for making lithium vanadium oxide electrode materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutts, Scott M.; Kinney, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    A method of making vanadium oxide formulations is presented. In one method of preparing lithium vanadium oxide for use as an electrode material, the method involves: admixing a particulate form of a lithium compound and a particulate form of a vanadium compound; jet milling the particulate admixture of the lithium and vanadium compounds; and heating the jet milled particulate admixture at a temperature below the melting temperature of the admixture to form lithium vanadium oxide.

  7. Hydration rate of obsidian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, I; Long, W

    1976-01-30

    The hydration rates of 12 obsidian samples of different chemical compositions were measured at temperatures from 95 degrees to 245 degrees C. An expression relating hydration rate to temperature was derived for each sample. The SiO(2) content and refractive index are related to the hydration rate, as are the CaO, MgO, and original water contents. With this information it is possible to calculate the hydration rate of a sample from its silica content, refractive index, or chemical index and a knowledge of the effective temperature at which the hydration occurred. The effective hydration temperature can be either measured or approximated from weather records. Rates have been calculated by both methods, and the results show that weather records can give a good approximation to the true EHT, particularly in tropical and subtropical climates. If one determines the EHT by any of the methods suggested, and also measures or knows the rate of hydration of the particular obsidian used, it should be possible to carry out absolute dating to +/- 10 percent of the true age over periods as short as several years and as long as millions of years.

  8. Effect of Gemini-type surfactant on methane hydrate formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, K.E.; Park, J.M.; Kim, C.U.; Chae, H.J.; Jeong, S.Y. [Korea Research Inst. of Chemical Technology, Jang-Dong, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Natural gas hydrates are formed from water and natural gas molecules at particular temperatures and pressures that become ice-like inclusion compounds. Gas hydrates offer several benefits such as energy resource potential and high storage capacity of natural gas in the form of hydrates. However, the application of natural gas hydrates has been deterred by its low formation rate and low conversion ratio of water into hydrate resulting in low actual storage capacity. This paper presented an experimental study to determine the effect of adding a novel Gemini-type surfactant on methane hydrate formation. The experimental study was described with reference to the properties of prepared diols and properties of prepared disulfonates. Gemini surfactant is the family of surfactant molecules possessing more than one hydrophobic tail and hydrophilic head group. They generally have better surface-active properties than conventional surfactants of equal chain length. The paper presented the results of the study in terms of the reactions of diols with propane sultone; storage capacity of hydrate formed with and without surfactant; and methane hydrate formation with and without disulfonate. It was concluded that the methane hydrate formation was accelerated by the addition of novel anionic Gemini-type surfactants and that hydrate formation was influenced by the surfactant concentration and alkyl chain length. For a given concentration, the surfactant with the highest chain length demonstrated the highest formation rate and storage capacity. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  9. Stress induced reorientation of vanadium hydride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsley, M.B.

    1977-10-01

    The critical stress for the reorientation of vanadium hydride was determined for the temperature range 180 0 to 280 0 K using flat tensile samples containing 50 to 500 ppM hydrogen by weight. The critical stress was observed to vary from a half to a third of the macroscopic yield stress of pure vanadium over the temperature range. The vanadium hydride could not be stress induced to precipitate above its stress-free precipitation temperature by uniaxial tensile stresses or triaxial tensile stresses induced by a notch

  10. Methane Hydrates: Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Ray; Yamamoto, Koji; Lee, Sung-Rock; Collett, Timothy S.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Dallimore, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Gas hydrate is a solid, naturally occurring substance consisting predominantly of methane gas and water. Recent scientific drilling programs in Japan, Canada, the United States, Korea and India have demonstrated that gas hydrate occurs broadly and in a variety of forms in shallow sediments of the outer continental shelves and in Arctic regions. Field, laboratory and numerical modelling studies conducted to date indicate that gas can be extracted from gas hydrates with existing production technologies, particularly for those deposits in which the gas hydrate exists as pore-filling grains at high saturation in sand-rich reservoirs. A series of regional resource assessments indicate that substantial volumes of gas hydrate likely exist in sand-rich deposits. Recent field programs in Japan, Canada and in the United States have demonstrated the technical viability of methane extraction from gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs and have investigated a range of potential production scenarios. At present, basic reservoir depressurisation shows the greatest promise and can be conducted using primarily standard industry equipment and procedures. Depressurisation is expected to be the foundation of future production systems; additional processes, such as thermal stimulation, mechanical stimulation and chemical injection, will likely also be integrated as dictated by local geological and other conditions. An innovative carbon dioxide and methane swapping technology is also being studied as a method to produce gas from select gas hydrate deposits. In addition, substantial additional volumes of gas hydrate have been found in dense arrays of grain-displacing veins and nodules in fine-grained, clay-dominated sediments; however, to date, no field tests, and very limited numerical modelling, have been conducted with regard to the production potential of such accumulations. Work remains to further refine: (1) the marine resource volumes within potential accumulations that can be

  11. A vanadium alloy for the application in a liquid metal blanket of a fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgstedt, H. U.; Grundmann, M.; Konys, J.; Perić, Z.

    1988-07-01

    The vanadium alloy V3Ti1Si has been corrosion tested in liquid lithium and the eutectic alloy Pb-17Li at 550°C. This alloy has a comparable corrosion resistance to the alloy V15Cr5Ti in lithium. In this molten metal it is superior to stainless steel AISI 316. In the Pb-17Li melt it is even superior to martensitic steels. The alloy has only a weak tendency to be dissolved. It is sensitive to an exchange of non-metallic elements, which causes the formation of a hardened surface layer. These chemical effects are influenced by the mass and surface ratios of the vanadium alloy to the molten metals and other structural materials. These ratios are unfavorable in the two test loops. The effects might be less pronounced in a vanadium alloy/liquid metal fusion reactor blanket.

  12. Raman studies of methane-ethane hydrate metastability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroshi; Strobel, Timothy A; Dec, Steven F; Sloan, E Dendy; Koh, Carolyn A

    2009-03-05

    The interconversion of methane-ethane hydrate from metastable to stable structures was studied using Raman spectroscopy. sI and sII hydrates were synthesized from methane-ethane gas mixtures of 65% or 93% methane in ethane and water, both with and without the kinetic hydrate inhibitor, poly(N-vinylcaprolactam). The observed faster structural conversion rate in the higher methane concentration atmosphere can be explained in terms of the differences in driving force (difference in chemical potential of water in sI and sII hydrates) and kinetics (mass transfer of gas and water rearrangement). The kinetic hydrate inhibitor increased the conversion rate at 65% methane in ethane (sI is thermodynamically stable) but retards the rate at 93% methane in ethane (sII is thermodynamically stable), implying there is a complex interaction between the polymer, water, and hydrate guests at crystal surfaces.

  13. Vanadium Bioleaching Behavior by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans from a Vanadium-Bearing Shale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunpei Wei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated bioleaching behavior of vanadium from a vanadium-bearing shale using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. ferrooxidans. Results showed a maximum recovery of 62% vanadium in 1.2-day bioleaching, which was 22.45% higher than the controls. Then, the vanadium leaching efficiency decreased significantly, only 24% of that was obtained on the tenth day. The vanadium extraction in 1.2 days was mainly attributed to the dissolution of vanadium in free oxides of shale. Fe3+ produced by A. ferrooxidans promoted the dissolution process. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns of the leached residues confirmed the generation of jarosite. SEM-EDS analysis of the residues indicated that jarosite adsorbed on the shale and inhibited the further dissolution of vanadium. The relevance of V, Fe, S, O was quite good in the energy disperse X-ray spectrometry (EDS element mapping of jarosite, and acid-washing of the jarosite resulted in 31.6% of the vanadium in the precipitates desorption, indicating that the decrease of vanadium leaching efficiency in bioleaching process was caused by both adsorption and co-precipitation with jarosite.

  14. Vanadium carbide coatings: deposition process and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borisova, A.; Borisov, Y.; Shavlovsky, E.; Mits, I.; Castermans, L.; Jongbloed, R.

    2001-01-01

    Vanadium carbide coatings on carbon and alloyed steels were produced by the method of diffusion saturation from the borax melt. Thickness of the vanadium carbide layer was 5-15 μm, depending upon the steel grade and diffusion saturation parameters. Microhardness was 20000-28000 MPa and wear resistance of the coatings under conditions of end face friction without lubrication against a mating body of WC-2Co was 15-20 times as high as that of boride coatings. Vanadium carbide coatings can operate in air at a temperature of up to 400 o C. They improve fatigue strength of carbon steels and decrease the rate of corrosion in sea and fresh water and in acid solutions. The use of vanadium carbide coatings for hardening of various types of tools, including cutting tools, allows their service life to be extended by a factor of 3 to 30. (author)

  15. High temperature creep of vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, A.; Kovacs, I.

    1978-01-01

    The creep behaviour of polycrystalline vanadium of 99.7% purity has been investigated in the temperature range 790-880 0 C in a high temperature microscope. It was found that the creep properties depend strongly on the history of the sample. To take this fact into account some additional properties such as the dependence of the yield stress and the microhardness on the pre-annealing treatment have also been studied. Samples used in creep measurements were selected on the basis of their microhardness. The activation energy of creep depends on the microhardness and on the creep temperature. In samples annealed at 1250 0 C for one hour (HV=160 kgf mm -2 ) the rate of creep is controlled by vacancy diffusion in the temperature range 820-880 0 C with an activation energy of 78+-8 kcal mol -1 . (Auth.)

  16. Volume dependence of vanadium magnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzain, M.E.

    1993-07-01

    The first principle discrete variational method in the spin polarized local density approximation is used to calculate the local properties of 15 atom clusters representing variable crystal size bcc vanadium. Four distinct magnetic configurations are recognized as the lattice constant varies from 5.4 to 8.4 (a.u.). At the lowest end the clusters are paramagnetic (PM) whereas at the upper end clusters are ferromagnetic (FM). In between antiferromagnetic couplings prevail. The local magnetic moment increases, in a fashion not unlike second order transitions, from zero in the PM range to non-zero values in the AFM region. Transitions between other phases are first order. The systematics of these transitions are ascribed to the general shape of the density of states. The contact magnetic hyperfine field, charge density and 3d partial occupations at the central sites are also calculated. (author). 14 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  17. Fatigue of vanadium--hydrogen alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.S.; Stoloff, N.S.

    1975-01-01

    Hydrogen contents near and above the room temperature solubility limit increase the high cycle fatigue life but decrease low cycle life of polycrystalline vanadium. Changes in endurance limit with hydrides may be a consequence of decreased cyclic strain hardening coefficient, n'. 132 ppM hydrogen in solution has only a slightly beneficial effect on stress controlled fatigue life and essentially no effect on low cycle fatigue life. Unalloyed vanadium exhibits profuse striations, while hydrides produce cleavage cracks in fatigued samples. 10 fig

  18. Electrochemical Oscillation of Vanadium Ions in Anolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Peng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Periodic electrochemical oscillation of the anolyte was reported for the first time in a simulated charging process of the vanadium redox flow batteries. The electrochemical oscillation could be explained in terms of the competition between the growth and the chemical dissolution of V2O5 film. Also, the oscillation phenomenon was possible to regular extra power consumption. The results of this paper might enable new methods to improve the charge efficiency and energy saving for vanadium redox flow batteries.

  19. Fabrication of vanadium cans for neutron diffraction experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chin man; Baik, Sung Hoon; Park, Sun Kyu

    1999-12-01

    The laser weld technique of vanadium developed to experiment for neutron diffraction of HANARO. The demands for this laser welding technique were applied to process control in vanadium film welding and to fabricate various sizing vanadium cans. The vanadium can had a advantage to have less coherent in neutron. KAERI developed the fabrication jig of 6-12 mm diameter cans using 0.125 mm vanadium thin film, and investigated the laser welding procedure for making the various diameter and length of vanadium cans using the fabricated jigs and Nd:YAG laser. (author)

  20. Corrosion resistance investigation of vanadium alloys in liquid lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovitskaya, I. V., E-mail: symp@imet.ac.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science (Russian Federation); Lyublinskiy, I. E. [JSC Red Star (Russian Federation); Bondarenko, G. G. [National Research University Higher School of Economics (Russian Federation); Paramonova, V. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science (Russian Federation); Korshunov, S. N.; Mansurova, A. N. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Lyakhovitskiy, M. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science (Russian Federation); Zharkov, M. Yu. [JSC Red Star (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    A major concern in using vanadium alloys for first wall/blanket systems in fusion reactors is their activity with regard to nonmetallic impurities in the coolants. This paper presents the results of studying the corrosion resistance in high-purity liquid lithium (with the nitrogen and carbon content of less than 10{sup –3} wt %) of vanadium and vanadium alloys (V–1.86Ga, V–3.4Ga–0.62Si, V–4.81Ti–4.82Cr) both in the initial state and preliminarily irradiated with Ar+ ions with energy of 20 keV to a dose of 10{sup 22} m{sup –2} at an irradiation temperature of ~400°C. The degree of corrosion was estimated by measuring the changes in the weight and microhardness. Corrosion tests were carried out under static isothermal conditions at a temperature of 600°C for 400 h. The identity of corrosion mechanisms of materials both irradiated with Ar ions and not irradiated, which consisted in an insignificant penetration of nitrogen into the materials and a substantial escape of oxygen from the materials, causing the formation of a zone with a reduced microhardness near the surface, was established. The influence of the corrosive action of lithium on the surface morphology of the materials under study was found, resulting in the manifestation of grain boundaries and slip lines on the sample surface, the latter being most clearly observed in the case of preliminary irradiation with Ar ions.

  1. Improved capacitance characteristics of electrospun ACFs by pore size control and vanadium catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Ji Sun; Woo, Sang-Wook; Jung, Min-Jung; Lee, Young-Seak

    2008-11-01

    Nano-sized carbon fibers were prepared by using electrospinning, and their electrochemical properties were investigated as a possible electrode material for use as an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC). To improve the electrode capacitance of EDLC, we implemented a three-step optimization. First, metal catalyst was introduced into the carbon fibers due to the excellent conductivity of metal. Vanadium pentoxide was used because it could be converted to vanadium for improved conductivity as the pore structure develops during the carbonization step. Vanadium catalyst was well dispersed in the carbon fibers, improving the capacitance of the electrode. Second, pore-size development was manipulated to obtain small mesopore sizes ranging from 2 to 5 nm. Through chemical activation, carbon fibers with controlled pore sizes were prepared with a high specific surface and pore volume, and their pore structure was investigated by using a BET apparatus. Finally, polyacrylonitrile was used as a carbon precursor to enrich for nitrogen content in the final product because nitrogen is known to improve electrode capacitance. Ultimately, the electrospun activated carbon fibers containing vanadium show improved functionality in charge/discharge, cyclic voltammetry, and specific capacitance compared with other samples because of an optimal combination of vanadium, nitrogen, and fixed pore structures.

  2. Influence of vanadium oxidation states on the performance of V-Mg-Al mixed-oxide catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schacht, L.; Navarrete, J.; Schacht, P.; Ramirez, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    V-Mg-Al mixed-oxide catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane were prepared by thermal decomposition of Mg-Al-layered double hydroxides with vanadium interlayer doping. The obtained catalysts were tested for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane, obtaining good results in catalytic activity (conversion 16.55 % and selectivity 99.97 %) Results indicated that catalytic performance of these materials depends on how vanadium is integrated in the layered structure, which is determined by the Mg/Al ratio. Vanadium interlayer doping modifies the oxidation state of vanadium and consequently catalytic properties. Surface properties were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and diffuse reflectance, UV-visible spectroscopy, and temperature programmed reduction. The analyses provided information about the oxidation state, before and after the reaction. From these results, it is suggested that selectivity to propylene and catalytic activity depend mainly of vanadium oxidation state. (Author)

  3. Influence of vanadium oxidation states on the performance of V-Mg-Al mixed-oxide catalysts for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schacht, L. [IPN, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, Av. IPN s/n, Edificio 9, Col. Lindavista, 07738 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Navarrete, J.; Schacht, P.; Ramirez, M. A., E-mail: pschacha@imp.m [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas No. 152, 07730 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    V-Mg-Al mixed-oxide catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane were prepared by thermal decomposition of Mg-Al-layered double hydroxides with vanadium interlayer doping. The obtained catalysts were tested for the oxidative dehydrogenation of propane, obtaining good results in catalytic activity (conversion 16.55 % and selectivity 99.97 %) Results indicated that catalytic performance of these materials depends on how vanadium is integrated in the layered structure, which is determined by the Mg/Al ratio. Vanadium interlayer doping modifies the oxidation state of vanadium and consequently catalytic properties. Surface properties were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and diffuse reflectance, UV-visible spectroscopy, and temperature programmed reduction. The analyses provided information about the oxidation state, before and after the reaction. From these results, it is suggested that selectivity to propylene and catalytic activity depend mainly of vanadium oxidation state. (Author)

  4. Impact of welan gum on tricalcium aluminate–gypsum hydration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Lei; Zhao Qinglin; Yao Chukang; Zhou Mingkai

    2012-01-01

    The retarding effect of welan gum on tricalcium aluminate–gypsum hydration, as a partial system of ordinary Portland cement (OPC) hydration, was investigated with several methods. The tricalcium aluminate–gypsum hydration behavior in the presence or absence of welan gum was researched by field emission gun scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and zeta potential analysis. Meanwhile, we studied the surface electrochemical properties and adsorption characteristics of welan gum by utilizing a zeta potential analyzer and UV–VIS absorption spectrophotometer. By adding welan gum, the morphology change of ettringite and retardation of hydration stages in tricalcium aluminate–gypsum system was observed. Moreover, we detected the adsorption behavior and zeta potential inversion of tricalcium aluminate and ettringite, as well as a rapid decrease in the zeta potential of tricalcium aluminate–gypsum system. The reduction on nucleation rate of ettringite and hydration activity of C 3 A was also demonstrated. Thus, through the adsorption effect, welan gum induces a retarding behavior in tricalcium aluminate–gypsum hydration. Highlights: ► Adsorption characteristics of welan gum on C 3 A and ettringite have been studied. ► C 3 A–gypsum hydration behavior and the hydration products are examined in L/S = 3. ► Welan gum retards the process of C 3 A–gypsum hydration. ► The addition of welan gum changes the nucleation growth of ettringite.

  5. Formation of electrically insulating coatings on aluminided vanadium-base alloys in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Dragel, G.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminide coatings were produced on vanadium and vanadium-base alloys by exposure of the materials to liquid lithium that contained 3-5 at.% dissolved aluminum in sealed capsules at temperatures between 775 and 880 degrees C. Reaction of the aluminide layer with dissolved nitrogen in liquid lithium provides a means of developing an in-situ electrical insulator coating on the surface of the alloys. The electrical resistivity of A1N coatings on aluminided V and V-20 wt.% Ti was determined in-situ

  6. [Laser Raman Spectroscopy and Its Application in Gas Hydrate Studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Juan; Wu, Neng-you; Lu, Hai-long; Wu, Dai-dai; Su, Qiu-cheng

    2015-11-01

    Gas hydrates are important potential energy resources. Microstructural characterization of gas hydrate can provide information to study the mechanism of gas hydrate formation and to support the exploitation and application of gas hydrate technology. This article systemly introduces the basic principle of laser Raman spectroscopy and summarizes its application in gas hydrate studies. Based on Raman results, not only can the information about gas composition and structural type be deduced, but also the occupancies of large and small cages and even hydration number can be calculated from the relative intensities of Raman peaks. By using the in-situ analytical technology, laser Raman specstropy can be applied to characterize the formation and decomposition processes of gas hydrate at microscale, for example the enclathration and leaving of gas molecules into/from its cages, to monitor the changes in gas concentration and gas solubility during hydrate formation and decomposition, and to identify phase changes in the study system. Laser Raman in-situ analytical technology has also been used in determination of hydrate structure and understanding its changing process under the conditions of ultra high pressure. Deep-sea in-situ Raman spectrometer can be employed for the in-situ analysis of the structures of natural gas hydrate and their formation environment. Raman imaging technology can be applied to specify the characteristics of crystallization and gas distribution over hydrate surface. With the development of laser Raman technology and its combination with other instruments, it will become more powerful and play a more significant role in the microscopic study of gas hydrate.

  7. Vacancy distribution in nonstoichiometric vanadium monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusev, A.I.; Davydov, D.A.; Valeeva, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: → A certain fraction of vanadium atoms in disordered cubic vanadium monoxide VO y and ordered tetragonal phase V 52 O 64 is located in tetrahedral positions of a basic cubic lattice. → These positions are never occupied by any atoms in other strongly nonstoichiometric carbides, nitrides and oxides. → Both disordered and ordered structures of vanadium monoxide are characterized by the presence of short-range order of displacements in the oxygen sublattice and short-range order of substitution in the metal sublattice. → The short-range order of displacement is caused by the local displacements of O atoms from V (t) atoms occupying tetrahedral positions. The short-range order of substitution appears because V (t) atoms in the tetrahedral positions are always in the environment of four vacancies □ of the vanadium sublattice. - Abstract: Structural vacancy distribution in the crystal lattice of the tetragonal V 52 O 64 superstructure which is formed on the basis of disordered superstoichiometric cubic vanadium monoxide VO y ≡V x O z is experimentally determined and the presence of significant local atomic displacements and large local microstrains in a crystal lattice of real ordered phase is established. It is shown that the relaxation of local microstrains takes place owing to the basic disordered cubic phase grain refinement and a formation of ordered phase domains. The ordered phase domains grow in the direction from the boundaries to the centre of grains of the disordered basic cubic phase. Isothermal evolution at 970 K of the average domain size in ordered VO 1.29 vanadium monoxide is established. It is shown that the short-range order presents in a metal sublattice of disordered cubic VO y vanadium monoxide. The character of the short-range order is such that vanadium atoms occupying tetrahedral positions are in the environment of four vacant sites of the vanadium sublattice. This means that the

  8. APS- and XPS-investigations of vanadium, vanadium carbide and graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradshaw, A M; Krause, U [Technische Univ. Muenchen (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie und Theoretische Chemie

    1975-11-01

    Soft X-ray appearance potential spectroscopy (APS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to study vanadium, vanadium carbide, and graphite. The chemical shifts for vanadium carbide with respect to metallic vanadium and graphite are compared for the two methods. The Csub(K) structure in APS and the valence band in XPS for vanadium carbide show good agreement with the band structure calculations of Neckel and co-workers. Using the band structure calculations of Painter et al. it is also shown how the multi-peak structure in the APS spectrum of graphite is possibly due to density of states effects. It would therefore appear that plasmon coupling plays only a minor role.

  9. NEXAFS characterization and reactivity studies of bimetallic vanadium molybdenum oxynitride hydrotreating catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoor, R.; Oyama, S.T. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Fruehberger, B.; Chen, J.G. [Exxon Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States)

    1997-02-27

    The surface and bulk compositions of vanadium molybdenum oxynitride (V{sub 2}MoO{sub 1.7}N{sub 2.4}), prepared by temperature-programmed reaction (TPR) of vanadium molybdenum oxide (V{sub 2}MoO{sub 8}) with ammonia, have been characterized using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. The NEXAFS data were recorded at the K-edges of nitrogen and oxygen, the L-edge of vanadium, and the M-edge of molybdenum. The nitrogen K-edge region of V-Mo oxynitride shows the characteristic NEXAFS features of early-transition-metal nitrides, although these features are different from those of either VN or Mo{sub 2}N. Furthermore, comparison of the electron yield and fluorescence yield measurements also reveals that the oxidation state is different for vanadium near the surface region and for vanadium in the bulk, which is estimated to be 2.8 {+-} 0.3 and 3.8 {+-} 0.3, respectively. The oxidation state of bulk molybdenum is also estimated to be 4.4 {+-} 0.3. The X-ray diffraction pattern shows that the bulk phase of the bimetallic oxide is different from the pure monometallic oxide phases but the oxynitride has a cubic structure that resembles the pure vanadium and molybdenum nitride phases. The V-Mo oxide as prepared shows a preferential orientation of [001] crystallographic planes which is lost during the nitridation process. This shows that the solid state transformation V{sub 2}MoO{sub 8} {yields} V{sub 2}MoO{sub 1.7}N{sub 2.4} is not topotactic. 27 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Manufacturing development of low activation vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Johnson, W.R.; Baxi, C.B.

    1996-10-01

    General Atomics is developing manufacturing methods for vanadium alloys as part of a program to encourage the development of low activation alloys for fusion use. The culmination of the program is the fabrication and installation of a vanadium alloy structure in the DIII-D tokamak as part of the Radiative Divertor modification. Water-cooled vanadium alloy components will comprise a portion of the new upper divertor structure. The first step, procuring the material for this program has been completed. The largest heat of vanadium alloy made to date, 1200 kg of V-4Cr-4Ti, has been produced and is being converted into various product forms. Results of many tests on the material during the manufacturing process are reported. Research into potential fabrication methods has been and continues to be performed along with the assessment of manufacturing processes particularly in the area of joining. Joining of vanadium alloys has been identified as the most critical fabrication issue for their use in the Radiative Divertor Program. Joining processes under evaluation include resistance seam, electrodischarge (stud), friction and electron beam welding. Results of welding tests are reported. Metallography and mechanical tests are used to evaluate the weld samples. The need for a protective atmosphere during different welding processes is also being determined. General Atomics has also designed, manufactured, and will be testing a helium-cooled, high heat flux component to assess the use of helium cooled vanadium alloy components for advanced tokamak systems. The component is made from vanadium alloy tubing, machined to enhance the heat transfer characteristics, and joined to end flanges to allow connection to the helium supply. Results are reported

  11. Study of propane partial oxidation on vanadium-containing catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komashko, G.A.; Khalamejda, S.V.; Zazhigalov, V.A. [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. Fizicheskoj Khimii

    1998-12-31

    The present results indicate that maximum selectivity to acrylic acid can be reached over V-P-Zr-O catalysts. When the hydrocarbon concentration is 5.1 vol.% the selectivity is about 30% at quite high paraffin conversion. Conclusively, some explanations to the observed facts can be given. The V-P-O catalyst promotion with lanthanum by means of mechanochemical treatment is distinguished by the additive uniform spreading all over the matrix surface. Such twophase system is highly active in propane conversion (lanthanum oxide) and further oxidation of the desired products. The similar properties are attributed to V-P-Bi-La-O catalyst. Bismuth, tellurium and zirconium additives having clearly defined acidic properties provoke the surface acidity strengthening and make easier desorption of the acidic product (acrylic acid) from the surface lowering its further oxidation. Additionally, since bismuth and zirconium are able to form phosphates and, according to, to create space limitations for the paraffin molecule movement out of the active group boundaries, this can be one more support in favour of the selectivity increase. With this point of view very interesting results were obtained. It has been shown that the more limited the size of the vanadium unit, the higher the selectivity is. Monoclinic phase AV{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 10} which consists in clusters of four vanadium atoms is sensibly more reactive than the orthorhombic phase consists in V{sub {infinity}} infinite chains. (orig.)

  12. Iron diminishes the in vitro biological effect of vanadium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanistic pathways underlying inflammatory injury following exposures to vanadium-containing compounds are not defined. We tested the postulate that the in vitro biological effect of vanadium results from its impact on iron homeostasis. Human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells ex...

  13. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Sigal; Kent Newsham; Thomas Williams; Barry Freifeld; Timothy Kneafsey; Carl Sondergeld; Shandra Rai; Jonathan Kwan; Stephen Kirby; Robert Kleinberg; Doug Griffin

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. The work scope drilled and cored a well The Hot Ice No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was drilled from the surface to a measured depth of 2300 ft. There was almost 100% core recovery from the bottom of surface casing at 107 ft to total depth. Based on the best estimate of the bottom of the methane hydrate stability zone (which used new data obtained from Hot Ice No. 1 and new analysis of data from adjacent wells), core was recovered over its complete range. Approximately 580 ft of porous, mostly frozen, sandstone and 155 of conglomerate were recovered in the Ugnu Formation and approximately 215 ft of porous sandstone were recovered in the West Sak Formation. There were gas shows in the bottom

  14. Characterization of un-hydrated and hydrated BioAggregate™ and MTA Angelus™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, J; Sorrentino, F; Damidot, D

    2015-04-01

    BioAggregate™ is a novel material introduced for use as a root-end filling material. It is tricalcium silicate-based, free of aluminium and uses tantalum oxide as radiopacifier. BioAggregate contains additives to enhance the material performance. The purpose of this research was to characterize the un-hydrated and hydrated forms of BioAggregate using a combination of techniques, verify whether the additives if present affect the properties of the set material and compare these properties to those of MTA Angelus™. Un-hydrated and hydrated BioAggregate and MTA Angelus were assessed. Un-hydrated cement was tested for chemical composition, specific surface area, mineralogy and kinetics of hydration. The set material was investigated for mineralogy, microstructure and bioactivity. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopic analysis, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and isothermal calorimetry were employed. The specific surface area was investigated using a gas adsorption method with nitrogen as the probe. BioAggregate was composed of tricalcium silicate, tantalum oxide, calcium phosphate and silicon dioxide and was free of aluminium. On hydration, the tricalcium silicate produced calcium silicate hydrate and calcium hydroxide. The former was deposited around the cement grains, while the latter reacted with the silicon dioxide to form additional calcium silicate hydrate. This resulted in reduction of calcium hydroxide in the aged cement. MTA Angelus reacted in a similar fashion; however, since it contained no additives, the calcium hydroxide was still present in the aged cement. Bioactivity was demonstrated by deposition of hydroxyapatite. BioAggregate exhibited a high specific surface area. Nevertheless, the reactivity determined by isothermal calorimetry appeared to be slow compared to MTA Angelus. The tantalum oxide as opposed to bismuth oxide was inert, and tantalum was not leached in solution. BioAggregate exhibited

  15. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate

  16. Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide on nickel oxide - vanadium pentoxide catalysts and the effect of ionizing radiation on them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucka, V.

    1984-01-01

    Some physico-chemical and catalytic properties of nickel oxide-vanadium pentoxide two-component catalysts were studied over the entire concentration range of the components, using the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in an aqueous solution as the test reaction. The two oxides were found to affect each other; this was shown by the dependences of the specific surface area, the V 4+ ion concentration, and the catalyst activity on the system composition. At low vanadium pentoxide concentrations (up to 15 mol%) the reaction took place on nickel oxide modified with vanadium pentoxide, whereas in the region of higher vanadium pentoxide concentrations the decomposition of the peroxide was catalyzed primarily in the homogeneous phase by vanadium(V) peroxide ions; in a sample with 30 mol% V 2 O 5 , trivalent vanadium also played a part. With catalysts obtained by mere mechanical mixing of the two oxides, a modified activity was observed in the region of high excess of nickel oxide. The activity of catalyst, particularly pure nickel oxide, was increased by its partial reduction and decreased by its exposure to gamma radiation if the dose was higher than 10 5 Gy. The effects observed are interpreted in terms of the concept of bivalent catalytic centres. (author)

  17. Investigation of local environments in Nafion-SiO(2) composite membranes used in vanadium redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, M; Schwenzer, Birgit; Kim, Soowhan; Yang, Zhenguo; Thevuthasan, S; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L; Hu, Jianzhi

    2012-04-01

    Proton conducting polymer composite membranes are of technological interest in many energy devices such as fuel cells and redox flow batteries. In particular, polymer composite membranes, such as SiO(2) incorporated Nafion membranes, are recently reported as highly promising for the use in redox flow batteries. However, there is conflicting reports regarding the performance of this type of Nafion-SiO(2) composite membrane in the redox flow cell. This paper presents results of the analysis of the Nafion-SiO(2) composite membrane used in a vanadium redox flow battery by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The XPS study reveals the chemical identity and environment of vanadium cations accumulated at the surface. On the other hand, the (19)F and (29)Si NMR measurement explores the nature of the interaction between the silica particles, Nafion side chains and diffused vanadium cations. The (29)Si NMR shows that the silica particles interact via hydrogen bonds with the sulfonic groups of Nafion and the diffused vanadium cations. Based on these spectroscopic studies, the chemical environment of the silica particles inside the Nafion membrane and their interaction with diffusing vanadium cations during flow cell operations are discussed. This study discusses the origin of performance degradation of the Nafion-SiO(2) composite membrane materials in vanadium redox flow batteries. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Optical spectra of vanadium (5, 4) compounds during extraction by di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurbatova, L.D.; Medvedeva, N.I.

    2000-01-01

    Optical spectra of vanadium (5, 4) complexes with HDEHP are studied using literature data on quantum-chemical calculations of vanadium (5) and vanadium (4) oxides. Extraction of vanadium is conducted by undiluted HDEHP from sulfuric acid solutions. Absorption electron spectra (AES) of vanadium (5), vanadium (4) and vanadium (5, 4) compounds are presented. In AES of vanadium (5, 4) four absorption bands at 24000, 17000, 14500 and 13500 cm -1 appear. Comparison with spectra of vanadium (5) and vanadium (4) shows that band 17000 cm -1 which appears only during mutual extraction of vanadium (5) and vanadium (4) is caused by transitions appearing between filled and empty levels of d-zone broadened by vanadium (5) and vanadium (4) interaction [ru

  19. Pore-Size-Tuned Graphene Oxide Frameworks as Ion-Selective and Protective Layers on Hydrocarbon Membranes for Vanadium Redox-Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soohyun; Choi, Junghoon; Choi, Chanyong; Heo, Jiyun; Kim, Dae Woo; Lee, Jang Yong; Hong, Young Taik; Jung, Hee-Tae; Kim, Hee-Tak

    2018-05-07

    The laminated structure of graphene oxide (GO) membranes provides exceptional ion-separation properties due to the regular interlayer spacing ( d) between laminate layers. However, a larger effective pore size of the laminate immersed in water (∼11.1 Å) than the hydrated diameter of vanadium ions (>6.0 Å) prevents its use in vanadium redox-flow batteries (VRFB). In this work, we report an ion-selective graphene oxide framework (GOF) with a d tuned by cross-linking the GO nanosheets. Its effective pore size (∼5.9 Å) excludes vanadium ions by size but allows proton conduction. The GOF membrane is employed as a protective layer to address the poor chemical stability of sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES) membranes against VO 2 + in VRFB. By effectively blocking vanadium ions, the GOF/SPAES membrane exhibits vanadium-ion permeability 4.2 times lower and a durability 5 times longer than that of the pristine SPAES membrane. Moreover, the VRFB with the GOF/SPAES membrane achieves an energy efficiency of 89% at 80 mA cm -2 and a capacity retention of 88% even after 400 cycles, far exceeding results for Nafion 115 and demonstrating its practical applicability for VRFB.

  20. Thermal Stability and Proton Conductivity of Rare Earth Orthophosphate Hydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anfimova, Tatiana; Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf

    2014-01-01

    as the rhabdophane structure is preserved. The bound hydrate water is accommodated in the rhabdophane structure and is stable at temperatures of up to 650 oC. The thermal stability of the hydrate water and the phosphate structure are of significance for the proton conductivity. The LaPO4·0.6H2O and NdPO4•0.5H2O......Hydrated orthophosphate powders of three rare earth metals, lanthanum, neodymium and gadolinium, were prepared and studied as potential proton conducting materials for intermediate temperature electrochemical applications. The phosphates undergo a transformation from the rhabdophane structure...... to the monazite structure upon dehydration. The thermal stability of the hydrate is studied and found to contain water of two types, physically adsorbed and structurally bound hydrate water. The adsorbed water is correlated to the specific surface area and can be reversibly recovered when dehydrated as long...

  1. Nature of active vanadium nanospecies in MCM-41 type catalysts for olefins oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanquía, Corina M., E-mail: cchanquia@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CAB-CNEA). Av. Bustillo 9500, R8402AGP, San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET). Avenida Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cánepa, Analía L. [Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Química (CITeQ), Universidad Tecnológica Nacional, Facultad Regional Córdoba (UTN-FRC), Maestro López esq. Cruz Roja Argentina, Ciudad Universitaria, 5016, Córdoba Capital (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET). Avenida Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Winkler, Elin L. [Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CAB-CNEA). Av. Bustillo 9500, R8402AGP, San Carlos de Bariloche, Río Negro (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET). Avenida Rivadavia 1917, C1033AAJ, Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2016-06-01

    A multi-technique physicochemical investigation including UV–Vis-DRS, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, ESR and FTIRS with pyridine adsorption was performed to analyze the nature of different vanadium nanospecies present on MCM-41 type catalysts. By employing a direct hydrothermal synthesis, vanadium species were incorporated into siliceous structure mainly as tetrahedrally coordinated isolated V{sup δ+} ions, which would be located inside the wall and on the wall surface of the mesoporous channels. The coexistence of both vanadium oxidation states V{sup 4+} and V{sup 5+} was also revealed. Acidity measurements permitted to infer about the majority presence of Lewis acid sites, which increase with vanadium content. The catalytic performance of these materials was evaluated in the reaction of α-pinene oxidation with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The highest intrinsic activity of the sample with lower V loading was attributed to the high dispersion and efficiency of the isolated V{sup δ+} species that actuate as active sites. A mixture of reaction products arising from competitive processes of epoxidation and allylic oxidation was found. - Highlights: • Nature of vanadium nanospecies in mesoporous silicates was investigated. • From hydrothermal sol–gel synthesis, isolated V{sup δ+} sites were mainly generated. • The coexistence of both vanadium oxidation states V{sup 4+} and V{sup 5+} was revealed. • The catalytic performance was evaluated in α-pinene oxidation with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • The high catalytic activity is attributed to high dispersion of isolated V{sup δ+} ions.

  2. Corrosion control of vanadium in aqueous solutions by amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Rabiee, M.M.; Helal, N.H.; El-Hafez, Gh.M. Abd; Badawy, W.A.

    2008-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of vanadium in amino acid free and amino acid containing aqueous solutions of different pH was studied using open-circuit potential measurements, polarization techniques and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The corrosion current density, i corr , the corrosion potential, E corr and the corrosion resistance, R corr , were calculated. A group of amino acids, namely, glycine, alanine, valine, histidine, glutamic and cysteine has been investigated as environmentally safe inhibitors. The effect of Cl - on the corrosion inhibition efficiency especially in acid solutions was investigated. In neutral and basic solutions, the presence of amino acids increases the corrosion resistance of the metal. The electrochemical behavior of V before and after the corrosion inhibition process has shown that some amino acids like glutamic acid and histidine have promising corrosion inhibition efficiency at low concentration (≅25 mM). The inhibition efficiency (η) was found to depend on the structure of the amino acid and the constituents of the corrosive medium. The corrosion inhibition process is based on the adsorption of the amino acid molecules on the metal surface and the adsorption process follows the Freundlich isotherm. The adsorption free energy for valine on V in acidic solutions was found to be -9.4 kJ/mol which reveals strong physical adsorption of the amino acid molecules on the vanadium surface

  3. Thermal conductivity of high purity vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, W.D.

    1975-01-01

    The thermal conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and electrical resistivity of four high-purity vanadium samples were measured over the temperature range 5 to 300 0 K. The highest purity sample had a resistance ratio (rho 273 /rho 4 . 2 ) of 1524. The highest purity sample had a thermal conductivity maximum of 920 W/mK at 9 0 K and had a thermal conductivity of 35 W/mK at room temperature. At low temperatures, the thermal resistivity was limited by the scattering of electrons by impurities and phonons. The thermal resistivity of vanadium departed from Matthiessen's rule at low temperatures. The electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient of high purity vanadium showed no anomalous behavior above 130 0 K. The intrinsic electrical resistivity at low temperatures was due primarily to interband scattering of electrons. The Seebeck coefficient was positive from 10 to 240 0 K and had a maximum which was dependent upon sample purity

  4. Transformation and precipitation in vanadium treated steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassiliou, Andreas D.

    A series of carbon manganese steels containing varying amounts of carbon, vanadium and nitrogen was investigated in relation to the solubility of VC and VN in austenite, the grain coarsening characteristics of austenite, the tempering of martensite and other structures, the transformation during continuous cooling, the effect of vanadium addition and increasing nitrogen content on the thermo-mechanical processing of austenite, and the transformation of various morphologies of austenite to ferrite.The sites for preferential nucleation and growth of ferrite were identified and the effect of ferrite grain size inhomogeneity was investigated with a view to minimising it.The C/N ratio in the V(CN) precipitates was largely controlled by C/N ratio in the steel and it was also influenced by the austenitising treatment. As expected, the solubility of VN was less than that of VC.A systematic investigation of austenitising time and temperature on the grain coarsening characteristics was carried out showing the effects of vanadium, carbon and nitrogen. It was tentatively suggested that C-C and N-N clustering in the vanadium free steels controlled the grain growth whereas in the presence of vanadium, it was shown that VN and VC pinned the austenite grain boundaries and restricted grain growth. However coarsening or solution of VC and VN allowed the grain bondaries to migrate and grain coarsening occurred. The grain coarsening temperature was controlled predominantly by VN, whilst the VC dissolved frequently below the grain coarsening temperature.In the as quenched martensite, increasing nitrogen progressively increased the as quenched hardness, and the hardness also greatly increased with increasing carbon and vanadium added together. Examining the precipitation strengthening in tempered martensite showed that in the absence of vanadium, martensite softened progressively with increasing temperature and time. Vanadium additions increased the hardness level during low temperature

  5. Synthesis, crystal structure, spectroscopic characterization, Hirshfeld surface analysis, and DFT calculations of 1,4-dimethyl-2-oxo-pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Bakri, Youness; Anouar, El Hassane; Ramli, Youssef; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Mague, Joel T.

    2018-01-01

    Imidazopyrimidine derivatives are organic synthesized compounds with a pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole as basic skeleton. They are known for their various biological properties and as an important class of compounds in medicinal chemistry. A new 1,4-dimethyl-2-oxo-pyrimido[1,2-a]benzimidazole hydrate derivative of the tilted group has been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic techniques NMR and FT-IR; and by a single crystal X-ray diffraction. The X-ray results showed that the tricyclic core of the title compound, C12H11N3O·H2O, is almost planar. The molecules stack along the a-axis direction in head-to- tail fashion through π-stacking interactions involving all three rings. The stacks are tied together by direct Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds and by Osbnd H⋯O, Osbnd N⋯N and Csbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds with the lattice water. DFT calculations at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) in gas phase an polarizable continuum model have been carried out to predict the spectral and geometrical data of the tilted compound. The obtained results showed relatively good correlations between the predicted and experimental data with correlation coefficients higher than 98%.

  6. Chemical alteration of cement hydrates by dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Fujita, Tomonari; Nakanishi, Kiyoshi

    2000-01-01

    Cementitious material is a potential waste packaging and backfilling material for the radioactive waste disposal, and is expected to provide both physical and chemical containment. In particular, the sorption of radionuclides onto cementitious material and the ability to provide a high pH condition are very important parameters when considering the release of radionuclides from radioactive wastes. For the long term, in the geological disposal environment, cement hydrates will be altered by, for example, dissolution, chemical reaction with ions in the groundwater, and hydrothermal reaction. Once the composition or crystallinity of the constituent minerals of a cement hydrate is changed by these processes, the pH of the repository buffered by cementitious material and its sorption ability might be affected. However, the mechanism of cement alteration is not yet fully understood. In this study, leaching experiments of some candidate cements for radioactive waste disposal were carried out. Hydrated Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Blast Furnace Slag blended cement (OPC/BFS) and Highly containing Flyash and Silicafume Cement (HFSC) samples were contacted with distilled water at liquid:solid ratios of 10:1, 100:1 and 1000:1 at room temperature for 200 days. In the case of OPC, Ca(OH) 2 dissolved at high liquid:solid ratios. The specific surface area of all cement samples increased by leaching process. This might be caused by further hydration and change of composition of constituent minerals. A model is presented which predicts the leaching of cement hydrates and the mineral composition in the hydrated cement solid phase, including the incongruent dissolution of CSH gel phases and congruent dissolution of Ca(OH) 2 , Ettringite and Hydrotalcite. Experimental results of dissolution of Ca-O-H and Ca-Si-O-H phases were well predicted by this model. (author)

  7. Ground movements associated with gas hydrate production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriwardane, H.J.; Kutuk, B.

    1992-03-01

    This report deals with a study directed towards a modeling effort on production related ground movements and subsidence resulting from hydrate dissociation. The goal of this research study was to evaluate whether there could be subsidence related problems that could be an impediment to hydrate production. During the production of gas from a hydrate reservoir, it is expected that porous reservoir matrix becomes more compressible which may cause reservoir compression (compaction) under the influence of overburden weight. The overburden deformations can propagate its influence upwards causing subsidence near the surface where production equipment will be located. In the present study, the reservoir compaction is modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The present study is expected to provide a ''lower bound'' solution to the subsidence caused by hydrate reservoir depletion. The reservoir compaction anticipated during hydrate production was modeled by using the finite element method, which is a powerful computer modeling technique. The ground movements at the reservoir roof (i.e. reservoir compression) cause additional stresses and disturbance in the overburden strata. In this study, the reservoir compaction was modeled by using the conventional ''stress equilibrium'' approach. In this approach, the overburden strata move under the influence of body force (i.e. self weight) in response to the ''cavity'' generated by reservoir depletion. The resulting stresses and ground movements were computed by using the finite element method. Based on the parameters used in this investigation, the maximum ground subsidence could vary anywhere from 0.50 to 6.50 inches depending on the overburden depth and the size of the depleted hydrate reservoir

  8. Positron lifetime in vanadium oxide bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryzek, J.; Dryzek, E.

    2003-01-01

    The positron lifetime (PL) and Doppler broadening (DB) of annihilation line measurements have been performed in vanadium oxide bronzes M x V 2 O 5 . The dependence of these annihilation characteristics on the kind and concentration of the metal M donor has been observed. In the PL spectrum only one lifetime component has been detected in all studied bronzes. The results indicate the positron localization in the structural tunnels present in the crystalline lattice of the vanadium oxide bronzes. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Vanadium alloys for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.; Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that fusion reactors will produce a severe operating environment for structural materials. The material should have good mechanical strength and ductility to high temperature, be corrosion resistant to the local environment, have attractive thermophysical properties to accommodate high heat loads, and be resistant to neutron damage. Vanadium alloys are being developed for such applications, and they exhibit desirable properties in many areas Recent progress in vanadium alloy development indicates good strength and ductility to 700 degrees C, minimal degradation by neutron irradiation, and reduced radioactivity compared with other candidate alloy systems

  10. A new aluminium-hydrate species in hydrated Portland cements characterized by 27Al and 29Si MAS NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Morten Daugaard; Jakobsen, Hans J.; Skibsted, Jorgen

    2006-01-01

    Recent 27 Al MAS NMR studies of hydrated Portland cements and calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) phases have shown a resonance from Al in octahedral coordination, which cannot be assigned to the well-known aluminate species in hydrated Portland cements. This resonance, which exhibits the isotropic chemical shift δ iso = 5.0 ppm and the quadrupole product parameter P Q = 1.2 MHz, has been characterized in detail by 27 Al MAS and 27 Al{ 1 H} CP/MAS NMR for different hydrated white Portland cements and C-S-H phases. These experiments demonstrate that the resonance originates from an amorphous or disordered aluminate hydrate which contains Al(OH) 6 3- or O x Al(OH) 6-x (3+x)- units. The formation of the new aluminate hydrate is related to the formation of C-S-H at ambient temperatures, however, it decomposes by thermal treatment at temperatures of 70-90 o C. From the experiments in this work it is proposed that the new aluminate hydrate is either an amorphous/disordered aluminate hydroxide or a calcium aluminate hydrate, produced as a separate phase or as a nanostructured surface precipitate on the C-S-H phase. Finally, the possibilities of Al 3+ for Ca 2+ substitution in the principal layers and interlayers of the C-S-H structure are discussed

  11. Two-component, ab initio potential energy surface for CO2—H2O, extension to the hydrate clathrate, CO2@(H2O)20, and VSCF/VCI vibrational analyses of both

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingfeng Kee; Bowman, Joel M.

    2017-10-01

    We report an ab initio, full-dimensional, potential energy surface (PES) for CO2—H2O, in which two-body interaction energies are fit using a basis of permutationally invariant polynomials and combined with accurate potentials for the non-interacting monomers. This approach which we have termed "plug and play" is extended here to improve the precision of the 2-body fit in the long range. This is done by combining two separate fits. One is a fit to 47 593 2-body energies in the region of strong interaction and approaching the long range, and the second one is a fit to 6244 2-body energies in the long range. The two fits have a region of overlap which permits a smooth switch from one to the other. All energies are obtained at the CCSD(T)-F12b/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. Properties of the full PES, i.e., stationary points, harmonic frequencies of the global minimum, etc., are shown to be in excellent agreement with direct CCSD(T)-F12b/aug-cc-pVTZ results. Diffusion Monte Carlo calculations of the dimer zero-point energy (ZPE) are performed, and a dissociation energy, D0, of 787 cm-1 is obtained using that ZPE, De, and the rigorous ZPEs of the monomers. Using a benchmark De, D0 is 758 cm-1. Vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF)/virtual state configuration interaction (VCI) MULTIMODE calculations of intramolecular fundamentals are reported and are in good agreement with available experimental results. Finally, the full dimer PES is combined with an existing ab initio water potential to develop a potential for the CO2 hydrate clathrate CO2(H2O)20(512 water cage). A full normal-mode analysis of this hydrate clathrate is reported as are local-monomer VSCF/VCI calculations of the fundamentals of CO2.

  12. Two-component, ab initio potential energy surface for CO2-H2O, extension to the hydrate clathrate, CO2@(H2O)20, and VSCF/VCI vibrational analyses of both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingfeng Kee; Bowman, Joel M

    2017-10-28

    We report an ab initio, full-dimensional, potential energy surface (PES) for CO 2 -H 2 O, in which two-body interaction energies are fit using a basis of permutationally invariant polynomials and combined with accurate potentials for the non-interacting monomers. This approach which we have termed "plug and play" is extended here to improve the precision of the 2-body fit in the long range. This is done by combining two separate fits. One is a fit to 47 593 2-body energies in the region of strong interaction and approaching the long range, and the second one is a fit to 6244 2-body energies in the long range. The two fits have a region of overlap which permits a smooth switch from one to the other. All energies are obtained at the CCSD(T)-F12b/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. Properties of the full PES, i.e., stationary points, harmonic frequencies of the global minimum, etc., are shown to be in excellent agreement with direct CCSD(T)-F12b/aug-cc-pVTZ results. Diffusion Monte Carlo calculations of the dimer zero-point energy (ZPE) are performed, and a dissociation energy, D 0 , of 787 cm -1 is obtained using that ZPE, D e , and the rigorous ZPEs of the monomers. Using a benchmark D e , D 0 is 758 cm -1 . Vibrational self-consistent field (VSCF)/virtual state configuration interaction (VCI) MULTIMODE calculations of intramolecular fundamentals are reported and are in good agreement with available experimental results. Finally, the full dimer PES is combined with an existing ab initio water potential to develop a potential for the CO 2 hydrate clathrate CO 2 (H 2 O) 20 (5 12 water cage). A full normal-mode analysis of this hydrate clathrate is reported as are local-monomer VSCF/VCI calculations of the fundamentals of CO 2 .

  13. Portland cement hydration in the presence of admixtures: black gram pulse and superplasticizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viveka Nand Dwivedi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of admixtures such as black gram pulse (BGP and sulfonated naphthalene based superplasticizer (SP on the hydration of Portland cement has been studied. The hydration characteristics of OPC in the presence of BGP and SP were studied with the help of non evaporable water content determinations, calorimetric method, Mössbauer spectroscopic and atomic force microscopic techniques. Results have shown that both BGP and SP get adsorbed at the surface of cement and its hydration products. The hydration of Portland cement is retarded in the presence of both the admixtures and nanosize hydration products are formed.

  14. Vanadium recycling in the United States in 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    As one of a series of reports that describe the recycling of metal commodities in the United States, this report discusses the flow of vanadium in the U.S. economy in 2004. This report includes a description of vanadium supply and demand in the United States and illustrates the extent of vanadium recycling and recycling trends. In 2004, apparent vanadium consumption, by end use, in the United States was 3,820 metric tons (t) in steelmaking and 232 t in manufacturing, of which 17 t was for the production of superalloys and 215 t was for the production of other alloys, cast iron, catalysts, and chemicals. Vanadium use in steel is almost entirely dissipative because recovery of vanadium from steel scrap is chemically impeded under the oxidizing conditions in steelmaking furnaces. The greatest amount of vanadium recycling is in the superalloy, other-alloy, and catalyst sectors of the vanadium market. Vanadium-bearing catalysts are associated with hydrocarbon recovery and refining in the oil industry. In 2004, 2,850 t of vanadium contained in alloy scrap and spent catalysts was recycled, which amounted to about 44 percent of U.S. domestic production. About 94 percent of vanadium use in the United States was dissipative (3,820 t in steel/4,050 t in steel+fabricated products).

  15. Vanadium bioavailability in soils amended with blast furnace slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Maja A., E-mail: maja.larsson@slu.se [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7014, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Baken, Stijn, E-mail: stijn.baken@ees.kuleuven.be [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Leuven University, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20 bus 2459, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Smolders, Erik, E-mail: erik.smolders@ees.kuleuven.be [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Leuven University, Kasteelpark Arenberg 20 bus 2459, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Cubadda, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.cubadda@iss.it [Department of Food Safety and Veterinary Public Health, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, Rome 00161 (Italy); Gustafsson, Jon Petter, E-mail: jon-petter.gustafsson@slu.se [Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7014, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Division of Land and Water Resources Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Brinellvägen 28, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-10-15

    Blast furnace (BF) slags are commonly applied as soil amendments and in road fill material. In Sweden they are also naturally high in vanadium. The aim of this study was to assess the vanadium bioavailability in BF slags when applied to soil. Two soils were amended with up to 29% BF slag (containing 800 mg V kg{sup −1}) and equilibrated outdoors for 10 months before conducting a barley shoot growth assay. Additional soil samples were spiked with dissolved vanadate(V) for which assays were conducted two weeks (freshly spiked) and 10 months (aged) after spiking. The BF slag vanadium was dominated by vanadium(III) as shown by V K-edge XANES spectroscopy. In contrast, results obtained by HPLC-ICP-MS showed that vanadium(V), the most toxic vanadium species, was predominant in the soil solution. Barley shoot growth was not affected by the BF slag additions. This was likely due to limited dissolution of vanadium from the BF slag, preventing an increase of dissolved vanadium above toxic thresholds. The difference in vanadium bioavailability among treatments was explained by the vanadium concentration in the soil solution. It was concluded that the vanadium in BF slag is sparingly available. These findings should be of importance in environmental risk assessment.

  16. Extraction-complexonometric determination of vanadium(4) in the presence of vanadium(3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordeeva, M.N.; Ryndina, A.M.; Stanevich, T.V.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction-complexonometric method has been investigated for determining vanadium(4) in the presence of vanadium (3) with high contents of these forms in the solution analyzed. The method of separation of V(4) and V(3) is based on extraction of the ion acetate of vanadium(4) with eriochrome red B(ERCB) and diphenyl quanidinium (DPG) by a mixture of chloroform and isoamyl alcohol (3:1). To control the content of V(4) and V(3) the method of reciprocal complexonometric titration is used (the titrating solution was a solution of thorium nitride, and xylenol orange was a solution of thorium nitride, and xylenol orange was used as metal indicator). Titration has been carried out in an acid solution at pH=2.8. The developed method has been applied to analysis of lithium-zinc spinels containing both forms of vanadium

  17. Aqueous vanadium ion dynamics relevant to bioinorganic chemistry: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustin, Kenneth

    2015-06-01

    Aqueous solutions of the four highest vanadium oxidation states exhibit four diverse colors, which only hint at the diverse reactions that these ions can undergo. Cationic vanadium ions form complexes with ligands; anionic vanadium ions form complexes with ligands and self-react to form isopolyanions. All vanadium species undergo oxidation-reduction reactions. With a few exceptions, elucidation of the dynamics of these reactions awaited the development of fast reaction techniques before the kinetics of elementary ligation, condensation, reduction, and oxidation of the aqueous vanadium ions could be investigated. As the biological roles played by endogenous and therapeutic vanadium expand, it is appropriate to bring the results of the diverse kinetics studies under one umbrella. To achieve this goal this review presents a systematic examination of elementary aqueous vanadium ion dynamics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Corrosion of vanadium and V 3Ti 1Si in flowing lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konys, J.

    1986-01-01

    A pumped Li loop fabricated from a titanium stabilized Type 316 steel was designed and constructed. At temperatures of about 823 K, experiments over a duration of more than 7500 h were performed. A magnetic trap had to be incorporated just before the flowmeter to avoid the precipitation of magnetic particles. Therefore it was possible to investigate the influence of the magnetic trap on the corrosion behaviour of V in flowing Li. The results are as follows: - The corrosion rate of V is about 14 μm/year and independent of the nitrogen content of Li. The corrosion rate of V 3Ti 1Si depends on the N concentration of Li. At about 30 wppm N in Li a vanadium-titanium-nitride is formed at the surface of the specimens. Hence, a low rate of 4 μm/year can be stated. - Both materials pick-up more N than C from Li, pure vanadium double as much nitrogen as the alloy V 3Ti 1Si. - N diffuses into the bulk of both materials, whilst C is bound near the surface. The hardening at the surface is due to the up-take of N. - The vanadium-carbonitride-, respectively the vanadium-titanium-nitride-layers have a strong influence on the weight loss and the up-take of non-metals. - The magnetic trap reduces the weight loss of vanadium in a significant way. The positive influence of the magnetic trap is supposed to be due to the reduction of the nitrogen content of Li. - The corrosion rates of the alloy V 3Ti 1Si show, that the dissolution due to V loss does not affect the lifetime of the alloy. The comparison with steels and nickle-base-alloys demonstrates the advantages of this material. Nevertheless, the purification of the Li and the control of its nonmetal-levels is indispensable. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Vibrational spectra of halide-water dimers: Insights on ion hydration from full-dimensional quantum calculations on many-body potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Pushp; Wang, Xiao-Gang; Carrington, Tucker; Paesani, Francesco

    2018-03-01

    Full-dimensional vibrational spectra are calculated for both X-(H2O) and X-(D2O) dimers (X = F, Cl, Br, I) at the quantum-mechanical level. The calculations are carried out on two sets of recently developed potential energy functions (PEFs), namely, Thole-type model energy (TTM-nrg) and many-body energy (MB-nrg), using the symmetry-adapted Lanczos algorithm with a product basis set including all six vibrational coordinates. Although both TTM-nrg and MB-nrg PEFs are derived from coupled-cluster single double triple-F12 data obtained in the complete basis set limit, they differ in how many-body effects are represented at short range. Specifically, while both models describe long-range interactions through the combination of two-body dispersion and many-body classical electrostatics, the relatively simple Born-Mayer functions employed in the TTM-nrg PEFs to represent short-range interactions are replaced in the MB-nrg PEFs by permutationally invariant polynomials to achieve chemical accuracy. For all dimers, the MB-nrg vibrational spectra are in close agreement with the available experimental data, correctly reproducing anharmonic and nuclear quantum effects. In contrast, the vibrational frequencies calculated with the TTM-nrg PEFs exhibit significant deviations from the experimental values. The comparison between the TTM-nrg and MB-nrg results thus reinforces the notion that an accurate representation of both short-range interactions associated with electron density overlap and long-range many-body electrostatic interactions is necessary for a correct description of hydration phenomena at the molecular level.

  20. Characteristics of Methane Hydrate Formation in Artificial and Natural Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingbai Wu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The formation of methane hydrate in two significantly different media was investigated, using silica gel as an artificial medium and loess as a natural medium. The methane hydrate formation was observed through the depletion of water in the matrix, measured via the matrix potential and the relationship between the matrix potential and the water content was determined using established equations. The velocity of methane hydrate nucleation slowed over the course of the reaction, as it relied on water transfer to the hydrate surfaces with lower Gibbs free energy after nucleation. Significant differences in the reactions in the two types of media arose from differences in the water retention capacity and lithology of media due to the internal surface area and pore size distributions. Compared with methane hydrate formation in silica gel, the reaction in loess was much slower and formed far less methane hydrate. The results of this study will advance the understanding of how the properties of the environment affect the formation of gas hydrates in nature.

  1. Thermodynamics of oxygen in solid solution in vanadium and niobium--vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steckel, G.L.

    1977-01-01

    A thermodynamic study was made of the vanadium-oxygen and niobium-vanadium-oxygen systems utilizing the solid state galvanic cell technique. Investigations were made with a ThO 2 /Y 2 O 3 electrolyte over the temperature ranges 700 to 1200 0 C (973 to 1473 K) for the binary system and 650 to 1150 0 C (923 to 1423 K) for the ternary system. The activity of oxygen in vanadium obeys Henry's law for the temperatures of this investigation for concentrations up to 3.2 at. percent oxygen. For higher concentrations the activity coefficient shows positive deviations from Henry's law. The terminal solubility of oxygen in vanadium was determined. The activity of oxygen in Nb--V alloys obeys Henry's law for the temperatures of this study for oxygen concentrations less than approximately 2 at. percent. For certain Nb/V ratios Henry's law is obeyed for concentrations as high as 6.5 at. percent oxygen. First order entropy and enthalpy interaction coefficients have been determined to describe the effect on the oxygen activity of niobium additions to vanadium-rich alloys with dilute oxygen concentrations. Niobium causes relatively small decreases in the oxygen activity of V-rich alloys and increases the oxygen solubility limit. Vanadium additions to Nb-rich alloys also increases the oxygen solubility and causes substantial decreases in the dilute solution oxygen activities. The change in the thermodynamic properties when molecular oxygen dissolves in vanadium and niobium--vanadium alloys and the equilibrium oxygen pressure over the binary and ternary systems were also determined

  2. A method for recovery of iron, titanium, and vanadium from vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-min; Wang, Li-na; Chen, De-sheng; Wang, Wei-jing; Liu, Ya-hui; Zhao, Hong-xin; Qi, Tao

    2018-02-01

    An innovative method for recovering valuable elements from vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite is proposed. This method involves two procedures: low-temperature roasting of vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite and water leaching of roasting slag. During the roasting process, the reduction of iron oxides to metallic iron, the sodium oxidation of vanadium oxides to water-soluble sodium vanadate, and the smelting separation of metallic iron and slag were accomplished simultaneously. Optimal roasting conditions for iron/slag separation were achieved with a mixture thickness of 42.5 mm, a roasting temperature of 1200°C, a residence time of 2 h, a molar ratio of C/O of 1.7, and a sodium carbonate addition of 70wt%, as well as with the use of anthracite as a reductant. Under the optimal conditions, 93.67% iron from the raw ore was recovered in the form of iron nugget with 95.44% iron grade. After a water leaching process, 85.61% of the vanadium from the roasting slag was leached, confirming the sodium oxidation of most of the vanadium oxides to water-soluble sodium vanadate during the roasting process. The total recoveries of iron, vanadium, and titanium were 93.67%, 72.68%, and 99.72%, respectively.

  3. Vanadium Electrolyte Studies for the Vanadium Redox Battery-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyllas-Kazacos, Maria; Cao, Liuyue; Kazacos, Michael; Kausar, Nadeem; Mousa, Asem

    2016-07-07

    The electrolyte is one of the most important components of the vanadium redox flow battery and its properties will affect cell performance and behavior in addition to the overall battery cost. Vanadium exists in several oxidation states with significantly different half-cell potentials that can produce practical cell voltages. It is thus possible to use the same element in both half-cells and thereby eliminate problems of cross-contamination inherent in all other flow battery chemistries. Electrolyte properties vary with supporting electrolyte composition, state-of-charge, and temperature and this will impact on the characteristics, behavior, and performance of the vanadium battery in practical applications. This Review provides a broad overview of the physical properties and characteristics of the vanadium battery electrolyte under different conditions, together with a description of some of the processing methods that have been developed to produce vanadium electrolytes for vanadium redox flow battery applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. State of hydration and electrical conductance of ichthyotic skin

    OpenAIRE

    A B Gupta; Manisha Bhattacharya; B Haldar

    1990-01-01

    Dry skin of twelve subjects suffering from ichthyosis vulgaris and the efficacy of a moisturiser-Cotaryl were quantitatively assessed by measuring the skin surface hydration and high frequency (3.5 MHz) electrical conductance of skin. The state of hydration and conductance of ichthyotic skin were 86.9 + 24.6 and 11.0 + 5.7 micro-mho respectively, being much less-compared to 132. 0 + 5.3 and 72.5 + 54.0 micro-mho ofnormal subjects. The moisturiser increased the state of hydration and also the ...

  5. Historical methane hydrate project review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy; Bahk, Jang-Jun; Frye, Matt; Goldberg, Dave; Husebo, Jarle; Koh, Carolyn; Malone, Mitch; Shipp, Craig; Torres, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In 1995, U.S. Geological Survey made the first systematic assessment of the volume of natural gas stored in the hydrate accumulations of the United States. That study, along with numerous other studies, has shown that the amount of gas stored as methane hydrates in the world greatly exceeds the volume of known conventional gas resources. However, gas hydrates represent both a scientific and technical challenge and much remains to be learned about their characteristics and occurrence in nature. Methane hydrate research in recent years has mostly focused on: (1) documenting the geologic parameters that control the occurrence and stability of gas hydrates in nature, (2) assessing the volume of natural gas stored within various gas hydrate accumulations, (3) analyzing the production response and characteristics of methane hydrates, (4) identifying and predicting natural and induced environmental and climate impacts of natural gas hydrates, and (5) analyzing the effects of methane hydrate on drilling safety.Methane hydrates are naturally occurring crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid water-­‐lattice holds gas molecules in a cage-­‐like structure. The gas and water becomes a solid under specific temperature and pressure conditions within the Earth, called the hydrate stability zone. Other factors that control the presence of methane hydrate in nature include the source of the gas included within the hydrates, the physical and chemical controls on the migration of gas with a sedimentary basin containing methane hydrates, the availability of the water also included in the hydrate structure, and the presence of a suitable host sediment or “reservoir”. The geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrates have become collectively known as the “methane hydrate petroleum system”, which has become the focus of numerous hydrate research programs.Recognizing the importance of methane hydrate research and the need for a coordinated

  6. Atomic layer deposition of VO{sub 2} films with Tetrakis-dimethyl-amino vanadium (IV) as vanadium precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Xinrui [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials CAS, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Cao, Yunzhen, E-mail: yzhcao@mail.sic.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials CAS, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Yan, Lu; Li, Ying; Song, Lixin [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials CAS, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • VO{sub 2} film was easily deposited by ALD using novel vanadium precursor V(NMe{sub 2}){sub 4}. • Deposition and annealing condition were systematically investigated. • Comparable transition properties of VO{sub 2} film on resistance and spectral transmittance were studied. - Abstract: VO{sub 2} thin films have been grown on Si(100) (VO{sub 2}/Si) and fused silica substrates (VO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using tetrakis-dimethyl-amino vanadium (IV) (TDMAV) as a novel vanadium precursor and water as reactant gas. The quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurement was performed to study the ALD process of VO{sub 2} thin film deposition, and a constant growth rate of about 0.95 Å/cycle was obtained at the temperature range of 150–200 °C. XRD measurement was performed to study the influence of deposition temperature and post-annealing condition on the crystallization of VO{sub 2} films, which indicated that the films deposited between 150 and 200 °C showed well crystallinity after annealing at 475 °C for 100 min in Ar atmosphere. XPS measurement verified that the vanadium oxidation state was 4+ for both as-deposited film and post-annealed VO{sub 2}/Si film. AFM was applied to study the surface morphology of VO{sub 2}/Si films, which showed a dense polycrystalline film with roughness of about 1 nm. The resistance of VO{sub 2}/Si films deposited between 150 °C and 200 °C as a function of temperature showed similar semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT) characters with the transition temperature for heating branch (T{sub c,h}) of about 72 °C, a hysteresis width of about 10 °C and the resistance change of two orders of magnitude. The increase of T{sub c,h} compared with the bulk VO{sub 2} (68 °C) may be attributed to the tensile stress along the c-axis in the film. Transmittance measurement of VO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2} films showed typical thermochromic property with a NIR switching efficiency of above 50% at 2 μm across

  7. NMR Studies of Protein Hydration and Protein-Ligand Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Yuan

    Water on the surface of a protein is called hydration water. Hydration water is known to play a crucial role in a variety of biological processes including protein folding, enzymatic activation, and drug binding. Although the significance of hydration water has been recognized, the underlying mechanism remains far from being understood. This dissertation employs a unique in-situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique to study the mechanism of protein hydration and the role of hydration in alcohol-protein interactions. Water isotherms in proteins are measured at different temperatures via the in-situ NMR technique. Water is found to interact differently with hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups on the protein. Water adsorption on hydrophilic groups is hardly affected by the temperature, while water adsorption on hydrophobic groups strongly depends on the temperature around 10 C, below which the adsorption is substantially reduced. This effect is induced by the dramatic decrease in the protein flexibility below 10 C. Furthermore, nanosecond to microsecond protein dynamics and the free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of protein hydration are studied as a function of hydration level and temperature. A crossover at 10 C in protein dynamics and thermodynamics is revealed. The effect of water at hydrophilic groups on protein dynamics and thermodynamics shows little temperature dependence, whereas water at hydrophobic groups has stronger effect above 10 C. In addition, I investigate the role of water in alcohol binding to the protein using the in-situ NMR detection. The isotherms of alcohols are first measured on dry proteins, then on proteins with a series of controlled hydration levels. The free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of alcohol binding are also determined. Two distinct types of alcohol binding are identified. On the one hand, alcohols can directly bind to a few specific sites on the protein. This type of binding is independent of temperature and can be

  8. Skin Hydration Assessment through Modern Non-Invasive Bioengineering Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Maria-Magdalena; Poenaru, Elena; Poenaru, Calin; Constantin, Traian

    2014-03-01

    Non-invasive bioengineering technologies continuously discovered and developed in recent decades provide a significant input to research development and remarkably contribute to the improvement of medical education and care to our patients. Assessing skin hydration by using the capacitance method for a group of patients with allergic contact dermatitis versus healthy subjects, before and after applying a moisturiser (assessing the immediate and long-term effectiveness of hydration). For both groups, but especially for the patients with dry skin, there was a clear improvement of hydration, statistically significant after applying the moisturiser. In the case of the patients with allergic contact dermatitis, hydration was at a maximum immediately after the first application, and then maintained an increased level after 7 and 28 days, respectively. In the healthy subjects, the increase in hydration was lower, but progressive. The moisturiser determined an increase in hydration for all age groups, but those who showed the most obvious effect were the young adults (18-29 years old) with an increase of 19.9%.The maintenance effect of hydration lasted for 28 days, while the improvement was important for allergic skin (17.1%) and significant for healthy skin (10.9%). The assessment of epidermal hydration performed by using the corneometer showed very good hydration of the stratum corneum for both groups studied, with immediate and long-term effect. This study also showed that the degree of skin hydration was inversely proportional with age. The corneometer is easy to use, efficient and widely utilised in international studies for measurements in healthy or pathological conditions, for quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of various preparations intended for application to the skin surface, under well-controlled and standardised conditions.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of new vanadium salcylaldoxime ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ilyasblk

    The elemental microanalysis and mass spectra (electrospray method) were carried out ... The 51V NMR spectra were measured in D2O or in DMSO-d6, using VOCl as the .... These signals are in the range reported for the vanadium atoms in a ...

  10. Determination of Leachable Vanadium (V) in Sediment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    KEYWORDS. Certified reference materials, vanadium(+5) speciation, electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. 1. Introduction. The measurement of the chemical species of elements, instead of the total element concentration, has become an irreversible trend in analytical chemistry.1–2 The motivation lies in the fact.

  11. Structure and function of vanadium haloperoxidases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Michibata, H.

    2012-01-01

    Vanadium haloperoxidases contain the bare metal oxide vanadate as a prosthetic group and differ strongly from the heme peroxidases in substrate specificity and molecular properties. The substrates of these enzymes are limited to halides and sulfides, which in the presence of hydrogen peroxide are

  12. Vanadium supply and demand outlook. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    A review has been made of the reserves and resources for vanadium minerals in the United States and foreign countries. Foreign sources are presently used to provide a substantial part of national demand because of price advantages. There are so many functioning foreign sources for vanadium that it is difficult to conceive of circumstances that would shut all of them off. The basis for the national stockpile is described. A recommendation is made to add the 65V-35Al alloy as a component of the stockpile for titanium alloy production in a national emergency. Estimated consumption growth rates to 1990 vary from one to five percent per year depending on the end product involved. Fission reactor use of vanadium-base alloys has not developed because of technical problems. In the chemical field, a slow steady growth of five to six percent per year is projected. Technical preferences for vanadium in various steel applications will continue although other alloying alternatives are generally available. Overall environmental effects do not appear to be a serious industrial problem

  13. Fundamental irradiation studies on vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, B.A.; Garner, F.A.; Ermi, A.M.

    1985-05-01

    A joint experiment on the irradiation response of simple vanadium alloys has been initiated under the auspices of the DAFS and BES progams. Specimen fabrication is nearly complete and the alloys are expected to be irradiated in lithium in FFTF-MOTA Cycles 7 and 8

  14. Lithium insertion in sputtered vanadium oxide film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, K.; Zachau-Christiansen, B.; Skaarup, S.V.

    1992-01-01

    were oxygen deficient compared to V2O5. Films prepared in pure argon were reduced to V(4) or lower. The vanadium oxide films were tested in solid-state lithium cells. Films sputtered in oxygen showed electrochemical properties similar to crystalline V2O5. The main differences are a decreased capacity...

  15. Oxidative Stress as a Mechanism Involved in Kidney Damage After Subchronic Exposure to Vanadium Inhalation and Oral Sweetened Beverages in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Zurutuza, Maribel; González-Villalva, Adriana; Albarrán-Alonso, Juan Carlos; Colín-Barenque, Laura; Bizarro-Nevares, Patricia; Rojas-Lemus, Marcela; López-Valdéz, Nelly; Fortoul, Teresa I

    Kidney diseases have notably increased in the last few years. This is partially explained by the increase in metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and systemic blood hypertension. However, there is a segment of the population that has neither of the previous risk factors, yet suffers kidney damage. Exposure to atmospheric pollutants has been suggested as a possible risk factor. Air-suspended particles carry on their surface a variety of fuel combustion-related residues such as metals, and vanadium is one of these. Vanadium might produce oxidative stress resulting in the damage of some organs such as the kidney. Additionally, in countries like Mexico, the ingestion of sweetened beverages is a major issue; whether these beverages alone are responsible for direct kidney damage or whether their ingestion promotes the progression of an existing renal damage generates controversy. In this study, we report the combined effect of vanadium inhalation and sweetened beverages ingestion in a mouse model. Forty CD-1 male mice were distributed in 4 groups: control, vanadium inhalation, 30% sucrose in drinking water, and vanadium inhalation plus sucrose 30% in drinking water. Our results support that vanadium inhalation and the ingestion of 30% sucrose induce functional and histological kidney damage and an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers, which were higher in the combined effect of vanadium plus 30% sucrose. The results also support that the ingestion of 30% sucrose alone without hyperglycemia also produces kidney damage.

  16. Overview: Nucleation of clathrate hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Pramod; Khan, M Naveed; Srivastava, Vishal; Maupin, C Mark; Koh, Carolyn A

    2016-12-07

    Molecular level knowledge of nucleation and growth of clathrate hydrates is of importance for advancing fundamental understanding on the nature of water and hydrophobic hydrate formers, and their interactions that result in the formation of ice-like solids at temperatures higher than the ice-point. The stochastic nature and the inability to probe the small length and time scales associated with the nucleation process make it very difficult to experimentally determine the molecular level changes that lead to the nucleation event. Conversely, for this reason, there have been increasing efforts to obtain this information using molecular simulations. Accurate knowledge of how and when hydrate structures nucleate will be tremendously beneficial for the development of sustainable hydrate management strategies in oil and gas flowlines, as well as for their application in energy storage and recovery, gas separation, carbon sequestration, seawater desalination, and refrigeration. This article reviews various aspects of hydrate nucleation. First, properties of supercooled water and ice nucleation are reviewed briefly due to their apparent similarity to hydrates. Hydrate nucleation is then reviewed starting from macroscopic observations as obtained from experiments in laboratories and operations in industries, followed by various hydrate nucleation hypotheses and hydrate nucleation driving force calculations based on the classical nucleation theory. Finally, molecular simulations on hydrate nucleation are discussed in detail followed by potential future research directions.

  17. Formation of submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloviev, V.; Ginsburg, G.D. (Reserch Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources of the Ocean ' ' VNII Okeangeologia' ' , St. Petersburg (Russian Federation))

    1994-03-01

    Submarine gas hydrates have been discoverd in the course of deep-sea drilling (DSDP and ODP) and bottom sampling in many offshore regions. This paper reports on expeditions carried out in the Black, Caspian and Okhotsk Seas. Gas hydrate accumulations were discovered and investigated in all these areas. The data and an analysis of the results of the deep-sea drilling programme suggest that the infiltration of gas-bearing fluids is a necessary condition for gas hydrate accumulation. This is confirmed by geological observations at three scale levels. Firstly, hydrates in cores are usually associated with comparatively coarse-grained, permeable sediments as well as voids and fractures. Secondly, hydrate accumulations are controlled by permeable geological structures, i.e. faults, diapirs, mud volcanos as well as layered sequences. Thirdly, in the worldwide scale, hydrate accumulations are characteristic of continental slopes and rises and intra-continental seas where submarine seepages also are widespread. Both biogenic and catagenic gas may occur, and the gas sources may be located at various distances from the accumulation. Gas hydrates presumably originate from water-dissolved gas. The possibility of a transition from dissolved gas into hydrate is confirmed by experimental data. Shallow gas hydrate accumulations associated with gas-bearing fluid plumes are the most convenient features for the study of submarine hydrate formation in general. These accumulations are known from the Black, Caspian and Okhotsk Seas, the Gulf of Mexico and off northern California. (au) (24 refs.)

  18. Overview: Nucleation of clathrate hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Pramod; Khan, M. Naveed; Srivastava, Vishal; Maupin, C. Mark; Koh, Carolyn A.

    2016-12-01

    Molecular level knowledge of nucleation and growth of clathrate hydrates is of importance for advancing fundamental understanding on the nature of water and hydrophobic hydrate formers, and their interactions that result in the formation of ice-like solids at temperatures higher than the ice-point. The stochastic nature and the inability to probe the small length and time scales associated with the nucleation process make it very difficult to experimentally determine the molecular level changes that lead to the nucleation event. Conversely, for this reason, there have been increasing efforts to obtain this information using molecular simulations. Accurate knowledge of how and when hydrate structures nucleate will be tremendously beneficial for the development of sustainable hydrate management strategies in oil and gas flowlines, as well as for their application in energy storage and recovery, gas separation, carbon sequestration, seawater desalination, and refrigeration. This article reviews various aspects of hydrate nucleation. First, properties of supercooled water and ice nucleation are reviewed briefly due to their apparent similarity to hydrates. Hydrate nucleation is then reviewed starting from macroscopic observations as obtained from experiments in laboratories and operations in industries, followed by various hydrate nucleation hypotheses and hydrate nucleation driving force calculations based on the classical nucleation theory. Finally, molecular simulations on hydrate nucleation are discussed in detail followed by potential future research directions.

  19. Dehydration behaviour of hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dette, S.S.; Stelzer, T.; Jones, M.J.; Ulrich, J. [Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Zentrum fuer Ingenieurwissenschaften, Verfahrenstechnik/TVT, 06099 Halle (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Immersing a crystalline solvate in a suitable anti-solvent can induce phase transformation to solvent-free solid phase. In certain cases the solvent-mediated phase transition results in the generation of hollow, tubular structures. Both the tube dimensions of sodium-2-keto-L-gulonate anhydrate (skga) and the dehydration kinetics of sodium-2-keto-L-gulonate monohydrate (skgm) can be modified by the antisolvent employed. An explanation for the variable dehydration behaviour of skgm in the antisolvents is presented here. Furthermore, other crystalline hydrates were dehydrated in dry methanol. Providing an operational window can be found, any hydrate material could possibly find use in the production of tubes (micro- or nanotubes for different applications). The experimental conditions selected (dry methanol as antisolvent, dehydration temperature at 25 C) for the dehydration did not lead to the anhydrate tube growth for all hydrates investigated. Based upon the results presented here a first hypothesis is presented to explain this effect. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. In situ self-sacrificed template synthesis of vanadium nitride/nitrogen-doped graphene nanocomposites for electrochemical capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Hui; Zhang, Hong-Ling; Xu, Hong-Bin; Lou, Tai-Ping; Sui, Zhi-Tong; Zhang, Yi

    2018-03-15

    Vanadium nitride and graphene have been widely used as pseudo-capacitive and electric double-layer capacitor electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors, respectively. However, the poor cycling stability of vanadium nitride and the low capacitance of graphene impeded their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrated an in situ self-sacrificed template method for the synthesis of vanadium nitride/nitrogen-doped graphene (VN/NGr) nanocomposites by the pyrolysis of a mixture of dicyandiamide, glucose, and NH 4 VO 3 . Vanadium nitride nanoparticles of the size in the range of 2 to 7 nm were uniformly embedded into the nitrogen-doped graphene skeleton. Furthermore, the VN/NGr nanocomposites with a high specific surface area and pore volume showed a high specific capacitance of 255 F g -1 at 10 mV s -1 , and an excellent cycling stability (94% capacitance retention after 2000 cycles). The excellent capacitive properties were ascribed to the excellent conductivity of nitrogen-doped graphene, high surface area, high pore volume, and the synergistic effect between vanadium nitride and nitrogen-doped graphene.

  1. Advances in understanding hydration of Portland cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrivener, Karen L.; Juilland, Patrick; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Progress in understanding hydration is summarized. Evidence supports the geochemistry dissolution theory as an explanation for the induction period, in preference to the inhibiting layer theory. The growth of C–S–H is the principal factor controlling the main heat evolution peak. Electron microscopy indicates that C–S–H “needles” grow from the surface of grains. At the peak, the surface is covered, but deceleration cannot be attributed to diffusion control. The shoulder peak comes from renewed reaction of C 3 A after depletion of sulfate in solution, but release of sulfate absorbed on C–S–H means that ettringite continues to form. After several days space becomes the major factor controlling hydration. The use of new analytical technique is improving our knowledge of the action of superplasticizers and leading to the design of molecules for different applications. Atomistic modeling is becoming a topic of increasing interest. Recent publications in this area are reviewed

  2. Advances in understanding hydration of Portland cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrivener, Karen L., E-mail: Karen.scrivener@epfl.ch [Laboratory of Construction Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, 1015 (Switzerland); Juilland, Patrick [Sika Technology AG, Zürich (Switzerland); Monteiro, Paulo J.M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Berkeley (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Progress in understanding hydration is summarized. Evidence supports the geochemistry dissolution theory as an explanation for the induction period, in preference to the inhibiting layer theory. The growth of C–S–H is the principal factor controlling the main heat evolution peak. Electron microscopy indicates that C–S–H “needles” grow from the surface of grains. At the peak, the surface is covered, but deceleration cannot be attributed to diffusion control. The shoulder peak comes from renewed reaction of C{sub 3}A after depletion of sulfate in solution, but release of sulfate absorbed on C–S–H means that ettringite continues to form. After several days space becomes the major factor controlling hydration. The use of new analytical technique is improving our knowledge of the action of superplasticizers and leading to the design of molecules for different applications. Atomistic modeling is becoming a topic of increasing interest. Recent publications in this area are reviewed.

  3. Propane hydrate nucleation: Experimental investigation and correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars; Thomsen, Kaj; von Solms, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    supersaturation region. The experiments showed that the gas dissolution rate rather than the induction time of propane hydrate is influenced by a change in agitation. This was especially valid at high stirring rates when the water surface was severely disturbed.Addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP......) to the aqueous phase was found to reduce the gas dissolution rate slightly. However the induction times were prolonged quite substantially upon addition of PVP.The induction time data were correlated using a newly developed induction time model based on crystallization theory also capable of taking into account...... the presence of additives. In most cases reasonable agreement between the data and the model could be obtained. The results revealed that especially the effective surface energy between propane hydrate and water is likely to change when the stirring rate varies from very high to low. The prolongation...

  4. Partial Oxidation of n-Butane over a Sol-Gel Prepared Vanadium Phosphorous Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Salazar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium phosphorous oxide (VPO is traditionally manufactured from solid vanadium oxides by synthesizing VOHPO4∙0.5H2O (the precursor followed by in situ activation to produce (VO2P2O7 (the active phase. This paper discusses an alternative synthesis method based on sol-gel techniques. Vanadium (V triisopropoxide oxide was reacted with ortho-phosphoric acid in an aprotic solvent. The products were dried at high pressure in an autoclave with a controlled excess of solvent. This procedure produced a gel of VOPO4 with interlayer entrapped molecules. The surface area of the obtained materials was between 50 and 120 m2/g. Alcohol produced by the alkoxide hydrolysis reduced the vanadium during the drying step, thus VOPO4 was converted to the precursor. This procedure yielded non-agglomerated platelets, which were dehydrated and evaluated in a butane-air mixture. Catalysts were significantly more selective than the traditionally prepared materials with similar intrinsic activity. It is suggested that the small crystallite size obtained increased their selectivity towards maleic anhydride.

  5. Hydration Control of the Mechanical and Dynamical Properties of Cellulose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petridis, Loukas; O’Neill, Hugh M.; Johnsen, Mariah [Ripon College, Ripon, Wisconsin 54971, United States; Fan, Bingxin [Department; Schulz, Roland [Department; Mamontov, Eugene; Maranas, Janna [Department; Langan, Paul [Department; Smith, Jeremy C. [Department

    2014-10-13

    The mechanical and dynamical properties of cellulose, the most abundant biomolecule on earth, are essential for its function in plant cell walls and advanced biomaterials. Cellulose is almost always found in a hydrated state, and it is therefore important to understand how hydration influences its dynamics and mechanics. Here, the nanosecond-time scale dynamics of cellulose is characterized using dynamic neutron scattering experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The experiments reveal that hydrated samples exhibit a higher average mean-square displacement above ~240 K. The MD simulation reveals that the fluctuations of the surface hydroxymethyl atoms determine the experimental temperature and hydration dependence. The increase in the conformational disorder of the surface hydroxymethyl groups with temperature follows the cellulose persistence length, suggesting a coupling between structural and mechanical properties of the biopolymer. In the MD simulation, 20% hydrated cellulose is more rigid than the dry form, due to more closely packed cellulose chains and water molecules bridging cellulose monomers with hydrogen bonds. This finding may have implications for understanding the origin of strength and rigidity of secondary plant cell walls. The detailed characterization obtained here describes how hydration-dependent increased fluctuations and hydroxymethyl disorder at the cellulose surface lead to enhancement of the rigidity of this important biomolecule.

  6. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1984-09-12

    The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

  7. THERMODYNAMIC MODEL OF GAS HYDRATES

    OpenAIRE

    Недоступ, В. И.; Недоступ, О. В.

    2015-01-01

    The interest to gas hydrates grows last years. Therefore working out of reliable settlement-theoretical methods of definition of their properties is necessary. The thermodynamic model of gas hydrates in which the central place occupies a behaviour of guest molecule in cell is described. The equations of interaction of molecule hydrate formative gas with cell are received, and also an enthalpy and energy of output of molecule from a cell are determined. The equation for calculation of thermody...

  8. CLATHRATE HYDRATES FORMATION IN SHORT-PERIOD COMETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marboeuf, Ulysse; Mousis, Olivier; Petit, Jean-Marc; Schmitt, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The initial composition of current models of cometary nuclei is only based on two forms of ice: crystalline ice for long-period comets and amorphous ice for short-period comets. A third form of ice, i.e., clathrate hydrate, could exist within the short-period cometary nuclei, but the area of formation of this crystalline structure in these objects has never been studied. Here, we show that the thermodynamic conditions in the interior of short-period comets allow the existence of clathrate hydrates in Halley-type comets. We show that their existence is viable in the Jupiter family comets only when the equilibrium pressure of CO clathrate hydrate is at least 1 order of magnitude lower than the usually assumed theoretical value. We calculate that the amount of volatiles that could be trapped in the clathrate hydrate layer may be orders of magnitude greater than the daily amount of gas released at the surface of the nucleus at perihelion. The formation and the destruction of the clathrate hydrate cages could then explain the diversity of composition of volatiles observed in comets, as well as some pre-perihelion outbursts. We finally show that the potential clathrate hydrate layer in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko would, unfortunately, be deep inside the nucleus, out of reach of the Rosetta lander. However, such a clathrate hydrate layer would show up by the gas composition of the coma.

  9. MORPHOLOGY OF METHANE HYDRATE HOST SEDIMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JONES, K.W.; FENG, H.; TOMOV, S.; WINTER, W.J.; EATON, M.; MAHAJAN, D.

    2004-01-01

    Results from simulated experiments in several laboratories show that host sediments influence hydrate formation in accord with known heterogeneity of host sediments at sites of gas hydrate occurrence (1). For example, in Mackenzie Delta, NWT Canada (Mallik 2L-38 well), coarser-grained units (pore-filling model) are found whereas in the Gulf of Mexico, the found hydrate samples do not appear to be lithologically controlled. We have initiated a systematic study of sediments, initially focusing on samples from various depths at a specific site, to establish a correlation with hydrate occurrence (or variations thereof) to establish differences in their microstructure, porosity, and other associated properties. The synchrotron computed microtomography (CMT) set-up at the X-27A tomography beam line at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), Brookhaven National Laboratory was used as a tool to study sediments from Blake Ridge at three sub bottom depths of 0.2, 50, and 667 meters. Results from the tomographic analysis of the deepest sample (667 m) are presented here to illustrate how tomography can be used to obtain new insights into the structures of methane hydrate host sediments. The investigation shows the internal grain/pore space resolution in the microstructure and a 3-D visualization of the connecting pathways obtained following data segmentation into pore space and grains within the sediment sample. The analysis gives the sample porosity, specific surface area, mean particle size, and tortuosity, as well. An earlier report on the experimental program has been given by Mahajan et al. (2)

  10. Extraction of Vanadium from Vanadium Slag Via Non-salt Roasting and Ammonium Oxalate Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Du, Hao; Zheng, Shili; Wang, Shaona; Zhang, Yang; Liu, Biao; Dreisinger, David Bruce; Zhang, Yi

    2017-10-01

    A clean method featuring non-salt roasting followed by (NH4)2C2O4 leaching to recover vanadium from vanadium slag was proposed. The carcinogenic Cr6+ compounds and exhaust gases were avoided, and the water generated from vanadate precipitation may be recycled and reused in this new leaching process. The leaching residues may be easily used by a blast furnace. Moreover, (NH4)2C2O4 solution was used as a leaching medium to avoid expensive and complicated ammonium controlling operations as a result of the stability of (NH4)2C2O4 at a high temperature. The transformation mechanisms of vanadium- and chromium-bearing phases were systematically investigated by x-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy with energy-disperse x-ray spectrometry, respectively. In addition, the effects of oxygen concentration, roasting temperature, and holding time on vanadium recovery were investigated. Finally, the effects of leaching variables on the vanadium leaching rate were also examined.

  11. Novel understanding of calcium silicate hydrate from dilute hydration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lina; Yamauchi, Kazuo; Li, Zongjin; Zhang, Xixiang; Ma, Hongyan; Ge, Shenguang

    2017-01-01

    The perspective of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is still confronting various debates due to its intrinsic complicated structure and properties after decades of studies. In this study, hydration at dilute suspension of w/s equaling to 10

  12. Vaporization study on vanadium monoxide and two-phase mixture of vanadium and vanadium monoxide by mass-spectrometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banchorndhevakul, W.; Matsui, Tsuneo; Naito, Keiji

    1986-01-01

    The vapor pressures over single phase vanadium monoxide VO 1.022 (s) and the two-phase mixture of vanadium metal (β phase) and vanadium monoxide were measured by mass-spectrometric method in the temperature range of 1,803 ∼ 1,990 and 1,703 ∼ 1,884 K, respectively. The main gas species over both systems were found to be VO(g) and V(g). The vapor pressure of VO(g) over the two-phase mixture of V(s) and VO(s) was a little lower than that over single phase VO(s). The vapor pressure of V(g) over the two-phase mixture was nearly equal to that over single phase. From the vapor pressure data, the enthalpies of vaporization, the enthalpies of formation for VO(g) and V(g) and the dissociation energy of VO(g) were determined. The oxygen partial pressure was calculated as a function of temperature from the vapor pressures of VO(g) and V(g), from which the partial molar enthalpies and entropies of oxygen in both systems were obtained. (author)

  13. Hydration behaviors of calcium silicate-based biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yuan-Ling; Wang, Wen-Hsi; Lin, Feng-Huie; Lin, Chun-Pin

    2017-06-01

    Calcium silicate (CS)-based biomaterials, such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), have become the most popular and convincing material used in restorative endodontic treatments. However, the commercially available CS-based biomaterials all contain different minor additives, which may affect their hydration behaviors and material properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydration behavior of CS-based biomaterials with/without minor additives. A novel CS-based biomaterial with a simplified composition, without mineral oxides as minor additives, was produced. The characteristics of this biomaterial during hydration were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. The hydration behaviors of commercially available gray and white MTAs with mineral oxide as minor additives were also evaluated for reference. For all three test materials, the XRD analysis revealed similar diffraction patterns after hydration, but MTAs presented a significant decrease in the intensities of Bi 2 O 3 -related peaks. SEM results demonstrated similar porous microstructures with some hexagonal and facetted crystals on the outer surfaces. In addition, compared to CS with a simplified composition, the FTIR plot indicated that hydrated MTAs with mineral oxides were better for the polymerization of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH), presenting Si-O band shifting to higher wave numbers, and contained more water crystals within CSH, presenting sharper bands for O-H bending. Mineral oxides might not result in significant changes in the crystal phases or microstructures during the hydration of CS-based biomaterials, but these compounds affected the hydration behavior at the molecular level. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Vanadium dioxide formed by the sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potember, R.S.; Speck, K.R.; Hu, H.S.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a process for the deposition of a crystalline vanadium dioxide thin film. It comprises: providing a solution comprising a vanadium tetraalkoxide and solvent; allowing hydrolysis and condensation reactions to progressively form a homogeneous sol from the solution, applying a coating of the sol to the substrate; allowing a gel to form from the sol on the substrate by evaporating the solvent; dehydrating the gel by heat treatment under an inert atmosphere to form the crystalline vanadium dioxide film

  15. Effect of vanadium compounds on acid phosphatase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Vescina, Cecilia M.; Sálice, Viviana C.; Cortizo, Ana María; Etcheverry, Susana B.

    1996-01-01

    The direct effect of different vanadium compounds on acid phosphatase (ACP) activity was investigated. Vanadate and vanadyl but not pervanadate inhibited the wheat germ ACP activity. These vanadium derivatives did not alter the fibroblast Swiss 3T3 soluble fraction ACP activity. Using inhibitors of tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases), the wheat germ ACP was partially characterized as a PTPase. This study suggests that the inhibitory ability of different vanadium derivatives to modulate ACP activi...

  16. Oxidation of methyl heterocyclic compounds on vanadium oxide catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimanskaya, M.V.; Lejtis, L.A.; Iovel', I.G.; Gol'dberg, Yu.Sh.; Skolmejstere, R.A.; Golender, L.O.

    1985-01-01

    Data on vapor-phase oxidation of methyl derivatives of thiophene, Δ 2 - thiazo line, pyridine, pyrazine and pyramidine on oxide vanadium-molybdenum catalysts to corresponding heterylaldehydes are generalized. The dependence of catalytic properties of oxide vanadium-molybdenum systems in oxidation reactions of methylheterocyclic compounds on V:Mo ratio in the catalyst is revealed. It is shown that heterocyclic compounds are coordinated by a heteroatom on Lewis centres of V-Mo-O-catalyst primarily with partially reduced vanadium ions

  17. Analysis of molybdenum, chromium, vanadium and iron by polarographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Zand, T.K.

    1986-01-01

    The application of direct current Tast polarograph, differential pulse polarography and phase-selective alternative current Tast polarography to the problem of determining molybdenum, chromium, vanadium and iron in various supporting electrolytes is reported. The effect of the supporting electrolyte on the wave/peak potential and sensitivity of the metal ion have been examined. The polarographic methods were applied for simultaneous determination of chromium (3)/chromium (6), vanadium (4), vanadium (5) and iron (2)/iron (3) in different supporting electrolytes

  18. Modification of the Properties of Vanadium Oxide Thin Films by Plasma-Immersion Ion Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Burdyukh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the effect of doping with hydrogen and tungsten by means of plasma-immersion ion implantation (PIII on the properties of vanadium dioxide and hydrated vanadium pentoxide films. It is shown that the parameters of the metal-insulator phase transition in VO2 thin films depend on the hydrogen implantation dose. Next, we explore the effect of PIII on composition, optical properties, and the internal electrochromic effect (IECE in V2O5·nH2O films. The variations in the composition and structure caused by the hydrogen insertion, as well as those caused by the electrochromic effect, are studied by nuclear magnetic resonance, thermogravimetry, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray structural analysis. It is shown that the ion implantation-induced hydrogenation can substantially enhance the manifestation and performance of the IECE in V2O5 xerogel films. Finally, the effect of PIII-assisted doping with W on the parameters of electrical switching in Au/V2O5·nH2O/Au sandwich structures is examined. It is shown that implanting small tungsten doses improves the switching parameters after forming. When implanting large doses, switching is observed without electroforming, and if electroforming is applied, the switching effect, on the contrary, disappears.

  19. Observation of ice sheet formation on methane and ethane gas hydrates using a scanning confocal microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, J.; Shimomura, N.; Ebinuma, T.; Narita, H. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Toyohira, Sapporo (Japan). Methane Hydrate Research Lab.

    2008-07-01

    Interest in gas hydrates has increased in recent years due to the discovery of large deposits under the ocean floor and in permafrost regions. Natural gas hydrates, including methane, is expected to become a new energy source and a medium for energy storage and transportation. Gas hydrates consist of an open network of water molecules that are hydrogen-bonded in a similar manner to ice. Gas molecules are interstitially engaged under high pressures and low temperatures. Although the dissociation temperature of methane hydrate under atmospheric pressure is about 193 K, studies have shown that methane hydrate can be stored at atmospheric pressure and 267 K for 2 years. Because of this phenomenon, known as self-preservation, transportation and storage of methane hydrate can occur at temperature conditions milder than those for liquefied methane gas at atmospheric pressure. This study examined the surface changes of methane and ethane hydrates during dissociation using an optical microscope and confocal scanning microscope (CSM). This paper reported on the results when the atmospheric gas pressure was decreased. Ice sheets formed on the surfaces of methane and ethane gas hydrates due to depressurizing dissociation of methane and ethane hydrates when the methane and ethane gas pressures were decreased at designated temperatures. The dissociation of methane gas hydrate below below 237 K resulted in the generation of small ice particles on the hydrate surface. A transparent ice sheet formed on the hydrate surface above 242 K. The thickness of the ice sheet on the methane hydrate surface showed the maximum of ca. 30 {mu}m at 253 K. In the case of ethane hydrates, ice particles and ice sheets formed below 262 and 267 respectively. Since the ice particles and ice sheets were formed by water molecules generated during the gas hydrate dissociation, the mechanism of ice sheet formation depends on the dissociation rate of hydrate, ice particle sintering rate, and water molecule

  20. High rate capability of lithium/silver vanadium oxide cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, E.S.; Zelinsky, M.A.; Keister, P.

    1986-01-01

    High rate characteristics of the lithium/silver vanadium oxide system were investigated in test cells providing four different limiting surface areas. The cells were tested by constant current and constant resistance discharge with current densities ranging from 0.04 to 6.4 mA/cm/sup 2/. The maximum current density under constant resistance and constant current discharges which would deliver 50% of theoretical capacity was determined. The ability of the cells to deliver high current pulses was evaluated by application of 10 second pulses with current densities ranging from 3 to 30 mA/cm/sup 2/. The voltage delay characteristics of the cells were determined after 1 to 3 months of storage at open circuit voltage or under low level background currents. The volumetric and gravimetric energy density of the SVO system is compared to other cathode materials

  1. Thermal Regeneration of Sulfuric Acid Hydrates after Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Mark J.; Hudson, Reggie L.

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to more completely understand the surface chemistry of the jovian icy satellites, we have investigated the effect of heating on two irradiated crystalline sulfuric acid hydrates, H2SO4 4H2O and H2SO4 H2O. At temperatures relevant to Europa and the warmer jovian satellites, post-irradiation heating recrystallized the amorphized samples and increased the intensities of the remaining hydrate's infrared absorptions. This thermal regeneration of the original hydrates was nearly 100% efficient, indicating that over geological times, thermally-induced phase transitions enhanced by temperature fluctuations will reform a large fraction of crystalline hydrated sulfuric acid that is destroyed by radiation processing. The work described is the first demonstration of the competition between radiation-induced amorphization and thermally-induced recrystallization in icy ionic solids relevant to the outer Solar System.

  2. Vanadium Transitions in the Spectrum of Arcturus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, M. P.; Sneden, C.; Lawler, J. E.; Den Hartog, E. A.; Cowan, J. J.; Nave, G.

    2018-02-01

    We derive a new abundance for vanadium in the bright, mildly metal-poor red giant Arcturus. This star has an excellent high-resolution spectral atlas and well-understood atmospheric parameters, and it displays a rich set of neutral vanadium lines that are available for abundance extraction. We employ a newly recorded set of laboratory FTS spectra to investigate any potential discrepancies in previously reported V I log(gf) values near 900 nm. These new spectra support our earlier laboratory transition data and the calibration method utilized in that study. We then perform a synthetic spectrum analysis of weak V I features in Arcturus, deriving log ε(V) = 3.54 ± 0.01 (σ = 0.04) from 55 lines. There are no significant abundance trends with wavelength, line strength, or lower excitation energy.

  3. Vanadium in fuel oil - a new solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czech, N. [Siemens, Muelheim (Germany); Finckh, H. [Siemens, Erlangen (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    Hot corrosion of the hot-gas-path components due to vanadium contamination is one of the hazards associated with heavy residual oil combustion in heavy-duty gas turbines. This economically attractive oil combustion process has benefited from the recently developed vanadium inhibition technique, which is currently being tested at the Valladolid 220 MWe combined cycle plant in Mexico. The method uses atomization of a dilute aqueous solution of Epsom salt (MgSO{sub 7},7H{sub 2}O) into very small droplets which are then injected onto the flame where intensive mixing takes place. The successful use of this new technique promises extended operating periods between cleanup operations, and cost reductions from the use of inexpensive materials, as well as the ability to operate advanced gas turbines on difficult fuels, not previously feasible. (UK)

  4. On the superconductivity of vanadium based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouers, F.; Rest, J. Van der

    1984-01-01

    The electron density of states of solid solutions of vanadium based transition metal alloys V 90 X 10 is computed with the aim of calculating the superconducting transition temperature using the McMillan formula. As observed experimentally for X on the left hand side of V in the periodic table, one obtains an increase of Tc while for X on the right hand side of V the critical temperature decreases. The detailed comparison with experiments indicate that when the bandwidths of the two constituents are different, one cannot neglect the variation of the electron-phonon interactions. Another important conclusion is that for alloys which are in the split-band limit like VAu, VPd and VPt, the agreement with experimental data can be obtained only by assuming that these alloys have a short-range order favouring clusters of pure vanadium. (Author) [pt

  5. Microadditions of boron and vanadium in ADI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rzychoń T.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of the study, describing the role of vanadium and boron microadditions in the process of structure formation in heavy-walled castings made from ADI, the results of own investigations were presented. Within this study two series of melts of the ductile iron were made, introducing microadditions of the above mentioned elements to both unalloyed ductile iron and the ductile iron containing high levels of nickel and copper (the composition typical of ADI. Melts were conducted with iron-nickel-magnesium master alloy. Thermal analysis of the solidification process of the cast keel blocks was conducted, the heat treatment of the alloys was carried out, and then the effect of the introduced additions of boron and vanadium on the hardenability of the investigated cast iron was examined and evaluated.

  6. Nitridation of vanadium by ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Masato; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Kinomura, Atsushi; Ensinger, Wolfgang

    1994-01-01

    The nitridation of vanadium by ion beam irradiation is studied by the ion implantation method and the dynamic mixing method. The nitrogen ion implantation was carried out into deposited V(110) films. Using both methods, three phases are formed, i.e. α-V, β-V 2 N, and δ-VN. Which phases are formed is related to the implantation dose or the arrival ratio. The orientation of the VN films produced by the dynamic ion beam mixing method is (100) and that of the VN films produced by the ion implantation method is (111). The nitridation of vanadium is also discussed in comparison with that of titanium and chromium. ((orig.))

  7. Mineralogy and geochemistry of vanadium in the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, A.D.

    1961-01-01

    The chief domestic source of vanadium is uraniferous sandstone in the Colorado Plateau. Vanadium is 3-, 4-, or 5-valent in nature and, as oxides or combined with other elements, it forms more than 40 minerals in the Plateau ores. These ores have been studied with regard to the relative amounts of vanadium silicates and oxide-vanadates, uranium-vanadium ratios, the progressive oxidation of black low-valent ores to high-valent carnotite-type ores, and theories of origin. ?? 1961.

  8. Effect of vanadium compounds on acid phosphatase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescina, C M; Sálice, V C; Cortizo, A M; Etcheverry, S B

    1996-01-01

    The direct effect of different vanadium compounds on acid phosphatase (ACP) activity was investigated. Vanadate and vanadyl but not pervanadate inhibited the wheat germ ACP activity. These vanadium derivatives did not alter the fibroblast Swiss 3T3 soluble fraction ACP activity. Using inhibitors of tyrosine phosphatases (PTPases), the wheat germ ACP was partially characterized as a PTPase. This study suggests that the inhibitory ability of different vanadium derivatives to modulate ACP activity seems to depend on the geometry around the vanadium atom more than on the oxidation state. Our results indicate a correlation between the PTPase activity and the sensitivity to vanadate and vanadyl cation.

  9. Pepspectives of chlorine application in metallurgy of vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, B.G.; Kutsenko, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    The most expedient variants of reprocessing of vanadium technical oxide (5), ferrovanadium and converter slags by chlorine technology with production of pure metal are considered. It is shown that production of vanadium by the way of electro- or metallothermal reduction of chlorides provides more plastic metal in comparison with reduction from oxides. The methods of production of VOCl 3 , VCl 4 and vanadium lowest chlorides are considered. Necessity of expansion of production of vanadium chlorine derivatives is dictated as well by their increasing application in different areas of national economy, in particular, as catalysts in organic synthesis

  10. Experimental method for investigating helium effects in irradiated vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Matsui, H.; Greenwood, L.; Loomis, B.

    1987-10-01

    Analyses have been performed which indicate that an effective method for experimentally investigating helium effects in neutron irradiated vanadium base alloys can be developed. The experimental procedure involves only modest modifications to existing procedures currently used for irradiation testing of vanadium-base alloys in the FFTF reactor. Helium is generated in the vanadium alloy by decay of tritium which is either preinjected or generated within the test capsule. Calculations indicate that nearly constant He/dpa ratios of desired magnitude can be attained by proper selection of experimental parameters. The proposed method could have a major impact on the development of vanadium base alloys for fusion reactor applications. 8 refs., 4 figs

  11. Vanadium bioavailability and toxicity to soil microorganisms and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Maja A; Baken, Stijn; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Hadialhejazi, Golshid; Smolders, Erik

    2013-10-01

    Vanadium, V, is a redox-sensitive metal that in solution, under aerobic conditions, prevails as the oxyanion vanadate(V). There is little known regarding vanadium toxicity to soil biota, and the present study was set up to determine the toxicity of added vanadate to soil organisms and to investigate the relationship between toxicity and vanadium sorption in soils. Five soils with contrasting properties were spiked with 7 different doses (3.2-3200 mg V kg(-1)) of dissolved vanadate, and toxicity was measured with 2 microbial and 3 plant assays. The median effective concentration (EC50) thresholds of the microbial assays ranged from 28 mg added V kg(-1) to 690 mg added V kg(-1), and the EC50s in the plant assays ranged from 18 mg added V kg(-1) to 510 mg added V kg(-1). The lower thresholds were in the concentration range of the background vanadium in the untreated control soils (15-58 mg V kg(-1)). The vanadium toxicity to plants decreased with a stronger soil vanadium sorption strength. The EC50 values for plants expressed on a soil solution basis ranged from 0.8 mg V L(-1) to 15 mg V L(-1) and were less variable among soils than corresponding values based on total vanadium in soil. It is concluded that sorption decreases the toxicity of added vanadate and that soil solution vanadium is a more robust measure to determine critical vanadium concentrations across soils. © 2013 SETAC.

  12. Controlled synthesis and electrochemical properties of vanadium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vanadium oxides (V3O7·H2O and VO2) with different morphologies have been selectively synthesized ... appeared at around 68 ◦C. Furthermore, the electrochemical properties of V3O7·H2O nanobelts, VO2(B) .... morphologies of shape-controlled orthorhombic V3O7·H2O ..... condition, as shown in figures S14i and j.

  13. Characterization of vanadium flow battery. Revised

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindner, H.; Ekman, C.; Gehrke, O.; Isleifsson, F.

    2011-02-15

    This report summarizes the work done at Risoe-DTU testing a vanadium flow battery as part of the project ''Characterisation of Vanadium Batteries'' (ForskEl project 6555) with the partners PA Energy A/S and OI Electric A/S under the Danish PSO energy research program. A 15kW/120kWh vanadium battery has been installed as part of the distributed energy systems experimental facility, SYSLAB, at Risoe DTU. A test programme has been carried out to get hands-on experience with the technology, to characterize the battery from a power system point of view and to assess it with respect to integration of wind energy in the Danish power system. The battery has been in operation for 18 months. During time of operation the battery has not shown signs of degradation of performance. It has a round-trip efficiency at full load of approximately 60% (depending on temperature and SOC). The sources of the losses are power conversion in cell stacks/electrolyte, power converter, and auxiliary power consumption from pumps and controller. The efficiency was not influenced by the cycling of the battery. The response time for the battery is limited at 20kW/s by the ramp rate of the power converter. The battery can thus provide power and frequency support for the power system. The battery was operated together with a 11kW stall-regulated Gaia wind turbine to smooth the output of the wind turbine and during the tests the battery proved capable of firming the output of the wind turbine. Vanadium battery is a potential technology for storage based services to the power system provided investment and O and M cost are low enough and long term operation is documented. (Author)

  14. Isotope mixtures of hydrogen in vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mecking-Schloetensack, P.

    1982-03-01

    The properties of isotope-mixtures of Protium and Deuterium stored in Vanadium have been studied. Protium and Deuterium are existing as interstitial-atoms on tetrahedral sites as well as on octahedral sites in this system. This feature leads to large isotopic-effects between the two isotopes. The dependence of the thermodynamic functions like heat of solution, nonconfigurational entropy, specific heat and ordering temperatures from the composition of the isotope-mixture has been determined. (orig.)

  15. Experimental techniques for cement hydration studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Luttge

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cement hydration kinetics is a complex problem of dissolution, nucleation and growth that is still not well understood, particularly in a quantitative way. While cement systems are unique in certain aspects they are also comparable to natural mineral systems. Therefore, geochemistry and particularly the study of mineral dissolution and growth may be able to provide insight and methods that can be utilized in cement hydration research. Here, we review mainly what is not known or what is currently used and applied in a problematic way. Examples are the typical Avrami approach, the application of Transition State Theory (TST to overall reaction kinetics and the problem of reactive surface area. Finally, we suggest an integrated approach that combines vertical scanning interferometry (VSI with other sophisticated analytical techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM and theoretical model calculations based on a stochastic treatment.

  16. Limitation of biocompatibility of hydrated nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaychev, V. V.; Teleshev, A. T.; Gorshenev, V. N.; Yakovleva, M. A.; Fomichev, V. A.; Pankratov, A. S.; Menshikh, K. A.; Fadeev, R. S.; Fadeeva, I. S.; Senotov, A. S.; Kobyakova, M. I.; Yurasova, Yu B.; Akatov, V. S.

    2018-04-01

    Nanostructured hydroxyapatite (HA) in the form of hydrated paste is considered to be a promising material for a minor-invasive surgical curing of bone tissue injure. However questions about adhesion of cells on this material and its biocompatibility still remain. In this study biocompatibility of paste-formed nanosized HA (nano-HA) by in vitro methods is investigated. Nano-HA (particles sized about 20 nm) was synthesized under conditions of mechano-acoustic activation of an aqueous reaction mixture of ammonium hydrophosphate and calcium nitrate. It was ascertained that nanocrystalline paste was not cytotoxic although limitation of adhesion, spreading and growth of the cells on its surface was revealed. The results obtained point on the need of modification of hydrated nano-HA in the aims of increasing its biocompatibility and osteoplastic potential.

  17. Effect of polymers on the nanostructure and on the carbonation of calcium silicate hydrates: a scanning transmission X-ray microscopy study

    KAUST Repository

    Ha, J.; Chae, S.; Chou, K. W.; Tyliszczak, T.; Monteiro, P. J. M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of organic polymers (polyethylene glycol and hexadecyltrimethylammonium) on structures of calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H) which is the major product of Portland cement hydration. Increased surface areas

  18. An extraction process to recover vanadium from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Desheng; Zhao, Hongxin; Hu, Guoping [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Qi, Tao, E-mail: tqgreen@ipe.ac.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yu, Hongdong; Zhang, Guozhi [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Lina, E-mail: linawang@ipe.ac.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Weijing [National Engineering Laboratory for Hydrometallurgical Cleaner Production Technology, Beijing 100190 (China); Key Laboratory of Green Process and Engineering, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-08-30

    Highlights: • The leaching solution contains high concentration of acid, iron, impurities and lower vanadium. • 99.4% of vanadium and 4.2% of iron were extracted by three-stage extraction process. • 99.6% of vanadium and 5.4% of iron were stripped by three-stage stripping process. • The stripping solution contains 40.16 g/L V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, 0.691 g/L Fe, 0.007 g/L TiO{sub 2} and 0.247 g/L CaO. • The vanadium product of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} with purity of 99.12%, 0.026% Fe and well crystallized. - Abstract: An extraction process to recover vanadium from low-grade vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite was developed. In this study, a mixed solvent system of di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (D2EHPA) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) diluted with kerosene was used for the selective extraction of vanadium from a hydrochloric acid leaching solution that contained low vanadium concentration with high concentrations of iron and impurities of Ca, Mg, and Al. In the extraction process, the initial solution pH and the phase ratio had considerable functions in the extraction of vanadium from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution. Under optimal extraction conditions (i.e., 30–40 °C for 10 min, 1:3 phase ratio (O/A), 20% D2EHPA concentration (v/v), and 0–0.8 initial solution pH), 99.4% vanadium and only 4.2% iron were extracted by the three-stage counter-current extraction process. In the stripping process with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as the stripping agent and under optimal stripping conditions (i.e., 20% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration, 5:1 phase ratio (O/A), 20 min stripping time, and 40 °C stripping temperature), 99.6% vanadium and only 5.4% iron were stripped by the three-stage counter-current stripping process. The stripping solution contained 40.16 g/L V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, 0.691g/L Fe, 0.007 g/L TiO{sub 2}, 0.006 g/L SiO{sub 2} and 0.247 g/L CaO. A V{sub 2}O{sub 5} product with a purity of 99.12% V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and only 0.026% Fe was obtained after the oxidation, precipitation

  19. Ductile flow of methane hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, W.B.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    Compressional creep tests (i.e., constant applied stress) conducted on pure, polycrystalline methane hydrate over the temperature range 260-287 K and confining pressures of 50-100 MPa show this material to be extraordinarily strong compared to other icy compounds. The contrast with hexagonal water ice, sometimes used as a proxy for gas hydrate properties, is impressive: over the thermal range where both are solid, methane hydrate is as much as 40 times stronger than ice at a given strain rate. The specific mechanical response of naturally occurring methane hydrate in sediments to environmental changes is expected to be dependent on the distribution of the hydrate phase within the formation - whether arranged structurally between and (or) cementing sediments grains versus passively in pore space within a sediment framework. If hydrate is in the former mode, the very high strength of methane hydrate implies a significantly greater strain-energy release upon decomposition and subsequent failure of hydrate-cemented formations than previously expected.

  20. Vanadium pentoxide nanoparticles mimic vanadium haloperoxidases and thwart biofilm formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Natalio, F.; Andre, R.; Hartog, A.F.; Stoll, B.; Jochum, K.P.; Wever, R.; Tremel, W.

    2012-01-01

    Marine biofouling—the colonization of small marine microorganisms on surfaces that are directly exposed to seawater, such as ships' hulls—is an expensive problem that is currently without an environmentally compatible solution1. Biofouling leads to increased hydrodynamic drag, which, in turn, causes

  1. Effect of neutron irradiation on vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braski, D.N.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron-irradiated vanadium alloys were evaluated for their susceptibility to irradiation hardening, helium embrittlement, swelling, and residual radioactivity, and the results were compared with those for the austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. The VANSTAR-7 and V-15Cr-5Ti alloys showed the greatest hardening between 400 and 600 0 C while V-3Ti-1Si and V-20Ti had lower values that were comparable to those of ferritic steels. The V-15Cr-5Ti and VANSTAR-7 alloys were susceptible to helium embrittlement caused by the combination of weakened grain boundaries and irradiation-hardened grain matrices. Specimen fractures were entirely intergranular in the most severe instances of embrittlement. The V-3Ti-1Si and V-20Ti alloys were more resistant to helium embrittlement. Except for VANSTAR-7 irradiated to 40 dpa at 520 0 C, all of the vanadium alloys exhibited low swelling that was similar to the ferritic steels. Swelling was greater in specimens that were preimplanted with helium using the tritium trick. The vanadium alloys clearly exhibit lower residual radioactivity after irradiation than the ferrous alloys

  2. Effect of neutron irradiation on vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braski, D.N.

    1986-01-01

    Neutron-irradiated vanadium alloys were evaluated for their susceptibility to irradiation hardening, helium embrittlement, swelling, and residual radioactivity, and the results were compared with those for the austenitic and ferritic stainless steels. The VANSTAR-7 and V-15Cr-5Ti alloys showed the greatest hardening between 400 and 600/sup 0/C while V-3Ti-1Si and V-20Ti had lower values that were comparable to those of ferritic steels. The V-15Cr-5Ti and VANSTAR-7 alloys were susceptible to helium embrittlement caused by the combination of weakened grain boundaries and irradiation-hardened grain matrices. Specimen fractures were entirely intergranular in the most severe instances of embrittlement. The V-3Ti-1Si and V-20Ti alloys were more resistant to helium embrittlement. Except for VANSTAR-7 irradiated to 40 dpa at 520/sup 0/C, all of the vanadium alloys exhibited low swelling that was similar to the ferritic steels. Swelling was greater in specimens that were preimplanted with helium using the tritium trick. The vanadium alloys clearly exhibit lower residual radioactivity after irradiation than the ferrous alloys.

  3. Measurements of gas permeability and non-Darcy flow in gas-water-hydrate systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersland, G.; Husebo, J.; Graue, A.; Kvamme, B. [Bergen Univ., Bergen (Norway). Dept. of Physics and Technology; Baldwin, B. [Green Country Petrophysics LLC, Dewey, OK (United States); Stevens, J.; Howard, J. [ConocoPhillips, OK (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in natural gas hydrate reservoirs may offer stable long-term storage of a greenhouse gas while benefiting from methane production, without requiring heat. By exposing hydrate to a thermodynamically preferred hydrate former, CO{sub 2}, the hydrate may be maintained macroscopically in the solid state and retain the stability of the formation. However, there is concern over the flow capacity in such reservoirs. This depends on several factors, notably thermodynamic destabilization of hydrate in small pores due to capillary effects; the presence of liquid channels separating the hydrate from the mineral surfaces; and, the connectivity of gas or liquid filled pores and channels. This paper described a technique for measuring gas permeability in gas-water-hydrate systems. It reported on several experiments that measured gas permeability during stages of hydrate growth in sandstone core plugs. Interactions between minerals and surrounding molecules were also discussed. The formation of methane hydrate in porous media was monitored and quantified with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI images of hydrate growth within the porous rock were provided along with measurements of gas permeability and non-Darcy flow effects at various hydrate saturations. Gas permeability was measured at steady state flow of methane through the hydrate-bearing core sample. Significant gas permeability was recorded for porous sandstone even when hydrates occupied up to 60 per cent of the pore space. It was concluded that MRI imaging can be used effectively to map and quantify hydrate saturation in sandstone core plugs. 27 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  4. Vanadium alloys for structural applications in fusion systems: A review of vanadium alloy mechanical and physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1991-12-16

    The current knowledge is reviewed on (1) the effects of neutron irradiation on tensile strength and ductility, ductile-brittle transition temperature, creep, fatigue, and swelling of vanadium-base alloys, (2) the compatibility of vanadium-base alloys with liquid lithium, water, and helium environments, and (3) the effects of hydrogen and helium on the physical and mechanical properties of vanadium alloys that are potential candidates for structural materials applications in fusion systems. Also, physical and mechanical properties issues are identified that have not been adequately investigated in order to qualify a vanadium-base alloy for the structural material in experimental fusion devices and/or in fusion reactors.

  5. Vanadium alloys for structural applications in fusion systems: A review of vanadium alloy mechanical and physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, B.A.; Smith, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    The current knowledge is reviewed on (1) the effects of neutron irradiation on tensile strength and ductility, ductile-brittle transition temperature, creep, fatigue, and swelling of vanadium-base alloys, (2) the compatibility of vanadium-base alloys with liquid lithium, water, and helium environments, and (3) the effects of hydrogen and helium on the physical and mechanical properties of vanadium alloys that are potential candidates for structural materials applications in fusion systems. Also, physical and mechanical properties issues are identified that have not been adequately investigated in order to qualify a vanadium-base alloy for the structural material in experimental fusion devices and/or in fusion reactors

  6. Oxygen segregation and its impact on the absorption of hydrogen in vanadium; Einfluss der Sauerstoffsegregation auf die Absorption von Wasserstoff in Vanadium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulus, H.; Lammers, M. [Inst. fuer Technologie- und Wissenstransfer, Soest (Germany); Mueller, K.H. [Inst. fuer Technologie- und Wissenstransfer, Soest (Germany)]|[Paderborn Univ. (Gesamthochschule), Soest (Germany). Fachbereich 16 - Elektrische Energietechnik; Kiss, G.; Kemeny, Z. [Technical Univ. Budapest (Hungary)

    1998-12-31

    The impact of the dissolved oxygen on the hydrogen absorption in vanadium was analysed with an UHV apparatus. The vanadium specimen with an oxygen content of 230 ppm was treated by a variety of heat treatments. The depth distributions of the induced concentrations of segregated oxygen in the specimen were analysed by SIMS. It was found that the amount of segregated oxygen increases with rising final temperature and tempering period. In a further experiment, the specimen was exposed after each segregation process to a H{sub 2}-pressure of 2.2 x 10{sup -4} Pa for a period of 1800 sec. The hydrogen amounts absorbed in the specimen were determined by thermal desorption mass spectrometry (TDMS). It was found that segregation of oxygen close to the surface of the specimen likewise hampers the absorption of hydrogen. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Der Einfluss des im Volumen geloesten Sauerstoffs auf die Wasserstoff-Absorption in Vanadium wurde in einer UHV-Apparatur untersucht. Zunaechst wurde die V-Probe mit einem Sauerstoffgehalt von 230 ppm unterschiedlichen thermischen Behandlungen ausgesetzt. Die sich einstellenden Konzentrationstiefenverteilungen des an der Oberflaeche segregierten Sauerstoffs wurden anschliessend mit SIMS untersucht. Dabei nimmt die Menge des segregierten Sauerstoffs mit der Hoehe der Endtemperatur sowie der Temperzeit zu. In einem weiteren Experiment wurde die Probe nach jeder Segregationsprozedur fuer eine Zeit von 1800 sec einem H{sub 2}-Druck von 2.2 x 10{sup -4} Pa ausgesetzt. Die Mengen des dabei aufgenommenen Wasserstoffs wurden mit Hilfe der thermischen Desorptions-Massenspektrometrie TDMS bestimmt. Dabei zeigt sich, dass auch die Segregation von Sauerstoff im oberflaechennahen Bereich die Wasserstoffaufnahme in Vanadium behindert. (orig.)

  7. Five ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces for hydrated NaCl and NaF. I. Two-body interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M.; Kamarchik, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    We report full-dimensional, ab initio-based potentials and dipole moment surfaces for NaCl, NaF, Na + H 2 O, F − H 2 O, and Cl − H 2 O. The NaCl and NaF potentials are diabatic ones that dissociate to ions. These are obtained using spline fits to CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV5Z energies. In addition, non-linear least square fits using the Born-Mayer-Huggins potential are presented, providing accurate parameters based strictly on the current ab initio energies. The long-range behavior of the NaCl and NaF potentials is shown to go, as expected, accurately to the point-charge Coulomb interaction. The three ion-H 2 O potentials are permutationally invariant fits to roughly 20 000 coupled cluster CCSD(T) energies (awCVTZ basis for Na + and aVTZ basis for Cl − and F − ), over a large range of distances and H 2 O intramolecular configurations. These potentials are switched accurately in the long range to the analytical ion-dipole interactions, to improve computational efficiency. Dipole moment surfaces are fits to MP2 data; for the ion-ion cases, these are well described in the intermediate- and long-range by the simple point-charge expression. The performance of these new fits is examined by direct comparison to additional ab initio energies and dipole moments along various cuts. Equilibrium structures, harmonic frequencies, and electronic dissociation energies are also reported and compared to direct ab initio results. These indicate the high fidelity of the new PESs.

  8. Five ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces for hydrated NaCl and NaF. I. Two-body interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yimin, E-mail: yimin.wang@emory.edu; Bowman, Joel M., E-mail: jmbowma@emory.edu [Department of Chemistry, Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Computation, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States); Kamarchik, Eugene, E-mail: eugene.kamarchik@gmail.com [Quantum Pomegranate, LLC, 2604 Kings Lake Court NE, Atlanta, Georgia 30345 (United States)

    2016-03-21

    We report full-dimensional, ab initio-based potentials and dipole moment surfaces for NaCl, NaF, Na{sup +}H{sub 2}O, F{sup −}H{sub 2}O, and Cl{sup −}H{sub 2}O. The NaCl and NaF potentials are diabatic ones that dissociate to ions. These are obtained using spline fits to CCSD(T)/aug-cc-pV5Z energies. In addition, non-linear least square fits using the Born-Mayer-Huggins potential are presented, providing accurate parameters based strictly on the current ab initio energies. The long-range behavior of the NaCl and NaF potentials is shown to go, as expected, accurately to the point-charge Coulomb interaction. The three ion-H{sub 2}O potentials are permutationally invariant fits to roughly 20 000 coupled cluster CCSD(T) energies (awCVTZ basis for Na{sup +} and aVTZ basis for Cl{sup −} and F{sup −}), over a large range of distances and H{sub 2}O intramolecular configurations. These potentials are switched accurately in the long range to the analytical ion-dipole interactions, to improve computational efficiency. Dipole moment surfaces are fits to MP2 data; for the ion-ion cases, these are well described in the intermediate- and long-range by the simple point-charge expression. The performance of these new fits is examined by direct comparison to additional ab initio energies and dipole moments along various cuts. Equilibrium structures, harmonic frequencies, and electronic dissociation energies are also reported and compared to direct ab initio results. These indicate the high fidelity of the new PESs.

  9. X-Ray Absorption Studies of Vanadium-Containing Metal Oxide Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohn, Keith, L.

    2006-01-09

    Metal oxide nanocrystals offer significant potential for use as catalysts or catalyst supports due to their high surface areas and unique chemical properties that result from the high number of exposed corners and edges. However, little is known about the catalytic activity of these materials, especially as oxidation catalysts. This research focused on the preparation, characterization and use of vanadium-containing nanocrystals as selective oxidation catalysts. Three vanadium-containing nanocrystals were prepared using a modified sol-gel procedure: V/MgO, V/SiO2, and vanadium phosphate (VPO). These represent active oxidation catalysts for a number of industrially relevant reactions. The catalysts were characterized by x-ray diffraction and Raman, UV-VIS, infrared and x-ray absorption spectroscopies with the goal of determining the primary structural and chemical differences between nanocrystals and microcrystals. The catalytic activity of these catalysts was also studied in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and methanol oxidation to formaldehyde. V/MgO nanocrystals were investigated for activity in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and compared to conventional V/MgO catalysts. Characterization of V/MgO catalysts using Raman spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that both types of catalysts contained magnesium orthovanadate at vanadium loadings below 15 weight%, but above that loading, magnesium pyrovanadate may have been present. In general, MgO nanocrystals had roughly half the crystal size and double the surface area of the conventional MgO. In oxidative dehydrogenation of butane, nanocrystalline V/MgO gave higher selectivity to butene than conventional V/MgO at the same conversion. This difference was attributed to differences in vanadium domain size resulting from the higher surface areas of the nanocrystalline support, since characterization suggested that similar vanadium phases were present on both types of catalysts. Experiments in

  10. Calcium Aluminate Cement Hydration Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusinović, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium aluminate cement (AC is a very versatile special cement used for specific applications. As the hydration of AC is highly temperature dependent, yielding structurally different hydration products that continuously alter material properties, a good knowledge of thermal properties at early stages of hydration is essential. The kinetics of AC hydration is a complex process and the use of single mechanisms models cannot describe the rate of hydration during the whole stage.This paper examines the influence of temperature (ϑ=5–20 °C and water-to-cement mass ratio (mH /mAC = 0.4; 0.5 and 1.0 on hydration of commercial iron-rich AC ISTRA 40 (producer: Istra Cement, Pula, Croatia, which is a part of CALUCEM group, Figs 1–3. The flow rate of heat generation of cement pastes as a result of the hydration reactions was measured with differential microcalorimeter. Chemically bonded water in the hydrated cement samples was determined by thermo-gravimetry.Far less heat is liberated when cement and water come in contact for the first time, Fig. 1, than in the case for portland cement (PC. Higher water-to-cement ratio increases the heat evolved at later ages (Fig. 3 due to higher quantity of water available for hydration. A significant effect of the water-to-cement ratio on the hydration rate and hydration degree showed the importance of water as being the limiting reactant that slows down the reaction early. A simplified stoichiometric model of early age AC hydration (eq. (8 based on reaction schemes of principal minerals, nominally CA, C12A7 and C4AF (Table 1, was employed. Hydration kinetics after the induction period (ϑ < 20 °C had been successfully described (Fig. 4 and Table 2 by a proposed model (eq. (23 which simultaneously comprised three main mechanisms: nucleation and growth, interaction at phase boundary, and mass transfer. In the proposed kinetic model the nucleation and growth is proportional to the amount of reacted minerals (eq

  11. Shifting Focus: From Hydration for Performance to Hydration for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Erica T

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, literature on hydration biomarkers has evolved considerably - from (de)hydration assessment towards a more global definition of biomarkers of hydration in daily life. This shift in thinking about hydration markers was largely driven by investigating the differences that existed between otherwise healthy individuals whose habitual, ad-libitum drinking habits differ, and by identifying physiological changes in low-volume drinkers who subsequently increase their water intake. Aside from obvious differences in urinary volume and concentration, a growing body of evidence is emerging that links differences in fluid intake with small, but biologically significant, differences in vasopressin (copeptin), glomerular filtration rate, and markers of metabolic dysfunction or disease. Taken together, these pieces of the puzzle begin to form a picture of how much water intake should be considered adequate for health, and represent a shifting focus from hydration for performance, toward hydration for health outcomes. This narrative review outlines the key areas of research in which the global hydration process - including water intake, urinary hydration markers, and vasopressin - has been associated with health outcomes, focusing on kidney and metabolic endpoints. It will also provide a commentary on how various hydration biomarkers may be used in hydration for health assessment. Finally, if adequate water intake can play a role in maintaining health, how might we tell if we are drinking enough? Urine output is easily measured, and can take into account differences in daily physical activity, climate, dietary solute load, and other factors that influence daily water needs. Today, targets have been proposed for urine osmolality, specific gravity, and color that may be used by researchers, clinicians, and individuals as simple indicators of optimal hydration. However, there remain a large number of incomplete or unanswered research questions regarding the

  12. One-step preparation and photocatalytic performance of vanadium doped TiO{sub 2} coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilić, R., E-mail: rastko.vasilic@ff.bg.ac.rs [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physics, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Stojadinović, S. [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Physics, Studentski trg 12-16, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Radić, N. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Stefanov, P. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Dohčević-Mitrović, Z. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Physics, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Grbić, B. [University of Belgrade, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Catalysis and Chemical Engineering, Njegoševa 12, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we have investigated one-step preparation of vanadium doped TiO{sub 2} coatings formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of titanium in electrolyte containing 10 g/L Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}·12H{sub 2}O + 0.5 g/L NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3}. The morphology, phase structure, and elemental composition of the formed coatings were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. Ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–Vis DRS) was employed to evaluate the band gap energy of obtained coatings. Vanadium doped TiO{sub 2} coatings are partly crystallized and mainly composed of anatase phase TiO{sub 2}, with up to about 2 wt% of vanadium present in the surface layer of the oxide. The valence band photoelectron spectra and UV–Vis DRS showed that vanadium doped TiO{sub 2} coatings exhibit notable red shift with respect to the pure TiO{sub 2} coatings. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange under simulated sunlight conditions. Photocatalytic activity of vanadium doped TiO{sub 2} coatings increases with PEO time. Prolonged PEO times result in higher roughness of obtained coatings, thus increasing surface area available for methyl orange degradation. Vanadium doped TiO{sub 2} coatings obtained after 180 s of PEO time exhibit the best photocatalytic activity and about 67% of methyl orange is degraded after 12 h of irradiation under simulated sunlight. - Highlights: • One-step preparation of V-doped TiO{sub 2} coatings in 10 g/L Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}·12H{sub 2}O + 0.5 g/L NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3}. • Properties of obtained coatings strongly depend on microdischarge characteristics. • Band gap of V-doped TiO{sub 2} coatings is shifted towards red side of the spectrum. • V-doped TiO{sub 2} coatings have better photocatalytic activity than pure TiO{sub 2}. • After 12 h of simulated sunlight irradiation, 67% of

  13. One-step preparation and photocatalytic performance of vanadium doped TiO2 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilić, R.; Stojadinović, S.; Radić, N.; Stefanov, P.; Dohčević-Mitrović, Z.; Grbić, B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have investigated one-step preparation of vanadium doped TiO 2 coatings formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of titanium in electrolyte containing 10 g/L Na 3 PO 4 ·12H 2 O + 0.5 g/L NH 4 VO 3 . The morphology, phase structure, and elemental composition of the formed coatings were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. Ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–Vis DRS) was employed to evaluate the band gap energy of obtained coatings. Vanadium doped TiO 2 coatings are partly crystallized and mainly composed of anatase phase TiO 2 , with up to about 2 wt% of vanadium present in the surface layer of the oxide. The valence band photoelectron spectra and UV–Vis DRS showed that vanadium doped TiO 2 coatings exhibit notable red shift with respect to the pure TiO 2 coatings. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange under simulated sunlight conditions. Photocatalytic activity of vanadium doped TiO 2 coatings increases with PEO time. Prolonged PEO times result in higher roughness of obtained coatings, thus increasing surface area available for methyl orange degradation. Vanadium doped TiO 2 coatings obtained after 180 s of PEO time exhibit the best photocatalytic activity and about 67% of methyl orange is degraded after 12 h of irradiation under simulated sunlight. - Highlights: • One-step preparation of V-doped TiO 2 coatings in 10 g/L Na 3 PO 4 ·12H 2 O + 0.5 g/L NH 4 VO 3 . • Properties of obtained coatings strongly depend on microdischarge characteristics. • Band gap of V-doped TiO 2 coatings is shifted towards red side of the spectrum. • V-doped TiO 2 coatings have better photocatalytic activity than pure TiO 2 . • After 12 h of simulated sunlight irradiation, 67% of methyl orange was decomposed

  14. The effects of ice on methane hydrate nucleation: a microcanonical molecular dynamics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhengcai; Guo, Guang-Jun

    2017-07-26

    Although ice powders are widely used in gas hydrate formation experiments, the effects of ice on hydrate nucleation and what happens in the quasi-liquid layer of ice are still not well understood. Here, we used high-precision constant energy molecular dynamics simulations to study methane hydrate nucleation from vapor-liquid mixtures exposed to the basal, prismatic, and secondary prismatic planes of hexagonal ice (ice Ih). Although no significant difference is observed in hydrate nucleation processes for these different crystal planes, it is found, more interestingly, that methane hydrate can nucleate either on the ice surface heterogeneously or in the bulk solution phase homogeneously. Several factors are mentioned to be able to promote the heterogeneous nucleation of hydrates, including the adsorption of methane molecules at the solid-liquid interface, hydrogen bonding between hydrate cages and the ice structure, the stronger ability of ice to transfer heat than that of the aqueous solution, and the higher occurrence probability of hydrate cages in the vicinity of the ice surface than in the bulk solution. Meanwhile, however, the other factors including the hydrophilicity of ice and the ice lattice mismatch with clathrate hydrates can inhibit heterogeneous nucleation on the ice surface and virtually promote homogeneous nucleation in the bulk solution. Certainly, the efficiency of ice as a promoter and as an inhibitor for heterogeneous nucleation is different. We estimate that the former is larger than the latter under the working conditions. Additionally, utilizing the benefit of ice to absorb heat, the NVE simulation of hydrate formation with ice can mimic the phenomenon of ice shrinking during the heterogeneous nucleation of hydrates and lower the overly large temperature increase during homogeneous nucleation. These results are helpful in understanding the nucleation mechanism of methane hydrate in the presence of ice.

  15. The temperature hydration kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Oroian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the hydration kinetics of lentil seeds (Lens culinaris in water at different temperatures (25, 32.5, 40, 55, 70 and 80 °C for assessing the adequacy of models for describing the absorption phenomena during soaking. The diffusion coefficient values were calculated using Fick’s model for spherical and hemispherical geometries and the values were in the range of 10−6 m2/s. The experimental data were fitted to Peleg, Sigmoidal, Weibull and Exponential models. The models adequacy was determined using regression coefficients (R2, root mean square error (RMSE and reduced chi-square (χ2. The Peleg model is the suitable one for predicting the experimental data. Temperature had a positive and significant effect on the water absorption capacities and absorption was an endothermic process.

  16. Characteristics of Vanadium Doped And Bamboo Activated Carbon Coated LiFePO4 And Its Performance For Lithium Ion Battery Cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nofrijon Sofyan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium doped and bamboo activated carbon coated lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 used for lithium ion battery cathode has been successfully prepared. Lithium iron phosphate was prepared through a wet chemical method followed by a hydrothermal process from the starting materials of LiOH, NH4H2PO4, and FeSO4.7H2O. The dopant variations of 0 wt.%, 3 wt.%, 5 wt.%, and 7 wt.% of vanadium and a fixed 3 wt.% of bamboo activated carbon were carried out via a solid-state reaction process each by using NH4VO3 as a source of vanadium and carbon pyrolyzed from bamboo tree, respectively. The characterization was carried out using X-ray Diffraction (XRD for the phase formed and its crystal structure, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM for the surface morphology, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS for the conductivity, and battery analyzer for the performance of lithium ion battery cathode. The XRD results show that the phase formed has an olivine based structure with an orthorhombic space group. Morphology examination revealed that the particle agglomeration decreased with the increasing level of vanadium concentrations. Conductivity test showed that the impedance of solid electrolyte interface decreased with the increase of vanadium concentration indicated by increasing conductivity of 1.25 x 10-5 S/cm, 2.02 x 10-5 S/cm, 4.37 x 10-5 S/cm, and 5.69 x 10-5 S/cm, each for 0 wt.%, 3 wt.%, 5 wt.%, and 7 wt.% vanadium, respectively. Vanadium doping and bamboo activated carbon coating are promising candidate for improving lithium ion battery cathode as the initial charge and discharge capacity at 0.5C for LiFePO4/C at 7 wt.% vanadium is in the range of 8.0 mAh/g.

  17. 77 FR 51825 - Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Nitrided Vanadium From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... order on ferrovanadium and nitrided vanadium from Russia would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time. \\1...

  18. Reaction between vanadium trichloride oxide and hydrogen sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Akimasa; Matsuzaki, Ryoko; Saeki, Yuzo

    1978-01-01

    The details of the reaction between vanadium trichloride oxide and hydrogen sulfide were examined at 20 and 60 0 C. The main products by the reaction were vanadium dichloride oxide, sulfur, and hydrogen chloride. In addition to these products, small amounts of vanadium trichloride, vanadium tetrachloride, disulfur dichloride, and sulfur dioxide were formed. The formations of the above-mentioned reaction products can be explained as follows: The first stage is the reaction between vanadium trichloride oxide and hydrogen sulfide, 2VOCl 3 (l) + H 2 S(g)→2VOCl 2 (s) + S(s) + 2HCl(g). Then the resulting sulfur reacts with the unreacted vanadium trichloride oxide, 2VOCl 3 (l) + 2S(s)→2VOCl 2 (s) + S 2 Cl 2 (l). The resulting disulfur dichloride subsequently reacts with the unreacted vanadium trichloride oxide, 2VOCl 3 (l) + S 2 Cl 2 (l)→2VCl 4 (l) + S(s) + SO 2 (g). The resulting vanadium tetrachloride reacts with the sulfur formed during the reaction, 2VCl 4 (l) + 2S(s)→2VCl 3 (s) + S 2 Cl 2 (l), and also reacts with hydrogen sulfide, 2VCl 4 (l) + H 2 S(g)→2VCl 3 (s) + S(s) + 2HCl(g). (auth.)

  19. Neurotoxic profiles of vanadium when administered at the onset of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pups exposed to vanadium showed reduced upper body strength which was protected by administration of vit E. Routine histology with Haematoxylin and Eosin revealed increased necrotic neurons of the medulla in vanadium exposed rats. Cresyl Violet stain showed depletion of the external granular layer of the ...

  20. Fundamental aspects of alluminothermic reduction of vanadium pentoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, M.B.; Capocchi, J.D.T.

    1982-01-01

    The aluminothermic process for the reduction of vanadium pentoxide is considered. Its thermochemistry features are presented, as well as the heat transfer and the rate phenomena concerning such a reaction system. It is pointed out also the effect of the process parameters on the recovery of metallic vanadium. (Author) [pt

  1. A study of defect cluster formation in vanadium by heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekimura, Naoto; Shirao, Yasuyuki; Morishita, Kazunori [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Formation of defect clusters in thin foils of vanadium was investigated by heavy ion irradiation. In the very thin region of the specimens less than 20 nm, vacancy clusters were formed under gold ion irradiation, while very few clusters were detected in the specimens irradiated with 200 and 400 keV self-ions up to 1 x 10{sup 16} ions/m{sup 2}. The density of vacancy clusters were found to be strongly dependent on ion energy. Only above the critical value of kinetic energy transfer density in vanadium, vacancy clusters are considered to be formed in the cascade damage from which interstitials can escape to the specimen surface in the very thin region. (author)

  2. Development of aluminide coatings on vanadium-base alloys in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.H.; Dragel, D.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminide coatings were produced on vanadium and vanadium-base alloys by exposure of the materials to liquid lithium that contained 3/5 at.% dissolved aluminum in sealed V and V-20 wt.% Ti capsules at temperatures between 775 and 880 degrees C. After each test, the capsules were opened and the samples were examined by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and analyzed by electron-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction. Hardness of the coating layers and bulk alloys was determined by microidentation techniques. The nature of the coatings, i.e., surface coverage, thickness, and composition, varied with exposure time and temperature, solute concentration in lithium, and alloy composition. Solute elements that yielded adherent coatings on various substrates can provide a means of developing in-situ electrical insulator coatings by reaction of the reactive layers with dissolved nitrogen in liquid lithium

  3. Vanadium substitution: A simple and economic way to improve UV sensing in ZnO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Tulika; Bajpai, Gaurav; Rathore, Gyanendra; Liu, Shun Wei; Biring, Sajal; Sen, Somaditya

    2018-04-01

    The UV sensing in pure ZnO is due to oxygen adsorption/desorption process from the ZnO surface. Vanadium doping improves the UV sensitivity of ZnO. The enhancement in UV sensitivity in vanadium-substituted ZnO is attributed to trapping and de-trapping of electrons at V4+ and V5+-related defect states. The V4+ state has an extra electron than the V5+ state. A V4+ to V5+ transformation happens with excitation of this electron to the conduction band, while a reverse trapping process liberates a visible light. An analytic study of response phenomenon reveals this trapping and de-trapping process.

  4. Oxidative dehydration of glycerol to acrylic acid over vanadium-impregnated zeolite beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana, Carolina F.M.; Guerra, Antonio C.O.; Turci, Cassia C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Ferreira, Glaucio B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Mota, Claudio J.A., E-mail: cmota@iq.ufrj.br [INCT Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    The oxidative dehydration of glycerol to acrylic acid was studied over vanadium-impregnated zeolite Beta. Catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation of ammonium metavanadate over ammonium-exchanged zeolite Beta, followed by air calcination at 823 K. Impregnation reduced the specific surface area, but did not significantly affected the acidity (Bronsted and Lewis) of the zeolites. The catalytic evaluation was carried out in a fixed bed flow reactor using air as the carrier and injecting glycerol by means of a syringe pump. Acrolein was the main product, with acetaldehyde and hydroxy-acetone (acetol) being also formed. Acrylic acid was formed with approximately 25% selectivity at 548 K over the impregnated zeolites. The result can be explained by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) measurements, which indicated a good dispersion of the vanadium inside the pores. (author)

  5. Thermal desorption of toluene from Vanadium-containing catalysts coated onto various carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zheksenbaeva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The method temperature-programmed desorption has been studied the state of toluene on the surface-modified vanadium catalysts on different carriers. Among the investigated carriers the most active in the reaction of partial oxidation of toluene is anatase structural titanium dioxide. For the partial oxidation of toluene on modified vanadium-containing catalysts deposited on TiO2 was tested. It was found that on the catalyst 20%V2O5-5%MoO3-2%Sb2O3/TiO2 at a temperature of 673K, volume rate of 15 thousand hours-1 oxidation of toluene is 80% c yield of benzoic acid with a selectivity of  70% of 87.5%.

  6. Oxidative dehydration of glycerol to acrylic acid over vanadium-impregnated zeolite beta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestana, Carolina F.M.; Guerra, Antonio C.O.; Turci, Cassia C.

    2013-01-01

    The oxidative dehydration of glycerol to acrylic acid was studied over vanadium-impregnated zeolite Beta. Catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation of ammonium metavanadate over ammonium-exchanged zeolite Beta, followed by air calcination at 823 K. Impregnation reduced the specific surface area, but did not significantly affected the acidity (Bronsted and Lewis) of the zeolites. The catalytic evaluation was carried out in a fixed bed flow reactor using air as the carrier and injecting glycerol by means of a syringe pump. Acrolein was the main product, with acetaldehyde and hydroxy-acetone (acetol) being also formed. Acrylic acid was formed with approximately 25% selectivity at 548 K over the impregnated zeolites. The result can be explained by XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) measurements, which indicated a good dispersion of the vanadium inside the pores. (author)

  7. Effective Recovery of Vanadium from Oil Refinery Waste into Vanadium-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Guowu; Ng, Wei Cheng; Lin, Wenlin Yvonne; Koh, Shin Nuo; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2018-03-06

    Carbon black waste, an oil refinery waste, contains a high concentration of vanadium(V) leftover from the processing of crude oil. For the sake of environmental sustainability, it is therefore of interest to recover the vanadium as useful products instead of disposing of it. In this work, V was recovered in the form of vanadium-based metal-organic frameworks (V-MOFs) via a novel pathway by using the leaching solution of carbon black waste instead of commercially available vanadium chemicals. Two different types of V-MOFs with high levels of crystallinity and phase purity were fabricated in very high yields (>98%) based on a coordination modulation method. The V-MOFs exhibited well-defined and controlled shapes such as nanofibers (length: > 10 μm) and nanorods (length: ∼270 nm). Furthermore, the V-MOFs showed high catalytic activities for the oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde, indicating the strong potential of the waste-derived V-MOFs in catalysis applications. Overall, our work offers a green synthesis pathway for the preparation of V-MOFs by using heavy metals of industrial waste as the metal source.

  8. Effect of substrate temperature on thermochromic vanadium dioxide thin films sputtered from vanadium target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madiba, I. G.; Kotsedi, L.; Ngom, B. D.; Khanyile, B. S.; Maaza, M.

    2018-05-01

    Vanadium dioxide films have been known as the most promising thermochromic thin films for smart windows which self-control the solar radiation and heat transfer for energy saving, comfort in houses and automotives. Such an attractive technological application is due to the fact that vanadium dioxide crystals exhibit a fast semiconductor-to-metal phase transition at a transition temperature Tc of about 68 °C, together with sharp optical changes from high transmitive to high reflective coatings in the IR spectral region. The phase transition has been associated with the nature of the microstructure, stoichiometry and stresses related to the oxide. This study reports on the effect of the crystallographic quality controlled by the substrate temperature on the thermochromic properties of vanadium dioxide thin films synthesized by reactive radio frequency inverted cylindrical magnetron sputtering from vanadium target. The reports results are based on X-ray diffraction, Atomic force microscopy, and UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The average crystalline grain size of VO2 increases with the substrate temperature, inducing stress related phenomena within the films.

  9. Theoretical study of the influence of cation vacancies on the catalytic properties of vanadium antimonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messina, S.; Juan, A.; Larrondo, S.; Irigoyen, B.; Amadeo, N.

    2008-01-01

    We have theoretically studied the influence of antimony and vanadium cation vacancies in the electronic structure and reactivity of vanadium antimonate, using molecular orbital methods. From the analysis of the electronic properties of the VSbO 4 crystal structure, we can infer that both antimony and vanadium vacancies increase the oxidation state of closer V cations. This would indicate that, in the rutile-type VSbO 4 phase the Sb and V cations defects stabilize the V in a higher oxidation state (V 4+ ). Calculations of the adsorption energy for different toluene adsorption geometries on the VSbO 4 (1 1 0) surface have also been performed. The oxidation state of Sb, V and O atoms and the overlap population of metal-oxygen bonds have been evaluated. Our results indicate that the cation defects influence in the toluene adsorption reactions is slight. We have computed different alternatives for the reoxidation of the VSbO 4 (1 1 0) surface active sites which were reduced during the oxygenated products formation. These calculations indicate that the V cations in higher oxidation state (V 4+ ) are the species, which preferentially incorporate lattice oxygen to the reduced Sb cations. Thus, the cation defects would stabilize the V 4+ species in the VSbO 4 structure, determining its ability to provide lattice oxygen as a reactant

  10. Na-Ion Intercalation and Charge Storage Mechanism in 2D Vanadium Carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bak, Seong-Min [Chemistry Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 USA; Qiao, Ruimin [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720 USA; Yang, Wanli [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720 USA; Lee, Sungsik [X-Ray Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne IL 60439 USA; Yu, Xiqian [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 China; Anasori, Babak [Department of Material Science and Engineering, A.J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia PA 19104 USA; Lee, Hungsui [Chemistry Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 USA; Gogotsi, Yury [Department of Material Science and Engineering, A.J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute, Drexel University, Philadelphia PA 19104 USA; Yang, Xiao-Qing [Chemistry Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton NY 11973 USA

    2017-07-14

    Two-dimensional vanadium carbide MXene containing surface functional groups (denoted as V2CTx, where Tx are surface functional groups) was synthesized and studied as anode material for Na-ion batteries. V2CTx anode exhibits reversible charge storage with good cycling stability and high rate capability through electrochemical test. The charge storage mechanism of V2CTx material during Na+ intercalation/deintercalation and the redox reaction of vanadium were studied using a combination of synchrotron based X-ray diffraction (XRD), hard X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (sXAS). Experimental evidence of a major contribution of redox reaction of vanadium to the charge storage and the reversible capacity of V2CTx during sodiation/desodiation process have been provided through V K-edge XANES and V L2,3-edge sXAS results. A correlation between the CO32- content and Na+ intercalation/deintercalation states in the V2CTx electrode observed from C and O K-edge in sXAS results imply that some additional charge storage reactions may take place between the Na+-intercalated V2CTx and the carbonate based non-aqueous electrolyte. The results of this study will provide valuable information for the further studies on V2CTx as anode material for Na-ion batteries and capacitors.

  11. Influence of surfactants on gas-hydrate formation' kinetics in water-oil emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemenkov, Yu D.; Shirshova, A. V.; Arinstein, E. A.; Shuvaev, A. N.

    2018-05-01

    The kinetics of gas hydrate formation of propane in a water-oil emulsion is experimentally studied when three types of surfactants (SAA (surface acting agent)) - anionic type emulsifiers - are added to the aqueous phase. It is shown that all three types of surfactants decelerate the growth of the gas-hydrate in the emulsion and can be considered as anti-agglutinating and kinetic low-dose inhibitors. The most effective inhibitor of hydrate formation in water-oil emulsion of SV-102 surfactant was revealed. For comparison, experimental studies of gas-hydrate formation under the same conditions for bulk water have been carried out. It is shown that in bulk water, all the surfactants investigated act as promoters (accelerators) of hydrate formation. A qualitative explanation of the action mechanisms of emulsifiers in the process of gas-hydrate formation in water-oil emulsion is given.

  12. Chemistry related to the procurement of vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, H.M.; Chung H.M.; Tsai, H.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Evaluation of trace element concentrations in vanadium alloys is important to characterize the low-activation characteristics and possible effects of trace elements on the properties. Detailed chemical analysis of several vanadium and vanadium alloy heats procured for the Argonne vanadium alloy development program were analyzed by Johnson-Matthey (UK) as part of a joint activity to evaluate trace element effects on the performance characteristics. These heats were produced by normal production practices for high grade vanadium. The analyses include approximately 60 elements analyzed in most cases by glow-discharge mass spectrometry. Values for molybdenum and niobium, which are critical for low-activation alloys, ranged from 0.4 to 60 wppm for the nine heats.

  13. Recent progress on gas tungsten arc welding of vanadium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.F.; Grossbeck, M.L.; Goodwin, G.M.; Alexander, D.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This is a progress report on a continuing research project to acquire a fundamental understanding of the metallurgical processes in the welding of vanadium alloys. It also has the goal of developing techniques for welding structural vanadium alloys. The alloy V-4Cr-4Ti is used as a representative alloy of the group; it is also the prime candidate vanadium alloy for the U.S. Fusion Program at the present time. However, other alloys of this class were used in the research as necessary. The present work focuses on recent findings of hydrogen embrittlement found in vanadium alloy welds. It was concluded that the atmosphere in the inert gas glove box was insufficient for welding 6mm thick vanadium alloy plates.

  14. Vanadium Extraction from Shale via Sulfuric Acid Baking and Leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qihua; Zhang, Yimin; Liu, Tao; Huang, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Fluorides are widely used to improve vanadium extraction from shale in China. Sulfuric acid baking-leaching (SABL) was investigated as a means of recovering vanadium which does not require the use of fluorides and avoids the productions of harmful fluoride-containing wastewater. Various effective factors were systematically studied and the experimental results showed that 90.1% vanadium could be leached from the shale. On the basis of phase transformations and structural changes after baking the shale, a mechanism of vanadium extraction from shale via SABL was proposed. The mechanism can be described as: (1) sulfuric acid diffusion into particles; (2) the formation of concentrated sulfuric acid media in the particles after water evaporation; (3) hydroxyl groups in the muscovite were removed and transient state [SO4 2-] was generated; and (4) the metals in the muscovite were sulfated by active [SO4 2-] and the vanadium was released. Thermodynamics modeling confirmed this mechanism.

  15. Chemistry related to the procurement of vanadium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.M.; Chung H.M.; Tsai, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of trace element concentrations in vanadium alloys is important to characterize the low-activation characteristics and possible effects of trace elements on the properties. Detailed chemical analysis of several vanadium and vanadium alloy heats procured for the Argonne vanadium alloy development program were analyzed by Johnson-Matthey (UK) as part of a joint activity to evaluate trace element effects on the performance characteristics. These heats were produced by normal production practices for high grade vanadium. The analyses include approximately 60 elements analyzed in most cases by glow-discharge mass spectrometry. Values for molybdenum and niobium, which are critical for low-activation alloys, ranged from 0.4 to 60 wppm for the nine heats

  16. Exploring electrolyte preference of vanadium nitride supercapacitor electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Zhaohui; Lu, Gang [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023 (China); Wang, Tianhu [School of Electrical Information and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Technology, Changzhou 213001 (China); Ge, Yunwang, E-mail: ywgelit@126.com [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Hierarchical VN nanostructures were prepared on graphite foam. • Electrolyte preference of VN supercapacitor electrodes was explored. • VN showed better capacitive property in organic and alkaline electrolytes than LiCl. - Abstract: Vanadium nitride hierarchical nanostructures were prepared through an ammonia annealing procedure utilizing vanadium pentoxide nanostructures grown on graphite foam. The electrochemical properties of hierarchical vanadium nitride was tested in aqueous and organic electrolytes. As a result, the vanadium nitride showed better capacitive energy storage property in organic and alkaline electrolytes. This work provides insight into the charge storage process of vanadium nitride and our findings can shed light on other transition metal nitride-based electrochemical energy storage systems.

  17. Raman and XPS characterization of vanadium oxide thin films with temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ureña-Begara, Ferran, E-mail: ferran.urena@uclouvain.be [Université catholique de Louvain, Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Crunteanu, Aurelian [XLIM Research Institute, UMR 7252, CNRS/Université de Limoges, Limoges (France); Raskin, Jean-Pierre [Université catholique de Louvain, Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Comprehensive study of the oxidation of VO{sub 2} thin films from R.T. up to 550 °C. • Phase changes and mixed-valence vanadium oxides formed during the oxidation process. • Reported Raman and XPS signatures for each vanadium oxide. • Monitoring of the current and resistance evolution at the surface of the films. • Oxidation model describing the evolution of the vanadium oxides and phase changes. - Abstract: The oxidation mechanisms and the numerous phase transitions undergone by VO{sub 2} thin films deposited on SiO{sub 2}/Si and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates when heated from room temperature (R.T.) up to 550 °C in air are investigated by Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that the films undergo several intermediate phase transitions between the initial VO{sub 2} monoclinic phase at R.T. and the final V{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase at 550 °C. The information about these intermediate phase transitions is scarce and their identification is important since they are often found during the synthesis of vanadium dioxide films. Significant changes in the film conductivity have also been observed to occur associated to the phase transitions. In this work, current and resistance measurements performed on the surface of the films are implemented in parallel with the Raman measurements to correlate the different phases with the conductivity of the films. A model to explain the oxidation mechanisms and phenomena occurring during the oxidation of the films is proposed. Peak frequencies, full-width half-maxima, binding energies and oxidation states from the Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments are reported and analyzed for all the phases encountered in VO{sub 2} films prepared on SiO{sub 2}/Si and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates.

  18. Thermochemical investigation of lithium-vanadium bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippova, S.E.; Kesler, Ya.A.; Tret'yakov, Yu.D.; Gordeev, I.V.

    1979-01-01

    A thermochemical investigation was carried out of lithium-vanadium bronzes. The enthalpies of solution and the standard enthalpies of formation of the bronzes β-Lisub(x)Vsub(2)Osub(5) were determined. Investigated was the dependence of the enthalpy of mixing bronzes on the composition; a linear character of the dependence evidences of negligibly small, as compared to the experimental error, energy variations of the matrix V 2 O 5 on introduction of lithium. The variation was calculated of the partial molar enthalpy of lithium in the formation of β-Lisub(x)Vsub(2)Osub(5)

  19. Color and vanadium valency in V-doped ZrO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Feng; Ishida, Shingo; Takeuchi, Nobuyuki

    1993-01-01

    The distribution and chemical states of vanadium in V-doped ZrO 2 were studied to clarify the origin of the color of vanadium-zirconium yellow pigment in comparison with vanadium-tin yellow pigment. ESCA data and measurements of lattice constants of V-doped ZrO 2 revealed that vanadium was dissolved mainly as V 4+ substituting for Zr in ZrO 2 lattice, and its solubility limit was 0.5 wt% as V 2 O 5 . It was found that the yellow color of vanadium-zirconium yellow was produced predominantly by the dissolved vanadium and that the contribution of vanadium oxide on ZrO 2 grains to the yellow color was about 1.30 of that of the dissolved vanadium when compared on the basis of equimolar quantity of vanadium. Most of the undissolved vanadium oxide was in an amorphous or a poorly crystallized state

  20. Hydration dependent dynamics in RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Greg L.; Bardaro, Michael F.; Echodu, Dorothy C.; Drobny, Gary P.; Varani, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    The essential role played by local and collective motions in RNA function has led to a growing interest in the characterization of RNA dynamics. Recent investigations have revealed that even relatively simple RNAs experience complex motions over multiple time scales covering the entire ms-ps motional range. In this work, we use deuterium solid-state NMR to systematically investigate motions in HIV-1 TAR RNA as a function of hydration. We probe dynamics at three uridine residues in different structural environments ranging from helical to completely unrestrained. We observe distinct and substantial changes in 2 H solid-state relaxation times and lineshapes at each site as hydration levels increase. By comparing solid-state and solution state 13 C relaxation measurements, we establish that ns-μs motions that may be indicative of collective dynamics suddenly arise in the RNA as hydration reaches a critical point coincident with the onset of bulk hydration. Beyond that point, we observe smaller changes in relaxation rates and lineshapes in these highly hydrated solid samples, compared to the dramatic activation of motion occurring at moderate hydration

  1. Role of interlayer hydration in lincomycin sorption by smectite clays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuiping; Ding, Yunjie; Teppen, Brian J; Boyd, Stephen A; Song, Cunyi; Li, Hui

    2009-08-15

    Lincomycin, an antibiotic widely administered as a veterinary medicine, is frequently detected in water. Little is known about the soil-water distribution of lincomycin despite the fact that this is a major determinant of its environmental fate and potential for exposure. Cation exchange was found to be the primary mechanism responsible for lincomycin sorption by soil clay minerals. This was evidenced by pH-dependent sorption, and competition with inorganic cations for sorptive sites. As solution pH increased, lincomycin sorption decreased. The extent of reduction was consistent with the decrease in cationic lincomycin species in solution. The presence of Ca2+ in solution diminished lincomycin sorption. Clay interlayer hydration status strongly influenced lincomycin adsorption. Smectites with the charge deficit from isomorphic substitution in tetrahedral layers (i.e., saponite) manifest a less hydrated interlayer environment resulting in greater sorption than that by octahedrally substituted clays (i.e., montmorillonite). Strongly hydrated exchangeable cations resulted in a more hydrated clay interlayer environment reducing sorption in the order of Ca- smectite. X-ray diffraction revealed that lincomycin was intercalated in smectite clay interlayers. Sorption capacity was limited by clay surface area rather than by cation exchange capacity. Smectite interlayer hydration was shown to be a major, yet previously unrecognized, factor influencing the cation exchange process of lincomycin on aluminosilicate mineral surfaces.

  2. Mechanism of gypsum hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco, G.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an hypothesis that the mechanism o f gypsum hydration and dehydration is performed through two simultaneous phenomena. In this study we try to clear up this phenomenon using chlorides as accelerators or a mixture of ethanol-methanol as retarders to carry out the gypsum setting. Natural Mexican gypsum samples and a hemihydrate prepared in the laboratory are used. The following analytical techniques are used: MO, DRX, DTA, TG and DTG. In agreement with the obtained results, it can be concluded: that colloid formation depends on the action of accelerators or retarders and the crystals are a consequence of the quantity of hemihydrate formed.

    En el mecanismo de hidratación y deshidratación del yeso existe la hipótesis de que éste se efectúa por dos fenómenos simultáneos. Este estudio intenta esclarecer estos fenómenos, empleando: cloruros como aceleradores o mezcla etanol-metanol como retardadores para efectuar el fraguado del yeso. Se emplean muestras de yeso de origen natural mexicano y hemihydrate preparado en laboratorio; se utilizan técnicas analíticas: MO, DRX, DTA, TG y DTG. De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos se puede deducir: que la formación del coloide depende de la acción de los agentes aceleradores o retardadores y que los cristales son consecuencia de la cantidad de hemihidrato formado.

  3. Rheological properties of hydrate suspensions in asphaltenic crude oils; Proprietes rheologiques de suspensions d'hydrate dans des bruts asphalteniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques de Toledo Camargo, R.

    2001-03-01

    The development of offshore oil exploitation under increasing water depths has forced oil companies to increase their understanding of gas hydrate formation and transportation in multiphase flow lines in which a liquid hydrocarbon phase is present. This work deals with the flow behaviour of hydrate suspensions in which a liquid hydrocarbon is the continuous phase. Three different liquid hydrocarbons are used: an asphaltenic crude oil, a condensate completely free of asphaltenes and a mixture between the asphaltenic oil and heptane. The rheological characterisation of hydrate suspensions is the main tool employed. Two original experimental devices are used: a PVT cell adapted to operate as a Couette type rheometer and a semi-industrial flow loop. Hydrate suspensions using the asphaltenic oil showed shear-thinning behaviour and thixotropy. This behaviour is typically found in flocculated systems, in which the particles attract each other forming flocs of aggregated particles at low shear rates. The suspensions using the condensate showed Newtonian behaviour. Their relative viscosities were high, which suggests that an aggregation process between hydrate particles takes. place during hydrate formation. Finally, hydrate suspensions using the mixture asphaltenic oil-heptane showed shear-thinning behaviour, thixotropy and high relative viscosity. From these results it can be inferred that, after the achievement of the hydrate formation process, the attractive forces between hydrate particles are weak. making unlikely pipeline obstruction by an aggregation process. Nevertheless, during the hydrate formation, these attractive forces can be sufficiently high. It seems that the hydrate surface wettability is an important parameter in this phenomena. (author)

  4. Mesoporous tungsten oxynitride as electrocatalyst for promoting redox reactions of vanadium redox couple and performance of vanadium redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonmi; Jo, Changshin; Youk, Sol; Shin, Hun Yong; Lee, Jinwoo; Chung, Yongjin; Kwon, Yongchai

    2018-01-01

    For enhancing the performance of vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB), a sluggish reaction rate issue of V2+/V3+ redox couple evaluated as the rate determining reaction should be addressed. For doing that, mesoporous tungsten oxide (m-WO3) and oxyniride (m-WON) structures are proposed as the novel catalysts, while m-WON is gained by NH3 heat treatment of m-WO3. Their specific surface area, crystal structure, surface morphology and component analysis are measured using BET, XRD, TEM and XPS, while their catalytic activity for V2+/V3+ redox reaction is electrochemically examined. As a result, the m-WON shows higher peak current, smaller peak potential difference, higher electron transfer rate constant and lower charge transfer resistance than other catalysts, like the m-WO3, WO3 nanoparticle and mesoporous carbon, proving that it is superior catalyst. Regarding the charge-discharge curve tests, the VRFB single cell employing the m-WON demonstrates high voltage and energy efficiencies, high specific capacity and low capacity loss rate. The excellent results of m-WON are due to the reasons like (i) reduced energy band gap, (ii) reaction familiar surface functional groups and (ii) greater electronegativity.

  5. Acute toxicity of vanadium to the threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravenmier, J.J.; Johnston, D.W.; Arnold, W.R. [Blasland Bouck & Lee Inc, Petaluma, CA (US)

    2005-02-15

    Vanadium is widely distributed, occurring in many types of minerals, coal, and petroleum. Anthropogenic sources of vanadium originate from the production, processing, and wastes of these materials. The aquatic toxicity of vanadium to fish species is not well characterized. This study focused on the three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, a small and widely distributed euryhaline species of fish. The three-spined stickleback is used as an effluent-monitoring species in both Canada and the United States. Five 96-h static renewal acute toxicity tests were performed in moderately hard water with adult fish. The geometric mean and range of the five 96-h LC{sup 50}s based on measured concentrations of total vanadium in the test solution were 3.17 and 2.35-4.07 mg V/L, respectively. A conservative estimation of a safe concentration of vanadium that would not affect survival of adult three-spined sticklebacks over a 96-h exposure period in moderately hard water is approximately 0.30 mg V/L. A comparison with other fish species previously tested suggests that the three-spined stickleback is intermediate in sensitivity to vanadium. Information reported from this study may be useful in effluent toxicity identification evaluations and ecological risk assessments related to vanadium.

  6. Vanadium extraction from slimes by the lime-bicarbonate method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lishchenko, T.V.; Vdovina, L.V.; Slobodchikova, R.I.

    1978-01-01

    Some main parameters of the lime-bicarbonate method of extracting vanadium from residues obtained in washing waters of mazut boilers on thermal stations have been determined. To study the process of vanadium extraction during caking of the residues with lime and subsequent leaching of water-soluble vanadium, a ''Minsk-22'' computer has been used for computation. Analysis of the equation derived has shown that a change in temperature of vanadium leaching, density of pulp, and a kind of heating of the charge affect the process only slightly. It has also been shown that the calcination temperature is expedient to be kept above 850 deg C and consumption temperature is expedient to be kept above 85O deg C and consumption of lime must not exceed 20% of the residues weight. Bicarbonate consumption exerts a decisive influence on completeness of vanadium extraction and must be increased up to >35%; duration of leaching should be raised up to 30-45 minutes. With increasing calcination temperature the duration of leaching decreases. When temperature and duration of calcination increase, the formation of water-soluble vanadium intensifies. With the aid of optimization program seven variants have been chosen, which ensure vanadium extraction into solution by 95-100%

  7. Hydrometallurgic treatment of a mineral containing uranium, vanadium and phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echenique, Patricia; Fruchtenicht, Fernando; Gil, Daniel; Vigo, Daniel; Bouza, Angel; Vert, Gabriela; Becquart, Elena

    1987-01-01

    A preliminary study of a mineral has been made towards the hydrometallurgy separation of uranium, vanadium and phosphorus. After the ore dressing, work on sulfuric acid with oxidation leaching has been made, to get the uranium, vanadium and phosphorus in solution. For the separation and purification of these elements, two alternative solvent extraction methods have been tested. One of them has been the extraction of uranium and vanadium and a selective stripping of both elements. The second one has been the selective extraction of uranium and vanadium at different aqueous solutions pH. In both methods, the same reagent has been used: di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid, kerosene as diluent with two different synergistic agents: TOPO (tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide) and TBP (tri-n-butyl phosphate). Batch studies have been made to determine the equilibrium isotherms for uranium and vanadium. A continuous countercurrent simulation method has been used to get the best phase ratio and to test different stripping agents. For the first method, an important loss of uranium and vanadium at the feed solution conditioning for the extraction step has been observed. For the second method, a good recovery of uranium has been reached, but there has been losses of vanadium in pH adjustment. Nevertheless, among these processes, the last seems to work better in this mineral hydrometallurgy. (Author) [es

  8. Analysis and measurement of residual stress distribution of vanadium/ceramics joints for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Y.; Ueda, K.

    1998-01-01

    Vanadium alloys are considered as candidate structural materials for fusion reactor system. When vanadium alloys are used in fusion reactor system, joining with ceramics for insulating is one of material issues to be solved to make component of fusion reactor. In the application of ceramics/metal jointing and coating, residual stress caused by difference of thermal expansion rate between ceramics and metals is an important factor in obtaining good bonding strength and soundness of coating. In this work, residual stress distribution in direct diffusion bonded vanadium/alumina joint (jointing temperature: 1400 C) was measured by small area X-ray diffraction method. And the comparison of finite element method (FEM) analysis and actual stress distribution was carried out. Tensile stress concentration at the edge of the boundary of the joint in alumina was observed. The residual stress concentration may cause cracks in alumina, or failure of bonding. Actually, cracks in alumina caused by thermal stress after bonding at 1500 C was observed. The stress concentration of the joint must be reduced to obtain good bonded joint. Lower bonding temperature or to devise the shape of the outer surface of the joint will reduce the stress concentration. (orig.)

  9. Observation of microstructure of hydrated Ca3SiO5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Kazuhiro; Sato, Takashi; Fukunaga, Toshiharu; Oishi, Koji; Kimura, Katsuhiko; Iwase, Kenji; Sugiyama, Masaaki; Itoh, Keiji; Shikanai, Fumihito; Wuernisha, Tuerxun; Yonemura, Masao; Sulistyanintyas, Dyah; Tsukushi, Itaru; Takata, Shinich; Otomo, Toshiya; Kamiyma, Takashi; Kawai, Masayoshi

    2006-01-01

    Quasi-elastic neutron scattering experiments were carried out to evaluate the hydration rate of tricalcium silicate (Ca 3 SiO 5 ). Furthermore, in the early hydration period, a variation in surface roughness of Ca 3 SiO 5 was observed in nano-scale by the small-angle neutron scattering. From these results, it was found that the hydration rate of Ca 3 SiO 5 is suppressed when the surface of Ca 3 SiO 5 becomes rough through the creation of hydration products C-S-H gel and Ca(OH) 2 , and this roughness is associated with changes in the Ca 3 SiO 5 hydration rate

  10. Reconsideration on Hydration of Sodium Ion: From Micro-Hydration to Bulk Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongquan, Zhou; Chunhui, Fang; Yan, Fang; Fayan, Zhu; Haiwen, Ge; Hongyan, Liu

    2017-12-01

    Micro hydration structures of the sodium ion, [Na(H2O) n ]+, n = 1-12, were probed by density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level in both gaseous and aqueous phase. The predicted equilibrium sodium-oxygen distance of 0.240 nm at the present level of theory. The four-, five- and six-coordinated cluster can transform from each other at the ambient condition. The analysis of the successive water binding energy and natural charge population (NBO) on Na+ clearly shows that the influence of Na+ on the surrounding water molecules goes beyond the first hydration shell with the hydration number of 6. The Car-Parrinello molecular dynamic simulation shows that only the first hydration sphere can be found, and the hydration number of Na+ is 5.2 and the hydration distance ( r Na-O) is 0.235 nm. All our simulations mentioned in the present paper show an excellent agreement with the diffraction result from X-ray scattering study.

  11. A high yield process for hydrate formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giavarini, C.; Maccioni, F. [Univ. of Roma La Sapienza, Roma (Italy). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Due to the large quantities of natural gas stored in deep ocean hydrates, hydrate reservoirs are a substantial energy resource. Hydrates concentrate methane by as much as a factor of 164. As such, several natural gas transportation and storage systems using gas hydrates have been studied, and many of them are nearing practical use. In these systems, the hydrate is produced as a slurry by a spray process at approximately 7 megapascal (MPa), and then shaped into pellets. The use of a spray process, instead of a conventional stirred vessel is necessary in order to reach high hydrate concentrations in the hydrate-ice system. This paper presented a new procedure to produce a bulk of concentrated methane hydrate in a static traditional reactor at moderate pressure, controlling pressure and temperature in the interval between ice melting and the hydrate equilibrium curve. This paper discussed the experimental procedure which included formation of methane hydrate at approximately 5 MPa and 2 degrees Celsius in a reaction calorimeter at a volume of two liters. Results were also discussed. It was concluded that the procedure seemed suitable for the development of a gas hydrate storage and transport technology. It was found that the spray procedure took more time, but could be sped up and made continuous by using two vessels, one for hydrate formation and the other for hydrate concentration. The advantage was the production of a concentrated hydrate, using a simpler equipment and working at lower pressures respect to the spray process. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Detection of gas hydrate with downhole logs and assessment of gas hydrate concentrations (saturations) and gas volumes on the Blake Ridge with electrical resistivity log data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, T.S.; Ladd, J.

    2000-01-01

    Let 164 of the Ocean Drilling Program was designed to investigate the occurrence of gas hydrate in the sedimentary section beneath the Blake Ridge on the southeastern continental margin of North America. Site 994, and 997 were drilled on the Blake Ridge to refine our understanding of the in situ characteristics of natural gas hydrate. Because gas hydrate is unstable at surface pressure and temperature conditions, a major emphasis was placed on the downhole logging program to determine the in situ physical properties of the gas hydrate-bearing sediments. Downhole logging tool strings deployed on Leg 164 included the Schlumberger quad-combination tool (NGT, LSS/SDT, DIT, CNT-G, HLDT), the Formation MicroScanner (FMS), and the Geochemical Combination Tool (GST). Electrical resistivity (DIT) and acoustic transit-time (LSS/SDT) downhole logs from Sites 994, 995, and 997 indicate the presence of gas hydrate in the depth interval between 185 and 450 mbsf on the Blake Ridge. Electrical resistivity log calculations suggest that the gas hydrate-bearing sedimentary section on the Blake Ridge may contain between 2 and 11 percent bulk volume (vol%) gas hydrate. We have determined that the log-inferred gas hydrates and underlying free-gas accumulations on the Blake Ridge may contain as much as 57 trillion m3 of gas.

  13. Comparing the sensitivity of permafrost and marine gas hydrate to climate warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, A.E.; Dallimore, S.R.; Hyndman, R.D.; Wright, F.

    2005-01-01

    The sensitivity of Arctic subpermafrost gas hydrate at the Mallik borehole was compared to temperate marine gas hydrate located offshore southwestern Canada. In particular, a finite element geothermal model was used to determine the sensitivity to the end of the ice age, and contemporary climate warming of a 30 m thick methane hydrate layer lying at the base of a gas hydrate stability zone prior to 13.5 kiloannum (ka) before present (BP). It was suggested that the 30 m gas-hydrate-bearing layer would have disappeared by now, according to the thermal signal alone. However, the same gas-hydrate-bearing layer underlying permafrost would persist until at least 4 ka after present, even with contemporary climate warming. The longer time for subpermafrost gas hydrate comes from the thawing pore ice at the base of permafrost, at the expense of dissociation of the deeper gas hydrate. The dissociation of underlying gas hydrate from climate surface warming is buffered by the overlying permafrost

  14. Implication of seismic attenuation for gas hydrate resource characterization, Mallik, Mackenzie Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellefleur, G.; Riedel, M.; Brent, T.; Wright, F.; Dallimore, S. R.

    2007-10-01

    Wave attenuation is an important physical property of hydrate-bearing sediments that is rarely taken into account in site characterization with seismic data. We present a field example showing improved images of hydrate-bearing sediments on seismic data after compensation of attenuation effects. Compressional quality factors estimated from zero-offset Vertical Seismic Profiling data acquired at Mallik, Northwest Territories, Canada, demonstrate significant wave attenuation for hydrate-bearing sediments. These results are in agreement with previous attenuation estimates obtained from sonic logs and crosshole data at different frequency intervals. The application of an inverse Q-filter to compensate attenuation effects of permafrost and hydrate-bearing sediments improved the resolution of surface 3D seismic data and its correlation with log data, particularly for the shallowest gas hydrate interval. Compensation of the attenuation effects of the permafrost likely explains most of the improvements for the shallow gas hydrate zone. Our results show that characterization of the Mallik gas hydrates with seismic data not corrected for attenuation would tend to overestimate thicknesses and lateral extent of hydrate-bearing strata and hence, the volume of hydrates in place.

  15. The analysis of magnesium oxide hydration in three-phase reaction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Xiaojia; Guo, Lin; Chen, Chen; Liu, Quan; Li, Tie; Zhu, Yimin, E-mail: ntp@dlmu.edu.cn

    2014-05-01

    In order to investigate the magnesium oxide hydration process in gas–liquid–solid (three-phase) reaction system, magnesium hydroxide was prepared by magnesium oxide hydration in liquid–solid (two-phase) and three-phase reaction systems. A semi-empirical model and the classical shrinking core model were used to fit the experimental data. The fitting result shows that both models describe well the hydration process of three-phase system, while only the semi-empirical model right for the hydration process of two-phase system. The characterization of the hydration product using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) was performed. The XRD and SEM show hydration process in the two-phase system follows common dissolution/precipitation mechanism. While in the three-phase system, the hydration process undergo MgO dissolution, Mg(OH){sub 2} precipitation, Mg(OH){sub 2} peeling off from MgO particle and leaving behind fresh MgO surface. - Graphical abstract: There was existence of a peeling-off process in the gas–liquid–solid (three-phase) MgO hydration system. - Highlights: • Magnesium oxide hydration in gas–liquid–solid system was investigated. • The experimental data in three-phase system could be fitted well by two models. • The morphology analysis suggested that there was existence of a peel-off process.

  16. Visual observation of gas hydrates nucleation and growth at a water - organic liquid interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoporev, Andrey S.; Semenov, Anton P.; Medvedev, Vladimir I.; Sizikov, Artem A.; Gushchin, Pavel A.; Vinokurov, Vladimir A.; Manakov, Andrey Yu.

    2018-03-01

    Visual observation of nucleation sites of methane and methane-ethane-propane hydrates and their further growth in water - organic liquid - gas systems with/without surfactants was carried out. Sapphire Rocking Cell RCS6 with transparent sapphire cells was used. The experiments were conducted at the supercooling ΔTsub = 20.2 °C. Decane, toluene and crude oils were used as organics. Gas hydrate nucleation occurred on water - metal - gas and water - sapphire - organic liquid three-phase contact lines. At the initial stage of growth hydrate crystals rapidly covered the water - gas or water - organics interfaces (depending on the nucleation site). Further hydrate phase accrete on cell walls (sapphire surface) and into the organics volume. At this stage, growth was accompanied by water «drawing out» from under initial hydrate film formed at water - organic interface. Apparently, it takes place due to water capillary inflow in the reaction zone. It was shown that the hydrate crystal morphology depends on the organic phase composition. In the case of water-in-decane emulsion relay hydrate crystallization was observed in the whole sample, originating most likely due to the hydrate crystal intergrowth through decane. Contacts of such crystals with adjacent water droplets result in rapid hydrate crystallization on this droplet.

  17. Obsidian hydration profile measurements using a nuclear reaction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R.R.; Leich, D.A.; Tombrello, T.A.; Ericson, J.E.; Friedman, I.

    1974-01-01

    AMBIENT water diffuses into the exposed surfaces of obsidian, forming a hydration layer which increases in thickness with time to a maximum depth of 20-40 ??m (ref. 1), this layer being the basic foundation of obsidian dating2,3. ?? 1974 Nature Publishing Group.

  18. A new oxidimetric reagent: potassium dichromate in a strong phosphoric acid medium-VI Potentiometric titration of vanadium(III) alone and in mixture with vanadium(IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, G G; Rao, P K

    1966-09-01

    Vanadium(III) can be titrated at room temperature with potassium dichromate in an 8-12M phosphoric acid medium. Two potential breaks are observed in 12M phosphoric add with 0.2N potassium dichromate, the first corresponding to the oxidation of vanadium(III) to vanadium(IV) and the second to the oxidation of vanadium(IV) to vanadium(V). In titrations with 0.05N dichromate only the first break in potential is clearly observed. The method has been extended to the titration of mixtures of vanadium(III) and vanadium(IV). Conditions have also been found for the visual titration of vanadium(III) using ferroln or barium diphenylamine sulphonate as indicator.

  19. Vanadium-base alloys for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.L.; Loomis, B.A.; Diercks, D.R.

    1984-10-01

    Vanadium-base alloys offer potentially significant advantages over other candidate alloys as a structural material for fusion reactor first wall/blanket applications. Although the data base is more limited than that for the other leading candidate structural materials, viz., austenitic and ferritic steels, vanadium-base alloys exhibit several properties that make them particularly attractive for the fusion reactor environment. This paper presents a review of the structural material requirements, a summary of the materials data base for selected vanadium-base alloys, and a comparison of projected performance characteristics compared to other candidate alloys. Also, critical research and development (R and D) needs are defined

  20. Vanadium-base alloys for fusion reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, D.L.; Loomis, B.A.; Diercks, D.R.

    1984-10-01

    Vanadium-base alloys offer potentially significant advantages over other candidate alloys as a structural material for fusion reactor first wall/blanket applications. Although the data base is more limited than that for the other leading candidate structural materials, viz., austenitic and ferritic steels, vanadium-base alloys exhibit several properties that make them particularly attractive for the fusion reactor environment. This paper presents a review of the structural material requirements, a summary of the materials data base for selected vanadium-base alloys, and a comparison of projected performance characteristics compared to other candidate alloys. Also, critical research and development (R and D) needs are defined.

  1. TiAl doping by vanadium: ab initio study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, E.A.; Isaev, Eh.I.; Vekilov, Yu.Kh.

    2004-01-01

    Tetragonality degree in TiAl and vanadium doping effect on it were studied using the methods of calculation based on approximation of coherent potential and ab initio pseudopotentials. It is shown that vanadium substitution for Ti sublattice atoms entails increase in tetragonality degree but with substitution of the atoms in aluminium sublattice the tetragonality of the TiAl:V alloy decreases and at the content of vanadium about 8 at. % the lattice becomes actually cubical. In its turn, it may result in increase in TiAl ductility, the alloy being brittle at low temperatures [ru

  2. Hydrogen release from vanadium alloy V-4Cr-4Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepikov, A.Kh; Kulsartov, T.V.; Chikhray, E.V.; Romanenko, O.G.; Tazhibaeva, I.L.; Shestakov, V.P.

    1999-01-01

    The experiments on hydrogen loading of vanadium alloy with the following thermodesorption spectroscopy (TDS) measurements were carried out with the sample of the V-4Cr-4Ti vanadium alloy (Russia production). Hydrogen solubility was calculated from experimental TDS curves, obtained after equilibrium loading of the sample at the temperatures 673, 773, 873, 973, and 1073 K. The range of loading pressures was 10-100 Pa. The experiments carried out had an objective to determine the regimes (loading time, temperatures and pressures) for the experiment on in-pile loading of the vanadium alloy. (author)

  3. Spectrophotometric determination of vanadium in environmental and biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekha, D.; Krishnapriya, B.; Subrahmanyam, P.; Reddyprasad, P.; Dilip Kumar, J.; Chiranjeevi, P.

    2007-01-01

    The method is based on oxidation of p-nitro aniline by vanadium (V) followed by coupling reaction with N-(1-naphthalene-1-y1)ethane-1, 2-diaminedihydrochloride (NEDA) in basic medium of pH 8 to give purple colored derivative. The derivative having an λ max 525nm is stable for 10 days. Beer's law is obeyed for vanadium (V) in the concentration range of 0.03-4.5 μg ml -1 . The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of vanadium in environmental and biological samples. (author)

  4. Vanadium and titanium determination by resorcinalhydrazide of salicylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpova, O I; Pilipenko, A T; Lukachina, V V [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Kolloidnoj Khimii i Khimii Vody

    1979-02-01

    The complexing of titanium and vanadium with resorcinalhydrazyl of salicylic acid (RHSA) in water-organic media is studied. Titanium (4) forms a complex at pH 0.8-1.8, vanadium - at pH 2.5-5.6, and at pH 7.6-9.8. The complexes are well extracted by polar and nonpolar solvents from acid solutions. The techniques are developed for the determination of titanium and vanadium by the RHSA agent in nickel alloys.

  5. Vanadium bioavailability and toxicity to soil microorganisms and plants

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Maja A; Baken, Stijn; Gustafsson, Jon Petter; Hadialhejazi, Golshid; Smolders, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Vanadium, V, is a redox-sensitive metal that in solution, under aerobic conditions, prevails as the oxyanion vanadate(V). There is little known regarding vanadium toxicity to soil biota, and the present study was set up to determine the toxicity of added vanadate to soil organisms and to investigate the relationship between toxicity and vanadium sorption in soils. Five soils with contrasting properties were spiked with 7 different doses (3.2-3200mgVkg(-1)) of dissolved vanadate, and toxicity ...

  6. Preliminary studies of vanadium-base alloys intended for use in fabrication of cans for fast reactors; Etudes preliminaires sur les alliages a base de vanadium envisages pour la fabrication de gaines de reacteurs rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-03-15

    Preliminary research has been carried out on a series of vanadium-based alloys: V, 0.5 per cent Si; V, 5 per cent Ca; V, 5 per cent Mo; V, 5 per cent Nb; V, 2 per cent Zr; V, 20 per cent Ti; V, 10 per cent Al; V, 10 per cent Sn and v, 10 per cent Ti liable to be used as canning material in fast reactors. The transformation by forging at about 1000 deg. C and rolling between 200 deg. C and room temperature is satisfactory for all types of alloys except V with 10 per cent Sn and V with 10 per cent Al. The mechanical properties deduced from tensile strength tests carried out on alloy samples annealed 1 hour at 1050 deg. C in a vacuum show that, generally speaking, the addition elements lead to an improvement in these properties as compared to those of pure vanadium. After undergoing corrosion tests in a liquid sodium loop purified by a cold trap, the alloys become brittle at room temperature. Only the vanadium containing 20 per cent Ti keeps its plastic properties. These alloys are covered by a layer of vanadium carbide VC. After undergoing treatment in a liquid sodium loop purified by a hot trap, all the alloys keep their good mechanical characteristics. The surface layer with which they are covered is composed of two vanadium carbides VC and {sub {gamma}}VC, and a vanadium sub-oxide VO{sub 0.9}. (author) [French] Des etudes preliminaires ont ete faites sur une serie d'alliages a base de vanadium: V-0,5 pour cent Si, V-5 pour cent Ca, V-5 pour cent Mo, V-5 pour cent Nb, V-2 pour cent Zr, V-20 pour cent Ti, V-10 pour cent Al, V-10 pour cent Sn et V-10 pour cent Ti susceptibles d'etre utilises comme materiau de gainage pour les reacteurs rapides. La transformation par forgeage a 1000 deg. C environ et laminage entre 200 deg. C et la temperature ambiante est satisfaisante pour toutes les nuances d'alliage sauf le V-10 pour cent Sn et le V-10 pour cent Al. Les proprietes mecaniques deduites des essais de traction realises sur des eprouvettes d'alliages recuits 1 heure a

  7. Effects of Attenuation of Gas Hydrate-bearing Sediments on Seismic Data: Example from Mallik, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellefleur, G.; Riedel, M.; Brent, T.

    2007-05-01

    Wave attenuation is an important physical property of hydrate-bearing sediments that is rarely taken into account in site characterization with seismic data. We present a field example showing improved images of hydrate- bearing sediments on seismic data after compensation of attenuation effects. Compressional quality factors (Q) are estimated from zero-offset Vertical Seismic Profiling data acquired at Mallik, Northwest Territories, Canada. During the last 10 years, two internationally-partnered research drilling programs have intersected three major intervals of sub-permafrost gas hydrates at Mallik, and have successfully extracted core samples containing significant amount of gas hydrates. Individual gas hydrate intervals are up to 40m in thickness and are characterized by high in situ gas hydrate saturation, sometimes exceeding 80% of pore volume of unconsolidated clastic sediments having average porosities ranging from 25% to 40%. The Q-factors obtained from the VSP data demonstrate significant wave attenuation for permafrost and hydrate- bearing sediments. These results are in agreement with previous attenuation estimates from sonic logs and crosshole data at different frequency intervals. The Q-factors obtained from VSP data were used to compensate attenuation effects on surface 3D seismic data acquired over the Mallik gas hydrate research wells. Intervals of gas hydrate on surface seismic data are characterized by strong reflectivity and effects from attenuation are not perceptible from a simple visual inspection of the data. However, the application of an inverse Q-filter increases the resolution of the data and improves correlation with log data, particularly for the shallowest gas hydrate interval. Compensation of the attenuation effects of the permafrost likely explains most of the improvements for the shallow gas hydrate zone. Our results show that characterization of the Mallik gas hydrates with seismic data not corrected for attenuation would tend to

  8. Bioleaching of vanadium from barren stone coal and its effect on the transition of vanadium speciation and mineral phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Lin, Hai; Dong, Ying-bo; Li, Gan-yu

    2018-03-01

    This study determined the optimal conditions required to obtain maximum vanadium extraction and examined the transition of mineral phases and vanadium speciation during the bioleaching process. Parameters including the initial pH value, initial Fe2+ concentration, solid load, and inoculum quantity were examined. The results revealed that 48.92wt% of the vanadium was extracted through bioleaching under optimal conditions. Comparatively, the chemical leaching yield (H2SO4, pH 2.0) showed a slower and milder increase in vanadium yield. The vanadium bioleaching yield was 35.11wt% greater than the chemical leaching yield. The Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction results revealed that 88.62wt% of vanadium existed in the residual fraction. The bacteria substantially changed the distribution of the vanadium speciation during the leaching process, and the residual fraction decreased to 48.44wt%. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) results provided evidence that the crystal lattice structure of muscovite was destroyed by the bacteria.

  9. NATURAL GAS HYDRATES STORAGE PROJECT PHASE II. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ECONOMIC STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.E. Rogers

    1999-09-27

    DOE Contract DE-AC26-97FT33203 studied feasibility of utilizing the natural-gas storage property of gas hydrates, so abundantly demonstrated in nature, as an economical industrial process to allow expanded use of the clean-burning fuel in power plants. The laboratory work achieved breakthroughs: (1) Gas hydrates were found to form orders of magnitude faster in an unstirred system with surfactant-water micellar solutions. (2) Hydrate particles were found to self-pack by adsorption on cold metal surfaces from the micellar solutions. (3) Interstitial micellar-water of the packed particles were found to continue forming hydrates. (4) Aluminum surfaces were found to most actively collect the hydrate particles. These laboratory developments were the bases of a conceptual design for a large-scale process where simplification enhances economy. In the design, hydrates form, store, and decompose in the same tank in which gas is pressurized to 550 psi above unstirred micellar solution, chilled by a brine circulating through a bank of aluminum tubing in the tank employing gas-fired refrigeration. Hydrates form on aluminum plates suspended in the chilled micellar solution. A low-grade heat source, such as 110 F water of a power plant, circulates through the tubing bank to release stored gas. The design allows a formation/storage/decomposition cycle in a 24-hour period of 2,254,000 scf of natural gas; the capability of multiple cycles is an advantage of the process. The development costs and the user costs of storing natural gas in a scaled hydrate process were estimated to be competitive with conventional storage means if multiple cycles of hydrate storage were used. If more than 54 cycles/year were used, hydrate development costs per Mscf would be better than development costs of depleted reservoir storage; above 125 cycles/year, hydrate user costs would be lower than user costs of depleted reservoir storage.

  10. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Lachowski, Eric E.

    1999-01-01

    and experimental data are presented showing that C(3)A can hydrate at lower humidities than either C3S or C2S. It is suggested that the initiation of hydration during exposure to water vapour is nucleation controlled. When C(3)A hydrates at low humidity, the characteristic hydration product is C(3)AH(6......Vapour phase hydration of purl cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities is described. This is relevant to modern high performance concrete that may self-desiccate during hydration and is also relevant to the quality of the cement during storage. Both the oretical considerations...

  11. Storage capacity of hydrogen in gas hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Takaaki; Ogata, Kyohei; Hashimoto, Shunsuke; Sugahara, Takeshi; Sato, Hiroshi; Ohgaki, Kazunari

    2010-01-01

    The storage capacity of H 2 in the THF, THT, and furan hydrates was studied by p-V-T measurements. We confirmed that the storage and release processes of H 2 in all hydrates could be performed reversibly by pressure swing without destroying of hydrate cages. H 2 absorption in both THT and furan hydrates is much faster than THF hydrate in spite of same unit-cell structure. On the other hand, the storage amounts of H 2 are coincident in the all additive hydrates and would reach at about 1.0 mass% asymptotically.

  12. Optothermal transient emission radiometry for studying the changes in epidermal hydration induced during ripening of tomato fruit mutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, X.; Bicanic, D.; Imhof, R.; Xiao, P.; Harbinson, J.

    2004-10-01

    Optothermal transient emission radiometry (OTTER) was used to determine the mean surface hydration and the hydration profile of three mutants (beefsteak, slicing and salad) of harvested tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) that were kept under ambient conditions for as long as 51 days. Maximal sensitivity of OTTER to water in the samples was achieved by using 2.94 μm and 13.1 μm as excitation and emission wavelengths, respectively. The surface hydration increases rapidly and reaches a constant level during the remaining period. The hydrolysis of pectic substances that occur in tomatoes while ripening might be a possible cause for the observed change in hydration.

  13. Leaching of vanadium from waste V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst catalyzed by functional microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuhua; Xie, Yaling; Yan, Weifu; Wu, Xuee; Wang, Chin-Tsan; Zhao, Feng

    2018-05-22

    Solid wastes are currently produced in large amounts. Although bioleaching of metals from solid wastes is an economical and sustainable technology, it has seldom been used to recycle metals from abandoned catalyst. In this study, the bioleaching of vanadium from V 2 O 5 -WO 3 /TiO 2 catalyst were comprehensively investigated through five methods: Oligotrophic way, Eutrophic way, S-mediated way, Fe-mediated way and Mixed way of S-mediated and Fe-mediated. The observed vanadium bioleaching effectiveness of the assayed methods was follows: S-mediated > Mixed > Oligotrophic > Eutrophic > Fe-mediated, which yielded the maximum bioleaching efficiencies of approximately 90%, 35%, 33%, 20% and 7%, respectively. The microbial community analysis suggested that the predominant genera Acidithiobacillus and Sulfobacillus from the S-mediated bioleaching way effectively catalyzed the vanadium leaching, which could have occurred through the indirect mechanism from the microbial oxidation of S 0 . In addition, the direct mechanism, involving direct electron transfer between the catalyst and the microorganisms that attached to the catalyst surface, should also help the vanadium to be leached more effectively. Therefore, this work provides guidance for future research and practical application on the treatment of waste V 2 O 5 -WO 3 /TiO 2 catalyst. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Geochemistry of vanadium in an epigenetic, sandstone-hosted vanadium- uranium deposit, Henry Basin, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanty, R.B.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Northrop, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    The epigenetic Tony M vanadium-uranium orebody in south-central Utah is hosted in fluvial sandstones of the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic). Measurements of the relative amounts of V+3 and V +4 in ore minerals show that V+3 is more abundant. Thermodynamic calculations show that vanadium was more likely transported to the site of mineralization as V+4. The ore formed as V+4 was reduced by hydrogen sulfide, followed by hydrolysis and precipitation of V+3 in oxide minerals or chlorite. Uranium was transported as uranyl ion (U+6), or some complex thereof, and reduced by hydrogen sulfide, forming coffinite. Detrital organic matter in the rocks served as the carbon source for sulfate-reducing bacteria. Vanadium most likely was derived from the dissolution of iron-titanium oxides. Uranium probably was derived from the overlying Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation. Previous studies have shown that the ore formed at the density-stratified interface between a basinal brine and dilute meteoric water. The mineralization processes described above occurred within the mixing zone between these two fluids. -from Authors

  15. Water Dynamics in Protein Hydration Shells: The Molecular Origins of the Dynamical Perturbation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Protein hydration shell dynamics play an important role in biochemical processes including protein folding, enzyme function, and molecular recognition. We present here a comparison of the reorientation dynamics of individual water molecules within the hydration shell of a series of globular proteins: acetylcholinesterase, subtilisin Carlsberg, lysozyme, and ubiquitin. Molecular dynamics simulations and analytical models are used to access site-resolved information on hydration shell dynamics and to elucidate the molecular origins of the dynamical perturbation of hydration shell water relative to bulk water. We show that all four proteins have very similar hydration shell dynamics, despite their wide range of sizes and functions, and differing secondary structures. We demonstrate that this arises from the similar local surface topology and surface chemical composition of the four proteins, and that such local factors alone are sufficient to rationalize the hydration shell dynamics. We propose that these conclusions can be generalized to a wide range of globular proteins. We also show that protein conformational fluctuations induce a dynamical heterogeneity within the hydration layer. We finally address the effect of confinement on hydration shell dynamics via a site-resolved analysis and connect our results to experiments via the calculation of two-dimensional infrared spectra. PMID:24479585

  16. Modeling the influence of limestone addition on cement hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Ragab Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the influence of using Portland limestone cement “PLC” on cement hydration by characterization of its microstructure development. The European Standard EN 197-1:2011 and Egyptian specification ESS 4756-1/2009 permit the cement to contain up to 20% ground limestone. The computational tools assist in better understanding the influence of limestone additions on cement hydration and microstructure development to facilitate the acceptance of these more economical and ecological materials. μic model has been developed to enable the modeling of microstructural evolution of cementitious materials. In this research μic model is used to simulate both the influence of limestone as fine filler, providing additional surfaces for the nucleation and growth of hydration products. Limestone powder also reacts relatively slow with hydrating cement to form monocarboaluminate (AFmc phase, similar to the mono-sulfoaluminate (AFm phase formed in ordinary Portland cement. The model results reveal that limestone cement has accelerated cement hydration rate, previous experimental results and computer model “cemhyd3d” are used to validate this model.

  17. Sputtering of vanadium and niobium under 14.1 MeV neutron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminsky, M.; Das, S.K.

    1976-01-01

    The recent studies of particle emission from cold-rolled and annealed niobium under 14.1-MeV neutron impact were extended to a heavily etched, polycrystalline niobium surface and to cold worked vanadium surfaces with different degrees of microstructure. The type and amount of material released and deposited on collector surfaces facing the irradiated targets were determined by three analytical techniques. Two types of deposits were found for certain types of surfaces--one in the form of chunks; the other as a fractional atom layer covering the surface. The chunks vary significantly in size. The small number of chunks observed suggests that the ejection of chunks is a relatively rare event in comparison to the total number of primary knock-on events produced by 14-MeV neutrons in near surface regions. Estimates of the total sputtering yield based on the chunk deposits and on the fractional atom layer deposit will be given

  18. Animated molecular dynamics simulations of hydrated caesium-smectite interlayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sposito Garrison

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer animation of center of mass coordinates obtained from 800 ps molecular dynamics simulations of Cs-smectite hydrates (1/3 and 2/3 water monolayers provided information concerning the structure and dynamics of the interlayer region that could not be obtained through traditional simulation analysis methods. Cs+ formed inner sphere complexes with the mineral surface, and could be seen to jump from one attracting location near a layer charge site to the next, while water molecules were observed to migrate from the hydration shell of one ion to that of another. Neighboring ions maintained a partial hydration shell by sharing water molecules, such that a single water molecule hydrated two ions simultaneously for hundreds of picoseconds. Cs-montmorillonite hydrates featured the largest extent of this sharing interaction, because interlayer ions were able to inhabit positions near surface cavities as well as at their edges, close to oxygen triads. The greater positional freedom of Cs+ within the montmorillonite interlayer, a result of structural hydroxyl orientation and low tetrahedral charge, promoted the optimization of distances between cations and water molecules required for water sharing. Preference of Cs+ for locations near oxygen triads was observed within interlayer beidellite and hectorite. Water molecules also could be seen to interact directly with the mineral surface, entering its surface cavities to approach attracting charge sites and structural hydroxyls. With increasing water content, water molecules exhibited increased frequency and duration of both cavity habitation and water sharing interactions. Competition between Cs+ and water molecules for surface sites was evident. These important cooperative and competitive features of interlayer molecular behavior were uniquely revealed by animation of an otherwise highly complex simulation output.

  19. Animated molecular dynamics simulations of hydrated caesium-smectite interlayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Rebecca; Sposito, Garrison

    2002-01-01

    Computer animation of center of mass coordinates obtained from 800 ps molecular dynamics simulations of Cs-smectite hydrates (1/3 and 2/3 water monolayers) provided information concerning the structure and dynamics of the interlayer region that could not be obtained through traditional simulation analysis methods. Cs+ formed inner sphere complexes with the mineral surface, and could be seen to jump from one attracting location near a layer charge site to the next, while water molecules were observed to migrate from the hydration shell of one ion to that of another. Neighboring ions maintained a partial hydration shell by sharing water molecules, such that a single water molecule hydrated two ions simultaneously for hundreds of picoseconds. Cs-montmorillonite hydrates featured the largest extent of this sharing interaction, because interlayer ions were able to inhabit positions near surface cavities as well as at their edges, close to oxygen triads. The greater positional freedom of Cs+ within the montmorillonite interlayer, a result of structural hydroxyl orientation and low tetrahedral charge, promoted the optimization of distances between cations and water molecules required for water sharing. Preference of Cs+ for locations near oxygen triads was observed within interlayer beidellite and hectorite. Water molecules also could be seen to interact directly with the mineral surface, entering its surface cavities to approach attracting charge sites and structural hydroxyls. With increasing water content, water molecules exhibited increased frequency and duration of both cavity habitation and water sharing interactions. Competition between Cs+ and water molecules for surface sites was evident. These important cooperative and competitive features of interlayer molecular behavior were uniquely revealed by animation of an otherwise highly complex simulation output.

  20. Determination of vanadium (4) and (5) in the presence of both

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyuta, V.F.; Solomatin, V.T.; Berezhnoj, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made on the possibility of vanadium (4) and (5) determination in the presence of both by titration with ferrocene in aqueous solutions. 5-6 M H 2 SO 4 is the optimal medium for vanadium (5) titration. Vanadium (4) is titrated in the mixture of 2-2.5 M H 2 SO 4 and 8-10 M H 3 PO 4 . The method for vanadium (4) and (5) determination in vanadium catalysts was developed. Vanadium (5) is titrated amperometrically or potentiometrically by propanol solution of ferrocence in H 2 SO 4 . Concentrated H 3 PO 4 is added and the summary vanadium (4) is titrated. The relative standard deviations for 0.04-2% vanadium (4) content and 0.3-4% vanadium (5) content equal 0.06-0.03 and 0.05-0.02, respectively

  1. Gas hydrates forming and decomposition conditions analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Павленко

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of gas hydrates has been defined; their brief description has been given; factors that affect the formation and decomposition of the hydrates have been reported; their distribution, structure and thermodynamic conditions determining the gas hydrates formation disposition in gas pipelines have been considered. Advantages and disadvantages of the known methods for removing gas hydrate plugs in the pipeline have been analyzed, the necessity of their further studies has been proved. In addition to the negative impact on the process of gas extraction, the hydrates properties make it possible to outline the following possible fields of their industrial use: obtaining ultrahigh pressures in confined spaces at the hydrate decomposition; separating hydrocarbon mixtures by successive transfer of individual components through the hydrate given the mode; obtaining cold due to heat absorption at the hydrate decomposition; elimination of the open gas fountain by means of hydrate plugs in the bore hole of the gushing gasser; seawater desalination, based on the hydrate ability to only bind water molecules into the solid state; wastewater purification; gas storage in the hydrate state; dispersion of high temperature fog and clouds by means of hydrates; water-hydrates emulsion injection into the productive strata to raise the oil recovery factor; obtaining cold in the gas processing to cool the gas, etc.

  2. Complexing of vanadium(3) with chromotropic acid derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babenko, N.L.; Busev, A.I.; Sukhorukova, N.V.; Frolova, O.S.

    1976-01-01

    A spectrophotometric study has been made of the complex formation of vanadium (3) with arsenazo(1), arsenazo(3) and some monosubstituted derivatives of chromotropic acid and sulphanylamides. In acid medium vanadium (3) reacts with each of these reagents to produce a 1:1 complex. Optimum conditions of the complex formation was found. The effect of H + on the complex formation of vanadium (3) with chromotropic acid derivatives was established. It was found by the graphical method that the formation of the complex is accompanied by the elimination of one proton. Patterns were found of the influence of the nature of substituents in the organic compound on the ionization constants of acid groups and stability of complexes. Molar extinction coefficients, equilibrium constants of the formation reactions and instability constants for the complexes were calculated. The structure of complexes was suggested. Similar behaviour of all the reagents was established in the complex formation with vanadium (3)

  3. Compatibility of niobium, titanium, and vanadium metals with LMFBR cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1975-10-01

    A series of laboratory capsule annealing experiments were conducted to assess the compatibility of niobium, vanadium, and titanium with 316 stainless steel cladding in the temperature range of 700 to 800 0 C. Niobium, vanadium, and titanium are cantidate oxygen absorber materials for control of oxygen chemistry in LMFBR fuel pins. Capsule examination indicated good compatibility between niobium and 316 stainless steel at 800 0 C. Potential compatibility problems between cladding and vanadium or titanium were indicated at 800 0 C under reducing conditions. In the presence of Pu/sub 0.25/U/sub 0.75/O/sub 1.98/ fuel (Δanti G 02 congruent to -160 kcal/mole) no reaction was observed between vanadium or titanium and cladding at 800 0 C

  4. TEM investigation of ductile iron alloyed with vanadium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymek, S; Blicharski, M; Morgiel, J; Fraś, E

    2010-03-01

    This article presents results of the processing and microstructure evolution of ductile cast iron, modified by an addition of vanadium. The ductile iron was austenitized closed to the solidus (1095 degrees C) for 100 h, cooled down to 640 degrees C and held on at this temperature for 16 h. The heat treatment led to the dissolution of primary vanadium-rich carbides and their subsequent re-precipitation in a more dispersed form. The result of mechanical tests indicated that addition of vanadium and an appropriate heat treatment makes age hardening of ductile iron feasible. The precipitation processes as well as the effect of Si content on the alloy microstructure were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that adjacent to uniformly spread out vanadium-rich carbides with an average size of 50 nm, a dispersoid composed of extremely small approximately 1 nm precipitates was also revealed.

  5. Synthesis and infrared spectra of Vanadium (III) prussian blue complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toma, H.E.; Lellis, F.T.P.

    1987-01-01

    The synthesis and characterization of a series of polymeric pigments containing vanadium (III) and hexacryano or substituted pentacyanoferrate (II) complexes are studied. The role of the intervalence transfer interactions in the complexes is discussed. (M.J.C.) [pt

  6. Particle fracture and plastic deformation in vanadium pentoxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Particle fracture and plastic deformation in vanadium pentoxide powders induced by high energy vibrational ball-mill ... Keywords. X-ray diffraction; ball-milling; plastic deformation; microstrain. ... Bulletin of Materials Science | News.

  7. Application of vanadium alloys to a fusion reactor blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethin, J.; Tobin, A. (Grumman Aerospace Corp., Bethpage, NY (USA). Research and Development Center)

    1984-05-01

    Vanadium and vanadium alloys are of interest in fusion reactor blanket applications due to their low induced radioactivity and outstanding elevated temperature mechanical properties during neutron irradiation. The major limitation to the use of vanadium is its sensitivity to oxygen impurities in the blanket environment, leading to oxygen embrittlement. A quantitative analysis was performed of the interaction of gaseous impurities in a helium coolant with vanadium and the V-15Cr-5Ti alloy under conditions expected in a fusion reactor blanket. It was shown that the use of unalloyed V would impose severe restrictions on the helium gas cleanup system due to excessive oxygen buildup and embrittlement of the metal. However, internal oxidation effects and the possibly lower terminal oxygen solubility in the alloy would impose much less severe cleanup constraints. It is suggested that V-15Cr-5Ti is a promising candidate for certain blanket applications and deserves further consideration.

  8. Low vanadium ion permeabilities of sulfonated poly(phthalazinone ether ketone)s provide high efficiency and stability for vanadium redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyun; Zhang, Shouhai; Chen, Yuning; Jian, Xigao

    2017-07-01

    A series of novel sulfonated poly(phthalazinone ether ketone)s containing pendant phenyl moieties (SPPEK-Ps) are synthesized and thoroughly characterized. The chemical structures of the polymers are confirmed by 1H NMR and FTIR analysis. The physicochemical properties and single cell performance of SPPEK-P membranes are systematically evaluated, revealing that the membranes are thermally, chemically and mechanically stable. The area resistances of SPPEK-P-90 and SPPEK-P-100 are 0.75 Ω cm2 and 0.34 Ω cm2, respectively. SPPEK-P membranes are impermeable to the bulky hydrated VO2+ ion and exhibited low V3+ ion permeability (SPPEK-P-90, 2.53 × 10-5 cm min-1) (Nafion 115 membrane: 9.0 × 10-4 cm min-1). Tests of SPPEK-P-90 in vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) demonstrate a comparable columbic efficiency (CE) and energy efficiency (EE) to that of Nafion 115, where the CE is 98% and the EE is 83% at 60 mA cm-2. Moreover, the SPPEK-P-90 membrane exhibits stable performance in cell over 100 charge-discharge cycles (∼450 h).

  9. Is Obsidian Hydration Dating Affected by Relative Humidity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, I.; Trembour, F.W.; Smith, G.I.; Smith, F.L.

    1994-01-01

    Experiments carried out under temperatures and relative humidities that approximate ambient conditions show that the rate of hydration of obsidian is a function of the relative humidity, as well as of previously established variables of temperature and obsidian chemical composition. Measurements of the relative humidity of soil at 25 sites and at depths of between 0.01 and 2 m below ground show that in most soil environments, at depths below about 0.25 m, the relative humidity is constant at 100%. We have found that the thickness of the hydrated layer developed on obsidian outcrops exposed to the sun and to relative humidities of 30-90% is similar to that formed on other portions of the outcrop that were shielded from the sun and exposed to a relative humidity of approximately 100%. Surface samples of obsidian exposed to solar heating should hydrate more rapidly than samples buried in the ground. However, the effect of the lower mean relative humidity experiences by surface samples tends to compensate for the elevated temperature, which may explain why obsidian hydration ages of surface samples usually approximate those derived from buried samples.

  10. Assessment of vanadium alloys for ITER application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgstedt, H.U.; Clemens, H.; Ehrlich, K.; Fromm, E.; Kelzenberg, S.; Moeslang, A.; Pick, M.; Ruehle, M.; Schaaf, B. van der; Schaefer, L.; Schiller, P.; Schirra, M.; Witwer, M.; Witzenburg, W. van; Zolti, E.; Zucchetti, M.

    1993-09-01

    The assessment effort concerned required evaluation of various relevant properties of vanadium alloys. The outcome predictably shows that these properties, as well as timing, funding, manufacturing and licensing aspects, each set their own specific boundary conditions for application of these alloys in ITER. Some of these are not really felt as constraints. Their capacity to accommodate high heat loads, for example, is better than other candidate materials and appears to be the main reason for the present interest in these alloys. Other favourable properties include neutronic properties (low nuclear heating rates, good tritium breeding performance and low helium generation rates), intrinsically low activation, excellent tensile and creep properties up to high temperatures and high strength-to-density ratio. Not all of these properties necessarily are relevant for ITER, but they would be important for longer term application. (orig.)

  11. Lithium diffusion in silver vanadium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, E.S.; Thiebolt, W.C. III

    1989-01-01

    Lithium/silver vanadium oxide (SVO) batteries have been developed to power implantable devices. The voltage of Li/SVO cells decreases with discharge allowing state of charge assessment by accurate determination of the cells' open circuit voltage. The open circuit voltage recovery of Li/SVO cells was monitored during intermittent high rate discharge. It was found that the voltage does not recover at the same rate or magnitude at all depths of discharge. The authors describe lithium diffusion in SVO studied by low scan rate voltammetry where utilization of SVO at various scan rates was used to determine the diffusion rate of lithium. A pulse technique was also used where the rate of lithium diffusion was measured at various depths of discharge

  12. On the superconductivity of vanadium based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouers, F.; Rest, J.V. der

    1985-01-01

    We have computed the electron density of States of solid solutions of vanadium based transition metal alloys V 90 X 10 by using the tight-binding recursion method for degenerate d-bands in order to calculte the alloy superconducting transition temperature with the McMillan formula. As observed experimentally for X on the left hand side of V in the periodic table one obtains an increase of T c while for X on the right hand side of V the critical temperature decreases. The detailed comparison with experiments indicate that when the bandwidths of the two constituents are different, one cannot neglect the variation of the electron-phonon interactions. (author) [pt

  13. Fourier transform of momentum distribution in vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.K.; Manuel, A.A.; Peter, M.; Singru, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental Compton profile and 2D-angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation data from vanadium are analyzed by the mean of their Fourier transform. They are compared with the functions calculated with the help of both the linear muffin-tin orbital and the Hubbard-Mijnarends band structure methods. The results show that the functions are influenced by the positron wave function, by the e + -e - many-body correlations and by the differences in the electron wave functions used for the band structure calculations. It is concluded that Fourier analysis is a sensitive approach to investigate the momentum distributions in transition metals and to understnad the effects of the positron. (Auth.)

  14. Fluctuation conductivity of thin superconductive vanadium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrenko, I.M.; Sidorenko, A.S.; Fogel, N.Y.

    1982-01-01

    Resistive transitions into the superconductive state are studied in thin [d >T/sub c/ the experimental data on the excess conductivity of the films agree qualitatively and quantitively with Aslamazov--Larkin theory. There is no Maki--Thompson contribution to fluctuation conductivity. Near T/sub c/ the excess conductivity sigma' changes exponentially with temperature in accordance with the predictions of the theory of the critical fluctuations of the order parameter. The values of the effective charge carrier mass defined from data on sigma' for the low fluctuation and critical fluctuation regions differ markedly. This difference is within the spread of effective masses for various charge carrier groups already known for vanadium. Causes of the difference in resistive behavior for the regions T >T/sub c/ are considered

  15. Dynamic morphology of gas hydrate on a methane bubble in water: Observations and new insights for hydrate film models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warzinski, Robert P.; Lynn, Ronald; Haljasmaa, Igor; Leifer, Ira; Shaffer, Frank; Anderson, Brian J.; Levine, Jonathan S.

    2014-10-01

    Predicting the fate of subsea hydrocarbon gases escaping into seawater is complicated by potential formation of hydrate on rising bubbles that can enhance their survival in the water column, allowing gas to reach shallower depths and the atmosphere. The precise nature and influence of hydrate coatings on bubble hydrodynamics and dissolution is largely unknown. Here we present high-definition, experimental observations of complex surficial mechanisms governing methane bubble hydrate formation and dissociation during transit of a simulated oceanic water column that reveal a temporal progression of deep-sea controlling mechanisms. Synergistic feedbacks between bubble hydrodynamics, hydrate morphology, and coverage characteristics were discovered. Morphological changes on the bubble surface appear analogous to macroscale, sea ice processes, presenting new mechanistic insights. An inverse linear relationship between hydrate coverage and bubble dissolution rate is indicated. Understanding and incorporating these phenomena into bubble and bubble plume models will be necessary to accurately predict global greenhouse gas budgets for warming ocean scenarios and hydrocarbon transport from anthropogenic or natural deep-sea eruptions.

  16. The bioinorganic electrochemistry of vanadium-penicillamine complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagal, U.A.; Riechel, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    Vanadium (V) has been found to inhibit (Na + , K + )-ATPase in the sodium pump reaction in erythrocytes. Glutathione has been suggested as the reducing agent that reverses the effect by reducing vanadium to the (IV) oxidation state. Penicillamine is being studied as a model for glutathione since both have sulfhydryl groups which are involved in redox and coordination chemistry. The electrochemistry in DMSO of penicillamine, its carboxylic ester, and their VO 2 + complexes are discussed in this paper

  17. Impurity states of vanadium in cadmium and zinc tellurides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnatenko, Yu.P.; Farina, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    Low-temperature optical (4.5 K) and photoelectrical properties of CdTe and ZnTe crystals doped by vanadium are invetigated. The energies of carrier transition to valence and conduction bands, Mott-Habbard energy for 3d 3 -ion vanadium in both crystals are determined. The resonance of the excited 4 T l ( 4 P)-state of V 2+ -ion with the conduction band of CdTe crystal is found. 8 bibl.; 4 figs

  18. Intercalation compounds of vanadium(5) phosphates with glycerol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakovleva, T.N.; Vykhodtseva, K.I.; Tarasova, D.V.; Soderzhinova, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Interaction products of glycerol aqueous solutions with vanadium(5) phosphates were investigated by the methods of ESR, X-ray phase and thermal analyses. It is shown that glycerol molecules enter the interlayer space of VOPO 4 · 2H 2 O lattice with formation of disordered intercalated compounds with glycerol on the basis of partially reduced vanadium phosphate form when using α-VOPO 4 . 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylbersztejn, A.; Mott, N.F.

    1975-01-01

    The basic physical parameters which govern the metal-insulator transition in vanadium dioxide are determined through a review of the properties of this material. The major importance of the Hubbard intra-atomic correlation energy in determining the insulating phase, which was already evidence by studies of the magnetic properties of V 1 -/subx/Cr/subx/O 2 alloys, is further demonstrated from an analysis of their electrical properties. An analysis of the magnetic susceptibility of niobium-doped VO 2 yields a picture for the current carrier in the low-temperature phase in which it is accompanied by a spin cloud (owing to Hund's-rule coupling), and has therefore an enhanced mass (m approx. = 60m 0 ). Semiconducting vanadium dioxide turns out to be a borderline case for a classical band-transport description; in the alloys at high doping levels, Anderson localization with hopping transport can take place. Whereas it is shown that the insulating phase cannot be described correctly without taking into account the Hubbard correlation energy, we find that the properties of the metallic phase are mainly determined by the band structure. Metallic VO 2 is, in our view, similar to transition metals like Pt or Pd: electrons in a comparatively wide band screening out the interaction between the electrons in a narrow overlapping band. The magnetic susceptibility is described as exchange enhanced. The large density of states at the Fermi level yields a substantial contribution of the entropy of the metallic electrons to the latent heat. The crystalline distortion removes the band degeneracy so that the correlation energy becomes comparable with the band width and a metal-insulator transition takes place

  20. Investigating the influence of lithologic heterogeneity on gas hydrate formation and methane recycling at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone in channelized systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daigle, Hugh; Nole, Michael; Cook, Ann; Malinverno, Alberto

    2017-12-14

    In marine environments, gas hydrate preferentially accumulates in coarse-grained sediments. At the meso- to micro-scale, however, hydrate distribution in these coarse-grained units is often heterogeneous. We employ a methane hydrate reservoir simulator coupling heat and mass transfer as well as capillary effects to investigate how capillary controls on methane solubility affect gas and hydrate accumulations in reservoirs characterized by graded bedding and alternating sequences of coarse-grained sands and fine-grained silt and clay. Simulations bury a channelized reservoir unit encased in homogeneous, fine-grained material characterized by small pores (150 nm) and low permeability (~1 md in the absence of hydrate). Pore sizes within each reservoir bed between vary between coarse sand and fine silt. Sands have a median pore size of 35 microns and a lognormal pore size distribution. We also investigate how the amount of labile organic carbon (LOC) affects hydrate growth due to microbial methanogenesis within the sediments. In a diffusion-dominated system, methane movies into reservoir layers along spatial gradients in dissolved methane concentration. Hydrate grows in such a way as to minimize these concentration gradients by accumulating slower in finer-grained reservoir layers and faster in coarser-grained layers. Channelized, fining-upwards sediment bodies accumulate hydrate first along their outer surfaces and thence inward from top to bottom. If LOC is present in thin beds within the channel, higher saturations of hydrate will be distributed more homogeneously throughout the unit. When buried beneath the GHSZ, gas recycling can occur only if enough hydrate is present to form a connected gas phase upon dissociation. Simulations indicate that this is difficult to achieve for diffusion-dominated systems, especially those with thick GHSZs and/or small amounts of LOC. However, capillary-driven fracturing behavior may be more prevalent in settings with thick GHSZs.

  1. Life Origination Hydrate Hypothesis (LOH-Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ostrovskii

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper develops the Life Origination Hydrate Hypothesis (LOH-hypothesis, according to which living-matter simplest elements (LMSEs, which are N-bases, riboses, nucleosides, nucleotides, DNA- and RNA-like molecules, amino-acids, and proto-cells repeatedly originated on the basis of thermodynamically controlled, natural, and inevitable processes governed by universal physical and chemical laws from CH4, niters, and phosphates under the Earth's surface or seabed within the crystal cavities of the honeycomb methane-hydrate structure at low temperatures; the chemical processes passed slowly through all successive chemical steps in the direction that is determined by a gradual decrease in the Gibbs free energy of reacting systems. The hypothesis formulation method is based on the thermodynamic directedness of natural movement and consists ofan attempt to mentally backtrack on the progression of nature and thus reveal principal milestones alongits route. The changes in Gibbs free energy are estimated for different steps of the living-matter origination process; special attention is paid to the processes of proto-cell formation. Just the occurrence of the gas-hydrate periodic honeycomb matrix filled with LMSEs almost completely in its final state accounts for size limitation in the DNA functional groups and the nonrandom location of N-bases in the DNA chains. The slowness of the low-temperature chemical transformations and their “thermodynamic front” guide the gross process of living matter origination and its successive steps. It is shown that the hypothesis is thermodynamically justified and testable and that many observed natural phenomena count in its favor.

  2. Methods to determine hydration states of minerals and cement hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baquerizo, Luis G., E-mail: luis.baquerizoibarra@holcim.com [Innovation, Holcim Technology Ltd., CH-5113 Holderbank (Switzerland); Matschei, Thomas [Innovation, Holcim Technology Ltd., CH-5113 Holderbank (Switzerland); Scrivener, Karen L. [Laboratory of Construction Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Saeidpour, Mahsa; Thorell, Alva; Wadsö, Lars [Building Materials, Lund University, Box 124, 221 000 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-11-15

    This paper describes a novel approach to the quantitative investigation of the impact of varying relative humidity (RH) and temperature on the structure and thermodynamic properties of salts and crystalline cement hydrates in different hydration states (i.e. varying molar water contents). The multi-method approach developed here is capable of deriving physico-chemical boundary conditions and the thermodynamic properties of hydrated phases, many of which are currently missing from or insufficiently reported in the literature. As an example the approach was applied to monosulfoaluminate, a phase typically found in hydrated cement pastes. New data on the dehydration and rehydration of monosulfoaluminate are presented. Some of the methods used were validated with the system Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–H{sub 2}O and new data related to the absorption of water by anhydrous sodium sulfate are presented. The methodology and data reported here should permit better modeling of the volume stability of cementitious systems exposed to various different climatic conditions.

  3. Methods to determine hydration states of minerals and cement hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baquerizo, Luis G.; Matschei, Thomas; Scrivener, Karen L.; Saeidpour, Mahsa; Thorell, Alva; Wadsö, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to the quantitative investigation of the impact of varying relative humidity (RH) and temperature on the structure and thermodynamic properties of salts and crystalline cement hydrates in different hydration states (i.e. varying molar water contents). The multi-method approach developed here is capable of deriving physico-chemical boundary conditions and the thermodynamic properties of hydrated phases, many of which are currently missing from or insufficiently reported in the literature. As an example the approach was applied to monosulfoaluminate, a phase typically found in hydrated cement pastes. New data on the dehydration and rehydration of monosulfoaluminate are presented. Some of the methods used were validated with the system Na 2 SO 4 –H 2 O and new data related to the absorption of water by anhydrous sodium sulfate are presented. The methodology and data reported here should permit better modeling of the volume stability of cementitious systems exposed to various different climatic conditions

  4. Novel understanding of calcium silicate hydrate from dilute hydration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lina

    2017-05-13

    The perspective of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is still confronting various debates due to its intrinsic complicated structure and properties after decades of studies. In this study, hydration at dilute suspension of w/s equaling to 10 was conducted for tricalcium silicate (C3S) to interpret long-term hydration process and investigate the formation, structure and properties of C-S-H. Based on results from XRD, IR, SEM, NMR and so forth, loose and dense clusters of C-S-H with analogous C/S ratio were obtained along with the corresponding chemical formulae proposed as Ca5Si4O13∙6.2H2O. Crystalline structure inside C-S-H was observed by TEM, which was allocated at the foil-like proportion as well as the edge of wrinkles of the product. The long-term hydration process of C3S in dilute suspension could be sketchily described as migration of calcium hydroxide and in-situ growth of C-S-H with equilibrium silicon in aqueous solution relatively constant and calcium varied.

  5. Nickel and vanadium extraction from the Syrian petroleum coke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlewit, H.; Alibrahim, M.

    2007-01-01

    Syrian petroleum coke samples were characterized and submitted for salt-roasting treatment in electric furnace to evaluate the convenience of this procedure for the extraction of the vanadium, nickel and sulfur from coke. Both solution and solid residue remaining after salt roasting were separated by filtration and were analyzed for vanadium, nickel and sulfur. The solution was analyzed by UV-Visible spectroscopy for vanadium and nickel and gravimetrically for sulfur. The solid residue and the untreated samples of petroleum coke were analyzed by XRF spectrometry. Results showed that more than 90% of sulfur and 60% of vanadium could be extracted by salt roasting treatment. An alternative procedure has been suggested, in which, more than 80% of sulfur and small percentage of vanadium can be leached by 0.75 M of Na 2 CO 3 solution at 70-80 Co. Vanadium was selectively extracted by DEHPA/TBP from the loaded leached solution. The extraction procedure flowsheet was also suggested. (authors)

  6. Recycling of Ammonia Wastewater During Vanadium Extraction from Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qihua; Zhang, Yimin; Liu, Tao; Huang, Jing

    2018-03-01

    In the vanadium metallurgical industry, massive amounts of ammonia hydroxide or ammonia salt are added during the precipitation process to obtain V2O5; therefore, wastewater containing a high level of NH4 + is generated, which poses a serious threat to environmental and hydrologic safety. In this article, a novel process was developed to recycle ammonia wastewater based on a combination of ammonia wastewater leaching and crystallization during vanadium extraction from shale. The effects of the NH4 + concentration, temperature, time and liquid-to-solid ratio on the leaching efficiencies of vanadium, aluminum and potassium were investigated, and the results showed that 93.2% of vanadium, 86.3% of aluminum and 96.8% of potassium can be leached from sulfation-roasted shale. Subsequently, 80.6% of NH4 + was separated from the leaching solution via cooling crystallization. Vanadium was recovered via a combined method of solvent extraction, precipitation and calcination. Therefore, ammonia wastewater was successfully recycled during vanadium extraction from shale.

  7. Sensitivity Calculation of Vanadium Self-Powered Neutron Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Kyoon Ho

    2011-01-01

    Self-powered neutron detector (SPND) is being widely used to monitor the reactor core of the nuclear power plants. The SPND contains a neutron-sensitive metallic emitter surrounded by a ceramic insulator. Currently, the rhodium SPND has been used in many nuclear power plants. The lifetime of rhodium is too short (about 3∼5 years) to operate the nuclear power plant economically. The vanadium (V) SPND is also primarily sensitive to neutrons like rhodium, but is a somewhat slower reaction time as that of a rhodium SPND. The benefit of vanadium over rhodium is its low depletion rate, which is a factor of 7 times less than that of rhodium. For this reason, a vanadium SPND has been being developed to replace the rhodium SPND which is used in OPR1000. Some Monte Carlo simulations were accomplished to calculate the initial sensitivity of vanadium emitter material and alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) insulator with a cylindrical geometry. An MCNP-X code was used to simulate some factors (neutron self shielding factor and electron escape probability from the emitter) necessary to calculate the sensitivity of vanadium detector. The simulation results were compared with some theoretical and experimental values. The method presented here can be used to analyze the optimum design of the vanadium SPND

  8. Tackling capacity fading in vanadium flow batteries with amphoteric membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, Fabio J.; Schmidt, Thomas J.; Gubler, Lorenz

    2017-11-01

    Capacity fading and poor electrolyte utilization caused by electrolyte imbalance effects are major drawbacks for the commercialization of vanadium flow batteries (VFB). The influence of membrane type (cationic, anionic, amphoteric) on these effects is studied by determining the excess and net flux of each vanadium ion in an operating VFB assembled with a cation exchange membrane (CEM), Nafion® NR212, an anion exchange membrane (AEM), Fumatech FAP-450, and an amphoteric ion exchange membrane (AIEM) synthesized in-house. It is shown that the net vanadium flux, accompanied by water transport, is directed towards the positive side for the CEM and towards the negative side for the AEM. The content of cation and anion exchange groups in the AIEM is adjusted via radiation grafting to balance the vanadium flux between the two electrolyte sides. With the AIEM the net vanadium flux is significantly reduced and capacity fading due to electrolyte imbalances can be largely eliminated. The membrane's influence on electrolyte imbalance effects is characterized and quantified in one single charge-discharge cycle by analyzing the content of the four different vanadium species in the two electrolytes. The experimental data recorded herewith conclusively explains the electrolyte composition after 80 cycles.

  9. Chloride supporting electrolytes for all-vanadium redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soowhan; Vijayakumar, M; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jianlu; Chen, Baowei; Nie, Zimin; Chen, Feng; Hu, Jianzhi; Li, Liyu; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-10-28

    This paper examines vanadium chloride solutions as electrolytes for an all-vanadium redox flow battery. The chloride solutions were capable of dissolving more than 2.3 M vanadium at varied valence states and remained stable at 0-50 °C. The improved stability appeared due to the formation of a vanadium dinuclear [V(2)O(3)·4H(2)O](4+) or a dinuclear-chloro complex [V(2)O(3)Cl·3H(2)O](3+) in the solutions over a wide temperature range. The all-vanadium redox flow batteries with the chloride electrolytes demonstrated excellent reversibility and fairly high efficiencies. Only negligible, if any, gas evolution was observed. The improved energy capacity and good performance, along with the ease in heat management, would lead to substantial reduction in capital cost and life-cycle cost, making the vanadium chloride redox flow battery a promising candidate for stationary applications. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  10. Impacts of Hydrate Distribution on the Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Hydrate-Bearing Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Seol, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In general, hydrate makes the sediments hydraulically less conductive, thermally more conductive, and mechanically stronger; yet the dependency of these physical properties on hydrate saturation varies with hydrate distribution and morphology. Hydrate distribution in sediments may cause the bulk physical properties of their host sediments varying several orders of magnitude even with the same amount of hydrate. In natural sediments, hydrate morphology is inherently governed by the burial depth and the grain size of the host sediments. Compare with patchy hydrate, uniformly distributed hydrate is more destructive to fluid flow, yet leads to higher gas and water permeability during hydrate dissociation due to the easiness of forming percolation paths. Water and hydrate have similar thermal conductivity values; the bulk thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments depends critically on gas-phase saturation. 60% of gas saturation may result in evident thermal conductivity drop and hinder further gas production. Sediments with patchy hydrate yield lower stiffness than that with cementing hydrate but higher stiffness than that with pore filling and loading bearing hydrate. Besides hydrate distribution, the stress state and loading history also play an important role in the mechanical behavior of hydrate-bearing sediments.

  11. Heterogeneous catalysis in the liquid-phase oxidation of olefins--3. The activity of supported vanadium-chromium binary oxide catalyst for the oxidation of cyclohexene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takehira, K; Hayakawa, T; Ishikawa, T

    1979-03-01

    The activity of supported vanadium-chromium binary oxide catalyst for the oxidation of cyclohexene to 1-cyclohexenyl hydroperoxide, 2-cyclohexene-1-one, 2-cyclohexene-1-ol, and cyclohexene oxide was due to the interaction between the metal oxides and the carriers. The oxidation reaction was carried out in benzene at 60/sup 0/C for four hours with the binary oxide supported on (GAMMA)-alumina or silica; three series of catalysts were prepared by combining the vanadium and chromium oxide components with alumina hydrate or silica sol by a kneading method. The silica-supported catalysts had the greatest activity, the highest being the V/sub 2/O/sub 5//SiO/sub 2/ system, which lost its activity quickly during the reaction. This was followed in activity by the Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3//SiO/sub 2/ system, containing the chromium(V) species. The Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3//Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ system also had high activity and the chromium(V) species. The vanadium and chromium metal ions are probably coordinated tetrahedrally on the support, and these complexes catalyze cyclohexene autoxidation by decomposing 1-cyclohexenyl hydroperoxide.

  12. Assessment of marine gas hydrate deposits: A comparative study of seismic, electromagnetic and seafloor compliance methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willoughby, E. C.; Schwalenberg, K.; Edwards, R.N.; Spence, G.D.; Hyndman, R.D.

    2005-07-01

    The existence, distribution and concentration of marine natural gas hydrate are mostly diagnosed using seismic data. The base of the hydrate stability zone marks an acoustic impedance contrast, which generally mimics seafloor topography and is associated with a bright, negative-polarity reflector, known as the Bottom Simulating Reflector (BSR). However, limitations of seismic methods include uncertainty in the origin of the BSR, which does not distinguish between low velocity gas and high velocity hydrate, blanking, and lack of clear upper boundary reflections. Sufficiently accurate hydrate layer velocities have been obtained at few sites, and these could better evaluate hydrate content with reference to velocities in similar sediments without hydrate- a situation very difficult to find. Therefore, estimation of the total mass of a deposit is difficult using seismic data alone. We have developed two supplementary geophysical imaging techniques for the evaluation of marine hydrate: A deep-towed controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) and a seafloor compliance experiment. These methods are sensitive to physical properties of the sedimentary section, which are modified by the presence of gas hydrate, namely the resistivity and the bulk shear modulus depth profile, respectively. CSEM data are gathered by inline receivers towed behind an AC transmitter; high precision timing allows measurement of the EM field propagation time through marine sediments which is proportional to resistivity, which is increased by the presence of insulating hydrate. Seafloor compliance is the transfer function between pressure induced on the seafloor by surface gravity waves and the associated deformation of the seafloor. It is mostly sensitive to shear modulus anomalies. Shear modulus is increased by hydrates, which can cement grains together. Here we present field data at a gas hydrate site, south of ODP Hole 889B in northern Cascadia, over a proposed new IODP transect, where these three

  13. Roasting and leaching behaviors of vanadium and chromium in calcification roasting-acid leaching of high-chromium vanadium slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Mi; Gao, Hui-yang; Liu, Jia-yi; Xue, Xiang-xin

    2018-05-01

    Calcification roasting-acid leaching of high-chromium vanadium slag (HCVS) was conducted to elucidate the roasting and leaching behaviors of vanadium and chromium. The effects of the purity of CaO, molar ratio between CaO and V2O5 ( n(CaO)/ n(V2O5)), roasting temperature, holding time, and the heating rate used in the oxidation-calcification processes were investigated. The roasting process and mechanism were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC). The results show that most of vanadium reacted with CaO to generate calcium vanadates and transferred into the leaching liquid, whereas almost all of the chromium remained in the leaching residue in the form of (Fe0.6Cr0.4)2O3. Variation trends of the vanadium and chromium leaching ratios were always opposite because of the competitive reactions of oxidation and calcification between vanadium and chromium with CaO. Moreover, CaO was more likely to combine with vanadium, as further confirmed by thermodynamic analysis. When the HCVS with CaO added in an n(CaO)/ n(V2O5) ratio of 0.5 was roasted in an air atmosphere at a heating rate of 10°C/min from room temperature to 950°C and maintained at this temperature for 60 min, the leaching ratios of vanadium and chromium reached 91.14% and 0.49%, respectively; thus, efficient extraction of vanadium from HCVS was achieved and the leaching residue could be used as a new raw material for the extraction of chromium. Furthermore, the oxidation and calcification reactions of the spinel phases occurred at 592 and 630°C for n(CaO)/ n(V2O5) ratios of 0.5 and 5, respectively.

  14. Ion sensing properties of vanadium/tungsten mixed oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidelli, Eder Jose; Guerra, Elidia Maria; Mulato, Marcelo

    2011-01-01

    Vanadium/tungsten mixed oxide (V 2 O 5 /WO 3 ) sensing membranes were deposited on glassy carbon substrates and used as the H + sensor of the extended gate field effect transistor (EGFET) device. X-ray diffractograms indicated a decrease of the interplanar spacing of V 2 O 5 after the insertion of WO 3 revealing that the lamellar structure is under compressive stress. The crystallinity increases with increasing WO 3 molar ratio. The film is not homogeneous, with more WO 3 material sitting at the surface. This influences the response of pH sensors using the EGFET configuration. The maximum sensitivity of 68 mV pH -1 was obtained for the sample with 5% WO 3 molar ratio. For higher WO 3 molar ratios, the behavior is not linear. It can be concluded that V 2 O 5 dominates for acidic solutions while WO 3 dominates for basic solutions. Therefore, the mixed oxide with low amount of WO 3 is the main candidate for further use as biosensor.

  15. Stress relaxation in vanadium under shock and shockless dynamic compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanel, G. I.; Razorenov, S. V.; Garkushin, G. V.; Savinykh, A. S.; Zaretsky, E. B.

    2015-01-01

    Evolutions of elastic-plastic waves have been recorded in three series of plate impact experiments with annealed vanadium samples under conditions of shockless and combined ramp and shock dynamic compression. The shaping of incident wave profiles was realized using intermediate base plates made of different silicate glasses through which the compression waves were entered into the samples. Measurements of the free surface velocity histories revealed an apparent growth of the Hugoniot elastic limit with decreasing average rate of compression. The growth was explained by “freezing” of the elastic precursor decay in the area of interaction of the incident and reflected waves. A set of obtained data show that the current value of the Hugoniot elastic limit and plastic strain rate is rather associated with the rate of the elastic precursor decay than with the local rate of compression. The study has revealed the contributions of dislocation multiplications in elastic waves. It has been shown that independently of the compression history the material arrives at the minimum point between the elastic and plastic waves with the same density of mobile dislocations

  16. Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotube/Graphite Felts as Advanced Electrode Materials for Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangyin; Zhao, Xinsheng; Cochell, Thomas; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2012-08-16

    Nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes have been grown, for the first time, on graphite felt (N-CNT/GF) by a chemical vapor deposition approach and examined as an advanced electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). The unique porous structure and nitrogen doping of N-CNT/GF with increased surface area enhances the battery performance significantly. The enriched porous structure of N-CNTs on graphite felt could potentially facilitate the diffusion of electrolyte, while the N-doping could significantly contribute to the enhanced electrode performance. Specifically, the N-doping (i) modifies the electronic properties of CNT and thereby alters the chemisorption characteristics of the vanadium ions, (ii) generates defect sites that are electrochemically more active, (iii) increases the oxygen species on CNT surface, which is a key factor influencing the VRFB performance, and (iv) makes the N-CNT electrochemically more accessible than the CNT.

  17. Comparison of Ultrasound-Assisted and Regular Leaching of Vanadium and Chromium from Roasted High Chromium Vanadium Slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jing; Jiang, Tao; Gao, Huiyang; Liu, Yajing; Zheng, Xiaole; Xue, Xiangxin

    2018-02-01

    Ultrasound-assisted leaching (UAL) was used for vanadium and chromium leaching from roasted material obtained by the calcification roasting of high-chromium-vanadium slag. UAL was compared with regular leaching. The effect of the leaching time and temperature, acid concentration, and liquid-solid ratio on the vanadium and chromium leaching behaviors was investigated. The UAL mechanism was determined from particle-size-distribution and microstructure analyses. UAL decreased the reaction time and leaching temperature significantly. Furthermore, 96.67% vanadium and less than 1% chromium were leached at 60°C for 60 min with 20% H2SO4 at a liquid-solid ratio of 8, which was higher than the maximum vanadium leaching rate of 90.89% obtained using regular leaching at 80°C for 120 min. Ultrasonic waves broke and dispersed the solid sample because of ultrasonic cavitation, which increased the contact area of the roasted sample and the leaching medium, the solid-liquid mass transfer, and the vanadium leaching rate.

  18. Hydrogen spillover on DV (555-777) graphene – vanadium cluster system: First principles study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, E. Mathan, E-mail: ranjit.t@res.srmuniv.ac.in, E-mail: mathanranjitha@gmail.com; Thapa, Ranjit, E-mail: ranjit.t@res.srmuniv.ac.in, E-mail: mathanranjitha@gmail.com [SRM Research Institute, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu - 603203 (India); P, Sabarikirishwaran [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Tamil Nadu - 603203 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Using dispersion corrected density functional theory (DFT+D), the interaction of Vanadium adatom and cluster with divacancy (555-777) defective graphene sheet has been studied elaborately. We explore the prospect of hydrogen storage on V{sub 4} cluster adsorbed divacancy graphene system. It has been observed that V{sub 4} cluster (acting as a catalyst) can dissociate the H{sub 2} molecule into H atoms with very low barrier energy. We introduce the spillover of the atomic hydrogen throughout the surface via external mediator gallane (GaH{sub 3}) to form a hydrogenated system.

  19. Is Br2 hydration hydrophobic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Torres, A; Gamboa-Suárez, A; Bernal-Uruchurtu, M I

    2017-02-28

    The spectroscopic properties of bromine in aqueous systems suggest it can behave as either hydrophilic or hydrophobic solute. In small water clusters, the halogen bond and the hydrogen-halogen interaction are responsible for its specific way of binding. In water hydrates, it is efficiently hosted by two different cages forming the crystal structure and it has been frequently assumed that there is little or no interaction between the guest and the host. Bromine in liquid solution poses a challenging question due to its non-negligible solubility and the large blue shift measured in its absorption spectra. Using a refined semi-empirical force field, PM3-PIF, we performed a Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics study of bromine in liquid water. Here we present a detailed study in which we retrieved the most representative hydration structures in terms of the most frequent positions around bromine and the most common water orientations. Albeit being an approximate description of the total hydration phenomenon, it captures the contribution of the leading molecular interactions in form of the recurrent structures. Our findings confirm that the spectroscopic signature is mainly caused by the closest neighbors. The dynamics of the whole first hydration shell strongly suggests that the external molecules in that structure effectively isolate the bulk from the presence of bromine. The solvation structure fluctuates from a hydrophilic to a hydrophobic-like environment along the studied trajectory.

  20. Hydration modeling of calcium sulphates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Al-Mattarneh, Hashem; Mustapha, Kamal N.; Nuruddin, Muhd Fadhil

    2008-01-01

    The CEMHYD3D model has been extended at the University of Twente in the last ten years [1,2]. At present the cement hydration model is extended for the use of gypsum. Although gypsum was present in the model already, the model was not suitable for high contents of gypsum and did not include the

  1. Influence of structure of carrier (silica gel) on texture and catalytic properties of vanadium catalysts for sulfur dioxide oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonova, L.G.; Fenelonov, V.B.; Dzis'ko, V.A.; Noskova, S.P.; Kryukova, G.N.; Litvak, G.S.

    1982-01-01

    The influence of initial porous structure of a carrier-silica gel on texture and catalytic properties of vanadium catalysts is considered. It is shown that low thermal stability of the carrier results not only in considerable decrease of the catalyst surface during heat treatment but also in blocking part of active component in locked pores which accounts for the activity decrease in kinetic region and formation of active component forms that can not be extracted by acid

  2. Structure of the ordered hydration of amino acids in proteins: analysis of crystal structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biedermannová, Lada, E-mail: lada.biedermannova@ibt.cas.cz; Schneider, Bohdan [Institute of Biotechnology CAS, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2015-10-27

    The hydration of protein crystal structures was studied at the level of individual amino acids. The dependence of the number of water molecules and their preferred spatial localization on various parameters, such as solvent accessibility, secondary structure and side-chain conformation, was determined. Crystallography provides unique information about the arrangement of water molecules near protein surfaces. Using a nonredundant set of 2818 protein crystal structures with a resolution of better than 1.8 Å, the extent and structure of the hydration shell of all 20 standard amino-acid residues were analyzed as function of the residue conformation, secondary structure and solvent accessibility. The results show how hydration depends on the amino-acid conformation and the environment in which it occurs. After conformational clustering of individual residues, the density distribution of water molecules was compiled and the preferred hydration sites were determined as maxima in the pseudo-electron-density representation of water distributions. Many hydration sites interact with both main-chain and side-chain amino-acid atoms, and several occurrences of hydration sites with less canonical contacts, such as carbon–donor hydrogen bonds, OH–π interactions and off-plane interactions with aromatic heteroatoms, are also reported. Information about the location and relative importance of the empirically determined preferred hydration sites in proteins has applications in improving the current methods of hydration-site prediction in molecular replacement, ab initio protein structure prediction and the set-up of molecular-dynamics simulations.

  3. Phase equilibria and thermodynamic modeling of ethane and propane hydrates in porous silica gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yongwon; Lee, Seungmin; Cha, Inuk; Lee, Ju Dong; Lee, Huen

    2009-04-23

    In the present study, we examined the active role of porous silica gels when used as natural gas storage and transportation media. We adopted the dispersed water in silica gel pores to substantially enhance active surface for contacting and encaging gas molecules. We measured the three-phase hydrate (H)-water-rich liquid (L(W))-vapor (V) equilibria of C(2)H(6) and C(3)H(8) hydrates in 6.0, 15.0, 30.0, and 100.0 nm silica gel pores to investigate the effect of geometrical constraints on gas hydrate phase equilibria. At specified temperatures, the hydrate stability region is shifted to a higher pressure region depending on pore size when compared with those of bulk hydrates. Through application of the Gibbs-Thomson relationship to the experimental data, we determined the values for the C(2)H(6) hydrate-water and C(3)H(8) hydrate-water interfacial tensions to be 39 +/- 2 and 45 +/- 1 mJ/m(2), respectively. By using these values, the calculation values were in good agreement with the experimental ones. The overall results given in this study could also be quite useful in various fields, such as exploitation of natural gas hydrate in marine sediments and sequestration of carbon dioxide into the deep ocean.

  4. Deposition of single-layer and graded aluminum nitride coatings on vanadium substrates using ion-beam assisted reactive evaporation (ITER task no. ETA-EC-BLR26)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamarani, F.; Lang, R.; Owles, R.

    1994-06-01

    The objective of the project has been to develop a reactive evaporation process for the fabrication of aluminum nitride coatings on pure vanadium substrates. The aluminum nitride coatings are to be used as electrical insulators on the surfaces of structural materials in contact with liquid metal coolants. (author). 9 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  5. Detailed evaluation of gas hydrate reservoir properties using JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 2L-38 gas hydrate research well downhole well-log displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, T.S.

    1999-01-01

    The JAPEX/JNOC/GSC Mallik 2L-38 gas hydrate research well project was designed to investigate the occurrence of in situ natural gas hydrate in the Mallik area of the Mackenzie Delta of Canada. Because gas hydrate is unstable at surface pressure and temperature conditions, a major emphasis was placed on the downhole logging program to determine the in situ physical properties of the gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. Downhole logging tool strings deployed in the Mallik 2L-38 well included the Schlumberger Platform Express with a high resolution laterolog, Array Induction Imager Tool, Dipole Shear Sonic Imager, and a Fullbore Formation Microlmager. The downhole log data obtained from the log- and core-inferred gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary interval (897.25-1109.5 m log depth) in the Mallik 2L-38 well is depicted in a series of well displays. Also shown are numerous reservoir parameters, including gas hydrate saturation and sediment porosity log traces, calculated from available downhole well-log and core data. The gas hydrate accumulation delineated by the Mallik 2L-38 well has been determined to contain as much as 4.15109 m3 of gas in the 1 km2 area surrounding the drill site.

  6. Hydration of swelling clays: multi-scale sequence of hydration and determination of macroscopic energies from microscopic properties; Hydratation des argiles gonflantes: sequence d'hydratation multi-echelle determination des energies macroscopiques a partir des proprietes microscopiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salles, F

    2006-10-15

    smectites: it is responsible for the structure of porosity in a dry state and of the evolution of the pore sizes as a function of the RH and it modifies the hydration sequence by its mobility inside the interlayer space. The distinction between various types of water in the smectite structure is also achieved by thermo-poro-metry at different RH: water bound to the cations and surfaces, water structured by porosity and free water. This distinction is important to understand the behaviour of smectite and in particular the diffusion properties in clayey materials. The importance of the cation nature is also highlighted by the energetic model. Electrostatic calculations using the PACHA formalism (Electronegativities Equalization method) show that, for the small cations, the hydration energy of the layers is predominant. To obtain these results, we determine the surface enthalpies for the dry state, which show a coherent evolution as a function of the cation partial charge with the increase of pore sizes and thus with particle sizes. Then, using a theoretical model, we calculated swelling energies, surface hydration energies and cation hydration energies. The behaviour of mixed purified clay displays a behaviour closer to that of a calcic clay for the experiments carried out, in contradiction with the fact that the Na cation is the most abundant. This observation implies results on the clay properties, different from that expected for hydration properties, swelling and interlayer cation mobility within the framework of the radioactive waste. (author)

  7. The role of hydrophobic interactions for the formation of gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Wang, J.; Eriksson, J.C. [Virginia Polytech Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Center for Advanced Separation Technologies; Sum, A.K. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The process of hydrate formation remains largely unexplained due to a lack of evidence for the water molecules around the hydrophobic solute such as methane, and the nucleation process leading to the clustering that induces hydrate growth. However, the water structure is known to play a major role in the mechanism for hydrate nucleation. This paper presented evidence that hydrophobic solutes promote the structuring of water. Water molecules at room temperature tend to form ice structures around the hydrocarbon chains of surfactant molecules dissolved in water. An atomic force microscope (AFM) was used in this study to measure the surface forces between thiolated gold surfaces. The purpose was to better understand the structure of the thin films of water between hydrophobic surfaces. The water molecules tended to reorganize themselves to form ordered structures, which may be related to the nucleation of hydrates. The entropy reduction associated with the ice structure can be considered as the net driving force for self-assembly. Recent studies have revealed that long-range attractive forces exist between hydrophobic surfaces, which are likely to result from structuring of the water molecules in the vicinity of the hydrophobic surfaces. Similarly, the hydrophobic nature of most gas hydrate formers may induce ordering of water molecules in the vicinity of dissolved solutes. It was concluded that the results of this study may be used to develop a new mechanism for the formation of gas hydrates, including methane. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  8. Complexation of vanadium with amidoxime and carboxyl groups. Uncovering the competitive role of vanadium in uranium extraction from seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Cong-Zhi; Wu, Qun-Yan; Lan, Jian-Hui; Shi, Wei-Qun [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics; Chai, Zhi-Fang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of High Energy Physics; Soochow Univ., Suzhou (China). School of Radiological and Interdisciplinary Sciences (RAD-X); Wu, Guo-Zhong [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China). Shanghai Inst. of Applied Physics

    2017-09-01

    At present, amidoxime-based adsorbents are considered to be the most promising materials for extraction of uranium from seawater. However, the high concentrations of transition metals especially vanadium strongly compete with uranium in the sequestration process, which is extremely limited the commercial use of amidoxime-based adsorbents. In this work, the coordination modes, bonding nature, and stabilities of possible vanadium(IV) (VO{sup 2+}) and (V) (VO{sub 2}{sup +}, VO{sup 3+}, V{sup 5+}) complexes with amidoximate (AO{sup -}), carboxyl (Ac{sup -}), glutarimidedioximate (HA{sup -}) and deprotonated glutarimidedioximate (A{sup 2-}) on single and double alkyl chains (R=C{sub 13}H{sub 26}) are systematically explored by quantum chemical calculations. Different from the uranyl (UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}) complexes, the AO{sup -} groups of the vanadium(IV) and (V) complexes prefer to coordinate as monodentate and chelate ligands, while few species with AO{sup -} groups in η{sup 2}-binding mode have been observed in the vanadium complexes. Besides, the vanadium complexes are predicted to have obvious covalent metal-ligand bonds. According to thermodynamic stability analysis, all the vanadium complexes with AO{sup -}, Ac{sup -}, HA{sup -} and A{sup 2-} ligands on double alkyl chains are found to be more stable than corresponding complexes with ligands on a single chain. The synergistic effect of the amidoxime and carboxyl groups can be observed in most of VO{sub 2}{sup +} and VO{sup 3+} complexes with mixed ligands (AO{sup -}/Ac{sup -}). The vanadium(IV) and (V) complexes are more stable than the corresponding uranyl complexes, and the adsorption capability of the amidoxime-based adsorbents toward vanadium(V) ions decrease in the order of VO{sub 2}{sup +}>VO{sup 3+}> V{sup 5+}. The dioxovanadium cation VO{sub 2}{sup +} is predicted to form multinuclear vanadium complex in the sequestration process, possibly resulting in higher stable VO{sub 2}{sup +} complexes. Therefore

  9. Observed gas hydrate morphologies in marine sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, M.; Schultheiss, P.; Roberts, J.; Druce, M. [Geotek Ltd., Daventry, Northamptonshire (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    The morphology of gas hydrate in marine sediments determines the basic physical properties of the sediment-hydrate matrix and provides information regarding the formation of gas hydrate deposits, and the nature of the disruption that will occur on dissociation. Small-scale morphology is useful in estimating the concentrations of gas hydrate from geophysical data. It is also important for predicting their response to climate change or commercial production. Many remote techniques for gas hydrate detection and quantification depend on hydrate morphology. In this study, morphology of gas hydrate was examined in HYACINTH pressure cores from recent seagoing expeditions. Visual and infrared observations from non-pressurized cores were also used. The expeditions and pressure core analysis were described in detail. This paper described the difference between two types of gas hydrate morphologies, notably pore-filling and grain-displacing. Last, the paper addressed the impact of hydrate morphology. It was concluded that a detailed morphology of gas hydrate is an essential component for a full understanding of the past, present, and future of any gas hydrate environment. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Seismic reflections associated with submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, K

    1996-12-31

    Gas hydrates are often suggested as a future energy resource. This doctoral thesis improves the understanding of the concentration and distribution of natural submarine gas hydrates. The presence of these hydrates are commonly inferred from strong bottom simulating reflection (BSR). To investigate the nature of BSR, this work uses seismic studies of hydrate-related BSRs at two different locations, one where gas hydrates are accepted to exist and interpreted to be very extensive (in the Beaufort Sea), the other with good velocity data and downhole logs available (offshore Oregon). To ascertain the presence of free gas under the BSR, prestack offset data must supplement near-vertical incidence seismic data. A tentative model for physical properties of sediments partially saturated with gas hydrate and free gas is presented. This model, together with drilling information and seismic data containing the BSR beneath the Oregon margin and the Beaufort Sea, made it possible to better understand when to apply the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) method to constrain BSR gas hydrate and gas models. Distribution of natural gas hydrates offshore Norway and Svalbard is discussed and interpreted as reflections from the base of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, overlying sediments containing free gas. Gas hydrates inferred to exist at the Norwegian-Svalbard continental margin correlate well with Cenozoic depocenters, and the associated gas is assumed to be mainly biogenic. Parts of that margin have a high potential for natural gas hydrates of both biogenic and thermogenic origin. 235 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Seismic reflections associated with submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, K.

    1995-12-31

    Gas hydrates are often suggested as a future energy resource. This doctoral thesis improves the understanding of the concentration and distribution of natural submarine gas hydrates. The presence of these hydrates are commonly inferred from strong bottom simulating reflection (BSR). To investigate the nature of BSR, this work uses seismic studies of hydrate-related BSRs at two different locations, one where gas hydrates are accepted to exist and interpreted to be very extensive (in the Beaufort Sea), the other with good velocity data and downhole logs available (offshore Oregon). To ascertain the presence of free gas under the BSR, prestack offset data must supplement near-vertical incidence seismic data. A tentative model for physical properties of sediments partially saturated with gas hydrate and free gas is presented. This model, together with drilling information and seismic data containing the BSR beneath the Oregon margin and the Beaufort Sea, made it possible to better understand when to apply the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) method to constrain BSR gas hydrate and gas models. Distribution of natural gas hydrates offshore Norway and Svalbard is discussed and interpreted as reflections from the base of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, overlying sediments containing free gas. Gas hydrates inferred to exist at the Norwegian-Svalbard continental margin correlate well with Cenozoic depocenters, and the associated gas is assumed to be mainly biogenic. Parts of that margin have a high potential for natural gas hydrates of both biogenic and thermogenic origin. 235 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Influence of fluorosurfactants on hydrate formation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C.U.; Jeong, K.E.; Chae, H.J.; Jeong, S.Y. [Korea Reasearch Inst. of Chemical Technology, Alternative Chemicals/Fuel Research Center, Yuseong-Gu, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Gas hydrates, or clathrates, are ice-like solids that forms when natural gas is in contact with liquid water or ice under high pressure and low temperature. There is significant interest in studying the storage and transportation of gas in the form of hydrates. However, a critical problem impacting the industrial application of gas hydrates for storage and transportation of natural gas is the slow formation rate of natural gas hydrate. Researchers have previously reported on the promotion effect of some additives on gas hydrate formation and hydrate gas content. Fluorosurfactants are significantly superior to nonfluorinated surfactants in wetting action, as well as stability in harsh environments, both thermal and chemical. This paper discussed an experimental investigation into the effects of fluorosurfactants with different ionic types on the formation of methane hydrate. The surfactants used were FSN-100 of DuPont Zonyl as non-ionic surfactant and FC-143 of DuPont as anionic surfactant. The paper discussed the experimental apparatus for methane hydrate formation. It also discussed hydrate formation kinetics and the series of hydrate formation experiments that were conducted in the presence of fluorosurfactants. Last, the paper explored the results of the study. It was concluded that anionic fluorosurfactant of FC-143 had a better promoting effect on methane hydrate formation compared with nonionic surfactant of FSN-100. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  13. Graphite-graphite oxide composite electrode for vanadium redox flow battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenyue; Liu Jianguo; Yan Chuanwei

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A new composite electrode is designed for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB). → The graphite oxide (GO) is used as electrode reactions catalyst. → The excellent electrode activity is attributed to the oxygen-containing groups attached on the GO surface. → A catalytic mechanism of the GO towards the redox reactions is presumed. - Abstract: A graphite/graphite oxide (GO) composite electrode for vanadium redox battery (VRB) was prepared successfully in this paper. The materials were characterized with X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The specific surface area was measured by the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. The redox reactions of [VO 2 ] + /[VO] 2+ and V 3+ /V 2+ were studied with cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results indicated that the electrochemical performances of the electrode were improved greatly when 3 wt% GO was added into graphite electrode. The redox peak currents of [VO 2 ] + /[VO] 2+ and V 3+ /V 2+ couples on the composite electrode were increased nearly twice as large as that on the graphite electrode, and the charge transfer resistances of the redox pairs on the composite electrode are also reduced. The enhanced electrochemical activity could be ascribed to the presence of plentiful oxygen functional groups on the basal planes and sheet edges of the GO and large specific surface areas introduced by the GO.

  14. Nanorod niobium oxide as powerful catalysts for an all vanadium redox flow battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Gu, Meng; Nie, Zimin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Wang, Chongmin; Sprenkle, Vincent; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-08

    A powerful low-cost electrocatalyst, nanorod Nb2O5, is synthesized using the hydrothermal method with monoclinic phases and simultaneously deposited on the surface of a graphite felt (GF) electrode in an all vanadium flow battery (VRB). Cyclic voltammetry (CV) study confirmed that Nb2O5 has catalytic effects toward redox couples of V(II)/V(III) at the negative side and V(IV)/V(V) at the positive side to facilitate the electrochemical kinetics of the vanadium redox reactions. Because of poor conductivity of Nb2O5, the performance of the Nb2O5 loaded electrodes is strongly dependent on the nanosize and uniform distribution of catalysts on GF surfaces. Accordingly, an optimal amount of W-doped Nb2O5 nanorods with minimum agglomeration and improved distribution on GF surfaces are established by adding water-soluble compounds containing tungsten (W) into the precursor solutions. The corresponding energy efficiency is enhanced by ∼10.7% at high current density (150 mA·cm(-2)) as compared with one without catalysts. Flow battery cyclic performance also demonstrates the excellent stability of the as prepared Nb2O5 catalyst enhanced electrode. These results suggest that Nb2O5-based nanorods, replacing expensive noble metals, uniformly decorating GFs holds great promise as high-performance electrodes for VRB applications.

  15. Nanocomposites based on hierarchical porous carbon fiber@vanadium nitride nanoparticles as supercapacitor electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Fen; Wu, Yage; Jiang, Minghuan; Tan, Yongtao; Liu, Ying; Kong, Lingbin; Kang, Long; Chen, Shaowei

    2018-03-28

    In this study, a hybrid electrode material for supercapacitors based on hierarchical porous carbon fiber@vanadium nitride nanoparticles is fabricated using the method of phase-separation mediated by the PAA-b-PAN-b-PAA tri-block copolymer. In the phase-separation procedure, the ionic block copolymer self-assembled on the surface of carbon nanofibers, and is used to adsorb NH 4 VO 3 . Thermal treatment at controlled temperatures under an NH 3  : N 2 atmosphere led to the formation of vanadium nitride nanoparticles that are distributed uniformly on the nanofiber surface. By changing the PAN to PAA-b-PAN-b-PAA ratio in the casting solution, a maximum specific capacitance of 240.5 F g -1 is achieved at the current density of 0.5 A g -1 with good rate capability at a capacitance retention of 72.1% at 5.0 A g -1 in an aqueous electrolyte of 6 mol L -1 KOH within the potential range of -1.10 to 0 V (rN/A = 1.5/1.0). Moreover, an asymmetric supercapacitor is assembled by using the hierarchical porous carbon fiber@vanadium nitride as the negative electrode and Ni(OH) 2 as the positive electrode. Remarkably, at the power density of 400 W kg -1 , the supercapacitor device delivers a better energy density of 39.3 W h kg -1 . It also shows excellent electrochemical stability, and thus might be used as a promising energy-storage device.

  16. Vanadium-Catalyzed Enantioselective Desymmetrization of meso-Secondary Allylic Alcohols and Homoallylic Alcohols

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Wei; Hisashi Yamamoto, H.

    2008-01-01

    Vanadium-catalyzed epoxidation has extended substrate scope. In addition to various bis-allylic alcohols, bis-homoallylic alcohols can also be desymmetrized using our Vanadium-Bis-hydroxamic acid complexes.

  17. Improving methane gas sensing properties of multi-walled carbonnanotubes by vanadium oxide filling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chimowa, George

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Manipulation of electrical properties and hence gas sensing properties of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) by filling the inner wall with vanadium oxide is presented. Using a simple capillary technique, MWNTs are filled with vanadium metal...

  18. Interaction of slow electrons with surfaces. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komolov, S.A.; Chadderton, L.T.

    1976-01-01

    Total current spectroscopy (TCS) has been used to study the growth of films of gold and silver on (100) vanadium surfaces. A slow transition from TCS curves characteristic of vanadium to curves characteristic of the noble metals is observed, accompanied by an increase in the net work function - more rapid for silver than for gold. Vanadium characteristics are lost from the TCS curves for mean overlayer thicknesses > approximately 15A, and a simple analysis shows that the thickness of the surface zone from which TCS signals originate is approximately given by the electron mean free path. Observations of progressive attenuation of a characteristic vanadium feature with increasing mean thickness of overlayer permits separation into stages of nucleation and growth. There is a critical nucleus size of approximately 2A for silver and approximately 4A for gold. (Auth.)

  19. Hydration of swelling clays: multi-scale sequence of hydration and determination of macroscopic energies from microscopic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, F.

    2006-10-01

    smectites: it is responsible for the structure of porosity in a dry state and of the evolution of the pore sizes as a function of the RH and it modifies the hydration sequence by its mobility inside the interlayer space. The distinction between various types of water in the smectite structure is also achieved by thermo-poro-metry at different RH: water bound to the cations and surfaces, water structured by porosity and free water. This distinction is important to understand the behaviour of smectite and in particular the diffusion properties in clayey materials. The importance of the cation nature is also highlighted by the energetic model. Electrostatic calculations using the PACHA formalism (Electronegativities Equalization method) show that, for the small cations, the hydration energy of the layers is predominant. To obtain these results, we determine the surface enthalpies for the dry state, which show a coherent evolution as a function of the cation partial charge with the increase of pore sizes and thus with particle sizes. Then, using a theoretical model, we calculated swelling energies, surface hydration energies and cation hydration energies. The behaviour of mixed purified clay displays a behaviour closer to that of a calcic clay for the experiments carried out, in contradiction with the fact that the Na cation is the most abundant. This observation implies results on the clay properties, different from that expected for hydration properties, swelling and interlayer cation mobility within the framework of the radioactive waste. (author)

  20. Effect of drying method on properties of vanadium-molybdenum oxide catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorshkova, T.P.; Savchenko, L.A.; Tarasova, D.V.; Tret'yakov, Yu.D.; Olen'kova, I.P.; Nikoro, T.A.; Maksimov, N.G.

    1981-01-01

    Effect of drying method of molybdenum and vanadium salt solutions on physicochemical and catalytical properties of vanadium-molybdenum catalysts is studied. It is shown that the drying method of solutions determines the completeness of vanadium binding into oxide vanadium-molybdenum compounds and thus effects the activity and selectivity of catalysts in acrolein oxidation into acrylic acid. Besides the drying method determines the porous structure of catalysts [ru

  1. Structural and silver/vanadium ratio effects on silver vanadium phosphorous oxide solution formation kinetics: impact on battery electrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, David C; Takeuchi, Kenneth J; Marschilok, Amy C; Takeuchi, Esther S

    2015-01-21

    The detailed understanding of non-faradaic parasitic reactions which diminish battery calendar life is essential to the development of effective batteries for use in long life applications. The dissolution of cathode materials including manganese, cobalt and vanadium oxides in battery systems has been identified as a battery failure mechanism, yet detailed dissolution studies including kinetic analysis are absent from the literature. The results presented here provide a framework for the quantitative and kinetic analyses of the dissolution of cathode materials which will aid the broader community in more fully understanding this battery failure mechanism. In this study, the dissolution of silver vanadium oxide, representing the primary battery powering implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), is compared with the dissolution of silver vanadium phosphorous oxide (Ag(w)VxPyOz) materials which were targeted as alternatives to minimize solubility. This study contains the first kinetic analyses of silver and vanadium solution formation from Ag0.48VOPO4·1.9H2O and Ag2VP2O8, in a non-aqueous battery electrolyte. The kinetic results are compared with those of Ag2VO2PO4 and Ag2V4O11 to probe the relationships among crystal structure, stoichiometry, and solubility. For vanadium, significant dissolution was observed for Ag2V4O11 as well as for the phosphate oxide Ag0.49VOPO4·1.9H2O, which may involve structural water or the existence of multiple vanadium oxidation states. Notably, the materials from the SVPO family with the lowest vanadium solubility are Ag2VO2PO4 and Ag2VP2O8. The low concentrations and solution rates coupled with their electrochemical performance make these materials interesting alternatives to Ag2V4O11 for the ICD application.

  2. Dynamics of Permafrost Associated Methane Hydrate in Response to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, K.; Flemings, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    The formation and melting of methane hydrate and ice are intertwined in permafrost regions. A shortage of methane supply leads to formation of hydrate only at depth, below the base of permafrost. We consider a system with the ground surface initially at 0 oC with neither ice nor hydrate present. We abruptly decrease the temperature from 0 to -10 oC to simulate the effect of marine regression/ global cooling. A low methane supply rate of 0.005 kg m-2 yr-1 from depth leads to distinct ice and hydrate layers: a 100 m continuous hydrate layer is present beneath 850 m at 80 k.y.. However, a high methane supply rate of 0.1 kg m-2 yr-1 leads to 50 m ice-bonded methane hydrate at the base of permafrost, and the hydrate layer distributes between the depth of 350 and 700 m at 80 k.y.. We apply our model to illuminate future melting of hydrate at Mallik, a known Arctic hydrate accumulation. We assume a 600 m thick ice saturated (average 90%) layer extending downward from the ground surface. We increase the surface temperature linearly from -6 to 0 oC for 300 yr and then keep the surface temperature at 0 oC to reflect future climate warming caused by doubling of CO2. Hydrate melting is initiated at the base of the hydrate layer after 15 k.y.. Methane gas starts to vent to the atmosphere at 38 k.y. with an average flux of ~ 0.35 g m-2 yr-1. If the 600 m thick average ice saturation is decreased to half (45%) (or to zero), methane gas starts to vent to the atmosphere at 29 k.y. (or at 20 k.y.) with the same average flux. These results are found by a newly-developed fully-coupled multiphase multicomponent fluid flow and heat transport model. Our thermodynamic equilibrium-based model emphasizes the role of salinity in both ice and hydrate dynamics.

  3. Determination of vanadium in Syrian commercial and raffinate phosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Merey, R.

    2002-04-01

    This study presents two methods for vanadium determination in Syrian commercial phosphoric acid. The vanadium (V) in the oxidized commercial phosphoric acid by ammonium persulfate solution is extracted from 5-M hydrochloride acid medium using N-benzoyl-N-phenyl hydroxyl amine (BPHA) in chloroform as an extracting solution. The first method, the extract vanadium as VOL 2 Cl is changed to V 2 O 3 L 4 complex by the addition of benzimidazole in 1-butanol to the violet organic layer. The absorbance is then measured at 440 nm (the molar absorptivity was found to be 3865 M -1 cm -1 ), where Beer law is applicable up to 36-μg ml -1 . the accuracy, precision and detection limit were found to be 3.7%, 77 ppb and 37 ppb, respectively. the second method, the organic layer is heated to evaporate chloroform, the residue is digested using 20% ammonium persulfate and 2-M sulfuric acid solutions. The vanadium concentration is measured spectrophotometrically by oxidizing gallic acid with persulfate (S 2 O 8 2- ) anion in phosphoric acid medium, where the vanadium (V) acts as a catalyst in the oxidation reaction. This method has a high sensitivity (∼10 -12 ) with accuracy and precision 5% and 0.621 ppb, respectively. Also Beer law at λ m ax=415 nm (ε=∼2 x 10 6 M -1 ) is applicable in the range 2.58-33.3 ppb. (author)

  4. Absorption of hydrogen by vanadium-palladium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artman, D.; Lynch, J.F.; Flanagan, T.B.

    1976-01-01

    Pressure composition isotherms (273-373 K) have been determined for the absorption of hydrogen by a series of six palladium alloys (f.c.c) in the composition range from 1 to 8 at.% vanadium. At a given hydrogen content, the equilibrium hydrogen pressure progressively increases with vanadium content. Thermodynamic parameters for the absorption of hydrogen are reported at infinite dilution of hydrogen and for the formation of the nonstoichiometric hydride from the hydrogen-saturated alloy. The relative, partial molar enthalpy of solution of hydrogen at infinite dilution increases slightly with vanadium content. The presence of vanadium, which absorbs hydrogen itself in its normal b.c.c. structure, greatly inhibits the ability of palladium to absorb hydrogen. For example, the isobaric solubility of hydrogen (1 atm, 298K) decreases from H/Pd=0.7 (palladium) to 0.024 (V(6%)-Pd). The lattice expansion due to the presence of interstitial hydrogen has been determined by X-ray diffraction. From these data it can be concluded that the formation of two non-stoichiometric hydride phases does not occur at vanadium contents greater that 5 at.% (298 K). Electrical resistance has been measured as a function of the hydrogen content of the alloys. The electrical resistance increases more markedly with hydrogen content for these alloys than for any of the palladium alloys previously examined. (Auth.)

  5. Electrochemical studies on vanadium oxides, 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Takahashi, Hirobumi; Kishi, Tomiya; Nagai, Takashi

    1979-01-01

    The mechanism of the anodic oxidation of various organic compounds-including methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid-at illuminated vanadium pentoxide (V 2 O 5 ) single crystal electrodes were investigated in aqueous solutions of an H 2 SO 4 -K 2 SO 4 system of about pH 2, in which oxygen evolution from water molecules had previously been confirmed to occur with a current efficiency of about 100%. It was shown that all the organics were oxidized by the so called hole-current doubling mechanism, and that the oxygen evolution reaction, which competed with the above oxidation reaction at the hole-capturing step from the valence band of the electrode, proceeded by the simple hole-capturing mechanism, not followed by an electron injection step into the conduction band. Furthermore, it is considered that chloride ions added to the electrolytes tended to hinder hole-current doubling oxidation owing to their reactivity with the holes at the illuminated V 2 O 5 electrodes. (author)

  6. Critical currents in columnar vanadium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkasova, V.G.; Kolin'ko, A.E.; Slatin, A.E.; Fogel, N.Y.

    1982-01-01

    The angular dependence of the critical current I/sub c/ is studied in columnar vanadium films. In measurements in constant magnetic fields an anomalous maximum I/sub c/ is found on the I/sub c/(theta) curves at arbitrary values of the external magnetic field and temperature, when the magnetic field is perpendicular to the plane of the specimen. The angular dependence of I/sub c/ measured in constant reduced magnetic fields h = H/H/sub c/2(T,theta) shows no singularities in the vicinity of the angle at which the I/sub c/ peak is found in the case H = const, i.e., the critical current is isotropic. This implies that a change in the relative orientation of the vortices and column boundaries produces no change in critical current. The experimental data obtained permit the conclusion that the anisotropy of I/sub c/ observed in a constant magnetic field H is merely a consequence of the anisotropy of the critical magnetic field H/sub c/: the critical current ''tracking'' the magnitude and angular dependence of H/sub c/

  7. Membrane development for vanadium redox flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenzer, Birgit; Zhang, Jianlu; Kim, Soowhan; Li, Liyu; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhenguo

    2011-10-17

    Large-scale energy storage has become the main bottleneck for increasing the percentage of renewable energy in our electricity grids. Redox flow batteries are considered to be among the best options for electricity storage in the megawatt range and large demonstration systems have already been installed. Although the full technological potential of these systems has not been reached yet, currently the main problem hindering more widespread commercialization is the high cost of redox flow batteries. Nafion, as the preferred membrane material, is responsible for about 11% of the overall cost of a 1 MW/8 MWh system. Therefore, in recent years two main membrane related research threads have emerged: 1) chemical and physical modification of Nafion membranes to optimize their properties with regard to vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) application; and 2) replacement of the Nafion membranes with different, less expensive materials. This review summarizes the underlying basic scientific issues associated with membrane use in VRFBs and presents an overview of membrane-related research approaches aimed at improving the efficiency of VRFBs and making the technology cost-competitive. Promising research strategies and materials are identified and suggestions are provided on how materials issues could be overcome.

  8. Concentration of vanadium in crude oil and water using inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Y.M.; Hassan, M.A.; Junkin, K.; Mahat, R.H.; Raphie, B.

    1991-01-01

    Vanadium is a trace element that is usually associated to crude oil and its products. In this study the concentration of vanadium in a few samples of local crude oil, sea and river water were determined using inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP). It is hoped that the concentration of vanadium in water can be used to indicate the possible extent of oil contamination

  9. Chemistry, spectroscopy and the role of supported vanadium oxides in heterogeneous catalysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Keller, D.E.

    2003-01-01

    Supported vanadium oxide catalysts are active in a wide range of applications. In this review, an overview is given of the current knowledge available about vanadium oxide-based catalysts. The review starts with the importance of vanadium in heterogeneous catalysis, a discussion of the molecular

  10. Process of coke less without waste treatment of direct vanadium allowing steel melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisienko, V.G.; Droujinina, O.G.; Morozova, V.A.; Ladigina, N.V.; Yusfin, Yu.S.; Parenkev, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    The development of new methods of steel production are now conducted with the purpose of energy consumption and harmful emissions reduction. The choice of technology and equipment in this case plays a marginal role. It is well known that vanadium alloying steel has increased service properties. The known classical scheme of vanadium steel melting is very power-intensive, as includes such power-intensive processes as blast furnace process and chemical processing of vanadium slag therewith sintering and by-product coke processes are accompanied by significant harmful emissions. In so doing the vanadium losses may run to 60%. In view of requests of environment protection and economical efficiency the new process of coke less without wastes processing of vanadium-bearing raw material with direct vanadium allowing of steel - LP-process is developed. Its purpose is the melting on the basis of vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite of vanadium allowing steel with increase of vanadium concentration in steel and diminution of vanadium losses without application coke and natural gas with use of any coals and carbon-bearing wastes. LP-process consists of three aggregates and corresponding processes: process of liquid-phase reduction, process of vanadium-bearing pellets metallization in the shaft furnace, and process of alloying steel melting in the arc electric furnace. The obtained results have shown, that the LP-process is more energy saving on a comparison with other methods of vanadium allowing steel production. (Original)

  11. 76 FR 78888 - Final Results of Expedited Sunset Review: Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Sunset Review: Ferrovanadium and Nitrided Vanadium From Russia AGENCY: Import Administration... and nitrided vanadium from the Russian Federation (Russia), pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff... vanadium from Russia, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset...

  12. Annealing of radiation-induced defects in vanadium and vanadium-titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leguey, T.

    1996-01-01

    The annealing of defects induced by electron irradiation up to a dose of 6.10 21 m -2 at T<293 K has been investigated in single-crystals of pure vanadium and in vanadium-titanium alloys with compositions 0.3, 1 and 5 at.% Ti using positron annihilation spectroscopy. The recovery of the positron annihilation parameters in V single-crystals indicates that the defect annealing takes place in the temperature range 410-470 K without formation of microvoids for the present irradiation conditions. For the alloys the recovery onset is shifted to 460 K, the width of the annealing stage is gradually broadened with increasing Ti content, and microvoids are formed for annealing temperatures at the end of the recovery stage. The results show that the vacancy release from vacancy-interstitial impurity pairs and subsequent recombination with interstitial loops is the mechanism of the recovery in pure V. For V-Ti alloys, vacancy-Ti-interstitial impurity complexes and vacancy-Ti pairs appear to be the defects responsible for the positron trapping. The broadening of the recovery stage with increasing Ti content indicates that solute Ti is a very effective trap for vacancies in V. (orig.)

  13. Three-dimensional Nitrogen-Doped Reduced Graphene Oxide/Carbon Nanotube Composite Catalysts for Vanadium Flow Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Shaofang [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, WA, 99164 USA.; Zhu, Chengzhou [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, WA, 99164 USA.; Song, Junhua [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, WA, 99164 USA.; Engelhard, Mark H. [Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 USA.; Du, Dan [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, WA, 99164 USA.; Lin, Yuehe [School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, WA, 99164 USA.; Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 USA.

    2017-02-22

    The development of vanadium redox flow battery is limited by the sluggish kinetics of the reaction, especially the cathodic VO2+/VO2+ redox couples. Therefore, it is vital to develop new electrocatalyst with enhanced activity to improve the battery performance. Herein, we first synthesized the hydrogel precursor by a facile hydrothermal method. After the following carbonization, nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube composite was obtained. By virtue of the large surface area and good conductivey, which are ensured by the unique hybrid structure, as well as the proper nitrogen doping, the as-prepared composite presents enhanced catalytic performance toward the VO2+/VO2+ redox reaction. We also demonstrated the composite with carbon nanotube loading of 2 mg/mL exhibits the highest activity and remarkable stability in aqueous solution due to the strong synergy between reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes, indicating that this composite might show promising applications in vanadium redox flow battery.

  14. 3D-printed conductive static mixers enable all-vanadium redox flow battery using slurry electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percin, Korcan; Rommerskirchen, Alexandra; Sengpiel, Robert; Gendel, Youri; Wessling, Matthias

    2018-03-01

    State-of-the-art all-vanadium redox flow batteries employ porous carbonaceous materials as electrodes. The battery cells possess non-scalable fixed electrodes inserted into a cell stack. In contrast, a conductive particle network dispersed in the electrolyte, known as slurry electrode, may be beneficial for a scalable redox flow battery. In this work, slurry electrodes are successfully introduced to an all-vanadium redox flow battery. Activated carbon and graphite powder particles are dispersed up to 20 wt% in the vanadium electrolyte and charge-discharge behavior is inspected via polarization studies. Graphite powder slurry is superior over activated carbon with a polarization behavior closer to the standard graphite felt electrodes. 3D-printed conductive static mixers introduced to the slurry channel improve the charge transfer via intensified slurry mixing and increased surface area. Consequently, a significant increase in the coulombic efficiency up to 95% and energy efficiency up to 65% is obtained. Our results show that slurry electrodes supported by conductive static mixers can be competitive to state-of-the-art electrodes yielding an additional degree of freedom in battery design. Research into carbon properties (particle size, internal surface area, pore size distribution) tailored to the electrolyte system and optimization of the mixer geometry may yield even better battery properties.

  15. Tritium-exchange method for obsidian hydration shell measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, J P; Wilson, A T; Lowe, D J; Hodder, A P.W. [Waikato Univ., Hamilton (New Zealand)

    1984-12-01

    A new radiochemical method for measuring the amount of water in the hydrated layer on the surface of obsidians exchanges tritiated water with the water in the layer (20 ..mu..l of 5 Ci ml/sup -1/ at 90/sup 0/C for 10 days) and then back-exchanges it (in 150 ml of water at 35/sup 0/C for approx. 200 hr.). The activity of the back-exchange water (F) is monitored by liquid scintillation counting of aliquots extracted at known time intervals (t). The activity so measured is then related to the thickness of the hydration rim. A sheet diffusion model shows that the thickness of the hydration shell (l) is inversely proportional to the slope of the F vs. tsup(1/2) plot. Comparison of l-values so obtained between obsidians, whose age (x) is inferred from archaeological occupation layers containing radiocarbon-dated wood and charcoal, suggests a relationship between l and x. Implications for New Zealand prehistory are briefly considered. The technique, which is non-destructive, appears particularly applicable to young glasses where the development of hydrated layers may be inadequate for accurate optical measurement.

  16. Fire extinction utilizing carbon dioxide hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatakeyama, T.; Aida, E.; Yokomori, T.; Ohmura, R.; Ueda, T. [Keio Univ., Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Clathrate hydrates formed with nonflammable gases may be suitable for use as fire extinguishing agents because dissociation of the hydrates results in the temperature decrease in the combustion field and the nonflammable gases released from the dissociated hydrates prevent the supply of the oxygen to the combustion field. This paper discussed experiments in which ordinary ice and dry ice were used to evaluate the performance of CO{sub 2} hydrate as a fire extinguishing agent. The paper described the apparatus and procedure for the preparation of CO{sub 2} hydrate crystals. A schematic of the reactor to form CO{sub 2} hydrate and a photograph of CO{sub 2} hydrate crystal formed in the study were also presented. Other illustrations, photographs, and tables that were presented included a schematic diagram of the experimental apparatus used for the flame extinction experiments; a photograph of CO{sub 2} hydrate powder; sequential video graphs of the flame extinction by the supply of CO{sub 2} hydrate crystals to the methanol pool flame and the relevant illustration; and heat of CO{sub 2} hydrate dissociation, water vaporization and sublimation of dry ice. It was concluded that the critical mass of the CO{sub 2} hydrate required to extinguish a flame was much less than that of ordinary ice, indicating the superiority of CO{sub 2} hydrate to the ice. In addition, the experiments also revealed that the size of the CO{sub 2} hydrate particles had a significant effect on the performance of flame extinction. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  17. Multi-layered silicides coating for vanadium alloys for generation IV reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, S.; Chaia, N.; Vilasi, M.; Le Flem, M.

    2012-01-01

    The halide-activated pack-cementation technique was employed to fabricate a diffusion coating that is resistant both to isothermal and to cyclic oxidation in air at 650 degrees C on the surface of the V-4Cr-4Ti vanadium alloy that is a potential core component of future nuclear systems. A thermodynamic assessment determined the deposit conditions in terms of master alloy, activator, filler and temperature. The partial pressures of the main gaseous species (SiCl 4 , SiCl 2 and VCl 2 ) in the pack were calculated with the master alloy Si and the mixture VSi 2 + Si. The VSi 2 + Si master alloy was used to limit vanadium loss from the surface. The obtained coating consisted of multi-layered V x Si y silicides with an outer layer of VSi 2 . This silicide developed a protective layer of silica at 650 degrees C in air and was not susceptible to the pest phenomenon, unlike other refractory silicides (MoSi 2 , NbSi 2 ). We suggest that VSi 2 exhibits no risk of rapid degradation in the gas fast reactor (GFR) conditions. (authors)

  18. In-situ investigation of hydrogen evolution behavior in vanadium redox flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, L.; Zhao, T.S.; Xu, Q.; Zhou, X.L.; Zhang, Z.H.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An in-situ method to investigate hydrogen evolution in VRFBs is developed. • The rate of hydrogen evolution during battery operation is quantified. • The gas evolution behaviors in the charge process of VRFBs are observed. - Abstract: In this work, we conceived and fabricated a three-electrode electrochemical cell and transparent vanadium redox flow battery to in-situ investigate the hydrogen evolution reaction during battery operation. Experimental results show that operating temperature has a strong influence on the HER rate. In particular, compared with V"3"+ reduction reaction, HER is more sensitive to temperature variation. It is also found that, contrary to the conventional wisdom that side reactions occur at the late stage of the charge process, H_2 evolves at a relatively low SOC. About 0.26 and 1.94 mL H_2 were collected at an early (SOC lower than 20%) and end of the charge process, respectively, suggesting that attention to the hydrogen formation at the negative electrode in the early charge process should also be paid to during long-term battery operations. Moreover, the produced hydrogen gas at the negative side prefers to form macroscopically observable bubbles onto the electrode surface, covering the active sites for vanadium redox reactions, while oxygen evolution (including CO_2 production) at the positive side corrodes electrode surface and introduces certain oxygen-containing functional groups.

  19. Liquid structure of vanadium tetrachloride from neutron diffraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopala Rao, R.V.; Satpathy, B.M.

    1982-01-01

    Assuming the separation of the intermolecular scattering function into the radial and angular parts and using Egelstaff et al's orientational model for tetrachlorides, the structure of liquid vanadium tetrachloride has been studied. It has been observed that such a separation is approximate for this liquid and the introduction of a third correction term is required to account for the molecular structure function. The chlorine-chlorine partial structure and effective angle-averaged intermolecular chlorine-chlorine potential in the liquid has been evaluated. Without taking the third correction term, introduced to generate theoretically the molecular structure function, the centre structure function has been obtained in an approximate way from the experimentally observed molecular structure function and from it the centre radial distribution function, centre direct correlation function and the angle-averaged vanadium-vanadium effective potential has been evaluated. (author)

  20. Vanadium and heat treatments effect on elastic characteristics of niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, E.V.; Tret'yakov, V.I.; Prokoshkin, D.A.; Pustovalov, V.A.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of vanadium content and of heat treatment conditions on the elastic properties of niobium at temperatures of 20 to 800 deg C was studied. Nb-V alloys were produced by binary vacuum remelting. The Nb-V alloys have been then subjected to thermal treatment. The total degree of deformation amounts to about 95%. The specimens were tested with a view to determine their microhardness, specific electric resistance, elasticity limit and modulus of elasticity. The elastic limit of niobium rises when alloyed with vanadium. With the increase of vanadium content the elastic limit of the alloy becomes greater. Pre-crystallization annealing at 600 - 700 deg C considerably increases the elastic limit, which is explained by development of the thermally activated processes leading to a decrease of dislocation mobility and thereby to a strengthening of the alloy

  1. The determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crump-Wiesner, Hans J.; Feltz, H.R.; Purdy, W.C.

    1971-01-01

    A standard addition method is described for the determination of vanadium in brines by atomic absorption spectroscopy with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. Sample pH is adjusted to 1.0 with concentrated hydrochloric acid and the vanadium is directly extracted with 5% cupferron in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The ketone layer is then aspirated into the flame and the recorded absorption values are plotted as a function of the concentration of the added metal. As little as 2.5 ??g l-1 of vanadium can be detected under the conditions of the procedure. Tungsten and tin interfere when present in excess of 5 and 10 ??g ml-1, respectively. The concentrations of the two interfering ions normally found in brines are well below interference levels. ?? 1971.

  2. Sulfates on Mars: A systematic Raman spectroscopic study of hydration states of magnesium sulfates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A.; Freeman, J.J.; Jolliff, B.L.; Chou, I.-Ming

    2006-01-01

    The martian orbital and landed surface missions, OMEGA on Mar Express and the two Mars Explorations Rovers, respectively, have yielded evidence pointing to the presence of magnesium sulfates on the martian surface. In situ identification of the hydration states of magnesium sulfates, as well as the hydration states of other Ca- and Fe- sulfates, will be crucial in future landed missions on Mars in order to advance our knowledge of the hydrologic history of Mars as well as the potential for hosting life on Mars. Raman spectroscopy is a technique well-suited for landed missions on the martian surface. In this paper, we report a systematic study of the Raman spectra of the hydrates of magnesium sulfate. Characteristic and distinct Raman spectral patterns were observed for each of the 11 distinct hydrates of magnesium sulfates, crystalline and non-crystalline. The unique Raman spectral features along with the general tendency of the shift of the position of the sulfate ??1 band towards higher wavenumbers with a decrease in the degree of hydration allow in situ identification of these hydrated magnesium sulfates from the raw Raman spectra of mixtures. Using these Raman spectral features, we have started the study of the stability field of hydrated magnesium sulfates and the pathways of their transformations at various temperature and relative humidity conditions. In particular we report on the Raman spectrum of an amorphous hydrate of magnesium sulfate (MgSO4??2H2O) that may have specific relevance for the martian surface. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Oxidation of vanadium carbide in air; Oxidacion de carburo de vanadio en aire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, A.; Troiani, L.; Materan, E. [Universidad Simon Bolivar, Depto. de la Ciencia de los Materiales, Grupo de Ingenieria de Superficies e Interfaces, Caracas, Venezuela, (Venezuela)

    1998-12-31

    It was studied the samples oxidation of vanadium carbide (V{sub 8}C{sub 7}), synterized and in powder, in order to know the temperature influence and the aggregation state in the kinetics and the oxidation products. The assays were realized in static air, at temperature between 600 y 750 Centigrade, between 6 and 24 hours periods. The gaseous products were analyzed through gas chromatography while the condensates ones were analyzed through optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence analysis. It was found that in the V{sub 8}C{sub 7} oxidation occurs two basic processes: the gaseous oxides production which results of the carbon oxidation, fundamentally CO{sub 2}, and the vanadium condensate oxides production, fundamentally V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. In the synterized samples assayed under 650 Centigrade, the kinetics is lineal with loss of mass, suggesting a control by the formation of gaseous products in the sample surface, while in the synterized samples assayed over 650 Centigrade, it occurs a neat gain of mass, which is attributed to vanadium pentoxide fusion. These processes produce stratified layers of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} although at higher temperatures also it was detected V{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The superficial area effect is revealed in what the powder samples always experiment a mass neat increase in all essay temperatures, being the condensate oxidation products, fundamentally V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and V{sub 6}O{sub 13}. (Author)

  4. Parametric study of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sand, silt, and clay sediments: 1. Electromagnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.Y.; Santamarina, J.C.; Ruppel, C.

    2010-01-01

    The marked decrease in bulk electrical conductivity of sediments in the presence of gas hydrates has been used to interpret borehole electrical resistivity logs and, to a lesser extent, the results of controlled source electromagnetic surveys to constrain the spatial distribution and predicted concentration of gas hydrate in natural settings. Until now, an exhaustive laboratory data set that could be used to assess the impact of gas hydrate on the electromagnetic properties of different soils (sand, silt, and clay) at different effective stress and with different saturations of hydrate has been lacking. The laboratory results reported here are obtained using a standard geotechnical cell and the hydrate-formed tetrahydrofuran (THF), a liquid that is fully miscible in water and able to produce closely controlled saturations of hydrate from dissolved phase. Both permittivity and electrical conductivity are good indicators of the volume fraction of free water in the sediment, which is in turn dependent on hydrate saturation. Permittivity in the microwave frequency range is particularly predictive of free water content since it is barely affected by ionic concentration, pore structure, and surface conduction. Electrical conductivity (or resistivity) is less reliable for constraining water content or hydrate saturation: In addition to fluid-filled porosity, other factors, such as the ionic concentration of the pore fluid and possibly other conduction effects (e.g., surface conduction in high specific surface soils having low conductivity pore fluid), also influence electrical conductivity.

  5. Volatile inventories in clathrate hydrates formed in the primordial nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousis, Olivier; Lunine, Jonathan I; Picaud, Sylvain; Cordier, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The examination of ambient thermodynamic conditions suggests that clathrate hydrates could exist in the Martian permafrost, on the surface and in the interior of Titan, as well as in other icy satellites. Clathrate hydrates are probably formed in a significant fraction of planetesimals in the solar system. Thus, these crystalline solids may have been accreted in comets, in the forming giant planets and in their surrounding satellite systems. In this work, we use a statistical thermodynamic model to investigate the composition of clathrate hydrates that may have formed in the primordial nebula. In our approach, we consider the formation sequence of the different ices occurring during the cooling of the nebula, a reasonable idealization of the process by which volatiles are trapped in planetesimals. We then determine the fractional occupancies of guests in each clathrate hydrate formed at a given temperature. The major ingredient of our model is the description of the guest-clathrate hydrate interaction by a spherically averaged Kihara potential with a nominal set of parameters, most of which are fitted to experimental equilibrium data. Our model allows us to find that Kr, Ar and N2 can be efficiently encaged in clathrate hydrates formed at temperatures higher than approximately 48.5 K in the primitive nebula, instead of forming pure condensates below 30 K. However, we find at the same time that the determination of the relative abundances of guest species incorporated in these clathrate hydrates strongly depends on the choice of the parameters of the Kihara potential and also on the adopted size of cages. Indeed, by testing different potential parameters, we have noted that even minor dispersions between the different existing sets can lead to non-negligible variations in the determination of the volatiles trapped in clathrate hydrates formed in the primordial nebula. However, these variations are not found to be strong enough to reverse the relative abundances

  6. Fragility–structure–conductivity relations in vanadium tellurite glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Jonas; Yue, Yuanzheng; Rodrigues, Ana Candida Martins

    the ability to intercalate lithium-ions, it is a candidate as cathode material. Here, we investigate the correlation between liquid fragility, structure and electronic conductivity in a series of vanadium-tellurite glasses with varying vanadium concentration. We measure dynamic and thermodynamic fragility...... the number of bonding and non-bonding oxygen atoms per network former, while we use IS and ESR to determine the electronic conductivity and the valence states of the system. We correlate the changes in local atomic structures as determined by NMR to the observed changes in macroscopic properties. Since...

  7. Determination of vanadium in high grade carbons by radioanalytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinno, K.; Sato, M.; Amemiya, S.; Katoh, T.

    1980-01-01

    The present work deals with the determination of vanadium in high grade carbons by three radioanalytical methods, viz. thermal neutron activation analysis with an accelerator, thermal neutron activation analysis with a reactor and proton induced X-ray emission analysis with an accelerator. It is shown that thermal neutron activation with an accelerator is more convenient for the rapid and non-destructive analysis of ppm-level vanadium in bulk carbons than thermal neutron activation analysis with a reactor. Proton-induced X-ray emission is less useful for the analysis of bulk samples. (author)

  8. Fluorine doped vanadium dioxide thin films for smart windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiri, Pragna; Warwick, Michael E.A.; Ridley, Ian; Binions, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Thermochromic fluorine doped thin films of vanadium dioxide were deposited from the aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition reaction of vanadyl acetylacetonate, ethanol and trifluoroacetic acid on glass substrates. The films were characterised with scanning electron microscopy, variable temperature Raman spectroscopy and variable temperature UV/Vis spectroscopy. The incorporation of fluorine in the films led to an increase in the visible transmittance of the films whilst retaining the thermochromic properties. This approach shows promise for improving the aesthetic properties of vanadium dioxide thin films.

  9. Vanadium Doped Tungsten Oxide Material - Electrical Physical and Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishkin N. Y.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The electrical physical and sensing (to VOCs and inorganic gases properties of vanadium doped tungsten oxide in the regions of phase transition temperature were investigated. Vanadium oxide (II dimerization was observed in the doped material, corresponding to new phase transition. The extreme sensitivity and selectivity to chemically active gases and vapors in small concentrations: CO, NOx, NH3 acetone, ethanol near phase transitions temperature was found. Sensor elements were manufactured for the quantitative detection (close to 1 ppm of alcohol and ammonia.

  10. Vanadium(IV)-stimulated hydrolysis of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankiewicz, P J

    1989-05-01

    Vanadium(IV) stimulates the hydrolysis of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate at 23 degrees C. The pH optimum is 5.0. Reactions were analyzed by enzymatic and phosphate release assays. The products of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate hydrolysis are inorganic phosphate and 3-phosphoglycerate. The reaction is inhibited by high concentrations of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and an equation has been formulated that describes the kinetic constants for this reaction at pH 7. The possible relevance of the reaction to the therapeutic lowering by vanadium(IV) of red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in sickle-cell disease is discussed.

  11. EFFECT OF VANADIUM ON THE DEACTIVATION OF FCC CATALYSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roncolatto R.E

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This work provides concrete evidence that vanadium causes the destruction of the zeolite in the FCC catalysts by a mechanism of acid attack or solid-solid transformation, as well as additional dealumination of the zeolite framework in the presence of steam and at high temperature. While these effects resulted in the reduction in crystallinity (zeolite Y content, specific area and unit cell size of the Y zeolite as the amount of vanadium in the catalysts increased, the reduction in activity was the most pronounced. The differences in these behaviors were interpreted and the model can be used for better catalyst formulation or screening.

  12. Calculations of oscillation spectra of disordered interstitial solid solutions of vanadium-oxygen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danilkin, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    The frequency spectra calculation of disordered solid interstitial solutions of a vanadium-oxygen system for oxygen concentration of 5.9% and 15.8% (V 16 O and V 16 O 3 ) is carried out. The axially-symmetric model of crystal lattice dinamics with consideration of vanadium-oxygen and vanadium-vanadium interactions up to the second coordination sphere is used. On the whole, the obtained spectra are in qualitative agreement with experiment and reflect correctly all the changes in frequency spectra of pure vanadium on doping with oxygen

  13. Ion-exchange preparation of high-purity vanadium acid from industrial liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajdakhmedov, U.A.; Arslanov, Sh.S.; Vulikh, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    The results of investigations on production of special-purity vanadium acid and vanadium oxide directly from process solutions (technical grade liquors) using ionites are presented. Potentiality of thorough purification of vanadium(5) oxide, when producing vanadium acid on the KU-2 cationite with subsequent purification on anionite, is shown. On the basis of the results obtained a principle flowsheet of ion-exchange production of high-purity vanadium(5) oxide from industrial liquors has been developed. 2 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  14. Fast-neutron elastic scattering from elemental vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A.B.; Guenther, P.T.; Lawson, R.D.

    1988-03-01

    Differential neutron elastic- and inelastic-scattering cross sections of vanadium were measured from 4.5 to 10 MeV. These results were combined with previous 1.5 to 4.0 MeV data from this laboratory, the 11.1 MeV elastic-scattering results obtained at Ohio University, and the reported neutron total cross sections to energies of ∼20.0 MeV, to form a data base which was interpreted in terms of the spherical optical-statistical model. A fit to the data was achieved by making both the strengths and geometries of the optical-model potential energy dependent. This energy dependence was large below ∼6.0 MeV. Above ∼6.0 MeV the energy dependencies are smaller, and similar to those characteristic of global models. Using the dispersion relationship and the method of moments, the optical-model potential energy deduced from 0.0 to 11.1 MeV neutron-scattering data was extrapolated to higher energies and to the bound-state regime. This extrapolation leads to predicted neutron total cross sections that are within 3% of the experimental values throughout the energy range 0.0 to 20.0 MeV. Furthermore, the values of the volume-integral-per-nucleon of the real potential are in excellent agreement with those needed to reproduce the observed binding energies of particle- and hole-states. The latter gives clear evidence of the Fermi surface anomaly. Using only the 0.0 to 11.1 MeV data, the predicted E < O behavior of the strength and radius of the real shell-model Woods-Saxon potential are somewhat different from those obtained by Mahaux and Sartor in their analysis of nuclei near closed shells. 61 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Oxidation of vanadium metal in oxygen plasma and their characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rabindar Kumar; Singh, Megha; Kumar, Prabhat; Reddy, G. B.

    2015-09-01

    In this report, the role of oxygen plasma on oxidation of vanadium (V) metal and the volatilization of its oxides has been studied as a function of source (V metal strip) temperature (Tss) and oxygen partial pressure (PO2). The presence of O2-plasma not only enhances the oxidation rate but also ficilitates in transport of oxide molecules from metal to substrate, as confirmed by the simultanous deposition of oxide film onto substrate. Both the oxidized metal strips and oxide films deposited on substrates are characterized separately. The structural and vibrational results evidence the presence of two different oxide phases (i.e. orthorhombic V2O5 and monocilinic V O2) in oxide layers formed on V metal strips, whereas the oxide films deposited on substrates exhibit only orthorhombic phase (i.e. V2O5). The decrease in peak intensities recorded from heated V metal strips on increasing Tss points out the increment in the rate of oxide volatilization, which also confirms by the oxide layer thickness measurements. The SEM results show the noticeable surface changes on V-strips as the function of Tss and PO2 and their optimum values are recorded to be 500 ˚ C and 7.5 × 10-2 Torr, respectively to deposit maximum thick oxide film on substrate. The formation of microcracks on oxidized V-strips, those responsible to countinue oxidation is also confirmed by SEM results. The compositional study of oxide layers formed on V-strips, corroborates their pureness and further assures about the existence of mixed oxide phases. The effect of oxygen partial pressure on oxidation of V-metal has also been discussed in the present report. All the results are well in agreement to each other.

  16. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    1998-01-01

    This report deals with gas phase hydration of pure cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities. This is an important subject in relation to modern high performance concrete which may self-desiccate during hydration. In addition the subject has relevance to storage stability where...... prehydration may occur. In the report both theoretical considerations and experimental data are presented. It is suggested that the initiation of hydration during water vapour exposure is nucleation controlled....

  17. Vertical seismic profile data from well Mallik 2L-38 for gas hydrate studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mi, Y [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada); Walia, R [Victoria Univ., BC (Canada); Hyndman, R D; Sakai, A

    1999-01-01

    A gas hydrate research well was drilled in the Canadian Arctic to determine gas hydrates in a permafrost setting in a collaborative research project between the Japan National Oil Corp., and the Geological Survey of Canada with the participation of other agencies. The multidisciplinary study included an electromagnetic survey, permafrost and gas hydrate coring, and comprehensive downhole geophysical logging and measurement. Laboratory studies on recovered cores and cuttings included sedimentology, physical properties, geochemistry, and reservoir characteristics of the Mallik gas accumulation. As part of the field program, a vertical seismic profiling survey was conducted at zero and offset source positions with 3 component receiver tools and horizontal and vertical vibration sources. A special effort was made to record shear wave data, and results from this work were combined with down hole logs and regional surface seismic data. The data will be used also to determine the effect of gas hydrates on formation velocities and to measure gas hydrate concentrations as a function of depth in the formation penetrated by the well. Certain conclusions followed from the initial VSP analysis. 1) Zero offset vertical vibration Z component and horizontal X component data give reliable velocity estimation within the gas hydrate formation zone, and P wave velocities from offset data indicate excellent consistency with that from zero offset data and with the sonic log. 2) The VSP data permitted reliable identification of gas hydrate bearing zones. 4 refs.

  18. Evaluation of influence of proteoglycans on hydration of articular cartilage with the use of ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-yi YANG

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To monitor the changes in hydration behaviour of articular cartilage induced by degradation of proteoglycans, and to explore the effect of proteoglycans on hydration behaviour of articular cartilage by using high-frequency ultrasound. Methods Twelve porcine patellae with smooth cartilage surface were prepared and equally divided into two groups: normal group without any enzyme treatment, and trypsin group they were treated with 0.25% trypsin for 8h to digest proteoglycan in the cartilage. The hydration behaviour of the cartilage tissue was scanned by high-frequency ultrasound system with a central frequency of 25MHz. Parameters including cartilage hydration strain and cartilage thickness were measured. The histopathological changes in the articular cartilage were observed under a light microscope. Results It took approximately 20min to reach equilibrium during the hydration process in the normal cartilages, while proteoglycan-degraded cartilage took only about 5min to achieve equilibrium. The equilibrium strain of normal cartilage was 3.5%±0.5%. The degradation of proteoglycans induced a significant decrease in equilibrium strain (1.8%±0.2%, P0.05. Conclusion Proteoglycans play an important role in hydration behaviour of articular cartilage. The degradation of proteoglycans could induce degeneration of cartilage structure and decrease in hydration behaviour after dehydration. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.03.03

  19. Clathrate hydrates - the energy of the future an overview and a postulated formation mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    Clathrate hydrates are non-stoichiometric compounds that form when water and certain low molecular weight hydrocarbons coexist at high pressures and low temperatures. The majority of the earth hydrocarbons are in the hydrate phase and are primarily located along the ocean bottoms and to a lesser degree in the permafrost regions. In addition, hydrate formation is induced in undersea gas transmission lines and causes costly pipeline plugs and requires expensive inhibition measures to be taken. Therefore, both a stick and a carrot motivate hydrate research. They are a costly and dangerous nuisance to the oil and gas industry and represent a tremendous, untapped energy resource of the future. The formation mechanism of clathrate hydrate formation has always been shrouded in mystery, and an ongoing debate has ensued as to whether their formation is a bulk or surface phenomenon. Molecular dynamics simulation and fractal modeling suggest that this may be an irrelevant issue and that two independent factors contribute to the symmetrical ordered structure of clathrate hydrates: hydrophobic hydration of hydrocarbon molecules in water and formation of linked cavities as these small clusters aggregate. (Author)

  20. Effect of temperature dependence of the Langmuir constant molecular pair potentials on gas hydrates formation mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokhtari, B.; Enayati, M. [Iranian Offshore Oil Co., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Heidaryan, E. [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Masjidosolayman Branch

    2008-07-01

    Theoretical methods show that crystalline hydrates can form from single-phase systems consisting of both vapor water with gaseous hydrate former and liquid water with dissolved hydrate former. Two phase systems consist of both liquid water with gaseous hydrate former and with liquid hydrate former on the surface. This paper presented a Langmuir constant related model for the prediction of equilibrium pressures and cage occupancies of pure component hydrates. Intermolecular potentials were fit to quantum mechanical energies to obtain the Langmuir constants, which differed from the procedure utilized with the vdWP model. The paper described the experimental method and model calculations. This included the Fugacity model and Van der Waals and Platteeuw model. The paper also discussed pair potential of non-spherical molecules, including the multicentre (site-site) potential; Gaussian overlap potential; Lennard-Jones potential; and Kihara generalized pair potential. It was concluded that fraction of occupied cavities is a function of pair potentials between hard core and empty hydrate lattice. These pair potentials could be calculated from some model as Kihara cell potential, Gaussian potential, Lennard-Jones potential and multicentre pair potential. 49 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Optimal Location of Vanadium in Muscovite and Its Geometrical and Electronic Properties by DFT Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiushi Zheng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium-bearing muscovite is the most valuable component of stone coal, which is a unique source of vanadium manufacture in China. Numbers of experimental studies have been carried out to destroy the carrier muscovite’s structure for efficient extraction of vanadium. Hence, the vanadium location is necessary for exploring the essence of vanadium extraction. Although most infer that vanadium may substitute for trivalent aluminium (Al as the isomorphism in muscovite for the similar atomic radius, there is not enough experimental evidence and theoretical supports to accurately locate the vanadium site in muscovite. In this study, the muscovite model and optimal location of vanadium were calculated by density functional theory (DFT. We find that the vanadium prefers to substitute for the hexa-coordinated aluminum of muscovite for less deformation and lower substitution energy. Furthermore, the local geometry and relative electronic properties were calculated in detail. The basal theoretical research of muscovite contained with vanadium are reported for the first time. It will make a further influence on the technology development of vanadium extraction from stone coal.

  2. Physical Properties of Gas Hydrates: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabitto, Jorge [Prairie View A& M University; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Methane gas hydrates in sediments have been studied by several investigators as a possible future energy resource. Recent hydrate reserves have been estimated at approximately 1016?m3 of methane gas worldwide at standard temperature and pressure conditions. In situ dissociation of natural gas hydrate is necessary in order to commercially exploit the resource from the natural-gas-hydrate-bearing sediment. The presence of gas hydrates in sediments dramatically alters some of the normal physical properties of the sediment. These changes can be detected by field measurements and by down-hole logs. An understanding of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for interpretation of geophysical data collected in field settings, borehole, and slope stability analyses; reservoir simulation; and production models. This work reviews information available in literature related to the physical properties of sediments containing gas hydrates. A brief review of the physical properties of bulk gas hydrates is included. Detection methods, morphology, and relevant physical properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments are also discussed.

  3. Accelerated hydration of high silica cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Colin; Yui, Mikazu

    2012-01-01

    Current Japanese designs for high level radioactive waste (HLW) repositories anticipate the use of both bentonite (buffer and backfill material) and cement based materials. Using hydrated Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) as a grouting material is undesirable because the associated high pH buffer will have an undisputed detrimental effect on the performance of the bentonite buffer and backfill and of the host rock by changing its porosity. Instead, hydrated low pH cement (LopHC) grouting materials are being developed to provide a pH inferior or equal to 11 to reduce these detrimental effects. LopHC grouting materials use mixtures of superfine OPC (SOPC) clinker and silica fume (SF), and are referred as high silica cements (HSC). The focus of the present study was to identify the development of the unhydrated and hydrated mineral assemblage and the solution chemistry during the hydration of HSC. Since hydration experiments of cementitious materials are notably slow, a ball mill was used to accelerate hydration. This was done for two reasons. Firstly, to develop a method to rapidly hydrate cement based materials without the need for higher temperatures (which can alter the mineral assemblage), and secondly, to ensure that the end point of hydration was reached in a reasonable time frame and so to realize the final mineralogy and solution chemistry of hydrated HSC

  4. Microstructure of natural hydrate host sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Kerkar, P.B.; Mahajan, D.; Lindquist, W.B.; Feng, H.

    2007-01-01

    There is worldwide interest in the study of natural gas hydrate because of its potential impact on world energy resources, control on seafloor stability, significance as a drilling hazard and probable impact on climate as a reservoir of a major greenhouse gas. Gas hydrates can (a) be free floating in the sediment matrix (b) contact, but do not cement, existing sediment grains, or (c) actually cement and stiffen the bulk sediment. Seismic surveys, often used to prospect for hydrates over a large area, can provide knowledge of the location of large hydrate concentrations because the hydrates within the sediment pores modify seismic properties. The ability to image a sample at the grain scale and to determine the porosity, permeability and seismic profile is of great interest since these parameters can help in determining the location of hydrates with certainty. We report here on an investigation of the structure of methane hydrate sediments at the grain-size scale using the synchrotron radiation-based computed microtomography (CMT) technique. Work has started on the measurements of the changes occurring as tetrahydrofuran hydrate, a surrogate for methane hydrate, is formed in the sediment

  5. Vanadium Recovery from Oil Fly Ash by Carbon Removal and Roast-Leach Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Myungwon; Mishra, Brajendra

    2018-02-01

    This research mainly focuses on the recovery of vanadium from oil fly ash by carbon removal and the roast-leach process. The oil fly ash contained about 85% unburned carbon and 2.2% vanadium by weight. A vanadium-enriched product was obtained after carbon removal, and the vanadium content of this product was 19% by weight. Next, the vanadium-enriched product was roasted with sodium carbonate to convert vanadium oxides to water-soluble sodium metavanadate. The roasted sample was leached with water at 60°C, and the extraction percentage of vanadium was about 92% by weight. Several analytical techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), x-ray fluorescence (XRF), and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), were utilized for sample analyses. Thermodynamic modeling was also conducted with HSC chemistry software to explain the experimental results.

  6. Local structure of vanadium in doped LiFePO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Ting; Xu, Wei; Ye, Qing; Cheng, Jie; Zhao, Haifeng; Chu, Wangsheng; Wu, Ziyu; Univ. of Science and Technology of China, Hefei; Xia, Dingguo

    2010-01-01

    LiFePO 4 composites with 5 at.% vanadium doping are prepared by solid state reactions. X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy is used as a novel technique to identify vanadium sites. Both experimental analyses and theoretical simulations show that vanadium does not enter into the LiFePO 4 crystal lattice. When the vanadium concentration is lower then 1 at.%, the dopant remains insoluble. Thus, a single-phase vanadium-doped LiFePO4 cannot be formed and the improved electrochemical properties of vanadium doped LiFePO 4 previously reported cannot be associated with crystal structure changes of the LiFePO 4 via vanadium doping. (orig.)

  7. Influence of smectite hydration and swelling on atrazine sorption behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Mark A; Laird, David A; Thompson, Michael L; Li, Hui; Teppen, Brian J; Aggarwal, Vaneet; Johnston, Cliff T; Boyd, Stephen A

    2005-05-01

    Smectites, clay minerals commonly found in soils and sediments, vary widely in their ability to adsorb organic chemicals. Recent research has demonstrated the importance of surface charge density and properties of exchangeable cations in controlling the affinity of smectites for organic molecules. In this study, we induced hysteresis in the crystalline swelling of smectites to test the hypothesis that the extent of crystalline swelling (or interlayer hydration status) has a large influence on the ability of smectites to adsorb atrazine from aqueous systems. Air-dried K-saturated Panther Creek (PC) smectite swelled less (d(001) = 1.38 nm) than never-dried K-PC (d(001) = 1.7 nm) when rehydrated in 20 mM KCl. Correspondingly, the air-dried-rehydrated K-PC had an order of magnitude greater affinity for atrazine relative to the never-dried K-PC. Both air-dried-rehydrated and never-dried Ca-PC expanded to approximately 2.0 nm in 10 mM CaCl2 and both samples had similar affinities for atrazine that were slightly lower than that of never-dried K-PC. The importance of interlayer hydration status in controlling sorption affinity was confirmed by molecular modeling, which revealed much greater interaction between interlayer water molecules and atrazine in a three-layer hydrate relative to a one-layer hydrate. The entropy change on moving atrazine from a fully hydrated state in the bulk solution to a partially hydrated state in the smectite interlayers is believed to be a major factor influencing sorption affinity. In an application test, choice of background solution (20 mM KCl versus 10 mM CaCl2) and air-drying treatments significantly affected atrazine sorption affinities for three-smectitic soils; however, the trends were not consistent with those observed for the reference smectite. Further, extending the initial rehydration time from 24 to 240 h (prior to adding atrazine) significantly decreased the soil's sorption affinity for atrazine. We conclude that interlayer

  8. Waters of Hydration of Cupric Hydrates: A Comparison between Heating and Absorbance Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlag, Rebecca; Nyasulu, Frazier

    2011-01-01

    The empirical formulas of four cupric hydrates are determined by measuring the absorbance in aqueous solution. The Beer-Lambert Law is verified by constructing a calibration curve of absorbance versus known Cu[superscript 2+](aq) concentration. A solution of the unknown hydrate is prepared by using 0.2-0.3 g of hydrate, and water is added such…

  9. Dynamics of hydration in hen egg white lysozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterpone, F; Ceccarelli, M; Marchi, M

    2001-08-10

    We investigate the hydration dynamics of a small globular protein, hen egg-white lysozyme. Extensive simulations (two trajectories of 9 ns each) were carried out to identify the time-scales and mechanism of water attachment to this protein. The location of the surface and integral water molecules in lysozyme was also investigated. Three peculiar temporal scales of the hydration dynamics can be discerned: two among these, with sub-nanosecond mean residence time, tau(w), are characteristic of surface hydration water; the slower time-scale (tau(w) approximately 2/3 ns) is associated with buried water molecules in hydrophilic pores and in superficial clefts. The computed tau(w) values in the two independent runs fall in a similar range and are consistent with each other, thus adding extra weight to our result. The tau(w) of surface water obtained from the two independent trajectories is 20 and 24 ps. In both simulations only three water molecules are bound to lysozyme for the entire length of the trajectories, in agreement with nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion estimates. Locations other than those identified in the protein crystal are found to be possible for these long-residing water molecules. The dynamics of the hydration water molecules observed in our simulations implies that each water molecule visits a multitude of residues during the lifetime of its bound with the protein. The number of residues seen by a single water molecule increases with the time-scale of its residence time and, on average, is equal to one only for the water molecules with shorter residence time. Thus, tau(w) values obtained from inelastic neutron scattering and based on jump-diffusion models are likely not to account for the contribution of water molecules with longer residence time. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  10. Hydration in soccer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Cristiano Ralo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydration should be considered before, during and after the exercise. This review intends to approach the main points of hydration process in soccer. The replacement of fluids during exercise is proportional to some factors, such as: exercise intensity; climatic conditions; the athlete's acclimatization; the athlete's physical conditioning; physiologic individual characteristics and the player's biomechanics. Performance is improved when players ingest not only water but also carbohydrate. The rates that carbohydrate and water are absorbed by the organism are limited by the rates of gastric emptying and intestinal absorption. The composition of drinks offered to the players should be influenced by the relative importance of the need of supplying carbohydrates or water; it should be remembered that the depletion of carbohydrate can result in fatigue and decrease of performance, but it is not usually a life-threatening condition. The addition of carbohydrate in these drinks increases the concentrations of blood glucose, increases the use of external fuel through the increase of the glucose oxidation in the muscles and it spares muscle glycogen. So, the ingestion of carbohydrate before and during the exercise can delay the emergence of fatigue and increase the players' performance. Several tactics can be used to avoid dehydration, like hyperhydration before exercise and player's acclimatization. The ideal situation to restore the player's fluid losses is between the sessions of exercises. Since soccer is a sport with quite peculiar characteristics related to hydration, the players should be concerned and educated about the importance of fluid ingestion before, during and after the exercise.

  11. Two-stage fungal leaching of vanadium from uranium ore residue of the leaching stage using statistical experimental design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharehbagheri, Hassan; Safdari, Jaber; Roostaazad, Reza; Rashidi, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this work, the percent of vanadium recovery from uranium mine waste was 44.8. ► Unlike autotrophs, Aspergillus niger is a suitable microorganism to deal with such a resource. ► In the first step of the present work, citric acid was produced more than the other acids. ► When sterilization of uranium ore waste is not economic, two-step bioleaching is an appropriate method. - Abstract: In this investigation, bioleaching of vanadium from uranium ore residue of the leaching stage was studied by Aspergillus niger in a two-step process at 30 °C and 150 rpm. The first step was initiated by growth of fungi in the absence of mine waste. Using response surface methodology, three factors were surveyed for fungal growth: initial pH, sucrose concentration and spore population. Also concentrations of oxalic, citric, and gluconic acids were measured as response in this step. During 30 days, maximum productions of these acids were 3265, 11578, and 7988 mg/l, respectively. Initial pH and sucrose concentration were significant factors for oxalic and citric acid production; however, for gluconic acid production sucrose concentration and spore population were significant. Then, the content of each flask was filtered and mine waste was added to liquor with pulp density of 3%. During 3 days, in the second step, vanadium recovered about 44.8% in the liquor

  12. Gas Hydrates | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preliminary Report - Cascadia Margin Gas Hydrates, Volume 204 Initial Report Mallik 2002 GSC Bulletin 585 : Scientific results from the Mallik 2002 gas hydrate production well program Offshore gas hydrate sample

  13. Simulation and Characterization of Methane Hydrate Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, S.; Gupta, I.

    2017-12-01

    The ever rising global energy demand dictates human endeavor to explore and exploit new and innovative energy sources. As conventional oil and gas reserves deplete, we are constantly looking for newer sources for sustainable energy. Gas hydrates have long been discussed as the next big energy resource to the earth. Its global occurrence and vast quantity of natural gas stored is one of the main reasons for such interest in its study and exploration. Gas hydrates are solid crystalline substances with trapped molecules of gas inside cage-like crystals of water molecules. Gases such as methane, ethane, propane and carbon dioxide can form hydrates but in natural state, methane hydrates are the most common. Subsurface geological conditions with high pressure and low temperature favor the formation and stability of gas hydrates. While the occurrence and potential of gas hydrates as energy source has long been studied, there are still gaps in knowledge, especially in the quantitative research of gas hydrate formation and reservoir characterization. This study is focused on exploring and understanding the geological setting in which gas hydrates are formed and the subsequent changes in rock characteristics as they are deposited. It involves the numerical simulation of methane gas flow through fault to form hydrates. The models are representative of the subsurface geologic setting of Gulf of Mexico with a fault through layers of shale and sandstone. Hydrate formation simulated is of thermogenic origin. The simulations are conducted using TOUGH+HYDRATE, a numerical code developed at the Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory for modeling multiphase flow through porous medium. Simulation results predict that as the gas hydrates form in the pores of the model, the porosity, permeability and other rock properties are altered. Preliminary simulation results have shown that hydrates begin to form in the fault zone and gradually in the sandstone layers. The increase in hydrate

  14. Compatibility of vanadium alloys with reactor-grade helium for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, G.E.C.; Bishop, P.S.

    1993-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the compatibility of vanadium alloys with reactor-grade helium and to define the helium gas chemistry requirements for fusion reactors, miniature tensile specimens of V-5Cr-5Ti. V-10Cr-5Ti, and V-12.5Cr-5 Ti were exposed in a once-through system to helium with 70 vppm-H 2 (measured oxygen partial pressures of 10 -12 atm) and bottle helium (measured oxygen partial pressures of -4 atm) between 500 and 700 degree C for up to 1008 h. The weight changes in the specimens were recorded. The helium-exposed specimens were tensile tested, and the effects of exposure on mechanical properties were assessed. Exposure between 500 and 700 degree C for 1008 h in He+70 vppm-H 2 resulted in complete embrittlement of all the alloys in room temperature tensile tests. The fracture mode was primarily cleavage, probably caused by a hydrogen-induced shift in the ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT). Weight gains increased with temperature and were largest for the V-5Cr-5Ti alloy. Specimens exposed for 531 h between 500 and 700 degree C in bottle He exhibited two distinct fracture morphologies on the fracture surfaces. Brittle cleavage around the edges of specimens gave way to ductile dimpling in the center of the specimens. The brittle region around the periphery of the specimen is most likely the highest vanadium oxide. V 2 O 5

  15. Vanadium oxide nanowire-carbon nanotube binder-free flexible electrodes for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perera, Sanjaya D.; Patel, Bijal; Seitz, Oliver; Ferraris, John P.; Balkus, Kenneth J. Jr. [Department of Chemistry and the Alan G. MacDiarmid Nanotech Institute, 800 West Campbell Rd, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States); Nijem, Nour; Roodenko, Katy; Chabal, Yves J. [Laboratory for Surface and Nanostructure Modification, Department of Material Science and Engineering, 800 West Campbell Rd, University of Texas Dallas, Richardson, TX 75080 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) layered nanostructures are known to have very stable crystal structures and high faradaic activity. The low electronic conductivity of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} greatly limits the application of vanadium oxide as electrode materials and requires combining with conducting materials using binders. It is well known that the organic binders can degrade the overall performance of electrode materials and need carefully controlled compositions. In this study, we develop a simple method for preparing freestanding carbon nanotube (CNT)-V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanowire (VNW) composite paper electrodes without using binders. Coin cell type (CR2032) supercapacitors are assembled using the nanocomposite paper electrode as the anode and high surface area carbon fiber electrode (Spectracarb 2225) as the cathode. The supercapacitor with CNT-VNW composite paper electrode exhibits a power density of 5.26 kW Kg{sup -1} and an energy density of 46.3 Wh Kg{sup -1}. (Li)VNWs and CNT composite paper electrodes can be fabricated in similar manner and show improved overall performance with a power density of 8.32 kW Kg{sup -1} and an energy density of 65.9 Wh Kg{sup -1}. The power and energy density values suggest that such flexible hybrid nanocomposite paper electrodes may be useful for high performance electrochemical supercapacitors. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Water-activated graphite felt as a high-performance electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries