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Sample records for hydrated nail plates

  1. Laterally Loaded Nail-Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob; Rathkjen, Arne

    Load-displacement curves from about 200 short-term and laterally loaded nail-plate joints are analysed. The nail-plates are from Gang-Nail Systems, type GNA 20 S. The test specimens and the measuring systems are described. The tests are divided into 32 different series. The influence of the number...

  2. Effectiveness of plate augmentation for femoral shaft nonunion after nailing

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    Chin-Jung Lin

    2012-08-01

    Conclusion: Plate augmentation with retention of the nail with autologous bone grafting may be an effective and reliable alternative in treating nonunion of the femoral shaft fracture after open reduction and internal fixation with intramedullary nail.

  3. Stiffness Analysis of Nail-Plate Joints Subjected to Short-Term Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jacob

    nail-plates are designed for trusses. For many years, joints were made of boards with nails, but the increasing industrialism and the need for quick and usable assembly had the result that today nearly all trusses are pre-fabricated with nail-plates. The word "nail-plate" has been used for different...... types of plates. There are two main types of nail-plates: steel plates perforated with holes in which separate nails are used and steel plates perforated by a stamping machine, so the nails are made from the plate, see figur 1.2 on page 7. This type is sometimes called "punching metal plate...

  4. Metallographic examination of a failed Jewett nail-plate from a human femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.J.; Zirkel, L.G. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A type 316L wrought stainless steel Jewett nail-plate is one of several implant designs for bridging fractures in the proximal end of the femur. A soldier received a high velocity projectile in the trochanteric region of the femur. He was treated for a subtrochanteric fracture and greater trochanteric bone loss. After 9 months, hip varus angulation was progressively increasing. A Jewett nail-plate was inserted after valgus osteotomy and bone grafting of the unhealed fracture. The nail-plate fractured three weeks after surgery. Optical and scanning electron microscopy related the origin of failure to an impactor failure and subsequent microscopic scoring of the nail-plate during insertion into the abnormally hard femoral head. Photomicrographs showing the implant failure and evidences of corrosion after the short time in the body are presented. 12 figs

  5. Plate Versus Intramedullary Nail Fixation of Anterior Tibial Stress Fractures: A Biomechanical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markolf, Keith L; Cheung, Edward; Joshi, Nirav B; Boguszewski, Daniel V; Petrigliano, Frank A; McAllister, David R

    2016-06-01

    Anterior midtibial stress fractures are an important clinical problem for patients engaged in high-intensity military activities or athletic training activities. When nonoperative treatment has failed, intramedullary (IM) nail and plate fixation are 2 surgical options used to arrest the progression of a fatigue fracture and allow bone healing. A plate will be more effective than an IM nail in preventing the opening of a simulated anterior midtibial stress fracture from tibial bending. Controlled laboratory study. Fresh-frozen human tibias were loaded by applying a pure bending moment in the sagittal plane. Thin transverse saw cuts, 50% and 75% of the depth of the anterior tibial cortex, were created at the midtibia to simulate a fatigue fracture. An extensometer spanning the defect was used to measure the fracture opening displacement (FOD) before and after the application of IM nail and plate fixation constructs. IM nails were tested without locking screws, with a proximal screw only, and with proximal and distal screws. Plates were tested with unlocked bicortical screws (standard compression plate) and locked bicortical screws; both plate constructs were tested with the plate edge placed 1 mm from the anterior tibial crest (anterior location) and 5 mm posterior to the crest. For the 75% saw cut depth, the mean FOD values for all IM nail constructs were 13% to 17% less than those for the saw cut alone; the use of locking screws had no significant effect on the FOD. The mean FOD values for all plate constructs were significantly less than those for all IM nail constructs. The mean FOD values for all plates were 28% to 46% less than those for the saw cut alone. Anterior plate placement significantly decreased mean FOD values for both compression and locked plate constructs, but the mean percentage reductions for locked and unlocked plates were not significantly different from each other for either plate placement. The percentage FOD reductions for all plate

  6. The treatment of nonisthmal femoral shaft nonunions with im nail exchange versus augmentation plating.

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    Park, Jin; Kim, Sul Gee; Yoon, Han Kook; Yang, Kyu Hyun

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the results between exchange nailing (EN) and augmentation plating (AP) with a nail left in situ for nonisthmal femoral shaft nonunion after femoral nailing. : Retrospective data analysis, November 1996-March 2006. A level I trauma center. Eighteen patients with 18 nonisthmal femoral nonunions. Seven patients with 7 fractures treated for nonisthmal femoral shaft nonunions after femoral nailing with EN and 11 patients with 11 fractures treated for nonisthmal femoral shaft nonunions after nailing with AP combined with bone grafting. Union and complications. Five nonunions in the EN group failed to achieve union (72% failure rate), whereas all 11 pseudarthroses in the AP group obtained osseous union. Fisher exact test showed a higher nonunion rate of EN compared with AP for nonisthmal femoral shaft nonunion (odds ratio, 6.5; P = 0.002). AP with autogenous bone grafting may be a better option than EN for nonisthmal femoral nonunions.

  7. Consensus on melanonychia nail plate dermoscopy Consenso sobre dermatoscopia da placa ungueal em melanoniquias

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    Nilton Di Chiacchio

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This statement, focused on melanonychia and nail plate dermoscopy, is intended to guide medical professionals working with melanonychia and to assist choosing appropriate management for melanonychia patients. The International Study Group on Melanonychia was founded in 2007 and currently has 30 members, including nail experts and dermatopathologists with special expertise in nails. The need for common definitions of nail plate dermoscopy was addressed during the Second Meeting of this Group held in February 2008. Prior to this meeting and to date (2010 there have been no evidence-based guidelines on the use of dermoscopy in the management of nail pigmentation.Este consenso, com foco em melanoníquia e dermatoscopia da lâmina ungueal, se destina a orientar os médicos que trabalham com melanoníquia e auxiliar no manejo destes pacientes. O grupo internacional de estudos sobre melanoníquia foi fundada em 2007 e tem agora 30 membros, incluindo dermatologistas e dermatopatologistas com conhecimento especializado em unhas. A necessidade de definições comuns de dermatoscopia da lâmina ungueal foi abordada durante a segunda reunião deste grupo, realizada em fevereiro de 2008. Antes desta reunião e até a presente, não existem orientações com base em evidências sobre a utilização de dermatoscopia da placa ungueal.

  8. Er:YLF-laser microperforation of the nail plate for drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belikov, Andrey V.; Skrypnik, Alexei V.; Sergeev, Andrey N.; Smirnov, Sergey N.; Tavalinskaya, Anastasia D.

    2018-04-01

    Laser microperforation of a human nail plate is an effective method to increase the speed of local drugs delivery in the treatment of nail diseases. In this paper we present the study results of the influence of spatial parameters of Er:YLFlaser- produced microhole array in human nail plate (the diameter of microholes and their packing density) on the rate (vsp) of 0.25 % water-alcohol solution of methylene blue penetration through a single microhole and on the time (Tmp) required for uniform distribution of this drug under the nail plate. In experiments, the diameter of microholes was 220 +/- 10 μm, 300 +/- 10 μm or 350 +/- 10 μm. The packing density for microholes of each of these diameters was 100 μholes/cm2, 400 μholes/cm2 and 950 μholes/cm2. It is shown that vsp is mainly determined by the microhole diameter, and the packing density does not have a significant influence on it. It was experimentally established that the rate vsp is maximal for microholes with 350 μm diameter at packing density of 950 μholes/cm2 and reaches a value of 6.3 μm/s, and the time Tmp is minimal and equal to 180 +/- 10 s at the same values of microhole diameter and packing density.

  9. Comparison of plain potassium hydroxide mounts, fungal cultures and nail plate biopsies in the diagnosis of onychomycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Naveed Akhter; Nasiruddin; Dar, Nasser Rasheed; Khan, Ashfaq Ahmed

    2006-10-01

    To compare the relative sensitivity of direct microscopy, fungal culture and nail plate biopsy in the diagnosis of onychomycosis. Cross-sectional study. The Skin Department, Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from February 1998 to February 1999. A total of 50 patients who were suffering from different clinical variants of onychomycosis, irrespective of their age, gender, with or without simultaneous presence of systemic diseases, were subjected to laboratory investigations including direct microscopy with 20% potassium hydroxide (KOH) for fungal hyphae, fungal cultures and nail plate biopsies. These patients were later categorized into two groups based upon the results of nail plate biopsies. Of 50 patients, 15 (30%) were positive for fungal elements in direct microscopy, 8 (16%) were positive for fungal culture and 16 (32%) revealed positive results in nail plate biopsies. Amongst nail plate biopsy positive cases, 10 (63%) were positive for direct microscopy and 6 (37.5%) were positive for fungal cultures. In biopsy negative cases, positive results for direct microscopy were seen in 5 (14.7%) patients and positive fungal culture was found in 2 (5.88%) patients. The clinical impression of onychomycosis is not true in all the cases. Nail scraping for direct microscopy with 20% KOH should be the first line screening test for all patients which should then be supplemented with fungal culture and/ or nail plate biopsy.

  10. Faulting and hydration of the Juan de Fuca plate system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedimović, Mladen R.; Bohnenstiehl, DelWayne R.; Carbotte, Suzanne M.; Pablo Canales, J.; Dziak, Robert P.

    2009-06-01

    Multichannel seismic observations provide the first direct images of crustal scale normal faults within the Juan de Fuca plate system and indicate that brittle deformation extends up to ~ 200 km seaward of the Cascadia trench. Within the sedimentary layering steeply dipping faults are identified by stratigraphic offsets, with maximum throws of 110 ± 10 m found near the trench. Fault throws diminish both upsection and seaward from the trench. Long-term throw rates are estimated to be 13 ± 2 mm/kyr. Faulted offsets within the sedimentary layering are typically linked to larger offset scarps in the basement topography, suggesting reactivation of the normal fault systems formed at the spreading center. Imaged reflections within the gabbroic igneous crust indicate swallowing fault dips at depth. These reflections require local alteration to produce an impedance contrast, indicating that the imaged fault structures provide pathways for fluid transport and hydration. As the depth extent of imaged faulting within this young and sediment insulated oceanic plate is primarily limited to approximately Moho depths, fault-controlled hydration appears to be largely restricted to crustal levels. If dehydration embrittlement is an important mechanism for triggering intermediate-depth earthquakes within the subducting slab, then the limited occurrence rate and magnitude of intraslab seismicity at the Cascadia margin may in part be explained by the limited amount of water imbedded into the uppermost oceanic mantle prior to subduction. The distribution of submarine earthquakes within the Juan de Fuca plate system indicates that propagator wake areas are likely to be more faulted and therefore more hydrated than other parts of this plate system. However, being largely restricted to crustal levels, this localized increase in hydration generally does not appear to have a measurable effect on the intraslab seismicity along most of the subducted propagator wakes at the Cascadia margin.

  11. Intramedullary nailing for the treatment of aseptic femoral shaft non-unions after plating failure: effectiveness and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megas, Panagiotis; Syggelos, Spyros A; Kontakis, Georgios; Giannakopoulos, Andreas; Skouteris, Georgios; Lambiris, Elias; Panagiotopoulos, Elias

    2009-07-01

    This retrospective, multicentre study aimed to evaluate reamed intramedullary nailing (IMN) for the treatment of 30 cases of aseptic femoral shaft non-union after plating failure. Following nailing, 29 non-unions had healed by a mean 7.93 months. In one case a hypertrophic non-union required renailing after 8 months, using a nail of greater diameter, and united within five further months. Healing times were not related to whether the fracture was open or closed, the type non-union or the type of fracture. The delay from the initial plating to intramedullary nailing had a statistically significant effect on healing time and final outcome. This treatment is cost effective and should be implemented as soon as the non-union is diagnosed.

  12. Comparison of plain potassium hydroxide mounts, fungal cultures and nail plate biopsies in the diagnosis of onychomycosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.A.; Nasiruddin, A.

    2006-01-01

    To compare the relative sensitivity of direct microscopy, fungal culture and nail plate biopsy in the diagnosis of onychomycosis. A total of 50 patients who were suffering from different clinical variants of onychomycosis, irrespective of their age, gender, with or without simultaneous presence of systemic diseases, were subjected to laboratory investigations including direct microscopy with 20% potassium hydroxide (KOH) for fungal hyphae, fungal cultures and nail plate biopsies. These patients were later categorized into two groups based upon the results of nail plate biopsies. Of 50 patients, 15 (30%) were positive for fungal elements in direct microscopy, 8 (16%) were positive for fungal culture and 16 (32%) revealed positive results in nail plate biopsies. Amongst nail plate biopsy positive cases, 10 (63%) were positive for direct microscopy and 6 (37.5%) were positive for fungal cultures. In biopsy negative cases, positive results for direct microscopy were seen in 5 (14.7%) patients and positive fungal culture was found in 2 (5.88%) patients. (author)

  13. The clinical application of absorbable intramedullary nail and claw plate on treating multiple rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, X; Lin, Q; Ruan, Z; Zheng, J; Zhou, J; Zhang, J

    2013-08-01

    The absorption intramedullary nail and claw plate indications and efficacy were investigated in the treatment of a life-threatening multiple rib fractures. A retrospective analysis of 248 surgically treated rib fracture patients was performed who admitted to our hospital from March 2007 to December 2012. Intramedullary nailing was performed in 28 cases, a claw-type bone plate was fixed in 141 cases, and a combination of both was fixed in 79 cases. All internal fixation patients were clinically cured except 1 patient died 14 days after a massive pulmonary embolism. The patients with flail chest and floating chest wall causing respiratory and circulatory disorders were promptly corrected. Routine follow-up was from 1 to 2 years, displaced fractures were in 2 cases, and there were 11 cases of internal fixation and extraction. Internal fixation is a simple and reliable method for the treatment of multiple rib fractures. Both internal fixation materials have their pros and cons but the claw bone plate is more robust. The actual selection of appropriate treatment options helps to improve the treatment efficacy.

  14. Longitudinal erythronychia: individual or multiple linear red bands of the nail plate: a review of clinical features and associated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R

    2011-08-01

    Longitudinal erythronychia is a linear red band on the nail plate that originates at the proximal nail fold, traverses the lunula, and extends to the free edge of the nail plate. Longitudinal erythronychia is classified based upon the number of nails affected and the number of red streaks present on each nail as follows: type Ia (monodactylous - single band), type Ib (monodactylous - bifid bands), type IIa (polydactylous - single band), and type IIb (polydactylous - multiple bands). Associated morphologic findings that can be present at the distal tip of the nail with longitudinal erythronychia include fragility, onycholysis, splinter hemorrhage, splitting, subungual keratosis, thinning, and V-shaped nick. Some patients with longitudinal erythronychia seek medical evaluation because of pain in the associated distal digit; however, the linear red nail plate dyschromia is often asymptomatic and the individual is concerned about the cosmetic appearance or distal nail fragility. Longitudinal erythronychia can be a clinical manifestation of an underlying local or systemic condition. Benign tumors (glomus tumor, onychopapilloma, and warty dyskeratoma), malignant neoplasms (malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma), and other conditions (hemiplegia and postsurgical scar) can be associated with monodactylous longitudinal erythronychia or it may be idiopathic or the initial stage of polydactylous longitudinal erythronychia-associated systemic conditions. Polydactylous longitudinal erythronychia is most commonly reported in patients with Darier disease (keratosis follicularis); other associated conditions include acantholytic dyskeratotic epidermal nevus, acantholytic epidermolysis bullosa, acrokeratosis verruciformis of Hopf, amyloidosis, graft-versus-host disease, lichen planus, and pseudobulbar syndrome. Polydactylous longitudinal erythronychia has also been observed as an idiopathic finding. Biopsy of the nail matrix and nail bed may be necessary to establish the

  15. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FUNCTIONAL OUTCOMES OF FRACTURE SHAFT HUMERUS IN ADULTS TREATED WITH DYNAMIC COMPRESSION PLATING AND INTERLOCKING NAILING

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    Nagesh Desai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Opti m al m ethod of hu m eral shaft f r acture f i xation remains in debate till date. Two techniq u es under study include i n tra m edullary nailing and dyna m ic co m pression plate fixation. Plating provides satisfactory results but requires extensive dissection and m eticulous radial nerve protection. Theoretical advantage of intra m ed u llary nailing included less invasive surgery, undisturbed fractu r e hemato m a and use of load sharing device support. Purpose of this study is to co m p are o u tco m es of each m ethod of fixation for fracture shaft of humerus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: P atients with diaphyseal fractures of the hu m erus were divided in two groups of 20 treated with dynam i c co m pression plate or w i th i n tra m edullary interlocking nail. Postoperatively both groups received sa m e type of physiotherapy. They were followed up regularly . T i me taken for radiological union in two groups was co m pared. After satisfactory radiological un i on, functional out c o m e was assessed by “Disabilities of Hand, Shoulder and Elbow (DASH Questionnaire”. RESULTS: F unctional outco m e was better in DCP group co m pared to int e rloc ki ng nailing group which was statistically significant ( P = 0.062. Rate of healing was marginally better in DCP group as compared to I.M nail. CONCLUSION: W e are of opi n i on that when s u r ge r y is opted as a c h oice of treat m ent, both modalities of treat m ent i.e. dyn a m i c co m pression plating and interlocking nailing are good as far as union of fracture is concerned, but considering number of co m plications and functional outco m e, we opine that d y na m i c co m p ression plating o f f ers bett e r result than anteg r ade i n te r l ocking nailing with respect to pain and function of shoulder joint

  16. Comparison of accuracy of lag screw placement in cephalocondylic nails and sliding hip screw plate fixation for extracapsular fractures of the neck of femur

    OpenAIRE

    Shyam Kumar, A. J.; Parmar, V.; Bankart, J.; Williams, S. C.; Harper, W. M.

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the accuracy of lag screw placement between extracapsular femoral fractures fixed with sliding hip screw plate systems and those fixed with cephalocondylic nails. It involved 75 retrospective radiographs of fractures fixed with either a cephalocondylic nail (32) or a sliding hip screw plate system (43). Postoperative anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the hip were scanned using a digital X-ray scanner and measured using computer software. Measurements were conducte...

  17. Comparison and analysis of reoperations in two different treatment protocols for trochanteric hip fractures - postoperative technical complications with dynamic hip screw, intramedullary nail and Medoff sliding plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsson, Johnny; Stig, Josefine Corin; Olsson, Ola

    2017-08-24

    In treatment of unstable trochanteric fractures dynamic hip screw and Medoff sliding plate devices are designed to allow secondary fracture impaction, whereas intramedullary nails aim to maintain fracture alignment. Different treatment protocols are used by two similar Swedish regional emergency care hospitals. Dynamic hip screw is used for fractures considered as stable within the respective treatment protocol, whereas one treatment protocol (Medoff sliding plate/dynamic hip screw) uses biaxial Medoff sliding plate for unstable pertrochanteric fractures and uniaxial Medoff sliding plate for subtrochanteric fractures, the second (intramedullary nail/dynamic hip screw) uses intramedullary nail for subtrochanteric fractures and for pertrochanteric fractures with intertrochanteric comminution or subtrochanteric extension. All orthopedic surgeries are registered in a regional database. All consecutive trochanteric fracture operations during 2011-2012 (n = 856) and subsequent technical reoperations (n = 40) were derived from the database. Reoperations were analysed and classified into the categories adjustment (percutaneous removal of the locking screw of the Medoff sliding plate or the intramedullary nail, followed by fracture healing) or minor, intermediate (reosteosynthesis) or major (hip joint replacement, Girdlestone or persistent nonunion) technical complications. The relative risk of intermediate or major technical complications was 4.2 (1.2-14) times higher in unstable pertrochanteric fractures and 4.6 (1.1-19) times higher in subtrochanteric fractures with treatment protocol: intramedullary nail/dynamic hip screw, compared to treatment protocol: Medoff sliding plate/dynamic hip screw. Overall rates of intermediate and major technical complications in unstable pertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures were with biaxial Medoff sliding plate 0.68%, with uniaxial Medoff sliding plate 1.4%, with dynamic hip screw 3.4% and with intramedullary nail 7.2%. The

  18. Treatment of Unstable Trochanteric Femur Fractures: Proximal Femur Nail Versus Proximal Femur Locking Compression Plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashutosh Kumar; Narsaria, Nidi; G R, Arun; Srivastava, Vivek

    Unstable trochanteric femur fractures are common fractures that are difficult to manage. We conducted a prospective study to compare functional outcomes and complications of 2 different implant designs, proximal femur nail (PFN) and proximal femur locking compression plate (PFLCP), used in internal fixation of unstable trochanteric femur fractures. On hospital admission, 48 patients with unstable trochanteric fractures were randomly assigned (using a sealed envelope method) to treatment with either PFN (24 patients) or PFLCP (24 patients). Perioperative data and complications were recorded. All cases were followed up for 2 years. The groups did not differ significantly (P > .05) in operative time, reduction quality, complications, hospital length of stay, union rate, or time to union. Compared with the PFLCP group, the PFN group had shorter incisions and less blood loss. Regarding functional outcomes, there was no significant difference in mean Harris Hip Score (P = .48) or Palmer and Parker mobility score (P = .58). Both PFN and PFLCP are effective in internal fixation of unstable trochanteric femur fractures.

  19. Diaphyseal Fractures of the Forearm in Adults, Plating Or Intramedullary Nailing Is a Better Option for the Treatment?

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    Tabet A. Al-Sadek

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fractures of the radius and ulna occupy a large field of the modern traumatology. Therefore, these fractures are a major subject in modern orthopaedics and traumatology. The study of the mechanisms of the trauma, and the pathophysiological changes that occur are of great importance for the development of ever more efficient and varied ways of the treatment and prophylactics of this type of fracture. AIM: The aim of this paper was to study the pattern of the diaphyseal fractures of the forearm in adults, to decide the modalities of surgical management, to observe the period of fracture healing clinically and radiologically, as well to study the rehabilitation of the patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study included 45 cases of diaphyseal fractures of both bones forearm in adults presenting to the orthopaedic outpatient department. For all the patients a detailed history was taken. A thorough clinical examination was carried out, required X-rays were taken, and initial treatment was given and admitted as in all patients. After careful pre-operative planning and evaluation for anaesthetic fitness, patients were operated for the fractures of both bone forearms. Twenty-three cases with 46 fractures were treated by open reduction and rigid fixation with DCP & Semi-tubular plates and 22 cases with 44 fractures were treated by closed reduction and fixation with “Talwarkar” intramedullary square nails. RESULTS: United results were found in 100% of plating group vs. 86% in the nailing group. Delayed and non-union results were found in 9% of the nailing group only. Average time to union in weeks was 9.4 weeks in the plating group vs. 10.2 weeks in the nailing group. CONCLUSION: Open reduction and internal fixation with compression plates with strict adherence to surgical technique is the gold standard method of treatment in both bones forearm fractures with excellent results than closed reduction, internal fixation with

  20. A comparative study of intramedullary interlocking nailing and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis in extra articular distal tibial fractures.

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    Daolagupu, Arup K; Mudgal, Ashwani; Agarwala, Vikash; Dutta, Kaushik K

    2017-01-01

    Extraarticular distal tibial fractures are among the most challenging fractures encountered by an orthopedician for treatment because of its subcutaneous location, poor blood supply and decreased muscular cover anteriorly, complications such as delayed union, nonunion, wound infection, and wound dehiscence are often seen as a great challenge to the surgeon. Minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO) and intramedullary interlocking nail (IMLN) are two well-accepted and effective methods, but each has been historically related to complications. This study compares clinical and radiological outcome in extraarticular distal tibia fractures treated by intramedullary interlocking nail (IMLN) and minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO). 42 patients included in this study, 21 underwent IMLN and 21 were treated with MIPO who met the inclusion criteria and operated between June 2014 and May 2015. Patients were followed up for clinical and radiological evaluation. In IMLN group, average union time was 18.26 weeks compared to 21.70 weeks in plating group which was significant ( P ankle stiffness, and infection, were seen in interlocking group as compared to plating group. Average functional outcome according to American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score was measured which came out to be 96.67. IMLN group was associated with lesser duration of surgery, earlier weight bearing and union rate, lesser incidence of infection and implant irritation which makes it a preferable choice for fixation of extra-articular distal tibial fractures. However, larger randomized controlled trials are required for confirming the results.

  1. A prospective, randomised trial comparing closed intramedullary nailing with percutaneous plating in the treatment of distal metaphyseal fractures of the tibia.

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    Guo, J J; Tang, N; Yang, H L; Tang, T S

    2010-07-01

    We compared the outcome of closed intramedullary nailing with minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis using a percutaneous locked compression plate in patients with a distal metaphyseal fracture in a prospective study. A total of 85 patients were randomised to operative stabilisation either by a closed intramedullary nail (44) or by minimally invasive osteosynthesis with a compression plate (41). Pre-operative variables included the patients' age and the side and pattern of the fracture. Peri-operative variables were the operating time and the radiation time. Postoperative variables were wound problems, the time to union of the fracture, the functional American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle surgery score and removal of hardware. We found no significant difference in the pre-operative variables or in the time to union in the two groups. However, the mean radiation time and operating time were significantly longer in the locked compression plate group (3.0 vs 2.12 minutes, p fractures had united. Patients who had intramedullary nailing had a higher mean pain score (40 = no pain, 0 = severe pain), [corrected] but better function, alignment and total American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle surgery scores, although the differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.234, p = 0.157, p = 0.897, p = 0.177 respectively). Three (6.8%) patients in the intramedullary nailing group and six (14.6%) in the locked compression plate group showed delayed wound healing, and 37 (84.1%) in the former group and 38 (92.7%) in the latter group expressed a wish to have the implant removed. We conclude that both closed intramedullary nailing and a percutaneous locked compression plate can be used safely to treat Orthopaedic Trauma Association type-43A distal metaphyseal fractures of the tibia. However, closed intramedullary nailing has the advantage of a shorter operating and radiation time and easier removal of the implant. We therefore prefer closed intramedullary nailing for patients with

  2. A biomechanical comparison of proximal femoral nails and locking proximal anatomic femoral plates in femoral fracture fixation A study on synthetic bones

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    Korhan Ozkan

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The proximal femoral intramedullary nail provides more stability and allows for earlier weight bearing than the locking plate when used for the treatment of unstable intertrochanteric fractures of the femur. Clinicians should be cautious for early weight bearing with locking plate for unstable intertrochanteric femur fractures.

  3. [Locked plating with minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis versus intramedullary nailing of distal extra-articular tibial fracture: a retrospective study].

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    Yao, Qi; Ni, Jie; Peng, Li-bin; Yu, Da-xin; Yuan, Xiao-ming

    2013-12-17

    To compare the efficacies of minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) and interlocking intramedullary nailing (IMN) in the treatment of extra-articular fractures of distal tibia. Retrospective reviews were conducted for 126 patients with extra-articular distal tibia fractures. Treatment was either MIPPO (n = 61) or IMN (n = 65). The outcomes were assessed by comparing operating duration, time to union, the last follow-up American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score and complication rate. The average follow-up period was 23.7 (12-53) months. In the minimally invasive plate osteosynthesis group, there were deep infections (n = 2), superficial infections (n = 5), delayed union (n = 2), malunion (n = 2) and knee joint pain (n = 10) were observed. In addition, the average operating duration (85.9 ± 18.9 min), average time to union (17.3 ± 3.8 weeks) and average AOFAS (83.2 ± 11.9) were analyzed. In the interlocking intramedullary nailing group, there were delayed union (n = 3), malunion (n = 12) and knee joint pain (n = 22). And the average operating duration (83.3 ± 15.7 min), average time to union (16.5 ± 3.1 weeks) and average AOFAS (84.9 ± 12.0) were analyzed. No statistical significance existed in operating duration, time to union and the last follow-up AOFAS between two groups (P > 0.05). However, the rates of malformation and knee joint pain were higher in the intramedullary nail group than those in the plate group. And the difference was statistically significant (P = 0.015, P = 0.025). Both MIPPO and IMN are effective for extra-articular fractures of distal tibia. However, the former has the advantage of lowers rate of malformation and knee joint pain. Therefore a surgeon should consider the degree of injury while managing extra-articular fracture of distal tibia.

  4. Median nail dystrophy involving the thumb nail

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    Rahulkrishna Kota

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Median canaliform dystrophy of Heller is a rare entity characterized by a midline or a paramedian ridge or split and canal formation in nail plate of one or both the thumb nails. It is an acquired condition resulting from a temporary defect in the matrix that interferes with nail formation. Habitual picking of the nail base may be responsible for some cases. Histopathology classically shows parakeratosis, accumulation of melanin within and between the nail bed keratinocytes. Treatment of median nail dystrophy includes injectable triamcinalone acetonide, topical 0.1% tacrolimus, and tazarotene 0.05%, which is many a times challenging for a dermatologist. Psychiatric opinion should be taken when associated with the depressive, obsessive-compulsive, or impulse-control disorder. We report a case of 19-year-old male diagnosed as median nail dystrophy.

  5. Close Intramedullary Interlocking Nailing Versus Locking Compression Plating In the Treatment of Closed Fracture Shaft of the Tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, I K; Datta, N K; Chowdhury, A Z; Das, K P; Tarik, M M; Faisal, M A

    2016-07-01

    Fracture of tibial shaft is the commonest site of long bone fractures due to its superficial location involving young or middle-age people. Proper management is an important issue regarding the future effective movements. In this study patients were grouped in closed Intra medullary interlocking nailing and locking compression plating. Post-operative follow up at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 3 months thereafter up to 6 months were done. Each of the patients was evaluated clinically and radiologically by tucker criteria of Tuker et al. Patients were assessed for pain on full weight bearing and kneeling, shortening and range of motion of knee and ankle joints. Radiological assessment for union of fracture, alignment of fracture and angulations and position of nail and screws and infection were observed during follow up. A total number of 32 patients were selected but only 27 patients were available for follow up for a period of 6 months. They were grouped into Group A, consisting of 15 patients who took the treatment in the form of closed intramedullary interlocking nailing and Group B, consisting of 12 patients those underwent ORIF with locking compression plating. In both of the groups Motor Vehicle Accident was the main mechanism of trauma. Fracture involving the middle 3rd of the tibia is common in both the groups. During post-operative follow up, four patients in Group A complained anterior knee pain, one patient in Group B had superficial infection, most of the patients had no restriction of movement in the ankle and knee joints and a single patient in Group B showed 1.5cm shortening of the lower limb. Period of hospital stay and fracture union time were less in Group A, which was statistically significant. Both groups showed excellent result with minimum complications. So this study permits to conclude that close IM interlocking nailing and open reduction and internal fixation by locking compression plating is equally effective for the management of close

  6. In-focus electron microscopy of frozen-hydrated biological samples with a Boersch phase plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, B.; Rhinow, D.; Walter, A.; Schroeder, R. [Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Max-von-Laue Str. 3, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Benner, G.; Majorovits, E.; Matijevic, M.; Niebel, H. [Carl Zeiss NTS GmbH, D-73447 Oberkochen (Germany); Mueller, H.; Haider, M. [CEOS GmbH, Englerstr. 26, 69126 Heidleberg (Germany); Lacher, M.; Schmitz, S.; Holik, P. [Caesar Research Center, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, D-53175 Bonn (Germany); Kuehlbrandt, W., E-mail: werner.kuehlbrandt@mpibp-frankfurt.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Max-von-Laue Str. 3, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    We report the implementation of an electrostatic Einzel lens (Boersch) phase plate in a prototype transmission electron microscope dedicated to aberration-corrected cryo-EM. The combination of phase plate, C{sub s} corrector and Diffraction Magnification Unit (DMU) as a new electron-optical element ensures minimal information loss due to obstruction by the phase plate and enables in-focus phase contrast imaging of large macromolecular assemblies. As no defocussing is necessary and the spherical aberration is corrected, maximal, non-oscillating phase contrast transfer can be achieved up to the information limit of the instrument. A microchip produced by a scalable micro-fabrication process has 10 phase plates, which are positioned in a conjugate, magnified diffraction plane generated by the DMU. Phase plates remained fully functional for weeks or months. The large distance between phase plate and the cryo sample permits the use of an effective anti-contaminator, resulting in ice contamination rates of <0.6 nm/h at the specimen. Maximal in-focus phase contrast was obtained by applying voltages between 80 and 700 mV to the phase plate electrode. The phase plate allows for in-focus imaging of biological objects with a signal-to-noise of 5-10 at a resolution of 2-3 nm, as demonstrated for frozen-hydrated virus particles and purple membrane at liquid-nitrogen temperature. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We implement an electrostatic Boersch phase plate into a dedicated prototypical TEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase contrast aberration-corrected electron microscope (PACEM) includes a diffraction magnification unit (DMU). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DMU minimizes obstruction of low spatial frequencies by the phase plate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In-focus phase contrast generation is demonstrated for frozen-hydrated biological specimens.

  7. Análise biomecânica comparativa entre os sistemas plate-nail e plate-rod em fraturas induzidas em fêmures de caninos: estudo ex-vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Mesquita, Luciane dos Reis

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar as propriedades mecânicas da associação da haste intramedular bloqueada e placa óssea (plate-nail) e da associação do pino intramedular e placa óssea (plate-rod), utilizadas em fraturas experimentalmente induzidas em fêmures de caninos. Vinte pares de fêmures de cães foram selecionados para receber os sistemas plate-nail e plate-rod. Em cada fêmur, uma ostectomia no terço médio da diáfise foi realizada e inserido o sistema selecionado. As construções foram...

  8. Yellow Nail Syndrome - a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paravina Mirjana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unknown etiology. It is clinically characterized by a triad of yellow nails, lymphedema at one or more sites, and chronic respiratory disease (bronchitis, bronchiectasis and rhinosinusitis. All nails may be affected, but some may be spared. The nail plates are yellowish green, thickened, occasionally with transverse ridging and onycholysis, with increased longitudinal and transversal over-curvature, with partial or complete separation of the nail plate from the nail bed, without lunula and cuticle and slow nail growth rate. The lymphedema is usually peripheral, affecting the lower limbs, or in the form of pleural effusion.

  9. Postoperative malrotation of humeral shaft fracture after plating compared with intramedullary nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Wang, Cheng; Wang, Manyi; Huang, Lei; Huang, Qiang

    2011-09-01

    We supposed difference of rotation alignment of postoperative humeral shaft fracutres between open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) and intramedullay nailing (IMN) could be identified and the difference might influence the involved shoulder. This study evaluated and compared the extent of malrotation and shoulder function after humeral shaft fractures treated operatively with IMN or ORIF. Fifty humeral shaft fractures were randomly allocated into 2 groups. Group I underwent antegrade IMN and group II underwent ORIF. Malrotation was measured postoperatively by computed tomography scan (CT). Fracture union and functional outcomes were recorded at 12 months. The final analysis comprised 45 patients. Group I had lower functional scores than group II (P shaft fracture. The study can provide baseline data for larger series and longer follow-up periods. Patients who underwent IMN had lower functional scores and a decreased range of motion postoperatively and also had a greater degree of malrotation than the ORIF group, which had none. The degree of malrotation correlated with a decreased range of motion and may possibly be a reason for degenerative arthritis at long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2011 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nail cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina A Madnani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The nail as an anatomic structure protects the terminal phalanx of the digit from injury. Historically, it has served as a tool for protection and for survival. As civilizations developed, it attained the additional function of adornment. Nail beautification is a big industry today, with various nail cosmetics available, ranging from nail hardeners, polishes, extensions, artificial/sculpted nails, and nail decorations. Adverse events may occur either during the nail-grooming procedure or as a reaction to the individual components of the nail cosmetics. This holds true for both the client and the nail technician. Typically, any of the procedures involves several steps and a series of products. Separate "nail-bars" have been set up dedicated to serve women and men interested in nail beautification. This article attempts to comprehensively inform and educate the dermatologist on the services offered, the products used, and the possible/potential adverse effects related to nail-grooming and nail cosmetics.

  11. Nail cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madnani, Nina A; Khan, Kaleem J

    2012-01-01

    The nail as an anatomic structure protects the terminal phalanx of the digit from injury. Historically, it has served as a tool for protection and for survival. As civilizations developed, it attained the additional function of adornment. Nail beautification is a big industry today, with various nail cosmetics available, ranging from nail hardeners, polishes, extensions, artificial/sculpted nails, and nail decorations. Adverse events may occur either during the nail-grooming procedure or as a reaction to the individual components of the nail cosmetics. This holds true for both the client and the nail technician. Typically, any of the procedures involves several steps and a series of products. Separate "nail-bars" have been set up dedicated to serve women and men interested in nail beautification. This article attempts to comprehensively inform and educate the dermatologist on the services offered, the products used, and the possible/potential adverse effects related to nail-grooming and nail cosmetics.

  12. Finite element analysis of intramedullary nailing and double locking plate for treating extra-articular proximal tibial fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fancheng; Huang, Xiaowei; Ya, Yingsun; Ma, Fenfen; Qian, Zhi; Shi, Jifei; Guo, Shuolei; Yu, Baoqing

    2018-01-16

    Proximal tibia fractures are one of the most familiar fractures. Surgical approaches are usually needed for anatomical reduction. However, no single treatment method has been widely established as the standard care. Our present study aims to compare the stress and stability of intramedullary nails (IMN) fixation and double locking plate (DLP) fixation in the treatment of extra-articular proximal tibial fractures. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the extra-articular proximal tibial fracture, whose 2-cm bone gap began 7 cm from the tibial plateau articular surface, was created fixed by different fixation implants. The axial compressive load on an adult knee during single-limb stance was imitated by an axial force of 2500 N with a distribution of 60% to the medial compartment, while the distal end was fixed effectively. The equivalent von Mises stress and displacement of the model was used as the output measures for analysis. The maximal equivalent von Mises stress value of the system in the IMN model was 293.23 MPa, which was higher comparing against that in the DLP fixation model (147.04 MPa). And the mean stress of the model in the IMN model (9.25 MPa) was higher than that of the DLP fixation system in terms of equivalent von Mises stress (EVMS) (P tibial fractures of young patients.

  13. Comparison of the antifungal efficacy of terbinafine hydrochloride and ciclopirox olamine containing formulations against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum in an infected nail plate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Täuber, Anja; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2014-07-07

    Onychomycosis is a fungal infection mostly induced by dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum. Due to slow nail growth, the treatment takes 3-9 months depending on the nail size and infected area. Hence, high efficacy of the active ingredient without systemic side effects is of major interest. To test the efficacy of an antifungal formulation, an appropriate in vitro model reflecting the in vivo situation as close as possible is required. In this study, a variety of antifungal formulations, i.e., commercial ones (Ciclopoli and Lamisil cream), those used in compounding pharmacies (Pentravan) as well as poloxamer 407-based systems, have been evaluated in an infected nail plate model. The active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) were ciclopirox olamine and terbinafine hydrochloride. The poloxamer 407-based formulations consisted of poloxamer 407, double distilled water, propylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, medium chain triglycerides and either 1% ciclopirox olamine or 1% terbinafine hydrochloride as API, respectively. Former studies have shown high permeation rates of terbinafine hydrochloride from similar poloxamer 407-based formulations with dimethyl isosorbide instead of propylene glycol. The present contribution shows superior inhibition of T. rubrum growth from poloxamer 407-based formulations in comparison to the commercial Lamisil cream. Moreover, poloxamer 407-based formulations were equally effective as the nail lacquer Ciclopoli even though the poloxamer formulations contained only 1% of the drug instead of 8% in the marketed lacquer. Poloxamer 407-based systems containing ciclopirox olamine proved to be about as effective as similar terbinafine hydrochloride systems.

  14. Yellow nail syndrome, pincer nails, colon cancer and polyps in a 76 year-old-woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitorino Modesto dos Santos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The yellow nail syndrome is a scarcely described condition characterized by dystrophic yellowish nails, respiratory disturbances and lymphedema; while the pincer nail deformity is characterized by thickening and excessive transverse curvature of the nail plate. The objective of this case study is to report a 76-year-old Japanese descent woman with yellow nail syndrome and pincer nails, intestinal polyps, and sigmoid colon adenocarcinoma. Both the yellow nail syndrome and pincer nails may develop in association with malignancies, either by chance or by some etiopathogenic mechanism not well-known.

  15. Nail involvement in psoriatic arthritis

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    Piotr Sobolewski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nail psoriasis is considered a significant psychological and social problem causing functional impairment in affected patients. Nail changes hamper their daily and occupational activities and contribute to a worse quality of life. Almost 50% of patients with psoriasis vulgaris and up to 80% of patients with psoriatic arthritis are afflicted with nail lesions. The important correlation between psoriatic arthritis and nail changes is well established – the presence of the latter is a strong predictor of the development of arthritis. There is a broad spectrum of nail dystrophies associated with psoriasis, ranging from the common pitting, subungual hyperkeratosis and loosening of the nail plate to less frequent discolouration and splinter haemorrhages. Some of these symptoms are also observed in other nail diseases, and further diagnostics should be performed. The assessment tools NAPSI (Nail Psoriasis Severity Index, mNAPSI (Modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index, and PNSS (Psoriasis Nail Severity Score are most commonly used to grade the severity of nail involvement in psoriasis and enable the evaluation of therapy effectiveness. The treatment of nail psoriasis is a major clinical challenge. It should be adjusted to the extent of dermal, articular and ungual lesions. Systemic therapies of psoriasis, especially biological agents, are most likely to be effective in treating nail psoriasis. However, as their use is limited in scope and safety, topical therapy remains a mainstay, and the combination of corticosteroids and vitamin D3 analogues is considered to be most helpful.

  16. COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN TITANIUM ELASTIC NAILING (TENS AND DYNAMIC COMPRESSION PLATING (DCP IN THE TREATMENT OF FEMORAL DIAPHYSEAL FRACTURES IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasubba Reddy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Orthopaedic surgeons have long maintained that all children who have sustained a diaphyseal fracture of femur recover with c onservative treatment, given the excellent remodeling ability of immature bone in children. Angulations, shortenings and malrotations are not always corrected by conservative treatment. Of many surgical options, titanium elastic nailing has been the newer implant which is being used regularly. Although good results have been reported with elastic intramedullary nails, plate fixation continues to be a viable alternative in surgical treatment of femoral shaft fractures. However there are not many studies comp aring the efficiency of titanium elastic nailing and plating for femoral diaphyseal fractures in pediatric age group. AIM : The present study aims to compare the surgical management of diaphyseal fractures of femur in children with Dynamic Compression Plati ng versus Titanium Elastic Nailing. DESIGN : This is a prospective study . MATERIALS AND METHODS : This prospective study was conducted in a tertiary hospital. Patients who presented to the out - patient department and casualty of the hospital with femoral diap hyseal fractures during April 2012 to June 2014 were considered for the study. Subjects fulfilling the predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. STATISTICAL METHODS : Fisher Exact test, Chi - Square Test, Student t test (Two t ailed, independent . RESULTS : Patients in the age group of 6 - 14 years were considered for the study, Patients were divided into two groups and treated with DCP/TENS. The duration of surgery, hospital stay, and, amount of blood loss was minimal in TENS grou p. Callus was seen early in TENS group. Radiological union was early in TENS group by 2 - 3 weeks. Outcome was better in patients treated with TENS (Excellent - 70%; Satisfactory – 30%; Poor - 0% in comparison to DCP (Excellent - 70%; Satisfactory - 25%; Poor - 5%. CO NCLUSION : TENS

  17. Intramedullary nail versus dynamic compression plate fixation in treating humeral shaft fractures: grading the evidence through a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JianXiong Ma

    Full Text Available There is a debate regarding the choice of operative intervention in humeral shaft fractures that require surgical intervention. The choices for operative interventions include intramedullary nailing (IMN and dynamic compression plate (DCP. This meta-analysis was performed to compare fracture union, functional outcomes, and complication rates in patients treated with IMN or DCP for humeral shaft fractures and to develop GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation-based recommendations for using the procedures to treat humeral shaft fractures. A systematic search of all the studies published through December 2012 was conducted using the Medline, Embase, Sciencedirect, OVID and Cochrane Central databases. The randomized controlled trials (RCTs and quasi-RCTs that compared IMN with DCP in treating adult patients with humeral shaft fractures and provided data regarding the safety and clinical effects were identified. The demographic characteristics, adverse events and clinical outcomes were manually extracted from all of the selected studies. Ten studies that included a total of 448 patients met the inclusion criteria. The results of a meta-analysis indicated that both IMN and DCP can achieve similar fracture union with a similar incidence of radial nerve injury and infection. IMN was associated with an increased risk of shoulder impingement, more restriction of shoulder movement, an increased risk of intraoperative fracture comminution, a higher incidence of implant failure, and an increased risk of re-operation. The overall GRADE system evidence quality was very low, which reduces our confidence in the recommendations of this system. DCP may be superior to IMN in the treatment of humeral shaft fractures. Because of the low quality evidence currently available, high-quality RCTs are required.

  18. A multidisciplinary approach to constrain incoming plate hydration in the Central American Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Y.; Guild, M. R.; Naif, S.; Eimer, M. O.; Evans, O.; Fornash, K.; Plank, T. A.; Shillington, D. J.; Vervelidou, F.; Warren, J. M.; Wiens, D.

    2017-12-01

    The oceanic crust and mantle of the incoming plate are potentially the greatest source of water to the subduction zone, but their extent of hydration is poorly constrained. Hydrothermal alteration of the oceanic crust is an important source of mineral-bound water that ultimately dehydrates during subduction. Bend faults at the trench-outer rise provide another viable mechanism to further hydrate the down-going plate. Here, we take a multidisciplinary approach to constrain the fluid budget of the subducting plate at the Northern Central American margin; this site was chosen since it has an unusually wet subducting slab at the Nicaragua segment. Abundant geophysical and geochemical datasets are available for this region and this work is an analysis of these data. Controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) and wide-angle seismic (WAS) observations show significant resistivity and velocity reductions in the incoming oceanic crust associated with bend faults, which suggests seawater infiltration and hydrous alteration. We used the CSEM porosity constraints to predict P-wave velocity and find that the WAS data require an additional reduction of up to 0.3 km/s in the lower crust at the trench, equivalent to 2 wt% H2O. We implemented the porosity structure together with constraints on fluid flow and reaction kinetics into two-phase flow numerical models to quantify the degree of serpentinization possible relative to WAS estimates. Thermodynamic modeling of basalt and peridotite bulk compositions were used to predict the alteration assemblages and associated water contents in the bend faulting region as well as the dehydration fluxes during subduction. In Nicaragua, the major fluid pulse at sub-arc depths results from chlorite and antigorite breakdown in the upper 10 km of the slab mantle, whereas in Costa Rica, the slab mantle is not predicted to dehydrate at sub-arc depths. In addition, comparisons between observed and predicted magnetic anomalies and geochemical variations

  19. Novel management of distal tibial and fibular fractures with Acumed fibular nail and minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis technique: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tie-Jun; Ju, Wei-Na; Qi, Bao-Chang

    2017-03-01

    Anatomical characteristics, such as subcutaneous position and minimal muscle cover, contribute to the complexity of fractures of the distal third of the tibia and fibula. Severe damage to soft tissue and instability ensure high risk of delayed bone union and wound complications such as nonunion, infection, and necrosis. This case report discusses management in a 54-year-old woman who sustained fractures of the distal third of the left tibia and fibula, with damage to overlying soft tissue (swelling and blisters). Plating is accepted as the first choice for this type of fracture as it ensures accurate reduction and rigid fixation, but it increases the risk of complications. Closed fracture of the distal third of the left tibia and fibula (AO: 43-A3). After the swelling was alleviated, the patient underwent closed reduction and fixation with an Acumed fibular nail and minimally invasive plating osteosynthesis (MIPO), ensuring a smaller incision and minimal soft-tissue dissection. At the 1-year follow-up, the patient had recovered well and had regained satisfactory function in the treated limb. The Kofoed score of the left ankle was 95. Based on the experience from this case, the operation can be undertaken safely when the swelling has been alleviated. The minimal invasive technique represents the best approach. Considering the merits and good outcome in this case, we recommend the Acumed fibular nail and MIPO technique for treatment of distal tibial and fibular fractures.

  20. Treatment of distal tibial fractures: plate versus nail: a retrospective outcome analysis of matched pairs of patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, K.W.; Biert, J.; Kampen, A. van

    2007-01-01

    A study of 24 patients who sustained an extra-articular fracture of the distal third of the tibial shaft was performed to determine the effect of the type of treatment, open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) or closed reduction and intramedullary (IM) nailing, on the occurrence of malalignment.

  1. Nail biopsy: A user's manual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander Grover

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nail biopsy is a procedure not routinely resorted to; but when indicated, it is often the only clue left for diagnosis. At such times, it pays to be conversant with it. It is an investigation that not only provides etiologic, diagnostic, and prognostic information but also aids in understanding the pathogenesis of nail diseases. It can be of therapeutic value, especially with respect to nail tumors. This article compiles the procedural techniques for nail biopsy of various types and attempts to summarize the evidence available in the literature. The objective of nail biopsy is to clinch a precise diagnosis of nail pathology with a simple and safe surgical procedure, avoiding pain or permanent nail damage. Patient selection is of utmost importance, wherein, the patient does not have typical skin lesions, yields inadequate information on routine nail investigations, and has no peripheral vascular compromise. The patient needs to be explained about the risks associated, the expected functional handicap, the time required for regrowth, a possibility of permanent nail dystrophy, and a possibility of not achieving a diagnosis even after the biopsy. Techniques and types of various nail biopsies are being discussed in this article. The specimen could be collected as an excision biopsy, punch biopsy, shave biopsy, or longitudinal biopsy. The trick lies in choosing the appropriate area for biopsy. Various biopsy types discussed in this article include nail plate biopsy (easiest and least scarring; nail bed biopsy (elliptical excision or punch; nail matrix biopsy (elliptical excision, punch excision (≤3 mm or tangential/shave excision; and nail fold biopsy. Complications reported along with means to minimize them are also discussed.

  2. [Onychomatricoma, a rare lesion of the nail].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommepuy, Isabelle; Roblet, Denis; Blaise, Sophie; Delage-Corre, Manuela; Bonnetblanc, Jean-Marie; Fayol, Jacqueline; Labrousse, François

    2004-09-01

    Onychomatricoma is a rare fibroepithelial lesion of the nail matrix with peculiar clinical and histological features. Clinically, it is characterized by a longitudinal band of yellow thickening of the nail plate with transverse overcurvature and splinter hemorrhages. Nail avulsion exposes a villous tumor of the matrix with filamentous digitations extending into multiple holes of the nail plate. Histologically, a thick keratogenous zone forms a thickened nail plate. The lesion in its proximal portion is characterized by deep epithelial invaginations and by a stroma organized in two layers. The distal zone corresponds to multiple fibroepithelial projections extending into the nail plate. The diagnosis can be difficult in the presence of misleading clinical features or when the specimen is incomplete or examined with an improper orientation. Surgical resection is the recommended treatment.

  3. Ipsilateral Femoral Fracture Non-Union and Delayed Union Treated By Hybrid Plate Nail Fixation and Vascularized Fibula Bone Grafting: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CK Chan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Non-union is a well recognized complication of femoral neck fractures. The decision whether to attempt fracture fixation or to resort to hip replacement is particularly difficult in patients in the borderline age group in whom complex attempts at gaining union may fail and later present a difficult revision. On the other hand the patient may be young enough that arthroplasty best be avoided . Besides, presence of ipsilateral femoral shaft fracture with delayed union in addition to the femoral neck non-union will pose major problems at operation. We share our experience in treating a femoral neck fracture non-union with ipsilateral femoral shaft delayed union in the shaft and in the distal femur in a fifty years old patient. The fracture was treated with an angle blade plate and supracondylar nail supplemented with a free vascularised fibular bone grafting and autologous cancellous graft. There was radiological union at fourth month. At sixth months, the patient was free of pain and able to walk without support. Thus, we would like to suggest that vascularised fibula bone grafting with supracondylar nailing is a viable option for this pattern of fracture.

  4. Constraining the hydration of the subducting Nazca plate beneath Northern Chile using subduction zone guided waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garth, Tom; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    Guided wave dispersion is observed from earthquakes at 180-280 km depth recorded at stations in the fore-arc of Northern Chile, where the 44 Ma Nazca plate subducts beneath South America. Characteristic P-wave dispersion is observed at several stations in the Chilean fore-arc with high frequency energy (>5 Hz) arriving up to 3 s after low frequency (accounted for if dipping low velocity fault zones are included within the subducting lithospheric mantle. A grid search over possible LVL and faults zone parameters (width, velocity contrast and separation distance) was carried out to constrain the best fitting model parameters. Our results imply that fault zone structures of 0.5-1.0 km thickness, and 5-10 km spacing, consistent with observations at the outer rise are present within the subducted slab at intermediate depths. We propose that these low velocity fault zone structures represent the hydrated structure within the lithospheric mantle. They may be formed initially by normal faults at the outer rise, which act as a pathway for fluids to penetrate the deeper slab due to the bending and unbending stresses within the subducting plate. Our observations suggest that the lithospheric mantle is 5-15% serpentinised, and therefore may transport approximately 13-42 Tg/Myr of water per meter of arc. The guided wave observations also suggest that a thin LVL (∼1 km thick) interpreted as un-eclogitised subducted oceanic crust persists to depths of at least 220 km. Comparison of the inferred seismic velocities with those predicted for various MORB assemblages suggest that this thin LVL may be accounted for by low velocity lawsonite-bearing assemblages, suggesting that some mineral-bound water within the oceanic crust may be transported well beyond the volcanic arc. While older subducting slabs may carry more water per metre of arc, approximately one third of the oceanic material subducted globally is of a similar age to the Nazca plate. This suggests that subducting oceanic

  5. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PROXIMAL FEMUR LOCKING COMPRESSION PLATE VERSUS PROXIMAL FEMORAL NAILING IN THE MANAGEMENT OF COMMINUTED TROCHANTERIC AND SUBTROCHANTERIC FRACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satish Koti

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Fractures of proximal femur and hip are relatively common injuries in elderly individuals constituting 11.6% of total fractures. The latest implant for management of intertrochanteric fracture is Proximal Femoral Locking Compression Plate (PF-LCP. In this study, we compare the clinical outcome of fractures treated by proximal femoral nail with that of proximal femur locking compression plate. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study consists of 24 elderly patients of peritrochanteric factures of femur satisfying the inclusion criteria who were treated with PF-LCP or PFN in Department of Orthopaedics, S.V.R.R.G.G.H, Tirupati, during a period between December 2013 to October 2015. RESULTS 24 cases were treated with PF-LCP or PFN in a randomised pattern who satisfied inclusion criteria. Intraoperative complication were found to be more with PF-LCP in contrast to PFN. Postoperative rehabilitation was easier with PFN though not statistically significant functional and anatomical outcomes were found to be better with PFN. CONCLUSION Both PFN and PF-LCP have good effectiveness in the treatment of intertrochanteric fractures with the lateral unsubstantial femoral wall in the elderly patients. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages. Further studies with large number of patients and long-term follow up is needed to determine the optimal implant for the internal fixation of comminuted pertrochanteric femoral fractures.

  6. Green Nail Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nail is detached from the nail bed, the waterproof seal formed by the skin on the nail ... should also be noted that wearing tight-fitting shoes for a prolonged time, especially while exercising, is ...

  7. Onychomycosis nailed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelavathi Muthupalaniappen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infection of the nail is a common condition that causes much concern because of its disfiguring appearance. Although specific treatment is available for this condition, treatment outcome is variable and persistent nail dystrophy post-treatment may cause distress to both the patient and the physician. This article describes the current available treatment options for onychomycosis, management approach and the expected treatment outcome to enhance primary care physicians’ confidence in managing this condition. Oral antifungal agents such as terbinafine and itraconazole are good treatment options for onychomycosis. Combination therapy using oral antifungal agents with topical lacquer preparations may provide added benefits. Evaluation of patient’s expectations, providing information on treatment outcome, clinical cure and recurrence rates are essential in the management of onychomycosis. This article is intended to guide primary care physicians to achieve realistic treatment goals and for a satisfactory experience in the overall management of this challenging condition.

  8. Update on nail cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Julie; Rich, Phoebe

    2012-01-01

    Nail cosmetics are used by millions of people worldwide who desire smooth, lustrous nails. The nail cosmetic industry continues to expand to meet increasing consumer demand. In 2011 alone, consumers spent $6.6 billion on nail salon services. Although nail cosmetics are relatively safe, poor application techniques can promote disease, deformity, and allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. The foundation for managing nail cosmetic problems is prevention through education. Familiarity with the procedures and materials used in the nail cosmetic industry is necessary in order to recommend safe nail care strategies. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Utility of gel nails in improving the appearance of cosmetically disfigured nails: Experience with 25 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Nanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gel nails are a commonly used cosmetic procedure, though their use by dermatologists has not been evaluated. These can be used to improve the appearance of cosmetically disfigured nails where other treatment options have failed; the condition is self-limiting or irreversible; or to camouflage the dystrophy until healing. Materials and Methods: A prospective, uncontrolled, open-label study on 25 participants presenting with cosmetically disfigured nails was undertaken. Mycologically negative, consenting patients with various nail plate surface abnormalities like trachyonychia (n =8; superficial pitting (n =6; onychorrhexis (n =4; superficial pitting with onychoschizia (n =3; Beau′s lines (n =3 and pterygium (n =1 were included. The patients received gel nail application using Ranara gel nail kit ® . Extra care was taken to avoid any damage to cuticle. Standard pre- and post-treatment photographs were taken to assess improvement. Patient satisfaction score (1-10; Global assessment score of improvement (no improvement to excellent improvement and any side effects reported were recorded. Results: The average age of treated patients was 30.44±11.39 years (range 18-60 years. A total of 69 nails were treated (average of 2.76 per patient. Post-procedure, the average patient satisfaction score was 9.08 ± 0.86 (range 7-10. The Global assessment showed excellent improvement (40% cases; good improvement (56% cases and mild improvement in the single case of pterygium treated. Conclusions: The use of Gel nails in patients with cosmetically disfiguring nail plate surface abnormalities (like trachyonychia, onychoschizia, pitting, etc. was found to produce good to excellent improvement in most of the cases. The patient satisfaction with the procedure was rated as high. This, coupled with absence of side effects, make gel nails a valuable tool in improving cosmesis and satisfaction among patients presenting with nail plate surface abnormalities

  10. An investigation into UV-curable gel formulations for topical nail medicines

    OpenAIRE

    Kerai, L. V.

    2016-01-01

    UV gels are nail cosmetics which are applied on the nail plate surface and polymerised by placing the nail under a UVA nail lamp. The polymeric film formed can reside on the nail plate for up to 3 weeks without developing any visible defects. Using such a formulation as a drug carrier for the treatment of nail diseases, e.g. fungal infections, could address current issues with topical formulations, such as the failure to maintain a drug depot at the desired site and the need for frequent appl...

  11. Interventions for nail psoriasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Anna Christa Q.; Bogaards, Nathalie A.; Hooft, Lotty; Velema, Marieke; Pasch, Marcel; Lebwohl, Mark; Spuls, Phyllis I.

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common skin disease that can also involve the nails. All parts of the nail and surrounding structures can become affected. The incidence of nail involvement increases with duration of psoriasis. Although it is difficult to treat psoriatic nails, the condition may respond to therapy.

  12. Interventions for nail psoriasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, A.C. de; Bogaards, N.A.; Hooft, L.; Velema, M.; Pasch, M.C.; Lebwohl, M.; Spuls, P.I.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a common skin disease that can also involve the nails. All parts of the nail and surrounding structures can become affected. The incidence of nail involvement increases with duration of psoriasis. Although it is difficult to treat psoriatic nails, the condition may respond

  13. Clinical features and nail clippings in 52 children with psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uber, Marjorie; Carvalho, Vânia O; Abagge, Kerstin T; Robl Imoto, Renata; Werner, Betina

    2018-03-01

    Nail clipping, the act of cutting the distal portion of a nail for microscopic analysis, can complement the diagnosis of skin diseases with nail involvement, such as psoriasis. This study aimed to describe histopathologic findings on 81 nails from 52 children and adolescents with skin psoriasis and to determine whether these changes correlated with the severity of skin and nail involvement. Children with psoriasis were enrolled in this cross-sectional study to obtain Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI) scores. The most altered nails were processed using periodic acid-Schiff with diastase staining. Fifty-two patients with a median age of 10.5 years were included. The median Nail Psoriasis Severity Index score of the 20 nails from these patients was 17 (range 3-80). The most common findings were pitting (94.2%), leukonychia (73.0%), and longitudinal ridges (63.5%). Eighty-one nail fragments were collected by clipping. Neutrophils were found in 6 samples (7.6%) and serous lakes in 15 (19%). Median nail plate thickness was 0.3 mm (range 0.1-0.63 mm). Patients whose nails had neutrophils had a higher median PASI score (6.1 vs 2.0, P = .03). Patients whose nails had serous lakes had higher median PASI (5.3 vs 1.9, P = .008) and NAPSI (median 45.0 vs 18.0, P = .006) scores. There seems to be a correlation between some microscopic nail features in children with psoriasis and their PASI and NAPSI scores, so nail clippings from children with suspected psoriasis may help with diagnosis, especially in the presence of neutrophils, and in excluding onychomycosis. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Results of Closed Intramedullary Nailing using Talwarkar Square Nail in Adult Forearm Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadeem A Lil

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate results of closed intramedullary nailing using Talwarkar square nails in adult forearm fractures. We prospectively evaluated 34 patients with both bone forearm fractures. The average time to union was 12.8 (SD +3.2 weeks with cast support for a mean of 8.2 weeks. Union was achieved in 31 out of 34 patients. Using the Grace and Eversmann rating system, 17 patients were excellent, 10 were good, and 4 had an acceptable result. Three patients had non-unions, 2 for the radius and one for the ulna. There were two cases of superficial infection, one subject had olecranon bursitis, and one case of radio-ulnar synostosis. Complication rates associated with the use of square nails were lower compared to plate osteosynthesis and locked intramedullary nails. To control rotation post- operatively, there is a need for application of an above-elbow cast after nailing.

  15. Heat profiles of laser-irradiated nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasch, Uwe; Nenoff, Pietro; Seitz, Anna-Theresa; Wagner, Justinus A; Kendler, Michael; Simon, Jan C; Grunewald, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Onychomycosis is a worldwide problem with no tendency for self-healing, and existing systemic treatments achieve disease-free nails in only 35 to 76% of cases. Recently, treatment of nail fungus with a near-infrared laser has been introduced. It is assumed that fungal eradication is mediated by local heat. To investigate if laser treatment has the potential to eradicate fungal hyphae and arthrospores, laser heat application and propagation needs to be studied in detail. This study aimed to measure nail temperatures using real-time videothermography during laser irradiation. Treatment was performed using 808- and 980-nm linear scanning diode lasers developed for hair removal, enabling contact-free homogeneous irradiation of a human nail plate in one pass. Average and peak temperatures increased pass by pass, while the laser beam moved along the nail plates. The achieved mean peak temperatures (808 nm: 74.1 to 112.4°C, 980 nm: 45.8 to 53.5°C), as well as the elevation of average temperatures (808 nm: 29.5 to 38.2°C, 980 nm: 27.1 to 32.6°C) were associated with pain that was equivalent to that of hair removal procedures and was not significantly different for various wavelengths. The linear scanning laser devices provide the benefits of contact-free homogeneous heating of the human nail while ensuring adequate temperature rises.

  16. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Artificial nails Healthy nails Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine Anti-aging skin care Kids’ zone Video library Find a ...

  17. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care ... hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Artificial nails Healthy nails ...

  18. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... hair loss Injured skin Nail care Artificial nails Healthy nails Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine Anti-aging skin care Kids’ zone Video library Find a ...

  19. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Injured skin Nail care Artificial nails Healthy nails Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes ... c Explore the Academy Member resources Practice Tools Education Meetings & events Advocacy Public & patients Academy resources for: ...

  20. A novel surgical method for total nail ablation: Use of triple flap technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berna Aksoy

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Total nail ablation for the treatment of onychodystrophies can be performed by using chemicals, surgical resection or laser ablation of nail matrix. A female patient with bilateral severe onychodystrophy as a result of inadvertent previous nail surgeries was treated surgically. Proximal complete nail matrix resection and distal 10 mm wide transverse strip partial nail bed resection were performed. A 5 mm wide transverse strip of nail bed was left intact proximally. Proximal nail matrix defect was closed by using the skin of proximal nail fold. The distal nail bed defect was reconstructed by using triple flap technique which was composed of a main central advancement flap containing ventral toe skin and two side flaps containing nail fold skin. The patient healed without any problem and her nail problem was treated successfully. The cosmetic appearance of her first toes was acceptable. Surgical nail ablation followed by volar skin coverage of dorsal surface of the distal phalanx bone by using triple flap technique is an effective surgical treatment method for the correction of advanced nail plate deformities requiring total nail ablation. 

  1. Enhanced Ungual Permeation of Terbinafine HCl Delivered Through Liposome-Loaded Nail Lacquer Formulation Optimized by QbD Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Viral H; Jobanputra, Amee

    2018-01-01

    The present investigation focused on developing, optimizing, and evaluating a novel liposome-loaded nail lacquer formulation for increasing the transungual permeation flux of terbinafine HCl for efficient treatment of onychomycosis. A three-factor, three-level, Box-Behnken design was employed for optimizing process and formulation parameters of liposomal formulation. Liposomes were formulated by thin film hydration technique followed by sonication. Drug to lipid ratio, sonication amplitude, and sonication time were screened as independent variables while particle size, PDI, entrapment efficiency, and zeta potential were selected as quality attributes for liposomal formulation. Multiple regression analysis was employed to construct a second-order quadratic polynomial equation and contour plots. Design space (overlay plot) was generated to optimize a liposomal system, with software-suggested levels of independent variables that could be transformed to desired responses. The optimized liposome formulation was characterized and dispersed in nail lacquer which was further evaluated for different parameters. Results depicted that the optimized terbinafine HCl-loaded liposome formulation exhibited particle size of 182 nm, PDI of 0.175, zeta potential of -26.8 mV, and entrapment efficiency of 80%. Transungual permeability flux of terbinafine HCl through liposome-dispersed nail lacquer formulation was observed to be significantly higher in comparison to nail lacquer with a permeation enhancer. The developed formulation was also observed to be as efficient as pure drug dispersion in its antifungal activity. Thus, it was concluded that the developed formulation can serve as an efficient tool for enhancing the permeability of terbinafine HCl across human nail plate thereby improving its therapeutic efficiency.

  2. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... biting your nails Nail biting typically begins in childhood and can continue through adulthood, and the side ... set of nails, such as your thumb nails, first. When that’s successful, eliminate your pinky nails, pointer ...

  3. Rotationally Stable Screw-Anchor With Locked Trochanteric Stabilizing Plate Versus Proximal Femoral Nail Antirotation in the Treatment of AO/OTA 31A2.2 Fracture: A Biomechanical Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobe, Matthias; Nagel, Philipp; Maier, Klaus-Jürgen; Gradl, Gertraud; Buecking, Benjamin; Sönmez, Tolga T; Modabber, Ali; Prescher, Andreas; Pape, Hans-Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Third-generation cephalomedullary nails currently represent the gold standard in the treatment of unstable trochanteric femur fractures. Recently, an extramedullary rotationally stable screw-anchor system (RoSA) has been developed. It was designed to combine the benefits of screw and blade and to improve stability using a locked trochanteric stabilizing plate (TSP). The purpose of this study was to compare the biomechanical behavior of RoSA/TSP and the proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA). Standardized AO/OTA 31A2.2 fractures were induced by an oscillating saw in 10 paired human specimens (n = 20; mean age = 85 years; range: 71-96 years). The fractures were stabilized by either the RoSA/TSP (Koenigsee Implants, Allendorf, Germany) or the PFNA (DePuy Synthes, Zuchwil, Switzerland). Femurs were positioned in 25 degrees of adduction and 10 degrees of posterior flexion and were cyclically loaded with axial sinusoidal pattern at 0.5 Hz, starting at 300 N, with stepwise increase by 300 N every 500 cycles until bone-implant failure occurred. After every load step, the samples were measured visually and radiographically. Femoral head migration was assessed. The stiffness at the load up to the clinically relevant load step of 1800 N (639 ± 378 N/mm (RoSA/TSP) vs. 673 ± 227 N/mm (PFNA); P = 0.542) was comparable, as was the failure load (3000 ± 787 N vs. 3780 ± 874 N; P = 0.059). Up to 1800 N, no femoral head rotation, head migration, or femoral neck shortening were observed either for RoSA/TSP or PFNA. Whereas failure of the PFNA subsumed fractures of the greater trochanter and the lateral wall, a posterior femoral neck fracture with a significantly increased femoral neck shortening (1.7 mm vs. 0 mm; P = 0.012) was the cause of failure with RoSA/TSP. This specific kind of failure was induced by a femoral neck weakening caused by the posterior TSP stabilizing screw. There was no significant difference in biomechanical properties between the RoSA/TSP and the PFNA for

  4. Advanced nail surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eckart Haneke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Six techniques not yet widely known or used in the dermatologic surgery of the nails are briefly described. Small-to-medium-sized tumours of the proximal nail fold (PNF can be excised and the defect repaired with advancement or rotation flaps. A superficial biopsy technique of the matrix for the diagnosis of longitudinal brown streaks in the nail, which allows rapid histological diagnosis of the melanocyte focus to be performed, is described here. Because the excision is very shallow and leaves the morphogenetic connective tissue of the matrix intact, the defect heals without scarring. Laterally positioned nail tumours can be excised in the manner of a wide lateral longitudinal nail biopsy. The defect repair is performed with a bipedicled flap from the lateral aspect of the distal phalanx. Malignant tumours of the nail organ often require its complete ablation. These defects can be covered by a full-thickness skin graft, reversed dermal graft, or cross-finger flap. The surgical correction of a split nail is often difficult. The cicatricial tissue of the matrix and PNF have to be excised and the re-attachment of these wounds prevented. The matrix defect has to be excised and sutured or covered with a free matrix graft taken either from the neighbouring area or from the big toe nail.

  5. Nail changes after carbamazepine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chopra Adarsh

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiepileptics are known to produce different types of side effects including nail changes. A 20-year-old epileptic man had yellowish discolouration followed by dystrophy and onycholysis of his 15 nails after taking carbamazepine for 3 months which cleared within six months after discontinuation of the drug. This type of change has not been reported earlier with carbamazepine

  6. Skin, Hair, and Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Skin, Hair, and Nails KidsHealth / For Parents / Skin, Hair, and ... piel, el cabello y las uñas About Skin, Hair and Nails Skin is our largest organ. If ...

  7. Yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixit Ramakant

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of yellow nail syndrome is described in a forty year old male patient who presented with classical triad of this syndrome i.e. deformed yellow nails, lymph-edema and chronic recurrent pleural effusion. The practical problems in the di-agnosis are also briefly discussed with emphasis on awareness of this rare clinical entity.

  8. Nail psoriasis masqueraded by secondary infection with Rhodotorula mucilaginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, K; Müller, H; Huemer, H P; Höpfl, R

    2013-11-01

    A 38-year-old man presented with whitish nail changes on all fingers as the sole symptom. The condition had developed within a few days and led to dystrophy of the proximal part of the nail plates. As microscopic examination of nail scrapings demonstrated budding hyphae and the patient working as a teacher reported frequent use of a wet sponge, antifungal therapy was initiated. Subsequent cultures and molecular typing identified Rhodotorula mucilaginosa (formerly R. rubra). This environmental yeast was repeatedly isolated despite of therapy with itraconazole. As no improvement was achieved and testing of the biological activity of the fungus revealed only marginal keratolytic activity, it was considered as a coloniser of a destructed nail matrix. Finally, a biopsy of the nail bed confirmed the diagnosis of nail psoriasis, which rapidly responded to treatment with acitretin and topical calcipotriol/betamethasone cream. Fungal growth in destructed nails masqueraded the underlying disease and may have triggered the psoriatic nail reaction. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. Nail Problems (Toenails)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may include prescribing topical or oral medication, and debridement (removal of diseased nail matter and debris) of ... treated by your podiatrist, who susceptible to all types of infection, can diagnose the ailment, and then ...

  10. Skin or nail culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucosal culture; Culture - skin; Culture - mucosal; Nail culture; Culture - fingernail; Fingernail culture ... There, it is placed in a special dish (culture). It is then watched to see if bacteria, ...

  11. Focused Fluid Flow along Convergent Plate Boundaries - Deriving Flow Rates along Faults from Local Upwarping of the Base of the Gas Hydrate Stability Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunath, P.; Chi, W. C.; Liu, C. S.

    2017-12-01

    Convergent plate boundaries provide the ideal opportunity to examine the interactions of deformation, fluid flow and gas hydrate stability. However, there are still processes and parameters that remain unclear or scarce. This may be in part due to the fact that in situ determination of fluid flow rate is very difficult. Here, we present a newly developed 2-D hydrothermal model for (1) simulating the steady state, thermal effect of forced heat advection along a thin and shallow dipping fault and (2) quantifying fluid velocities required to deliver a thermal anomalies manifested at the bottom-simulating reflector (BSR) at its intersection with the fault zone. Assuming the horizontal thermal conduction is negligible, we derive our model using only a few crucial parameters: (a) the thermal conductivity structure between seafloor and fault; (b) the temperature at BSR depth and the seafloor; (c) fluid flow rate; (d) geometry of the fault conduit, including depth and thickness. Temperature disturbance is then described as a function of Peclet number and of the dip of the fault. Application of our model to Site 892 at Cascadia accretionary wedge (ODP Leg 146), where borehole data provide excellent thermal constraints on the hydrology, shows consistent results. By comparing the temperatures derived at the BSRs with the temperature field of our model, the results demonstrate that the temperature discrepancy is about 0 - 0.5 oC. We propose that this simple approach can provide, on the basis of a few parameters, rough estimate of the disturbance of the temperature caused by advecting fluid. Localized lateral BSR-based heat flow variations have been observed near thrust faults along many convergent plate boundaries around the world and are associated with strong localized fluid flow. We wish to further testing this approach using other seismic datasets to estimate first order of magnitude fluid migration patterns in other convergent boundaries.

  12. Diagnostic applications of nail clippings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, Sasha; Tosti, Antonella; Rubin, Adam I

    2015-04-01

    "Nail clipping is a simple technique for diagnosis of several nail unit dermatoses. This article summarizes the practical approach, utility, and histologic findings of a nail clipping in evaluation of onychomycosis, nail unit psoriasis, onychomatricoma, subungual hematoma, melanonychia, and nail cosmetics, and the forensic applications of this easily obtained specimen. It reviews important considerations in optimizing specimen collection, processing methods, and efficacy of special stains in several clinical contexts. Readers will develop a greater understanding and ease of application of this indispensable procedure in assessing nail unit dermatoses." Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. HEMATOMA OF THE PROXIMAL NAIL FOLD. REPORT OF 41 CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Patricia

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The proximal fold is an important part of the nail apparatus it contributes to the formation of the nail plate and through the cuticle acts as an impermeable barrier protecting it from any cause.Objective: To know the proximal nail fold hematoma caused by the use of pulse oximeter.Material and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in 41 patients with proximal nail hematoma secondary to the use of oximetry in patients hospitalized in the Intermediate and Intensive Care Unit at the Hospital General de Enfermedades from December 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010.Results: We studied 41 patients with proximal nail fold hematoma secondary to the use of oximeter, 30 (73.1% were males and 11 (26.8% females. The numbers of fingers affected by pulse oximeter were in one digit. 30 (73.1% cases, in two digits 6 (14.6%, in three digits 3 (7.3%, in 4 digits 1 (2.4% and in 5 digits 1 (2.4% case. The most affected proximal nail fold was right index: 24 (58.5%, right middle 11 (26.8%, right ring 6 (14.6%, left index 12 (29.2%, and left middle 6 (14.6% cases.Conclusions: Hematomas of the proximal nail fold may be caused by different traumatisms. The use of pulse oximeter is one of them.

  14. Changes in nail keratin observed by Raman spectroscopy after Nd:YAG laser treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min Kyung; Kim, Tae In; Kim, Wan Sun; Park, Hun-Kuk; Kim, Kyung Sook

    2017-04-01

    Lasers and photodynamic therapy have been considered a convergence treatment for onychomycosis, which is a fungal infection on the nail bed and nail plate. Laser therapies have shown satisfactory results without significant complications for onychomycosis; however, the mechanism of clearing remains unknown. In this work, we investigated changes in the chemical structure of nail keratin induced by Nd:YAG laser using Raman spectroscopy. Toe nails with onychomycosis were treated with 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser. After laser treatment, the disulfide band (490-590 cm -1 ) of nail keratin was rarely observed or was reduced in intensity. The amide I band (1500-1700 cm -1 ) also showed changes induced by the laser. The α-helical (1652 cm -1 ) structures dominated the β-sheet (1673 cm -1 ) in nontreated nail, but the opposite phenomenon was observed after laser treatment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Randomized controlled trial of a water-soluble nail lacquer based on hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH, in the management of nail psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantoresi F

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Franca Cantoresi,1 Maurizio Caserini,2 Antonella Bidoli,1 Francesca Maggio,1 Raffaella Marino,1 Claudia Carnevale,1 Paola Sorgi,1 Renata Palmieri21Department of Dermatology, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy; 2Scientific Department, Polichem SA, Lugano, Switzerland Background: Nail psoriasis occurs in up to 50% of patients affected by psoriasis, with a significant impact on quality of life that leads to a real clinical need for new therapeutic options. Aim: To confirm whether the strengthening and hardening properties of the hydroxypropyl-chitosan (HPCH nail lacquer could improve the structure of the nail plates on psoriatic nails. Materials and methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel-group trial was carried out to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a hydrosoluble nail lacquer containing HPCH, Equisetum arvense, and methylsulfonylmethane on nail psoriasis. The test product or a placebo was applied once daily for 24 weeks to all fingernails. Efficacy assessments were performed on the target fingernail by means of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index score. A cut-off score of 4 was considered to define the clinical cure rate (ie, Cure ≤4, Failure >4. Results: After 24 weeks, the clinical cure rate showed the statistically significant superiority of the HPCH nail lacquer compared to placebo in both the intention-to-treat (Fisher's exact test, P=0.0445 and the per protocol population (Fisher's exact test, P=0.0437. This superiority was already present after 16 weeks of treatment. Moreover, the analysis of the modified Nail Psoriasis Severity Index-50 showed a statistically significant clinical improvement after 12 weeks of treatment in comparison to the results obtained after 8 weeks (Fisher's exact test, P<0.05. Conclusion: The trial showed that HPCH nail lacquer could be a new, valid, effective, and safe option for decreasing the signs of nail dystrophy in psoriatic patients. Keywords: nail psoriasis

  16. Trauma to the nail complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Braga Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyze the results from surgical intervention to treat trauma of the nail complex.METHODS: we retrospectively reviewed a series of 94 consecutive patients with trauma of the nail complex who were treated between 2000 and 2009. In 42 patients, nail bed suturing was performed. In 27 patients, nail bed suturing was performed subsequent to osteosynthesis of the distal phalanx. In 15, immediate grafting was performed, and in 10, late-stage grafting of the nail bed. The growth, size and shape of the nail were evaluated in comparison with the contralateral finger. The results were obtained by summing scores and classifying them as good, fair or poor.RESULTS: the results were considered to be good particularly in the patients who underwent nail bed suturing or nail bed suturing with osteosynthesis of the distal phalanx. Patients who underwent immediate or late-stage nail grafting had poor results.CONCLUSION: trauma of the nail complex without loss of substance presented better results than did deferred treatment for reconstruction of the nail complex.

  17. Nail Bed Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Nail Bed Injuries Email to a friend * required ...

  18. Titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ataya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disease of unclear etiology. We describe a patient who develops yellow nail syndrome, with primary nail and sinus manifestations, shortly after amalgam dental implants. A study of the patient's nail shedding showed elevated nail titanium levels. The patient had her dental implants removed and had complete resolution of her sinus symptoms with no change in her nail findings. Since the patient's nail findings did not resolve we do not believe titanium exposure is a cause of her yellow nail syndrome but perhaps a possible relationship exists between titanium exposure and yellow nail syndrome that requires further studies.

  19. Ender’s Nail fixation in paediatric femoral shaft fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Dwivedi

    2013-12-01

    Flynn criteria 34 had excellent and 6 had satisfactory results. No poor results were seen. Conclusion: Ender’s nail fixation can be preferred method of treatment for femoral shaft fractures in age group 5 -15 years as the results are excellent and satisfactory. It is technically simple and can be done in a closed manner. It spares the vascularity and growth plate.

  20. Surgical anatomy of the nail apparatus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneke, E.

    2006-01-01

    Nail surgery is an integral part of dermatologic surgery. An in-depth knowledge of the anatomy, biology, physiology, and gross pathology of the entire nail unit is essential. In particular, knowledge of nail histopathology is necessary to perform diagnostic nail biopsies and other nail procedures

  1. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nails, or even an entire hand. The goal is to get to the point where you no longer bite any of your nails. For some people, nail biting may be a sign of a more serious psychological ...

  2. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Part 1: Structure Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook Study notes Image library 3-D animated ... hair, and nail care Nail care Nail biting "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site= ...

  3. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule Managing a practice Prior authorization assistance Evaluating practice models ... Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine Anti-aging skin care ...

  4. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library ... biting. Replace the nail-biting habit with a good habit: When you feel like biting your nails, ...

  5. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... this safe, but awful-tasting formula discourages many people from biting their nails. Get regular manicures: Spending ... longer bite any of your nails. For some people, nail biting may be a sign of a ...

  6. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care Kids’ zone About skin: Your ... Nail biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine Anti-aging skin care Kids’ zone Video library Find ...

  7. Comparision of the Expandable Nail with Locked Nail in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... [5-7] The axial and rotational stability of locked nails depends .... weight bearing was defined as no or minimal pain .... of the nail is changed to load bearing. In delayed .... fractures. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1988;70:206-10. 4.

  8. Permeation studies of novel terbinafine formulations containing hydrophobins through human nails in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vejnovic, Ivana; Huonder, Cornelia; Betz, Gabriele

    2010-09-15

    Existing treatments of onychomycosis are not satisfactory. Oral therapies have many side effects and topical formulations are not able to penetrate into the human nail plate and deliver therapeutical concentrations of active agent in situ. The purpose of the present study was to determine the amount of terbinafine, which permeates through the human nail plate, from liquid formulations containing enhancers, namely hydrophobins A-C in the concentration of 0.1% (w/v). The used reference solution contained 10% (w/v) of terbinafine in 60% (v/v) ethanol/water without enhancer. Permeability studies have been performed on cadaver nails using Franz diffusion cells modified to mount nail plates and filled with 60% (v/v) ethanol/water in the acceptor chamber. Terbinafine was quantitatively determined by HPLC. The amount of terbinafine remaining in the nail was extracted by 96% ethanol from pulverized nail material after permeation experiment and presented as percentage of the dry nail weight before the milling test. Permeability coefficient (PC) of terbinafine from reference solution was determined to be 1.52E-10 cm/s. Addition of hydrophobins improved PC in the range of 3E-10 to 2E-9 cm/s. Remaining terbinafine reservoir in the nail from reference solution was 0.83% (n=2). An increase of remaining terbinafine reservoir in the nail was observed in two out of three tested formulations containing hydrophobins compared to the reference. In all cases, known minimum inhibitory concentration of terbinafine for dermatophytes (0.003 microg/ml) has been exceeded in the acceptor chamber of the diffusion cells. All tested proteins (hydrophobins) facilitated terbinafine permeation after 10 days of permeation experiment, however one of them achieved an outstanding enhancement factor of 13.05 compared to the reference. Therefore, hydrophobins can be included in the list of potential enhancers for treatment of onychomycosis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Humeral Shaft Fracture: Intramedullary Nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konda, Sanjit R; Saleh, Hesham; Fisher, Nina; Egol, Kenneth A

    2017-08-01

    This video demonstrates the technique of intramedullary nailing for a humeral shaft fracture. The patient is a 30-year-old man who sustained a gunshot wound to his right arm. The patient was indicated for humeral nailing given the comminuted nature of the diaphysis and to allow for minimal skin incisions. Other relative indications include soft-tissue compromise about the arm precluding a large surgical exposure. This video presents a case of a comminuted humeral shaft fracture treated with an intramedullary nail. Anatomic reduction and stable fixation was obtained with this technique. This case demonstrates a soft-tissue sparing technique of humeral shaft fixation using a humeral intramedullary nail. The technique is easy to perform and has significant benefits in minimizing surgical exposure, decreasing operative time, and decreasing blood loss. In the correct clinical setting, humeral nailing provides an expeditious form of fixation that restores length, alignment, and rotation of the fracture humeral diaphysis.

  10. New Polyurethane Nail Lacquers for the Delivery of Terbinafine: Formulation and Antifungal Activity Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorí Valdes, Barbara S; Serro, Ana Paula; Gordo, Paulo M; Silva, Alexandra; Gonçalves, Lídia; Salgado, Ana; Marto, Joana; Baltazar, Diogo; Dos Santos, Rui Galhano; Bordado, João Moura; Ribeiro, Helena Margarida

    2017-06-01

    Onychomycosis is a fungal nail infection. The development of new topical antifungal agents for the treatment of onychomycosis has focused on formulation enhancements that optimize the pharmacological characteristics required for its effective treatment. Polyurethanes (PUs) have never been used in therapeutic nail lacquers. The aim of this work has been the development of new PU-based nail lacquers with antifungal activity containing 1.0% (wt/wt) of terbinafine hydrochloride. The biocompatibility, wettability, and the prediction of the free volume in the polymeric matrix were assessed using a human keratinocytes cell line, contact angle, and Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy determinations, respectively. The morphology of the films obtained was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, while the nail lacquers' bioadhesion to nails was determined by mechanical tests. Viscosity, in vitro release profiles, and antifungal activity were also assessed. This study demonstrated that PU-terbinafine-based nail lacquers have good keratinocyte compatibility, good wettability properties, and adequate free volume. They formed a homogenous film after application, with suitable adhesion to the nail plate. Furthermore, the antifungal test results demonstrated that the terbinafine released from the nail lacquer Formulation A PU 19 showed activity against dermatophytes, namely Trichophyton rubrum. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Onychopharmacokinetics of terbinafine hydrochloride penetration from a novel topical formulation into the human nail in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Xiaoying; Lindahl, Åke; Lamel, Sonia; Maibach, Howard I

    2013-09-01

    This study determined the onychopharmacokinetics, nail absorption, distribution, and penetration of [¹⁴C]-terbinafine HCl in a new topical formulation into/through the human finger nail using the in vitro finite dose model. This study determined the penetration rate of terbinafine HCl from multiple doses of topical formulation applied daily for 14 days. Results showed that the total dose recovery (mass balance) was almost 100%. The concentration of terbinafine HCl in the deeper nail plate (ventral/intermediate layers) and the cotton-pad nail bed samples after the 14-day treatment were 613 ± 145 and (±S.D.) and 27 ± 1.2 µg/cm³ (or 1.9 ± 0.6 µg/cm³ daily) on average, respectively. In comparison with nail concentration data from the literature for other topical terbinatine formulations, our results show that higher amounts of terbinafine HCl reached the deep nail plate and/or the nail bed after a 14-day topical treatment with this topical formulation in vitro.

  12. Gas hydrates

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.

    , not all of them are white like snow. Some hydrates from the deep Gulf of Mexico are richly colored in shades of yellow, orange, or even red. The ice-like masses are beautiful, and contrast with the dull gray of deep sea muds. Hydrates from the Blake... volcanoes and associated gas hydrates: Marine Geology, v. 167, p. 29-42. Milkov, A.V. and R. Sassen, 2001a, Estimate of gas hydrate resource, northwestern Gulf of Mexico continental slope: Marine Geology, v. 179, pp. 71-83. Milkov, A.V., Sassen, R...

  13. Application of cosmetic nail varnish does not affect the antifungal efficacy of amorolfine 5% nail lacquer in the treatment of distal subungual toenail onychomycosis: results of a randomised active-controlled study and in vitro assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurgeirsson, B; Ghannoum, M A; Osman-Ponchet, H; Kerrouche, N; Sidou, F

    2016-05-01

    As onychomycosis is unsightly, this study clinically evaluated whether the antifungal efficacy of amorolfine 5% nail lacquer (NL) was affected by a masking, natural-coloured, cosmetic nail varnish applied 24 h later; in vitro investigations were also performed. Subjects with mild-to-moderate distal subungual toenail onychomycosis were randomised to receive amorolfine 5% NL once weekly with or without cosmetic nail varnish applied 24 h later. After 12-week treatment, antifungal activity of affected toenail clippings was assessed by measurement of zones of inhibition (ZOIs) on Trichophyton mentagrophytes seeded agar plates. Mean diameters were 53.5 mm for the amorolfine 5% NL-alone group (n = 23) and 53.6 mm for amorolfine 5% NL plus cosmetic nail varnish group (n = 25). Also, mycological cultures of subungual debris at week 12 were negative for all subjects in both groups. Most subjects (88%) reported that cosmetic nail varnish masked their infected toenails. Additionally, cadaver human nails coated in vitro with or without cosmetic nail varnish 10 min or 24 h post amorolfine NL application all gave ZOIs on Trichophyton rubrum agar plates representing potent antifungal activity. In conclusion, cosmetic nail varnish applied post amorolfine had no effect on the subungual antifungal activity of amorolfine 5% NL or its penetration through toenails. © 2016 The Authors Mycoses published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Ultrasonography of the nail unit reveals quantitative and qualitative alterations in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idolazzi, Luca; Gisondi, Paolo; Fassio, Angelo; Viapiana, Ombretta; Giollo, Alessandro; Rossini, Maurizio; Girolomoni, Giampiero; Gatti, Davide

    2018-05-02

    The nail unit is a matter of interest both for dermatologist and rheumatologist. The nail is considered one of the possible targets of assessment, especially when ultrasonography is performed. The aim of the study is to highlight peculiar features and alterations of the nail unit in patients affected by psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis versus healthy controls using ultrasonography. The study sample included 82 patients affected by psoriasis and/or psoriatic arthritis and 50 healthy controls. The patients were consecutively enrolled during their routine visit in the outpatient clinic and they performed clinical and ultrasonographic evaluation of the nail. The evaluationof disease activity was done using Disease Activity in Psoriatic Arthritis (DAPSA), Psoriasis Activity Severity Index (PASI), and Nail Psoriasi Severity Index (NAPSI). Multivariate analysis of variance was performed between groups. Post hoc analysis underlined the differences between healthy and affected regarding nail plate thickness (0.063±0.011 cm for patients with psoriasis, 0.065±0.014 cm for patients with psoriatic arthritis and 0.051±0.006 cm for healthy controls, p<0.05). Elementary lesions of nail plate and nail bed were compared using Pearson's chi square test between patients in psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis groups, with no differences except for a trend for onycholisis and crumbling (p=0.07 and 0.06, respectively) in the psoriatic arthritis group. ROC curves were calculated (AUC = 0.68) obtaining also quantitative cut offs for nail plate andnail bed thickness in the affected vs healthy patients. Our study shows that ultrasonography may be a potential advantage in clinical practice. Our results strengthen the information already available in the literature and add quantitative parameters for ultrasonography of the nail.

  15. Evaluation of Laser-Assisted Trans-Nail Drug Delivery with Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Tsan Tsai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The nail provides a functional protection to the fingertips and surrounding tissue from external injuries. The nail plate consists of three layers including dorsal, intermediate, and ventral layers. The dorsal layer consists of compact, hard keratins, limiting topical drug delivery through the nail. In this study, we investigate the application of fractional CO2 laser that produces arrays of microthermal ablation zones (MAZs to facilitate drug delivery in the nails. We utilized optical coherence tomography (OCT for real-time monitoring of the laser–skin tissue interaction, sparing the patient from an invasive surgical sampling procedure. The time-dependent OCT intensity variance was used to observe drug diffusion through an induced MAZ array. Subsequently, nails were treated with cream and liquid topical drugs to investigate the feasibility and diffusion efficacy of laser-assisted drug delivery. Our results show that fractional CO2 laser improves the effectiveness of topical drug delivery in the nail plate and that OCT could potentially be used for in vivo monitoring of the depth of laser penetration as well as real-time observations of drug delivery.

  16. Early experience with titanium elastic nails in a trauma unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shah, M H

    2012-02-03

    The Titanium Elastic Nail (TEN) offers a number of potential advantages over traditional ways of treating long bone fractures particularly in the paediatric population. These advantages include earlier mobilisation and shorter hospital stay and less risk of loss of fracture position. These advantages are most apparent and significant when treating femoral fractures in children where the length of hospital stay is reduced from several weeks to a typical period of 5 to 8 days. We have reviewed our early experience of using these implants over the past 2 years. Patients were assessed clinically and radiologically. 13 patients were treated using the TEN during this period. There were 2 femoral fractures, 4 humeral fractures, 1 tibial and 6 forearm fractures treated using the Titanium Elastic Nail. All fractures united during the study period. However 1 humeral fracture required a secondary bone grafting and plating for delayed union and 1 fracture lost position during follow-up. Insertion point pain was a problem in 4 patients but this resolved after nail removal in all. There was 1 superficial wound infection which resolved with antibiotics and 1 superficial wound infection of an open fracture wound which resolved following nail removal and antibiotics. There were no cases of deep infection. There were no limb length discrepancy or rotational or angular malalignment problems. Biomechanical principles and technical aspects of this type of fixation are discussed.

  17. Chloral Hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you are allergic to chloral hydrate, aspirin, tartrazine (a yellow dye in some processed foods and ... in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature, away from excess ...

  18. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your fingers and from your nails to your face and mouth. To help you stop biting your ... re inclined to bite may help solve the problem. Try to gradually stop biting your nails: Some ...

  19. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... figure out how to avoid these situations and develop a plan to stop. Just knowing when you’ ... a doctor. If you bite your nails and develop a skin or nail infection, consult a board- ...

  20. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your nails to your face and mouth. To help you stop biting your nails, dermatologists recommend the ... stress ball or silly putty instead. This will help keep your hands busy and away from your ...

  1. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a ... counter, this safe, but awful-tasting formula discourages many people from biting their nails. Get regular manicures: ...

  2. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Resident International Grant Resident Scholarship to Legislative Conference Skin Care for Developing Countries Grant State Advocacy Grant Strauss ... A-Z index Skin, hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care ...

  3. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your head About nails: More important than you think Questions lots of kids ask about their skin, ... habit with a good habit: When you feel like biting your nails, try playing with a stress ...

  4. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care / hair loss Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care Kids’ zone About skin: Your body's ... biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine Anti-aging skin care Kids’ zone Video library Find a ...

  5. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... biting can make the skin around your nails feel sore, and it can damage the tissue that ... biting habit with a good habit: When you feel like biting your nails, try playing with a ...

  6. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Lectureship Clarence S. Livingood Award and Lectureship Marion B. Sulzberger Award and Lectureship Master Dermatologist Award Members ... care Nail care Nail biting "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs.con.aad. ...

  7. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care Kids’ zone About skin: Your body's largest organ About ... More important than you think Questions lots of kids ask about their skin, hair, and nails. Amazing ...

  8. EPR spectroscopic investigation of psoriatic finger nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Kouichi; Minakawa, Satoko; Sawamura, Daisuke

    2013-11-01

    Nail lesions are common features of psoriasis and found in almost half of the patients. However, there is no feasible spectroscopic method evaluating changes and severity of nail psoriasis. EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) might be feasible for evaluating nail conditions in the patients of psoriasis. Finger nails of five cases with nail psoriasis, (three females and two males) were examined. Nail samples were subjected to the EPR assay. The small piece of the finger nail (1.5 × 5 mm(2)) was incubated in ~50 μM 5-DSA (5-doxylstearic acid) aqueous solutions for about 60 min at 37°C. After rinsing and wiping off the excess 5-DSA solution, the nail samples were measured by EPR. EPR spectra were analyzed using the intensity ratio (Fast/Slow) of the two motions at the peaks of the lower magnetic field. We observed two distinguishable sites on the basis of the EPR results. In addition, the modern EPR calculation was performed to analyze the spectra obtained. The nail psoriasis-related region is 2~3 times higher than that of the control. The present EPR results show that there are two distinguishable sites in the nail. In the case of nail psoriasis, the fragile components are 2~3 times more than those of the control. Thus, the EPR method is thought to be a novel and reliable method of evaluating the nail psoriasis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gloves to prevent biting. Replace the nail-biting habit with a good habit: When you feel like biting your nails, try ... recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try to stop biting one set of nails, ...

  10. Nail toxicity induced by cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbar, Peter; Hain, Alice; Peereboom, Veta-Marie

    2009-09-01

    To provide a comprehensive literature review of chemotherapy-induced nail toxicity, including clinical presentation, implicated drugs and approaches for prevention and management. A search of MEDLINE and EMBASE (1966-2008) databases was conducted using the terms (and variations of the terms) antineoplastic agents, nails, nail toxicity, onycholysis, and paronychia. Bibliographies from selected articles were reviewed for appropriate references. The retrieved literature was reviewed to include all articles relevant to the clinical presentation, diagnosis, incidence, prevention, and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nail toxicity. Nail toxicity is a relatively uncommon adverse effect linked to a number of chemotherapeutic agents. Clinical presentation varies, depending on which nail structure is affected and the severity of the insult. Nail changes may involve all or some nails. Toxicity may be asymptomatic and limited to cosmetic concerns, however, more severe effects, involving pain and discomfort can occur. Taxanes and anthracyclines are the antineoplastic drug groups most commonly implicated. It is suggested that the administration schedule may influence the incidence of nail abnormalities, for example reported cases linked to the weekly administration of paclitaxel.Before instituting chemotherapy, patients should be educated regarding potential nail toxicities and strategies for prevention implemented. Management includes appropriate nail cutting, avoiding potential irritants, topical, or oral antimicrobials, and possibly cessation or dose reduction of the offending agent. Cryotherapy, through the application of frozen gloves or socks, has been beneficial in reducing docetaxel-induced nail toxicity and may be effective for other drugs.

  11. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... Child nail care Manicure safety Nail biting Nail changes a dermatologist should examine Anti-aging skin care ...

  12. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and nail care Nail care Nail biting "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid=aad-aad-1", "site=ehs. ... t", "hpos=l", "zone=public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ "adid= ...

  13. Yellow nail syndrome and bronchiectasis | Adegboye | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Yellow Nail Syndrome includes slow growing, opaque yellow nails with exaggerated lateral curvature, associated with lymphoedema and chronic respiratory disorders. The nail changes may precede the lymphoedema by a number of years. Bronchiectasis may be the only chronic respiratory disorder; others include ...

  14. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Private payer Medicare physician payment MACRA implementation Alternative payment models Fee schedule State policy State policy and action ... a dermatologist Why see a board-certified dermatologist? Home Public and patients Skin, hair, and nail care Nail care Nail biting "); (function () { var a = "", b = [ " ...

  15. Use of Titanium Elastic Nails in the Adult Diaphyseal Humerus Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upadhyay AS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Humerus shaft fractures in adults can be managed conservatively with functional braces or operatively with plate osteosynthesis or with intramedullary nailing. Conventionally humerus intramedullary nailing is done either using humerus interlocking nails or Enders nails. In this study we analyse the outcome of humerus shaft fractures (upper and middle third managed with closed ante- grade intramedullary titanium elastic nailing in terms of union rates, union time, functional results and complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of 25 patients treated with ante-grade intramedullary titanium elastic nailing was done during the period of August 2014 to June 2016 at our tertiary care centre. Skeletally mature patients with closed and acute fractures of the upper and middle shaft humerus of both sexes were included in the study. RESULTS: Twenty-five (100% fractures united with an average consolidation time of 14.98 weeks (10-32 weeks, and no fractures ended in non-union. Nail impingement was seen in two (8%, shoulder stiffness in one (4%. Functional results were excellent in 22 (88%, moderate in two (8% and poor in one (4%. There were 17 males and eight females with an average age of 39.08 years (range: 18-65 years. The average duration of hospital stay was 3.84±2.30 days. CONCLUSION: Closed ante-grade intramedullary titanium elastic nailing offers a safe and reliable method of fixing fractures of upper humeral shaft in adults. This method provides early fracture union, high union rates and less complications, in addition to early rehabilitation and reduces the hospital stay.

  16. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    1999-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF KUNTSCHER’S NAIL VS. INTERLOCKING NAILING FOR FEMORAL ISTHMUS FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Kumar Roy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Interlocking intramedullary nailing is suitable for comminuted femoral isthmus fractures, but for non-comminuted fractures its benefit over unlocked nailing is debatable. This study was undertaken to compare outcomes of interlocking nailing versus k-nail in such fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS 40 cases of noncomminuted femoral isthmus fractures treated with interlocking nailing and K-nail from April 1, 2015, to December 1, 2016, were reviewed. Radiological and clinical union rates, bony alignment, complication and knee function were investigated. RESULTS There was no statistical significant difference with regard to union rate, implant failure, infection and fracture alignment in both study groups. Open fixation with K-nail is technically less demanding and requires less operating time; additionally, there is no exposure to radiation and cost of the implant is cheaper. CONCLUSION We therefore conclude that unlocked nailing is still useful for the management of noncomminuted isthmus fractures of the femur.

  18. Nail-gun injury of the cervical spine: simple technique for removal of a barbed nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathoo, Narendra; Sarkar, Atom; Varma, Gandhi; Mendel, Ehud

    2011-07-01

    Although nail-gun injuries are a common form of penetrating low-velocity injury, impalement with barbed nails has been underreported to date. Barbed nails are designed to resist dislodgment once embedded, and any attempt at removal may splay open the barbs along the path of entry, with the potential for significant soft-tissue and neurovascular injury. A 25-year-old man sustained a nail impalement of the cervical spine from accidental discharge of a nail gun. The patient was noted to be fully conscious with no neurological deficits. Cervical Zone 2 impalement was noted, with only the head of the nail visible. Angiography revealed the nail lying just anterior to the right vertebral artery (VA), with compression of the vessel. Preoperatively, analysis of a similar nail revealed that orientation of the head determined position of the barbs. A deep neck dissection was then performed to the lateral aspect of the C-3 body, using the nail as a guide. Prior to removal, the nail was turned 180° to change the position of the barbs, to prevent injury to the VA. Nail removal was uneventful. The authors present a simple technique for treatment of a nail-gun injury with a barbed nail. Prior to removal, radiographic analysis of the impaled nail must be performed to determine the presence of barbs. If possible, the surgeon should request a similar nail for analysis prior to surgery. Last, the treating surgeon must have knowledge of the barbs' position at all times during nail removal, to prevent damage to critical structures.

  19. Cerebral damage caused by nail gun injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background Accidents with nail guns are rather common, especially in the construction industry. Most injuries involve the extremities and several present with intracerebral injuries. When the patient is unconscious, it can be a big challenge to determine whether the injury is an accident, self....... The forensic examination showed lesions of intracranial surgery and minor bruises on the arms. No sign of defense injuries was found. There were no signs of malfunction of the nail gun-wielding robot. On the side of the machine, there were a handheld nail gun and the police investigated the case as a possible...... criminal act. They found bloodstains on the back of the machine. When awake, the man explained, that by accident, he had hit his head against a nail gun and as a result of this, the nail gun delivered a nail into his skull. Conclusion Sometimes, the circumstances of a case are not clear...

  20. Nail psoriasis in an adult successfully treated with a series of herbal skin care products family – a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirant, M; Hercogovấ, J; Fioranelli, M; Gianfaldoni, S; Chokoeva, A A; Tchernev, G; Wollina, U; Novotny, F; Roccia, M G; Maximov, G K; França, K; Lotti, T

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory dermatosis that causes significant distress and morbidity. Approximately 50% of patients with cutaneous psoriasis and 90% of patients with psoriatic arthritis demonstrate nail involvement of their psoriasis. Left untreated, nail psoriasis may progress to debilitating nail disease that leads to not only impairment of function but also on quality of life. We report the case of a 50-year-old male patient with recalcitrant nail dystrophies on the fingers since the age of 40, who responded successfully to Dr. Michaels® product family. The patient had a 35-year history of plaque psoriasis localised on the scalp, ears, groin, limbs, and trunk and with psoriatic arthritis. The nail symptoms consisted of onycholysis, onychomycosis, leukonychia, transverse grooves, nail plate crumbling and paronychia of the periungal skin. This case represents the efficacy and safety of the Dr. Michaels® (Soratinex® and Nailinex®) product family with successful resolution of nail dystrophies and surrounding paronychia with no reported adverse events.

  1. Modification of elastic stable intramedullary nailing with a 3rd nail in a femoral spiral fracture model - results of biomechanical testing and a prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Martin M; Stratmann, Christine; Zachert, Gregor; Schulze-Hessing, Maaike; Gros, Nina; Eggert, Rebecca; Rapp, Marion

    2014-01-08

    Elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) is the standard treatment for displaced diaphyseal femoral fractures in children. However, high complication rates (10-50%) are reported in complex fractures. This biomechanical study compares the stiffness with a 3rd nail implanted to that in the classical 2C-shaped configuration and presents the application into clinical practice. For each of the 3 configurations of ESIN-osteosynthesis with titanium nails eight composite femoral grafts (Sawbones®) with an identical spiral fracture were used: 2C configuration (2C-shaped nails, 2 × 3.5 mm), 3CM configuration (3rd nail from medial) and 3CL configuration (3rd nail from lateral). Each group underwent biomechanical testing in 4-point bending, internal/external rotation and axial compression. 2C and 3CM configurations showed no significant differences in this spiroid type fracture model. 3CL had a significantly higher stiffness during anterior-posterior bending, internal rotation and 9° compression than 2C, and was stiffer in the lateral-medial direction than 3CM. The 3CL was less stable during p-a bending and external rotation than both the others. As biomechanical testing showed a higher stability for the 3CL configuration in two (a-p corresponding to recurvation and 9° compression to shortening) of three directions associated with the most important clinical problems, we added a 3rd nail in ESIN-osteosynthesis for femoral fractures. 11 boys and 6 girls (2.5-15 years) were treated with modified ESIN of whom 12 were '3CL'; due to the individual character of the fractures 4 patients were treated with '3CM' (third nail from medial) and as an exception 1 adolescent with 4 nails and one boy with plate osteosynthesis. No additional stabilizations or re-operations were necessary. All patients achieved full points in the Harris-Score at follow-up; no limb length discrepancy occurred. The 3CL configuration provided a significantly higher stiffness than 2C and 3CM configurations

  2. [Skin hydration and hydrating products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplan, H; Nocera, T

    2018-05-01

    One of the skin's principal functions is to protect the body against its environment by maintaining an effective epidermal barrier, not only against external factors, but also to prevent water loss from the body. Indeed, water homeostasis is vital for the normal physiological functioning of skin. Hydration levels affect not only visible microscopic parameters such as the suppleness and softness of skin, but also molecular parameters, enzyme activities and cellular signalling within the epidermis. The body is continually losing some of its water, but this phenomenon is limited and the optimal hydration gradient in skin is ensured via a set of sophisticated regulatory processes that rely on the functional and dynamic properties of the uppermost level of the skin consisting of the stratum corneum. The present article brings together data recently acquired in the fields of skin hydration and the characterisation of dehydrated or dry skin, whether through study of the regulatory processes involved or as a result of changes in the techniques used for in situ measurement, and thus in optimisation of management. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Nail tic disorders: Manifestations, pathogenesis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singal, Archana; Daulatabad, Deepashree

    2017-01-01

    Nail tic disorders are classic examples of overlap between the domains of dermatology and psychiatry. They are examples of body-focused repetitive behaviors in which there is an irresistible urge or impulse to perform a certain behavior. The behavior is reinforced as it results in some degree of relief and pleasure. Nail tic disorders are common, yet poorly studied and understood. The literature on nail tic disorders is relatively scarce. Common nail tics include nail biting or onychophagia, onychotillomania and the habit tic deformity. Some uncommon and rare nail tic disorders are onychoteiromania, onychotemnomania, onychodaknomania and bidet nails. Onychophagia is chronic nail biting behavior which usually starts during childhood. It is often regarded as a tension reducing measure. Onychotillomania is recurrent picking and manicuring of the fingernails and/or toenails. In severe cases, it may lead to onychoatrophy due to irreversible scarring of the nail matrix. Very often, they occur in psychologically normal children but may sometimes be associated with anxiety. In severe cases, onychotillomania may be an expression of obsessive-compulsive disorders. Management of nail tic disorders is challenging. Frequent applications of distasteful topical preparations on the nail and periungual skin can discourage patients from biting and chewing their fingernails. Habit-tic deformity can be helped by bandaging the digit daily with permeable adhesive tape. Fluoxetine in high doses can be helpful in interrupting these compulsive disorders in adults. For a complete diagnosis and accurate management, it is imperative to assess the patient's mental health and simultaneously treat the underlying psychiatric comorbidity, if any.

  4. Ingenious method of external fixator use to maintain alignment for nailing a proximal tibial shaft fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Prateek; Aggarwal, Sameer; Kumar, Vishal; Kumar Meena, Umesh; Saibaba, Balaji

    2015-09-01

    Fractures of the tibia are one of the most commonly seen orthopedic injuries. Most of them result from a high velocity trauma. While intramedullary nailing of tibial diaphyseal fractures is considered as the golden standard form of treatment for such cases, many metaphyseal and metaphyseal-diaphyseal junction fractures can also be managed by nailing. Maintenance of alignment of such fractures during surgical procedure is often challenging as the pull of patellar tendon tends to extend the proximal fragment as soon as one flexes the knee for the surgical procedure. Numerous technical modifications have been described in the literature for successfully nailing such fractures including semi extended nailing, use of medial plates and external fixators among others. In this study, it was aimed to report two cases in which we used our ingenious method of applying external fixator for maintaining alignment of the fracture and aiding in the entire process of closed intramedullary nailing of metaphyseal tibial fractures by the conventional method. We were able to get good alignment during and after the closed surgery as observed on post-operative radiographs and believe that further evaluation of this technique may be of help to surgeons who want to avoid other techniques.

  5. Síndrome das unhas frágeis Brittle nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izelda Maria Carvalho Costa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome das unhas frágeis é queixa comum, caracterizada por aumento da fragilidade das lâminas ungueais. Afeta quase 20% da população geral, sendo mais comum em mulheres. Clinicamente se manifesta com onicosquizia e onicorrexe - distúrbios nos fatores de adesão intercelular das unhas se manifestam como a primeira, ao passo que alterações da matriz apresentamse com onicorrexe. Mesmo sendo tão usual e afetando os pacientes de maneira importante em seu cotidiano, o tratamento das unhas frágeis avançou pouco nas últimas décadas e ainda se baseia principalmente no uso da biotina.Brittle nail syndrome is a common condition, characterized by increased fragility of the nail plates. It affects almost 20% of the population, being more usual in women. Clinical manifestations of brittle nails are onychoschizia and onychorexis - disorders of intercellular adhesive factors are expressed as the first, while disorders of the nail matrix manifest as onychorexis. Despite being so common and causing much more than only cosmetic problems to the patient, the treatment of brittle nails has had little improvement over the past decades and is still mainly based on the daily use of biotin.

  6. Mycobacteria in nail salon whirlpool footbaths, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugia, Duc J; Jang, Yvonne; Zizek, Candi; Ely, Janet; Winthrop, Kevin L; Desmond, Edward

    2005-04-01

    In 2000, an outbreak of Mycobacterium fortuitum furunculosis affected customers using whirlpool footbaths at a nail salon. We swabbed 30 footbaths in 18 nail salons from 5 California counties and found mycobacteria in 29 (97%); M. fortuitum was the most common. Mycobacteria may pose an infectious risk for pedicure customers.

  7. Nail psoriasis: a questionnaire-based survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, K.M.G.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Pasch, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin manifestations are the most characteristic finding of psoriasis. However, nail involvement is also a clinical feature of disease although it is often overlooked. The documented prevalence of nail psoriasis varies between 10.0% and 81.1%. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this investigation is

  8. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Nail Biting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Watson, T. Steuart; Kazmerski, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    This study applied functional analysis methodology to nail biting exhibited by a 24-year-old female graduate student. Results from the brief functional analysis indicated variability in nail biting across assessment conditions. Functional analysis data were then used to guide treatment development and implementation. Treatment included a…

  9. Nail changes and disorders among the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gurcharan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nail disorders are frequent among the geriatric population. This is due in part to the impaired circulation and in particular, susceptibility of the senile nail to fungal infections, faulty biomechanics, neoplasms, concurrent dermatological or systemic diseases, and related treatments. With aging, the rate of growth, color, contour, surface, thickness, chemical composition and histology of the nail unit change. Age associated disorders include brittle nails, trachyonychia, onychauxis, pachyonychia, onychogryphosis, onychophosis, onychoclavus, onychocryptosis, onycholysis, infections, infestations, splinter hemorrhages, subungual hematoma, subungual exostosis and malignancies. Awareness of the symptoms, signs and treatment options for these changes and disorders will enable us to assess and manage the conditions involving the nails of this large and growing segment of the population in a better way.

  10. OUTCOME OF LOCKING PLATES IN DISTAL TIBIA FRACTURES TREATMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Lokesh; Dayanand; Deepak; Hemanth

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Most of these fractures except intra-articular fractures are treated with interlocking nail. 1,2 These nails are a boon for these fractures. But as the fracture nears to the joint stability the fracture fixation will be compromised due to malreduction and alignment, it leads to increased chances of delayed and nonunion. 3 Locking anatomical plates are evaluated for anatomical and relative stability fixation. Since then most intra and near intra-articul...

  11. Management of long bone fractures using SIGN nail: experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Intramedullary nailing with interlocking nails has become the treatment of choice for closed diaphyseal fractures of femur and tibia. When possible locked nailing should be performed as a closed procedure. Fractures fixed by interlocking nailing have comparatively less complications in fracture healing.

  12. Microbiological flora and nail polish: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, G M; Flournoy, D J; Schlageter, P

    1994-11-01

    Removing nail polish and prosthetic nails from operating room (OR) personnel prior to scrubbing and from patients prior to hand surgery is recommended but not practiced in many hospitals. There is concern that nail polish can act as a vehicle for the transfer of infectious agents. This study was designed to determine the incidence of microbiological flora of nail polish in a clinical setting.

  13. Finite-Element Modeling of Timber Joints with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to describe the idea and the theory behind a finite-element model developed for analysis of timber trusses with punched metal plate fasteners (nail plates). The finite-element model includes the semirigid and nonlinear behavior of the joints (nonlinear nail and plate...... elements) and contact between timber beams, if any (bilinear contact elements). The timber beams have linear-elastic properties. The section forces needed for design of the joints are given directly by the finite-element model, since special elements are used to model the nail groups and the nail plate...... the behavior of the joints very well at lower load levels. At higher load levels the stiffness is overestimated due to development of cracks in the timber and the linear-elastic timber properties in the finite-element model....

  14. Protection during production: Problems due to prevention? Nail and skin condition after prolonged wearing of occlusive gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weistenhöfer, Wobbeke; Uter, Wolfgang; Drexler, Hans

    2017-01-01

    Wearing of occlusive gloves during the whole working shift is considered a risk factor for developing hand eczema, similar to wet work. Moreover, the increased hydration due to glove occlusion may lead to brittle nails. Two hundred and seventy clean room workers, wearing occlusive gloves for prolonged periods, and 135 administrative employees not using gloves were investigated. This included a dermatological examination of the nails and the hands, using the Hand Eczema ScoRe for Occupational Screening (HEROS), measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and a standardized interview. Of the clean room workers, 39%, mainly women, reported nail problems, mostly brittle nails with onychoschisis. Skin score values showed no significant differences between HEROS values of both groups. TEWL values of exposed subjects were similar to TEWL values of controls 40 min after taking off the occlusive gloves. In a multiple linear regression analysis, male gender and duration of employment in the clean room were associated with a significant increase in TEWL values. The effect of occlusion on TEWL seems to be predominantly transient and not be indicative of a damaged skin barrier. This study confirmed the results of a previous investigation showing no serious adverse effect of wearing of occlusive gloves on skin condition without exposure to additional hazardous substances. However, occlusion leads to softened nails prone to mechanical injury. Therefore, specific prevention instructions are required to pay attention to this side effect of occlusion.

  15. Comparative endurance testing of the Biomet Matthews Nail and the Dynamic Compression Screw, in simulated condylar and supracondylar femoral fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Benjamin M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dynamic compression screw is a plate and screws implant used to treat fractures of the distal femur. The Biomet Matthews Nail is a new retrograde intramedullary nail designed as an alternative surgical option to treat these fractures. The objective of this study was to assess the comparative endurance of both devices. Method The dynamic compression screw (DCS and Biomet Matthews Nail (BMN were implanted into composite femurs, which were subsequently cyclically loaded using a materials testing machine. Simulated fractures were applied to each femur prior to the application of load. Either a Y type fracture or a transverse osteotomy was prepared on each composite femur using a jig to enable consistent positioning of cuts. Results The Biomet Matthews Nail demonstrated a greater endurance limit load over the dynamic compression screw in both fracture configurations. Conclusion The distal locking screws pass through the Biomet Matthews Nail in a unique "cruciate" orientation. This allows for greater purchase in the bone of the femoral condyle and potentially improves the stability of the fracture fixation. As these fractures are usually in weak osteoporotic bone, the Biomet Matthews Nail represents a favourable surgical option in these patients.

  16. [Role of centro-medullary nailing in fractures of the distal quarter of the leg: about 30 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margad, Omar; Boukhris, Jalal; Sallahi, Hicham; Azriouil, Ouahb; Daoudi, Mohamed; Koulali, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    The fractures of the distal quarter of the leg are characterized by fracture line located at the level of the lower quarter of the tibia, according to Gerard and Evrard definition [1]. They are serious and pose problems for consolidation, immobilization and stability. We here describe our experience in the Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology at the Avicenne Military Hospital, Marrakech. We report 30 cases of closed fractures of the lower quarter of the leg treated with centro-medullary nailing over a period of 10 years (January 2001-December 2010). Locked nailing was performed in 80% of cases and simple nailing was performed in the other cases. The average age of patients was 36 years. There was a clear male predominance (27 men, 3 women). The average time for consolidation was 17 weeks and functional outcomes were satisfactory. A single case of infection occurred 6 months after surgery (3.3%) and no other complication was reported. Malunion was detected in 30% of patients. Our epidemiological data and results were almost identical to those in the literature. Angular results were significantly lower than those obtained with the series of plates. By contrast, data on infections called for caution and some nails produced excellent angular results when nail fixation was stable. In the light of these results, codified indications for locked centro-medullary nailing should be extended to the fractures of the lower quarter of the leg, provided that stable fixation using double screw distal locking and primary osteosynthesis of distal fibula fractures are performed.

  17. Flexible Intramedullary Nailing for Paediatric Shaft of Femur Fractures – Does the Number of Nails Alter the Outcome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Kanthimathi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of flexible intramedullary nailing, allowing micro movement at the fracture site, results in excellent outcomes regardless of the number of nails used. We undertook analysis of the outcomes of flexible nailing with reference to the number of nails used. METHODS: Twenty patients with diaphyseal femur fracture aged 5-15 years were treated with retrograde flexible intramedullary nailing. The number of nails varied from single to multiple. The results were analysed with regard to the number of nails used. RESULTS: The mean patient age was 7.9 years; patients were followed up for a mean duration of 13.2 months. Those with two and three nails had similar results. CONCLUSION: A minimum of two flexible nails is needed for optimal fixation in paediatric femur shaft fractures. Also, limiting the number of implants to two is cost effective, decreases operative time, reduces radiation exposure and offers equal results to that of three nails.

  18. Stuffing the nail: A simple technique for the extraction of a broken femoral nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Jane; Krishna, Damodaran; Gehr, Eugene

    2017-06-01

    The extraction of broken femoral nails can be a challenging procedure and surgeons should be familiar with many different techniques. This paper demonstrates a case study and new, simple and cost effective technique for the removal of broken cannulated femoral nails. Our technique uses two guide wires of variable diameter and had several key points of differentiation from previous methods. Firstly, stuffing the nail with guide wires of greater total diameter than the cannula; secondly, reversing the second guide wire and finally, bending the tips of the wires. These innovations allow the technique to be used for narrow cannulated nails, superior purchase along the length of the nail, easy wire insertion and limited soft tissue damage. Our technique for the removal of broken femoral nails is quick, effective, cheap and easy to replicate and can be used by any generalist orthopaedic surgeon with basic equipment.

  19. Portable x-ray fluorescence for the analysis of chromium in nail and nail clippings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, David E.B.; Ware, Chris S.

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of chromium content in human nail or nail clippings could serve as an effective biomarker of chromium status. The feasibility of a new portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) approach to chromium measurement was investigated through analysis of nail and nail clipping phantoms. Five measurements of 180 s (real time) duration were first performed on six whole nail phantoms having chromium concentrations of 0, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 µg/g. Using nail clippers, these phantoms were then converted to nail clippings, and assembled into different mass groups of 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 mg for additional measurements. The amplitude of the chromium Kα characteristic x-ray energy peak was examined as a function of phantom concentration for all measurement conditions to create a series of calibration lines. The minimum detection limit (MDL) for chromium was also calculated for each case. The chromium MDL determined from the whole nail intact phantoms was 0.88±0.03 µg/g. For the clipping phantoms, the MDL ranged from 1.2 to 3.3 µg/g, depending on the mass group analyzed. For the 40 mg clipping group, the MDL was 1.2±0.1 µg/g, and higher mass collections did not improve upon this result. This MDL is comparable to chromium concentration levels seen in various studies involving human nail clippings. Further improvements to the portable XRF technique would be required to detect chromium levels expected from the lower end of a typical population. - Highlights: • Portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF) was explored as a technique to assess levels of chromium in human nails or nail clippings. • Results were found to depend on the mass of clipping sample provided. • Minimum detection limits for chromium were similar to concentration levels found in previous studies of human nail clippings.

  20. Despite the hair failing, nails thrive…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samipa Samir Mukherjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectodermal dysplasias are defined as a group of congenital, nonprogressive, developmental syndromes with primary disorders in at least two ectoderm-derived structures namely eccrine glands, hair, nail and teeth. Pure hair and nail affecting ectodemal dysplasias are exceedingly rare in occurance and have been known to be associated with multiple abnormalities, such as keratoderma or ichthyosis, skeletal and hematological abnormalities, cardiac irregularities, mental or psychomotor retardation and cataracts. We herein report a case of hypotrichosis with trichorrhexis nodosa and twenty nail dystrophy- a hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia variant.

  1. NAIL SAMPLING TECHNIQUE AND ITS INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TZAR MN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical suspicion of onychomyosis based on appearance of the nails, requires culture for confirmation. This is because treatment requires prolonged use of systemic agents which may cause side effects. One of the common problems encountered is improper nail sampling technique which results in loss of essential information. The unfamiliar terminologies used in reporting culture results may intimidate physicians resulting in misinterpretation and hamper treatment decision. This article provides a simple guide on nail sampling technique and the interpretation of culture results.

  2. Complications during removal of stainless steel versus titanium nails used for intramedullary nailing of diaphyseal fractures of the tibia

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Seyhan; Olcay Guler; Mahir Mahirogullari; Ferdi Donmez; Arel Gereli; Serhat Mutlu

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: Intramedullary nailing is the treatment of choice for fractures of the tibial shaft, which might necessitate the nail removal due to complications in the long-term. Although considered as a low-risk procedure, intramedullary nail removal is also associated with certain complications. Here, we compared the most commonly used stainless steel and titanium nails with respect to the complications during removal and clinical outcome for intramedullary nailing of diaphyseal fractures of ...

  3. Complications during removal of stainless steel versus titanium nails used for intramedullary nailing of diaphyseal fractures of the tibia

    OpenAIRE

    Seyhan, Mustafa; Guler, Olcay; Mahirogullari, Mahir; Donmez, Ferdi; Gereli, Arel; Mutlu, Serhat

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Intramedullary nailing is the treatment of choice for fractures of the tibial shaft, which might necessitate the nail removal due to complications in the long-term. Although considered as a low-risk procedure, intramedullary nail removal is also associated with certain complications. Here, we compared the most commonly used stainless steel and titanium nails with respect to the complications during removal and clinical outcome for intramedullary nailing of diaphyseal fractures of t...

  4. Tension band plating of a nonunion anterior tibial stress fracture in an athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, Jarrad A; Villacis, Diego; Kephart, Curtis J; Rick Hatch, George F

    2013-07-01

    The authors present a rare technique of tension band plating of the anterior tibia in the setting of a nonunion stress fracture. Surgical management with an intramedullary nail is a viable and proven option for treating such injuries. However, in treating elite athletes, legitimate concerns exist regarding the surgical disruption of the extensor mechanism and the risk of anterior knee pain associated with intramedullary nail use. The described surgical technique demonstrates the use of tension band plating as an effective treatment of delayed union and nonunion anterior tibial stress fractures in athletes without the potential risks of intramedullary nail insertion. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Reliability of Roof Truss with Punched Nail Plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Martin; Ellegaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    characteristic values as input to the model. The system effect is also determined on the basis of reliability analyses. The found system effect depends on the coefficient of variation, the distribution of the random load variable and the reliability level. Depending on the assumptions, the system effect...

  6. THE RESULT OF INTRAMEDULLARY NAILING WITH BONE GRAFTING OF TIBIA'S PATHOLOGIC FRACTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Shapovalov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors give the clinical case of successful surgical treatment of patient with tibia's pathologic fracture by intramedullary nailing with bone grafting. The disadvantages of such patients' treatment by plaster immobilization and by some invasive methods like vascular autografting by Ilizarov's method and bone plating were also discussed. The obvious benefits of proposed surgical treatment technique of observed patient category are shown.

  7. Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  8. [Intramedullary nailing of the distal tibia illustrated with the Expert(TM) tibia nail].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Attal, R; Hansen, M; Rosenberger, R; Smekal, V; Rommens, P M; Blauth, M

    2011-12-01

    multicenter study. The follow-up rate was 81% after 1 year. Of these, 91 fractures (50.6%) were located in the distal third of the tibia. In this segment, the rate of delayed union was 10.6%. Malalignment of > 5° was observed in 5.4%. A secondary malalignment after initial good reduction was detected in only 1.1% of all cases. The implant-specific risk for screw breakage was 3.2%. One patient sustained a deep infection. If additional fibula plating was performed an 8-fold higher risk for delayed bone healing was observed (95%CI: 2.9-21.2, pfracture of the fibula was at the same height as on the tibia, the risk for delayed healing was even 14-fold (95% CI: 3.4-62.5, pfractures treated with an intramedullary nail. Using the ETN with its optimized locking options, fibula plating is not recommended, thus, avoiding soft tissue problems and potentially delayed bone healing.

  9. Nail involvement in mycosis fungoides: brief report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Houshang Ehsani

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: We found about 30% prevalence that is a little higher than previously shown. It seems that nail changes in CTCL have no relationship to CTCL staging or other specifications including demographic specifications.

  10. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... like biting your nails, try playing with a stress ball or silly putty instead. This will help ... of hangnails, or other triggers, such as boredom, stress, or anxiety. By figuring out what causes you ...

  11. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and away from your mouth. Identify your triggers: These could be physical triggers, such as the presence ... nails, you can figure out how to avoid these situations and develop a plan to stop. Just ...

  12. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Action center Public and patients SPOT Skin Cancer™ Community programs & events Learn about skin cancer Get involved ... Diseases: A-Z index Skin, hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair loss Injured skin ...

  13. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... as boredom, stress, or anxiety. By figuring out what causes you to bite your nails, you can ...

  14. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Rotation PICMED Grant Professionalism Award Resident-Fellow QI Project Award Resident International Grant Resident Scholarship to Legislative ... continue through adulthood, and the side effects can be more than cosmetic. Repeated nail biting can make ...

  15. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learning Center MOC Recognized Credit Basic Derm Curriculum Teaching and learning guides Suggested order of modules Basement ... Injured skin Nail care Anti-aging skin care Kids’ zone About skin: Your body's largest organ About ...

  16. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scholarship to Legislative Conference Skin Care for Developing Countries Grant State Advocacy Grant Strauss and Katz Scholarship ... like biting your nails, try playing with a stress ball or silly putty instead. This will help ...

  17. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pointer nails, or even an entire hand. The goal is to get to the point where you ... c Explore the Academy Member resources Practice Tools Education Meetings & events Advocacy Public & patients Academy resources for: ...

  18. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center Meetings and events Make a difference Career planning AAD apps Academy meeting Chronic urticaria—for members ... as boredom, stress, or anxiety. By figuring out what causes you to bite your nails, you can ...

  19. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair and scalp problems Itchy skin Painful skin / joints ... dermatologist? Other conditions Diseases: A-Z index Skin, hair, and nail care Skin care Hair care / hair ...

  20. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook Study notes Image library 3-D animated image library Board ... gradually stop biting your nails: Some doctors recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try ...

  1. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources ... Try to gradually stop biting your nails: Some doctors recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try to stop biting ...

  2. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... your nails: Some doctors recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try to stop biting ...

  3. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... facts about your skin, hair, and nails Skin dictionary Camp Discovery Good Skin Knowledge lesson plans and activities Video library Find a dermatologist Why see a board-certified dermatologist? Home ...

  4. NAIL SAMPLING TECHNIQUE AND ITS INTERPRETATION

    OpenAIRE

    TZAR MN; LEELAVATHI M

    2011-01-01

    The clinical suspicion of onychomyosis based on appearance of the nails, requires culture for confirmation. This is because treatment requires prolonged use of systemic agents which may cause side effects. One of the common problems encountered is improper nail sampling technique which results in loss of essential information. The unfamiliar terminologies used in reporting culture results may intimidate physicians resulting in misinterpretation and hamper treatment decision. This article prov...

  5. Nail disorders in children, a clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Akbaş

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aims of the study to investigate the frequency and the nature ofnail disorders in children significant clinical data is available. Nail disorders although common in children in some parts of our country. This study was carried out to document the clinical and demographic pattern of nail disorders in a dermatology outpatient clinic of a pediatric hospital in Ankara, Turkey. Material and Methods: All consecutive patients a total of 3000 children from age 0-16 were admitted to dermatology outpatient clinic of Ankara Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Education and Research Hospital during January 2011 to December 2011 were studied and retrospectively evaluated for age, gender, drug use, diseases, systemic or genetic disorders and demographic features. Diagnostic evaluation results were noted and patients were categorized for demographic features and diagnosis. Results: These 133 patients (M: F 58:75, %44 vs 56, respectively were under 16 years of age and have 17 different dermatological disorders related with nail symptoms. Fifty three of (39,8% these patient were under 2 years of age, 31 (23.3% were between 3-5 years, 30 (22.5% were between 6-11 years old, 19 of 133 (14%, 2 were between 11-16 years of age. Through all of ages and independent of gender the most etiologies of nail disorders were, onychomadesis, paronychia, onycholysis, onychomycosis and systemic nail presentation of systemic dermatosis. Conclusion: Nail disorders are different in children than in adults. In our study, the first 5 years of age was found in 53% of nail disorders. Nail disorders are uncommon but may be seen as a part of a systemic disease and may be associated with cosmetic and psychologic problem.

  6. Trace element analysis of nail polishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, G.; Mittal, V.K.; Sahota, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique was used to measure the concentrations of various trace elements in nail polishes of popular Indian and foreign brands. The aim of the present experiment was to see whether trace elements could distinguish nail polishes of different Indian and foreign brands from forensic point of view. It was found that cesium can act as a marker to differentiate foreign and Indian brands. (author)

  7. Nail Psoriasis: A Review of Treatment Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, Marcel C

    2016-04-01

    Nail involvement affects 80-90 % of patients with plaque psoriasis, and is even more prevalent in patients with psoriatic arthritis. This review is the result of a systemic approach to the literature and covers topical, intralesional, conventional systemic, and biologic systemic treatments, as well as non-pharmacological treatment options for nail psoriasis. The available evidence suggests that all anti-tumor necrosis factor-α, anti-interleukin (IL)-17, and anti-IL-12/23 antibodies which are available for plaque psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis are highly effective treatments for nail psoriasis. Conventional systemic treatments, including methotrexate, cyclosporine, acitretin, and apremilast, as well as intralesional corticosteroids, can also be effective treatments for nail psoriasis. Topical treatments, including corticosteroids, calcipotriol, tacrolimus, and tazarotene, have also been shown to have a position in the treatment of nail psoriasis, particularly in mild cases. Finally, non-pharmacological treatment options, including phototherapy, photodynamic therapy, laser therapy, and several radiotherapeutic options, are also reviewed but cannot be advised as first-line treatment options. Another conclusion of this review is that the lack of a reliable core set of outcomes measures for trials in nail psoriasis hinders the interpretation of results, and is urgently needed.

  8. Nails in Forensic Toxicology: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimini, Renata; Minutillo, Adele; Kyriakou, Chrystalla; Pichini, Simona; Pacifici, Roberta; Busardo, Francesco Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of nails as a keratinized matrix to detect drugs or illicit substances has been increasingly used in forensic and clinical toxicology as a complementary test, especially for the specific characteristics of stably accumulating substances for long periods of time. This allows a retrospective investigation of chronic drug abuse, monitoring continuous drug or pharmaceutical use, reveal in utero drug exposure or environmental exposures. We herein review the recent literature investigating drug incorporation mechanisms and drug detection in nails for forensic toxicological purposes. Mechanisms of drug incorporation have not yet been fully elucidated. However, some research has lately contributed to a better understanding of how substances are incorporated into nails, suggesting three potential mechanisms of drug incorporation: contamination from sweat, incorporation from nail bed and incorporation from germinal matrix. In addition, numerous methods dealing with the determination of drugs of abuse, medications and alcohol biomarkers in nails have been reported in studies over the years. The latter methods could find application in clinical and forensic toxicology. The studies herein reviewed point out how important it is to standardize and harmonize the methodologies (either pre-analytical or analytical) for nails analysis and the optimization of sampling as well as the development of proficiency testing programs and the determination of cut-off values. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. [Intramedullary nailing of the tibia with the expert tibia nail].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Matthias; El Attal, René; Blum, Jochen; Blauth, Michael; Rommens, Pol Maria

    2009-12-01

    Restoration of axis, length, and rotation of the lower leg. Sufficient primary stability of the osteosynthesis for functional aftercare. Early functional aftercare to maintain joint mobility. Good bony healing in closed and open fractures. All closed and open fractures of the tibia and complete lower leg fractures (AO 42). Certain extraarticular fractures of the proximal and distal tibia (AO 41 A2/A3; AO 43 A1/A2/A3). Segmental fractures of the tibia. Certain intraarticular fractures of the tibia with use of additional implants (AO 41 C1/C2; AO 43 C1/C2). Stabilization during and after segmental bone transport or callus distraction of the tibia. Patients in poor general condition (e.g., bedridden). Flexion of the knee of less than 90 degrees . Infection in the nail's insertion area. Infection of the tibial cavity. Complex articular fractures of the proximal or distal tibia with joint depression. Closed reduction of the fracture. If necessary, use of reduction clamps through additional stab incisions or open surgical procedures. In some cases, additional osteosynthesis procedures are necessary (e.g., screws). Positioning of the patient may be performed on a radiolucent table or a traction table. Opening of the proximal tibia in line with the medullary canal. Cannulated or noncannulated insertion of the Expert Tibia Nail((R)) with or without reaming of the medullary canal depending on the fracture type and soft-tissue condition. Control of axis, length, and rotation. Distal interlocking with the radiolucent drill and proximal interlocking with the targeting device. Immediate mobilization of ankle joint and knee joint. Depending on the type of fracture, mobilization with 20 kg partial weight bearing or pain-dependent full weight bearing with crutches. X-ray control 6 weeks postoperatively and increased weight bearing depending on the fracture status. In a prospective, international multicentric study, 181 patients with 186 fractures were included between July 2004 and

  10. Advanced Modelling of Trusses with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Peter; Nielsen, Jacob

    Most of the finite element programs for design of timber trusses with punched metal fasteners are based on models using beam and fictitious elements. Different models have been used for different types of joints. Common problems for all the models are how to calculate the forces in the nail groups...... and the plates and furthermore, how big 'the deformations in the joints are. By developing an advanced model that includes all parts of the joint, i.e. plate, nail groups and contact it is possible to give a better description of the joint. An advanced model with these properties is presented. The advanced model...

  11. Nail gun injuries among construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement, John M; Lipscomb, Hester; Li, Leiming; Epling, Carol; Desai, Tejas

    2003-05-01

    Pneumatic nail guns greatly increase worker productivity and are extensively used in wood frame building construction, with especially high use in residential construction. One surveillance report of nail gun injuries in Washington State has been published; however, other literature consists largely of case reports and case series in trauma journals. The major objective of the current study was to investigate the occurrence of nail gun-associated injuries among construction workers and to identify preventable work-related factors associated with these injuries. Nail gun-related injuries occurring among a cohort of 13,347 carpenters in Ohio who worked union hours during the time period January 1, 1994, until September 30, 1997, were identified by matching the cohort with workers' compensation claims made to the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation. We also analyzed workers' compensation claims for North Carolina Home Builders Association members for the period July 1996-November 1999 to identify nail gun-related injuries. Analyses included stratified analyses of claims by nature and body part injured, calculation of nail gun injury rates, and analyses of free text descriptions of injuries. Overall, nail gun injuries were responsible for 3.9 percent of workers' compensation claims with 8.3 percent to 25.5 percent of claims involving paid lost work time. The overall rate of nail gun injuries (cases per 200,000 work hours) was 0.33 in North Carolina and 0.26 in Ohio, reflecting the greater concentration of wood frame construction workers in the North Carolina population studied. Higher rates of injury were observed for carpenters in North Carolina and among residential carpenters in Ohio. The predominant body part injured was the hands/fingers, with 80 to 89 percent of injuries being nail punctures. Analyses of free text information for puncture injuries found approximately 70 percent of injuries to occur during the framing/sheathing stage of construction. Our data

  12. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a

  13. Optimal management of nail disease in patients with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piraccini BM

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bianca Maria Piraccini, Michela Starace Division of Dermatology, Department of Experimental, Diagnostic and Specialty Medicine, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy Abstract: Psoriasis is a common skin disease, with nail involvement in approximately 80% of patients. Nail psoriasis is often associated with psoriatic arthropathy. Involvement of the nails does not always have relationship with the type, gravity, extension, or duration of skin psoriasis. Nail psoriasis can occur at any age and all parts of the nails and the surrounding structures can be affected. Two clinical patterns of nail manifestations have been seen due to psoriasis: nail matrix involvement or nail bed involvement. In the first case, irregular and deep pitting, red spots of the lunula, crumbling, and leukonychia are seen; in the second case, salmon patches, onycholysis with erythematous border, subungual hyperkeratosis, and splinter hemorrhages are observed. These clinical features are more visible in fingernails than in toenails, where nail abnormalities are not diagnostic and are usually clinically indistinguishable from other conditions, especially onychomycosis. Nail psoriasis causes, above all, psychosocial and aesthetic problems, but many patients often complain about functional damage. Diagnosis of nail psoriasis is clinical and histopathology is necessary only in selected cases. Nail psoriasis has an unpredictable course but, in most cases, the disease is chronic and complete remissions are uncommon. Sun exposure does not usually improve and may even worsen nail psoriasis. There are no curative treatments. Treatment of nail psoriasis includes different types of medications, from topical therapy to systemic therapy, according to the severity and extension of the disease. Moreover, we should not underestimate the use of biological agents and new therapy with lasers or iontophoresis. This review offers an investigation of the different treatment options for nail

  14. Artificial Hydration and Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crisis Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans ... Your Health Resources Healthcare Management Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Artificial Hydration and Nutrition Share Print Patients who ...

  15. Nail psoriasis: clinical features, pathogenesis, differential diagnoses, and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haneke E

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Eckart Haneke1–4 1Department of Dermatology, Inselspital, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; 2Dermatology Practice Dermaticum, Freiburg, Germany; 3Centro de Dermatología Epidermis, Instituto CUF, Porto, Portugal; 4Department of Dermatology, University Hospital, Gent, Belgium Abstract: Psoriasis is the skin disease that most frequently affects the nails. Depending on the very nail structure involved, different clinical nail alterations can be observed. Irritation of the apical matrix results in psoriatic pits, mid-matrix involvement may cause leukonychia, whole matrix affection may lead to red lunulae or severe nail dystrophy, nail bed involvement may cause salmon spots, subungual hyperkeratosis, and splinter hemorrhages, and psoriasis of the distal nail bed and hyponychium causes onycholysis whereas that of the proximal nail fold causes psoriatic paronychia. The more extensive the involvement, the more severe is the nail destruction. Pustular psoriasis may be seen as yellow spots under the nail or, in case of acrodermatitis continua suppurativa, as an insidious progressive loss of the nail organ. Nail psoriasis has a severe impact on quality of life and may interfere with professional and other activities. Management includes patient counseling, avoidance of stress and strain to the nail apparatus, and different types of treatment. Topical therapy may be tried but is rarely sufficiently efficient. Perilesional injections with corticosteroids and methotrexate are often beneficial but may be painful and cannot be applied to many nails. All systemic treatments clearing widespread skin lesions usually also clear the nail lesions. Recently, biologicals were introduced into nail psoriasis treatment and found to be very effective. However, their use is restricted to severe cases due to high cost and potential systemic adverse effects. Keywords: nail psoriasis, etiology, pathology, quality of life, impact, treatment

  16. Current indications for open Kuntscher nailing of femoral shaft ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current indications for open Kuntscher nailing of femoral shaft fractures. A S Bajwa FCS(SA)ORTH. E Schnaid FCS(SA)ORTH. M E B Sweet MD PhD(rned). University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. Key Words: Kuntscher nail, intramedullary nail, femoral fracture. We retrospectively reviewed 32 patients with.

  17. Estimation of arsenic in nail using silver diethyldithiocarbamate method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habiba Akhter Bhuiyan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Spectrophotometric method of arsenic estimation in nails has four steps: a washing of nails, b digestion of nails, c arsenic generation, and finally d reading absorbance using spectrophotometer. Although the method is a cheapest one, widely used and effective, it is time consuming, laborious and need caution while using four acids.

  18. Guidance on maintaining personal hygiene in nail care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, Bridget; Berridge, Pat

    Nail care is important in the maintenance of personal hygiene and is an essential aspect of patient care. Confusion about who should perform nail care for patients has resulted in poor practice and cycles of non-activity. This article provides guidance for nurses on performing routine nail care.

  19. Retained portion of latex glove during femoral nailing. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadat-Ali, M; Marwah, S; al-Habdan, I

    1996-11-01

    A case of retained glove during Kuntscher intramedullary nailing is described. An abscess around the glove could have lead to osteomyelitis. One need to be cautious feeling the top end of the nail while femoral nailing to avoid such a complication.

  20. Withdrawal Strength and Bending Yield Strength of Stainless Steel Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that stainless steel nails have superior corrosion performance compared to carbon steel or galvanized nails in treated wood; however, their mechanical fastening behavior is unknown. In this paper, the performance of stainless steel nails is examined with respect to two important properties used in wood connection design: withdrawal strength...

  1. Endomedullar nail of metacarpal and proximal phalanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez Olaya, Francisco Javier; Sanchez Mesa, Pedro Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Prospective study, series of cases; it included patients with diaphysis fractures and union diaphysis-neck or union diaphysis-base of metacarpal and proximal phalanges, in whom was practiced anterograde intramedullary nailing previous closed reduction of the fracture, using prevent intramedullary nail of 1.6 mm. (cem 16) for the metacarpal fractures, and two nail prevent of 1.0 mm. (cem 10) for the proximal phalangeal fractures. Indications: transverse and oblique short fractures, spiral and with comminuting bicortical. Pursuit average is 5.7 months. Frequency surgical intervened patient: 2.2 each month, using this surgical technique a total of 20 (twenty) patients have been operated, 21 (twenty one) fractures; 16 (sixteen) metacarcal fractures and 5 (five) proximal phalangeal fractures, all of them tested using clinical and radiological parameters. Results: good 82%, regular 18%, and bad 0% obtaining bony consolidation and early rehabilitation with incorporation to their habitual works

  2. Complications during removal of stainless steel versus titanium nails used for intramedullary nailing of diaphyseal fractures of the tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyhan, Mustafa; Guler, Olcay; Mahirogullari, Mahir; Donmez, Ferdi; Gereli, Arel; Mutlu, Serhat

    2018-02-01

    Intramedullary nailing is the treatment of choice for fractures of the tibial shaft, which might necessitate the nail removal due to complications in the long-term. Although considered as a low-risk procedure, intramedullary nail removal is also associated with certain complications. Here, we compared the most commonly used stainless steel and titanium nails with respect to the complications during removal and clinical outcome for intramedullary nailing of diaphyseal fractures of the tibia. Sixty-two patients (26 females, 36 males) were included in this retrospective study. Of the removed nails, 24 were of stainless steel and 38 of titanium. Preoperative and intraoperative parameters, such as implant discomfort, anterior knee pain, operating time and amount of bleeding, and postoperative outcomes were evaluated for each patient. Titanium nail group had more, but not statistically significant, intraoperative complications than stainless steel group during the removal of nails (p = .4498). Operating time and amount of intraoperative bleeding were significantly higher in titanium group than stainless steel group (p = .0306 and p titanium nails than those of stainless steel nails, whereas there was no difference in terms of postoperative SF-36 and KSS scores. In conclusion, although greater bone contact with titanium increases implant stability, nail removal is more difficult, resulting in more longer surgical operation and more intraoperative bleeding. Therefore, we do not recommend titanium nail removal in asymptomatic patients.

  3. Intramedullary nailing of clavicular midshaft fractures in adults using titanium elastic nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Qing-yv

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: Studies showed elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN of displaced midclavicular fractures has excellent outcomes, as well as high complication rates and specific problems. The aim was to discuss ESIN of midshaft clavicular fractures. Methods: Totally 60 eligible patients (aged 18-63 years were randomized to either ESIN group or non-operative group between January 2007 and May 2008. Clavicular shortening was measured after trauma and osseous consolidation. Radiographic union and complications were assessed. Function analysis including Constant shoulder scores and disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH scores were performed after a 15-month follow-up. Results: ESIN led to a signifcantly shorter time to union, especially for simple fractures. In ESIN group, all patients got fracture union, of which 5 cases had medial skin irritation and 1 patient needed revision surgery because of implant failure. In the nonoperative group, there were 3 nonunion cases and 2 symptomatic malunions developed requiring corrective osteotomy. At 15 months after intramedullary stabilization, patients in the ESIN group were more satisfied with the appearance of the shoulder and overall outcome, and they benefited a lot from the great improvement of post-traumatic clavicular shortening. Furthermore, DASH scores were lower and Constant scores were significantly higher in contrast to the non-operative group. Conclusion: ESIN is a safe minimally invasive surgical technique with lower complication rate, faster return to daily activities, excellent cosmetic and better functional results, restoration of clavicular length for treating mid-shaft clavicular fractures, resulting in high overall satisfaction, which can be regard as an alternative to plate fixation or nonoperative treatment of mid-shaft clavicular fractures. Key words: Clavicle; Fracture fixation intramedu- llary; Outcome assessment

  4. Intramedullary nailing of clavicular midshaft fractures in adults using titanium elastic nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing-Yu; Kou, Dong-Quan; Cheng, Xiao-Jie; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Wei; Lin, Zhang-Qin; Cheng, Shao-Wen; Shen, Yue; Ying, Xiao-Zhou; Peng, Lei; Lv, Chuan-Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Studies showed elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) of displaced midclavicular fractures has excellent outcomes, as well as high complication rates and specific problems. The aim was to discuss ESIN of midshaft clavicular fractures. Totally 60 eligible patients (aged 18-63 years) were randomized to either ESIN group or non-operative group between January 2007 and May 2008. Clavicular shortening was measured after trauma and osseous consolidation. Radiographic union and complications were assessed. Function analysis including Constant shoulder scores and disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH) scores were performed after a 15-month follow-up. ESIN led to a signifcantly shorter time to union, especially for simple fractures. In ESIN group, all patients got fracture union, of which 5 cases had medial skin irritation and 1 patient needed revision surgery because of implant failure. In the nonoperative group, there were 3 nonunion cases and 2 symptomatic malunions developed requiring corrective osteotomy. At 15 months after intramedullary stabilization, patients in the ESIN group were more satisfied with the appearance of the shoulder and overall outcome, and they benefited a lot from the great improvement of post-traumatic clavicular shortening. Furthermore, DASH scores were lower and Constant scores were significantly higher in contrast to the non-operative group. ESIN is a safe minimally invasive surgical technique with lower complication rate, faster return to daily activities, excellent cosmetic and better functional results, restoration of clavicular length for treating mid-shaft clavicular fractures, resulting in high overall satisfaction, which can be regard as an alternative to plate fixation or nonoperative treatment of mid-shaft clavicular fractures.

  5. Complications during removal of stainless steel versus titanium nails used for intramedullary nailing of diaphyseal fractures of the tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Seyhan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Intramedullary nailing is the treatment of choice for fractures of the tibial shaft, which might necessitate the nail removal due to complications in the long-term. Although considered as a low-risk procedure, intramedullary nail removal is also associated with certain complications. Here, we compared the most commonly used stainless steel and titanium nails with respect to the complications during removal and clinical outcome for intramedullary nailing of diaphyseal fractures of the tibia. Patients and methods: Sixty-two patients (26 females, 36 males were included in this retrospective study. Of the removed nails, 24 were of stainless steel and 38 of titanium. Preoperative and intraoperative parameters, such as implant discomfort, anterior knee pain, operating time and amount of bleeding, and postoperative outcomes were evaluated for each patient. Results: Titanium nail group had more, but not statistically significant, intraoperative complications than stainless steel group during the removal of nails (p = .4498. Operating time and amount of intraoperative bleeding were significantly higher in titanium group than stainless steel group (p = .0306 and p < .001, respectively. Preoperative SF-36 physical component and KSS scores were significantly lower in patients who had removal of titanium nails than those of stainless steel nails, whereas there was no difference in terms of postoperative SF-36 and KSS scores. Conclusion: In conclusion, although greater bone contact with titanium increases implant stability, nail removal is more difficult, resulting in more longer surgical operation and more intraoperative bleeding. Therefore, we do not recommend titanium nail removal in asymptomatic patients. Keywords: Fractures of tibial shaft, Removal of intramedullary nailing, Stainless steel nail, Titanium nail

  6. Gas hydrate in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2018-01-17

    Gas hydrate is a naturally occurring, ice-like substance that forms when water and gas combine under high pressure and at moderate temperatures. Methane is the most common gas present in gas hydrate, although other gases may also be included in hydrate structures, particularly in areas close to conventional oil and gas reservoirs. Gas hydrate is widespread in ocean-bottom sediments at water depths greater than 300–500 meters (m; 984–1,640 feet [ft]) and is also present in areas with permanently frozen ground (permafrost). Several countries are evaluating gas hydrate as a possible energy resource in deepwater or permafrost settings. Gas hydrate is also under investigation to determine how environmental change may affect these deposits.

  7. Gas hydrate nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The overall aim of the project was to gain more knowledge about the kinetics of gas hydrate formation especially the early growth phase. Knowledge of kinetics of gas hydrate formation is important and measurements of gas hydrate particle size and concentration can contribute to improve this knowledge. An experimental setup for carrying out experimental studies of the nucleation and growth of gas hydrates has been constructed and tested. Multi wavelength extinction (MWE) was the experimental technique selected for obtaining particle diameter and concentration. The principle behind MWE is described as well as turbidity spectrum analysis that in an initial stage of the project was considered as an alternative experimental technique. Details of the experimental setup and its operation are outlined. The measuring cell consists of a 1 litre horizontal tube sustaining pressures up to 200 bar. Laser light for particle size determination can be applied through sapphire windows. A description of the various auxiliary equipment and of another gas hydrate cell used in the study are given. A computer program for simulation and analysis of gas hydrate experiments is based on the gas hydrate kinetics model proposed by Skovborg and Rasmussen (1993). Initial measurements showed that knowledge of the refractive index of gas hydrates was important in order to use MWE. An experimental determination of the refractive index of methane and natural gas hydrate is described. The test experiments performed with MWE on collectives of gas hydrate particles and experiments with ethane, methane and natural gas hydrate are discussed. Gas hydrate particles initially seem to grow mainly in size and at latter stages in number. (EG) EFP-94; 41 refs.

  8. Gas hydrate nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The overall aim of the project was to gain more knowledge about the kinetics of gas hydrate formation especially the early growth phase. Knowledge of kinetics of gas hydrate formation is important and measurements of gas hydrate particle size and concentration can contribute to improve this knowledge. An experimental setup for carrying out experimental studies of the nucleation and growth of gas hydrates has been constructed and tested. Multi wavelength extinction (MWE) was the experimental technique selected for obtaining particle diameter and concentration. The principle behind MWE is described as well as turbidity spectrum analysis that in an initial stage of the project was considered as an alternative experimental technique. Details of the experimental setup and its operation are outlined. The measuring cell consists of a 1 litre horizontal tube sustaining pressures up to 200 bar. Laser light for particle size determination can be applied through sapphire windows. A description of the various auxiliary equipment and of another gas hydrate cell used in the study are given. A computer program for simulation and analysis of gas hydrate experiments is based on the gas hydrate kinetics model proposed by Skovborg and Rasmussen (1993). Initial measurements showed that knowledge of the refractive index of gas hydrates was important in order to use MWE. An experimental determination of the refractive index of methane and natural gas hydrate is described. The test experiments performed with MWE on collectives of gas hydrate particles and experiments with ethane, methane and natural gas hydrate are discussed. Gas hydrate particles initially seem to grow mainly in size and at latter stages in number. (EG) EFP-94; 41 refs.

  9. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients SPOT Skin Cancer™ Community programs & events Learn about skin cancer ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Skin, hair, and nail ...

  10. Comparison of different nail bending apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vianen, H.P.C.A.; Schot, F.; Vermeltfoort, A.Th.

    1992-01-01

    A research to develope a registrated testmethod to define the allowable bending moment of a nail was started in spring of this year. A request for a registrated testmethod is caused by the final project of ir. H.P.C.A. Vianen ‘s study. The consequence of developing new codes in The Netherlands and

  11. Nail Properties and Bone Health: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouya Saeedi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties of nail may offer valuable insight into the health of bone. Currently, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA is the gold standard technique for evaluating bone health through bone mineral density (BMD. However, only 70% of fractures are explained by low BMD according to DXA. Therefore, the World Health Organisation recommended the need for the development of alternative methods of assessing bone health. Keratin and collagen type I are major proteins in nail and bone, respectively. Both of these proteins undergo post-translational modifications, with a possible correlation between the degree of post-translational modifications in keratin and collagen. Raman spectroscopy is a technique used to detect changes in protein composition and structure. As changes in protein function and structure may be associated with the development of osteoporosis, Raman spectroscopy may be a valuable adjunct to assess bone health and fracture risk. This review critically evaluates various methods and techniques to identify the link between nail properties and bone health. The strengths and limitations of various studies and the potential use of nail protein and minerals to evaluate bone health have been also presented.

  12. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and rosacea Bumps and growths Color problems Contagious skin diseases Cosmetic treatments Dry / sweaty skin Eczema / dermatitis Hair ... de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c public SPOT Skin Cancer™ Diseases and treatments Skin, hair, and nail care Skin ...

  13. Cerebral damage caused by nail gun injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Chris Hedeman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Accidents with nail guns are rather common, especially in the construction industry. Most injuries involve the extremities and several present with intracerebral injuries. When the patient is unconscious, it can be a big challenge to determine whether the injury is an accident, self-inflicted or a criminal act.

  14. Side Effects: Skin and Nail Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatments can cause skin to become dry, itchy, red, or peel. Nails may become dark, yellow, or cracked. Learn about signs of skin problems that may need urgent medical care. Get a helpful list of questions to ask your doctor.

  15. reoperation rates following intramedullary nailing versus external

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Fifty patients were enrolled and completed follow-up at all-time points; twenty-six were treated with IM nail and ... patients over 18 years with Gustilo Type 3A open tibia .... in a randomized fashion with larger sample sizes are.

  16. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of hangnails, or other triggers, such as boredom, stress, or anxiety. By figuring out what causes you to bite your nails, you can figure out how to avoid these situations and develop a plan to stop. Just knowing when you’re inclined to bite may help solve the problem. Try to gradually stop biting ...

  17. Thumb fingertip reconstruction with palmar V-Y flaps combined with bone and nail bed grafts following amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Wang, Libo; Mi, Jingyi; Xu, Yajun; Rui, Yongjun; Xue, Mingyu; Shen, Xiaofang; Qiang, Li

    2015-04-01

    The aim of treating thumb fingertip amputations with no indication for replantation is to reestablish functional and esthetic properties. From March 2005 to October 2008, we treated 14 patients with thumb fingertip amputation using palmar V-Y flaps combined with bone and nail bed grafts. There were 10 men and 4 women, whose ages at surgery ranged from 19 to 63 years (mean 35.8 years). In all, 11 of the injuries occurred in the dominant hand. According to Allen's classification, two were type II, seven were type III, and five were type IV. All patients underwent emergency surgery, with a time delay after injury of 3-12 h (mean 6.4 h). In each case, the amputation was a crush or avulsion injury, making microsurgical replantation not feasible. All of the flaps survived. At 8-17 months (average 12.8 months) of follow-up, the average subjective satisfaction score was 8.64. All patients experienced cold intolerance, and none of the patients complained of dysesthesia. Favorable results (excellent or good) were found in 78.6%. Thin primary nails appeared on the grafted nail bed about 3 weeks after surgery, following which the newly formed nail thickened and developed a more natural appearance. In one case, the new nail plate showed abnormal thickening due to hyperkeratosis. The bone graft healed at 5 weeks. The mean two-point discrimination was 7.5 mm. Grip strength was 10% less than that in the unaffected hand. Metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joint mobility losses were less than 10°. All patients returned to their jobs. No patients had postoperative complications. We believe that the combination of palmar V-Y flap and bone and nail bed grafts provides a distinct advantage over other choices. It improves function when replantation is not an option.

  18. Sarcoidosis: radiographic manifestations in the nails and distal phalanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, Brittany K.; Garner, Hillary W. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Jacksonville, FL (United States); Sluzevich, Jason C. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Dermatology, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease which can affect multiple organ systems. Clinical and radiologic manifestations depend on the organ system involved and the chronicity of disease. Nail involvement in sarcoidosis is rare, but is clinically relevant as it indicates chronic systemic disease. Nail abnormalities can be identified radiographically, and when seen in patients with known or suspected sarcoidosis, should prompt careful evaluation of the underlying bone for osseous involvement. We describe a case of sarcoidosis with radiographic findings in the nails and distal phalangeal tufts, which were indicative of nail and osseous sarcoid involvement and strongly supported the presence of chronic systemic disease. Although the nail findings resolved clinically and on radiographs after treatment, the osseous findings showed only minimal improvement. To our knowledge, the radiographic findings of nail sarcoidosis have not been previously addressed in the literature. (orig.)

  19. Sarcoidosis: radiographic manifestations in the nails and distal phalanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albers, Brittany K.; Garner, Hillary W.; Sluzevich, Jason C.

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease which can affect multiple organ systems. Clinical and radiologic manifestations depend on the organ system involved and the chronicity of disease. Nail involvement in sarcoidosis is rare, but is clinically relevant as it indicates chronic systemic disease. Nail abnormalities can be identified radiographically, and when seen in patients with known or suspected sarcoidosis, should prompt careful evaluation of the underlying bone for osseous involvement. We describe a case of sarcoidosis with radiographic findings in the nails and distal phalangeal tufts, which were indicative of nail and osseous sarcoid involvement and strongly supported the presence of chronic systemic disease. Although the nail findings resolved clinically and on radiographs after treatment, the osseous findings showed only minimal improvement. To our knowledge, the radiographic findings of nail sarcoidosis have not been previously addressed in the literature. (orig.)

  20. Outcome of Distal Both Bone Leg Fractures Fixed by Intramedulary Nail for Fibula & MIPPO in Tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anil; Anjum, Rashid; Singh, Navdeep; Hackla, Shafiq

    2015-04-01

    Fractures of the distal third of the tibia are mostly associated with a fibular fracture that often requires fixation. The preferred treatment of distal tibial fracture is the minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) procedure. However, there are no clear cut guidelines on fixation of the fibular fracture and currently most orthopedic surgeons use a plate osteosynthesis for the fibula as well. A common complication associated with dual plating is an increased chance of soft tissue necrosis, infection, and in some cases resulting in an exposed implant. We conducted a prospective study to analyze the results of fractures of the distal in both leg bones managed by the MIPPO procedure for tibial fractures and a rush nail for fibular fractures. The study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital from November 2012 to May 2014, a total of 30 fractures in 30 patients (18 males, 12 females) with a mean age of 42.4 years (26-60 years) were treated in our institution in the aforesaid time period with MIPPO for tibia and rush nail for fibular fractures. All the cases were operated on by a single surgeon in emergency within 24 hours. The patients with skin blistering and compound fractures were excluded from this study. Rehabilitative measures were proceeded as per patient's pain profile, isometric and isotonic exercises were started on the first post-operative day, with full weight bearing at 10-12 weeks after assessing clinical and radiological union. Regular follow up of patients was done, radiographs were taken at the immediate post-operative period and at 3, 6, 12 and 24 weeks. All the patients were available for regular follow up. Radiological and clinical union proceeded normally in all the patients, no patients had signs of any deep infection, delayed union or nonunion, three patients had a superficial infection of the tibial incision that healed with a change in antibiotic. The use of dual plating for fixation of the lower tibia and fibula

  1. [Tibio-talo-calcaneal arthrodesis with the retrograde intramedullary nail MEDIN].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popelka, S; Vavřík, P; Landor, I; Bek, J; Popelka ml, S; Hromádka, R

    2013-01-01

    When the talus and the talocalcaneal joint are both affected, their fusion is the method of treatment. Ankle arthrodesis is carried out using various osteosynthetic materials such as external fixators, screws and plates. One of the options is retrograde nailing. Tibio-talo-calcaneal arthrodesis is frequently indicated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in whom both the talus and the subtalar joint are often affected. A retrograde nail for tibio-talo-calcaneal arthrodesis was developed at our department in cooperation with MEDIN Company. This is a titanium double-curved nail, with the distal part bent at 8 degrees ventrally and 10 degrees laterally. It is inserted from the transfibular approach. Sixty-two patients, 35 women and 27 men, were treated at our department from 2005. Since one patient had bilateral surgery, 63 ankles were included. The indications for arthrodesis involved rheumatoid arthritis in 42, post-traumatic arthritis in 10, failed ankle arthrodesis in two and failed total ankle arthroplasty in five ankles; tibial stress fractures close above the ankle in two RA patients, one patient with dermatomyositis and one with lupus erythematodes. The average age at the time of surgery was 64.2 years (range, 30 to 80). The average follow-up was 4.5 years (range, 1 to 9 years), Satisfaction with the treatment outcome and willingness to undergo surgery on the other side were reported by 82% of the patients. The AOFAS score improved from 35 to 74 points. Three (4.8%) patients complained of painful feet due to the fact that exact correction of the calcaneus was not achieved and the heel after arthrodesis remained in a slightly varus position. Of them, two had a failed total ankle arthroplasty. Post-operative complications included early infection managed by antibiotic treatment and early surgical revision with irrigation.in two (3.2%) RA patients, who were undergoing biological therapy. Late infection developed at 2 to 3 years after surgery in three (4

  2. Mismatch analysis of humeral nailing. Antegrade versus retrograde insertion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaisavariya, B.; Jiamwatthanachai, P.; Aroonjarattham, P.; Aroonjarattham, K.; Wongcumchang, M.; Sitthiseripratip, K.

    2011-01-01

    Closed humeral nailing is now considered an alternative treatment for humeral-shaft fracture. The nail can be inserted with either the antegrade or retrograde method. We investigated and compared the problem of geometric mismatch of the humeral nail to the humerus between the two methods of insertion. The study was performed using virtual simulation based on computed tomography (CT) data of 76 Thai cadaveric humeri and the commonly used Russell-Taylor humeral nail 8 mm in diameter and 220 mm long. Mismatch of the nail to the intact humerus was analyzed and compared between the antegrade and retrograde nailing approaches. The results showed: the diameter of the medullary canal averaged 7.9-13.8 mm; the minimal reaming diameter to accommodate virtual nail insertion averaged 8.8-14.8 mm for the antegrade and 8.8-29.3 mm for the retrograde approach; the minimal reaming thickness of the inner cortex averaged 0.1-1.5 mm for the antegrade and 0.1-9.9 mm for the retrograde approach; the percentages of cortical bone removed prior to nail insertion were 3.8-107.1% and 3.8-1,287.6% for the antegrade and retrograde approaches, respectively; the eccentricity of the nail-medullary canal center were 0.4-3.4 and 0.4-10.6 mm for the antegrade and retrograde approaches, respectively. Less mismatching occurred with antegrade nailing than with the retrograde approach. Retrograde nailing requires excessive reaming at the distal part of the humerus to accommodate nail insertion. This may create bone weakness and the risk of supracondylar fracture. (author)

  3. Correlation of trace metals in hair and nails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benischek-Huber, I.; Benischek, F.

    1985-01-01

    Correlation of Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn was studied in 350 hair and nail samples of 12 persons. Determination was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Cd, Pb and Hg concentrations are fluctuating significantly in the specimens. Correlation was found for these elements in hair and finger nails and for Pb in hair and toe nails. Zn and Cu are more stable, the ratios of contents in corresponding samples are within a small range. (author)

  4. Nail changes in alopecia areata: Incidence and pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi V

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available One hundred consecutive patients with alopecia areata were examined for presence of nail abnormalities. Nail changes were seen in 44/100 (44% of patients with most frequent occurrence in multifocal variety (30/44=68%. The commonest abnormality observed was superficial pits seen in 28(64% patients. Presence and severity of nail changes may indicate a more severe and recalcitrant disease.

  5. Hydration rate of obsidian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, I; Long, W

    1976-01-30

    The hydration rates of 12 obsidian samples of different chemical compositions were measured at temperatures from 95 degrees to 245 degrees C. An expression relating hydration rate to temperature was derived for each sample. The SiO(2) content and refractive index are related to the hydration rate, as are the CaO, MgO, and original water contents. With this information it is possible to calculate the hydration rate of a sample from its silica content, refractive index, or chemical index and a knowledge of the effective temperature at which the hydration occurred. The effective hydration temperature can be either measured or approximated from weather records. Rates have been calculated by both methods, and the results show that weather records can give a good approximation to the true EHT, particularly in tropical and subtropical climates. If one determines the EHT by any of the methods suggested, and also measures or knows the rate of hydration of the particular obsidian used, it should be possible to carry out absolute dating to +/- 10 percent of the true age over periods as short as several years and as long as millions of years.

  6. Fatigue failure of the cephalomedullary nail: revision options, outcomes and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Adam; Warnock, Michael; McDonald, Sinead; Cusick, Laurence; Foster, Andrew P

    2018-04-01

    Cephalomedullary nail (CMN) failure is a rare entity following hip fracture treatment. However, it poses significant challenges for revision surgery, both mechanically and biologically. Nail failure rates have been reported at failure, compared to "adequate" and "good" (p = 0.027). Tip-Apex Distance (TAD) mean was 23.2 ± 8.3 mm, and an adequate TAD with three-point fixation was seen in only 35% of cases. Mean time to failure was 401.0 ± 237.2 days, with mean age at failure of 74.0 ± 14.8 years. Options after failure included revision CMN nail, proximal femoral locking plate (PFLP), long-stem or restoration arthroplasty, or femoral endoprosthesis. Barthel Functional Index scores showed no significant difference at 3 and 12 months post-operatively, nor any difference between treatment groups. Mean 12-month mortality was 30%, akin to a primary hip fracture mortality risk according to NICE guidelines. Mortality rates were lowest in revision nails. Subsequent revision rates were higher in the PFLP group. There is no reported evidence on the best surgical technique for managing the failed CMN, with no clear functional benefit in the options above. Good surgical technique at the time of primary CMN surgery is critical in minimising fatigue failure. After revision, overall mortality rates were equivalent to reported primary hip fracture mortality rates. Further multicentre evaluations are required to assess which technique convey the best functional outcomes without compromising 12-month mortality rates.

  7. Image Analysis for Nail-fold Capillaroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Vucic, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Detection of diseases in an early stage is very important since it can make the treatment of patients easier, safer and more ecient. For the detection of rheumatic diseases, and even prediction of tendencies towards such diseases, capillaroscopy is becoming an increasingly recognized method. Nail-fold capillaroscopy is a non-invasive imaging technique that is used for analysis of microcirculation abnormalities that may lead todisease like systematic sclerosis, Reynauds phenomenon and others. ...

  8. Methane Hydrates: Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Ray; Yamamoto, Koji; Lee, Sung-Rock; Collett, Timothy S.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Dallimore, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Gas hydrate is a solid, naturally occurring substance consisting predominantly of methane gas and water. Recent scientific drilling programs in Japan, Canada, the United States, Korea and India have demonstrated that gas hydrate occurs broadly and in a variety of forms in shallow sediments of the outer continental shelves and in Arctic regions. Field, laboratory and numerical modelling studies conducted to date indicate that gas can be extracted from gas hydrates with existing production technologies, particularly for those deposits in which the gas hydrate exists as pore-filling grains at high saturation in sand-rich reservoirs. A series of regional resource assessments indicate that substantial volumes of gas hydrate likely exist in sand-rich deposits. Recent field programs in Japan, Canada and in the United States have demonstrated the technical viability of methane extraction from gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs and have investigated a range of potential production scenarios. At present, basic reservoir depressurisation shows the greatest promise and can be conducted using primarily standard industry equipment and procedures. Depressurisation is expected to be the foundation of future production systems; additional processes, such as thermal stimulation, mechanical stimulation and chemical injection, will likely also be integrated as dictated by local geological and other conditions. An innovative carbon dioxide and methane swapping technology is also being studied as a method to produce gas from select gas hydrate deposits. In addition, substantial additional volumes of gas hydrate have been found in dense arrays of grain-displacing veins and nodules in fine-grained, clay-dominated sediments; however, to date, no field tests, and very limited numerical modelling, have been conducted with regard to the production potential of such accumulations. Work remains to further refine: (1) the marine resource volumes within potential accumulations that can be

  9. Cold plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marroquin, Christopher M.; O' Connell, Kevin M.; Schultz, Mark D.; Tian, Shurong

    2018-02-13

    A cold plate, an electronic assembly including a cold plate, and a method for forming a cold plate are provided. The cold plate includes an interface plate and an opposing plate that form a plenum. The cold plate includes a plurality of active areas arranged for alignment over respective heat generating portions of an electronic assembly, and non-active areas between the active areas. A cooling fluid flows through the plenum. The plenum, at the non-active areas, has a reduced width and/or reduced height relative to the plenum at the active areas. The reduced width and/or height of the plenum, and exterior dimensions of cold plate, at the non-active areas allow the non-active areas to flex to accommodate surface variations of the electronics assembly. The reduced width and/or height non-active areas can be specifically shaped to fit between physical features of the electronics assembly.

  10. Nail bed expansion: A new technique for correction of multiple isolated congenital micronychia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Ghaffarpour

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital micronychia may involve big toes or may involve other nails. The etiology of micronychia is not clear but amniotic bands, teratogens (drugs, alcohol, Nail Patella Syndrome etc. A 44-year-old woman with multiple isolated congenital micronychia over her hands and feet was selected. The major affected nails were thumbs and Index fingers. Surgical method were done step by step: Anesthesia of the area, extraction of short nail, elevation of nail bed, longitudinal nail bed incisions, suturing the lateral nail bed to the nail wall, covering the nail bed by a splint of plastic suction tube, bandage with gauze Vaseline. Finally, we hypnotized that in congenital micronychia, the main pathology is in nail bed; through this theory by nail bed expansion better outcomes are coming.

  11. Plating laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamster, A.G.; Weitkamp, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The lead plating of the prototype resonator has been conducted entirely in the plating laboratory at SUNY Stony Brook. Because of the considerable cost and inconvenience in transporting personnel and materials to and from Stony Brook, it is clearly impractical to plate all the resonators there. Furthermore, the high-beta resonator cannot be accommodated at Stony Brook without modifying the set up there. Consequently the authors are constructing a plating lab in-house

  12. The Hammer-and-Nail Phenomenon in Mathematics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Kien H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses the hammer-and-nail metaphor to highlight the rigidity and impulsiveness that can be found in student mathematical behaviour. The hammer-and-nail phenomenon can be attributed to two plausible causes: (1) the way the human mind works; and (2) the way mathematics is traditionally taught in school. In this paper, the following aspects…

  13. Reference values for the nickel concentration in human finger nails

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Peters, K; Menné, T

    1991-01-01

    A reference value for the nickel concentration in finger nails from people who are not occupationally exposed to nickel was determined on the basis of nail samples from 95 healthy individuals. The mean +/- standard deviation was 1.19 +/- 1.61 mg/kg and the median was 0.49 mg/kg (range 0.042-7.50 mg...

  14. NAIL KERATIN AS MONITOR-TISSUE FOR SELENIUM EXPOSURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANNOORD, PAH; MAAS, MJ; DEBRUIN, M

    1992-01-01

    Nail clippings might provide a way to monitor exposure to selenium in the recent past of an individual, since a clipping collected from a toe would reflect exposures months before actual clipping date. The relation between levels of exogenous selenium exposure and selenium levels in nail keratin was

  15. Use of flexible facing for soil nail walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    Soil nail walls are a widely used technology for retaining vertical and nearly vertical cuts in soil. A : significant portion of the cost of soil nail wall construction is related to the construction of a reinforced : concrete face. The potential for...

  16. Treatment of unstable trochanteric fractures. Randomised comparison of the gamma nail and the proximal femoral nail.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, I.B.; Steyerberg, E.W.; Castelein, R.M.; Heijden, F.H. van der; Hoed, P.T. den; Kerver, A.J.; Vugt, A.B. van

    2004-01-01

    The proximal femoral nail (PFN) is a recently introduced intramedullary system, designed to improve treatment of unstable trochanteric fractures of the hip. In a multicentre prospective clinical study, the intra-operative use, complications and outcome of treatment using the PFN (n = 211) were

  17. Safe surgical technique: intramedullary nail fixation of tibial shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelle, Boris A; Boni, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Statically locked, reamed intramedullary nailing remains the standard treatment for displaced tibial shaft fractures. Establishing an appropriate starting point is a crucial part of the surgical procedure. Recently, suprapatellar nailing in the semi-extended position has been suggested as a safe and effective surgical technique. Numerous reduction techiques are available to achieve an anatomic fracture alignment and the treating surgeon should be familiar with these maneuvers. Open reduction techniques should be considered if anatomic fracture alignment cannot be achieved by closed means. Favorable union rates above 90 % can be achieved by both reamed and unreamed intramedullary nailing. Despite favorable union rates, patients continue to have functional long-term impairments. In particular, anterior knee pain remains a common complaint following intramedullary tibial nailing. Malrotation remains a commonly reported complication after tibial nailing. The effect of postoperative tibial malalignment on the clinical and radiographic outcome requires further investigation.

  18. Nail lesions as a main manifestation of lichen nitidus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Sobjanek

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Lichen nitidus (LN is a rare, chronic, inflammatory dermatosis usually affecting children and young adults. Nails involvement is very rare. Until now, 7 cases of LN with nail involvement have been described. Objective. To present a rare case of childhood lichen nitidus where trachyonychia was the main manifestation of the disease. Case report. A 7-year-old, Caucasian, previously healthy boy presented thumbnail longitudinal ridges, distal splitting and subungual hyperkeratosis for 7 months. Numerous mycological and bacteriological examinations were negative. Dermatological examination also revealed erythematous lesions on the proximal nail fold as well as small skin-pigmented papules on the thumb. Similar papules grouped into patches were also observed on the upper limbs, trunk and forehead. Treatment was not recommended. Conclusions . Lichen nitidus may rarely affect nails and should be considered as a possible cause of nail lesions in childhood.

  19. Drug delivery into microneedle-porated nails from nanoparticle reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Wing Sin; Belsey, Natalie A; Garrett, Natalie L; Moger, Julian; Price, Gareth J; Delgado-Charro, M Begoña; Guy, Richard H

    2015-12-28

    This study demonstrates the potential of polymeric nanoparticles as drug reservoirs for sustained topical drug delivery into microneedle-treated human nail. Laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to image the delivery of a fluorescent model compound from nanoparticles into the nail. A label-free imaging technique, stimulated Raman scattering microscopy, was applied, in conjunction with two-photon fluorescence imaging, to probe the disposition of nanoparticles and an associated lipophilic 'active' in a microneedle-porated nail. The results provide clear evidence that the nanoparticles function as immobile reservoirs, sequestered on the nail surface and in the microneedle-generated pores, from which the active payload can be released and diffuse laterally into the nail over an extended period of time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Fe distribution and speciation in human nails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsikini, M., E-mail: katsiki@auth.g [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Pinakidou, F.; Mavromati, E.; Paloura, E.C. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, School of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Gioulekas, D. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Medical School, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Grolimund, D. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherer Institut, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2010-02-15

    Micro-X-ray Fluorescence (mu-XRF) and Fe-K edge micro-X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (mu-XANES) spectroscopies are applied for the study of the distribution and the spatially-resolved bonding environment of Fe in human nails. The mu-XRF maps reveal that Fe forms islands where its concentration is up to six times higher than in the rest of the sample. Comparison of the map characteristics of two nails that belong to healthy and ill donors (affected by lung cancer), reveals that there is no significant variation in the size distribution of the Fe-rich inclusions contrary to their spatial density which is found higher in the nail of the ill donor. However, a relation between the variations of the spatial density and the illness can not be established due to the small number of the studied samples. The analysis of the Fe-K mu-XANES spectra reveals that the bonding environment of Fe varies between the samples and between different spots of the same sample with different Fe concentration. The characteristics of the pre-edge peak in the Fe-K XANES spectra indicate the presence of both Fe{sup +3} and Fe{sup +2} that participate in the formation of distorted octahedra. Finally, the area under the pre-edge peak depends linearly on the position of the absorption edge indicating variation of the Fe ligation between the samples and/or between different spots in the same sample.

  1. Dosimetry during intramedullary nailing of the tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirousis, George; Delis, Harry; Megas, Panagiotis; Lambiris, Elias; Panayiotakis, George

    2009-10-01

    Intramedullary nailing under fluoroscopic guidance is a common operation. We studied the intraoperative radiation dose received by both the patient and the personnel. 25 intramedullary nailing procedures of the tibia were studied. All patients suffered from tibial fractures and were treated using the Grosse-Kempf intramedullary nail, with free-hand technique for fixation of the distal screws, under fluoroscopic guidance. The exposure, at selected positions, was recorded using an ion chamber, while the dose area product (DAP) was measured with a DAP meter, attached to the tube head. Thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were used to derive the occupational dose to the personnel, and also to monitor the surface dose on the gonads of some of the patients. The mean operation time was 101 (48-240) min, with a mean fluoroscopic time of 72 seconds and a mean DAP value of 75 cGy x cm(2). The surface dose to the gonads of the patients was less than 8.8 mGy during any procedure, and thus cannot be considered to be a contraindication for the use of this technique. Occupational dose differed substantially between members of the operating personnel, the maximum dose recorded being to the operator of the fluoroscopic equipment (0.11 mSv). Our findings underscore the care required by the primary operator not to exceed the dose constraint of 10 mSv per year. The rest of the operating personnel, although they do not receive very high doses, should focus on the dose optimization of the technique.

  2. [Are nail polish, artificial nails and piercings allowed outside the surgical area?Recommendations for the perioperative policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucx, M.J.L.; Krijtenburg, P.; Scheffer, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    - An increasing number of patients wear nail polish, artificial nails or have piercings.- There is uncertainty about the perioperative management of these items, especially when located outside the surgical area.- In the majority of hospitals, patients are urged to remove these items preoperatively,

  3. Trace elements in nail polish as a source of contamination of nail clippings when used in epidemiological studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favaro, P.C.; Bode, P.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    Trace elements were determined in 27 brands of nail polish using INAA so as to estimate the impact of nail polish remainders when using (finger, toe) nail clippings as a bioindicator for epidemiological studies. Fe was found to be present up to almost 1.7% in one brand. No unambiguous correlation between trace elements and color was established, though transparent polish has the lowest trace element concentrations. An estimate of the maximum effect (no removal of the paint) indicates that over-estimates of some trace element levels in nail with more than 200.000% may occur. If nail clippings will be used to study trace elements, very high demands have to be set to the efficiency and selectivity of the cleaning procedure. (author)

  4. Finite Element Analysis of Absorbable Sheath to Prevent Stress Shielding of Tibial Interlocking Intramedullary Nail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yansheng; Wang, Yongqing; Dong, Limin; Jia, Peng; Lu, Fengcheng

    2017-07-01

    The nail with absorbable sheath (AS nail) is designed to reduce the stress shielding effect of internal fixation with interlocking intramedullary nail. In order to verify its feasibility, two types of the finite element models of internal fixation of tibia with the AS nail and the common metal nail (CM nail) are established using the Softwares of Mimics, Geomagic, SolidWorks and ANSYS according to the CT scanning data of tibia. The result of the finite element analysis shows that the AS nail has great advantages compared with the CM nail in reducing the stress shielding effect in different periods of fracture healing. The conclusion is that the AS nail can realize the static fixation to the dynamic fixation from the early to the later automatically to shorten the time of fracture healing, which also provides a new technique to the interlocking intramedullary nail.

  5. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate

  6. Nail changes secondary to docetaxel chemotherapy : a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafoor Qamar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Docetaxel is a chemotherapy agent used in the management of many neoplastic conditions. Various side effects are known. Nail changes are often under-recognised or attributed to other causes. Case presentation We report the case of a 66 year old gentleman who received docetaxel chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer. He had nail changes as a complication of the treatment. Conclusion Nail toxicity is a recognised side-effect of taxane chemotherapy agents and can often persist for many months after finishing the treatment. We would like to highlight this problem, so it can be considered as a differential diagnosis in the appropriate population.

  7. Efficacy Coefficients Determined Using Nail Permeability and Antifungal Activity in Keratin-Containing Media Are Useful for Predicting Clinical Efficacies of Topical Drugs for Onychomycosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiki Matsuda

    Full Text Available Onychomycosis is difficult to treat topically due to the deep location of the infection under the densely keratinized nail plate. In order to obtain an in vitro index that is relevant to the clinical efficacy of topical anti-onychomycosis drugs, we profiled five topical drugs: amorolfine, ciclopirox, efinaconazole, luliconazole, and terbinafine, for their nail permeabilities, keratin affinities, and anti-dermatophytic activities in the presence of keratin. Efinaconazole and ciclopirox permeated full-thickness human nails more deeply than luliconazole. Amorolfine and terbinafine did not show any detectable permeation. The free-drug concentration of efinaconazole in a 5% human nail keratin suspension was 24.9%, which was significantly higher than those of the other drugs (1.1-3.9%. Additionally, efinaconazole was released from human nail keratin at a greater proportion than the other drugs. The MICs of the five drugs for Trichophyton rubrum were determined at various concentrations of keratin (0-20% in RPMI 1640 medium. The MICs of ciclopirox were not affected by keratin, whereas those of efinaconazole were slightly increased and those of luliconazole and terbinafine were markedly increased in the presence of 20% keratin. Efficacy coefficients were calculated using the nail permeation flux and MIC in media without or with keratin. Efinaconazole showed the highest efficacy coefficient, which was determined using MIC in media with keratin. The order of efficacy coefficients determined using MIC in keratin-containing media rather than keratin-free media was consistent with that of complete cure rates in previously reported clinical trials. The present study revealed that efficacy coefficients determined using MIC in keratin-containing media are useful for predicting the clinical efficacies of topical drugs. In order to be more effective, topical drugs have to possess higher efficacy coefficients.

  8. Nailed timber beams with I composed section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luís Nunes de Góes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The employment of built-up timber beams, made of commercial dimensions pieces, is becoming increasingly important in timber structures in Brazil, mainly due to the ever-growing scarcity of timber elements in larger sizes. The built-up system has vast application, from beams for residential buildings to girders for small bridges. The objective of this work is the theoretical and experimental study of nailed timber beams with composed cross section I. The design procedure of EUROCODE 5/93 and NBR 7190/97 are shown and evaluated, as well as the theory about the subject matter. The experimental evaluation of the theoretical models was made by means of bending tests in prototypes of built-up timber beams. The obtained results shows that the EUROCODE 5/93 procedure is the most indicated for evaluating effective bending stiffness, normal and shear stresses as well as the load on fasteners.

  9. Biomechanics – Elastic Foundation Applied in Modelling of Calcaneal Nails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejda František

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a strength analysis of a calcaneal nail (material Ti6Al4V and stainless steel which is used to treat complex heel fractures. The application focuses on a unique calcaneal nail, the C-NAIL, produced by Medin a.s. (Nové Město na Moravě, Czech Republic. The paper first presents an analysis of fracture types, treatment methods and loading of the calcaneus. It then presents an analysis of limit conditions and loading. Calculations (displacement and stress are performed for 6 and 7 fixing screws using FEM (Ansys Workbench 14 software. The calculation involves a new, original application of an elastic foundation, which effectively replaces the complex interaction of the calcaneal nail and the heel bone.

  10. Fracture Union in Closed Interlocking Nail in Humeral Shaft Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramji Lal Sahu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of the present study indicates that in the presence of proper indications, reamed antegrade intramedullary interlocked nailing appears to be a method of choice for internal fixation of osteoporotic and pathologic fractures.

  11. Retrograde nailing for distal femur fractures in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giddie Jasdeep

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We report the results of treating a series of 56 fractures in 54 elderly patients with a distal femur fracture with a retrograde femoral nail. Methods: Fifty-four of the nails were inserted percutaneously with a closed reduction. After surgery all patients were allowed to weight bear as tolerated. Four fractures were supported in a temporary external splint. Results: The mean age of patients was 80.6 years (range 51–103 years, 52/54 (96% were females. There were no cases of nail related complications and no re-operations were required. One patient was lost to follow up. The 30-day mortality was 5/54 (9.3% and the one year mortality was 17/54 (31.5%. Conclusions: Distal femoral nail fixation provides a good method of fixation allowing immediate mobilisation for this group of patients.

  12. Coexistence of nail lichen planus and lichen planus pigmentosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemes, Luciana Rodino; Verde, Renata Brandão Villa; Durães, Sandra Maria Barbosa; Araripe, Adolpho de Alencar; Pantaleão, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    We describe a fifty-six-year old, Afro-descendent female patient showing dystrophy of her twenty nails and hyperchromic, asymptomatic macule on her face. Histopathological examination of the macule showed vacuolization of the basal layer, melanophages in the superficial dermis and lymphoplasmocytic inflammatory infiltrate. Nail biopsy revealed orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis and lichenoid inflammatory infiltrate. Lichen planus pigmentosus is an uncommon variety of lichen planus. It is characterized by typical hyperpigmented macules on the face and neck. Nail changes might be present in 10% of lichen planus cases, but no associations with lichen planus pigmentosus have been described. We report a case of lichen planus in twenty nails associated with lichen planus pigmentosus on the patient's face.

  13. Nail Biting: Does It Cause Long-Term Damage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... June 13, 2017. Singal A, et al. Nail tic disorders: Manifestations, pathogenesis and management. Indian Journal of ... logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. © 1998-2018 Mayo Foundation for Medical ...

  14. Common cutaneous dermatophyte infections of the skin and nails

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    structures of the dermis, subcutaneous tissues, muscle and fascia ... African health-care providers and briefly describes the available treatment options, which may differ from ..... warts, dermatitis, psoriasis, lichen planus or nail dystrophy.23.

  15. Confocal Raman spectrocopy for the analysis of nail polish evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Maria; Vaz, Joana; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2015-06-01

    Nail polishes are cosmetic paints that may be susceptible of forensic analysis offering useful information to assist in a crime reconstruction. Although the nail polish appearance could allow a quick visual identification of the sample, this analysis is subjected to the perception and subjective interpretation of the forensic examiner. The chemical analysis of the nail polishes offers great deal of information not subjected to analyst interpretation. Confocal Raman spectroscopy is a well-suited technique for the analysis of paints due to its non-invasive and non-destructive nature and its ability to supply information about the organic and inorganic components of the sample. In this work, 77 regular and gel nail polishes were analyzed with confocal Raman spectroscopy using two laser wavelengths (532 and 780 nm). The sample behavior under the two laser wavelengths and the differences in the spectra taken at different points of the sample were studied for each nail polish. Additionally, the spectra obtained for all the nail polishes were visually compared. The results concluded that the longer laser wavelength prevents sample burning and fluorescence effects; the similarity among the spectra collected within the sample is not directly related with the presence of glitter particles; and 64% of the samples analyzed showed a characteristic spectrum. Additionally, the use of confocal Raman spectroscopy for the forensic analysis of nail polishes evidence in the form of flakes or smudges on different surfaces were studied. The results showed that both types of evidence can be analyzed by the technique. Also, two non-invasive sampling methods for the collection of the evidence from the nails of the suspect or the victim were proposed: (i) to use acetone-soaked cotton swabs to remove the nail varnishes and (ii) to scrape the nail polish from the nail with a blade. Both approaches, each exhibiting advantages and drawbacks in terms of transport and handling were appropriate

  16. Preparation of hair and nail samples for trace element analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoble, H.A.; Litman, R.

    1978-01-01

    The method of washing of human hair and nail samples is examined by neutron activation and γ-ray analysis. The amounts of Na, K, Br, Au, Zn, and La that are removed by successive washings determine the optimum number of washing for removing these trace elements as surface contaminants. A total solution contact time with the nails is 5 minutes, and leaching effcts are observed after 6 washings

  17. Modelling the strength of an aluminium-steel nailed joint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldspiegel, Fabien; Mocellin, Katia; Michel, Philippe

    2018-05-01

    For multi-material applications in automotive industry, a cast aluminium (upper layer) and dual-phase steel (lower layer) superposition joined with High-Speed Nailing process is investigated through an experimental vs numerical framework. Using FORGE® finite-element software, results from joining simulations have been inserted into models in charge of nailed-joint mechanical testings. Numerical Shear and Cross-tensile tests are compared to experimental ones to discuss discrepancy and possible improvements.

  18. Attic Retrofits Using Nail-Base Insulated Panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, David [Home Innovation Research Labs; Kochkin, Vladimir [Home Innovation Research Labs

    2018-03-26

    This project developed and demonstrated a roof/attic energy retrofit solution using nail-base insulated panels for existing homes where traditional attic insulation approaches are not effective or feasible. Nail-base insulated panels (retrofit panels) consist of rigid foam insulation laminated to one face of a wood structural panel. The prefabricated panels are installed above the existing roof deck during a reroofing effort.

  19. Historical methane hydrate project review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy; Bahk, Jang-Jun; Frye, Matt; Goldberg, Dave; Husebo, Jarle; Koh, Carolyn; Malone, Mitch; Shipp, Craig; Torres, Marta

    2013-01-01

    In 1995, U.S. Geological Survey made the first systematic assessment of the volume of natural gas stored in the hydrate accumulations of the United States. That study, along with numerous other studies, has shown that the amount of gas stored as methane hydrates in the world greatly exceeds the volume of known conventional gas resources. However, gas hydrates represent both a scientific and technical challenge and much remains to be learned about their characteristics and occurrence in nature. Methane hydrate research in recent years has mostly focused on: (1) documenting the geologic parameters that control the occurrence and stability of gas hydrates in nature, (2) assessing the volume of natural gas stored within various gas hydrate accumulations, (3) analyzing the production response and characteristics of methane hydrates, (4) identifying and predicting natural and induced environmental and climate impacts of natural gas hydrates, and (5) analyzing the effects of methane hydrate on drilling safety.Methane hydrates are naturally occurring crystalline substances composed of water and gas, in which a solid water-­‐lattice holds gas molecules in a cage-­‐like structure. The gas and water becomes a solid under specific temperature and pressure conditions within the Earth, called the hydrate stability zone. Other factors that control the presence of methane hydrate in nature include the source of the gas included within the hydrates, the physical and chemical controls on the migration of gas with a sedimentary basin containing methane hydrates, the availability of the water also included in the hydrate structure, and the presence of a suitable host sediment or “reservoir”. The geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrates have become collectively known as the “methane hydrate petroleum system”, which has become the focus of numerous hydrate research programs.Recognizing the importance of methane hydrate research and the need for a coordinated

  20. Neurovascular Structures at Risk With Curved Retrograde TTC Fusion Nails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Cesar Netto, Cesar; Johannesmeyer, David; Cone, Brent; Araoye, Ibukunoluwa; Hudson, Parke William; Sahranavard, Bahman; Johnson, Michael; Shah, Ashish

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of iatrogenic injury to plantar neurovascular structures of the foot during insertion of a curved retrograde tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) fusion nail. Ten below-knee thawed fresh-frozen cadaveric specimens underwent curved retrograde nailing of the ankle. The shortest distance between the nail and the main plantar neurovascular branches and injured structures were recorded during dissection. We also evaluated the relative position of these structures along 2 lines (AB, connecting the calcaneus to the first metatarsal, and BC, connecting the first and fifth metatarsal). The lateral plantar artery was found to be in direct contact with the nail 70% of the time, with a macroscopic laceration 30% of the time. The Baxter nerve was injured 20% of the time, as was the lateral plantar nerve. The medial plantar artery and nerve were never injured. The most proximal structure to cross line AB was the Baxter nerve followed by the lateral plantar artery, the nail, the lateral plantar nerve, and the medial plantar nerve. Our cadaveric anatomic study found that the most common structures at risk for iatrogenic injury by lateral curved retrograde TTC fusion nails were the lateral plantar artery and nerve, and the Baxter nerve. Determination of a true neurovascular safe zone is challenging and therefore warrants careful operative dissection to minimize neurovascular injuries.

  1. OUTCOME OF INTERTROCHANTERIC FRACTURES TREATED WITH SHORT FEMORAL NAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadkikar Shriniwas V, Yadkikar Vishnu S, Patel Mayank, Dhruvilkumar Gandhi, Kunkulol Rahul

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the functional and anatomical outcome of Inter trochanteric fractures of femur treated with Short femoral nail. Method: This was retrospective study carried out in which 60 patients (50 Male & 10 Female of 5th to 8th decade of life who underwent Short femoral nail fixation for both Stable & unstable Inter Trochanteric fractures. From the records each patient data was assessed for time required for mobilization, average fracture healing time, degree and grade of hip range of movements, complications, anatomical reduction achieved using Short femoral nail fixation. Results: 55 cases achieved Anatomical reduction. Good to Excellent Hip range of Motion was in 55 (90 % cases. Fracture union was seen in all cases. No evidence of Z Effect, AVN of femoral head, Implant failure, Fracture of femoral shaft below the Nail tip was seen in any case, However Reverse Z Effect was seen in 4 & shortening of less than 2 cm was seen in 2 cases, External rotation of 10 degree was seen in1 case. Average fracture Union time was 14 weeks. Conclusion: Short femoral nail appears to be better implant for fixation of both Stable & unstable Inter Trochanteric fractures as it fulfills the biomechanical demands being minimally invasive, less blood loss , it prevents excessive varus collapse at fracture site, produces less stress riser effect below the nail tip, Short operative time, Facilitates early mobilization & functional recovery of patients. But Anatomical fracture reduction & optimal implant placement are absolutely must for better results.

  2. Heavy Metal Contamination of Popular Nail Polishes in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnaz Karimi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic and hazardous heavy metals like arsenic, lead, mercury, zinc, chromium and iron are found in a variety of personal care products, e.g. lipstick, whitening toothpaste, eyeliner and nail color. The nails absorb the pigments of nail polishes and vaporized or soluble metals can easily pass it. The goal of this survey was to assess whether the different colors of nail polishes comply with maximum concentrations of heavy metals in the EPA’s guidelines. Methods: 150 samples of different popular brands of nail polishes in 13 colors (yellow, beige, silver, pink, white, violet, brown, golden, green, black, colorless, red and blue were randomly purchased from beauty shops in Tehran City, Iran, in 2014. Microwave digestion EPA method 3051 was used by a microwave oven to determine the amount of 5 heavy metals; Nickel, Chromium, Lead, Arsenic and Cadmium. One-way ANOVA, Two-way ANOVA, hierarchical cluster, and principal component analyses were applied by Statistica 7.0 software. Results: The concentrations of chrome, lead, nickel and arsenic showed significant differences between the colors (p<0.05. In all studied samples, the level of cadmium was beyond the safe maximum permissible limit (MPS, but no significance difference in the cadmium content was identified. Conclusion: Due to the high concentrations of toxic metals in many brands of nail polishes, meticulous quality control is recommended for these beauty products.

  3. Nonunion of the humerus following intramedullary nailing treated by Ilizarov hybrid fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, M; Khodadadyan, C; Maitino, P D; Hoffmann, R; Südkamp, N P

    1998-02-01

    A case of a posttraumatic humeral shaft nonunion, after intramedullary stabilization with a Seidel nail, is presented. Severe osteoporosis, an oligotrophic nonunion, subclinical infection, and adhesive capsulitis of the glenohumeral joint were present. Due to the subclinical infection and severe osteoporosis, other major invasive therapeutic options such as intramedullary nailing or compression plating and bone grafting were not applicable. Nonoperative treatment was also not indicated secondary to the pain and disability present. External fixation with the Ilizarov hybrid fixator seemed to offer a minimally invasive treatment modality without the need of additional bone grafting. After fourteen weeks of "callus massage," consisting of closed alternating compression and distraction with an Ilizarov hybrid fixator, osseous consolidation was achieved. Eight months after Ilizarov treatment the patient had returned to work as a mechanic. At the one-year follow-up examination, the patient presented pain free and with near normal shoulder and elbow motion, with stable osseous consolidation of the humerus. In some cases of nonunion of the humerus shaft, when standard treatment options are not recommended, external fixation with an Ilizarov hybrid fixator may offer a salvage procedure with a successful clinical outcome.

  4. [Are nail polish, artificial nails and piercings allowed outside the surgical area?Recommendations for the perioperative policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucx, M J L; Krijtenburg, P; Scheffer, G J

    2017-01-01

    - An increasing number of patients wear nail polish, artificial nails or have piercings.- There is uncertainty about the perioperative management of these items, especially when located outside the surgical area.- In the majority of hospitals, patients are urged to remove these items preoperatively, under the assumption that they might cause problems.- Frequently, however, these items cannot be removed straightforwardly.- Nail polish and artificial nails only very rarely cause perioperative problems and therefore do not need to be removed pre-operatively.- The same applies to most piercings, except when located in or near the respiratory tract, if they have sharp endings or if they might cause problems as a result of the perioperative positioning of the patient.- Providing adequate information to the patient, knowledge about removal of these items and documentation of agreed arrangements are all important.- A national guideline concerning perioperative policy is urgently required.

  5. Itching for nail fashion: chronic urticaria and chronic hand dermatitis secondary to acrylate and methacrylate allergy in gel nail varnish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickison, P; Smith, S D

    2018-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) secondary to acrylates and methacrylates is a well- described occurrence, particularly in those who wear or handle gel nail varnish. Management involves avoidance of the identified allergen. The cause of chronic urticaria (CI) is often not identified, and CU is not known to be associated with acrylates or methacrylates. We report a case of a 50-year-old woman who initially presented with hand dermatitis exacerbated by gel nail varnish on a background of CU. Avoiding all nail varnishes because of her ACD also resulted in improvement of her CU. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of CU secondary to the acrylates and methacrylates found in nail cosmetics. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. [A favourable outcome in yellow nail syndrome: role of respiratory physiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, C; Just, N; Leroy, S; Wallaert, B

    2003-12-01

    The yellow nail syndrome is a rare condition that is easily diagnosed but the nail manifestations are poorly understood. A 51 year old patient presented with a chronic cough. The diagnosis was based on the typical appearance of the nails. The patient had bilateral basal bronchiectasis. Daily physiotherapy with bronchial drainage lead to a progressive improvement in the respiratory symptoms without recourse to antibiotics. Surprisingly the abnormalities of the nails disappeared after 2 years treatment. This observation illustrates the possibility of spontaneous resolution of severe nail abnormalities during the course of the yellow nail syndrome.

  7. Overview: Nucleation of clathrate hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Pramod; Khan, M Naveed; Srivastava, Vishal; Maupin, C Mark; Koh, Carolyn A

    2016-12-07

    Molecular level knowledge of nucleation and growth of clathrate hydrates is of importance for advancing fundamental understanding on the nature of water and hydrophobic hydrate formers, and their interactions that result in the formation of ice-like solids at temperatures higher than the ice-point. The stochastic nature and the inability to probe the small length and time scales associated with the nucleation process make it very difficult to experimentally determine the molecular level changes that lead to the nucleation event. Conversely, for this reason, there have been increasing efforts to obtain this information using molecular simulations. Accurate knowledge of how and when hydrate structures nucleate will be tremendously beneficial for the development of sustainable hydrate management strategies in oil and gas flowlines, as well as for their application in energy storage and recovery, gas separation, carbon sequestration, seawater desalination, and refrigeration. This article reviews various aspects of hydrate nucleation. First, properties of supercooled water and ice nucleation are reviewed briefly due to their apparent similarity to hydrates. Hydrate nucleation is then reviewed starting from macroscopic observations as obtained from experiments in laboratories and operations in industries, followed by various hydrate nucleation hypotheses and hydrate nucleation driving force calculations based on the classical nucleation theory. Finally, molecular simulations on hydrate nucleation are discussed in detail followed by potential future research directions.

  8. Formation of submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soloviev, V.; Ginsburg, G.D. (Reserch Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources of the Ocean ' ' VNII Okeangeologia' ' , St. Petersburg (Russian Federation))

    1994-03-01

    Submarine gas hydrates have been discoverd in the course of deep-sea drilling (DSDP and ODP) and bottom sampling in many offshore regions. This paper reports on expeditions carried out in the Black, Caspian and Okhotsk Seas. Gas hydrate accumulations were discovered and investigated in all these areas. The data and an analysis of the results of the deep-sea drilling programme suggest that the infiltration of gas-bearing fluids is a necessary condition for gas hydrate accumulation. This is confirmed by geological observations at three scale levels. Firstly, hydrates in cores are usually associated with comparatively coarse-grained, permeable sediments as well as voids and fractures. Secondly, hydrate accumulations are controlled by permeable geological structures, i.e. faults, diapirs, mud volcanos as well as layered sequences. Thirdly, in the worldwide scale, hydrate accumulations are characteristic of continental slopes and rises and intra-continental seas where submarine seepages also are widespread. Both biogenic and catagenic gas may occur, and the gas sources may be located at various distances from the accumulation. Gas hydrates presumably originate from water-dissolved gas. The possibility of a transition from dissolved gas into hydrate is confirmed by experimental data. Shallow gas hydrate accumulations associated with gas-bearing fluid plumes are the most convenient features for the study of submarine hydrate formation in general. These accumulations are known from the Black, Caspian and Okhotsk Seas, the Gulf of Mexico and off northern California. (au) (24 refs.)

  9. Overview: Nucleation of clathrate hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrier, Pramod; Khan, M. Naveed; Srivastava, Vishal; Maupin, C. Mark; Koh, Carolyn A.

    2016-12-01

    Molecular level knowledge of nucleation and growth of clathrate hydrates is of importance for advancing fundamental understanding on the nature of water and hydrophobic hydrate formers, and their interactions that result in the formation of ice-like solids at temperatures higher than the ice-point. The stochastic nature and the inability to probe the small length and time scales associated with the nucleation process make it very difficult to experimentally determine the molecular level changes that lead to the nucleation event. Conversely, for this reason, there have been increasing efforts to obtain this information using molecular simulations. Accurate knowledge of how and when hydrate structures nucleate will be tremendously beneficial for the development of sustainable hydrate management strategies in oil and gas flowlines, as well as for their application in energy storage and recovery, gas separation, carbon sequestration, seawater desalination, and refrigeration. This article reviews various aspects of hydrate nucleation. First, properties of supercooled water and ice nucleation are reviewed briefly due to their apparent similarity to hydrates. Hydrate nucleation is then reviewed starting from macroscopic observations as obtained from experiments in laboratories and operations in industries, followed by various hydrate nucleation hypotheses and hydrate nucleation driving force calculations based on the classical nucleation theory. Finally, molecular simulations on hydrate nucleation are discussed in detail followed by potential future research directions.

  10. Dehydration behaviour of hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dette, S.S.; Stelzer, T.; Jones, M.J.; Ulrich, J. [Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle-Wittenberg, Zentrum fuer Ingenieurwissenschaften, Verfahrenstechnik/TVT, 06099 Halle (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Immersing a crystalline solvate in a suitable anti-solvent can induce phase transformation to solvent-free solid phase. In certain cases the solvent-mediated phase transition results in the generation of hollow, tubular structures. Both the tube dimensions of sodium-2-keto-L-gulonate anhydrate (skga) and the dehydration kinetics of sodium-2-keto-L-gulonate monohydrate (skgm) can be modified by the antisolvent employed. An explanation for the variable dehydration behaviour of skgm in the antisolvents is presented here. Furthermore, other crystalline hydrates were dehydrated in dry methanol. Providing an operational window can be found, any hydrate material could possibly find use in the production of tubes (micro- or nanotubes for different applications). The experimental conditions selected (dry methanol as antisolvent, dehydration temperature at 25 C) for the dehydration did not lead to the anhydrate tube growth for all hydrates investigated. Based upon the results presented here a first hypothesis is presented to explain this effect. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. The nail as an investigative tool in medicine: What a dermatologist ought to know

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chander Grover

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The nail is an important skin appendage, but not many dermatologists are aware of the importance it receives outside our specialty. This article focuses on the nail in non-dermatological contexts. The nail is a keratinized matrix capable of continuous growth with the ability to incorporate various compounds within its structure. Therefore it can be used to monitor long-term consumption of drugs. It is also an excellent source of germ-line DNA for genetic analyses. With an increased undrstanding of nail physiology, there is now a better understanding of its connection to various pathologies as well. Nails, being peripherally placed, are easy to sample without significant discomfort to the patient, making them a valuable diagnostic tool. For this narrative review, we carried out a PubMed search using the key words “nail clipping,” “nail DNA,” “nail diabetes mellitus;” “nail clipping oncology,” and “nail forensics”. Retrieved articles were searched for information pertaining to non-dermatologic uses of nail for evaluation, which is presented in a narrative fashion. It is clear from recent literature that the nail is not just an inert skin appendage, but a dynamic window into the ever-changing metabolic and genetic milieu. We highlight the numerous roles of nail specimens, as well as point towards future research needed therein.

  12. Gas hydrate cool storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternes, M.P.; Kedl, R.J.

    1984-09-12

    The invention presented relates to the development of a process utilizing a gas hydrate as a cool storage medium for alleviating electric load demands during peak usage periods. Several objectives of the invention are mentioned concerning the formation of the gas hydrate as storage material in a thermal energy storage system within a heat pump cycle system. The gas hydrate was formed using a refrigerant in water and an example with R-12 refrigerant is included. (BCS)

  13. THERMODYNAMIC MODEL OF GAS HYDRATES

    OpenAIRE

    Недоступ, В. И.; Недоступ, О. В.

    2015-01-01

    The interest to gas hydrates grows last years. Therefore working out of reliable settlement-theoretical methods of definition of their properties is necessary. The thermodynamic model of gas hydrates in which the central place occupies a behaviour of guest molecule in cell is described. The equations of interaction of molecule hydrate formative gas with cell are received, and also an enthalpy and energy of output of molecule from a cell are determined. The equation for calculation of thermody...

  14. Carbon fiber intramedullary nails reduce artifact in postoperative advanced imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimel, Melissa N.; Hwang, Sinchun; Riedel, Elyn R.; Healey, John H.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether radiolucent carbon fiber reinforced-polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) intramedullary nails decreased hardware artifact on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) in vitro and in an oncologic patient population. In vitro and clinical evaluations were done. A qualitative assessment of metal artifact was performed using CFR-PEEK and titanium nail MRI phantoms. Eight patients with a femoral or tibial prophylactic CFR-PEEK nail were retrospectively identified. All patients had postoperative surveillance imaging by MRI, CT, and were followed for a median 20 months (range, 12-28 months). CFR-PEEK images were compared to images from a comparative group of patients with titanium femoral intramedullary nails who had a postoperative MRI or CT. A musculoskeletal-trained radiologist graded visualization of the cortex, corticomedullary junction, and bone-muscle interface, on T1-weighted (T1W), STIR, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted fat-saturated (T1W FS) sequences of both groups with a five-point scale, performing independent reviews 4 months apart. Statistical analysis used the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and a weighted kappa. Substantially less MRI signal loss occurred in the CFR-PEEK phantom than in the titanium phantom simulation, particularly as the angle increased with respect to direction of the static magnetic field. CFR-PEEK nails had less MRI artifact than titanium nails on scored T1W, STIR, and contrast-enhanced T1W FS MRI sequences (p ≤ 0.03). The mean weighted kappa was 0.64, showing excellent intraobserver reliability between readings. CFR-PEEK intramedullary nail fixation is a superior alternative to minimize implant artifact on MRI or CT imaging for patients requiring long bone fixation. (orig.)

  15. Carbon fiber intramedullary nails reduce artifact in postoperative advanced imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimel, Melissa N. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Orthopaedic Surgery Service, Department of Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Hwang, Sinchun [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Riedel, Elyn R. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York, NY (United States); Healey, John H. [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Orthopaedic Surgery Service, Department of Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Weill Medical College of Cornell University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-09-15

    This study assessed whether radiolucent carbon fiber reinforced-polyetheretherketone (CFR-PEEK) intramedullary nails decreased hardware artifact on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) in vitro and in an oncologic patient population. In vitro and clinical evaluations were done. A qualitative assessment of metal artifact was performed using CFR-PEEK and titanium nail MRI phantoms. Eight patients with a femoral or tibial prophylactic CFR-PEEK nail were retrospectively identified. All patients had postoperative surveillance imaging by MRI, CT, and were followed for a median 20 months (range, 12-28 months). CFR-PEEK images were compared to images from a comparative group of patients with titanium femoral intramedullary nails who had a postoperative MRI or CT. A musculoskeletal-trained radiologist graded visualization of the cortex, corticomedullary junction, and bone-muscle interface, on T1-weighted (T1W), STIR, and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted fat-saturated (T1W FS) sequences of both groups with a five-point scale, performing independent reviews 4 months apart. Statistical analysis used the Wilcoxon rank-sum test and a weighted kappa. Substantially less MRI signal loss occurred in the CFR-PEEK phantom than in the titanium phantom simulation, particularly as the angle increased with respect to direction of the static magnetic field. CFR-PEEK nails had less MRI artifact than titanium nails on scored T1W, STIR, and contrast-enhanced T1W FS MRI sequences (p ≤ 0.03). The mean weighted kappa was 0.64, showing excellent intraobserver reliability between readings. CFR-PEEK intramedullary nail fixation is a superior alternative to minimize implant artifact on MRI or CT imaging for patients requiring long bone fixation. (orig.)

  16. Integrating Natural Gas Hydrates in the Global Carbon Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Archer; Bruce Buffett

    2011-12-31

    We produced a two-dimensional geological time- and basin-scale model of the sedimentary margin in passive and active settings, for the simulation of the deep sedimentary methane cycle including hydrate formation. Simulation of geochemical data required development of parameterizations for bubble transport in the sediment column, and for the impact of the heterogeneity in the sediment pore fluid flow field, which represent new directions in modeling methane hydrates. The model is somewhat less sensitive to changes in ocean temperature than our previous 1-D model, due to the different methane transport mechanisms in the two codes (pore fluid flow vs. bubble migration). The model is very sensitive to reasonable changes in organic carbon deposition through geologic time, and to details of how the bubbles migrate, in particular how efficiently they are trapped as they rise through undersaturated or oxidizing chemical conditions and the hydrate stability zone. The active margin configuration reproduces the elevated hydrate saturations observed in accretionary wedges such as the Cascadia Margin, but predicts a decrease in the methane inventory per meter of coastline relative to a comparable passive margin case, and a decrease in the hydrate inventory with an increase in the plate subduction rate.

  17. Novel understanding of calcium silicate hydrate from dilute hydration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lina; Yamauchi, Kazuo; Li, Zongjin; Zhang, Xixiang; Ma, Hongyan; Ge, Shenguang

    2017-01-01

    The perspective of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is still confronting various debates due to its intrinsic complicated structure and properties after decades of studies. In this study, hydration at dilute suspension of w/s equaling to 10

  18. Sensory factors affecting female consumers' acceptability of nail polish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C; Koppel, K; Adhikari, K

    2015-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine what sensory factors impact consumers' acceptability of nail polishes, to explore how these sensory factors impact consumers' acceptability of nail polishes, to investigate whether there are any consumer segments according to their overall acceptability on different nail polishes and to scrutinize how the consumer segments are related to the sensory factors. Ninety-eight females participated in a nail polish consumer study at Kansas State University. Eight commercial products belonging to four categories - regular (REG), gel (GEL), flake (FLK) and water-based (WAT) - were evaluated. Each nail polish sample was evaluated twice by each participant in two different tasks - a task devoted to applying and evaluating the product and a task devoted to observing the appearance and evaluating the product. Pearson's correlation analysis, analysis of variance (ANOVA), external preference mapping, cluster analysis and internal preference mapping were applied for data analysis. Participants' scores of overall liking of the nail polishes were similar in the application task and in the observation task. In general, participants liked the REG and GEL product samples more than the FLK and WAT samples. Among all the sensory attributes, appearance attributes were the major factors that affected participants' overall liking. Aroma seemed to be a minor factor to participants' overall liking. Some sensory attributes, such as runny, shininess, opacity, spreadability, smoothness, coverage and wet appearance, were found to drive participants' overall acceptability positively, whereas others such as pinhole, fatty-edges, blister, brushlines, pearl-like, flake-protrusion, glittery and initial-drag impacted participants' overall acceptability negatively. Four clusters of participants were identified according to their overall liking scores from both the application task and the observation task. Participants' acceptability, based on different

  19. Outcome analysis of retrograde nailing and less invasive stabilization system in distal femoral fractures: A retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hierholzer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Two major therapeutic principles can be employed for the treatment of distal femoral fractures: retrograde intramedullary (IM nailing (RN or less invasive stabilization on system (LISS. Both operative stabilizing systems follow the principle of biological osteosynthesis. IM nailing protects the soft-tissue envelope due to its minimally invasive approach and closed reduction techniques better than distal femoral locked plating. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare outcome of distal femur fracture stabilization using RN or LISS techniques. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study from 2003 to 2008, we analyzed 115 patients with distal femur fracture who had been treated by retrograde IM nailing (59 patients or LISS plating (56 patients. In the two cohort groups, mean age was 54 years (17-89 years. Mechanism of injury was high energy impact in 57% (53% RN, 67% LISS and low-energy injury in 43% (47% RN, 33% LISS, respectively. Fractures were classified according to AO classification: there were 52 type A fractures (RN 31, LISS 21 and 63 type C fractures (RN 28, LISS 35; 32% (RN and 56% (LISS were open and 68% (RN and 44% (LISS were closed fractures, respectively. Functional and radiological outcome was assessed. Results: Clinical and radiographic evaluation demonstrated osseous healing within 6 months following RN and following LISS plating in over 90% of patients. However, no statistically significant differences were found for the parameters time to osseous healing, rate of nonunion, and postoperative complications. The following complications were treated: hematoma formation (one patient RN and three patients LISS, superficial infection (one patient RN and three patients LISS, deep infection (2 patients LISS. Additional secondary bone grafting for successful healing 3 months after the primary operation was required in four patients in the RN (7% of patients and six in the LISS group (10% of patients

  20. Subtrochanteric femoral fracture during trochanteric nailing for the treatment of femoral shaft fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Ho Hyun; Oh, Chi Hun; Yi, Ju Won

    2013-09-01

    We report on three cases of subtrochanteric femoral fractures during trochanteric intramedullary nailing for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures. Trochanteric intramedullary nails, which have a proximal lateral bend, are specifically designed for trochanteric insertion. When combined with the modified insertion technique, trochanteric intramedullary nails reduce iatrogenic fracture comminution and varus malalignment. We herein describe technical aspects of trochanteric intramedullary nailing for femoral shaft fractures to improve its application and prevent implant-derived complications.

  1. Isolated nail lichen planus with primary sclerosing cholangitis in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ajroush, N.; Al-Khenaizan, S.

    2007-01-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is an uncommon, inflammatory dermatosis with characteristic lesions affecting the skin, nails and the mucous membranes. It is rare in childhood. Although nail abnormalities have been reported in 1-10% of patients with LP, the prevalence of nail involvement in affected children is unknown. Here we report a 2-year-old child with isolated nail LP, in association with primary sclerosing cholangitis. (author)

  2. Outcome of intramedullary interlocking SIGN nail in tibial diaphyseal fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Javed, S.; Khan, G.N.; Aziz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the outcome of intramedullary interlocking surgical implant generation network (SIGN) nail in diaphyseal tibial fractures in terms of union and failure of implant (breakage of nail or interlocking screws). Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Orthopaedics and Spinal Surgery, Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital, Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, from September 2008 to August 2009. Methodology: Fifty patients aged 14 - 60 years, of either gender were included, who had closed and Gustilo type I and II open fractures reported in 2 weeks, whose closed reduction was not possible or was unsatisfactory and fracture was located 7 cm below knee joint to 7 cm above ankle joint. Fractures previously treated with external fixator, infected fractures and unfit patients were excluded. All fractures were fixed with intramedullary interlocking SIGN nail and were followed clinically and radiographically for union and for any implant failure. Results: Forty one (88%) patients had united fracture within 6 months, 5 (10%) patients had delayed union while 4 (8%) patients had non-union. Mean duration for achieving union was 163 + 30.6 days. Interlocking screws were broken in 2 patients while no nail was broken in any patient. Conclusion: Intramedullary interlocking nailing is an effective measure in treating closed and grade I and II open tibial fractures. It provides a high rate of union less complications and early return to function. (author)

  3. Outcome of intramedullary interlocking SIGN nail in tibial diaphyseal fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Irfanullah; Javed, Shahzad; Khan, Gauhar Nawaz; Aziz, Amer

    2013-03-01

    To determine the outcome of intramedullary interlocking surgical implant generation network (SIGN) nail in diaphyseal tibial fractures in terms of union and failure of implant (breakage of nail or interlocking screws). Case series. Orthopaedics and Spinal Surgery, Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital, Lahore Medical and Dental College, Lahore, from September 2008 to August 2009. Fifty patients aged 14 - 60 years, of either gender were included, who had closed and Gustilo type I and II open fractures reported in 2 weeks, whose closed reduction was not possible or was unsatisfactory and fracture was located 7 cm below knee joint to 7 cm above ankle joint. Fractures previously treated with external fixator, infected fractures and unfit patients were excluded. All fractures were fixed with intramedullary interlocking SIGN nail and were followed clinically and radiographically for union and for any implant failure. Forty one (88%) patients had united fracture within 6 months, 5 (10%) patients had delayed union while 4 (8%) patients had non-union. Mean duration for achieving union was 163 + 30.6 days. Interlocking screws were broken in 2 patients while no nail was broken in any patient. Intramedullary interlocking nailing is an effective measure in treating closed and grade I and II open tibial fractures. It provides a high rate of union less complications and early return to function.

  4. Elastoplasticity analysis of the nails used in long bone fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paterson, R; Paterson, A; Miralles, M T; Del Sel, G; Del Sel, N

    2011-01-01

    Elastoplastic endomedullary nail-insertion system in long bone fractures is a method which allows generating forces, moments, frictions and stress states in parts of the bone previously selected. Adding previous knowledge on the distribution of forces and acting moments over the bone fragments to be threaded, as well as on the elastoplastic and mechanical properties of the nails to be inserted (designing a special, specific structure for each case), the results, coming from 26 years of applying this technique, have been promising. It is from this perspective that we call this threading and anchoring procedure 'Selective Tension System' (STS). Physicochemical analyses and mechanical trials on elastoplastic nails used in the osteosynthesis in long bone fractures are presented. The magnitude of the forces produced by flattening the nails and the reacting forces at both ends are measured. It is expected that the evidence provided on the elastic variability of these nails will be useful as guidance on the availability and choice of the elastoplastic combinations that best fit each patient.

  5. Hydrate-CASM for modeling Methane Hydrate-Bearing Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente Ruiz, M.; Vaunat, J.; Marin Moreno, H.

    2017-12-01

    A clear understanding of the geomechanical behavior of methane hydrate-bearing sediments (MHBS) is crucial to assess the stability of the seafloor and submarine infrastructures to human and natural loading changes. Here we present the Hydrate-CASM, a new elastoplastic constitutive model to predict the geomechanical behavior of MHBS. Our model employs the critical state model CASM (Clay and Sand Model) because of its flexibility in describing the shape of the yield surface and its proven ability to predict the mechanical behavior of sands, the most commercially viable hydrate reservoirs. The model considers MHBS as a deformable elastoplastic continuum, and hydrate-related changes in the stress-strain behavior are predicted by a densification mechanism. The densification attributes the mechanical contribution of hydrate to; a reduction of the available void ratio; a decrease of the swelling line slope; and an increase of the volumetric yield stress. It is described by experimentally derived physical parameters except from the swelling slope coefficient that requires empirical calibration. The Hydrate-CASM is validated against published triaxial laboratory tests performed at different confinement stresses, hydrate saturations, and hydrate morphologies. During the validation, we focused on capturing the mechanical behavior of the host sediment and consider perturbations of the sediment's mechanical properties that could result from the sample preparation. Our model successfully captures the experimentally observed influence of hydrate saturation in the magnitude and trend of the stiffness, shear strength, and dilatancy of MHBS. Hence, we propose that hydrate-related densification changes might be a major factor controlling the geomechanical response of MHBS.

  6. Subtrochanteric Femoral Fracture during Trochanteric Nailing for the Treatment of Femoral Shaft Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Yun, Ho Hyun; Oh, Chi Hun; Yi, Ju Won

    2013-01-01

    We report on three cases of subtrochanteric femoral fractures during trochanteric intramedullary nailing for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures. Trochanteric intramedullary nails, which have a proximal lateral bend, are specifically designed for trochanteric insertion. When combined with the modified insertion technique, trochanteric intramedullary nails reduce iatrogenic fracture comminution and varus malalignment. We herein describe technical aspects of trochanteric intramedullary nai...

  7. Yellow nail syndrome – report of a rare disorder | Ikuabe | Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The Yellow Nail Syndrome (YNS) is a rare disorder of unknown cause characterized by the trail of yellow and thickened nails, lymphoedema and respiratory manifestation. We have no record of any case report of yellow nail syndrome in our setting. Methods: We reviewed the records of an 80 year old woman ...

  8. Preoperative estimation of tibial nail length--because size does matter.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Galbraith, J G

    2012-11-01

    Selecting the correct tibial nail length is essential for satisfactory outcomes. Nails that are inserted and are found to be of inappropriate length should be removed. Accurate preoperative nail estimation has the potential to reduce intra-operative errors, operative time and radiation exposure.

  9. An outbreak of contact dermatitis from toluenesulfonamide formaldehyde resin in a nail hardener

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, F. S.; de Groot, A. C.; Weyland, J. W.; Bos, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    8 cases of contact dermatitis from toluenesulfonamide formaldehyde resin in a nail hardener are presented. Most patients had used nail lacquers containing this resin for many years without trouble, but became sensitized to the resin shortly after the introduction of this particular nail hardener. A

  10. Nail involvement in patients with moderate-to-severe alopecia areata treated with oral tofacitinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Su; Huh, Chang-Hun; Kwon, Ohsang; Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Cho, Soyun; Park, Hyun-Sun

    2018-05-07

    A few anecdotal case reports demonstrated that tofacitinib improved nail changes associated with AA. To investigate nail changes in patients with AA treated with tofacitinib and evaluate the relationship between nail and hair responses to tofacitinib. This is a retrospective study of 33 adult patients with moderate-to-severe AA treated with oral tofacitinib monotherapy for at least 4 months. Fifteen patients had nail involvement and demonstrated more severe hair loss than those without nail involvement (p = .040). However, there was no significant difference in hair regrowth between two groups. Of 15 patients with nail involvement, 11 (73.3%) showed improvement regardless of type of nail change; the first improvement was observed at a median of 5 months (range, 1-11) after administration. Nail improvement was associated with neither initial severity of hair loss nor hair response to tofacitinib. Nail improvement tended to occur later than hair regrowth. Oral tofacitinib monotherapy improves nail involvement associated with AA. Nail involvement is not a poor prognosis factor in hair regrowth with tofacitinib treatment and there is no evident relationship between nail and hair responses.

  11. Creep behavior of soil nail walls in high plasticity index (PI) soils : technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    An aspect of particular concern in the Geotechnical Engineering Circular No. 7: Soil Nail Walls (i.e., the soil : nail wall manual and construction guidelines) is the creep behavior of soil nail systems in high-plasticity : clays. This research proje...

  12. Ductile flow of methane hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, W.B.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    Compressional creep tests (i.e., constant applied stress) conducted on pure, polycrystalline methane hydrate over the temperature range 260-287 K and confining pressures of 50-100 MPa show this material to be extraordinarily strong compared to other icy compounds. The contrast with hexagonal water ice, sometimes used as a proxy for gas hydrate properties, is impressive: over the thermal range where both are solid, methane hydrate is as much as 40 times stronger than ice at a given strain rate. The specific mechanical response of naturally occurring methane hydrate in sediments to environmental changes is expected to be dependent on the distribution of the hydrate phase within the formation - whether arranged structurally between and (or) cementing sediments grains versus passively in pore space within a sediment framework. If hydrate is in the former mode, the very high strength of methane hydrate implies a significantly greater strain-energy release upon decomposition and subsequent failure of hydrate-cemented formations than previously expected.

  13. The impact of antegrade intramedullary nailing start site using the SIGN nail in proximal femoral fractures: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa Diab, Mohamed; Wu, Hao-Hua; Eliezer, Edmund; Haonga, Billy; Morshed, Saam; Shearer, David W

    2018-02-01

    In many low and middle-income countries (LMICs) SIGN nail is commonly used for antegrade femoral intramedullary (IM) nailing, using a start site either at the tip of the greater trochanter or piriformis fossa. While a correct start site is considered an essential technical step; few studies have evaluated the impact of using an erroneous start site. This is particularly relevant in settings with limited access to fluoroscopy to aid in creating a nail entry point. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of antegrade SIGN IM nailing start site on radiographic alignment and health-related quality of life. In this prospective cohort study, adult patients with proximal femur fractures (OTA 32, subtrochanteric zone) treated with antegrade IM SIGN nail at Muhimbili Orthopaedic Institute (MOI), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania were enrolled. Start site was determined on the immediate postoperative X-ray and was graded on a continuous scale based on distance of the IM nail center from the greater trochanteric tip. The primary outcome measurement was coronal alignment on the post-operative x-ray. The secondary outcomes were reoperation rates, RUST scores and EQ5D scores at one year follow-up. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled. 50 of them (63.3%) had complete data at 1year and were included in the final data analysis. Of the fifty patients, nine (18%) had IM nails placed laterally, 26 (52%) medially and 15 (30%) directly over the tip of the greater trochanter. Compared to a start site at the tip or medial to the greater trochanter, a lateral start site was 9 times more likely to result in a varus malalignment (95% CI: 1.42-57.70, p=0.021). Lateral start site was associated with varus malalignment. Although lateral start site was not significantly associated with reoperation, varus deformity was associated with higher reoperation rates. Surgeons should consider avoiding a start site lateral to the tip of the greater trochanter or allow the nail to rotate to avoid

  14. Primary unreamed intramedullary locked nailing in open fractures of tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Vineet

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fractures of tibia are among the commonest fractures sustained in road traffic accidents. They are frequently open and contaminated. Unreamed nails are considered superior to external fixator in the management of open fractures of tibia. Method: Forty patients with open fractures of tibia, grade I, II, IIIa, IIIb were included in the study. They were managed by primary unreamed intramedullary nailing with adequate soft tissue management. Results: Functional results were excellent in 26 cases, good in 10 cases and fair in 4 cases. Four cases had delayed union. Average time of union was 16.9 weeks. Conclusion: Primary unreamed intramedullary nailing offers advantage of rigid fixation, low incidence of infection, non-union, good functional results and early return to work. An adequate soft tissue management is mandatory in treatment of these fractures.

  15. Road Nail: Experimental Solar Powered Intelligent Road Marking System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardžija, Dragan; Teslić, Nikola; Todorović, Branislav M.; Kovač, Erne; Isailović, Đorđe; Miladinović, Bojan

    2012-03-01

    Driving in low visibility conditions (night time, fog or heavy precipitation) is particularly challenging task with an increased probability of traffic accidents and possible injuries. Road Nail is a solar powered intelligent road marking system of wirelessly networked signaling devices that improve driver safety in low visibility conditions along hazardous roadways. Nails or signaling devices are autonomous nodes with capability to accumulate energy, exchange wireless messages, detect approaching vehicles and emit signalization light. We have built an experimental test-bed that consists of 20 nodes and a cellular gateway. Implementation details of the above system, including extensive measurements and performance evaluations in realistic field deployments are presented. A novel distributed network topology discovery scheme is proposed which integrates both sensor and wireless communication aspects, where nodes act autonomously. Finally, integration of the Road Nail system with the cellular network and the Internet is described.

  16. Flow assurance intervention, hydrates remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Christopher S. [Oceaneering International Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This paper addresses the issues of removing hydrates in sub sea flow lines and associated equipment with an Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) of opportunity and a multi-service-vessel (MSV). The paper is split into three topics: the equipment used with the ROV, assessing the interface points and handling fluids produced from drawing down the pressure. Each section is explained thoroughly and backed up with real world experience. The equipment section details information from actual jobs performed and why the particular components were utilized. The system is generally contained in an ROV mounted skid. Pumps are utilized to draw down the pressure inside the hydrated section of equipment, removing one of the three necessary components for hydrates formation. Once the section is pumped down, several options exist for handling the fluids pumped out of the system: pumping to surface, re-injection into the well, or injection into an operating flow line. This method of hydrates remediation is both economical and timely. Hydrate blockages form in low temperatures and high pressures. Reducing the pressure or increasing the temperature so the conditions lie to the right of the hydrate dissociation curve will slowly decompose the blockage. Depressurization and the use of MEG or methanol will give favorable conditions to remove the hydrate plug. Oceaneering has the capabilities to remove hydrates using the FRS in conjunction with an installation vessel to dispose of the gas and fluid removed from the flow line. Hydrate remediation techniques should be implemented into the initial design to reduce costs later. The cost of stopped production combined with the day rate for equipment needed for hydrate removal outweighs the costs if no technique is utilized. (author)

  17. A novel intramedullary nail for micromotion stimulation of tibial fractures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dailey, Hannah L

    2011-09-20

    BACKGROUND: Animal studies and clinical trials have suggested that early application of controlled axial micromotion can accelerate healing of long bone fractures compared to rigid fixation. However, experimental investigations of micromotion constructs have been limited to external fixators, which have a higher incidence of complications than intramedullary nails. The purpose of this study was to assess whether a novel intramedullary nail design can generate stimulatory micromotion under minimal weight-bearing loads typical of the early healing period. METHODS: Eight cadaver tibiae were reamed, osteotomised, and implanted with commercially-available IM nails fitted with a custom insert that allowed 1mm of axial micromotion after proximal\\/distal interlocking. Specimens were mounted in a materials testing machine and subjected to cyclic axial loading while interfragmentary motion was measured using an extensometer. Implants were also tested in standard statically-locked mode. FINDINGS: The average force required to cause distraction of the fracture gap in micromotion mode was 37.0 (SD 21.7) N. The mean construct stiffness was 1046.8 (SD 193.6) N\\/mm in static locking mode and 512.4 (SD 99.6) N\\/mm in micromotion mode (significantly different, P<0.001). INTERPRETATION: These results support the development of a micromotion-enabled IM nail because the forces required to cause interfragmentary movements are very low, less than the weight of the hanging shank and foot. In contrast to rigid-fixation nails, which require significant weight-bearing to induce interfragmentary motion, the micromotion-enabled nail may allow movement in non-weight-bearing patients during the early healing period when the benefits of mechanical stimulation are most critical.

  18. Quality of life after antegrade intramedullary nail fixation of humeral fractures: a survey in a selected cohort of Brazilian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Luiz Fernando; Ejnisman, Benno; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Cohen, Moises; Dos Reis, Fernando Baldy

    2018-01-01

    The treatment of humeral fractures remains controversial. Systematic reviews demonstrate similar results between dynamic compression plating and locked intramedullary nailing in the surgical treatment of these fractures. However, it appears that antegrade intramedullary nailing causes higher residual pain in the shoulder. The proposal of this work is to evaluate through the WORC protocol (Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index) the consequences in the quality of life of patients submitted to osteosynthesis of the humerus with antegrade locked intramedullary nailing. This work is a cohort retrospective study in addition to the application of a questionnaire for self-rated quality of life with its 05 domains (WORC - Western Ontario Rotator Cuff Index) for patients ( N  = 26) classified in the Trauma Sector of the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology of the Federal University of São Paulo (DOT/UNIFESP) submitted to Humerus Osteosynthesis with Antegrade Locked Intramedullary Nailing. There was also the inclusion of data related to the time since surgery, age, sex, surgical laterality, dominance among members and work leave, which were not considered in the original protocol. After, the data were statistically assessed to evaluate the association between numerical and categorical variables. The overall WORC score was 82.75 ± 17.00 (Mean ± SD) and was not different considering sex, age and postoperative period. Among the WORC domains, both Work and Sport / Recreation Protocols were the most unfavorable factors in the evaluation of patients. Although not statistically significant, those who had the procedure on the dominant side presented a lower quality of life score than those who had the surgery on the non-dominant side. Although non-significant again, those who were away from work had an overall lower quality of life score than those who were not. The WORC Quality of Life Protocol shows good results for evaluating patients submitted to humerus

  19. Retrospective dosimetry of nail by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannoni, Ricardo A.; Rodrigues Junior, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize samples of human nails, subjected to irradiation of high doses through Technical Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The goal is to establish a dose/response relationship in order to assess dose levels absorbed by individuals exposed in radiation accidents situations, retrospectively. Samples of human nails were irradiated with gamma radiation, and received a dose of 20 Gy. EPR measurements performed on samples before irradiation identified EPR signals associated with defects caused by the mechanical action of the sample collection. After irradiation other species of free radicals, associated with the action of gamma radiation, have been identified

  20. A new mini-invasive technique in treating pediatric diaphyseal forearm fractures by bioabsorbable elastic stable intramedullary nailing: a preliminary technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinikumpu, J-J; Keränen, J; Haltia, A-M; Serlo, W; Merikanto, J

    2013-01-01

    Operative treatment is often indicated in unstable pediatric diaphyseal forearm fractures. Recently minimally invasive reduction and elastic stable intramedullary nailing have been of increasing interest, instead of open reduction and internal fixation with plates. There are several disadvantages of metallic intramedullary implants, such as soft-tissue irritation and a risk of disturbing later imaging. Thus, they are generally removed in later operations. We aimed to develop a new technique to stabilize pediatric forearm fractures by the bioabsorbable intramedullary nailing. We developed a new, two-stage mini-invasive surgical technique to stabilize the unstable diaphyseal fractures in children. The procedure is bioabsorbable elastic stable intramedullary nailing. Ultra-high-strength bioabsorbable intramedullary nails of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) were manufactured for our purpose. The material has been widely proven to be biocompatible and stable enough for fracture treatment as screws and pins. We have used the new technique in the unstable both-bone diaphyseal forearm fractures in children between the ages of 5 and 15 years. We report the technique and our clinical experience in the series of those three cases that have been followed up for at least 12 months. The present series has been randomized for the procedure instead for titanium elastic stable intramedullary nailing, and the series represents a part of ongoing randomized trial. The reported cases operated by the new technique referred good union in the fractured bones and acceptable alignment in the follow-up. Removal of the implants was not required. No troubles with the procedure or implant per se were noticed, indicating good feasibility. One high-energy refracture occurred half year after the primary trauma. Traditional titanium implants were used to control the refracture. We report our preliminary experience of a new surgical mini-invasive procedure to stabilize the unstable pediatric forearm shaft

  1. Calcium Aluminate Cement Hydration Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusinović, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium aluminate cement (AC is a very versatile special cement used for specific applications. As the hydration of AC is highly temperature dependent, yielding structurally different hydration products that continuously alter material properties, a good knowledge of thermal properties at early stages of hydration is essential. The kinetics of AC hydration is a complex process and the use of single mechanisms models cannot describe the rate of hydration during the whole stage.This paper examines the influence of temperature (ϑ=5–20 °C and water-to-cement mass ratio (mH /mAC = 0.4; 0.5 and 1.0 on hydration of commercial iron-rich AC ISTRA 40 (producer: Istra Cement, Pula, Croatia, which is a part of CALUCEM group, Figs 1–3. The flow rate of heat generation of cement pastes as a result of the hydration reactions was measured with differential microcalorimeter. Chemically bonded water in the hydrated cement samples was determined by thermo-gravimetry.Far less heat is liberated when cement and water come in contact for the first time, Fig. 1, than in the case for portland cement (PC. Higher water-to-cement ratio increases the heat evolved at later ages (Fig. 3 due to higher quantity of water available for hydration. A significant effect of the water-to-cement ratio on the hydration rate and hydration degree showed the importance of water as being the limiting reactant that slows down the reaction early. A simplified stoichiometric model of early age AC hydration (eq. (8 based on reaction schemes of principal minerals, nominally CA, C12A7 and C4AF (Table 1, was employed. Hydration kinetics after the induction period (ϑ < 20 °C had been successfully described (Fig. 4 and Table 2 by a proposed model (eq. (23 which simultaneously comprised three main mechanisms: nucleation and growth, interaction at phase boundary, and mass transfer. In the proposed kinetic model the nucleation and growth is proportional to the amount of reacted minerals (eq

  2. NATURAL GAS HYDRATES STORAGE PROJECT PHASE II. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ECONOMIC STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.E. Rogers

    1999-09-27

    DOE Contract DE-AC26-97FT33203 studied feasibility of utilizing the natural-gas storage property of gas hydrates, so abundantly demonstrated in nature, as an economical industrial process to allow expanded use of the clean-burning fuel in power plants. The laboratory work achieved breakthroughs: (1) Gas hydrates were found to form orders of magnitude faster in an unstirred system with surfactant-water micellar solutions. (2) Hydrate particles were found to self-pack by adsorption on cold metal surfaces from the micellar solutions. (3) Interstitial micellar-water of the packed particles were found to continue forming hydrates. (4) Aluminum surfaces were found to most actively collect the hydrate particles. These laboratory developments were the bases of a conceptual design for a large-scale process where simplification enhances economy. In the design, hydrates form, store, and decompose in the same tank in which gas is pressurized to 550 psi above unstirred micellar solution, chilled by a brine circulating through a bank of aluminum tubing in the tank employing gas-fired refrigeration. Hydrates form on aluminum plates suspended in the chilled micellar solution. A low-grade heat source, such as 110 F water of a power plant, circulates through the tubing bank to release stored gas. The design allows a formation/storage/decomposition cycle in a 24-hour period of 2,254,000 scf of natural gas; the capability of multiple cycles is an advantage of the process. The development costs and the user costs of storing natural gas in a scaled hydrate process were estimated to be competitive with conventional storage means if multiple cycles of hydrate storage were used. If more than 54 cycles/year were used, hydrate development costs per Mscf would be better than development costs of depleted reservoir storage; above 125 cycles/year, hydrate user costs would be lower than user costs of depleted reservoir storage.

  3. Shifting Focus: From Hydration for Performance to Hydration for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Erica T

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, literature on hydration biomarkers has evolved considerably - from (de)hydration assessment towards a more global definition of biomarkers of hydration in daily life. This shift in thinking about hydration markers was largely driven by investigating the differences that existed between otherwise healthy individuals whose habitual, ad-libitum drinking habits differ, and by identifying physiological changes in low-volume drinkers who subsequently increase their water intake. Aside from obvious differences in urinary volume and concentration, a growing body of evidence is emerging that links differences in fluid intake with small, but biologically significant, differences in vasopressin (copeptin), glomerular filtration rate, and markers of metabolic dysfunction or disease. Taken together, these pieces of the puzzle begin to form a picture of how much water intake should be considered adequate for health, and represent a shifting focus from hydration for performance, toward hydration for health outcomes. This narrative review outlines the key areas of research in which the global hydration process - including water intake, urinary hydration markers, and vasopressin - has been associated with health outcomes, focusing on kidney and metabolic endpoints. It will also provide a commentary on how various hydration biomarkers may be used in hydration for health assessment. Finally, if adequate water intake can play a role in maintaining health, how might we tell if we are drinking enough? Urine output is easily measured, and can take into account differences in daily physical activity, climate, dietary solute load, and other factors that influence daily water needs. Today, targets have been proposed for urine osmolality, specific gravity, and color that may be used by researchers, clinicians, and individuals as simple indicators of optimal hydration. However, there remain a large number of incomplete or unanswered research questions regarding the

  4. A STUDY ON PROXIMAL HUMERAL FRACTURES STABILISED WITH PHILOS PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Sivakumar K

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Techniques for treating complex proximal humeral fractures vary and include fixations using tension bands, percutaneous pins, bone suture, T-plates, intramedullary nails, double tubular plates, hemiarthroplasty, plant tan humerus fixator plates, Polaris nails and blade plates. Complications of these techniques include cutout or back out of the screws and plates, avascular necrosis, nonunion, malunion, nail migration, rotator cuff impairment and impingement syndromes. Insufficient anchorage from conventional implants may lead to early loosening and failure, especially in osteoporotic bones. In general, nonoperative treatment of displaced three and four-part fractures of the proximal humerus leads to poor outcome due to intraarticular nature of injury and inherent instability of the fragments. Comminuted fractures of the proximal humerus are at risk of fixation failure, screw loosening and fracture displacement. Open reduction and internal fixation with conventional plate and screws has been associated with unacceptably high incidence of screw pull out. PHILOS (the proximal humeral internal locking system plate is an internal fixation system that enables angled stabilisation with multiple interlocking screws for fractures of the proximal humerus. MATERIALS AND METHODS 30 patients with proximal humerus fractures who were admitted in the Department of Orthopaedics, Government General Hospital, Kakinada, during the period November 2014 - November 2016 were taken up for study according to inclusion criteria. All patients were treated with PHILOS plate. These proximal humerus fractures were classified according to Neer’s classification. Patients were followed up at 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 6 months’ interval. Functional outcomes for pain, range of motion and muscle power and function were assessed using the Constant-Murley scoring system. Collected data analysed with independent t-test and ANNOVA test. RESULTS The outcome of the study was 1

  5. The temperature hydration kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Oroian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the hydration kinetics of lentil seeds (Lens culinaris in water at different temperatures (25, 32.5, 40, 55, 70 and 80 °C for assessing the adequacy of models for describing the absorption phenomena during soaking. The diffusion coefficient values were calculated using Fick’s model for spherical and hemispherical geometries and the values were in the range of 10−6 m2/s. The experimental data were fitted to Peleg, Sigmoidal, Weibull and Exponential models. The models adequacy was determined using regression coefficients (R2, root mean square error (RMSE and reduced chi-square (χ2. The Peleg model is the suitable one for predicting the experimental data. Temperature had a positive and significant effect on the water absorption capacities and absorption was an endothermic process.

  6. Alcohol cosurfactants in hydrate antiagglomeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, J Dalton; Firoozabadi, Abbas

    2008-08-28

    Because of availability, as well as economical and environmental considerations, natural gas is projected to be the premium fuel of the 21st century. Natural gas production involves risk of the shut down of onshore and offshore operations because of blockage from hydrates formed from coproduced water and hydrate-forming species in natural gas. Industry practice has been usage of thermodynamic inhibitors such as alcohols often in significant amounts, which have undesirable environmental and safety impacts. Thermodynamic inhibitors affect bulk-phase properties and inhibit hydrate formation. An alternative is changing surface properties through usage of polymers and surfactants, effective at 0.5 to 3 weight % of coproduced water. One group of low dosage hydrate inhibitors (LDHI) are kinetic inhibitors, which affect nucleation rate and growth. A second group of LDHI are antiagglomerants, which prevent agglomeration of small hydrate crystallites. Despite great potential, work on hydrate antiagglomeration is very limited. This work centers on the effect of small amounts of alcohol cosurfactant in mixtures of two vastly different antiagglomerants. We use a model oil, water, and tetrahydrofuran as a hydrate-forming species. Results show that alcohol cosurfactants may help with antiagglomeration when traditional antiagglomerants alone are ineffective. Specifically, as low as 0.5 wt. % methanol cosurfactant used in this study is shown to be effective in antiagglomeration. Without the cosurfactant there will be agglomeration independent of the AA concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first report of alcohol cosurfactants in hydrate antiagglomerants. It is also shown that a rhamnolipid biosurfactant is effective down to only 0.5 wt. % in such mixtures, yet a quaternary ammonium chloride salt, i. e., quat, results in hydrate slurries down to 0.01 wt. %. However, biochemical surfactants are less toxic and biodegradable, and thus their use may prove beneficial even if at

  7. Brushes and picks used on nails during the surgical scrub to reduce bacteria: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, J; Khan, D; Walsh, S; Chernova, J; Lamont, S; Laurent, T

    2009-03-01

    Though brushes are no longer used on the hands and forearms during the surgical scrub, they are still widely used on the nails. The aim of this study was to determine whether nail picks and nail brushes are effective in providing additional decontamination during a surgical hand scrub. A total of 164 operating department staff were randomised to undertake one of the following three surgical hand-scrub protocols: chlorhexidine only; chlorhexidine and a nail pick; or chlorhexidine and a nail brush. Bacterial hand sampling was conducted before and 1h after scrubbing using a modified version of the glove juice method. No statistically significant differences in bacterial numbers were found between any two of the three intervention groups. Nail brushes and nail picks used during surgical hand scrubs do not decrease bacterial numbers and are unnecessary.

  8. Nickel in nails, hair and plasma from nickel-hypersensitive women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Veien, Niels

    1990-01-01

    The concentrations of nickel in finger-nails, toe-nails, hair and plasma from 71 nickel-hypersensitive women and 20 non-hypersensitive women were determined. Nickel concentrations in finger-nails were significantly higher than in toe-nails in both the nickel-hypersensitive group and the control...... group. Nickel-sensitive women had significantly higher levels of nickel in toe-nails, hair and plasma than had control subjects, whereas there was no significant difference in nickel concentration in finger-nails between the two groups. No correlation could be demonstrated between nickel levels in any...... combination of nails, hair and plasma in the nickel-hypersensitive or in the control group....

  9. Dynamic plate osteosynthesis for fracture stabilization: how to do it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juerg Sonderegger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plate osteosynthesis is one treatment option for the stabilization of long bones. It is widely accepted to achieve bone healing with a dynamic and biological fixation where the perfusion of the bone is left intact and micromotion at the fracture gap is allowed. The indications for a dynamic plate osteosynthesis include distal tibial and femoral fractures, some midshaft fractures, and adolescent tibial and femoral fractures with not fully closed growth plates. Although many lower limb shaft fractures are managed successfully with intramedullary nails, there are some important advantages of open-reduction-and-plate fixation: the risk of malalignment, anterior knee pain, or nonunion seems to be lower. The surgeon performing a plate osteosynthesis has the possibility to influence fixation strength and micromotion at the fracture gap. Long plates and oblique screws at the plate ends increase fixation strength. However, the number of screws does influence stiffness and stability. Lag screws and screws close to the fracture site reduce micromotion dramatically. Dynamic plate osteosynthesis can be achieved by applying some simple rules: long plates with only a few screws should be used. Oblique screws at the plate ends increase the pullout strength. Two or three holes at the fracture site should be omitted. Lag screws, especially through the plate, must be avoided whenever possible. Compression is not required. Locking plates are recommended only in fractures close to the joint. When respecting these basic concepts, dynamic plate osteosynthesis is a safe procedure with a high healing and a low complication rate. 

  10. An in vivo evaluation of surface polishing of TAN intermedullary nails for ease of removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JS Hayes

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Fractures of the tibia and femoral diaphysis are commonly repaired by intra-medullary (IM nailing. Currently IM nails are available in either electropolished stainless steel (SS or in Titanium-Aluminium-Niobium (TAN. After healing, removal of the nails still is common but removal of TAN IM nails often has complications whereas SS IM nails of the same design are less often associated with problems. We believe the differences in removal are due to the ability of TAN to promote strong bone on-growth. We have previously shown in vivo that polishing cortical screws reduces removal torque and the percentage of bone-implant contact. Therefore, we postulate that bony on-growth onto IM nails can be reduced by means of surface polishing, for ease of removal. Here we aim to compare the pull-out forces for removal of standard TAN (TAN-S compared to experimental paste polished TAN (TAN-PP IM nails from a bilateral non-fracture sheep tibia model after 12 months implantation. Histological analysis was also performed to assess tissue on-growth to the nails. We show that polishing significantly reduces (p=0.05 the extraction force required for TAN IM nail removal. This effect in part is attributable to the distinct tissue-material reaction produced. For TAN-S nails direct bone contact was observed while for TAN-PP nails a fibrous tissue interface was noted. Since TAN is preferred over SS for IM nailing due to superior biocompatibility and mechanical properties, we believe these findings could be used to recommend changes to current surface technologies of intramedullary nails to reduce complications seen with nail removal especially in rapidly growing bone in children.

  11. Plate tectonics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.

    's continental drift theory was later disproved, it was one of the first times that the idea of crustal movement had been introduced to the scientific community; and it has laid the groundwork for the development of modern plate tectonics. In the early... of the structure of the atom was to physical sciences and the theory of evolution was to the life sciences. Tectonics is the study of the forces within the Earth that give rise to continents, ocean basins, mountain ranges, earthquake belts and other large-scale...

  12. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plate Share Create Your Plate ! Share: Seven Simple Steps to Create Your Plate It's simple and effective ... foods within each food category. Try these seven steps to get started: Using your dinner plate, put ...

  13. Skeletal traction and intramedullary nailing cost-effectiveness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the operative group 24 patients had union with one delayed union while in the traction group 12 patients had union, 9 with mal union and 4 delayed union. Conclusion: Intramedullary nailing is more cost-effective than skeletal traction. It met the dominant strategy, because it was significantly less costly than skeletal ...

  14. Evaluation of the Superior Gluteal Nerve During Proximal Femoral Nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Sonmez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The superior gluteal nerve may be compromised during hip surgery. We retrospectively evaluated the patients who underwent proximal femoral nailing for unstable trochanteric fractures in order to investigate the presence of superior gluteal nerve injury and its clinical findings. Material and Method: Twenty five patients (14 women, 11 men were included in the study who had femoral nailing between January 2004 and March 2010 at Hamidiye Sisli Etfal Training and Research Hospital Department of Orthopaedics. Two different types of nails which have similar designs and surgical techniques were used for fracture fixation. Patients who had a history of cerebrovascular disease, electromyography findings of polyneuropathy, or degenerative vertebral disease were excluded from the study. Patients were evaluated clinically and radiologically. Findings related to acute denervation in the gluteus medius muscle and motor unit action potential changes were accepted as signs of superior gluteal nerve injury. Results: Eight patients were using support during walking and three of these patients had positive Trendelenburg sign, but only one patient had acute denervation signs of the superior gluteal nerve. Discussion: Based on the present study the incidence of iatrogenic nerve injury is a rare complication of proximal femoral nailing. Elderly patients, regardless of whether they have nerve injury, may limp and need to use a walking support.

  15. ediatric femoral shaft fractures treated by flexible intramedullary nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil Mani, K C; Dirgha Raj, R C; Parimal, Acharya

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays pediatric femoral fractures are more commonly managed with operative treatment rather than conservative treatment because of more rapid recovery and avoidance of prolonged immobilization. Children between the ages of 5-13 years are treated either by traction plus hip spica and flexible/elastic stable retrograde intramedullary nail, or external fixators in the case of open fractures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcome of pediatric femoral shaft fractures treated by stainless steel flexible intramedullary nail in children between 5 and 13 years of age. There were 32 cases of femoral shaft fractures which were all fixed with stainless steel flexible intramedullary nail under fluoroscopy. Long leg cast was applied at the time of fixation. Partial weight bearing was started 2 weeks after surgery. Patients were evaluated in follow-up study to observe the alignment of fracture, infection, delayed union, nonunion, limb length discrepancy, motion of knee joint, and time to unite the fracture. We were able to follow up 28 out of 32 patients. The patients were 8.14 years of age on average. The mean hospital stay after operation was 4 days and fracture union time was 9.57 weeks. There were 3 cases of varus angulation, 2 cases of anterior angulation, and 4 cases of limb lengthening. Patients aged between 5 and 13 years treated with flexible intramedullary nail for closed femoral shaft fracture have rapid union and recovery, short rehabilitation period, less immobilization and psychological impact, and cost-effective.

  16. Scientific Letter: Stabbing nails into the neck: an unusual self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific Letter: Stabbing nails into the neck: an unusual self-damaging behavior mandating neurosurgery. A Aghabiklooei, R Aghabiklooei, N Zamani. Abstract. Scientific Letter - No Abstract Available. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  17. Self-inflicted transparietal intraventricular nail: case report and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Deliberate self-harm with stone- or hammer-driven nail through the cranium is unusual. The need is stressed for comprehensive radiological evaluation with computed tomography (CT) scan, with or without angiography, and removal through an open cranial procedure under general anaesthesia, rather than ...

  18. Magnetic Resonance of the Normal and Pathologic Nail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toro, Nancy; Delgado, Jorge Andres; Rascovsky Simon; Sanz Alexander; Castrillon, Juan Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    In this article normal nail anatomy is compared with the anatomy visualized in MRI; we share the experience of the Instituto de Alta Tecnologia Medica de Antioquia (IATM ) in this small but promising, area such as is the use of MRI in dermatology.

  19. Multiple intramedullary nailing of proximal phalangeal fractures of hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patankar Hemant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Proximal phalangeal fractures are commonly encountered fractures in the hand. Majority of them are stable and can be treated by non-operative means. However, unstable fractures i.e. those with shortening, displacement, angulation, rotational deformity or segmental fractures need surgical intervention. This prospective study was undertaken to evaluate the functional outcome after surgical stabilization of these fractures with joint-sparing multiple intramedullary nailing technique. Materials and Methods: Thirty-five patients with 35 isolated unstable proximal phalangeal shaft fractures of hand were managed by surgical stabilization with multiple intramedullary nailing technique. Fractures of the thumb were excluded. All the patients were followed up for a minimum of six months. They were assessed radiologically and clinically. The clinical evaluation was based on two criteria. 1. total active range of motion for digital functional assessment as suggested by the American Society for Surgery of Hand and 2. grip strength. Results: All the patients showed radiological union at six weeks. The overall results were excellent in all the patients. Adventitious bursitis was observed at the point of insertion of nails in one patient. Conclusion: Joint-sparing multiple intramedullary nailing of unstable proximal phalangeal fractures of hand provides satisfactory results with good functional outcome and fewer complications.

  20. Outcome of surgical implant generation network nail initiative in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Uganda, was propagated in to Kenya mainly in resource poor hospitals, and has changed long bone fractures' management and outcomes. The goal of this study was to describe applicability of the SIGN initiative in fracture care in a Kenyan hospital. AbstrAct. Background: Closed interlocked intra-medullary nailing (IM), ...

  1. Tibiotalocalcaneal arthrodesis with a curved, interlocking, intramedullary nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budnar, Vijaya M; Hepple, Steve; Harries, William G; Livingstone, James A; Winson, Ian

    2010-12-01

    Tibiotalocalcaneal fusion with a straight rod has a risk of damaging the lateral plantar neurovascular structures and may interfere with maintaining normal heel valgus position.We report the results of a prospective study of tibiotalocalcaneal (TTC) arthrodesis with a short, anatomically curved interlocking, intramedullary nail. Forty-five arthrodesis in 42 patients, performed between Jan 2003 and Oct 2008, were prospectively followed. The mean followup was 48 (range, 10 to 74) months. The main indications for the procedure were failed ankle arthrodesis with progressive subtalar arthritis, failed ankle arthroplasty and complex hindfoot deformity. The outcome was measured by a combination of pre and postoperative clinical examination, AOFAS hindfoot scores, SF-12 scores and radiological assessment. Union rate was 89% (40/45). Eighty-two percent (37/45) reported improvement in pain and 73% (33/45) had improved foot function. Satisfactory hindfoot alignment was achieved in 84% (38/45). Postoperatively there was a mean improvement in the AOFAS score of 37. Complications included a below knee amputation for persistent deep infection, five nonunions, and three delayed unions. Four nails, six proximal and six distal locking screws were removed for various causes. Other complications included two perioperative fractures, four superficial wound infections and one case of lateral plantar nerve irritation. With a short, anatomically curved intramedullary nail, we had a high rate of tibiotalocalcaneal fusion with minimal plantar neurovascular complications. We believe a short, curved intramedullary nail, with its more lateral entry point, helped maintain hindfoot alignment.

  2. Clinical Outcomes after Open Locked Intramedullary Nailing of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... joint stiffness due to prolonged immobilization.[8,9] Open reduction and internal fixation have reduced some of these complications by enabling early mobilization of the patient after surgery. The gold standard for treating closed femoral shaft fractures currently is closed locked intramedullary nailing.[10-13] ...

  3. Nonunions of the distal tibia treated by reamed intramedullary nailing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richmond, Jeffrey; Colleran, Kevin; Borens, Olivier; Kloen, Peter; Helfet, David L.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of reamed intramedullary nailing in the treatment of nonunions of the distal one-fourth of the tibia. Nonunions of the distal tibia are particularly difficult to treat given the short distal segment, the proximity to the ankle joint, and the

  4. Obsidian hydration dates glacial loading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, I; Pierce, K L; Obradovich, J D; Long, W D

    1973-05-18

    Three different groups of hydration rinds have been measured on thin sections of obsidian from Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming. The average thickness of the thickest (oldest) group of hydration rinds is 16.3 micrometers and can be related to the original emplacement of the flow 176,000 years ago (potassium-argon age). In addition to these original surfaces, most thin sections show cracks and surfaces which have average hydration rind thicknesses of 14.5 and 7.9 micrometers. These later two hydration rinds compare closely in thickness with those on obsidian pebbles in the Bull Lake and Pinedale terminal moraines in the West Yellowstone Basin, which are 14 to 15 and 7 to 8 micrometers thick, respectively. The later cracks are thought to have been formed by glacial loading during the Bull Lake and Pinedale glaciations, when an estimated 800 meters of ice covered the Obsidian Cliff flow.

  5. Hydration water and microstructure in calcium silicate and aluminate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fratini, Emiliano; Ridi, Francesca; Chen, Sow-Hsin; Baglioni, Piero

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the state of the hydration water and the microstructure development in a cement paste is likely to be the key for the improvement of its ultimate strength and durability. In order to distinguish and characterize the reacted and unreacted water, the single-particle dynamics of water molecules in hydrated calcium silicates (C 3 S, C 2 S) and aluminates (C 3 A, C 4 AF) were studied by quasi-elastic neutron scattering, QENS. The time evolution of the immobile fraction represents the hydration kinetics and the mobile fraction follows a non-Debye relaxation. Less sophisticated, but more accessible and cheaper techniques, like differential scanning calorimetry, DSC, and near-infrared spectroscopy, NIR, were validated through QENS results and they allow one to easily and quantitatively follow the cement hydration kinetics and can be widely applied on a laboratory scale to understand the effect of additives (i.e., superplasticizers, cellulosic derivatives, etc) on the thermodynamics of the hydration process. DSC provides information on the free water index and on the activation energy involved in the hydration process while the NIR band at 7000 cm -1 monitors, at a molecular level, the increase of the surface-interacting water. We report as an example the effect of two classes of additives widely used in the cement industry: superplasticizers, SPs, and cellulose derivatives. SPs interact at the solid surface, leading to a consistent increment of the activation energy for the processes of nucleation and growth of the hydrated phases. In contrast, the cellulosic additives do not affect the nucleation and growth activation energy, but cause a significant increment in the water availability: in other words the hydration process is more efficient without any modification of the solid/liquid interaction, as also evidenced by the 1 H-NMR. Additional information is obtained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultra small angle neutron scattering (USANS) and wide

  6. Treatment of humeral shaft fractures with antegrade intramedullary locking nail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsourvakas, Stefanos; Alexandropoulos, Christos; Papachristos, Ioannis; Tsakoumis, Grigorios; Ameridis, Nikolaos

    2011-12-01

    Antegrade interlocked humeral nailing for stabilization of humeral fractures was introduced many years ago, and studies on this method in the orthopedic literature have shown mixed results. The purpose of this investigation was to document the clinical outcome and complications associated with the use of an antegrade intramedullary nail (T2, Stryker) for the humeral fractures. Between 2005 and 2008, 52 fractures of the humeral shaft were treated operatively with this intramedullary nail in our department. Eight patients were polytraumatized, and four patients had an open fracture. The mean age of patients was 51.7 years. Forty-eight patients had an adequate duration of clinical follow-up (a mean of 18 months) for analysis. Complications were recorded, and the time to union was measured. Shoulder and elbow functions were assessed using the Constant Score and the Morrey Score, respectively. Forty-six fractures healed, with a mean time to clinical union of 10.3 weeks. Two patients developed pseudarthroses. There were four adverse events: two proximal screws backed out, one superficial infection at the insertion point, and one fracture at the distal end of the nail. Ninety-one percentage of patients had an excellent or good shoulder function. Five further operations were necessary: two for treatment of pseudarthroses, two for removal the backed out proximal screws, and one wound debridement for superficial infection. Antegrade humeral nailing is a valid therapeutic option for stabilization of humeral shaft fractures. By strictly adhering to the operation technique, the number and the severity of complications can be reduced. When good fracture alignment and stability are obtained, uneventful bone healing with good functional results is the rule.

  7. Flexible intramedullary nailing for femoral diaphyseal fractures in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojan Tamrakar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Although various treatment options are available for the treatment of femoral diaphyesal fractures in children, the titanium flexible nailing has gained popularity because it is safe, easy procedure with rapid recovery and high success rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of titanium elastic nails in treating paediatric femoral diaphyesal fractures at Patan Hospital.Materials & Methods: There were 35 cases which were all fixed with titanium flexible intramedullary nail under image intensifier at the Patan hospital from January 2013 and December 2015. Patients were evaluated in follow-ups to observe the alignment of fracture, infection, delayed union, nonunion, limb length discrepancy, implant failure, range of movement of hip and knee joints, and time to unite the fracture. The final results were evaluated using criteria of titanium elastic nail (TEN outcome score described by Flynn et al.Results: The mean age of the patients was 8.51 years. Among 35 patients (22 boys and 13 girls, there were 19 mid-shaft fractures, nine proximal third fractures and seven distal third fractures. Fracture patterns were transverse (22, oblique (10, spiral (2, and comminuted (2. The mean time for fracture union was 8.17 weeks radiologically whereas 9.83 weeks clinically. According to TEN outcome score, excellent and good results were in 28 cases (80% and seven cases (20% respectively.Conclusion: Flexible titanium nailing is a safe and satisfactory treatment for diaphyseal femoral fractures in children, because it provides rapid recovery, short rehabilitation and immobilization as well as very high union rate with few complications.

  8. Assessing indoor air quality in New York City nail salons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavilonis, Brian; Roelofs, Cora; Blair, Carly

    2018-05-01

    Nail salons are an important business and employment sector for recent immigrants offering popular services to a diverse range of customers across the United States. However, due to the nature of nail products and services, salon air can be burdened with a mix of low levels of hazardous airborne contaminants. Surveys of nail technicians have commonly found increased work-related symptoms, such as headaches and respiratory irritation, that are consistent with indoor air quality problems. In an effort to improve indoor air quality in nail salons, the state of New York recently promulgated regulations to require increased outdoor air and "source capture" of contaminants. Existing indoor air quality in New York State salons is unknown. In advance of the full implementation of the rules by 2021, we sought to establish reliable and usable baseline indoor air quality metrics to determine the feasibility and effectiveness of the requirement. In this pilot study, we measured total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations in 10 nail salons located in New York City to assess temporal and spatial trends. Within salon contaminant variation was generally minimal, indicating a well-mixed room and similar general exposure despite the task being performed. TVOC and CO 2 concentrations were strongly positively correlated (ρ = 0.81; p air quality for the purposes of compliance with the standard. An almost tenfold increase in TVOC concentration was observed when the American National Standards Institute/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ANSI/ASHRAE) target CO 2 concentration of 850 ppm was exceeded compared to when this target was met.

  9. PREVALENCE OF NAIL BITINGAMONG PRESCHOOL CHILDREN IN BITOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika RAJCHANOVSKA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nail biting may have a significant role in the development of some anomalies and harmful effects upon the oral-facial system.Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of nail biting among preschool children in Bitola.Methods: Through an observational, intersection (cross-sectional study, 890 children who came to medical checkups during the period from January to December 2009 were included. The following methods were applied: psychological testing (Test of Chuturikj, pediatric examination, interview with parents and the questionnaire: Child Behaviour Checklist-Achenbach, 1981.Results: The study included 890 children, 401 of which were at the age of three, 489 were at the age of five, 51.6% of them were males and 48.4% females. The level of prevalence of nail biting was 22.02%. The statistical analysis showed that the habit is more insignificant (p>0.05 in children at the age of 5 and among the male gender. The tested difference in the frequency of nail biting among children from the cities or villages was not statistically significant (p>0.05. Children who do not have their own room more often manifest this habit statistically insignificantly (p>0.05.Depending on the number of members and children in the family, the tested differences were statistically significant (p0.05. Children whose parents have a high education level significantly less bite their nails (p<0.01. Increased presence of this habit is found among respondents in families with average incomes, with p=0.004. Conclusion: Dentists and pediatricians should work together on prevention, early diagnosis and treatment of this habit, in order to achieve an impact over dental development.

  10. How evolution of the nailing system improves results and reduces orthopedic complications: more than 2000 cases of trochanteric fractures treated with the Gamma Nail System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascarella, R; Fantasia, R; Maresca, A; Bettuzzi, C; Amendola, L; Violini, S; Cuoghi, F; Sangiovanni, P; Cerbasi, S; Boriani, S; Tigani, D S

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of trochanteric fractures has increased significantly during the last few decades, especially in elderly patients with osteoporosis. The dynamic/sliding hip screw and the cephalomedullary nail are the most commonly used fixation methods to treat trochanteric fractures. The improvements in the Gamma Nail System (GNS) associated with a correct surgical technique reduced the postoperative orthopedic complications. The purpose of this study was to compare the results of the different Gamma Nails. The present study is a retrospective analysis of 2144 patients treated with GNS between January 1997 and December 2011 for trochanteric fractures, classified according to AO classification method. The patients were divided into three groups according to the nailing system: 525 were treated with Standard Gamma Nail (SGN), 422 with Trochanteric Gamma Nail (TGN) and 1197 with Gamma3 Nail. The overall incidence of intra-operative complications was 1.21 %; the incidence of intra-operative complications for each group was 1.71 % for SGN group, 0.47 % for TGN group and 1.25 % for Gamma3 Nail group. The overall incidence of postoperative complications was 5.48 %, and the incidence for each group was 10.73 % for SGN group, 9.92 % for TGN group and 2.92 % for Gamma3 Nail group. The GNS is a safe device with a low rate of intra-operative complications. The evolution of this nail system reduces postoperative complications, thus improving the results at follow-up and confirming that the Gamma3 Nail is a safe and predictable device to fix trochanteric fracture.

  11. Hydration dependent dynamics in RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Greg L.; Bardaro, Michael F.; Echodu, Dorothy C.; Drobny, Gary P.; Varani, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    The essential role played by local and collective motions in RNA function has led to a growing interest in the characterization of RNA dynamics. Recent investigations have revealed that even relatively simple RNAs experience complex motions over multiple time scales covering the entire ms-ps motional range. In this work, we use deuterium solid-state NMR to systematically investigate motions in HIV-1 TAR RNA as a function of hydration. We probe dynamics at three uridine residues in different structural environments ranging from helical to completely unrestrained. We observe distinct and substantial changes in 2 H solid-state relaxation times and lineshapes at each site as hydration levels increase. By comparing solid-state and solution state 13 C relaxation measurements, we establish that ns-μs motions that may be indicative of collective dynamics suddenly arise in the RNA as hydration reaches a critical point coincident with the onset of bulk hydration. Beyond that point, we observe smaller changes in relaxation rates and lineshapes in these highly hydrated solid samples, compared to the dramatic activation of motion occurring at moderate hydration

  12. Does the Angle of the Nail Matter for Pertrochanteric Fracture Reduction? Matching Nail Angle and Native Neck-Shaft Angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Joshua A; Barrett, Ian; Schoch, Bradley; Yuan, Brandon; Cass, Joseph; Cross, William

    2018-04-01

    To determine whether fixation of pertrochanteric hip fractures with cephalomedullary nails (CMNs) with a neck-shaft angle (NSA) less than the native NSA affects reduction and lag screw cutout. Retrospective comparative study. Level I trauma center. Patients treated with a CMN for unstable pertrochanteric femur fractures (OTA/AO 31-A2.2 and 31-A2.3) between 2005 and 2014. CMN fixation. NSA reduction and lag screw cutout. Patients fixed with a nail angle less than their native NSA were less likely to have good reductions [17% vs. 60%, 95% confidence interval (CI), -63% to -18%; P = 0.0005], secondary to more varus reductions (41% vs. 10%, 95% CI, 9%-46%; P = 0.01) and more fractures with ≥4 mm of displacement (63% vs. 35%, 95% CI, 3%-49%; P = 0.03). The cutout was not associated with the use of a nail angle less than the native NSA (60% vs. 76%, 95% CI, -56% to 18%; P = 0.5), varus reductions (60% vs. 32%, 95% CI, -13% to 62%; P = 0.3), or poor reductions (20% vs. 17%, 95% CI, -24% to 44%; P = 1.0). The fixation of unstable pertrochanteric hip fractures with a nail angle less than the native NSA was associated with more varus reductions and fracture displacement but did not affect the lag screw cutout. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  13. Mechanism of gypsum hydration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco, G.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an hypothesis that the mechanism o f gypsum hydration and dehydration is performed through two simultaneous phenomena. In this study we try to clear up this phenomenon using chlorides as accelerators or a mixture of ethanol-methanol as retarders to carry out the gypsum setting. Natural Mexican gypsum samples and a hemihydrate prepared in the laboratory are used. The following analytical techniques are used: MO, DRX, DTA, TG and DTG. In agreement with the obtained results, it can be concluded: that colloid formation depends on the action of accelerators or retarders and the crystals are a consequence of the quantity of hemihydrate formed.

    En el mecanismo de hidratación y deshidratación del yeso existe la hipótesis de que éste se efectúa por dos fenómenos simultáneos. Este estudio intenta esclarecer estos fenómenos, empleando: cloruros como aceleradores o mezcla etanol-metanol como retardadores para efectuar el fraguado del yeso. Se emplean muestras de yeso de origen natural mexicano y hemihydrate preparado en laboratorio; se utilizan técnicas analíticas: MO, DRX, DTA, TG y DTG. De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos se puede deducir: que la formación del coloide depende de la acción de los agentes aceleradores o retardadores y que los cristales son consecuencia de la cantidad de hemihidrato formado.

  14. Establishing a protocol for element determination in human nail clippings by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanches, Thalita Pinheiro; Saiki, Mitiko

    2011-01-01

    Human nail samples have been analyzed to evaluate occupational exposure, nutritional status and to diagnose certain diseases. However, sampling and washing protocols for nail analyses vary from study to study not allowing comparisons between studies. One of the difficulties in analyzing nail samples is to eliminate only surface contamination without removing elements of interest in this tissue. In the present study, a protocol was defined in order to obtain reliable results of element concentrations in human nail clippings. Nail clippings collected from all 10 fingers or toes were previously pre cleaned using an ethyl alcohol solution to eliminate microbes. Then, the clippings were cut in small pieces and submitted to different reagents for washing by shaking. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was applied for nail samples analysis which consisted of irradiating aliquots of samples together with synthetic elemental standards in the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor followed by gamma ray spectrometry. Comparisons made between the results obtained for nails submitted to different reagents for cleaning indicated that the procedure using acetone and Triton X100 solution is more effective than that of nitric acid solution. Analyses in triplicates of a nail sample indicated results with relative standard deviations lower than 15% for most of elements, showing the homogeneity of the prepared sample. Qualitative analyses of different nail polishes showed that the presence of elements determined in the present study is negligible in these products. Quality control of the analytical results indicated that the applied NAA procedure is adequate for human nail analysis. (author)

  15. Nail unit in collagen vascular diseases: A clinical, histopathological and direct immunofluorescence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil P

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormalities of the nail unit are common in patients with connective tissue diseases. Clinical examination of the nail unit, coupled with biopsy of proximal nail fold offers an additional advantage in the diagnosis. Purpose: Our aim was to record clinical changes of the nail unit in connective tissue diseases and to study the histopathological (both H and E and periodic acid Schiff and direct immunofluorescence (DIF findings of nail-fold biopsy. Materials and Methods: Thirty-eight confirmed cases connective tissue diseases attending skin OPD were enrolled in the study. After detailed clinical examination of the nail unit, a crescentric biopsy was taken from the proximal nail fold (PNF. Histopathological and DIF studies were was carried out. Findings: Nail changes could be demonstrated in 65% connective tissue diseases. Specific histopathological (H and E and immunofluorescence findings were also encountered in many patients. Conclusion: Clinical examination of the nail unit offers additional clue in the diagnosis of connective tissue diseases. Though DIF of PNF biopsy is useful in the diagnosis, it is not an ideal site for H and E study, as the yield is very low. Limitations: Lack of adequate comparison group and non-utilization of capillary microscopy for the detection of nail fold capillary abnormalities.

  16. (Meth)Acrylate Occupational Contact Dermatitis in Nail Salon Workers: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeKoven, Samuel; DeKoven, Joel; Holness, D Linn

    Recently, many cases of acrylate-associated allergic contact dermatitis have appeared among nail salon workers. Common acrylate-containing products in nail salons include traditional nail polish, ultraviolet-cured shellac nail polish, ultraviolet-cured gel nails, and press-on acrylic nails. Nail salon technicians seen in the occupational medicine clinic in 2015 and 2016 were identified, and their patch test results and clinical features were summarized. Patch testing was done with the Chemotechnique (Meth)Acrylate nail series, and either the North American Standard series or the North American Contact Dermatitis Group screening series. Six patients were identified, all women, ages 38 to 58. Common presentations included erythematous dermatitis of the dorsa of the hands, palms, and forearms and fissures on the fingertips. Less common sites of eruptions included the periorbital region, cheeks, posterior ears, neck, sacral area, lateral thighs, and dorsa of the feet. All patients reacted to hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and 5 patients reacted to ethyl acrylate. Each patient also reacted to (meth)acrylates that are not found on either standard series, including ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate, and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate. The authors report 6 cases of allergic contact dermatitis to acrylates in nail technicians seen over the past year, representing a new trend in their clinic. These cases are reflective of a growing trend of nail technicians with allergic contact dermatitis associated with occupational (meth)acrylate exposure. Efforts to improve prevention are needed.

  17. Reconsideration on Hydration of Sodium Ion: From Micro-Hydration to Bulk Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongquan, Zhou; Chunhui, Fang; Yan, Fang; Fayan, Zhu; Haiwen, Ge; Hongyan, Liu

    2017-12-01

    Micro hydration structures of the sodium ion, [Na(H2O) n ]+, n = 1-12, were probed by density functional theory (DFT) at B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ level in both gaseous and aqueous phase. The predicted equilibrium sodium-oxygen distance of 0.240 nm at the present level of theory. The four-, five- and six-coordinated cluster can transform from each other at the ambient condition. The analysis of the successive water binding energy and natural charge population (NBO) on Na+ clearly shows that the influence of Na+ on the surrounding water molecules goes beyond the first hydration shell with the hydration number of 6. The Car-Parrinello molecular dynamic simulation shows that only the first hydration sphere can be found, and the hydration number of Na+ is 5.2 and the hydration distance ( r Na-O) is 0.235 nm. All our simulations mentioned in the present paper show an excellent agreement with the diffraction result from X-ray scattering study.

  18. A high yield process for hydrate formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giavarini, C.; Maccioni, F. [Univ. of Roma La Sapienza, Roma (Italy). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Due to the large quantities of natural gas stored in deep ocean hydrates, hydrate reservoirs are a substantial energy resource. Hydrates concentrate methane by as much as a factor of 164. As such, several natural gas transportation and storage systems using gas hydrates have been studied, and many of them are nearing practical use. In these systems, the hydrate is produced as a slurry by a spray process at approximately 7 megapascal (MPa), and then shaped into pellets. The use of a spray process, instead of a conventional stirred vessel is necessary in order to reach high hydrate concentrations in the hydrate-ice system. This paper presented a new procedure to produce a bulk of concentrated methane hydrate in a static traditional reactor at moderate pressure, controlling pressure and temperature in the interval between ice melting and the hydrate equilibrium curve. This paper discussed the experimental procedure which included formation of methane hydrate at approximately 5 MPa and 2 degrees Celsius in a reaction calorimeter at a volume of two liters. Results were also discussed. It was concluded that the procedure seemed suitable for the development of a gas hydrate storage and transport technology. It was found that the spray procedure took more time, but could be sped up and made continuous by using two vessels, one for hydrate formation and the other for hydrate concentration. The advantage was the production of a concentrated hydrate, using a simpler equipment and working at lower pressures respect to the spray process. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Comparison of nail lacquer clobetasol efficacy at 0,05%, 1% and 8% in nail psoriasis treatment: prospective, controlled and randomized pilot study Comparação da eficácia do clobetasol em esmalte 0,05%, 1% e 8% no tratamento da psoríase ungueal: estudo piloto, prospectivo, controlado e randomizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertha Carvalho Nakamura

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nail psoriasis may affect up to 90% of patients with psoriasis in the course of the disease throughout their lives and it is often a therapeutic challenge to dermatologists. Topical treatments described in the literature have demonstrated variable efficacy, and unsatisfactory results have been associated to inefficient penetration of the active ingredient into the nail plate and proximal nail fold. Recently the use of clobetasol on nail lacquer vehicle has been suggested, with satisfactory results and no side effects. OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and safety of clobetasol in nail lacquer vehicle in three concentrations (0.05%, 1% and 8% in patients with nail psoriasis. METHODS: Prospective, controlled, randomized pilot study in fifteen patients with nail bed and/or nail matrix psoriasis in both hands, subdivided into three groups: A(0.05% clobetasol nail lacquer, B(1% clobetasol nail lacquer and C(8% clobetasol nail lacquer. All groups used clobetasol nail lacquer on the left hand and base coat nail lacquer as control on the right, twice a week for 16 weeks. Clinical evaluation was done by photographic records and the NAPSI score of both treated and control hands, as well as modified NAPSI score of the most affected nail of the treated hand. RESULTS: Group C showed a statistically relevant clinical response compared to the other groups, reflected in the improvement of clinical parameters, of treated hand NAPSI score, when compared to the control hand, and modified NAPSI score of the most affected nail in the treated hand. CONCLUSION: The 8% clobetasol nail lacquer was effective and safe, and it can be considered a good option of topical therapy in the treatment of nail psoriasis.FUNDAMENTOS: A psoríase ungueal, de difícil manejo terapêutico, pode afetar até 90% dos portadores de psoríase no transcurso da doença, ao longo de suas vidas. Os tratamentos tópicos descritos na literatura têm eficácia variável, muitas vezes

  20. Effect of Chord Splice Joints on Force Distribution and Deformations in Trusses with Punched Metal Plate Fasteners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The span of roof trusses with punched metal plate fasteners (nail plates) makes it often necessary to use splice joints in the top and bottom chords. In the finite element models used for design of the trusses these splice joints are normally assumed to be either rotationally stiff or pinned....... Timber-to-timber contact and non-linear elastic behaviour are included in the model. Results from tests with joints under fourpoint bending are compared with predictions given by TrussLab, and a good agreement is found. Splice joints in trusses with nail plates may be assumed to be rotationally stiff...... if their deformation has no significant effect upon the distribution of member forces according to Eurocode 5. Two simple guidelines for the design and location of splice joints are given in Eurocode 5 for treating the splice joints as rotationally stiff. The reasonability of these guidelines and the influence...

  1. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Lachowski, Eric E.

    1999-01-01

    and experimental data are presented showing that C(3)A can hydrate at lower humidities than either C3S or C2S. It is suggested that the initiation of hydration during exposure to water vapour is nucleation controlled. When C(3)A hydrates at low humidity, the characteristic hydration product is C(3)AH(6......Vapour phase hydration of purl cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities is described. This is relevant to modern high performance concrete that may self-desiccate during hydration and is also relevant to the quality of the cement during storage. Both the oretical considerations...

  2. Storage capacity of hydrogen in gas hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuda, Takaaki; Ogata, Kyohei; Hashimoto, Shunsuke; Sugahara, Takeshi; Sato, Hiroshi; Ohgaki, Kazunari

    2010-01-01

    The storage capacity of H 2 in the THF, THT, and furan hydrates was studied by p-V-T measurements. We confirmed that the storage and release processes of H 2 in all hydrates could be performed reversibly by pressure swing without destroying of hydrate cages. H 2 absorption in both THT and furan hydrates is much faster than THF hydrate in spite of same unit-cell structure. On the other hand, the storage amounts of H 2 are coincident in the all additive hydrates and would reach at about 1.0 mass% asymptotically.

  3. Management of a Low-Energy Penetrating Brain Injury Caused by a Nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. R. Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-energy penetrating nail injury to the brain is an extremely rare neurosurgical emergency. The most common cause of nail gun injury is work related accidents; other causes result from accidental firing of a nail gun, suicide attempts by firing nail guns into the brain, and bomb blasts containing pieces of nails. Neurosurgical treatment performed by craniotomy still seems to be the safest one; there are reports of complications such as subdural hematoma and intraparenchymal hemorrhages following the blind removal of foreign bodies leading to suggestions that all penetrating foreign bodies should be removed under direct vision. We report a rarely described neurosurgical approach for removal of a penetrating nail from the brain and skull without evidence of associated hematoma and other brain lesions.

  4. Habit tic nail deformity - a rare presentation in an 8 year old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Heis, S; Abadie, Al

    2016-11-15

    Habit tic nail deformity is a nail dystrophy resulting from habitual, repetitive trauma to the nail. It is usually acquired in adulthood, however, we report a case of habit tic nail deformity in an 8 year old boy. The diagnosis was made clinically with further history revealing that the boy repeatedly rubbed his thumbnails and pushed the cuticles. Emollient cream (Balneum®) was recommended twice daily and both the patient and his mother were educated on the behavioral nature of this condition. There was marked improvement at 6 months of treatment and further improvement at 12 months.We note that habit tic nail deformity is not exclusive to adults. Diagnosis can be made clinically. History and physical examination provide valuable clues and psychosocial links must be explored and addressed. Management is challenging and compliance with treatment is variable. Patient education, barrier methods, and behavioral therapy can be helpful in preventing further trauma to the nails.

  5. Finger nail plate shape and size for personal identification – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... identification – a possible low technology method for the developing world ... The population included 496 consenting individuals, four family units and four sets of ... Examination showed variations within members of the families i.e. no two ...

  6. Is intramedullary nailing superior to plating in patients with extraarticular fracture of the distal tibia?

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Cabrolier; Marcelo Molina

    2015-01-01

    Las fracturas metafisarias de tibia distal se producen generalmente por traumatismos de alta energía, como accidentes automovilísticos, y pueden causar discapacidad severa por dolor y deformidad. En el manejo de estas fracturas existen múltiples alternativas quirúrgicas, sin embargo es incierto cuál es la mejor opción. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos seis revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen tre...

  7. P-wave Velocity Structure Across the Mariana Trench and Implications for Hydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eimer, M. O.; Wiens, D.; Lizarralde, D.; Cai, C.

    2017-12-01

    Estimates of the water flux at subduction zones remain uncertain, particularly the amount of water brought into the trench by the subducting plate. Normal faulting related to the bending of the incoming plate has been proposed to provide pathways for water to hydrate the crust and upper mantle. A passive and active source seismic experiment spanning both the incoming plate and forearc was conducted in 2012 in central Mariana to examine the role of hydration at subduction zones. The active-source component of the survey used the R/V M.G. Langsethairgun array and 68 short period sensors, including suspended hydrophones, deployed on 4 transects. This study at the Mariana trench offers a comparison to related studies of incoming plate hydration in Middle America, where differing thermal structures related to plate age predict different stability fields for hydrous minerals. The forearc structure is also of interest, since Mariana is characterized by large serpentine seamounts and may have a serpentinized mantle wedge. The velocity structure will also be important for the relocation of earthquakes in the incoming plate, since the seismicity can offer a constraint for the depth extent of these bending faults. We examine the P-wave velocity structure along a 400-km long wide-angle refraction transect perpendicular to the trench and spanning both the forearc and incoming plate. Preliminary results indicate a velocity reduction in the crust and uppermost mantle at the bending region of the incoming plate, relative to the plate's structure away from the trench. This reduction suggests that outer-rise faults extend into the upper mantle and may have promoted serpentinization of that material. Mantle Pn refraction phases are not observed in the forearc, consistent with the ambient noise tomography results that show upper-mantle velocities similar to that of the lower crust. The lack of contrast between the upper mantle and crustal velocities from the ambient noise has been

  8. An Exploratory Study of the Factors That May Affect Female Consumers’ Buying Decision of Nail Polishes

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Chen; Adhikari, Koushik; Koppel, Kadri

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine what factors female consumers valued more when they buy nail polish. Ninety-eight female consumers participated in a nail polish consumer study at the Sensory Analysis Center, Kansas State University. A questionnaire containing a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question, behavior questions and demographic questions was presented to each consumer. In the CATA question, the factors that may affect consumers’ decision to buy a nail polish were asked, incl...

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis caused by nail acrylates in Europe. An EECDRG study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonçalo, Margarida; Pinho, André; Agner, Tove

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) caused by nail acrylates, also including methacrylates and cyanoacrylates here, is being increasingly reported. METHODS: A retrospective study in 11 European Environmental Contact Dermatitis Research Group (EECDRG) clinics collected information on cases......-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (88.6%), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (69.2%), and ethyl cyanoacrylate (9.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Nail cosmetics were responsible for the majority of ACD cases caused by acrylates, affecting nail beauticians and consumers, and therefore calling for stricter regulation and preventive...

  10. The use of topical minoxidil to accelerate nail growth: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiempanakit, Kumpol; Geater, Alan; Limtong, Preeyachat; Nicoletti, Kathleen

    2017-07-01

    Linear nail growth rate is affected by various conditions, one of which is the level of blood flow. Our supposition was that topical minoxidil, which has vasodilatory properties, can increase the rate of nail growth. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of topical minoxidil on nail growth. A 5% topical minoxidil solution was applied twice daily to the fingernails of 32 participants. Two groups of 16 participants were randomly chosen. In one group, the applications were made to the right index and left ring fingernails, and, in the other, the left index and right ring fingernails. During each visit (weekly during the first month and every 2 weeks during the second month), the nail length of six fingernails (index, middle, and ring of both hands) was measured using a digital caliper. Beginning in the first week, the mean nail length of the treated nails was greater than that of nails in the untreated group with statistical significance. There were no systemic or cutaneous side effects. During the first month, the mean growth of the treated nails was 4.27 mm/month compared with 3.91 mm/month in the untreated nails (P = 0.003). These findings suggest that a 5% concentration of topical minoxidil can stimulate nail growth with increased growth beginning in the first week of application. The results may have important implications for the treatment of nail disorders; however, a comparable study involving participants with nail disorders is highly recommended. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  11. Application research of 3D additive manufacturing technology in the nail shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shanhua; Yan, Ruiqiang; Song, Ning

    2018-04-01

    Based on the analysis of hierarchical slicing algorithm, 3D scanning of enterprise product nailing handle case file is carried out, point cloud data processing is performed on the source file, and the surface modeling and innovative design of nail handling handle case are completed. Using MakerBot Replicator2X-based 3D printer for layered 3D print samples, for the new nail product development to provide reverse modeling and rapid prototyping technical support.

  12. Gas hydrates forming and decomposition conditions analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. М. Павленко

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of gas hydrates has been defined; their brief description has been given; factors that affect the formation and decomposition of the hydrates have been reported; their distribution, structure and thermodynamic conditions determining the gas hydrates formation disposition in gas pipelines have been considered. Advantages and disadvantages of the known methods for removing gas hydrate plugs in the pipeline have been analyzed, the necessity of their further studies has been proved. In addition to the negative impact on the process of gas extraction, the hydrates properties make it possible to outline the following possible fields of their industrial use: obtaining ultrahigh pressures in confined spaces at the hydrate decomposition; separating hydrocarbon mixtures by successive transfer of individual components through the hydrate given the mode; obtaining cold due to heat absorption at the hydrate decomposition; elimination of the open gas fountain by means of hydrate plugs in the bore hole of the gushing gasser; seawater desalination, based on the hydrate ability to only bind water molecules into the solid state; wastewater purification; gas storage in the hydrate state; dispersion of high temperature fog and clouds by means of hydrates; water-hydrates emulsion injection into the productive strata to raise the oil recovery factor; obtaining cold in the gas processing to cool the gas, etc.

  13. Patient-relevant needs and treatment goals in nail psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blome, C; Costanzo, A; Dauden, E.

    2016-01-01

    , but not with age or disease duration. Manual dexterity and social interaction were of particular importance. Goal importance and quality of life were associated, but not redundant (r = 0.612, p ...PURPOSE: Patient-centered health care implies that medical decisions are made jointly by physician and patient, based on patient needs. Aims were to (a) identify treatment goals for a new questionnaire on patient needs and benefits in nail psoriasis treatment; (b) analyze the importance...... of treatment goals in patients with nail psoriasis in general and in defined subgroups; and (c) determine the association between overall treatment goal importance and quality of life. METHODS: The study comprised the following steps: qualitative survey on needs and burdens in 120 patients; development...

  14. Investigation of two families with nail-patella syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, G.; Alzen, G.; Ittel, T.H.

    1988-01-01

    The radiological and clinical features of two families with a nail-patella syndrome are described. Our findings emphasize the varying expressivity of the syndrome, which has an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance and a penetrance of 100%. It is important for the radiologist to be aware of the syndrome's stigmata so that renal failure can be detected as early as possible after the diagnosis of skeletal dysplasia. (orig.) [de

  15. Primary Retrograde Tibiotalocalcaneal Nailing For Fragility Ankle Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Benjamin C; Hansen, Dane C; Harrison, Ryan; Lucas, Douglas E; Degenova, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Ankle fragility fractures are difficult to treat due to poor bone quality and soft tissues as well as the near ubiquitous presence of comorbidities including diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy. Conventional open reduction and internal fixation in this population has been shown to lead to a significant rate of complications. Given the high rate of complications with contemporary fixation methods, the present study aims to critically evaluate the use of acute hindfoot nailing as a percutaneous fixation technique for high-risk ankle fragility fractures. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated 31 patients treated with primary retrograde tibiotalocalcaneal nail without joint preparation for a mean of 13.6 months postoperatively from an urban Level I trauma center during the years 2006-2012. Overall, there were two superficial infections (6.5%) and three deep infections (9.7%) in the series. There were 28 (90.3%) patients that went on to radiographic union at a mean of 22.2 weeks with maintenance of foot and ankle alignment. There were three cases of asymptomatic screw breakage observed at a mean of 18.3 months postoperatively, which were all treated conservatively.. This study shows that retrograde hindfoot nailing is an acceptable treatment option for treatment of ankle fragility fractures. Hindfoot nailing allows early weightbearing, limited soft tissue injury, and a relatively low rate of complications, all of which are advantages to conventional open reduction internal fixation techniques. Given these findings, larger prospective randomized trials comparing this treatment with conventional open reduction internal fixation techniques are warranted.

  16. Paraneoplastic disorders of hair, nails, oral mucosa and pigmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kavak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this section, paraneoplastic entites of hair, nail, oral mucosa and pigmentation changes have been discussed. Some skin findings are “strong” indicator of a malignancy whereas others are not. Readers will encounter some “coincidental” or “common” entities as well as more “severe” changes for a paraneoplastic sign. In addition, it is crucial that some paraneoplastic lesions may predict for a recurrence of malignancy.

  17. Congenital yellow nail syndrome: a case report and its relationship to nonimmune fetal hydrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Arti; Al-Essa, Fahad H; El-Shafei, Wael M; Alsaleh, Qasem A

    2010-01-01

    Yellow nail syndrome (YNS) is an uncommon disorder characterized by a triad of nail dystrophy, lymphedema, and pleural effusion. It is rare in children and congenital occurrence of YNS has been very rarely described. We report a 2-year-old Arab boy having congenital yellow nail syndrome with mild facial dysmorphism and bilateral conjunctival pigmentation born to consanguineous parents. One of his older siblings had died of nonimmune fetal hydrops (NIFH). The case supports the genetic basis of yellow nail syndrome with a possible relationship to nonimmune fetal hydrops. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. ROLE OF INTRAMEDULLARY NAILING IN DEFORMITY CORRECTION OF LONG BONES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Correction of multi-apical long bone deformities in lower limbs is a challenging task. Correction of these deformities with Ilizarov–type external fixators, treating one segment at a time increases the total time of correction and decreases the patients’ compliance with considerable discomfort. Hence we preferred intramedullary nail devices which combines accuracy, minimal invasiveness, with patient compliance and with excellent functional outcome. Temporary external fixator used per-operatively in some cases to retain the correction till the insertion of the nail. Eight patients in the age group of 12-35 yrs. presented to us over the last 1 year with multi-apical lower limb deformities. The radiological parameters described by Paley et al 1 were used to assess the pre and post–operative radiographs. With the help of anatomical axes the CORA was identified. Percutaneous osteotomy and stabilization with intramedullary nail was done to correct the deformity. 13 Femora and 7 Tibiae were subjected to correction by this technique and followed up over a period of 1 year (Nov-2014 to Nov-2015 at MIMS Vizianagaram hospital.

  19. Subungual hyperkeratosis nail biopsy: A better diagnostic tool for onychomycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Nagar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onychomycosis is one of the most common nail disorders. Mycological examination by potassium hydroxide (KOH mount and fungal culture is the most commonly used diagnostic method. However, it is associated with a low sensitivity. Aims: To evaluate the technique of subungual hyperkeratosis nail biopsy in diagnosing onychomycosis in HIV-infected and immunocompetent adults and compare it with mycological examination. Methods: 34 HIV-positive patients who presented clinically with onychomycosis were recruited in the study from the beginning. There was no screening done for patients with onychomycosis. This has been clarified in manuscript under the heading of methods. Results: All the fungal cultures yielded dermatophytes correlating with the biopsy findings. Only hyphal form of fungus was detected in KOH examination, indicating it was not a contaminant. Clinical types of onychomycosis are stated in discussion. Conclusions: PAS stain of subungual hyperkeratosis nail biopsy was the most sensitive in the diagnosis of onychomycosis in both HIV-infected and non-infected groups.

  20. Achieving interlocking nails without using an image intensifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikem, Innocent C; Ogunlusi, Johnson D; Ine, Henry R

    2007-08-01

    Interlocking nails are commonly performed using an image intensifier. These are expensive and are not readily available in most resource-poor countries of the world. The aim of this study was to achieve interlocking nailing without the use of an image intensifier. This is a prospective descriptive analysis of 40 consecutive cases seen with shaft fractures of the humerus, femur, and tibia. Fracture fixation was done using Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) nails. Forty limbs in 34 patients were studied. There were 12 females and 22 males, giving a ratio of 1:2. The mean age (years) was 35.75+/-13.16 and the range was 17-70 years. The studied bones were: humerus 10%, femur 65%, and tibia 25%. The fracture lines were: transverse 40%, oblique 15%, and communited 45%. Fracture grades were: closed 90%, grade I, 5%, grade II, 2.5%, and grade IIIA, 2.5%. Surgical approaches were: antegrade 62.5% and retrograde 37.5%. Indications for fixation were: recent fracture 92.5%, non-union 5%, and malunion 3%. Methods of reductions were: open 85% and closed 15%. The mean follow-up period (years) was 1.50+/-0.78. The union time averaged 3 months. Complication was mainly screw loosening due to severe osteoporoses in one case. It is, therefore, concluded that, with the aid of external jigs and slot finders, interlocking can be achieved without an image intensifier.

  1. Methods to determine hydration states of minerals and cement hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baquerizo, Luis G., E-mail: luis.baquerizoibarra@holcim.com [Innovation, Holcim Technology Ltd., CH-5113 Holderbank (Switzerland); Matschei, Thomas [Innovation, Holcim Technology Ltd., CH-5113 Holderbank (Switzerland); Scrivener, Karen L. [Laboratory of Construction Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Saeidpour, Mahsa; Thorell, Alva; Wadsö, Lars [Building Materials, Lund University, Box 124, 221 000 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-11-15

    This paper describes a novel approach to the quantitative investigation of the impact of varying relative humidity (RH) and temperature on the structure and thermodynamic properties of salts and crystalline cement hydrates in different hydration states (i.e. varying molar water contents). The multi-method approach developed here is capable of deriving physico-chemical boundary conditions and the thermodynamic properties of hydrated phases, many of which are currently missing from or insufficiently reported in the literature. As an example the approach was applied to monosulfoaluminate, a phase typically found in hydrated cement pastes. New data on the dehydration and rehydration of monosulfoaluminate are presented. Some of the methods used were validated with the system Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–H{sub 2}O and new data related to the absorption of water by anhydrous sodium sulfate are presented. The methodology and data reported here should permit better modeling of the volume stability of cementitious systems exposed to various different climatic conditions.

  2. Methods to determine hydration states of minerals and cement hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baquerizo, Luis G.; Matschei, Thomas; Scrivener, Karen L.; Saeidpour, Mahsa; Thorell, Alva; Wadsö, Lars

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a novel approach to the quantitative investigation of the impact of varying relative humidity (RH) and temperature on the structure and thermodynamic properties of salts and crystalline cement hydrates in different hydration states (i.e. varying molar water contents). The multi-method approach developed here is capable of deriving physico-chemical boundary conditions and the thermodynamic properties of hydrated phases, many of which are currently missing from or insufficiently reported in the literature. As an example the approach was applied to monosulfoaluminate, a phase typically found in hydrated cement pastes. New data on the dehydration and rehydration of monosulfoaluminate are presented. Some of the methods used were validated with the system Na 2 SO 4 –H 2 O and new data related to the absorption of water by anhydrous sodium sulfate are presented. The methodology and data reported here should permit better modeling of the volume stability of cementitious systems exposed to various different climatic conditions

  3. Novel understanding of calcium silicate hydrate from dilute hydration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lina

    2017-05-13

    The perspective of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is still confronting various debates due to its intrinsic complicated structure and properties after decades of studies. In this study, hydration at dilute suspension of w/s equaling to 10 was conducted for tricalcium silicate (C3S) to interpret long-term hydration process and investigate the formation, structure and properties of C-S-H. Based on results from XRD, IR, SEM, NMR and so forth, loose and dense clusters of C-S-H with analogous C/S ratio were obtained along with the corresponding chemical formulae proposed as Ca5Si4O13∙6.2H2O. Crystalline structure inside C-S-H was observed by TEM, which was allocated at the foil-like proportion as well as the edge of wrinkles of the product. The long-term hydration process of C3S in dilute suspension could be sketchily described as migration of calcium hydroxide and in-situ growth of C-S-H with equilibrium silicon in aqueous solution relatively constant and calcium varied.

  4. Impacts of Hydrate Distribution on the Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Hydrate-Bearing Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Seol, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In general, hydrate makes the sediments hydraulically less conductive, thermally more conductive, and mechanically stronger; yet the dependency of these physical properties on hydrate saturation varies with hydrate distribution and morphology. Hydrate distribution in sediments may cause the bulk physical properties of their host sediments varying several orders of magnitude even with the same amount of hydrate. In natural sediments, hydrate morphology is inherently governed by the burial depth and the grain size of the host sediments. Compare with patchy hydrate, uniformly distributed hydrate is more destructive to fluid flow, yet leads to higher gas and water permeability during hydrate dissociation due to the easiness of forming percolation paths. Water and hydrate have similar thermal conductivity values; the bulk thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments depends critically on gas-phase saturation. 60% of gas saturation may result in evident thermal conductivity drop and hinder further gas production. Sediments with patchy hydrate yield lower stiffness than that with cementing hydrate but higher stiffness than that with pore filling and loading bearing hydrate. Besides hydrate distribution, the stress state and loading history also play an important role in the mechanical behavior of hydrate-bearing sediments.

  5. Predictors for perioperative blood transfusion in elderly patients with extra capsular hip fractures treated with cephalo-medullary nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ali Fazal

    2018-02-01

    Conclusion: Patient age, ASA grade, preoperative haemoglobin and length of nail are reliable predictors for perioperative blood transfusion in extra capsular hip fractures in elderly patients treated with cephalo-medullary nailing and reinforce a selective transfusion policy.

  6. Nail Changes in End-Stage Renal Failure Patients on Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal Arshad

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the fingernail changes in patients with end-stage renal failure (ESRF on regular hemodialysis (HD, we reviewed 69 patients (male 25, female 44; age 40 ± 14.8 years who have been on HD at Samtah General Hospital, Gizan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia for a mean of 4.3 ± 3.06 years. They were free from congenital, systemic or primary skin disorders contributing to nail changes. The patients were also free from ornamental dyes like henna, traumatic injuries or infections in the fingernails. They were also clinically free from features suggestive of the carpal tunnel syndrome or vascular steal syndrome secondary to arteriovenous fistula (AVF created for vascular access. Their nails were examined under bright day light by the authors independently. The findings consistent among all three observers were taken for analysis. Hemoglobin and serum albumin levels were also estimated. We compared these changes according to age, sex, and duration on chronic hemodialysis, AVF, and the levels of serum albumin and hemoglobin. One or more nail changes were observed in 44/69 (64% patients. The commonest abnormality was the so-called "Half-and-half nail changes", which was observed in the finger nails of 18/69 (26% of the study patients (males to female ratio was 2:1. Typically, the half-and-half nails are nails where the distal portion of the nail bed is red, pink or brown, occupies 20-60% of the total nail length and is always sharply demarcated with the proximal portion. The latter has a dull whitish ground glass appearance and when pressure is applied, the distal discoloration does not fade completely. Non-specific nail changes were observed 26/69 (38% patients. The hemoglobin and serum albumin levels were not significantly different of those with ′half-and-half′ nail, non-specific nail changes or no nail changes. We conclude that various fingernail changes are observed in ESRF patients on HD. These nail changes are independent of the age of the

  7. Nail gun injuries to the head with minimal neurological consequences: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoshi, Ziyad; AlKherayf, Fahad; Da Silva, Vasco; Lesiuk, Howard

    2016-03-16

    An estimated 3700 individuals are seen annually in US emergency departments for nail gun-related injuries. Approximately 45 cases have been reported in the literature concerning nail gun injuries penetrating the cranium. These cases pose a challenge for the neurosurgeon because of the uniqueness of each case, the dynamics of high pressure nail gun injuries, and the surgical planning to remove the foreign body without further vascular injury or uncontrolled intracranial hemorrhage. Here we present four cases of penetrating nail gun injuries with variable presentations. Case 1 is of a 33-year-old white man who sustained 10 nail gunshot injuries to his head. Case 2 is of a 51-year-old white man who sustained bi-temporal nail gun injuries to his head. Cases 3 and 4 are of two white men aged 22 years and 49 years with a single nail gun injury to the head. In the context of these individual cases and a review of similar cases in the literature we present surgical approaches and considerations in the management of nail gun injuries to the cranium. Case 1 presented with cranial nerve deficits, Case 2 required intubation for low Glasgow Coma Scale, while Cases 3 and 4 were neurologically intact on presentation. Three patients underwent angiography for assessment of vascular injury and all patients underwent surgical removal of foreign objects using a vice-grip. No neurological deficits were found in these patients on follow-up. Nail gun injuries can present with variable clinical status; mortality and morbidity is low for surgically managed isolated nail gun-related injuries to the head. The current case series describes the surgical use of a vice-grip for a good grip of the nail head and controlled extraction, and these patients appear to have a good postoperative prognosis with minimal neurological deficits postoperatively and on follow-up.

  8. Nail psoriasis as a severity indicator: results from the PsoReal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Marc A; Langenbruch, Anna K; Schäfer, Ines; Herberger, Katharina; Reich, Kristian; Augustin, Matthias

    2011-07-01

    Although nail psoriasis affects a substantial proportion of psoriasis patients and causes significant psychologic distress, few epidemiologic data characterizing patients with nail involvement are available. The aim of this research was to elucidate differences between patients with nail psoriasis and those without any nail involvement, taking quality indicators of health care from the patient's perspective into account. In total, 2449 patient members of the Deutscher Psoriasis Bund, the largest patient organization for psoriasis in Germany, were interviewed in this nationwide, noninterventional, cross-sectional study. Patients with nail psoriasis were compared with patients without any nail involvement with regard to gender, age, disease duration, affected body surface area, health-related quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index [DLQI] ED-5D), patient-defined treatment benefit, amount of inpatient treatments, disease duration, and numbers of work days lost. Data from 2449 patients with psoriasis were analyzed. Overall, 44.8% (1078) of patients were female, mean age was 57.0 ± 11.7 years, and 72.8% had nail involvement and showed higher values for affected body surface area than those without nail involvement (8.3% versus 5.6%, respectively; P < 0.004). Health-related quality of life was significantly lower in patients with nail psoriasis (DLQI 7.2 versus 5.3; ED-5D 60.1 versus 67.3), who had more days off work (9.8 versus 3.3). Nail involvement is an important symptom of psoriasis and is associated with greater disease severity and quality of life impairment. Accordingly, management of psoriasis should include a special focus on nail involvement.

  9. New insight into the pathogenesis of nail psoriasis and overview of treatment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ventura A

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Alessandra Ventura,1 Mauro Mazzeo,1 Roberta Gaziano,2 Marco Galluzzo,1 Luca Bianchi,1 Elena Campione1 1Department of Dermatology, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, Rome, Italy Abstract: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting up to 3% of the general population. The prevalence of nail involvement in psoriasis patients varies between 15% and 79%. While the nails represent a small portion of the body surface area, psoriasis in these areas can have a disproportionate influence on a patient’s physical and psychosocial activities. Differential diagnosis between an onychomycosis and a psoriatic nail could be challenging; nevertheless, coexistence of onychomycosis and nail psoriasis also occurs and both are common disorders in the general population. Nail psoriasis can be difficult to treat. Treatment of nail psoriasis should consider the body surface area of skin disease, psoriatic arthritis, severity of nail disease, and the impairment in the quality of life. All patients should be tested for onychomycosis before starting a therapy. This recommendation is underlined by the fact that nail psoriasis is mostly treated by immunosuppressive drugs, like steroids, methotrexate, or biologics, which may aggravate mycotic nail infections. Conventional systemic therapy, such as use of steroids, cyclosporine, methotrexate, and retinoid in the long term, can cause organ toxicities. Currently, use of apremilast and tofacitinib favors an early healing of nail psoriasis because they act directly on the pathogenic targets, distressing the inflammatory signals associated with the initiation and maintenance of the disease activity, and as with several conventional synthetic disease modifying antirheumatic drugs, they are characterized by the convenience of oral administration. The number of treatment options has increased considerably in recent years; however, given the heterogeneity of

  10. Is Br2 hydration hydrophobic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Torres, A; Gamboa-Suárez, A; Bernal-Uruchurtu, M I

    2017-02-28

    The spectroscopic properties of bromine in aqueous systems suggest it can behave as either hydrophilic or hydrophobic solute. In small water clusters, the halogen bond and the hydrogen-halogen interaction are responsible for its specific way of binding. In water hydrates, it is efficiently hosted by two different cages forming the crystal structure and it has been frequently assumed that there is little or no interaction between the guest and the host. Bromine in liquid solution poses a challenging question due to its non-negligible solubility and the large blue shift measured in its absorption spectra. Using a refined semi-empirical force field, PM3-PIF, we performed a Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics study of bromine in liquid water. Here we present a detailed study in which we retrieved the most representative hydration structures in terms of the most frequent positions around bromine and the most common water orientations. Albeit being an approximate description of the total hydration phenomenon, it captures the contribution of the leading molecular interactions in form of the recurrent structures. Our findings confirm that the spectroscopic signature is mainly caused by the closest neighbors. The dynamics of the whole first hydration shell strongly suggests that the external molecules in that structure effectively isolate the bulk from the presence of bromine. The solvation structure fluctuates from a hydrophilic to a hydrophobic-like environment along the studied trajectory.

  11. Hydration modeling of calcium sulphates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Al-Mattarneh, Hashem; Mustapha, Kamal N.; Nuruddin, Muhd Fadhil

    2008-01-01

    The CEMHYD3D model has been extended at the University of Twente in the last ten years [1,2]. At present the cement hydration model is extended for the use of gypsum. Although gypsum was present in the model already, the model was not suitable for high contents of gypsum and did not include the

  12. Treatment of pediatric femoral shaft fractures by stainless steel and titanium elastic nail system: A randomized comparative trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tank Gyaneshwar

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: Majority of paediatric femoral shaft fractures are now treated operatively by elastic stable intramedullary nails. Operative intervention results in a shorter hospital stay and has economic and social benefits over conservative treatment. The cost of stainless steel nail is one third the cost of titanium nail. However, the clinico-radiological results are not significantly different between titanium and stainless steel nails at one year follow-up as observed by our study.

  13. Six-frame picosecond radiation camera based on hydrated electron photoabsorption phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutts, G.W.; Olk, L.B.; Gates, H.A.; St Leger-Barter, G.

    1977-01-01

    To obtain picosecond photographs of nanosecond radiation sources, a six-frame ultra-high speed radiation camera based on hydrated electron absorption phenomena has been developed. A time-dependent opacity pattern is formed in an acidic aqueous cell by a pulsed radiation source. Six time-resolved picosecond images of this changing opacity pattern are transferred to photographic film with the use of a mode-locked dye laser and six electronically gated microchannel plate image intensifiers. Because the lifetime of the hydrated electron absorption centers can be reduced to picoseconds, the opacity patterns represent time-space pulse profile images

  14. Formation and Transformation Behavior of Sodium Dehydroacetate Hydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of various controlling factors on the polymorphic outcome of sodium dehydroacetate crystallization was investigated in this study. Cooling crystallization experiments of sodium dehydroacetate in water were conducted at different concentrations. The results revealed that the rate of supersaturation generation played a key role in the formation of the hydrates. At a high supersaturation generation rate, a new sodium dehydroacetate dihydrate needle form was obtained; on the contrary, a sodium dehydroacetate plate monohydrate was formed at a low supersaturation generation rate. Furthermore, the characterization and transformation behavior of these two hydrated forms were investigated with the combined use of microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and dynamic vapor sorption (DVS. It was found that the new needle crystals were dihydrated and hollow, and they eventually transformed into sodium dehydroacetate monohydrate. In addition, the mechanism of formation of sodium dehydroacetate hydrates was discussed, and a process growth model of hollow crystals in cooling crystallization was proposed.

  15. OUTCOME OF LOCKING PLATES IN DISTAL TIBIA FRACTURES TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Most of these fractures except intra-articular fractures are treated with interlocking nail. 1,2 These nails are a boon for these fractures. But as the fracture nears to the joint stability the fracture fixation will be compromised due to malreduction and alignment, it leads to increased chances of delayed and nonunion. 3 Locking anatomical plates are evaluated for anatomical and relative stability fixation. Since then most intra and near intra-articular fractures are fixed with these plates with minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis method, these plates have given excellent result 4 . But again these plates have some disadvantages 5 . This study is done to see the outcome of locking plates in distal tibia fracture. METHODS This study is done in the Department of Orthopaedics, Bangalore Medical College, Bangalore. This study is done from 2013 to 2015. 30 patients who came to outpatient department were treated with locking plates. All patients above 16 years having distal third tibia fracture are included. All open fractures except type 1 and elderly above 60 years and pathological fractures are excluded in our study. All patients were followed up for initial 5 months, thereafter, once in 3 months, for clinical and radiological evaluation of union status, knee range of motion, ankle range of motion and other complications. Assessment of the patient with functional recovery was done with American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Surgery(AOFAS 6 minimum 5 months after injury. RESULTS Majority of the patients are from age group 18-29 years (50%. Average age group was 30 years. Majority of the patients were males 80.6% (25. All fractures were closed fractures except 2 cases which are type 1. There were 12 cases of AO type A, 8 patients were AO type B and 10 patients were type C. Majority of the patients had fracture due to road traffic accidents, 74%. All fractures were united by the end of 20 weeks. There was delayed union in

  16. 77 FR 12556 - Certain Steel Nails From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... nails having a shaft length up to 12 inches. Certain steel nails include, but are not limited to, nails... variety of finishes, heads, shanks, point types, shaft lengths and shaft diameters. Finishes include, but... adhesive or polyester film tape backed with a heat seal adhesive. Also excluded from the scope of this...

  17. Observed gas hydrate morphologies in marine sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, M.; Schultheiss, P.; Roberts, J.; Druce, M. [Geotek Ltd., Daventry, Northamptonshire (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    The morphology of gas hydrate in marine sediments determines the basic physical properties of the sediment-hydrate matrix and provides information regarding the formation of gas hydrate deposits, and the nature of the disruption that will occur on dissociation. Small-scale morphology is useful in estimating the concentrations of gas hydrate from geophysical data. It is also important for predicting their response to climate change or commercial production. Many remote techniques for gas hydrate detection and quantification depend on hydrate morphology. In this study, morphology of gas hydrate was examined in HYACINTH pressure cores from recent seagoing expeditions. Visual and infrared observations from non-pressurized cores were also used. The expeditions and pressure core analysis were described in detail. This paper described the difference between two types of gas hydrate morphologies, notably pore-filling and grain-displacing. Last, the paper addressed the impact of hydrate morphology. It was concluded that a detailed morphology of gas hydrate is an essential component for a full understanding of the past, present, and future of any gas hydrate environment. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Seismic reflections associated with submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, K

    1996-12-31

    Gas hydrates are often suggested as a future energy resource. This doctoral thesis improves the understanding of the concentration and distribution of natural submarine gas hydrates. The presence of these hydrates are commonly inferred from strong bottom simulating reflection (BSR). To investigate the nature of BSR, this work uses seismic studies of hydrate-related BSRs at two different locations, one where gas hydrates are accepted to exist and interpreted to be very extensive (in the Beaufort Sea), the other with good velocity data and downhole logs available (offshore Oregon). To ascertain the presence of free gas under the BSR, prestack offset data must supplement near-vertical incidence seismic data. A tentative model for physical properties of sediments partially saturated with gas hydrate and free gas is presented. This model, together with drilling information and seismic data containing the BSR beneath the Oregon margin and the Beaufort Sea, made it possible to better understand when to apply the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) method to constrain BSR gas hydrate and gas models. Distribution of natural gas hydrates offshore Norway and Svalbard is discussed and interpreted as reflections from the base of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, overlying sediments containing free gas. Gas hydrates inferred to exist at the Norwegian-Svalbard continental margin correlate well with Cenozoic depocenters, and the associated gas is assumed to be mainly biogenic. Parts of that margin have a high potential for natural gas hydrates of both biogenic and thermogenic origin. 235 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Seismic reflections associated with submarine gas hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, K.

    1995-12-31

    Gas hydrates are often suggested as a future energy resource. This doctoral thesis improves the understanding of the concentration and distribution of natural submarine gas hydrates. The presence of these hydrates are commonly inferred from strong bottom simulating reflection (BSR). To investigate the nature of BSR, this work uses seismic studies of hydrate-related BSRs at two different locations, one where gas hydrates are accepted to exist and interpreted to be very extensive (in the Beaufort Sea), the other with good velocity data and downhole logs available (offshore Oregon). To ascertain the presence of free gas under the BSR, prestack offset data must supplement near-vertical incidence seismic data. A tentative model for physical properties of sediments partially saturated with gas hydrate and free gas is presented. This model, together with drilling information and seismic data containing the BSR beneath the Oregon margin and the Beaufort Sea, made it possible to better understand when to apply the amplitude-versus-offset (AVO) method to constrain BSR gas hydrate and gas models. Distribution of natural gas hydrates offshore Norway and Svalbard is discussed and interpreted as reflections from the base of gas hydrate-bearing sediments, overlying sediments containing free gas. Gas hydrates inferred to exist at the Norwegian-Svalbard continental margin correlate well with Cenozoic depocenters, and the associated gas is assumed to be mainly biogenic. Parts of that margin have a high potential for natural gas hydrates of both biogenic and thermogenic origin. 235 refs., 86 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Influence of fluorosurfactants on hydrate formation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, C.U.; Jeong, K.E.; Chae, H.J.; Jeong, S.Y. [Korea Reasearch Inst. of Chemical Technology, Alternative Chemicals/Fuel Research Center, Yuseong-Gu, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Gas hydrates, or clathrates, are ice-like solids that forms when natural gas is in contact with liquid water or ice under high pressure and low temperature. There is significant interest in studying the storage and transportation of gas in the form of hydrates. However, a critical problem impacting the industrial application of gas hydrates for storage and transportation of natural gas is the slow formation rate of natural gas hydrate. Researchers have previously reported on the promotion effect of some additives on gas hydrate formation and hydrate gas content. Fluorosurfactants are significantly superior to nonfluorinated surfactants in wetting action, as well as stability in harsh environments, both thermal and chemical. This paper discussed an experimental investigation into the effects of fluorosurfactants with different ionic types on the formation of methane hydrate. The surfactants used were FSN-100 of DuPont Zonyl as non-ionic surfactant and FC-143 of DuPont as anionic surfactant. The paper discussed the experimental apparatus for methane hydrate formation. It also discussed hydrate formation kinetics and the series of hydrate formation experiments that were conducted in the presence of fluorosurfactants. Last, the paper explored the results of the study. It was concluded that anionic fluorosurfactant of FC-143 had a better promoting effect on methane hydrate formation compared with nonionic surfactant of FSN-100. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  1. Treatment of nail psoriasis with TNF-α or IL 12/23 inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jemec, G.B.E.; Ibler, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    Nail psoriasis appears to be an important source of psoriatic morbidity through physical impairment, pain, and cosmetic disturbances. Conventional treatment is often unsatisfactory. A systematic review of studies reporting the effect of TNF-α inhibitors and related drugs on nail psoriasis using...

  2. Nail patella syndrome: a rare cause of renal failure in a young adult ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nail Patella Syndrome (NPS) is a rare hereditary disease affecting multiple systems with predominant involvement of Kidney, Bones and Nails and Eyes. We report a case of NPS which presented as renal failure in a 22 year old male. The patient was admitted with decreased urine output and features of fluid overload and ...

  3. Long-term functional outcome following intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Moumni, Mostafa; Voogd, Emma Heather; ten Duis, Henk Jan; Wendt, Klaus Wilhelm

    Background: The management of femoral shaft fractures using intramedullary nailing is a popular method. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term functional outcome after antegrade or retrograde intramedullary nailing of traumatic femoral shaft fractures. We further determined

  4. 77 FR 27080 - Certain Steel Nails From the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-08

    ... the United Arab Emirates Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... is materially injured by reason of imports from the United Arab Emirates of certain steel nails... of certain steel nails from the United Arab Emirates were being sold at LTFV within the meaning of...

  5. Witkop′s tooth and nail syndrome: A multifaceted approach to dental management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam P

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Witkop′s tooth and nail syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of ectodermal dysplasia characterized by hypodontia and nail dysplasia. Mutations in MSX-1 have been shown to be associated with this syndrome. There is failure of development and eruption of the dentition. Tooth shape may vary; the most common forms are conical and narrow crowns. The nails may be spoon shaped and slow growing and affect both finger and toe nails. The nail involvement is more severe in childhood. The present case describes a 14-year-old boy who showed the characteristic features of Witkop′s syndrome. A multifaceted approach to the dental management of the patient is discussed.

  6. Effects of reinforcement without extinction on increasing compliance with nail cutting: A systematic replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Art; Tincani, Matt; Nipe, Timothy; Weiss, Mary Jane

    2018-06-17

    Personal hygiene routines, such as nail cutting, are essential for maintaining good health. However, individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental disabilities often struggle to comply with essential, personal hygiene routines. We conducted a systematic replication of Schumacher and Rapp (2011), Shabani and Fisher (2006), and Bishop et al. (2013) to evaluate an intervention that did not require escape extinction for increasing compliance with nail cutting. With two adolescents diagnosed with ASD who resisted nail cutting, we evaluated the effects of delivering a preferred edible item contingent on compliance with nail cutting. Results indicated that the treatment reduced participants' escape responses and increased their compliance with nail cutting. © 2018 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  7. Comparative performance of locally made and the foreign made dynamic compression plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilal, M.; Gul, R.M.; Mujahid, M.; Askar, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Bone implants are widely used to treat patients due to trauma in different causalities. The major types of bone implants are plates known as Dynamic Compression Plates (DCP) and nails, both made of stainless steel (AISI 316L Grade). In Pakistan both local made and foreign made (DCP) are available. The unit price of foreign made DCP is about 8 to 10 times that of the local made, however, no comprehensive study has been done on the comparison of these plates. An in-depth analysis was performed to compare the essential properties of six different brands of DCP including two foreign, two local and two unknown brands. These properties included mechanical properties, such as bending stiffness, yield strength, modulus of elasticity and hardness. Compositional analysis and various dimensions of plate important for bone healing process were also compared. The results show that all plates have similar mechanical properties. The compositional analysis showed some variations from the ASTM standards for most of the plates. The dimensional analysis of plates showed that Slot Width and Land were within range for most of the plates but the Spherical Radius was out of range for all the plates. Generally, all plates have no major differences in their properties, material and shape. (author)

  8. Titanium elastic nailing in pediatric femoral diaphyseal fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Roop

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The need for operative fixation of pediatric femoral fractures is increasingly being recognised in the present decade. The conventional traction and casting method for management of pediatric femoral fractures is giving way for the operative stabilisation of the fracture. Methods : Thirty five pediatric patients in age group 6-14 years with diaphyseal femoral fractures were stabilised with two titanium nails. Patients were followed up clinically and radiologically for two years. The final results were evaluated using the criteria of Flynn et al. Technical problems and complications associated with the procedure were also analysed. Results : Overall results observed were excellent in 25, satisfactory in 8 and poor in 2 patients. Hospital time averaged 12.30 days in the series. All the fractures healed with an average time to union of 9.6 (6-14.4 weeks. Return to school was early with an average of 7.8 weeks. The soft tissue discomfort near the knee produced by the nails ends was the most common problem encountered. Shortening was observed in three cases and restriction of knee flexion in 5 patients. There was no delayed union, infection or refractures. Per operative technical problems included failure of closed reduction in 2 cases and cork screwing of nails in one case. Conclusion : We believe that with proper operative technique and aftercare TENs may prove to be an ideal implant for pediatric femoral fracture fixation. The most of the complication associated with the procedure are infact features of inexact technique and can be eliminated by strictly adhering to the basic principles and technical aspects.

  9. [Respiratory manifestations of yellow nail syndrome: report of two cases and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S; Huang, H; Xu, K; Xu, Z J

    2018-03-12

    Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics of respiratory manifestations of yellow nail syndrome. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 2 patients with respiratory diseases associated with yellow nail syndrome. Their clinical and chest radiological data were collected. We searched PubMed, Wanfang and CNKI databases with the keywords "yellow nail syndrome, yellow nail and lung" in Chinese and English. And the relevant literatures, including 6 articles in Chinese and 81 articles in English, were reviewed. Results: Our 2 patients were male, one 60 years old and the other 76. Typical yellow nails were present in their fingers, and one of them also showed toe yellow nails. One patient was admitted for refractory respiratory infection and he was diagnosed with diffuse bronchiectasis. The respiratory symptoms could be relieved with antibiotics according to the results of sputum microbiological analysis. The other patient was admitted for cough and exertional dyspnea, and refractory pleural effusions were revealed bilaterally. He received repeated effusion drainage by thoracentesis, and Octreotide was tried recently. A total of 373 cases were reviewed in Chinese and English literatures. Pleural effusions (152 cases) and diffuse bronchiectasis (121 cases) were the most common reported respiratory manifestations. Lymphoedema was present in almost all cases with pleural effusion associated with yellow nail syndrome, and the effusion was usually exudative and lymphocyte predominant. Pleurodesis and decortication were effective for them. But, somatostatin analogues had been tried effectively for these patients recently. On the other hand, literatures showed that diffuse bronchiectasis in yellow nail syndrome was less severe than idiopathic diffuse bronchiectasis, and might benefit from long-term macrolide antibiotics. Conclusions: Yellow nail syndrome is a very rare disorder. Besides yellow nail, respiratory manifestations are the main clinical

  10. Study of Ender’s Nailing in Lower Fourth Fractures of Tibia in Adults

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    H. Ladani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Ender’s nailing in lower fourth tibia fracture preserves periosteal and endosteal blood supply & fracture haematoma, which increases chances of fracture union. There is minimal risk of infection. It provides dynamically controlled motion. Stacking of the canal & splaying of nails provides reasonable axial & rotational stability. Methodology: This is a study of 20 patients of lower fourth extra-articular closed tibial fractures treated with Ender’s nailing. Age was ranging from 20 to 62 yrs. 14 males & 6 female patients were there. Fracture was transverse in 5 patients, short spiral in 5 patients, and oblique in 8 patients & comminuted in 2 patients. Fibula was intact in 5 patients, was fractured at middle or upper third region in 7 patients and at lower third region in 8 patients 3.5 Ender’s nails were used in all patients, four nails in 16 patients& three nails in 4 patients Average surgery time was 50 minutes, average blood loss was 35 cc. No patients had post-operative wound infection. All patients were immobilized for various time periods. Results: Average union time was 16 wks. There were 3 delayed unions. Eventually all fractures united without 2nd surgical intervention. In 5 patients there was significant proximal migration of nails, causing slight knee discomfort. Nails were removed after solid fracture union in those cases. Between 1 & 2 cm shortening was found in two patients more than 50 varus-valgus or antecurvatum-recurvatum deformity was found in two patients, but not having any symptomatic problem. Conclusion: Ender’s nailing is a good alternative in lower fourth tibia fractures. It gives increased chances of fracture union with minimal risk of infection. 2nd surgery of bone grafting or dynamization of I/L nails is not required. The implants are inexpensive & procedure is simple. But a brief period of post-operative immobilization is required.

  11. Dual head screw hip nailing for trochanteric fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F.; Igoumenou, Vasilios G.; Megaloikonomos, Panayiotis D.; Panagopoulos, George N.; Galanopoulos, Ioannis P.; Vottis, Christos Th.; Karamanis, Eirinaios; Koulouvaris, Panayiotis; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: There are limited information and inconclusive results for dual head screw intramedullary hip nails for trochanteric fractures. Therefore, we performed a prospective study to evaluate the healing of fractures, and survival, function, and complications of patients operated with this implant. Methods: We prospectively studied 79 patients (61 women and 18 men; mean age: 84.7 years; range: 65–96 years) with a low-energy trochanteric fracture, treated with a dual head screw intramedullary hip nail from 2013 to 2016. The mean follow-up was 2.1 years (range: 1–3 years); seven patients were lost to follow up. This left 72 patients for further analysis. We evaluated the healing of fractures, and survival, function, and complications of patients. Results: Fracture healing was evident in 70 patients (97.2%) at 2–3 months postoperatively. One patient experienced cut-out and z-effect phenomenon of the head screws. Another patient experienced a periprosthetic femoral diaphysis fracture at the distal tip of the nail. A third patient experienced an acute postoperative superficial skin infection that was treated successfully with wound dressing changes and a course of antibiotics. Sixteen patients (22.2%) deceased within 12 months postoperatively. In the remaining patients, the Harris Hip Score (HHS) at 12 months postoperatively was excellent in 16 (28.6%), good in 23 (41.1%), fair in 10 (17.8%), and poor in 7 patients (12.5%). The function declined after the patients’ fracture. Fair and poor results were related to age > 85 years, poor pre-fracture level of function, and AO/OTA-31-A3 fracture types. Conclusion: The dual head screw intramedullary hip nail is associated with high healing and low complication rates for intertrochanteric fractures. The function of the patients is good or excellent in most cases; however, it declines, especially for those patients with age > 85 years, poor pre-fracture level of function, and AO/OTA-31-A3 fracture types

  12. Dual head screw hip nailing for trochanteric fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavrogenis Andreas F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are limited information and inconclusive results for dual head screw intramedullary hip nails for trochanteric fractures. Therefore, we performed a prospective study to evaluate the healing of fractures, and survival, function, and complications of patients operated with this implant. Methods: We prospectively studied 79 patients (61 women and 18 men; mean age: 84.7 years; range: 65–96 years with a low-energy trochanteric fracture, treated with a dual head screw intramedullary hip nail from 2013 to 2016. The mean follow-up was 2.1 years (range: 1–3 years; seven patients were lost to follow up. This left 72 patients for further analysis. We evaluated the healing of fractures, and survival, function, and complications of patients. Results: Fracture healing was evident in 70 patients (97.2% at 2–3 months postoperatively. One patient experienced cut-out and z-effect phenomenon of the head screws. Another patient experienced a periprosthetic femoral diaphysis fracture at the distal tip of the nail. A third patient experienced an acute postoperative superficial skin infection that was treated successfully with wound dressing changes and a course of antibiotics. Sixteen patients (22.2% deceased within 12 months postoperatively. In the remaining patients, the Harris Hip Score (HHS at 12 months postoperatively was excellent in 16 (28.6%, good in 23 (41.1%, fair in 10 (17.8%, and poor in 7 patients (12.5%. The function declined after the patients’ fracture. Fair and poor results were related to age > 85 years, poor pre-fracture level of function, and AO/OTA-31-A3 fracture types. Conclusion: The dual head screw intramedullary hip nail is associated with high healing and low complication rates for intertrochanteric fractures. The function of the patients is good or excellent in most cases; however, it declines, especially for those patients with age > 85 years, poor pre-fracture level of function, and AO/OTA-31-A3

  13. Contaminants in human nail dust: an occupational hazard in podiatry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinley, Paul D; Eddy, Karen; Collier, Peter

    2014-02-20

    There has been limited literature indicating that podiatrists' health may be at risk from exposure to human nail dust. Previous studies carried out in the UK have shown that large amounts of dust become airborne during the human nail drilling procedure and are present in the air up to 10 hours after a clinical session. This increases the risk of Respiratory Tract (RT) infection for the practitioner. This study used a nasal swabbing technique and fungal culture to determine whether podiatrists (n = 50) had the same microbes present in their nasal cavities as non-podiatry health professional control group (n = 45). All swabs were cultured, counted and identified for each subject. Survey data of use and type of nail drill, type of mask used and frequency of change over a two week period. The results showed podiatrists had a greater range of microbes in their nasal cavities although the controls had greater overall numbers of organisms. The known pathogen and common mould, Aspergillus fumigatus was ost commonly found fungus within the podiatric group with 44% of the group having the fungus present. All nail drills used by the podiatrists had some form of dust extraction (except one). Of concern was 17% (n = 8) of the podiatrists did not use a mask at all whilst drilling and seemed unaware of any infection control issues. Simple disposable masks were the most frequently worn with only half being changed after each patient further increasing the cross infection risk The high levels of Aspergilus contamination is a significant finding in the podiatry group as this fungus is small enough to enter the tissue of the nasal cavity and as a small particle will stay airborne in the room for up to 16 hours. Aspergilus has been shown to cause brain and soft tissue tumours in extreme cases. The high levels of upper respiratory track problems reported in the literature may well be caused by this fungal agent. The non use and use of inappropriate masks by podiatrists is clearly an

  14. Nail Assessment in Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (NAPPA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustin, M; Blome, C; Costanzo, A

    2013-01-01

    assessing quality of life (NAPPA-QoL), a two-part questionnaire assessing patient-relevant treatment benefits (the Patient Benefit Index, NAPPA-PBI) and a psoriasis Clinical Assessment of Severity (NAPPA-CLIN). METHODS: Development of the questionnaires involved multiple steps: (i) collection of items about......%) and comprehensible (95%). NAPPA-QoL and NAPPA-PBI scores correlated moderately with clinical outcomes [e.g. Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI)] and markedly with other quality-of-life questionnaires (e.g. EQ-5D™). Both questionnaires were sensitive to change. Internal consistency was good (Cronbach α ≥ 0...

  15. Posterior coronal plating for tibial fractures: technique and advantages

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    Montu Jain

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Tibial shaft fractures are straightforward to treat but when associated with soft tissue injury particularly at the nail entry/plate insertion site or there is significant comminution proximally or a large butterfly fragment/a second split component in the posterior coronal plane, it is a challenge to the treating surgeon. The aim of the present report is to describe the technique of posterior coronal plating in such a scenario and its advantages. Methods:Between July 2008 and June 2011, 12 patients were pro spectively treated by this approach using 4.5 mm broad dynamic compression plates. Results:The time of bony consolidation and full weight bearing averaged 21.7 weeks (range, 16-26 weeks. Patients were followed up for at least 24 months (range, 24-48 months. At 1 year postoper atively, no loss in reduction or alignment was observed. Mean Hospital for Lower Extremity Measurement Functional Score was 72.8 (range, 64-78. All patients were satisfied with their treatment outcomes. Conclusion:Direct posterior approach and fixation using prone position helps to visualise the fracture fragments and provide rigid fixation. The approach is simple and extensile easily, apart from advantages of less soft tissue and hardware problems compared to standard medial or lateral plating. Key words: Tibial fractures; Bone plates; Orthopedic procedures

  16. Risk of symptomatic heterotopic ossification following plate osteosynthesis in multiple trauma patients: an analysis in a level-1 trauma centre

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    Pape Hans-Christoph

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptomatic heterotopic ossification (HO in multiple trauma patients may lead to follow up surgery, furthermore the long-term outcome can be restricted. Knowledge of the effect of surgical treatment on formation of symptomatic heterotopic ossification in polytrauma is sparse. Therefore, we test the effects of surgical treatment (plate osteosynthesis or intramedullary nailing on the formation of heterotopic ossification in the multiple trauma patient. Methods We retrospectively analysed prospectively documented data of blunt multiple trauma patients with long bone fractures which were treated at our level-1 trauma centre between 1997 and 2005. Patients were distributed to 2 groups: Patients treated by intramedullary nails (group IMN or plate osteosynthesis (group PLATE were compared. The expression and extension of symptomatic heterotopic ossifications on 3-6 months follow-up x-rays in antero-posterior (ap and lateral views were classified radiologically and the maximum expansion was measured in millimeter (mm. Additionally, ventilation time, prophylactic medication like indomethacine and incidence and correlation of head injuries were analysed. Results 101 patients were included in our study, 79 men and 22 women. The fractures were treated by intramedullary nails (group IMN n = 50 or plate osteosynthesis (group PLATE n = 51. Significantly higher radiologic ossification classes were detected in group PLATE (2.9 ± 1.3 as compared to IMN (2.2 ± 1.1; p = 0.013. HO size in mm ap and lateral showed a tendency towards larger HOs in the PLATE group. Additionally PLATE group showed a higher rate of articular fractures (63% vs. 28% in IMN while IMN demonstrated a higher rate of diaphyseal fractures (72% vs. 37% in PLATE; p = 0.003. Ventilation time, indomethacine and incidence of head injuries showed no significant difference between groups. Conclusion Fracture care with plate osteosynthesis in polytrauma patients is associated with

  17. Fire extinction utilizing carbon dioxide hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatakeyama, T.; Aida, E.; Yokomori, T.; Ohmura, R.; Ueda, T. [Keio Univ., Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Clathrate hydrates formed with nonflammable gases may be suitable for use as fire extinguishing agents because dissociation of the hydrates results in the temperature decrease in the combustion field and the nonflammable gases released from the dissociated hydrates prevent the supply of the oxygen to the combustion field. This paper discussed experiments in which ordinary ice and dry ice were used to evaluate the performance of CO{sub 2} hydrate as a fire extinguishing agent. The paper described the apparatus and procedure for the preparation of CO{sub 2} hydrate crystals. A schematic of the reactor to form CO{sub 2} hydrate and a photograph of CO{sub 2} hydrate crystal formed in the study were also presented. Other illustrations, photographs, and tables that were presented included a schematic diagram of the experimental apparatus used for the flame extinction experiments; a photograph of CO{sub 2} hydrate powder; sequential video graphs of the flame extinction by the supply of CO{sub 2} hydrate crystals to the methanol pool flame and the relevant illustration; and heat of CO{sub 2} hydrate dissociation, water vaporization and sublimation of dry ice. It was concluded that the critical mass of the CO{sub 2} hydrate required to extinguish a flame was much less than that of ordinary ice, indicating the superiority of CO{sub 2} hydrate to the ice. In addition, the experiments also revealed that the size of the CO{sub 2} hydrate particles had a significant effect on the performance of flame extinction. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.

  18. Radiation shielding plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Torakichi; Sugawara, Takeo.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the weight and stabilize the configuration of a radiation shielding plate which is used in close contact with an object to be irradiated with radiation rays. Constitution: The radiation shielding plate comprises a substrate made of lead glass and a metallic lead coating on the surface of the substrate by means of plating, vapor deposition or the like. Apertures for permeating radiation rays are formed to the radiation shielding plate. Since the shielding plate is based on a lead glass plate, a sufficient mechanical strength can be obtained with a thinner structure as compared with the conventional plate made of metallic lead. Accordingly, if the shielding plate is disposed on a soft object to be irradiated with radiation rays, the object and the plate itself less deform to obtain a radiation irradiation pattern with distinct edges. (Moriyama, K.)

  19. Osteosynthesis of the diaphysis of the humeral with plates - Series of cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes Reyes, Claudia Juliana; Valencia Chamorro, Martha Patricia; Garcia Gonzalez, Luis Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    Humeral shaft fractures may be treated in various ways. When surgical treatment is preferred, both plates and intramedullary nails are available and feasible options; the latter have recently gained popularity. We present the results of a case series of humeral fractures treated by open reduction and plate fixation with DCP plates, the results are described in terms of union rate, function, satisfaction, and complications. Thirty patients were included, with ages from 18 to 74 years, with mean follow-up time of 35 months; twelve patients were treated for delayed or non-union after orthopedic treatment. There was one case of nonunion, and one of iatrogenic neurapraxia of the radial nerve. Mobility and strength were excellent. All patients reported to be satisfied with the treatment and its result. We discuss that plate fixation for humeral shaft fractures is a predictable choice, with low complication rate and high union rate

  20. Parameter Sensitivity Analysis on Deformation of Composite Soil-Nailed Wall Using Artificial Neural Networks and Orthogonal Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbin Hao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the back-propagation algorithm of artificial neural networks (ANNs, this paper establishes an intelligent model, which is used to predict the maximum lateral displacement of composite soil-nailed wall. Some parameters, such as soil cohesive strength, soil friction angle, prestress of anchor cable, soil-nail spacing, soil-nail diameter, soil-nail length, and other factors, are considered in the model. Combined with the in situ test data of composite soil-nail wall reinforcement engineering, the network is trained and the errors are analyzed. Thus it is demonstrated that the method is applicable and feasible in predicting lateral displacement of excavation retained by composite soil-nailed wall. Extended calculations are conducted by using the well-trained intelligent forecast model. Through application of orthogonal table test theory, 25 sets of tests are designed to analyze the sensitivity of factors affecting the maximum lateral displacement of composite soil-nailing wall. The results show that the sensitivity of factors affecting the maximum lateral displacement of composite soil nailing wall, in a descending order, are prestress of anchor cable, soil friction angle, soil cohesion strength, soil-nail spacing, soil-nail length, and soil-nail diameter. The results can provide important reference for the same reinforcement engineering.

  1. Zn-K edge EXAFS study of human nails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsikini, M; Mavromati, E; Pinakidou, F; Paloura, E C [School of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Gioulekas, D, E-mail: katsiki@auth.g [Medical School, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2009-11-15

    Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy at the Zn - K edge is applied for the study of the bonding geometry of Zn in human nails. The studied nail clippings belong to healthy donors and donors who suffer from lung diseases. Fitting of the first nearest neighboring shell of Zn reveals that it is bonded with N and S, at distances that take values in the ranges 2.00-2.04 A and 2.23-2.28A, respectively. Zn is four - fold coordinated and the ratio of the number of sulfur and nitrogen atoms (N{sub S}/N{sub N}) in the first coordination shell ranges from 0.52 to 1. The sample that belongs to the donor who suffers from lung fibrosis, a condition that is related to keratinization of the lung tissue, is characterized by the highest number of N{sub S}/N{sub N}. Simulation, using the FEFF8 code, of the Zn - K edge EXAFS spectra with models of tetrahedrally coordinated Zn with 1 (or 2) cysteine and 3 (or 2) histidines is satisfactory.

  2. Treatment of trochanteric fractures using the Gamma nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botnaru V.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study on 2 years and 4 months (April 2012 - August 2014 on 430 patients admitted with trochanteric fractures in our Clinic. The surgical indications depended on the patients age, degree of osteoporosis, level activity, associated pathologies and the anatomo-clinical particularity of the fractures. The fractures were operated with gamma nail. The surgery was done in the first 24-72 hours, patients were followed clinically and radiographically at 2, 4, 6 months postoperative. The age of the patients were between 28-95 years, female sex was predominant in 65% of case. It was reported a case of a fracture produced intraoperatory during progression of the nail, 11 bronhopulmonary complications, 5 phlebitis, 7 cases of hematoma after surgery, a case of pseudarthrosis with loosening of implant and 4 dead. There were no septic complications. Fractures consolidate within 12- 14 weeks. The results were appreciated according to fracture reduction, stability of implant, consolidation time and possibility of walking and weight bearing on operated limb.

  3. Analysis of human nails by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinimakarem, Zahra; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan

    2011-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is applied to analyze human fingernails using nanosecond laser pulses. Measurements on 45 nail samples are carried out and 14 key species are identified. The elements detected with the present system are: Al, C, Ca, Fe, H, K, Mg, N, Na, O, Si, Sr, Ti as well as CN molecule. Sixty three emission lines have been identified in the spectrum that are dominated by calcium lines. A discriminant function analysis is used to discriminate among different genders and age groups. This analysis demonstrates efficient discrimination among these groups. The mean concentration of each element is compared between different groups. Correlation between concentrations of elements in fingernails is calculated. A strong correlation is found between sodium and potassium while calcium and magnesium levels are inversely correlated. A case report on high levels of sodium and potassium in patients with hyperthyroidism is presented. It is shown that LIBS could be a promising technique for the analysis of nails and therefore identification of health problems.

  4. Fingertip replantation at or beyond the nail base in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Dehai; Qi, Jian; Li, Donghui; Zhu, Lei; Jin, Wentao; Cai, Daozhang

    2010-07-01

    Although success of digital replantations in children has been reported by many authors, the very distal fingertip replantation remains technically demanding. The aim of this article is to review our experience with fingertip replantations at or distal to the nail base in pediatric patients and evaluate the clinical outcomes. From October 2000 to May 2007, 12 pediatric fingertips amputated at or distal to the nail base were replanted. Only one artery was anastomosed for revascularization with or without nerve repair; vein drainage was provided by the controlled bleeding technique. Eleven of the 12 replants (91%) survived; one replant of crushed digit failed. An average of 26 month (range, 6 to 36 months) follow-up revealed excellent restoration of finger motion and appearance. The regained static 2-point discrimination (S2PD) sensation was from 3.2 to 5.0 mm (mean, 4.2 mm). Both the parents and the children were satisfied with the final results. In conclusion, fingertip replantation in children allows good functional and esthetical recovery and should be attempted if technically feasible. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Shielding of the patient's gonads during intramedullary interlocking femoral nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, L M; Johanson, P H; Zinar, D M; Lenihan, M R; Herman, M W

    1990-12-01

    Levels of exposure to radiation were recorded at sixty sites in fifteen patients during intramedullary interlocking femoral nailing. Radiation film dosimeters were placed at four gonadal sites on each subject. A standard male-gonad cup or a pelvic drape of 0.5-millimeter-thick lead-equivalent was put in place to shield the gonads. A second set of four dosimeters was placed external to the shield to approximate unprotected exposure. The total duration of the fluoroscopy averaged five minutes (range, thirty seconds to fourteen minutes). The total exposure to radiation external to the shield was 35 +/- 34 millirems at the male gonadal sites and 17 +/- 11 millirems at the female gonadal sites. With use of the gonadal shield, exposure to radiation was not measurable in thirteen of the fifteen patients. The differences between the exposures of the shielded and unshielded sites to radiation were statistically significant (p less than 0.001). The highest level of gonadal exposure was found with the treatment of proximal femoral fractures and with the use of statically locked nails. Regardless of the conditions, and for all types of fractures and locations, our results demonstrated that gonadal shielding is justified.

  6. Shielding of the patient's gonads during intramedullary interlocking femoral nailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwong, L.M.; Johanson, P.H.; Zinar, D.M.; Lenihan, M.R.; Herman, M.W.

    1990-01-01

    Levels of exposure to radiation were recorded at sixty sites in fifteen patients during intramedullary interlocking femoral nailing. Radiation film dosimeters were placed at four gonadal sites on each subject. A standard male-gonad cup or a pelvic drape of 0.5-millimeter-thick lead-equivalent was put in place to shield the gonads. A second set of four dosimeters was placed external to the shield to approximate unprotected exposure. The total duration of the fluoroscopy averaged five minutes (range, thirty seconds to fourteen minutes). The total exposure to radiation external to the shield was 35 +/- 34 millirems at the male gonadal sites and 17 +/- 11 millirems at the female gonadal sites. With use of the gonadal shield, exposure to radiation was not measurable in thirteen of the fifteen patients. The differences between the exposures of the shielded and unshielded sites to radiation were statistically significant (p less than 0.001). The highest level of gonadal exposure was found with the treatment of proximal femoral fractures and with the use of statically locked nails. Regardless of the conditions, and for all types of fractures and locations, our results demonstrated that gonadal shielding is justified

  7. Síndrome da unha amarela Yellow nail syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Maciel

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome da unha amarela é uma entidade clínica rara caracterizada por três achados principais: alterações distróficas e de coloração das unhas, linfedema e derrame pleural. Bronquiectasias e rinossinusite crônica têm sido freqüentemente associadas. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente com os achados completos da síndrome, com derrame pleural bilateral e que estava em tratamento de tuberculose pulmonar havia nove meses. Na sua história familiar havia a descrição de dois casos semelhantes, em irmã e irmão.Yellow nail syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by three main features: discoloration of the nails, together with dystrophic alterations; lymphedema; and pleural effusion. It is often accompanied by bronchiectasis and chronic rhinosinusitis. Herein, we report a case of the complete syndrome with bilateral pleural effusion in a patient under treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis for nine months. There was a family history of two similar cases in siblings.

  8. Fracture Union in Closed Interlocking Nail in Femoral Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R L Sahu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Fractures shaft femur is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with lower extremity injuries. The objective of this study was to find out the outcome of Interlocking nail in fracture femur. METHODS: This study was conducted in the Department of Orthopaedic surgery in M. M. Medical College from July 2006 to November 2008. Seventy eight patients were recruited from Emergency and out patient department having closed fracture of femoral shaft. All patients were operated under general or spinal anesthesia. All patients were followed for nine months. RESULTS: Out of seventy eight patients, sixty nine patients underwent union in 90 to 150 days with a mean of 110.68 days. Touch down weight bearing was started on 2nd post-operative day. Complications found in four patients who had non-union, and five patients had delayed union which was treated with dynamization and bone graft. The results were excellent in 88.46% and good in 6.41% patients. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that this technique is advantageous because of early mobilization (early weight bearing, less complication with good results and is economical. Keywords: close reamed interlocking nail, dynamization, femoral shaft fractures, union

  9. Neutron activation analysis applied to the determination of trace elements in human nails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar, Amilton Reinaldo

    2001-01-01

    There is a considerable interest in the determination of trace elements in human nails in order to use this tissue as a monitor of nutritional and healthy status of individuals, of occupational exposure diseases and of the environmental contamination. In this work, instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to determine trace elements in finger nail clippings to make comparisons between the elemental concentrations obtained in nails from healthy individuals of a control group and those from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Firstly, a protocol for sample collection and preparation for analysis was established. Finger and toe nail samples from CF patients were collected at the Instituto da Crianca of Medicine School, University of Sao Paulo, SP. The nail samples from control group were collected from healthy adults and from children living in Sao Paulo city, SP. These samples were cleaned by stirring them witha a diluted Triton X100 solution and then by washing with distilled water and acetone. The analytical procedure consisted of irradiation nail samples and elemental standards in the IEA-R1m nuclear reactor under thermal neutro flux of about 10 12 n cm -2 s -1 , for short and long period irradiations. The activities of the radionuclides were measured using a gamma-ray spectrometer comprising an hyperpure Ge detector and associated electronic system. The biological reference materials Bovine Liver 1577b and Oyster Tissue 1566a, both from National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA were analysed in order to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the results. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and F-test at the significance level of 5% were used to make a comparison between the sets of results obtained in this work. In the comparison of the results obtained for finger and toe nails from CF patients, the Br concentrations were higher in finger nails that those obtained for toe nails. For the control group of children, the finger nails presented different

  10. Breakage of a Third Generation Gamma Nail: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Iwakura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of intramedullary nails to treat trochanteric fractures of the femur has increased with the increasing size of the elderly population. The third generation Gamma nail is currently one of the most popular devices for the treatment of trochanteric fractures. Nail breakage is a rare complication, possibly resulting from fatigue fracture of the implant. We present the first reported case of breakage of a third generation Gamma nail that was not used to treat a pathological fracture. An 83-year-old woman with an unstable trochanteric fracture of the femur was treated using a third generation Gamma nail. She was referred to our hospital 14 months postoperatively with nail breakage at the opening for the lag screw. The breakage was secondary to nonunion, which was thought to be mainly due to insufficient reduction of the fracture. The broken nail was removed, and the patient underwent cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty. At followup 18 months later, she was mobile with a walker and asymptomatic with no complications. This case shows that inadequate operation such as insufficient reduction of the trochanteric fracture may result in nonunion and implant breakage, even when using a high-strength, well-designed implant.

  11. Application of Soil Nailing Technique for Protection and Preservation Historical Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczykowski, Marek; Przewłócki, Jarosław; Konarzewska, Bogusława

    2017-10-01

    Soil nailing is one of the recent in situ techniques used for soil improvement and in stabilizing slopes. The process of soil nailing consists of reinforcing the natural ground with relatively small steel bars or metal rods, grouted in the pre-drilled holes. This method has a wide range of applications for stabilizing deep excavations and steep slopes. Soil nailing has recently become a very common method of slope stabilisation especially where situated beneath or adjacent to historical buildings. Stabilisation by nails drilled into existing masonry structures such as failing retaining walls abutments, provide long term stability without demolition and rebuilding costs. Two cases of soil nailing technology aimed at stabilising slopes beneath old buildings in Poland are presented in this paper. The first concerns application of this technology to repair a retaining wall supporting the base of the dam at the historic hydroelectric power plant in Rutki. The second regards a concept of improving the slope of the Castle Hill in Sandomierz. An analysis of the slope stability for the latter case, using stabilisation technique with the piling system and soil nailing was performed. Some advantages of soil nailing especially for protection of historical buildings, are also underlined. And, the main results of an economic comparison analysis are additionally presented.

  12. An evaluation of flexible intramedullary nail fixation in femoral shaft fractures in paediatric age group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Roy, Sandip Kumar; Jha, Amrish Kumar; Chatterjee, Debdutta; Banerjee, Debabrata; Garg, Anant Kumar

    2011-06-01

    Sixty-two femoral shaft fractures in 60 patients treated by elastic intramedullary nailing with mean age of the patients being 9.2 years (range 5 years to 12 years) and average follow-up of 15 months (range 7 months to 60 months) are evaluated. Twenty-eight fractures were fixed with titanium elastic nail while 34 fractures were fixed with Enders nail. There were 40 midshaft fractures, 18 proximal femoral and 4 were fractures of distal third. Fracture patterns were transverse in 35, short oblique in 14 cases and 13 were spiral fractures. Mean age of union in this series was 17 weeks (range 12 weeks to 28 weeks). Ten cases had complications, 5 had nail tip irritation, 3 varus or valgus malalignment and 2 had delayed union. In this series, we did not have any non-union, refracture, limb length discrepancy or any major infection. The result demonstrates 100% union rate irrespective of the age, weight and height of the patient. Regardless of the site of fracture and their pattern, it united every time with elastic nail fixation. We did not find and mismatch in the results of fractures stabilised with titanium elastic nail with that of elastic stainless steel nail.

  13. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    1998-01-01

    This report deals with gas phase hydration of pure cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities. This is an important subject in relation to modern high performance concrete which may self-desiccate during hydration. In addition the subject has relevance to storage stability where...... prehydration may occur. In the report both theoretical considerations and experimental data are presented. It is suggested that the initiation of hydration during water vapour exposure is nucleation controlled....

  14. Thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Douglas D.; Martin, Ana I.; Yun, Tae Sup; Francisca, Franco M.; Santamarina, J. Carlos; Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2009-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for evaluating phase transformation processes that would accompany energy production from gas hydrate deposits and for estimating regional heat flow based on the observed depth to the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. The coexistence of multiple phases (gas hydrate, liquid and gas pore fill, and solid sediment grains) and their complex spatial arrangement hinder the a priori prediction of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments. Previous studies have been unable to capture the full parameter space covered by variations in grain size, specific surface, degree of saturation, nature of pore filling material, and effective stress for hydrate-bearing samples. Here we report on systematic measurements of the thermal conductivity of air dry, water- and tetrohydrofuran (THF)-saturated, and THF hydrate–saturated sand and clay samples at vertical effective stress of 0.05 to 1 MPa (corresponding to depths as great as 100 m below seafloor). Results reveal that the bulk thermal conductivity of the samples in every case reflects a complex interplay among particle size, effective stress, porosity, and fluid-versus-hydrate filled pore spaces. The thermal conductivity of THF hydrate–bearing soils increases upon hydrate formation although the thermal conductivities of THF solution and THF hydrate are almost the same. Several mechanisms can contribute to this effect including cryogenic suction during hydrate crystal growth and the ensuing porosity reduction in the surrounding sediment, increased mean effective stress due to hydrate formation under zero lateral strain conditions, and decreased interface thermal impedance as grain-liquid interfaces are transformed into grain-hydrate interfaces.

  15. Strength, leachability and microstructure characteristics of cement-based solidified plating sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asavapisit, Suwimol; Naksrichum, Siripat; Harnwajanawong, Naraporn

    2005-01-01

    The solidification of the stabilized zinc-cyanide plating sludge was carried out using ordinary Portland cement (OPC) and pulverized fuel ash (PFA) as solidification binders. The plating sludge were used at the level of 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% dry weight, and PFA was used to replace OPC at 0%, 10%, 20% and 30% dry weight, respectively. Experimental results showed that a significant reduction in strength was observed when the plating sludge was added to both the OPC and OPC/PFA binders, but the negative effect was minimized when PFA was used as part substitute for OPC. SEM observation reveals that the deposition of the plating sludge on the surface of the clinkers and PFA could be the cause for hydration retardation. In addition, calcium zinc hydroxide hydrate complex and the unreacted di- and tricalcium silicates were the major phases in X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the solidified plating waste hydrated for 28 days, although the retardation effect on hydration reactions but Cr concentration in toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) leachates was lower than the U.S. EPA regulatory limit

  16. Tension Band Plating for Chronic Anterior Tibial Stress Fractures in High-Performance Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbeda, Robert M; Sculco, Peter K; Urch, Ekaterina Y; Lazaro, Lionel E; Borens, Olivier; Williams, Riley J; Lorich, Dean G; Wellman, David S; Helfet, David L

    2015-07-01

    Anterior tibial stress fractures are associated with high rates of delayed union and nonunion, which can be particularly devastating to a professional athlete who requires rapid return to competition. Current surgical treatment strategies include intramedullary nailing, which has satisfactory rates of fracture union but an associated risk of anterior knee pain. Anterior tension band plating is a biomechanically sound alternative treatment for these fractures. Tension band plating of chronic anterior tibial stress fractures leads to rapid healing and return to physical activity and avoids the anterior knee pain associated with intramedullary nailing. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Between 2001 and 2013, there were 13 chronic anterior tibial stress fractures in 12 professional or collegiate athletes who underwent tension band plating after failing nonoperative management. Patient charts were retrospectively reviewed for demographics, injury history, and surgical details. Radiographs were used to assess time to osseous union. Follow-up notes and phone interviews were used to determine follow-up time, return to training time, and whether the patient was able to return to competition. Cases included 13 stress fractures in 12 patients (9 females, 3 males). Five patients were track-and-field athletes, 4 patients played basketball, 2 patients played volleyball, and 1 was a ballet dancer. Five patients were Division I collegiate athletes and 7 were professional or Olympic athletes. Average age at time of surgery was 23.6 years (range, 20-32 years). Osseous union occurred on average at 9.6 weeks (range, 5.3-16.9 weeks) after surgery. Patients returned to training on average at 11.1 weeks (range, 5.7-20 weeks). Ninety-two percent (12/13) eventually returned to preinjury competition levels. Thirty-eight percent (5/13) underwent removal of hardware for plate prominence. There was no incidence of infection or nonunion. Anterior tension band plating for chronic tibial stress

  17. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... foods you want, but changes the portion sizes so you are getting larger portions of non-starchy ... plate. Then on one side, cut it again so you will have three sections on your plate. ...

  18. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the differences in types of vegetables. When creating your plate at home, remember that half of ... effective for both managing diabetes and losing weight. Creating your plate lets you still choose the foods ...

  19. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely Get And ... Plate Create Your Plate is a simple and effective way to manage your blood glucose levels and ...

  20. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Meals Diabetes Meal Plans Create Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with ... Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook with Heart-Healthy ...

  1. Create Your Plate

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Your Plate Gluten Free Diets Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Cook with Heart-Healthy Foods Holiday Meal ... Healthy Diet Create Your Plate Meal Planning for Vegetarian Diets Gluten Free Diets Holiday Meal Planning Cook ...

  2. High-resolution ultrasonography in assessment of nail-related disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Bryson, D; Singh, H P; Jeyapalan, K; Dias, J J

    2012-09-01

    Disorders of the nail can pose a diagnostic challenge, and non-invasive imaging is frequently required to clarify diagnosis and delineate anatomy pre-operatively. We explored the use of high-resolution ultrasonography in the assessment of patients with nail disorders attending orthopaedic hand clinics. A search of a university teaching hospital musculoskeletal radiology database identified 36 patients (mean age 54.2 years) where ultrasonography was used to assess nail-related disorders between April 2003 and January 2007. Clinical, surgical and histological findings were correlated in these cases with ultrasound reports. Ultrasound findings correlated with the provisional diagnosis in 20 (61%) of 33 patients and provided a diagnosis in 3 patients where a provisional diagnosis was unavailable. In 7 of the 13 cases where the clinical diagnosis differed from ultrasound findings, a lump originally diagnosed as cystic in origin was shown to be solid on ultrasound. Different nail pathologies showed different characteristics on ultrasonography, including differences in vascularity, echogenicity, changes in nail structure/shape and extension into the nail bed, matrix, fold or evidence of bony erosion. The ultrasound findings correlated with histological analysis and intra-operative assessment in 10 of 15 patients who underwent operative treatment. Ultrasound provides important information on the anatomy of the nail apparatus and can differentiate solid and cystic lesions. It can be used as a diagnostic tool and can therefore help in pre-operative planning of nail-related disorders. In our series ultrasound supported or improved upon the clinical diagnosis in 31 (86%) out of the 36 patients presenting with nail-related disorders.

  3. Lateral Nail Fold Incision Technique for Venous Anastomosis in Fingertip Replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Byung-Joon; Yang, Jae-Won; Roh, Si Young; Ki, Sae Hwi; Lee, Dong Chul; Kim, Jin Soo

    2016-01-01

    Successful venous anastomosis is one of the most important factors in fingertip replantation. Volar veins in the fingertip course proximally in a random pattern, which makes it difficult to find out the exact locations. Although dorsal veins in the lateral nail fold have constant location and adequate diameter for anastomosis, they have been known as hard to dissect from the immobile subcutaneous tissue. The authors present a new lateral nail fold incision technique for venous anastomosis in the fingertip amputations. From February 2010 to October 2010, 9 replantations using the new incision and venous anastomosis technique were performed in 9 patients. The levels of amputations were from the nail base to half of the nail bed. After repairing the proper digital arteries, a skin incision was made along the junction between the lateral nail fold and nail bed. Careful dissection was performed to isolate the veins in the lateral nail fold. After evaluation of the suitability of the vessel, venous anastomosis was performed. Seven male and 2 female patients were enrolled in this study. Appropriate dorsal veins for anastomosis could be found in 8 of 9 patients. All the replanted stumps survived without venous congestion and following additional procedures. A sizable volar or dorsal vein could not be found in 1 patient. The salvage technique was required in this patient. Dorsal veins in the lateral nail fold can be found easily because of the constant anatomical location. The new incision on the lateral nail fold provides not only sufficient operative field for anastomosis but also additional opportunity of successful venous anastomosis in the selected cases. The authors, therefore, propose this technique as an effective method for an alternative venous anastomosis in the zone I replantation.

  4. Physical Properties of Gas Hydrates: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabitto, Jorge [Prairie View A& M University; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Methane gas hydrates in sediments have been studied by several investigators as a possible future energy resource. Recent hydrate reserves have been estimated at approximately 1016?m3 of methane gas worldwide at standard temperature and pressure conditions. In situ dissociation of natural gas hydrate is necessary in order to commercially exploit the resource from the natural-gas-hydrate-bearing sediment. The presence of gas hydrates in sediments dramatically alters some of the normal physical properties of the sediment. These changes can be detected by field measurements and by down-hole logs. An understanding of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for interpretation of geophysical data collected in field settings, borehole, and slope stability analyses; reservoir simulation; and production models. This work reviews information available in literature related to the physical properties of sediments containing gas hydrates. A brief review of the physical properties of bulk gas hydrates is included. Detection methods, morphology, and relevant physical properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments are also discussed.

  5. Accelerated hydration of high silica cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Colin; Yui, Mikazu

    2012-01-01

    Current Japanese designs for high level radioactive waste (HLW) repositories anticipate the use of both bentonite (buffer and backfill material) and cement based materials. Using hydrated Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) as a grouting material is undesirable because the associated high pH buffer will have an undisputed detrimental effect on the performance of the bentonite buffer and backfill and of the host rock by changing its porosity. Instead, hydrated low pH cement (LopHC) grouting materials are being developed to provide a pH inferior or equal to 11 to reduce these detrimental effects. LopHC grouting materials use mixtures of superfine OPC (SOPC) clinker and silica fume (SF), and are referred as high silica cements (HSC). The focus of the present study was to identify the development of the unhydrated and hydrated mineral assemblage and the solution chemistry during the hydration of HSC. Since hydration experiments of cementitious materials are notably slow, a ball mill was used to accelerate hydration. This was done for two reasons. Firstly, to develop a method to rapidly hydrate cement based materials without the need for higher temperatures (which can alter the mineral assemblage), and secondly, to ensure that the end point of hydration was reached in a reasonable time frame and so to realize the final mineralogy and solution chemistry of hydrated HSC

  6. Microstructure of natural hydrate host sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, K.W.; Kerkar, P.B.; Mahajan, D.; Lindquist, W.B.; Feng, H.

    2007-01-01

    There is worldwide interest in the study of natural gas hydrate because of its potential impact on world energy resources, control on seafloor stability, significance as a drilling hazard and probable impact on climate as a reservoir of a major greenhouse gas. Gas hydrates can (a) be free floating in the sediment matrix (b) contact, but do not cement, existing sediment grains, or (c) actually cement and stiffen the bulk sediment. Seismic surveys, often used to prospect for hydrates over a large area, can provide knowledge of the location of large hydrate concentrations because the hydrates within the sediment pores modify seismic properties. The ability to image a sample at the grain scale and to determine the porosity, permeability and seismic profile is of great interest since these parameters can help in determining the location of hydrates with certainty. We report here on an investigation of the structure of methane hydrate sediments at the grain-size scale using the synchrotron radiation-based computed microtomography (CMT) technique. Work has started on the measurements of the changes occurring as tetrahydrofuran hydrate, a surrogate for methane hydrate, is formed in the sediment

  7. The Exchange Reaction Between Methane Hydrate and Carbon Dioxide: An Oceanic Feasibility Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunk, R. M.; Brewer, P. G.; Peltzer, E. T.; Walz, P. M.; Hester, K. C.; Sloan, E. D.

    2006-12-01

    The conversion of CH4 hydrate to CO2 hydrate offers, in principle, a way of sequestering CO2, with the additional recovery of CH4 gas as an energy source. We report results from the first in-situ oceanic experiment on this reaction, carried out in August 2006 at the massive thermogenic hydrate mounds in 850 m water depth, Barkley Canyon, offshore from Vancouver Island (48° 18.642' N, 126° 3.903' W), using MBARI's ROV Tiburon deployed from the R/V Western Flyer. Two small cores (10 cm length, 4 cm diameter) of white hydrate were collected from exposed outcrops using an ROV operated tool and hydraulically ejected into a glass walled, closed top, reaction chamber. Approximately 2 L of liquid CO2 were dispensed into the chamber, and the chamber transferred to an aluminium base plate to seal the system. Under ambient conditions (P = 870 dbar, T = 4.0 °C, S = 34.2), the densities of natural gas hydrate and liquid CO2 are closely matched and less than that of seawater, where the hydrate cores floated at the top of the chamber fully immersed within the buoyant liquid CO2. Over the following ~48 hours, the system was inspected periodically with the ROV HDTV camera prior to examination with the sea-going laser Raman spectrometer, DORISS II. For this, the chamber was transferred to a Precision Underwater Positioner (PUP) that enabled focusing of the laser beam with sub- mm precision. Our choice of where to focus the laser was based upon the need to explore all phases the cored natural gas hydrate, liquid CO2, any created CO2 hydrate, and any liberated CH4 gas. The natural gas hydrate was composed primarily of CH4, with minor amounts of C2H6 and C3H8, indicating the presence of Structure II hydrate. To date, laboratory experiments have focused on the reaction between pure Structure I CH4 hydrate and CO2 vapour, where the difference in free energy between the CH4 and CO2 hydrate states provides a thermodynamic argument in favour of conversion. However for a Structure II

  8. Application of empirical hydration distribution functions around polar atoms for assessing hydration structures of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Daisuke; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Empirical distribution functions of water molecules in protein hydration are made. ► The functions measure how hydrogen-bond geometry in hydration deviate from ideal. ► The functions assess experimentally identified hydration structures of protein. - Abstract: To quantitatively characterize hydrogen-bond geometry in local hydration structures of proteins, we constructed a set of empirical hydration distribution functions (EHDFs) around polar protein atoms in the main and side chains of 11 types of hydrophilic amino acids (D. Matsuoka, M. Nakasako, Journal of Physical Chemistry B 113 (2009) 11274). The functions are the ensemble average of possible hydration patterns around the polar atoms, and describe the anisotropic deviations from ideal hydrogen bond geometry. In addition, we defined probability distribution function of hydration water molecules (PDFH) over the hydrophilic surface of a protein as the sum of EHDFs of solvent accessible polar protein atoms. The functions envelop most of hydration sites identified in crystal structures of proteins (D. Matsuoka, M. Nakasako, Journal of Physical Chemistry B 114 (2010) 4652). Here we propose the application of EHDFs and PDFHs for assessing crystallographically identified hydration structures of proteins. First, hydration water molecules are classified with respect to the geometry in hydrogen bonds in referring EHDFs. Difference Fourier electron density map weighted by PDFH of protein is proposed to identify easily density peaks as candidates of hydration water molecules. A computer program implementing those ideas was developed and used for assessing hydration structures of proteins

  9. Waters of Hydration of Cupric Hydrates: A Comparison between Heating and Absorbance Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlag, Rebecca; Nyasulu, Frazier

    2011-01-01

    The empirical formulas of four cupric hydrates are determined by measuring the absorbance in aqueous solution. The Beer-Lambert Law is verified by constructing a calibration curve of absorbance versus known Cu[superscript 2+](aq) concentration. A solution of the unknown hydrate is prepared by using 0.2-0.3 g of hydrate, and water is added such…

  10. Straight proximal humeral nails are surrounded by more bone stock in comparison to bent nails in an experimental cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Christian Max; Müller, Peter Ernst; Mutschler, Wolf; Sprecher, Christoph Martin; Milz, Stefan; Braunstein, Volker

    2014-01-01

    In the management of proximal humeral fractures intramedullary implants with bent and straight shape of the proximal part of nail are available. Based on data from previous studies on bone distribution in the humeral head, we hypothesized, that higher densities might exist in the bone stock surrounding straight nails in comparison to their angulated counterparts. With a known positive correlation between bone density and mechanical stability, this could indicate potentially higher rigidity of osteosyntheses done with straight implants. We performed high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomographies of the potential straight and bent implant bearing regions of 27 cadaveric proximal humeri. The acquired data were analyzed for differences between straight and bent Volumes of Interest as well as intra- and interindividual bone stock distribution. For both straight and bent volumes of interest a considerably declining bone mineral density was found in craniocaudal direction. Mean densities of bent volumes were significantly lower in comparison to their corresponding straight counterparts (p straight shaped implants can be assumed. Since we found a rapid decrease of bone density in cranio-caudal direction, intramedullary implants should be anchored as proximally in the subcortical area as possible to minimize the risk of displacement or cutout. The high correlation between the Volumes of Interest of the corresponding right and left sides could aid in preoperative planning when considering an intra- or extramedullary approach.

  11. Nail psoriasis as a severity indicator: results from the PsoReal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Schäfer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Marc A Radtke1, Anna K Langenbruch1, I Schäfer1, Katharina Herberger1, Kristian Reich2, Matthias Augustin11Institute for Health Services Research in Dermatology and Nursing, University Medical Center of Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg; 2Dermatologikum Hamburg, GermanyBackground: Although nail psoriasis affects a substantial proportion of psoriasis patients and causes significant psychologic distress, few epidemiologic data characterizing patients with nail involvement are available. The aim of this research was to elucidate differences between patients with nail psoriasis and those without any nail involvement, taking quality indicators of health care from the patient's perspective into account.Methods: In total, 2449 patient members of the Deutscher Psoriasis Bund, the largest patient organization for psoriasis in Germany, were interviewed in this nationwide, noninterventional, cross-sectional study. Patients with nail psoriasis were compared with patients without any nail involvement with regard to gender, age, disease duration, affected body surface area, health-related quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index [DLQI] ED-5D, patient-defined treatment benefit, amount of inpatient treatments, disease duration, and numbers of work days lost.Results: Data from 2449 patients with psoriasis were analyzed. Overall, 44.8% (1078 of patients were female, mean age was 57.0 ± 11.7 years, and 72.8% had nail involvement and showed higher values for affected body surface area than those without nail involvement (8.3% versus 5.6%, respectively; P < 0.004. Health-related quality of life was significantly lower in patients with nail psoriasis (DLQI 7.2 versus 5.3; ED-5D 60.1 versus 67.3, who had more days off work (9.8 versus 3.3.Conclusion: Nail involvement is an important symptom of psoriasis and is associated with greater disease severity and quality of life impairment. Accordingly, management of psoriasis should include a special focus on nail

  12. Hematoma of the proximal nail fold due to oximeter in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Boy 4 years old, hospitalized due to hemorrhagic chickenpox and sepsis during his clinical examination besides hemorrhagic crust, vesicles and bullous he has also a cutaneous red lesion localized at the right proximal nail fold of the big toenail (Fig. 1, dermatoscopic view of the lesion (Fig. 2. The diagnosis of hematoma of the proximal nail fold due to oximeter was done. The proximal nail fold hematomas due to oximeter are uncommon dermatoses at this level that are caused for the pressure of the oximeter and it has been seeing in patient in Unit Intensive or Intermediate Unit Care since 2007.

  13. Hydration in soccer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Cristiano Ralo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydration should be considered before, during and after the exercise. This review intends to approach the main points of hydration process in soccer. The replacement of fluids during exercise is proportional to some factors, such as: exercise intensity; climatic conditions; the athlete's acclimatization; the athlete's physical conditioning; physiologic individual characteristics and the player's biomechanics. Performance is improved when players ingest not only water but also carbohydrate. The rates that carbohydrate and water are absorbed by the organism are limited by the rates of gastric emptying and intestinal absorption. The composition of drinks offered to the players should be influenced by the relative importance of the need of supplying carbohydrates or water; it should be remembered that the depletion of carbohydrate can result in fatigue and decrease of performance, but it is not usually a life-threatening condition. The addition of carbohydrate in these drinks increases the concentrations of blood glucose, increases the use of external fuel through the increase of the glucose oxidation in the muscles and it spares muscle glycogen. So, the ingestion of carbohydrate before and during the exercise can delay the emergence of fatigue and increase the players' performance. Several tactics can be used to avoid dehydration, like hyperhydration before exercise and player's acclimatization. The ideal situation to restore the player's fluid losses is between the sessions of exercises. Since soccer is a sport with quite peculiar characteristics related to hydration, the players should be concerned and educated about the importance of fluid ingestion before, during and after the exercise.

  14. Gas Hydrates | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preliminary Report - Cascadia Margin Gas Hydrates, Volume 204 Initial Report Mallik 2002 GSC Bulletin 585 : Scientific results from the Mallik 2002 gas hydrate production well program Offshore gas hydrate sample

  15. Simulation and Characterization of Methane Hydrate Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, S.; Gupta, I.

    2017-12-01

    The ever rising global energy demand dictates human endeavor to explore and exploit new and innovative energy sources. As conventional oil and gas reserves deplete, we are constantly looking for newer sources for sustainable energy. Gas hydrates have long been discussed as the next big energy resource to the earth. Its global occurrence and vast quantity of natural gas stored is one of the main reasons for such interest in its study and exploration. Gas hydrates are solid crystalline substances with trapped molecules of gas inside cage-like crystals of water molecules. Gases such as methane, ethane, propane and carbon dioxide can form hydrates but in natural state, methane hydrates are the most common. Subsurface geological conditions with high pressure and low temperature favor the formation and stability of gas hydrates. While the occurrence and potential of gas hydrates as energy source has long been studied, there are still gaps in knowledge, especially in the quantitative research of gas hydrate formation and reservoir characterization. This study is focused on exploring and understanding the geological setting in which gas hydrates are formed and the subsequent changes in rock characteristics as they are deposited. It involves the numerical simulation of methane gas flow through fault to form hydrates. The models are representative of the subsurface geologic setting of Gulf of Mexico with a fault through layers of shale and sandstone. Hydrate formation simulated is of thermogenic origin. The simulations are conducted using TOUGH+HYDRATE, a numerical code developed at the Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory for modeling multiphase flow through porous medium. Simulation results predict that as the gas hydrates form in the pores of the model, the porosity, permeability and other rock properties are altered. Preliminary simulation results have shown that hydrates begin to form in the fault zone and gradually in the sandstone layers. The increase in hydrate

  16. Formation rate of natural gas hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mork, Marit

    2002-07-01

    The rate of methane hydrate and natural gas hydrate formation was measured in a 9.5 litre stirred tank reactor of standard design. The experiments were performed to better understand the performance and scale-up of a reactor for continuous production of natural gas hydrates. The hydrate formation rate was measured at steady-state conditions at pressures between 70 and 90 bar and temperatures between 7 and 15 deg C. Between 44 and 56 % of the gas continuously supplied to the reactor was converted to hydrate. The experimental results show that the rate of hydrate formation is strongly influenced by gas injection rate and pressure. The effect of stirring rate is less significant and subcooling has no observable effect on the formation rate. Hydrate crystal concentration and gas composition do not influence the hydrate formation rate. Observations of produced hydrate crystals indicate that the crystals are elongated, about 5 micron in diameter and 10 micron long. Analysis of the results shows that the rate of hydrate formation is dominated by gas-liquid mass transfer. A mass transfer model, the bubble-to-crystal model, was developed for the hydrate formation rate in a continuous stirred tank reactor, given in terms of concentration driving force and an overall mass transfer coefficient. The driving force is the difference between the gas concentration at the gas-liquid interface and at the hydrate crystal surface. These concentrations correspond to the solubility of gas in water at experimental temperature and pressure and the solubility of gas at hydrate equilibrium temperature and experimental pressure, respectively. The overall mass transfer coefficient is expressed in terms of superficial gas velocity and impeller power consumption, parameters commonly used in study of stirred tank reactors. Experiments and modeling show that the stirred tank reactor has a considerable potential for increased production capacity. However, at higher hydrate production rates the

  17. NAPSI utilization as an evaluation method of nail psoriasis in patients using acitretin Utilização do NAPSI como instrumento de avaliação na psoríase ungueal em pacientes com uso da acitretina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Mitsue Mukai

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: assessment instruments of nail psoriasis have been published in literature as means to standardize the previous subjective assessments of authors. OBJECTIVES: Using Nail Psoriasis Severity Index for evaluation in patients with plaque psoriasis during treatment with acitretin. METHODS: Thirty volunteers with plaque psoriasis were selected for the study. Twenty patients (8 women and 12 men completed the study. The initial dose of acitretin was 0.3 mg/kg/day for 30 days and was later raised to 0.5 mg/kg/day. Nail Psoriasis Severity Index was collected in the first evaluation, after 2 and 4 months. Nails of both hands were evaluated. RESULTS: nail lesions were present in all patients at first evaluation. The initial Nail Psoriasis Severity Index median was 20 and the final score 20.5 (2.5% of worsening at the end of the study. No statistically significant difference between the three evaluations was found (X2 = 0.8084, GL = 2, p = 0.6657. Seven patients worsened in the final score. Three patients improved 50% of the initial Nail Psoriasis Severity Index and only one had an improvement of 75%. Linear correlation showed a weak association between the improvement percentage in PASI and Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (r = 0.105, F = 2.12, p = 0.162. CONCLUSION: The method was easy and of rapid execution while potentially bringing information about changes in nail plate and matrix during treatment. The Nail Psoriasis Severity Index does not quantify the existing lesions and might not have the sensitivity to detect small changes.FUNDAMENTOS: instrumentos de avaliação da psoríase ungueal têm sido publicados na literatura como meio de padronizar as avaliações antigamente subjetivas dos autores. OBJETIVOS: utilizar índice de Gravidade da Psoríase Ungueal ou Nail Psoriasis Severity Index para avaliação em pacientes portadores de psoríase em placas durante o tratamento com acitretina. MÉTODOS: trinta voluntários portadores de psor

  18. Treatment outcomes of intertrochanteric femur fractures treated with DLT™ nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Arıcan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Intramedullary nails frequently use in proximal femur fractures. In this study, 49 patients with intertrochanteric fractures were evaluated clinical and radiological results treated with dyna locking trochanteric (DLT™ nail retrospectively. Methods: Twenty-two (44.9% patients were male and 27 (55.1% patients were female. Mean age was 74.29±1.98 (28-99 years and Followed up for a mean of 14.35±3.43 (9-24 months. Thirty-seven (75.6% of the fractures resulted from simple falls while 6 (12.2% caused from traffic accidents and 6 (12.2% fall down from height. There were 24 (49.0% left and 25 (51.0% right lower extremities fractured. According to Orthopaedic Trauma Association classification system; 21 (42.9%, 21 (42.9% and 7 (14.2% fractures were classified as 31A1, 31A2, and 31A3 respectively. One (2.0% patient had claviculae fracture, 3 (6.1% patients had radius distal fracture and 1 (2.0% patient had total knee arthroplasty. After surgery, X-ray was used for radiological results and functional outcomes were evaluated according to the Harris hip scoring system. Results: The average waiting time for the surgery was 2.02±0.18 (1-7 days and hospitalization time was 6.23±0.29 (4-15 days. Mean fracture healing time was 11.74±1.82 (8-15 weeks. Three patients had screw cut-out in the follow-up time and performed hemiarthroplasty. The average Harris hip score was 88.02±1.21 (42-97 points and included 29 (59.2% excellent cases, 17 (34.7% good and 3 (6.1% poor. Conclusion: DLT ™ nail is a safe and successful method because of low complication rates, and capability of detection.

  19. Closed retrograde retrieval of the distal broken segment of femoral cannulated intramedullary nail using a ball-tipped guide wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metikala, Sreenivasulu; Mohammed, Riazuddin

    2011-07-01

    Extracting broken segments of intramedullay nails from long bones can be an operative challenge, particularly from the distal end. We report a case series where a simple and reproducible technique of extracting broken femoral cannulated nails using a ball-tipped guide wire is described. This closed technique involves no additional equipment or instruments. Eight patients who underwent the described method were included in the study. The technique involves using a standard plain guide wire passed through the cannulated distal broken nail segment after extraction of the proximal nail fragment. The plain guide wire is then advanced distally into the knee joint carefully under fluoroscopy imaging. Over this wire, a 5-millimeter (mm) cannulated large drill bit is used to create a track up to the distal broken nail segment. Through the small knee wound, a ball-tipped guide wire is passed, smooth end first, till the ball engages the end of the nail. The guide wire is then extracted along with the broken nail through the proximal wound. The method was successfully used in all eight patients for removal of broken cannulated intramedullary nail from the femoral canal without any complications. All patients underwent exchange nailing with successful bone union in six months. None of the patients had any problems at the knee joint at the final follow-up. We report a technique for successful extraction of the distal fragment of broken femoral intramedullary nails without additional surgical approaches.

  20. Removal of a Broken Cannulated Intramedullary Nail: Review of the Literature and a Case Report of a New Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr A. Abdelgawad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonunion of long bones fixed with nails may result in implant failure. Removal of a broken intramedullary nail may be a real challenge. Many methods have been described to allow for removal of the broken piece of the nail. In this paper, we are reviewing the different techniques to extract a broken nail, classifying them into different subsets, and describing a new technique that we used to remove a broken tibial nail with narrow canal. Eight different categories of implant removal methods were described, with different methods within each category. This classification is very comprehensive and was never described before. We described a new technique (hook captured in the medulla by flexible nail introduced from the locking hole which is a valuable technique in cases of nail of a small diameter where other methods cannot be used because of the narrow canal of the nail. Our eight categories for broken nail removal methods simplify the concepts of nail removal and allow the surgeon to better plan for the removal procedure.

  1. Paper microzone plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Emanuel; Phillips, Scott T; Vella, Sarah J; Martinez, Andres W; Whitesides, George M

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes 96- and 384-microzone plates fabricated in paper as alternatives to conventional multiwell plates fabricated in molded polymers. Paper-based plates are functionally related to plastic well plates, but they offer new capabilities. For example, paper-microzone plates are thin (approximately 180 microm), require small volumes of sample (5 microL per zone), and can be manufactured from inexpensive materials ($0.05 per plate). The paper-based plates are fabricated by patterning sheets of paper, using photolithography, into hydrophilic zones surrounded by hydrophobic polymeric barriers. This photolithography used an inexpensive formulation photoresist that allows rapid (approximately 15 min) prototyping of paper-based plates. These plates are compatible with conventional microplate readers for quantitative absorbance and fluorescence measurements. The limit of detection per zone loaded for fluorescence was 125 fmol for fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin, and this level corresponds to 0.02 the quantity of analyte per well used to achieve comparable signal-to-noise in a 96-well plastic plate (using a solution of 25 nM labeled protein). The limits of detection for absorbance on paper was approximately 50 pmol per zone for both Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Amaranth dyes; these values were 0.4 that required for the plastic plate. Demonstration of quantitative colorimetric correlations using a scanner or camera to image the zones and to measure the intensity of color, makes it possible to conduct assays without a microplate reader.

  2. Free energy of hydration of niobium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Some of the glasses being formulated by SRTC researchers contain niobium oxide. In this report, the free energy of hydration of the oxide is calculated from the free energies of formation of the oxide, the hydroxide, and water. This value can be used in calculations of the free energy of hydration of glasses containing niobium

  3. Investigations into surfactant/gas hydrate relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, Rudy; Zhang, Guochang; Dearman, Jennifer; Woods, Charles [Swalm School of Chemical Engineering, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)

    2007-03-15

    Gas hydrates have unique physical properties portending useful industrial applications of gas storage, gas separation, or water desalination. When gas hydrates were found in the early 1990s to occur naturally and abundantly in seafloors, three other primary interests and concerns emerged: potential new energy source, climate threat from their greenhouse gases, and seafloor instabilities. This paper presents research showing how anionic synthetic surfactants helped develop an industrial gas hydrate storage process for natural gas and how naturally-occurring in-situ anionic biosurfactants influence the formation and placement of gas hydrates in ocean sediments. The catalytic effects, mechanisms, and surface specificities imparted by synthetic surfactants in the gas storage process and imparted by biosurfactants in porous media are discussed. The Bacillus subtilis bacterium that is indigenous to gas hydrate mounds in the Gulf of Mexico was cultured in the laboratory. Its biosurfactant was separated and found to catalyze gas hydrates in porous media. The experiments indicate that seafloor-biosurfactants can be produced rapidly in-situ to achieve threshold concentrations whereby hydrates are promoted. The biosurfactants accumulate and promote hydrate formation on specific mineral surfaces such as sodium montmorillonite. (author)

  4. 75 FR 9886 - Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a meeting of the Methane... the Committee: The purpose of the Methane Hydrate Advisory Committee is to provide advice on potential...

  5. Raman Spectroscopic Studies of Methane Gas Hydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.

    2009-01-01

    A brief review of the Raman spectroscopic studies of methane gas hydrates is given, supported by some new measurements done in our laboratory.......A brief review of the Raman spectroscopic studies of methane gas hydrates is given, supported by some new measurements done in our laboratory....

  6. Multicomponent modelling of Portland cement hydration reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ukrainczyk, N.; Koenders, E.A.B.; Van Breugel, K.

    2012-01-01

    The prospect of cement and concrete technologies depends on more in depth understanding of cement hydration reactions. Hydration reaction models simulate the development of the microstructures that can finally be used to estimate the cement based material properties that influence performance and

  7. The trochanteric gamma nail versus the dynamic hip screw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Ole; Andersen, Mikkel; Poulsen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    In a prospective, randomized trial we compared the trochanteric gamma nail (TGN) and the dynamic hip screw (DHS) in the treatment of 146 intertrochanteric fractures. Follow-up was after four and 12 months. The operation time was significantly shorter in the DHS group. At discharge the need...... for walking aids was less in the DHS group. There were no differences in intraoperative blood loss, medical complications, mortality or length of hospital stay. Major fracture complications occurred twiceas often in the TGN group compared with the DHS group, however they were not statistically significant....... Any potential for the TGN leading to a less invasive procedure and a more rapid postoperative mobilisation could not be demonstrated. Compared with the TGN we prefer the DHS for most intertrochanteric fractures in a setting where the majority of these fractures are treated by younger doctors...

  8. Black yeast-like fungi in skin and nail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunte, D M; Tarazooie, B; Arendrup, M C

    2011-01-01

    Black yeast-like fungi are rarely reported from superficial infections. We noticed a consistent prevalence of these organisms as single isolations from mycological routine specimens. To investigate the prevalence of black yeast-like fungi in skin, hair and nail specimens and to discuss...... the probability of these species to be involved in disease. Slow-growing black yeast-like fungi in routine specimens were prospectively collected and identified. A questionnaire regarding patient information was sent to physicians regarding black yeast-like fungus positive patients. A total of 20 746...... dermatological specimens were examined by culture. Black yeast-like fungi accounted for 2.2% (n = 108) of the positive cultures. Only 31.0% of the samples, culture positive for black yeast-like fungi were direct microscopy positive when compared with overall 68.8% of the culture positive specimens. The most...

  9. New Technique: A Novel Femoral Derotation Osteotomy for Malrotation following Intramedullary Nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jagernauth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 19-year-old female patient sustained a closed spiral midshaft femoral fracture and subsequently underwent femoral intramedullary nail insertion. At followup she complained of difficulty in walking and was found to have a unilateral in-toeing gait. CT imaging revealed 30 degrees of internal rotation at the fracture site, which had healed. A circumferential osteotomy was performed distal to the united fracture site using a Gigli saw with the intramedullary femoral nail in situ. The static distal interlocking screws were removed and the malrotation was corrected. Two further static distal interlocking screws were inserted to secure the intramedullary nail in position. The osteotomy went on to union and her symptoms of pain, walking difficulty, and in-toeing resolved. Our paper is the first to describe a technique for derotation osteotomy following intramedullary malreduction that leaves the intramedullary nail in situ.

  10. Subsurface Characterization using Geophysical Seismic Refraction Survey for Slope Stabilization Design with Soil Nailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf Mohamad Ismail, Mohd; Ng, Soon Min; Hazreek Zainal Abidin, Mohd; Madun, Aziman

    2018-04-01

    The application of geophysical seismic refraction for slope stabilization design using soil nailing method was demonstrated in this study. The potential weak layer of the study area is first identify prior to determining the appropriate length and location of the soil nail. A total of 7 seismic refraction survey lines were conducted at the study area with standard procedures. The refraction data were then analyzed by using the Pickwin and Plotrefa computer software package to obtain the seismic velocity profiles distribution. These results were correlated with the complementary borehole data to interpret the subsurface profile of the study area. It has been identified that layer 1 to 3 is the potential weak zone susceptible to slope failure. Hence, soil nails should be installed to transfer the tensile load from the less stable layer 3 to the more stable layer 4. The soil-nail interaction will provide a reinforcing action to the soil mass thereby increasing the stability of the slope.

  11. Creep behavior of soil nail walls in high plasticity index (PI) soils : project summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Soil nailing is a convenient and economic : stabilization method for the reinforcement of existing : excavations by installing threaded steel bars into cuts : or slopes as wall construction progresses from top : down (Figure 1). An aspect of particul...

  12. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donn McGuire; Steve Runyon; Richard Sigal; Bill Liddell; Thomas Williams; George Moridis

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. Hot Ice No. 1 was planned to test the Ugnu and West Sak sequences for gas hydrates and a concomitant free gas accumulation on Anadarko's 100% working interest acreage in section 30 of Township 9N, Range 8E of the Harrison Bay quadrangle of the North Slope of Alaska. The Ugnu and West Sak intervals are favorably positioned in the hydrate-stability zone over an area extending from Anadarko's acreage westward to the vicinity of the aforementioned gas-hydrate occurrences. This suggests that a large, north-to-south trending gas-hydrate accumulation may exist in that area. The presence of gas shows in the Ugnu and West Sak reservoirs in wells situated eastward and down dip of the Hot Ice location indicate that a free-gas accumulation may be trapped by gas hydrates. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was designed to core from the surface to the base of the West Sak interval using the

  13. [FTIR study on the finger nail with carcinoma of nasopharynx].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Qin; Liu, Gang; Liu, Tian-hui

    2004-12-01

    Finger nails from twenty normal people and three with carcinoma of nasopharynx were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) technique. The results showed that there are obvious differences between FTIR spectra of them in spectral parameters such as frequency, intensity and band shape etc. The most striking differences in the spectra were observed in the change of amide II, the disappearance of delta(s) (CH3) peak, and at 874.0 cm(-1) whether appeared an absorption peak. The changes involving the phosphate symmetric stretching nu(s, PO2-) and asynmmetric stretching nu(as, PO2-) modes, the CH3 and CH2 groups stretching (v(s, CH2), nu(as, CH3)) bending (delta (CH3)) modes and the C-O stretching nu (C-O) mode were discussed. In addition, the changes of structure of hydrogen-bonding of nucleic acid and cell proteins and the packing and the conformational structure of the membrane lipids were analysed. The average wave number of band of nu(s) (PO2-) shifted from 1080.0 to 1077.6 cm(-1) and that of nu(as) (PO2-) shifted from 1239.4 to 1238.4 cm(-1), which indicated that the degree of hydrogen-bonding formed by oxygen atom of the phosphodiester groups of nucleic acids was weakened. The average wave number of band of delta (CH2) of membrane lipids shifted from 1453.1 to 1453.7 cm(-1), and its peak intensity was slightly enhanced, which suggested that the conformational structure of the methylene chains of membrane lipids is more disordered than in normal nail.

  14. [Comparison of LCP and locked intramedullary nailing fixation in treatment of tibial diaphysis fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peng; Tang, Peifu; Yao, Qi

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate the treatment results of LCP and locked intramedullary nailing for tibial diaphysis fractures. From October 2003 to April 2006, 55 patients with tibial diaphysis fractures (58 fractures) were treated. Of them there were 39 males and 16 females with an average of 39 years years ( 14 to 62 years). The fractures were on the left side in 27 patients and on the right side in 31 patients (3 patients had bilateral involvement). Thirty-four fractures were treated by intramedullary nailing (intramedullary nailing group) and 24 fractures by LCP fixation (LCP group). The average disease course was 3 days (intramedullary nailing group) and 3.1 days (LCP group). The operation time, the range of motion of knee and ankle joints, fracture healing time, and complications were evaluated. The patients were followed up 8-26 months (13 months on average). The operation time was 84.0+/-9.2 min (intramedullary nailing group) and 69.0+/-8.4 min (LCP group); the average cost in hospital was yen 19,297.78 in the intramedullary nailing group and yen 14,116.55 in the LCP group respectively, showing significant differences (P 0.05). The doral flexion and plantar flexion of ankle joint were 13.0+/-1.7 degrees and 41.0+/-2.6 degrees in intramedullary nailing group, and 10.0+/-1.4 degrees and 44.0+/-2.3 degrees in LCP group, showing no significant differences (P>0.05). The mean healing time was 3.3 months in intramedullary nailing group, and 3. 1 months in LCP group. Length discrepancy occurred in 1 case (2.5 cm), delayed union in 1 case and nailing end trouble in 3 cases in intramedullary nailing group; moreover rotation deformity occurred 1 case and anterior knee pain occurred in 6 cases (17.1%). One angulation and open fracture developed osteomyelitis in 1 case 1 week postoperatively and angulation deformity occurred in 1 case of distal-third tibial fractures in LCP group. LCP and locked intramedullary nailing can achieve satisfactory results in treating tibial diaphysis fracture

  15. Experimental Setup to Characterize Bentonite Hydration Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bru, A.; Casero, D.; Pastor, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    We present an experimental setup to follow-up the hydration process of a bentonite. Clay samples, of 2 cm x 12 cm x 12 cm, were made and introduced in a Hele-Shaw cell with two PMM windows and two steel frames. In hydration experiments, a fluid enters by an orifice in the frame, located both at the top and the bottom of the cell, to perform hydration in both senses. To get a uniform hydration we place a diffuser near the orifice. Volume influxes in hydration cells are registered in time. The evolution of the developed interface was recorded on a videotape. The video cameras was fixed to a holder so that the vertical direction in the monitor was the same as the direction of the larger extension of the cell. (Author) 6 refs

  16. Volume of hydration in terminal cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruera, E; Belzile, M; Watanabe, S; Fainsinger, R L

    1996-03-01

    In this retrospective study we reviewed the volume and modality of hydration of consecutive series of terminal cancer patients in two different settings. In a palliative care unit 203/290 admitted patients received subcutaneous hydration for 12 +/- 8 days at a daily volume of 1015 +/- 135 ml/day. At the cancer center, 30 consecutive similar patients received intravenous hydration for 11.5 +/- 5 days (P > 0.2) but at a daily volume of 2080 +/- 720 ml/day (P palliative care unit patients required discontinuation of hydration because of complications. Hypodermoclysis was administered mainly as a continuous infusion, an overnight infusion, or in one to three 1-h boluses in 62 (31%), 98 (48%) and 43 (21%) patients, respectively. Our findings suggest that, in some settings, patients may be receiving excessive volumes of hydration by less comfortable routes such as the intravenous route. Increased education and research in this area are badly needed.

  17. Hydration shells exchange charge with their protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abitan, Haim; Lindgård, Per-Anker; Nielsen, Bjørn Gilbert

    2010-01-01

    . In our experiments, the amplitude of an ultrasonic pressure wave is gradually increased (0–20 atm) while we simultaneously measure the Raman spectra from the hydrated protein (β-lactoglobulin and lysozyme). We detected two types of spectral changes: first, up to 70% increase in the intensity......Investigation of the interaction between a protein and its hydration shells is an experimental and theoretical challenge. Here, we used ultrasonic pressure waves in aqueous solutions of a protein to explore the conformational states of the protein and its interaction with its hydration shells...... the presence of an ultrasonic pressure, a protein and its hydration shells are in thermodynamic and charge equilibrium, i.e. a protein and its hydration shells exchange charges. The ultrasonic wave disrupts these equilibria which are regained within 30–45 min after the ultrasonic pressure is shut off....

  18. Screw elastic intramedullary nail for the management of adult forearm fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasudeo Gadegone

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The failure of the conventional nailing of both forearm bones or isolated fractures of radius and ulna pose a potential problem of nail migration and rotational instability, despite the best reduction. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the results of screw elastic intramedullary nail for the treatment of adult diaphyseal fractures of both forearm bones, which effectively addresses the problems associated with the conventional nailing systems for the forearm fractures. Materials and Methods: Seventy-six adults with forearm fractures (radius and ulna or isolated fracture of the single bone were retrospectively evaluated. Fifty males and 26 females with the mean age of 38 years (range, 18-70 years underwent closed reduction and screw intramedullary nail fixation. Ten patients required limited open reduction. The fractures were classified according to the AO/OTA system. The average followup was 12 months (range, 6 to 18 months. Results: The mean surgical time was 45 minutes (35 to 65 minutes. The meantime to union was 14 weeks (10-21 weeks. The results were graded as excellent in 50, good in 18 patients, and acceptable in eight patients, using the criteria of Grace and Eversman. We had superficial infection in three cases, one case of delayed infection, painful bursa in two cases, delayed union in two cases, malunion with dislocation of the DRUJ in two cases, injury to the extensor tendon of the thumb in one case, and one case of incomplete radioulnar synostosis. Conclusion: Closed reduction and internal fixation of forearm fractures by screw intramedullary nails reestablishes the near normal relationship of the fractured fragments. Screw intramedullary nail effectively controls both rotatory forces and the migration of the nail. It produces excellent clinical results in isolated fractures of either bones, as well as both bones of the forearm in adults.

  19. The effect of retained intramedullary nails on tibial bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J C; Lindsey, R W; Hipp, J A; Gugala, Z; Rianon, N; LeBlanc, A

    2008-07-01

    Intramedullary nailing has become a standard treatment for adult tibial shaft fractures. Retained intramedullary nails have been associated with stress shielding, although their long-term effect on decreasing tibial bone mineral density is currently unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if retained tibial intramedullary nails decrease tibial mineral density in patients with successfully treated fractures. Patients treated with statically locked intramedullary nails for isolated, unilateral tibia shaft fractures were studied. Inclusion required that fracture had healed radiographically and that the patient returned to the pre-injury activity level. Data on patient demographic, fracture type, surgical technique, implant, and post-operative functional status were tabulated. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure bone mineral density in selected regions of the affected tibia and the contralateral intact tibia. Image reconstruction software was employed to ensure symmetry of the studied regions. Twenty patients (mean age 43; range 22-77 years) were studied at a mean of 29 months (range 5-60 months) following intramedullary nailing. There was statistically significant reduction of mean bone mineral density in tibiae with retained intramedullary nails (1.02 g/cm(2) versus 1.06 g/cm(2); P=0.04). A significantly greater decrease in bone mineral density was detected in the reamed versus non-reamed tibiae (-7% versus +6%, respectively; P<0.05). The present study demonstrates a small, but statistically significant overall bone mineral density decrease in healed tibiae with retained nails. Intramedullary reaming appears to be a factor potentiating the reduction of tibia bone mineral density in long-term nail retention.

  20. Complications and Functional Recovery in Treatment of Femoral Shaft Fractures with Unreamed Intramedullary Nailing

    OpenAIRE

    Sadic, Sahmir; Custovic, Svemir; Smajic, Nedim; Fazlic, Mirsad; Vujadinovic, Aleksandar; Hrustic, Asmir; Jasarevic, Mahir

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Fracture of the femoral shaft is a common fracture encountered in orthopedic practice. In the 1939, K?ntscher introduced the concept of intramedullary nailing for stabilization of long bone fractures. Intramedullary nailing has revolutionized the treatment of fractures. Material and methods: The study included 37 male patients and 13 female patients, averaged 39?20,5 years (range, 16 to 76 years). Results and discussion: There were 31 left femurs and 21 right femurs fra...

  1. New method of surgical treatment of patients with recurrent ingrown nail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondulukov A.N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the surgical treatment of ingrown nail in patients with recurrent disease. The advantages of a new method of operation have been explained in the article. It gives a detailed description of the operation. The clinical and additional methods of research have confirmed the fact that a new operation reduces the wound healing period and the number of ingrown nail recurrences

  2. Intertrochanteric fractures in elderly high risk patients treated with Ender nails and compression screw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangadharan Sidhartha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ender and Simon Weidner popularized the concept of closed condylocephlic nailing for intertrochanteric fractures in 1970. The clinical experience of authors revealed that Ender nailing alone cannot provide secure fixation in elderly patients with osteoporosis. Hence we conducted a study to evaluate the efficacy of a combined fixation procedure using Ender nails and a cannulated compression screw for intertrochanteric fractures. Materials and Methods: 76 patients with intertrochanteric fractures were treated using intramedullary Ender nails and cannulated compression screw from January 2004 to December 2007. The mean age of the patients was 80 years (range 70-105 years.Using the Evan′s system of classification 49 were stable and 27 unstable fractures. Inclusion criteria was high risk elderly patients (age > 70 years with intertrochanteric fracture. The exclusion criteria included patients with pressure sores over the trochanteric region. Many patients had pre-existing co-morbidities like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, COPD, ischemic heart disease, CVA and coronary artery bypass surgery. The two Ender nails of 4.5mm each were passed across the fracture site into the proximal neck. This was reinforced with a 6.5 mm cannulated compression screw passed from the sub trochanteric region, across the fracture into the head. Results: The mean follow-up was 14 months (range 9-19 months Average time to fracture union was 10 weeks (range 6-16 weeks. The mean knee ROM was 130o (± 5o. There was no case of nail penetration into hip joint. In five cases with advanced osteoporosis there was minimal migration of Ender nails distally. Conclusions: The Ender nailing combined with compression screw fixation in cases of intertrochanteric fractures in high risk elderly patients could achieve reliable fracture stability with minimal complications.

  3. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Bill Liddell

    2005-03-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Oil-field engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in Arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrates agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Anadarko Petroleum, Noble Corporation, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to help identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. As part of the project work scope, team members drilled and cored the HOT ICE No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in January 2003 and completed in March 2004. Due to scheduling constraints imposed by the Arctic drilling season, operations at the site were suspended between April 21, 2003 and January 30, 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was designed, constructed and used for determining physical characteristics of frozen core immediately after it was retrieved from the well. The well was drilled from a new and innovative Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a greatly reduced footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project were to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists for future hydrate operations. Unfortunately, no gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated

  4. Gamma nail in the treatment of closed trochanteric fractures. Results and indications of 121 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, I; Grosse, A; Taglang, G; Favreul, E

    2014-02-01

    The Gamma Nail is the latest advance in the treatment of trochanteric fractures based on intramedullary nailing principles during closed procedures. Its design is based on Küntscher's Y-nail and locking intramedullary (IM) nails. This paper reports the results from the first-ever series of 121 patients operated between 1988 and 1990. They were followed until bone union was achieved. The mean patient age was 75 years. Most patients were in poor general health and had unstable fractures. Anatomical preoperative reduction was achieved in 72% of cases. Fixation was good in 66% of cases and acceptable in 27% of cases. Intra-operative complications consisted of nine fractures without consequences. Of the treated patients, 83.4% resumed weight-bearing during the first week. There was one case of deep infection that resolved with treatment. The mortality rate was 12.3% at three months. We noted 7 alunions in varus, 3 in valgus, 2 in external rotation and 1 in internal rotation. There were no cases of non-union. In six cases, the screw had cut out of the femoral head. The drawbacks associated with surgical treatment methods for trochanteric fractures also apply to the Gamma nail. Nevertheless, one of its primary advantages is the possibility of using a closed procedure. When compared to Ender nailing, knee pain is absent and weight-bearing can be achieved in all patients, no matter the fracture type. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Quantitative analysis of untreated human nails for monitoring human exposure to heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, Koichiro; Futatsugawa, Shouji; Murao, Satoshi; Clemente, E.

    2002-01-01

    In order to address global environmental issues, a standard-free method developed by ourselves has been successfully applied to various kinds of bio-samples. Especially, a method for untreated hairs has been applied in many polluted areas to study human exposure to toxic elements. In addition to hair, nail is expected to give us valuable information about human exposure to toxic elements. However, the analysis requires relatively large amounts of samples and laborious sample preparation techniques which necessitate internal standards. In this work, we have developed a quantitative method for untreated human-nail analysis based on the standard-free method. It requires neither large amounts of nails nor complicated target preparation procedure. Furthermore, it is perfectly free from any ambiguity in target preparation such as volatilization of certain elements and contamination of the sample during chemical ashing. The optimum conditions of irradiating nail samples are established, and accuracy and reproducibility of the present method are confirmed. It is found that ultrasonic washing in distilled water is effective for many nail samples preventing the loss of elements from the sample. It is also found that elemental concentration in nails strongly depends on their sampling positions. (author)

  6. Outcomes in closed reamed interlocking nail in fractures of shaft of femur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, T.; Sawati, A.; Ahmed, A.

    2015-01-01

    Femoral shaft fracture is one of the common fractures seen in accident and emergency department of our hospital. Violent forces are required to break this and strongest of human bones. There are various treatment modalities for femoral shaft fractures in adults like traction, brace, platting, intramedullary nail (IMN), external fixators and inter locking nails. The study was done with an objective to evaluate the results of closed reamed interlocking nail in fractures of shaft of femur. Methods: A prospective study of 114 cases of femoral shaft fractures was carried out at orthopaedic unit of Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad during 1 year. All these cases were treated with statically locked nails under spinal or general anaesthesia. These cases were followed up for up to one year and Results of the interlocking nail were observed in terms of union and complications. Results: Out of 114 patients, 95 underwent union in 90-150 days with a mean of 110.68 days. Ten patients had dynamization within six weeks because of obvious fracture gap in radiograph. There were 3 patients who had non-union, and 6 patients had delayed union which was treated with dynamization. Conclusion: Close reamed interlocking intramedullary nail in femoral shaft fractures is the treatment of choice. Patient rehabilitation is early, hospitalization is short, and fracture healing response is good. (author)

  7. Integrated computation model of lithium-ion battery subject to nail penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Binghe; Yin, Sha; Xu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A coupling model to predict battery penetration process is established. • Penetration test is designed and validates the computational model. • Governing factors of the penetration induced short-circuit is discussed. • Critical safety battery design guidance is suggested. - Abstract: The nail penetration of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has become a standard battery safety evaluation method to mimic the potential penetration of a foreign object into LIB, which can lead to internal short circuit with catastrophic consequences, such as thermal runaway, fire, and explosion. To provide a safe, time-efficient, and cost-effective method for studying the nail penetration problem, an integrated computational method that considers the mechanical, electrochemical, and thermal behaviors of the jellyroll was developed using a coupled 3D mechanical model, a 1D battery model, and a short circuit model. The integrated model, along with the sub-models, was validated to agree reasonably well with experimental test data. In addition, a comprehensive quantitative analysis of governing factors, e.g., shapes, sizes, and displacements of nails, states of charge, and penetration speeds, was conducted. The proposed computational framework for LIB nail penetration was first introduced. This framework can provide an accurate prediction of the time history profile of battery voltage, temperature, and mechanical behavior. The factors that affected the behavior of the jellyroll under nail penetration were discussed systematically. Results provide a solid foundation for future in-depth studies on LIB nail penetration mechanisms and safety design.

  8. A comprehensive study on Li-ion battery nail penetrations and the possible solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Rui; Liu, Jie; Gu, Junjie

    2017-01-01

    Li-ion batteries are the state-of-the-art power sources for portable electronics, electric vehicles, and aerospace applications. The safety issues regarding Li-ion batteries arouse particular attentions after several accidents reported in recent years. Among various abuse conditions, nail penetration is one of the most dangerous for Li-ion batteries due to the accumulated heat generation, which could give rise to the thermal runaway and could damage entire energy storage system. In this paper, an electrochemical-thermal coupling model is developed to study the nail penetration process of Li-ion batteries. By introducing joule heating at the nail location, the model shows good agreement with the testing results. With this verified model, a comprehensive parametric study is carried out to investigate the effects of battery capacity, internal resistance, and nail diameter on the electrochemical and thermal behaviors of Li-ion batteries during the penetration processes. Furthermore, three possible solutions to prevent the thermal runaway, which includes decreasing the state of charge, improving heat dissipation, and increasing contact resistance, are compared and discussed in detail based on a series of simulations. - Highlights: • A coupling model is developed to simulate Li-ion battery nail penetrations. • A contact resistance – contact area curve is plotted based on experiments. • Simulation results show good agreements with nail tests. • The behaviors of Li-ion batteries in different penetration scenarios are studied. • Possible strategies to prevent thermal runaway are investigated and discussed.

  9. A calibration method for proposed XRF measurements of arsenic and selenium in nail clippings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gherase, Mihai R; Fleming, David E B

    2011-01-01

    A calibration method for proposed x-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements of arsenic and selenium in nail clippings is demonstrated. Phantom nail clippings were produced from a whole nail phantom (0.7 mm thickness, 25 x 25 mm 2 area) and contained equal concentrations of arsenic and selenium ranging from 0 to 20 μg g -1 in increments of 5 μg g -1 . The phantom nail clippings were then grouped in samples of five different masses: 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 mg for each concentration. Experimental x-ray spectra were acquired for each of the sample masses using a portable x-ray tube and a detector unit. Calibration lines (XRF signal in a number of counts versus stoichiometric elemental concentration) were produced for each of the two elements. A semi-empirical relationship between the mass of the nail phantoms (m) and the slope of the calibration line (s) was determined separately for arsenic and selenium. Using this calibration method, one can estimate elemental concentrations and their uncertainties from the XRF spectra of human nail clippings. (note)

  10. Revision of a nonunited subtrochanteric femoral fracture around a failed intramedullary nail with the use of RIA products, BMP-7 and hydroxyapatite: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsiridis Eleftherios

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Femoral subtrochanteric fractures are commonly treated using intramedullary devices. Failure of the implant and subsequent nonunion is still an issue, however, and limited evidence exists regarding the most appropriate treatment. Case presentation We report the case of an 80-year-old Caucasian woman with a subtrochanteric fracture originally treated using a trochanteric gamma nail which failed, resulting in a nonunion and fracture of its proximal end. The nonunion was revised with the removal of the broken trochanteric gamma nail, application of a condylar blade plate, ipsilateral Reamer/Irrigator/Aspirator autografting, recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7 and injectable hydroxyapatite cement. The fracture united fully at ten months following revision surgery, with no signs of femoral head avascular necrosis at 18-month follow-up. Conclusion The essential requirements for success when revising a nonunited fracture are to provide anatomical reduction, mechanical stability, bone defect augmentation and biological stimulation to achieve healing. Current advances in molecular biology, such as recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-7, and biotechnology such as the Reamer/Irrigator/Aspirator system and hydroxyapatite injectable cement can improve patient outcomes over the use of our traditional revision techniques.

  11. Can hydrate dissolution experiments predict the fate of a natural hydrate system?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hester, K.C.; Peltzer, E.T.; Dunk, R.M.; Walz, P.M.; Brewer, P.G. [Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Inst., Moss Landing, CA (United States); Dendy Sloan, E. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States). Center for Hydrate Research

    2008-07-01

    Gas hydrates are naturally occurring compounds found in permafrost regions and in oceans. In the natural environment, sufficient temperature and pressure conditions for hydrate formation exist over a significant portion of the ocean. However, in addition to pressure and temperature, the chemical potential of the gas in the hydrate must be equal to the surrounding waters. If the concentration of the gas in surrounding water is under-saturated with respect to the gas in the hydrate, the hydrate will dissolve to drive the system towards chemical equilibrium. This paper presented a dissolution study of exposed hydrate from outcrops at Barkley Canyon, located off Vancouver Island, British Columbia. A previous field experiment on synthetic methane hydrate samples had demonstrated that mass transfer controlled dissolution in under-saturated seawater. However, seafloor hydrate outcrops have been shown to have significant longevity compared to expected dissolution rates based upon convective boundary layer diffusion calculations. An in-situ dissolution experiment was performed on two distinct natural hydrate fabrics in order to help resolve this apparent disconnect between the dissolution rates of synthetic and natural hydrate. The paper presented a map of Barkley Canyon and discussed the field measurements and methods for the study. Exposed outcrops of gas hydrates were cored using a specially constructed stainless steel coring device and a hydraulic ram was located inside the corer. Hydrate samples were cored directly using the a manipulator arm and then injected into a sampling cell. The hydrate was then added to an open mesh exposure container, which allowed for exposure to ambient benthic currents with minimal disturbance. As well, in order to observe the slow dissolution of the hydrate in seawater at Barkley Canyon, time-lapse photography was employed. Last, the paper presented the results of the hydrate fabric porosities and hydrate dissolution rates. It was

  12. Occurrence of secondary fracture around intramedullary nails used for trochanteric hip fractures: a systematic review of 13,568 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Rory; Bhattacharjee, Dhritiman; Parker, Martyn J

    2012-06-01

    A sliding hip screw (SHS) is currently the treatment of choice for trochanteric hip fractures, largely due to the low incidence of complications. An alternative treatment is the use of intramedullary proximal femoral nails. Unfortunately these implants have been associated with a risk of later fracture around the implant. The aim of this study was to see if any improvements have been made to the current intramedullary nails, to reduce the incidence of secondary fracture around the distal tip of the nail. We analysed data related to 13,568 patients from 89 studies, focusing on the incidence of post operative secondary femoral shaft fracture following the use of intramedullary nails in the fixation of trochanteric hip fractures. The overall reported incidence of secondary fracture around the nail was 1.7%. The incidence of fracture has reduced in the 3rd generation Gamma nails when compared to the older Gamma nail (1.7% versus 2.6%, p value 0.03). However, the incidence of secondary fracture in the 3rd generation Gamma nails is still significantly higher than the other brands of short nail (1.7% versus 0.7%, p value 0.0005). Long nails had a slight tendency towards a lower risk of fracture although the difference was not statistically significant (1.1% versus 1.7%, p value 0.28). There was a significantly lower risk of fracture for those nails with a biaxial fixation as opposed to uniaxial fixation (0.6% versus 1.9%, p value fracture around a proximal femoral nail is one of the most significant of fracture healing complications, and this study suggests that continuing design changes to this method of fixation has reduced the risk of this complication occurring. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Attritional rupture of extensor pollicis longus: a rare complication following elastic stable intramedullary nailing of a paediatric radial fracture.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sproule, James A

    2011-01-01

    Elastic stable intramedullary nail fixation has become established as an acceptable method of treatment for diaphyseal fractures of both forearm bones in the paediatric population. It is considered safe, minimally invasive and does not compromise physeal growth. We report a case of delayed rupture of extensor pollicis longus due to attrition over the sharp edges of a protruding nail end after elastic stable intramedullary nailing of a paediatric radial diaphyseal fracture.

  14. Hydration Properties of Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag (GGBS Under Different Hydration Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua LIU

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The hydration properties of various cementitious materials containing Ground Granulated Blast-furnace Slag (GGBS, two alkali-activated slag cements (AAS-1 and AAS-2 in which sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide act as alkaline activators respectively, supersulfated cement (SSC and slag Portland cement(PSC, are compared with ordinary Portland cement (OPC to investigate the effect of activating environment on the hydration properties in this study by determining the compressive strength of the pastes, the hydration heat of binders within 96 hours, and the hydration products at age of 28 days. The results show that C-S-H gels are the main hydrated products for all cementitious systems containing GGBS. Ca(OH2 is the hydration products of OPC and PSC paste. However, ettringite and gypsum crystals instead of Ca(OH2 are detected in SSC paste. Additionally, tobermorite, a crystalline C-S-H, and calcite are hydrated products in AAS-1. Tobermorite, cowlesite and calcite are hydrated products of AAS-2 as well. Based on strength results, AAS-1 paste exhibits the highest compressive strength followed by POC, PSC, SSC in order at all testing ages and AAS-2 give the lowest compressive strength except for the early age at 3 days, which is higher than SSC but still lower than PSC. From hydration heat analysis, alkalinity in the reaction solution is a vital factor influencing the initial hydration rate and the initial hydration rate from higher to lower is AAS-2, AAS-1, OPC, PSC and SSC. Although AAS possesses a faster reaction rate in the initial hours, cumulative hydration heat of AAS is comparably lower than that of OPC, but higher than those of PSC and SSC in turn, which indicates that the hydration heat of clinkers is much higher than that of slag.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.14934

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  17. Calcium and magnesium silicate hydrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lothenbach, B.; L'Hopital, E.; Nied, D.; Achiedo, G.; Dauzeres, A.

    2015-01-01

    Deep geological disposals are planed to discard long-lived intermediate-level and high-level radioactive wastes. Clay-based geological barriers are expected to limit the ingress of groundwater and to reduce the mobility of radioelements. In the interaction zone between the cement and the clay based material alteration can occur. Magnesium silicate hydrates (M-S-H) have been observed due to the reaction of magnesium sulfate containing groundwater with cements or in the interaction zone between low-pH type cement and clays. M-S-H samples synthesized in the laboratory showed that M-S-H has a variable composition within 0.7 ≤ Mg/Si ≤ 1.5. TEM/EDS analyses show an homogeneous gel with no defined structure. IR and 29 Si NMR data reveal a higher polymerization degree of the silica network in M-S-H compared to calcium silicate hydrates (C-S-H). The presence of mainly Q 3 silicate tetrahedrons in M-S-H indicates a sheet like or a triple-chain silica structure while C-S-H is characterised by single chain-structure. The clear difference in the silica structure and the larger ionic radius of Ca 2+ (1.1 Angstrom) compared to Mg 2+ (0.8 Angstrom) make the formation of an extended solid solution between M-S-H and C-S-H gel improbable. In fact, the analyses of synthetic samples containing both magnesium and calcium in various ratios indicate the formation of separate M-S-H and C-S-H gels with no or very little uptake of magnesium in CS-H or calcium in M-S-H

  18. Detection and Production of Methane Hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Hirasaki; Walter Chapman; Gerald Dickens; Colin Zelt; Brandon Dugan; Kishore Mohanty; Priyank Jaiswal

    2011-12-31

    This project seeks to understand regional differences in gas hydrate systems from the perspective of as an energy resource, geohazard, and long-term climate influence. Specifically, the effort will: (1) collect data and conceptual models that targets causes of gas hydrate variance, (2) construct numerical models that explain and predict regional-scale gas hydrate differences in 2-dimensions with minimal 'free parameters', (3) simulate hydrocarbon production from various gas hydrate systems to establish promising resource characteristics, (4) perturb different gas hydrate systems to assess potential impacts of hot fluids on seafloor stability and well stability, and (5) develop geophysical approaches that enable remote quantification of gas hydrate heterogeneities so that they can be characterized with minimal costly drilling. Our integrated program takes advantage of the fact that we have a close working team comprised of experts in distinct disciplines. The expected outcomes of this project are improved exploration and production technology for production of natural gas from methane hydrates and improved safety through understanding of seafloor and well bore stability in the presence of hydrates. The scope of this project was to more fully characterize, understand, and appreciate fundamental differences in the amount and distribution of gas hydrate and how this would affect the production potential of a hydrate accumulation in the marine environment. The effort combines existing information from locations in the ocean that are dominated by low permeability sediments with small amounts of high permeability sediments, one permafrost location where extensive hydrates exist in reservoir quality rocks and other locations deemed by mutual agreement of DOE and Rice to be appropriate. The initial ocean locations were Blake Ridge, Hydrate Ridge, Peru Margin and GOM. The permafrost location was Mallik. Although the ultimate goal of the project was to understand

  19. Basics of development of gas hydrate deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makogon, Yuri F.; Holditch, Stephen A.; Makogon, Taras Y.

    2005-07-01

    Natural gas hydrate deposits could possibly be an important energy resource during this century. However, many problems associated with producing these deposits must first be solved. The industry must develop new technologies to produce the gas, to forecast possible tectonic cataclysms in regions of gas hydrate accumulations, and to prevent damage to the environment. These global issues must be addressed by every company or country who wants to produce gas hydrate deposits. Cooperative research between industry and universities can lead to technology breakthroughs in coming years. This paper reviews the Messoyakha field and the Blake Ridge and Nankai areas to explain a methodology for estimating how much gas might be producible from gas hydrate deposits (GHDs) under various conditions. The Messoyakha field is located on land, while the Blake Ridge and Nankai areas are offshore. Messoyakha is the first and the only GHD where gas production from hydrates has reached commercial flow rates. The Blake Ridge GHD has been studied for 20 years and 11 wells have been drilled to collect gas-hydrate samples. The potential resources of gas (gas in place) from Blake Ridge is estimated at 37.7Oe10{sup 12} m{sup 3} (1.330 Tcf) in hydrate form and 19.3Oe10{sup 12}m{sup 3} (681 Bcf) [5] in free gas. To estimate how much of the potential resource can be produced we need a thorough understanding of both the geologic and the thermodynamic characteristics of the formations. (Author)

  20. Gas hydrate exploration activities in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keun-Pil Park, K.P. [Korea Inst. of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Gas Hydrate R and D Organization, Ministry of Knowledge Economy, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-01

    Korea's first gas hydrate research project was launched in 1996 to study the gas hydrate potential in the Ulleung Basin of the East Sea. It involved a series of laboratory experiments followed by a preliminary offshore seismic survey and regional reconnaissance geophysical and marine geological surveys. The bottom simulating reflector (BSR) was interpreted to show wide area distribution in the southern part of the Ulleung Basin, and its average burial depth was 187 m below the sea floor in the East Sea. A three-phase 10-year National Gas Hydrate Development Program was launched in 2004 to estimate the potential reserves in the East Sea. It will involve drilling to identify natural gas hydrates and to determine the most optimized production methods. Drilling sites were proposed based on five indicators that imply gas hydrate occurrence, notably BSR, gas vent, enhanced seismic reflection, acoustic blanking and gas seeping structure. The UBGH-X-01 gas hydrate expedition in the East Sea Ulleung Basin involved 5 logging while drilling (LWD) surveys at three high priority sites. One wire line logging was implemented at the site of the UBGH09. A total 334 m of non-pressurized conventional cores and 16 pressure cores were obtained in late 2007. The UBGH-X-01 was successfully completed, recovering many natural samples of gas hydrate from 3 coring sites in the East Sea. 7 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Gas Hydrates Research Programs: An International Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge Gabitto; Maria Barrufet

    2009-12-09

    Gas hydrates sediments have the potential of providing a huge amount of natural gas for human use. Hydrate sediments have been found in many different regions where the required temperature and pressure conditions have been satisfied. Resource exploitation is related to the safe dissociation of the gas hydrate sediments. Basic depressurization techniques and thermal stimulation processes have been tried in pilot efforts to exploit the resource. There is a growing interest in gas hydrates all over the world due to the inevitable decline of oil and gas reserves. Many different countries are interested in this valuable resource. Unsurprisingly, developed countries with limited energy resources have taken the lead in worldwide gas hydrates research and exploration. The goal of this research project is to collect information in order to record and evaluate the relative strengths and goals of the different gas hydrates programs throughout the world. A thorough literature search about gas hydrates research activities has been conducted. The main participants in the research effort have been identified and summaries of their past and present activities reported. An evaluation section discussing present and future research activities has also been included.

  2. Supramolecular Organization of Nonstoichiometric Drug Hydrates: Dapsone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Doris E.; Griesser, Ulrich J.

    2018-01-01

    The observed moisture- and temperature dependent transformations of the dapsone (4,4′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone, DDS) 0. 33-hydrate were correlated to its structure and the number and strength of the water-DDS intermolecular interactions. A combination of characterization techniques was used, including thermal analysis (hot-stage microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis), gravimetric moisture sorption/desorption studies and variable humidity powder X-ray diffraction, along with computational modeling (crystal structure prediction and pair-wise intermolecular energy calculations). Depending on the relative humidity the hydrate contains between 0 and 0.33 molecules of water per molecule DDS. The crystal structure is retained upon dehydration indicating that DDS hydrate shows a non-stoichiometric (de)hydration behavior. Unexpectedly, the water molecules are not located in structural channels but at isolated-sites of the host framework, which is counterintuitively for a hydrate with non-stoichiometric behavior. The water-DDS interactions were estimated to be weaker than water-host interactions that are commonly observed in stoichiometric hydrates and the lattice energies of the isomorphic dehydration product (hydrate structure without water molecules) and (form III) differ only by ~1 kJ mol−1. The computational generation of hypothetical monohydrates confirms that the hydrate with the unusual DDS:water ratio of 3:1 is more stable than a feasible monohydrate structure. Overall, this study highlights that a deeper understanding of the formation of hydrates with non-stoichiometric behavior requires a multidisciplinary approach including suitable experimental and computational methods providing a firm basis for the development and manufacturing of high quality drug products. PMID:29520359

  3. Methane hydrate stability and anthropogenic climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Archer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Methane frozen into hydrate makes up a large reservoir of potentially volatile carbon below the sea floor and associated with permafrost soils. This reservoir intuitively seems precarious, because hydrate ice floats in water, and melts at Earth surface conditions. The hydrate reservoir is so large that if 10% of the methane were released to the atmosphere within a few years, it would have an impact on the Earth's radiation budget equivalent to a factor of 10 increase in atmospheric CO2.

    Hydrates are releasing methane to the atmosphere today in response to anthropogenic warming, for example along the Arctic coastline of Siberia. However most of the hydrates are located at depths in soils and ocean sediments where anthropogenic warming and any possible methane release will take place over time scales of millennia. Individual catastrophic releases like landslides and pockmark explosions are too small to reach a sizable fraction of the hydrates. The carbon isotopic excursion at the end of the Paleocene has been interpreted as the release of thousands of Gton C, possibly from hydrates, but the time scale of the release appears to have been thousands of years, chronic rather than catastrophic.

    The potential climate impact in the coming century from hydrate methane release is speculative but could be comparable to climate feedbacks from the terrestrial biosphere and from peat, significant but not catastrophic. On geologic timescales, it is conceivable that hydrates could release as much carbon to the atmosphere/ocean system as we do by fossil fuel combustion.

  4. Tapping methane hydrates for unconventional natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Methane hydrate is an icelike form of concentrated methane and water found in the sediments of permafrost regions and marine continental margins at depths far shallower than conventional oil and gas. Despite their relative accessibility and widespread occurrence, methane hydrates have never been tapped to meet increasing global energy demands. With rising natural gas prices, production from these unconventional gas deposits is becoming economically viable, particularly in permafrost areas already being exploited for conventional oil and gas. This article provides an overview of gas hydrate occurrence, resource assessment, exploration, production technologies, renewability, and future challenges.

  5. On the electrolytic generation of hydrated electron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh Mazumdar, A.S.; Guha, S.N.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations on the electrolytic generation of hydrated electron in oxygenated as well as oxygen-free solutions at different pH were undertaken. Since sup(-e)aq is known to react rapidly with O 2 yielding the transient O 2 - ion, the latter was looked for through its interaction with phosphite ions resulting in their oxidation near the cathode. It appears from the results that in electrolytic processes, the primary electron (esup(-)sub(cathode)) probably reacts directly with reactive solutes like oxygen, bypassing the hydration step. Data obtained in oxygen-free solutions, however, support the possible formation of hydrated electron at least in alkaline solutions. (author)

  6. Closed External Fixation for Failing or Failed Femoral Shaft Plating in a Developing Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbar, Adil; Witwit, Ibrahim; Al-Algawy, Alaa A Hussein

    2017-08-01

    Femoral shaft fractures are one of the common injuries that is treated by open reduction, with internal fixation by plate and screws or intramedullary nailing, which can achieve a high union rate. To evaluate the outcome of using closed external fixation to augment a failing plate; with signs of screw loosening and increasing bone/plate gap; a failed plate; broken plate; screws completely out of bone with redisplacement of fracture. A retrospective study on 18 patients, aged between 17-42 years, who presented between 6-18 weeks after initial surgical fixation, with pain, difficulty in limb function, deformity and abnormal movement at fracture site, was done. X-Rays showed plating failure with acceptable amount of callus, which unfortunately had refractured. Cases associated with infection and no radiological evidence of callus formation were excluded from this study. Closed reduction was done by manipulation, then fracture fixation by AO external fixator. The patients were encouraged for full weight bearing as early as possible with dynamization later on. Of the 18 patients who underwent external fixation after close reduction, 15 cases showed bone healing in a period between 11-18 weeks (mean of 14.27 weeks) with good alignment (Radiologically). Removal of external fixator was done followed by physical therapy thereafter. Closed external fixation for treatment of failing or failed femoral plating, achieves good success rate and has less complications, is a short time procedure, especially in a hospital with limited resources.

  7. Experimental Investigation of Effect on Hydrate Formation in Spray Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of reaction condition on hydrate formation were conducted in spray reactor. The temperature, pressure, and gas volume of reaction on hydrate formation were measured in pure water and SDS solutions at different temperature and pressure with a high-pressure experimental rig for hydrate formation. The experimental data and result reveal that additives could improve the hydrate formation rate and gas storage capacity. Temperature and pressure can restrict the hydrate formation. Lower temperature and higher pressure can promote hydrate formation, but they can increase production cost. So these factors should be considered synthetically. The investigation will promote the advance of gas storage technology in hydrates.

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  12. Gas hydrate concentration and characteristics within Hydrate Ridge inferred from multicomponent seismic reflection data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dhananjay; Sen, Mrinal K.; Bangs, Nathan L.

    2007-12-01

    A seismic experiment composed of streamer and ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) surveys was conducted in the summer of 2002 at southern Hydrate Ridge, offshore Oregon, to map the gas hydrate distribution within the hydrate stability zone. Gas hydrate concentrations within the reservoir can be estimated with P wave velocity (Vp); however, we can further constrain gas hydrate concentrations using S wave velocity (Vs), and use Vs through its relationship to Vp (Vp/Vs) to reveal additional details such as gas hydrate form within the matrix (i.e., hydrate cements the grains, becomes part of the matrix frame or floats in pore space). Both Vp and Vs can be derived simultaneously by inverting multicomponent seismic data. In this study, we use OBS data to estimate seismic velocities where both gas hydrate and free gas are present in the shallow sediments. Once Vp and Vs are estimated, they are simultaneously matched with modeled velocities to estimate the gas hydrate concentration. We model Vp using an equation based on a modification of Wood's equation that incorporates an appropriate rock physics model and Vs using an empirical relation. The gas hydrate concentration is estimated to be up to 7% of the rock volume, or 12% of the pore space. However, Vp and Vs do not always fit the model simultaneously. Vp can vary substantially more than Vs. Thus we conclude that a model, in which higher concentrations of hydrate do not affect shear stiffness, is more appropriate. Results suggest gas hydrates form within the pore space of the sediments and become part of the rock framework in our survey area.

  13. Determination of Screw and Nail Withdrawal Resistance of Some Important Wood Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Aytekin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, screw and nail withdrawal resistance of fir (Abies nordmanniana, oak (Quercus robur L. black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold and Stone pine (Pinus pinea L. wood were determined and compared. The data represent the testing of withdrawal resistance of three types of screws as smart, serrated and conventional and common nails. The specimens were prepared according to TS 6094 standards. The dimensions of the specimens were 5x5x15cm and for all of the directions. Moreover, the specimens were conditioned at ambient room temperature and 65±2% relative humidity. The screws and nails were installed according to ASTM-D 1761 standards. Nail dimensions were 2.5mm diameter and 50 mm length, conventional screws were 4x50mm, serrated screws were 4x45mm and smart screws were 4x50mm. Results show that the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value was found in Stone pine for the serrated screw. There were no significant differences between Stone pine and oak regarding screw withdrawal resistance values. Conventional screw yielded the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value in oak, followed by Stone pine, black pine and fir. Oak wood showed the maximum screw withdrawal resistance value for the smart screw, followed by Stone pine, black pine, and fir. Oak wood showed higher nail withdrawal resistances than softwood species. It was also determined that oak shows the maximum nail withdrawal resistance in all types. The nail withdrawal resistances at the longitudinal direction are lower with respect to radial and tangential directions.

  14. [Results of femoral lengthening over an intramedullary nail and external fixator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasiewicz, Barbara; Kacki, Wojciech; Tesiorowski, Maciej; Potaczek, Tomasz

    2008-01-01

    Current techniques of operative limb lengthening usually are based on distraction osteogenesis. One of the techniques is limb lengthening over an intramedullary nail. The goal of this study is to evaluate the results of femoral lengthening over an intramedullary nail. Between 1999 and 200619 femoral "over nail" lengthenings were performed. There were 7 males and 12 females. Mean patients' age at surgery was 15.8 years, and mean initial femoral shortening was 5.1 cm. Operative technique consisted of one-stage implantation of intramedullary nail and external fixator. Ilizarov apparatus was used in 9 patients, monolateral fixator in 10 cases--ORTHOFIX in 9 patients, Wagner fixator--in 1 patient. Intramedullary nail was locked proximally with screws or Schanz pins from external fixator. After distraction phase, external fixator was removed and distal locking screws were applied. Evaluation criteria: obtained lengthening, time of external fixator, treatment time, healing index, external fixation index, range of motion in hip and knee joints and complications according to Paley. The mean lengthening was 4.6 cm, and mean distraction time was 66.6 days. Mean time of external fixation was 115.5 days, and external fixation index was 26.2 days for centimeter. Healing index was 36.9 days for centimeter. In cases with monolateral fixator, healing index did not differ with the whole group. During treatment 18 complications occurred, for a rate of 0.9 complication per segment. Lengthening over an intramedullary nail reduces the time of external fixator. Over nail femoral lengthening can prevent axis deviation following regenerate bending. Complication rate is similar to lengthenings with the classic Ilizarov technique. There are no differences in the treatment time in relation to the type of external fixator.

  15. Use of Protective Gloves in Nail Salons in Manhattan, New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey Basch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Nail salon owners in New York City (NYC are required to provide their workers with gloves and it is their responsibility to maintain healthy, safe working spaces for their employees. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency with which nail salon workers wear protective gloves. Methods: A Freedom of Information Law request was submitted to New York Department of State’s Division of Licensing Services for a full list of nail salons in Manhattan, NYC. A sample population of 800 nail salons was identified and a simple random sample (without replacement of 30% (n=240 was selected using a random number generator. Researchers visited each nail salon from October to December of 2015, posing as a potential customer to determine if nail salon workers were wearing gloves. Results: Among the 169 salons in which one or more workers was observed providing services, a total of 562 workers were observed. For 149 salons, in which one or more worker was observed providing services, none of the workers were wearing gloves. In contrast, in six of the salons observed, in which one or more workers was providing services, all of the workers (1 in 2 sites, 2 in 1 site, 3 in 2 sites, and 4 in 1 site were wearing gloves. Almost three-quarters of the total number of workers observed (n=415, 73.8% were not wearing gloves. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that, despite recent media attention and legislation, the majority of nail salon workers we observed were not wearing protective gloves when providing services.

  16. Use of Protective Gloves in Nail Salons in Manhattan, New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey; Yarborough, Christina; Trusty, Stephanie; Basch, Charles

    2016-07-01

    Nail salon owners in New York City (NYC) are required to provide their workers with gloves and it is their responsibility to maintain healthy, safe working spaces for their employees. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency with which nail salon workers wear protective gloves. A Freedom of Information Law request was submitted to New York Department of State's Division of Licensing Services for a full list of nail salons in Manhattan, NYC. A sample population of 800 nail salons was identified and a simple random sample (without replacement) of 30% (n=240) was selected using a random number generator. Researchers visited each nail salon from October to December of 2015, posing as a potential customer to determine if nail salon workers were wearing gloves. Among the 169 salons in which one or more workers was observed providing services, a total of 562 workers were observed. For 149 salons, in which one or more worker was observed providing services, none of the workers were wearing gloves. In contrast, in six of the salons observed, in which one or more workers was providing services, all of the workers (1 in 2 sites, 2 in 1 site, 3 in 2 sites, and 4 in 1 site) were wearing gloves. Almost three-quarters of the total number of workers observed (n=415, 73.8%) were not wearing gloves. The findings of this study indicate that, despite recent media attention and legislation, the majority of nail salon workers we observed were not wearing protective gloves when providing services.

  17. Is intramedullary nailing applicable for distal tibial fractures with ankle joint extension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beytemür, Ozan; Albay, Cem; Adanır, Oktay; Yüksel, Serdar; Güleç, Mehmet Akif

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the functional and radiographic results and treatment complications of AO/OTA (Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Osteosynthesefragen/Orthopaedic Trauma Association) type 43C1 and C2 fractures treated with intramedullary nailing. We retrospectively evaluated 35 AO/OTA type 43C1 and C2 patients (26 males, 9 females; mean age 39.8±16.9 years; range 19 to 82 years) treated with intramedullary nailing. Two interfragmentary screws out of nail were applied in 10 patients (29%), while one interfragmentary screw out of nail was applied in 17 patients (49%). Intramedullary nailing was applied in eight patients (23%) without external screws. Fracture union, union time, alignment problems, and complications were evaluated. Clinical evaluation of patients was conducted using the Olerud and Molander score and by measuring the ankle joint range of motion. Union was achieved in all 35 patients. Mean union time was 16.5±2.8 weeks (range 12 to 24 weeks) and mean Olerud and Molander score was 88±8.24. Varus deformity was detected in one patient, valgus deformity was detected in two patients, and rotation deformity was detected in one patient. Superficial infection was detected in three patients (9%). Deep infection was not detected in any patient. Intramedullary nailing is not contraindicated for simple intra-articular distal tibial fractures. In these fractures, intramedullary nailing performed in accordance with its technique, with an additional percutaneous screw if necessary, is a successful treatment option with high fracture union rates, high functional results, and low complication rates.

  18. Training effect of using Touch Surgery for intramedullary femoral nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugand, Kapil; Mawkin, Mala; Gupte, Chinmay

    2016-02-01

    Simulation in orthopaedic training is becoming increasingly popular and has been widely used in formal curricula. However, these resources are expensive and not easily accessible to every trainee. Other means of disseminating surgical education through virtual reality (VR) multimedia can act as useful adjunct to traditional methods of teaching. One validated VR platform is Touch Surgery, a cognitive task simulation and rehearsal app. The primary objective of this study was to identify the training effect of Touch Surgery intramedullary femoral nailing (IFN) modules using objective performance metrics over six consecutive attempts. Secondary objectives consisted of validated multiple choice questions (MCQ) testing before the first (pre) and after the sixth (post) attempts. 27 medical undergraduates were recruited to complete the decision-making process six consecutive times for four modules on the procedural steps of IFN. The modules consisted of (i) preparing the patient and equipment, (ii) femoral canal preparation, (iii) nail insertion and proximal locking, and (iv) distal locking and closure. Real-time objective performance metrics were obtained, stored electronically and analysed using the median and Bonett-Price 95% confidence intervals from the participants' attempts to assess training effect. Significance was calculated using the Mann-Whitney U test for independent data whilst the Wilcoxon signed ranked test was used for paired data. Significance was set as 2-tailed p-value <0.05. Median performance scores per attempt for all four modules demonstrated a significant improvement ranging from 58 to 115%. Scoring variability and distribution was reduced and more predictable per attempt. Logarithmic learning curves elicited strong positive correlations between the number of attempts and scoring. Mean scores for pre and post-study MCQs tests significantly improved from 83 to 94% in all modules. IFN modules on Touch Surgery app demonstrated a significant training

  19. A Hydrate Database: Vital to the Technical Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Sloan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas hydrates may contain more energy than all the combined other fossil fuels, causing hydrates to be a potentially vital aspect of both energy and climate change. This article is an overview of the motivation, history, and future of hydrate data management using a CODATA vehicle to connect international hydrate databases. The basis is an introduction to the Gas Hydrate Markup Language (GHML to connect various hydrate databases. The accompanying four articles on laboratory hydrate data by Smith et al., on field hydrate data by L?wner et al., on hydrate modeling by Wang et al., and on construction of a Chinese gas hydrate system by Xiao et al. provide details of GHML in their respective areas.

  20. [Treatment of mallet finger with dorsal nail glued splint: retrospective analysis of 270 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facca, S; Nonnenmacher, J; Liverneaux, P

    2007-11-01

    Management of mallet finger is both difficult and controversial. Sequelae are not uncommon, particularly after surgical treatment. Many authors advocate orthopedic treatment which is less invasive but requires greater patient participation to implement. Despite the large number of orthopedic methods proposed, none has proven superiority. We report here our experience with a dorsal adhesive splint which preserves digital pulp function and improves observance. This retrospective analysis included 270 mallet fingers presenting 153 tendon injuries and 117 bony injuries in 265 patients aged 42 years on average and treated from 2003 to 2005. Most of the tendon injuries involved the medius (38.7%) and most of the bony injuries involved the ring finger (35.4%). A splint was fashioned for the two distal phalanges and glued to the nail plate filed for this purpose. The splint was fashioned out of an L-shaped plastic sheet of thermo-malleable plastic dipped in hot water (60 degrees C). The L was molded to the dorsal aspect of the phalanges and rolled like a ring around the second phalanx, then glued to the nail. The splint was worn for eight weeks by patients with a tendon injury and six weeks for those with a bony injury. The splint was then worn at night for two weeks. Three criteria were used to analyze outcome: residual extension deficit, joint involvement, complications. Mean follow-up was 18 months. Mean time from trauma to definitive installation of the splint was six days. The complication rate for this orthopedic method was 14.3%, complications being observed in 6% of patients. All complications were transient except for one case of swan neck deformity and one case of painful osteoarthritis. Thirty splints (11%) became unglued but were all reinstalled using the same protocol. Thirty fingers (14%) presented residual deficit of active extension measuring less than 20 degrees. The quality of the result depended on the type of injury: tendon injuries led to extension

  1. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  2. Exogenous origin of hydration on asteroid (16) Psyche: the role of hydrated asteroid families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdellidou, C.; Delbo', M.; Fienga, A.

    2018-04-01

    Asteroid (16) Psyche, which for a long time was the largest M-type with no detection of hydration features in its spectrum, was recently discovered to have a weak 3-μm band and thus it was eventually added to the group of hydrated asteroids. Its relatively high density, in combination with the high radar albedo, led researchers to classify the asteroid as a metallic object. It is believed that it is possibly a core of a differentiated body, a remnant of `hit-and-run' collisions. The detection of hydration is, in principle, inconsistent with a pure metallic origin for this body. Here, we consider the scenario in which the hydration on its surface is exogenous and was delivered by hydrated impactors. We show that impacting asteroids that belong to families whose members have the 3-μm band can deliver hydrated material to Psyche. We developed a collisional model with which we test all dark carbonaceous asteroid families, which contain hydrated members. We find that the major source of hydrated impactors is the family of Themis, with a total implanted mass on Psyche of the order of ˜1014 kg. However, the hydrated fraction could be only a few per cent of the implanted mass, as the water content in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, the best analogue for the Themis asteroid family, is typically a few per cent of their mass.

  3. Oceanic hydrates: more questions than answers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laherrere, Jean

    2000-01-01

    Methane hydrates create problems by blocking pipelines and casing; they are also accused of contributing to environmental problems (e.g. global warming). Methane hydrates are also found in permafrost areas and in oceanic sediments where the necessary temperature and pressure for stability occur. Claims for the widespread occurrence in thick oceanic deposits are unfounded: apparently indirect evidence from seismic reflectors, seismic hydrocarbon indicators, logs and free samples is unreliable. At one time, hydrate was seen as a static, biogenic, continuous, huge resource but that view is changing to one of a dynamic, overpressurised, discontinuous and unreliable resource. Only Japan and India are currently showing any serious interest in hydrates. Academic research has raised more questions than answers. It is suggested that more hard exploratory evidence rather than theoretical study is required

  4. Vibrational dynamics of hydration water in amylose

    CERN Document Server

    Cavatorta, F; Albanese, G; Angelini, N

    2002-01-01

    We present a study of the dynamical properties of hydration water associated with amylose helices, based on low-temperature vibrational spectra collected using the TOSCA inelastic spectrometer at ISIS. The structural constraints of the polysaccharidic chains favour the formation of a high-density structure for water, which has been suggested by Imberty and Perez on the basis of conformational analysis. According to this model, hydration water can only enter the pores formed by six adjacent helices and completely fills the pores at a hydration level of about 0.27-g water/g dry amylose. Our measurements show that the dynamical behaviour of hydration water is similar to that observed in high-density amorphous ice. (orig.)

  5. Separation of water through gas hydrate formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boch Andersen, Torben; Thomsen, Kaj

    2009-01-01

    Gas hydrate is normally recognized as a troublemaker in the oil and gas industry. However, gas hydrate has some interesting possibilities when used in connection with separation of water. Nordic Sugar has investigated the possibility of using gas hydrates for concentration of sugar juice. The goal...... of the project was to formulate an alternative separation concept, which can replace the traditional water evaporation process in the sugar production. Work with the separation concept showed that gas hydrates can be used for water separation. The process is not suitable for sugar production because of large...... volumes and the needs for high pressure. The process could be interesting for concentration of heat sensitive, high value products...

  6. Hydration states of AFm cement phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baquerizo, Luis G., E-mail: luis.baquerizoibarra@holcim.com [Innovation, Holcim Technology Ltd., CH-5113 Holderbank (Switzerland); Matschei, Thomas [Innovation, Holcim Technology Ltd., CH-5113 Holderbank (Switzerland); Scrivener, Karen L. [Laboratory of Construction Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Saeidpour, Mahsa; Wadsö, Lars [Building Materials, Lund University, Box 124, 221 000 Lund (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    The AFm phase, one of the main products formed during the hydration of Portland and calcium aluminate cement based systems, belongs to the layered double hydrate (LDH) family having positively charged layers and water plus charge-balancing anions in the interlayer. It is known that these phases present different hydration states (i.e. varying water content) depending on the relative humidity (RH), temperature and anion type, which might be linked to volume changes (swelling and shrinkage). Unfortunately the stability conditions of these phases are insufficiently reported. This paper presents novel experimental results on the different hydration states of the most important AFm phases: monocarboaluminate, hemicarboaluminate, strätlingite, hydroxy-AFm and monosulfoaluminate, and the thermodynamic properties associated with changes in their water content during absorption/desorption. This data opens the possibility to model the response of cementitious systems during drying and wetting and to engineer systems more resistant to harsh external conditions.

  7. ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrate Production Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoderbek, David [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Farrell, Helen [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Howard, James [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Raterman, Kevin [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Silpngarmlert, Suntichai [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Martin, Kenneth [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Smith, Bruce [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States); Klein, Perry [ConocoPhillips Co., Houston, TX (United States)

    2013-06-30

    Work began on the ConocoPhillips Gas Hydrates Production Test (DOE award number DE-NT0006553) on October 1, 2008. This final report summarizes the entire project from January 1, 2011 to June 30, 2013.

  8. Hydrate Control for Gas Storage Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Savidge

    2008-10-31

    The overall objective of this project was to identify low cost hydrate control options to help mitigate and solve hydrate problems that occur in moderate and high pressure natural gas storage field operations. The study includes data on a number of flow configurations, fluids and control options that are common in natural gas storage field flow lines. The final phase of this work brings together data and experience from the hydrate flow test facility and multiple field and operator sources. It includes a compilation of basic information on operating conditions as well as candidate field separation options. Lastly the work is integrated with the work with the initial work to provide a comprehensive view of gas storage field hydrate control for field operations and storage field personnel.

  9. A numerical investigation into the performance of the soil nail wall and pile foundation at the Swift Delta I-5 Interchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Finite Difference Methods (FDM) and Finite Element Methods (FEM) studies are reported studying the soil nail wall construction at the Swift Delta I-5 Interchange bridge reconstruction in North Portland, Oregon. Five layers of soil nails were installe...

  10. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali Kadaster; Bill Liddell; Tommy Thompson; Thomas Williams; Michael Niedermayr

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project was a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope included drilling and coring a well (Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. During the first drilling season, operations were conducted at the site between January 28, 2003 to April 30, 2003. The well was spudded and drilled to a depth of 1403 ft. Due to the onset of warmer weather, work was then suspended for the season. Operations at the site were continued after the tundra was re-opened the following season. Between January 12, 2004 and March 19, 2004, the well was drilled and cored to a final depth of 2300 ft. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and implemented for determining physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and

  11. Supramolecular Organization of Nonstoichiometric Drug Hydrates: Dapsone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris E. Braun

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The observed moisture- and temperature dependent transformations of the dapsone (4,4′-diaminodiphenyl sulfone, DDS 0. 33-hydrate were correlated to its structure and the number and strength of the water-DDS intermolecular interactions. A combination of characterization techniques was used, including thermal analysis (hot-stage microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, gravimetric moisture sorption/desorption studies and variable humidity powder X-ray diffraction, along with computational modeling (crystal structure prediction and pair-wise intermolecular energy calculations. Depending on the relative humidity the hydrate contains between 0 and 0.33 molecules of water per molecule DDS. The crystal structure is retained upon dehydration indicating that DDS hydrate shows a non-stoichiometric (dehydration behavior. Unexpectedly, the water molecules are not located in structural channels but at isolated-sites of the host framework, which is counterintuitively for a hydrate with non-stoichiometric behavior. The water-DDS interactions were estimated to be weaker than water-host interactions that are commonly observed in stoichiometric hydrates and the lattice energies of the isomorphic dehydration product (hydrate structure without water molecules and (form III differ only by ~1 kJ mol−1. The computational generation of hypothetical monohydrates confirms that the hydrate with the unusual DDS:water ratio of 3:1 is more stable than a feasible monohydrate structure. Overall, this study highlights that a deeper understanding of the formation of hydrates with non-stoichiometric behavior requires a multidisciplinary approach including suitable experimental and computational methods providing a firm basis for the development and manufacturing of high quality drug products.

  12. Preservation of methane hydrate at 1 atm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, L.A.; Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Durham, W.B.

    2001-01-01

    A "pressure-release" method that enables reproducible bulk preservation of pure, porous, methane hydrate at conditions 50 to 75 K above its equilibrium T (193 K) at 1 atm is refined. The amount of hydrate preserved by this method appears to be greatly in excess of that reported in the previous citations, and is likely the result of a mechanism different from ice shielding.

  13. An alternative soil nailing system for slope stabilization: Akarpiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Chun-Lan; Chan, Chee-Ming

    2017-11-01

    This research proposes an innovative solution for slope stabilization with less environmental footprint: AKARPILES. In Malaysia, landslide has become common civil and environmental problems that cause impacts to the economy, safety and environment. Therefore, effective slope stabilization method helps to improve the safety of public and protect the environment. This study focused on stabilizing surfacial slope failure. The idea of AKARPILES was generated from the tree roots system in slope stabilization. After the piles are installed in the slope and intercepting the slip plane, grout was pumped in and discharged through holes on the piles. The grout then filled the pores in the soil with random flow within the slip zone. SKW mixture was used to simulate the soil slope. There were two designs being proposed in this study and the prototypes were produced by a 3D printer. Trial mix of the grout was carried out to obtain the optimum mixing ratio of bentonite: cement: water. A series of tests were conducted on the single-pile-reinforced slope under vertical slope crest loading condition considering different slope gradients and nail designs. Parameters such as ultimate load, failure time and failure strain were recorded and compared. As comparison with the unreinforced slope, both designs of AKARPILES showed better but different performances in the model tests.

  14. Arthropathy and proteinuria: nail-patella syndrome revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albishri, Jamal

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Nail-patella syndrome (NPS is a pleiotropic autosomal-dominant disorder due to mutations in the gene LMX1B. It has traditionally been characterized by a tetrad of dermatologic and musculoskeletal abnormalities. However, one of the most serious manifestations of NPS is kidney disease, which may be present in up to 40% of affected individuals. Although diagnosis can be made at birth, it is often missed, presumably due to the rarity of the condition. A 35-year-old female presented to our clinic with history of small joint pain of 6 months duration. In addition she complained of pedal edema off and on for the last 12 years. Prior to her current presentation she had been managed by a local doctor symptomatically. On evaluation, a nephrotic syndrome was obvious, but no secondary cause could be found. However, her physical examination was characteristic of NPS and keeping in view the autosomal dominant nature of the disorder all her three siblings were screened who too showed classical features of NPS. This rare syndrome as a cause of nephrotic range proteinuria is discussed in this report. The report underlines the importance of a good physical examination in a given clinical setting.

  15. [Treatment of periprosthetic femoral fractures after total hip arthroplasty with specially constructed retrograde hollow nails].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, G; Meyer, C; Mika, J; Schnettler, R; Thormann, U

    2014-12-01

    Treatment of periprosthetic fractures by implantation of a specially constructed, retrograde hollow nail which fits over the tip of the prosthesis and becomes locked on it. Periprosthetic femoral fractures with firmly anchored prosthesis shaft after total hip arthroplasty of types B1 and C according to the Vancouver classification. Loosened prosthesis (type B2/B3) and trochanteric fractures (type A). Broken or damaged prosthesis, florid inflammation and soft tissue injuries in the operation field, contracted knee joint, advanced deformation in the knee joint and distal femur, enclosed prosthesis and general contraindications. In a supine position the periprosthetic fracture is exposed via a lateral access. For cemented prostheses the cement is removed around the tip of the prosthesis (at least 2-3 cm) and medullary cavity. Arthrotomy with flexion of the knee joint and marking of the nail entry point. Drill the medullary cavity, retrograde introduction of the nail, visually fit the nail over the tip of the prosthesis and lock the nail with the prosthesis. If necessary use additional spongiosaplasty or also placement of additional cerclages depending on fracture type and size of the defect zone. Lock the nail distally. Use intraoperative radiological imaging to control correct positioning and length of the nail. Close the wound layer by layer with placement of suction drainage devices and dressing. Partial loading for 6 weeks with a subsequent pain-adapted loading gradient until full loading is possible. If selective partial loading is not possible, a decision must be made in individual cases as to whether the intraoperative findings allow immediate full loading. From 2004 to 2011 a total of 25 periprosthetic femoral fractures in 25 patients were treated in 2 locations using specially constructed slotted hollow nails. Within the framework of a retrospective study 20 of these patients (16 female and 4 male; average age 77.2 [72-84] years) were clinically and

  16. Treatment of nail psoriasis with a modified regimen of steroid injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, K.; Azim, W.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a modified regimen of intralesional steroid injection therapy for the treatment of nail psoriasis and assess the side effects of this regimen. Patients having psoriatic nail dystrophy, reporting to the skin department of Military Hospital, Rawalpindi were registered. The features accounted for were pitting, onycholysis, subungual hyperkeratosis, ridging, thickening and color change. The affected digits were scored from 0 to 3 for the severity of each of these features. Similar number of control digits was also selected. Injection of triamcinolone acetonide (10 mg/ml) was given into the nail bed and matrix following ring block anesthesia. The features were re-scored after two months. A second injection was given after 02 months if warranted by poor response. The follow-up period ranged upto 06 months. A total of 100 nails were injected in 35 subjects. Pitting was the commonest presenting feature seen in 71 digits (71%) and improved in 41 digits (57.7%). Onycholysis was seen in 37 digits (37%) and improved in 15 digits (40.5%). Subungual hyperkeratosis was seen in 57 digits (57%) and improved in all the cases. Other features like longitudinal ridging, thickening and yellow oil drop-like discoloration showed marked improvement. The side effects of this regimen were minimal and included painless subungual hematoma. The modified regimen of steroid was found to be effective and safe for the treatment of psoriatic nail deformities in this series. (author)

  17. A Clinical Trial to Investigate the Effect of Cynatine HNS on Hair and Nail Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Beer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. A new, novel product, Cynatine HNS, was evaluated for its effects as a supplement for improving various aspects of hair and nails in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Methods. A total of 50 females were included and randomized into two groups. The active group (n=25 received 2 capsules containing Cynatine HNS, comprised of Cynatine brand keratin (500 mg plus vitamins and minerals, per day, and the placebo group (n=25 received 2 identical capsules of maltodextrin per day for 90 days. End points for hair loss, hair growth, hair strength, amino acid composition, and hair luster were measured. End points were also measured for nail strength and the appearance of nails. Results. The results show that subjects taking Cynatine HNS showed statistically significant improvements in their hair and nails when compared to placebo. Conclusion. Cynatine HNS is an effective supplement for improving hair and nails in 90 days or less. EudraCT number is 2014-002645-22.

  18. The study on length and diameter ratio of nail as preliminary design for slope stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Indra; Silmi Surjandari, Niken; Muslih Purwana, Yusep

    2017-11-01

    Soil nailing technology has been widely applied in practice for reinforced slope. The number of studies for the effective design of nail-reinforced slopes has also increased. However, most of the previous study was focused on a safety factor of the slope; the ratio of length and diameter itself has likely never been studied before. The aim of this study is to relate the length and diameter ratio of the nail with the safety factor of the 20 m height of sand slope in the various angle of friction and steepness of the slope. Simplified Bishop method was utilized to analyze the safety factor of the slope. This study is using data simulation to calculate the safety factor of the slope with soil nailing reinforcement. The results indicate that safety factor of slope stability increases with the increase of length and diameter ratio of the nail. At any angle of friction and steepness of the slope, certain effective length and diameter ratio was obtain. These results may be considered as a preliminary design for slope stabilization.

  19. Treatment of humeral shaft fractures using antegrade nailing: functional outcome in the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Juan Martin

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate shoulder outcomes and function after humeral shaft fractures treated with antegrade nailing. Thirty patients with acute humeral shaft fractures who underwent antegrade locked intramedullary nailing were retrospectively studied. Range of motion (ROM) of the affected shoulder was evaluated, comparing it with the nonaffected shoulder, radiologic position of the nails, complications, and need for a second surgery. The study enrolled 20 men and 10 women (average age, 41.9 years). The average follow-up was 35.8 months. The average shoulder elevation averaged 157°, internal rotation was variable (reaching the sacroiliac joint to T7), and external rotation averaged 75°. Elbow flexion-extension ROM averaged 133° (115°-145°). According to the Rodriguez-Merchan criteria, 12 patients achieved excellent results (40%), 7 good (20%), and 6 fair (23.3%); poor results were found in 5 cases (16.6%). Twelve patients achieved full mobility of the shoulder, whereas 18 had some loss of motion, with significant differences between the affected and nonaffected shoulders (P = .001). Decreased shoulder ROM is common after antegrade nailing of humeral shaft fractures. Avoidance of nail impingement can improve final outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. New Technique for Tibiotalar Arthrodesis Using a New Intramedullary Nail Device: A Cadaveric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel D. Eisenstein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ankle arthrodesis is performed in a variety of methods. We propose a new technique for tibiotalar arthrodesis using a newly designed intramedullary nail. Methods. We proposed development of an intramedullary device for ankle arthrodesis which spared the subtalar joint using a sinus tarsi approach. Standard saw bones models and computer assisted modeling and stress analysis were used to develop different nail design geometries and determine the feasibility of insertion. After the final design was constructed, the device was tested on three cadaveric specimens. Results. Four basic nail geometries were developed. The optimal design was composed of two relatively straight segments, each with a different radius of curvature for their respective tibial and talar component. We successfully implemented this design into three cadaveric specimens. Conclusion. Our newly designed tibiotalar nail provides a new technique for isolated tibiotalar fusion. It utilizes the advantages of a tibiotalar calcaneal nail and spares the subtalar joint. This design serves as the foundation for future research to include compression options across the tibiotalar joint and eventual transition to clinical practice.