WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrated fluid phase

  1. Fluid balance and hydration assessment during the weight-stable preparation phase in elite youth boxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubac, Damir; Antelj, Tomislav; Olujic, Dragana; Ivancev, Vladimir; Morrison, Shawnda A

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated (i) the prevalence of hypohydration and (ii) association between urinary indices of hydration status and confounding factors (e.g., urine protein content, water intake) in elite youth boxers during their weight-stable phase before competition. Sixteen national champion boxers (all male, 17 ± 1 y) were measured on 3 occasions (baseline, day 3, day 10), 30-day prior to competition. Body mass, total body water, urine specific gravity (USG), osmolality (UOSM) and total protein content (TPC) were evaluated to determine hydration status and fluid balance. Overall macronutrient and water intake were assessed using dietary records. Both UOSM and USG increased from day 3 to day 10 by 16% and 0.4% (P hydration status in competition exhibit large variability, even during weight-stable periods.

  2. Gas hydrate inhibition of drilling fluid additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaolan, L.; Baojiang, S.; Shaoran, R. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Dongying (China). Inst. of Petroleum Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Gas hydrates that form during offshore well drilling can have adverse impacts on well operational safety. The hydrates typically form in the risers and the annulus between the casing and the drillstring, and can stop the circulation of drilling fluids. In this study, experiments were conducted to measure the effect of drilling fluid additives on hydrate inhibition. Polyalcohols, well-stability control agents, lubricating agents, and polymeric materials were investigated in a stirred tank reactor at temperatures ranging from -10 degree C to 60 degrees C. Pressure, temperature, and torque were used to detect onset points of hydrate formation and dissociation. The inhibitive effect of the additives on hydrate formation was quantified. Phase boundary shifts were measured in terms of temperature difference or sub-cooling gained when chemicals were added to pure water. Results showed that the multiple hydroxyl groups in polyalcohol chemicals significantly inhibited hydrate formation. Polymeric and polyacrylamide materials had only a small impact on hydrate formation, while sulfonated methyl tannins were found to increase hydrate formation. 6 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  3. Rheological study of an hydrate slurry as secondary two-phase refrigerant. Experimental results and modelling; Etude rheologique d'une suspension d'hydrates en tant que fluide frigoporteur diphasique: resultats experimentaux et modelisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darbouret, M.

    2005-12-15

    Secondary two-phase fluids are suspensions of solid crystals. Thanks to the melting latent heat, they present a great interest for cold transportation. Moreover, they are a mean of reducing the amount of classical refrigerant. In the refrigeration field, ice slurries are already used. The goal is now to extend this technology to other temperature ranges suitable for other applications like freezing or air-conditioning. For an air-conditioning application, a TBAB (Tetra-Butyl-Ammonium Bromide) aqueous solution is studied. Under atmospheric pressure and for positive temperatures, this solution crystallizes into ice-like compounds named 'hydrates'. First, the physical properties of the aqueous solution and its crystallisation conditions were studied. Two different types of hydrates can appear. The goal of the experimental set-up is to study the rheological behaviour of two-phase fluids. Slurries are made in brushed-surface heat exchanger and pumped into pipes where flow rates and pressure drops are measured. The rheological behaviour of TBAB hydrates slurries can be described using a Bingham fluid model. We highlight that the two rheological parameters, which are the apparent viscosity and the yield shear stress, depend on the volume fraction of crystal of course, but also on the hydrate type, and on the initial concentration of the solution. The yield shear stress is interpreted as the consequence of the Van der Waals inter-particle interaction forces. Finally, possible stratification effects are modelled with a finite difference method. The principle is to calculate particle concentration and velocity profiles following the flow of the slurry. Calculations are validated with experimental velocity profiles published by P. Reghem (2002). This model underlines the influence of the particle distribution in the pipe on pressure drops. (author)

  4. New insight into probe-location dependent polarity and hydration at lipid/water interfaces: comparison between gel- and fluid-phases of lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Moirangthem Kiran; Shweta, Him; Khan, Mohammad Firoz; Sen, Sobhan

    2016-09-21

    Environment polarity and hydration at lipid/water interfaces play important roles in membrane biology, which are investigated here using a new homologous series of 4-aminophthalimide-based fluorescent molecules (4AP-Cn; n = 2-10, 12) having different lipophilicities (octanol/water partition coefficient - log P). We show that 4AP-Cn molecules probe a peculiar stepwise polarity (E) profile at the lipid/water interface of the gel-phase (Lβ') DPPC (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) bilayer at room temperature, which was not anticipated in earlier studies. However, the same molecules probe only a subtle but continuous polarity change at the interface of water and the fluid-phase (Lα) DOPC (1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) bilayer at room temperature. Fluorescence quenching experiments indicate that solutes with different log P values adsorb at different depths across DPPC/water and DOPC/water interfaces, which correlate with the polarity profiles observed at the interfaces. Molecular dynamics simulations performed on eight probe-lipid systems (four in each of the DPPC and DOPC bilayers - a total run of 2.6 μs) support experimental results, providing further information on the relative position and angle distributions as well as hydration of probes at the interfaces. Simulation results indicate that besides positions, probe orientations also play an important role in defining the local dielectric environment by controlling the probes' exposure to water at the interfaces especially of the gel-phase DPPC bilayer. The results suggest that 4AP-Cn probes are well suited for studying solvation properties at lipid/water interfaces of gel- and fluid-phases simultaneously.

  5. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    1999-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  6. Hydration states of AFm cement phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baquerizo, Luis G., E-mail: luis.baquerizoibarra@holcim.com [Innovation, Holcim Technology Ltd., CH-5113 Holderbank (Switzerland); Matschei, Thomas [Innovation, Holcim Technology Ltd., CH-5113 Holderbank (Switzerland); Scrivener, Karen L. [Laboratory of Construction Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Saeidpour, Mahsa; Wadsö, Lars [Building Materials, Lund University, Box 124, 221 000 Lund (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    The AFm phase, one of the main products formed during the hydration of Portland and calcium aluminate cement based systems, belongs to the layered double hydrate (LDH) family having positively charged layers and water plus charge-balancing anions in the interlayer. It is known that these phases present different hydration states (i.e. varying water content) depending on the relative humidity (RH), temperature and anion type, which might be linked to volume changes (swelling and shrinkage). Unfortunately the stability conditions of these phases are insufficiently reported. This paper presents novel experimental results on the different hydration states of the most important AFm phases: monocarboaluminate, hemicarboaluminate, strätlingite, hydroxy-AFm and monosulfoaluminate, and the thermodynamic properties associated with changes in their water content during absorption/desorption. This data opens the possibility to model the response of cementitious systems during drying and wetting and to engineer systems more resistant to harsh external conditions.

  7. [Terminal phase hydration, pain and delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heick, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hydration of the terminal patient may relieve confusion and complaints of "dry mouth". But it may worsen oedema of the brain, lungs, and extremities, worsen terminal rattling and cause a need for frequent changing of diapers. The decision of whether and how to treat a dying patient with fluids sh...

  8. Gas hydrate phase equilibria measurement techniques and phase rule considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, Juan G. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada); Bruusgaard, Hallvard [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada); Servio, Phillip, E-mail: phillip.servio@mcgill.ca [Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: > Inconsistencies found in hydrate literature. > Clarification to the number of variables needed to satisfy and justify equilibrium data. > Application of phase rule to mixed hydrate systems. > Thermodynamically consistent format to present data. - Abstract: A brief review of the Gibbs phase rule for non-reacting systems and its correct application to clathrate hydrates is presented. Clarification is provided for a common mistake found in hydrate phase-equilibria literature, whereby initial compositions are used as intensive variables to satisfy the Gibbs phase rule instead of the equilibrium values. The system of (methane + carbon dioxide + water) under (hydrate + liquid + vapor) equilibrium is used as a case study to illustrate key points and suggestions to improve experimental techniques are proposed.

  9. Calculation of Liquid Water-Hydrate-Methane Vapor Phase Equilibria from Molecular Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars; Thomsen, Kaj; von Solms, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation methods for determining fluid- and crystal-phase chemical potentials are used for the first time to calculate liquid water-methane hydrate-methane vapor phase equilibria from knowledge of atomistic interaction potentials alone. The water and methane molecules are modeled...... potential of the zero-occupancy hydrate system using thermodynamic integration from an Einstein crystal reference state, and (iii) thermodynamic integration to obtain the water and guest molecules' chemical potentials as a function of the hydrate occupancy. The three-phase equilibrium curve is calculated...... value at corresponding conditions. While computationally intensive, simulations such as these are essential to map the thermodynamically stable conditions for hydrate systems....

  10. THE EFFECT OF GAS HYDRATES DISSOCIATION AND DRILLING FLUIDS INVASION UPON BOREHOLE STABILITY IN OCEANIC GAS HYDRATES-BEARING SEDIMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, F.; Wu, N.; Jiang, G.; Zhang, L.

    2009-12-01

    Under the condition of over-pressure drilling, the solid-phase and liquid-phase in drilling fluids immediately penetrate into the oceanic gas hydrates-bearing sediment, which causes the water content surrounding the borehole to increase largely. At the same time, the hydrates surrounding borehole maybe quickly decompose into water and gas because of the rapid change of temperature and pressure. The drilling practices prove that this two factors may change the rock characteristics of wellbore, such as rock strength, pore pressure, resistivity, etc., and then affect the logging response and evaluation, wellbore stability and well safty. The invasion of filtrate can lower the angle of friction and weaken the cohesion of hydrates-bearing sediment,which is same to the effect of invading into conventional oil and gas formation on borehole mechnical properties. The difference is that temperature isn’t considered in the invasion process of conventional formations while in hydrates-bearing sediments, it is a factor that can not be ignored. Temperature changes can result in hydrates dissociating, which has a great effect on mechanical properties of borehole. With the application of numerical simulation method, we studied the changes of pore pressure and variation of water content in the gas hydrates-bearing sediment caused by drilling fluid invasion under pressure differential and gas hydrate dissociation under temperature differential and analyzed their influence on borehole stability.The result of simulation indicated that the temperature near borehole increased quickly and changed hardly any after 6 min later. About 1m away from the borehole, the temperature of formation wasn’t affected by the temperature change of borehole. At the place near borehole, as gas hydrate dissociated dramatically and drilling fluid invaded quickly, the pore pressure increased promptly. The degree of increase depends on the permeability and speed of temperature rise of formation around

  11. Crystallization Experiments in the MgO-CO2-H2O system: Role of Amorphous Magnesium Carbonate Precursors in Magnesium Carbonate Hydrated Phases and Morphologies in Low Temperature Hydrothermal Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampouras, Manolis; Garcia-Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Garrido, Carlos J.

    2017-04-01

    Numerous forms of hydrated or basic magnesium carbonates occur in the complex MgO-CO2-H2O system. Mineral saturation states from low temperature hydrothermal fluids in Semail Ophiolite (Oman), Prony Bay (New Caledonia) and Lost City hydrothermal field (mid-Atlantic ridge) strongly indicate the presence of magnesium hydroxy-carbonate hydrates (e.g. hydromagnesite) and magnesium hydroxides (brucite). Study of formation mechanisms and morphological features of minerals forming in the MgO-CO2-H2O system could give insights into serpentinization-driven, hydrothermal, alkaline environments, which are related to early Earth conditions. Temperature, hydration degree, pH and fluid composition are crucial factors regarding the formation, coexistence and transformation of such mineral phases. The rate of supersaturation, on the other hand, is a fundamental parameter to understand nucleation and crystal growth processes. All these parameters can be examined in a solution using different crystallization techniques. In the present study, we applied different crystallization techniques to synthesize and monitor the crystallization of Mg-bearing carbonates and hydroxides under abiotic conditions. Various crystallization techniques (counter-diffusion, vapor diffusion and unseeded solution mixing) were used to screen the formation conditions of each phase, transformation processes and structural development. Mineral and textural characterization of the different synthesized phases were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy coupled to dispersive energy spectroscopy (FE-SEM-EDS). Experimental investigation of the effect of pH level and silica content under variable reactant concentrations revealed the importance of Amorphous Magnesium Carbonate (AMC) in the formation of hydroxy-carbonate phases (hydromagnesite and dypingite). Micro-structural resemblance between AMC precursors and later stage crystalline phases highlights the

  12. Drilling fluid additive and method for inhibiting hydration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paatel, A.D.; McLaurine, H.C.

    1992-09-22

    This patent describes a method for controlling hydration in the drilling of subterranean wells comprising adding a functionally effective amount of a polyamide to a drilling fluid, it comprises: the reaction product of diethylenetriamine and hydroxyacetic acid, and injecting the drilling fluid into a subterranean well.

  13. Gas hydrate, fluid flow and free gas: Formation of the bottom-simulating reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacke, R. Ross; Westbrook, Graham K.; Hyndman, Roy D.

    2007-09-01

    Gas hydrate in continental margins is commonly indicated by a prominent bottom-simulating seismic reflector (BSR) that occurs a few hundred metres below the seabed. The BSR marks the boundary between sediments containing gas hydrate above and free gas below. Most of the reflection amplitude is caused by the underlying free gas. Gas hydrate can occur without a BSR, however, and the controls on its formation are not well understood. Here we describe two complementary mechanisms for free gas accumulation beneath the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ). The first is the well-recognised hydrate recycling mechanism that generates gas from dissociating hydrate when the base of the GHSZ moves upward relative to hydrate-bearing sediment. The second is a recently identified mechanism in which the relationship between the advection and diffusion of dissolved gas with the local solubility curve allows the liquid phase to become saturated in a thick layer beneath the GHSZ when hydrate is present near its base. This mechanism for gas production (called the solubility-curvature mechanism) is possible in systems where the influence of diffusion becomes important relative to the influence of advection and where the gas-water solubility decreases to a minimum several hundred metres below the GHSZ. We investigate a number of areas in which gas hydrate occurs to determine where gas formation is dominated by the solubility-curvature mechanism and where it is dominated by hydrate recycling. We show that the former is dominant in areas with low rates of upward fluid flow (such as old, rifted continental margins), low rates of seafloor uplift, and high geothermal gradient and/or pressure. Conversely, free-gas formation is dominated by hydrate recycling where there are rapid rates of upward fluid flow and seabed uplift (such as in subduction zone accretionary wedges). Using these two mechanisms to investigate the formation of free gas beneath gas hydrate in continental margins, we are able

  14. Hydration and endocrine responses to intravenous fluid and oral glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rosendal, S P; Strobel, N A; Osborne, M A; Fassett, R G; Coombes, J S

    2015-06-01

    Athletes use intravenous (IV) saline in an attempt to maximize rehydration. The diuresis from IV rehydration may be circumvented through the concomitant use of oral glycerol. We examined the effects of rehydrating with differing regimes of oral and IV fluid, with or without oral glycerol, on hydration, urine, and endocrine indices. Nine endurance-trained men were dehydrated by 4% bodyweight, then rehydrated with 150% of the fluid lost via four protocols: (a) oral = oral fluid only; (b) oral glycerol = oral fluid with added glycerol (1.5 g/kg); (c) IV = 50% IV fluid, 50% oral fluid; and (d) IV with oral glycerol = 50% IV fluid, 50% oral fluid with added glycerol (1.5 g/kg), using a randomized, crossover design. They then completed a cycling performance test. Plasma volume restoration was highest in IV with oral glycerol > IV > oral glycerol  > oral. Urine volume was reduced in both IV trials compared with oral. IV and IV with oral glycerol resulted in lower aldosterone levels during rehydration and performance, and lower cortisol levels during rehydration. IV with oral glycerol resulted in the greatest fluid retention. In summary, the IV conditions resulted in greater fluid retention compared with oral and lower levels of fluid regulatory and stress hormones compared with both oral conditions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Study of formation and stability conditions of gas hydrates in drilling fluids; Etude des conditions de formation et de stabilite des hydrates de gaz dans les fluides de forage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kharrat, M.

    2004-10-15

    Drilling fluids are complex media, in which solid particles are in suspension in a water-in-oil emulsion. The formation of gas hydrates in these fluids during off shore drilling operations has been suspected to be the cause of serious accidents. The purpose of this thesis is the study of the formation conditions as well as the stability of gas hydrates in complex fluids containing water-in-oil emulsions. The technique of high-pressure differential scanning calorimetry was used to characterise the conditions of hydrates formation and dissociation. Special attention has first been given to the validation of thermodynamic measurements in homogeneous solutions, in the pressure range 4 to 12 Mpa; the results were found to be in good agreement with literature data, as well as with modelling results. The method was then applied to water-in-oil emulsion, used as a model for real drilling fluids. It was proven that thermodynamics of hydrate stability are not significantly influenced by the state of dispersion of the water phase. On the other hand, the kinetics of formation and the amount of hydrates formed are highly increased by the dispersion. Applying the technique to real drilling fluids confirmed the results obtained in emulsions. Results interpretation allowed giving a representation of the process of hydrate formation in emulsion. Empirical modelling was developed to compute the stability limits of methane hydrate in the presence of various inhibitors, at pressures ranging from ambient to 70 MPa. Isobaric phase diagrams were constructed, that allow predicting the inhibiting efficiency of sodium chloride and calcium chloride at constant pressure, from 0,25 to 70 MPa. (author)

  16. Gas hydrate formation rates from dissolved-phase methane in porous laboratory specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, William F.; Spangenberg, E.K.

    2013-01-01

    Marine sands highly saturated with gas hydrates are potential energy resources, likely forming from methane dissolved in pore water. Laboratory fabrication of gas hydrate-bearing sands formed from dissolved-phase methane usually requires 1–2 months to attain the high hydrate saturations characteristic of naturally occurring energy resource targets. A series of gas hydrate formation tests, in which methane-supersaturated water circulates through 100, 240, and 200,000 cm3 vessels containing glass beads or unconsolidated sand, show that the rate-limiting step is dissolving gaseous-phase methane into the circulating water to form methane-supersaturated fluid. This implies that laboratory and natural hydrate formation rates are primarily limited by methane availability. Developing effective techniques for dissolving gaseous methane into water will increase formation rates above our observed (1 ± 0.5) × 10−7 mol of methane consumed for hydrate formation per minute per cubic centimeter of pore space, which corresponds to a hydrate saturation increase of 2 ± 1% per day, regardless of specimen size.

  17. Hydration status and fluid intake of urban, underprivileged South African male adolescent soccer players during training

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Reno Eron; Kassier, Susanna Maria; Biggs, Chara

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor hydration compromises performance and heightens the risk of heat stress which adolescents are particularly susceptible to as they produce comparatively larger amount of metabolic heat during exercise. This study determined the hydration status and fluid intake of socio-economically disadvantaged, male adolescent soccer players during training. Methods A pilot study was conducted among 79 soccer players (mean age 15.9???0.8?years; mean BMI 20.2???2.1?kg/m2). Hydration status wa...

  18. Hydration and Fluid Replacement Knowledge, Attitudes, Barriers, and Behaviors of NCAA Division 1 American Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Lawrence W; Kumley, Roberta F; Bellar, David M; Pike, Kim L; Pierson, Eric E; Weidner, Thomas; Pearson, David; Friesen, Carol A

    2016-11-01

    Judge, LW, Kumley, RF, Bellar, DM, Pike, KL, Pierson, EE, Weidner, T, Pearson, D, and Friesen, CA. Hydration and fluid replacement knowledge, attitudes, barriers, and behaviors of NCAA Division 1 American football players. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 2972-2978, 2016-Hydration is an important part of athletic performance, and understanding athletes' hydration knowledge, attitudes, barriers, and behaviors is critical for sport practitioners. The aim of this study was to assess National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division 1 (D1) American football players, with regard to hydration and fluid intake before, during, and after exercise, and to apply this assessment to their overall hydration practice. The sample consisted of 100 student-athletes from 2 different NCAA D1 universities, who participated in voluntary summer football conditioning. Participants completed a survey to identify the fluid and hydration knowledge, attitudes and behaviors, demographic data, primary football position, previous nutrition education, and barriers to adequate fluid consumption. The average Hydration Knowledge Score (HKS) for the participants in the present study was 11.8 ± 1.9 (69.4% correct), with scores ranging from 42 to 100% correct. Four key misunderstandings regarding hydration, specifically related to intervals of hydration habits among the study subjects, were revealed. Only 24% of the players reported drinking enough fluids before, during, immediately after, and 2 hours after practice. Generalized linear model analysis predicted the outcome variable HKS (χ = 28.001, p = 0.045), with nutrition education (Wald χ = 8.250, p = 0.041) and position on the football team (χ = 9.361, p = 0.025) being significant predictors. "Backs" (e.g., quarterbacks, running backs, and defensive backs) demonstrated significantly higher hydration knowledge than "Linemen" (p = 0.014). Findings indicated that if changes are not made to increase hydration awareness levels among football teams

  19. Hydrate Phase Assemblages in Calcium Sulfoaluminate - Metakaolin - Limestone Blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Thostrup; Lothenbach, Barbara; Winnefeld, Frank

    2017-01-01

    as 27Al and 29Si NMR and compared with predictions from thermodynamic modelling. The results show almost full degrees of reaction for ye’elimite in all blends and that the degrees of reaction for belite and MK have an important impact on the hydrate phases and their quantities formed in the ternary...... systems....

  20. Relation between urinary hydration biomarkers and total fluid intake in healthy adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, E; Rondeau, P; Poupin, M; Le Bellego, L; Armstrong, L E; Lang, F; Stookey, J; Tack, I; Vergne, S; Klein, A

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives: In sedentary adults, hydration is mostly influenced by total fluid intake and not by sweat losses; moreover, low daily fluid intake is associated with adverse health outcomes. This study aimed to model the relation between total fluid intake and urinary hydration biomarkers. Subjects/methods: During 4 consecutive weekdays, 82 adults (age, 31.6±4.3 years; body mass index, 23.2±2.7 kg/m2; 52% female) recorded food and fluid consumed, collected one first morning urine (FMU) void and three 24-h (24hU) samples. The strength of linear association between urinary hydration biomarkers and fluid intake volume was evaluated using simple linear regression and Pearson's correlation. Multivariate partial least squares (PLS) modeled the association between fluid intake and 24hU hydration biomarkers. Results: Strong associations (|r|⩾0.6; P50% of the variance in fluid intake volume (r2=0.59 and 0.52, respectively); however the error in both models was high and the limits of agreement very large. Conclusions: Hydration biomarkers in 24hU are strongly correlated with daily total fluid intake volume in sedentary adults in free-living conditions; however, the margin of error in the present models limits the applicability of estimating fluid intake from urinary biomarkers. PMID:23695204

  1. Artificial Nutrition (Food) and Hydration (Fluids) at the End of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artificial Nutrition (Food) and Hydration (Fluids) at the End of Life It is very common for doctors to provide ... or recovering from surgery. This is called “artificial nutrition and hydration” and like all medical treatments, it ...

  2. Two-phase cooling fluids; Les fluides frigoporteurs diphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lallemand, A. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    In the framework of the diminution of heat transfer fluid consumption, the concept of indirect refrigerating circuits, using cooling intermediate fluids, is reviewed and the fluids that are currently used in these systems are described. Two-phase cooling fluids advantages over single-phase fluids are presented with their thermophysical characteristics: solid fraction, two-phase mixture enthalpy, thermal and rheological properties, determination of heat and mass transfer characteristics, and cold storage through ice slurry

  3. Polyethylene Glycol Drilling Fluid for Drilling in Marine Gas Hydrates-Bearing Sediments: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Kuang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shale inhibition, low-temperature performance, the ability to prevent calcium and magnesium-ion pollution, and hydrate inhibition of polyethylene glycol drilling fluid were each tested with conventional drilling-fluid test equipment and an experimental gas-hydrate integrated simulation system developed by our laboratory. The results of these tests show that drilling fluid with a formulation of artificial seawater, 3% bentonite, 0.3% Na2CO3, 10% polyethylene glycol, 20% NaCl, 4% SMP-2, 1% LV-PAC, 0.5% NaOH and 1% PVP K-90 performs well in shale swelling and gas hydrate inhibition. It also shows satisfactory rheological properties and lubrication at temperature ranges from −8 °C to 15 °C. The PVP K-90, a kinetic hydrate inhibitor, can effectively inhibit gas hydrate aggregations at a dose of 1 wt%. This finding demonstrates that a drilling fluid with a high addition of NaCl and a low addition of PVP K-90 is suitable for drilling in natural marine gas-hydrate-bearing sediments.

  4. Effects of Fluid Saturation on Gas Recovery from Class-3 Hydrate Accumulations Using Depressurization: Case Study of Yuan-An Ridge Site in Southwestern Offshore Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Jyun; Wu, Cheng-Yueh; Hsieh, Bieng-Zih

    2016-04-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline compounds in which guest gas molecules are trapped in host lattices of ice crystals. In Taiwan, the significant efforts have recently begun to evaluate the reserves of hydrate because the vast accumulations of gas hydrates had been recognized in southwestern offshore Taiwan. Class-3 type hydrate accumulations are referred to an isolated hydrate layer without an underlying zone of mobile fluids, and the entire hydrate layer may be well within the hydrate stability zone. The depressurization method is a useful dissociation method for gas production from Class-3 hydrate accumulations. The dissociation efficiency is controlled by the responses of hydrate to the propagating pressure disturbance, and the pressure propagation is relating to the amount (or saturation) of the mobile fluid in pore space of the hydrate layer. The purpose of this study is to study the effects of fluid saturation on the gas recovery from a class-3 hydrate accumulation using depressurization method. The case of a class-3 hydrate deposit of Yuan-An Ridge in southwestern offshore Taiwan is studied. The numerical method was used in this study. The reservoir simulator we used to study the dissociation of hydrate and the production of gas was the STARS simulator developed by CMG, which coupled heat transfer, geo-chemical, geo-mechanical, and multiphase fluid flow mechanisms. The study case of Yuan-An Ridge is located in southwestern offshore Taiwan. The hydrate deposit was found by the bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs). The geological structure of the studied hydrate deposit was digitized to build the geological model (grids) of the case. The formation parameters, phase behavior data, rock and fluid properties, and formation's initial conditions were assigned sequentially to grid blocks, and the completion and operation conditions were designed to wellbore blocks to finish the numerical model. The changes of reservoir pressure, temperature, saturation due to the hydrate

  5. The Characteristics of Fluid Potential in Mud Diapirs Associated with Gas Hydrates in the Okinawa Trough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Xu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many mud diapirs have been identified in the southern Okinawa Trough from a seismic survey using R/V KEXUE I in 2001. The movement and accumulation of free gas related to mud diapirs are discussed in detail by an analysis of fluid potential which is based upon velocity data. It can be found that free gas moves from the higher fluid potential strata to the lower ones and the gas hydrate comes into being during free gas movement meeting the proper criteria of temperature and pressure. In fact, gas hydrates have been found in the upper layers above the mud diapirs and in host rocks exhibiting other geophysical characteristics. As the result of the formation of the gas hydrate, the free gas bearing strata are enclosed by the gas hydrate bearing strata. Due to the high pressure anomalies of the free gas bearing strata the fluid potential increases noticeably. It can then be concluded that the high fluid potential anomaly on the low fluid potential background may be caused by the presence of the free gas below the gas hydrate bearing strata.

  6. Dynamics of fault-fluid-hydrate system around a shale-cored anticline in deepwater Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, N.; Riboulot, V.; Ker, S.; Marsset, B.; GéLi, L.; Tary, J. B.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Voisset, M.; Lanfumey, V.; Colliat, J. L.; Adamy, J.; Grimaud, S.

    2011-12-01

    Gas hydrates were recovered by coring at the eastern border of a shale-cored anticline in the eastern Niger Delta. To characterize the link between faults and fluid release and to identify the role of fluid flow in the gas hydrate dynamics, three piezometers were deployed for periods ranging from 387 to 435 days. Two of them were deployed along a major fault linked to a shallow hydrocarbon reservoir while the third monitored the fluid pressure in a pockmark aligned above the same major fault. In addition, 10 ocean-bottom seismometers (OBS) were deployed for around 60 days. The piezometers simultaneously registered a prolonged fluid flow event lasting 90 days. During this time, OBS measurements record several episodic fluid release events. By combining and analyzing existing and newly acquired data, we show that the fluid-fault system operates according to the following three stages: (1) upward pore fluid migration through existing conduits and free gas circulation within several shallow sandy layers intersecting the major fault, (2) gas accumulation and pore pressure increases within sandy-silty layers, and (3) hydrofracturing and fluid pressure dissipation through sporadic degassing events, causing pore fluid circulation through shallow sandy layers and drawing overlying seawater into the sediment. This paper clearly demonstrates how an integrated approach based on seafloor observations, in situ measurements, and monitoring is essential for understanding fault-fluid-hydrate systems.

  7. CO2-rich fluid inclusions in greenschists, migmatites, granulites, and hydrated granulites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, L. S.

    1988-01-01

    Data was discussed from several different terrains in which CO2-rich fluid inclusions occur despite parageneses that predict the presence of H2O-rich fluids. CO2-rich fluid inclusions, some having densities appropriate for peak-metamorphic conditions, were found in greenschists, amphibolites, migmatites, and hydrated granulites. The author suggested that there may be a common process that leads to CO2-rich secondary inclusions in metamorphic rocks.

  8. Hydration Status and Fluid Balance of Elite European Youth Soccer Players during Consecutive Training Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Saun M; Sykes, Dave; Gibson, Neil

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during three consecutive training sessions. Fourteen males (age 16.9 ± 0.8 years, height 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass (BM) 70.6 ± 5.0 kg) had their hydration status assessed from first morning urine samples (baseline) and pre- and post-training using urine specific gravity (USG) measures, and their fluid balance calculated from pre- to post-training BM change, corrected for fluid intake and urine output. Most participants were hypohydrated upon waking (USG >1.020; 77% on days 1 and 3, and 62% on day 2). There was no significant difference between first morning and pre-training USG (p = 0.11) and no influence of training session (p = 0.34) or time (pre- vs. post-training; p = 0.16) on USG. Significant BM loss occurred in sessions 1-3 (0.69 ± 0.22, 0.42 ± 0.25, and 0.38 ± 0.30 kg respectively, p fluid intake in sessions 1-3 was 425 ± 185, 355 ± 161, and 247 ± 157 ml, respectively (p fluid losses across the three sessions. Body mass loss, fluid intake, and USG measures showed large inter-individual variation. Elite young European soccer players likely wake and present for training hypohydrated, when a USG threshold of 1.020 is applied. When training in a cool environment with ad libitum access to fluid, replacing ~71% of sweat losses results in minimal hypohydration (fluid ad libitum throughout training appears to prevent excessive (≥2% BM) dehydration, as advised by current fluid intake guidelines. Current fluid intake guidelines appear applicable for elite European youth soccer players training in a cool environment. Key PointsThe paper demonstrates a notable inter-participant variation in first morning, pre- and post-training hydration status and fluid balance of elite young European soccer players.On average, elite young European soccer players are hypohydrated upon waking and remain hypohydrated before and after training.Elite young

  9. Measured and perceived indices of fluid balance in professional athletes. The use and impact of hydration assessment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, T D; Baker, D F; Healey, P; Black, K E

    2018-01-24

    To determine athletes perceived and measured indices of fluid balance during training and the influence of hydration strategy use on these parameters. Thirty-three professional rugby union players completed a 120 minute training session in hot conditions (35°C, 40% relative humidity). Pre-training hydration status, sweat loss, fluid intake and changes in body mass (BM) were obtained. The use of hydration assessment techniques and players perceptions of fluid intake and sweat loss were obtained via a questionnaire. The majority of players (78%) used urine colour to determine pre-training hydration status but the use of hydration assessment techniques did not influence pre-training hydration status (1.025 ± 0.005 vs. 1.023 ± 0.013 g.ml-1, P = .811). Players underestimated sweat loss (73 ± 17%) to a greater extent than fluid intake (37 ± 28%) which resulted in players perceiving they were in positive fluid balance (0.5 ± 0.8% BM) rather than the measured negative fluid balance (-1.0 ± 0.7% BM). Forty-eight percent of players used hydration monitoring strategies during exercise but no player used changes in BM to help guide fluid replacement. Players have difficulty perceiving fluid intake and sweat loss during training. However, the use of hydration monitoring techniques did not affect fluid balance before or during training.

  10. Phase equilibria of carbon dioxide and methane gas-hydrates predicted with the modified analytical S-L-V equation of state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Span Roland

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Gas-hydrates (clathrates are non-stoichiometric crystallized solutions of gas molecules in the metastable water lattice. Two or more components are associated without ordinary chemical union but through complete enclosure of gas molecules in a framework of water molecules linked together by hydrogen bonds. The clathrates are important in the following applications: the pipeline blockage in natural gas industry, potential energy source in the form of natural hydrates present in ocean bottom, and the CO2 separation and storage. In this study, we have modified an analytical solid-liquid-vapor equation of state (EoS [A. Yokozeki, Fluid Phase Equil. 222–223 (2004] to improve its ability for modeling the phase equilibria of clathrates. The EoS can predict the formation conditions for CO2- and CH4-hydrates. It will be used as an initial estimate for a more complicated hydrate model based on the fundamental EoSs for fluid phases.

  11. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding hydration and fluid replacement of collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Phillip E; Jonnalagadda, Satya S; Rosenbloom, Christine A; Trinkaus, Marvin

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine collegiate athletes' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors concerning hydration and fluid replacement. A survey containing questions pertaining to demographics and knowledge, attitude, and behavior on hydration and fluid replacement was distributed to the athletes during team meetings and practices. A total of 139 out of 171 (81.3%) athletes participated in the study. The mean age of the athletes was 19.8 y. The mean score for knowledge, attitude, and behavior was 13.9 +/-1.8, 9.8 +/- 2.2, and 12.4 +/- 2.5, respectively, with higher scores indicating positive hydration knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Significant positive correlation was observed between knowledge, attitude, and behavior scores (P hydration behaviors between skilled (11.79 +/- 2.08) and endurance (12.71 +/- 2.63) athletes. Most athletes correctly answered the general hydration questions on the survey, but the majority did not correctly answer statements in regards to National Athletic Trainers' Association (NATA) and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) position stands and lacked knowledge regarding appropriate use of sports drink. The results of this study identify specific areas of education for athletes with regards to hydration.

  12. Mapping the Fluid Pathways and Permeability Barriers of a Large Gas Hydrate Reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, A.; Zhang, Y. L.; Sun, L. F.; Saleh, R.; Pun, W.; Bellefleur, G.; Milkereit, B.

    2012-12-01

    An understanding of the relationship between the physical properties of gas hydrate saturated sedimentary basins aids in the detection, exploration and monitoring one of the world's upcoming energy resources. A large gas hydrate reservoir is located in the MacKenzie Delta of the Canadian Arctic and geophysical logs from the Mallik test site are available for the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) between depths of approximately 850 m to 1100 m. The geophysical data sets from two neighboring boreholes at the Mallik test site are analyzed. Commonly used porosity logs, as well as nuclear magnetic resonance, compressional and Stoneley wave velocity dispersion logs are used to map zones of elevated and severely reduced porosity and permeability respectively. The lateral continuity of horizontal permeability barriers can be further understood with the aid of surface seismic modeling studies. In this integrated study, the behavior of compressional and Stoneley wave velocity dispersion and surface seismic modeling studies are used to identify the fluid pathways and permeability barriers of the gas hydrate reservoir. The results are compared with known nuclear magnetic resonance-derived permeability values. The aim of investigating this heterogeneous medium is to map the fluid pathways and the associated permeability barriers throughout the gas hydrate stability zone. This provides a framework for an understanding of the long-term dissociation of gas hydrates along vertical and horizontal pathways, and will improve the knowledge pertaining to the production of such a promising energy source.

  13. Direct Visualization of the Hydration Layer on Alumina Nanoparticles with the Fluid Cell STEM in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firlar, Emre; Çınar, Simge; Kashyap, Sanjay; Akinc, Mufit; Prozorov, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    Rheological behavior of aqueous suspensions containing nanometer-sized powders is of relevance to many branches of industry. Unusually high viscosities observed for suspensions of nanoparticles compared to those of micron size powders cannot be explained by current viscosity models. Formation of so-called hydration layer on alumina nanoparticles in water was hypothesized, but never observed experimentally. We report here on the direct visualization of aqueous suspensions of alumina with the fluid cell in situ. We observe the hydration layer formed over the particle aggregates and show that such hydrated aggregates constitute new particle assemblies and affect the flow behavior of the suspensions. We discuss how these hydrated nanoclusters alter the effective solid content and the viscosity of nanostructured suspensions. Our findings elucidate the source of high viscosity observed for nanoparticle suspensions and are of direct relevance to many industrial sectors including materials, food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical among others employing colloidal slurries with nanometer-scale particles. PMID:25996055

  14. The effect of hydration stress solutes on the phase behavior of hydrated dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, A S; Goins, B

    1991-07-01

    We have investigated the interaction of solutes found to accumulate in biological systems during chilling, dehydration, and salt stress with fully hydrated multilamellar and unilamellar vesicles of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). We have focused on a series of mono-, di-, and tri-substituted amines (glycine, 4-hydroxyproline, proline, and betaine) and contrasted the action of these solutes to trehalose, a protective disaccharide. Differential scanning calorimetry studies show that when DPPC is scanned in the presence of increasing concentrations of these solutes (up to 3 M), there is a moderate increase in the pre-transition temperature (1-6 degrees C) with a smaller increase (1-2 degrees C) in the main transition temperature of hydrated multilamellar vesicles of DPPC. Other calorimetric parameters (delta H, delta T1/2, Cpmax) determined for the pre-transition and main transition were similar independent of the solute. In each case, the main phase transition was broadened with increasing solute while the transition enthalpy was not significantly affected.

  15. Gas Hydrate Stability and Sampling: The Future as Related to the Phase Diagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Dendy Sloan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The phase diagram for methane + water is explained, in relation to hydrate applications, such as in flow assurance and in nature. For natural applications, the phase diagram determines the regions for hydrate formation for two- and three-phase conditions. Impacts are presented for sample preparation and recovery. We discuss an international study for “Round Robin” hydrate sample preparation protocols and testing.

  16. Evaluation and review of body fluids saliva, sweat and tear compared to biochemical hydration assessment markers within blood and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villiger, M; Stoop, R; Vetsch, T; Hohenauer, E; Pini, M; Clarys, P; Pereira, F; Clijsen, R

    2018-01-01

    Evaluating and testing hydration status is increasingly requested by rehabilitation, sport, military and performance-related activities. Besides commonly used biochemical hydration assessment markers within blood and urine, which have their advantages and limitations in collection and evaluating hydration status, there are other potential markers present within saliva, sweat or tear. This literature review focuses on body fluids saliva, sweat and tear compared to blood and urine regarding practicality and hydration status influenced by fluid restriction and/or physical activity. The selected articles included healthy subjects, biochemical hydration assessment markers and a well-described (de)hydration procedure. The included studies (n=16) revealed that the setting and the method of collecting respectively accessing body fluids are particularly important aspects to choose the optimal hydration marker. To obtain a sample of saliva is one of the simplest ways to collect body fluids. During exercise and heat exposures, saliva composition might be an effective index but seems to be highly variable. The collection of sweat is a more extensive and time-consuming technique making it more difficult to evaluate dehydration and to make a statement about the hydration status at a particular time. The collection procedure of tear fluid is easy to access and causes very little discomfort to the subject. Tear osmolarity increases with dehydration in parallel to alterations in plasma osmolality and urine-specific gravity. But at the individual level, its sensitivity has to be further determined.

  17. Elasticity of methane hydrate phases at high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Jennifer; Yang, Jing; Liu, Jin; Liu, Chujie; Lin, Jung-Fu

    2016-04-21

    Determination of the full elastic constants (cij) of methane hydrates (MHs) at extreme pressure-temperature environments is essential to our understanding of the elastic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties of methane in MH reservoirs on Earth and icy satellites in the solar system. Here, we have investigated the elastic properties of singe-crystal cubic MH-sI, hexagonal MH-II, and orthorhombic MH-III phases at high pressures in a diamond anvil cell. Brillouin light scattering measurements, together with complimentary equation of state (pressure-density) results from X-ray diffraction and methane site occupancies in MH from Raman spectroscopy, were used to derive elastic constants of MH-sI, MH-II, and MH-III phases at high pressures. Analysis of the elastic constants for MH-sI and MH-II showed intriguing similarities and differences between the phases' compressional wave velocity anisotropy and shear wave velocity anisotropy. Our results show that these high-pressure MH phases can exhibit distinct elastic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties at relevant environments of their respective natural reservoirs. These results provide new insight into the determination of how much methane exists in MH reservoirs on Earth and on icy satellites elsewhere in the solar system and put constraints on the pressure and temperature conditions of their environment.

  18. Pressure induced reactions amongst calcium aluminate hydrate phases

    KAUST Repository

    Moon, Ju-hyuk

    2011-06-01

    The compressibilities of two AFm phases (strätlingite and calcium hemicarboaluminate hydrate) and hydrogarnet were obtained up to 5 GPa by using synchrotron high-pressure X-ray powder diffraction with a diamond anvil cell. The AFm phases show abrupt volume contraction regardless of the molecular size of the pressure-transmitting media. This volume discontinuity could be associated to a structural transition or to the movement of the weakly bound interlayer water molecules in the AFm structure. The experimental results seem to indicate that the pressure-induced dehydration is the dominant mechanism especially with hygroscopic pressure medium. The Birch-Murnaghan equation of state was used to compute the bulk modulus of the minerals. Due to the discontinuity in the pressure-volume diagram, a two stage bulk modulus of each AFm phase was calculated. The abnormal volume compressibility for the AFm phases caused a significant change to their bulk modulus. The reliability of this experiment is verified by comparing the bulk modulus of hydrogarnet with previous studies. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Phase Behaviour and Structural Aspects of Ternary Clathrate Hydrate Systems. The Role of Additives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijer-Van den Heuvel, M.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this study an experimental and modelling approach is applied to obtain fundamental insight into the phase behaviour of ternary systems, in which clathrate hydrates are formed. Proper interpretation of the phase behaviour requires knowledge on the clathrate hydrate structure in these systems,

  20. Phase equilibria in ternary (carbon dioxide + tetrahydrofuran + water) system in hydrate-forming region: Effects of carbon dioxide concentration and the occurrence of pseudo-retrograde hydrate phenomenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabil, Khalik M. [Delft University of Technology, Laboratory of Process Equipment, Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Eng, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Chemical Engineering Programme, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Witkamp, Geert-Jan [Delft University of Technology, Laboratory of Process Equipment, Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Eng, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Peters, Cor J., E-mail: C.J.Peters@tudelft.n [Delft University of Technology, Laboratory of Process Equipment, Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Eng, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Chemical Engineering Programme, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); The Petroleum Institute, Chemical Engineering Program, Bu Hasa Building, Room 2203, P.O. Box 2203, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2010-01-15

    In the present work, the three- and four-phase hydrate equilibria of (carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) + tetrahydrofuran (THF) + water) system are measured by using Cailletet equipment in the temperature and pressure range of (272 to 292) K and (1.0 to 7.5) MPa, respectively, at different CO{sub 2} concentration. Throughout the study, the concentration of THF is kept constant at 5 mol% in the aqueous solution. In addition, the fluid phase transitions of L{sub W}-L{sub V}-V -> L{sub W}-L{sub V} (bubble point) and L{sub W}-L{sub V}-V -> L{sub W}-V (dew point) are determined when they are present in the ternary system. For comparison, the three-phase hydrate equilibria of binary (CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O) are also measured. Experimental measurements show that the addition of THF as a hydrate promoter extends hydrate stability region by elevating the hydrate equilibrium temperature at a specified pressure. The three-phase equilibrium line H-L{sub W}-V is found to be independent of the overall concentration of CO{sub 2}. Contradictory, at higher pressure, the phase equilibria of the systems are significantly influenced by the overall concentration of CO{sub 2} in the systems. A liquid-liquid phase split is observed at overall concentration of CO{sub 2} as low as 3 mol% at elevated pressure. The region is bounded by the bubble-points line (L{sub W}-L{sub V}-V -> L{sub W}-L{sub V}), dew points line (L{sub W}-L{sub V}-V -> L{sub W} + V) and the four-phase equilibrium line (H + L{sub W} + L{sub V} + V). At higher overall concentration of CO{sub 2} in the ternary system, experimental measurements show that pseudo-retrograde behaviour exists at pressure between (2.5 and 5) MPa at temperature of 290.8 K.

  1. Phase I (CATTS Theory), Phase II (Milne Point), Phase III (Hydrate Ridge)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-10-31

    This study introduces a new type of cumulative seismic attribute (CATT) which quantifies gas hydrates resources in Hydrate Ridge offshore Oregon. CATT is base on case-specific transforms that portray hydrated reservoir properties. In this study we used a theoretical rock physics model to correct measured velocity log data.

  2. Individual fluid plans versus ad libitum on hydration status in minor professional ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Dawn M; Torres-McGehee, Toni M; Emerson, Charles C; LaSalle, Teri L

    2017-01-01

    Despite exercising in cool environments, ice hockey players exhibit several dehydration risk factors. Individualized fluid plans (IFPs) are designed to mitigate dehydration by matching an individual's sweat loss in order to optimize physiological systems and performance. A randomized control trial was used to examine IFP versus ad libitum fluid ingestion on hydration in 11 male minor professional ice hockey players (mean age = 24.4 ± 2.6 years, height = 183.0 ± 4.6 cm, weight = 92.9 ± 7.8 kg). Following baseline measures over 2 practices, participants were randomly assigned to either control (CON) or intervention (INT) for 10 additional practices. CON participants were provided water and/or carbohydrate electrolyte beverage to drink ad libitum. INT participants were instructed to consume water and an electrolyte-enhanced carbohydrate electrolyte beverage to match sweat and sodium losses. Urine specific gravity, urine color, and percent body mass change characterized hydration status. Total fluid consumed during practice was assessed. INT consumed significantly more fluid than CON (1180.8 ± 579.0 ml vs. 788.6 ± 399.7 ml, p = 0.002). However, CON participants replaced only 25.4 ± 12.9% of their fluid needs and INT 35.8 ± 17.5%. Mean percent body mass loss was not significantly different between groups and overall indicated minimal dehydration (hydration status. Based on urine measures, both methods were unsuccessful in preventing dehydration during practice, suggesting practice-only hydration is inadequate to maintain euhydration in this population when beginning hypohydrated.

  3. Fluid and salt supplementation effect on body hydration and electrolyte homeostasis during bed rest and ambulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Kakurin, Vassily J.; Kuznetsov, Nikolai A.; Yarullin, Vladimir L.

    2002-06-01

    Bed rest (BR) induces significant urinary and blood electrolyte changes, but little is known about the effect of fluid and salt supplements (FSS) on catabolism, hydration and electrolytes. The aim was to measure the effect of FSS on catabolism, body hydration and electrolytes during BR. Studies were done during 7 days of a pre-bed rest period and during 30 days of a rigorous bed rest period. Thirty male athletes aged, 24.6±7.6 years were chosen as subjects. They were divided into three groups: unsupplemented ambulatory control subjects (UACS), unsupplemented bed rested subjects (UBRS) and supplemented bed rested subjects (SBRS). The UBRS and SBRS groups were kept under a rigorous bed rest regime for 30 days. The SBRS daily took 30 ml water per kg body weight and 0.1 sodium chloride per kg body weight. Plasma sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels, urinary Na, K, Ca and Mg excretion, plasma osmolality, plasma protein level, whole blood hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct) level increased significantly ( p≤0.05), while plasma volume (PV), body weight, body fat, peak oxygen uptake, food and fluid intake decreased significantly ( p≤0.05) in the UBRS group when compared with the SBRS and UACS groups. In contrast, plasma and urinary electrolytes, osmolality, protein level, whole blood Hct and Hb level decreased significantly ( p≤0.05), while PV, fluid intake, body weight and peak oxygen uptake increased significantly ( p≤0.05) in the SBRS group when compared with the UBRS group. The measured parameters did not change significantly in the UACS group when compared with their baseline control values. The data indicate that FSS stabilizes electrolytes and body hydration during BR, while BR alone induces significant changes in electrolytes and body hydration. We conclude that FSS may be used to prevent catabolism and normalize body hydration status and electrolyte values during BR.

  4. Elasticity of methane hydrate phases at high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beam, Jennifer; Yang, Jing; Liu, Jin [Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Liu, Chujie [Laboratory of Seismology and Physics of Earth’s Interior, School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Lin, Jung-Fu, E-mail: afu@jsg.utexas.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Center for High Pressure Science and Advanced Technology Research (HPSTAR), Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2016-04-21

    Determination of the full elastic constants (c{sub ij}) of methane hydrates (MHs) at extreme pressure-temperature environments is essential to our understanding of the elastic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties of methane in MH reservoirs on Earth and icy satellites in the solar system. Here, we have investigated the elastic properties of singe-crystal cubic MH-sI, hexagonal MH-II, and orthorhombic MH-III phases at high pressures in a diamond anvil cell. Brillouin light scattering measurements, together with complimentary equation of state (pressure-density) results from X-ray diffraction and methane site occupancies in MH from Raman spectroscopy, were used to derive elastic constants of MH-sI, MH-II, and MH-III phases at high pressures. Analysis of the elastic constants for MH-sI and MH-II showed intriguing similarities and differences between the phases′ compressional wave velocity anisotropy and shear wave velocity anisotropy. Our results show that these high-pressure MH phases can exhibit distinct elastic, thermodynamic, and mechanical properties at relevant environments of their respective natural reservoirs. These results provide new insight into the determination of how much methane exists in MH reservoirs on Earth and on icy satellites elsewhere in the solar system and put constraints on the pressure and temperature conditions of their environment.

  5. Decreased stability of methane hydrates in marine sediments owing to phase-boundary roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, W T; Gettrust, J F; Chapman, N R; Spence, G D; Hyndman, R D

    2002-12-12

    Below water depths of about 300 metres, pressure and temperature conditions cause methane to form ice-like crystals of methane hydrate. Marine deposits of methane hydrate are estimated to be large, amassing about 10,000 gigatonnes of carbon, and are thought to be important to global change and seafloor stability, as well as representing a potentially exploitable energy resource. The extent of these deposits can usually be inferred from seismic imaging, in which the base of the methane hydrate stability zone is frequently identifiable as a smooth reflector that runs parallel to the sea floor. Here, using high-resolution seismic sections of seafloor sediments in the Cascadia margin off the coast of Vancouver Island, Canada, we observe lateral variations in the base of the hydrate stability zone, including gas-rich vertical intrusions into the hydrate stability zone. We suggest that these vertical intrusions are associated with upward flow of warmer fluids. Therefore, where seafloor fluid expulsion and methane hydrate deposits coincide, the base of the hydrate stability zone might exhibit significant roughness and increased surface area. Increased area implies that significantly more methane hydrate lies close to being unstable and hence closer to dissociation in the event of a lowering of pressure due to sea-level fall.

  6. Hydration Layer Coupling and Cooperativity in Phase Behavior of Stimulus Responsive Peptide Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzbach, Dennis; Hassouneh, Wafa; McDaniel, Jonathan R.; Jaumann, Eva A.; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Hinderberger, Dariush

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that hydrophilic (backbone) and hydrophobic (side chain) hydration layers of elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs), a class of stimulus responsive peptide polymers that exhibit lower critical solution temperature (LCST) phase transition behavior, can exist in a coupled and decoupled state. The decoupled hydration state consists of hydrophobic and hydrophilic hydration layers that respond independently to temperature while the coupled hydration state is characterized by a common, cooperative dehydration of both hydration layers. It is further shown that the primary sequence of an ELP can be tuned to exhibit either of the hydration layer coupling modes. Charged side chains lead to decoupling, while strongly hydrophobic side chains trigger stronger interaction between hydrophilic and hydrophobic hydration, leading to coupling of both layers. Further, for aprotic residues this coupling is fostered by decreasing bulkiness of hydrophobic side chains due to larger hydration numbers and water molecules mediating coupling between side chain and backbone hydration shells. For coupled hydration shells, the LCST phase transition characterized by spin probing continuous wave (CW) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy is reminiscent of a first order process even on nanoscopic length scales. In contrast, analogous synthetic polymers exhibit nanoscale phase transitions over a broad temperature range, indicating that their nanoscale phase behavior is not of first order. Hence, our results indicate that ELPs are the first identified class of polymers that exhibit a first-order inverse phase transition on nanoscopic length scales. These results may also provide insights into the role of hydration layers in governing the structure-function relationship of intrinsically disordered proteins. PMID:23822733

  7. Seismic evidence of gas hydrates, multiple BSRs and fluid flow offshore Tumbes Basin, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguy, Constance; Calvès, Gérôme; Calderon, Ysabel; Brusset, Stéphane

    2017-12-01

    Identification of a previously undocumented hydrate system in the Tumbes Basin, localized off the north Peruvian margin at latitude of 3°20'—4°10'S, allows us to better understand gas hydrates of convergent margins, and complement the 36 hydrate sites already identified around the Pacific Ocean. Using a combined 2D-3D seismic dataset, we present a detailed analysis of seismic amplitude anomalies related to the presence of gas hydrates and/or free gas in sediments. Our observations identify the occurrence of a widespread bottom simulating reflector (BSR), under which we observed, at several sites, the succession of one or two BSR-type reflections of variable amplitude, and vertical acoustic discontinuities associated with fluid flow and gas chimneys. We conclude that the uppermost BSR marks the current base of the hydrate stability field, for a gas composition comprised between 96% methane and 4% of ethane, propane and pure methane. Three hypotheses are developed to explain the nature of the multiple BSRs. They may refer to the base of hydrates of different gas composition, a remnant of an older BSR in the process of dispersion/dissociation or a diagenetically induced permeability barrier formed when the active BSR existed stably at that level for an extended period. The multiple BSRs have been interpreted as three events of steady state in the pressure and temperature conditions. They might be produced by climatic episodes since the last glaciation associated with tectonic activity, essentially tectonic subsidence, one of the main parameters that control the evolution of the Tumbes Basin.

  8. The analysis of magnesium oxide hydration in three-phase reaction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaojia; Guo, Lin; Chen, Chen; Liu, Quan; Li, Tie; Zhu, Yimin

    2014-05-01

    In order to investigate the magnesium oxide hydration process in gas-liquid-solid (three-phase) reaction system, magnesium hydroxide was prepared by magnesium oxide hydration in liquid-solid (two-phase) and three-phase reaction systems. A semi-empirical model and the classical shrinking core model were used to fit the experimental data. The fitting result shows that both models describe well the hydration process of three-phase system, while only the semi-empirical model right for the hydration process of two-phase system. The characterization of the hydration product using X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) was performed. The XRD and SEM show hydration process in the two-phase system follows common dissolution/precipitation mechanism. While in the three-phase system, the hydration process undergo MgO dissolution, Mg(OH)2 precipitation, Mg(OH)2 peeling off from MgO particle and leaving behind fresh MgO surface.

  9. Phase boundary of hot dense fluid hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kenji; Ichimaru, Kota; Einaga, Mari; Kawaguchi, Sho; Shimizu, Katsuya; Matsuoka, Takahiro; Hirao, Naohisa; Ohishi, Yasuo

    2015-11-09

    We investigated the phase transformation of hot dense fluid hydrogen using static high-pressure laser-heating experiments in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell. The results show anomalies in the heating efficiency that are likely to be attributed to the phase transition from a diatomic to monoatomic fluid hydrogen (plasma phase transition) in the pressure range between 82 and 106 GPa. This study imposes tighter constraints on the location of the hydrogen plasma phase transition boundary and suggests higher critical point than that predicted by the theoretical calculations.

  10. Hydration status, fluid intake, and electrolyte losses in youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Craig A; Blackwell, Jamie

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the hydration status, fluid intake, and electrolyte losses of 21 male professional youth soccer players (age 17.1 ± 0.7 y) training in a cool environment. Pretraining and posttraining measurements of body mass, urine (freezing-point osmolality method), and sweat concentration (flame-emission spectroscopy) were collected. Fourteen players were found to be hypohydrated before training. The amount of fluid lost due to exercise equated to a 1.7% loss in body mass, which equated to a gross dehydration loss of 0.5%. Overall, the soccer players replaced 46% ± 88% of sweat loss during training, and only 4 remained hypohydrated after training. No significant correlations between sweat loss and sweat concentrations of Na+ (r = -.11, P = .67) or K+ (r = .14, P = .58) were found, but there was a significant correlation with Mg2+ (r = -.58, P hydration status that the players were able to rehydrate during the training sessions. However, given the numbers starting training in a hypohydrated state, adequate hydration status before training should be considered by youth players, coaches, and sports-science support staff.

  11. Pilot scale experiments of magnesia hydration under gas-liquid-solid (three-phase) reaction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaojia; Lv, Qiwei; Yin, Lin; Nie, Yixing; Jin, Qi; Ji, Yangyuan; Zhu, Yimin

    2017-08-01

    Pilot scale experiments were conducted to prepare magnesium hydroxide by magnesia hydration under gas-liquid-solid (three-phase) reaction system. The effect of reaction pressure, reactivity and particle size of magnesia and the concentration of the pulp on the degree of hydration was investigated. The results indicated that the hydration reaction occurred at the first 30min mainly. During the set reaction condition, degree of hydration of 68% could be obtained at the reaction pressure of 0.2MPa, concentration of pulp of 5%w/w with high reactivity and fine powder. The promotion effect on the degree of hydration caused by the three-phase reaction system was mostly attributed to the exfoliation of steam.

  12. No Change in 24-Hour Hydration Status Following a Moderate Increase in Fluid Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Matthew A; Adams, J D; Brown, Lemuel A; Ridings, Christian B; Burchfield, Jenna M; Robinson, Forrest B; McDermott, Jamie L; Schreiber, Brett A; Moyen, Nicole E; Washington, Tyrone A; Bermudez, Andrea C; Bennett, Meredith P; Buyckx, Maxime E; Ganio, Matthew S

    2016-01-01

    To investigate changes in 24-hour hydration status when increasing fluid intake. Thirty-five healthy males (age 23.8 ± 4.7 years; mass 74.0 ± 9.4 kg) were divided into 4 treatment groups for 2 weeks of testing. Volumes of 24-hour fluid ingestion (including water from food) for weeks 1 and 2 was 35 and 40 ml/kg body mass, respectively. Each treatment group was given the same proportion of beverages in each week of testing: water only (n = 10), water + caloric cola (n = 7), water + noncaloric cola (n = 10), or water + caloric cola + noncaloric cola + orange juice (n = 8). Serum osmolality (Sosm), total body water (TBW) via bioelectrical impedance, 24-hour urine osmolality (Uosm), and volume (Uvol) were analyzed at the end of each 24-hour intervention. Independent of treatment, total beverage consumption increased 22% from week 1 to 2 (1685 ± 320 to 2054 ± 363 ml; p fluid consumption between weeks 1 and 2 did not change TBW (43.4 ± 5.2 vs 43.0 ± 4.8 kg), Sosm (292 ± 5 vs 292 ± 5 mOsm/kg), 24-hour Uosm (600 ± 224 vs 571 ± 212 mOsm/kg), or 24-hour Uvol (1569 ± 607 vs 1580 ± 554 ml; all p > 0.05). Regardless of fluid volume or beverage type consumed, measures of 24-hour hydration status did not differ, suggesting that standard measures of hydration status are not sensitive enough to detect a 22% increase in beverage consumption.

  13. Hydration status and fluid intake of urban, underprivileged South African male adolescent soccer players during training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Reno Eron; Kassier, Susanna Maria; Biggs, Chara

    2015-01-01

    Poor hydration compromises performance and heightens the risk of heat stress which adolescents are particularly susceptible to as they produce comparatively larger amount of metabolic heat during exercise. This study determined the hydration status and fluid intake of socio-economically disadvantaged, male adolescent soccer players during training. A pilot study was conducted among 79 soccer players (mean age 15.9 ± 0.8 years; mean BMI 20.2 ± 2.1 kg/m(2)). Hydration status was determined before and after two training sessions, using both urine specific gravity and percent loss of body weight. The type and amount of fluid consumed was assessed during training. A self-administered questionnaire was used to determine the players' knowledge regarding fluid and carbohydrate requirements for soccer training. Players were at risk of developing heat illness during six of the 14 training sessions (60 - 90 minutes in length). Although on average players were slightly dehydrated (1.023 ± 0.006 g/ml) before and after (1.024 ± 0.007 g/ml) training, some were extremely dehydrated before (24%) and after (27%) training. Conversely some were extremely hyperhydrated before (3%) and after training (6%). The mean percent loss of body weight was 0.7 ± 0.7%. The majority did not consume fluid during the first (57.0%) and second (70.9%) training sessions. An average of 216.0 ± 140.0 ml of fluid was consumed during both training sessions. The majority (41.8%) consumed water, while a few (5.1%) consumed pure fruit juice. More than 90% stated that water was the most appropriate fluid to consume before, during and after training. Very few (5.0%) correctly stated that carbohydrate should be consumed before, during and after training. Approximately a quarter were severely dehydrated. Many did not drink or drank insufficient amounts. The players' beliefs regarding the importance of fluid and carbohydrate consumption did not correspond with their practices. A

  14. A composite phase diagram of structure H hydrates using Schreinemakers' geometric approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, A.P.; Makogon, T.Y.; Burruss, R.C.; Wendlandt, R.F.; Sloan, E.D.

    1996-01-01

    A composite phase diagram is presented for Structure H (sH) clathrate hydrates. In this work, we derived the reactions occurring among the various phases along each four-phase (Ice/Liquid water, liquid hydrocarbon, vapor, and hydrate) equilibrium line. A powerful method (though seldom used in chemical engineering) for multicomponent equilibria developed by Schreinemakers is applied to determine the relative location of all quadruple (four-phase) lines emanating from three quintuple (five-phase) points. Experimental evidence validating the approximate phase diagram is also provided. The use of Schreinemakers' rules for the development of the phase diagram is novel for hydrates, but these rules may be extended to resolve the phase space of other more complex systems commonly encountered in chemical engineering.

  15. Prediction of the phase equilibria of methane hydrates using the direct phase coexistence methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalis, Vasileios K.; Costandy, Joseph; Economou, Ioannis G., E-mail: ioannis.economou@qatar.tamu.edu [Chemical Engineering Program, Texas A and M University at Qatar, P.O. Box 23847, Doha (Qatar); Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N.; Stubos, Athanassios K. [Environmental Research Laboratory, National Center for Scientific Research NCSR “Demokritos,” Aghia Paraskevi, Attiki GR-15310 (Greece)

    2015-01-28

    The direct phase coexistence method is used for the determination of the three-phase coexistence line of sI methane hydrates. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are carried out in the isothermal–isobaric ensemble in order to determine the coexistence temperature (T{sub 3}) at four different pressures, namely, 40, 100, 400, and 600 bar. Methane bubble formation that results in supersaturation of water with methane is generally avoided. The observed stochasticity of the hydrate growth and dissociation processes, which can be misleading in the determination of T{sub 3}, is treated with long simulations in the range of 1000–4000 ns and a relatively large number of independent runs. Statistical averaging of 25 runs per pressure results in T{sub 3} predictions that are found to deviate systematically by approximately 3.5 K from the experimental values. This is in good agreement with the deviation of 3.15 K between the prediction of TIP4P/Ice water force field used and the experimental melting temperature of ice Ih. The current results offer the most consistent and accurate predictions from MD simulation for the determination of T{sub 3} of methane hydrates. Methane solubility values are also calculated at the predicted equilibrium conditions and are found in good agreement with continuum-scale models.

  16. Hydrate Phase Assemblages in Blends of Ye'elimite and Gypsum with Alite and Belite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Thostrup; Skibsted, Jørgen

    Calcium sulpho-aluminate (CSA) cements all contain ye’elimite, either as the main phase or in intermediate amounts, while they differ in their content of accessory phases. Belite is the main phase in most CSA cements, however, alite - CSA cements have been produced. The hydrate phases formed during...

  17. Hydrate Phase Assemblages in Blends of Ye’elimite and Gypsum with Alite and Belite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Malene Thostrup; Skibsted, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Calcium sulpho-aluminate (CSA) cements all contain ye’elimite, either as the main phase or in intermediate amounts, while they differ in their content of accessory phases. Belite is the main phase in most CSA cements, however, alite - CSA cements have been produced. The hydrate phases formed during...

  18. Study of cements silicate phases hydrated under high pressure and high temperature; Etude des phases silicatees du ciment hydrate sous haute pression et haute temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meducin, F.

    2001-10-01

    This study concerns the durability of oil-well cementing. Indeed, in oil well cementing a cement slurry is pumped down the steel casing of the well up the annular space between it and the surrounding rock to support and protect the casing. The setting conditions of pressure and temperature may be very high (up to 1000 bar and 250 deg C at the bottom of the oil-well). In this research, the hydration of the main constituent of cement, synthetic tri-calcium silicate Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 2}, often called C{sub 3}S (C = CaO; S = SiO{sub 2} and H H{sub 2}O), is studied. Calcium Silicate hydrates are prepared in high-pressure cells to complete their phase diagram (P,T) and obtain the stability conditions for each species. Indeed, the phases formed in these conditions are unknown and the study consists in the hydration of C{sub 3}S at different temperatures, pressures, and during different times to simulate the oil-well conditions. In a first step (until 120 deg C at ambient pressure) the C-S-H, a not well crystallized and non-stoichiometric phase, is synthesized: it brings adhesion and mechanical properties., Then, when pressure and temperature increase, crystallized phases appear such as jaffeite (Ca{sub 6}(Si{sub 2}O{sub 7})(OH){sub 6}) and hillebrandite (Ca{sub 2}(SiO{sub 3})(OH){sub 2}). Silicon {sup 29}Si Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (using standard sequences MAS, CPMAS) allow us to identify all the silicates hydrates formed. Indeed, {sup 29}Si NMR is a valuable tool to determine the structure of crystallized or not-well crystallized phases of cement. The characterization of the hydrated samples is completed by other techniques: X- Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The following results are found: jaffeite is the most stable phase at C/S=3. To simulate the hydration of real cement, hydration of C{sub 3}S with ground quartz and with or without super-plasticizers is done. In those cases, new phases appear: kilchoanite mainly, and xonotlite. A large amount of

  19. Effect of organic matter on CO(2) hydrate phase equilibrium in phyllosilicate suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Taehyung; Kyung, Daeseung; Lee, Woojin

    2014-06-17

    In this study, we examined various CO2 hydrate phase equilibria under diverse, heterogeneous conditions, to provide basic knowledge for successful ocean CO2 sequestration in offshore marine sediments. We investigated the effect of geochemical factors on CO2 hydrate phase equilibrium. The three-phase (liquid-hydrate-vapor) equilibrium of CO2 hydrate in the presence of (i) organic matter (glycine, glucose, and urea), (ii) phyllosilicates [illite, kaolinite, and Na-montmorillonite (Na-MMT)], and (iii) mixtures of them was measured in the ranges of 274.5-277.0 K and 14-22 bar. Organic matter inhibited the phase equilibrium of CO2 hydrate by association with water molecules. The inhibition effect decreased in the order: urea phase equilibrium, while Na-MMT (expandable clay) affected the phase equilibrium because of its interlayer cations. The CO2 hydrate equilibrium conditions, in the illite and kaolinite suspensions with organic matter, were very similar to those in the aqueous organic matter solutions. However, the equilibrium condition in the Na-MMT suspension with organic matter changed because of reduction of its inhibition effect by intercalated organic matter associated with cations in the Na-MMT interlayer.

  20. Hydration Status and Fluid Balance of Elite European Youth Soccer Players during Consecutive Training Sessions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun M. Phillips

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during three consecutive training sessions. Fourteen males (age 16.9 ± 0.8 years, height 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass (BM 70.6 ± 5.0 kg had their hydration status assessed from first morning urine samples (baseline and pre- and post-training using urine specific gravity (USG measures, and their fluid balance calculated from pre- to post-training BM change, corrected for fluid intake and urine output. Most participants were hypohydrated upon waking (USG >1.020; 77% on days 1 and 3, and 62% on day 2. There was no significant difference between first morning and pre-training USG (p = 0.11 and no influence of training session (p = 0.34 or time (pre- vs. post-training; p = 0.16 on USG. Significant BM loss occurred in sessions 1-3 (0.69 ± 0.22, 0.42 ± 0.25, and 0.38 ± 0.30 kg respectively, p < 0.05. Mean fluid intake in sessions 1-3 was 425 ± 185, 355 ± 161, and 247 ± 157 ml, respectively (p < 0.05. Participants replaced on average 71.3 ± 64.1% (range 0-363.6% of fluid losses across the three sessions. Body mass loss, fluid intake, and USG measures showed large inter-individual variation. Elite young European soccer players likely wake and present for training hypohydrated, when a USG threshold of 1.020 is applied. When training in a cool environment with ad libitum access to fluid, replacing ~71% of sweat losses results in minimal hypohydration (<1% BM. Consumption of fluid ad libitum throughout training appears to prevent excessive (≥2% BM dehydration, as advised by current fluid intake guidelines. Current fluid intake guidelines appear applicable for elite European youth soccer players training in a cool environment.

  1. Thermodynamic calculations in the system CH4-H2O and methane hydrate phase equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Stern, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    Using the Gibbs function of reaction, equilibrium pressure, temperature conditions for the formation of methane clathrate hydrate have been calculated from the thermodynamic properties of phases in the system CH4-H 2O. The thermodynamic model accurately reproduces the published phase-equilibria data to within ??2 K of the observed equilibrium boundaries in the range 0.08-117 MPa and 190-307 K. The model also provides an estimate of the third-law entropy of methane hydrate at 273.15 K, 0.1 MPa of 56.2 J mol-1 K-1 for 1/n CH4??H 2O, where n is the hydrate number. Agreement between the calculated and published phase-equilibria data is optimized when the hydrate composition is fixed and independent of the pressure and temperature for the conditions modeled. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  2. Inhibited phase behavior of gas hydrates in graphene oxide: influences of surface and geometric constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daeok; Kim, Dae Woo; Lim, Hyung-Kyu; Jeon, Jiwon; Kim, Hyungjun; Jung, Hee-Tae; Lee, Huen

    2014-11-07

    Porous materials have provided us unprecedented opportunities to develop emerging technologies such as molecular storage systems and separation mechanisms. Pores have also been used as supports to contain gas hydrates for the application in gas treatments. Necessarily, an exact understanding of the properties of gas hydrates in confining pores is important. Here, we investigated the formation of CO2, CH4 and N2 hydrates in non-interlamellar voids in graphene oxide (GO), and their thermodynamic behaviors. For that, low temperature XRD and P-T traces were conducted to analyze the water structure and confirm hydrate formation, respectively, in GO after its exposure to gaseous molecules. Confinement and strong interaction of water with the hydrophilic surface of graphene oxide reduce water activity, which leads to the inhibited phase behavior of gas hydrates.

  3. Hydration, hydration, hydration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Veronica S; Bates, Graham P

    2010-01-01

    .... Although the importance of adequate hydration in combating heat stress is universally recognized, studies in a range of worker groups have demonstrated a disturbingly poor hydration level in a high...

  4. Identification of the hydrate gel phases present in phosphate-modified calcium aluminate binders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavda, Mehul A.; Bernal, Susan A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Apperley, David C. [Solid-State NMR Group, Department of Chemistry, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Kinoshita, Hajime [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Provis, John L., E-mail: j.provis@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-15

    The conversion of hexagonal calcium aluminate hydrates to cubic phases in hydrated calcium aluminate cements (CAC) can involve undesirable porosity changes and loss of strength. Modification of CAC by phosphate addition avoids conversion, by altering the nature of the reaction products, yielding a stable amorphous gel instead of the usual crystalline hydrate products. Here, details of the environments of aluminium and phosphorus in this gel were elucidated using solid-state NMR and complementary techniques. Aluminium is identified in both octahedral and tetrahedral coordination states, and phosphorus is present in hydrous environments with varying, but mostly low, degrees of crosslinking. A {sup 31}P/{sup 27}Al rotational echo adiabatic passage double resonance (REAPDOR) experiment showed the existence of aluminium–phosphorus interactions, confirming the formation of a hydrated calcium aluminophosphate gel as a key component of the binding phase. This resolves previous disagreements in the literature regarding the nature of the disordered products forming in this system.

  5. Thermodynamics phase changes of nanopore fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Islam, Akand W.

    2015-07-01

    The van der Waals (vdW) equation (Eq.) is modified to describe thermodynamic of phase behavior of fluids confined in nanopore. Our aim is to compute pressures exerted by the fluid molecules and to investigate how they change due to pore proximity by assuming the pore wall is inert. No additional scaling of model parameters is imposed and original volume and energy parameters are used in the calculations. Our results clearly show the phase changes due to confinement. The critical shifts of temperatures and pressures are in good agreement compared to the laboratory data and molecular simulation. Peng-Robinson (PR) equation-of-state (EOS) has resulted in different effect than the vdW. This work delivers insights into the nature of fluid behavior in extremely low-permeability nanoporous media, especially in the tight shale reservoirs, below the critical temperatures. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Changes in hydration status of elite Olympic class sailors in different climates and the effects of different fluid replacement beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Evan Jh; Fraser, Sarah J; Thomas, Scott G; Wells, Greg D

    2013-02-21

    Olympic class sailing poses physiological challenges similar to other endurance sports such as cycling or running, with sport specific challenges of limited access to nutrition and hydration during competition. As changes in hydration status can impair sports performance, examining fluid consumption patterns and fluid/electrolyte requirements of Olympic class sailors is necessary to develop specific recommendations for these elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine if Olympic class sailors could maintain hydration status with self-regulated fluid consumption in cold conditions and the effect of fixed fluid intake on hydration status in warm conditions. In our cold condition study (CCS), 11 elite Olympic class sailors were provided ad libitum access to three different drinks. Crystal Light (control, C); Gatorade (experimental control, G); and customized sailing-specific Infinit (experimental, IN) (1.0:0.22 CHO:PRO), were provided on three separate training days in cold 7.1°C [4.2 - 11.3]. Our warm condition study (WCS) examined the effect of fixed fluid intake (11.5 mL.kg.-1.h-1) of C, G and heat-specific experimental Infinit (INW)(1.0:0.074 CHO:PRO) on the hydration status of eight elite Olympic Laser class sailors in 19.5°C [17.0 - 23.3]. Both studies used a completely random design. In CCS, participants consumed 802 ± 91, 924 ± 137 and 707 ± 152 mL of fluid in each group respectively. This did not change urine specific gravity, but did lead to a main effect for time for body mass (p hydration status was maintained by preventing changes in body mass and urine specific gravity.

  7. Phase Equilibria of H2SO4, HNO3, and HCl Hydrates and the Composition of Polar Stratospheric Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Paul J.; Zhang, Renyi; Molina, Mario J.

    1995-01-01

    Thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria behavior for the hydrates and coexisting pairs of hydrates of common acids which exist in the stratosphere are assembled from new laboratory measurements and standard literature data. The analysis focuses upon solid-vapor and solid-solid-vapor equilibria at temperatures around 200 K and includes new calorimetric and vapor pressure data. Calculated partial pressures versus 1/T slopes for the hydrates and coexisting hydrates agree well with experimental data where available.

  8. First determination of volume changes and enthalpies of the high-pressure decomposition reaction of the structure H methane hydrate to the cubic structure I methane hydrate and fluid methane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogienko, Andrey G; Tkacz, Marek; Manakov, Andrey Yu; Lipkowski, Janusz

    2007-11-08

    Pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions of the decomposition reaction of the structure H high-pressure methane hydrate to the cubic structure I methane hydrate and fluid methane were studied with a piston-cylinder apparatus at room temperature. For the first time, volume changes accompanying this reaction were determined. With the use of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation the enthalpies of the decomposition reaction of the structure H high-pressure methane hydrate to the cubic structure I methane hydrate and fluid methane have been calculated.

  9. Solid-Fluid Phase Equilibria for Natural Gas Processing at Low Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Longman

    2012-07-01

    Precipitation and deposition of solid components create potential risks of blocking gas passages in processes such as in LNG plants. To avoid such risks, experimental data and modelling of solid-fluid equilibrium should be used to optimize the design and operations. The objective of this work was to get a better understanding of the fundamentals of solid-fluid phase equilibrium. The specific focus of this work was to study solid-fluid phase behavior in systems of solid Co2, heavy hydrocarbons(HHC) and hydrate in equilibria with natural gas at low temperatures.Experimental methods for measuring solid-fluid equilibrium data in natural gas systems at low temperatures were extensively reviewed, and important and practical issues for designing experimental systems were summarized. The frost points in the Co2-methane systems (Co2 mole fraction 0.108 to 0.542) were measured in this work. Meanwhile, in another experimental setup, the water content in the gas phase was measured in the hydratemethane and hydrate-natural gas systems down to temperature 238.15 K. These data, together with data from other researchers, were used to verify the thermodynamic models. It is expensive and time-consuming to get experimental data at low temperatures, thus it is important to verify and use thermodynamic models to predict the solid-fluid phase behaviors. In the systems of solid Co2 and HHC in equilibrium with natural gas systems, the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) Equation of State (EOS) and simplified Perturbed-Chain Statistic Associating Fluid Theory (sPC-SAFT) EOS were used to calculate the fugacities in fluid phases. For solid phase, one fugacity model based on sublimation pressures and one model based on subcooled liquid were used. For correlating and predicting the hydrate behaviors, the Cubic-Plus-Association (CPA)EOS was used to model fluid phases and the hydrate-forming conditions were modelled by the solid solution theory of van der Waals and Platteeuw. Examples of applications of

  10. A combined QXRD/TG method to quantify the phase composition of hydrated Portland cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soin, Alexander V.; Catalan, Lionel J.J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada); Kinrade, Stephen D., E-mail: stephen.kinrade@lakeheadu.ca [Department of Chemistry, Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road, Thunder Bay, Ontario P7B 5E1 (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    A new method is reported for quantifying the mineral phases in hydrated cement pastes that is based on a combination of quantitative X-ray diffractometry (QXRD) and thermogravimetry (TG). It differs from previous methods in that it gives a precise measure of the amorphous phase content without relying on an assumed stoichiometric relationship between the principal hydration products, calcium hydroxide (CH) and calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H). The method was successfully applied to gray and white ordinary Portland cements (GOPC and WOPC, respectively) that were cured for up to 56 days. Phase distributions determined by QXRD/TG closely matched those from gray-level analysis of backscattered scanning electron microscope (BSEM) images, whereas elemental compositions obtained for the amorphous phase by QXRD/TG agreed well with those measured by quantitative energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS)

  11. Salt hydrates and other phase-change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cantor, S.

    1978-01-01

    The objectives of the project are: to ascertain thermal performance of Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ . 10H/sub 2/O and other incongruently melting salt hydrates by calorimetric investigation of melting and freezing; and select compounds and mixtures suitable for isothermal heat storage within the range, 90 to 250/sup 0/C. Selection is to be used on laboratory evaluation as well as on economic and technical screening criteria.

  12. Spinodal phase separation in complex fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, F.; Blossey, R.

    1994-07-01

    We study the early stages of the phase separation of an amphiphilic system into two fluids, one structured and the other not, in the context of a one-component order-parameter model. A generalization of the Langer — Bar-on — Miller approximation permits the calculation of the time evolution of the structure function in the mixture. Near the structured-fluid side of the coexistence, we find that the spinodal is much more clearly observable and is closer to the binodal than on the unstructured side.

  13. Nitrogen-assisted Three-phase Equilibrium in Hydrate Systems Composed of Water, Methane, Carbon Dioxide, and Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darnell, K.; Flemings, P. B.; DiCarlo, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Guest molecule exchange is a new and promising methane hydrate production technique in which methane gas is produced by injection of another gas without requiring depressurization or thermal stimulation. The technique is generally associated with injection of carbon dioxide, but injection of nitrogen and carbon dioxide mixtures are the most efficient and economical. However, thermodynamic behavior of injection mixtures is poorly understood, and it is unclear how nitrogen affects the exchange process. Here, we describe thermodynamic stability of hydrate systems that contain water, methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen. We present a series of ternary and quaternary phase diagrams and show the impact nitrogen has on hydrate stability. Our results demonstrate that nitrogen can either stabilize hydrate, de-stabilize hydrate, or produce three-phase equilibrium (gas, water, and hydrate) depending on its relative abundance. At low abundance nitrogen forms hydrate and directly contributes to the exchange process. At high abundance nitrogen de-stabilizes hydrate akin to traditional hydrate inhibitors, such as salt, alcohol, or mono-ethylene glycol. We show how the dual properties of nitrogen lead to three-phase equilibrium and how three-phase equilibrium may explain much of the behavior observed in methane production from nitrogen-rich injections. We apply our analysis to laboratory experiments and the methane hydrate field test on the northern Alaskan slope at Ignik Sikumi. These results can be extended to analyze dynamic evolution of mixed hydrate systems.

  14. Hydration Characteristics of Tetracalcium Alumino-Ferrite Phase in the presence Calcium Carbonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Radwan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tetracalcium alumino-ferrite phase (C4AF prepared from pure starting materials was employed for composing various mixes prepared of C4AF phase, CaSO4·2H2O, Ca(OH2 and CaCO3. The effect of replacing calcium sulphate (gypsum by calcium carbonate as a set retarder on the hydration behaviour of ferrite phase was studied. The mixes were hydrated for various periods and the hydration products were investigated using the appropriate techniques. The kinetics of hydration was studied by measuring the chemically-combined water as well as the combined lime contents. The mineralogical constitution was studied by using XRD, and DTA. The microstructure of some represented hydrated samples was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Some interesting conclusions have been drawn. It was found that calcium carbonate reacts with tetracalcium alumino-ferrite phase (C4AF in the presence of hydrolime [Ca(OH2] to form carboferrite compounds which may coat the aluminate grains as ettringite does and this may probably regulate the setting time.

  15. Calcium silicate hydrates: Solid and liquid phase composition

    OpenAIRE

    Lothenbach Barbara; Nonat André

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. This paper presents a review on the relationship between the composition the structure and the solution in which calcium silicate hydrate (C S H) is equilibrated. The silica chain length in C S H increases with the silicon concentration and the calcium content in the interlayer space with the calcium concentrations. Sodium and potassium are taken up in the interlayer space preferentially at low calcium concentrations and thus by low Ca/Si C S H. Aluminium uptake in C S H ...

  16. A statistical method for evaluation of the experimental phase equilibrium data of simple clathrate hydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eslamimanesh, Ali; Gharagheizi, Farhad; Mohammadi, Amir H.

    2012-01-01

    We, herein, present a statistical method for diagnostics of the outliers in phase equilibrium data (dissociation data) of simple clathrate hydrates. The applied algorithm is performed on the basis of the Leverage mathematical approach, in which the statistical Hat matrix, Williams Plot, and the r......We, herein, present a statistical method for diagnostics of the outliers in phase equilibrium data (dissociation data) of simple clathrate hydrates. The applied algorithm is performed on the basis of the Leverage mathematical approach, in which the statistical Hat matrix, Williams Plot......, and the residuals of a selected correlation results lead to define the probable outliers. This method not only contributes to outliers diagnostics but also identifies the range of applicability of the applied model and quality of the existing experimental data. The available correlation in the literature...... in exponential form is used to represent/predict the hydrate dissociation pressures for three-phase equilibrium conditions (liquid water/ice–vapor-hydrate). The investigated hydrate formers are methane, ethane, propane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and hydrogen sulfide. It is interpreted from the obtained results...

  17. Spectroscopic investigation of cement hydrate phases and their chloride binding properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping

    This thesis investigates the chloride binding properties of the hydrate phases present in Portland cement paste and the relationships between chloride binding capacity and the structure of these phases, using primarily NMR spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, XRD, thermal analysis, and chemical analysis. It provides important basic data and new insights into the effects of the structure of the individual hydrate phases on their chloride binding properties, and the atomic level structural states and dynamic behavior of the bound chloride in the cement hydrate crystals and at the solid/solution interface. The chloride binding capacity depends on the structure and surface properties of the individual hydrates. Portlandite and AFm surfaces have high affinity for chloride due to their positive zeta-potentials. For C-S-H samples, the chloride binding capacity increases with increasing C/S ratio due to increased numbers of surface Ca-OH sites and decreased polymerization of silicate chains. Aluminum substitution in C-S-H is unfavorable for chloride binding due to reduced layer charge and increased chain polymerization. For all hydrate phases the mechanism of chloride binding is not simply electrostatic attraction. Formation of metal-chloride clusters in the solution and sorption in the Stem layer may contribute substantially. The bound chlorides near the cement hydrate surfaces are in water solvated environments similar to those in the bulk solution and are in rapid exchange (>2kHz) with free chloride in the bulk solution. The chloride concentration near the surfaces is much higher than in the equilibrium bulk solution, and the reorientational frequency of the water molecules solvating the bound chloride is slower than those in the bulk solution. Chloride has a well-defined structural site in Friedel's salt. In solid solutions between Friedel's salt and hydroxyl-AFm, chloride occurs predominantly in Cl-rich domains except at high OH-contents.

  18. Superior thermoelectric response in the 3R phases of hydrated NaxRhO2

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, Y.

    2014-03-17

    Density functional theory is used to investigate the thermoelectric properties of the 3R phases of NaxRhO2 for different Na vacancy configurations and concentrations. As compared to the analogous 2H phases, the modified stacking of the atomic layers in the 3R phases reduces the interlayer coupling. As a consequence, the 3R phases are found to be superior in the technologically relevant temperature range. The Rh d3z2-r2 orbitals still govern the valence band maxima and therefore determine the transport properties. A high figure of merit of 0.35 is achieved in hydrated Na0.83RhO2 at 580 K by water intercalation, which is 34% higher than in the non-hydrated phase.

  19. Methane hydrate formation in partially water-saturated Ottawa sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, W.F.; Winters, W.J.; Mason, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    Bulk properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediment strongly depend on whether hydrate forms primarily in the pore fluid, becomes a load-bearing member of the sediment matrix, or cements sediment grains. Our compressional wave speed measurements through partially water-saturated, methane hydrate-bearing Ottawa sands suggest hydrate surrounds and cements sediment grains. The three Ottawa sand packs tested in the Gas Hydrate And Sediment Test Laboratory Instrument (GHASTLI) contain 38(1)% porosity, initially with distilled water saturating 58, 31, and 16% of that pore space, respectively. From the volume of methane gas produced during hydrate dissociation, we calculated the hydrate concentration in the pore space to be 70, 37, and 20% respectively. Based on these hydrate concentrations and our measured compressional wave speeds, we used a rock physics model to differentiate between potential pore-space hydrate distributions. Model results suggest methane hydrate cements unconsolidated sediment when forming in systems containing an abundant gas phase.

  20. Communication: Protein dynamical transition vs. liquid-liquid phase transition in protein hydration water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirò, Giorgio; Fomina, Margarita; Cupane, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we compare experimental data on myoglobin hydrated powders from elastic neutron scattering, broadband dielectric spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. Our aim is to obtain new insights on the connection between the protein dynamical transition, a fundamental phenomenon observed in proteins whose physical origin is highly debated, and the liquid-liquid phase transition (LLPT) possibly occurring in protein hydration water and related to the existence of a low temperature critical point in supercooled water. Our results provide a consistent thermodynamic/dynamic description which gives experimental support to the LLPT hypothesis and further reveals how fundamental properties of water and proteins are tightly related.

  1. Calcium silicate hydrates: Solid and liquid phase composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lothenbach, Barbara, E-mail: Barbara.lothenbach@empa.ch [Laboratory Concrete & Construction Chemistry, Empa (Switzerland); Nonat, André [ICB, UMR CNRS 6303 CNRS-Université de Bourgogne, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, BP47870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France)

    2015-12-15

    This paper presents a review on the relationship between the composition, the structure and the solution in which calcium silicate hydrate (C–S–H) is equilibrated. The silica chain length in C–S–H increases with the silicon concentration and the calcium content in the interlayer space with the calcium concentrations. Sodium and potassium are taken up in the interlayer space, preferentially at low calcium concentrations and thus by low Ca/Si C–S–H. Aluminium uptake in C–S–H increases strongly at higher aluminium concentrations in the solution. At low Ca/Si, aluminium substitutes silica in the bridging position, at Ca/Si > 1 aluminium is bound in TAH. Recently developed thermodynamic models are closely related to the structure of C–S–H and tobermorite, and able to model not only the solubility and the chemical composition of the C–S–H, but also to predict the mean silica chain length and the uptake of aluminium.

  2. Feasibility of using phase change materials to control the heat of hydration in massive concrete structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won-Chang; Khil, Bae-Soo; Chae, Young-Seok; Liang, Qi-Bo; Yun, Hyun-Do

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results that can be applied to select a possible phase change material (PCM), such as a latent heat material (LHM), to control the hydration heat in mass concrete structures. Five experimental tests (microconduction, simplified adiabatic temperature rise, heat, and compressive strength tests) were conducted to select the most desirable LHM out of seven types of inorganic PCM used in cement mortar and to determine the most suitable mix design. The results of these experimental tests were used to assess the feasibility of using PCM to reduce hydration heat in mass concrete that was examined. The experimental results show that cement mortar containing barium- [Ba(OH)2 · 8H2O] based PCM has the lowest amount of total hydration heat of the cement pastes. The barium-based PCM provides good latent heat properties that help to prevent volume change and microcracks caused by thermal stress in mass concrete.

  3. Sorption Mechanisms of Eu(3+) on CSH Phases of Hydrated Cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointeau, Ingmar; Piriou, Bernard; Fedoroff, Michel; Barthes, Marie-Genevieve; Marmier, Nicolas; Fromage, Francine

    2001-04-15

    The sorption mechanisms of Eu(3+) on calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) phases of hydrated cement were investigated as a tool for the prediction of the behavior of trivalent radionuclides with aged/degraded cements in radioactive waste repositories. Four techniques were used: site-selective and time-resolved luminescence spectroscopy, XPS, high-resolution SEM coupled with EDX, and XRD. Results showed that europium is not precipitated in the solution despite its low solubility limit. It is strongly retained on CSH, resulting in a more than 99.8% sorption rate. Two main sorption sites were characterized by luminescence spectroscopy. One site, with a long lifetime, can be interpreted as Eu included in the framework of CSH. Another one, with a shorter lifetime, can be interpreted as a site with a hydrated environment that is high but is less than that of europium hydroxide. It corresponds to superficial complexation or precipitation. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  4. Feasibility of Using Phase Change Materials to Control the Heat of Hydration in Massive Concrete Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Chang Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results that can be applied to select a possible phase change material (PCM, such as a latent heat material (LHM, to control the hydration heat in mass concrete structures. Five experimental tests (microconduction, simplified adiabatic temperature rise, heat, and compressive strength tests were conducted to select the most desirable LHM out of seven types of inorganic PCM used in cement mortar and to determine the most suitable mix design. The results of these experimental tests were used to assess the feasibility of using PCM to reduce hydration heat in mass concrete that was examined. The experimental results show that cement mortar containing barium- [Ba(OH2·8H2O] based PCM has the lowest amount of total hydration heat of the cement pastes. The barium-based PCM provides good latent heat properties that help to prevent volume change and microcracks caused by thermal stress in mass concrete.

  5. Ecological and climatic consequences of phase instability of gas hydrates on the ocean bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanyuk, I.; Dmitrievsky, A.; Akivis, T.; Chaikina, O.

    2009-04-01

    energy and gas that leads to explosion. Methane is the main natural source for power engineering specialists. It is transported by pipelines, and gas hydrate is dangerous in this case too. It can block the gas pipeline system forming the so-called "trombus" of "thermal ice". After that the pipes have to be opened. The mess of this strange ice discovered melts immediately releasing methane and water vapor. The trombus formation can be prevented by the temperature increase or the pressure decrease. Both methods are very uncomfortable under the conditions the pipelines work. The better method is thorough drying up of the gas because gas hydrate obviously cannot be formed without water. Gas hydrates attract attention not only as a fuel and chemical stuff but in relation to a serious anxiety of strong ecological and climatic problems that can occur as a result of methane release to the atmosphere due to both gas hydrate deposits development and minor changes in thermodynamic conditions in the vicinity of a threshold of gas hydrate phase stability. One of the most probable causes is the global warming of the Earth due to the hothouse effect because the specific absorption of the Earth heat radiation by methane (radiation effectivity) is 21 times higher than its absorption by carbonic gas. Analysis of the air trapped by polar ice show that contemporary increase of methane concentration in the atmosphere is unexampled for the last 160 thousands of years. The sources of this increase are not clear. Observer and latent methane bursts during natural gas hydrates decomposition can be considered as a probable source. Amount of methane hided in natural gas hydrates is 3000 times higher its amount in the atmosphere. Release of this hothouse potential would have terrible consequences for the humanity. The warming can cause further gas hydrates decomposition and released methane will cause the following warming. Thus, self-accelerating process can start. The most vulnerable for the

  6. Study of agglomeration of ice particles and of trichlorofluoromethane hydrate particles suspended in a hydrocarbon phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colombel, E.; Palermo, T.; Barre, L.; Gateau, P. [Inst. Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France). Dept. of Applied Chemistry and Physico-Chemistry; Gruy, F. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, Saint Etienne (France)

    2008-07-01

    Gas hydrates may lead to pipeline blockage during oil production in offshore conditions. A study was conducted to better understand the agglomeration mechanism of gas hydrate particles in water in oil emulsions. The model system chosen to study this mechanism was ice or trichlorofluoromethane (CCl{sub 3}F) hydrate particles dispersed in xylene with asphaltenes as surfactants. The system illustrated what occurs in pipelines as produced water with oil is dispersed by surfactants that are naturally present in the oil phase. Freon was selected because it models methane behaviour very well. Both methane and freon are soluble in oil and insoluble in water. CCl{sub 3}F hydrates are stable under atmospheric pressure. As such, different techniques can be applied without being limited by high pressure conditions. The agglomeration mechanism in these particles can be modelled and compared with ice crystals. This study focused on the kinetics of agglomeration formation and mechanisms of hydrate and ice particle agglomeration in a hydrocarbon phase. Two characterization techniques were implemented in this study, notably nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry and rheology. The different relaxation rate for solids or liquids was used to monitor in situ the ratio between the solid and total hydrogen or fluorine as a function of time with controlled shearing conditions. NMR provided information on the formation kinetics and the conversion rate of water in ice crystals. The rest of the study focused on the formation of Freon hydrate crystals. The study confirmed that the physico-chemistry of the water/oil interface has an important role in agglomeration. 9 refs., 5 tabs., 18 figs.

  7. Non-equilibrium Simulation of CO­2-hydrate Phase Transitions from Mixtures of CO2 and N2 Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qorbani Nashaqi, K.

    2015-12-01

    Storage of CO2 in aquifers is one of several options for reducing the emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere. Generally this option requires sealing integrity through layers of clay or shale. Many reservoirs have regions of temperature and pressure inside hydrate formation conditions. Whether hydrate formation can provide long term extra sealing still remains unverified in view of all co-existing phases that affect hydrate stability. Yet another storage option for CO2 is in the form of hydrate through exchange of in situ CH4 hydrate. Injection of CO2 into hydrate filled sediments is challenging due to the partial filling of pores with hydrate which results in low porosity and low permeability. Formation of new hydrate from injected CO2 will enhance these problems, Mixing N2 gas with the CO2 will increase permeability and will reduce driving forces for formation of new hydrate from pore water and injection gas. Hydrate can generally not reach thermodynamic equilibrium due to Gibbs' phase rule and the combined first and second laws of thermodynamics. These thermodynamic constraints on distribution of masses over co-existing phases are dynamically coupled to local mass- and heat-transport. Reservoir simulations are one possible method for investigation of possible scenarios related to injection of CO2 with N2 into aquifers containing CH4 hydrate. In this work we have developed prevoiusly modified RetrasoCodeBrite (RCB) simulator to handle injection of CO2/N2 gas mixtures. Hydrate formation and dissociation were determined by investigating Gibbs free energy differences between hydrate and hydrate formers. Gibbs free energy differences were calculated from changes in chemical potentials, which were obtained using non-equilibrium thermodynamic approach. Further extension of RCB has been implemented in this work through adding on-the-fly thermodynamic calculations. Correspondingly, hydrate phase transitions are calculated directly inside the code as a result of super

  8. Phase Behaviour, Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Clathrate Hydrate Systems of Carbon Dioxide in Presence of Tetrahydrofuran and Electrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamad Sabil, K. Bin

    2009-01-01

    In view of the possibilities for new development of carbon dioxide hydrate processes, this study focused on experimental measurements to obtain fundamental insight into the phase behaviour and the kinetic of formation of carbon dioxide hydrate forming systems. These data are essential for the

  9. Effects of vitrified and nonvitrified sugars on phosphatidylcholine fluid-to-gel phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, K L; Lei, Y P; Anderson, M; Martin, S; Bryant, G

    2000-04-01

    DSC was used to study the ability of glass-forming sugars to affect the gel-to-fluid phase transition temperature, T(m), of several phosphatidylcholines during dehydration. In the absence of sugars, T(m) increased as the lipid dried. Sugars diminished this increase, an effect we explain using the osmotic and volumetric properties of sugars. Sugars vitrifying around fluid phase lipids lowered T(m) below the transition temperature of the fully hydrated lipid, T(o). The extent to which T(m) was lowered below T(o) ranged from 12 degrees to 57 degrees, depending on the lipids' acyl chain composition. Sugars vitrifying around gel phase lipids raised T(m) during the first heating scan in the calorimeter, then lowered it below T(o) in subsequent scans of the sample. Ultrasound measurements of the mechanical properties of a typical sugar-glass indicate that it is sufficiently rigid to hinder the lipid gel-to-fluid transition. The effects of vitrification on T(m) are explained using the two-dimensional Clausius-Clapeyron equation to model the mechanical stress in the lipid bilayer imposed by the glassy matrix. Dextran and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) also vitrified but did not depress T(m) during drying. Hydration data suggest that the large molecular volumes of these polymers caused their exclusion from the interbilayer space during drying.

  10. High-pressure fluid phase equilibria phenomenology and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Deiters, Ulrich K

    2012-01-01

    The book begins with an overview of the phase diagrams of fluid mixtures (fluid = liquid, gas, or supercritical state), which can show an astonishing variety when elevated pressures are taken into account; phenomena like retrograde condensation (single and double) and azeotropy (normal and double) are discussed. It then gives an introduction into the relevant thermodynamic equations for fluid mixtures, including some that are rarely found in modern textbooks, and shows how they can they be used to compute phase diagrams and related properties. This chapter gives a consistent and axiomatic approach to fluid thermodynamics; it avoids using activity coefficients. Further chapters are dedicated to solid-fluid phase equilibria and global phase diagrams (systematic search for phase diagram classes). The appendix contains numerical algorithms needed for the computations. The book thus enables the reader to create or improve computer programs for the calculation of fluid phase diagrams. introduces phase diagram class...

  11. Hydration, Fluid Intake, and Related Urine Biomarkers among Male College Students in Cangzhou, China: A Cross-Sectional Study—Applications for Assessing Fluid Intake and Adequate Water Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Du, Songming; Tang, Zhenchuang; Zheng, Mengqi; Yan, Ruixia; Zhu, Yitang; Ma, Guansheng

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the associations between fluid intake and urine biomarkers and to determine daily total fluid intake for assessing hydration status for male college students. A total of 68 male college students aged 18–25 years recruited from Cangzhou, China completed a 7-day cross-sectional study. From day 1 to day 7; all subjects were asked to complete a self-administered 7-day 24-h fluid intake record. The foods eaten by subjects were weighed and 24-h urine was collected for three consecutive days on the last three consecutive days. On the sixth day, urine osmolality, specific gravity (USG), pH, and concentrations of potassium, sodium, and chloride was determined. Subjects were divided into optimal hydration, middle hydration, and hypohydration groups according to their 24-h urine osmolality. Strong relationships were found between daily total fluid intake and 24-h urine biomarkers, especially for 24-h urine volume (r = 0.76; p hydration was 2582 mL, while the daily total fluid intake for assessing hypohydration was 2502 mL. Differences in fluid intake and urine biomarkers were found among male college students with different hydration status. A strong relationship existed between urine biomarkers and fluid intake. A PLS model identified that key variables for assessing daily total fluid intake were 24-h urine volume and osmolality. It was feasibility to use total fluid intake to judge hydration status. PMID:28492493

  12. Hydration status and fluid and sodium balance in elite Canadian junior women's soccer players in a cool environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jennifer C; Stuart-Hill, Lynneth A; Pethick, Wendy; Gaul, Catherine A

    2012-10-01

    Dehydration can impair mental and on-field performance in soccer athletes; however, there is little data available from the female adolescent player. There is a lack of research investigating fluid and electrolyte losses in cool temperatures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the pretraining hydration status, fluid balance, and sweat sodium loss in 34 female Canadian junior elite soccer athletes (mean age ± SD, 15.7 ± 0.7 years) in a cool environment. Data were collected during two 90 min on-field training sessions (9.8 ± 3.3 °C, 63% ± 12% relative humidity). Prepractice urine specific gravity (USG), sweat loss (pre- and post-training body mass), and sweat sodium concentration (regional sweat patch method) were measured at each session. Paired t tests were used to identify significant differences between training sessions and Pearson's product moment correlation analysis was used to assess any relationships between selected variables (p ≤ 0.05). We found that 45% of players presented to practice in a hypohydrated state (USG > 1.020). Mean percent body mass loss was 0.84% ± 0.07% and sweat loss was 0.69 ± 0.54 L. Although available during each training session, fluid intake was low (63.6% of players consumed hydration management in athletes and thus the need for personalized hydration guidelines.

  13. Shale hydration inhibition characteristics and mechanism of a new amine-based additive in water-based drilling fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezhman Barati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work, shale hydration Inhibition performance of tallow amine ethoxylate as a shale stabilizer in water based drilling fluid, was investigated through these tests: bentonite hydration inhibition test, bentonite sedimentation test, drill cutting recovery test, dynamic linear swelling test, wettability test, isothermal water adsorption test, and zeta potential test. The results showed that bentonite particles are not capable of being hydrated or dispersed in the mediums containing tallow amine ethoxylate; tallow amine ethoxylate had shown a comparable and competitive inhibition performance with potassium chloride as a common shale stabilizer in drilling industry. Some amine functional groups exist in tallow amine ethoxylate structure which are capable of forming hydrogen bonding with surfaces of bentonite particles. This phenomenon decreased the water adsorption on bentonite particles' surfaces which results in reduction of swelling. Tallow amine ethoxylate is also compatible with other common drilling fluid additives. Keywords: Drilling fluids, Dynamic linear swelling, Hydrogen bond, Mechanism, Shale stabilizer, Tallow amine ethoxylate, Wettability, Zeta potential, Amine-based additive

  14. In-focus electron microscopy of frozen-hydrated biological samples with a Boersch phase plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, B.; Rhinow, D.; Walter, A.; Schroeder, R. [Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Max-von-Laue Str. 3, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Benner, G.; Majorovits, E.; Matijevic, M.; Niebel, H. [Carl Zeiss NTS GmbH, D-73447 Oberkochen (Germany); Mueller, H.; Haider, M. [CEOS GmbH, Englerstr. 26, 69126 Heidleberg (Germany); Lacher, M.; Schmitz, S.; Holik, P. [Caesar Research Center, Ludwig-Erhard-Allee 2, D-53175 Bonn (Germany); Kuehlbrandt, W., E-mail: werner.kuehlbrandt@mpibp-frankfurt.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Max-von-Laue Str. 3, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    We report the implementation of an electrostatic Einzel lens (Boersch) phase plate in a prototype transmission electron microscope dedicated to aberration-corrected cryo-EM. The combination of phase plate, C{sub s} corrector and Diffraction Magnification Unit (DMU) as a new electron-optical element ensures minimal information loss due to obstruction by the phase plate and enables in-focus phase contrast imaging of large macromolecular assemblies. As no defocussing is necessary and the spherical aberration is corrected, maximal, non-oscillating phase contrast transfer can be achieved up to the information limit of the instrument. A microchip produced by a scalable micro-fabrication process has 10 phase plates, which are positioned in a conjugate, magnified diffraction plane generated by the DMU. Phase plates remained fully functional for weeks or months. The large distance between phase plate and the cryo sample permits the use of an effective anti-contaminator, resulting in ice contamination rates of <0.6 nm/h at the specimen. Maximal in-focus phase contrast was obtained by applying voltages between 80 and 700 mV to the phase plate electrode. The phase plate allows for in-focus imaging of biological objects with a signal-to-noise of 5-10 at a resolution of 2-3 nm, as demonstrated for frozen-hydrated virus particles and purple membrane at liquid-nitrogen temperature. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We implement an electrostatic Boersch phase plate into a dedicated prototypical TEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase contrast aberration-corrected electron microscope (PACEM) includes a diffraction magnification unit (DMU). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DMU minimizes obstruction of low spatial frequencies by the phase plate. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In-focus phase contrast generation is demonstrated for frozen-hydrated biological specimens.

  15. Fluid flow and methane occurrences in the Disko Bugt area offshore West Greenland: indications for gas hydrates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tove; Laier, Troels; Kuijpers, Antoon; Rasmussen, Tine L.; Mikkelsen, Naja E.; Nørgård-Pedersen, Niels

    2014-12-01

    The present study is the first to directly address the issue of gas hydrates offshore West Greenland, where numerous occurrences of shallow hydrocarbons have been documented in the vicinity of Disko Bugt (Bay). Furthermore, decomposing gas hydrate has been implied to explain seabed features in this climate-sensitive area. The study is based on archive data and new (2011, 2012) shallow seismic and sediment core data. Archive seismic records crossing an elongated depression (20×35 km large, 575 m deep) on the inner shelf west of Disko Bugt (Bay) show a bottom simulating reflector (BSR) within faulted Mesozoic strata, consistent with the occurrence of gas hydrates. Moreover, the more recently acquired shallow seismic data reveal gas/fluid-related features in the overlying sediments, and geochemical data point to methane migration from a deeper-lying petroleum system. By contrast, hydrocarbon signatures within faulted Mesozoic strata below the strait known as the Vaigat can be inferred on archive seismics, but no BSR was visible. New seismic data provide evidence of various gas/fluid-releasing features in the overlying sediments. Flares were detected by the echo-sounder in July 2012, and cores contained ikaite and showed gas-releasing cracks and bubbles, all pointing to ongoing methane seepage in the strait. Observed seabed mounds also sustain gas seepages. For areas where crystalline bedrock is covered only by Pleistocene-Holocene deposits, methane was found only in the Egedesminde Dyb (Trough). There was a strong increase in methane concentration with depth, but no free gas. This is likely due to the formation of gas hydrate and the limited thickness of the sediment infill. Seabed depressions off Ilulissat Isfjord (Icefjord) previously inferred to express ongoing gas release from decomposing gas hydrate show no evidence of gas seepage, and are more likely a result of neo-tectonism.

  16. Phase transitions of fluids in heterogeneous pores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Malijevský

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We study phase behaviour of a model fluid confined between two unlike parallel walls in the presence of long range (dispersion forces. Predictions obtained from macroscopic (geometric and mesoscopic arguments are compared with numerical solutions of a non-local density functional theory. Two capillary models are considered. For a capillary comprising two (differently adsorbing walls we show that simple geometric arguments lead to the generalized Kelvin equation locating very accurately capillary condensation, provided both walls are only partially wet. If at least one of the walls is in complete wetting regime, the Kelvin equation should be modified by capturing the effect of thick wetting films by including Derjaguin's correction. Within the second model, we consider a capillary formed of two competing walls, so that one tends to be wet and the other dry. In this case, an interface localized-delocalized transition occurs at bulk two-phase coexistence and a temperature T*(L depending on the pore width L. A mean-field analysis shows that for walls exhibiting first-order wetting transition at a temperature T_{w}, T_{s} > T*(L > T_{w}, where the spinodal temperature Ts can be associated with the prewetting critical temperature, which also determines a critical pore width below which the interface localized-delocalized transition does not occur. If the walls exhibit critical wetting, the transition is shifted below Tw and for a model with the binding potential W(l=A(Tl-2+B(Tl-3+..., where l is the location of the liquid-gas interface, the transition can be characterized by a dimensionless parameter κ=B/(AL, so that the fluid configuration with delocalized interface is stable in the interval between κ=-2/3 and κ ~ -0.23.

  17. Phase changes of filled ice Ih methane hydrate under low temperature and high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takehiko; Hirai, Hisako; Matsuoka, Takahiro; Ohishi, Yasuo; Yagi, Takehiko; Ohtake, Michika; Yamamoto, Yoshitaka; Nakano, Satoshi; Irifune, Tetsuo

    2013-09-14

    Low-temperature and high-pressure experiments were performed with filled ice Ih structure of methane hydrate under 2.0-77.0 GPa and 30-300 K using diamond anvil cells and a helium-refrigeration cryostat. In situ X-ray diffractometry revealed distinct changes in the compressibility of the axial ratios of the host framework with pressure. Raman spectroscopy showed a split in the C-H vibration modes of the guest methane molecules, which was previously explained by the orientational ordering of the guest molecules. The pressure and temperature conditions at the split of the vibration modes agreed well with those of the compressibility change. The results indicate the following: (i) the orientational ordering of the guest methane molecules from an orientationally disordered state occurred at high pressures and low temperatures; and (ii) this guest ordering led to anisotropic contraction in the host framework. Such guest orientational ordering and subsequent anisotropic contraction of the host framework were similar to that reported previously for filled ice Ic hydrogen hydrate. Since phases with different guest-ordering manners were regarded as different phases, existing regions of the guest disordered-phase and the guest ordered-phase were roughly estimated by the X-ray study. In addition, above the pressure of the guest-ordered phase, another high-pressure phase developed in the low-temperature region. The deuterated-water host samples were also examined, and the influence of isotopic effects on guest ordering and phase transformation was observed.

  18. Phase Behavior of Ritonavir Amorphous Solid Dispersions during Hydration and Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Hitesh S; Taylor, Lynne S

    2017-09-27

    The aim of this research was to study the interplay of solid and solution state phase transformations during the dissolution of ritonavir (RTV) amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs). RTV ASDs with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polyvinylpyrrolidone vinyl acetate (PVPVA) and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate (HPMCAS) were prepared at 10-50% drug loading by solvent evaporation. The miscibility of RTV ASDs was studied before and after exposure to 97% relative humidity (RH). Non-sink dissolution studies were performed on fresh and moisture-exposed ASDs. RTV and polymer release were monitored using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Techniques including fluorescence spectroscopy, confocal imaging, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) were utilized to monitor solid and the solution state phase transformations. All RTV-PVP and RTV-PVPVA ASDs underwent moisture-induced amorphous-amorphous phase separation (AAPS) on high RH storage whereas RTV-HPMCAS ASDs remained miscible. Non-sink dissolution of PVP- and PVPVA-based ASDs at low drug loadings led to rapid RTV and polymer release resulting in concentrations in excess of amorphous solubility, liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) and amorphous nanodroplet formation. High drug loading PVP- and PVPVA-based ASDs did not exhibit LLPS upon dissolution as a consequence of extensive AAPS in the hydrated ASD matrix. All RTV-HPMCAS ASDs led to LLPS upon dissolution. RTV ASD dissolution is governed by a competition between the dissolution rate and the rate of phase separation in the hydrated ASD matrix. LLPS was observed for ASDs where the drug release was polymer controlled and only ASDs that remained miscible during the initial phase of dissolution led to LLPS. Techniques such as fluorescence spectroscopy, confocal imaging and SEM were useful in understanding the phase behavior of ASDs upon hydration and dissolution

  19. Equilibres de phases dans les systèmes fluides petroliers-eau Phase Equilibria in Oil-Water Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peneloux A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Nous présentons quelques résultats obtenus à partir du logiciel FHYD qui permet le traitement des mélanges eau-fluides pétroliers, avec la détermination de la nature des phases (huile-gaz-eau-hydrate thermodynamiquement stables dans des conditions données de température et de pression, ainsi que de la quantité, de la composition de ces différentes phases et de leurs propriétés. Ce logiciel permet le tracé automatique des diagrammes de phases et nous présentons des exemples, depuis les systèmes binaires (eau-éthane, ternaires (eau-méthane-propane jusqu'aux fluides les plus complexes. La présence de sels (chlorure de sodium dissous est envisagée, ainsi que le calcul des conditions de dépôt du sel solide. Des exemples de problèmes pétroliers sont cités (gaz de séparateur saturé en eau, huile saturée en eau dans les conditions de gisement, huile en présence d'eau salée. Les estimations sur les quantités d'hydrate formées et leurs compositions sont comparées à des données expérimentales et aux résultats obtenus par d'autres logiciels. Le programme FHYD pourrait permettre une représentation plus réaliste de l'évolution des fluides pétroliers et des propriétés de transport de leurs différentes phases dans les modèles de simulation des conduites polyphasiques. This article presents a selection of results obtained with the FHYD program. This software allows simulation of mixtures composed of petroleum fluids and water, with determination of the nature of thermodynamically stable phases (oil-gas-water-hydrate under given conditions of temperature and pressure, along with the quantity, composition and properties of these different phases. Additionally, the program can automatically produce phase diagrams. Several examples of these have been included here, ranging from binary systems (water-ethane and ternary systems (water-methane-propane to the most complex petroleum fluids. The presence of dissolved salts

  20. Investigation Of Hydrate Growth Rate On The Interface Between Liquid and Solid Film

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, H.; Infante Ferreira, C.A.; Groll, Eckhard

    2016-01-01

    Hydrate slurry has been reported to be a suitable secondary fluid for refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. The latent heat of CO2 hydrate is 387 kJ/kg under phase equilibrium condition of 7 °C and 30 bar. The utilization of CO2 hydrate slurry in air-conditioning systems is promising in

  1. Non-invasive estimation of hydration status changes through tear fluid osmolarity during exercise and post-exercise rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungaro, Corey T; Reimel, Adam J; Nuccio, Ryan P; Barnes, Kelly A; Pahnke, Matthew D; Baker, Lindsay B

    2015-05-01

    To determine if tear fluid osmolarity (Tosm) can track changes in hydration status during exercise and post-exercise rehydration. Nineteen male athletes (18-37 years, 74.6 ± 7.9 kg) completed two randomized, counterbalanced trials; cycling (~95 min) with water intake to replace fluid losses or water restriction to progressively dehydrate to 3 % body mass loss (BML). After exercise, subjects drank water to maintain body mass (water intake trials) or progressively rehydrate to pre-exercise body mass (water restriction trials) over a 90-min recovery period. Plasma osmolality (Posm) and Tosm measurements (mean of right and left eyes) were taken pre-exercise, during rest periods between exercise bouts corresponding to 1, 2, and 3 % BML, and rehydration at 2, 1, and 0 % BML. During exercise mean (± SD) Tosm was significantly higher in water restriction vs. water intake trials at 1 % BML (299 ± 9 vs. 293 ± 9 mmol/L), 2 % BML (301 ± 9 vs. 294 ± 9 mmol/L), and 3 % BML (302 ± 9 vs. 292 ± 8 mmol/L). Mean Tosm progressively decreased during post-exercise rehydration and was not different between trials at 1 % BML (291 ± 8 vs. 290 ± 7 mmol/L) and 0 % BML (288 ± 7 vs. 289 ± 8 mmol/L). Mean Tosm tracked changes in hydration status similar to that of mean Posm; however, the individual responses in Tosm to water restriction and water intake was considerably more variable than that of Posm. Tosm is a valid indicator of changes in hydration status when looking at the group mean; however, large differences among subjects in the Tosm response to hydration changes limit its validity for individual recommendations.

  2. Assessing fluid-gas expulsion geology and gas hydrate deposits across the Gulf of Mexico with multicomponent and multifrequency seismic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardage, B.A.; Sava, D.C.; Murray, P.E.; DeAngelo, M.V.; Backus, M.M.; Graebner, R.J. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Bureau of Economic Geology; Roberts, H.H. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States). Coastal Studies Inst.

    2008-07-01

    This paper reported on a study of 2 fluid-gas expulsion sites across a portion of the Green Canyon area of the Gulf of Mexico, where deep-water fields and oil and gas seeps are numerous. Hydrates are pervasive across the 2 expulsion sites studied at Typhoon and Genesis Fields. The 2 sites GD 237 and GC 204 are positioned on the flank of an intraslope basin containing a thick sedimentary sequence. Major fluid-gas migration pathways occur near the edges of shallow subsurface salt masses. The two-fluid gas expulsion sites were investigated with 4-component ocean-bottom-cable (4C OBC) seismic data and chirp-sonar data acquired by an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The study examined the near-seafloor geology of the deep-water, fluid-gas expulsion features to estimate hydrate concentrations in strata spanned by the hydrate stability zone local to these expulsion sites. In some units, hydrate concentrations were more than 30 per cent of the available pore space of the host sediment. A free-gas layer was discovered immediately under the base of the hydrate stability zone across each expulsion site area. It was revealed by a reduction in V{sub p} velocity. Although the amount of free-gas in this zone has not been estimated, it is expected that the zone has a gas saturation of only a few percentage points. This free-gas zone was not obviously different from hydrate-bearing zones when examining resistivity logs. It was concluded that interpreting the thickness of a hydrate stability zone from resistivity logs alone could result in an overestimation of the thickness of the hydrate stability zone and the amount of hydrate that exists near deep-water expulsion features. 10 refs., 13 figs.

  3. Evidence of focused fluid flow associated to the gas hydrate wedge on the angolan margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casenave, Viviane; Imbert, Patrice; Gay, Aurélien

    2013-04-01

    , in present-day water depth ranging from 750 to 850 m. These buried depressions cover a stripe in that depth range all over the area covered by the 3D seismic data. These two observations, made both on the seafloor and on it subsurface, seem to correspond to the same phenomenon of fluid expulsion, for the views of the seismic morphology similarities, but in different periods. It is interpreted as a result of a downward migration of the BSR, because of the last sea-level rise, which would have meant an upslope migration of the intersection of the BSR with the seafloor. Based on the evidence of gas hydrate dissociation phenomenon in the Lower Congo Basin, the pinch-out of the BSR may be considered as a natural laboratory for investigating a possible massive greenhouse gas release due to global warming.

  4. Prediction of phase equilibrium and hydration free energy of carboxylic acids by Monte Carlo simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Nicolas; Gedik, Ibrahim; Lachet, Véronique; Pigeon, Laurent; Lugo, Rafael

    2013-06-13

    In this work, a new transferable united-atom force field has been developed to predict phase equilibrium and hydration free energy of carboxylic acids. To take advantage of the transferability of the AUA4 force field, all Lennard-Jones parameters of groups involved in the carboxylic acid chemical function are reused from previous parametrizations of this force field. Only a unique set of partial electrostatic charges is proposed to reproduce the experimental gas phase dipole moment, saturated liquid densities and vapor pressures. Phase equilibrium properties of various pure carboxylic acids (acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid, pentanoic acid, hexanoic acid) and one diacid (1,5-pentanedioic) are studied through Monte Carlo simulations in the Gibbs ensemble. A good accuracy is obtained for pure compound saturated liquid densities and vapor pressures (average deviation of 2% and 6%, respectively), as well as for critical points. The vaporization enthalpy is, however, poorly predicted for short acids, probably due to a limitation of the force field to correctly describe the significant dimerization in the vapor phase. Pressure-composition diagrams for two binary mixtures (acetic acid + n-butane and propanoic acid + pentanoic acid) are also computed with a good accuracy, showing the transferability of the proposed force field to mixtures. Hydration free energies are calculated for three carboxylic acids using thermodynamic integration. A systematic overestimation of around 10 kJ/mol is observed compared to experimental data. This new force field parametrized only on saturated equilibrium properties appears insufficient to reach an acceptable precision for this property, and only relative hydration free energies between two carboxylic acids can be correctly predicted. This highlights the limitation of the transferability feature of force fields to properties not included in the parametrization database.

  5. Hydration, Fluid Intake, and Related Urine Biomarkers among Male College Students in Cangzhou, China: A Cross-Sectional Study—Applications for Assessing Fluid Intake and Adequate Water Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to assess the associations between fluid intake and urine biomarkers and to determine daily total fluid intake for assessing hydration status for male college students. A total of 68 male college students aged 18–25 years recruited from Cangzhou, China completed a 7-day cross-sectional study. From day 1 to day 7; all subjects were asked to complete a self-administered 7-day 24-h fluid intake record. The foods eaten by subjects were weighed and 24-h urine was collected for three consecutive days on the last three consecutive days. On the sixth day, urine osmolality, specific gravity (USG, pH, and concentrations of potassium, sodium, and chloride was determined. Subjects were divided into optimal hydration, middle hydration, and hypohydration groups according to their 24-h urine osmolality. Strong relationships were found between daily total fluid intake and 24-h urine biomarkers, especially for 24-h urine volume (r = 0.76; p < 0.0001 and osmolality (r = 0.76; p < 0.0001. The percentage of the variances in daily total fluid intake (R2 explained by PLS (partial least squares model with seven urinary biomarkers was 68.9%; two urine biomarkers—24-h urine volume and osmolality—were identified as possible key predictors. The daily total fluid intake for assessing optimal hydration was 2582 mL, while the daily total fluid intake for assessing hypohydration was 2502 mL. Differences in fluid intake and urine biomarkers were found among male college students with different hydration status. A strong relationship existed between urine biomarkers and fluid intake. A PLS model identified that key variables for assessing daily total fluid intake were 24-h urine volume and osmolality. It was feasibility to use total fluid intake to judge hydration status.

  6. To the question of the interpolation of the phase equilibrium curves for the hydrates of methane and carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musakaev Nail

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental data base was developed. This database includes 200 points of the phase equilibrium curve of methane hydrate, as well as more than 300 experimental points for carbon dioxide hydrate. This database is based on the work of a large number of researchers. Taking into account the experimental data, empirical formulas are constructed for determining the equilibrium parameters of the methane and carbon dioxide hydrates, as well as the equilibrium curve of “liquid carbon dioxide – gaseous carbon dioxide”.

  7. Force of crystallisation-development during CaO hydration: theory vs. experiment and the role of fluid transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolterbeek, Tim; van Noort, Reinier; Spiers, Chris

    2017-04-01

    When chemical reactions that involve an increase in solid volume proceed in a confined space, this may under certain conditions lead to the development of a so-called force of crystallisation (FoC). In other words, reaction can result in stress being exerted on the confining boundaries of the system. In principle, any thermodynamic driving force that is able to produce a supersaturation with respect to a solid product can generate a FoC, as long as precipitation can occur under confined conditions, i.e. within load-bearing grain contacts. Well-known examples of such reactions include salt damage, where supersaturation is caused by evaporation and surface curvature effects, and a wide range of mineral reactions where the solid products comprise a larger volume than the solid reactants. Frost heave, where crystallisation is driven by fluid under-cooling, i.e. temperature change, is a similar process. In a geological context, FoC-development is widely considered to play an important role in pseudomorphic replacement, vein formation, and reaction-driven fracturing. Chemical reactions capable of producing a FoC such as the hydration of CaO (lime), which is thermodynamically capable of producing stresses in the GPa range, also offer obvious engineering potential. Despite this, relatively few studies have been conducted where the magnitude of the FoC is determined directly. Indeed, the maximum stress obtainable by CaO hydration has not been validated or determined experimentally. Here we report uni-axial compaction/expansion experiments performed in an oedometer-type apparatus on pre-compacted CaO powder, at 65 °C and at atmospheric pore fluid pressure. Using this set-up, the FoC generated during CaO hydration could be measured directly. Our results show FoC-induced stresses reaching up to 153 MPa, with the hydration reaction stopping or slowing down significantly before completion. Failure to achieve the GPa stresses predicted by thermodynamic theory is attributed to

  8. Desalination utilizing clathrate hydrates (LDRD final report).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Cygan, Randall Timothy (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Greathouse, Jeffery A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Majzoub, Eric H. (University of Missouri, Columbia, MO)

    2008-01-01

    Advances are reported in several aspects of clathrate hydrate desalination fundamentals necessary to develop an economical means to produce municipal quantities of potable water from seawater or brackish feedstock. These aspects include the following, (1) advances in defining the most promising systems design based on new types of hydrate guest molecules, (2) selection of optimal multi-phase reactors and separation arrangements, and, (3) applicability of an inert heat exchange fluid to moderate hydrate growth, control the morphology of the solid hydrate material formed, and facilitate separation of hydrate solids from concentrated brine. The rate of R141b hydrate formation was determined and found to depend only on the degree of supercooling. The rate of R141b hydrate formation in the presence of a heat exchange fluid depended on the degree of supercooling according to the same rate equation as pure R141b with secondary dependence on salinity. Experiments demonstrated that a perfluorocarbon heat exchange fluid assisted separation of R141b hydrates from brine. Preliminary experiments using the guest species, difluoromethane, showed that hydrate formation rates were substantial at temperatures up to at least 12 C and demonstrated partial separation of water from brine. We present a detailed molecular picture of the structure and dynamics of R141b guest molecules within water cages, obtained from ab initio calculations, molecular dynamics simulations, and Raman spectroscopy. Density functional theory calculations were used to provide an energetic and molecular orbital description of R141b stability in both large and small cages in a structure II hydrate. Additionally, the hydrate of an isomer, 1,2-dichloro-1-fluoroethane, does not form at ambient conditions because of extensive overlap of electron density between guest and host. Classical molecular dynamics simulations and laboratory trials support the results for the isomer hydrate. Molecular dynamics simulations

  9. Phase equilibria of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, HNO{sub 3}, and HCl hydrates and the composition of polar stratospheric clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, P.J.; Zhang, R.; Molina, M.J. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-01-20

    Thermodynamic properties and phase equilibria behavior for the hydrates and coexisting pairs of hydrates of common acids which exist in the stratosphere are assembled from new laboratory measurements and standard literature data. The analysis focuses upon solid-solid-vapor equilibria at temperatures around 200 K and includes new calorimetric and vapor pressure data. Calculated partial pressures versus 1/T slopes for the hydrates and coexisting hydrates agree well with experimental data where available. 42 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. In-focus electron microscopy of frozen-hydrated biological samples with a Boersch phase plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, B; Rhinow, D; Walter, A; Schröder, R; Benner, G; Majorovits, E; Matijevic, M; Niebel, H; Müller, H; Haider, M; Lacher, M; Schmitz, S; Holik, P; Kühlbrandt, W

    2011-12-01

    We report the implementation of an electrostatic Einzel lens (Boersch) phase plate in a prototype transmission electron microscope dedicated to aberration-corrected cryo-EM. The combination of phase plate, C(s) corrector and Diffraction Magnification Unit (DMU) as a new electron-optical element ensures minimal information loss due to obstruction by the phase plate and enables in-focus phase contrast imaging of large macromolecular assemblies. As no defocussing is necessary and the spherical aberration is corrected, maximal, non-oscillating phase contrast transfer can be achieved up to the information limit of the instrument. A microchip produced by a scalable micro-fabrication process has 10 phase plates, which are positioned in a conjugate, magnified diffraction plane generated by the DMU. Phase plates remained fully functional for weeks or months. The large distance between phase plate and the cryo sample permits the use of an effective anti-contaminator, resulting in ice contamination rates of frozen-hydrated virus particles and purple membrane at liquid-nitrogen temperature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct phase coexistence molecular dynamics study of the phase equilibria of the ternary methane-carbon dioxide-water hydrate system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalis, Vasileios K; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N; Stubos, Athanassios K; Economou, Ioannis G

    2016-09-14

    Molecular dynamics simulation is used to predict the phase equilibrium conditions of a ternary hydrate system. In particular, the direct phase coexistence methodology is implemented for the determination of the three-phase coexistence temperature of the methane-carbon dioxide-water hydrate system at elevated pressures. The TIP4P/ice, TraPPE-UA and OPLS-UA forcefields for water, carbon dioxide and methane respectively are used, in line with our previous studies of the phase equilibria of the corresponding binary hydrate systems. The solubility in the aqueous phase of the guest molecules of the respective binary and ternary systems is examined under hydrate-forming conditions, providing insight into the predictive capability of the methodology as well as the combination of these forcefields to accurately describe the phase behavior of the ternary system. The three-phase coexistence temperature is calculated at 400, 1000 and 2000 bar for two compositions of the methane-carbon dioxide mixture. The predicted values are compared with available calculations with satisfactory agreement. An estimation is also provided for the fraction of the guest molecules in the mixed hydrate phase under the conditions examined.

  12. Hydration status and fluid intake of urban, underprivileged South African male adolescent soccer players during training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordon, Reno Eron; Kassier, Susanna Maria; Biggs, Chara

    2015-01-01

    .... The type and amount of fluid consumed was assessed during training. A self-administered questionnaire was used to determine the players' knowledge regarding fluid and carbohydrate requirements for soccer training...

  13. The Effects of Intravenous Hydration on Amniotic Fluid Volume and Pregnancy Outcomes in Women with Term Pregnancy and Oligohydramnios: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Shahnazi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Amniotic fluid is an important factor in the prediction of fetal survival. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effects of intravenous hydration of mothers on amniotic fluid volume and in turn on pregnancy outcomes. Methods: The current single blind controlled clinical trial was conducted on 20 pregnant mothers with amniot-ic fluid index of lower or equal to 5 cm and gestational age of 37-41 weeks. The subjects were divided into two groups of case and control through simple random sampling. Am-niotic fluid index was measured in all participants. The case group received one liter of isotonic saline during 30 minutes by the bolus method. Reevaluations of amniotic fluid index in both groups were made 90 minutes after baseline measurement. Independent t-test and paired t-test were used to compare the two groups and mean amniotic fluid in-dex before and after treatment, respectively. Results: Hydration of mothers significantly increased the amniotic fluid index in the case group (mean change: 1.5 cm; 95%CI: 0.46 - 2.64; P = 0.01. The mean change of amniotic fluid index in the control group did not significantly increase (P = 0.06. The elevation of amniotic fluid index in the hydra-tion group (32% was significantly higher than the control group (1% (P = 0.03. Conclusion: In this study intravenous hydration increased amniotic fluid index of mothers with term pregnancy and oligohydramnios. Since it caused no complications for the moth-er and the fetus, it can be used as an effective method in management of oligohydramnios.

  14. Endurance Cyclist Fluid Intake, Hydration Status, Thirst, and Thermal Sensations: Gender Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Lawrence E; Johnson, Evan C; McKenzie, Amy L; Ellis, Lindsay A; Williamson, Keith H

    2016-04-01

    This field investigation assessed differences (e.g., drinking behavior, hydration status, perceptual ratings) between female and male endurance cyclists who completed a 164-km event in a hot environment (35 °C mean dry bulb) to inform rehydration recommendations for athletes. Three years of data were pooled to create 2 groups of cyclists: women (n = 15) and men (n = 88). Women were significantly smaller (p hydration status, but were similar to men in age (43 ± 7 years vs. 44 ± 9 years) and exercise time (7.77 ± 1.24 hr vs. 7.23 ± 1.75 hr). During the 164-km ride, women lost less body mass (-0.7 ± 1.0 vs. -1.7 ± 1.5 kg; -1.1 ± 1.6% vs. -1.9 ± 1.8% of body weight; p hydration indices suggest that professional sports medicine organizations should consider gender and individualized drinking plans when formulating pronouncements regarding rehydration during exercise.

  15. Thermodynamics of aqueous solutes at high temperatures and pressures: Application of the hydration theory and implications for fluid-mediated mass transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, M.; Dolejs, D.

    2012-04-01

    Magmatic activity and prograde devolatilization of subducting or underplating lithologies release large quantities of aqueous fluids that act as mass and heat transfer agents in the planetary interiors. Understanding of mineral-melt-fluid interactions is essential for evaluating the effects of fluid-mediated mass transport in subduction zones, collisional orogens as well as in igneous provinces. The thermodynamic properties of aqueous species were frequently described by the Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equation of state [1] but its utility is limited by inavailability of the solvent dielectric properties at high pressures and temperatures, and by decoupling of species-solvent mechanical and electrostatic interactions that cannot be separated within the Born theory. Systematic description of the hydration process in a Born-Haber cycle leads to the following thermochemical contributions: (i) thermodynamic properties of an unhydrated species, (ii) the pressure-volume work required to create a cavity within the solvent to accommodate the species, described by the scaled particle theory, (iii) entropic contribution related to changes in the solute's and the solvent's kinetic degrees of freedom, and (iv) contribution from the solute-solvent molecular interactions and corresponding rearrangement of the solvent molecules to form the hydration shell. Application of the spatial correlation functions [2, 3] results in apparent Gibbs energy of aqueous species, ΔaGi = a + bT + cTlnT + dP + eTlnρ + fTρlnρ, where athrough f represent constants related to standard thermodynamic properties of aqueous species (ΔfH, S, V, cP) and to solvent volumetric properties at 298.15 K and 1 bar (ρ, α, β etc.). In phase equilibrium calculations, the number of required parameters often reduces to four (c = f = 0) while noting that H2O density as the only solvent-related property is accurately known to extreme temperatures and pressures. The equation of state parameters were calibrated for 30

  16. Phase behaviour and thermoelastic properties of ammonia hydrate and ice polymorphs from 0 - 2 GPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, A. D.; Wood, I. G.; Vocadlo, L.

    2008-12-01

    Ammonia remains amongst the most plausible planetary "antifreeze" agents, and its physical properties in hydrate compounds under the appropriate conditions (roughly 0 - 5 GPa, 100 - 300 K) must be known in order for it to be accommodated in planetary models. The pressure melting curve, and the expected polymorphism of the stoichiometric ammonia hydrates have implications for the internal structure of large icy moons like Titan, leading to phase layering and the possible persistence of deep subsurface oceans, the latter being sites of high astrobiological potential. Aqueous ammonia is also a candidate substance involved in cryomagmatism on Titan, and again the melting behaviour, and densities of liquids and solids, in the ammonia-water system must be known to model properly the partial melting and propagation of magma. We describe the results of a series of powder neutron diffraction experiments over the range 0 - 2.0 GPa, 150 - 280 K which were carried out with the objective of determining the phase behaviour and thermoelastic properties of ammonia dihydrate. In addition to the low-pressure cubic crystalline phase, ADH I, we have identified two closely related monoclinic polymorphs of ammonia dihydrate (ADH IIa and IIb) in the range 0.45 - 0.60 GPa (at 175 K), and have determined that this phase dissociates to a mixture of ammonia monohydrate phase II and ice II when warmed to ~190 K, which in turn melts at a binary eutectic at ~196 K; AMH II has a large (Z = 16) orthorhombic unit cell. Above 0.60 GPa, an orthorhombic polymorph of ammonia dihydrate, which we have referred to previously as ADH IV, persists to pressures > 3 GPa, and appears to be the liquidus phase over this whole pressure range. We have observed this phase co- existing with both ice II and ice VI. Here we describe the most plausible synthesis of the high-pressure phase diagram which explains our observations, and provide measurements of the densities, thermal expansion, bulk moduli, and crystal

  17. Natural Gas Hydrate Phase Equilibria and Kinetics : Understanding the State-Of-The-Art Équilibres des phases des hydrates de gaz naturel et cinétique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloan E. D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available An overview is given of gas hydrate phase equilibria and kinetics. It is suggested that with only a few exceptions hydrate phase equilibrium conditions may be predicted with acceptable accuracy for industrial purposes via the current state-of-the art. Hydrate research is at a milestone, going beyond equilibrium experiments to time-dependent measurements, such as in the kinetic arena, where there is a severe paucity of date. To illustrate the concepts, two qualitative microscopic models are presented :1 the hydrate guest: cavity size ratio and2 the dissolution of apolar molecules in liquid water. Hypotheses for macroscopic phase equilibria and kinetic nucleation phenomena are given, based upon the two models. Cet article présente brièvement les équilibres des phases des hydrates de gaz naturel et leur cinétique. Il signale qu'en l'état actuel des connaissances, les conditions d'équilibre des phases des hydrates peuvent être connues, à quelques exceptions près, avec une précision acceptable dans un but industriel. La recherche sur les hydrates atteint un point décisif, elle dépasse les expériences d'équilibre et s'intéresse aux mesures variant en fonction du temps, celles de la cinétique par exemple, où les données sont particulièrement rares. Pour illustrer le concept deux modèles qualitatifs microscopiques sont présentés : 1 le rapport de grosseur hydrate hôte/cavité, et 2 la dissolution des molécules apolaires dans l'eau liquide. L'auteur émet des hypothèses relatives aux phénomènes macroscopiques d'équilibres des phases et de nucléation cinétique, basées sur ces deux modèles.

  18. Determining the three-phase coexistence line in methane hydrates using computer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, M. M.; Vega, C.

    2010-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to estimate the three-phase (solid hydrate-liquid water-gaseous methane) coexistence line for the water-methane binary mixture. The temperature at which the three phases are in equilibrium was determined for three different pressures, namely, 40, 100, and 400 bar by using direct coexistence simulations. In the simulations water was described by using either TIP4P, TIP4P/2005, or TIP4P/Ice models and methane was described as simple Lennard-Jones interaction site. Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules were used to obtain the parameters of the cross interactions. For the TIP4P/2005 model positive deviations from the energetic Lorentz-Berthelot rule were also considered to indirectly account for the polarization of methane when introduced in liquid water. To locate the three-phase coexistence point, two different global compositions were used, which yielded (to within statistical uncertainty) the same predictions for the three-phase coexistence temperatures, although with a somewhat different time evolution. The three-phase coexistence temperatures obtained at different pressures when using the TIP4P/Ice model of water were in agreement with the experimental results. The main reason for this is that the TIP4P/Ice model reproduces the melting point of ice Ih.

  19. Examination of Cement Pastes Hydrated Phases, and Synthetic Products by X-Ray Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-04-01

    F. E. Jones, Hydration of Calcium Aluminates and Ferrites , Fourth International Symposium on the Chemistry of Cement, Washington, D. C., 1960, Vol 1...hydrated calcium aluminates and ferrites , Proc Fifth Inte-national Symposium on the Chemistry of Cement, Tokyo, 1968, 196-. pp 37-67; discussion by M. H...water-cement ratio contained ettringite, tetracalcium aluminate inonos-2;irate-12-hydrate, calcium hydroxide, calcium silicate hydrate gel, and

  20. Fluid Retention and Utility of Practical Hydration Markers to Detect Three Levels of Recovery Fluid Intake in Male Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcoxson, Mary Caitlin Stevenson; Johnson, Samantha Louise; Pribyslavska, Veronika; Green, James Mathew; O'Neal, Eric Kyle

    2017-04-01

    Runners are unlikely to consume fluid during training bouts increasing the importance of recovery rehydration efforts. This study assessed urine specific gravity (USG) responses following runs in the heat with different recovery fluid intake volumes. Thirteen male runners completed 3 evening running sessions resulting in approximately 2,200 ± 300 ml of sweat loss (3.1 ± 0.4% body mass) followed by a standardized dinner and breakfast. Beverage fluid intake (pre/postbreakfast) equaled 1,565/2,093 ml (low; L), 2,065/2,593 ml (moderate; M) and 2,565/3,356 mL (high; H). Voids were collected in separate containers. Increased urine output resulted in no differences (p > .05) in absolute mean fluid retention for waking or first postbreakfast voids. Night void averages excluding the first void postrun (1.025 ± 0.008; 1.013 ± 0.008; 1.006 ± 0.003), first morning (1.024 ± 0.004; 1.015 ± 0.005; 1.014 ± 0.005), and postbreakfast (1.022 ± 0.007; 1.014 ± 0.007; 1.008 ± 0.003) USG were higher (p < .05) for L versus M and H respectively and more clearly differentiated fluid intake volume between L and M than color or thirst sensation. Waking (r = -0.66) and postbreakfast (r = -0.71) USG were both significantly correlated (p < .001) with fluid replacement percentage, but not absolute fluid retention. Fluid intake M was reported as most similar to normal consumption (5.6 ± 1.0 on 0-10 scale) after breakfast and equaled 122 ± 16% of sweat losses. Retention data suggests consumption above this level is not warranted or actually practiced by most runners drinking ad libitum, but that periodic prerun USG assessment may be useful for coaches to detect runners that habitually consume low levels of fluids between training bouts in warm seasons.

  1. Comparative Assessment of Advanced Gay Hydrate Production Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. D. White; B. P. McGrail; S. K. Wurstner

    2009-06-30

    Displacing natural gas and petroleum with carbon dioxide is a proven technology for producing conventional geologic hydrocarbon reservoirs, and producing additional yields from abandoned or partially produced petroleum reservoirs. Extending this concept to natural gas hydrate production offers the potential to enhance gas hydrate recovery with concomitant permanent geologic sequestration. Numerical simulation was used to assess a suite of carbon dioxide injection techniques for producing gas hydrates from a variety of geologic deposit types. Secondary hydrate formation was found to inhibit contact of the injected CO{sub 2} regardless of injectate phase state, thus diminishing the exchange rate due to pore clogging and hydrate zone bypass of the injected fluids. Additional work is needed to develop methods of artificially introducing high-permeability pathways in gas hydrate zones if injection of CO{sub 2} in either gas, liquid, or micro-emulsion form is to be more effective in enhancing gas hydrate production rates.

  2. Phase behavior of coal fluids: Data for correlation development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, R.L. Jr.

    1990-02-06

    The effective design and operation of processes for conversion of coal to fluid fuels requires accurate knowledge of the phase behavior of the fluid mixtures encountered in the conversion process. Multiple phases are present in essentially all stages of feed preparation, conversion reactions and product separation; thus, knowledge of the behavior of these multiple phases is important in each step. The overall objective of the author's work is to develop accurate predictive methods for representation of vapor-liquid equilibria in systems encountered in coal conversion processes. 59 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Mantle hydration and Cl-rich fluids in the subduction forearc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, Bruno

    2016-12-01

    In the forearc region, aqueous fluids are released from the subducting slab at a rate depending on its thermal state. Escaping fluids tend to rise vertically unless they meet permeability barriers such as the deformed plate interface or the Moho of the overriding plate. Channeling of fluids along the plate interface and Moho may result in fluid overpressure in the oceanic crust, precipitation of quartz from fluids, and low Poisson ratio areas associated with tremors. Above the subducting plate, the forearc mantle wedge is the place of intense reactions between dehydration fluids from the subducting slab and ultramafic rocks leading to extensive serpentinization. The plate interface is mechanically decoupled, most likely in relation to serpentinization, thereby isolating the forearc mantle wedge from convection as a cold, potentially serpentinized and buoyant, body. Geophysical studies are unique probes to the interactions between fluids and rocks in the forearc mantle, and experimental constrains on rock properties allow inferring fluid migration and fluid-rock reactions from geophysical data. Seismic velocities reveal a high degree of serpentinization of the forearc mantle in hot subduction zones, and little serpentinization in the coldest subduction zones because the warmer the subduction zone, the higher the amount of water released by dehydration of hydrothermally altered oceanic lithosphere. Interpretation of seismic data from petrophysical constrain is limited by complex effects due to anisotropy that needs to be assessed both in the analysis and interpretation of seismic data. Electrical conductivity increases with increasing fluid content and temperature of the subduction. However, the forearc mantle of Northern Cascadia, the hottest subduction zone where extensive serpentinization was first demonstrated, shows only modest electrical conductivity. Electrical conductivity may vary not only with the thermal state of the subduction zone, but also with time for

  4. Thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Douglas D.; Martin, Ana I.; Yun, Tae Sup; Francisca, Franco M.; Santamarina, J. Carlos; Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2009-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for evaluating phase transformation processes that would accompany energy production from gas hydrate deposits and for estimating regional heat flow based on the observed depth to the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. The coexistence of multiple phases (gas hydrate, liquid and gas pore fill, and solid sediment grains) and their complex spatial arrangement hinder the a priori prediction of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments. Previous studies have been unable to capture the full parameter space covered by variations in grain size, specific surface, degree of saturation, nature of pore filling material, and effective stress for hydrate-bearing samples. Here we report on systematic measurements of the thermal conductivity of air dry, water- and tetrohydrofuran (THF)-saturated, and THF hydrate–saturated sand and clay samples at vertical effective stress of 0.05 to 1 MPa (corresponding to depths as great as 100 m below seafloor). Results reveal that the bulk thermal conductivity of the samples in every case reflects a complex interplay among particle size, effective stress, porosity, and fluid-versus-hydrate filled pore spaces. The thermal conductivity of THF hydrate–bearing soils increases upon hydrate formation although the thermal conductivities of THF solution and THF hydrate are almost the same. Several mechanisms can contribute to this effect including cryogenic suction during hydrate crystal growth and the ensuing porosity reduction in the surrounding sediment, increased mean effective stress due to hydrate formation under zero lateral strain conditions, and decreased interface thermal impedance as grain-liquid interfaces are transformed into grain-hydrate interfaces.

  5. The piston-cylinder apparatus for in-situ structural investigations of high-pressure phases of gas hydrates with the use of synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Mirinski, D S; Larionova, E G; Kurnosov, A V; Ancharov, A I; Dyadin, Y A; Tolochko, B P; Sheromov, M A

    2001-01-01

    The piston-cylinder apparatus for the investigation of high-pressure gas hydrate phases by the powder diffraction method is presented. The first results concerning the nature of the high-pressure gas hydrate phase in the sulfur hexafluoride-water system are reported.

  6. SOLVENT EFFECTS IN THE LIQUID-PHASE HYDRATION OF CYCLOHEXENE CATALYZED BY A MACROPOROUS STRONG ACID ION-EXCHANGE RESIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PANNEMAN, HJ; BEENACKERS, AACM

    1992-01-01

    The liquid-phase hydration of cyclohexene, a pseudo first order reversible reaction catalyzed by a strong acid ion exchange resin, macroporous Amberlite XE 307, was investigated in solvent mixtures of water and sulfolane. A decrease by a factor of 3 and 6 is observed in the experimentally measured

  7. The Association of Hydration Status with Physical Signs, Symptoms and Survival in Advanced Cancer—The Use of Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) Technology to Evaluate Fluid Volume in Palliative Care: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayland, Catriona R.; Mason, Stephen; Cox, Trevor F.; Varro, Andrea; Ellershaw, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Hydration in advanced cancer is a controversial area; however, current hydration assessments methods are poorly developed. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) is an accurate hydration tool; however its application in advanced cancer has not been explored. This study used BIVA to evaluate hydration status in advanced cancer to examine the association of fluid status with symptoms, physical signs, renal biochemical measures and survival. Materials and methods An observational study of 90 adults with advanced cancer receiving care in a UK specialist palliative care inpatient unit was conducted. Hydration status was assessed using BIVA in addition to assessments of symptoms, physical signs, performance status, renal biochemical measures, oral fluid intake and medications. The association of clinical variables with hydration was evaluated using regression analysis. A survival analysis was conducted to examine the influence of hydration status and renal failure. Results The hydration status of participants was normal in 43 (47.8%), 'more hydrated' in 37 (41.1%) and 'less hydrated' in 10 (11.1%). Lower hydration was associated with increased symptom intensity (Beta = -0.29, p = 0.04) and higher scores for physical signs associated with dehydration (Beta = 10.94, p = 0.02). Higher hydration was associated with oedema (Beta = 2.55, phydrated' patients (44 vs. 68 days; p = 0.049) and in pre-renal failure (44 vs. 100 days; p = 0.003). Conclusions In advanced cancer, hydration status was associated with clinical signs and symptoms. Hydration status and pre-renal failure were independent predictors of survival. Further studies can establish the utility of BIVA as a standardised hydration assessment tool and explore its potential research application, in order to inform the clinical management of fluid balance in patients with advanced cancer. PMID:27673684

  8. Hydration-Induced Phase Separation in Amphiphilic Polymer Matrices and its Influence on Voclosporin Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, I. John [The State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Murthy, N. Sanjeeva [The State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Kohn, Joachim [The State Univ. of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Voclosporin is a highly potent, new cyclosporine -- a derivative that is currently in Phase 3 clinical trials in the USA as a potential treatment for inflammatory diseases of the eye. Voclosporin represents a number of very sparingly soluble drugs that are difficult to administer. It was selected as a model drug that is dispersed within amphiphilic polymer matrices, and investigated the changing morphology of the matrices using neutron and x-ray scattering during voclosporin release and polymer resorption. The hydrophobic segments of the amphiphilic polymer chain are comprised of desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine ethyl ester (DTE) and desaminotyrosyl-tyrosine (DT), and the hydrophilic component is poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). Water uptake in these matrices resulted in the phase separation of hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains that are a few hundred Angstroms apart. These water-driven morphological changes influenced the release profile of voclosporin and facilitated a burst-free release from the polymer. No such morphological reorganization was observed in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), which exhibits an extended lag period, followed by a burst-like release of voclosporin when the polymer was degraded. An understanding of the effect of polymer composition on the hydration behavior is central to understanding and controlling the phase behavior and resorption characteristics of the matrix for achieving long-term controlled release of hydrophobic drugs such as voclosporin.

  9. The role of intermolecular interactions in the prediction of the phase equilibria of carbon dioxide hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costandy, Joseph; Michalis, Vasileios K.; Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N.; Stubos, Athanassios K.; Economou, Ioannis G.

    2015-09-01

    The direct phase coexistence methodology was used to predict the three-phase equilibrium conditions of carbon dioxide hydrates. Molecular dynamics simulations were performed in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble for the determination of the three-phase coexistence temperature (T3) of the carbon dioxide-water system, at pressures in the range of 200-5000 bar. The relative importance of the water-water and water-guest interactions in the prediction of T3 is investigated. The water-water interactions were modeled through the use of TIP4P/Ice and TIP4P/2005 force fields. The TraPPE force field was used for carbon dioxide, and the water-guest interactions were probed through the modification of the cross-interaction Lennard-Jones energy parameter between the oxygens of the unlike molecules. It was found that when using the classic Lorentz-Berthelot combining rules, both models fail to predict T3 accurately. In order to rectify this problem, the water-guest interaction parameters were optimized, based on the solubility of carbon dioxide in water. In this case, it is shown that the prediction of T3 is limited only by the accuracy of the water model in predicting the melting temperature of ice.

  10. Gas hydrates

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramprasad, T.

    . faulting and fluid migration, and 4. trapping of free gas beneath a hydrate seal. Experiments are being conducted to assess the impact of gas hydrate on sediment behavior, particularly with respect to slope failure and other potential geohazards....K. Paull, R. Matsumoto, P.J. Wallace, and W.P. Dillon (Eds.), Proceedings ODP, Scientific Results, v. 164 College Station, TX (Ocean Drilling Program), pp. 179-191. Dallimore, S. R., T. Uchida, and T. S. Collett, 1999, Summary, in S. R. Dallimore, T...

  11. Stability evaluation of hydrate-bearing sediments during thermally-driven hydrate dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, T.; Cho, G.; Santamarina, J.; Kim, H.; Lee, J.

    2009-12-01

    Hydrate-bearing sediments may destabilize spontaneously as part of geological processes, unavoidably during petroleum drilling/production operations, or intentionally as part of gas extraction from the hydrate itself. In all cases, high pore fluid pressure generation is anticipated during hydrate dissociation. This study examined how thermal changes destabilize gas hydrate-bearing sediments. First, an analytical formulation was derived for predicting fluid pressure evolution in hydrate-bearing sediments subjected to thermal stimulation without mass transfer. The formulation captures the self-preservation behavior, calculates the hydrate and free gas quantities during dissociation, considering effective stress-controlled sediment compressibility and gas solubility in aqueous phase. Pore fluid pressure generation is proportional to the initial hydrate fraction and the sediment bulk stiffness; is inversely proportional to the initial gas fraction and gas solubility; and is limited by changes in effective stress that cause the failure of the sediment. Second, the analytical formulation for hydrate dissociation was incorporated as a user-defined function into a verified finite difference code (FLAC2D). The underlying physical processes of hydrate-bearing sediments, including hydrate dissociation, self-preservation, pore pressure evolution, gas dissolution, and sediment volume expansion, were coupled with the thermal conduction, pore fluid flow, and mechanical response of sediments. We conducted the simulations for a duration of 20 years, assuming a constant-temperature wellbore transferred heat to the surrounding hydrate-bearing sediments, resulting in dissociation of methane hydrate in the well vicinity. The model predicted dissociation-induced excess pore fluid pressures which resulted in a large volume expansion and plastic deformation of the sediments. Furthermore, when the critical stress was reached, localized shear failure of the sediment around the borehole was

  12. NATURAL GAS HYDRATES STORAGE PROJECT PHASE II. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ECONOMIC STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.E. Rogers

    1999-09-27

    DOE Contract DE-AC26-97FT33203 studied feasibility of utilizing the natural-gas storage property of gas hydrates, so abundantly demonstrated in nature, as an economical industrial process to allow expanded use of the clean-burning fuel in power plants. The laboratory work achieved breakthroughs: (1) Gas hydrates were found to form orders of magnitude faster in an unstirred system with surfactant-water micellar solutions. (2) Hydrate particles were found to self-pack by adsorption on cold metal surfaces from the micellar solutions. (3) Interstitial micellar-water of the packed particles were found to continue forming hydrates. (4) Aluminum surfaces were found to most actively collect the hydrate particles. These laboratory developments were the bases of a conceptual design for a large-scale process where simplification enhances economy. In the design, hydrates form, store, and decompose in the same tank in which gas is pressurized to 550 psi above unstirred micellar solution, chilled by a brine circulating through a bank of aluminum tubing in the tank employing gas-fired refrigeration. Hydrates form on aluminum plates suspended in the chilled micellar solution. A low-grade heat source, such as 110 F water of a power plant, circulates through the tubing bank to release stored gas. The design allows a formation/storage/decomposition cycle in a 24-hour period of 2,254,000 scf of natural gas; the capability of multiple cycles is an advantage of the process. The development costs and the user costs of storing natural gas in a scaled hydrate process were estimated to be competitive with conventional storage means if multiple cycles of hydrate storage were used. If more than 54 cycles/year were used, hydrate development costs per Mscf would be better than development costs of depleted reservoir storage; above 125 cycles/year, hydrate user costs would be lower than user costs of depleted reservoir storage.

  13. Voluntary fluid intake, hydration status, and aerobic performance of adolescent athletes in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Boguslaw; Timmons, Brian W; Bar-Or, Oded

    2010-12-01

    We determined whether beverage flavoring and composition would stimulate voluntary drink intake, prevent dehydration, and maintain exercise performance in heat-acclimated adolescent males running in the heat. Eight adolescent (age, 13.7 ± 1.1 years) runners (peak oxygen uptake, 59.5 ± 4.0 mL·kg-1·min-1) underwent at least four 80-min exercise heat-acclimation sessions before completing 3 experimental sessions. All sessions were performed at 30 °C and 60%-65% relative humidity. Each experimental session consisted of five 15-min treadmill runs at a speed eliciting 65% peak oxygen uptake, with a 5 min rest prior to each run. Ten minutes after the final run, a time to exhaustion test was performed at a speed eliciting 90% peak oxygen uptake. Counterbalanced experimental sessions were identical, except for fluid intake, which consisted of tap water (W), flavored water (FW), and FW with 6% carbohydrate and 18 mmol·L-1 NaCl (CNa) consumed ad libitum. Fluid intake and body weight were monitored to calculate dehydration. Voluntary fluid intake was similar to fluid losses in W (1032 ± 130 vs. 1340 ± 246 g), FW (1086 ± 86 vs. 1451 ± 253 g), and CNa (1259 ± 119 vs. 1358 ± 234 g). As a result, significant dehydration was avoided in all trials (-0.45% ± 0.68% body weight in W, -0.66% ± 0.50% body weight in FW, and -0.13% ± 0.71% body weight in CNa). Core temperature increased by ~1 °C during exercise, but was not different between trials. Time to exhaustion was not different between trials and averaged 8.8 ± 1.7 min. Under exercise conditions more closely reflecting real-life situations, heat-acclimatized adolescent male runners can appropriately gauge fluid intake regardless of the type of beverage made available, resulting in consistency in exercise performance.

  14. Gas Hydrate Mounds in the Eastern Slope of the Chukchi Basin, Arctic Ocean: Indicators of Methane-rich Focused Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim*, Young-Gyun; Kim, Hyoung-Jun; Kim, Sookwan; Lee, Imgyo; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Lee, Dong-Hun; Kang, Seung-Goo; Jin, Young Keun

    2017-04-01

    While the origin and distribution vary across geological conditions, there have been numerous reports on the occurrence of natural gas hydrate in the continental margins over the world ocean. However, in situ gas hydrate in the Chukchi Basin has not yet been found despite a favorable condition for its occurrence. Here we document, for the first time, the discovery of mound morphologies containing gas hydrate as well as methane-derived authigenic carbonate (MDAC) in the Chukchi Basin obtained during the IBRV Araon Expedition ARA07C in 2016. We analyzed high-resolution multibeam and sub-bottom profiler images, and radioactive isotopes (δ13CCH4, δDCH4) of gases from both the retrieved cores and dissociated hydrate to unravel the origin of the mounds. The mounds were found solitarily along certain water depth intervals and characterized by a circular shape, sizing up to tens of meters in width and a few meters in height. Acoustic turbidity is common below thin hemipelagic sediment layer, indicative of shallow accumulation of gas. The isotopic signatures suggest that thermogenic methane may migrate to the shallow depth although its migration pathway cannot be clarified. Our findings bring new insight on the occurrence of gas hydrate mounds in the Chukchi Basin, and their development linked to methane-rich focused fluid flow from deep. We will further investigate microbial characterization from the MDAC with analyses of the lipid marker and 16s rRNA to demonstrate methane flux variation with geological time.

  15. Molecular Simulation of the Phase Diagram of Methane Hydrate: Free Energy Calculations, Direct Coexistence Method, and Hyperparallel Tempering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Dongliang; Coasne, Benoit

    2017-10-24

    Different molecular simulation strategies are used to assess the stability of methane hydrate under various temperature and pressure conditions. First, using two water molecular models, free energy calculations consisting of the Einstein molecule approach in combination with semigrand Monte Carlo simulations are used to determine the pressure-temperature phase diagram of methane hydrate. With these calculations, we also estimate the chemical potentials of water and methane and methane occupancy at coexistence. Second, we also consider two other advanced molecular simulation techniques that allow probing the phase diagram of methane hydrate: the direct coexistence method in the Grand Canonical ensemble and the hyperparallel tempering Monte Carlo method. These two direct techniques are found to provide stability conditions that are consistent with the pressure-temperature phase diagram obtained using rigorous free energy calculations. The phase diagram obtained in this work, which is found to be consistent with previous simulation studies, is close to its experimental counterpart provided the TIP4P/Ice model is used to describe the water molecule.

  16. An Update on Maternal Hydration Strategies for Amniotic Fluid Improvement in Isolated Oligohydramnios and Normohydramnios: Evidence from a Systematic Review of Literature and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizzo, Salvatore; Noventa, Marco; Vitagliano, Amerigo; Dall’Asta, Andrea; D’Antona, Donato; Aldrich, Clive J.; Quaranta, Michela; Frusca, Tiziana; Patrelli, Tito Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Objective Several trials aimed at evaluating the efficacy of maternal hydration (MH) in increasing amniotic-fluid-volume (AFV) in pregnancies with isolated oligohydramnios or normohydramnos have been conducted. Unfortunately, no evidences support this intervention in routine-clinical-practice. The aim of this systematic-literature-review and meta-analysis was to collect all data regarding proposed strategies and their efficacy in relation to each clinical condition for which MH-therapy was performed with the aim of increasing amniotic-fluid (AF) and improving perinatal outcomes. Materials and Methods A systematic literature search was conducted in electronic-database MEDLINE, EMBASE, ScienceDirect and the Cochrane-Library in the time interval between 1991 and 2014. Following the identification of eligible trials, we estimated the methodological quality of each study (using QADAS-2) and clustered patients according to the following outcome measures: route of administration (oral versus intravenous versus combined), total daily dose of fluids administered (2000), duration of hydration therapy: (1 day, >1 day but 1 week), type of fluid administered (isotonic versus hypotonic versus combination). Results In isolated-oligohydramnios (IO), maternal oral hydration is more effective than intravenous hydration and hypotonic solutions superior to isotonic solutions. The improvement in AFV appears to be time-dependent rather than daily-dose dependent. Regarding normohydramnios pregnancies, all strategies seem equivalent though the administration of hypotonic-fluid appears to have a slightly greater effect than isotonic-fluid. Regarding perinatal outcomes, data is fragmentary and heterogeneous and does not allow us to define the real clinical utility of MH. Conclusions Available data suggests that MH may be a safe, well-tolerated and useful strategy to improve AFV especially in cases of IO. In view of the numerous obstetric situations in which a reduced AFV may pose a threat

  17. An Update on Maternal Hydration Strategies for Amniotic Fluid Improvement in Isolated Oligohydramnios and Normohydramnios: Evidence from a Systematic Review of Literature and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Gizzo

    Full Text Available Several trials aimed at evaluating the efficacy of maternal hydration (MH in increasing amniotic-fluid-volume (AFV in pregnancies with isolated oligohydramnios or normohydramnos have been conducted. Unfortunately, no evidences support this intervention in routine-clinical-practice. The aim of this systematic-literature-review and meta-analysis was to collect all data regarding proposed strategies and their efficacy in relation to each clinical condition for which MH-therapy was performed with the aim of increasing amniotic-fluid (AF and improving perinatal outcomes.A systematic literature search was conducted in electronic-database MEDLINE, EMBASE, ScienceDirect and the Cochrane-Library in the time interval between 1991 and 2014. Following the identification of eligible trials, we estimated the methodological quality of each study (using QADAS-2 and clustered patients according to the following outcome measures: route of administration (oral versus intravenous versus combined, total daily dose of fluids administered (2000, duration of hydration therapy: (1 day, >1 day but 1 week, type of fluid administered (isotonic versus hypotonic versus combination.In isolated-oligohydramnios (IO, maternal oral hydration is more effective than intravenous hydration and hypotonic solutions superior to isotonic solutions. The improvement in AFV appears to be time-dependent rather than daily-dose dependent. Regarding normohydramnios pregnancies, all strategies seem equivalent though the administration of hypotonic-fluid appears to have a slightly greater effect than isotonic-fluid. Regarding perinatal outcomes, data is fragmentary and heterogeneous and does not allow us to define the real clinical utility of MH.Available data suggests that MH may be a safe, well-tolerated and useful strategy to improve AFV especially in cases of IO. In view of the numerous obstetric situations in which a reduced AFV may pose a threat, particularly to the fetus, the possibility

  18. Ternary phase behaviour and vesicle formation of a sodium N-lauroylsarcosinate hydrate/1-decanol/water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Nasima; Radiman, Shahidan; Mohamed, Faizal; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Reza, Mohammad Imam Hasan

    2011-08-01

    The phase behaviour of a system composed of amino acid-based surfactant (sodium N-lauroylsarcosinate hydrate), 1-decanol and deionised water was investigated for vesicle formation. Changing the molar ratio of the amphiphiles, two important aggregate structures were observed in the aqueous corner of the phase diagram. Two different sizes of microemulsions were found at two amphiphile-water boundaries. A stable single vesicle lobe was found for 1∶2 molar ratios in 92 wt% water with vesicles approximately 100 nm in size and with high zeta potential value. Structural variation arises due to the reduction of electrostatic repulsions among the ionic headgroups of the surfactants and the hydration forces due to adsorbed water onto monolayer's. The balance of these two forces determines the aggregate structures. Analysis was followed by the molecular geometrical structure. These findings may have implications for the development of drug delivery systems for cancer treatments, as well as cosmetic and food formulations.

  19. Hydration kinetics and 10-km outdoor running performance following 75% versus 150% between bout fluid replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Brett Alan; Thigpen, Lauren Kellet; Hornsby, Jared Heath; Green, James Matthew; Coates, Thomas Elliot; O'Neal, Eric Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Current American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines recommend replacing 150% of sweat losses between training bouts separated by ≤12 hours, but little evidence exists concerning the implications of this strategy for runners. Participants (n = 13) in this study replaced 75% (1637 ± 372 mL) or 150% (3099 ± 850 mL) of sweat losses following an outdoor evening run (∼75 minutes; Wet-bulb-globe temperature (WBGT) = ∼27°C) and consumed a standardised evening meal and breakfast before completing an outdoor (WBGT = ∼23°C) 10-km time-trial the following morning. Urine was collected between runs and urine specific gravity (USG) was assessed pre-run. Significant differences were found in pre-run body mass (75% = 69.6 ± 9.2; 150% = 70.1 ± 9.3 kg; P = 0.02) and USG (75% = 1.026 ± 0.005; 150% = 1.014 ± 0.007; P < 0.001). Heart rate during 10-km run (168 ± 14 versus 168 ± 12 beats min(-1)) and post-run intestinal temperature (39.08 ± 0.52 versus 39.00 ± 0.70 °C) did not differ for 75% and 150%, respectively, despite an ∼3% performance improvement (75% = 47.28 ± 6.64; 150% = 45.93 ± 6.04 minutes; P = 0.001) due to a faster pace in the second half of the run with 150% replacement. Session rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was lower (P = 0.02) during 150% (7.5 ± 1.3) versus 75% (8.4 ± 0.9). Reluctant drinkers potentially hinder training quality between evening and morning runs in the heat, but copious urine production and difficulty in consuming recommended fluid volumes suggest fluid replacement <150% may be more ideal.

  20. Tear osmolarity is sensitive to exercise-induced fluid loss but is not associated with common hydration measures in a field setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Justin J; Ray, Michelle; Irwin, Christopher; Skinner, Tina L; Leveritt, Michael; Desbrow, Ben

    2017-08-16

    This investigation (i) examined changes in tear osmolarity in response to fluid loss that occurs with exercise in a field setting, and (ii) compared tear osmolarity with common field and laboratory hydration measures.  Sixty-three participants [age 27.8 ± 8.4 years, body mass 72.15 ± 10.61 kg] completed a self-paced 10 km run outside on a predetermined course. Body mass, tear fluid, venous blood and urine samples were collected immediately before and after exercise.  Significant (p  0.05) with plasma osmolality (rs = 0.24), urine osmolality (rs = 0.14), urine specific gravity (rs = 0.13) or relative body mass loss (r = 0.20).  Tear osmolarity is responsive to exercise-induced fluid loss but does not correlate with the changes observed using other common measures of hydration status in the field setting. Practitioners shouldn't directly compare or replace other common hydration measures with tear osmolarity in the field. BML: Body Mass Loss; CV: Coefficient of Variation; Posm: Plasma osmolality; SD: Standard Deviation; Tosm: Tear Osmolarity; Uosm: Urine Osmolality; USG: Urine Specific Gravity; WBGT: Wet bulb globe thermometer.

  1. Rock-fluid interaction and phase properties of fluids in nano- and subnano-pores of shales: Sorption-based studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanyog

    vapors in organic-rich shale and siltstone samples suggest that hexane vapor measures pores in both clay and in organic matter (OM) while water vapor selectively probes only clay-hosted pores. Thus, OM pores, which are not accessed by water vapor adsorption, are concluded to be hydrophobic. Nitrogen adsorption underestimates porosity in the organic rich shales due to the kinetic-restriction faced by nitrogen in the cryogenic test conditions. The OM pores in the organic-rich shale samples retained their sorption capacity after water-imbibition. On the other hand, illite clay pores lost most of their supercritical CO2 sorption capacity in the presence of water. The diffusion of dissolved CO2 in water and its subsequent sorption in the OM pores suggests that dissolved gases can still be sorbed. As a consequence, rock-fluid interaction in nano- and sub-nanometer sized pores of shales may potentially alter the PVT properties of multi-component hydrocarbon liquids. The deformational and flow properties of confined undersaturated condensates (CUC) or the adsorbed phase of water and hexane in the nano- and sub-nanometer sized pores of various clay minerals were thus characterized and found to have liquid-like properties. However, the cation-hydrating CUC of water had unusual phase properties, as it was found to increase the overall p-wave stiffness of the clay aggregates. The sorption-based methods developed in the thesis for studying the rock-fluid interaction and fluid properties of shales are shown to be theoretically consistent and appear operationally more viable than the existing methods for rock-fluid interaction studies. Therefore, the proposed methods may have wider implications in the rock-physical and reservoir engineering studies of shales.

  2. Synthesis of polycrystalline methane hydrate, and its phase stability and mechanical properties at elevated pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.; Durham, W.B.

    1997-01-01

    Test specimens of methane hydrate were grown under static conditions by combining cold, pressurized CH4 gas with H2O ice grains, then warming the system to promote the reaction CH4 (g) + 6H2O (s???l) ??? CH4??6H2O. Hydrate formation evidently occurs at the nascent ice/liquid water interface, and complete reaction was achieved by warming the system above 271.5 K and up to 289 K, at 25-30 MPa, for approximately 8 hours. The resulting material is pure methane hydrate with controlled grain size and random texture. Fabrication conditions placed the H2O ice well above its melting temperature before reaction completed, yet samples and run records showed no evidence for bulk melting of the ice grains. Control experiments using Ne, a non-hydrate-forming gas, verified that under otherwise identical conditions, the pressure reduction and latent heat associated with ice melting is easily detectable in our fabrication apparatus. These results suggest that under hydrate-forming conditions, H2O ice can persist metastably at temperatures well above its melting point. Methane hydrate samples were then tested in constant-strain-rate deformation experiments at T= 140-200 K, Pc= 50-100 MPa, and ????= 10-4-10-6 s-1. Measurements in both the brittle and ductile fields showed that methane hydrate has measurably different strength than H2O ice, and work hardens to a higher degree compared to other ices as well as to most metals and ceramics at high homologous temperatures. This work hardening may be related to a changing stoichiometry under pressure during plastic deformation; x-ray analyses showed that methane hydrate undergoes a process of solid-state disproportionation or exsolution during deformation at conditions well within its conventional stability field.

  3. Thermoanalytical studies of carbamazepine: hydration/dehydration, thermal decomposition, and solid phase transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônia Aparecida Lemos Pinto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbamazepine (CBZ, a widely used anticonvulsant drug, can crystallize and exhibits four polymorphic forms and one dihydrate. Anhydrous CBZ can spontaneously absorb water and convert to the hydrate form whose different crystallinity leads to lower biological activity. The present study was concerned to the possibility of recovering the hydrated form by heating. The thermal behavior of spontaneously hydrated carbamazepine was investigated by TG/DTG-DTA and DSC in dynamic atmospheres of air and nitrogen, which revealed that the spontaneous hydration of this pharmaceutical resulted in a Form III hydrate with 1.5 water molecules. After dehydration, this anhydrous Form III converted to Form I, which melted and decomposed in a single event, releasing isocyanic acid, as shown by evolved gas analysis using TG-FTIR. Differential scanning calorimetry analyses revealed that Form III melted and crystallized as Form I, and that subsequent cooling cycles only generated Form I by crystallization. Solid state decomposition kinetic studies showed that there was no change in the substance after the elimination of water by heating to 120 °C. Activation energies of 98 ± 2 and 93 ± 2 kJ mol-1 were found for the hydrated and dried samples, respectively, and similar profiles of activation energy as a function of conversion factor were observed for these samples.

  4. Coupling two-phase fluid flow with two-phase darcy flow in anisotropic porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, J.

    2014-06-03

    This paper reports a numerical study of coupling two-phase fluid flow in a free fluid region with two-phase Darcy flow in a homogeneous and anisotropic porous medium region. The model consists of coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations in the free fluid region and the two-phase Darcy law in the anisotropic porous medium region. A Robin-Robin domain decomposition method is used for the coupled Navier-Stokes and Darcy system with the generalized Beavers-Joseph-Saffman condition on the interface between the free flow and the porous media regions. Obtained results have shown the anisotropic properties effect on the velocity and pressure of the two-phase flow. 2014 Jie Chen et al.

  5. Coupling Two-Phase Fluid Flow with Two-Phase Darcy Flow in Anisotropic Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a numerical study of coupling two-phase fluid flow in a free fluid region with two-phase Darcy flow in a homogeneous and anisotropic porous medium region. The model consists of coupled Cahn-Hilliard and Navier-Stokes equations in the free fluid region and the two-phase Darcy law in the anisotropic porous medium region. A Robin-Robin domain decomposition method is used for the coupled Navier-Stokes and Darcy system with the generalized Beavers-Joseph-Saffman condition on the interface between the free flow and the porous media regions. Obtained results have shown the anisotropic properties effect on the velocity and pressure of the two-phase flow.

  6. Hydrate Control for Gas Storage Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Savidge

    2008-10-31

    The overall objective of this project was to identify low cost hydrate control options to help mitigate and solve hydrate problems that occur in moderate and high pressure natural gas storage field operations. The study includes data on a number of flow configurations, fluids and control options that are common in natural gas storage field flow lines. The final phase of this work brings together data and experience from the hydrate flow test facility and multiple field and operator sources. It includes a compilation of basic information on operating conditions as well as candidate field separation options. Lastly the work is integrated with the work with the initial work to provide a comprehensive view of gas storage field hydrate control for field operations and storage field personnel.

  7. Communication: Charge transfer dominates over proton transfer in the reaction of nitric acid with gas-phase hydrated electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Jozef; Med, Jakub; Slavíček, Petr; Beyer, Martin K.

    2017-09-01

    The reaction of HNO3 with hydrated electrons (H2O)n- (n = 35-65) in the gas phase was studied using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. Kinetic analysis of the experimental data shows that OH-(H2O)m is formed primarily via a reaction of the hydrated electron with HNO3 inside the cluster, while proton transfer is not observed and NO3-(H2O)m is just a secondary product. The reaction enthalpy was determined using nanocalorimetry, revealing a quite exothermic charge transfer with -241 ± 69 kJ mol-1. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations indicate that proton transfer is an allowed reaction pathway, but the overall thermochemistry favors charge transfer.

  8. Coarsening through directed droplet coalescence in fluid-fluid phase separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Snigdha; Pullarkat, Pramod A; Kumar, P B Sunil

    2009-07-01

    Phase-separation dynamics of an asymmetric mixture of an isotropic dopant in a nematogenic fluid is presented. We show that, on steady cooling, the nucleating nematic drops move down the dopant concentration gradient, with a velocity that is dependent on the cooling rate and concentration gradient. This propulsion of the drops leads to a mechanism of droplet coarsening, where radius of a drop scales with time as R(t) approximately t. Various mechanisms for droplet propulsion are discussed.

  9. Phase behavior of coal fluids: Data for correlation development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, R.J. Jr.; Gasem, K.A.M.; Shaver, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    The effective design and operation of processes for conversion of coal to fluid fuels requires accurate knowledge of the phase behavior of the fluid mixtures encountered in the conversion process. The overall objective of the author's work is to develop accurate predictive methods for representation of vapor-liquid equilibria in systems encountered in coal conversion processes. The objectives of the present project include: (1) measurements of binary vapor-liquid phase behavior data for selected solute gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}) in a series of heavy hydrocarbon solvents to permit evaluation of interaction parameters in models for phase behavior, (2) measurements on ternary systems in which high-melting-point solvents are dissolved in more volatile aromatics to provide mixed solvents, (3) evaluation of existing equations-of-state and other models for representation of phase behavior in systems of the type studied experimentally; development of new correlation frameworks as needed, and (4) generalization of the interaction parameters for the solutes studied to a wide spectrum of heavy solvents; presentations of final results in formats useful in the design/optimization of coal liquefaction processes. This quarter, our framework for correlating saturation properties using a scaled-variable-reduced-coordinate'' approach was further developed to provide for generalized vapor pressure predictions. 59 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Methane Recovery from Hydrate-bearing Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Carlos Santamarina; Costas Tsouris

    2011-04-30

    Gas hydrates are crystalline compounds made of gas and water molecules. Methane hydrates are found in marine sediments and permafrost regions; extensive amounts of methane are trapped in the form of hydrates. Methane hydrate can be an energy resource, contribute to global warming, or cause seafloor instability. This study placed emphasis on gas recovery from hydrate bearing sediments and related phenomena. The unique behavior of hydrate-bearing sediments required the development of special research tools, including new numerical algorithms (tube- and pore-network models) and experimental devices (high pressure chambers and micromodels). Therefore, the research methodology combined experimental studies, particle-scale numerical simulations, and macro-scale analyses of coupled processes. Research conducted as part of this project started with hydrate formation in sediment pores and extended to production methods and emergent phenomena. In particular, the scope of the work addressed: (1) hydrate formation and growth in pores, the assessment of formation rate, tensile/adhesive strength and their impact on sediment-scale properties, including volume change during hydrate formation and dissociation; (2) the effect of physical properties such as gas solubility, salinity, pore size, and mixed gas conditions on hydrate formation and dissociation, and it implications such as oscillatory transient hydrate formation, dissolution within the hydrate stability field, initial hydrate lens formation, and phase boundary changes in real field situations; (3) fluid conductivity in relation to pore size distribution and spatial correlation and the emergence of phenomena such as flow focusing; (4) mixed fluid flow, with special emphasis on differences between invading gas and nucleating gas, implications on relative gas conductivity for reservoir simulations, and gas recovery efficiency; (5) identification of advantages and limitations in different gas production strategies with

  11. TOUGH+Hydrate v1.0 User's Manual: A Code for the Simulation of System Behavior in Hydrate-Bearing Geologic Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, George; Moridis, George J.; Kowalsky, Michael B.; Pruess, Karsten

    2008-03-01

    TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.0 is a new code for the simulation of the behavior of hydrate-bearing geologic systems. By solving the coupled equations of mass and heat balance, TOUGH+HYDRATE can model the non-isothermal gas release, phase behavior and flow of fluids and heat under conditions typical of common natural CH{sub 4}-hydrate deposits (i.e., in the permafrost and in deep ocean sediments) in complex geological media at any scale (from laboratory to reservoir) at which Darcy's law is valid. TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.0 includes both an equilibrium and a kinetic model of hydrate formation and dissociation. The model accounts for heat and up to four mass components, i.e., water, CH{sub 4}, hydrate, and water-soluble inhibitors such as salts or alcohols. These are partitioned among four possible phases (gas phase, liquid phase, ice phase and hydrate phase). Hydrate dissociation or formation, phase changes and the corresponding thermal effects are fully described, as are the effects of inhibitors. The model can describe all possible hydrate dissociation mechanisms, i.e., depressurization, thermal stimulation, salting-out effects and inhibitor-induced effects. TOUGH+HYDRATE is the first member of TOUGH+, the successor to the TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1991] family of codes for multi-component, multiphase fluid and heat flow developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is written in standard FORTRAN 95, and can be run on any computational platform (workstation, PC, Macintosh) for which such compilers are available.

  12. Role of in situ organic matter degradation and fluid flow in the global gas hydrate distribution: application of general functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinero, E.; Hensen, C.; Marquardt, M.; Haeckel, M.; Wallmann, K. J.

    2010-12-01

    During the last decades several estimates of the global gas hydrate budget have been published. The published results range by several orders of magnitude and thus, the total gas hydrate inventory is still poorly known. In order to elucidate the global gas hydrate amount we applied a recently published transfer function that calculates the amount of gas hydrate produced by in situ generated methane through organic matter degradation (Marquardt et al., accepted). The transfer function was derived from a large set of systematic runs of a numerical diagenetic model (Wallmann et al., 2006) covering a wide range of environmental conditions that are typical for the continental margins. The transfer function only includes two variables: the accumulation rate of particulate organic carbon and the thickness of the gas hydrate stability zone. We tested various approaches to calculate both parameters on the global scale. The global grids used include seafloor bathymetry, TOC input, organic rain rate, bottom water temperature, geothermal gradient estimated from heat flow, sediment thickness, and age of the oceanic crust. The results obtained lead to the conclusion that only minor amounts of gas hydrates (Haeckel, M., Obzhirov, A., Pavlova, G., Tishchenko, P.: Kinetics of organic matter degradation, microbial methane generation, and gas hydrate formation in anoxic marine sediments, Geochim Cosmochim Acta, 70, 3905 - 3927, 2006. Marquardt, M., Hensen, C., Piñero, E., Wallmann, K., Haeckel, M.: A transfer function for the prediction of gas hydrate inventories in marine sediments, Accepted in Biogeosciences Discuss., 7, 1057-1099, 2010. Archer, D., Buffett, B., Brovkin, V.: Ocean methane hydrates as a slow tipping point in the global carbon cycle, P Natl Acad Sci USA, Special Feature, doi: 10.1073/pnas.0800885105, 2008.

  13. The effects of exogenous crosslinking on hydration and fluid flow in the intervertebral disc subjected to compressive creep loading and unloading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shih-Youeng; Popovich, John M; Lin, Leou-Chyr; Hedman, Thomas P

    2010-11-15

    In vitro study of genipin crosslinking effect on disc water content changes under compressive loading and unloading. To investigate the influence of collagen crosslinking on hydration and fluid flow in different regions of intact discs, and to evaluate the nutritional implications. Age-related reductions of nutrient supply and waste product removal are critically important factors in disc pathogenesis. Diffusion and fluid flow are blocked by subchondral bone thickening, cartilaginous endplate calcification, loss of hydrophilic proteoglycans, and clogging of anular pores by degraded matrix molecules. Previous studies demonstrated increased hydraulic permeability and macromolecular transport through crosslinked collagenous matrices. Genipin has also demonstrated the capability to increase retention of proteoglycans. A total of 57 bovine lumbar motion segments were divided randomly into phosphate buffered saline and 0.33% genipin-soaked treatment groups. Water content changes were measured using a mass-loss technique in 3 intervertebral disc regions following successive stages of compressive loading and unloading (post-treatment, after 1 hour 750 N compression, and after a subsequent 24-hour period of nominal loading). Net flow of fluid into or out of a region was determined from the percentage change in mean water content from successive groups. Fluid flow to and from the nucleus doubled with genipin crosslinking. Relative to the buffer-only controls, overall net fluid flow increased 103% in the nucleus pulposus, 36% in the inner anulus, and was 31% less in the outer anulus of genipin treated discs. The effects of genipin crosslinking on matrix permeability and proteoglycan retention can alter hydration levels and fluid flow in the intervertebral disc. Resulting increases in fluid flow, including a doubling of flow to and from the nucleus, could lead to enhanced nutritional inflow and waste product outflow for the disc, and may have implications for emerging cell

  14. Changes in hydration status of elite Olympic class sailors in different climates and the effects of different fluid replacement beverages

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Evan Jh; Fraser, Sarah J; Thomas, Scott G; Wells, Greg D

    2013-01-01

    Olympic class sailing poses physiological challenges similar to other endurance sports such as cycling or running, with sport specific challenges of limited access to nutrition and hydration during competition...

  15. 3D seismic analysis of the gas hydrate system and the fluid migration paths in part of the Niger Delta Basin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinsanpe, Olumuyiwa T.; Adepelumi, Adekunle A.; Benjamin, Uzochukwu K.; Falebita, Dele E.

    2017-12-01

    Comprehensive qualitative and semi-quantitative seismic analysis was carried out on 3-dimensional seismic data acquired in the deepwater compressional and shale diapiric zone of the Niger Delta Basin using an advanced seismic imaging tool. The main aim of this work is to obtain an understanding of the forming mechanism of the gas hydrate system, and the fluid migration paths associated with this part of the basin. The results showed the presence of pockmarks on the seafloor and bottom simulating reflectors (BSRs) in the field, indicating the active fluid flux and existence of gas hydrate system in the area. In the area of approximately 195 km2 occupying nearly 24% of the entire study field, three major zones with continuous or discontinuous BSRs of 3 to 7 km in length which are in the northeastern, southern and eastern part of the field respectively were delineated. The BSR is interpreted to be the transition between the free gas zone and the gas hydrate zone. The geologic structures including faults (strike-slip and normal faults), chimneys and diapirs were deduced to be the main conduits for gas migration. It is concluded that the biogenic gases generated in the basin were possibly transported via faults and chimneys by advection processes and subsequently accumulated under low temperature and high pressure conditions in the free gas zone below the BSR forming gas hydrate. A plausible explanation for the presence of the ubiquitous pockmarks of different diameters and sizes in the area is the transportation of the excessive gas to the seafloor through these mapped geologic structures.

  16. Hydrate formation in drilling fluids: prevention and countering; Formacao de hidratos em fluidos de perfuracao: prevencao e controle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villas Boas, Mario Barbosa [PETROBRAS, Macae, RJ (Brazil). Distrito de Perfuracao do Sudeste. Setor de Fluidos de Perfuracao

    1988-12-31

    The possibility of hydrates forming during deep water well drilling is analyzed under conditions typical of the state of Rio de Janeiro`s coastal ocean bed. Relying on an extensive review of technical literature, an effort has been made to ascertain the conditions which favor the occurrence of such hydrates in gas-contaminated water-based drilling muds. Based on this study, methods are proposed for preventing and countering this problem. (author) 58 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics studies of Pb(ii) micro hydrated gas phase clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Pimentel, C. I.; Amaro-Estrada, J. I.; Saint-Martin, H.; Ramírez-Solís, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, a theoretical investigation was made to assess the coordination properties of Pb(ii) in [Pb(H2O)n]2+ clusters, with n = 4, 6, 8, 12, and 29, as well as to study proton transfer events, by means of Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ-pp/6-311G level of theory, that were calibrated in comparison with B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ-PP/aug-cc-pVDZ calculations. Hemidirected configurations were found in all cases; the radial distribution functions (RDFs) produced well defined first hydration shells (FHSs) for n = 4,6,8, and 12, that resulted in a coordination number CN = 4, whereas a clear-cut FHS was not found for n = 29 because the RDF did not have a vacant region after the first maximum; however, three water molecules remained directly interacting with the Pb ion for the whole simulation, while six others stayed at average distances shorter than 4 Å but dynamically getting closer and farther, thus producing a CN ranging from 6 to 9, depending on the criterion used to define the first hydration shell. In agreement with experimental data and previous calculations, proton transfer events were observed for n ≤8 but not for n ≥12 . For an event to occur, a water molecule in the second hydration shell had to make a single hydrogen bond with a water molecule in the first hydration shell.

  18. Phase equilibrium modeling of gas hydrate systems for CO2 capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Peter Jørgensen; Thomsen, Kaj; Abildskov, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Kihara cell potential. Model II uses a two-parameter explicit expression for the Langmuir adsorption coefficient, based on Langmuir adsorption theory. With two hydrate formers, four parameters in the Kihara cell potentials are fitted for Model I. Sixteen parameters are required to be fitted for Model II...

  19. Hydrate phase equilibria of CO2+N2+aqueous solution of THF, TBAB or TBAF system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sfaxi, Imen Ben Attouche; Durand, Isabelle; Lugo, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    We report hydrate dissociation conditions of CO2 (15 and 30mol%)+N2 (85 and 70mol%) in the presence of aqueous solutions of THF, TBAB or TBAF. The concentrations of TBAB and TBAF in the aqueous solutions are 5wt% and 9wt% while THF concentration in aqueous solution is 3mol%. Two different experim...

  20. Hydrothermodynamic mixing of fluids across phases in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amooie, Mohammad Amin; Soltanian, Mohamad Reza; Moortgat, Joachim

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the coupled dynamics of fluid mixing and viscously unstable flow under both miscible (single-phase) and partially miscible (two-phase) conditions, and in both homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media. Higher-order finite element methods and fine grids are used to resolve the small-scale onset of fingering and tip splitting. An equation of state determines the thermodynamic phase behavior and Fickian diffusion. We compute global quantitative measures of the spreading and mixing of a diluting slug to elucidate key differences between miscible and partially miscible systems. Hydrodynamic instabilities are the main driver for mixing in miscible flow. In partially miscible flow, however, we find that relative permeabilities spread the two-phase zone. Within this mixing zone dissolution and evaporation drive mixing thermodynamically while reducing mobility contrasts and thus fingering instabilities. The different mixing dynamics in systems involving multiple phases with mutual solubilities have important implications in hydrogeology and energy applications, such as geological carbon sequestration and gas transport in hydrocarbon reservoirs.

  1. An immersed boundary method for two-phase fluids and gels and the swimming of Caenorhabditis elegans through viscoelastic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pilhwa; Wolgemuth, Charles

    2016-11-01

    While swimming in Newtonian fluids has been examined extensively, only recently have investigations into microorganism swimming through non-Newtonian fluids and gels been explored. The equations that govern these more complex media are often nonlinear and require computational algorithms to study moderate to large amplitude motions of the swimmer. Here we develop an immersed boundary method for handling fluid-structure interactions in a general two-phase medium, where one phase is a Newtonian fluid and the other phase is viscoelastic. We use this algorithm to investigate the swimming of an undulating, filamentary swimmer in 2D. A novel aspect of our method is that it allows one to specify how forces produced by the swimmer are distributed between the two phases of the fluid. The algorithm is validated by comparison to theoretical predictions for small amplitude swimming in gels and viscoelastic fluids. We show how the swimming velocity depends on material parameters of the fluid and the interaction between the fluid and swimmer. In addition, we simulate the swimming of Caenorhabditis elegans in viscoelastic fluids and find good agreement between the swimming speeds and fluid flows in our simulations and previous experimental measurements. NIH R01 GM072004, NIH P50GM094503.

  2. Investigations of a Two-Phase Fluid Model

    CERN Document Server

    Nadiga, B T

    1995-01-01

    We study an interface-capturing two-phase fluid model in which the interfacial tension is modelled as a volumetric stress. Since these stresses are obtainable from a Van der Waals-Cahn-Hilliard free energy, the model is, to a certain degree, thermodynamically realistic. Thermal fluctuations are not considered presently for reasons of simplicity. The utility of the model lies in its momentum-conservative representation of surface tension and the simplicity of its numerical implementation resulting from the volumetric modelling of the interfacial dynamics. After validation of the model in two spatial dimensions, two prototypical applications---instability of an initially high-Reynolds-number liquid jet in the gaseous phase and spinodal decomposition in a liquid-gas system--- are presented.

  3. Phase segregation in a binary fluid confined inside a nanopore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Saikat; Majumder, Suman; Sutradhar, Sabyasachi; Das, Subir K.; Paul, Raja

    2016-12-01

    Using a hydrodynamics preserving thermostat, we present extensive molecular dynamics simulation results for the kinetics of phase separation in a model binary (A+B) fluid confined inside a cylindrical nanopore with neutral wall. We observe the formation of a striped pattern, where A-rich and B-rich domains appear alternately along the axis of the cylinder. For a wide range of diameters of the cylinders, the growth of the pattern freezes and does not lead to complete phase separation. Prior to freezing, the growth of these stripes passes through two power-law regimes. The early-time regime is related to the Lifshitz-Slyozov diffusive mechanism and the estimated value of the exponent for the later-time regime matches well with that for the inertial hydrodynamic growth in three-dimensional fluid systems. Appropriate arguments have been provided to justify the observations. Furthermore, our results show that the length of the cylinder does not seem to affect the average axial length of the frozen patterns. However, the latter exhibits a linear dependence on the diameter of the cylinder.

  4. Application of the electrical characterization to the study of the hydrated phases of the cement with coal bottom ash; Aplicacion de la caracterizacion electrica al estudio de las fases hidratadas de cemento con adicion de escorias de centrales termicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez, E.; Frutos, J. de; Alvaro, A. M.

    2014-02-01

    The present paper investigates the influence of using Bottom and Fly Ash as partial replacement of cement in the hydration process. Through measurements of electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and X -ray diffraction (XRD), we analyze from the early stages to the hydration process to the end. Values of EIS, XRD and its relation, are used to determine transformation of hydrated phases, and for each of the substitutions, is indicated as modified the hydrated phase as a function of time and compared it with the reference material. It also proves the relevance of using EIS measures in real time, and as non destructive testing to characterize the hydration process of these materials. (Author)

  5. Thermodynamic Property Model of Wide-Fluid Phase Propane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Astina

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A new thermodynamic property model for propane is expressed in form of the Helmholtz free energy function. It consists of eight terms of the ideal-gas part and eighteen terms of the residual part. Accurate experimental data of fluid properties and theoretical approach from the intermolecular potential were simultaneously considered in the development to insure accuracy and to improve reliability of the equation of state over wide range of pressures and temperatures. Based on the state range of experimental data used in the model development, the validity range is judged from the triple-point of 85.48 K to temperature of 450 K and pressure up to 60 MPa. The uncertainties with respect to different properties are estimated to be 0.03% in ideal-gas isobaric specific heat, 0.2% in liquid phase density, 0.3% in gaseous phase density 1% in specific heats, 0.1% in vapor-pressure except at very low temperatures, 0.05% in saturated-liquid density, 0.02% in speed of sound of the gaseous phase and 1% in speed of sound of the liquid phase.

  6. TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.2 User's Manual: A Code for the Simulation of System Behavior in Hydrate-Bearing Geologic Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, George J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kowalsky, Michael B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pruess, Karsten [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-08-01

    TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.2 is a code for the simulation of the behavior of hydratebearing geologic systems, and represents the second update of the code since its first release [Moridis et al., 2008]. By solving the coupled equations of mass and heat balance, TOUGH+HYDRATE can model the non-isothermal gas release, phase behavior and flow of fluids and heat under conditions typical of common natural CH4-hydrate deposits (i.e., in the permafrost and in deep ocean sediments) in complex geological media at any scale (from laboratory to reservoir) at which Darcy’s law is valid. TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.2 includes both an equilibrium and a kinetic model of hydrate formation and dissociation. The model accounts for heat and up to four mass components, i.e., water, CH4, hydrate, and water-soluble inhibitors such as salts or alcohols. These are partitioned among four possible phases (gas phase, liquid phase, ice phase and hydrate phase). Hydrate dissociation or formation, phase changes and the corresponding thermal effects are fully described, as are the effects of inhibitors. The model can describe all possible hydrate dissociation mechanisms, i.e., depressurization, thermal stimulation, salting-out effects and inhibitor-induced effects. TOUGH+HYDRATE is a member of TOUGH+, the successor to the TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1991] family of codes for multi-component, multiphase fluid and heat flow developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is written in standard FORTRAN 95/2003, and can be run on any computational platform (workstation, PC, Macintosh) for which such compilers are available.

  7. Effect of Ammonia on the Gas-Phase Hydration of the Common Atmospheric Ion HSO4-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangqun Yu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydration directly affects the mobility, thermodynamic properties, lifetime and nucleation rates of atmospheric ions. In the present study, the role of ammonia on the formation of hydrogen bonded complexes of the common atmospheric hydrogensulfate (HSO4- ion with water has been investigated using the Density Functional Theory (DFT. Our findings rule out the stabilizing effect of ammonia on the formation of negatively charged cluster hydrates and show clearly that the conventional (classical treatment of ionic clusters as presumably more stable compared to neutrals may not be applicable to pre-nucleation clusters. These considerations lead us to conclude that not only quantitative but also qualitative assessment of the relative thermodynamic stability of atmospheric clusters requires a quantum-chemical treatment.

  8. Fluid escape structures as possible indicators of past gas hydrate dissociation during the deposition of the Barremian sediments in the Recôncavo Basin, NE, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fernando Menezes Freire

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Empty elliptical vesicles are observed in outcrops of Barremian very fine clayey sandstone to siltstone lacustrine slurry deposits of the Pitanga Member (Maracangalha Formation, exposed in the Maré Island, Southern Recôncavo Basin, Brazil. These sedimentary features have been traditionally interpreted as water escape structures triggered by the diapirism of the underlying shales of the Candeias Formation. This work proposes that vesicles were generated during massive gas hydrate dissociation as a result of tectonic activity in a paleolake system. Tectonic uplift would have triggered both the reduction of the confining pressure as well as an increase in lake bottom temperature, resulting in the instability of gas hydrate and causing intense release of both methane - or carbon dioxide (CO2 - and water. On one hand, this proposal has a strong impact on paleoenvironmental interpretations, giving support to the current hypothesis that rocks related to the Pitanga Member would have been deposited under water columns deep enough for gas hydrate formation and subsequent dissociation. On the other hand, it provides new insights on the genesis of fluid escape structures in sedimentary rocks, both lacustrine and marine, providing a paleobathymetric indicator.

  9. Thermochemistry of the Reaction of SF6 with Gas-Phase Hydrated Electrons: A Benchmark for Nanocalorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhgarnusch, Amou; Höckendorf, Robert F; Beyer, Martin K

    2015-10-01

    The reaction of sulfur hexafluoride with gas-phase hydrated electrons (H2O)n(-), n ≈ 60-130, is investigated at temperatures T = 140-300 K by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry. SF6 reacts with a temperature-independent rate of 3.0 ± 1.0 × 10(-10) cm(3) s(-1) via exclusive formation of the hydrated F(-) anion and the SF5(•) radical, which evaporates from the cluster. Nanocalorimetry yields a reaction enthalpy of ΔHR,298K = 234 ± 24 kJ mol(-1). Combined with literature thermochemical data from bulk aqueous solution, these result in an F5S-F bond dissociation enthalpy of ΔH298K = 455 ± 24 kJ mol(-1), in excellent agreement with all high-level quantum chemical calculations in the literature. A combination with gas-phase literature thermochemistry also yields an experimental value for the electron affinity of SF5(•), EA(SF5(•)) = 4.27 ± 0.25 eV.

  10. A STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF HYPOTONIC HYPER-HYDRATION FLUIDS ON SODIUM BALANCE IN PAEDIATRIC HAEMATOLOGY/ONCOLOGY PATIENTS RECEIVING CHEMOTHERAPY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Sinead; Butler, Eileen

    2016-09-01

    To determine the effect, if any, that hyper-hydration with hypotonic fluids has on sodium balance in paediatric haematology/oncology patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy treatment for malignancies. A literature review was carried out and a snapshot of current practice across paediatric haematology/oncology centres in the UK was obtained. A prospective study was carried out in a tertiary paediatric haematology/oncology centre. A total of 98 patient episodes involved hyper-hydration with isotonic 0.9% NaCl, almost isotonic 0.45% NaCl+2.5% glucose with added sodium bicarbonate or hypotonic 0.45% NaCl+2.5% glucose. Serum sodium was monitored before and during hyper-hydration. Results were analysed according to whether children experienced a drop in serum sodium. Patients who were hyper-hydrated with hypotonic 0.45% NaCl & 2.5% Glucose experienced the greatest mean drop in serum sodium. The mean drop in sodium was 2.11 mmol/L in the group receiving the hypotonic 0.45% NaCl & 2.5% Glucose compared to 0.47 mmol/L in the group who received isotonic 0.9% NaCl or 0.45% NaCl & 2.5% Glucose with added sodium bicarbonate. During the course of the study five patients who received 0.45% NaCl & 2.5% Glucose dropped their sodium to 130 mmol/L or less constituting hyponatraemia. No patient dropped their serum sodium to 130 mmol/L or less in the other two groups. During the course of the study no patient experienced clinical manifestations of hyponatraemia. No child became hypernatraemic. In paediatric haematology/oncology patients receiving hyper-hydration with concurrent chemotherapy isotonic fluids are preferable. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  11. Numerical simulation of complex multi-phase fluid of casting process and its applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Li-liang

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The fluid of casting process is a typical kind of multi-phase flow. Actually, many casting phenomena have close relationship with the multi-phase flow, such as molten metal filling process, air entrapment, slag movement, venting process of die casting, gas escaping of lost foam casting and so on. Obviously, in order to analyze these phenomena accurately, numerical simulation of the multi-phase fluid is necessary. Unfortunately, so far, most of the commercial casting simulation systems do not have the ability of multi-phase flow modeling due to the difficulty in the multi-phase flow calculation. In the paper, Finite Different Method (FDM technique was adopt to solve the multi-phase fluid model. And a simple object of the muiti-phase fluid was analyzed to obtain the fluid rates of the liquid phase and the entrapped air phase.

  12. Ad libitum fluid intake does not prevent dehydration in suboptimally hydrated young soccer players during a training session of a summer camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoutis, Giannis; Kavouras, Stavros A; Kotsis, Yiannis P; Tsekouras, Yiannis E; Makrillos, Michalis; Bardis, Costas N

    2013-06-01

    There is a lack of studies concerning hydration status of young athletes exercising in the heat. To assess preexercise hydration status in young soccer players during a summer sports camp and to evaluate body- water balance after soccer training sessions. Initial hydration status was assessed in 107 young male soccer players (age 11-16 yr) during the 2nd day of the camp. Seventy-two athletes agreed to be monitored during 2 more training sessions (3rd and 5th days of the camp) to calculate dehydration via changes in body weight, while water drinking was allowed ad libitum. Hydration status was assessed via urine specific gravity (USG), urine color, and changes in total body weight. Mean environmental temperature and humidity were 27.2 ± 2 °C and 57% ± 9%, respectively. According to USG values, 95 of 107 of the players were hypohydrated (USG ≥ 1.020) before practice. The prevalence of dehydration observed was maintained on both days, with 95.8% and 97.2% of the players being dehydrated after the training sessions on the 3rd and 5th days, respectively. Despite fluid availability, 54 of the 66 (81.8%) dehydrated players reduced their body weight (-0.35 ± 0.04 kg) as a response to training, while 74.6% (47 out of the 63) further reduced their body weight (-0.22 ± 0.03 kg) after training on the 5th day. Approximately 90% of the young soccer players who began exercising under warm weather conditions were hypohydrated, while drinking ad libitum during practice did not prevent further dehydration in already dehydrated players.

  13. Carbon dioxide hydrate phase equilibrium and cage occupancy calculations using ab initio intermolecular potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velaga, Srinath C; Anderson, Brian J

    2014-01-16

    Gas hydrate deposits are receiving increased attention as potential locations for CO2 sequestration, with CO2 replacing the methane that is recovered as an energy source. In this scenario, it is very important to correctly characterize the cage occupancies of CO2 to correctly assess the sequestration potential as well as the methane recoverability. In order to predict accurate cage occupancies, the guest–host interaction potential must be represented properly. Earlier, these potential parameters were obtained by fitting to experimental equilibrium data and these fitted parameters do not match with those obtained by second virial coefficient or gas viscosity data. Ab initio quantum mechanical calculations provide an independent means to directly obtain accurate intermolecular potentials. A potential energy surface (PES) between H2O and CO2 was computed at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level and corrected for basis set superposition error (BSSE), an error caused due to the lower basis set, by using the half counterpoise method. Intermolecular potentials were obtained by fitting Exponential-6 and Lennard-Jones 6-12 models to the ab initio PES, correcting for many-body interactions. We denoted this model as the “VAS” model. Reference parameters for structure I carbon dioxide hydrate were calculated using the VAS model (site–site ab initio intermolecular potentials) as Δμ(w)(0) = 1206 ± 2 J/mol and ΔH(w)(0) = 1260 ± 12 J/mol. With these reference parameters and the VAS model, pure CO2 hydrate equilibrium pressure was predicted with an average absolute deviation of less than 3.2% from the experimental data. Predictions of the small cage occupancy ranged from 32 to 51%, and the large cage is more than 98% occupied. The intermolecular potentials were also tested by calculating the pure CO2 density and diffusion of CO2 in water using molecular dynamics simulations.

  14. Parametric study of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sand, silt, and clay sediments: 2. Small-strain mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.Y.; Francisca, F.M.; Santamarina, J.C.; Ruppel, C.

    2010-01-01

    The small-strain mechanical properties (e.g., seismic velocities) of hydrate-bearing sediments measured under laboratory conditions provide reference values for calibration of logging and seismic exploration results acquired in hydrate-bearing formations. Instrumented cells were designed for measuring the compressional (P) and shear (S) velocities of sand, silts, and clay with and without hydrate and subject to vertical effective stresses of 0.01 to 2 MPa. Tetrahydrofuran (THF), which is fully miscible in water, was used as the hydrate former to permit close control over the hydrate saturation Shyd and to produce hydrate from dissolved phase, as methane hydrate forms in most natural marine settings. The results demonstrate that laboratory hydrate formation technique controls the pattern of P and S velocity changes with increasing Shyd and that the small-strain properties of hydrate-bearing sediments are governed by effective stress, δ'v and sediment specific surface. The S velocity increases with hydrate saturation owing to an increase in skeletal shear stiffness, particularly when hydrate saturation exceeds Shyd≈ 0.4. At very high hydrate saturations, the small strain shear stiffness is determined by the presence of hydrates and becomes insensitive to changes in effective stress. The P velocity increases with hydrate saturation due to the increases in both the shear modulus of the skeleton and the bulk modulus of pore-filling phases during fluid-to-hydrate conversion. Small-strain Poisson's ratio varies from 0.5 in soft sediments lacking hydrates to 0.25 in stiff sediments (i.e., subject to high vertical effective stress or having high Shyd). At Shyd ≥ 0.5, hydrate hinders expansion and the loss of sediment stiffness during reduction of vertical effective stress, meaning that hydrate-rich natural sediments obtained through pressure coring should retain their in situ fabric for some time after core retrieval if the cores are maintained within the hydrate

  15. Defining Condensed Phase Reactive Force Fields from ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations: The Case of the Hydrated Excess Proton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Chris; Maupin, C Mark; Izvekov, Sergei; Voth, Gregory A

    2010-10-12

    In this report, a general methodology is presented for the parametrization of a reactive force field using data from a condensed phase ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation. This algorithm allows for the creation of an empirical reactive force field that accurately reproduces the underlying ab initio reactive surface while providing the ability to achieve long-time statistical sampling for large systems not possible with AIMD alone. In this work, a model for the hydrated excess proton is constructed where the hydronium cation and proton hopping portions of the model are statistically force-matched to the results of Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics (CPMD) simulations. The flexible nature of the algorithm also allows for the use of the more accurate classical simple point-charge flexible water (SPC/Fw) model to describe the water-water interactions while utilizing the ab initio data to create an overall multistate molecular dynamics (MS-MD) reactive model of the hydrated excess proton in water. The resulting empirical model for the system qualitatively reproduces thermodynamic and dynamic properties calculated from the ab initio simulation while being in good agreement with experimental results and previously developed multistate empirical valence bond (MS-EVB) models. The present methodology, therefore, bridges the AIMD technique with the MS-MD modeling of reactive events, while incorporating key strengths of both.

  16. Hydrate morphology: Physical properties of sands with patchy hydrate saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Santamarina, J.C.; Waite, William F.; Kneafsey, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The physical properties of gas hydrate-bearing sediments depend on the volume fraction and spatial distribution of the hydrate phase. The host sediment grain size and the state of effective stress determine the hydrate morphology in sediments; this information can be used to significantly constrain estimates of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments, including the coarse-grained sands subjected to high effective stress that are of interest as potential energy resources. Reported data and physical analyses suggest hydrate-bearing sands contain a heterogeneous, patchy hydrate distribution, whereby zones with 100% pore-space hydrate saturation are embedded in hydrate-free sand. Accounting for patchy rather than homogeneous hydrate distribution yields more tightly constrained estimates of physical properties in hydrate-bearing sands and captures observed physical-property dependencies on hydrate saturation. For example, numerical modeling results of sands with patchy saturation agree with experimental observation, showing a transition in stiffness starting near the series bound at low hydrate saturations but moving toward the parallel bound at high hydrate saturations. The hydrate-patch size itself impacts the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments; for example, at constant hydrate saturation, we find that conductivity (electrical, hydraulic and thermal) increases as the number of hydrate-saturated patches increases. This increase reflects the larger number of conductive flow paths that exist in specimens with many small hydrate-saturated patches in comparison to specimens in which a few large hydrate saturated patches can block flow over a significant cross-section of the specimen.

  17. Exploitation of subsea gas hydrate reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Georg; Schlüter, Stefan; Hennig, Torsten; Deerberg, Görge

    2016-04-01

    Natural gas hydrates are considered to be a potential energy resource in the future. They occur in permafrost areas as well as in subsea sediments and are stable at high pressure and low temperature conditions. According to estimations the amount of carbon bonded in natural gas hydrates worldwide is two times larger than in all known conventional fossil fuels. Besides technical challenges that have to be overcome climate and safety issues have to be considered before a commercial exploitation of such unconventional reservoirs. The potential of producing natural gas from subsea gas hydrate deposits by various means (e.g. depressurization and/or injection of carbon dioxide) is numerically studied in the frame of the German research project »SUGAR«. The basic mechanisms of gas hydrate formation/dissociation and heat and mass transport in porous media are considered and implemented into a numerical model. The physics of the process leads to strong non-linear couplings between hydraulic fluid flow, hydrate dissociation and formation, hydraulic properties of the sediment, partial pressures and seawater solution of components and the thermal budget of the system described by the heat equation. This paper is intended to provide an overview of the recent development regarding the production of natural gas from subsea gas hydrate reservoirs. It aims at giving a broad insight into natural gas hydrates and covering relevant aspects of the exploitation process. It is focused on the thermodynamic principles and technological approaches for the exploitation. The effects occurring during natural gas production within hydrate filled sediment layers are identified and discussed by means of numerical simulation results. The behaviour of relevant process parameters such as pressure, temperature and phase saturations is described and compared for different strategies. The simulations are complemented by calculations for different safety relevant problems.

  18. Pre-Practice Hydration Status and the Effects of Hydration Regimen on Collegiate Division III Male Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magal, Meir; Cain, Rebekah J; Long, Josh C; Thomas, Kathleen S

    2015-03-01

    Pre-practice euhydration is key in the prevention of heat related injuries. The pre-practice hydration status of male National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)-Division III athletes and the effects of a direct hydration regimen have yet to be investigated therefore; the aim of the study was 1) to analyze the pre-practice hydration status of current NCAA-DIII male athletes and 2) assess the impact of a directed intervention on pre-practice hydration status. The study was divided into baseline, pre and post intervention phases. For baseline, hydration status through urine specific gravity (USG) and anthropometric indices were measured prior to morning practice. Following baseline, pre-intervention commenced and participants were assigned to either control (CON) or experimental (EXP) groups. The CON and EXP group participants were instructed to maintain normal hydration and diet schedules and record fluid intake for seven days leading to post-intervention. The EXP group participants were asked to consume an additional 23.9 fl oz (~ 750 ml) per day for one week (7 days) leading to post-intervention. After 7 days the same measures were taken. At baseline, the majority of the participants were hypohydrated. Following the intervention, the EXP group participants consumed significantly more fluids than the participants in the CON group (3277.91 ± 1360. 23 ml vs 1931.54 ± 881.81 ml; p hydration status and the CON group did not (-0.02 ± 0.006 vs 0.001 ± 0.005 ml; p 0.05) difference in the regression slopes or intercepts between the CON and EXP groups when expressed as daily fluid intake per kg body (ml·kg(-1)) and change in USG from pre-intervention to post-intervention. Most of the participants were hypohydrated at baseline/pre-intervention and the direct hydration intervention improved post-intervention hydration status but only to a small extent. Key pointsThe majority of NCAA-DIII male athletes whom we assessed prior to practice through the use of USG appeared

  19. Pre-Practice Hydration Status and the Effects of Hydration Regimen on Collegiate Division III Male Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magal, Meir; Cain, Rebekah J.; Long, Josh C.; Thomas, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-practice euhydration is key in the prevention of heat related injuries. The pre-practice hydration status of male National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)-Division III athletes and the effects of a direct hydration regimen have yet to be investigated therefore; the aim of the study was 1) to analyze the pre-practice hydration status of current NCAA-DIII male athletes and 2) assess the impact of a directed intervention on pre-practice hydration status. The study was divided into baseline, pre and post intervention phases. For baseline, hydration status through urine specific gravity (USG) and anthropometric indices were measured prior to morning practice. Following baseline, pre-intervention commenced and participants were assigned to either control (CON) or experimental (EXP) groups. The CON and EXP group participants were instructed to maintain normal hydration and diet schedules and record fluid intake for seven days leading to post-intervention. The EXP group participants were asked to consume an additional 23.9 fl oz (~ 750 ml) per day for one week (7 days) leading to post-intervention. After 7 days the same measures were taken. At baseline, the majority of the participants were hypohydrated. Following the intervention, the EXP group participants consumed significantly more fluids than the participants in the CON group (3277.91 ± 1360. 23 ml vs 1931.54 ± 881.81 ml; p hydration status and the CON group did not (-0.02 ± 0.006 vs 0.001 ± 0.005 ml; p 0.05) difference in the regression slopes or intercepts between the CON and EXP groups when expressed as daily fluid intake per kg body (ml·kg-1) and change in USG from pre-intervention to post-intervention. Most of the participants were hypohydrated at baseline/pre-intervention and the direct hydration intervention improved post-intervention hydration status but only to a small extent. Key points The majority of NCAA-DIII male athletes whom we assessed prior to practice through the use of USG appeared

  20. Hydrogen storage and carbon dioxide sequestration in TBAF semi-clathrate hydrates: Kinetics and evolution of hydrate-phase composition by in situ raman spectroscopy - Abstract -

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres Trueba, A.; Radoviæ, I.R.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Kroon, M.C.; Peters, C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) represents almost one third of the emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels additionally, CO2 has been identified as the mayor contributor of global warming. Hydrogen (H2), on the other hand, due to its properties is considered a promising energy carrier. Clathrate hydrates

  1. Role of lipid phase separations and membrane hydration in phospholipid vesicle fusion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, D.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between lipid phase separation and fusion of small unilamellar phosphatidylserine-containing vesicles was investigated. The kinetics of phase separation were monitored by following the increase of self-quenching of the fluorescent phospholipid analogue

  2. Site selection for DOE/JIP gas hydrates drilling in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.R.; Ruppel, C. [United States Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA (United States); Shelander, D.; Dai, J. [Schlumberger, Houston, TX (United States); McConnell, D. [AOA Geophysics Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Shedd, W. [Minerals Management Service, New Orleans, LA (United States); Frye, M. [Minerals Management Service, Herndon, VA (United States); Boswell, R.; Rose, K. [United States Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States). National Energy Technology Lab; Jones, E.; Latham, T. [Chevron Energy Technology Corp., Houston, TX (United States); Collett, T. [United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Dugan, B. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Earth Science; Wood, W. [United States Naval Research Lab, Stennis Space Center, MS (United States)

    2008-07-01

    As drilling operations in the Gulf of Mexico shift from shallow water to deeper water targets, operators are encountering sediments with pressure-temperature regimes for gas hydrate stability. The Chevron-led Joint Industry Project (JIP) on methane hydrates was formed in 2001 to study the hazards associated with drilling these types of hydrate-bearing sediments and to assess the capacity of geological and geophysical tools to predict gas hydrate distributions and concentrations. Selected reservoirs units with high concentrations of gas hydrate were sampled to obtain physical data on hydrate bearing sediments. The JIP work validates methods devised to estimate gas hydrate distribution and concentrations in order to analyze the resource potential of these hydrate-bearing sediments. This paper described the geologic and geophysical setting of 3 sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico that contain hydrate-bearing reservoir sands. The three sites that will undergo exploratory drilling and a logging campaign in late spring 2008 include the Alaminos Canyon (AC) lease block 818, Green Canyon (GC) 955, and Walker Ridge (WR) 313. At the AC818 site, gas hydrate is interpreted to occur within the Oligocene Frio volcaniclastic sand at the crest of a fold that is shallow enough to be in the hydrate stability zone. Drilling at GC955 will sample a faulted, buried Pleistocene channel-levee system characterized with seafloor fluid expulsion features, structural closure associated with uplifted salt, and seismic evidence for upward migration of fluids and gas into the sand-rich parts of the sedimentary section. Drilling at WR313 targets sheet sands and associated channel deposits within a small basin. The potential for gas hydrate occurrence at WR313 is supported by shingled phase reversals consistent with the transition from gas-charged sand to overlying gas-hydrate saturated sand. 39 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  3. Gas hydrate nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The overall aim of the project was to gain more knowledge about the kinetics of gas hydrate formation especially the early growth phase. Knowledge of kinetics of gas hydrate formation is important and measurements of gas hydrate particle size and concentration can contribute to improve this knowledge. An experimental setup for carrying out experimental studies of the nucleation and growth of gas hydrates has been constructed and tested. Multi wavelength extinction (MWE) was the experimental technique selected for obtaining particle diameter and concentration. The principle behind MWE is described as well as turbidity spectrum analysis that in an initial stage of the project was considered as an alternative experimental technique. Details of the experimental setup and its operation are outlined. The measuring cell consists of a 1 litre horizontal tube sustaining pressures up to 200 bar. Laser light for particle size determination can be applied through sapphire windows. A description of the various auxiliary equipment and of another gas hydrate cell used in the study are given. A computer program for simulation and analysis of gas hydrate experiments is based on the gas hydrate kinetics model proposed by Skovborg and Rasmussen (1993). Initial measurements showed that knowledge of the refractive index of gas hydrates was important in order to use MWE. An experimental determination of the refractive index of methane and natural gas hydrate is described. The test experiments performed with MWE on collectives of gas hydrate particles and experiments with ethane, methane and natural gas hydrate are discussed. Gas hydrate particles initially seem to grow mainly in size and at latter stages in number. (EG) EFP-94; 41 refs.

  4. Determination of methane concentrations in water in equilibrium with sI methane hydrate in the absence of a vapor phase by in situ Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, W.; Chou, I.-Ming; Burruss, R.C.

    2008-01-01

    Most submarine gas hydrates are located within the two-phase equilibrium region of hydrate and interstitial water with pressures (P) ranging from 8 to 60 MPa and temperatures (T) from 275 to 293 K. However, current measurements of solubilities of methane in equilibrium with hydrate in the absence of a vapor phase are limited below 20 MPa and 283.15 K, and the differences among these data are up to 30%. When these data were extrapolated to other P-T conditions, it leads to large and poorly known uncertainties. In this study, in situ Raman spectroscopy was used to measure methane concentrations in pure water in equilibrium with sI (structure one) methane hydrate, in the absence of a vapor phase, at temperatures from 276.6 to 294.6 (??0.3) K and pressures at 10, 20, 30 and 40 (??0.4%) MPa. The relationship among concentration of methane in water in equilibrium with hydrate, in mole fraction [X(CH4)], the temperature in K, and pressure in MPa was derived as: X(CH4) = exp [11.0464 + 0.023267 P - (4886.0 + 8.0158 P)/T]. Both the standard enthalpy and entropy of hydrate dissolution at the studied T-P conditions increase slightly with increasing pressure, ranging from 41.29 to 43.29 kJ/mol and from 0.1272 to 0.1330 kJ/K ?? mol, respectively. When compared with traditional sampling and analytical methods, the advantages of our method include: (1) the use of in situ Raman signals for methane concentration measurements eliminates possible uncertainty caused by sampling and ex situ analysis, (2) it is simple and efficient, and (3) high-pressure data can be obtained safely. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Major occurrences and reservoir concepts of marine clathrate hydrates: Implications of field evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, J.S.; Winters, W.J.; Dillon, William P.; Clennell, M.B.; Rowe, M.M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is part of the special publication Gas hydrates: relevance to world margin stability and climatic change (eds J.P. Henriet and J. Mienert). Questions concerning clathrate hydrate as an energy resource, as a factor in modifying global climate and as a triggering mechanism for mass movements invite consideration of what factors promote hydrate concentration, and what the quintessential hydrate-rich sediment may be. Gas hydrate field data, although limited, provide a starting point for identifying the environments and processes that lead to more massive concentrations. Gas hydrate zones are up to 30 m thick and the vertical range of occurrence at a site may exceed 200 m. Zones typically occur more than 100m above the phase boundary. Thicker zones are overwhelmingly associated with structural features and tectonism, and often contain sand. It is unclear whether an apparent association between zone thickness and porosity represents a cause-and-effect relationship. The primary control on the thickness of a potential gas hydrate reservoir is the geological setting. Deep water and low geothermal gradients foster thick gas hydrate stability zones (GHSZs). The presence of faults, fractures, etc. can favour migration of gas-rich fluids. Geological processes, such as eustacy or subsidence, may alter the thickness of the GHSZ or affect hydrate concentratiion. Tectonic forces may promote injection of gas into the GHSZ. More porous and permeable sediment, as host sediment properties, increase storage capacity and fluid conductivity, and thus also enhance reservoir potential.

  6. Comparison of liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography mobile phases for enantioselective separations on polysaccharide stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Syame; Lozac'h, Marie-Anne; Adam, Isabelle; Francotte, Eric; West, Caroline

    2016-10-07

    Analysis and production of enantiomerically pure compounds is a major topic of interest when active pharmaceutical ingredients are concerned. Enantioselective chromatography has become a favourite both at the analytical and preparative scales. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) are dominating the scene and are often seen as complementary techniques. Nowadays, for economic and ecologic reasons, SFC may be preferred over normal-phase HPLC (NPLC) as it allows significant reductions in solvent consumption. However, the transfer of NPLC methods to SFC is not always straightforward. In this study, we compare the retention of achiral molecules and separation of enantiomers under supercritical fluid (carbon dioxide with ethanol or isopropanol) and liquid normal-phase (heptane with ethanol or isopropanol) elution modes with polysaccharide stationary phases in order to explore the differences between the retention and enantioseparation properties between the two modes. Chemometric methods (namely quantitative structure-retention relationships and discriminant analysis) are employed to compare the results obtained on a large set of analytes (171 achiral probes and 97 racemates) and gain some understanding on the retention and separation mechanisms. The results indicate that, contrary to popular belief, carbon dioxide - solvent SFC mobile phases are often weaker eluents than liquid mobile phases. It appears that SFC and NPLC elution modes provide different retention mechanisms. While some enantioseparations are unaffected, facilitating the transfer between the two elution modes, other enantioseparations may be drastically different due to different types and strength of interactions contributing to enantioselectivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Micro-hydration of the MgNO3+ cation in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagoda-Cwiklik, Barbara; Jungwirth, Pavel; Rulísek, Lubomír; Milko, Petr; Roithová, Jana; Lemaire, Joël; Maitre, Philippe; Ortega, Jean Michel; Schröder, Detlef

    2007-08-06

    Coordination complexes of the magnesium nitrate cation with water [MgNO(3)(H(2)O)(n)](+) up to n=7 are investigated by experiment and theory. The fragmentation patterns of [MgNO(3)(H(2)O)(n)](+) clusters generated via electrospray ionization indicate a considerable change in stability between n=3 and 4. Further, ion-molecule reactions of mass-selected [MgNO(3)(H(2)O)(n)](+) cations with D(2)O reveal the occurrence of consecutive replacement of water ligands by heavy water, and in this respect the complexes with n=4 and 5 are somewhat more reactive than their smaller homologs with n=1-3 as well as the larger clusters with n=6 and 7. For the latter two ions, the theory suggests the existence of isomers, such as complexes with monodentate nitrato ligands as well as solvent-separated ion pairs with a common solvation shell. The reactions observed and the ion thermochemistry are discussed in the context of ab initio calculations, which also reveal the structures of the various hydrated cation complexes.

  8. Maximum Recoverable Gas from Hydrate Bearing Sediments by Depressurization

    KAUST Repository

    Terzariol, Marco

    2017-11-13

    The estimation of gas production rates from hydrate bearing sediments requires complex numerical simulations. This manuscript presents a set of simple and robust analytical solutions to estimate the maximum depressurization-driven recoverable gas. These limiting-equilibrium solutions are established when the dissociation front reaches steady state conditions and ceases to expand further. Analytical solutions show the relevance of (1) relative permeabilities between the hydrate free sediment, the hydrate bearing sediment, and the aquitard layers, and (2) the extent of depressurization in terms of the fluid pressures at the well, at the phase boundary, and in the far field. Close form solutions for the size of the produced zone allow for expeditious financial analyses; results highlight the need for innovative production strategies in order to make hydrate accumulations an economically-viable energy resource. Horizontal directional drilling and multi-wellpoint seafloor dewatering installations may lead to advantageous production strategies in shallow seafloor reservoirs.

  9. Time-resolved x-ray diffraction and Raman studies of the phase transition mechanisms of methane hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirai, Hisako, E-mail: hirai@sci.ehime-u.ac.jp; Kadobayashi, Hirokazu [Geodynamics Research Center, Ehime University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Hirao, Naohisa; Ohishi, Yasuo [Japan Association of Synchrotron Radiation Institution, Harima 679-5198 (Japan); Ohtake, Michika; Yamamoto, Yoshitaka [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Nakano, Satoshi [National Institute for Material Science, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2015-01-14

    The mechanisms by which methane hydrate transforms from an sI to sH structure and from an sH to filled-ice Ih structure were examined using time-resolved X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with charge-coupled device camera observation under fixed pressure conditions. The XRD data obtained for the sI–sH transition at 0.8 GPa revealed an inverse correlation between sI and sH, suggesting that the sI structure is replaced by sH. Meanwhile, the Raman analysis demonstrated that although the 12-hedra of sI are retained, the 14-hedra are replaced sequentially by additional 12-hedra, modified 12-hedra, and 20-hedra cages of sH. With the sH to filled-ice Ih transition at 1.8 GPa, both the XRD and Raman data showed that this occurs through a sudden collapse of the sH structure and subsequent release of solid and fluid methane that is gradually incorporated into the filled-ice Ih to complete its structure. This therefore represents a typical reconstructive transition mechanism.

  10. Thermodynamic Changes in the Coal Matrix - Gas - Moisture System Under Pressure Release and Phase Transformations of Gas Hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyrdin, V. V.; Smirnov, V. G.; Kim, T. L.; Manakov, A. Yu.; Fofanov, A. A.; Kartopolova, I. S.

    2017-06-01

    The physical processes occurring in the coal - natural gas system under the gas pressure release were studied experimentally. The possibility of gas hydrates presence in the inner space of natural coal was shown, which decomposition leads to an increase in the amount of gas passing into the free state. The decomposition of gas hydrates can be caused either by the seam temperature increase or the pressure decrease to lower than the gas hydrates equilibrium curve. The contribution of methane released during gas hydrates decomposition should be taken into account in the design of safe mining technologies for coal seams prone to gas dynamic phenomena.

  11. Pre-Practice Hydration Status and the Effects of Hydration Regimen on Collegiate Division III Male Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meir Magal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pre-practice euhydration is key in the prevention of heat related injuries. The pre-practice hydration status of male National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA-Division III athletes and the effects of a direct hydration regimen have yet to be investigated therefore; the aim of the study was 1 to analyze the pre-practice hydration status of current NCAA-DIII male athletes and 2 assess the impact of a directed intervention on pre-practice hydration status. The study was divided into baseline, pre and post intervention phases. For baseline, hydration status through urine specific gravity (USG and anthropometric indices were measured prior to morning practice. Following baseline, pre-intervention commenced and participants were assigned to either control (CON or experimental (EXP groups. The CON and EXP group participants were instructed to maintain normal hydration and diet schedules and record fluid intake for seven days leading to post-intervention. The EXP group participants were asked to consume an additional 23.9 fl oz (~ 750 ml per day for one week (7 days leading to post-intervention. After 7 days the same measures were taken. At baseline, the majority of the participants were hypohydrated. Following the intervention, the EXP group participants consumed significantly more fluids than the participants in the CON group (3277.91 ± 1360. 23 ml vs 1931.54 ± 881.81 ml; p 0.05 difference in the regression slopes or intercepts between the CON and EXP groups when expressed as daily fluid intake per kg body (ml·kg-1 and change in USG from pre-intervention to post-intervention. Most of the participants were hypohydrated at baseline/pre-intervention and the direct hydration intervention improved post-intervention hydration status but only to a small extent.

  12. Anaerobic oxidation of methane above gas hydrates at Hydrate Ridge, NE Pacific Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treude, T.; Boetius, A.; Knittel, K.

    2003-01-01

    At Hydrate Ridge (HR), Cascadia convergent margin, surface sediments contain massive gas hydrates formed from methane that ascends together with fluids along faults from deeper reservoirs. Anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), mediated by a microbial consortium of archaea and sulfate...

  13. Hydration lubrication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    The hydration lubrication paradigm, whereby hydration layers are both strongly held by the charges they surround, and so can support large pressures without being squeezed out, and at the same time...

  14. The phase behavior of linear and partially flexible hard-sphere chain fluids and the solubility of hard spheres in hard-sphere chain fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyarzun, B.A.; Van Westen, T.; Vlugt, T.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    he liquid crystal phase behavior of linear and partially flexible hard-sphere chain fluids and the solubility of hard spheres in hard-sphere chain fluids are studied by constant pressure Monte Carlo simulations. An extensive study on the phase behavior of linear fluids with a length of 7, 8, 9, 10,

  15. Prolongation of two phases in the model of fluid displacement through a capillary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Yann; Panfilov, Mikhail; Buès, Michel

    2006-03-01

    The problem of a piston-like displacement of a fluid by another in a capillary is examined. It is suggested that each fluid is prolonged into the domain occupied by the other fluid. This enables the replacement of the two-phase flow problem by a transient single-phase flow problem, with discontinuity in velocity and pressure on a film interface. The problems related to the triple point are solved by introducing a limit fluid near the pore wall. The demonstration of the Washburn equation contributes to the physical justification of our model. To cite this article: Y. Lucas et al., C. R. Mecanique 334 (2006).

  16. Grain scale study of hydrate formation in sediments from methane gas : role of capillarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behseresht, J.; Peng, Y.; Prodanovic, M.; Bryant, S.L. [Texas Univ. at Austin, Austin, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    There are varying estimates of the amount of methane hydrate in ocean sediments and in permafrost regions. The difficulty in determining the growth habit and the spatial distribution of hydrate within the hydrate stability zone (HSZ) contribute to this variability. The mode in which methane is transported in the HSZ is thought to affect the spatial distribution of hydrate. A predictive, mechanistic model of transport is therefore needed. This paper focused on the contribution of capillarity-controlled fluid displacement to transport. Because gas, water and hydrate phases are known to coexist within the HSZ, the phenomena associated with two-phase flow was studied. The conference paper described mechanistic grain-scale models for the capillarity-controlled displacement of brine by gas. The model was extended to account heuristically for displacement of sediment grains by the pressure imbalance between gas and water phases. The paper discussed the implications of model predictions for water and gas availability for hydrate formation. The paper discussed the geometric models of sediments, the network model of drainage of the model sediment, wetting phase connectivity, and wetting phase trapping. It also discussed the level set method (LSM) for interface tracking including the progressive quasi-static (PQS) algorithm and the PQS fluid displacement coupled with grain displacement. It was concluded that LSM/PQS accurately predicted critical curvature for drainage. 22 refs., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  17. Calculation of solid-fluid phase equilibria and three-dimensional phase diagrams for binary systems of naphthalene and supercritical fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitta, Tomoshige; Katayama, Takashi (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Ikeda, Kazufumi

    1993-04-01

    Algorithms for calculating phase equilibria of solid-fluid and fluid-fluid systems are described, together with the characteristics of phase diagrams of binary mixtures of naphthalene and the supercritical fluids such as ethylene, carbon dioxide, fluoroform, and chlorotrifluoromethane, as calculated from the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state. The sublimation enthalpy, the molar heat capacity difference between vapor and solid, and the molar volume of the solid are determined for naphthalene by the least-squares method from experimental data for the sublimation pressure and the melting curve. The binary parameters k[sub ij] and c[sub ij] for the Soave-Redlich-Kwong constants a and b are determined from the solubilities of solid naphthalene in the supercritical fluids. An algorithm for calculating the phase equilibrium based on phase stability analysis, in which the search region is contracted by using the bisection principle, is developed for use in determining the true, thermodynamically most stable solution from among the various combinations of gas, liquid, and solid.

  18. The effect of acute fluid consumption following exercise-induced fluid loss on hydration status, percent body fat, and minimum wrestling weight in wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutrufello, Paul T; Dixon, Curt B

    2014-07-01

    Acute fluid consumption (approximately 1 L) has been shown to reduce urine specific gravity (Usg) among subjects after an overnight fast, yet it is unknown if Usg may be reduced among subjects who have experienced exercise-induced fluid loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute fluid consumption on Usg, body mass, percent body fat (%BF), and minimum wrestling weight (MWW) following an exercise-induced fluid loss protocol. National Collegiate Athletic Association coaches' perceptions of the weight certification program (WCP) were also evaluated. Twelve men wrestlers (19.8 ± 1.14 years) were tested prepractice (PRE), postpractice (POST), and 1 hour after consuming 1 L of water (PFC). Percent body fat was measured by skinfolds (SF), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), and multifrequency and leg-to-leg bioelectrical impedance analysis to calculate MWW. Urine specific gravity measurements significantly increased above PRE (1.013 ± 0.006) at the POST (1.019 ± 0.007; p = 0.017) and PFC (1.022 ± 0.008; p = 0.025) assessments; however, POST and PFC were not significantly different (p = 0.978) from one another. The %BF values were similar (p > 0.05) at each assessment point when using SF and ADP. When compared with PRE, MWW significantly reduced at the POST assessment when using SF (67.2 ± 8.4 vs. 65.7 ± 8.2 kg; p body mass observed after exercise. Forty-seven National Collegiate Athletic Association coaches completed the questionnaire and 2 central themes emerged: (a) concerns with the 1.5% weight loss plan and (b) wrestlers using strategies in an attempt to circumvent the WCP. Exercise-induced fluid loss followed by acute fluid consumption equal to 1 L was ineffective in reducing Usg.

  19. Rapid gas hydrate formation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas D.; Taylor, Charles E.; Unione, Alfred J.

    2013-01-15

    The disclosure provides a method and apparatus for forming gas hydrates from a two-phase mixture of water and a hydrate forming gas. The two-phase mixture is created in a mixing zone which may be wholly included within the body of a spray nozzle. The two-phase mixture is subsequently sprayed into a reaction zone, where the reaction zone is under pressure and temperature conditions suitable for formation of the gas hydrate. The reaction zone pressure is less than the mixing zone pressure so that expansion of the hydrate-forming gas in the mixture provides a degree of cooling by the Joule-Thompson effect and provides more intimate mixing between the water and the hydrate-forming gas. The result of the process is the formation of gas hydrates continuously and with a greatly reduced induction time. An apparatus for conduct of the method is further provided.

  20. Molecular Simulation of Liquid Crystals : Phase Equilibrium and the Solubility of Gases in Ordered Fluids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyarzún Rivera, B.A.

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations were performed in the NPT ensemble and in an expanded version of the Gibbs ensemble. The phase behavior of single-phase hard-sphere chain fluids was determined using NPT ensemble simulations, while the isotropic-nematic phase equilibrium of single-component and binary

  1. Effects of porosity and mixed convection on MHD two phase fluid flow in an inclined channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnain, Jafar; Abbas, Zaheer; Sajid, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The present study deals with the flow and heat transfer analysis of two immiscible fluids in an inclined channel embedded in a porous medium. The channel is divided in two phases such that a third grade fluid occupies the phase I and a viscous fluid occupies the phase II. Both viscous and third grade fluids are electrically conducting. A constant magnetic field is imposed perpendicular to the channel walls. The mathematical model is developed by using Darcy's and modified Darcy's laws for viscous and third grade fluids respectively. The transformed ordinary differential equations are solved numerically using a shooting method. The obtained results are presented graphically and influence of emerging parameters is discussed in detail.

  2. Hydration Leads to Efficient Reactions of the Carbonate Radical Anion with Hydrogen Chloride in the Gas Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wai Kit; van der Linde, Christian; Siu, Chi-Kit; Beyer, Martin K

    2017-01-12

    The carbonate radical anion CO3•- is a key intermediate in tropospheric anion chemistry. Despite its radical character, only a small number of reactions have been reported in the literature. Here we investigate the gas-phase reactions of CO3•- and CO3•-(H2O) with HCl under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Bare CO3•- forms OHCl•- with a rate constant of 4.2 × 10-12 cm3 s-1, which corresponds to an efficiency of only 0.4%. Hydration accelerates the reaction, and ligand exchange of H2O against HCl proceeds with a rate of 2.7 × 10-10 cm3 s-1. Quantum chemical calculations reveal that OHCl•- is best described as an OH• hydrogen bonded to Cl-, while the ligand exchange product is Cl-(HCO3•). Under tropospheric conditions, where CO3•-(H2O) is the dominant species, Cl-(HCO3•) is efficiently formed. These reactions must be included in models of tropospheric anion chemistry.

  3. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate

  4. Is the gas hydrate film growth controlled by intrinsic kinetic or heat transfer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, B.Z.; Chen, G.J.; Sun, C.Y.; Yang, L.Y.; Luo, H. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing

    2008-07-01

    Gas hydrates are non-stoichiometric crystalline inclusion compounds. They are composed of water molecules encaging guest gas molecules like natural gas components. When water contacts with a hydrate former in liquid or a gas state under suitable temperature and pressure conditions, hydrates usually form and grow in the form of a film at the interface between the two fluid phases. The growth behavior of this type of film is of significant importance with respect to the various components of hydrate production, such as the storage and transportation of natural gas and desalination. However, questions remain regarding the control steps of hydrate film growth. This paper discussed a study that systematically measured the lateral growth rates of methane (CH{sub 4}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) hydrates film by suspending individual gas bubbles in water. In order to determine the correlation between the hydrate film growth rate and the driving force, modeling of hydrate film growth by intrinsic kinetics and heat transfer was conducted. The temperature difference between the moving hydrate film front and the bulk water was calculated to evaluate the contribution of heat transfer to hydrate film growth rate. The paper discussed the experiment, with reference to the equipment and material; experimental procedure; and data processing. A simulation of the hydrate film growth revealed that heat transfer had little contribution to hydrate film growth, and the intrinsic kinetic was the main control step for CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} hydrate film growth. 16 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  5. Thermo-fluid dynamics of two-phase flow

    CERN Document Server

    Ishii, Mamoru; Ishii, Mamoru; Ishii, M

    2006-01-01

    Provides a very systematic treatment of two phase flow problems from a theoretical perspectiveProvides an easy to follow treatment of modeling and code devlopemnt of two phase flow related phenomenaCovers new results of two phase flow research such as coverage of fuel cells technology.

  6. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics model for phase separating fluid mixtures. I. General equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thieulot, C; Janssen, LPBM; Espanol, P

    We present a thermodynamically consistent discrete fluid particle model for the simulation of a recently proposed set of hydrodynamic equations for a phase separating van der Waals fluid mixture [P. Espanol and C.A.P. Thieulot, J. Chem. Phys. 118, 9109 (2003)]. The discrete model is formulated by

  7. Evidence for a Commensurate-Incommensurate Phase Transition with an Intermediate Fluid Phase: N2 Adsorbed on Ni(110)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunze, M.; Kleban, P. H.; Unertl, W. N.; Rys, Franz S.

    1983-08-01

    Low-energy electron diffraction and thermodynamic measurements are reported for molecular nitrogen weakly chemisorbed on a Ni(110) surface in the temperature region between 87 and 150 K. A commensurate (2×1) phase transforms with increasing coverage into a sequence of smoothly varying incommensurate solid structures via a liquid-like intermediate phase. This is apparently the first experimental example of the commensurate-fluid-incommensurate phase sequence in uniaxial systems predicted by several recent theories.

  8. Over-hydration detection in brain by magnetic induction spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, César A.; Pérez, María; Hevia, Nidiyare; Arámbula, Fernándo; Flores, Omar; Aguilar, Eliot; Hinojosa, Ivonne; Joskowicz, Leo; Rubinsky, Boris

    2010-04-01

    Detection and continuous monitoring of edema in the brain in early stages is useful for assessment of medical condition and treatment. We have proposed a solution in which the bulk measurements of the tissue electrical properties to detect edema or in general accumulation of fluids are made through measurement of the magnetic induction phase shift between applied and measured currents at different frequencies (Magnetic Induction Spectroscopy; MIS). Magnetic Resonant Imaging (MRI) has been characterized because its capability to detect different levels of brain tissue hydration by differences in diffusion-weighted (DW) sequences and it's involve apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). The objective of this study was to explore the viability to use measurements of the bulk tissue electrical properties to detect edema or in general accumulation of fluids by MIS. We have induced a transitory and generalized tissue over-hydration condition in ten volunteers ingesting 1.5 to 2 liters of water in ten minutes. Basal and over-hydration conditions were monitored by MIS and MRI. Changes in the inductive phase shift at certain frequencies were consistent with changes in the brain tissue hydration level observed by DW-ADC. The results suggest that MIS has the potential to detect pathologies associated to changes in the content of fluids in brain tissue such as edema and hematomas.

  9. Parametric study of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sand, silt, and clay sediments: 1. Electromagnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.Y.; Santamarina, J.C.; Ruppel, C.

    2010-01-01

    The marked decrease in bulk electrical conductivity of sediments in the presence of gas hydrates has been used to interpret borehole electrical resistivity logs and, to a lesser extent, the results of controlled source electromagnetic surveys to constrain the spatial distribution and predicted concentration of gas hydrate in natural settings. Until now, an exhaustive laboratory data set that could be used to assess the impact of gas hydrate on the electromagnetic properties of different soils (sand, silt, and clay) at different effective stress and with different saturations of hydrate has been lacking. The laboratory results reported here are obtained using a standard geotechnical cell and the hydrate-formed tetrahydrofuran (THF), a liquid that is fully miscible in water and able to produce closely controlled saturations of hydrate from dissolved phase. Both permittivity and electrical conductivity are good indicators of the volume fraction of free water in the sediment, which is in turn dependent on hydrate saturation. Permittivity in the microwave frequency range is particularly predictive of free water content since it is barely affected by ionic concentration, pore structure, and surface conduction. Electrical conductivity (or resistivity) is less reliable for constraining water content or hydrate saturation: In addition to fluid-filled porosity, other factors, such as the ionic concentration of the pore fluid and possibly other conduction effects (e.g., surface conduction in high specific surface soils having low conductivity pore fluid), also influence electrical conductivity.

  10. Two-phase fluid flow in geometric packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Aureliano Sancho S; Oliveira, Rafael S; Andrade, Roberto F S

    2015-12-13

    We investigate how a plug of obstacles inside a two-dimensional channel affects the drainage of high viscous fluid (oil) when the channel is invaded by a less viscous fluid (water). The plug consists of an Apollonian packing with, at most, 17 circles of different sizes, which is intended to model an inhomogeneous porous region. The work aims to quantify the amount of retained oil in the region where the flow is influenced by the packing. The investigation, carried out with the help of the computational fluid dynamics package ANSYS-FLUENT, is based on the integration of the complete set of equations of motion. The study considers the effect of both the injection speed and the number and size of obstacles, which directly affects the porosity of the system. The results indicate a complex dependence in the fraction of retained oil on the velocity and geometric parameters. The regions where the oil remains trapped is very sensitive to the number of circles and their size, which influence in different ways the porosity of the system. Nevertheless, at low values of Reynolds and capillary numbers Re<4 and n(c)≃10(-5), the overall expected result that the volume fraction of oil retained decreases with increasing porosity is recovered. A direct relationship between the injection speed and the fraction of oil is also obtained. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. Nasogastric Hydration in Infants with Bronchiolitis Less Than 2 Months of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Ed; Bata, Sonny; Rengasamy, Sharmila; Krieser, David; Cheek, John; Jachno, Kim; Babl, Franz E

    2016-11-01

    To determine whether nasogastric hydration can be used in infants less than 2 months of age with bronchiolitis, and characterize the adverse events profile of these infants compared with infants given intravenous (IV) fluid hydration. A descriptive retrospective cohort study of children with bronchiolitis under 2 months of age admitted for hydration at 3 centers over 3 bronchiolitis seasons was done. We determined type of hydration (nasogastric vs IV fluid hydration) and adverse events, intensive care unit admission, and respiratory support. Of 491 infants under 2 months of age admitted with bronchiolitis, 211 (43%) received nonoral hydration: 146 (69%) via nasogastric hydration and 65 (31%) via IV fluid hydration. Adverse events occurred in 27.4% (nasogastric hydration) and 23.1% (IV fluid hydration), difference of 4.3%; 95%CI (-8.2 to 16.9), P = .51. The majority of adverse events were desaturations (21.9% nasogastric hydration vs 21.5% IV fluid hydration, difference 0.4%; [-11.7 to 12.4], P = .95). There were no pulmonary aspirations in either group. Apneas and bradycardias were similar in each group. IV fluid hydration use was positively associated with intensive care unit admission (38.5% IV fluid hydration vs 19.9% nasogastric hydration; difference 18.6%, [5.1-32.1], P = .004); and use of ventilation support (27.7% IV fluid hydration vs 15.1% nasogastric hydration; difference 12.6 [0.3-23], P = .03). Fewer infants changed from nasogastric hydration to IV fluid hydration than from IV fluid hydration to nasogastric hydration (12.3% vs 47.7%; difference -35.4% [-49 to -22], P infants admitted with bronchiolitis. Nasogastric hydration and IV fluid hydration had similar rates of complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Axi-symmetric simulation of a two phase vertical thermosyphon using Eulerian two-fluid methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafeel, Khurram; Turan, Ali

    2013-08-01

    Numerical simulation of steady state operation of a vertical two phase closed thermosyphon is performed using the two-fluid methodology within Eulerian multiphase domain. A full scale axi-symmetric model is developed for computational fluid dynamics simulation of thermosyphon using ANSYS/FLUENT 13.0. The effects of evaporation, condensation and interfacial heat and mass transfer are taken into account within the whole domain. Cooling water jacket is also modelled along with the wall of thermosyphon to simulate the effect of conjugate heat transfer between the wall and fluid phase. The results obtained are presented and compared with available experimental investigations for a similar thermosyphon. It is established that two-fluid methodology can be used effectively for the purpose of simulation of two phase system like a typical thermosyphon.

  13. Are Habitual Hydration Strategies of Female Rugby League Players Sufficient to Maintain Fluid Balance and Blood Sodium Concentration During Training and Match-Play? A Research Note From the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ben; Till, Kevin; King, Roderick; Gray, Michael; OʼHara, John

    2016-03-01

    Limited data exist on the hydration status of female athletes, with no data available on female rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the habitual hydration status on arrival, sweat loss, fluid intake, sweat Na loss, and blood [Na+] during field training and match-play in 10 international female rugby league players. Urine osmolality on arrival to match-play (382 ± 302 mOsmol·kg(-1)) and training (667 ± 260 mOsmol·kg(-1)) was indicative of euhydration. Players experienced a body mass loss of 0.50 ± 0.45 and 0.56 ± 0.53% during match-play and training, respectively. During match-play, players consumed 1.21 ± 0.43 kg of fluid and had a sweat loss of 1.54 ± 0.48 kg. During training, players consumed 1.07 ± 0.90 kg of fluid, in comparison with 1.25 ± 0.83 kg of sweat loss. Blood [Na+] was well regulated (Δ-0.7 ± 3.4 and Δ-0.4 ± 2.6 mmol·L(-1)), despite sweat [Na+] of 47.8 ± 5.7 and 47.2 ± 6.3 mmol·L(-1) during match-play and training. The findings of this study show mean blood [Na+] that seems to be well regulated despite losses of Na in sweat and electrolyte-free fluid consumption. For the duration of the study, players did not experience a body mass loss (dehydration >2%) indicative of a reduction in exercise performance, thus habitual hydration strategies seem adequate. Practitioners should evaluate the habitual hydration status of athletes to determine whether interventions above habitual strategies are warranted.

  14. Two-Phase Solid/Fluid Simulation of Dense Granular Flows With Dilatancy Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangeney, Anne; Bouchut, Francois; Fernandez-Nieto, Enrique; Narbona-Reina, Gladys; Kone, El Hadj

    2017-04-01

    Describing grain/fluid interaction in debris flows models is still an open and challenging issue with key impact on hazard assessment [1]. We present here a two-phase two-thin-layer model for fluidized debris flows that takes into account dilatancy effects. It describes the velocity of both the solid and the fluid phases, the compression/ dilatation of the granular media and its interaction with the pore fluid pressure [2]. The model is derived from a 3D two-phase model proposed by Jackson [3] and the mixture equations are closed by a weak compressibility relation. This relation implies that the occurrence of dilation or contraction of the granular material in the model depends on whether the solid volume fraction is respectively higher or lower than a critical value. When dilation occurs, the fluid is sucked into the granular material, the pore pressure decreases and the friction force on the granular phase increases. On the contrary, in the case of contraction, the fluid is expelled from the mixture, the pore pressure increases and the friction force diminishes. To account for this transfer of fluid into and out of the mixture, a two-layer model is proposed with a fluid or a solid layer on top of the two-phase mixture layer. Mass and momentum conservation are satisfied for the two phases, and mass and momentum are transferred between the two layers. A thin-layer approximation is used to derive average equations. Special attention is paid to the drag friction terms that are responsible for the transfer of momentum between the two phases and for the appearance of an excess pore pressure with respect to the hydrostatic pressure. Interestingly, when removing the role of water, our model reduces to a dry granular flow model including dilatancy. We first compare experimental and numerical results of dilatant dry granular flows. Then, by quantitatively comparing the results of simulation and laboratory experiments on submerged granular flows, we show that our model

  15. Numerical modelling of hydration reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrijmoed, Johannes C.; John, Timm

    2017-04-01

    Mineral reactions are generally accompanied by volume changes. Observations in rocks and thin section indicate that this often occurred by replacement reactions involving a fluid phase. Frequently, the volume of the original rock or mineral seems to be conserved. If the density of the solid reaction products is higher than the reactants, the associated solid volume decrease generates space for a fluid phase. In other words, porosity is created. The opposite is true for an increase in solid volume during reaction, which leads to a porosity reduction. This slows down and may even stop the reaction if it needs fluid as a reactant. Understanding the progress of reactions and their rates is important because reaction generally changes geophysical and rock mechanical properties which will therefore affect geodynamical processes and seismic properties. We studied the case of hydration of eclogite to blueschist in a subduction zone setting. Eclogitized pillow basalt structures from the Tian-Shan orogeny are transformed to blueschist on the rims of the pillow (van der Straaten et al., 2008). Fluid pathways existed between the pillow structures. The preferred hypothesis of blueschist formation is to supply the fluid for hydration from the pillow margins progressing inward. Using numerical modelling we simulate this coupled reaction-diffusion process. Porosity and fluid pressure evolution are coupled to local thermodynamic equilibrium and density changes. The first rim of blueschist that forms around the eclogite pillow increases volume to such a degree that the system is clogged and the reaction stops. Nevertheless, the field evidence suggests the blueschist formation continued. To prevent the system from clogging, a high incoming pore fluid pressure on the pillow boundaries is needed along with removal of mass from the system to accommodate the volume changes. The only other possibility is to form blueschist from any remaining fluid stored in the core of the pillow

  16. Elevated gas hydrate saturation within silt and silty clay sediments in the Shenhu area, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiujuan; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Wu, Shiguo; Yang, Shengxiong; Guo, Yiqun

    2011-01-01

    Gas hydrate saturations were estimated using five different methods in silt and silty clay foraminiferous sediments from drill hole SH2 in the South China Sea. Gas hydrate saturations derived from observed pore water chloride values in core samples range from 10 to 45% of the pore space at 190–221 m below seafloor (mbsf). Gas hydrate saturations estimated from resistivity (Rt) using wireline logging results are similar and range from 10 to 40.5% in the pore space. Gas hydrate saturations were also estimated by P wave velocity obtained during wireline logging by using a simplified three-phase equation (STPE) and effective medium theory (EMT) models. Gas hydrate saturations obtained from the STPE velocity model (41.0% maximum) are slightly higher than those calculated with the EMT velocity model (38.5% maximum). Methane analysis from a 69 cm long depressurized core from the hydrate-bearing sediment zone indicates that gas hydrate saturation is about 27.08% of the pore space at 197.5 mbsf. Results from the five methods show similar values and nearly identical trends in gas hydrate saturations above the base of the gas hydrate stability zone at depths of 190 to 221 mbsf. Gas hydrate occurs within units of clayey slit and silt containing abundant calcareous nannofossils and foraminifer, which increase the porosities of the fine-grained sediments and provide space for enhanced gas hydrate formation. In addition, gas chimneys, faults, and fractures identified from three-dimensional (3-D) and high-resolution two-dimensional (2-D) seismic data provide pathways for fluids migrating into the gas hydrate stability zone which transport methane for the formation of gas hydrate. Sedimentation and local canyon migration may contribute to higher gas hydrate saturations near the base of the stability zone.

  17. Flow assurance intervention, hydrates remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, Christopher S. [Oceaneering International Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This paper addresses the issues of removing hydrates in sub sea flow lines and associated equipment with an Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) of opportunity and a multi-service-vessel (MSV). The paper is split into three topics: the equipment used with the ROV, assessing the interface points and handling fluids produced from drawing down the pressure. Each section is explained thoroughly and backed up with real world experience. The equipment section details information from actual jobs performed and why the particular components were utilized. The system is generally contained in an ROV mounted skid. Pumps are utilized to draw down the pressure inside the hydrated section of equipment, removing one of the three necessary components for hydrates formation. Once the section is pumped down, several options exist for handling the fluids pumped out of the system: pumping to surface, re-injection into the well, or injection into an operating flow line. This method of hydrates remediation is both economical and timely. Hydrate blockages form in low temperatures and high pressures. Reducing the pressure or increasing the temperature so the conditions lie to the right of the hydrate dissociation curve will slowly decompose the blockage. Depressurization and the use of MEG or methanol will give favorable conditions to remove the hydrate plug. Oceaneering has the capabilities to remove hydrates using the FRS in conjunction with an installation vessel to dispose of the gas and fluid removed from the flow line. Hydrate remediation techniques should be implemented into the initial design to reduce costs later. The cost of stopped production combined with the day rate for equipment needed for hydrate removal outweighs the costs if no technique is utilized. (author)

  18. Critical phenomena experiments in space. [for fluid phase-equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengers, J. V.; Moldover, M. R.

    1978-01-01

    The paper analyzes several types of critical phenomena in fluids, shows how they are affected by the presence of gravity, and describes how experiments conducted in an orbiting laboratory under low gravity conditions could extend the range of measurements needed to study critical phenomena. Future experiments are proposed. One would be a careful measurement of the dielectric constant in a low gravity environment. Two basic problems that can benefit especially from space experiments are the specific heat near the critical point and the shear viscosity at the gas-liquid critical point.

  19. Two-fluid model for reacting turbulent two-phase flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S. H.; Abou-Ellail, M. M. M.

    1994-05-01

    A reacting two-fluid model, based on the solution of separate transport equations for reacting gas-liquid two-phase flow, is presented. New time-mean transport equations for two-phase mixture fraction bar-f and its variance g are derived. The new two-fluid transport equations for bar-f and g are useful for two-phase reacting flows in which phases strongly interact. They are applicable to both submerged and nonsubmerged combustion. A pdf approach to the reaction process is adopted. The mixture fraction pdf assumes the shape of a beta function while the instantaneous thermochemical properties are computed from an equilibrium model. The proposed two-fluid model is verified by predicting turbulent flow structures of an n-pentane spray flame and a nonreacting bubbly jet flow for which experimental data exist. Good agreement is found between the predictions and the corresponding experimental data.

  20. MONTE CARLO SIMULATION OF PHASE EQUILIBRIA IN ISING FLUIDS AND THEIR MIXTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Fenz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The mean field theory for the pure Ising fluid was recently extended to binary mixtures of an Ising and a van der Waals fluid. Depending on the relative interaction strengths, their three dimensional phase diagrams show lines of tricritical consolute and plait points, lines of critical end points and magnetic consolute point lines. Our current efforts are to compare these mean field results with different Monte Carlo simulation techniques, investigating both first order (liquid-vapor and demixing and second order (paramagnetic-ferromagnetic phase transitions. We show the resulting ρ, T phase diagrams of the pure Ising fluid for different magnetic interaction strengths R and constant pressure cross-sections of the x,T,p phase diagrams of Ising mixtures for different relative interaction strengths. The methods we have used include Gibbs Ensemble MC, Multihistogram Reweighting, Hyper-parallel Tempering, the cumulant intersection method and the newly developed Density of States MC technique.

  1. Combustion of Methane Hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshandell, Melika

    from the experimental component of the research was that hydrates can burn completely, and that they burn most rapidly just after ignition and then burn steadily when some of the water in the dissociated zone is allowed to drain away. Excessive surfactant in the water creates a foam layer around the hydrate that acts as an insulator. The layer prevents sufficient heat flux from reaching the hydrate surface below the foam to release additional methane and the hydrate flame extinguishes. No self-healing or ice-freezing processes were observed in any of the combustion experiments. There is some variability, but a typical hydrate flame is receiving between one and two moles of water vapor from the liquid dissociated zone of the hydrate for each mole of methane it receives from the dissociating solid region. This limits the flame temperature to approximately 1800 K. In the theoretical portion of the study, a physical model using an energy balance from methane combustion was developed to understand the energy transfer between the three phases of gas, liquid and solid during the hydrate burn. Also this study provides an understanding of the different factors impacting the hydrate's continuous burn, such as the amount of water vapor in the flame. The theoretical study revealed how the water layer thickness on the hydrate surface, and its effect on the temperature gradient through the dissociated zone, plays a significant role in the hydrate dissociation rate and methane release rate. Motivated by the above mentioned observation from the theoretical analysis, a 1-D two-phase numerical simulation based on a moving front model for hydrate dissociation from a thermal source was developed. This model was focused on the dynamic growth of the dissociated zone and its effect on the dissociation rate. The model indicated that the rate of hydrate dissociation with a thermal source is a function of the dissociated zone thickness. It shows that in order for a continuous dissociation and

  2. Modelling of cyclopentane promoted gas hydrate systems for carbon dioxide capture processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herslund, Peter Jørgensen; Thomsen, Kaj; Abildskov, Jens

    2014-01-01

    A thermodynamic model based on the Cubic-Plus-Association equation of state and the van der Waals-Platteeuw hydrate model is applied to perform a thermodynamic evaluation of gas hydrate forming systems relevant for post-combustion carbon dioxide capture.A modelling study of both fluid phase...... behaviour and hydrate phase behaviour is presented. Cycloalkanes ranging from cyclopropane to cyclohexane, represents a challenge for CPA, both in the description of the pure component densities and for liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) in the binary systems with water. It is concluded that an insufficient...... amount of reliable LLE data exist for the binary system of water and cyclopentane. Additional water-in-oil data in particular are desired for this system.An unpromoted hydrate-based capture process, operating isothermally at a temperature of 280. K is simulated. The minimum pressure requirement...

  3. The 24-hour skin hydration and barrier function effects of a hyaluronic 1%, glycerin 5%, and Centella asiatica stem cells extract moisturizing fluid: an intra-subject, randomized, assessor-blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milani M

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Massimo Milani,1 Adele Sparavigna2 1Difa Cooper, Caronno Pertusella, Varese, 2Dermatologic Institute Dermig Milan, Milan, Italy Introduction: Moisturizing products are commonly used to improve hydration in skin dryness conditions. However, some topical hydrating products could have negative effects on skin barrier function. In addition, hydrating effects of moisturizers are not commonly evaluated up to 24 hours after a single application. Hyaluronic acid (HA and glycerin are very well-known substances able to improve skin hydration. Centella asiatica extract (CAE could exert lenitive, anti-inflammatory and reepithelialization actions. Furthermore, CAE could inhibit hyaluronidase enzyme activity, therefore prolonging the effect of HA. A fluid containing HA 1%, glycerin 5% and stem cells CAE has been recently developed (Jaluronius CS [JCS] fluid. Study aim: To evaluate and compare the 24-hour effects of JCS fluid on skin hydration and on transepidermal water loss (TEWL in healthy subjects in comparison with the control site. Subjects and methods: Twenty healthy women, mean age 40 years, were enrolled in an intra-subject (right vs left, randomized, assessor-blinded, controlled, 1-day trial. The primary end points were the skin hydration and TEWL, evaluated at the volar surface of the forearm and in standardized conditions (temperature- and humidity-controlled room: 23°C and 30% of humidity using a corneometer and a vapometer device at baseline, 1, 8 and 24 hours after JCS fluid application. Measurements were performed by an operator blinded for the treatments. Results: Skin hydration after 24 hours was significantly higher (P=0.001; Mann–Whitney U test in the JCS-treated area in comparison with the control site. JCS induced a significant (P=0.0001 increase in skin hydration at each evaluation time (+59% after 1 hour, +48% after 8 hours and +29% after 24 hours in comparison with both baseline (P=0.0001 and non-treated control site (P=0

  4. Dynamic phase separation of fluid membranes with rigid inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weikl, Thomas R

    2002-12-01

    Membrane shape fluctuations induce attractive interactions between rigid inclusions. Previous analytical studies showed that the fluctuation-induced pair interactions are rather small compared to thermal energies, but also that multibody interactions cannot be neglected. In this paper, it is shown numerically that shape fluctuations indeed lead to the dynamic separation of the membrane into phases with different inclusion concentrations. The tendency of lateral phase separation strongly increases with the inclusion size. Large inclusions aggregate at very small inclusion concentrations and for relatively small values of the inclusions' elastic modulus.

  5. Infrared and swelling study of the hydration-induced phase transition of wet-spun hyaluronate films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, A. D.; Marlowe, R. L.; Lee, S. A.; Powell, J. W.; Rupprecht, A.

    1997-03-01

    The hydration properties of wet-spun films of hyaluronate (HA) with four different counterions (Li^+, Cs^+, Mg^2+, and Ca^2+) have been studied using optical microscopy, optical birefringence and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Small pieces of these films were found to be optically birefringent up to hydration levels near 90 % relative humidity (RH). All four kinds of films then became optically isotropic and display dramatic changes in size. These changes are consistent with the occurrence of an order-disorder (o-d) transition. IR spectroscopy of the backbone region (from 800 to 1000 cm-1) suggests that the Li^+, Cs^+ and Ca^2+ films are very similar. Two IR bands in this region are observed at low RH and show no dependence on hydration until the o-d transition. The IR spectra of CaHA show five bands in this region. These five bands are observed to 95 % RH.

  6. Tension induced phase transitions in biomimetic fluid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Marc; Vlahovska, Petia

    2012-11-01

    Membranes in eukaryotic cells are mixtures of hundreds of lipid species. The lipid diversity enables membranes to phase separate and form domains, called rafts, which play a critical role in cell functions such as signaling and trafficking. The phase transitions underlying raft formation have been extensively studied as a function of temperature and composition. However, the third dimension of the phase diagram, i.e., the tension (2D pressure), is still unexplored because membrane tension is difficult to control and quantify. To overcome this challenge, we develop two approaches, capillary micromechanics and electrodeformation, in which the tension is regulated by the area dilation accompanying deformation of a vesicle (a closed membrane). The first technique consists of forcing an initially quasi-spherical vesicle through a tapered glass microcapillary, while the second method utilizes uniform electric fields to deform the vesicle into an ellipsoid. Domains are visualized using a fluorescent dye, which preferentially partitions in one of the phases. The experimental results suggest that the miscibility temperature (at which domains form in an initially homogeneous membrane) increases with applied tension. Domain motions and coarsening are also investigated.

  7. MOLECULAR SIMULATION OF PHASE EQUILIBRIA FOR COMPLEX FLUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanassios Z. Panagiotopoulos

    2009-09-09

    The general area of this project was the development and application of novel molecular simulation methods for prediction of thermodynamic and structural properties of complex polymeric, surfactant and ionic fluids. Over this project period, we have made considerable progress in developing novel algorithms to meet the computational challenges presented by the strong or long-range interactions in these systems and have generated data for well-defined mod-els that can be used to test theories and compare to experimental data. Overall, 42 archival papers and many invited and contributed presentations and lectures have been based on work supported by this project. 6 PhD, 1 M.S. and 2 postdoctoral students have been associated with this work, as listed in the body of the report.

  8. Phase portrait methods for verifying fluid dynamic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, H.B.

    1989-01-01

    As computing resources become more powerful and accessible, engineers more frequently face the difficult and challenging engineering problem of accurately simulating nonlinear dynamic phenomena. Although mathematical models are usually available, in the form of initial value problems for differential equations, the behavior of the solutions of nonlinear models is often poorly understood. A notable example is fluid dynamics: while the Navier-Stokes equations are believed to correctly describe turbulent flow, no exact mathematical solution of these equations in the turbulent regime is known. Differential equations can of course be solved numerically, but how are we to assess numerical solutions of complex phenomena without some understanding of the mathematical problem and its solutions to guide us

  9. Phase behavior of coal fluids: Data for correlation development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, R.L. Jr.; Gasem, K.A.M.; Shaver, R.D.

    1989-10-15

    During the present report period, our framework for correlating saturation properties using the scaled-variable-reduced coordinate approach was used to develop a correlation for saturated liquid densities of pure fluids at temperatures from the triple point to the critical point. The new correlation results in precise representation of liquid densities of diverse chemical species with average errors of 0.12% when two adjustable parameters are used to characterize each substance. In addition, the proposed model compares favorably with the modified Rackett and the Hankinson-Thomson correlations with the added advantages of covering the full saturation range and obeying scaling-law behavior in the near-critical region. Although the approach is essentially empirical, the results obtained suggest an underlying physical significance for the model parameters and show an excellent potential for generalized predictions. This is demonstrated by the results given here for saturated liquid densities where fully generalized predictions yield average errors of less than 1.0%.

  10. Application of Phase Shifted, Laser Feedback Interferometry to Fluid Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovryn, Ben; Eppell, Steven J.; Andrews, James H.; Khaydarov, John

    1996-01-01

    We have combined the principles of phase-shifting interferometry (PSI) and laser-feedback interferometry (LFI) to produce a new instrument that can measure both optical path length (OPL) changes and discern sample reflectivity variations. In LFI, coherent feedback of the incident light either reflected directly from a surface or reflected after transmission through a region of interest will modulate the output intensity of the laser. LFI can yield a high signal-to-noise ratio even for low reflectivity samples. By combining PSI and LFI, we have produced a robust instrument, based upon a HeNe laser, with high dynamic range that can be used to measure either static (dc) or oscillatory changes along the optical path. As with other forms of interferometry, large changes in OPL require phase unwrapping. Conversely, small phase changes are limited by the fraction of a fringe that can be measured. We introduce the phase shifts with an electro-optic modulator (EOM) and use either the Carre or Hariharan algorithms to determine the phase and visibility. We have determined the accuracy and precision of our technique by measuring both the bending of a cantilevered piezoelectric bimorph and linear ramps to the EOM. Using PSI, sub-nanometer displacements can be measured. We have combined our interferometer with a commercial microscope and scanning piezoelectric stage and have measured the variation in OPL and visibility for drops of PDMS (silicone oil) on coated single crystal silicon. Our measurement of the static contact angle agrees with the value of 68 deg stated in the literature.

  11. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Lachowski, Eric E.

    1999-01-01

    Vapour phase hydration of purl cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities is described. This is relevant to modern high performance concrete that may self-desiccate during hydration and is also relevant to the quality of the cement during storage. Both the oretical considerations...... and experimental data are presented showing that C(3)A can hydrate at lower humidities than either C3S or C2S. It is suggested that the initiation of hydration during exposure to water vapour is nucleation controlled. When C(3)A hydrates at low humidity, the characteristic hydration product is C(3)AH(6...

  12. PART II. HYDRATED CEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Drabik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential focus of the study has been to acquire thermoanalytical events, incl. enthalpies of decompositions - ΔH, of technological materials based on two types of Portland cements. The values of thermoanalytical events and also ΔH of probes of technological compositions, if related with the data of a choice of minerals of calcium-silicate-sulfate-aluminate hydrates, served as a valued input for the assessment of phases present and phase changes due to the topical hydraulic processes. The results indicate mainly the effects of "standard humidity" or "wet storage" of the entire hydration/hydraulic treatment, but also the presence of cement residues alongside calcium-silicate-sulfate-aluminate hydrates (during the tested period of treatment. "A diluting" effect of unhydrated cement residues upon the values of decomposition enthalpies in the studied multiphase system is postulated and discussed

  13. The simplest model for non-congruent fluid-fluid phase transition in Coulomb system

    CERN Document Server

    Stroev, Nikita

    2015-01-01

    The simplest model for non-congruent phase transition of gas-liquid type was developed in frames of modified model with no associations of a binary ionic mixture (BIM) on a homogeneous compressible ideal background (or non-ideal) electron gas /BIM($\\sim$)/. The analytical approximation for equation of state equation of state of Potekhin and Chabrier of fully ionized electron-ionic plasma was used for description of the ion-ion correlations (Coulomb non-ideality) in combination with ``linear mixture'' (LM) approximation. Phase equilibrium for the charged species was calculated according to the Gibbs-Guggenheim conditions. The presently considered BIM($\\sim$) model allows to calculate full set of parameters for phase boundaries of non-congruent variant of phase equilibrium and to study all features for this non-congruent phase transition realization in Coulomb system in comparison with the simpler (standard) forced-congruent evaporation mode. In particular, in BIM($\\sim$) there were reproduced two-dimensional r...

  14. SUBSOLIDUS AND NEAR-SOLIDUS PHASE RELATIONS IN COH FLUID-SATURATED PERIDOTITES UP TO 3.2 GPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumiati, S.; Fumagalli, P.; Poli, S.; Tiraboschi, C.

    2009-12-01

    The mass transfer from the subducting lithosphere to the overlying mantle wedge is mediated by complex solutions deriving from dehydration and decarbonation processes. High-pressure relations among fluids/melts, carbonates, hydrous silicates, graphite/diamond and nominally volatile-free phases in COH-bearing ultramafic systems are substantially unexplored in the subsolidus and in the near solidus, with the exception of a few pioneer works [1, 2, 3]. We experimentally investigated lherzolitic composition in the system KNCFMAS+COH at P=1.8-3.2 GPa, T=900-1080°C, fluid-saturated conditions, and fH2 fixed at NNO, OH (GX, COH) buffer. Seeded gels were loaded in a piston-cylinder using double capsule technique. GCOH fluids have been generated by addition of 10 wt.% oxalic acid dihydrate and pure graphite. Following thermodynamic modeling, we expect in our experiments nearly binary H2O-CO2 fluids characterized by H2O/(CO2 + H2O) between 0.42 and 0.89. Carbonates and phlogopite (Phl) are ubiquitous in the investigated P-T range. Compared to the Fe-free system, where the univariant equilibrium magnesite (Mag) + diopside = enstatite + dolomite (Dol) exists, we observed a higher variance Mag + Dol field between the lower-P Dol-only and the higher-P Mag-only stability fields. The position of the Dol-bearing fields is in agreement with [2]. In the 2-carbonates field we observed the assemblage Dol + Mag + garnet. The elements partitioning among these phases will be discussed with a view to the geothermometric application. In our experiments the stability field of amphibole (Amph) is extended compared to [1], but occurs at lower pressures compared to [2]. We found sodic Amph up to 3 GPa, 900°C and 2.6 GPa, 1040°C. Compared to H2O-saturated experiments [4], the phase stability and the mineral chemistry of Amph seems to be scarcely influenced by the presence of carbon species. We observed at T=1060°C and P=2.6 GPa a fine-grained intergrowth of a Ca-Mg carbonatic fraction and an

  15. Study on performance of squeeze film damper with oil-air two-phase fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xinmin; Li, Qihan; Du, Lijie

    1992-10-01

    This paper presents an analytical method for the lubrication film performance of a squeeze film damper with oil-air two-phase fluid, on the basis of the testing results and numerical analysis of oil film cavitation. The calculational results for the pressure distribution of lubrication oil film are in good agreement with the experimental results. The damper performance data obtained from two-phase fluid analysis are also compared with the results calculated by pure oil film damper. It is proven that the data can be used for the engineering analyses. The analytical method can be extended for the other bearings with similar lubrication film of oil-air two-phase fluid.

  16. Rapid variations in fluid chemistry constrain hydrothermal phase separation at the Main Endeavour Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Brooke; Lilley, Marvin; Butterfield, David; Olson, Eric; Larson, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Previous work at the Main Endeavour Field (MEF) has shown that chloride concentration in high-temperature vent fluids has not exceeded 510 mmol/kg (94% of seawater), which is consistent with brine condensation and loss at depth, followed by upward flow of a vapor phase toward the seafloor. Magmatic and seismic events have been shown to affect fluid temperature and composition and these effects help narrow the possibilities for sub-surface processes. However, chloride-temperature data alone are insufficient to determine details of phase separation in the upflow zone. Here we use variation in chloride and gas content in a set of fluid samples collected over several days from one sulfide chimney structure in the MEF to constrain processes of mixing and phase separation. The combination of gas (primarily magmatic CO2 and seawater-derived Ar) and chloride data, indicate that neither variation in the amount of brine lost, nor mixing of the vapor phase produced at depth with variable quantities of (i) brine or (ii) altered gas rich seawater that has not undergone phase separation, can explain the co-variation of gas and chloride content. The gas-chloride data require additional phase separation of the ascending vapor-like fluid. Mixing and gas partitioning calculations show that near-critical temperature and pressure conditions can produce the fluid compositions observed at Sully vent as a vapor-liquid conjugate pair or as vapor-liquid pair with some remixing, and that the gas partition coefficients implied agree with theoretically predicted values.Plain Language SummaryWhen the chemistry of fluids from deep sea hot springs changes over a short time span, it allows us to narrow down the conditions and processes that created those fluids. This gives us a better idea what is happening under the seafloor where the water is interacting with hot rocks and minerals, boiling, and taking on the character it will have when it emerges at the seafloor. Gasses like argon can be

  17. Hydration in soccer: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro Cristiano Ralo; Guerra Isabela; Barros Turíbio Leite de

    2003-01-01

    Hydration should be considered before, during and after the exercise. This review intends to approach the main points of hydration process in soccer. The replacement of fluids during exercise is proportional to some factors, such as: exercise intensity; climatic conditions; the athlete's acclimatization; the athlete's physical conditioning; physiologic individual characteristics and the player's biomechanics. Performance is improved when players ingest not only water but also carbohydrate. Th...

  18. Conceptual design of two-phase fluid mechanics and heat transfer facility for spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, B. F.; Hill, M. E.

    1980-01-01

    Five specific experiments were analyzed to provide definition of experiments designed to evaluate two phase fluid behavior in low gravity. The conceptual design represents a fluid mechanics and heat transfer facility for a double rack in Spacelab. The five experiments are two phase flow patterns and pressure drop, flow boiling, liquid reorientation, and interface bubble dynamics. Hardware was sized, instrumentation and data recording requirements defined, and the five experiments were installed as an integrated experimental package. Applicable available hardware was selected in the experiment design and total experiment program costs were defined.

  19. Two-dimensional Green's functions for fluid and thermoelastic two-phase plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-Fei Hou

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The two-dimensional Green's functions for a steady-state line heat source in the interior of fluid and thermoelastic two-phase plane are derived in this paper. By virtue of the compact two-dimensional general solutions which are expressed in harmonic functions, four newly introduced harmonic functions with undetermined constants are constructed. Then, all the thermoelastic components in the fluid and thermoelastic two-phase plane can be derived by substituting these harmonic functions into the corresponding general solutions. And the undetermined constants can be obtained by the corresponding conditions of compatibility, boundary and equilibrium. Numerical results are given graphically by contours.

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid production and dynamics in normal aging: a MRI phase-mapping study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Thomsen, C; Ståhlberg, F

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phase mapping was used for non-invasive evaluation of the to-and-fro motion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the cerebral aqueduct, and to measure the supratentorial CSF production in vivo, in 13 healthy volunteers to determine whether normal aging affects these pa......Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) phase mapping was used for non-invasive evaluation of the to-and-fro motion of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the cerebral aqueduct, and to measure the supratentorial CSF production in vivo, in 13 healthy volunteers to determine whether normal aging affects...

  1. High-pressure fluid-phase equilibria: Experimental methods and systems investigated (2005-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonseca, José; Dohrn, Ralf; Peper, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    %) have carbon dioxide as one of the components. Information on 206 pure components, 535 ternary systems of which 355 (66%) contain carbon dioxide, 163 multicomponent and complex systems, and 207 systems with hydrates is given. A continuation of the review series is planned, covering the years from 2009......A review of systems is given, for which experimental high-pressure phase-equilibrium data were published in the period between 2005 and 2008, continuing a series of reviews. To find candidates for articles that are of interest for this survey a three-stage search strategy was used including...... a systematic search of the contents of the 17 most important journals of the field. Experimental methods for the investigation of high-pressure phase equilibria were classified, described and illustrated using examples from articles of the period between 2005 and 2008. For the systems investigated...

  2. Single and two-phase flow fluid dynamics in parallel helical coils

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Salve, M.; Orio, M.; Panella, B.

    2014-04-01

    The design of helical coiled steam generators requires the knowledge of the single and two-phase fluid dynamics. The present work reports the results of an experimental campaign on single-phase and two phase pressure drops and void fraction in three parallel helicoidal pipes, in which the total water flow rate is splitted by means of a branch. With this test configuration the distribution of the water flow rate in the helicoidal pipes and the phenomena of the instability of the two-phase flow have been experimentally investigated.

  3. Fluid-rock interaction: mineral stability, mineral equilibria, and the propagation of metastable phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlov, D.

    2006-12-01

    The role of fluids in promoting mineral equilibria as a function of P-T-X has been documented for a variety of mineral systems both in nature as well as experimentally. In each of these cases, the rate at which equilibration occurs depends on fluid-mineral reactivity and upon the subsequent rate of dissolution- reprecipitation of the participating mineral phases (cf. review in Putnis, 2002, Mineral Mag, 66, 689). In rocks without a fluid phase, equilibration between mineral phases is entirely diffusion controlled. As a consequence, complete equilibration tends not to occur. This can then lead to the propagation of metastable mineral phases far beyond their P-T-X stability field over geological time scales. Examples of fluid-induced re-equilibration in mineral systems include formation of monazite inclusions in fluorapatite (Harlov et al., 2005, Contrib Mineral Petrol, 150, 268), metasomatically induced replacement of plagioclase by K-feldspar (Putnis et al., 2006, Lithos, in press online), solid-state transformation of biotite and amphibole to pyroxenes (Harlov et al., 2006, J Petrol, 47, 3), formation of titantite reaction rims on ilmenite (Harlov et al., Lithos, 88, 72), and replacement of fluorapatite by Fe-bearing chlorapatite (Harlov et al., 2006, Eur J Mineral, 18, 233). In each of these examples, fluids of varying compositions, pH, and H2O activities are required to achieve both the re-equilibration of the mineral phases involved, via dissolution-reprecipitation, as well as whatever subsequent mass transfer may be required. In general this process, whether from nature or experimental, can be investigated on both the micron and nanometer scale utilizing a variety of techniques including SEM, TEM, EBSD, LA-ICPMS, SIMS and EMP analysis. Such procedures, coupled with textural analysis, then allows for a more complete understanding of fluid-rock interaction and mass transfer on scales ranging from nanometers to kilometers.

  4. Phase equilibria and interfacial properties of two-dimensional Yukawa fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Méndez-Maldonado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Molecular dynamics simulations of two-dimensional soft Yukawa fluids are performed to analyze the effect that the range of interaction has on coexisting densities and line tension. The attractive one-component fluid and equimolar mixtures containing positive and negative particles are studied at different temperatures to locate the region where the vapor-solid and vapor-liquid phases are stable. When the range of interaction decreases, the critical temperature of the attractive one-component systems decreases. However, for the charged mixtures it increases, and this opposite behaviour is understood in terms of the repulsive interactions which are dominant for these systems. The stable phase diagram of two-dimensional fluids is defined for smaller values of the decay parameter λ than that of fluids in three dimensions. The two-dimensional attractive one-component fluid has stable liquid-vapor phase diagram for values of λ, in contrast to the three-dimensional case, where stability has been observed even for values of λ < 15. The same trend is observed in equimolar mixtures of particles carrying opposite charges.

  5. Phase Behaviors of Reservoir Fluids with Capillary Eff ect Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Zhiwei

    2013-05-06

    The study of phase behavior is important for the oil and gas industry. Many approaches have been proposed and developed for phase behavior calculation. In this thesis, an alternative method is introduced to study the phase behavior by means of minimization of Helmholtz free energy. For a system at fixed volume, constant temperature and constant number of moles, the Helmholtz free energy reaches minimum at the equilibrium state. Based on this theory, a stochastic method called Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm, is implemented to compute the phase diagrams for several pure component and mixture systems. After comparing with experimental and the classical PT-ash calculation, we found the phase diagrams obtained by minimization of the Helmholtz Free Energy approach match the experimental and theoretical diagrams very well. Capillary effect is also considered in this thesis because it has a significant influence on the phase behavior of reservoir fluids. In this part, we focus on computing the phase envelopes, which consists of bubble and dew point lines. Both fixed and calculated capillary pressure from the Young-Laplace equation cases are introduced to study their effects on phase envelopes. We found that the existence of capillary pressure will change the phase envelopes. Positive capillary pressure reduces the dew point and bubble point temperatures under the same pressure condition, while the negative capillary pressure increases the dew point and bubble point temperatures. In addition, the change of contact angle and pore radius will affect the phase envelope. The effect of the pore radius on the phase envelope is insignificant when the radius is very large. These results may become reference for future research and study. Keywords: Phase Behavior; Particle Swarm Optimization; Capillary Pressure; Reservoir Fluids; Phase Equilibrium; Phase Envelope.

  6. Preparation and Supercooling Modification of Salt Hydrate Phase Change Materials Based on CaCl2·2H2O/CaCl2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoxiao; Dong, Zhijun; Memon, Shazim Ali; Bao, Xiaohua; Cui, Hongzhi

    2017-01-01

    Salt hydrates have issues of supercooling when they are utilized as phase change materials (PCMs). In this research, a new method was adopted to prepare a salt hydrate PCM (based on a mixture of calcium chloride dihydrate and calcium chloride anhydrous) as a novel PCM system to reduce the supercooling phenomenon existing in CaCl2·6H2O. Six samples with different compositions of CaCl2 were prepared. The relationship between the performance and the proportion of calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl2·2H2O) and calcium chloride anhydrous (CaCl2) was also investigated. The supercooling degree of the final PCM reduced with the increase in volume of CaCl2·2H2O during its preparation. The PCM obtained with 66.21 wt % CaCl2·2H2O reduced the supercooling degree by about 96.8%. All six samples, whose ratio of CaCl2·2H2O to (CaCl2 plus CaCl2·2H2O) was 0%, 34.03%, 53.82%, 76.56%, 90.74%, and 100% respectively, showed relatively higher enthalpy (greater than 155.29 J/g), and have the possibility to be applied in buildings for thermal energy storage purposes. Hence, CaCl2·2H2O plays an important role in reducing supercooling and it can be helpful in adjusting the solidification enthalpy. Thereafter, the influence of adding different percentages of Nano-SiO2 (0.1 wt %, 0.3 wt %, 0.5 wt %) in reducing the supercooling degree of some PCM samples was investigated. The test results showed that the supercooling of the salt hydrate PCM in Samples 6 and 5 reduced to 0.2 °C and 0.4 °C respectively. Finally, the effect of the different cooling conditions, including frozen storage (−20 °C) and cold storage (5 °C), that were used to prepare the salt hydrate PCM was considered. It was found that both cooling conditions are effective in reducing the supercooling degree of the salt hydrate PCM. With the synergistic action of the two materials, the performance and properties of the newly developed PCM systems were better especially in terms of reducing the supercooling degree of the PCM

  7. Exploring fluctuations and phase equilibria in fluid mixtures via Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Alan R.; Schmidt, Michael P.

    2013-03-01

    Monte Carlo simulation provides a powerful tool for understanding and exploring thermodynamic phase equilibria in many-particle interacting systems. Among the most physically intuitive simulation methods is Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo (GEMC), which allows direct computation of phase coexistence curves of model fluids by assigning each phase to its own simulation cell. When one or both of the phases can be modelled virtually via an analytic free energy function (Mehta and Kofke 1993 Mol. Phys. 79 39), the GEMC method takes on new pedagogical significance as an efficient means of analysing fluctuations and illuminating the statistical foundation of phase behaviour in finite systems. Here we extend this virtual GEMC method to binary fluid mixtures and demonstrate its implementation and instructional value with two applications: (1) a lattice model of simple mixtures and polymer blends and (2) a free-volume model of a complex mixture of colloids and polymers. We present algorithms for performing Monte Carlo trial moves in the virtual Gibbs ensemble, validate the method by computing fluid demixing phase diagrams, and analyse the dependence of fluctuations on system size. Our open-source simulation programs, coded in the platform-independent Java language, are suitable for use in classroom, tutorial, or computational laboratory settings.

  8. The redox budget of crust-derived fluid phases at the slab-mantle interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, N.; Langenhorst, F.; Tumiati, S.; Campione, M.; Frezzotti, M. L.; Poli, S.

    2017-07-01

    The redox processes taking place in the portion of the mantle on top of the subducting slab are poorly investigated and the redox potential of crust-derived fluid phases is still poorly constrained. A case study of supra-subduction mantle affected by metasomatism from crust-derived fluid phases is represented by garnet orthopyroxenites from the Maowu Ultramafic Complex (China) deriving from harzburgite precursors metasomatised at ∼4 GPa, 750-800 °C by a silica- and incompatible trace element-rich fluid phase. This metasomatism produced poikilitic orthopyroxene and inclusion-rich garnet porphyroblasts. Solid multiphase primary micro-inclusions in garnet display negative crystal shapes and infilling minerals (spinel, ±orthopyroxene, amphiboles, chlorite, ±talc, ±mica) occur with constant modal proportions, indicating that they derive from trapped solute-rich aqueous fluids. FT-IR hyper spectral imaging analyses and Raman spectroscopy, together with X-ray microtomography performed on single inclusions indicate that liquid water is still preserved at least in some inclusions (±spinel). To investigate the redox budget of these fluid phases, we measured for the first time the Fe3+ concentration of the micron-sized precipitates of the multiphase inclusions using EELS on a TEM. Results indicate that spinel contains up to 12% of Fe3+ with respect to the total iron, amphibole about 30%, while the ratio in inclusion phases such as chlorite and phlogopite may reach 70%. The Fe3+ fraction of the host garnet is equal to that measured in spinel as also confirmed by Flank Method EPMA measurements. Forward modelling fO2 calculations indicate that the garnet orthopyroxenites record ΔFMQ = -1.8 ÷ -1.5, therefore resulting apparently more reduced with respect to metasomatised supra-subduction garnet-peridotites. On the other hand, oxygen mass balance, performed both on the Maowu hybrid orthopyroxenite and on metasomatised supra-subduction garnet peridotites, indicate that the

  9. Numerical simulation for different densities multi-phase fluids with an energy law preserving method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L.; Jiang, Y. Y.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we present a numerical investigation for simulating fluid-fluid interface of isothermal multi-phase fluids with a phase field model. Unlike the previous work, we use continuous finite element method to compute the governing equations and get a discrete energy law equation with a special designed scheme which is almost the same as the continuous energy law. We deal with the stability in pressure by using a penalty formulation to rewrite the continuity condition. The accuracy of calculation is examined by numerical simulation of coalescence of two kissing bubbles. And the accuracy of the discrete energy law is validated as the error in the energy law of numerical examples falls below discrete level is preserved at each time step.

  10. XPS Study on the Stability and Transformation of Hydrate and Carbonate Phases within MgO Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinheimer, Vanessa; Unluer, Cise; Liu, Jiawei; Ruan, Shaoqin; Pan, Jisheng; Monteiro, Paulo J M

    2017-01-18

    MgO cements have great potential for carbon sequestration as they have the ability to carbonate and gain strength over time. The hydration of reactive MgO occurs at a similar rate as ordinary Portland cement (PC) and forms brucite (Mg(OH)₂, magnesium hydroxide), which reacts with CO₂ to form a range of hydrated magnesium carbonates (HMCs). However, the formation of HMCs within the MgO-CO₂-H₂O system depends on many factors, such as the temperature and CO₂ concentration, among others, which play an important role in determining the rate and degree of carbonation, the type and stability of the produced HMCs and the associated strength development. It is critical to understand the stability and transformation pathway of HMCs, which are assessed here through the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effects of the CO₂ concentration (in air or 10% CO₂), exposure to high temperatures (up to 300 °C) and curing period (one or seven days) are reported. Observed changes in the binding energy (BE) indicate the formation of different components and the transformation of the hydrated carbonates from one form to another, which will influence the final performance of the carbonated blends.

  11. XPS Study on the Stability and Transformation of Hydrate and Carbonate Phases within MgO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Rheinheimer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available MgO cements have great potential for carbon sequestration as they have the ability to carbonate and gain strength over time. The hydration of reactive MgO occurs at a similar rate as ordinary Portland cement (PC and forms brucite (Mg(OH2, magnesium hydroxide, which reacts with CO2 to form a range of hydrated magnesium carbonates (HMCs. However, the formation of HMCs within the MgO–CO2–H2O system depends on many factors, such as the temperature and CO2 concentration, among others, which play an important role in determining the rate and degree of carbonation, the type and stability of the produced HMCs and the associated strength development. It is critical to understand the stability and transformation pathway of HMCs, which are assessed here through the use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The effects of the CO2 concentration (in air or 10% CO2, exposure to high temperatures (up to 300 °C and curing period (one or seven days are reported. Observed changes in the binding energy (BE indicate the formation of different components and the transformation of the hydrated carbonates from one form to another, which will influence the final performance of the carbonated blends.

  12. Experimental Study of Two-Phase Thermosyphon using R-22 as a Working Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theeb Maathe. А.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT is an effective heat transfer device decreasing the ground temperature around it in cold season. In this paper an experimental study has been done by using R-22 as a working fluids, the temperature and the pressure of the TPCT where measured with time (Transient study.

  13. Predicting phase shift of elastic waves in pipes due to fluid flow and imperfections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel; Dahl, Jonas; Fuglede, Niels

    2009-01-01

    . This is relevant for understanding wave propagation in elastic media in general, and for the design and trouble-shooting of phase-shift measuring devices such as Coriolis mass flowmeters in particular. A multiple time scaling perturbation analysis is employed for a simple model of a fluid-conveying pipe...

  14. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of SSME phase 2 and phase 2+ preburner injector element hydrogen flow paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruf, Joseph H.

    1992-01-01

    Phase 2+ Space Shuttle Main Engine powerheads, E0209 and E0215 degraded their main combustion chamber (MCC) liners at a faster rate than is normal for phase 2 powerheads. One possible cause of the accelerated degradation was a reduction of coolant flow through the MCC. Hardware changes were made to the preburner fuel leg which may have reduced the resistance and, therefore, pulled some of the hydrogen from the MCC coolant leg. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed to determine hydrogen flow path resistances of the phase 2+ fuel preburner injector elements relative to the phase 2 element. FDNS was implemented on axisymmetric grids with the hydrogen assumed to be incompressible. The analysis was performed in two steps: the first isolated the effect of the different inlet areas and the second modeled the entire injector element hydrogen flow path.

  15. Experimental Study of Methane Hydrates in Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smirnov Vyacheslav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of gas hydrate formation in porous space of coal has been studied. The experiments conducted have proven the possibility of methane gas hydrate formation in moist coal. It has been demonstrated that the decomposition points of methane gas hydrates in coal are near to the phase equilibrium curve for bulk methane hydrate. Only part of water absorbed by coal can be involved in the methane gas hydrate formation. With the increase in gas pressure increases the amount of gas hydrate formed in natural coal. For formation of hydrates at a positive temperature, the pressure in the system has to be at least 2 MPa. At the same time the speed of formation and decomposition of gas hydrates in coal is big enough.

  16. Ultrasound Microbubble Treatment Enhances Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis and Fluid-Phase Uptake through Distinct Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekri, Farnaz; Delos Santos, Ralph Christian; Karshafian, Raffi; Antonescu, Costin N

    2016-01-01

    Drug delivery to tumors is limited by several factors, including drug permeability of the target cell plasma membrane. Ultrasound in combination with microbubbles (USMB) is a promising strategy to overcome these limitations. USMB treatment elicits enhanced cellular uptake of materials such as drugs, in part as a result of sheer stress and formation of transient membrane pores. Pores formed upon USMB treatment are rapidly resealed, suggesting that other processes such as enhanced endocytosis may contribute to the enhanced material uptake by cells upon USMB treatment. How USMB regulates endocytic processes remains incompletely understood. Cells constitutively utilize several distinct mechanisms of endocytosis, including clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) for the internalization of receptor-bound macromolecules such as Transferrin Receptor (TfR), and distinct mechanism(s) that mediate the majority of fluid-phase endocytosis. Tracking the abundance of TfR on the cell surface and the internalization of its ligand transferrin revealed that USMB acutely enhances the rate of CME. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy experiments revealed that USMB treatment altered the assembly of clathrin-coated pits, the basic structural units of CME. In addition, the rate of fluid-phase endocytosis was enhanced, but with delayed onset upon USMB treatment relative to the enhancement of CME, suggesting that the two processes are distinctly regulated by USMB. Indeed, vacuolin-1 or desipramine treatment prevented the enhancement of CME but not of fluid phase endocytosis upon USMB, suggesting that lysosome exocytosis and acid sphingomyelinase, respectively, are required for the regulation of CME but not fluid phase endocytosis upon USMB treatment. These results indicate that USMB enhances both CME and fluid phase endocytosis through distinct signaling mechanisms, and suggest that strategies for potentiating the enhancement of endocytosis upon USMB treatment may improve targeted

  17. A phase-field method to analyze the dynamics of immiscible fluids in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paoli, Marco; Roccon, Alessio; Zonta, Francesco; Soldati, Alfredo

    2017-11-01

    Liquid carbon dioxide (CO2) injected into geological formations (filled with brine) is not completely soluble in the surrounding fluid. For this reason, complex transport phenomena may occur across the interface that separates the two phases (CO2+brine and brine). Inspired by this geophysical instance, we used a Phase-Field Method (PFM) to describe the dynamics of two immiscible fluids in satured porous media. The basic idea of the PFM is to introduce an order parameter (ϕ) that varies continuously across the interfacial layer between the phases and is uniform in the bulk. The equation that describes the distribution of ϕ is the Cahn-Hilliard (CH) equation, which is coupled with the Darcy equation (to evaluate fluid velocity) through the buoyancy and Korteweg stress terms. The governing equations are solved through a pseudo-spectral technique (Fourier-Chebyshev). Our results show that the value of the surface tension between the two phases strongly influences the initial and the long term dynamics of the system. We believe that the proposed numerical approach, which grants an accurate evaluation of the interfacial fluxes of momentum/energy/species, is attractive to describe the transfer mechanism and the overall dynamics of immiscible and partially miscible phases.

  18. Modelling of imbibition phenomena in two-phase fluid flow through fractured porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hardik S.; Meher, Ramakanta

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, the counter-current imbibition phenomenon in two phase fluid through fracture porous media is discussed and Adomian decomposition method is applied to find the saturation of wetting phase and the recovery rate of the reservoir. A simulation result is developed for the saturation of wetting phase in fracture matrix and in porous matrix for some interesting choices of parametric value to study the recovery rate of the oil reservoir with dimensionless time. This problem has a great importance in the oil recovery process.

  19. Formation Of Substellar Bodies In Cold Conditions : Gravitational Stability Of Fluids In A Phase Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füglistaler, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    This thesis shows that the physics of cold self-gravitation fluids such as dark molecular clouds is much richer than usually assumed. The segregation in a gravitational field of small grains towards larger bodies such as comets and planetoids cannot be simulated with traditional hydro- dynamical codes, but is possible with a super-molecular approach. Observations, linear and virial analysis as well as computer simulations suggest the possibility of the formation of substellar H2 bodies due to the combination of phase transition and gravity in cold regions, as fluids in a phase transition are gravitationally unstable, independent of the strength of the gravitational potential. H2 phase transition is reached easily during plane-parallel collapses if the initial temperature is ≤ 15 K.

  20. A fluid biopsy as investigating technology for the fluid phase of solid tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Peter; Bethel, Kelly

    2012-02-01

    , which has shown predictive utility in several cancer types—the blurry outlines of things to come began to coalesce. The field of CTC research is in its adolescence; enumeration and characterization research effort is methodologically varied, vigorously individuated and rich in innovation. The high definition CTC (HD-CTC) assay described herein and applied to several currently relevant research questions about cancer spread represents a new measure of an internal biologic process that will hopefully lead to great advancements in cancer medicine. First, the paper entitled 'Fluid biopsy in patients with metastatic prostate, pancreatic and breast cancers' by Marrinucci et al, represents the initial technical and clinical validation of an enrichment-free assay and demonstrates our ability to identify significant numbers of HD-CTCs in a majority of patients with prostate, breast and pancreatic cancers. It demonstrates very high rates of detection (>50%) in breast, prostate and pancreatic cancer patients with no CTCs found in normal control subjects. The assay detects significantly higher numbers of CTCs than the FDA-approved Cellsearch® assay and shows the presence of clusters of CTCs in many patients. The nature of the clusters is further evaluated in 'Characterization of circulating tumor cell aggregates identified in patients with epithelial tumors' by Cho et al, wherein CTC aggregates are identified in 43% of 86 patient samples. The fraction of CTC aggregation was investigated in blood draws from 24 breast, 14 non-small cell lung (NSCLC), 18 pancreatic, 15 prostate stage IV cancer patients and 15 normal blood donors (NBD). Cells contained in CTC aggregates had less area and length, on average, than single CTCs. The nuclear to cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio between single CTCs and CTC aggregates was similar. To assist with translating into patients the substantial cell biology work done using cell line cells instead of human tumor tissue, the paper entitled 'Cytometric

  1. Analytical predictions for vibration phase shifts along fluid-conveying pipes due to Coriolis forces and imperfections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel; Dahl, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    Resonant vibrations of a fluid-conveying pipe are investigated, with special consideration to axial shifts in vibration phase accompanying fluid flow and various imperfections. This is relevant for understanding elastic wave propagation in general, and for the design and trouble-shooting of phase...

  2. The research of sapropels as the drilling fluids in dispersed phase (Lake Kirek)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagitov, R. R.; Minaev, K. M.

    2015-11-01

    This research describes the application of Kirek Lake sapropel as a drilling fluid in dispersed phase which could replace traditionally used clay powders in drilling fluids. Sapropel is century-old bed silt of freshwater lakes of more than 12 000 years, i.e. Holocene. It consists of natural organic and inorganic substances and chemically is a complex multicomponent biogenic genesis system. Humic complexes and wulfonic acids, polysaccharides, carbonic and protein polymers comprise sapropel suspension texture. This article introduces formulations and laboratory research of sapropel suspensions and thermal activation.

  3. Ductile flow of methane hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, W.B.; Stern, L.A.; Kirby, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    Compressional creep tests (i.e., constant applied stress) conducted on pure, polycrystalline methane hydrate over the temperature range 260-287 K and confining pressures of 50-100 MPa show this material to be extraordinarily strong compared to other icy compounds. The contrast with hexagonal water ice, sometimes used as a proxy for gas hydrate properties, is impressive: over the thermal range where both are solid, methane hydrate is as much as 40 times stronger than ice at a given strain rate. The specific mechanical response of naturally occurring methane hydrate in sediments to environmental changes is expected to be dependent on the distribution of the hydrate phase within the formation - whether arranged structurally between and (or) cementing sediments grains versus passively in pore space within a sediment framework. If hydrate is in the former mode, the very high strength of methane hydrate implies a significantly greater strain-energy release upon decomposition and subsequent failure of hydrate-cemented formations than previously expected.

  4. Pair-correlation functions and phase separation in a two-component point Yukawa fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, P.; Archer, A. J.; Evans, R.

    2006-02-01

    We investigate the structure of a binary mixture of particles interacting via purely repulsive point Yukawa pair potentials with a common inverse screening length λ. Using the hypernetted chain closure to the Ornstein-Zernike equations, we find that for a system with "ideal" (Berthelot mixing rule) pair-potential parameters for the interaction between unlike species, the asymptotic decay of the total correlation functions crosses over from monotonic to damped oscillatory on increasing the fluid total density at fixed composition. This gives rise to a Kirkwood line in the phase diagram. We also consider a "nonideal" system, in which the Berthelot mixing rule is multiplied by a factor (1+δ). For any δ >0 the system exhibits fluid-fluid phase separation and remarkably the ultimate decay of the correlation functions is now monotonic for all (mixture) state points. Only in the limit of vanishing concentration of either species does one find oscillatory decay extending to r =∞. In the nonideal case the simple random-phase approximation provides a good description of the phase separation and the accompanying Lifshitz line.

  5. Pair-correlation functions and phase separation in a two-component point Yukawa fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, P; Archer, A J; Evans, R

    2006-02-07

    We investigate the structure of a binary mixture of particles interacting via purely repulsive point Yukawa pair potentials with a common inverse screening length lambda. Using the hypernetted chain closure to the Ornstein-Zernike equations, we find that for a system with "ideal" (Berthelot mixing rule) pair-potential parameters for the interaction between unlike species, the asymptotic decay of the total correlation functions crosses over from monotonic to damped oscillatory on increasing the fluid total density at fixed composition. This gives rise to a Kirkwood line in the phase diagram. We also consider a "nonideal" system, in which the Berthelot mixing rule is multiplied by a factor (1+delta). For any delta>0 the system exhibits fluid-fluid phase separation and remarkably the ultimate decay of the correlation functions is now monotonic for all (mixture) state points. Only in the limit of vanishing concentration of either species does one find oscillatory decay extending to r=infinity. In the nonideal case the simple random-phase approximation provides a good description of the phase separation and the accompanying Lifshitz line.

  6. The phase behavior of linear and partially flexible hard-sphere chain fluids and the solubility of hard spheres in hard-sphere chain fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzún, Bernardo; van Westen, Thijs; Vlugt, Thijs J. H.

    2013-05-01

    The liquid crystal phase behavior of linear and partially flexible hard-sphere chain fluids and the solubility of hard spheres in hard-sphere chain fluids are studied by constant pressure Monte Carlo simulations. An extensive study on the phase behavior of linear fluids with a length of 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, and 20 beads is carried out. The phase behavior of partially flexible fluids with a total length of 8, 10, 14, and 15 beads and with different lengths for the linear part is also determined. A precise description of the reduced pressure and of the packing fraction change at the isotropic-nematic coexistence was achieved by performing long simulation runs. For linear fluids, a maximum in the isotropic to nematic packing fraction change is observed for a chain length of 15 beads. The infinite dilution solubility of hard spheres in linear and partially flexible hard-sphere chain fluids is calculated by the Widom test-particle insertion method. To identify the effect of chain connectivity and molecular anisotropy on free volume, solubility is expressed relative to that of hard spheres in a hard sphere fluid at same packing fraction as relative Henry's law constants. A linear relationship between relative Henry's law constants and packing fraction is observed for all linear fluids. Furthermore, this linearity is independent of liquid crystal ordering and seems to be independent of chain length for linear chains of 10 beads and longer. The same linear relationship was observed for the solubility of hard spheres in nematic forming partially flexible fluids for packing fractions up to a value slightly higher than the nematic packing fraction at the isotropic-nematic coexistence. At higher packing fractions, the small flexibility of these fluids seems to improve solubility in comparison with the linear fluids.

  7. Numerical modeling of two-phase binary fluid mixing using mixed finite elements

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Shuyu

    2012-07-27

    Diffusion coefficients of dense gases in liquids can be measured by considering two-phase binary nonequilibrium fluid mixing in a closed cell with a fixed volume. This process is based on convection and diffusion in each phase. Numerical simulation of the mixing often requires accurate algorithms. In this paper, we design two efficient numerical methods for simulating the mixing of two-phase binary fluids in one-dimensional, highly permeable media. Mathematical model for isothermal compositional two-phase flow in porous media is established based on Darcy\\'s law, material balance, local thermodynamic equilibrium for the phases, and diffusion across the phases. The time-lag and operator-splitting techniques are used to decompose each convection-diffusion equation into two steps: diffusion step and convection step. The Mixed finite element (MFE) method is used for diffusion equation because it can achieve a high-order and stable approximation of both the scalar variable and the diffusive fluxes across grid-cell interfaces. We employ the characteristic finite element method with moving mesh to track the liquid-gas interface. Based on the above schemes, we propose two methods: single-domain and two-domain methods. The main difference between two methods is that the two-domain method utilizes the assumption of sharp interface between two fluid phases, while the single-domain method allows fractional saturation level. Two-domain method treats the gas domain and the liquid domain separately. Because liquid-gas interface moves with time, the two-domain method needs work with a moving mesh. On the other hand, the single-domain method allows the use of a fixed mesh. We derive the formulas to compute the diffusive flux for MFE in both methods. The single-domain method is extended to multiple dimensions. Numerical results indicate that both methods can accurately describe the evolution of the pressure and liquid level. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  8. Thermal properties and structural characterizations of new types of phase change material: Anhydrous and hydrated palmitic acid/camphene solid dispersions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Tu, E-mail: tulee@cc.ncu.edu.tw; Chiu, Yu Hsiu; Lee, Yun; Lee, Hung Lin

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: • Solid dispersion is implemented on phase change materials. • Water is added as a tertiary component. • Specific heat of solid is increased by partially amorphous camphene. • Microstructures are characterized by LTDSC, PXRD and SAXS. • Thermal properties are linked to microstructures. - Abstract: Two new types of phase change material anhydrous and hydrated palmitic acid/camphene solid dispersions (PA1CA1) are prepared and characterized by low-temperature differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, small-angle X-ray scattering and temperature–history method. Their microstructures contain nanometer-sized palmitic acid (PA) crystallites with lamellar periodicity dispersed in a partially amorphous plastic crystalline camphene (CA) matrix. The PA phase apparently possesses a relatively high latent heat value inherited from the pristine crystalline PA of 229.7 ± 0.1 kJ kg{sup −1}. The relatively high specific heat of solid, C{sub ps}, for anhydrous PA1CA1 of 2.17 ± 0.06 kJ kg{sup −1} K{sup −1} is originated from the presence of disordered CA matrix. Hydration of PA1CA1 can further increase the C{sub ps} to 2.61 ± 0.01 kJ kg{sup −1} K{sup −1}. The mixing of partially amorphous CA, some PA and the small amount of water may have turned the matrix into more disorder due to their different bonding natures, molecular weights, and various molecular shapes and sizes.

  9. Comparative study of Nusselt number for a single phase fluid flow using plate heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugam Rajasekaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the plate heat exchangers are used for various applications in the industries for heat exchange process such as heating, cooling and condensation. The performance of plate heat exchanger depends on many factors such as flow arrangements, plate design, chevron angle, enlargement factor, type of fluid used, etc. The various Nusselt number correlations are developed by considering that the water as a working fluid. The main objective of the present work is to design the experimental set-up for a single phase fluid flow using plate heat exchanger and studied the heat transfer performance. The experiments are carried out for various Reynolds number between 500 and 2200, the heat transfer coefficients are estimated. Based on the experimental results the new correlation is developed for Nusselt number and compared with an existing correlation.

  10. Hydration kinetics for the alite, belite, and calcium aluminate phase in Portland cements from 27Al and 29Si MAS NMR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Jørgen; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Jakobsen, Hans Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    29Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopy is shown to be a valuable tool for obtaining the quantities of alite and belite in hydrated Portland cements. The hydration (1-180 days) of a white Portland cement with 10 wt.% silica fume added is investigated and the degrees of hydration for alit...

  11. Insulin stimulates fluid-phase endocytosis and exocytosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, E M; Lienhard, G E; Appleman, J R; Lane, M D; Frost, S C

    1986-03-25

    Fluid phase endocytosis by monolayers of 3T3-L1 adipocytes has been followed by measuring [14C]sucrose uptake, a well characterized pinocytic marker. Insulin, at a maximal stimulatory concentration, increased the pinocytic rate by 2-fold within 5 min of its addition; this activation persisted for at least 2 h. The dose-response curve for the enhancement of fluid-phase endocytosis by insulin was identical with that for the stimulation of hexose transport, as measured by the uptake of 2-deoxyglucose. The concentration of insulin eliciting half-maximal effects was 6 nM. These results suggest that activation of endocytosis and hexose uptake by insulin are triggered by the same signalling event. Insulin-activated pinocytosis was not dependent upon the increased metabolism of D-glucose that occurs in response to the hormone, since the stimulation of fluid-phase endocytosis occurred in the absence of 5 nM glucose. Fluid-phase exocytosis was examined by loading cells with [14C]sucrose for various times and then measuring tracer efflux. The rate of sucrose release was biphasic; a portion of the internalized sucrose was rapidly released from the cell (t1/2 approximately 5 min), whereas the remainder was released slowly (t1/2 approximately to 5 h). These results are consistent with a sequential two-compartment model in which the [14C] sucrose first enters a compartment from which about 70% of the sucrose is rapidly released back into the medium and the remaining 30% is transferred to a second compartment. Therefore, the true rate of endocytosis is much greater than the observed accumulation rates, except after short uptake times. Insulin increases the rate of sucrose efflux from both compartments as well as the rate of transfer from the first compartment to the second compartment by about 2-fold. Furthermore, insulin increased the apparent size of the first and second compartments by 1.6- and 3-fold, respectively. The lysosomotropic agent chloroquine (200 muM) had only a

  12. Performance of WPA Conductivity Sensor during Two-Phase Fluid Flow in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Layne; O'Connor, Edward W.; Snowdon, Doug

    2003-01-01

    The Conductivity Sensor designed for use in the Node 3 Water Processor Assembly (WPA) was based on the existing Space Shuttle application for the fuel cell water system. However, engineering analysis has determined that this sensor design is potentially sensitive to two-phase fluid flow (gadliquid) in microgravity. The source for this sensitivity is the fact that gas bubbles will become lodged between the sensor probe and the wall of the housing without the aid of buoyancy in l-g. Once gas becomes lodged in the housing, the measured conductivity will be offset based on the volume of occluded gas. A development conductivity sensor was flown on the NASA Microgravity Plan to measure the offset, which was determined to range between 0 and 50%. Based on these findings, a development program was initiated at the sensor s manufacturer to develop a sensor design fully compatible with two-phase fluid flow in microgravity.

  13. Temperature dependence of the magneto-controllable first-order phase transition in dilute magnetic fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. S.

    2017-11-01

    Experimental study was carried out to investigate the influence of particle size distribution function on the temperature dependent magneto-controllable first-order phase transition of the ;gas-liquid; type in magnetic fluids. The study resolves one crisis situation in ferrohydrodynamic experiment made by several research groups in the 1980-1990s. It is shown that due to polydispersity magnetic fluids exhibit phase diagrams which are divided into three regions by vaporus and liquidus curves. Granulometric data states the primary role of the width of the particle size distribution function in the process of spinodal decomposition. New modified Langevin parameter is introduced for unification of liquidus curves of different ferrofluids despite the significant difference between the curves (one order of magnitude) in (H, T) coordinates.

  14. US-UK Phase 3 Task 1 Oxidation in Supercritical Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holcomb, Gordon R. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2017-03-20

    A presentation of the US-UK Phase 3 Task 1 Oxidation in Supercritical Fluids. Includes slides on Supercritical Steam, sCO2 Power Cycles – Indirect, sCO2 Power Cycles – Direct, Experimental Exposures, Alloys, Why Si, Results—Ni-xCr Alloys (5-24Cr), Fatigue Crack Growth$-$Experiment, and Alloys and Samples, Fatigue Crack Growth—Results (H282).

  15. Calcium Aluminate Cement Hydration Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusinović, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium aluminate cement (AC is a very versatile special cement used for specific applications. As the hydration of AC is highly temperature dependent, yielding structurally different hydration products that continuously alter material properties, a good knowledge of thermal properties at early stages of hydration is essential. The kinetics of AC hydration is a complex process and the use of single mechanisms models cannot describe the rate of hydration during the whole stage.This paper examines the influence of temperature (ϑ=5–20 °C and water-to-cement mass ratio (mH /mAC = 0.4; 0.5 and 1.0 on hydration of commercial iron-rich AC ISTRA 40 (producer: Istra Cement, Pula, Croatia, which is a part of CALUCEM group, Figs 1–3. The flow rate of heat generation of cement pastes as a result of the hydration reactions was measured with differential microcalorimeter. Chemically bonded water in the hydrated cement samples was determined by thermo-gravimetry.Far less heat is liberated when cement and water come in contact for the first time, Fig. 1, than in the case for portland cement (PC. Higher water-to-cement ratio increases the heat evolved at later ages (Fig. 3 due to higher quantity of water available for hydration. A significant effect of the water-to-cement ratio on the hydration rate and hydration degree showed the importance of water as being the limiting reactant that slows down the reaction early. A simplified stoichiometric model of early age AC hydration (eq. (8 based on reaction schemes of principal minerals, nominally CA, C12A7 and C4AF (Table 1, was employed. Hydration kinetics after the induction period (ϑ < 20 °C had been successfully described (Fig. 4 and Table 2 by a proposed model (eq. (23 which simultaneously comprised three main mechanisms: nucleation and growth, interaction at phase boundary, and mass transfer. In the proposed kinetic model the nucleation and growth is proportional to the amount of reacted minerals (eq

  16. Coating properties of a novel water stationary phase in capillary supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Jillian N; Thurbide, Kevin B

    2015-05-01

    The coating properties of a novel water stationary phase used in capillary supercritical fluid chromatography were investigated. The findings confirm that increasing the length or internal diameter of the type 316 stainless-steel column used provides a linear increase in the volume of stationary phase present. Under normal operating conditions, results indicate that about 4.9 ± 0.5 μL/m of water phase is deposited uniformly inside of a typical 250 μm internal diameter 316 stainless-steel column, which translates to an area coverage of about 6.3 ± 0.5 nL/mm(2) regardless of dimension. Efforts to increase the stationary phase volume present showed that etching the stainless-steel capillary wall using hydrofluoric acid was very effective for this. For instance, after five etching cycles, this volume doubled inside of both the type 304 and the type 316 stainless-steel columns examined. This in turn doubled analyte retention, while maintaining good peak shape and column efficiency. Overall, 316 stainless-steel columns were more resistant to etching than 304 stainless-steel columns. Results indicate that this approach could be useful to employ as a means of controlling the volume of water stationary phase that can be established inside of the stainless-steel columns used with this supercritical fluid chromatography technique. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Reactive oxygen species mediate shear stress-induced fluid-phase endocytosis in vascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Koichi; Sakai, Jiro; Karino, Takeshi; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Toshihiro; Ohyama, Tohru; Inanami, Osamu; Kuwabara, Mikinori

    2006-02-01

    To elucidate the role of shear stress in fluid-phase endocytosis of vascular endothelial cells (EC), we used a rotating-disk shearing apparatus to investigate the effects of shear stress on the uptake of lucifer yellow (LY) by cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). Exposure of EC to shear stress (area-mean value of 10 dynes/cm2) caused an increase in LY uptake that was abrogated by the antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, acetovanillone, and two inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC), calphostin C and GF109203X. These results suggest that fluid-phase endocytosis is regulated by both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and PKC. Shear stress increased both ROS production and PKC activity in EC, and the increase in ROS was unaffected by calphostin C or GF109203X, whereas the activation of PKC was reduced by NAC and acetovanillone. We conclude that shear stress-induced increase in fluid-phase endocytosis is mediated via ROS generation followed by PKC activation in EC.

  18. Shifting Focus: From Hydration for Performance to Hydration for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrier, Erica T

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, literature on hydration biomarkers has evolved considerably - from (de)hydration assessment towards a more global definition of biomarkers of hydration in daily life. This shift in thinking about hydration markers was largely driven by investigating the differences that existed between otherwise healthy individuals whose habitual, ad-libitum drinking habits differ, and by identifying physiological changes in low-volume drinkers who subsequently increase their water intake. Aside from obvious differences in urinary volume and concentration, a growing body of evidence is emerging that links differences in fluid intake with small, but biologically significant, differences in vasopressin (copeptin), glomerular filtration rate, and markers of metabolic dysfunction or disease. Taken together, these pieces of the puzzle begin to form a picture of how much water intake should be considered adequate for health, and represent a shifting focus from hydration for performance, toward hydration for health outcomes. This narrative review outlines the key areas of research in which the global hydration process - including water intake, urinary hydration markers, and vasopressin - has been associated with health outcomes, focusing on kidney and metabolic endpoints. It will also provide a commentary on how various hydration biomarkers may be used in hydration for health assessment. Finally, if adequate water intake can play a role in maintaining health, how might we tell if we are drinking enough? Urine output is easily measured, and can take into account differences in daily physical activity, climate, dietary solute load, and other factors that influence daily water needs. Today, targets have been proposed for urine osmolality, specific gravity, and color that may be used by researchers, clinicians, and individuals as simple indicators of optimal hydration. However, there remain a large number of incomplete or unanswered research questions regarding the

  19. Well log characterization of natural gas hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.

    2011-01-01

    In the last 25 years we have seen significant advancements in the use of downhole well logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From an early start of using wireline electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells drilled in Arctic permafrost environments to today where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. The most established and well known use of downhole log data in gas hydrate research is the use of electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data (both compressional- and shear-wave data) to make estimates of gas hydrate content (i.e., reservoir saturations) in various sediment types and geologic settings. New downhole logging tools designed to make directionally oriented acoustic and propagation resistivity log measurements have provided the data needed to analyze the acoustic and electrical anisotropic properties of both highly inter-bedded and fracture dominated gas hydrate reservoirs. Advancements in nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR) logging and wireline formation testing have also allowed for the characterization of gas hydrate at the pore scale. Integrated NMR and formation testing studies from northern Canada and Alaska have yielded valuable insight into how gas hydrates are physically distributed in sediments and the occurrence and nature of pore fluids (i.e., free-water along with clay and capillary bound water) in gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs. Information on the distribution of gas hydrate at the pore scale has provided invaluable insight on the mechanisms controlling the formation and occurrence of gas hydrate in nature along with data on gas hydrate reservoir properties (i.e., permeabilities) needed to accurately predict gas production rates for various gas hydrate

  20. Handbook of gas hydrate properties and occurrence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuustraa, V.A.; Hammershaimb, E.C.

    1983-12-01

    This handbook provides data on the resource potential of naturally occurring hydrates, the properties that are needed to evaluate their recovery, and their production potential. The first two chapters give data on the naturally occurring hydrate potential by reviewing published resource estimates and the known and inferred occurrences. The third and fourth chapters review the physical and thermodynamic properties of hydrates, respectively. The thermodynamic properties of hydrates that are discussed include dissociation energies and a simplified method to calculate them; phase diagrams for simple and multi-component gases; the thermal conductivity; and the kinetics of hydrate dissociation. The final chapter evaluates the net energy balance of recovering hydrates and shows that a substantial positive energy balance can theoretically be achieved. The Appendices of the Handbook summarize physical and thermodynamic properties of gases, liquids and solids that can be used in designing and evaluating recovery processes of hydrates. 158 references, 67 figures, 47 tables.

  1. Hydration and nutrition knowledge in adolescent swimmers. Does water intake affect urine hydration markers after swimming?

    OpenAIRE

    Altavilla, Cesare; Prats Moya, Soledad; Caballero, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Little data exists regarding nutritional knowledge and hydration in adolescent swimmers. The aim of this study was to assess the level of nutrition and hydration knowledge and to describe the fluid balance in adolescent swimmers during training. A study was carried out with a cross-sectional descriptive part and a longitudinal part with repeated measurements over five swimming sessions. Eighty-six adolescent swimmers completed a questionnaire to assess their sport nutrition and hydration know...

  2. Predicting phase shift effects for vibrating fluid-conveying pipes due to Coriolis forces and fluid pulsation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enz, Stephanie; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2011-01-01

    Knowing the influence of fluid flow perturbations on the dynamic behavior of fluid-conveying pipes is of relevance, e.g., when exploiting flow-induced oscillations of pipes to determine the fluids mass flow or density, as done with Coriolis flow meters (CFM). This could be used in the attempts to...

  3. Thermodynamic modeling of phase equilibria of semi-clathrate hydrates of CO2, CH4, or N2+tetra-n-butylammonium bromide aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eslamimanesh, Ali; Mohammadi, Amir H.; Richon, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    concentration in aqueous solution. The Peng–Robinson (PR-EoS) equation of state along with re-tuned parameters of Mathias–Copeman alpha function is applied for calculation of the fugacity of gaseous hydrate former. For determination of the activity coefficient of the non-electrolyte species in the aqueous phase...

  4. Using Fluid Inclusions to Bring Phase Diagrams to Life in a Guided Inquiry Instructional Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farver, J. R.; Onasch, C.

    2011-12-01

    A fundamental concept in mineralogy, petrology, and geochemistry is the generation and interpretation of phase diagrams for various systems. We have developed an exercise to strengthen student's familiarity with and confidence in employing phase diagrams by using fluid inclusions. The activity follows the 5Es (Engagement, Exploration, Explanation, Extension, Evaluation) guided inquiry instructional model in order to best facilitate student learning. The exercise follows an activity adapted from Brady (1992) wherein students collect data to generate the phase diagram for the Ice-Water-NaCl system. The engagement activity involves using a USGS-type fluid inclusion heating-cooling stage with a camera and projection system. We typically employ either a doubly-polished quartz sample or a cleaved section of fluorite and select a typical two phase (L + V) aqueous inclusion. Students first observe the inclusion at room temperature and pressure and are asked to predict what would happen if the sample is heated. Students then watch as the sample is heated to its homogenization temperature (Th) and are asked to explain what they see. The sample is then cooled until completely frozen and then slowly warmed until the first ice melting (at the eutectic, Te) and then until all ice melts (Tm). Again, students are asked to explain what they see and, if necessary, they are guided to remember the earlier phase diagram activity. The process is then repeated while students follow along the appropriate phase diagrams. In this fashion, students literally see the changes in phases present and their relative abundances as they move through the phase diagram. The engagement activity generates student interest in the exercise to insure minds-on as well as hands-on exploration. The exploration activities involve students observing and describing a wide range of fluid inclusion types (e.g., CO2, daughter crystals, multiple inclusion trails, etc) and hands-on collection of Th and Tm data for a

  5. Seismoelectric couplings in a poroelastic material containing two immiscible fluid phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardani, A.; Revil, A.

    2015-08-01

    A new approach of seismoelectric imaging has been recently proposed to detect saturation fronts in which seismic waves are focused in the subsurface to scan its heterogeneous nature and determine saturation fronts. Such type of imaging requires however a complete modelling of the seismoelectric properties of porous media saturated by two immiscible fluid phases, one being usually electrically insulating (for instance water and oil). We combine an extension of Biot dynamic theory, valid for porous media containing two immiscible Newtonian fluids, with an extension of the electrokinetic theory based on the notion of effective volumetric charge densities dragged by the flow of each fluid phase. These effective charge densities can be related directly to the permeability and saturation of each fluid phase. The coupled partial differential equations are solved with the finite element method. We also derive analytically the transfer function connecting the macroscopic electrical field to the acceleration of the fast P wave (coseismic electrical field) and we study the influence of the water content on this coupling. We observe that the amplitude of the co-seismic electrical disturbance is very sensitive to the water content with an increase in amplitude with water saturation. We also investigate the seismoelectric conversions (interface effect) occurring at the water table. We show that the conversion response at the water table can be identifiable only when the saturation contrasts between the vadose and saturated zones are sharp enough. A relatively dry vadose zone represents the best condition to identify the water table through seismoelectric measurements. Indeed, in this case, the coseismic electrical disturbances are vanishingly small compared to the seismoelectric interface response.

  6. Hydration mechanisms of mineral trioxide aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, J

    2007-06-01

    To report the hydration mechanism of white mineral trioxide aggregate (White MTA, Dentsply, Tulsa Dental Products, Tulsa, OK, USA). The chemical constitution of white MTA was studied by viewing the powder in polished sections under the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hydration of both white MTA and white Portland cement (PC) was studied by characterizing cement hydrates viewed under the SEM, plotting atomic ratios, performing quantitative energy dispersive analyses with X-ray (EDAX) and by calculation of the amount of anhydrous clinker minerals using the Bogue calculation. Un-hydrated MTA was composed of impure tri-calcium and di-calcium silicate and bismuth oxide. The aluminate phase was scarce. On hydration the white PC produced a dense structure made up of calcium silicate hydrate, calcium hydroxide, monosulphate and ettringite as the main hydration products. The un-reacted cement grain was coated with a layer of hydrated cement. In contrast MTA produced a porous structure on hydration. Levels of ettringite and monosulphate were low. Bismuth oxide was present as un-reacted powder but also incorporated with the calcium silicate hydrate. White MTA was deficient in alumina suggesting that the material was not prepared in a rotary kiln. On hydration this affected the production of ettringite and monosulphate usually formed on hydration of PC. The bismuth affected the hydration mechanism of MTA; it formed part of the structure of C-S-H and also affected the precipitation of calcium hydroxide in the hydrated paste. The microstructure of hydrated MTA would likely be weaker when compared with that of PC.

  7. Assessment of fluid distribution and flow properties in two phase fluid flow using X-ray CT technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lanlan; Wu, Bohao; Li, Xingbo; Wang, Sijia; Wang, Dayong; Zhou, Xinhuan; Zhang, Yi

    2017-11-01

    To study on microscale distribution of CO2 and brine during two-phase flow is crucial for understanding the trapping mechanisms of CO2 storage. In this study, CO2-brine flow experiments in porous media were conducted using X-ray computed tomography. The porous media were packed with glass beads. The pore structure (porosity/tortuosity) and flow properties at different flow rates and flow fractions were investigated. The results showed that porosity of the packed beads differed at different position as a result of heterogeneity. The CO2 saturation is higher at low injection flow rates and high CO2 fractions. CO2 distribution at the pore scale was also visualized. ∅ Porosity of porous media CT brine_sat grey value of sample saturated with brine CT dry grey value of sample saturated with air CT brine grey value of pure brine CT air grey value of pure air CT flow grey values of sample with two fluids occupying the pore space {CT}_{CO_2_ sat} grey value of sample saturated with CO2 {f}_{CO_2}({S}_{CO_2}) CO2 fraction {q}_{CO_2} the volume flow rate for CO2 q brine the volume flow rate for brine L Thickness of the porous media, mm L e a bundle of capillaries of equal length, mm τ Tortuosity, calculated from L e / L.

  8. Thermal Marangoni convection in two-phase flow of dusty Casson fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanthesh, B.; Gireesha, B. J.

    2018-03-01

    This paper deals with the thermal Marangoni convection effects in magneto-Casson liquid flow through suspension of dust particles. The transpiration cooling aspect is accounted. The surface tension is assumed to be fluctuating linearly with temperature. The fluid and dust particle's temperature of the interface is chosen as a quadratic function of interface arc length. The governing problem is modelled by conservation laws of mass, momentum and energy for fluid and dust particle phase. Stretching transformation technique is utilized to form ordinary differential equations from the partial differential equations. Later, the numerical solutions based on Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg method are established. The momentum and heat transport distributions are focused on the outcome of distinct governing parameters. The results of Nusselt number is also presented and discussed. It is established that the heat transfer rate is higher in the case of dusty non-Newtonian fluid than dusty Newtonian fluid. The rate of heat transfer can be enhanced by suspending dust particles in a base liquid.

  9. Extended lattice Boltzmann method for numerical simulation of thermal phase change in two-phase fluid flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Hesameddin; Rahimian, Mohammad Hassan; Krafczyk, Manfred

    2013-07-01

    In this article, a method based on the multiphase lattice Boltzmann framework is presented which is applicable to liquid-vapor phase-change phenomena. Both liquid and vapor phases are assumed to be incompressible. For phase changes occurring at the phase interface, the divergence-free condition of the velocity field is no longer satisfied due to the gas volume generated by vaporization or fluid volume generated by condensation. Thus, we extend a previous model by a suitable equation to account for the finite divergence of the velocity field within the interface region. Furthermore, the convective Cahn-Hilliard equation is extended to take into account vaporization effects. In a first step, a D1Q3 LB model is constructed and validated against the analytical solution of a one-dimensional Stefan problem for different density ratios. Finally the model is extended to two dimensions (D2Q9) to simulate droplet evaporation. We demonstrate that the results obtained by this approach are in good agreement with theory.

  10. An attempt to estimate ionic interactions with phenyl and pentafluorophenyl stationary phases in supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Caroline; Lemasson, Elise; Khater, Syame; Lesellier, Eric

    2015-09-18

    Pentafluorophenyl-bonded silica (PFP) phases employed in high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) often provide very different results depending on the column manufacturer. PFP phases also provide significantly different selectivity from non-fluorinated aromatic phases. As all HPLC columns can also be employed with carbon dioxide-based mobile phases, PFP phases can also be useful to supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). However, whether they provide adequate retention and selectivity in SFC conditions is necessary for them to find applicability with this technique. In our laboratory, a column classification for packed column SFC was designed, based on the solvation parameter model, which currently comprises data for about eighty different columns. In this paper, we present the characterization of eleven PFP phases provided by different manufacturers used with carbon dioxide-methanol mobile phases. The columns are compared to fifteen other non-fluorinated phenyl and diphenyl phases in terms of their retention and separation characteristics assessed by the solvation parameter model with five Abraham descriptors. The latter is insufficient for an accurate description of retention mechanisms on the PFP phases, thus two extra terms accounting for ionic interactions with anions and cations (D(-) and D(+)), previously developed for HPLC in hydrophilic interaction mode (HILIC), are introduced. While some approximations are necessary regarding the true pH and pKa values in CO2-based mobile phases, the retention models are significantly improved by this addition, allowing to integrate ionizable analytes in the test set for evaluation of ionic interactions in the chromatographic systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Flow regime classification in air magnetic fluid two-phase flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, T.; DeVuyst, F.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2008-05-01

    A new experimental/numerical technique of classification of flow regimes (flow patterns) in air-magnetic fluid two-phase flow is proposed in the present paper. The proposed technique utilizes the electromagnetic induction to obtain time-series signals of the electromotive force, allowing us to make a non-contact measurement. Firstly, an experiment is carried out to obtain the time-series signals in a vertical upward air-magnetic fluid two-phase flow. The signals obtained are first treated using two kinds of wavelet transforms. The data sets treated are then used as input vectors for an artificial neural network (ANN) with supervised training. In the present study, flow regimes are classified into bubbly, slug, churn and annular flows, which are generally the main flow regimes. To validate the flow regimes, a visualization experiment is also performed with a glycerin solution that has roughly the same physical properties, i.e., kinetic viscosity and surface tension, as a magnetic fluid used in the present study. The flow regimes from the visualization are used as targets in an ANN and also used in the estimation of the accuracy of the present method. As a result, ANNs using radial basis functions are shown to be the most appropriate for the present classification of flow regimes, leading to small classification errors.

  12. Microtomography and pore-scale modeling of two-phase Fluid Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silin, D.; Tomutsa, L.; Benson, S.; Patzek, T.

    2010-10-19

    Synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography (micro CT) at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) line 8.3.2 at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory produces three-dimensional micron-scale-resolution digital images of the pore space of the reservoir rock along with the spacial distribution of the fluids. Pore-scale visualization of carbon dioxide flooding experiments performed at a reservoir pressure demonstrates that the injected gas fills some pores and pore clusters, and entirely bypasses the others. Using 3D digital images of the pore space as input data, the method of maximal inscribed spheres (MIS) predicts two-phase fluid distribution in capillary equilibrium. Verification against the tomography images shows a good agreement between the computed fluid distribution in the pores and the experimental data. The model-predicted capillary pressure curves and tomography-based porosimetry distributions compared favorably with the mercury injection data. Thus, micro CT in combination with modeling based on the MIS is a viable approach to study the pore-scale mechanisms of CO{sub 2} injection into an aquifer, as well as more general multi-phase flows.

  13. Flow regime classification in air-magnetic fluid two-phase flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, T; De Vuyst, F; Yamaguchi, H

    2008-05-21

    A new experimental/numerical technique of classification of flow regimes (flow patterns) in air-magnetic fluid two-phase flow is proposed in the present paper. The proposed technique utilizes the electromagnetic induction to obtain time-series signals of the electromotive force, allowing us to make a non-contact measurement. Firstly, an experiment is carried out to obtain the time-series signals in a vertical upward air-magnetic fluid two-phase flow. The signals obtained are first treated using two kinds of wavelet transforms. The data sets treated are then used as input vectors for an artificial neural network (ANN) with supervised training. In the present study, flow regimes are classified into bubbly, slug, churn and annular flows, which are generally the main flow regimes. To validate the flow regimes, a visualization experiment is also performed with a glycerin solution that has roughly the same physical properties, i.e., kinetic viscosity and surface tension, as a magnetic fluid used in the present study. The flow regimes from the visualization are used as targets in an ANN and also used in the estimation of the accuracy of the present method. As a result, ANNs using radial basis functions are shown to be the most appropriate for the present classification of flow regimes, leading to small classification errors.

  14. Phase Envelope Calculations for Reservoir Fluids in the Presence of Capillary Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemus, Diego; Yan, Wei; Michelsen, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Newton method is employed to solve the governing equations of the vapor-liquid equilibria coupled with the capillary pressure equation. For a stable and automatic construction of the phase envelope sensitivity analysis is used in each step. The developed algorithm can reliably generate not just...... mixtures in the presence of capillary pressure. The algorithm uses a rigorous equation of state (EoS) model, such as the Soave-Redlich-Kwong EoS, for phase equilibrium, and the Young-Lapace equation for the capillary pressure. The interfacial tension is calculated using a parachor based model. A full...... the bubble and dew point curves but also other quality lines with vapor fractions between 0 and 1. The algorithm has been used to calculate the phase envelopes of binary, multicomponent and reservoir fluid systems for pore radius from 10 to 50 nm. The presence of capillary pressure changes the saturation...

  15. [Progress in Raman spectroscopic measurement of methane hydrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feng; Zhu, Li-hua; Wu, Qiang; Xu, Long-jun

    2009-09-01

    Complex thermodynamics and kinetics problems are involved in the methane hydrate formation and decomposition, and these problems are crucial to understanding the mechanisms of hydrate formation and hydrate decomposition. However, it was difficult to accurately obtain such information due to the difficulty of measurement since methane hydrate is only stable under low temperature and high pressure condition, and until recent years, methane hydrate has been measured in situ using Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectroscopy, a non-destructive and non-invasive technique, is used to study vibrational modes of molecules. Studies of methane hydrate using Raman spectroscopy have been developed over the last decade. The Raman spectra of CH4 in vapor phase and in hydrate phase are presented in this paper. The progress in the research on methane hydrate formation thermodynamics, formation kinetics, decomposition kinetics and decomposition mechanism based on Raman spectroscopic measurements in the laboratory and deep sea are reviewed. Formation thermodynamic studies, including in situ observation of formation condition of methane hydrate, analysis of structure, and determination of hydrate cage occupancy and hydration numbers by using Raman spectroscopy, are emphasized. In the aspect of formation kinetics, research on variation in hydrate cage amount and methane concentration in water during the growth of hydrate using Raman spectroscopy is also introduced. For the methane hydrate decomposition, the investigation associated with decomposition mechanism, the mutative law of cage occupancy ratio and the formulation of decomposition rate in porous media are described. The important aspects for future hydrate research based on Raman spectroscopy are discussed.

  16. Fitness professionals' knowledge and perceptions on hydration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This descriptive study examined the extent of hydration knowledge and fluid intake pattern in people who work within fitness industry. Fourty fitness professionals were asked to complete a questionnaire about their perspectives on hydration, thirst and fluid intake pattern. Water was the most preferred drink before (75.0%), ...

  17. Clinker mineral hydration at reduced relative humidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    1998-01-01

    This report deals with gas phase hydration of pure cement clinker minerals at reduced relative humidities. This is an important subject in relation to modern high performance concrete which may self-desiccate during hydration. In addition the subject has relevance to storage stability where...... prehydration may occur. In the report both theoretical considerations and experimental data are presented. It is suggested that the initiation of hydration during water vapour exposure is nucleation controlled....

  18. Simulation of plasma discharge in liquids: A detailed two-phase fluid approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charchi Aghdam, Ali; Farouk, Tanvir; Reacting Systems; Advanced Energy Research Laboratory Team

    2015-09-01

    Plasma discharge in liquids has gained great attention recently due to its applications in biomedical engineering, fuel processing, and water treatment and so on. Despite the tremendous interest, a comprehensive understanding of the underlying physics still remains limited. In the current work, an attempt is made to present a mathematical multi-physics model to describe the discharge of plasma in liquids. An in-house modeling platform is developed for simulating plasma formation in multiphase fluids. The model resolves a detailed two-phase fluid including viscous effects, surface tension, gravitational forces and electrical body force. All the governing equations are solved for gas and liquid phases. Electric field and charged species equations along with the plasma reaction kinetics are solved to get the charge distribution in the different phases as well as at the gas-liquid interface to obtain the electric body force acting at the interface. By coupling the above sub-models, a comprehensive multi-physics model for plasma discharge in liquids is constructed which is able to capture several physical aspects of the phenomena especially the role of the bubble, its motion and distortion on plasma characteristics.

  19. In-focus electrostatic Zach phase plate imaging for transmission electron microscopy with tunable phase contrast of frozen hydrated biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frindt, Nicole; Oster, Marco; Hettler, Simon; Gamm, Björn; Dieterle, Levin; Kowalsky, Wolfgang; Gerthsen, Dagmar; Schröder, Rasmus R

    2014-02-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of beam sensitive weak-phase objects such as biological cryo samples usually show a very low signal-to-noise ratio. These samples have almost no amplitude contrast and instead structural information is mainly encoded in the phase contrast. To increase the sample contrast in the image, especially for low spatial frequencies, the use of phase plates for close to focus phase contrast enhancement in TEM has long been discussed. Electrostatic phase plates are favorable in particular, as their tunable potential will allow an optimal phase shift adjustment and higher resolution than film phase plates as they avoid additional scattering events in matter. Here we show the first realization of close to focus phase contrast images of actin filament cryo samples acquired using an electrostatic Zach phase plate. Both positive and negative phase contrast is shown, which is obtained by applying appropriate potentials to the phase plate. The dependence of phase contrast improvement on sample orientation with respect to the phase plate is demonstrated and single-sideband artifacts are discussed. Additionally, possibilities to reduce contamination and charging effects of the phase plate are shown.

  20. Observations related to tetrahydrofuran and methane hydrates for laboratory studies of hydrate-bearing sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.Y.; Yun, T.S.; Santamarina, J.C.; Ruppel, C.

    2007-01-01

    The interaction among water molecules, guest gas molecules, salts, and mineral particles determines the nucleation and growth behavior of gas hydrates in natural sediments. Hydrate of tetrahydrofuran (THF) has long been used for laboratory studies of gas hydrate-bearing sediments to provide close control on hydrate concentrations and to overcome the long formation history of methane hydrate from aqueous phase methane in sediments. Yet differences in the polarizability of THF (polar molecule) compared to methane (nonpolar molecule) raise questions about the suitability of THF as a proxy for methane in the study of hydrate-bearing sediments. From existing data and simple macroscale experiments, we show that despite its polar nature, THF's large molecular size results in low permittivity, prevents it from dissolving precipitated salts, and hinders the solvation of ions on dry mineral surfaces. In addition, the interfacial tension between water and THF hydrate is similar to that between water and methane hydrate. The processes that researchers choose for forming hydrate in sediments in laboratory settings (e.g., from gas, liquid, or ice) and the pore-scale distribution of the hydrate that is produced by each of these processes likely have a more pronounced effect on the measured macroscale properties of hydrate-bearing sediments than do differences between THF and methane hydrates themselves.

  1. Lipid bilayers in the gel phase become saturated by triton X-100 at lower surfactant concentrations than those in the fluid phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahyayauch, Hasna; Collado, M Isabel; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Felix M

    2012-06-06

    It has been repeatedly observed that lipid bilayers in the gel phase are solubilized by lower concentrations of Triton X-100, at least within certain temperature ranges, or other nonionic detergents than bilayers in the fluid phase. In a previous study, we showed that detergent partition coefficients into the lipid bilayer were the same for the gel and the fluid phases. In this contribution, turbidity, calorimetry, and 31P-NMR concur in showing that bilayers in the gel state (at least down to 13-20°C below the gel-fluid transition temperature) become saturated with detergent at lower detergent concentrations than those in the fluid state, irrespective of temperature. The different saturation may explain the observed differences in solubilization. Copyright © 2012 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prominin-2 expression increases protrusions, decreases caveolae and inhibits Cdc42 dependent fluid phase endocytosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Raman Deep, E-mail: Takhter.Ramandeep@mayo.edu; Schroeder, Andreas S.; Scheffer, Luana; Holicky, Eileen L.; Wheatley, Christine L.; Marks, David L., E-mail: Marks.david@mayo.edu; Pagano, Richard E.

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Prominin-2 expression induced protrusions that co-localized with lipid raft markers. •Prominin-2 expression decreased caveolae, caveolar endocytosis and increased pCav1. •Prominin-2 expression inhibited fluid phase endocytosis by inactivation of Cdc42. •These endocytic effects can be reversed by adding exogenous cholesterol. •Caveolin1 knockdown restored fluid phase endocytosis in Prominin2 expressing cells. -- Abstract: Background: Membrane protrusions play important roles in biological processes such as cell adhesion, wound healing, migration, and sensing of the external environment. Cell protrusions are a subtype of membrane microdomains composed of cholesterol and sphingolipids, and can be disrupted by cholesterol depletion. Prominins are pentaspan membrane proteins that bind cholesterol and localize to plasma membrane (PM) protrusions. Prominin-1 is of great interest as a marker for stem and cancer cells, while Prominin-2 (Prom2) is reportedly restricted to epithelial cells. Aim: To characterize the effects of Prom-2 expression on PM microdomain organization. Methods: Prom2-fluorescent protein was transfected in human skin fibroblasts (HSF) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells for PM raft and endocytic studies. Caveolae at PM were visualized using transmission electron microscopy. Cdc42 activation was measured and caveolin-1 knockdown was performed using siRNAs. Results: Prom2 expression in HSF and CHO cells caused extensive Prom2-positive protrusions that co-localized with lipid raft markers. Prom2 expression significantly decreased caveolae at the PM, reduced caveolar endocytosis and increased caveolin-1 phosphorylation. Prom2 expression also inhibited Cdc42-dependent fluid phase endocytosis via decreased Cdc42 activation. Effects on endocytosis were reversed by addition of cholesterol. Knockdown of caveolin-1 by siRNA restored Cdc42 dependent fluid phase endocytosis in Prom2-expressing cells. Conclusions: Prom2 protrusions primarily

  3. Natural Gas Hydrates

    OpenAIRE

    Ersland, Geir

    2010-01-01

    The experimental set-up with the MRI monitoring apparatus was capable of forming large quantities of methane hydrates in sandstone pores and monitor hydrate growth patterns for various initial conditions. Spontaneous conversion of methane hydrate to carbon dioxide hydrate occurred when methane hydrate, in porous media, was exposed to liquid carbon dioxide. The MRI images did not detect any significant increase in signal in the hydrate saturated cores that would indicate the presence of free w...

  4. Amplitude and phase of cerebrospinal fluid pulsations: experimental studies and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagshul, Mark E; Chen, John J; Egnor, Michael R; McCormack, Erin J; Roche, Patricia E

    2006-05-01

    A recently developed model of communicating hydrocephalus suggests that ventricular dilation may be related to the redistribution of pulsations in the cranium from the subarachnoid spaces (SASs) into the ventricles. Based on this model, the authors have developed a method for analyzing flow pulsatility in the brain by using the ratio of aqueductal to cervical subarachnoid stroke volume and the phase of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow, which is obtained at multiple locations throughout the cranium, relative to the phase of arterial flow. Flow data were collected in a group of 15 healthy volunteers by using a series of images acquired with cardiac-gated, phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging. The stroke volume ratio was 5.1 +/- 1.8% (mean +/- standard deviation). The phase lag in the aqueduct was -52.5 +/-16.5 degrees and the phase lag in the prepontine cistern was -22.1 +/- 8.2 degrees. The flow phase at the level of C-2 was -5.1 +/- 10.5 degrees, which was consistent with flow synchronous with the arterial pulse. The subarachnoid phase lag ventral to the pons was shown to decrease progressively to zero at the craniocervical junction. Flow in the posterior cervical SAS preceded the anterior space flow. Under normal conditions, pulsatile ventricular CSF flow is a small fraction of the net pulsatile CSF flow in the cranium. A thorough review of the literature supports the view that modified intracranial compliance can lead to redistribution of pulsations and increased intraventricular pulsations. The phase of CSF flow may also reflect the local and global compliance of the brain.

  5. A Well-Posed Two Phase Flow Model and its Numerical Solutions for Reactor Thermal-Fluids Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadioglu, Samet Y. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Berry, Ray [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Martineau, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    A 7-equation two-phase flow model and its numerical implementation is presented for reactor thermal-fluids applications. The equation system is well-posed and treats both phases as compressible flows. The numerical discretization of the equation system is based on the finite element formalism. The numerical algorithm is implemented in the next generation RELAP-7 code (Idaho National Laboratory (INL)’s thermal-fluids code) built on top of an other INL’s product, the massively parallel multi-implicit multi-physics object oriented code environment (MOOSE). Some preliminary thermal-fluids computations are presented.

  6. Rapid purification of diastereoisomers from Piper kadsura using supercritical fluid chromatography with chiral stationary phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Huaxia; Dai, Zhuoshun; Cai, Jianfeng; Ke, Yanxiong; Shi, Hui; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu; Liang, Xinmiao

    2017-08-04

    Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) with chiral stationary phases (CSPs) is an advanced solution for the separation of achiral compounds in Piper kadsura. Analogues and stereoisomers are abundant in natural products, but there are obstacles in separation using conventional method. In this paper, four lignan diastereoisomers, (-)-Galbelgin, (-)-Ganschisandrin, Galgravin and (-)-Veraguensin, from Piper kadsura were separated and purified by chiral SFC. Purification strategy was designed, considering of the compound enrichment, sample purity and purification throughput. Two-step achiral purification method on chiral preparative columns with stacked automated injections was developed. Unconventional mobile phase modifier dichloromethane (DCM) was applied to improve the sample solubility. Four diastereoisomers was prepared at the respective weight of 103.1mg, 10.0mg, 152.3mg and 178.6mg from 710mg extract with the purity of greater than 98%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Liquid phase fluid dynamic (methanol) run in the LaPorte alternative fuels development unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharat L. Bhatt

    1997-05-01

    A fluid dynamic study was successfully completed in a bubble column at DOE's Alternative Fuels Development Unit (AFDU) in LaPorte, Texas. Significant fluid dynamic information was gathered at pilot scale during three weeks of Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOJP) operations in June 1995. In addition to the usual nuclear density and temperature measurements, unique differential pressure data were collected using Sandia's high-speed data acquisition system to gain insight on flow regime characteristics and bubble size distribution. Statistical analysis of the fluctuations in the pressure data suggests that the column was being operated in the churn turbulent regime at most of the velocities considered. Dynamic gas disengagement experiments showed a different behavior than seen in low-pressure, cold-flow work. Operation with a superficial gas velocity of 1.2 ft/sec was achieved during this run, with stable fluid dynamics and catalyst performance. Improvements included for catalyst activation in the design of the Clean Coal III LPMEOH{trademark} plant at Kingsport, Tennessee, were also confirmed. In addition, an alternate catalyst was demonstrated for LPMEOH{trademark}.

  8. CFD simulation of gas and non-Newtonian fluid two-phase flow in anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binxin

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an Eulerian multiphase flow model that characterizes gas mixing in anaerobic digesters. In the model development, liquid manure is assumed to be water or a non-Newtonian fluid that is dependent on total solids (TS) concentration. To establish the appropriate models for different TS levels, twelve turbulence models are evaluated by comparing the frictional pressure drops of gas and non-Newtonian fluid two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with those from a correlation analysis. The commercial CFD software, Fluent12.0, is employed to simulate the multiphase flow in the digesters. The simulation results in a small-sized digester are validated against the experimental data from literature. Comparison of two gas mixing designs in a medium-sized digester demonstrates that mixing intensity is insensitive to the TS in confined gas mixing, whereas there are significant decreases with increases of TS in unconfined gas mixing. Moreover, comparison of three mixing methods indicates that gas mixing is more efficient than mixing by pumped circulation while it is less efficient than mechanical mixing.

  9. Thermodynamic properties of methane hydrate in quartz powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, Vitaly P; Gorodetskii, Evgeny E; Safonov, Sergey S

    2007-10-04

    Using the experimental method of precision adiabatic calorimetry, the thermodynamic (equilibrium) properties of methane hydrate in quartz sand with a grain size of 90-100 microm have been studied in the temperature range of 260-290 K and at pressures up to 10 MPa. The equilibrium curves for the water-methane hydrate-gas and ice-methane hydrate-gas transitions, hydration number, latent heat of hydrate decomposition along the equilibrium three-phase curves, and the specific heat capacity of the hydrate have been obtained. It has been experimentally shown that the equilibrium three-phase curves of the methane hydrate in porous media are shifted to the lower temperature and high pressure with respect to the equilibrium curves of the bulk hydrate. In these experiments, we have found that the specific heat capacity of the hydrate, within the accuracy of our measurements, coincides with the heat capacity of ice. The latent heat of the hydrate dissociation for the ice-hydrate-gas transition is equal to 143 +/- 10 J/g, whereas, for the transition from hydrate to water and gas, the latent heat is 415 +/- 15 J/g. The hydration number has been evaluated in the different hydrate conditions and has been found to be equal to n = 6.16 +/- 0.06. In addition, the influence of the water saturation of the porous media and its distribution over the porous space on the measured parameters has been experimentally studied.

  10. Role of length polydispersity in the phase behavior of freely rotating hard-rectangle fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-De Armas, Ariel; Martínez-Ratón, Yuri

    2017-05-01

    We use the density-functional formalism, in particular the scaled-particle theory, applied to a length-polydisperse hard-rectangle fluid to study its phase behavior as a function of the mean particle aspect ratio κ0 and polydispersity Δ0. The numerical solutions of the coexistence equations are calculated by transforming the original problem with infinite degrees of freedoms to a finite set of equations for the amplitudes of the Fourier expansion of the moments of the density profiles. We divide the study into two parts. The first one is devoted to the calculation of the phase diagrams in the packing fraction η0-κ0 plane for a fixed Δ0 and selecting parent distribution functions with exponential (the Schulz distribution) or Gaussian decays. In the second part we study the phase behavior in the η0-Δ0 plane for fixed κ0 while Δ0 is changed. We characterize in detail the orientational ordering of particles and the fractionation of different species between the coexisting phases. Also we study the character (second vs first order) of the isotropic-nematic phase transition as a function of polydispersity. We particularly focus on the stability of the tetratic phase as a function of κ0 and Δ0. The isotropic-nematic transition becomes strongly of first order when polydispersity is increased: The coexistence gap widens and the location of the tricritical point moves to higher values of κ0 while the tetratic phase is slightly destabilized with respect to the nematic one. The results obtained here can be tested in experiments on shaken monolayers of granular rods.

  11. Hydration for recreational sport and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenefick, Robert W; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2012-11-01

    This review presents recommendations for fluid needs and hydration assessment for recreational activity. Fluid needs are based on sweat losses, dependent on intensity and duration of the activity, and will vary among individuals. Prolonged aerobic activity is adversely influenced by dehydration, and heat exposure will magnify this effect. Fluid needs predicted for running 5-42 km at recreational paces show that fluid losses are sport drinks, gels, bars) can benefit high-intensity (≤ 1 h) and less-intense, long-duration activity (≥ 1 h). Spot measures of urine color or urine-specific gravity to assess hydration status have limitations. First morning urine concentration and body mass with gross thirst perception can be simple ways to assess hydration status. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  12. Numerical analysis of wellbore instability in gas hydrate formation during deep-water drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaiwen; Cheng, Yuanfang; Li, Qingchao; Yan, Chuanliang; Han, Xiuting

    2018-02-01

    Gas hydrate formation may be encountered during deep-water drilling because of the large amount and wide distribution of gas hydrates under the shallow seabed of the South China Sea. Hydrates are extremely sensitive to temperature and pressure changes, and drilling through gas hydrate formation may cause dissociation of hydrates, accompanied by changes in wellbore temperatures, pore pressures, and stress states, thereby leading to wellbore plastic yield and wellbore instability. Considering the coupling effect of seepage of drilling fluid into gas hydrate formation, heat conduction between drilling fluid and formation, hydrate dissociation, and transformation of the formation framework, this study established a multi-field coupling mathematical model of the wellbore in the hydrate formation. Furthermore, the influences of drilling fluid temperatures, densities, and soaking time on the instability of hydrate formation were calculated and analyzed. Results show that the greater the temperature difference between the drilling fluid and hydrate formation is, the faster the hydrate dissociates, the wider the plastic dissociation range is, and the greater the failure width becomes. When the temperature difference is greater than 7°C, the maximum rate of plastic deformation around the wellbore is more than 10%, which is along the direction of the minimum horizontal in-situ stress and associated with instability and damage on the surrounding rock. The hydrate dissociation is insensitive to the variation of drilling fluid density, thereby implying that the change of the density of drilling fluids has a minimal effect on the hydrate dissociation. Drilling fluids that are absorbed into the hydrate formation result in fast dissociation at the initial stage. As time elapses, the hydrate dissociation slows down, but the risk of wellbore instability is aggravated due to the prolonged submersion in drilling fluids. For the sake of the stability of the wellbore in deep

  13. An equivalent ground thermal test method for single-phase fluid loop space radiator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwen Ning

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermal vacuum test is widely used for the ground validation of spacecraft thermal control system. However, the conduction and convection can be simulated in normal ground pressure environment completely. By the employment of pumped fluid loops’ thermal control technology on spacecraft, conduction and convection become the main heat transfer behavior between radiator and inside cabin. As long as the heat transfer behavior between radiator and outer space can be equivalently simulated in normal pressure, the thermal vacuum test can be substituted by the normal ground pressure thermal test. In this paper, an equivalent normal pressure thermal test method for the spacecraft single-phase fluid loop radiator is proposed. The heat radiation between radiator and outer space has been equivalently simulated by combination of a group of refrigerators and thermal electrical cooler (TEC array. By adjusting the heat rejection of each device, the relationship between heat flux and surface temperature of the radiator can be maintained. To verify this method, a validating system has been built up and the experiments have been carried out. The results indicate that the proposed equivalent ground thermal test method can simulate the heat rejection performance of radiator correctly and the temperature error between in-orbit theory value and experiment result of the radiator is less than 0.5 °C, except for the equipment startup period. This provides a potential method for the thermal test of space systems especially for extra-large spacecraft which employs single-phase fluid loop radiator as thermal control approach.

  14. Reservoir condition pore-scale imaging of multiple fluid phases using X-ray microtomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Matthew; Bijeljic, Branko; Blunt, Martin

    2015-02-25

    X-ray microtomography was used to image, at a resolution of 6.6 µm, the pore-scale arrangement of residual carbon dioxide ganglia in the pore-space of a carbonate rock at pressures and temperatures representative of typical formations used for CO2 storage. Chemical equilibrium between the CO2, brine and rock phases was maintained using a high pressure high temperature reactor, replicating conditions far away from the injection site. Fluid flow was controlled using high pressure high temperature syringe pumps. To maintain representative in-situ conditions within the micro-CT scanner a carbon fiber high pressure micro-CT coreholder was used. Diffusive CO2 exchange across the confining sleeve from the pore-space of the rock to the confining fluid was prevented by surrounding the core with a triple wrap of aluminum foil. Reconstructed brine contrast was modeled using a polychromatic x-ray source, and brine composition was chosen to maximize the three phase contrast between the two fluids and the rock. Flexible flow lines were used to reduce forces on the sample during image acquisition, potentially causing unwanted sample motion, a major shortcoming in previous techniques. An internal thermocouple, placed directly adjacent to the rock core, coupled with an external flexible heating wrap and a PID controller was used to maintain a constant temperature within the flow cell. Substantial amounts of CO2 were trapped, with a residual saturation of 0.203±0.013, and the sizes of larger volume ganglia obey power law distributions, consistent with percolation theory.

  15. Preparation, characterization, and thermal properties of the microencapsulation of a hydrated salt as phase change energy storage materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jin, E-mail: huangjiner@126.com [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, 510006 Guangzhou (China); Wang, Tingyu; Zhu, Panpan; Xiao, Junbin [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, 510006 Guangzhou (China)

    2013-04-10

    Highlights: ► Phase change point and fusion heat of samples are about 51 °Cand 150 J/g respectively. ► DSC results indicated the core material is not Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}·12H{sub 2}O but Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}·7H{sub 2}O. ► Encapsulation takes a significant role in reducing subcooling degree. - Abstract: Microcapsules loaded by disodium hydrogen phosphate heptahydrate (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}·7H{sub 2}O) were prepared by means of the suspension copolymerization-solvent volatile method, with modified polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as coating polymer under the conditions of various organic solvents. The formation of the microencapsulated phase change materials (MEPCMs)-PMMA/Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}·7H{sub 2}O was investigated and analyzed. The morphology of the resultant materials was characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and phase contrast microscope. Its final composition was confirmed by the Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR). Thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were adopted to reveal its thermal stability and thermal properties. Results indicated that the materials owned improved subcooling degree and good thermal properties, enabling the materials to be one promising phase change materials for thermal energy storage.

  16. Kinetics of formation and dissociation of gas hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manakov, A. Yu; Penkov, N. V.; Rodionova, T. V.; Nesterov, A. N.; Fesenko, E. E., Jr.

    2017-09-01

    The review covers a wide range of issues related to the nucleation, growth and dissociation of gas hydrates. The attention is focused on publications of the last 10-15 years. Along with the mathematical models used to describe these processes, the results of relevant experimental studies are surveyed. Particular sections are devoted to the gas hydrate self-preservation effect, the water memory effect in the hydrate formation, development of catalysts for hydrate formation and the effect of substances dissolved in the aqueous phase on the formation of hydrates. The main experimental techniques used to study gas hydrates are briefly considered. The bibliography includes 230 references.

  17. Complex admixtures of clathrate hydrates in a water desalination method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Blake A [San Francisco, CA; Bradshaw, Robert W [Livermore, CA; Dedrick, Daniel E [Berkeley, CA; Anderson, David W [Riverbank, CA

    2009-07-14

    Disclosed is a method that achieves water desalination by utilizing and optimizing clathrate hydrate phenomena. Clathrate hydrates are crystalline compounds of gas and water that desalinate water by excluding salt molecules during crystallization. Contacting a hydrate forming gaseous species with water will spontaneously form hydrates at specific temperatures and pressures through the extraction of water molecules from the bulk phase followed by crystallite nucleation. Subsequent dissociation of pure hydrates yields fresh water and, if operated correctly, allows the hydrate-forming gas to be efficiently recycled into the process stream.

  18. Modeling two-phase flow of immiscible fluids in porous media: Buckley-Leverett theory with explicit coupling terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, Sylvain; Quintard, Michel; Davit, Yohan

    2017-10-01

    Continuum models that describe two-phase flow of immiscible fluids in porous media often treat momentum exchange between the two phases by simply generalizing the single-phase Darcy law and introducing saturation-dependent permeabilities. Here we study models of creeping flows that include an explicit coupling between both phases via the addition of cross terms in the generalized Darcy law. Using an extension of the Buckley-Leverett theory, we analyze the impact of these cross terms on saturation profiles and pressure drops for different couples of fluids and closure relations of the effective parameters. We show that these cross terms in the macroscale models may significantly impact the flow compared to results obtained with the generalized Darcy laws without cross terms. Analytical solutions, validated against experimental data, suggest that the effect of this coupling on the dynamics of saturation fronts and the steady-state profiles is very sensitive to gravitational effects, the ratio of viscosity between the two phases, and the permeability. Our results indicate that the effects of momentum exchange on two-phase flow may increase with the permeability of the porous medium when the influence of the fluid-fluid interfaces become similar to that of the solid-fluid interfaces.

  19. In children requiring intravenous fluid for hydration maintenance, which out of hypotonic saline and isotonic saline is less likely to result in the development of hyponatraemia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Michael Ma; Tantsis, Esther M; Ging, Joanne M

    2017-03-01

    The administration of intravenous fluids remains a common intervention for hospitalised children. Commonly used hypotonic fluids administered at maintenance rates provide 2-4 mmol/kg/day of sodium. Being hypotonic, the development of hyponatraemia remains a risk. The consequences of hyponatraemia are not insignificant, with possibilities of irreversible neurological morbidity and mortality. There is currently no clear consensus on the optimal composition of fluids to be used for intravenous rehydration. A review of the available literature suggests that children who receive isotonic fluid have a lower risk of developing hyponatraemia, regardless of the rate of administration. This result is most applicable in the first 24 h of administration in a wide age group of paediatric patients with varying severities of illness. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  20. Phase behavior of coal fluids: Data for correlation development. Report for the period October 15, 1989--January 15, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, R.L. Jr.

    1990-02-06

    The effective design and operation of processes for conversion of coal to fluid fuels requires accurate knowledge of the phase behavior of the fluid mixtures encountered in the conversion process. Multiple phases are present in essentially all stages of feed preparation, conversion reactions and product separation; thus, knowledge of the behavior of these multiple phases is important in each step. The overall objective of the author`s work is to develop accurate predictive methods for representation of vapor-liquid equilibria in systems encountered in coal conversion processes. 59 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Phase II trial of isotonic fluid resuscitation in Kenyan children with severe malnutrition and hypovolaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boga Mwanamvua

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with severe malnutrition who develop shock have a high mortality. Contrary to contemporaneous paediatric practice, current guidelines recommend use of low dose hypotonic fluid resuscitation (half-strength Darrows/5% dextrose (HSD/5D. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of this guideline compared to resuscitation with a standard isotonic solution. Methods A Phase II randomised controlled, safety and efficacy trial in Kenyan children aged over 6 months with severe malnutrition and shock including children with severe dehydration/shock and presumptive septic shock (non-diarrhoeal shock. Eligible children were randomised to HSD/5D or Ringer's Lactate (RL. A maximum of two boluses of 15 ml/kg of HSD/5D were given over two hours (as recommended by guidelines while those randomised to RL received 10 ml/kg aliquots half hourly (maximum 40 ml/kg. Primary endpoint was resolution of shock at 8 and 24 hours. Secondary outcomes included resolution of acidosis, adverse events and mortality. Results 61 children were enrolled: 41 had shock and severe dehydrating diarrhoea, 20 had presumptive septic shock; 69% had decompensated shock. By 8 hours response to volume resuscitation was poor with shock persisting in most children:-HSD/5D 15/22 (68% and RL14/25 (52%, p = 0.39. Oliguria was more prevalent at 8 hours in the HSD/5D group, 9/22 (41%, compared to RL-3/25 (12%, p = 0.02. Mortality was high, HSD/5D-15/26(58% and RL 13/29(45%; p = 0.42. Most deaths occurred within 48 hours of admission. Neither pulmonary oedema nor cardiogenic failure was detected. Conclusions Outcome was universally poor characterised by persistence of shock, oliguria and high case fatality. Isotonic fluid was associated with modest improvement in shock and survival when compared to HSD/5D but inconclusive due to the limitations of design and effectiveness of either resuscitation strategy. Although isotonic fluid resuscitation did not result in cardiogenic heart

  2. Experimental investigation of gas hydrate formation, plugging and transportability in partially dispersed and water continuous systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayamohan, Prithvi

    As oil/gas subsea fields mature, the amount of water produced increases significantly due to the production methods employed to enhance the recovery of oil. This is true especially in the case of oil reservoirs. This increase in the water hold up increases the risk of hydrate plug formation in the pipelines, thereby resulting in higher inhibition cost strategies. A major industry concern is to reduce the severe safety risks associated with hydrate plug formation, and significantly extending subsea tieback distances by providing a cost effective flow assurance management/safety tool for mature fields. Developing fundamental understanding of the key mechanistic steps towards hydrate plug formation for different multiphase flow conditions is a key challenge to the flow assurance community. Such understanding can ultimately provide new insight and hydrate management guidelines to diminish the safety risks due to hydrate formation and accumulation in deepwater flowlines and facilities. The transportability of hydrates in pipelines is a function of the operating parameters, such as temperature, pressure, fluid mixture velocity, liquid loading, and fluid system characteristics. Specifically, the hydrate formation rate and plugging onset characteristics can be significantly different for water continuous, oil continuous, and partially dispersed systems. The latter is defined as a system containing oil/gas/water, where the water is present both as a free phase and partially dispersed in the oil phase (i.e., entrained water in the oil). Since hydrate formation from oil dispersed in water systems and partially dispersed water systems is an area which is poorly understood, this thesis aims to address some key questions in these systems. Selected experiments have been performed at the University of Tulsa flowloop to study the hydrate formation and plugging characteristics for the partially dispersed water/oil/gas systems as well as systems where the oil is completely dispersed

  3. Gas hydrate occurrence and Morpho-structures along Chilean margin

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas Cordero, Ivan De La Cruz

    2009-01-01

    2007/2008 During the last decades, the scientific community spent many efforts to study the gas hydrates in oceanic and permafrost environments. In fact, the gas hydrate occurrence has a global significance because of the potential energy resource represented by the large amount of hydrocarbon trapped in the hydrate phase. Moreover, it may play a role in global climate change, and it is also study because of the hazard that accumulations of gas hydrate may cause to drilling and seabed inst...

  4. Development of individual hydration strategies for athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, Ronald J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2008-10-01

    Athletes are encouraged to begin exercise well hydrated and to consume sufficient amounts of appropriate fluids during exercise to limit water and salt deficits. Available evidence suggests that many athletes begin exercise already dehydrated to some degree, and although most fail to drink enough to match sweat losses, some drink too much and a few develop hyponatremia. Some simple advice can help athletes assess their hydration status and develop a personalized hydration strategy that takes account of exercise, environment, and individual needs. Preexercise hydration status can be assessed from urine frequency and volume, with additional information from urine color, specific gravity, or osmolality. Change in hydration during exercise can be estimated from the change in body mass that occurs during a bout of exercise. Sweat rate can be estimated if fluid intake and urinary losses are also measured. Sweat salt losses can be determined by collection and analysis of sweat samples, but athletes losing large amounts of salt are likely to be aware of the taste of salt in sweat and the development of salt crusts on skin and clothing where sweat has evaporated. An appropriate drinking strategy will take account of preexercise hydration status and of fluid, electrolyte, and substrate needs before, during, and after a period of exercise. Strategies will vary greatly between individuals and will also be influenced by environmental conditions, competition regulations, and other factors.

  5. Modeling Temperature Development of Li-ion Battery Packs using Phase Change Materials (PCM) and Fluid Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coman, Paul Tiberiu; Veje, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model for simulating the heat generation and the impact of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) on the maximum temperature in LiFePO4 battery cells. The model is constructed by coupling a one-dimensional electro-chemical model with a two-dimensional thermal model and fluid...... flow model in a battery pack array. Two different physics are analysed and compared, one when the heat equation is considered for the PCM (no-flow case) and another one when fluid flow is considered. The results show that by using PCMs, the maximum temperature drops considerably for both physics....... The temperature differences between the two cases is insignificant, with the observation that by adding fluid flow, the phases mixture is more uniform. Moreover, by using fluid flow, the calculation time increases excessively due to the high non-linearity....

  6. Fluid-phase endocytosis does not contribute to rapid fluid secretion in the malpighian tubules of the house cricket, Acheta domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelton, S Renee; Spring, Jeffrey H; Felgenhauer, Bruce E

    2002-01-01

    When the Malpighian tubules (Mt) of the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) are treated with dibutyryl adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (db-cAMP; 1 mM), which causes a doubling in secretion rate, more than 50% of the cell volume is occupied by vesicles within 420 sec of exposure. In view of the fact that the increase in vesiculation occurs concomitantly with stimulated fluid transport, we set out to determine whether the vesicles are formed as a result of fluid-phase endocytosis (pinocytosis) and subsequently used to transport fluid to the lumen as one means of increasing transport rate. We used fluorescent fluid-phase markers (Lucifer Yellow Carbohydrazide [LYCH] and Alexa 488 hydrazide) and an electron dense marker (cationized ferritin) to elucidate the degree of endocytosis that occurred with db-cAMP stimulation. We found that, although some fluid is taken into the cells of the mid-tubule via endocytosis, it does not coincide with the level of vacuolation present in stimulated tubules. The amount of LYCH transported into the primary urine by the db-cAMP-stimulated Mt decreased by 40% as compared to the unstimulated transport, and the rate of transport of LYCH was only 30% of the unstimulated tubules. In summary, our findings do not support the theory that the majority of the vesicles or vacuoles comprise intracellular, endocytotic compartments formed via a basolateral endocytotic pathway. We also found no evidence to support the functioning of vesicles or vacuoles as transcellular "shuttling" mechanisms to move fluid from the basal region to the apical membrane and into the lumen. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Fully-implicit orthogonal reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin method for fluid dynamics with phase change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourgaliev, R.; Luo, H.; Weston, B.; Anderson, A.; Schofield, S.; Dunn, T.; Delplanque, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    A new reconstructed Discontinuous Galerkin (rDG) method, based on orthogonal basis/test functions, is developed for fluid flows on unstructured meshes. Orthogonality of basis functions is essential for enabling robust and efficient fully-implicit Newton-Krylov based time integration. The method is designed for generic partial differential equations, including transient, hyperbolic, parabolic or elliptic operators, which are attributed to many multiphysics problems. We demonstrate the method's capabilities for solving compressible fluid-solid systems (in the low Mach number limit), with phase change (melting/solidification), as motivated by applications in Additive Manufacturing (AM). We focus on the method's accuracy (in both space and time), as well as robustness and solvability of the system of linear equations involved in the linearization steps of Newton-based methods. The performance of the developed method is investigated for highly-stiff problems with melting/solidification, emphasizing the advantages from tight coupling of mass, momentum and energy conservation equations, as well as orthogonality of basis functions, which leads to better conditioning of the underlying (approximate) Jacobian matrices, and rapid convergence of the Krylov-based linear solver.

  8. Hydration recommendations for sport 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montain, Scott J

    2008-01-01

    Fluid replacement remains an important strategy for preserving exercise performance as dehydration in excess of 2% of body weight consistently impairs aerobic exercise performance. Too much of a good thing, however, can have negative health consequences as persistent drinking in excess of sweating rate can induce symptomatic exercise associated hyponatremia. This short review highlights new position stands and/or policy statements regarding fluid replacement for sport, evidence that laboratory findings translate to team sport performance, and current hydration practices of athletes. It is culminated with practical strategies for drinking appropriately during physical activity.

  9. Controls on Gas Hydrate Formation and Dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miriam Kastner; Ian MacDonald

    2006-03-03

    The main objectives of the project were to monitor, characterize, and quantify in situ the rates of formation and dissociation of methane hydrates at and near the seafloor in the northern Gulf of Mexico, with a focus on the Bush Hill seafloor hydrate mound; to record the linkages between physical and chemical parameters of the deposits over the course of one year, by emphasizing the response of the hydrate mound to temperature and chemical perturbations; and to document the seafloor and water column environmental impacts of hydrate formation and dissociation. For these, monitoring the dynamics of gas hydrate formation and dissociation was required. The objectives were achieved by an integrated field and laboratory scientific study, particularly by monitoring in situ formation and dissociation of the outcropping gas hydrate mound and of the associated gas-rich sediments. In addition to monitoring with the MOSQUITOs, fluid flow rates and temperature, continuously sampling in situ pore fluids for the chemistry, and imaging the hydrate mound, pore fluids from cores, peepers and gas hydrate samples from the mound were as well sampled and analyzed for chemical and isotopic compositions. In order to determine the impact of gas hydrate dissociation and/or methane venting across the seafloor on the ocean and atmosphere, the overlying seawater was sampled and thoroughly analyzed chemically and for methane C isotope ratios. At Bush hill the pore fluid chemistry varies significantly over short distances as well as within some of the specific sites monitored for 440 days, and gas venting is primarily focused. The pore fluid chemistry in the tub-warm and mussel shell fields clearly documented active gas hydrate and authigenic carbonate formation during the monitoring period. The advecting fluid is depleted in sulfate, Ca Mg, and Sr and is rich in methane; at the main vent sites the fluid is methane supersaturated, thus bubble plumes form. The subsurface hydrology exhibits both

  10. High-pressure fluid-phase equilibria: Experimental methods and systems investigated (2000-2004)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohrn, Ralf; Peper, Stephanie; Fonseca, José

    2010-01-01

    , and the experimental method used for the measurements are given in 54 tables. Most of experimental data in the literature have been given for binary systems. Of the 1204 binary systems, 681 (57%) have carbon dioxide as one of the components. Information on 156 pure components, 451 ternary systems of which 267 (62......As a part of a series of reviews, a compilation of systems for which high-pressure phase-equilibrium data were published between 2000 and 2004 is given. Vapor-liquid equilibria, liquid-liquid equilibria, vapor-liquid-liquid equilibria,solid-liquid equilibria, solid-vapor equilibria, solid......-vapor-liquid equilibria, critical points, the solubility of high-boiling substances in supercritical fluids, the solubility of gases in liquids and the solubility (sorption) of volatile components in polymers are included. For the systems investigated, the reference, the temperature and pressure range of the data...

  11. Hemodynamic analysis of intracranial aneurysms using phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging and computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuemei; Li, Rui; Chen, Yu; Sia, Sheau Fung; Li, Donghai; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Aihua

    2017-04-01

    Additional hemodynamic parameters are highly desirable in the clinical management of intracranial aneurysm rupture as static medical images cannot demonstrate the blood flow within aneurysms. There are two ways of obtaining the hemodynamic information—by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PCMRI) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In this paper, we compared PCMRI and CFD in the analysis of a stable patient's specific aneurysm. The results showed that PCMRI and CFD are in good agreement with each other. An additional CFD study of two stable and two ruptured aneurysms revealed that ruptured aneurysms have a higher statistical average blood velocity, wall shear stress, and oscillatory shear index (OSI) within the aneurysm sac compared to those of stable aneurysms. Furthermore, for ruptured aneurysms, the OSI divides the positive and negative wall shear stress divergence at the aneurysm sac.

  12. Phase Equilibrium Calculations for Multi-Component Polar Fluid Mixtures with tPC-PSAFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakatsani, Eirini; Economou, Ioannis

    2007-01-01

    to most other SAFT versions, tPC-PSAFT accounts explicitly for polar forces. Three pure-component parameters are required for non-polar and non-associating compounds, two additional parameters characterize the association contribution and one parameter is needed to account for polar interactions......The truncated Perturbed-Chain Polar Statistical Associating Fluid Theory (tPC-PSAFT) is applied to a number of different mixtures, including binary, ternary and quaternary mixtures of components that differ substantially in terms of intermolecular interactions and molecular size. In contrast....... The experimental dipole and/or quadrupole moment and/or polarizability of the component are used to calculate polar interactions. Using a temperature-independent interaction parameter kij for each binary system, tPC-PSAFT provides accurate prediction of multi-component phase behavior over a wide range...

  13. Phase transformations in liquids and the liquid–gas transition in fluids at supercritical pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhkin, V. V.

    2017-12-01

    It is an experimental fact that in the neighborhood of melting curves, including those measured at above-critical pressures and temperatures, all fluids have some short- and intermediate-range order and their excitation spectra contain high-frequency transverse waves. At high pressure, both smooth and sharp first-order phase transitions involving changes in the liquid structure and properties can occur between various liquid states. However, at sufficiently high temperatures, any liquid loses its identity and turns into an unstructured dense gas in which only longitudinal waves can propagate. We discuss theoretical and experimental evidence for the existence of a boundary between a ‘solid-like’ melt and a dense gas at supercritical pressures.

  14. Thermophysical Properties and Phase Behavior of Fluids for Application in Carbon Capture and Storage Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusler, J P Martin

    2017-06-07

    Phase behavior and thermophysical properties of mixtures of carbon dioxide with various other substances are very important for the design and operation of carbon capture and storage (CCS) processes. The available empirical data are reviewed, together with some models for the calculation of these properties. The systems considered in detail are, first, mixtures of carbon dioxide, water, and salts; second, carbon dioxide-rich nonelectrolyte mixtures; and third, mixtures of carbon dioxide with water and amines. The empirical data and the plethora of available models permit the estimation of key fluid properties required in the design and operation of CCS processes. The engineering community would benefit from the further development, and delivery in convenient form, of a small number of these models sufficient to encompass the component slate and operating conditions of CCS processes.

  15. Entrapment of Hydrate-coated Gas Bubbles into Oil and Separation of Gas and Hydrate-film; Seafloor Experiments with ROV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiruta, A.; Matsumoto, R.

    2015-12-01

    We trapped gas bubbles emitted from the seafloor into oil-containing collector and observed an unique phenomena. Gas hydrate formation needs water for the crystal lattice; however, gas hydrates in some areas are associated with hydrophobic crude oil or asphalt. In order to understand gas hydrate growth in oil-bearing sediments, an experiment with cooking oil was made at gas hydrate stability condition. We collected venting gas bubbles into a collector with canola oil during ROV survey at a gas hydrate area in the eastern margin of the Sea of Japan. When the gas bubbles were trapped into collector with oil, gas phase appeared above the oil and gas hydrates, between oil and gas phase. At this study area within gas hydrate stability condition, control experiment with oil-free collector suggested that gas bubbles emitted from the seafloor were quickly covered with gas hydrate film. Therefore it is improbable that gas bubbles entered into the oil phase before hydrate skin formation. After the gas phase formation in oil-containing collector, the ROV floated outside of hydrate stability condition for gas hydrate dissociation and re-dived to the venting site. During the re-dive within hydrate stability condition, gas hydrate was not formed. The result suggests that moisture in the oil is not enough for hydrate formation. Therefore gas hydrates that appeared at the oil/gas phase boundary were already formed before bubbles enter into the oil. Hydrate film is the only possible origin. This observation suggests that hydrate film coating gas hydrate was broken at the sea water/oil boundary or inside oil. Further experiments may contribute for revealing kinetics of hydrate film and formation. This work was a part of METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry)'s project entitled "FY2014 Promoting research and development of methane hydrate". We also appreciate support of AIST (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology).

  16. Influence of the pore fluid on the phase velocity in bovine trabecular bone In Vitro: Prediction of the biot model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Il

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the influence of the pore fluid on the phase velocity in bovine trabecular bone in vitro. The frequency-dependent phase velocity was measured in 20 marrow-filled and water-filled bovine femoral trabecular bone samples. The mean phase velocities at frequencies between 0.6 and 1.2 MHz exhibited significant negative dispersions for both the marrow-filled and the water-filled samples. The magnitudes of the dispersions showed no significant differences between the marrow-filled and the water-filled samples. In contrast, replacement of marrow by water led to a mean increase in the phase velocity of 27 m/s at frequencies from 0.6 to 1.2 MHz. The theoretical phase velocities of the fast wave predicted by using the Biot model for elastic wave propagation in fluid-saturated porous media showed good agreements with the measurements.

  17. Evaluation of two-phase flow solvers using Level Set and Volume of Fluid methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilger, C.; Aboukhedr, M.; Vogiatzaki, K.; Cant, R. S.

    2017-09-01

    Two principal methods have been used to simulate the evolution of two-phase immiscible flows of liquid and gas separated by an interface. These are the Level-Set (LS) method and the Volume of Fluid (VoF) method. Both methods attempt to represent the very sharp interface between the phases and to deal with the large jumps in physical properties associated with it. Both methods have their own strengths and weaknesses. For example, the VoF method is known to be prone to excessive numerical diffusion, while the basic LS method has some difficulty in conserving mass. Major progress has been made in remedying these deficiencies, and both methods have now reached a high level of physical accuracy. Nevertheless, there remains an issue, in that each of these methods has been developed by different research groups, using different codes and most importantly the implementations have been fine tuned to tackle different applications. Thus, it remains unclear what are the remaining advantages and drawbacks of each method relative to the other, and what might be the optimal way to unify them. In this paper, we address this gap by performing a direct comparison of two current state-of-the-art variations of these methods (LS: RCLSFoam and VoF: interPore) and implemented in the same code (OpenFoam). We subject both methods to a pair of benchmark test cases while using the same numerical meshes to examine a) the accuracy of curvature representation, b) the effect of tuning parameters, c) the ability to minimise spurious velocities and d) the ability to tackle fluids with very different densities. For each method, one of the test cases is chosen to be fairly benign while the other test case is expected to present a greater challenge. The results indicate that both methods can be made to work well on both test cases, while displaying different sensitivity to the relevant parameters.

  18. Prominin-2 expression increases protrusions, decreases caveolae and inhibits Cdc42 dependent fluid phase endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman Deep; Schroeder, Andreas S.; Scheffer, Luana; Holicky, Eileen L.; Wheatley, Christine L.; Marks, David L.; Pagano, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Membrane protrusions play important roles in biological processes such as cell adhesion, wound healing, migration, and sensing of the external environment. Cell protrusions are subtype of membrane microdomains composed of cholesterol and sphingolipids, and can be disrupted by cholesterol depletion. Prominins are pentaspan membrane proteins that bind cholesterol and localize to plasma membrane (PM) protrusions. Prominin-1 is of great interest as a marker for stem and cancer cells, while Prominin-2 (Prom2) is reportedly restricted to epithelial cells. Aim To characterize the effects of Prom-2 expression on PM microdomain organization. Methods Prom2-fluorescent protein was transfected in human skin fibroblasts (HSF) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells for PM raft and endocytic studies. Caveolae at PM were visualized using transmission electron microscopy. Cdc42 activation was measured and caveolin-1 knockdown was performed using siRNAs. Results Prom2 expression in HSF and CHO cells caused extensive Prom2-positive protrusions that co-localized with lipid raft markers. Prom2 expression significantly decreased caveolae at the PM, reduced caveolar endocytosis and increased caveolin-1 phosphorylation. Prom2 expression also inhibited Cdc42-dependent fluid phase endocytosis via decreased Cdc42 activation. Effects on endocytosis were reversed by addition of cholesterol. Knockdown of caveolin-1 by siRNA restored Cdc42 dependent fluid phase endocytosis in Prom2-expressing cells. Conclusion Prom2 protrusions primarily localize to lipid rafts and recruit cholesterol into protrusions and away from caveolae, leading to increased phosphorylation of caveolin-1, which inhibits Cdc42-dependent endocytosis. This study provides a new insight for the role for prominins in the regulation of PM lipid organization. PMID:23583380

  19. Dynamics of mineral crystallization from precipitated slab-derived fluid phase: first in situ synchrotron X-ray measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaspina, Nadia; Alvaro, Matteo; Campione, Marcello; Wilhelm, Heribert; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2015-03-01

    Remnants of the fluid phase at ultrahigh pressure (UHP) in subduction environments may be preserved as primary multiphase inclusions in UHP minerals. The mode of crystallization of daughter minerals during precipitation within the inclusion and/or the mechanism of interaction between the fluid at supercritical conditions and the host mineral are still poorly understood from a crystallographic point of view. A case study is represented by garnet-orthopyroxenites from the Maowu Ultramafic Complex (China) deriving from harzburgite precursors metasomatized at ~4 GPa, 750 °C by a silica- and incompatible trace element-rich fluid phase. This metasomatism produced poikilitic orthopyroxene and inclusion-rich garnet porphyroblasts. Solid multiphase primary inclusions in garnet display a size within a few tens of micrometres and negative crystal shapes. Infilling minerals (spinel: 10-20 vol%; amphibole, chlorite, talc, mica: 80-90 vol%) occur with constant volume proportions and derive from trapped solute-rich aqueous fluids. To constrain the possible mode of precipitation of daughter minerals, we performed for the first time a single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment by synchrotron radiation at Diamond Light Source. In combination with electron probe microanalyses, this measurement allowed the unique identification of each mineral phase and reciprocal orientations. We demonstrated the epitaxial relationship between spinel and garnet and between some hydrous minerals. Such information is discussed in relation to the physico-chemical aspects of nucleation and growth, shedding light on the mode of mineral crystallization from a fluid phase trapped at supercritical conditions.

  20. Interplay of phase separation, tail aggregation, and micelle formation in the nanostructured organization of hydrated imidazolium ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramya, K R; Kumar, Praveen; Kumar, Ashish; Venkatnathan, Arun

    2014-07-24

    A molecular investigation on the effect of water on structural properties of imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) is essential due to its various industrial applications. In this work, we employ molecular dynamics simulations to characterize the influence of various water concentrations on nanostructural properties of the 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [Hmim][NTf2] IL. An examination of molecular interactions in [Hmim][NTf2] IL-water mixtures shows the following trends: (a) At low water concentration, small regions of water molecules are surrounded by several cation-anion pairs. (b) At medium water concentration, cation tail aggregation starts, and phase separation between the IL and water is observed. (c) At high water concentration, increasing cationic tail aggregation leads to micelle formation. Further aggregates of cations and anions are solvated by large water channels. The radial distribution functions show that cation-anion, cation-cation, and anion-anion interactions decrease and water-water interaction increases with water concentration. The hydrogen bonding interactions occur between the acidic hydrogen of the positively charged imidazolium cation with the nitrogen and oxygen atoms of the anions. However, no hydrogen bonding interactions are seen between water molecules and the hydrophobic anions.

  1. A Two-Phase Flow Solver for Incompressible Viscous Fluids, Using a Pure Streamfunction Formulation and the Volume of Fluid Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    of the flow. Contrary to fractional step methods, the streamfunction formulation eliminates the pressure unknowns, and automatically fulfills the incompressibility constraint by construction. As a result, the method circumvents the loss of temporal accuracy at low Reynolds numbers. The interface is tracked......Accurate multi-phase flow solvers at low Reynolds number are of particular interest for the simulation of interface instabilities in the co-processing of multilayered material. We present a two-phase flow solver for incompressible viscous fluids which uses the streamfunction as the primary variable...

  2. A Two-Phase Flow Solver for Incompressible Viscous Fluids, Using a Pure Streamfunction Formulation and the Volume of Fluid Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comminal, Raphaël; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2014-01-01

    of the flow. Contrary to fractional step methods, the streamfunction formulation eliminates the pressure unknowns, and automatically fulfills the incompressibility constraint by construction. As a result, the method circumvents the loss of temporal accuracy at low Reynolds numbers. The interface is tracked......Accurate multi-phase flow solvers at low Reynolds number are of particular interest for the simulation of interface instabilities in the co-processing of multilayered material. We present a two-phase flow solver for incompressible viscous fluids which uses the streamfunction as the primary variable...

  3. MODIFIED CHOKE FLOW CRITERION FOR THE TWO-PHASE TWO-FLUID MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suneet Singh; Vincent A. Mousseau

    2009-05-01

    A choked condition exists when mass flow rate becomes independent of the downstream conditions. In other words, no information can propagate in the upstream direction under this condition. The real part of the solution of the characteristic equation for the model represents velocity of the signal propagation and the imaginary part is the growth (or decay) rate of that signal. Therefore, if the real part of these eigenvalues is positive then no signal propagates in the upstream direction (choosing downstream direction to be the positive direction) resulting in the choke flow. In order to develop the choke criterion, a non-dimensional form of the characteristic equation is derived for the standard two-phase two-fluid model. The equation is in the terms of a slip Mach number Ms. It can be shown that the slip Mach number is small for many applications including nuclear reactor safety simulations. The eigenvalues of the characteristic equation are obtained as a power series expansion about the point Ms = 0. These eigenvalues are used to develop a choking criterion for the compressible two-phase flows.

  4. Some numerical methods for two-fluid two-phase flows in oil pipes; Quelques methodes numeriques pour les ecoulements diphasiques bi-fluide en conduites petrolieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masella, J.M.

    1997-05-29

    This thesis is devoted to the numerical simulation of some two-fluid models describing gas-liquid two-phase flow in pipes. The numerical models developed here can be more generally used in the modelling of a wide class of physical models which can be put under an hyperbolic form. We introduce first two isothermal two-fluid models, composed of a mass balance equation and a momentum equation written in each phase, describing respectively a stratified two-phase flow and a dispersed two-phase flow. These models are hyperbolic under some physical assumptions and can be written under a nonconservative vectorial system. We define and analyse a new numerical finite volume scheme (v{integral}Roe) founded on a linearized Riemann solver. This scheme does not need any analytical calculation and gives good results in the tracking of shocks. We compare this new scheme with the classical Roe scheme. Then we propose and study some numerical models, with and without flux splitting method, which are adapted to the discretization of the two-fluid models. This numerical models are given by a finite volume integration of the equations, and lean on the v{integral} scheme. In order to reducing cpu time, due to the low Mach number of two-phase flows, acoustic waves are implicit. Afterwards we proposed a discretization of boundary conditions, which allows the generation of transient flows in pipe. Some numerical academic and more physical tests show the good behaviour of the numerical methods. (author) 77 refs.

  5. Methods to determine hydration states of minerals and cement hydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baquerizo, Luis G., E-mail: luis.baquerizoibarra@holcim.com [Innovation, Holcim Technology Ltd., CH-5113 Holderbank (Switzerland); Matschei, Thomas [Innovation, Holcim Technology Ltd., CH-5113 Holderbank (Switzerland); Scrivener, Karen L. [Laboratory of Construction Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Saeidpour, Mahsa; Thorell, Alva; Wadsö, Lars [Building Materials, Lund University, Box 124, 221 000 Lund (Sweden)

    2014-11-15

    This paper describes a novel approach to the quantitative investigation of the impact of varying relative humidity (RH) and temperature on the structure and thermodynamic properties of salts and crystalline cement hydrates in different hydration states (i.e. varying molar water contents). The multi-method approach developed here is capable of deriving physico-chemical boundary conditions and the thermodynamic properties of hydrated phases, many of which are currently missing from or insufficiently reported in the literature. As an example the approach was applied to monosulfoaluminate, a phase typically found in hydrated cement pastes. New data on the dehydration and rehydration of monosulfoaluminate are presented. Some of the methods used were validated with the system Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}–H{sub 2}O and new data related to the absorption of water by anhydrous sodium sulfate are presented. The methodology and data reported here should permit better modeling of the volume stability of cementitious systems exposed to various different climatic conditions.

  6. Composite model to reproduce the mechanical behaviour of methane hydrate bearing soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    De la Fuente, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Methane hydrate bearing sediments (MHBS) are naturally-occurring materials containing different components in the pores that may suffer phase changes under relative small temperature and pressure variations for conditions typically prevailing a few hundreds of meters below sea level. Their modelling needs to account for heat and mass balance equations of the different components, and several strategies already exist to combine them (e.g., Rutqvist & Moridis, 2009; Sánchez et al. 2014). These equations have to be completed by restrictions and constitutive laws reproducing the phenomenology of heat and fluid flows, phase change conditions and mechanical response. While the formulation of the non-mechanical laws generally includes explicitly the mass fraction of methane in each phase, which allows for a natural update of parameters during phase changes, mechanical laws are, in most cases, stated for the whole solid skeleton (Uchida et al., 2012; Soga et al. 2006). In this paper, a mechanical model is proposed to cope with the response of MHBS. It is based on a composite approach that allows defining the thermo-hydro-mechanical response of mineral skeleton and solid hydrates independently. The global stress-strain-temperature response of the solid phase (grains + hydrate) is then obtained by combining both responses according to energy principle following the work by Pinyol et al. (2007). In this way, dissociation of MH can be assessed on the basis of the stress state and temperature prevailing locally within the hydrate component. Besides, its structuring effect is naturally accounted for by the model according to patterns of MH inclusions within soil pores. This paper describes the fundamental hypothesis behind the model and its formulation. Its performance is assessed by comparison with laboratory data presented in the literature. An analysis of MHBS response to several stress-temperature paths representing potential field cases is finally presented. References

  7. Phase field model of fluid-driven fracture in elastic media: Immersed-fracture formulation and validation with analytical solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillán, David; Juanes, Ruben; Cueto-Felgueroso, Luis

    2017-04-01

    Propagation of fluid-driven fractures plays an important role in natural and engineering processes, including transport of magma in the lithosphere, geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide, and oil and gas recovery from low-permeability formations, among many others. The simulation of fracture propagation poses a computational challenge as a result of the complex physics of fracture and the need to capture disparate length scales. Phase field models represent fractures as a diffuse interface and enjoy the advantage that fracture nucleation, propagation, branching, or twisting can be simulated without ad hoc computational strategies like remeshing or local enrichment of the solution space. Here we propose a new quasi-static phase field formulation for modeling fluid-driven fracturing in elastic media at small strains. The approach fully couples the fluid flow in the fracture (described via the Reynolds lubrication approximation) and the deformation of the surrounding medium. The flow is solved on a lower dimensionality mesh immersed in the elastic medium. This approach leads to accurate coupling of both physics. We assessed the performance of the model extensively by comparing results for the evolution of fracture length, aperture, and fracture fluid pressure against analytical solutions under different fracture propagation regimes. The excellent performance of the numerical model in all regimes builds confidence in the applicability of phase field approaches to simulate fluid-driven fracture.

  8. HYDRATION MECHANISMS OF CALCIUM SULPHOALUMINATE C4A3S̄ , C4AS̄ PHASE AND ACTIVE BELITE β-C2S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. EL-DIDAMONY

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Highly reactive belite and calcium sulphoaluminate as well as monosulphate mix were prepared from nano-materials at lower temperatures ~1250°C. The crystal size of these materials was 25, 16 and 27 nm as determined from the X-ray analysis. The sulphoaluminate belite cement is a recent type of cement prepared at lower temperature with good properties. The aim of the present work is to synthesize C4A3S̄, monosulphate mix C4AS̄ and active belite β-C2S. The hydration mechanism was studied by XRD and DSC techniques as well as by the determination of chemically combined water contents of cement pastes with curing time. The results reveal that ettringite is first formed hydrates in the monosulphate mix, which then converted into monosulphate hydrates. The results of DSC and XRD are in good agreement with those of combined water contents. On the other side, the rate of hydration of active belite increases linearly from 3 up to 90 days, whereas, the traditional belite hydrates increase with lower rate up to 90 days, due to the thermodynamic stability structure of traditional belite.

  9. The degree of hydration assessment of blended cement pastes by differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis. Morphological evolution of the solid phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteagudo, S.M., E-mail: sm.monteagudo@alumnos.upm.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil: Construcción, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Moragues, A., E-mail: amoragues@caminos.upm.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil: Construcción, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Gálvez, J.C., E-mail: jaime.galvez@upm.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil: Construcción, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Casati, M.J., E-mail: mariajesus.casati@upm.es [Departamento de Vehículos Aeroespaciales, Escuela de Ingeniería Aeronáutica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain); Reyes, E., E-mail: encarnacion.reyes@upm.es [Departamento de Ingeniería Civil: Construcción, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2014-09-20

    Highlights: • A proposal of hydration degree calculation for blended cement pastes is presented. • The method is based both on the contributions of various authors and on DTA–TG results. • Paste and mortar specimens with BFS, FA and SF mineral admixtures were used. • The evaluation of CH gives information on hydration and pozzolanic reactions. • The assessment of α provides an insight into future strength evolution. - Abstract: The degree of hydration assessment of cement paste from differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis data has been performed by several authors that have offered a number of proposals for technical application to blended cements. In this paper, two calculation methods are studied in detail. Then, a proposal of the degree of hydration calculation for blended cements, based on the analysis of experimental results of DTA–TG, is presented. The proposed method combines the contributions of the authors and allows straightforward calculation of the degree of hydration from the experimental results. Validation of the methodology was performed by macroscopic and microstructural tests through paste and mortar specimens with blast furnace slag, flying ash and silica fume mineral admixtures bei(g)ng used. Tests of scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive analyser on paste specimens, and of mechanical strength on mortar specimens with the same percentages of substitution, were performed. They showed good agreement with the information derived from the differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis data.

  10. Carbon dioxid sequestration in natural gas hydrates: Thermodynamic considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicks, J. M.; Beeskow-Strauch, B.; Luzi, M.; Girod, M.; Erzinger, J.

    2009-12-01

    Due to the increasing energy demands natural gas hydrates become more and more of interest. The huge amount of hydrocarbons - mainly CH4 - stored in natural hydrate reservoirs suggest the use of natural gas hydrates as an energy resource. However, the combustion of this fossil fuel results in an undesired increase of CO2 in the atmosphere. Therefore, a combination of CH4 production on the one hand and the CO2 sequestration on the other hand seems to be ideal. Several investigations regarding the exchange reaction of CH4 with CO2 using pure methane hydrates and pure CO2 or CO2-N2-mixtures have been performed as laboratory studies in the past. Some showed exchange rates up to 85% and concluded that the driving force of this exchange reaction is the higher stability of CO2 hydrates compared to methane hydrates (e.g. Park et al. 2006). However, natural conditions may differ: natural gas hydrates may contain higher hydrocarbons or H2S, which have significant impact in terms of a higher stability of the mixed hydrate phase compared to pure CH4- and CO2-hydrates. Primary results of our investigations on the exchange reaction of a mixed CH4-C3H8-hydrate with CO2 indicates that although the stability of mixed CH4-C3H8-hydrate is significantly shifted to higher temperatures and lower pressures compared to pure CH4-, mixed CH4-CO2- and pure CO2-hydrates, it changes in the presence of CO2 from a structure II hydrate phase to form a structure I CH4-CO2-hydrate which subsequently transforms to CO2-hydrate. This process starts at the interface between gas and hydrate and continues slowly into the bulk phase. These observation lead to the following conclusions: - The driving force of the exchange reaction is less the stability with respect to temperature and pressure conditions of the hydrate phase but rather the chemical equilibrium state in terms of concentration gradients between hydrate and surrounding gas phase - After the initial formation of a CO2-CH4- or CO2 hydrate layer

  11. Hydration and nutrition knowledge in adolescent swimmers. Does water intake affect urine hydration markers after swimming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Altavilla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Little data exists regarding nutritional knowledge and hydration in adolescent swimmers. The aim of this study was to assess the level of nutrition and hydration knowledge and to describe the fluid balance in adolescent swimmers during training. A study was carried out with a cross-sectional descriptive part and a longitudinal part with repeated measurements over five swimming sessions. Eighty-six adolescent swimmers completed a questionnaire to assess their sport nutrition and hydration knowledge. Fluid balance and urine hydration markers were studied during training. Swimmers showed a limited nutrition knowledge (33.26 % ± SD 12.59 and meagre hydration knowledge (28.61 % ± SD 28.59. Females showed lower scores than male swimmers in nutrition and hydration knowledge. Based on urine specific gravity, swimmers started the training close to the euhydrated threshold (1.019 g/mL ± SD 0.008. Although urine specific gravity and urine colour were reduced after the training, there were minimal changes in body mass (-0.12 Kg ± SD 0.31. Sweat loss (2.67 g/min ± SD 3.23 and the net changes in the fluid balance (-0.22 % ± SD 0.59 were low. The poor knowledge in nutrition and hydration encountered in the swimmers can justify the development of a strategy to incorporate nutritional education programmes for this group. Body water deficit from swimming activity seems to be easily replaced with the water intake to maintain hydration. After the training, the urine of swimmers was diluted regardless of their water intake. Dilution of urine did not reflect real hydration state in swimming.

  12. Methane Production from Gas Hydrate Deposits through Injection of Supercritical CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Haeckel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of natural gas from CH4-hydrate deposits in sub-marine and sub-permafrost environments through injection of CO2 is considered a suitable strategy towards emission-neutral energy production. This study shows that the injection of hot, supercritical CO2 is particularly promising. The addition of heat triggers the dissociation of CH4-hydrate while the CO2, once thermally equilibrated, reacts with the pore water and is retained in the reservoir as immobile CO2-hydrate. Furthermore, optimal reservoir conditions of pressure and temperature are constrained. Experiments were conducted in a high-pressure flow-through reactor at different sediment temperatures (2 °C, 8 °C, 10 °C and hydrostatic pressures (8 MPa, 13 MPa. The efficiency of both, CH4 production and CO2 retention is best at 8 °C, 13 MPa. Here, both CO2- and CH4-hydrate as well as mixed hydrates can form. At 2 °C, the production process was less effective due to congestion of transport pathways through the sediment by rapidly forming CO2-hydrate. In contrast, at 10 °C CH4 production suffered from local increases in permeability and fast breakthrough of the injection fluid, thereby confining the accessibility to the CH4 pool to only the most prominent fluid channels. Mass and volume balancing of the collected gas and fluid stream identified gas mobilization as equally important process parameter in addition to the rates of methane hydrate dissociation and hydrate conversion. Thus, the combination of heat supply and CO2 injection in one supercritical phase helps to overcome the mass transfer limitations usually observed in experiments with cold liquid or gaseous CO2.

  13. Geomechanical Performance of Hydrate-Bearing Sediments in Offshore Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen A. Holditch

    2006-12-31

    The main objective of this study is to develop the necessary knowledge base and quantitative predictive capability for the description of geomechanical performance of hydrate bearing sediments (hereafter referred to as HBS) in oceanic environments. The focus is on the determination of the envelope of hydrate stability under conditions typical of those related to the construction and operation of offshore platforms. To achieve this objective, we have developed a robust numerical simulator of hydrate behavior in geologic media by coupling a reservoir model with a commercial geomechanical code. To be sure our geomechanical modeling is realistic, we are also investigating the geomechanical behavior of oceanic HBS using pore-scale models (conceptual and mathematical) of fluid flow, stress analysis, and damage propagation. In Phase II of the project, we will review all published core data and generate additional core data to verify the models. To generate data for our models, we are using data from the literature and we will be conducting laboratory studies in 2007 that generate data to (1) evaluate the conceptual pore-scale models, (2) calibrate the mathematical models, (3) determine dominant relations and critical parameters defining the geomechanical behavior of HBS, and (4) establish relationships between the geomechanical status of HBS and the corresponding geophysical signature. The milestones for Phase I of this project are given as follows: Literature survey on typical sediments containing gas hydrates in the ocean (TAMU); Recommendations on how to create typical sediments in the laboratory (TAMU); Demonstrate that typical sediments can be created in a repeatable manner in the laboratory and gas hydrates can be created in the pore space (TAMU); Develop a conceptual pore-scale model based on available data and reports (UCB); Test the developed pore-scale concepts on simple configurations and verify the results against known measurements and observations (UCB

  14. Severe Oligohydramnios at Mid trimester: Maternal hydration- A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mainstay of management was combined intravenous/oral maternal hydration, bed rest, modification of antihypertensive regimen and close fetal surveillance. The amniotic fluid index returned to normal range and fetal growth has remained satisfactory. The emphasis of the case presentation is the role of maternal hydration ...

  15. Mechanisms Leading to Co-Existence of Gas Hydrate in Ocean Sediments [Part 1 of 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Steven; Juanes, Ruben

    2011-12-31

    saturations. Large volumes (of order one pore volume) of gaseous and aqueous phases must be transported into the gas hydrate stability zone. The driver for this transport is the pressure sink induced by a reduction in occupied pore volume that accompanies the formation of hydrate from gas and water. Pore-scale imbibition models and bed-scale multiphase flow models indicate that the rate-limiting step in converting gas to hydrate is the supply of water to the hydrate stability zone. Moreover, the water supply rate is controlled by capillarity-driven flux for conditions typical of the Alaska North Slope. A meter-scale laboratory experiment confirms that significant volumes of fluid phases move into the hydrate stability zone and that capillarity is essential for the water flux. The model shows that without capillarity-driven flux, large saturations of hydrate cannot form. The observations of thick zones of large saturation at Mallik and Mt Elbert thus suggest that the primary control on these systems is the rate of transport of gaseous and aqueous phases, driven by the pressure sink at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. A key finding of our project is the elucidation of ?capillary fracturing? as a dominant gas transport mechanism in low-permeability media. We initially investigate this phenomenon by means of grain-scale simulations in which we extended a discrete element mechanics code (PFC, by Itasca) to incorporate the dynamics of first single-phase and then multiphase flow. A reductionist model on a square lattice allows us to determine some of the fundamental dependencies of the mode of gas invasion (capillary fingering, viscous fingering, and fracturing) on the parameters of the system. We then show that the morphology of the gas-invaded region exerts a fundamental control on the fabric of methane hydrate formation, and on the overpressures caused by methane hydrate dissociation. We demonstrate the existence of the different invasion regimes by means of controlled

  16. Simulating single-phase and two-phase non-Newtonian fluid flow of a digital rock scanned at high resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tembely, Moussa; Alsumaiti, Ali M.; Jouini, Mohamed S.; Rahimov, Khurshed; Dolatabadi, Ali

    2017-11-01

    Most of the digital rock physics (DRP) simulations focus on Newtonian fluids and overlook the detailed description of rock-fluid interaction. A better understanding of multiphase non-Newtonian fluid flow at pore-scale is crucial for optimizing enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The Darcy scale properties of reservoir rocks such as the capillary pressure curves and the relative permeability are controlled by the pore-scale behavior of the multiphase flow. In the present work, a volume of fluid (VOF) method coupled with an adaptive meshing technique is used to perform the pore-scale simulation on a 3D X-ray micro-tomography (CT) images of rock samples. The numerical model is based on the resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations along with a phase fraction equation incorporating the dynamics contact model. The simulations of a single phase flow for the absolute permeability showed a good agreement with the literature benchmark. Subsequently, the code is used to simulate a two-phase flow consisting of a polymer solution, displaying a shear-thinning power law viscosity. The simulations enable to access the impact of the consistency factor (K), the behavior index (n), along with the two contact angles (advancing and receding) on the relative permeability.

  17. Methane hydrates in nature - Current knowledge and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of methane hydrate research and the need for a coordinated effort, the United States Congress enacted the Methane Hydrate Research and Development Act of 2000. At the same time, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry in Japan launched a research program to develop plans for a methane hydrate exploratory drilling project in the Nankai Trough. India, China, the Republic of Korea, and other nations also have established large methane hydrate research and development programs. Government-funded scientific research drilling expeditions and production test studies have provided a wealth of information on the occurrence of methane hydrates in nature. Numerous studies have shown that the amount of gas stored as methane hydrates in the world may exceed the volume of known organic carbon sources. However, methane hydrates represent both a scientific and technical challenge, and much remains to be learned about their characteristics and occurrence in nature. Methane hydrate research in recent years has mostly focused on: (1) documenting the geologic parameters that control the occurrence and stability of methane hydrates in nature, (2) assessing the volume of natural gas stored within various methane hydrate accumulations, (3) analyzing the production response and characteristics of methane hydrates, (4) identifying and predicting natural and induced environmental and climate impacts of natural methane hydrates, (5) analyzing the methane hydrate role as a geohazard, (6) establishing the means to detect and characterize methane hydrate accumulations using geologic and geophysical data, and (7) establishing the thermodynamic phase equilibrium properties of methane hydrates as a function of temperature, pressure, and gas composition. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Consortium for Ocean Leadership (COL) combined their efforts in 2012 to assess the contributions that scientific drilling has made and could continue to make to advance

  18. Mechanisms Leading to Co-Existence of Gas Hydrate in Ocean Sediments [Part 2 of 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Steven; Juanes, Ruben

    2011-12-31

    saturations. Large volumes (of order one pore volume) of gaseous and aqueous phases must be transported into the gas hydrate stability zone. The driver for this transport is the pressure sink induced by a reduction in occupied pore volume that accompanies the formation of hydrate from gas and water. Pore-scale imbibition models and bed-scale multiphase flow models indicate that the rate-limiting step in converting gas to hydrate is the supply of water to the hydrate stability zone. Moreover, the water supply rate is controlled by capillarity-driven flux for conditions typical of the Alaska North Slope. A meter-scale laboratory experiment confirms that significant volumes of fluid phases move into the hydrate stability zone and that capillarity is essential for the water flux. The model shows that without capillarity-driven flux, large saturations of hydrate cannot form. The observations of thick zones of large saturation at Mallik and Mt Elbert thus suggest that the primary control on these systems is the rate of transport of gaseous and aqueous phases, driven by the pressure sink at the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. A key finding of our project is the elucidation of ?capillary fracturing? as a dominant gas transport mechanism in low-permeability media. We initially investigate this phenomenon by means of grain-scale simulations in which we extended a discrete element mechanics code (PFC, by Itasca) to incorporate the dynamics of first singlephase and then multiphase flow. A reductionist model on a square lattice allows us to determine some of the fundamental dependencies of the mode of gas invasion (capillary fingering, viscous fingering, and fracturing) on the parameters of the system. We then show that the morphology of the gas-invaded region exerts a fundamental control on the fabric of methane hydrate formation, and on the overpressures caused by methane hydrate dissociation. We demonstrate the existence of the different invasion regimes by means of controlled

  19. Fluids in the Earth's Lower Mantle - Phase Relations in the System MgO-SiO2-H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, J.; Walter, M. J.; Kohn, S.; Clark, S. M.

    2010-12-01

    Water plays an important role in the mantle affecting both mineral properties and mantle dynamics. Water is held in the mantle in hydrous minerals, nominally anhydrous minerals (NAMs) and fluids or melts.1 The effect of water on phase relations and the stability of hydrous fluids/melts have been investigated at upper mantle conditions within the MgO-SiO2-H2O (MSH) system.2,3,4 However this system has not been investigated systematically at lower mantle conditions. New Laser Heated Diamond Anvil Cell (LH-DAC) experiments were conducted at lower mantle temperature and pressure conditions to understand the phase relations within the MSH system. We investigated a wide range of compositions produced by mixing various proportions of enstatite glass, silica glass, and brucite powder. Samples were synthesised at 25-60 GPa and 1600-2400 K in a DAC using a double-sided laser-heating geometry. Phases identified by synchrotron micro-X-ray diffraction include perovskite, periclase, stishovite, and phase D, with subordinate brucite and/or magnesite. Some of these phases are thought to be precipitated from a fluid during cooling, and the presence of magnesite indicates some reaction with the diamond. However, a combination of reversal and in-situ experiments and variation in modal abundances as a function of bulk composition allow the primary phases to be identified. Phase relations change systematically as a function of water content and pressure. For a model mantle Si/Mg ratio our results indicate that Phase D can be stable along a whole-mantle convective geotherm up to about 45 GPa for a range of H2O contents. Further, chemographic relations suggest that in hydrous model mantle solid phases will coexist with fluids having very high MgO-contents. Two implications of these results which we explore are (1) fluids originating in the lower mantle, either primordially or expelled from subducted slabs, may transport MgO into the upper mantle, and (2) a reservoir for water residing in

  20. Simultaneous probing of hydration and polarity of lipid bilayers with 3-hydroxyflavone fluorescent dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymchenko, Andrey S; Mély, Yves; Demchenko, Alexander P; Duportail, Guy

    2004-10-11

    The penetration of water into the hydrophobic interior leads to polarity and hydration profiles across lipid membranes which are fundamental in the maintenance of membrane architecture as well as in transport and insertion processes into the membrane. The present paper is an original attempt to evaluate simultaneously polarity and hydration properties of lipid bilayers by a fluorescence approach. We applied two 3-hydroxyflavone probes anchored in lipid bilayers at a relatively precise depth through their attached ammonium groups. They are present in two forms: either in H-bond-free form displaying a two-band emission due to an excited state intramolecular proton transfer reaction (ESIPT), or in H-bonded form displaying a single-band emission with no ESIPT. The individual emission profiles of these forms were obtained by deconvolution of the probes' fluorescence spectra. The polarity of the probe surrounding the bilayer was estimated from the two-band spectra of the H-bond-free form, while the local hydration was estimated from the relative contribution of the two forms. Our results confirm that by increasing the lipid order (phase transition from fluid to gel phase, addition of cholesterol or decrease in the lipid unsaturation), the polarity and to a lesser extent, the hydration of the bilayers decrease simultaneously. In contrast, when fluidity (i.e. lipid order) is kept invariant, increase of temperature and of bilayer curvature leads to a higher bilayer hydration with no effect on the polarity. Furthermore, no correlation was found between dipole potential and the hydration of the bilayers.

  1. Fluid-structure interaction of complex bodies in two-phase flows on locally refined grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Dionysios; Shen, Lian; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2016-11-01

    Many real-life flow problems in engineering applications involve fluid-structure interaction (FSI) of arbitrarily complex geometries interacting with free surface flows. Despite the recent significant computational advances, conventional numerical methods are inefficient to resolve the prevailing complex dynamics due to the inherent large disparity of spatial and temporal scales that emerge in the air/water phases of the flow and around rigid bodies. To this end, the new generation 3D, unsteady, unstructured Cartesian incompressible flow solver, developed at the Saint Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL), is integrated with a FSI immersed boundary method and is coupled with the level-set formulation. The predictive capabilities of our method to simulate non-linear free surface phenomena, with low computational cost, are significantly improved by locally refining the computational grid in the vicinity of solid boundaries and around the free surface interface. We simulate three-dimensional complex flows involving complex rigid bodies interacting with a free surface both with prescribed body motion and coupled FSI and we investigate breaking wave events. In all the cases, very good agreement with benchmark data is found. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation (CBET-1509071).

  2. Erosion predictions of stock pump impellers based on liquid-solid two-phase fluid simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Y. X.; Fang, B.; Zeng, C. J.; Yang, L. B.; Wang, F.; Wang, Z. W.

    2013-12-01

    Stock pumps cost 25 percent of total power consumption in a modern paper mill. Owing to the severe erosion of pump casing and impeller during operation, stock pump often results in efficiency drop and rising power consumption. A favourable prediction of the impeller wearing character can effective guide optimization design of stock pump impeller. Thereby it can reduce impeller wear and extend stock pump performance life. We simulated the three-dimensional unsteady solid-liquid two-phase flow characteristic in the hydraulic channel of a low specific speed stock pump with open and three blades impeller. The standard k- ε turbulent model and the pseudo-fluid model were adopted in simulation. Clearance between covers and impeller is taken into consideration in modelling, and pulp is simplified into mixtures of solid particles and water. The Finnie prediction model is applied to predict impeller erosion character. The simulation results of different solid particle size are compared with practical impeller erosion character, and the effects of solid particle size on impeller erosion character are obtained. Thus, numerical method to simulate impeller erosion characteristics of fibered pulp is investigated.

  3. Revisiting the bilayer structures of fluid phase phosphatidylglycerol lipids: Accounting for exchangeable hydrogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jianjun; Marquardt, Drew; Heberle, Frederick A; Kučerka, Norbert; Katsaras, John

    2014-11-01

    We recently published two papers detailing the structures of fluid phase phosphatidylglycerol (PG) lipid bilayers (Kučerka et al., 2012 J. Phys. Chem. B 116: 232-239; Pan et al., 2012 Biochim. Biophys. Acta Biomembr. 1818: 2135-2148), which were determined using the scattering density profile model. This hybrid experimental/computational technique utilizes molecular dynamics simulations to parse a lipid bilayer into components whose volume probabilities follow simple analytical functional forms. Given the appropriate scattering densities, these volume probabilities are then translated into neutron scattering length density (NSLD) and electron density (ED) profiles, which are used to jointly refine experimentally obtained small angle neutron and X-ray scattering data. However, accurate NSLD and ED profiles can only be obtained if the bilayer's chemical composition is known. Specifically, in the case of neutron scattering, the lipid's exchangeable hydrogens with aqueous D2O must be accounted for, as they can have a measureable effect on the resultant lipid bilayer structures. This was not done in our above-mentioned papers. Here we report on the molecular structures of PG lipid bilayers by appropriately taking into account the exchangeable hydrogens. Analysis indicates that the temperature-averaged PG lipid areas decrease by 1.5 to 3.8Å(2), depending on the lipid's acyl chain length and unsaturation, compared to PG areas when hydrogen exchange was not taken into account. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of hydration on blood rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlastos, George A; Tangney, Christine C; Rosenson, Robert S

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of oral fluid intake on blood rheology of 17 healthy adults following a 12-14 hour overnight fast from food and drink. An oral fluid load of 500 ml was consumed every 30 minutes for 2 hours. Blood viscosity values at shear rates of 1, 10 and 100 s(-1) were reduced (p<0.05 to p<0.01) at 30 and 120 minutes following hydration; however, these differences were not significant after hematocrit correction. With fluid intake, both uncorrected and corrected viscous component of blood viscoelasticity at oscillatory shear rate of 1 s(-1) and at a constant frequency of 2 Hz were reduced (p<0.05 to p<0.001) at all time points as compared to fasting values. The corrected elastic component of blood viscoelasticity increased 90 minutes after hydration (p<0.05). An overnight fast is accompanied by rheological abnormalities that are altered by fluid intake.

  5. Thermal regulation in terrestrial environment using a two-phase fluid loop with capillary pumping; Regulation thermique en environnement terrestre par boucle fluide diphasique a pompage capillaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butto, C. [Universite Paul Sabatier, LESETH, 31 - Toulouse (France)

    1996-12-31

    Two-phase fluid loops with capillary pumping are particularly interesting silent devices which allow energy savings and do not create any noise pollution (no mechanical vibrations). In terrestrial environment, the gravity field, when judiciously used, allows to improve their performances and thus, their use in thermal regulation of big computers, power electronic components, transformers, etc, is particularly interesting. In this study, the main results concerning the functioning of such a loop in the gravity field are presented and used to highlight the conditions that allow to take advantage of this field and the improvements obtained. (J.S.) 5 refs.

  6. Experimental investigation of the dynamics of the phase transition boundary in the motion of a heated non-Newtonian fluid in a channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basteev, A. V.; Dashkov, A. V.; Kravchenko, O. V.; Repalova, O. N.; Forfutdinov, V. V.

    2010-07-01

    The process of growth of the boundary crystallized phase in the motion of a heated non-Newtonian fluid in a channel with a cold wall has been studied experimentally. As the fluid, polypropylene with pseudoplastic properties was used. Experimental curves of the growth of the wall crystallized phase as a function of time were obtained for different values of the initial fluid melt temperature. The experimental value of the Nusselt number at the solid-liquid interface has been computed.

  7. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Bill Liddell

    2005-03-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Oil-field engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in Arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrates agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Anadarko Petroleum, Noble Corporation, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to help identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. As part of the project work scope, team members drilled and cored the HOT ICE No. 1 on Anadarko leases beginning in January 2003 and completed in March 2004. Due to scheduling constraints imposed by the Arctic drilling season, operations at the site were suspended between April 21, 2003 and January 30, 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was designed, constructed and used for determining physical characteristics of frozen core immediately after it was retrieved from the well. The well was drilled from a new and innovative Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a greatly reduced footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project were to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists for future hydrate operations. Unfortunately, no gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated

  8. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Buddy King

    2004-06-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope drilled and cored a well The HOT ICE No.1 on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data and provide this information to scientists developing reservoir models. No gas hydrates were encountered in this well; however, a wealth of information was generated and is contained in this report.

  9. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donn McGuire; Steve Runyon; Richard Sigal; Bill Liddell; Thomas Williams; George Moridis

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the final stages of a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. Hot Ice No. 1 was planned to test the Ugnu and West Sak sequences for gas hydrates and a concomitant free gas accumulation on Anadarko's 100% working interest acreage in section 30 of Township 9N, Range 8E of the Harrison Bay quadrangle of the North Slope of Alaska. The Ugnu and West Sak intervals are favorably positioned in the hydrate-stability zone over an area extending from Anadarko's acreage westward to the vicinity of the aforementioned gas-hydrate occurrences. This suggests that a large, north-to-south trending gas-hydrate accumulation may exist in that area. The presence of gas shows in the Ugnu and West Sak reservoirs in wells situated eastward and down dip of the Hot Ice location indicate that a free-gas accumulation may be trapped by gas hydrates. The Hot Ice No. 1 well was designed to core from the surface to the base of the West Sak interval using the

  10. Methane Hydrate Fformation in a Coarse-Grained, Brine-Saturated Sample Through the Induction of a Propagating Gas Front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D.

    2016-12-01

    We generate methane hydrate in a coarse-grained, brine-saturated, vertically-oriented sample through gas injection. From 0 - 80 hours, we estimate a hydrate saturation of 0.56 behind the formation front, using mass balance, indicating that hydrate formation is limited by locally-elevated salinity creating three-phase equilibrium conditions. After 80 hours, the hydrate phase saturation drops to 0.50 and the magnitude of the pressure drop-rebound cycles increases, suggesting temporary reductions in permeability and the development of heterogeneous distributions of free gas in the sample. The sample consists of an industrial, fine sand mixed with a 0.5 wt% fraction of natural, smectitic clay from the Eugene Island region in the Gulf of Mexico (5.08cm diameter, 11.79cm length). The sample is initially saturated with a 7 wt% sodium chloride brine, pressurized to 12.24 MPa, and cooled to 1 degree Celsius, to bring the sample into the hydrate stability zone. Syringe pumps filled with methane gas and brine are connected to the top and bottom of the sample, respectively, to control fluid flow. We withdraw from the base of the sample at a rate of 0.0005 mL/min and inject methane to maintain a constant pressure, initiating hydrate formation. We analyze this experiment, as well as a gas flood experiment executed under the same conditions, using computed-tomography scans and an analytical solution to investigate the formation behavior and thermodynamic state of hydrate in gas-rich, coarse-grained reservoirs.

  11. Hydration in soccer: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monteiro Cristiano Ralo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydration should be considered before, during and after the exercise. This review intends to approach the main points of hydration process in soccer. The replacement of fluids during exercise is proportional to some factors, such as: exercise intensity; climatic conditions; the athlete's acclimatization; the athlete's physical conditioning; physiologic individual characteristics and the player's biomechanics. Performance is improved when players ingest not only water but also carbohydrate. The rates that carbohydrate and water are absorbed by the organism are limited by the rates of gastric emptying and intestinal absorption. The composition of drinks offered to the players should be influenced by the relative importance of the need of supplying carbohydrates or water; it should be remembered that the depletion of carbohydrate can result in fatigue and decrease of performance, but it is not usually a life-threatening condition. The addition of carbohydrate in these drinks increases the concentrations of blood glucose, increases the use of external fuel through the increase of the glucose oxidation in the muscles and it spares muscle glycogen. So, the ingestion of carbohydrate before and during the exercise can delay the emergence of fatigue and increase the players' performance. Several tactics can be used to avoid dehydration, like hyperhydration before exercise and player's acclimatization. The ideal situation to restore the player's fluid losses is between the sessions of exercises. Since soccer is a sport with quite peculiar characteristics related to hydration, the players should be concerned and educated about the importance of fluid ingestion before, during and after the exercise.

  12. Two-Phase Flow in Wire Coating with Heat Transfer Analysis of an Elastic-Viscous Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work considers two-phase flow of an elastic-viscous fluid for double-layer coating of wire. The wet-on-wet (WOW coating process is used in this study. The analytical solution of the theoretical model is obtained by Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM. The expression for the velocity field and temperature distribution for both layers is obtained. The convergence of the obtained series solution is established. The analytical results are verified by Adomian Decomposition Method (ADM. The obtained velocity field is compared with the existing exact solution of the same flow problem of second-grade fluid and with analytical solution of a third-grade fluid. Also, emerging parameters on the solutions are discussed and appropriate conclusions are drawn.

  13. EOSHYDR: A TOUGH2 Module for CH4-Hydrate Release and Flow in theSubsurface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, George; Apps, John; Pruess, Karsten; Myer, Larry

    1998-09-01

    EOSHYDR is a new module for the TOUGH2 general-purpose simulator for multi-component, multiphase fluid and heat flow and transport in the subsurface. EOSHYDR is designed to model the non-isothermal CH{sub 4} release, phase behavior and flow under the conditions of the comrilon methane hydrate deposits (i.e., in the permafrost and in deep ocean sediments) by solving the coupled equations of mass and heat balance. As with all other members of the TOUGH2 family of codes, EOSHYDR can handle multidimensional flow domains and cartesian, cylindrical or irregular grids, as well as porous and fractured media. EOSHYDR extends the thermophysical description of water to temperatures as low as -30 C. Both an equilibrium and a kinetic model of hydrate formation or dissociation are included. Two new solid phases are introduced, one for the CH{sub 4}-hydrate and the other for ice. Under equilibrium conditions, water and methane, as well as heat, are the main components. In the kinetic model, the solid hydrate is introduced as the fourth component. The mass components are partitioned among the gas, liquid and the two solid phases. The thermodynamic phase equilibrium in EOSHYDR is described by the P-T-X diagram of the H{sub 2}O-CH{sub 4}system. Phase changes and the corresponding heat transfers are fully described. The effect of salt in pore waters on CH{sub 4} solubility and on the growth and decomposition of gas hydrates is also taken into account. Results are presented for three test problems designed to explore different mechanisms and strategies for production from CH{sub 4}-hydrate reservoirs. These tests include thermal stimulation and depressurization under both permafrost and suboceanic conditions. The results of the tests tend to indicate that CH{sub 4} production from CH{sub 4}-hydrates is technically feasible and has significant potential. Both depressurization and thermal stimulation seem to be capable of producing substantial amounts of CH{sub 4} gas.

  14. Multiparticle imaging technique for two-phase fluid flows using pulsed laser speckle velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, T.A.

    1992-12-01

    The practical use of Pulsed Laser Velocimetry (PLV) requires the use of fast, reliable computer-based methods for tracking numerous particles suspended in a fluid flow. Two methods for performing tracking are presented. One method tracks a particle through multiple sequential images (minimum of four required) by prediction and verification of particle displacement and direction. The other method, requiring only two sequential images uses a dynamic, binary, spatial, cross-correlation technique. The algorithms are tested on computer-generated synthetic data and experimental data which was obtained with traditional PLV methods. This allowed error analysis and testing of the algorithms on real engineering flows. A novel method is proposed which eliminates tedious, undersirable, manual, operator assistance in removing erroneous vectors. This method uses an iterative process involving an interpolated field produced from the most reliable vectors. Methods are developed to allow fast analysis and presentation of sets of PLV image data. Experimental investigation of a two-phase, horizontal, stratified, flow regime was performed to determine the interface drag force, and correspondingly, the drag coefficient. A horizontal, stratified flow test facility using water and air was constructed to allow interface shear measurements with PLV techniques. The experimentally obtained local drag measurements were compared with theoretical results given by conventional interfacial drag theory. Close agreement was shown when local conditions near the interface were similar to space-averaged conditions. However, theory based on macroscopic, space-averaged flow behavior was shown to give incorrect results if the local gas velocity near the interface as unstable, transient, and dissimilar from the average gas velocity through the test facility.

  15. CD47 and Nox1 Mediate Dynamic Fluid-Phase Macropinocytosis of Native LDL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csányi, Gábor; Feck, Douglas M; Ghoshal, Pushpankur; Singla, Bhupesh; Lin, Huiping; Nagarajan, Shanmugam; Meijles, Daniel N; Al Ghouleh, Imad; Cantu-Medellin, Nadiezhda; Kelley, Eric E; Mateuszuk, Lukasz; Isenberg, Jeffrey S; Watkins, Simon; Pagano, Patrick J

    2017-06-01

    Macropinocytosis has been implicated in cardiovascular and other disorders, yet physiological factors that initiate fluid-phase internalization and the signaling mechanisms involved remain poorly identified. The present study was designed to examine whether matrix protein thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) stimulates macrophage macropinocytosis and, if so, to investigate the potential signaling mechanism involved. TSP1 treatment of human and murine macrophages stimulated membrane ruffle formation and pericellular solute internalization by macropinocytosis. Blockade of TSP1 cognate receptor CD47 and NADPH oxidase 1 (Nox1) signaling, inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase, and transcriptional knockdown of myotubularin-related protein 6 abolished TSP1-induced macropinocytosis. Our results demonstrate that Nox1 signaling leads to dephosphorylation of actin-binding protein cofilin at Ser-3, actin remodeling, and macropinocytotic uptake of unmodified native low-density lipoprotein (nLDL), leading to foam cell formation. Finally, peritoneal chimera studies suggest the role of CD47 in macrophage lipid macropinocytosis in hypercholesterolemic ApoE -/- mice in vivo. Activation of a previously unidentified TSP1-CD47 signaling pathway in macrophages stimulates direct receptor-independent internalization of nLDL, leading to significant lipid accumulation and foam cell formation. These findings reveal a new paradigm in which delimited Nox1-mediated redox signaling, independent of classical lipid oxidation, contributes to early propagation of vascular inflammatory disease. The findings of the present study demonstrate a new mechanism of solute uptake with implications for a wide array of cell types, including macrophages, dendritic cells, and cancer cells, and multiple pathological conditions in which matrix proteins are upregulated. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 886-901.

  16. Thermodynamic model for calorimetric and phase coexistence properties of coal derived fluids. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The work on this project was initiated on September 1, 1989. The project consisted of three different tasks. 1. A thermodynamic model to predict VLE and calorimetric properties of coal liquids. 2. VLE measurements at high temperature and high pressure for coal model compounds and 3. Chromatographic characterization of coal liquids for distribution of heteroatoms. The thermodynamic model developed is an extension of the previous model developed for VLE of coal derived fluids (DOE Grant no. FG22-86PC90541). The model uses the modified UNIFAC correlation for the liquid phase. Some unavailable UNIFAC interactions parameters have been regressed from experimental VLE and excess enthalpy data. The model is successful in predicting binary VLE and excess enthalpy data. Further refinements of the model are suggested. An apparatus for the high pressure high temperature VLE data measurements has been built and tested. Tetralin-Quinoline is the first binary system selected for data measurements. The equipment was tested by measuring 325{degree}C isotherm for this system and comparing it with literature data. Additional isotherms at 350{degree}C and 370{degree}C have been measured. The framework for a characterization procedure for coal derived liquids has been developed. A coal liquid is defined by a true molecular weight distribution and distribution of heteroatoms as a function of molecular weights. Size exclusions liquid chromatography, elemental analysis and FTIR spectroscopy methods are used to obtain the molecular weight and hetroatom distributions. Further work in this area should include refinements of the characterization procedure, high temperature high pressure VLE data measurements for selective model compound binary systems, and improvement of the thermodynamic model using the new measured data and consistent with the developments in the characterization procedure.

  17. Detection and Production of Methane Hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George Hirasaki; Walter Chapman; Gerald Dickens; Colin Zelt; Brandon Dugan; Kishore Mohanty; Priyank Jaiswal

    2011-12-31

    This project seeks to understand regional differences in gas hydrate systems from the perspective of as an energy resource, geohazard, and long-term climate influence. Specifically, the effort will: (1) collect data and conceptual models that targets causes of gas hydrate variance, (2) construct numerical models that explain and predict regional-scale gas hydrate differences in 2-dimensions with minimal 'free parameters', (3) simulate hydrocarbon production from various gas hydrate systems to establish promising resource characteristics, (4) perturb different gas hydrate systems to assess potential impacts of hot fluids on seafloor stability and well stability, and (5) develop geophysical approaches that enable remote quantification of gas hydrate heterogeneities so that they can be characterized with minimal costly drilling. Our integrated program takes advantage of the fact that we have a close working team comprised of experts in distinct disciplines. The expected outcomes of this project are improved exploration and production technology for production of natural gas from methane hydrates and improved safety through understanding of seafloor and well bore stability in the presence of hydrates. The scope of this project was to more fully characterize, understand, and appreciate fundamental differences in the amount and distribution of gas hydrate and how this would affect the production potential of a hydrate accumulation in the marine environment. The effort combines existing information from locations in the ocean that are dominated by low permeability sediments with small amounts of high permeability sediments, one permafrost location where extensive hydrates exist in reservoir quality rocks and other locations deemed by mutual agreement of DOE and Rice to be appropriate. The initial ocean locations were Blake Ridge, Hydrate Ridge, Peru Margin and GOM. The permafrost location was Mallik. Although the ultimate goal of the project was to understand

  18. Influence of temperature on methane hydrate formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Wu, Qingbai; Mu, Cuicui

    2017-08-11

    During gas hydrate formation process, a phase transition of liquid water exists naturally, implying that temperature has an important influence on hydrate formation. In this study, methane hydrate was formed within the same media. The experimental system was kept at 1.45, 6.49, and 12.91 °C respectively, and then different pressurization modes were applied in steps. We proposed a new indicator, namely the slope of the gas flow rates against time (dν g /dt), to represent the intrinsic driving force for hydrate formation. The driving force was calculated as a fixed value at the different stages of formation, including initial nucleation/growth, secondary nucleation/growth, and decay. The amounts of gas consumed at each stage were also calculated. The results show that the driving force during each stage follows an inverse relation with temperature, whereas the amount of consumed gas is proportional to temperature. This opposite trend indicates that the influences of temperature on the specific formation processes and final amounts of gas contained in hydrate should be considered separately. Our results also suggest that the specific ambient temperature under which hydrate is formed should be taken into consideration, when explaining the formation of different configurations and saturations of gas hydrates in natural reservoirs.

  19. IMPORTANCE OF HYDRATION IN SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vasić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Importance of hydration is detrmined by importance of functions of water in the human organism: i.e. regulation of body temperature, transport, excretion of waste materials through urine, digestion of food which is facilititated by saliva and gastric juices, maintenance of flexibility of organs and tissues About 60 % body mass of an adult person (males: 61 %, females: 54 % is made up of water. Water content of a newly born baby reaches 77 %, and it is up to 50 % in adults. It is very important for sportsmen to provide adequate hydration during and after the time of bodily activities. A symptom of water shortage is thirst. However, thirst is a late response of an organism and it occurs when dehydration has already taken place. Minimum in take of fluids in humans should range between one-and-half to two liters. It has been known for a long time that there is no success in sport without proper hydration in a sportsman.

  20. Finite volume approximation of two phase-fluid flows based on an approximate Roe-Type Riemann solver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sainsaulieu, L. [C.E.R.M.I.C.S., E.N.P.C., Noisy-le-Grand (France)]|[Centre de Mathematiques Appliquees, Palaiseau (France)

    1995-10-01

    We introduce an approximate Roe type Riemann solver for the numerical simulation of two-phase fluid flows composed of liquid droplets suspended in gas. We compute a Roe linearization of some well-conditioned approximate Rankine-Hugoniot relations in nonconservation form. The computed solutions are found to be in good agreement with the exact solution in one dimension slab geometry. We extend this solver to two-dimensional geometries using a fininte volume formulation. 24 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. A Designer Fluid For Aluminum Phase Change Devices: Aluminum Inorganic Aqueous Solutions (IAS) Chemistry and Experiments. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-17

    Aluminum Inorganic Aqueous Solutions (IAS) Chemistry and Experiments Qi Yao and Ivan Catton University of California, Los Angeles 420 Westwood Plaza...FLUID FOR ALUMINUM PHASE CHANGE DEVICES, Vol II of III Aluminum Inorganic Aqueous Solutions (IAS) Chemistry and Experiments 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...results demonstrate that while there is good evidence that inorganic inhibitors can significantly reduce the production of NCG in an aluminum-water

  2. Electron density analysis of the effects of sugars on the structure of lipid bilayers at low hydration - a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenné, T.; Kent, B.; Koster, K.L.; Garvey, C.J.; Bryant, G. (ANSTO); (USD); (ANU); (RMIT)

    2012-02-06

    Small angle X-ray scattering is used to study the effects of sugars on membranes during dehydration. Previous work has shown that the bilayer and chain-chain repeat spacings of DPPC bilayers are relatively unaffected by the presence of sugars. In this work we present a preliminary analysis of the electron density profiles of DPPC in the presence of sugars at low hydration. The difficulties of determining the correct phasing are discussed. Sugars and other small solutes have been shown to have an important role in improving the tolerance of a range of species to desiccation and freezing. In particular it has been shown that sugars can stabilize membranes in the fluid membrane phase during dehydration, and in the fully dehydrated state. Equivalently, at a particular hydration, the presence of sugars lowers the transition temperature between the fluid and gel phases. There are two competing models for explaining the effects of sugars on membrane phase transition temperatures. One, designated the water replacement hypothesis (WRH) states that sugars hydrogen bond to phospholipid headgroups, thus hindering the fluid-gel phase transition. One version of this model suggests that certain sugars (such as trehalose) achieve the measured effects by inserting between the phospholipid head groups. An alternative model explains the observed effects of sugars in terms of the sugars effect on the hydration repulsion that develops between opposing membranes during dehydration. The hydration repulsion leads to a lateral compressive stress in the bilayer which squeezes adjacent lipids more closely together, resulting in a transition to the gel phase. When sugars are present, their osmotic and volumetric effects reduce the hydration repulsion, reduce the compressive stress in the membranes, and therefore tend to maintain the average lateral separation between lipids. This model is called the hydration forces explanation (HFE). We recently showed that neither mono- nor di

  3. Methane Production and Carbon Capture by Hydrate Swapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Liang; von Solms, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    gas molecules in the structural lattice. In this work, we quantitatively investigate the swapping behavior from injection of pure carbon dioxide and the (CO2 + N2) binary gas mixture through artificial hydrate-bearing sandstone samples by use of a core-flooding experimental apparatus. A total of 13...... of pure carbon dioxide in swapping methane from its hydrate phase; the methane recovery efficiency in brine water systems is enhanced relative to pure water systems. The replenishment of a fresh (CO2 + N2) gas mixture into the vapor phase can be considered as an efficient extraction method because 46...... in small hydrate cages, as long as the equilibrium formation pressure of (CO2 + N2) binary gas hydrate is below that of methane hydrate, even though adding nitrogen to carbon dioxide reduces the thermodynamic driving force for the formation of a new hydrate. When other conditions are similar, the methane...

  4. Fluid flux and melting reactions in subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouilhol, Pierre; Magni, Valentina; van Hunen, Jeroen; Kaislaniemi, Lars

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the metamorphic reactions that occurs within the slab is a must to constrain subduction zone processes. Slab dehydration reactions ultimately permit the mantle wedge to melt, by lowering its solidus, thus forming arcs above descending slabs. Alternatively the slab crust may cross its solidus in warm hydrated slabs. Moreover, slab dehydration allows chemical fractionation to occur between residual phases and transferred fluid phase, giving arc magmas part of their typical subduction zone chemical characteristics. To better comprehend such complex thermo-chemical open system, we are using a numerical model that reproduces the thermo-mechanical behaviour of a subducting slab and computes the thermodynamic equilibrium paragenesis at each P-T-X conditions of the system. Hence we generate a "paragenetic map" of a subduction system, allowing us to track the fate of water during dehydration and subsequent re-hydration or melting reactions. Here we highlight the role of dehydration and re-hydration reactions occurring in the slab's igneous crust and mantle and the mantle wedge for different slab configuration hence presenting the evolution of a subduction paragenetic map for different regimes. We intend to show the key roles of a) antigorite and chlorite breakdown in the hydrated part of the slab mantle, b) amphibole and lawsonite in the slab crust, and c) the role of amphibole and chlorite in the mantle wedge. Our results show the crucial role of dehydration and re-hydration reactions on slab and mantle wedge melting potential.

  5. Investigation of ventricular cerebrospinal fluid flow phase differences between the foramina of Monro and the aqueduct of Sylvius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibli, Matthias; Wyss, Michael; Boesiger, Peter; Guzzella, Lino

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, phase contrast magnetic resonance flow measurements of the foramina of Monro and the aqueduct of Sylvius of seven healthy volunteers are presented. Peak volume flow rates are of the order of 150 mm3/s for the aqueduct of Sylvius and for the foramina of Monro. The temporal shift between these volume flows is analyzed with a high-resolution cross-correlation scheme which reveals high subject-specific phase differences. Repeated measurements show the invariability of the phase differences over time for each volunteer. The phase differences as a fraction of one period range from -0.0537 to 0.0820. A mathematical model of the pressure dynamics is presented. The model features one lumped compartment per ventricle. The driving force of the cerebrospinal fluid is modeled through pulsating choroid plexus. The model includes variations of the distribution of the choroid plexus between the ventricles. The proposed model is able to reproduce the measured phase differences with a very small (5%) variation of the distribution of the choroid plexus between the ventricles and, therefore, supports the theory that the choroid plexus drives the cerebrospinal fluid motion.

  6. Effect of Compressibility on Hyperbolicity and Choke Flow Criterion of the Two-phase Two-fluid Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suneet Singh; Vincent A. Mousseau

    2008-09-01

    The standard two-phase two-fluid model lacks hyperbolicity which results in oscillations in the numerical solutions. For the incompressible two-phase flows an exact correction term can be derived which when added to the momentum equations makes the model hyperbolic. No such straightforward approach exists for the similar compressible flows. In the current work, the effect of the compressibility on the characteristic equation is analyzed. It is shown that the hyperbolicity of the system depends only on the slip velocity and not on the phasic velocities, independently. Moreover, a slip Mach number is defined and a non-dimensional characteristic equation is derived. It is shown that for the small values of slip Mach number the effect of the compressibility on the hyperbolicity can be ignored. To verify the above analysis, the characteristic equation for the two-phase compressible flows is numerically solved and results compared with the values obtained with the analytical solution for incompressible flows. Numerical solution of the two-phase two-fluid model for the benchmark problem is used to further verify the abovementioned analysis. Furthermore, the eigenvalues of the characteristic equation are obtained as a power series expansion about the point where the slip Mach number is zero. These eigenvalues are used to develop a choking criterion for the compressible two-phase flows.

  7. Experiment and Simulation Study on the Special Phase Behavior of Huachang Near-Critical Condensate Gas Reservoir Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dali Hou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the special phase behavior of near-critical fluid, the development approaches of near-critical condensate gas and near-critical volatile oil reservoirs differ from conventional oil and gas reservoirs. In the near-critical region, slightly reduced pressure may result in considerable change in gas and liquid composition since a large amount of gas or retrograde condensate liquid is generated. It is of significance to gain insight into the composition variation of near-critical reservoir during the depletion development. In our study, we performed a series of PVT experiments on a real near-critical gas condensate reservoir fluid. In addition to the experimental studies, a commercial simulator combined with the PREOS model was utilized to study retrograde condensate characteristics and reevaporation mechanism of condensate oil with CO2 injection based on vapor-liquid phase equilibrium thermodynamic theory. The research shows that when reservoir pressure drops below a certain pressure, the variation of retrograde condensate liquid saturation of the residual reservoir fluid exhibits the phase behavior of volatile oil.

  8. Solid state interconversion between anhydrous norfloxacin and its hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongcharoen, Wanchai; Byrn, Stephen R; Sutanthavibul, Narueporn

    2008-01-01

    This work is focused on characterizing and evaluating the solid state interconversion of norfloxacin (NF) hydrates. Four stoichiometric NF hydrates, dihydrate, hemipentahydrate, trihydrate, pentahydrate and a disordered NF state, were generated by various methods and characterized by X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD), thermal analysis and Karl Fisher titrimetry. XRPD patterns of all NF hydrates exhibited crystalline structures. NF hydrate conversion was studied with respect to mild elevated temperature and various degrees of moisture levels. NF hydrates transformed to anhydrous NF Form A after gentle heating at 60 degrees C for 48 h except dihydrate and trihydrate where mixture in XRPD patterns between anhydrous NF Form A and former structures existed. Desiccation of NF hydrates at 0% RH for 7 days resulted in only partial removal of water molecules from the hydrated structures. The hydrated transitional phase and the disordered NF state were obtained from the incomplete dehydration of NF hydrates after thermal treatment and pentahydrate NF after desiccation, respectively. Anhydrous NF Form A and NF hydrates transformed to pentahydrate NF when exposed to high moisture environment except dihydrate. In conclusion, surrounding moisture levels, temperatures and the duration of exposure strongly influenced the interconversion pathways and stoichiometry of anhydrous NF and its hydrates. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Gas hydrate in nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2018-01-17

    Gas hydrate is a naturally occurring, ice-like substance that forms when water and gas combine under high pressure and at moderate temperatures. Methane is the most common gas present in gas hydrate, although other gases may also be included in hydrate structures, particularly in areas close to conventional oil and gas reservoirs. Gas hydrate is widespread in ocean-bottom sediments at water depths greater than 300–500 meters (m; 984–1,640 feet [ft]) and is also present in areas with permanently frozen ground (permafrost). Several countries are evaluating gas hydrate as a possible energy resource in deepwater or permafrost settings. Gas hydrate is also under investigation to determine how environmental change may affect these deposits.

  10. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas E. Williams; Keith Millheim; Buddy King

    2004-03-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project is in the second year of a three-year endeavor being sponsored by Maurer Technology, Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the DOE. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. We plan to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. We also plan to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope is to drill and core a well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 and 2004. We are also using an on-site core analysis laboratory to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well is being drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that will have minimal footprint and environmental impact. We hope to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and production data to allow reservoir models to be calibrated. Ultimately, our goal is to form an objective technical and economic evaluation of reservoir potential in Alaska.

  11. Investigation of the hydration and bioactivity of radiopacified tricalcium silicate cement, Biodentine and MTA Angelus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Josette; Sorrentino, François; Damidot, Denis

    2013-05-01

    calcium silicate was higher for Biodentine™ than for TCS-20-Z owing to its optimized particle size distribution, the presence of CaCO₃ and the use of CaCl₂. Tricalcium calcium silicate in MTA hydrated even more slowly than TCS-20-Z as evident from the size of reaction rim representative of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) around tricalcium silicate grains and the calorimetry measurements. On the other hand, calcium oxide contained in MTA Angelus™ hydrated very fast inducing an intense exothermic reaction. Calcium hydroxide was produced as a by-product of reaction in all hydrated cements but in greater quantities in MTA due to the hydration of calcium oxide. This lead to less dense microstructure than the one observed for both Biodentine™ and TCS-20-Z. All the materials were bioactive and allowed the deposition of hydroxyapatite on the cement surface in the presence of simulated body fluid and the radiopacity was greater than 3mm aluminum thickness. All the cement pastes tested were composed mainly of tricalcium silicate and a radiopacifier. The laboratory manufactured cement contained no other additives. Biodentine™ included calcium carbonate which together with the additives in the mixing liquid resulted in a material with enhanced chemical properties relative to TCS-20-Z prototype cement. On the other hand MTA Angelus™ displayed the presence of calcium, aluminum and silicon oxides in the un-hydrated powder. These phases are normally associated with the raw materials indicating that the clinker of MTA Angelus™ is incompletely sintered leading to a potential important variability in its mineralogy depending on the sintering conditions. As a consequence, the amount of tricalcium silicate is less than in the two other cements leading to a slower reaction rate and more porous microstructure. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. IN-SITU SAMPLING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING MARINE METHANE HYDRATE USING THE D/V JOIDES RESOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank R. Rack; Tim Francis; Peter Schultheiss; Philip E. Long; Barry M. Freifeld

    2005-04-01

    The primary activities accomplished during this quarter were continued efforts to develop plans for Phase 2 of this cooperative agreement based on the evolving operational planning for IODP Expedition 311, which will use the JOIDES Resolution to study marine methane hydrates along the Cascadia margin, offshore Vancouver Island. IODP Expedition 311 has been designed to further constrain the models for the formation of marine gas hydrate in subduction zone accretionary prisms. The objectives include characterizing the deep origin of the methane, its upward transport, its incorporation in gas hydrate, and its subsequent loss to the seafloor. The main attention of this expedition is on the widespread seafloor-parallel layer of dispersed gas hydrate located just above the base of the predicted stability field. In a gas hydrate formation model, methane is carried upward through regional sediment or small-scale fracture permeability, driven by the tectonic consolidation of the accretionary prism. The upward moving methane is incorporated into the gas hydrate clathrate as it enters the methane hydrate stability zone. Also important is the focusing of a portion of the upward methane flux into localized plumes or channels to form concentrations of near-seafloor gas hydrate. The amount of gas hydrate in local concentrations near the seafloor is especially important for understanding the response of marine gas hydrate to climate change. The expedition includes coring and downhole measurements at five sites across the Northern Cascadia accretionary prism. The sites will track the history of methane in an accretionary prism from (1) its production by mainly microbiological processes over a thick sediment vertical extent, (2) its upward transport through regional or locally focused fluid flow, (3) its incorporation in the regional hydrate layer above the BSR or in local concentrations at or near the seafloor, (4) methane loss from the hydrate by upward diffusion, and (5) methane

  13. Isostructural solid-solid phase transition in monolayers of soft core-shell particles at fluid interfaces: structure and mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Marcel; Fernández-Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel; Steinacher, Mathias; Scheidegger, Laura; Geisel, Karen; Richtering, Walter; Squires, Todd M; Isa, Lucio

    2016-04-21

    We have studied the complete two-dimensional phase diagram of a core-shell microgel-laden fluid interface by synchronizing its compression with the deposition of the interfacial monolayer. Applying a new protocol, different positions on the substrate correspond to different values of the monolayer surface pressure and specific area. Analyzing the microstructure of the deposited monolayers, we discovered an isostructural solid-solid phase transition between two crystalline phases with the same hexagonal symmetry, but with two different lattice constants. The two phases corresponded to shell-shell and core-core inter-particle contacts, respectively; with increasing surface pressure the former mechanically failed enabling the particle cores to come into contact. In the phase-transition region, clusters of particles in core-core contacts nucleate, melting the surrounding shell-shell crystal, until the whole monolayer moves into the second phase. We furthermore measured the interfacial rheology of the monolayers as a function of the surface pressure using an interfacial microdisk rheometer. The interfaces always showed a strong elastic response, with a dip in the shear elastic modulus in correspondence with the melting of the shell-shell phase, followed by a steep increase upon the formation of a percolating network of the core-core contacts. These results demonstrate that the core-shell nature of the particles leads to a rich mechanical and structural behavior that can be externally tuned by compressing the interface, indicating new routes for applications, e.g. in surface patterning or emulsion stabilization.

  14. Probing methane hydrate nucleation through the forward flux sampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yuanfei; Li, Tianshu

    2014-11-26

    Understanding the nucleation of hydrate is the key to developing effective strategies for controlling methane hydrate formation. Here we present a computational study of methane hydrate nucleation, by combining the forward flux sampling (FFS) method and the coarse-grained water model mW. To facilitate the application of FFS in studying the formation of methane hydrate, we developed an effective order parameter λ on the basis of the topological analysis of the tetrahedral network. The order parameter capitalizes the signature of hydrate structure, i.e., polyhedral cages, and is capable of efficiently distinguishing hydrate from ice and liquid water while allowing the formation of different hydrate phases, i.e., sI, sII, and amorphous. Integration of the order parameter λ with FFS allows explicitly computing hydrate nucleation rates and obtaining an ensemble of nucleation trajectories under conditions where spontaneous hydrate nucleation becomes too slow to occur in direct simulation. The convergence of the obtained hydrate nucleation rate was found to depend crucially on the convergence of the spatial distribution for the spontaneously formed hydrate seeds obtained from the initial sampling of FFS. The validity of the approach is also verified by the agreement between the calculated nucleation rate and that inferred from the direct simulation. Analyzing the obtained large ensemble of hydrate nucleation trajectories, we show hydrate formation at 220 K and 500 bar is initiated by the nucleation events occurring in the vicinity of water-methane interface, and facilitated by a gradual transition from amorphous to crystalline structure. The latter provides the direct support to the proposed two-step nucleation mechanism of methane hydrate.

  15. Molecular modeling of the dissociation of methane hydrate in contact with a silica surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagherzadeh, S Alireza; Englezos, Peter; Alavi, Saman; Ripmeester, John A

    2012-03-15

    We use constant energy, constant volume (NVE) molecular dynamics simulations to study the dissociation of the fully occupied structure I methane hydrate in a confined geometry between two hydroxylated silica surfaces between 36 and 41 Å apart, at initial temperatures of 283, 293, and 303 K. Simulations of the two-phase hydrate/water system are performed in the presence of silica, with and without a 3 Å thick buffering water layer between the hydrate phase and silica surfaces. Faster decomposition is observed in the presence of silica, where the hydrate phase is prone to decomposition from four surfaces, as compared to only two sides in the case of the hydrate/water simulations. The existence of the water layer between the hydrate phase and the silica surface stabilizes the hydrate phase relative to the case where the hydrate is in direct contact with silica. Hydrates bound between the silica surfaces dissociate layer-by-layer in a shrinking core manner with a curved decomposition front which extends over a 5-8 Å thickness. Labeling water molecules shows that there is exchange of water molecules between the surrounding liquid and intact cages in the methane hydrate phase. In all cases, decomposition of the methane hydrate phase led to the formation of methane nanobubbles in the liquid water phase. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  16. In Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network, Meso-Scale Test Bed - Phase 3 Fluid Injection Test Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, M. G.

    2013-09-27

    located at the Florida International University Applied Research Center, Miami, FL (FIU-ARC). A follow-on fluid injection test was developed to detect fluid and ion migration in a cementitious material/grouted test cube using a limited number of existing embedded sensor systems. This In Situ Decommissioning Sensor Network, Meso-Scale Test Bed (ISDSN-MSTB) - Phase 3 Fluid Injection Test Summary Report summarizes the test implementation, acquired and processed data, and results from the activated embedded sensor systems used during the fluid injection test. The ISDSN-MSTB Phase 3 Fluid Injection Test was conducted from August 27 through September 6, 2013 at the FIU-ARC ISDSN-MSTB test cube. The fluid injection test activated a portion of the existing embedded sensor systems in the ISDSN-MSTB test cube: Electrical Resistivity Tomography-Thermocouple Sensor Arrays, Advance Tensiometer Sensors, and Fiber Loop Ringdown Optical Sensors. These embedded sensor systems were activated 15 months after initial placement. All sensor systems were remotely operated and data acquisition was completed through the established Sensor Remote Access System (SRAS) hosted on the DOE D&D Knowledge Management Information Tool (D&D DKM-IT) server. The ISDN Phase 3 Fluid Injection Test successfully demonstrated the feasibility of embedding sensor systems to assess moisture-fluid flow and resulting transport potential for contaminate mobility through a cementitious material/grout monolith. The ISDSN embedded sensor systems activated for the fluid injection test highlighted the robustness of the sensor systems and the importance of configuring systems in-depth (i.e., complementary sensors and measurements) to alleviate data acquisition gaps.

  17. On the role of slab de- and re-hydration and temperature on magmas genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouilhol, P.; Magni, V.; Van Hunen, J.; Kaislaniemi, L.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the metamorphic reactions that occurs within the slab is a must to constrain subduction zone processes. Slab dehydration reactions ultimately permit the mantle wedge to melt, by lowering its solidus, thus forming arcs above descending slabs. Alternatively the slab crust may cross its solidus in warm (young) slabs. Moreover, slab dehydration allows chemical fractionation to occur between residual phases and transferred fluid phase, giving arc magmas part of their typical subduction zone chemical characteristics. To better comprehend such complex thermo-chemical open system, we are using a numerical model that reproduces the thermo-mechanical behaviour of a subducting slab and computes the thermodynamic equilibrium paragenesis at each P-T-X conditions of the system. Hence we generate a 'paragenetic map' of a subduction system, allowing us to track the fate of water during dehydration and subsequent re-hydration or melting reactions. Here we highlight the role of dehydration and re-hydration reactions occurring in the slab's igneous crust and mantle and the mantle wedge for different slab ages at fixed rate and dip, hence presenting the evolution of a subduction paragenetic map for different thermal regimes. We intend to show the key roles of a) antigorite and chlorite breakdown in the hydrated part of the slab mantle, b) amphibole and lawsonite in the slab crust, and c) the role of amphibole and chlorite in the mantle wedge. Furthermore, we demonstrate the importance of dehydration / re-hydration reactions occurring within the slab and mantle wedge as a main process for water transport and melting reactions. As a whole, as the slab age decreases, dehydration reactions are occurring in a narrower PT window at shallower depth, and because of early slab dehydration, the role of hydrous phases in the metasomatized mantle wedge become more important. The younger the slab is, the less lawsonite plays a role in the transferred fluid, inducing drastic changes

  18. Estimation of prepractice hydration status of National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Stella L; Poule, Kristen A; Bland, Erica G

    2009-01-01

    To our knowledge, no one has compared the prepractice hydration status of male and female National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I athletes or has studied the effects of the menstrual cycle phase on women's prepractice hydration status. To report prepractice hydration status of collegiate athletes and determine the factors that might influence that status. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. University sports team practices. Participants included 138 male and 125 female athletes (age = 19.9 + or - 1.3 years, height = 165.8 + or - 42.9 cm, mass = 77.4 + or - 17.5 kg) from an NCAA Division I New England university. One spontaneously voided (spot) urine sample was collected from each participant before his or her team practice and was measured 2 times. A refractometer was used to analyze the amount of light that passed through a small drop of urine and assess urine specific gravity. Fluid intake and menstrual history for women were also collected. Three hydration-status groups were defined based on the American College of Sports Medicine and National Athletic Trainers' Association criteria: (1) euhydrated, which was urine specific gravity less than 1.020; (2) hypohydrated, from 1.020 to 1.029; and (3) significantly hypohydrated, equal to or more than 1.030. Thirteen percent of student-athletes appeared significantly hypohydrated, with a mean urine specific gravity of 1.031 + or - 0.002 (chi(2) = 12.12, P .05). A greater percentage of men (47%) than women (28%) were hypohydrated (chi(2) = 8.33, P .05). Before activity, athletes were hypohydrated at different levels. A greater percentage of men than women were hypohydrated. Menstrual cycle phase did not appear to affect hydration in women.

  19. Transition mechanism of sH to filled-ice Ih structure of methane hydrate under fixed pressure condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadobayashi, H.; Hirai, H.; Ohfuji, H.; Kojima, Y.; Ohishi, Y.; Hirao, N.; Ohtake, M.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2017-10-01

    The phase transition mechanism of methane hydrate from sH to filled-ice Ih structure was examined using a combination of time-resolved X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with charge-coupled device (CCD) camera observation under fixed pressure conditions. Prior to time-resolved Raman experiments, the typical C-H vibration modes and their pressure dependence of three methane hydrate structures, fluid methane and solid methane were measured using Raman spectroscopy to distinguish the phase transitions of methane hydrates from decomposition to solid methane and ice VI or VII. Experimental results by XRD, Raman spectroscopy and CCD camera observation revealed that the structural transition of sH to filled-ice Ih occurs through a collapse of the sH framework followed by the release of fluid methane that is then gradually incorporated into the filled-ice Ih to reconstruct its structure. These observations suggest that the phase transition of sH to filled-ice Ih takes place by a typical reconstructive mechanism.

  20. Electrical properties of methane hydrate + sediment mixtures: The σ of CH4 Hydrate + Sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du Frane, Wyatt L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Stern, Laura A. [U. S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Constable, Steven [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States); Weitemeyer, Karen A. [Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States); National Oceanography Centre Southampton (United Kingdom), Univ. of Southampton Waterfront Campus, Southampton (United Kingdom); Smith, Megan M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Roberts, Jeffery J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-07-30

    Knowledge of the electrical properties of multicomponent systems with gas hydrate, sediments, and pore water is needed to help relate electromagnetic (EM) measurements to specific gas hydrate concentration and distribution patterns in nature. We built a pressure cell capable of measuring in situ electrical properties of multicomponent systems such that the effects of individual components and mixing relations can be assessed. We first established the temperature-dependent electrical conductivity (σ) of pure, single-phase methane hydrate to be ~5 orders of magnitude lower than seawater, a substantial contrast that can help differentiate hydrate deposits from significantly more conductive water-saturated sediments in EM field surveys. We report σ measurements of two-component systems in which methane hydrate is mixed with variable amounts of quartz sand or glass beads. Sand by itself has low σ but is found to increase the overall σ of mixtures with well-connected methane hydrate. Alternatively, the overall σ decreases when sand concentrations are high enough to cause gas hydrate to be poorly connected, indicating that hydrate grains provide the primary conduction path. Our measurements suggest that impurities from sand induce chemical interactions and/or doping effects that result in higher electrical conductivity with lower temperature dependence. Finally, these results can be used in the modeling of massive or two-phase gas-hydrate-bearing systems devoid of conductive pore water. Further experiments that include a free water phase are the necessary next steps toward developing complex models relevant to most natural systems.

  1. Syringomyelia due to Lumbar Spinal Fluid Drainage in the Acute Phase of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Akira; Fujii, Mutsumi; Ishihara, Tasuku; Amano, Eiichiro; Otsu, Shinichi; Fujii, Shoko; Tamada, Natsumi; Kiyokawa, Juri; Yoshimura, Masataka; Hirota, Shin; Yamamoto, Shinji

    2018-01-01

    Lumbar spinal fluid drainage is a common procedure for treating hydrocephalus and alleviating vasospasm by egesting blood in the subarachnoid cavity after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Despite being an effective and safe procedure, cerebrospinal fluid overdrainage might result in serious complications. Here we report the case of a 49-year-old man who suffered from tonsillar herniation with subsequent cervicothoracic syringomyelia in the acute phase of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to vertebral artery dissection. About 2 weeks after lumbar drainage was switched from external ventricular drainage initiated on the day of subarachnoid hemorrhage, the recovery from the disturbance of consciousness revealed tetraplegia, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated tonsillar herniation and syringomyelia. Removal of the spinal drain and resumption of external ventricular drainage resulted in the restoration of the herniated tonsils to the normal position and the complete disappearance of syringomyelia 11 days later. We should consider that spinal syringomyelia could develop as a complication of lumbar spinal fluid drainage in the acute phase of thick subarachnoid hemorrhage, particularly in the posterior cranial fossa. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Propagation characteristics of interface waves between a porous medium and a sediment-containing two-phase fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingbang; Qi, Lihua; Shan, Minglei; Yin, Cheng; Jiang, Xueping; Zhu, Changping

    2017-11-01

    Based on the modified Biot theory of Johnson, the propagation characteristics of the various interface waves at an interface between a semi-infinite fluid and a porous medium were studied. First, based on the characteristic equations of open-pore and sealed-pore, which were derived from the wave equations, time-domain waveforms at the interface were obtained by inverse Fourier transform. The effects of the longitudinal frame modulus on the interface waves were investigated. For open-pore and sealed-pore, the effect of porosity on the propagation of the interface waves was studied; the porosity was found to strongly influence the true surface wave. Based on four ultrasonic suspension models-Utrick, Utrick-Ament (UA), Harker-Temple (HT) and McClement, the pseudo-Stoneley wave propagation characteristics were analyzed at the interface between the sediment-containing two-phase fluid and the porous medium solid. The effects of volume fraction and particle diameter on the phase velocity, attenuation coefficient and dispersion for the pseudo-Stoneley and true surface wave were discussed, and the results demonstrated that the properties of the fluid strongly impacted the pseudo-Stoneley wave but exerted very little effect on the true surface wave. The conclusions drawn in this paper could contribute to elucidate the parameters of sediment and porous media. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Validation of two-phase CFD models for propellant tank self-pressurization: Crossing fluid types, scales, and gravity levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Kartuzova, Olga; Hylton, Sonya

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines our computational ability to capture the transport and phase change phenomena that govern cryogenic storage tank pressurization and underscores our strengths and weaknesses in this area in terms of three computational-experimental validation case studies. In the first study, 1g pressurization of a simulant low-boiling point fluid in a small scale transparent tank is considered in the context of the Zero-Boil-Off Tank (ZBOT) Experiment to showcase the relatively strong capability that we have developed in modelling the coupling between the convective transport and stratification in the bulk phases with the interfacial evaporative and condensing heat and mass transfer that ultimately control self-pressurization in the storage tank. Here, we show that computational predictions exhibit excellent temporal and spatial fidelity under the moderate Ra number - high Bo number convective-phase distribution regimes. In the second example, we focus on 1g pressurization and pressure control of the large-scale K-site liquid hydrogen tank experiment where we show that by crossing fluid types and physical scales, we enter into high Bo number - high Ra number flow regimes that challenge our ability to predict turbulent heat and mass transfer and their impact on the tank pressurization correctly, especially, in the vapor domain. In the final example, we examine pressurization results from the small scale simulant fluid Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TCPE) performed in microgravity to underscore the fact that in crossing into a low Ra number - low Bo number regime in microgravity, the temporal evolution of the phase front as affected by the time-dependent residual gravity and impulse accelerations becomes an important consideration. In this case detailed acceleration data are needed to predict the correct rate of tank self-pressurization.

  4. Urine color, osmolality and specific electrical conductance are not accurate measures of hydration status during postexercise rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, E M; Senden, J M; Brouns, F

    1999-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether urine color, osmolality and specific electrical conductance (SEC) provide an accurate index of hydration status and of fluid requirements during the recovery phase after an acute exercise-induced dehydration. eight well-trained healthy males were dehydrated about 3% of body mass, 3 times, by cycling in the heat. To rehydrate after exercise, three types of drinks frequently consumed by athletes postexercise, i.e. a caffeinated soft drink (CC), a mineral water (MW), or a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES) were ingested ad libitum and in randomized cross-over design during the first 2 hrs of an observation period lasting 6 hrs. urine was sampled each hour for determination of color, osmolality and SEC. Net rehydration was calculated from fluid intake and fluid loss by sweat and urine. Fluid intake amounted 2.6 +/- 0.2 kg for CC, 2.2 +/- 0.2 kg for MW and 2.8 +/- 0.3 kg for CES representing 116%, 96% and 127% of fluid lost by sweat. Urine output showed a negative correlation with color, osmolality and SEC (p 0.05). Urine color, SEC and osmolality are poor indicators of hydration status measured from the balance between fluid intake and urine output up to 6 hrs postexercise.

  5. Equation-of-State Modeling of Phase Equilibria in Petroleum Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne

    1996-01-01

    The Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of state was used to investigate and develop several aspects of the modeling of natural petroleum fluids.A new method was presented for numerical evaluation of PVT experiments. This method was used in the estimation of binary interaction parameters. A comphr......The Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of state was used to investigate and develop several aspects of the modeling of natural petroleum fluids.A new method was presented for numerical evaluation of PVT experiments. This method was used in the estimation of binary interaction parameters....... A comphrensive study of pseudoization procedures is presented. It is concluded that the compared methods exhibit results of comparable accuracy, and that six to eight pseudocomponents are needed for optimal representation of petroleum fluids.Finally, it is investigated how well the EOS can represent the VLLE...

  6. Modeling Two-Phase Flow and Vapor Cycles Using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amanda D.; Majumdar, Alok K.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents three new applications for the general purpose fluid network solver code GFSSP developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center: (1) cooling tower, (2) vapor-compression refrigeration system, and (3) vapor-expansion power generation system. These systems are widely used across engineering disciplines in a variety of energy systems, and these models expand the capabilities and the use of GFSSP to include fluids and features that are not part of its present set of provided examples. GFSSP provides pressure, temperature, and species concentrations at designated locations, or nodes, within a fluid network based on a finite volume formulation of thermodynamics and conservation laws. This paper describes the theoretical basis for the construction of the models, their implementation in the current GFSSP modeling system, and a brief evaluation of the usefulness of the model results, as well as their applicability toward a broader spectrum of analytical problems in both university teaching and engineering research.

  7. Extensive decarbonation of continuously hydrated subducting slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzilli, Fabio; Burton, Mike; La Spina, Giuseppe; Macpherson, Colin G.

    2017-04-01

    CO2 release from subducting slabs is a key element of Earth's carbon cycle, consigning slab carbon either to mantle burial or recycling to the surface through arc volcanism, however, what controls subducted carbon's fate is poorly understood. Fluids mobilized by devolatilization of subducting slabs play a fundamental role in the melting of mantle wedges and in global geochemical cycles [1]. The effect of such fluids on decarbonation in subducting lithologies has been investigated recently [2-5], but several thermodynamic models [2-3], and experimental studies [6] suggest that carbon-bearing phases are stable at sub-arc depths (80-140 km; 2.6-4.5 GPa), implying that this carbon can be carried to mantle depths of >140 km. This is inconsistent with observations of voluminous CO2 release from arc volcanoes [7-10], located above slabs that are at 2.6-4.5 GPa pressure. The aim of this study is to re-evaluate the role of metamorphic decarbonation, showing if decarbonation reactions could be feasible at sub-arc depths combined with a continuous hydration scenario. We used the PerpleX software combined with a custom-designed algorithm to simulate a pervasive fluid infiltration characterized by "continuous hydration" combined with a distillation model, in which is possible to remove CO2 when decarbonation occurs, to obtain an open-system scenario. This is performed by repeatedly flushing the sediment with pure H2O at 0.5, 1.0 or 5 wt.% until no further decarbonation occurs. Here we show that continuous hydrated of sediment veneers on subducting slabs by H2O released from oceanic crust and serpentinised mantle lithosphere [11-13], produces extensive slab decarbonation over a narrow, sub-arc pressure range, even for low temperature subduction pathways. This explains the location of CO2-rich volcanism, quantitatively links the sedimentary composition of slab material to the degree of decarbonation and greatly increases estimates for the magnitude of carbon flux through the arc

  8. Solid-Phase Extraction Strategies to Surmount Body Fluid Sample Complexity in High-Throughput Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco R. Bladergroen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For large-scale and standardized applications in mass spectrometry- (MS- based proteomics automation of each step is essential. Here we present high-throughput sample preparation solutions for balancing the speed of current MS-acquisitions and the time needed for analytical workup of body fluids. The discussed workflows reduce body fluid sample complexity and apply for both bottom-up proteomics experiments and top-down protein characterization approaches. Various sample preparation methods that involve solid-phase extraction (SPE including affinity enrichment strategies have been automated. Obtained peptide and protein fractions can be mass analyzed by direct infusion into an electrospray ionization (ESI source or by means of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI without further need of time-consuming liquid chromatography (LC separations.

  9. In Vivo Profiling and Distribution of Known and Novel Phase I and Phase II Metabolites of Efavirenz in Plasma, Urine, and Cerebrospinal Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Aouri, Manel; Barcelo, Catalina; Ternon, Béatrice; Cavassini, Matthias; Anagnostopoulos, Alexia; Yerly Ferrillo, Sabine; Hugues, Henry; Vernazza, Pietro; Günthard, Huldrych F.; Buclin, Thierry; Telenti, Amalio; Rotger, Margalida; Decosterd, Laurent A.

    2016-01-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is principally metabolized by CYP2B6 to 8-hydroxy-efavirenz (8OH-EFV) and to a lesser extent by CYP2A6 to 7-hydroxy-efavirenz (7OH-EFV). So far, most metabolite profile analyses have been restricted to 8OH-EFV, 7OH-EFV, and EFV-N-glucuronide, even though these metabolites represent a minor percentage of EFV metabolites present in vivo. We have performed a quantitative phase I and II metabolite profile analysis by tandem mass spectrometry of plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a...

  10. Determination of amphetamine-type stimulants in oral fluid by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Daniele Z., E-mail: daniele.dzs@dpf.gov.br [Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Superintendencia Regional do Departamento de Policia Federal no Rio Grande do Sul, 1365 Ipiranga Avenue, Azenha, Zip Code 90160-093 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 2752 Ipiranga Avenue, Santana, Zip Code 90610-000 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Boehl, Paula O.; Comiran, Eloisa; Mariotti, Kristiane C. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 2752 Ipiranga Avenue, Santana, Zip Code 90610-000 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Pechansky, Flavio [Centro de Pesquisa em Alcool e Drogas (CPAD), Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 2350, Ramiro Barcelos Street, Zip Code 90035-903 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Duarte, Paulina C.A.V. [Secretaria Nacional de Politicas sobre Drogas (SENAD), Esplanada dos Ministerios, Block ' A' , 5th floor, Zip Code 70050-907 Brasilia, Distrito Federal (Brazil); De Boni, Raquel [Centro de Pesquisa em Alcool e Drogas (CPAD), Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 2350, Ramiro Barcelos Street, Zip Code 90035-903 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Froehlich, Pedro E.; Limberger, Renata P. [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Faculdade de Farmacia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 2752 Ipiranga Avenue, Santana, Zip Code 90610-000 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2011-06-24

    Graphical abstract: Highlights: > Propylchloroformate derivatization of amphetamine-type stimulants in oral fluid. > Direct immersion solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. > Linear range 2(4)-256 ng mL{sup -1}, detection limits 0.5-2 ng mL{sup -1}. > Accuracy 98-112%, precision <15% of RSD, recovery 77-112%. > Importance of residual evaluation in checking model goodness-of-fit. - Abstract: A method for the simultaneous identification and quantification of amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MET), fenproporex (FEN), diethylpropion (DIE) and methylphenidate (MPH) in oral fluid collected with Quantisal{sup TM} device has been developed and validated. Thereunto, in-matrix propylchloroformate derivatization followed by direct immersion solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were employed. Deuterium labeled AMP was used as internal standard for all the stimulants and analysis was performed using the selected ion monitoring mode. The detector response was linear for the studied drugs in the concentration range of 2-256 ng mL{sup -1} (neat oral fluid), except for FEN, whereas the linear range was 4-256 ng mL{sup -1}. The detection limits were 0.5 ng mL{sup -1} (MET), 1 ng mL{sup -1} (MPH) and 2 ng mL{sup -1} (DIE, AMP, FEN), respectively. Accuracy of quality control samples remained within 98.2-111.9% of the target concentrations, while precision has not exceeded 15% of the relative standard deviation. Recoveries with Quantisal{sup TM} device ranged from 77.2% to 112.1%. Also, the goodness-of-fit concerning the ordinary least squares model in the statistical inference of data has been tested through residual plotting and ANOVA. The validated method can be easily automated and then used for screening and confirmation of amphetamine-type stimulants in drivers' oral fluid.

  11. Methane gas hydrate effect on sediment acoustic and strength properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, W.J.; Waite, W.F.; Mason, D.H.; Gilbert, L.Y.; Pecher, I.A.

    2007-01-01

    To improve our understanding of the interaction of methane gas hydrate with host sediment, we studied: (1) the effects of gas hydrate and ice on acoustic velocity in different sediment types, (2) effect of different hydrate formation mechanisms on measured acoustic properties (3) dependence of shear strength on pore space contents, and (4) pore pressure effects during undrained shear.A wide range in acoustic p-wave velocities (Vp) were measured in coarse-grained sediment for different pore space occupants. Vp ranged from less than 1 km/s for gas-charged sediment to 1.77–1.94 km/s for water-saturated sediment, 2.91–4.00 km/s for sediment with varying degrees of hydrate saturation, and 3.88–4.33 km/s for frozen sediment. Vp measured in fine-grained sediment containing gas hydrate was substantially lower (1.97 km/s). Acoustic models based on measured Vp indicate that hydrate which formed in high gas flux environments can cement coarse-grained sediment, whereas hydrate formed from methane dissolved in the pore fluid may not.The presence of gas hydrate and other solid pore-filling material, such as ice, increased the sediment shear strength. The magnitude of that increase is related to the amount of hydrate in the pore space and cementation characteristics between the hydrate and sediment grains. We have found, that for consolidation stresses associated with the upper several hundred meters of sub-bottom depth, pore pressures decreased during shear in coarse-grained sediment containing gas hydrate, whereas pore pressure in fine-grained sediment typically increased during shear. The presence of free gas in pore spaces damped pore pressure response during shear and reduced the strengthening effect of gas hydrate in sands.

  12. Electrical properties of polycrystalline methane hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Frane, W. L.; Stern, L.A.; Weitemeyer, K.A.; Constable, S.; Pinkston, J.C.; Roberts, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) remote-sensing techniques are demonstrated to be sensitive to gas hydrate concentration and distribution and complement other resource assessment techniques, particularly seismic methods. To fully utilize EM results requires knowledge of the electrical properties of individual phases and mixing relations, yet little is known about the electrical properties of gas hydrates. We developed a pressure cell to synthesize gas hydrate while simultaneously measuring in situ frequency-dependent electrical conductivity (σ). Synthesis of methane (CH4) hydrate was verified by thermal monitoring and by post run cryogenic scanning electron microscope imaging. Impedance spectra (20 Hz to 2 MHz) were collected before and after synthesis of polycrystalline CH4 hydrate from polycrystalline ice and used to calculate σ. We determined the σ of CH4 hydrate to be 5 × 10−5 S/m at 0°C with activation energy (Ea) of 30.6 kJ/mol (−15 to 15°C). After dissociation back into ice, σ measurements of samples increased by a factor of ~4 and Ea increased by ~50%, similar to the starting ice samples.

  13. Mechanical and electromagnetic properties of northern Gulf of Mexico sediments with and without THF hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.Y.; Santamarina, J.C.; Ruppel, C.

    2008-01-01

    Using an oedometer cell instrumented to measure the evolution of electromagnetic properties, small strain stiffness, and temperature, we conducted consolidation tests on sediments recovered during drilling in the northern Gulf of Mexico at the Atwater Valley and Keathley Canyon sites as part of the 2005 Chevron Joint Industry Project on Methane Hydrates. The tested specimens include both unremolded specimens (as recovered from the original core liner) and remolded sediments both without gas hydrate and with pore fluid exchanged to attain 100% synthetic (tetrahydrofuran) hydrate saturation at any stage of loading. Test results demonstrate the extent to which the electromagnetic and mechanical properties of hydrate-bearing marine sediments are governed by the vertical effective stress, stress history, porosity, hydrate saturation, fabric, ionic concentration of the pore fluid, and temperature. We also show how permittivity and electrical conductivity data can be used to estimate the evolution of hydrate volume fraction during formation. The gradual evolution of geophysical properties during hydrate formation probably reflects the slow increase in ionic concentration in the pore fluid due to ion exclusion in closed systems and the gradual decrease in average pore size in which the hydrate forms. During hydrate formation, the increase in S-wave velocity is delayed with respect to the decrease in permittivity, consistent with hydrate formation on mineral surfaces and subsequent crystal growth toward the pore space. No significant decementation/debonding occurred in 100% THF hydrate-saturated sediments during unloading, hence the probability of sampling hydrate-bearing sediments without disturbing the original sediment fabric is greatest for samples in which the gas hydrate is primarily responsible for maintaining the sediment fabric and for which the time between core retrieval and restoration of in situ effective stress in the laboratory is minimized. In evaluating the

  14. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of blood flow regularized by 3D phase contrast MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rispoli, Vinicius C; Nielsen, Jon; Nayak, Krishna S

    2015-01-01

    dynamics (CFD) calculations. CFD provides arbitrarily high resolution, but its accuracy hinges on model assumptions, while velocity fields measured with PC-MRI generally do not satisfy the equations of fluid dynamics, provide limited resolution, and suffer from partial volume effects. The purpose...

  15. Computational fluid dynamics study on two-phase CO2 dispersion in a neutral atmosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijssenaar, I.J.M.; Spruijt, M.P.N.; Hulsbosch, C.E.C.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: A large release of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is modelled with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), (Fluent v12.1). Special attention is given to the modelling of a neutral atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) with gravity. Both the presence of non-vapour CO2 and the high density of CO2 require that

  16. Insights into the structures of the gas-phase hydrated cations M⁺(H₂O)(n)Ar (M = Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs; n = 3-5) using infrared photodissociation spectroscopy and thermodynamic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Haochen; van der Linde, Christian; Lisy, James M

    2015-03-12

    The hydration of alkali cations yields a variety of structural conformers with varying numbers of water molecules in the first solvation shell. How these ions move from the aqueous phase into biological systems, such as at the entrance of an ion channel, depends on the interplay between competing intermolecular forces, which first must involve ion-water and water-water interactions. New infrared action spectra, using argon as a messenger or "spy", for Li(+), Na(+), and K(+), with up to five water molecules are reported, and new structural conformers determined from ab initio calculations, combined with previous results on Rb(+) and Cs(+), have identified structural transitions at each hydration level. These transitions are a result of the delicate balance between competing noncovalent interactions and represent a quantitative microscopic view of the macroscopic enthalpy-entropy competition between energy and structural variety. Smaller cations (Li(+) and Na(+)), with higher charge density, yield structural configurations with extended linear networks of hydrogen bonds. Larger cations (Rb(+) and Cs(+)), with lower charge density, generate configurations with cyclic hydrogen-bonded water subunits. It appears that K(+) is somewhat unique, with very simple (and predominantly) single structural conformers. This has led to the suggestion that K(+) can "move" easily in or through biological systems, concealing its identity as an ion, under the "appearance" or disguise of a water molecule.

  17. A self-standing two-fluid CFD model for vertical upward two-phase annular flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y., E-mail: yang_liu@mail.dlut.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Ocean Energy Utilization and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, Liaoning Province (China); Li, W.Z.; Quan, S.L. [Key Laboratory of Ocean Energy Utilization and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024, Liaoning Province (China)

    2011-05-15

    Research highlights: A mathematic model for two-phase annular flow is established in this paper. Pressure loss and wall shear stress increase with inlet gas and liquid flow velocities. Droplet mass fraction distribution exhibits a concave profile radially. - Abstract: In this paper, a new two-fluid CFD (computational fluid dynamics) model is proposed to simulate the vertical upward two-phase annular flow. This model solves the basic mass and momentum equations for the gas core region flow and the liquid film flow, where the basic governing equations are accounted for by the commercial CFD package Fluent6.3.26. The liquid droplet flow and the interfacial inter-phase effects are accounted for by the programmable interface of Fluent, UDF (user defined function). Unlike previous models, the present model includes the effect of liquid roll waves directly determined from the CFD code. It is able to provide more detailed and, the most important, self-standing information for both the gas core flow and the film flow as well as the inner tube wall situations.

  18. Hydrate pingoes at Nyegga: some characteristic features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, M.

    2009-04-01

    from above. It is, therefore, expected that hydrate pingoes continually accrete from below and ablate from above, processes which cause a continuous change of size and shape over time, as long as fluid migration is active. These active (mainly inorganic) processes also stimulate organic life, by the continuous release of: a) dissolved methane and other reduced chemical species, and b) low-salinity and/or high-salinity water, released by active hydrate formation and dissociation.

  19. Ethylene Separation via Hydrate Formation in W/O Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Pan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available An hybrid absorption-hydration method was adopted to recover C2H4 from C2H4/CH4 binary gas mixtures and the hydrate formation conditions of C2H4/CH4 mixtures was studied experimentally in diesel in water (w/o emulsions. Span 20 at a concentration of 1.0 wt% in the aqueous phase was added to form water in diesel emulsions before hydrate formation and then hydrate in diesel slurry was separated after hydrate formation. The influences of initial gas-liquid volume ratio (53–142, pressure (3.4–5.4 MPa, temperature (274.15–278.15 K, water cuts (10–30 vol%, and the mole fraction of C2H4 in feed gas (13.19–80.44 mol% upon the C2H4 separation efficiency were systematically investigated. The experimental results show that ethylene can be enriched in hydrate slurry phase with high separation factor (S and recovery ratio (R. Most hydrate formation finished in 20 min, after that, the hydrate formation rate became very slow. The conclusion is useful for determining the suitable operation conditions when adopting an absorption-hydration method to separate C2H4/CH4.

  20. Studying methane migration mechanisms at Walker Ridge, Gulf of Mexico, via 3D methane hydrate reservoir modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nole, Michael [University of Texas at Austin; Daigle, Hugh [University of Texas at Austin; Mohanty, Kishore [University of Texas at Austin; Cook, Ann [Ohio State University; Hillman, Jess [Ohio State University

    2015-12-15

    We have developed a 3D methane hydrate reservoir simulator to model marine methane hydrate systems. Our simulator couples highly nonlinear heat and mass transport equations and includes heterogeneous sedimentation, in-situ microbial methanogenesis, the influence of pore size contrast on solubility gradients, and the impact of salt exclusion from the hydrate phase on dissolved methane equilibrium in pore water. Using environmental parameters from Walker Ridge in the Gulf of Mexico, we first simulate hydrate formation in and around a thin, dipping, planar sand stratum surrounded by clay lithology as it is buried to 295mbsf. We find that with sufficient methane being supplied by organic methanogenesis in the clays, a 200x pore size contrast between clays and sands allows for a strong enough concentration gradient to significantly drop the concentration of methane hydrate in clays immediately surrounding a thin sand layer, a phenomenon that is observed in well log data. Building upon previous work, our simulations account for the increase in sand-clay solubility contrast with depth from about 1.6% near the top of the sediment column to 8.6% at depth, which leads to a progressive strengthening of the diffusive flux of methane with time. By including an exponentially decaying organic methanogenesis input to the clay lithology with depth, we see a decrease in the aqueous methane supplied to the clays surrounding the sand layer with time, which works to further enhance the contrast in hydrate saturation between the sand and surrounding clays. Significant diffusive methane transport is observed in a clay interval of about 11m above the sand layer and about 4m below it, which matches well log observations. The clay-sand pore size contrast alone is not enough to completely eliminate hydrate (as observed in logs), because the diffusive flux of aqueous methane due to a contrast in pore size occurs slower than the rate at which methane is supplied via organic methanogenesis

  1. Report on the achievements in fiscal 1999. Technology to use gas hydrate as a resource (Research and development for exploration, research and development on drilling technologies, investigative research on an environment influence evaluation method, and investigative research on a utilization system); 1999 nendo gas hydrate shigenka gijutsu sendo kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Tansa nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kussaku gijutsu nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu, kankyo eikyo hyokaho no chosa kenkyu, riyo system ni kansuru chosa kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The contents of the research and development performed in the current fiscal year are as follows: (1) research and development for exploration, (2) research and development on drilling technologies, (3) investigative research on an environment influence evaluation method, and (4) investigative research on a utilization system. In Item (1), element analysis data are used to study a method to estimate production environment of hydrate ore beds by using an inorganic ion analyzer and a trace amount element analyzer, the crust thermal flow measuring method is used to discuss a method to analyze the hydrate stability zones together with the data of sea area exploration records, and conceptual design is made on a resource potential evaluation system. In Item (2), experiments and analytical discussions are performed on decomposition control of the gas hydrate solid-liquid interface according to such conditions for the drilling fluid as temperatures and flow rates. Elucidation is given on the initial process of bubble generation for behavior of decomposed gas bubbles. Observation and elucidation are made on two-phase flow behavior of non-Newtonian fluid. In Item (3), conceptual design is carried out on a system to detect elements of shape change in each bed due to fluid movement in a gas hydrate bed and an upper bed. In Item (4), discussions are given on the optimizing conditions for generation and dissociation of gas hydrates. Investigation is made also on a possibility of the transportation and storage system. (NEDO)

  2. In-Space technology experiments program. A high efficiency thermal interface (using condensation heat transfer) between a 2-phase fluid loop and heatpipe radiator: Experiment definition phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohner, John A.; Dempsey, Brian P.; Herold, Leroy M.

    1990-01-01

    Space Station elements and advanced military spacecraft will require rejection of tens of kilowatts of waste heat. Large space radiators and two-phase heat transport loops will be required. To minimize radiator size and weight, it is critical to minimize the temperature drop between the heat source and sink. Under an Air Force contract, a unique, high-performance heat exchanger is developed for coupling the radiator to the transport loop. Since fluid flow through the heat exchanger is driven by capillary forces which are easily dominated by gravity forces in ground testing, it is necessary to perform microgravity thermal testing to verify the design. This contract consists of an experiment definition phase leading to a preliminary design and cost estimate for a shuttle-based flight experiment of this heat exchanger design. This program will utilize modified hardware from a ground test program for the heat exchanger.

  3. Analysis of Temperature Field, Heat and Fluid Flow of Two-Phase Zone Continuous Casting Cu–Sn Alloy Wire

    OpenAIRE

    Luo J.; Liu X; Wang X

    2016-01-01

    Cu–4.7 wt. % Sn alloy wire with Ø10 mm was prepared by two-phase zone continuous casting technology, and the temperature field, heat and fluid flow were investigated by the numerical simulated method. As the melting temperature, mold temperature, continuous casting speed and cooling water temperature is 1200 °C, 1040 °C, 20 mm/min and 18 °C, respectively, the alloy temperature in the mold is in the range of 720 °C–1081 °C, and the solid/liquid interface is in the mold. In the center of the mo...

  4. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali Kadaster; Bill Liddell; Tommy Thompson; Thomas Williams; Michael Niedermayr

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project was a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope included drilling and coring a well (Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. During the first drilling season, operations were conducted at the site between January 28, 2003 to April 30, 2003. The well was spudded and drilled to a depth of 1403 ft. Due to the onset of warmer weather, work was then suspended for the season. Operations at the site were continued after the tundra was re-opened the following season. Between January 12, 2004 and March 19, 2004, the well was drilled and cored to a final depth of 2300 ft. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and implemented for determining physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. Final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling and

  5. METHANE HYDRATE PRODUCTION FROM ALASKAN PERMAFROST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Runyon; Mike Globe; Kent Newsham; Robert Kleinberg; Doug Griffin

    2005-02-01

    Natural-gas hydrates have been encountered beneath the permafrost and considered a nuisance by the oil and gas industry for years. Engineers working in Russia, Canada and the USA have documented numerous drilling problems, including kicks and uncontrolled gas releases, in arctic regions. Information has been generated in laboratory studies pertaining to the extent, volume, chemistry and phase behavior of gas hydrates. Scientists studying hydrate potential agree that the potential is great--on the North Slope of Alaska alone, it has been estimated at 590 TCF. However, little information has been obtained on physical samples taken from actual rock containing hydrates. This gas-hydrate project was a cost-shared partnership between Maurer Technology, Noble Corporation, Anadarko Petroleum, and the U.S. Department of Energy's Methane Hydrate R&D program. The purpose of the project is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition to identify, quantify and predict production potential for hydrates located on the North Slope of Alaska. The work scope included drilling and coring a well (Hot Ice No. 1) on Anadarko leases beginning in FY 2003 and completed in 2004. During the first drilling season, operations were conducted at the site between January 28, 2003 to April 30, 2003. The well was spudded and drilled to a depth of 1403 ft. Due to the onset of warmer weather, work was then suspended for the season. Operations at the site were continued after the tundra was re-opened the following season. Between January 12, 2004 and March 19, 2004, the well was drilled and cored to a final depth of 2300 ft. An on-site core analysis laboratory was built and utilized for determining the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. The well was drilled from a new Anadarko Arctic Platform that has a minimal footprint and environmental impact. The final efforts of the project are to correlate geology, geophysics, logs, and drilling

  6. Detection of Occupancy Differences in Methane Gas Hydrates by Raman Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Susanne Brunsgaard; Berg, Rolf W.; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2004-01-01

    Gas hydrates are solid crystalline compounds, which grow from micro crystals to bulk masses resembling ordinary slush, snow or ice. Since gas hydrates exist at elevated pressures at temperatures well above the ice point, they can cause severe problems under production and transportation...... of reservoir fluids due to plugging. Methods to prevent hydrate formation are in use, e.g. by injection of inhibitors. From environmental and security points of view an easy way to detect hydrate formation is of interest. We have tried to detect methane hydrate formation by use of Raman spectroscopy....

  7. Results of the Workshop on Two-Phase Flow, Fluid Stability and Dynamics: Issues in Power, Propulsion, and Advanced Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuillen, John; Rame, Enrique; Kassemi, Mohammad; Singh, Bhim; Motil, Brian

    2003-01-01

    The Two-phase Flow, Fluid Stability and Dynamics Workshop was held on May 15, 2003 in Cleveland, Ohio to define a coherent scientific research plan and roadmap that addresses the multiphase fluid problems associated with NASA s technology development program. The workshop participants, from academia, industry and government, prioritized various multiphase issues and generated a research plan and roadmap to resolve them. This report presents a prioritization of the various multiphase flow and fluid stability phenomena related primarily to power, propulsion, fluid and thermal management and advanced life support; and a plan to address these issues in a logical and timely fashion using analysis, ground-based and space-flight experiments.

  8. Mannitol-enhanced, fluid-phase endocytosis in storage parenchyma cells of celery (Apium graveolens; Apiaceae) petioles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxeberria, Ed; Gonzalez, Pedro; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2007-06-01

    We recently demonstrated the occurrence of a sucrose-enhanced, fluid-phase endocytic (FPE) mechanism of nutrient uptake in heterotrophic cells. In the present work, the possible enhancement/induction of FPE by photoassimilates other than sucrose was investigated by measuring the incorporation of the fluorescent endocytosis marker d-TR (dextran-Texas red, 3000 mw) into celery (Apium graveolens) petiole storage parenchyma (CSP), a tissue that transports and accumulates mannitol. Mannitol uptake in these cells is biphasic, with a hyperbolic phase at concentrations below 20 mM and a linear phase above 20 mM external solute concentration. In the absence of mannitol, or in its presence at concentrations within the hyperbolic phase, CSP cells accumulated low levels of d-TR. Conversely, d-TR accumulation by CSP cells was greatly enhanced in the presence of mannitol at concentrations within the linear phase. At high external mannitol concentration, d-TR accumulation was prevented by the endocytic inhibitors LY294002 and latrunculin B. In addition, d-TR uptake was temperature dependent under high mannitol concentration. Microscopic observations revealed that d-TR accumulated in the vacuole. These data support the occurrence of an FPE mechanism in CSP cells that participates in trapping and transport of photoassimilates to the vacuole. The FPE mechanism is enhanced by high mannitol concentrations.

  9. Program For Finite-Element Analyses Of Phase-Change Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, L. A.

    1995-01-01

    PHASTRAN analyzes heat-transfer and flow behaviors of materials undergoing phase changes. Many phase changes operate over range of accelerations or effective gravitational fields. To analyze such thermal systems, it is necessary to obtain simultaneous solutions for equations of conservation of energy, momentum, and mass, and for equation of state. Written in APL2.

  10. On The Dynamics And Kinematics Of Two Fluid Phase Flow In Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-16

    J ca is the index set of entities that are connected to the a phase (i.e., the interfaces that bound the a phase). The mass exchange term is defined... Haines jump, which results in fluctuations of the time derivative of saturation. Best fit values for ĉwn and k̂ wn 1 were then determined based on the

  11. MODELING MULTICOMPONENT ORGANIC CHEMICAL TRANSPORT IN THREE FLUID PHASE POROUS MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A two-dimensional finite-element model was developed to predict coupled transient flow and multicomponent transport of organic chemicals which can partition between nonaqueous phase liquid, water, gas and solid phases in porous media under the assumption of local chemical equilib...

  12. Novel structure formation of a phase separating colloidal fluid in a ratchet potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtner, K.; Klapp, S. H. L.

    2014-06-01

    Based on Dynamical Density Functional Theory (DDFT) we investigate a binary mixture of interacting Brownian particles driven over a substrate via a one-dimensional ratchet potential. The particles are modeled as soft spheres where one component carries a classical Heisenberg spin. In the absence of a substrate field, the system undergoes a first-order fluid-fluid demixing transition driven by the spin-spin interaction. We demonstrate that the interplay between the intrinsic spinodal decomposition and time-dependent external forces leads to a novel dynamical instability where stripes against the symmetry of the external potential form. This structural transition is observed for a broad range of parameters related to the ratchet potential. Moreover, we find intriguing effects for the particle transport.

  13. Phase autowaves in the near-electrode layer in the electrochemical cell with a magnetic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekanov, V. V.; Kandaurova, N. V.; Chekanov, V. S.

    2017-06-01

    A change in color of the thin pellicle when light is reflected from the surface of the magnetic fluid at the interface with the transparent electrode in the electric field was observed. The formation of variable thickness near-electrode layer leads to a change in the spectrum of the reflected light depending on the applied voltage. Autowaves, that were observed in the layer are a unique object for the study of self-organization process.

  14. Two-phase flow modeling for low concentration spherical particle motion through a Newtonian fluid

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smit GJF

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available . Bear, Y. Bachmat, Introduction to Modeling of Transport Phenomena in Porous Media, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991. ISBN 0-7923-1106-X. [8] D. Gidaspow, Multiphase Flow and Fluidization: Continuum and Kinetic Theory Descriptions, Academic Press, New... and Ribberin large-scale and long term morphologica Please cite this article in press as: G.J.F. Smit Newtonian fluid, Appl. Math. Comput. (2010), � 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. modeling of multiphase flow has increasingly become the subject...

  15. Methane Hydrates: Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Ray; Yamamoto, Koji; Lee, Sung-Rock; Collett, Timothy S.; Kumar, Pushpendra; Dallimore, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Gas hydrate is a solid, naturally occurring substance consisting predominantly of methane gas and water. Recent scientific drilling programs in Japan, Canada, the United States, Korea and India have demonstrated that gas hydrate occurs broadly and in a variety of forms in shallow sediments of the outer continental shelves and in Arctic regions. Field, laboratory and numerical modelling studies conducted to date indicate that gas can be extracted from gas hydrates with existing production technologies, particularly for those deposits in which the gas hydrate exists as pore-filling grains at high saturation in sand-rich reservoirs. A series of regional resource assessments indicate that substantial volumes of gas hydrate likely exist in sand-rich deposits. Recent field programs in Japan, Canada and in the United States have demonstrated the technical viability of methane extraction from gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs and have investigated a range of potential production scenarios. At present, basic reservoir depressurisation shows the greatest promise and can be conducted using primarily standard industry equipment and procedures. Depressurisation is expected to be the foundation of future production systems; additional processes, such as thermal stimulation, mechanical stimulation and chemical injection, will likely also be integrated as dictated by local geological and other conditions. An innovative carbon dioxide and methane swapping technology is also being studied as a method to produce gas from select gas hydrate deposits. In addition, substantial additional volumes of gas hydrate have been found in dense arrays of grain-displacing veins and nodules in fine-grained, clay-dominated sediments; however, to date, no field tests, and very limited numerical modelling, have been conducted with regard to the production potential of such accumulations. Work remains to further refine: (1) the marine resource volumes within potential accumulations that can be

  16. Nonlinear phase of the compressional m=1 diocotron instability: Saturation and analogy with geophysical fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delzanno, G. L.; Finn, J. M.; Lapenta, G.

    2002-12-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of a Penning trap plasma, including the effect of the finite length and end curvature of the plasma column, is studied. A new cylindrical particle-in-cell code, called KANDINSKY, has been implemented by using a new interpolation scheme. The principal idea is to calculate the volume of each cell from a particle volume, in the same manner as is done for the cell charge. With this new method, the density is conserved along streamlines and artificial sources of compressibility are avoided. The code has been validated with a number of tests. The code is then used to compare the dynamics of three different models: the standard Euler or drift-Poisson model, the modified drift-Poisson model [J. Finn et al. Phys. Plasmas 6, 3744 (1999); Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2401 (2000)] with compressional effects, and the quasigeostrophic model of geophysical fluid dynamics in the limit of the γ-plane approximation. The results of this investigation show that Penning traps can be used to simulate geophysical fluids. Moreover, the results for the m=1 diocotron instability reproduce qualitatively the experiments [C. F. Driscoll, Phy. Rev. Lett. 64, 645 (1990); C. F. Driscoll et al. Phys. Fluids B 2, 1359 (1990)]: The instability turns the plasma "inside-out" resulting at the end in a stable, monotonic profile.

  17. Towards bio-silicon interfaces: Formation of an ultra-thin self-hydrated artificial membrane composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and chitosan deposited in high vacuum from the gas-phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal, María J.; Cisternas, Marcelo A.; Gutierrez-Maldonado, Sebastian E.; Perez-Acle, Tomas; Seifert, Birger; Busch, Mark; Huber, Patrick; Volkmann, Ulrich G.

    2014-09-01

    The recent combination of nanoscale developments with biological molecules for biotechnological research has opened a wide field related to the area of biosensors. In the last years, device manufacturing for medical applications adapted the so-called bottom-up approach, from nanostructures to larger devices. Preparation and characterization of artificial biological membranes is a necessary step for the formation of nano-devices or sensors. In this paper, we describe the formation and characterization of a phospholipid bilayer (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, DPPC) on a mattress of a polysaccharide (Chitosan) that keeps the membrane hydrated. The deposition of Chitosan (˜25 Å) and DPPC (˜60 Å) was performed from the gas phase in high vacuum onto a substrate of Si(100) covered with its native oxide layer. The layer thickness was controlled in situ using Very High Resolution Ellipsometry (VHRE). Raman spectroscopy studies show that neither Chitosan nor DPPC molecules decompose during evaporation. With VHRE and Atomic Force Microscopy we have been able to detect phase transitions in the membrane. The presence of the Chitosan interlayer as a water reservoir is essential for both DPPC bilayer formation and stability, favoring the appearance of phase transitions. Our experiments show that the proposed sample preparation from the gas phase is reproducible and provides a natural environment for the DPPC bilayer. In future work, different Chitosan thicknesses should be studied to achieve a complete and homogeneous interlayer.

  18. Towards bio-silicon interfaces: Formation of an ultra-thin self-hydrated artificial membrane composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and chitosan deposited in high vacuum from the gas-phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Retamal, María J., E-mail: moretama@uc.cl; Cisternas, Marcelo A.; Seifert, Birger; Volkmann, Ulrich G. [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avda. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Centro de Investigación en Nanotecnología y Materiales Avanzados (CIEN-UC), Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Avda. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Gutierrez-Maldonado, Sebastian E.; Perez-Acle, Tomas [Computational Biology Lab (DLab), Fundación Ciencia y Vida, Av. Zañartu 1482, Santiago (Chile); Centro Interdisciplinario de Neurociencias de Valparaiso (CINV), Universidad de Valparaiso, Pasaje Harrington 287, Valparaiso (Chile); Busch, Mark; Huber, Patrick [Institute of Materials Physics and Technology, Hamburg University of Technology (TUHH), D-21073 Hamburg-Harburg (Germany)

    2014-09-14

    The recent combination of nanoscale developments with biological molecules for biotechnological research has opened a wide field related to the area of biosensors. In the last years, device manufacturing for medical applications adapted the so-called bottom-up approach, from nanostructures to larger devices. Preparation and characterization of artificial biological membranes is a necessary step for the formation of nano-devices or sensors. In this paper, we describe the formation and characterization of a phospholipid bilayer (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, DPPC) on a mattress of a polysaccharide (Chitosan) that keeps the membrane hydrated. The deposition of Chitosan (∼25 Å) and DPPC (∼60 Å) was performed from the gas phase in high vacuum onto a substrate of Si(100) covered with its native oxide layer. The layer thickness was controlled in situ using Very High Resolution Ellipsometry (VHRE). Raman spectroscopy studies show that neither Chitosan nor DPPC molecules decompose during evaporation. With VHRE and Atomic Force Microscopy we have been able to detect phase transitions in the membrane. The presence of the Chitosan interlayer as a water reservoir is essential for both DPPC bilayer formation and stability, favoring the appearance of phase transitions. Our experiments show that the proposed sample preparation from the gas phase is reproducible and provides a natural environment for the DPPC bilayer. In future work, different Chitosan thicknesses should be studied to achieve a complete and homogeneous interlayer.

  19. Towards bio-silicon interfaces: formation of an ultra-thin self-hydrated artificial membrane composed of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and chitosan deposited in high vacuum from the gas-phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal, María J; Cisternas, Marcelo A; Gutierrez-Maldonado, Sebastian E; Perez-Acle, Tomas; Seifert, Birger; Busch, Mark; Huber, Patrick; Volkmann, Ulrich G

    2014-09-14

    The recent combination of nanoscale developments with biological molecules for biotechnological research has opened a wide field related to the area of biosensors. In the last years, device manufacturing for medical applications adapted the so-called bottom-up approach, from nanostructures to larger devices. Preparation and characterization of artificial biological membranes is a necessary step for the formation of nano-devices or sensors. In this paper, we describe the formation and characterization of a phospholipid bilayer (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, DPPC) on a mattress of a polysaccharide (Chitosan) that keeps the membrane hydrated. The deposition of Chitosan (~25 Å) and DPPC (~60 Å) was performed from the gas phase in high vacuum onto a substrate of Si(100) covered with its native oxide layer. The layer thickness was controlled in situ using Very High Resolution Ellipsometry (VHRE). Raman spectroscopy studies show that neither Chitosan nor DPPC molecules decompose during evaporation. With VHRE and Atomic Force Microscopy we have been able to detect phase transitions in the membrane. The presence of the Chitosan interlayer as a water reservoir is essential for both DPPC bilayer formation and stability, favoring the appearance of phase transitions. Our experiments show that the proposed sample preparation from the gas phase is reproducible and provides a natural environment for the DPPC bilayer. In future work, different Chitosan thicknesses should be studied to achieve a complete and homogeneous interlayer.

  20. Continued development of a semianalytical solution for two-phase fluid and heat flow in a porous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, C.; Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Over the past few years the authors have developed a semianalytical solution for transient two-phase water, air, and heat flow in a porous medium surrounding a constant-strength linear heat source, using a similarity variable {eta} = r/{radical}t. Although the similarity transformation approach requires a simplified geometry, all the complex physical mechanisms involved in coupled two-phase fluid and heat flow can be taken into account in a rigorous way, so that the solution may be applied to a variety of problems of current interest. The work was motivated by adverse to predict the thermohydrological response to the proposed geologic repository for heat-generating high-level nuclear wastes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in a partially saturated, highly fractured volcanic formation. The paper describes thermal and hydrologic conditions near the heat source; new features of the model; vapor pressure lowering; and the effective-continuum representation of a fractured/porous medium.

  1. Fluid flow separation in a reactor pressure vessel during an ECC injection. Single phase flow and two phase flow (air-water) experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thierry Bichet; Alain Martin [EDF - Research and Development Division - Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfert 6, quai Watier - B.P. 49 - 78401 Chatou CEDEX 01 (France); Frederic Beaud [EDF/ Industry - Basic Design Department., 12-14, Avenue Dutrievoz 69628 Villeurbanne CEDEX (France)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Within the framework of the nuclear power plant lifetime issue, the assessment of the French 900 MWe (3-loops) series reactor pressure vessel (RPV) integrity has been performed. A simplified analysis has shown that the most severe loading conditions are given by the small break loss of coolant accidents due to the pressurized injection of cold water (9 deg. C) into the cold leg and down comer of the RPV. During these transient scenarios, single or two-phase (uncovered cold leg) flows have been shown in the cold leg, depending on the crack size and RPV model (900 MWe or 1300 MWe). An experimental study has been carried out, on the one hand, to consolidate the numerical results obtained with CFD home code (Code-Saturne) which mainly showed the stratified flow in the cold leg and the fluid flow separation and its oscillations in the down comer during a single phase scenario. These physical phenomena are important for the thermal RPV loading assessment. On the other hand, the absence of experimental two-phase data necessitated to carry out an experimental study around the mixing area behavior (free surface, stratified flow) during an ECC injection with an uncovered cold leg. The new EDF R and D mock up, called HYBISCUS, is a facility which is made out of Plexiglas (atmosphere pressure) and represents a half scale CP0 geometry with one cold leg and part of the down comer. The mock up modularity allows us to insert representative ECC nozzles and a thermal shield. In reference to the reactor scenarios, the experimental operating conditions are derived from the conservation of the density effects (Froude number). For that, a heated salted water flow is used to represent the ECC injection whereas water represents the cold leg fluid. This mock up has been defined in order to represent single phase flow (cold leg and down comer full of water) or two-phase flow (uncovered cold leg) ECC scenarios. This paper reports experimental results

  2. Chemical characteristics of mineral trioxide aggregate and its hydration reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Seok-Woo Chang

    2012-01-01

    Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) was developed in early 1990s and has been successfully used for root perforation repair, root end filling, and one-visit apexification. MTA is composed mainly of tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate. When MTA is hydrated, calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) and calcium hydroxide is formed. Formed calcium hydroxide interacts with the phosphate ion in body fluid and form amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) which finally transforms into calcium deficient hydroxyap...

  3. Geomechanical Performance of Hydrate-Bearing Sediment in Offshore Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Holditch; Tad Patzek; Jonny Rutqvist; George Moridis; Richard Plumb

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this multi-year, multi-institutional research project was to develop the knowledge base and quantitative predictive capability for the description of geomechanical performance of hydrate-bearing sediments (hereafter referred to as HBS) in oceanic environments. The focus was on the determination of the envelope of hydrate stability under conditions typical of those related to the construction and operation of offshore platforms. We have developed a robust numerical simulator of hydrate behavior in geologic media by coupling a reservoir model with a commercial geomechanical code. We also investigated the geomechanical behavior of oceanic HBS using pore-scale models (conceptual and mathematical) of fluid flow, stress analysis, and damage propagation. The objective of the UC Berkeley work was to develop a grain-scale model of hydrate-bearing sediments. Hydrate dissociation alters the strength of HBS. In particular, transformation of hydrate clusters into gas and liquid water weakens the skeleton and, simultaneously, reduces the effective stress by increasing the pore pressure. The large-scale objective of the study is evaluation of geomechanical stability of offshore oil and gas production infrastructure. At Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), we have developed the numerical model TOUGH + Hydrate + FLAC3D to evaluate how the formation and disassociation of hydrates in seafloor sediments affects seafloor stability. Several technical papers were published using results from this model. LBNL also developed laboratory equipment and methods to produce realistic laboratory samples of sediments containing gas hydrates so that mechanical properties could be measured in the laboratory. These properties are required to run TOUGH + Hydrate + FLAC3D to evaluate seafloor stability issues. At Texas A&M University we performed a detailed literature review to determine what gas hydrate formation properties had been measured and reported in the literature. We

  4. Evaluation of innovative stationary phase ligand chemistries and analytical conditions for the analysis of basic drugs by supercritical fluid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desfontaine, Vincent; Veuthey, Jean-Luc; Guillarme, Davy

    2016-03-18

    Similar to reversed phase liquid chromatography, basic compounds can be highly challenging to analyze by supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC), as they tend to exhibit poor peak shape, especially those with high pKa values. In this study, three new stationary phase ligand chemistries available in sub -2 μm particle sizes, namely 2-picolylamine (2-PIC), 1-aminoanthracene (1-AA) and diethylamine (DEA), were tested in SFC conditions for the analysis of basic drugs. Due to the basic properties of these ligands, it is expected that the repulsive forces may improve peak shape of basic substances, similarly to the widely used 2-ethypyridine (2-EP) phase. However, among the 38 tested basic drugs, less of 10% displayed Gaussian peaks (asymmetry between 0.8 and 1.4) using pure CO2/methanol on these phases. The addition of 10mM ammonium formate as mobile phase additive, drastically improved peak shapes and increased this proportion to 67% on 2-PIC. Introducing the additive in the injection solvent rather than in the organic modifier, gave acceptable results for 2-PIC only, with 31% of Gaussian peaks with an average asymmetry of 1.89 for the 38 selected basic drugs. These columns were also compared to hybrid silica (BEH), DIOL and 2-EP stationary phases, commonly employed in SFC. These phases commonly exhibit alternative retention and selectivity. In the end, the two most interesting ligands used as complementary columns were 2-PIC and BEH, as they provided suitable peak shapes for the basic drugs and almost orthogonal selectivities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Measurement techniques for local and global fluid dynamic quantities in two and three phase systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.; Dudukovic, M.P.; Toseland, B.A.

    1998-01-01

    Available measurement techniques for evaluation of global and local phase holdups, instantaneous and average phase velocities and for the determination of bubble sizes in gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid systems are reviewed. Advantages and disadvantages of various techniques are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on identifying methods that can be employed on large scale, thick wall, high pressure and high temperature reactors used in the manufacture of fuels and chemicals from synthesis gas and its derivatives.

  6. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) for measuring the hydration status in young elite synchronized swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Marginet, Marta; Castizo-Olier, Jorge; Rodríguez-Zamora, Lara; Iglesias, Xavier; Rodríguez, Ferran A; Chaverri, Diego; Brotons, Daniel; Irurtia, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    The assessment of body hydration is a complex process, and no measurement is valid for all situations. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) has emerged as a relatively novel technique for assessing hydration status in sports. We applied BIVA a) to determine hydration changes evoked by an intense synchronized swimming (SS) training session; b) to characterize the sample of young elite swimmers in relation with a nonathletic reference population; and c) to generate its 50%, 75% and 95% percentiles of the bioelectrical variables. Forty-nine elite SS female swimmers of two age categories, comen (Co: 13.9 ± 0.9 years, n = 34) and junior (Jr: 16.3 ± 0.6 years, n = 15), performed a long, high intensity training session. Body mass (BM) and bioelectrical variables (R, resistance; Xc, reactance; PA, phase angle; and Z, impedance module) were assessed pre- and post-training. BIVA was used to characterize 1) the distribution pattern of the bioelectrical vector (BIA vector) for both age groups, and 2) pre- to post-training BIA vector migration. Bioelectrical variables were also correlated with BM change values. Most swimmers were mostly located outside the 75% and some beyond the 95% percentile of the bioelectrical tolerance ellipses of the general population. The BIA vector showed statistically significant differences in both Co (T2 = 134.7, p = 0.0001) and Jr (T2 = 126.2, p hydration status of these young elite female swimmers was affected by the execution of intense training sessions. From a methodological perspective, BIVA appears to be sensitive enough to detect subtle hydration changes, but further research is needed to ensure its validity and reliability. Moreover, these findings highlight the importance of ensuring adequate fluid intake during training in young SS athletes.

  7. Hydration testing of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppliger, Robert A; Bartok, Cynthia

    2002-01-01

    Dehydration not only reduces athletic performance, but also places athletes at risk of health problems and even death. For athletes, monitoring hydration has significant value in maximising performance during training and competition. It also offers medical personnel the opportunity to reduce health risks in situations where athletes engage in intentional weight loss. Simple non-invasive techniques, including weight monitoring and urine tests, can provide useful information. Bioimpedance methods tend to be easy to use and fairly inexpensive, but generally lack the precision and accuracy necessary for hydration monitoring. Blood tests appear to be the most accurate monitoring method, but are impractical because of cost and invasiveness. Although future research is needed to determine which hydration tests are the most accurate, we encourage sports teams to develop and implement hydration monitoring protocols based on the currently available methods. Medical personnel can use this information to maximise their team's athletic performance and minimise heat- and dehydration-related health risks to athletes.

  8. Prospects of gas hydrate presence in the Chukchi sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. В. Матвеева

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to forecast the scale and distribution character of gas hydrate stability zone in the Chukchi Sea under simulated natural conditions and basing on these results to estimate resource potential of gas hydrates within this area. Three types of stability zone have been identified. A forecast map of gas hydrate environment and potentially gas hydrate-bearing water areas in the Chukchi Sea has been plotted to a scale of 1:5 000 000. Mapping of gas hydrate stability zone allowed to give a justified forecast based on currently available data on geologic, fluid dynamic, cryogenic, geothermal and pressure-temperature conditions of gas hydrate formation in the Chukchi Sea. It is the first forecast of such kind that focuses on formation conditions for hydrates of various types and compositions in the Arctic seas offshore Russia. Potential amount of gas, stored beneath the Chukchi Sea in the form of hydrates, is estimated based on mapping of their stability zone and falls into the interval of 7·1011-11.8·1013 m3.

  9. Mapping the phase diagram for neon to a quantum Lennard-Jones fluid using Gibbs ensemble simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Ionuţ; Brown, Sandra E; Mandelshtam, Vladimir A

    2013-04-07

    In order to address the issue of whether neon liquid in coexistence with its gas phase can be mapped to a quantum Lennard-Jones (LJ) fluid, we perform a series of simulations using Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo for a range of de Boer quantum parameters Λ=ℏ/(σ√(mε)). The quantum effects are incorporated by implementing the variational gaussian wavepacket method, which provides an efficient numerical framework for estimating the quantum density at thermal equilibrium. The computed data for the LJ liquid is used to produce its phase diagram as a function of the quantum parameter, 0.065 ≤ Λ ≤ 0.11. These data are then used to fit the experimental phase diagram for neon liquid. The resulting parameters, ε = 35.68 ± 0.03 K and σ = 2.7616 ± 0.0005 Å (Λ = 0.0940), of the LJ pair potential are optimized to best represent liquid neon in coexistence with its gas phase for a range of physically relevant temperatures. This multi-temperature approach towards fitting and assessing a pair-potential is much more consistent than merely fitting a single data point, such as a melting temperature or a second virial coefficient.

  10. The effect of hydrate formation on the elastic properties of unconsolidated sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydzy, Marisa B.

    saturations, water occurred as a continuous phase and gas was present in the form of bubbles or patches. At intermediate water saturations both types of water distributions, gas bubbles and water bridges, were observed within one sample. With decreasing Swi, the closer the gas/water interface is located to the grain contact, the higher the degree of cementation will be when hydrate forms. Conversely, the higher the Swi the less cementation occurs and the less a given degree of hydrate formation will affect vp and vs in unconsolidated sediments. To extend our observations to hydrate-bearing systems, the distribution of THF and cyclopentane (CP) hydrate packs of glass beads was observed with micro X-ray computed tomography (CT). While THF is completely miscible in water, CP and water coexist as two separate phases. After hydrate formation in the THF hydrate-bearing samples, unconverted water was identified at the grain contacts and was often observed as a thin layer between hydrate and the glass-beads, indicating that the hydrate formation from the dissolved phase had initiated away from the glass beads and the bead-to-bead contacts. Based on the experimental results and our comparison with rock-physics theory, a conceptual model of hydrate in sediment was developed. The distribution of hydrate can be shown to be primarily a function of the water distribution within the sample prior to hydrate formation. With increasing water content, the distribution of the liquid phase transitions from being located at the grain contacts, to forming patchy networks, and finally becoming the continuous phase. When gas occurs as the continuous phase, hydrate grows into the water phase and the resulting hydrate will cement sediment grains. If water is the continuous phase, hydrate will grow into the gas phase and the resulting hydrate will initially be pore filling, but will become patchy and load-bearing as the hydrate saturation grows beyond 35-50% of the pore space. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  11. Fluid-phase pinocytosis of native low density lipoprotein promotes murine M-CSF differentiated macrophage foam cell formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj K Barthwal

    Full Text Available During atherosclerosis, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-derived cholesterol accumulates in macrophages to form foam cells. Macrophage uptake of LDL promotes foam cell formation but the mechanism mediating this process is not clear. The present study investigates the mechanism of LDL uptake for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF-differentiated murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. LDL receptor-null (LDLR-/- macrophages incubated with LDL showed non-saturable accumulation of cholesterol that did not down-regulate for the 24 h examined. Incubation of LDLR-/- macrophages with increasing concentrations of (125I-LDL showed non-saturable macrophage LDL uptake. A 20-fold excess of unlabeled LDL had no effect on (125I-LDL uptake by wild-type macrophages and genetic deletion of the macrophage scavenger receptors CD36 and SRA did not affect (125I-LDL uptake, showing that LDL uptake occurred by fluid-phase pinocytosis independently of receptors. Cholesterol accumulation was inhibited approximately 50% in wild-type and LDLR-/- mice treated with LY294002 or wortmannin, inhibitors of all classes of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K. Time-lapse, phase-contrast microscopy showed that macropinocytosis, an important fluid-phase uptake pathway in macrophages, was blocked almost completely by PI3K inhibition with wortmannin. Pharmacological inhibition of the class I PI3K isoforms alpha, beta, gamma or delta did not affect macrophage LDL-derived cholesterol accumulation or macropinocytosis. Furthermore, macrophages from mice expressing kinase-dead class I PI3K beta, gamma or delta isoforms showed no decrease in cholesterol accumulation or macropinocytosis when compared with wild-type macrophages. Thus, non-class I PI3K isoforms mediated macropinocytosis in these macrophages. Further characterization of the components necessary for LDL uptake, cholesterol accumulation, and macropinocytosis identified dynamin, microtubules, actin, and vacuolar type H(+-ATPase as

  12. Fluid-Phase Pinocytosis of Native Low Density Lipoprotein Promotes Murine M-CSF Differentiated Macrophage Foam Cell Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qing; Bohnacker, Thomas; Wymann, Matthias P.; Kruth, Howard S.

    2013-01-01

    During atherosclerosis, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-derived cholesterol accumulates in macrophages to form foam cells. Macrophage uptake of LDL promotes foam cell formation but the mechanism mediating this process is not clear. The present study investigates the mechanism of LDL uptake for macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-differentiated murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. LDL receptor-null (LDLR−/−) macrophages incubated with LDL showed non-saturable accumulation of cholesterol that did not down-regulate for the 24 h examined. Incubation of LDLR−/− macrophages with increasing concentrations of 125I-LDL showed non-saturable macrophage LDL uptake. A 20-fold excess of unlabeled LDL had no effect on 125I-LDL uptake by wild-type macrophages and genetic deletion of the macrophage scavenger receptors CD36 and SRA did not affect 125I-LDL uptake, showing that LDL uptake occurred by fluid-phase pinocytosis independently of receptors. Cholesterol accumulation was inhibited approximately 50% in wild-type and LDLR−/− mice treated with LY294002 or wortmannin, inhibitors of all classes of phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K). Time-lapse, phase-contrast microscopy showed that macropinocytosis, an important fluid-phase uptake pathway in macrophages, was blocked almost completely by PI3K inhibition with wortmannin. Pharmacological inhibition of the class I PI3K isoforms alpha, beta, gamma or delta did not affect macrophage LDL-derived cholesterol accumulation or macropinocytosis. Furthermore, macrophages from mice expressing kinase-dead class I PI3K beta, gamma or delta isoforms showed no decrease in cholesterol accumulation or macropinocytosis when compared with wild-type macrophages. Thus, non-class I PI3K isoforms mediated macropinocytosis in these macrophages. Further characterization of the components necessary for LDL uptake, cholesterol accumulation, and macropinocytosis identified dynamin, microtubules, actin, and vacuolar type H(+)-ATPase as

  13. Nanostructure of Calcium Silicate Hydrates in Cements

    KAUST Repository

    Skinner, L. B.

    2010-05-11

    Calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) is the major volume phase in the matrix of Portland cement concrete. Total x-ray scattering measurements with synchrotron x rays on synthetic CSH(I) shows nanocrystalline ordering with a particle diameter of 3.5(5) nm, similar to a size-broadened 1.1 nm tobermorite crystal structure. The CSH component in hydrated tricalcium silicate is found to be similar to CSH(I). Only a slight bend and additional disorder within the CaO sheets is required to explain its nanocrystalline structure. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  14. Mathematical modeling of planar and spherical vapor–liquid phase interfaces for multicomponent fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celný David

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of methods for accurate modeling of phase interfaces is important for understanding various natural processes and for applications in technology such as power production and carbon dioxide separation and storage. In particular, prediction of the course of the non-equilibrium phase transition processes requires knowledge of the properties of the strongly curved phase interfaces of microscopic droplets. In our work, we focus on the spherical vapor–liquid phase interfaces for binary mixtures. We developed a robust computational method to determine the density and concentration profiles. The fundamentals of our approach lie in the Cahn-Hilliard gradient theory, allowing to transcribe the functional formulation into a system of ordinary Euler-Langrange equations. This system is then split and modified into a shape suitable for iterative computation. For this task, we combine the Newton-Raphson and the shooting methods providing a good convergence speed. For the thermodynamic roperties, the PC–SAFT equation of state is used. We determine the density and concentration profiles for spherical phase interfaces at various saturation factors for the binary mixture of CO2 and C9H20. The computed concentration profiles allow to the determine the work of formation and other characteristics of the microscopic droplets.

  15. Particle Strength of Bayer Hydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjier, J. L.; Marten, D. F. G.

    Because of the proposed use of fluid bed calciners at the Kaiser Aluminum Baton Rouge Works, studies into the strength of alumina and alumina trihydrate from eight different alumina plants were initiated. It was found in the course of these studies that the particle strength of Bayer hydrate depended on the precipitation process conditions under which it was produced. A series of laboratory precipitation tests was conducted to determine the effect on particle strength of process variables such as seed charge, temperature, caustic concentration and seed recycle. It is concluded from these studies that relative particle strength of alumina trihydrate, as measured by a modified Forsythe-Hertwig Apparatus, can be predicted from a knowledge of the precipitation process conditions.

  16. QUANTUM MECHANICAL STUDY OF THE COMPETITIVE HYDRATION BETWEEN PROTONATED QUINAZOLINE AND LI+, NA+, AND CA2+ IONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydration reactions are fundamental to many biological functions and environmental processes. The energetics of hydration of inorganic and organic chemical species influences their fate and transport behavior in the environment. In this study, gas-phase quantum mechanical calcula...

  17. Two-Phase Fluid Simulation Using a Diffuse Interface Model with Peng--Robinson Equation of State

    KAUST Repository

    Qiao, Zhonghua

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, two-phase fluid systems are simulated using a diffusive interface model with the Peng-Robinson equation of state (EOS), a widely used realistic EOS for hydrocarbon fluid in the petroleum industry. We first utilize the gradient theory of thermodynamics and variational calculus to derive a generalized chemical equilibrium equation, which is mathematically a second-order elliptic partial differential equation (PDE) in molar density with a strongly nonlinear source term. To solve this PDE, we convert it to a time-dependent parabolic PDE with the main interest in its final steady state solution. A Lagrange multiplier is used to enforce mass conservation. The parabolic PDE is then solved by mixed finite element methods with a semi-implicit time marching scheme. Convex splitting of the energy functional is proposed to construct this time marching scheme, where the volume exclusion effect of an EOS is treated implicitly while the pairwise attraction effect of EOS is calculated explicitly. This scheme is proved to be unconditionally energy stable. Our proposed algorithm is able to solve successfully the spatially heterogeneous two-phase systems with the Peng-Robinson EOS in multiple spatial dimensions, the first time in the literature. Numerical examples are provided with realistic hydrocarbon components to illustrate the theory. Furthermore, our computational results are compared with laboratory experimental data and verified with the Young-Laplace equation with good agreement. This work sets the stage for a broad extension of efficient convex-splitting semi-implicit schemes for numerical simulation of phase field models with a realistic EOS in complex geometries of multiple spatial dimensions.

  18. Effects of Porosity and Thermal Treatment on Hydration of Mushrooms

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, Ekaraj; Boom, R.M.; Sman, van der, R.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, hydration of mushroom as a porous food material has been studied considering their biphasic character. It consists of a solid phase that consists of intertwined hyphae and having cell walls with a swellable polymeric matrix and a pore phase made up by the space in between the hyphae. We have investigated the hydration of mushrooms as a function of initial porosity and thermal treatment. Variation in porosity is induced by the natural variation in the growth of mushroom. Porosit...

  19. Circumferential-wave phase velocities for empty, fluid-immersed spherical metal shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Überall, Herbert; Ahyi, A. C.; Raju, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    In earlier studies of acoustic scattering resonances and of the dispersive phase velocities of surface waves that generate them [see, e.g., Talmant et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 278–289 (1989) for spherical aluminum shells] we have demonstrated the effectiveness and accuracy of obtaining phase......-loaded, evacuated spherical metal shells of aluminum, stainless steel, and tungsten carbide. In particular, the characteristic upturn of the dispersion curves of low-order shell-borne circumferential waves (A or A0 waves) which takes place on spherical shells when the frequency tends towards very low values...

  20. Well log characterization of natural gas-hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.

    2012-01-01

    In the last 25 years there have been significant advancements in the use of well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrates in nature: whereas wireline electrical resistivity and acoustic logs were formerly used to identify gas-hydrate occurrences in wells drilled in Arctic permafrost environments, more advanced wireline and logging-while-drilling (LWD) tools are now routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas-hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Resistivity- and acoustic-logging tools are the most widely used for estimating the gas-hydrate content (i.e., reservoir saturations) in various sediment types and geologic settings. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical-resistivity and acoustic-velocity data can yield accurate gas-hydrate saturations in sediment grain-supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log-analysis models are required to characterize gas hydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. New well-logging tools designed to make directionally oriented acoustic and propagation-resistivity log measurements provide the data needed to analyze the acoustic and electrical anisotropic properties of both highly interbedded and fracture-dominated gas-hydrate reservoirs. Advancements in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging and wireline formation testing (WFT) also allow for the characterization of gas hydrate at the pore scale. Integrated NMR and formation testing studies from northern Canada and Alaska have yielded valuable insight into how gas hydrates are physically distributed in sediments and the occurrence and nature of pore fluids(i.e., free water along with clay- and capillary-bound water) in gas-hydrate-bearing reservoirs. Information on the distribution of gas hydrate at the pore scale has provided invaluable insight on the mechanisms

  1. Natural gas hydrates : development and test of innovative methods for gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schicks, J.M.; Spangenberg, E.; Steinhauer, B.; Klump, J.; Giese, R.; Erzinger, J. [German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam (Germany). Helmholtz Centre; Haeckel, M.; Bigalke, N.; Savy, J.P.; Kossel, E.; Deusner, C.; Wallmann, K. [Leibniz Inst. of Marine Sciences (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper discussed a German project conducted to determine the stability of natural gas hydrates during methane production activities. The Submarine Gas Hydrate Reservoirs (SUGAR) project was established to determine depressurization, thermal stimulation, and chemical addition reaction routes for gas hydrates. A heat exchange reactor was used to test for the catalytic oxidation of methane. A large-scale reservoir simulator was used to model hydrates in sediments in natural conditions and to investigate the efficiency of the reactors. Thermocouples were used to collect data related to the expansion of the heat front. The data were then used to upscale the simulations for field conditions. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, confocal Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques were used to investigate the effects of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) injection on methane production from pure hydrate phases. Results of the study indicated that the exposure of CH{sub 4} hydrates to CO{sub 2} initiates the decomposition of methane hydrates with the subsequent formation of a CO{sub 2} hydrate. The hydrate structure was destroyed and then rebuilt. 28 refs., 9 figs.

  2. Characteristics of SF{sub 6} gas hydrate formation mechanisms (kinetics) and surfactants effects on hydrate formation rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.; Lee, H.; Kim, Y.D. [Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of). School of Materials Science and Engineering; Kim, Y.S.; Lee, J.D. [Korea Inst. of Industrial Technology, Busan (Korea, Republic of). Advanced Energy Resource Development Team

    2008-07-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is used as an insulating gas in a variety of industrial applications, and is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG). Gas hydrates are stable crystalline compounds formed by water and natural gas molecules that have relatively large cavities that can be occupied by guest molecules. SF{sub 6} gas is able to form hydrates at relatively mild conditions. This study investigated the hydrate formation mechanisms of SF{sub 6} gas, and presented a potential hydration treatment for the gas. The effects of surface active agents on SF{sub 6} gas hydrate formation were examined experimentally using Tween 20, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LABS). The surfactants showed promoter behaviour for SF{sub 6} gas hydrate formation. Formation rates occurred in 2 stages, with rates rapidly increasing during the second phase. The inflection point occurred approximately 30 minutes after the hydrate nucleation point. Results indicated the existence of a critical concentration of surfactants. It was concluded that SF{sub 6} gas hydrate formation rates were increased by the addition of surfactants. Further studies are needed to investigate 2-stage hydrate formation rates. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  3. A Designer Fluid For Aluminum Phase Change Devices. Performance Enhancement in Copper Heat Pipes Performance Enhancement in Copper Heat Pipes. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-17

    Approved for public release: distribution is unlimited. 1 Summary Heat pipes and other