WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrate-bearing core samples

  1. Microbial diversity in methane hydrate-bearing deep marine sediments core preserved in the original pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Y.; Hata, T.; Nishida, H.

    2017-12-01

    In normal coring of deep marine sediments, the sampled cores are exposed to the pressure of the atmosphere, which results in dissociation of gas-hydrates and might change microbial diversity. In this study, we analyzed microbial composition in methane hydrate-bearing sediment core sampled and preserved by Hybrid-PCS (Pressure Coring System). We sliced core into three layers; (i) outside layer, which were most affected by drilling fluids, (ii) middle layer, and (iii) inner layer, which were expected to be most preserved as the original state. From each layer, we directly extracted DNA, and amplified V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA gene. We determined at least 5000 of nucleotide sequences of the partial 16S rDNA from each layer by Miseq (Illumina). In the all layers, facultative anaerobes, which can grow with or without oxygen because they can metabolize energy aerobically or anaerobically, were detected as majority. However, the genera which are often detected anaerobic environment is abundant in the inner layer compared to the outside layer, indicating that condition of drilling and preservation affect the microbial composition in the deep marine sediment core. This study was conducted as a part of the activity of the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan [MH21 consortium], and supported by JOGMEC (Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation). The sample was provided by AIST (National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology).

  2. Grain-scale imaging and compositional characterization of cryo-preserved India NGHP 01 gas-hydrate-bearing cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Laura A.; Lorenson, T.D.

    2014-01-01

    We report on grain-scale characteristics and gas analyses of gas-hydrate-bearing samples retrieved by NGHP Expedition 01 as part of a large-scale effort to study gas hydrate occurrences off the eastern-Indian Peninsula and along the Andaman convergent margin. Using cryogenic scanning electron microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy, and gas chromatography, we investigated gas hydrate grain morphology and distribution within sediments, gas hydrate composition, and methane isotopic composition of samples from Krishna–Godavari (KG) basin and Andaman back-arc basin borehole sites from depths ranging 26 to 525 mbsf. Gas hydrate in KG-basin samples commonly occurs as nodules or coarse veins with typical hydrate grain size of 30–80 μm, as small pods or thin veins 50 to several hundred microns in width, or disseminated in sediment. Nodules contain abundant and commonly isolated macropores, in some places suggesting the original presence of a free gas phase. Gas hydrate also occurs as faceted crystals lining the interiors of cavities. While these vug-like structures constitute a relatively minor mode of gas hydrate occurrence, they were observed in near-seafloor KG-basin samples as well as in those of deeper origin (>100 mbsf) and may be original formation features. Other samples exhibit gas hydrate grains rimmed by NaCl-bearing material, presumably produced by salt exclusion during original hydrate formation. Well-preserved microfossil and other biogenic detritus are also found within several samples, most abundantly in Andaman core material where gas hydrate fills microfossil crevices. The range of gas hydrate modes of occurrence observed in the full suite of samples suggests a range of formation processes were involved, as influenced by local in situconditions. The hydrate-forming gas is predominantly methane with trace quantities of higher molecular weight hydrocarbons of primarily microbial origin. The composition indicates the gas hydrate is Structure I.

  3. Direct observation of characteristic dissociation behaviors of hydrate-bearing cores by rapid-scanning X-ray CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebinuma, T.; Oyama, H.; Utiumi, T.; Nagao, J.; Narita, H. [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Toyohiraku, Sapporo (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Methane hydrate has significant potential as a new source of energy. Major considerations in developing production methods of methane from hydrates are the fundamental properties of hydrate-bearing sediments, and the dissociation behavior of methane hydrate and the gas and water flow generated by its dissociation in sediments. Marine methane hydrates occur several hundred meters below the sea floor, in a variety of forms. The pore-space filling-type is considered to be the most suited to exploitation, as it is contained within the pore spaces of sandy sediments, and has relatively larger gas permeability compared to other forms. However, shallow sandy sediments are not usually consolidated, and methane hydrate is unstable at normal pressure and temperature. Therefore, common methods are not suitable, and new experimental methods have been developed to study the properties of hydrate-bearing sediment and its dissociation process. This paper presented the results of an experimental study involving the dissociation of artificial methane-hydrate-bearing sediments. The experiment was performed using X-ray computed tomography in order to directly observe dissociation behavior in the sediments and the gas and water flows generated by dissociation. The paper described the depressurization process and presented a schematic diagram of rapid scanning X-ray computed tomography scanner and core holder with tri-axial structure. The experimental apparatus for dissociation of methane hydrate was also illustrated. The thermal stimulation process and hot water injection process were explained. It was concluded that dissociation by depressurization demonstrated that the temperature reduction induced by depressurization depended on the phase equilibrium state of methane hydrate, and that dissociation preferentially occurred at the periphery of the core. This behavior was due to the heat flux from the outside of the core, where the heat flux controlled the dissociation rate. 10 refs

  4. A pressure core ultrasonic test system for on-board analysis of gas hydrate-bearing sediments under in situ pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Zhou, Weihua; Xue, Kaihua; Wei, Rupeng; Ling, Zheng

    2018-05-01

    The enormous potential as an alternative energy resource has made natural gas hydrates a material of intense research interest. Their exploration and sample characterization require a quick and effective analysis of the hydrate-bearing cores recovered under in situ pressures. Here a novel Pressure Core Ultrasonic Test System (PCUTS) for on-board analysis of sediment cores containing gas hydrates at in situ pressures is presented. The PCUTS is designed to be compatible with an on-board pressure core transfer device and a long gravity-piston pressure-retained corer. It provides several advantages over laboratory core analysis including quick and non-destructive detection, in situ and successive acoustic property acquisition, and remission of sample storage and transportation. The design of the unique assembly units to ensure the in situ detection is demonstrated, involving the U-type protecting jackets, transducer precession device, and pressure stabilization system. The in situ P-wave velocity measurements make the detection of gas hydrate existence in the sediments possible on-board. Performance tests have verified the feasibility and sensitivity of the ultrasonic test unit, showing the dependence of P-wave velocity on gas hydrate saturation. The PCUTS has been successfully applied for analysis of natural samples containing gas hydrates recovered from the South China Sea. It is indicated that on-board P-wave measurements could provide a quick and effective understanding of the hydrate occurrence in natural samples, which can assist further resource exploration, assessment, and subsequent detailed core analysis.

  5. A pressure core ultrasonic test system for on-board analysis of gas hydrate-bearing sediments under in situ pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Zhou, Weihua; Xue, Kaihua; Wei, Rupeng; Ling, Zheng

    2018-05-01

    The enormous potential as an alternative energy resource has made natural gas hydrates a material of intense research interest. Their exploration and sample characterization require a quick and effective analysis of the hydrate-bearing cores recovered under in situ pressures. Here a novel Pressure Core Ultrasonic Test System (PCUTS) for on-board analysis of sediment cores containing gas hydrates at in situ pressures is presented. The PCUTS is designed to be compatible with an on-board pressure core transfer device and a long gravity-piston pressure-retained corer. It provides several advantages over laboratory core analysis including quick and non-destructive detection, in situ and successive acoustic property acquisition, and remission of sample storage and transportation. The design of the unique assembly units to ensure the in situ detection is demonstrated, involving the U-type protecting jackets, transducer precession device, and pressure stabilization system. The in situ P-wave velocity measurements make the detection of gas hydrate existence in the sediments possible on-board. Performance tests have verified the feasibility and sensitivity of the ultrasonic test unit, showing the dependence of P-wave velocity on gas hydrate saturation. The PCUTS has been successfully applied for analysis of natural samples containing gas hydrates recovered from the South China Sea. It is indicated that on-board P-wave measurements could provide a quick and effective understanding of the hydrate occurrence in natural samples, which can assist further resource exploration, assessment, and subsequent detailed core analysis.

  6. Characterization of methane-hydrate formation inferred from insitu Vp-density relationship for hydrate-bearing sediment cores obtained off the eastern coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, M.; Hamada, Y.; Hirose, T.; Yamada, Y.

    2017-12-01

    In 2015, the Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Drilling Expedition 02 was carried out off the eastern margin of the Indian Peninsula in order to investigate distribution and occurrence of gas hydrates. From 25 drill sites, downhole logging data, cored samples, and drilling performance data were collected. One of the target areas (area B) is located on the axial and flank of an anticline, where the BSR is identified 100 m beneath the summit of anticline. 3 sites were drilled in the crest. The lower potential hydrate zone II was suggested by downhole logging (LWD) at 270-290 m below seafloor across the top of anticline. Core samples from this interval is characterized by a higher natural gamma radiation, gamma-ray-based higher bulk density and lower porosity, and higher electrical resistivity. All these features are in good agreement with LWD results. During this expedition, numerous special core sampling operations (PCAT) were carried out, keeping its insitu pressure in a pressure-tight vessel. They enabled acquiring insitu P-wave velocity and gamma-ray attenuation density measurements. In-situ X-CT images exhibit very clear hydrate distribution as lower density patches. Hydrate-bearing sediments exhibit a Vp-density trend that is clearly different from the ordinary formation. Vp values are significantly higher than 2 km/s whereas the density remains constant at 2-2.2 g/cm3 in hydrate zones. At some hydrate-bearing sediments, we noticed that Vp is negatively correlated to the density in the deeper portion (235-285 mbsf). On the other hand, in the shallower portion they are positively correlated. From lithostratigraphy the shallower portion consists of sand, whereas deeper portion are silty-clay dominant. We infer that the sand-dominant, shallower hydrate is a pore-filling type, and Vp is correlated positively to density. On the other hand, the clay-dominant, deeper hydrate is filled in vertical veins, and Vp is negatively correlated to density. Negative

  7. Investigation of mechanical properties of hydrate-bearing pressure core sediments recovered from the Eastern Nankai Trough using transparent acrylic cell triaxial testing system (TACTT-system)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, J.; Masui, A.; Konno, Y.; Jin, Y.; Kida, M.; Suzuki, K.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Tenma, N.; Nagao, J.

    2014-12-01

    Natural gas hydrate-bearing pressure core sediments have been sheared in compression using a newly developed Transparent Acrylic Cell Triaxial Testing (TACTT) system to investigate the geophysical and geomechanical behavior of sediments recovered from the deep seabed in the Eastern Nankai Trough, the first Japanese offshore production test region. The sediments were recovered by hybrid pressure core system (hybrid PCS) and pressure cores were cut by pressure core analysis tools (PCATs) on board. These pressure cores were transferred to the AIST Hokkaido centre and trimmed by pressure core non-destructive analysis tools (PNATs) for TACTT system which maintained the pressure and temperature conditions within the hydrate stability boundary, through the entire process of core handling from drilling to the end of laboratory testing. An image processing technique was used to capture the motion of sediment in a transparent acrylic cell, and digital photographs were obtained at every 0.1% of vertical strain during the test. Analysis of the optical images showed that sediments with 63% hydrate saturation exhibited brittle failure, although nonhydrate-bearing sediments exhibited ductile failure. In addition, the increase in shear strength with hydrate saturation increase of natural gas hydrate is in agreement with previous data from synthetic gas hydrate. This research was financially supported by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium) that carries out Japan's Methane Hydrate R&D Program by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).

  8. Borehole Tool for the Comprehensive Characterization of Hydrate-bearing Sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Sheng; Santamarina, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    Reservoir characterization and simulation require reliable parameters to anticipate hydrate deposits responses and production rates. The acquisition of the required fundamental properties currently relies on wireline logging, pressure core testing, and/or laboratory ob-servations of synthesized specimens, which are challenged by testing capabilities and in-nate sampling disturbances. The project reviews hydrate-bearing sediments, properties, and inherent sampling effects, albeit lessen with the developments in pressure core technology, in order to develop robust correlations with index parameters. The resulting information is incorporated into a tool for optimal field characterization and parameter selection with un-certainty analyses. Ultimately, the project develops a borehole tool for the comprehensive characterization of hydrate-bearing sediments at in situ, with the design recognizing past developments and characterization experience and benefited from the inspiration of nature and sensor miniaturization.

  9. Borehole Tool for the Comprehensive Characterization of Hydrate-bearing Sediments

    KAUST Repository

    Dai, Sheng

    2018-02-01

    Reservoir characterization and simulation require reliable parameters to anticipate hydrate deposits responses and production rates. The acquisition of the required fundamental properties currently relies on wireline logging, pressure core testing, and/or laboratory ob-servations of synthesized specimens, which are challenged by testing capabilities and in-nate sampling disturbances. The project reviews hydrate-bearing sediments, properties, and inherent sampling effects, albeit lessen with the developments in pressure core technology, in order to develop robust correlations with index parameters. The resulting information is incorporated into a tool for optimal field characterization and parameter selection with un-certainty analyses. Ultimately, the project develops a borehole tool for the comprehensive characterization of hydrate-bearing sediments at in situ, with the design recognizing past developments and characterization experience and benefited from the inspiration of nature and sensor miniaturization.

  10. Borehole Tool for the Comprehensive Characterization of Hydrate-bearing Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Sheng [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Santamarina, J. Carlos [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-12-30

    Reservoir characterization and simulation require reliable parameters to anticipate hydrate deposits responses and production rates. The acquisition of the required fundamental properties currently relies on wireline logging, pressure core testing, and/or laboratory observations of synthesized specimens, which are challenged by testing capabilities and innate sampling disturbances. The project reviews hydrate-bearing sediments, properties, and inherent sampling effects, albeit lessen with the developments in pressure core technology, in order to develop robust correlations with index parameters. The resulting information is incorporated into a tool for optimal field characterization and parameter selection with uncertainty analyses. Ultimately, the project develops a borehole tool for the comprehensive characterization of hydrate-bearing sediments at in situ, with the design recognizing past developments and characterization experience and benefited from the inspiration of nature and sensor miniaturization.

  11. Thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Douglas D.; Martin, Ana I.; Yun, Tae Sup; Francisca, Franco M.; Santamarina, J. Carlos; Ruppel, Carolyn D.

    2009-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for evaluating phase transformation processes that would accompany energy production from gas hydrate deposits and for estimating regional heat flow based on the observed depth to the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. The coexistence of multiple phases (gas hydrate, liquid and gas pore fill, and solid sediment grains) and their complex spatial arrangement hinder the a priori prediction of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments. Previous studies have been unable to capture the full parameter space covered by variations in grain size, specific surface, degree of saturation, nature of pore filling material, and effective stress for hydrate-bearing samples. Here we report on systematic measurements of the thermal conductivity of air dry, water- and tetrohydrofuran (THF)-saturated, and THF hydrate–saturated sand and clay samples at vertical effective stress of 0.05 to 1 MPa (corresponding to depths as great as 100 m below seafloor). Results reveal that the bulk thermal conductivity of the samples in every case reflects a complex interplay among particle size, effective stress, porosity, and fluid-versus-hydrate filled pore spaces. The thermal conductivity of THF hydrate–bearing soils increases upon hydrate formation although the thermal conductivities of THF solution and THF hydrate are almost the same. Several mechanisms can contribute to this effect including cryogenic suction during hydrate crystal growth and the ensuing porosity reduction in the surrounding sediment, increased mean effective stress due to hydrate formation under zero lateral strain conditions, and decreased interface thermal impedance as grain-liquid interfaces are transformed into grain-hydrate interfaces.

  12. Strength Estimation for Hydrate-Bearing Sediments From Direct Shear Tests of Hydrate-Bearing Sand and Silt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhichao; Dai, Sheng; Ning, Fulong; Peng, Li; Wei, Houzhen; Wei, Changfu

    2018-01-01

    Safe and economic methane gas production, as well as the replacement of methane while sequestering carbon in natural hydrate deposits, requires enhanced geomechanical understanding of the strength and volume responses of hydrate-bearing sediments during shear. This study employs a custom-made apparatus to investigate the mechanical and volumetric behaviors of carbon dioxide hydrate-bearing sediments subjected to direct shear. The results show that both peak and residual strengths increase with increased hydrate saturation and vertical stress. Hydrate contributes mainly the cohesion and dilatancy constraint to the peak strength of hydrate-bearing sediments. The postpeak strength reduction is more evident and brittle in specimens with higher hydrate saturation and under lower stress. Significant strength reduction after shear failure is expected in silty sediments with high hydrate saturation Sh ≥ 0.65. Hydrate contribution to the residual strength is mainly by increasing cohesion at low hydrate saturation and friction at high hydrate saturation. Stress state and hydrate saturation are dominating both the stiffness and the strength of hydrate-bearing sediments; thus, a wave velocity-based peak strength prediction model is proposed and validated, which allows for precise estimation of the shear strength of hydrate-bearing sediments through acoustic logging data. This method is advantageous to geomechanical simulators, particularly when the experimental strength data of natural samples are not available.

  13. Multi-property characterization chamber for geophysical-hydrological investigations of hydrate bearing sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Yongkoo, E-mail: Yongkoo.Seol@netl.doe.gov; Choi, Jeong-Hoon; Dai, Sheng [National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown, West Virginia 26507 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    With the increase in the interest of producing natural gas from methane hydrates as well as potential risks of massive hydrate dissociation in the context of global warming, studies have recently shifted from pure hydrate crystals to hydrates in sediments. Such a research focus shift requires a series of innovative laboratory devices that are capable of investigating various properties of hydrate-bearing sediments (HBS). This study introduces a newly developed high pressure testing chamber, i.e., multi-property characterization chamber (MPCC), that allows simultaneous investigation of a series of fundamental properties of HBS, including small-strain stiffness (i.e., P- and S-waves), shear strength, large-strain deformation, stress-volume responses, and permeability. The peripheral coolant circulation system of the MPCC permits stable and accurate temperature control, while the core holder body, made of aluminum, enables X-ray computer tomography scanning to be easily employed for structural and morphological characterization of specimens. Samples of hydrate-bearing sediments are held within a rubber sleeve inside the chamber. The thick sleeve is more durable and versatile than thin membranes while also being much softer than oedometer-type chambers that are incapable of enabling flow tests. Bias introduced by the rubber sleeve during large deformation tests are also calibrated both theoretically and experimentally. This system provides insight into full characterization of hydrate-bearing sediments in the laboratory, as well as pressure core technology in the field.

  14. Multi-property characterization chamber for geophysical-hydrological investigations of hydrate bearing sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seol, Yongkoo; Choi, Jeong-Hoon; Dai, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    With the increase in the interest of producing natural gas from methane hydrates as well as potential risks of massive hydrate dissociation in the context of global warming, studies have recently shifted from pure hydrate crystals to hydrates in sediments. Such a research focus shift requires a series of innovative laboratory devices that are capable of investigating various properties of hydrate-bearing sediments (HBS). This study introduces a newly developed high pressure testing chamber, i.e., multi-property characterization chamber (MPCC), that allows simultaneous investigation of a series of fundamental properties of HBS, including small-strain stiffness (i.e., P- and S-waves), shear strength, large-strain deformation, stress-volume responses, and permeability. The peripheral coolant circulation system of the MPCC permits stable and accurate temperature control, while the core holder body, made of aluminum, enables X-ray computer tomography scanning to be easily employed for structural and morphological characterization of specimens. Samples of hydrate-bearing sediments are held within a rubber sleeve inside the chamber. The thick sleeve is more durable and versatile than thin membranes while also being much softer than oedometer-type chambers that are incapable of enabling flow tests. Bias introduced by the rubber sleeve during large deformation tests are also calibrated both theoretically and experimentally. This system provides insight into full characterization of hydrate-bearing sediments in the laboratory, as well as pressure core technology in the field

  15. Instrumented Pressure Testing Chamber (IPTC) Characterization of Methane Gas Hydrate-Bearing Pressure Cores Collected from the Methane Production Test Site in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Offshore Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, W. F.; Santamarina, J. C.; Dai, S.; Winters, W. J.; Yoneda, J.; Konno, Y.; Nagao, J.; Suzuki, K.; Fujii, T.; Mason, D. H.; Bergeron, E.

    2014-12-01

    Pressure cores obtained at the Daini-Atsumi Knoll in the eastern Nankai Trough, the site of the methane hydrate production test completed by the Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21) project in March 2013, were recovered from ~300 meters beneath the sea floor at close to in situ pressure. Cores were subsequently stored at ~20 MPa and ~5°C, which maintained hydrate in the cores within stability conditions. Pressure core physical properties were measured at 10 MPa and ~6°C, also within the methane hydrate stability field, using the IPTC and other Pressure Core Characterization Tools (PCCTs). Discrete IPTC measurements were carried out in strata ranging from silty sands to clayey silts within the turbidite sequences recovered in the cores. As expected, hydrate saturations were greatest in more permeable coarser-grained layers. Key results include: 1) Where hydrate saturation exceeded 40% in sandy sediments, the gas hydrate binds sediment grains within the matrix. The pressure core analyses yielded nearly in situ mechanical properties despite the absence of effective stress in the IPTC. 2) In adjacent fine-grained sediment (hydrate saturation < 15%), hydrate did not significantly bind the sediment. IPTC results in these locations were consistent with the zero effective-stress limit of comparable measurements made in PCCT devices that are designed to restore the specimen's in situ effective stress. In sand-rich intervals with high gas hydrate saturations, the measured compressional and shear wave velocities suggest that hydrate acts as a homogeneously-distributed, load-bearing member of the bulk sediment. The sands with high gas hydrate saturations were prone to fracturing (brittle failure) during insertion of the cone penetrometer and electrical conductivity probes. Authors would like to express their sincere appreciation to MH21 and the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry for permitting this work to be disclosed at the 2014 Fall AGU meeting.

  16. Effects of Attenuation of Gas Hydrate-bearing Sediments on Seismic Data: Example from Mallik, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellefleur, G.; Riedel, M.; Brent, T.

    2007-05-01

    Wave attenuation is an important physical property of hydrate-bearing sediments that is rarely taken into account in site characterization with seismic data. We present a field example showing improved images of hydrate- bearing sediments on seismic data after compensation of attenuation effects. Compressional quality factors (Q) are estimated from zero-offset Vertical Seismic Profiling data acquired at Mallik, Northwest Territories, Canada. During the last 10 years, two internationally-partnered research drilling programs have intersected three major intervals of sub-permafrost gas hydrates at Mallik, and have successfully extracted core samples containing significant amount of gas hydrates. Individual gas hydrate intervals are up to 40m in thickness and are characterized by high in situ gas hydrate saturation, sometimes exceeding 80% of pore volume of unconsolidated clastic sediments having average porosities ranging from 25% to 40%. The Q-factors obtained from the VSP data demonstrate significant wave attenuation for permafrost and hydrate- bearing sediments. These results are in agreement with previous attenuation estimates from sonic logs and crosshole data at different frequency intervals. The Q-factors obtained from VSP data were used to compensate attenuation effects on surface 3D seismic data acquired over the Mallik gas hydrate research wells. Intervals of gas hydrate on surface seismic data are characterized by strong reflectivity and effects from attenuation are not perceptible from a simple visual inspection of the data. However, the application of an inverse Q-filter increases the resolution of the data and improves correlation with log data, particularly for the shallowest gas hydrate interval. Compensation of the attenuation effects of the permafrost likely explains most of the improvements for the shallow gas hydrate zone. Our results show that characterization of the Mallik gas hydrates with seismic data not corrected for attenuation would tend to

  17. THCM Coupled Model for Hydrate-Bearing Sediments: Data Analysis and Design of New Field Experiments (Marine and Permafrost Settings)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Marcelo J. [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Santamarina, J. Carlos [King Abdullah Univ. of Science and Technology (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-02-14

    Gas hydrates are solid compounds made of water molecules clustered around low molecular weight gas molecules such as methane, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Methane hydrates form under pressure (P) and temperature (T) conditions that are common in sub-permafrost layers and in deep marine sediments. Stability conditions constrain the occurrence of gas hydrates to submarine sediments and permafrost regions. The amount of technically recoverable methane trapped in gas hydrate may exceed 104tcf. Gas hydrates are a potential energy resource, can contribute to climate change, and can cause large-scale seafloor instabilities. In addition, hydrate formation can be used for CO2 sequestration (also through CO2-CH4 replacement), and efficient geological storage seals. The experimental study of hydrate bearing sediments has been hindered by the very low solubility of methane in water (lab testing), and inherent sampling difficulties associated with depressurization and thermal changes during core extraction. This situation has prompted more decisive developments in numerical modeling in order to advance the current understanding of hydrate bearing sediments, and to investigate/optimize production strategies and implications. The goals of this research has been to addresses the complex thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical THCM coupled phenomena in hydrate-bearing sediments, using a truly coupled numerical model that incorporates sound and proven constitutive relations, satisfies fundamental conservation principles. Analytical solutions aimed at verifying the proposed code have been proposed as well. These tools will allow to better analyze available data and to further enhance the current understanding of hydrate bearing sediments in view of future field experiments and the development of production technology.

  18. Hydro-bio-geomechanical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments from Nankai Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamarina, J.C.; Dai, Shifeng; Terzariol, M.; Jang, Jeonghwan; Waite, William F.; Winters, William J.; Nagao, J.; Yoneda, J.; Konno, Y.; Fujii, T.; Suzuki, K.

    2015-01-01

    Natural hydrate-bearing sediments from the Nankai Trough, offshore Japan, were studied using the Pressure Core Characterization Tools (PCCTs) to obtain geomechanical, hydrological, electrical, and biological properties under in situ pressure, temperature, and restored effective stress conditions. Measurement results, combined with index-property data and analytical physics-based models, provide unique insight into hydrate-bearing sediments in situ. Tested cores contain some silty-sands, but are predominantly sandy- and clayey-silts. Hydrate saturations Sh range from 0.15 to 0.74, with significant concentrations in the silty-sands. Wave velocity and flexible-wall permeameter measurements on never-depressurized pressure-core sediments suggest hydrates in the coarser-grained zones, the silty-sands where Sh exceeds 0.4, contribute to soil-skeletal stability and are load-bearing. In the sandy- and clayey-silts, where Sh < 0.4, the state of effective stress and stress history are significant factors determining sediment stiffness. Controlled depressurization tests show that hydrate dissociation occurs too quickly to maintain thermodynamic equilibrium, and pressure–temperature conditions track the hydrate stability boundary in pure-water, rather than that in seawater, in spite of both the in situ pore water and the water used to maintain specimen pore pressure prior to dissociation being saline. Hydrate dissociation accompanied with fines migration caused up to 2.4% vertical strain contraction. The first-ever direct shear measurements on never-depressurized pressure-core specimens show hydrate-bearing sediments have higher sediment strength and peak friction angle than post-dissociation sediments, but the residual friction angle remains the same in both cases. Permeability measurements made before and after hydrate dissociation demonstrate that water permeability increases after dissociation, but the gain is limited by the transition from hydrate saturation

  19. Sedimentological Properties of Natural Gas Hydrates-Bearing Sands in the Nankai Trough and Mallik Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, T.; Tsuji, T.; Waseda, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Nankai Trough parallels the Japanese Island, where extensive BSRs have been interpreted from seismic reflection records. High resolution seismic surveys have definitely indicated gas hydrate distributions, and drilling the MITI Nankai Trough wells in 2000 and the METI Tokai-oki to Kumano-nada wells in 2004 have revealed subsurface gas hydrate in the eastern part of Nankai Trough. In 1998 and 2002 Mallik wells were drilled at Mackenzie Delta in the Canadian Arctic that also clarified the characteristics of gas hydrate-dominant sandy layers at depths from 890 to 1110 m beneath the permafrost zone. During the field operations, the LWD and wire-line well log data were continuously obtained and plenty of gas hydrate-bearing sand cores were recovered. Subsequence sedimentological and geochemical analyses performed on those core samples revealed the crucial geologic controls on the formation and preservation of natural gas hydrate in sediments. Pore-space gas hydrates reside in sandy sediments mostly filling intergranular porosity. Pore waters chloride anomalies, core temperature depression and core observations on visible gas hydrates confirm the presence of pore-space gas hydrates within moderate to thick sandy layers, typically 10 cm to a meter thick. Sediment porosities and pore-size distributions were obtained by mercury porosimetry, which indicate that porosities of gas hydrate-bearing sandy strata are approximately 45 %. According to grain size distribution curves, gas hydrate is dominant in fine- to very fine-grained sandy strata. Gas hydrate saturations are typically up to 80 % in pore volume throughout most of the hydrate-dominant sandy layers, which are estimated by well log analyses as well as pore water chloride anomalies. It is necessary for investigating subsurface fluid flow behaviors to evaluate both porosity and permeability of gas hydrate-bearing sandy sediments, and the measurements of water permeability for them indicated that highly saturated

  20. Geomechanical Performance of Hydrate-Bearing Sediment in Offshore Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Holditch; Tad Patzek; Jonny Rutqvist; George Moridis; Richard Plumb

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this multi-year, multi-institutional research project was to develop the knowledge base and quantitative predictive capability for the description of geomechanical performance of hydrate-bearing sediments (hereafter referred to as HBS) in oceanic environments. The focus was on the determination of the envelope of hydrate stability under conditions typical of those related to the construction and operation of offshore platforms. We have developed a robust numerical simulator of hydrate behavior in geologic media by coupling a reservoir model with a commercial geomechanical code. We also investigated the geomechanical behavior of oceanic HBS using pore-scale models (conceptual and mathematical) of fluid flow, stress analysis, and damage propagation. The objective of the UC Berkeley work was to develop a grain-scale model of hydrate-bearing sediments. Hydrate dissociation alters the strength of HBS. In particular, transformation of hydrate clusters into gas and liquid water weakens the skeleton and, simultaneously, reduces the effective stress by increasing the pore pressure. The large-scale objective of the study is evaluation of geomechanical stability of offshore oil and gas production infrastructure. At Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), we have developed the numerical model TOUGH + Hydrate + FLAC3D to evaluate how the formation and disassociation of hydrates in seafloor sediments affects seafloor stability. Several technical papers were published using results from this model. LBNL also developed laboratory equipment and methods to produce realistic laboratory samples of sediments containing gas hydrates so that mechanical properties could be measured in the laboratory. These properties are required to run TOUGH + Hydrate + FLAC3D to evaluate seafloor stability issues. At Texas A&M University we performed a detailed literature review to determine what gas hydrate formation properties had been measured and reported in the literature. We

  1. Impacts of variability in geomechanical properties on hydrate bearing sediment responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. S.; Uchida, S.; Choi, J. H.; Seol, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Hydrate bearing sediments (HBS) may become unstable during the gas production operation, or from natural processes such as change in the landform or temperature. The geomechanical modeling is a rational way to assess HBS stability regardless of the process involved. At the present time, such modeling is laced with uncertainties. The uncertainties come from many sources that include the adequacy of a modeling framework to accurately project the response of HBS, the gap in the available field information, and the variability in the laboratory test results from limited samples. For a reasonable stability assessment, the impact of the various uncertainties have to be addressed. This study looks into one particular aspect of the uncertainty, namely, the uncertainty caused by the scatter in the laboratory tests and the ability of a constitutive model to adequately represent them. Specifically this study focuses on the scatter in the results from laboratory tests on high quality pressured core samples from a marine site, and use a critical state constitutive model to represent them. The study investigates how the HBS responses shift when the parameters of the constitutive model are varied to reflect the different aspects of experimental results. Also investigated are impacts on the responses by altering certain formulations of the constitutive model to suit particular sets of results.

  2. Hydrate-CASM for modeling Methane Hydrate-Bearing Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Fuente Ruiz, M.; Vaunat, J.; Marin Moreno, H.

    2017-12-01

    A clear understanding of the geomechanical behavior of methane hydrate-bearing sediments (MHBS) is crucial to assess the stability of the seafloor and submarine infrastructures to human and natural loading changes. Here we present the Hydrate-CASM, a new elastoplastic constitutive model to predict the geomechanical behavior of MHBS. Our model employs the critical state model CASM (Clay and Sand Model) because of its flexibility in describing the shape of the yield surface and its proven ability to predict the mechanical behavior of sands, the most commercially viable hydrate reservoirs. The model considers MHBS as a deformable elastoplastic continuum, and hydrate-related changes in the stress-strain behavior are predicted by a densification mechanism. The densification attributes the mechanical contribution of hydrate to; a reduction of the available void ratio; a decrease of the swelling line slope; and an increase of the volumetric yield stress. It is described by experimentally derived physical parameters except from the swelling slope coefficient that requires empirical calibration. The Hydrate-CASM is validated against published triaxial laboratory tests performed at different confinement stresses, hydrate saturations, and hydrate morphologies. During the validation, we focused on capturing the mechanical behavior of the host sediment and consider perturbations of the sediment's mechanical properties that could result from the sample preparation. Our model successfully captures the experimentally observed influence of hydrate saturation in the magnitude and trend of the stiffness, shear strength, and dilatancy of MHBS. Hence, we propose that hydrate-related densification changes might be a major factor controlling the geomechanical response of MHBS.

  3. Transport Mechanisms for CO2-CH4 Exchange and Safe CO2 Storage in Hydrate-Bearing Sandstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut Arne Birkedal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available CO2 injection in hydrate-bearing sediments induces methane (CH4 production while benefitting from CO2 storage, as demonstrated in both core and field scale studies. CH4 hydrates have been formed repeatedly in partially water saturated Bentheim sandstones. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI and CH4 consumption from pump logs have been used to verify final CH4 hydrate saturation. Gas Chromatography (GC in combination with a Mass Flow Meter was used to quantify CH4 recovery during CO2 injection. The overall aim has been to study the impact of CO2 in fractured and non-fractured samples to determine the performance of CO2-induced CH4 hydrate production. Previous efforts focused on diffusion-driven exchange from a fracture volume. This approach was limited by gas dilution, where free and produced CH4 reduced the CO2 concentration and subsequent driving force for both diffusion and exchange. This limitation was targeted by performing experiments where CO2 was injected continuously into the spacer volume to maintain a high driving force. To evaluate the effect of diffusion length multi-fractured core samples were used, which demonstrated that length was not the dominating effect on core scale. An additional set of experiments is presented on non-fractured samples, where diffusion-limited transportation was assisted by continuous CO2 injection and CH4 displacement. Loss of permeability was addressed through binary gas (N2/CO2 injection, which regained injectivity and sustained CO2-CH4 exchange.

  4. A New Critical State Model for Geomechanical Behavior of Methane Hydrate-Bearing Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. S.; Xing, P.; Rutqvist, J.; Seol, Y.; Choi, J. H.

    2014-12-01

    Methane hydrate bearing sands behave like sands once the hydrate has dissociated, but could exhibit a substantial increase in the shear strength, stiffness and dilatancy as the degree of hydrate saturation increases. A new critical state model was developed that incorporates the spatially mobilized plane (SMP) concept, which has been proven effective in modeling mechanical behavior of sands. While this new model was built on the basic constructs of the critical state model, important enhancements were introduced. The model adopted the t-stress concept, which defined the normal and shear stress on the SMP, in describing the plastic behavior of the soil. In this connection the versatile Matsuoka-Nakai yield criterion was also employed, which defined the general three dimensional yield behavior. The resulting constitutive law was associated in the t-stress space, but became non-associated in the conventional p-q stress space as it should be for sands. The model also introduced a generalized degree of hydrate saturation concept that was modified from the pioneering work of the Cambridge group. The model gives stress change when the sands are subjected to straining, and/or to hydrate saturation changes. The performance of the model has been found satisfactory using data from laboratory triaxial tests on reconstituted samples and core samples taken from Nankai Trough, Japan. The model has been implemented into FLAC3D. A coupling example with the multiphase flow code, TOUGH+, is presented which simulates the mechanical behavior of a sample when the surrounding temperature has been raised, and the hydrate undergoes state change and no longer resides in the stability zone.

  5. Maximum Recoverable Gas from Hydrate Bearing Sediments by Depressurization

    KAUST Repository

    Terzariol, Marco

    2017-11-13

    The estimation of gas production rates from hydrate bearing sediments requires complex numerical simulations. This manuscript presents a set of simple and robust analytical solutions to estimate the maximum depressurization-driven recoverable gas. These limiting-equilibrium solutions are established when the dissociation front reaches steady state conditions and ceases to expand further. Analytical solutions show the relevance of (1) relative permeabilities between the hydrate free sediment, the hydrate bearing sediment, and the aquitard layers, and (2) the extent of depressurization in terms of the fluid pressures at the well, at the phase boundary, and in the far field. Close form solutions for the size of the produced zone allow for expeditious financial analyses; results highlight the need for innovative production strategies in order to make hydrate accumulations an economically-viable energy resource. Horizontal directional drilling and multi-wellpoint seafloor dewatering installations may lead to advantageous production strategies in shallow seafloor reservoirs.

  6. Thermal conductivity measurements in unsaturated hydrate-bearing sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Sheng; Cha, Jong-Ho; Rosenbaum, Eilis J.; Zhang, Wu; Seol, Yongkoo

    2015-08-01

    Current database on the thermal properties of hydrate-bearing sediments remains limited and has not been able to capture their consequential changes during gas production where vigorous phase changes occur in this unsaturated system. This study uses the transient plane source (TPS) technique to measure the thermal conductivity of methane hydrate-bearing sediments with various hydrate/water/gas saturations. We propose a simplified method to obtain thermal properties from single-sided TPS signatures. Results reveal that both volume fraction and distribution of the pore constituents govern the thermal conductivity of unsaturated specimens. Thermal conductivity hysteresis is observed due to water redistribution and fabric change caused by hydrate formation and dissociation. Measured thermal conductivity increases evidently when hydrate saturation Sh > 30-40%, shifting upward from the geometric mean model prediction to a Pythagorean mixing model. These observations envisage a significant drop in sediment thermal conductivity when residual hydrate/water saturation falls below ~40%, hindering further gas production.

  7. Methane Flux and Authigenic Carbonate in Shallow Sediments Overlying Methane Hydrate Bearing Strata in Alaminos Canyon, Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P. Smith

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In June 2007 sediment cores were collected in Alaminos Canyon, Gulf of Mexico across a series of seismic data profiles indicating rapid transitions between the presence of methane hydrates and vertical gas flux. Vertical profiles of dissolved sulfate, chloride, calcium, magnesium, and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC concentrations in porewaters, headspace methane, and solid phase carbonate concentrations were measured at each core location to investigate the cycling of methane-derived carbon in shallow sediments overlying the hydrate bearing strata. When integrated with stable carbon isotope ratios of DIC, geochemical results suggest a significant fraction of the methane flux at this site is cycled into the inorganic carbon pool. The incorporation of methane-derived carbon into dissolved and solid inorganic carbon phases represents a significant sink in local carbon cycling and plays a role in regulating the flux of methane to the overlying water column at Alaminos Canyon. Targeted, high-resolution geochemical characterization of the biogeochemical cycling of methane-derived carbon in shallow sediments overlying hydrate bearing strata like those in Alaminos Canyon is critical to quantifying methane flux and estimating methane hydrate distributions in gas hydrate bearing marine sediments.

  8. Hydrate bearing clayey sediments: Formation and gas production concepts

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Jaewon; Santamarina, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Hydro-thermo-chemo and mechanically coupled processes determine hydrate morphology and control gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments. Force balance, together with mass and energy conservation analyses anchored in published data provide robust asymptotic solutions that reflect governing processes in hydrate systems. Results demonstrate that hydrate segregation in clayey sediments results in a two-material system whereby hydrate lenses are surrounded by hydrate-free water-saturated clay. Hydrate saturation can reach ≈2% by concentrating the excess dissolved gas in the pore water and ≈20% from metabolizable carbon. Higher hydrate saturations are often found in natural sediments and imply methane transport by advection or diffusion processes. Hydrate dissociation is a strongly endothermic event; the available latent heat in a reservoir can sustain significant hydrate dissociation without triggering ice formation during depressurization. The volume of hydrate expands 2-to-4 times upon dissociation or CO2single bondCH4 replacement. Volume expansion can be controlled to maintain lenses open and to create new open mode discontinuities that favor gas recovery. Pore size is the most critical sediment parameter for hydrate formation and gas recovery and is controlled by the smallest grains in a sediment. Therefore any characterization must carefully consider the amount of fines and their associated mineralogy.

  9. Hydrate bearing clayey sediments: Formation and gas production concepts

    KAUST Repository

    Jang, Jaewon

    2016-06-20

    Hydro-thermo-chemo and mechanically coupled processes determine hydrate morphology and control gas production from hydrate-bearing sediments. Force balance, together with mass and energy conservation analyses anchored in published data provide robust asymptotic solutions that reflect governing processes in hydrate systems. Results demonstrate that hydrate segregation in clayey sediments results in a two-material system whereby hydrate lenses are surrounded by hydrate-free water-saturated clay. Hydrate saturation can reach ≈2% by concentrating the excess dissolved gas in the pore water and ≈20% from metabolizable carbon. Higher hydrate saturations are often found in natural sediments and imply methane transport by advection or diffusion processes. Hydrate dissociation is a strongly endothermic event; the available latent heat in a reservoir can sustain significant hydrate dissociation without triggering ice formation during depressurization. The volume of hydrate expands 2-to-4 times upon dissociation or CO2single bondCH4 replacement. Volume expansion can be controlled to maintain lenses open and to create new open mode discontinuities that favor gas recovery. Pore size is the most critical sediment parameter for hydrate formation and gas recovery and is controlled by the smallest grains in a sediment. Therefore any characterization must carefully consider the amount of fines and their associated mineralogy.

  10. The structure of hydrate bearing fine grained marine sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priest, J.; Kingston, E.; Clayton, C. [Southampton Univ., Highfield (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering and the Environment; Schultheiss, P.; Druce, M. [Geotek Ltd., Daventry (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    This paper discussed the structure of naturally occurring methane gas hydrates in fine-grained sediments from core samples recovered using in situ pressures from the eastern margin of the Indian Ocean. High resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT) images were taken of gas hydrate cores. The hydrate structure was examined and comparisons were made between low resolution X-ray images obtained on the cores prior to sub-sectioning and depressurization procedures. The X-ray images showed the presence of high-angle, sub-parallel veins within the recovered sediments. The scans indicated that the hydrates occurred as fracture filing veins throughout the core. Fracture orientation was predominantly sub-vertical. Thick millimetric hydrate veins were composed of sub-millimetric veins with variations in fracture angle. The analysis indicated that hydrate formation was episodic in nature and subject to changes in the stress regime. Results of the study showed that depressurization and subsequent freezing alter the structure of the sediment even when the gas hydrate has not been altered. A large proportion of the hydrate survived when outside of its stability region. The self-preserving behaviour of the hydrate was attributed to the endothermic nature of gas hydrate dissociation. It was concluded that the accurate physical characterization of gas hydrates can only be conducted when the core section remains under in situ stress conditions. 13 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Comparison of Physical Properties of Marine and Arctic Gas-Hydrate-Bearing Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, W. J.; Walker, M.; Collett, T. S.; Bryant, S. L.; Novosel, I.; Wilcox-Cline, R.; Bing, J.; Gomes, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    Gas hydrate (GH) occurs in both marine settings and in arctic environments within a wide variety of sediment types. Grain-size analyses from both environments indicate that intrinsic host-sediment properties have a strong influence on gas-hydrate distribution and morphologic characteristics. Depending on the amount formed or dissociated, gas hydrate can significantly change in situ sediment acoustic, mechanical, and hydraulic properties. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Dept. of Energy, BP Expl.-Alaska, Nat. GH Prog. of India, Canadian Geological Survey, Int. Ocean Drilling Program, Japan Oil Gas and Metals Nat. Corp., Japan Pet. Expl. Co., Int. Marine Past Global Changes Study (IMAGES) program, and Paleoceanography of the Atlantic and Geochemistry (PAGE) program, determined physical properties from marine and arctic sediments and their relation to the presence of GH. At two arctic sites, the Mount Elbert well on the Alaskan North Slope and the Mallik wells on the Mackenzie Delta, NWT, >10-m thick gas-hydrate-bearing (GHB) sandy deposits are capped by finer-grained sediments that may reduce gas migration. In the Mount Elbert well, average median grain sizes (MGS) for the two thickest GHB deposits are 65 and 60 µm. Finer-grained (average MGS of 9 and 28 µm) sediments have plug permeabilities that are 300 and 14 times smaller than underlying GHB sediment. Average MGS of GHB sediment from the Mallik 2L well is ~ 111 µm, compared to overlying sediment with an average MGS of ~ 32 µm. Gas hydrate morphology in the Gulf of Mexico (GOM) and offshore India is substantially more complex than in the arctic, and is related to pervasive, although not exclusive, finer-grained deposits. Massive, several-cm thick, GH layers were recovered in piston cores in the northern GOM, in sediment with little visible lithologic variability (average MGS ~ 0.8 µm). In wells off the east coast of India, GH was present in sand-rich, fractured clay, and reservoirs

  12. Biogeographical distribution and diversity of microbes in methane hydrate-bearing deep marine sediments, on the Pacific Ocean Margin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inagaki, F.; Nunoura, T.; Nakagawa, S.

    2006-01-01

    The deep subseafloor biosphere is among the least-understood habitats on Earth, even though the huge microbial biomass therein plays an important role for potential long-term controls on global biogeochemical cycles. We report here the vertical and geographical distribution of microbes and their ......The deep subseafloor biosphere is among the least-understood habitats on Earth, even though the huge microbial biomass therein plays an important role for potential long-term controls on global biogeochemical cycles. We report here the vertical and geographical distribution of microbes...... of the uncultivated Deep-Sea Archaeal Group were consistently the dominant phylotype in sediments associated with methane hydrate. Sediment cores lacking methane hydrates displayed few or no Deep-Sea Archaeal Group phylotypes. Bacterial communities in the methane hydrate-bearing sediments were dominated by members...

  13. Hydrate-Bearing Clayey Sediments: Morphology, Physical Properties, Production and Engineering/Geological Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Sheng [Georgia Tech Research Corporation, Atlanta, GA (United States); Santamarina, J. Carlos [King Abdulaziz Univ., Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-12-30

    Fine-grained sediments host more than 90 percent of global gas hydrate accumulation. However, hydrate formation in clay-dominated sediments is less understood and characterized than other types of hydrate occurrence. There is an inadequate understanding of hydrate formation mechanisms, segregation structures, hydrate lens topology, system connectivity, and physical macro-scale properties of clay-dominated hydrate-bearing sediments. This situation hinders further analyses of the global carbon budget as well as engineering challenges/solutions related to hydrate instability and production. This project studies hydrate-bearing clay-dominated sediments with emphasis on the enhanced fundamental understanding of hydrate formation and resulting morphology, the development laboratory techniques to emulate natural hydrate formations, the assessment of analytical tools to predict physical properties, the evaluation of engineering and geological implications, and the advanced understanding of gas production potential from finegrained sediments.

  14. High-resolution well-log derived dielectric properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments, Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Y.; Goldberg, D.; Collett, T.; Hunter, R.

    2011-01-01

    A dielectric logging tool, electromagnetic propagation tool (EPT), was deployed in 2007 in the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well (Mount Elbert Well), North Slope, Alaska. The measured dielectric properties in the Mount Elbert well, combined with density log measurements, result in a vertical high-resolution (cm-scale) estimate of gas hydrate saturation. Two hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs about 20 m thick were identified using the EPT log and exhibited gas-hydrate saturation estimates ranging from 45% to 85%. In hydrate-bearing zones where variation of hole size and oil-based mud invasion are minimal, EPT-based gas hydrate saturation estimates on average agree well with lower vertical resolution estimates from the nuclear magnetic resonance logs; however, saturation and porosity estimates based on EPT logs are not reliable in intervals with substantial variations in borehole diameter and oil-based invasion.EPT log interpretation reveals many thin-bedded layers at various depths, both above and below the thick continuous hydrate occurrences, which range from 30-cm to about 1-m thick. Such thin layers are not indicated in other well logs, or from the visual observation of core, with the exception of the image log recorded by the oil-base microimager. We also observe that EPT dielectric measurements can be used to accurately detect fine-scale changes in lithology and pore fluid properties of hydrate-bearing sediments where variation of hole size is minimal. EPT measurements may thus provide high-resolution in-situ hydrate saturation estimates for comparison and calibration with laboratory analysis. ?? 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Impact of pore-water freshening on clays and the compressibility of hydrate-bearing reservoirs during production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Junbong [U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA; Cao, Shuang [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA; Waite, William [U.S. Geological Survey, Woods Hole, MA; Jung, Jongwon [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju-si, Chungbuk, South Korea

    2017-06-25

    Gas production efficiency from natural hydrate-bearing sediments depends in part on geotechnical properties of fine-grained materials, which are ubiquitous even in sandy hydrate-bearing sediments. The responses of fine-grained material to pore fluid chemistry changes due to freshening during hydrate dissociation could alter critical sediment characteristics during gas production activities. We investigate the electrical sensitivity of fine grains to pore fluid freshening and the implications of freshening on sediment compression and recompression parameters.

  16. Hydraulic and Mechanical Effects from Gas Hydrate Conversion and Secondary Gas Hydrate Formation during Injection of CO2 into CH4-Hydrate-Bearing Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigalke, N.; Deusner, C.; Kossel, E.; Schicks, J. M.; Spangenberg, E.; Priegnitz, M.; Heeschen, K. U.; Abendroth, S.; Thaler, J.; Haeckel, M.

    2014-12-01

    The injection of CO2 into CH4-hydrate-bearing sediments has the potential to drive natural gas production and simultaneously sequester CO2 by hydrate conversion. The process aims at maintaining the in situ hydrate saturation and structure and causing limited impact on soil hydraulic properties and geomechanical stability. However, to increase hydrate conversion yields and rates it must potentially be assisted by thermal stimulation or depressurization. Further, secondary formation of CO2-rich hydrates from pore water and injected CO2 enhances hydrate conversion and CH4 production yields [1]. Technical stimulation and secondary hydrate formation add significant complexity to the bulk conversion process resulting in spatial and temporal effects on hydraulic and geomechanical properties that cannot be predicted by current reservoir simulation codes. In a combined experimental and numerical approach, it is our objective to elucidate both hydraulic and mechanical effects of CO2 injection and CH4-CO2-hydrate conversion in CH4-hydrate bearing soils. For the experimental approach we used various high-pressure flow-through systems equipped with different online and in situ monitoring tools (e.g. Raman microscopy, MRI and ERT). One particular focus was the design of triaxial cell experimental systems, which enable us to study sample behavior even during large deformations and particle flow. We present results from various flow-through high-pressure experimental studies on different scales, which indicate that hydraulic and geomechanical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments are drastically altered during and after injection of CO2. We discuss the results in light of the competing processes of hydrate dissociation, hydrate conversion and secondary hydrate formation. Our results will also contribute to the understanding of effects of temperature and pressure changes leading to dissociation of gas hydrates in ocean and permafrost systems. [1] Deusner C, Bigalke N, Kossel E

  17. Impacts of Hydrate Distribution on the Hydro-Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Hydrate-Bearing Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, S.; Seol, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In general, hydrate makes the sediments hydraulically less conductive, thermally more conductive, and mechanically stronger; yet the dependency of these physical properties on hydrate saturation varies with hydrate distribution and morphology. Hydrate distribution in sediments may cause the bulk physical properties of their host sediments varying several orders of magnitude even with the same amount of hydrate. In natural sediments, hydrate morphology is inherently governed by the burial depth and the grain size of the host sediments. Compare with patchy hydrate, uniformly distributed hydrate is more destructive to fluid flow, yet leads to higher gas and water permeability during hydrate dissociation due to the easiness of forming percolation paths. Water and hydrate have similar thermal conductivity values; the bulk thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments depends critically on gas-phase saturation. 60% of gas saturation may result in evident thermal conductivity drop and hinder further gas production. Sediments with patchy hydrate yield lower stiffness than that with cementing hydrate but higher stiffness than that with pore filling and loading bearing hydrate. Besides hydrate distribution, the stress state and loading history also play an important role in the mechanical behavior of hydrate-bearing sediments.

  18. A constitutive mechanical model for gas hydrate bearing sediments incorporating inelastic mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Sánchez, Marcelo

    2016-11-30

    Gas hydrate bearing sediments (HBS) are natural soils formed in permafrost and sub-marine settings where the temperature and pressure conditions are such that gas hydrates are stable. If these conditions shift from the hydrate stability zone, hydrates dissociate and move from the solid to the gas phase. Hydrate dissociation is accompanied by significant changes in sediment structure and strongly affects its mechanical behavior (e.g., sediment stiffenss, strength and dilatancy). The mechanical behavior of HBS is very complex and its modeling poses great challenges. This paper presents a new geomechanical model for hydrate bearing sediments. The model incorporates the concept of partition stress, plus a number of inelastic mechanisms proposed to capture the complex behavior of this type of soil. This constitutive model is especially well suited to simulate the behavior of HBS upon dissociation. The model was applied and validated against experimental data from triaxial and oedometric tests conducted on manufactured and natural specimens involving different hydrate saturation, hydrate morphology, and confinement conditions. Particular attention was paid to model the HBS behavior during hydrate dissociation under loading. The model performance was highly satisfactory in all the cases studied. It managed to properly capture the main features of HBS mechanical behavior and it also assisted to interpret the behavior of this type of sediment under different loading and hydrate conditions.

  19. Coupled numerical modeling of gas hydrates bearing sediments from laboratory to field-scale conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, M. J.; Santamarina, C.; Gai, X., Sr.; Teymouri, M., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    Stability and behavior of Hydrate Bearing Sediments (HBS) are characterized by the metastable character of the gas hydrate structure which strongly depends on thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical (THCM) actions. Hydrate formation, dissociation and methane production from hydrate bearing sediments are coupled THCM processes that involve, amongst other, exothermic formation and endothermic dissociation of hydrate and ice phases, mixed fluid flow and large changes in fluid pressure. The analysis of available data from past field and laboratory experiments, and the optimization of future field production studies require a formal and robust numerical framework able to capture the very complex behavior of this type of soil. A comprehensive fully coupled THCM formulation has been developed and implemented into a finite element code to tackle problems involving gas hydrates sediments. Special attention is paid to the geomechanical behavior of HBS, and particularly to their response upon hydrate dissociation under loading. The numerical framework has been validated against recent experiments conducted under controlled conditions in the laboratory that challenge the proposed approach and highlight the complex interaction among THCM processes in HBS. The performance of the models in these case studies is highly satisfactory. Finally, the numerical code is applied to analyze the behavior of gas hydrate soils under field-scale conditions exploring different features of material behavior under possible reservoir conditions.

  20. Micromechanical investigation of sand migration in gas hydrate-bearing sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, S.; Klar, A.; Cohen, E.

    2017-12-01

    Past field gas production tests from hydrate bearing sediments have indicated that sand migration is an important phenomenon that needs to be considered for successful long-term gas production. The authors previously developed the continuum based analytical thermo-hydro-mechanical sand migration model that can be applied to predict wellbore responses during gas production. However, the model parameters involved in the model still needs to be calibrated and studied thoroughly and it still remains a challenge to conduct well-defined laboratory experiments of sand migration, especially in hydrate-bearing sediments. Taking the advantage of capability of micromechanical modelling approach through discrete element method (DEM), this work presents a first step towards quantifying one of the model parameters that governs stresses reduction due to grain detachment. Grains represented by DEM particles are randomly removed from an isotropically loaded DEM specimen and statistical analyses reveal that linear proportionality exists between the normalized volume of detached solids and normalized reduced stresses. The DEM specimen with different porosities (different packing densities) are also considered and statistical analyses show that there is a clear transition between loose sand behavior and dense sand behavior, characterized by the relative density.

  1. Squirt flow due to interfacial water films in hydrate bearing sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sell

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sediments containing gas hydrate dispersed in the pore space are known to show a characteristic seismic anomaly which is a high attenuation along with increasing seismic velocities. Currently, this observation cannot be fully explained albeit squirt-flow type mechanisms on the microscale have been speculated to be the cause. Recent major findings from in situ experiments, using the gas in excess and water in excess formation method, and coupled with high-resolution synchrotron-based X-ray micro-tomography, have revealed the systematic presence of thin water films between the quartz grains and the encrusting hydrate. The data obtained from these experiments underwent an image processing procedure to quantify the thicknesses and geometries of the aforementioned interfacial water films. Overall, the water films vary from sub-micrometer to a few micrometers in thickness. In addition, some of the water films interconnect through water bridges. This geometrical analysis is used to propose a new conceptual squirt flow model for hydrate bearing sediments. A series of numerical simulations is performed considering variations of the proposed model to study seismic attenuation caused by such thin water films. Our results support previous speculation that squirt flow can explain high attenuation at seismic frequencies in hydrate bearing sediments, but based on a conceptual squirt flow model which is geometrically different than those previously considered.

  2. Velocity analysis of LWD and wireline sonic data in hydrate-bearing sediments on the Cascadia Margin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, D.; Guerin, G.; Malinverno, A.; Cook, A. [Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Sonic velocity logs provide an ideal method to study the physical properties and porosity of drilled sequences and to tie logging data with seismic and core measurements. These measurements are increasingly required for geotechnical and shallow seismic exploration in shallow marine sediments where P-wave velocity is extremely low, often close to the fluid velocity. Because of the strong effects of wave modes linked to the presence of a logging tool in the borehole, such as leaky-P modes, low velocity values make the analysis of sonic logs from logging-while-drilling (LWD) measurements challenging. This paper presented the results from LWD and wireline sonic tools deployed in shallow gas hydrate bearing hemipelagic muds on the Cascadia margin. Five sites were drilled through a fairly heterogeneous section of hemipelagic sediments with generally high core recovery. The study also examined the frequency dispersion of borehole leaky-P modes and established a minimum depth of about 50-100 metres beneath the seafloor at each site where preliminary compressional velocity logs could be accurately estimated using LWD data. Hydrate saturation was derived using published models and the best estimate of Vp at these sites was also derived. Results were compared with independent resistivity-derived saturations. The saturation estimates from various hydrate occurrence zones were found to be in good agreement when using velocity and resistivity logs with established model assumptions, and when using both wireline and LWD data, considering lateral variability between holes drilled on the Cascadia margin. 9 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  3. Core sampling system spare parts assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walter, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    Soon, there will be 4 independent core sampling systems obtaining samples from the underground tanks. It is desirable that these systems be available for sampling during the next 2 years. This assessment was prepared to evaluate the adequacy of the spare parts identified for the core sampling system and to provide recommendations that may remediate overages or inadequacies of spare parts

  4. Authigenic rhodochrosite from a gas hydrate-bearing structure in Lake Baikal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krylov, Alexey A.; Hachikubo, Akihiro; Minami, Hirotsugu; Pogodaeva, Tatyana V.; Zemskaya, Tamara I.; Krzhizhanovskaya, Mariya G.; Poort, Jeffrey; Khlystov, Oleg M.

    2018-02-01

    Early diagenetic carbonates are rare in Lake Baikal. Siderite (Fe carbonate) concretions in the sediments were discovered only recently. Here, we discuss the first finding of rhodochrosite concretions (Mn carbonate) discovered in the near-bottom sediments of the gas hydrate-bearing seepage structure St. Petersburg-2 in the deep water environment of the Central Baikal Basin. The crystal lattice of rhodochrosite contains iron and calcium substituting to manganese. Based on pore water geochemistry and of δ 13C values of rhodochrosite (- 23.3 and - 29.4‰), carbon dioxide (+ 3.8 to - 16.1‰) and methane (- 63.2 to - 67.8‰), we show that carbonate crystallization most likely occurred during microbial anaerobic oxidation of organic matter, and that part of the oxygen making up the rhodochrosite seems to be derived from the 18O-rich water released from dissociating gas hydrates.

  5. Modified effective medium model for gas hydrate bearing,clay-dominated sediments in the Krishna-Godavari Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sriram, G.; Dewangan, P.; Ramprasad, T.

    .D., 1990. Nonlinear elasticity and pressure-dependent wave speeds in granular media. Proc. R. Soc. London. Ser. A Math. Phys. Sci. 430, 105–131. Guerin, G., Goldberg, D., 2005. Modeling of acoustic wave dissipation in gas hydrate-bearing sediments...

  6. Discrete element analysis of the mechanical properties of deep-sea methane hydrate-bearing soils considering interparticle bond thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingjing; He, Jie; Wang, Jianfeng; Zhou, Yaping; Zhu, Fangyuan

    2017-12-01

    Due to increasing global energy demands, research is being conducted on the mechanical properties of methane hydrate-bearing soils (MHBSs), from which methane hydrate (MH) will be explored. This paper presents a numerical approach to study the mechanical properties of MHBSs. The relationship between the level of MH saturation and the interparticle bond thickness is first obtained by analyzing the scanning electron microscope images of MHBS samples, in which is the bridge connecting the micromechanical behavior captured by the DEM with the macroscopic properties of MHBSs. A simplified thermal-hydromechanical (THM) bond model that considers the different bond thicknesses is then proposed to describe the contact behavior between the soil particles and those incorporated into the discrete element method (DEM). Finally, a series of biaxial compression tests are carried out with different MH saturations under different effective confining pressures to analyze the mechanical properties of deep-sea MHBSs. The results of the DEM numerical simulation are also compared with the findings from triaxial compression tests. The results show that the macromechanical properties of deep-sea MHBSs can be qualitatively captured by the proposed DEM. The shear strength, cohesion, and volumetric contraction of deep-sea MHBSs increase with increasing MH saturation, although its influence on the internal friction angle is obscure. The shear strength and volumetric contraction increase with increasing effective confining pressure. The peak shear strength and the dilation of MHBSs increase as the critical bond thickness increases, while the residual deviator stress largely remains the same at a larger axial strain. With increasing the axial strain, the percentage of broken bonds increases, along with the expansion of the shear band.

  7. Hydrate-bearing Submarine Landslides in the Orca Basin, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, D.; Mason, A.; Cook, A.; Portnov, A.; Hillman, J.

    2017-12-01

    The co-occurrence of submarine landslides and hydrate-bearing sediment suggests that hydrates may play a role in landslide triggering and/or the mobility and dynamic characteristics of the submarine landslide. In turn, the removal of large sections of seafloor perturbs the hydrate stability field by removing overburden pressure and disturbing the temperature field. These potential hydrate-landslide feedbacks are not well understood. Here we combine three-dimensional seismic and petrophysical logs to characterize the deposits of submarine landslides that failed from hydrate-bearing sediments in the Orca Basin in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The Orca Basin contains a regionally mappable bottom simulating reflector, hydrate saturations within sands and muds, as well as numerous landslides. In addition, the Orca Basin features a well-known 123 km2 anoxic hypersaline brine pool that is actively being fed by outcropping salt. Lying at the bottom of the brine pool are deposits of submarine landslides. Slope instability in the Orca Basin is likely associated with near-seafloor salt tectonics. The most prominent landslide scar observable on the seafloor has a correlative deposit that now lies at the bottom of the brine pool 11.6 km away. The headwall is amphitheater-shaped with an average height of 80 meters and with only a minor amount of rubble remaining near the headwall. A total of 8.7 km3 of material was removed and deposited between the lower slopes of the basin and the base of the brine pool. Around the perimeter of the landslide headwall, two industry wells were drilled and well logs show elevated resistivity that are likely caused by gas hydrate. The slide deposits have a chaotic seismic facies with large entrained blocks and the headwall area does not retain much original material, which together suggests a relatively mobile style of landslide and therefore may have generated a wave upon impacting the brine pool. Such a slide-induced wave may have sloshed

  8. Acceptance test procedure for core sample trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure is to provide instruction and documentation for acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks, HO-68K-4600 and HO-68K-4647. The rotary mode core sample trucks were based upon the design of the second core sample truck (HO-68K-4345) which was constructed to implement rotary mode sampling of the waste tanks at Hanford. Acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks will verify that the design requirements have been met. All testing will be non-radioactive and stand-in materials shall be used to simulate waste tank conditions. Compressed air will be substituted for nitrogen during the majority of testing, with nitrogen being used only for flow characterization

  9. An effective medium inversion algorithm for gas hydrate quantification and its application to laboratory and borehole measurements of gas hydrate-bearing sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, S.; Minshull, T.A.; Priest, J.A.; Best, A.I.; Clayton, C.R.I.; Waite, W.F.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of gas hydrate in marine sediments alters their physical properties. In some circumstances, gas hydrate may cement sediment grains together and dramatically increase the seismic P- and S-wave velocities of the composite medium. Hydrate may also form a load-bearing structure within the sediment microstructure, but with different seismic wave attenuation characteristics, changing the attenuation behaviour of the composite. Here we introduce an inversion algorithm based on effective medium modelling to infer hydrate saturations from velocity and attenuation measurements on hydrate-bearing sediments. The velocity increase is modelled as extra binding developed by gas hydrate that strengthens the sediment microstructure. The attenuation increase is modelled through a difference in fluid flow properties caused by different permeabilities in the sediment and hydrate microstructures. We relate velocity and attenuation increases in hydrate-bearing sediments to their hydrate content, using an effective medium inversion algorithm based on the self-consistent approximation (SCA), differential effective medium (DEM) theory, and Biot and squirt flow mechanisms of fluid flow. The inversion algorithm is able to convert observations in compressional and shear wave velocities and attenuations to hydrate saturation in the sediment pore space. We applied our algorithm to a data set from the Mallik 2L–38 well, Mackenzie delta, Canada, and to data from laboratory measurements on gas-rich and water-saturated sand samples. Predictions using our algorithm match the borehole data and water-saturated laboratory data if the proportion of hydrate contributing to the load-bearing structure increases with hydrate saturation. The predictions match the gas-rich laboratory data if that proportion decreases with hydrate saturation. We attribute this difference to differences in hydrate formation mechanisms between the two environments.

  10. Polyethylene glycol drilling fluid for drilling in marine gas hydrates-bearing sediments: an experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, G.; Liu, T.; Ning, F.; Tu, Y.; Zhang, L.; Yu, Y.; Kuang, L. [China University of Geosciences, Faculty of Engineering, Wuhan (China)

    2011-07-01

    Shale inhibition, low-temperature performance, the ability to prevent calcium and magnesium-ion pollution, and hydrate inhibition of polyethylene glycol drilling fluid were each tested with conventional drilling-fluid test equipment and an experimental gas-hydrate integrated simulation system developed by our laboratory. The results of these tests show that drilling fluid with a formulation of artificial seawater, 3% bentonite, 0.3% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, 10% polyethylene glycol, 20% NaCl, 4% SMP-2, 1% LV-PAC, 0.5% NaOH and 1% PVP K-90 performs well in shale swelling and gas hydrate inhibition. It also shows satisfactory rheological properties and lubrication at temperature ranges from -8 {sup o}C to 15 {sup o}C. The PVP K-90, a kinetic hydrate inhibitor, can effectively inhibit gas hydrate aggregations at a dose of 1 wt%. This finding demonstrates that a drilling fluid with a high addition of NaCl and a low addition of PVP K-90 is suitable for drilling in natural marine gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. (authors)

  11. Polyethylene Glycol Drilling Fluid for Drilling in Marine Gas Hydrates-Bearing Sediments: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Kuang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Shale inhibition, low-temperature performance, the ability to prevent calcium and magnesium-ion pollution, and hydrate inhibition of polyethylene glycol drilling fluid were each tested with conventional drilling-fluid test equipment and an experimental gas-hydrate integrated simulation system developed by our laboratory. The results of these tests show that drilling fluid with a formulation of artificial seawater, 3% bentonite, 0.3% Na2CO3, 10% polyethylene glycol, 20% NaCl, 4% SMP-2, 1% LV-PAC, 0.5% NaOH and 1% PVP K-90 performs well in shale swelling and gas hydrate inhibition. It also shows satisfactory rheological properties and lubrication at temperature ranges from −8 °C to 15 °C. The PVP K-90, a kinetic hydrate inhibitor, can effectively inhibit gas hydrate aggregations at a dose of 1 wt%. This finding demonstrates that a drilling fluid with a high addition of NaCl and a low addition of PVP K-90 is suitable for drilling in natural marine gas-hydrate-bearing sediments.

  12. Rotary Mode Core Sample System availability improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, W.W.; Bennett, K.L.; Potter, J.D.; Cross, B.T.; Burkes, J.M.; Rogers, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Rotary Mode Core Sample System (RMCSS) is used to obtain stratified samples of the waste deposits in single-shell and double-shell waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The samples are used to characterize the waste in support of ongoing and future waste remediation efforts. Four sampling trucks have been developed to obtain these samples. Truck I was the first in operation and is currently being used to obtain samples where the push mode is appropriate (i.e., no rotation of drill). Truck 2 is similar to truck 1, except for added safety features, and is in operation to obtain samples using either a push mode or rotary drill mode. Trucks 3 and 4 are now being fabricated to be essentially identical to truck 2

  13. Sampling of sediment cores; Muestreo de cores sedimentarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Fernandez, Ana Carolina [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia (Mexico); Diaz Asencio, Misael [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos (Cuba)

    2012-07-01

    In this chapter we describe techniques for collecting sediment cores for obtaining geochronologies by {sup 210}Pb (100 years) to allow historical reconstruction of environmental changes in the coastal zone. We examine relevant aspects for the sampling design, mainly related to the basic information about the area of interest necessary to choose the perfect place sampling, thereby we can improve the chances of success in meeting the objectives of the study. We also include description of the sampling methods aimed at maximizing the collecting capabilities of undisturbed sedimentary material, emphasizing the recovery of unaltered sediment-water interface. In addition, we describe subsampling procedures and sample handling intended to minimize post-sampling disruption to improve the possibilities of a reconstruction of reliable geochronologies. [Spanish] En este capitulo describimos tecnicas de recogida de cores sedimentarios para la obtencion de geocronologias por {sup 210}Pb (100 anos) que permitan la reconstruccion historica de cambios ambientales en la zona costera. Examinamos los aspectos relevantes para el diseno del muestreo, principalmente relacionados con la informacion basica sobre el area de interes necesaria para escoger el lugar idoneo de muestreo. De ese modo podemos mejorar las posibilidades de exito en el cumplimiento de los objetivos del estudio. Incluimos ademas la descripcion de los metodos de muestreo orientados a maximizar las posibilidades de recogida de material sedimentario no perturbado, poniendo enfasis en la recuperacion inalterada de la interfase agua-sedimento. Asimismo, describimos procedimientos de submuestreo y manipulacion de muestras, con los cuales se pretende minimizar la perturbacion post-muestreo para mejorar las posibilidades de una reconstruccion de geocronologias confiables.

  14. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Surface Sediments and methane hydrate-bearing sediments in the Shenhu area of South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J.; Shen, Z.; Jia, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Methane hydrates are superior energy resources and potential predisposing factors of geohazard. With the success in China's persistent exploitation of methane hydrates in the Shenhu area of South China Sea for 60 days, there is an increasing demand for detailed knowledge of sediment properties and hazard assessment in this area. In this paper, the physical and mechanical properties of both the surface sediments and methane hydrate-bearing sediments (MHBS) in the exploitation area, the Shenhu area of South China Sea, were investigated using laboratory geotechnical experiments, and triaxial tests were carried out on remolded sediment samples using a modified triaxial apparatus. The results show that sediments in this area are mainly silt with high moisture content, high plasticity, low permeability and low shear strength. The moisture content and permeability decrease while the shear strength increases with the increasing depth. The elastic modulus and peak strength of MHBS increase with the increasing effective confining pressure and higher hydrate saturation. The cohesion increases with higher hydrate saturation while the internal friction angle is barely affected by hydrate saturation. The obtained results demonstrate clearly that methane hydrates have significant impacts on the physical and mechanical properties of sediments and there is still a wide gap in knowledge about MHBS.

  15. Quantitative NMR measurements on core samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Dan

    1997-01-01

    Within the frame of an EFP-95 project NMR methods for porosity determination in 2D, and for fluid saturation determination in 1D and 2D have been developed. The three methods have been developed and tested on cleaned core samples of chalk from the Danish North Sea. The main restriction for the use of the methods is the inherently short T2 relaxation constants of rock samples. Referring to measurements conducted at 200 MHz, the 2D porosity determination method is applicable to sample material with T2 relaxation constants down to 5 ms. The 1D fluid saturation determination method is applicable to sample material with T2 relaxation constants down to 3 ms, while the 2D fluid saturation determination method is applicable to material with T2 relaxation constants down to 8 ms. In the case of the 2D methods these constraints as a minimum enables work on the majority of chalk samples of Maastrichtian age. The 1D fluid saturation determination method in addition is applicable to at least some chalk samples of Danian and pre-Maastrichtian age. The spatial resolution of the 2D porosity determination method, the 1D fluid saturation methods, and the 2D fluid saturation method is respectively 0.8 mm, 0.8 mm and 2 mm. Reproducibility of pixel values is for all three methods 2%- points. (au)

  16. In situ thermal conductivity of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments of the Mallik 5L-38 well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninges, J.; Huenges, E.; Burkhardt, H.

    2005-11-01

    Detailed knowledge about thermal properties of rocks containing gas hydrate is required in order to quantify processes involving gas hydrate formation and decomposition in nature. In the framework of the Mallik 2002 program, three wells penetrating a continental gas hydrate occurrence under permafrost were successfully equipped with permanent fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing cables. Temperature data were collected over a 21-month period after completing the wells. Thermal conductivity profiles were calculated from the geothermal data as well as from a petrophysical model derived from the available logging data and application of mixing law models. Results indicate that thermal conductivity variations are mainly lithologically controlled with a minor influence from hydrate saturation. Average thermal conductivity values of the hydrate-bearing sediments range between 2.35 and 2.77 W m-1 K-1. Maximum gas hydrate saturations can reach up to about 90% at an average porosity of 0.3.

  17. Characteristics of core sampling from crumbing Paleozoic rock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabashkin, I I; Edelman, Y A; Filippov, V N; Lychev, V N

    1981-01-01

    The results of analysis of core sampling using standard core sampling tools with small and medium inside diameter are cited. It is demonstrated that when using these tools loss of core in Paleozoic deposits promising with regard to oil and gas content does not exceed 25 - 30%. The use of a new core sampling tool with a large inside diameter which includes drill bits of different types and a core lifter ''Krembriy'' SKU-172/100 made it possible to increase core removal approximately 52%. A representative core from a highly crumbling and vesicular rock belinging to groups III - IV in terms of difficulty of core sampling was obtained first. A description of a new core sampling tool is given. The characteristics of the technology of its use which promote preservation of the core are cited. Means of continued improvement of this tool are noted.

  18. Study of the mechanism of clamping and detachment of a core sample by core lever lifters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barabashkin, I I; Mizyakin, V M; Nikitin, S V

    1981-01-01

    Geometric dimensions of the basic elements of a core lifter should be determined depending on the clamping conditions. The changes should be determined depending on the conditions of the core sample diameter, critical angle between the lever and the core samples in the necessary depth of submersion of the contact edge of the lever into its surface. The core lifter KTsRZ-80 with eccentric core reception makes it possible to arrange more efficiently the core removing elements on the edge of the band. The use of the core lifters with eccentric plan of arrangement of the levers and their optimal length increases the removal of the core sample.

  19. Electrical Conductive Mechanism of Gas Hydrate-Bearing Reservoirs in the Permafrost Region of Qilian Mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, C.; Zou, C.; Tang, Y.; Liu, A.; Hu, X.

    2017-12-01

    In the Qilian Mountain, gas hydrates not only occur in pore spaces of sandstones, but also fill in fractures of mudstones. This leads to the difficulty in identification and evaluation of gas hydrate reservoir from resistivity and velocity logs. Understanding electrical conductive mechanism is the basis for log interpretation. However, the research is insufficient in this area. We have collected well logs from 30 wells in this area. Well logs and rock samples from DK-9, DK-11 and DK-12 wells were used in this study. The experiments including SEM, thin section, NMR, XRD, synthesis of gas hydrate in consolidated rock cores under low temperature and measurement of their resistivity and others were performed for understanding the effects of pore structure, rock composition, temperature and gas hydrate on conductivity. The results show that the porosity of reservoir of pore filling type is less than 10% and its clay mineral content is high. As good conductive passages, fractures can reduce resistivity of water-saturated rock. If fractures in the mudstone are filled by calcite, resistivity increases significantly. The resistivity of water-saturated rock at 2°C is twice of that at 18°C. The gas hydrate formation process in the sandstone was studied by resistivity recorded in real time. In the early stage of gas hydrate formation, the increase of residual water salinity may lead to the decrease of resistivity. In the late stage of gas hydrate formation, the continuity decrease of water leads to continuity increase of resistivity. In summary, fractures, rock composition, temperature and gas hydrate are important factors influencing resistivity of formation. This study is helpful for more accurate evaluation of gas hydrate from resistivity log. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of the National Special Program for Gas Hydrate Exploration and Test-production (GZH201400302).

  20. Tank 241-BY-105 rotary core sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for two rotary-mode core samples from tank 241-BY-105 (BY-105)

  1. Characterization Of Core Sample Collected From The Saltstone Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, A.; Duncan, A.

    2010-01-01

    During the month of September 2008, grout core samples were collected from the Saltstone Disposal Facility, Vault 4, cell E. This grout was placed during processing campaigns in December 2007 from Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment Batch 2 salt solution. The 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria sample collected on 11/16/07 represents the salt solution in the core samples. Core samples were retrieved to initiate the historical database of properties of emplaced Saltstone and to demonstrate the correlation between field collected and laboratory prepared samples. Three samples were collected from three different locations. Samples were collected using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit. In April 2009, the core samples were removed from the evacuated sample container, inspected, transferred to PVC containers, and backfilled with nitrogen. Samples furthest from the wall were the most intact cylindrically shaped cored samples. The shade of the core samples darkened as the depth of coring increased. Based on the visual inspection, sample 3-3 was selected for all subsequent analysis. The density and porosity of the Vault 4 core sample, 1.90 g/cm 3 and 59.90% respectively, were comparable to values achieved for laboratory prepared samples. X-ray diffraction analysis identified phases consistent with the expectations for hydrated Saltstone. Microscopic analysis revealed morphology features characteristic of cementitious materials with fly ash and calcium silicate hydrate gel. When taken together, the results of the density, porosity, x-ray diffraction analysis and microscopic analysis support the conclusion that the Vault 4, Cell E core sample is representative of the expected waste form.

  2. Pollutant plume delineation from tree core sampling using standardized ranks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahyudi, Agung; Bogaert, Patrick; Trapp, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    There are currently contradicting results in the literature about the way chloroethene (CE) concentrations from tree core sampling correlate with those from groundwater measurements. This paper addresses this issue by focusing on groundwater and tree core datasets in CE contaminated site, Czech...... Republic. Preliminary analyses revealed strongly and positively skewed distributions for the tree core dataset, with an intra-tree variability accounting for more than 80% of the total variability, while the spatial analyses based on variograms indicated no obvious spatial pattern for CE concentration...... groundwater and tree core measurements. Nonetheless, tree core sampling and analysis proved to be a quick and inexpensive semi-quantitative method and a useful tool....

  3. Enhancement of the surface methane hydrate-bearing layer based on the specific microorganisms form deep seabed sediment in Japan Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, T.; Yoneda, J.; Yamamoto, K.

    2017-12-01

    A methane hydrate-bearing layer located near the Japan Sea has been investigated as a new potential energy resource. In this study examined the feasibility of the seabed surface sediment strength located in the Japan Sea improvement technologies for enhancing microbial induced carbonate precipitation (MICP) process. First, the authors cultivated the specific urease production bacterium culture medium from this surface methane hydrate-bearing layer in the seabed (-600m depth) of Japan Sea. After that, two types of the laboratory test (consolidated-drained triaxial tests) were conducted using this specific culture medium from the seabed in the Japan Sea near the Toyama Prefecture and high urease activities bacterium named Bacillus pasteurii. The main outcomes of this research are as follows. 1) Specific culture medium focused on the urease production bacterium can enhancement of the urease activities from the methane hydrate-bearing layer near the Japan Sea side, 2) This specific culture medium can be enhancement of the surface layer strength, 3) The microbial induced carbonate precipitation process can increase the particle size compared to that of the original particles coating the calcite layer surface, 4) The mechanism for increasing the soil strength is based on the addition of cohesion like a cement stabilized soil.

  4. Number of core samples: Mean concentrations and confidence intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, L.; Cromar, R.D.; Wilmarth, S.R.; Heasler, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides estimates of how well the mean concentration of analytes are known as a function of the number of core samples, composite samples, and replicate analyses. The estimates are based upon core composite data from nine recently sampled single-shell tanks. The results can be used when determining the number of core samples needed to ''characterize'' the waste from similar single-shell tanks. A standard way of expressing uncertainty in the estimate of a mean is with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The authors investigate how the width of a 95% CI on the mean concentration decreases as the number of observations increase. Specifically, the tables and figures show how the relative half-width (RHW) of a 95% CI decreases as the number of core samples increases. The RHW of a CI is a unit-less measure of uncertainty. The general conclusions are as follows: (1) the RHW decreases dramatically as the number of core samples is increased, the decrease is much smaller when the number of composited samples or the number of replicate analyses are increase; (2) if the mean concentration of an analyte needs to be estimated with a small RHW, then a large number of core samples is required. The estimated number of core samples given in the tables and figures were determined by specifying different sizes of the RHW. Four nominal sizes were examined: 10%, 25%, 50%, and 100% of the observed mean concentration. For a majority of analytes the number of core samples required to achieve an accuracy within 10% of the mean concentration is extremely large. In many cases, however, two or three core samples is sufficient to achieve a RHW of approximately 50 to 100%. Because many of the analytes in the data have small concentrations, this level of accuracy may be satisfactory for some applications

  5. Tank 10H Saltcake Core Sample Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARTINO, CHRISTOPHERJ

    2004-01-01

    In support of Low-Curie Salt (LCS) process validation at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Liquid Waste Disposition (LWD) has undertaken a program of tank characterization, including salt sampling. As part of this initiative, they sampled the surface and subsurface of Tank 10H saltcake using a series of three 12-inch long sample tubes. These tubes each contain 1-foot long segments of the saltcake from one location, representing the top three feet of saltcake. The primary objective of the characterization that will be useful to the selection and processing of the next waste tanks. Most important is the determination of the Cs-137 concentration and liquid retention properties of Tank 10H saltcake to confirm acceptability of processing. Additional chemical analyses are performed to provide information on salt elemental, ionic, and radiological composition to aid in assessment of the suitability of processing drained and dissolved material and in refining the information in the waste characterization system (WCS)

  6. Rotary mode core sampling approved checklist: 241-TX-113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, K.D.

    1998-01-01

    The safety assessment for rotary mode core sampling was developed using certain bounding assumptions, however, those assumptions were not verified for each of the existing or potential flammable gas tanks. Therefore, a Flammable Gas/Rotary Mode Core Sampling Approved Checklist has been completed for tank 241-TX-113 prior to sampling operations. This transmittal documents the dispositions of the checklist items from the safety assessment

  7. Rotary mode core sampling approved checklist: 241-TX-116

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOWLER, K.D.

    1999-01-01

    The safety assessment for rotary mode core sampling was developed using certain bounding assumptions, however, those assumptions were not verified for each of the existing or potential flammable gas tanks. Therefore, a Flammable Gas/Rotary Mode Core Sampling Approved Checklist has been completed for tank 241-TX-116 prior to sampling operations. This transmittal documents the dispositions of the checklist items from the safety assessment

  8. Analytical results of Tank 38H core samples -- Fall 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swingle, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    Two samples were pulled from Tank 38H in the Fall of 1999: a variable depth sample (VDS) of the supernate was pulled in October and a core sample from the salt layer was pulled in December. Analysis of the rinse from the outside of the core sample indicated no sign of volatile or semivolatile organics. Both supernate and solids from the VDS and the dried core sample solids were analyzed for isotopes which could pose a criticality concern and also for elements which could serve as neutron poisons, as well as other elements. Results of the elemental analyses of these samples show significant elements present to mitigate the potential for nuclear criticality. However, it should be noted the results given for the VDS solids elemental analyses may be higher than the actual concentration in the solids, since the filter paper was dissolved along with the sample solids

  9. Tank 101-SY Window E core sample: Interpretation of results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1993-02-01

    A full depth core sample was taken for tank 241-SY-101 in December 1991 during a time period called ''Window E.'' This was the second full depth core sample from this tank during the year. The core had two major portions that are known as the convective zone and the nonconvective zone. A crust was on the top of tank but as poorly sampled. The analysis of the Window E core sample stressed segment composite chemical analysis instead of segment by segment as in Window C. Adiabatic calorimetry on samples from both cores showed a slow self heating reaction above 150 degrees C on dried samples. The exothermic events were milder than similar synthetic samples. The chemical and physical properties complemented the information from Window C. The Window E material from the convective zone was more viscous than the Window C convective zone material. The nonconvective zone viscosities were similar for both cores. Heating and dilution tests were made to test mitigation concepts

  10. Tank 101-SY Window E core sample: Interpretation of results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, D.A.

    1993-02-01

    A full depth core sample was taken for tank 241-SY-101 in December 1991 during a time period called ``Window E.`` This was the second full depth core sample from this tank during the year. The core had two major portions that are known as the convective zone and the nonconvective zone. A crust was on the top of tank but as poorly sampled. The analysis of the Window E core sample stressed segment composite chemical analysis instead of segment by segment as in Window C. Adiabatic calorimetry on samples from both cores showed a slow self heating reaction above 150{degrees}C on dried samples. The exothermic events were milder than similar synthetic samples. The chemical and physical properties complemented the information from Window C. The Window E material from the convective zone was more viscous than the Window C convective zone material. The nonconvective zone viscosities were similar for both cores. Heating and dilution tests were made to test mitigation concepts.

  11. A core handling device for the Mars Sample Return Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Owen

    1989-01-01

    A core handling device for use on Mars is being designed. To provide a context for the design study, it was assumed that a Mars Rover/Sample Return (MRSR) Mission would have the following characteristics: a year or more in length; visits by the rover to 50 or more sites; 100 or more meter-long cores being drilled by the rover; and the capability of returning about 5 kg of Mars regolith to Earth. These characteristics lead to the belief that in order to bring back a variegated set of samples that can address the range of scientific objetives for a MRSR mission to Mars there needs to be considerable analysis done on board the rover. Furthermore, the discrepancy between the amount of sample gathered and the amount to be returned suggests that there needs to be some method of choosing the optimal set of samples. This type of analysis will require pristine material-unaltered by the drilling process. Since the core drill thermally and mechanically alters the outer diameter (about 10 pct) of the core sample, this outer area cannot be used. The primary function of the core handling device is to extract subsamples from the core and to position these subsamples, and the core itself if needed, with respect to the various analytical instruments that can be used to perform these analyses.

  12. Dose Rate Calculations for Rotary Mode Core Sampling Exhauster

    CERN Document Server

    Foust, D J

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the calculated estimated dose rates for three external locations on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) exhauster HEPA filter housing, per the request of Characterization Field Engineering.

  13. Year 2000 compliance status report for core sampling equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Several pieces of equipment that support core sampling activities are ''date aware'' and could be affected by the roll over to the year 2000. This report documents the testing and remedial efforts for this equipment

  14. Dose Rate Calculations for Rotary Mode Core Sampling Exhauster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOUST, D.J.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides the calculated estimated dose rates for three external locations on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) exhauster HEPA filter housing, per the request of Characterization Field Engineering

  15. Application of Crunch-Flow Routines to Constrain Present and Past Carbon Fluxes at Gas-Hydrate Bearing Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Marta [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). College of Earth, Ocean, and Atmospheric Sciences

    2014-01-31

    In November 2012, Oregon State University initiated the project entitled: Application of Crunch-Flow routines to constrain present and past carbon fluxes at gas-hydrate bearing sites. Within this project we developed Crunch-Flow based modeling modules that include important biogeochemical processes that need to be considered in gas hydrate environments. Our modules were applied to quantify carbon cycling in present and past systems, using data collected during several DOE-supported drilling expeditions, which include the Cascadia margin in US, Ulleung Basin in South Korea, and several sites drilled offshore India on the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea. Specifically, we completed modeling efforts that: 1) Reproduce the compositional and isotopic profiles observed at the eight drilled sites in the Ulleung Basin that constrain and contrast the carbon cycling pathways at chimney (high methane flux) and non-chimney sites (low methane, advective systems); 2) Simulate the Ba record in the sediments to quantify the past dynamics of methane flux in the southern Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia margin; and 3) Provide quantitative estimates of the thickness of individual mass transport deposits (MTDs), time elapsed after the MTD event, rate of sulfate reduction in the MTD, and time required to reach a new steady state at several sites drilled in the Krishna-Godavari (K-G) Basin off India. In addition we developed a hybrid model scheme by coupling a home-made MATLAB code with CrunchFlow to address the methane transport and chloride enrichment at the Ulleung Basins chimney sites, and contributed the modeling component to a study focusing on pore-scale controls on gas hydrate distribution in sediments from the Andaman Sea. These efforts resulted in two manuscripts currently under review, and contributed the modeling component of another pare, also under review. Lessons learned from these efforts are the basis of a mini-workshop to be held at Oregon State University (Feb 2014) to instruct

  16. Test plan for core sampling drill bit temperature monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    At WHC, one of the functions of the Tank Waste Remediation System division is sampling waste tanks to characterize their contents. The push-mode core sampling truck is currently used to take samples of liquid and sludge. Sampling of tanks containing hard salt cake is to be performed with the rotary-mode core sampling system, consisting of the core sample truck, mobile exhauster unit, and ancillary subsystems. When drilling through the salt cake material, friction and heat can be generated in the drill bit. Based upon tank safety reviews, it has been determined that the drill bit temperature must not exceed 180 C, due to the potential reactivity of tank contents at this temperature. Consequently, a drill bit temperature limit of 150 C was established for operation of the core sample truck to have an adequate margin of safety. Unpredictable factors, such as localized heating, cause this buffer to be so great. The most desirable safeguard against exceeding this threshold is bit temperature monitoring . This document describes the recommended plan for testing the prototype of a drill bit temperature monitor developed for core sampling by Sandia National Labs. The device will be tested at their facilities. This test plan documents the tests that Westinghouse Hanford Company considers necessary for effective testing of the system

  17. Development of core sampling technique for ITER Type B radwaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, S. G.; Hong, K. P.; Oh, W. H.; Park, M. C.; Jung, S. H.; Ahn, S. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Type B radwaste (intermediate level and long lived radioactive waste) imported from ITER vacuum vessel are to be treated and stored in basement of hot cell building. The Type B radwaste treatment process is composed of buffer storage, cutting, sampling/tritium measurement, tritium removal, characterization, pre-packaging, inspection/decontamination, and storage etc. The cut slices of Type B radwaste components generated from cutting process undergo sampling process before and after tritium removal process. The purpose of sampling is to obtain small pieces of samples in order to investigate the tritium content and concentration of Type B radwaste. Core sampling, which is the candidates of sampling technique to be applied to ITER hot cell, is available for not thick (less than 50 mm) metal without use of coolant. Experimented materials were SS316L and CuCrZr in order to simulate ITER Type B radwaste. In core sampling, substantial secondary wastes from cutting chips will be produced unavoidably. Thus, core sampling machine will have to be equipped with disposal system such as suction equipment. Core sampling is considered an unfavorable method for tool wear compared to conventional drilling.

  18. Preliminaries on core image analysis using fault drilling samples; Core image kaiseki kotohajime (danso kussaku core kaisekirei)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, T; Ito, H [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper introduces examples of image data analysis on fault drilling samples. The paper describes the following matters: core samples used in the analysis are those obtained from wells drilled piercing the Nojima fault which has moved in the Hygoken-Nanbu Earthquake; the CORESCAN system made by DMT Corporation, Germany, used in acquiring the image data consists of a CCD camera, a light source and core rotation mechanism, and a personal computer, its resolution being about 5 pixels/mm in both axial and circumferential directions, and 24-bit full color; with respect to the opening fractures in core samples collected by using a constant azimuth coring, it was possible to derive values of the opening width, inclination angle, and travel from the image data by using a commercially available software for the personal computer; and comparison of this core image with the BHTV record and the hydrophone VSP record (travel and inclination obtained from the BHTV record agree well with those obtained from the core image). 4 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Statistical evaluations of current sampling procedures and incomplete core recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heasler, P.G.; Jensen, L.

    1994-03-01

    This document develops two formulas that describe the effects of incomplete recovery on core sampling results for the Hanford waste tanks. The formulas evaluate incomplete core recovery from a worst-case (i.e.,biased) and best-case (i.e., unbiased) perspective. A core sampler is unbiased if the sample material recovered is a random sample of the material in the tank, while any sampler that preferentially recovers a particular type of waste over others is a biased sampler. There is strong evidence to indicate that the push-mode sampler presently used at the Hanford site is a biased one. The formulas presented here show the effects of incomplete core recovery on the accuracy of composition measurements, as functions of the vertical variability in the waste. These equations are evaluated using vertical variability estimates from previously sampled tanks (B110, U110, C109). Assuming that the values of vertical variability used in this study adequately describes the Hanford tank farm, one can use the formulas to compute the effect of incomplete recovery on the accuracy of an average constituent estimate. To determine acceptable recovery limits, we have assumed that the relative error of such an estimate should be no more than 20%

  20. Neural network analysis of crosshole tomographic images: The seismic signature of gas hydrate bearing sediments in the Mackenzie Delta (NW Canada)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K.; Pratt, R. G.; Haberland, C.; Weber, M.

    2008-10-01

    Crosshole seismic experiments were conducted to study the in-situ properties of gas hydrate bearing sediments (GHBS) in the Mackenzie Delta (NW Canada). Seismic tomography provided images of P velocity, anisotropy, and attenuation. Self-organizing maps (SOM) are powerful neural network techniques to classify and interpret multi-attribute data sets. The coincident tomographic images are translated to a set of data vectors in order to train a Kohonen layer. The total gradient of the model vectors is determined for the trained SOM and a watershed segmentation algorithm is used to visualize and map the lithological clusters with well-defined seismic signatures. Application to the Mallik data reveals four major litho-types: (1) GHBS, (2) sands, (3) shale/coal interlayering, and (4) silt. The signature of seismic P wave characteristics distinguished for the GHBS (high velocities, strong anisotropy and attenuation) is new and can be used for new exploration strategies to map and quantify gas hydrates.

  1. Acceptance test report for core sample trucks 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Report is to provide documentation for the acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks 3 and 4, designated as HO-68K-4600 and HO-68K-4647, respectively. This report conforms to the guidelines established in WHC-IP-1026, ''Engineering Practice Guidelines,'' Appendix M, ''Acceptance Test Procedures and Reports.'' Rotary mode core sample trucks 3 and 4 were based upon the design of the second core sample truck (HO-68K-4345) which was constructed to implement rotary mode sampling of the waste tanks at Hanford. Successful completion of acceptance testing on June 30, 1995 verified that all design requirements were met. This report is divided into four sections, beginning with general information. Acceptance testing was performed on trucks 3 and 4 during the months of March through June, 1995. All testing was performed at the ''Rock Slinger'' test site in the 200 West area. The sequence of testing was determined by equipment availability, and the initial revision of the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) was used for both trucks. Testing was directed by ICF-KH, with the support of WHC Characterization Equipment Engineering and Characterization Project Operations. Testing was completed per the ATP without discrepancies or deviations, except as noted

  2. Investigation of the mechanical behaviour of gas-hydrate bearing clayey sediments from the Gulf of Guinea using in-situ geotechnical measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb, F.; Garziglia, S.; Sultan, N.

    2017-12-01

    Expanding needs for energy resources and concerns about climate change have moved industrial and academic interests towards regions where specific thermobaric conditions allow the formation of gas hydrates (GH). While significant advances have been made to characterize the fabric and structure of these metastable geo-compounds, considerable uncertainty remains regarding the impact of their mechanical properties on the seafloor morphology and stability. This is particularly true for gas hydrates-bearing fine-grained sediments, which remain challenging to preserve or synthesise prior to laboratory testing. As a step towards understanding the mechanical consequences of the concentration and distribution of GH in this type of sediments, this work uses acoustic and geotechnical in situ measurements collected in a high gas flux system offshore Nigeria. Acoustic measurements of compressional wave velocity were shown to be convenient means of both detecting and quantifying gas hydrates in marine sediments. Geotechnical data derived from piezocone readings and their distribution in normalised soil classification charts allowed identifying distinct features of gas hydrates-bearing clayey sediments; such as a mechanical behaviour sharing similarities with that of cemented clays. Correlations between acoustic and piezocone data showed that the stiffness and strength tend to generally increase with increasing GH concentrations. However, several sediment intervals sharing the same hydrates concentration have revealed different features of mechanical behaviour. This was linked to the presence of various GH morphologies within the marine sediments such as groups of hydrate veins or massive hydrate nodules. This in-situ approach allowing both understanding the heterogeneous distribution of GH and characterising their host sediment seems key to assess the potential link between seafloor stability and GH dissociation/dissolution caused by human activities or by natural environmental

  3. Methane hydrate distribution from prolonged and repeated formation in natural and compacted sand samples: X-ray CT observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, E.V.L.; Kneafsey, T.J.; Seol, Y.

    2010-07-01

    To study physical properties of methane gas hydrate-bearing sediments, it is necessary to synthesize laboratory samples due to the limited availability of cores from natural deposits. X-ray computed tomography (CT) and other observations have shown gas hydrate to occur in a number of morphologies over a variety of sediment types. To aid in understanding formation and growth patterns of hydrate in sediments, methane hydrate was repeatedly formed in laboratory-packed sand samples and in a natural sediment core from the Mount Elbert Stratigraphic Test Well. CT scanning was performed during hydrate formation and decomposition steps, and periodically while the hydrate samples remained under stable conditions for up to 60 days. The investigation revealed the impact of water saturation on location and morphology of hydrate in both laboratory and natural sediments during repeated hydrate formations. Significant redistribution of hydrate and water in the samples was observed over both the short and long term.

  4. Portable tester for determining gas content within a core sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, F. Jr.; Schatzel, S.J.

    1998-04-21

    A portable tester is provided for reading and displaying the pressure of a gas released from a rock core sample stored within a sealed container and for taking a sample of the released pressurized gas for chemical analysis thereof for subsequent use in a modified direct method test which determines the volume of gas and specific type of gas contained within the core sample. The portable tester includes a pair of low and high range electrical pressure transducers for detecting a gas pressure; a pair of low and high range display units for displaying the pressure of the detected gas; a selector valve connected to the low and high range pressure transducers and a selector knob for selecting gas flow to one of the flow paths; control valve having an inlet connection to the sealed container; and outlets connected to: a sample gas canister, a second outlet port connected to the selector valve means for reading the pressure of the gas from the sealed container to either the low range or high range pressure transducers, and a connection for venting gas contained within the sealed container to the atmosphere. A battery is electrically connected to and supplies the power for operating the unit. The pressure transducers, display units, selector and control valve means and the battery is mounted to and housed within a protective casing for portable transport and use. 5 figs.

  5. δ13C-CH4 in ice core samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sperlich, Peter

    Ice core records of δ13C-CH4 reflect the variability of CH4 biogeochemistry in response to climate change and show this system is far more complex than expected. The first part of this work is concerned with the development of analytical techniques that allow 1) precise referencing and 2) measure......Ice core records of δ13C-CH4 reflect the variability of CH4 biogeochemistry in response to climate change and show this system is far more complex than expected. The first part of this work is concerned with the development of analytical techniques that allow 1) precise referencing and 2......) measurements of δ13C-CH4 in ice core samples as is required when δ13C-CH4 records that are measured in several laboratories are merged for analysis. Both the referencing and measurement techniques have been compared to further laboratories which proofed the accuracy of the analytical systems. The second part...

  6. Analysis of core samples from jet grouted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, M.L.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1995-10-01

    Superplasticized cementitious grouts were tested for constructing subsurface containment barriers using jet grouting in July, 1994. The grouts were developed in the Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The test site was located close to the Chemical Waste Landfill at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM. Sandia was responsible for the placement contract. The jet grouted soil was exposed to the service environment for one year and core samples were extracted to evaluate selected properties. The cores were tested for strength, density, permeability (hydraulic conductivity) and cementitious content. The tests provided an opportunity to determine the performance of the grouts and grout-treated soil. Several recommendations arise from the results of the core tests. These are: (1) grout of the same mix proportions as the final grout should be used as a drilling fluid in order to preserve the original mix design and utilize the benefits of superplasticizers; (2) a high shear mixer should be used for preparation of the grout; (3) the permeability under unsaturated conditions requires consideration when subsurface barriers are used in the vadose zone; and (4) suitable methods for characterizing the permeability of barriers in-situ should be applied

  7. Acquisition and Retaining Granular Samples via a Rotating Coring Bit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    This device takes advantage of the centrifugal forces that are generated when a coring bit is rotated, and a granular sample is entered into the bit while it is spinning, making it adhere to the internal wall of the bit, where it compacts itself into the wall of the bit. The bit can be specially designed to increase the effectiveness of regolith capturing while turning and penetrating the subsurface. The bit teeth can be oriented such that they direct the regolith toward the bit axis during the rotation of the bit. The bit can be designed with an internal flute that directs the regolith upward inside the bit. The use of both the teeth and flute can be implemented in the same bit. The bit can also be designed with an internal spiral into which the various particles wedge. In another implementation, the bit can be designed to collect regolith primarily from a specific depth. For that implementation, the bit can be designed such that when turning one way, the teeth guide the regolith outward of the bit and when turning in the opposite direction, the teeth will guide the regolith inward into the bit internal section. This mechanism can be implemented with or without an internal flute. The device is based on the use of a spinning coring bit (hollow interior) as a means of retaining granular sample, and the acquisition is done by inserting the bit into the subsurface of a regolith, soil, or powder. To demonstrate the concept, a commercial drill and a coring bit were used. The bit was turned and inserted into the soil that was contained in a bucket. While spinning the bit (at speeds of 600 to 700 RPM), the drill was lifted and the soil was retained inside the bit. To prove this point, the drill was turned horizontally, and the acquired soil was still inside the bit. The basic theory behind the process of retaining unconsolidated mass that can be acquired by the centrifugal forces of the bit is determined by noting that in order to stay inside the interior of the bit, the

  8. Sampling of reactor pressure vessel and core internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberhaeuser, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plants is a growing business as a huge number of plants built in the 1970's have now reached their lifetime. It is well known that dismantling a nuclear power plant means an extraordinary expense for the owner respectively operator. Beside the dismantling works for itself, the disposal of activated components and other nuclear waste is very expensive. What comes next is the fact that final disposal facilities are not available yet in most countries meaning a need for interim storage on-site in specially built facilities. It can be concluded that a special attention is paid on producing a minimal radioactive waste volume. For this, optimized dismantling and packaging concepts have to be developed. AREVA is proud of versatile experience in successfully dismantling nuclear components like core internals and reactor pressure vessel (RPV). The basis of a well-founded and optimized dismantling and packaging concept must always be the detailed knowledge of the radiological condition of the component to be and in the best case a 3D activation- model. For keeping the necessary sampling effort as small as possible, but simultaneously as efficient as possible, representative sampling positions are defined in advance by theoretical radiological examinations. For this, a detailed 3D-CAD-model of the components to be dismantled has proven very helpful and effective. Under these aspects a sampling of RPV and its components is necessary to verify the theoretically calculated radiological data. The obtained results of activation and contamination are taken into account for the optimized dismantling and packaging strategy. The precise 3D-activation-model will reduce the necessary number and type of final disposal containers as security factors are minimized leading to a lower shielding effort, too. Besides, components or even parts of components may be subject of release measurement. In the end, costs can be reduced. In this context

  9. Pressurized subsampling system for pressured gas-hydrate-bearing sediment: Microscale imaging using X-ray computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Yusuke; Konno, Yoshihiro; Nagao, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    A pressurized subsampling system was developed for pressured gas hydrate (GH)-bearing sediments, which have been stored under pressure. The system subsamples small amounts of GH sediments from cores (approximately 50 mm in diameter and 300 mm in height) without pressure release to atmospheric conditions. The maximum size of the subsamples is 12.5 mm in diameter and 20 mm in height. Moreover, our system transfers the subsample into a pressure vessel, and seals the pressure vessel by screwing in a plug under hydraulic pressure conditions. In this study, we demonstrated pressurized subsampling from artificial xenon-hydrate sediments and nondestructive microscale imaging of the subsample, using a microfocus X-ray computed tomography (CT) system. In addition, we estimated porosity and hydrate saturation from two-dimensional X-ray CT images of the subsamples

  10. Thermal modeling of core sampling in flammable gas waste tanks. Part 1: Push-mode sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, C.; Stroh, K.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.

    1997-01-01

    The radioactive waste stored in underground storage tanks at Hanford site is routinely being sampled for waste characterization purposes. The push- and rotary-mode core sampling is one of the sampling methods employed. The waste includes mixtures of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite with organic compounds that can produce violent exothermic reactions if heated above 160 C during core sampling. A self-propagating waste reaction would produce very high temperatures that eventually result in failure of the tank and radioactive material releases to environment. A two-dimensional thermal model based on a lumped finite volume analysis method is developed. The enthalpy of each node is calculated from the first law of thermodynamics. A flash temperature and effective contact area concept were introduced to account the interface temperature rise. No maximum temperature rise exceeding the critical value of 60 C was found in the cases studied for normal operating conditions. Several accident conditions are also examined. In these cases it was found that the maximum drill bit temperature remained below the critical reaction temperature as long as a 30 scfm purge flow is provided the push-mode drill bit during sampling in rotary mode. The failure to provide purge flow resulted in exceeding the limiting temperatures in a relatively short time

  11. TOUGH+Hydrate v1.0 User's Manual: A Code for the Simulation of System Behavior in Hydrate-Bearing Geologic Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moridis, George; Moridis, George J.; Kowalsky, Michael B.; Pruess, Karsten

    2008-03-01

    TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.0 is a new code for the simulation of the behavior of hydrate-bearing geologic systems. By solving the coupled equations of mass and heat balance, TOUGH+HYDRATE can model the non-isothermal gas release, phase behavior and flow of fluids and heat under conditions typical of common natural CH{sub 4}-hydrate deposits (i.e., in the permafrost and in deep ocean sediments) in complex geological media at any scale (from laboratory to reservoir) at which Darcy's law is valid. TOUGH+HYDRATE v1.0 includes both an equilibrium and a kinetic model of hydrate formation and dissociation. The model accounts for heat and up to four mass components, i.e., water, CH{sub 4}, hydrate, and water-soluble inhibitors such as salts or alcohols. These are partitioned among four possible phases (gas phase, liquid phase, ice phase and hydrate phase). Hydrate dissociation or formation, phase changes and the corresponding thermal effects are fully described, as are the effects of inhibitors. The model can describe all possible hydrate dissociation mechanisms, i.e., depressurization, thermal stimulation, salting-out effects and inhibitor-induced effects. TOUGH+HYDRATE is the first member of TOUGH+, the successor to the TOUGH2 [Pruess et al., 1991] family of codes for multi-component, multiphase fluid and heat flow developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. It is written in standard FORTRAN 95, and can be run on any computational platform (workstation, PC, Macintosh) for which such compilers are available.

  12. Tank 241-U-105 push mode core sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) will identify characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples and two push mode core samples from tank 241-U-105 (U-105)

  13. Geological controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate from core, downhole log, and seismic data in the Shenhu area, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiujuan Wang,; ,; Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.; Yang, Shengxiong; Guo, Yiqun; Wu, Shiguo

    2014-01-01

    Multi-channel seismic reflection data, well logs, and recovered sediment cores have been used in this study to characterize the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate in the Shenhu area of the South China Sea. The concept of the "gas hydrate petroleum system" has allowed for the systematic analysis of the impact of gas source, geologic controls on gas migration, and the role of the host sediment in the formation and stability of gas hydrates as encountered during the 2007 Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey Gas Hydrate Expedition (GMGS-1) in the Shenhu area. Analysis of seismic and bathymetric data identified seventeen sub-linear, near-parallel submarine canyons in this area. These canyons, formed in the Miocene, migrated in a northeasterly direction, and resulted in the burial and abandonment of canyons partially filled by coarse-grained sediments. Downhole wireline log (DWL) data were acquired from eight drill sites and sediment coring was conducted at five of these sites, which revealed the presence of suitable reservoirs for the occurrence of concentrated gas hydrate accumulations. Gas hydrate-bearing sediment layers were identified from well log and core data at three sites mainly within silt and silt clay sediments. Gas hydrate was also discovered in a sand reservoir at one site as inferred from the analysis of the DWL data. Seismic anomalies attributed to the presence of gas below the base of gas hydrate stability zone, provided direct evidence for the migration of gas into the overlying gas hydrate-bearing sedimentary sections. Geochemical analyses of gas samples collected from cores confirmed that the occurrence of gas hydrate in the Shenhu area is controlled by the presence thermogenic methane gas that has migrated into the gas hydrate stability zone from a more deeply buried source.

  14. Permeability of sediment cores from methane hydrate deposit in the Eastern Nankai Trough, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Y.; Yoneda, J.; Egawa, K.; Ito, T.; Jin, Y.; Kida, M.; Suzuki, K.; Nakatsuka, Y.; Nagao, J.

    2013-12-01

    Effective and absolute permeability are key parameters for gas production from methane-hydrate-bearing sandy sediments. Effective and/or absolute permeability have been measured using methane-hydrate-bearing sandy cores and clayey and silty cores recovered from Daini Atsumi Knoll in the Eastern Nankai Trough during the 2012 JOGMEC/JAPEX Pressure coring operation. Liquid-nitrogen-immersed cores were prepared by rapid depressurization of pressure cores recovered by a pressure coring system referred to as the Hybrid PCS. Cores were shaped cylindrically on a lathe with spraying of liquid nitrogen to prevent hydrate dissociation. Permeability was measured by a flooding test or a pressure relaxation method under near in-situ pressure and temperature conditions. Measured effective permeability of hydrate-bearing sediments is less than tens of md, which are order of magnitude less than absolute permeability. Absolute permeability of clayey cores is approximately tens of μd, which would perform a sealing function as cap rocks. Permeability reduction due to a swelling effect was observed for a silty core during flooding test of pure water mimicking hydrate-dissociation-water. Swelling effect may cause production formation damage especially at a later stage of gas production from methane hydrate deposits. This study was financially supported by the Research Consortium for Methane Hydrate Resources in Japan (MH21 Research Consortium) that carries out Japan's Methane Hydrate R&D Program conducted by the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI).

  15. Improved Rock Core Sample Break-off, Retention and Ejection System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort advances the design of an innovative core sampling and acquisition system with improved core break-off, retention and ejection features. The...

  16. Improved Rock Core Sample Break-off, Retention and Ejection System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed effort advances the design of an innovative core sampling and acquisition system with improved core break-off, retention and ejection features. Phase 1...

  17. CO2 injection into submarine, CH4-hydrate bearing sediments: Parameter studies towards the development of a hydrate conversion technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deusner, Christian; Bigalke, Nikolaus; Kossel, Elke; Haeckel, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    In the recent past, international research efforts towards exploitation of submarine and permafrost hydrate reservoirs have increased substantially. Until now, findings indicate that a combination of different technical means such as depressurization, thermal stimulation and chemical activation is the most promising approach for producing gas from natural hydrates. Moreover, emission neutral exploitation of CH4-hydrates could potentially be achieved in a combined process with CO2 injection and storage as CO2-hydrate. In the German gas hydrate initiative SUGAR, a combination of experimental and numerical studies is used to elucidate the process mechanisms and technical parameters on different scales. Experiments were carried out in the novel high-pressure flow-through system NESSI (Natural Environment Simulator for sub-Seafloor Interactions). Recent findings suggest that the injection of heated, supercritical CO2 is beneficial for both CH4 production and CO2 retention. Among the parameters tested so far are the CO2 injection regime (alternating vs. continuous injection) and the reservoir pressure / temperature conditions. Currently, the influence of CO2 injection temperature is investigated. It was shown that CH4 production is optimal at intermediate reservoir temperatures (8 ° C) compared to lower (2 ° C) and higher temperatures (10 ° C). The reservoir pressure, however, was of minor importance for the production efficiency. At 8 ° C, where CH4- and CO2-hydrates are thermodynamically stable, CO2-hydrate formation appears to be slow. Eventual clogging of fluid conduits due to CO2-rich hydrate formation force open new conduits, thereby tapping different regions inside the CH4-hydrate sample volume for CH4gas. In contrast, at 2 ° C immediate formation of CO2-hydrate results in rapid and irreversible obstruction of the entire pore space. At 10 ° C pure CO2-hydrates can no longer be formed. Consequently the injected CO2 flows through quickly and interaction with

  18. Tank 241-B-203 push mode core sampling and analysis plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, J.

    1995-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for two push-mode core samples from tank 241-B-203 (B-203)

  19. Tank 241-B-204 push mode core sampling and analysis plan. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, L.M.

    1995-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for two push-mode core samples from tank 241-B-204 (B-204)

  20. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Lanigan, David C.; Horton, Duane G.; Clayton, Ray E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Legore, Virginia L.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Parker, Kent E.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Serne, Jennifer N.; Last, George V.; Smith, Steven C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Zachara, John M.; Burke, Deborah Sd.

    2001-01-01

    The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is the first in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from RCRA borehole bore samples and composite samples. Intact cores from two RCRA boreholes (299-W22-48 and 299-W22-50) near the SX Tank Farm and four, large-quantity grab samples from outcrop sediment on and off the Hanford Site were sampled to better understand the fate of contaminants in the vadose zone beneath underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. Borehole and outcrop samples analyzed for this report are located outside the tank farms, and therefore may be considered standard or background samples from which to compare contaminated sediments within the tank farms themselves. This report presents our interpretation of the physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of the uncontaminated vadose zone sediments, and variations in the vertical distribution of these properties. The information presented in this report is intended to support preparation of the S-SX Field Investigation Report to be prepared by CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. as well as future remediation actions at the S-SX Tank Farm

  1. Sampling and treatment of rock cores and groundwater under reducing environments of deep underground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebashi, Katsuhiro; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Tanaka, Tadao

    2005-01-01

    A method of sampling and treatment of undisturbed rock cores and groundwater under maintained reducing environments of deep underground was developed and demonstrated in a Neogene's sandy mudstone layer at depth of GL-100 to -200 m. Undisturbed rock cores and groundwater were sampled and transferred into an Ar gas atmospheric glove box with minimized exposure to the atmosphere. The reducing conditions of the sampled groundwater and rock cores were examined in the Ar atmospheric glove box by measuring pH and Eh of the sampled groundwater and sampled groundwater contacting with disk type rock samples, respectively. (author)

  2. Transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate rebiopsy: How many core sampling should be applied to which patient?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akın Soner Amasyali

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: At least 20 cores should be sampled in rebiopsy, especially in the patients diagnosed with benign and HGPIN. However, we believe that standard systematic sampling will be sufficient for the patients diagnosed with ASAP.

  3. Relating the structural strength of concrete sewer pipes and material properties retrieved from core samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanic, N.; Langeveld, J.G.; Salet, Theo; Clemens, F.H.L.R.

    2016-01-01

    Drill core samples are taken in practice for an analysis of the material characteristics of concrete pipes in order to improve the quality of the decision-making on rehabilitation actions. Earlier research has demonstrated that core sampling is associated with a significant uncertainty. In this

  4. A geostatistical estimation of zinc grade in bore-core samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starzec, A.

    1987-01-01

    Possibilities and preliminary results of geostatistical interpretation of the XRF determination of zinc in bore-core samples are considered. For the spherical model of the variogram the estimation variance of grade in a disk-shape sample (estimated from the grade on the circumference sample) is calculated. Variograms of zinc grade in core samples are presented and examples of the grade estimation are discussed. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab. (author)

  5. Sampling strategy to develop a primary core collection of apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... Physiology and Molecular Biology for Fruit, Tree, Beijing 100193, China. ... analyzed on genetic diversity to ensure their represen- .... strategy, cluster and random sampling. .... on isozyme data―A simulation study, Theor.

  6. Constraining gas hydrate occurrence in the northern Gulf of Mexico continental slope : fine scale analysis of grain-size in hydrate-bearing sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hangsterfer, A.; Driscoll, N.; Kastner, M. [Scripps Inst. of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States). Geosciences Research Division

    2008-07-01

    Methane hydrates can form within the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ) in sea beds. The Gulf of Mexico (GOM) contains an underlying petroleum system and deeply buried, yet dynamic salt deposits. Salt tectonics and fluid expulsion upward through the sediment column result in the formation of fractures, through which high salinity brines migrate into the GHSZ, destabilizing gas hydrates. Thermogenic and biogenic hydrocarbons also migrate to the seafloor along the GOMs northern slope, originating from the thermal and biogenic degradation of organic matter. Gas hydrate occurrence can be controlled by either primary permeability, forming in coarse-grained sediment layers, or by secondary permeability, forming in areas where hydrofracture and faulting generate conduits through which hydrocarbon-saturated fluids flow. This paper presented a study that attempted to determine the relationship between grain-size, permeability, and gas hydrate distribution. Grain-size analyses were performed on cores taken from Keathley Canyon and Atwater Valley in the GOM, on sections of cores that both contained and lacked gas hydrate. Using thermal anomalies as proxies for the occurrence of methane hydrate within the cores, samples of sediment were taken and the grain-size distributions were measured to see if there was a correlation between gas hydrate distribution and grain-size. The paper described the methods, including determination of hydrate occurrence and core analysis. It was concluded that gas hydrate occurrence in Keathley Canyon and Atwater Valley was constrained by secondary permeability and was structurally controlled by hydrofractures and faulting that acted as conduits through which methane-rich fluids flowed. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  7. Experimental Study and Mathematical Modeling of Asphaltene Deposition Mechanism in Core Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Behbahani T.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, experimental studies were conducted to determine the effect of asphaltene deposition on the permeability reduction and porosity reduction of carbonate, sandstone and dolomite rock samples using an Iranian bottom hole live oil sample which is close to reservoir conditions, whereas in the majority of previous work, a mixture of recombined oil (a mixture of dead oil and associated gas was injected into a core sample which is far from reservoir conditions. The effect of the oil injection rate on asphaltene deposition and permeability reduction was studied. The experimental results showed that an increase in the oil injection flow rate can result in an increase in asphaltene deposition and permeability reduction. Also, it can be observed that at lower injection flow rates, a monotonic decrease in permeability of the rock samples can be attained upon increasing the injection flow rate, while at higher injection rates, after a decrease in rock permeability, an increasing trend is observed before a steady-state condition can be reached. The experimental results also showed that the rock type can affect the amount of asphaltene deposition, and the asphaltene deposition has different mechanisms in sandstone and carbonate core samples. It can be seen that the adsorption and plugging mechanisms have a more important role in asphaltene deposition in carbonate core samples than sandstone core samples. From the results, it can be observed that the pore volumes of the injected crude oil are higher for sandstone cores compared with the carbonate cores. Also, it can be inferred that three depositional types may take place during the crude oil injection, i.e., continuous deposition for low-permeability cores, slow, steady plugging for high-permeability cores and steady deposition for medium-permeability cores. It can be seen from the experimental results that damage to the core samples was found to increase when the production pressures were

  8. Compact multipurpose sub-sampling and processing of in-situ cores with press (pressurized core sub-sampling and extrusion system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, E.; Muller, W.H. [Technical Univ. of Berlin, Berlin (Germany). Chair of Continuum Mechanics and Material Theory

    2008-07-01

    Climate change, declining resources and over-consumption result in a need for sustainable resource allocation, habitat conservation and claim for new technologies and prospects for damage-containment. In order to increase knowledge of the environment and to define potential hazards, it is necessary to get an understanding of the deep biosphere. In addition, the benthic conditions of sediment structure and gas hydrates, temperature, pressure and bio-geochemistry must be maintained during the sequences of sampling, retrieval, transfer, storage and downstream analysis. In order to investigate highly instable gas hydrates, which decomposes under pressure and temperature change, a suite of research technologies have been developed by the Technische Universitat Berlin (TUB), Germany. This includes the pressurized core sub-sampling and extrusion system (PRESS) that was developed in the European Union project called HYACE/HYACINTH. The project enabled well-defined sectioning and transfer of drilled pressure-cores obtained by a rotary corer and fugro pressure corer into transportation and investigation chambers. This paper described HYACINTH pressure coring and the HYACINTH core transfer. Autoclave coring tools and HYACINTH core logging, coring tools, and sub-sampling were also discussed. It was concluded that possible future applications include, but were not limited to, research in shales and other tight formations, carbon dioxide sequestration, oil and gas exploration, coalbed methane, and microbiology of the deep biosphere. To meet the corresponding requirements and to incorporate the experiences from previous expeditions, the pressure coring system would need to be redesigned to adapt it to the new applications. 3 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Opportunities and Challenges of Linking Scientific Core Samples to the Geoscience Data Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noren, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    Core samples generated in scientific drilling and coring are critical for the advancement of the Earth Sciences. The scientific themes enabled by analysis of these samples are diverse, and include plate tectonics, ocean circulation, Earth-life system interactions (paleoclimate, paleobiology, paleoanthropology), Critical Zone processes, geothermal systems, deep biosphere, and many others, and substantial resources are invested in their collection and analysis. Linking core samples to researchers, datasets, publications, and funding agencies through registration of globally unique identifiers such as International Geo Sample Numbers (IGSNs) offers great potential for advancing several frontiers. These include maximizing sample discoverability, access, reuse, and return on investment; a means for credit to researchers; and documentation of project outputs to funding agencies. Thousands of kilometers of core samples and billions of derivative subsamples have been generated through thousands of investigators' projects, yet the vast majority of these samples are curated at only a small number of facilities. These numbers, combined with the substantial similarity in sample types, make core samples a compelling target for IGSN implementation. However, differences between core sample communities and other geoscience disciplines continue to create barriers to implementation. Core samples involve parent-child relationships spanning 8 or more generations, an exponential increase in sample numbers between levels in the hierarchy, concepts related to depth/position in the sample, requirements for associating data derived from core scanning and lithologic description with data derived from subsample analysis, and publications based on tens of thousands of co-registered scan data points and thousands of analyses of subsamples. These characteristics require specialized resources for accurate and consistent assignment of IGSNs, and a community of practice to establish norms

  10. Determination of the neutron activation profile of core drill samples by gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurau, D; Boden, S; Sima, O; Stanga, D

    2018-04-01

    This paper provides guidance for determining the neutron activation profile of core drill samples taken from the biological shield of nuclear reactors using gamma spectrometry measurements. Thus, it provides guidance for selecting a model of the right form to fit data and using least squares methods for model fitting. The activity profiles of two core samples taken from the biological shield of a nuclear reactor were determined. The effective activation depth and the total activity of core samples along with their uncertainties were computed by Monte Carlo simulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. TMI-2 core debris grab samples: Examination and analysis: Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.W.; Carlson, E.R.; Cook, B.A.; Ploger, S.A.; Carlson, J.O.

    1986-09-01

    Six samples of particulate debris were removed from the TMI-2 core rubble bed during September and October 1983, and five more samples were obtained in March 1984. The samples (up to 174 g each) were obtained at two locations in the core: H8 (center) and E9 (mid-radius). Ten of the eleven samples were examined at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to obtain data on the physical and chemical nature of the debris and the postaccident condition of the core. Portions of the samples also were subjected to differential thermal analysis at Rockwell Hanford Operations and metallurgical and chemical examinations at Argonne National Laboratories. This report presents results of the examination of the core debris grab samples, including physical, metallurgical, chemical, and radiochemical analyses. The results indicate that temperatures in the core reached at least 3100 K during the TMI-2 accident, fuel melting and significant mixing of core structural material occurred, and large fractions of some radionuclides (e.g., 90 Sr and 144 Ce) were retained in the core

  12. Operability test procedure for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System Exhausters 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WSaldo, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a procedure for performing operability testing of the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System Exhausters 3 ampersand 4. Upon completion of testing activities an operability testing report will be issued

  13. Experience with Aerosol Generation During Rotary Mode Core Sampling in the Hanford Single Shell Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHOFIELD, J.S.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides data on aerosol concentrations in tank head spaces, total mass of aerosols in the tank head space and mass of aerosols sent to the exhauster during Rotary Mode Core Sampling from November 1994 through April 1999

  14. Engineering Task Plan to Expand the Environmental Operational Envelope of Core Sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    This Engineering Task Plan authorizes the development of an Alternative Generation and Analysis (AGA). The AGA will determine how to expand the environmental operating envelope during core sampling operations

  15. Measurement and analysis of reactivity worth of 237Np sample in cores of TCA and FCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Takeshi; Mori, Takamasa; Okajima, Shigeaki; Tani, Kazuhiro; Suzaki, Takenori; Saito, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    The reactivity worth of 22.87 grams of 237 Np oxide sample was measured and analyzed in seven uranium cores in the Tank-Type Critical Assembly (TCA) and two uranium cores in the Fast Critical Assembly (FCA) at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The TCA cores provided a systematic variation in the neutron spectrum between the thermal and resonance energy regions. The FCA cores, XXI and XXV, provided a hard neutron spectrum of the fast reactor and a soft one of the resonance energy region, respectively. Analyses were carried out using the JENDL-3.3 nuclear data library with a Monte Carlo method for the TCA cores and a deterministic method for the FCA cores. The ratios of calculated to experimental (C/E) reactivity worth were between 0.97 and 0.91, and showed no apparent dependence on the neutron spectrum. (author)

  16. SAFOD Phase III Core Sampling and Data Management at the Gulf Coast Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lockner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFODproject is yielding new insight into the San Andreas Fault (Zoback et al., 2010; Zoback et al., this issue. SAFOD drilling started in 2002 with a pilot hole, and proceeded with three phrases of drilling and coring during the summers of 2004, 2005, and 2007 (Fig. 1. One key component of theproject is curation, sampling, and documentation of SAFOD core usage at the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program’s (IODP Gulf Coast Repository (GCR at Texas A&M University. We present here the milestones accomplished over the past two years of sampling Phase III core at the GCR.

  17. UT-GOM2-1: Prospecting, Drilling and Sampling a Coarse-Grained Hydrate Reservoir in Green Canyon 955, the Deepwater Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemings, P. B.; Phillips, S. C.

    2017-12-01

    In May 2017, a science team led by the University of Texas-Austin conducted drilling and coring operations from the Helix Q4000 targeting gas hydrates in sand-rich reservoirs in the Green Canyon 955 block in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The UT-GOM2-1 expedition goals were to 1) test two configurations of pressure coring devices to assess relative performance with respect to recovery and quality of samples and 2) gather sufficient samples to allow laboratories throughout the US to investigate a range of outstanding science questions related to the origin and nature of gas hydrate-bearing sands. In the first well (UT-GOM2-1-H002), 1 of the 8 cores were recovered under pressure with 34% recovery. In the second well (UT-GOM2-1-H005), 12 of 13 cores were recovered under pressure with 77% recovery. The pressure cores were imaged and logged under pressure. Samples were degassed both shipboard and dockside to interpret hydrate concentration and gas composition. Samples for microbiological and porewater analysis were taken from the depressurized samples. 21 3 ft pressure cores were returned to the University of Texas for storage, distribution, and further analysis. Preliminary analyses document that the hydrate-bearing interval is composed of two interbedded (cm to m thickness) facies. Lithofacies II is composed of sandy silt and has trough cross bedding whereas Lithofacies III is composed of clayey silt and no bedforms are observed. Lithofacies II has low density (1.7 to 1.9 g/cc) and high velocity (3000-3250 m/s) beds whereas Lithofacies 3 has high density ( 1.9-2.1g/cc) and low velocity ( 1700 m/s). Quantitative degassing was used to determine that Lithofacies II contains high hydrate saturation (66-87%) and Lithofacies III contains moderate saturation ( 18-30%). Gas samples were analyzed periodically in each experiment and were composed of primarily methane with an average of 94 ppm ethane and detectable, but not quantifiable, propane. The core data will provide a

  18. Distribution Coeficients (Kd) Generated From A Core Sample Collected From The Saltstone Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almond, P.; Kaplan, D.

    2011-01-01

    Core samples originating from Vault 4, Cell E of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) were collected in September of 2008 (Hansen and Crawford 2009, Smith 2008) and sent to SRNL to measure chemical and physical properties of the material including visual uniformity, mineralogy, microstructure, density, porosity, distribution coefficients (K d ), and chemical composition. Some data from these experiments have been reported (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). In this study, leaching experiments were conducted with a single core sample under conditions that are representative of saltstone performance. In separate experiments, reducing and oxidizing environments were targeted to obtain solubility and Kd values from the measurable species identified in the solid and aqueous leachate. This study was designed to provide insight into how readily species immobilized in saltstone will leach from the saltstone under oxidizing conditions simulating the edge of a saltstone monolith and under reducing conditions, targeting conditions within the saltstone monolith. Core samples were taken from saltstone poured in December of 2007 giving a cure time of nine months in the cell and a total of thirty months before leaching experiments began in June 2010. The saltstone from Vault 4, Cell E is comprised of blast furnace slag, class F fly ash, portland cement, and Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) Batch 2 salt solution. The salt solution was previously analyzed from a sample of Tank 50 salt solution and characterized in the 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) report (Zeigler and Bibler 2009). Subsequent to Tank 50 analysis, additional solution was added to the tank solution from the Effluent Treatment Project as well as from inleakage from Tank 50 pump bearings (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). Core samples were taken from three locations and at three depths at each location using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit (1-1, 1-2, 1-3; 2-1, 2-2, 2-3; 3-1, 3-2, 3-3) (Hansen and Crawford

  19. DISTRIBUTION COEFICIENTS (KD) GENERATED FROM A CORE SAMPLE COLLECTED FROM THE SALTSTONE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almond, P.; Kaplan, D.

    2011-04-25

    Core samples originating from Vault 4, Cell E of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) were collected in September of 2008 (Hansen and Crawford 2009, Smith 2008) and sent to SRNL to measure chemical and physical properties of the material including visual uniformity, mineralogy, microstructure, density, porosity, distribution coefficients (K{sub d}), and chemical composition. Some data from these experiments have been reported (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). In this study, leaching experiments were conducted with a single core sample under conditions that are representative of saltstone performance. In separate experiments, reducing and oxidizing environments were targeted to obtain solubility and Kd values from the measurable species identified in the solid and aqueous leachate. This study was designed to provide insight into how readily species immobilized in saltstone will leach from the saltstone under oxidizing conditions simulating the edge of a saltstone monolith and under reducing conditions, targeting conditions within the saltstone monolith. Core samples were taken from saltstone poured in December of 2007 giving a cure time of nine months in the cell and a total of thirty months before leaching experiments began in June 2010. The saltstone from Vault 4, Cell E is comprised of blast furnace slag, class F fly ash, portland cement, and Deliquification, Dissolution, and Adjustment (DDA) Batch 2 salt solution. The salt solution was previously analyzed from a sample of Tank 50 salt solution and characterized in the 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) report (Zeigler and Bibler 2009). Subsequent to Tank 50 analysis, additional solution was added to the tank solution from the Effluent Treatment Project as well as from inleakage from Tank 50 pump bearings (Cozzi and Duncan 2010). Core samples were taken from three locations and at three depths at each location using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit (1-1, 1-2, 1-3; 2-1, 2-2, 2-3; 3-1, 3-2, 3-3) (Hansen and

  20. Tank 241-TX-113 rotary mode core sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCain, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identities characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for push mode core samples from tank 241-TX-113 (TX-113). The Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis document identities Retrieval, Pretreatment and Immobilization as an issue that applies to tank TX-113. As a result, a 150 gram composite of solids shall be made and archived for that program. This tank is not on a Watch List

  1. High-level core sample x-ray imaging at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.R.; Keve, J.K.

    1995-10-01

    Waste tank sampling of radioactive high-level waste is required for continued operations, waste characterization, and site safety. Hanford Site tank farms consist of 28 double-shell and 149 single-shell underground storage tanks. The single shell tanks are out-of-service an no longer receive liquid waste. Core samples of salt cake and sludge waste are remotely obtained using truck-mounted, core drill platforms. Samples are recovered from tanks through a 2.25 inch (in.) drill pipe in 26-in. steel tubes, 1.5 in. diameter. Drilling parameters vary with different waste types. Because sample recovery has been marginal an inadequate at times, a system was needed to provide drill truck operators with ''real-time feedback'' about the physical condition of the sample and the percent recovery, prior to making nuclear assay measurements and characterizations at the analytical laboratory. The Westinghouse Hanford Company conducted proof-of-principal radiographic testing to verify the feasibility of a proposed imaging system. Tests were conducted using an iridium 192 radiography source to determine the effects of high radiation on image quality. The tests concluded that samplers with a dose rate in excess of 5000 R/hr could be imaged with only a slight loss of image quality and samples less than 1000 R/hr have virtually no effect on image quality. The Mobile Core Sample X-Ray Examination System, a portable vendor-engineered assembly, has components uniquely configured to produce a real-time radiographic system suitable for safely examining radioactive tank core segments collected at the Hanford Site. The radiographic region of interest extends from the bottom (valve) of the sampler upward 19 to 20 in. The purpose of the Mobile Core Sample X-Ray Examination System is to examine the physical contents of core samples after removal from the tank and prior to placement in an onsite transfer cask

  2. Test of Tree Core Sampling for Screening of Toxic Elements in Soils from a Norwegian Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Rein, Arno; Legind, Charlotte Nielsen

    2011-01-01

    Tree core samples have been used to delineate organic subsurface plumes. In 2009 and 2010, samples were taken at trees growing on a former dump site in Norway and analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn). Concentrations in wood were in averag...

  3. Tank 241-AZ-102 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AZ-102. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AZ-102. Push mode core samples will be obtained from risers 15C and 24A to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory will extrude core samples, composite the liquids and solids, perform chemical analyses, and provide subsamples to the Process Chemistry Laboratory. The Process Chemistry Laboratory will prepare test plans and perform process tests to evaluate the behavior of the 241-AZ-102 waste undergoing the retrieval and treatment scenarios defined in the applicable DQOs. Requirements for analyses of samples originating in the process tests will be documented in the corresponding test plan

  4. Core belief content examined in a large sample of patients using online cognitive behaviour therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millings, Abigail; Carnelley, Katherine B

    2015-11-01

    Computerised cognitive behavioural therapy provides a unique opportunity to collect and analyse data regarding the idiosyncratic content of people's core beliefs about the self, others and the world. 'Beating the Blues' users recorded a core belief derived through the downward arrow technique. Core beliefs from 1813 mental health patients were coded into 10 categories. The most common were global self-evaluation, attachment, and competence. Women were more likely, and men were less likely (than chance), to provide an attachment-related core belief; and men were more likely, and women less likely, to provide a self-competence-related core belief. This may be linked to gender differences in sources of self-esteem. Those who were suffering from anxiety were more likely to provide power- and control-themed core beliefs and less likely to provide attachment core beliefs than chance. Finally, those who had thoughts of suicide in the preceding week reported less competence themed core beliefs and more global self-evaluation (e.g., 'I am useless') core beliefs than chance. Concurrent symptom level was not available. The sample was not nationally representative, and featured programme completers only. Men and women may focus on different core beliefs in the context of CBT. Those suffering anxiety may need a therapeutic focus on power and control. A complete rejection of the self (not just within one domain, such as competence) may be linked to thoughts of suicide. Future research should examine how individual differences and symptom severity influence core beliefs. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well, Alaska North Slope: Coring operations, core sedimentology, and lithostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, K.; Boswell, R.; Collett, T.

    2011-01-01

    In February 2007, BP Exploration (Alaska), the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Geological Survey completed the BPXA-DOE-USGS Mount Elbert Gas Hydrate Stratigraphic Test Well (Mount Elbert well) in the Milne Point Unit on the Alaska North Slope. The program achieved its primary goals of validating the pre-drill estimates of gas hydrate occurrence and thickness based on 3-D seismic interpretations and wireline log correlations and collecting a comprehensive suite of logging, coring, and pressure testing data. The upper section of the Mount Elbert well was drilled through the base of ice-bearing permafrost to a casing point of 594??m (1950??ft), approximately 15??m (50??ft) above the top of the targeted reservoir interval. The lower portion of the well was continuously cored from 606??m (1987??ft) to 760??m (2494??ft) and drilled to a total depth of 914??m. Ice-bearing permafrost extends to a depth of roughly 536??m and the base of gas hydrate stability is interpreted to extend to a depth of 870??m. Coring through the targeted gas hydrate bearing reservoirs was completed using a wireline-retrievable system. The coring program achieved 85% recovery of 7.6??cm (3??in) diameter core through 154??m (504??ft) of the hole. An onsite team processed the cores, collecting and preserving approximately 250 sub-samples for analyses of pore water geochemistry, microbiology, gas chemistry, petrophysical analysis, and thermal and physical properties. Eleven samples were immediately transferred to either methane-charged pressure vessels or liquid nitrogen for future study of the preserved gas hydrate. Additional offsite sampling, analyses, and detailed description of the cores were also conducted. Based on this work, one lithostratigraphic unit with eight subunits was identified across the cored interval. Subunits II and Va comprise the majority of the reservoir facies and are dominantly very fine to fine, moderately sorted, quartz, feldspar, and lithic fragment-bearing to

  6. Core sample descriptions and summary logs of six wells within the Hanford Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summers, W.K.; Hanson, R.T.

    1977-01-01

    From February through May, 1976, selected sites on the Hanford Reservation were core drilled. These six holes provide a loose network of observation holes traversing the reservation in an east--west direction between the Columbia River and State Highway 240. This program represents the first attempt to recover cores from the glaciofluviatile material and Ringold Formation beneath the Hanford Reservation. This contains three parts: an introductory text describing the method of inspection and format for written description; summary logs that illustrate in condensed form the rocks penetrated by the wells drilled; and the detailed written descriptions of core samples. 3 figures, 7 tables

  7. Characterization of the first core sample of neutralized current acid waste from double-shell tank 101-AZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.E.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

    1989-09-01

    In FY 1989, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) successfully obtained four core samples (totaling seven segments) of neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) from double-shell tanks (DSTs) 101-AZ and 102-AZ. A segment was a 19-in.-long and 1-in.-diameter cylindrical sample of waste. A core sample consisted of enough 19-in.-long segments to obtain the waste of interest. Three core samples were obtained from DST 101-AZ and one core sample from DST 102-AZ. Two DST 101-AZ core samples consisted of two segments per core, and the third core sample consisted of only one segment. The third core consisted of the solids from the bottom of the tank and was used to determine the relative abrasiveness of this NCAW. The DST 102-AZ core sample consisted of two segments. The core samples were transported to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), where the waste was extruded from its sampler and extensively characterized. A characterization plan was followed that simulated the processing of the NCAW samples through retrieval, pretreatment and vitrification process steps. Physical, rheological, chemical and radiochemical properties were measured throughout the process steps. The characterization of the first core sample from DST 101-AZ was completed, and the results are provided in this report. The results for the other core characterizations will be reported in future reports. 3 refs., 13 figs., 10 tabs

  8. Using tree core samples to monitor natural attenuation and plume distribution after a PCE spill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten; Burken, J.; Machackova, J.

    2008-01-01

    The potential of using tree core samples to detect and monitor natural attenuation of perchloroethene (PCE) in groundwater was investigated at a PCE-contaminated site. In the area of the known plume with PCE concentrations between 0.004 and >40 mg/L, cores were collected from tree trunks at a hei...... at a height of about 1 m above ground surface. Tree sampling of the site was completed in under six hours. Chlorinated ethenes were analyzed by headspace GC/MS. PCE (0.001 to 7 mg/kg) and natural attenuation products, TCE (...

  9. Benthic foraminiferal census data from Mobile Bay, Alabama--counts of surface samples and box cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richwine, Kathryn A.; Osterman, Lisa E.

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken in order to understand recent environmental change in Mobile Bay, Alabama. For this study a series of surface sediment and box core samples was collected. The surface benthic foraminiferal data provide the modern baseline conditions of the bay and can be used as a reference for changing paleoenvironmental parameters recorded in the box cores. The 14 sampling locations were chosen in the bay to cover the wide diversity of fluvial and marine-influenced environments on both sides of the shipping channel.

  10. Drilling induced damage of core samples. Evidences from laboratory testing and numerical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanaro, Flavio

    2008-01-01

    Extensive sample testing in uniaxial and Brazilian test conditions were carried out for the Shobasama and MIU Research Laboratory Site (Gifu Pref., Japan). The compressive and tensile strength of the samples was observed to be negatively correlated to the in-situ stress components. Such correlation was interpreted as stress-release induced sample damage. Similar stress conditions were then numerically simulated by means of the BEM-DDM code FRACOD 2D in plane strain conditions. This method allows for explicitly consider the influence of newly initiated or propagating fractures on the stress field and deformation of the core during drilling process. The models show that already at moderate stress levels some fracturing of the core during drilling might occur leading to reduced laboratory strength of the samples. Sample damage maps were produced independently from the laboratory test results and from the numerical models and show good agreement with each other. (author)

  11. Baseline Design Compliance Matrix for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LECHELT, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the design compliance matrix (DCM) is to provide a single-source document of all design requirements associated with the fifteen subsystems that make up the rotary mode core sampling (RMCS) system. It is intended to be the baseline requirement document for the RMCS system and to be used in governing all future design and design verification activities associated with it. This document is the DCM for the RMCS system used on Hanford single-shell radioactive waste storage tanks. This includes the Exhauster System, Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks, Universal Sampling System, Diesel Generator System, Distribution Trailer, X-Ray Cart System, Breathing Air Compressor, Nitrogen Supply Trailer, Casks and Cask Truck, Service Trailer, Core Sampling Riser Equipment, Core Sampling Support Trucks, Foot Clamp, Ramps and Platforms and Purged Camera System. Excluded items are tools such as light plants and light stands. Other items such as the breather inlet filter are covered by a different design baseline. In this case, the inlet breather filter is covered by the Tank Farms Design Compliance Matrix

  12. Comparison of tree coring and soil gas sampling for screening of contaminated sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Algreen; Stalder, Marcel; Riis, Charlotte

    and then identify high risk areas. The uptake of BTEX into trees varies to a greater extent with the tree species and the site conditions than chlorinated solvents, which lead to greater uncertainty. Both methods have their advantages and disadvantages. Hence, the methods supplement each other. Based on results......Site characterization is often time consuming and a financial burden for the site owners, which raises a demand for rapid and inexpensive (pre)screening methods. Phytoscreening by tree coring has shown to be a useful tool to detect subsurface contamination, especially of chlorinated solvents...... suitable as initial screening methods for site characterization. The aim of this study is to compare tree coring and soil gas sampling to evaluate to which extent tree coring may supplement or substitute soil gas sampling as a site contaminant screening tool. And where both methods are feasible, evaluate...

  13. Freeze core sampling to validate time-lapse resistivity monitoring of the hyporheic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran, Laura; Hughes, Brian; Nyquist, Jonathan; Ryan, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A freeze core sampler was used to characterize hyporheic zone storage during a stream tracer test. The pore water from the frozen core showed tracer lingered in the hyporheic zone after the tracer had returned to background concentration in collocated well samples. These results confirmed evidence of lingering subsurface tracer seen in time-lapse electrical resistivity tomographs. The pore water exhibited brine exclusion (ion concentrations in ice lower than source water) in a sediment matrix, despite the fast freezing time. Although freeze core sampling provided qualitative evidence of lingering tracer, it proved difficult to quantify tracer concentration because the amount of brine exclusion during freezing could not be accurately determined. Nonetheless, the additional evidence for lingering tracer supports using time-lapse resistivity to detect regions of low fluid mobility within the hyporheic zone that can act as chemically reactive zones of importance in stream health. © 2012, The Author(s). GroundWater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  14. Decontamination and concrete core sampling by teleoperated robot at Fukushima Daiichi reactor buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Masaru; Onitsuka, Hironori; Shimonabe, Noriaki; Fujita, Jun; Matsumura, Takumi; Okumura, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    For decommissioning of Fukushima daiichi nuclear power station, reduction of the dose equivalent rates inside the reactor buildings is an important issue. Concrete core sampling from the buildings to investigate the contamination is necessary for study about effective decontamination. However, dose rate inside the reactor buildings is very high. For example, dose rate of 1st floor on the Unit 1 is 1.2 - 1820 [mSv / h], the Unit 2 is 2.5 - 220 [mSv / h] and Unit 3 is 2.2 - 4780 [mSv / h]. So it is difficult for workers to work long hours. Therefore, a teleoperated robot, named 'MHI-MEISTeR (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries - Maintenance Equipment Integrated System of Telecontrol Robot)', has been developed to conduct operations like concrete core samples from the reactor buildings. Actually, some concrete core samples from Fukushima daiichi were taken by MHI-MEISTeR. In addition, MHI-MEISTeR is designed as a versatile robot, and so it can conduct suction / blast decontamination works as well as concrete core sampling. The above operations were performed by MHI-MEISTeR in Fukushima daiichi nuclear power station. (author)

  15. Experience with Aerosol Generation During Rotary Mode Core Sampling in the Hanford Single Shell Waste Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SCHOFIELD, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides data on aerosol concentrations in tank head spaces, total mass of aerosols in the tank head space and mass of aerosols sent to the exhauster during Rotary Mode Core Sampling from November 1994 through June 1999. A decontamination factor for the RMCS exhauster filter housing is calculated based on operation data

  16. Operability test report for rotary mode core sampling system number 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the successful completion of operability testing for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) system number-sign 3. The Report includes the test procedure (WHC-SD-WM-OTP-174), exception resolutions, data sheets, and a test report summary

  17. Design/Operations review of core sampling trucks and associated equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, H.P.

    1996-01-01

    A systematic review of the design and operations of the core sampling trucks was commissioned by Characterization Equipment Engineering of the Westinghouse Hanford Company in October 1995. The review team reviewed the design documents, specifications, operating procedure, training manuals and safety analysis reports. The review process, findings and corrective actions are summarized in this supporting document

  18. Structural evaluation for the core sampling trucks, RMCS operations, 200 Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates the structural adequacy and the integrity of the existing core sampling trucks to withstand impact should the trucks drop off the ramp, either onto the soft ground or onto a non-yielding surface due to operational error, wind, or earthquake. The report also addresses if the allowable tank dome load will be exceeded by the addition of the impact load

  19. A contact method of determination of thermophysical properties of rocks from core samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavril'ev, R.I.

    1995-01-01

    The zone of the action of thermal disturbances around a circular heat source on the surface of a semi-infinite body is estimated with the aim of using contact methods of determination of thermophysical properties of materials from core samples

  20. Environmental gamma-ray measurements using in situ and core sampling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, H.W.; Kerr, G.D.; Perdue, P.T.; Abdullah, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    Dose rates from natural radionuclides and 137 Cs in soils of the Oak Ridge area have been determined from in situ and core sample measurements. In situ γ-ray measurements were made with a transportable spectrometer. A tape of spectral data and a soil core sample from each site were returned to ORNL for further analysis. Information on soil composition, density and moisture content and on the distribution of cesium in the soil was obtained from the core samples. In situ spectra were analyzed by a computer program which identified and assigned energies to peaks, integrated the areas under the peaks, and calculated radionuclide concentrations based on a uniform distribution in the soil. The assumption of a uniform distribution was adequate only for natural radionuclides, but simple corrections can be made to the computer calculations for man-made radionuclides distributed on the surface or exponentially in the soil. For 137 Cs a correction was used based on an exponential function fitted to the distribution measured in core samples. At typical sites in Oak Ridge, the dose rate determined from these measurements was about 5 μrad/hr. (author)

  1. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Lanigan, David C.; Horton, Duane G.; Clayton, Ray E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Legore, Virginia L.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Parker, Kent E.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Serne, Jennifer N.; Last, George V.; Smith, Steven C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Zachara, John M.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-01-01

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.14, 4.16, 5.20, 5.22, 5.43, and 5.45. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is one in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) borehole bore samples and composite samples

  2. Characterization of Vadose Zone Sediment: Uncontaminated RCRA Borehole Core Samples and Composite Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serne, R. Jeffrey; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Schaef, Herbert T.; Williams, Bruce A.; Lanigan, David C.; Horton, Duane G.; Clayton, Ray E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Legore, Virginia L.; O' Hara, Matthew J.; Brown, Christopher F.; Parker, Kent E.; Kutnyakov, Igor V.; Serne, Jennifer N.; Last, George V.; Smith, Steven C.; Lindenmeier, Clark W.; Zachara, John M.; Burke, Deborah S.

    2008-09-11

    This report was revised in September 2008 to remove acid-extractable sodium data from Tables 4.14, 4.16, 5.20, 5.22, 5.43, and 5.45. The sodium data was removed due to potential contamination introduced during the acid extraction process. The rest of the text remains unchanged from the original report issued in February 2002. The overall goal of the of the Tank Farm Vadose Zone Project, led by CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., is to define risks from past and future single-shell tank farm activities. To meet this goal, CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. asked scientists from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to perform detailed analyses on vadose zone sediment from within the S-SX Waste Management Area. This report is one in a series of four reports to present the results of these analyses. Specifically, this report contains all the geologic, geochemical, and selected physical characterization data collected on vadose zone sediment recovered from Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) borehole bore samples and composite samples.

  3. Tank 241-SX-105 rotary mode core sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, B.C.

    1998-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for rotary mode core samples from tank 241-SX-105 (SX-105). It is written in accordance with Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (Dukelow et al. 1995) and Memorandum of Understanding for the Organic Complexant Safety Issue Data Requirements (Schreiber 1997a). Vapor screening issues apply as well, but are outside the scope of this SAP. A physical profile prediction based on waste fill history and previous sampling information is provided in Appendix A. Prior to core sampling, the dome space (below the riser) shall be measured for the presence of flammable gases. The measurement shall be taken from within the dome space and the data reported as a percentage of the lower flammability limit (LFL). The results shall be transmitted to the tank coordinator within ten working days of the sampling event (Schreiber 1997b). If the results are above 25 percent of the LFL when analyzing by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry or gas-specific monitoring gauges or above 10% of the LFL when analyzing with a combustible gas meter, the necessity for recurring sampling for flammable gas concentration and the frequency of such sampling will be determined by the Flammable Gas Safety Project. Any additional vapor sampling is not within the scope of this SAP

  4. Thermal modeling of core sampling in flammable gas waste tanks. Part 2: Rotary-mode sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, C.; Poston, D.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Witwer, K.S.

    1997-01-01

    The radioactive waste stored in underground storage tanks at Hanford site includes mixtures of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite with organic compounds. The waste can produce undesired violent exothermic reactions when heated locally during the rotary-mode sampling. Experiments are performed varying the downward force at a maximum rotational speed of 55 rpm and minimum nitrogen purge flow of 30 scfm. The rotary drill bit teeth-face temperatures are measured. The waste is simulated with a low thermal conductivity hard material, pumice blocks. A torque meter is used to determine the energy provided to the drill string. The exhaust air-chip temperature as well as drill string and drill bit temperatures and other key operating parameters were recorded. A two-dimensional thermal model is developed. The safe operating conditions were determined for normal operating conditions. A downward force of 750 at 55 rpm and 30 scfm nitrogen purge flow was found to yield acceptable substrate temperatures. The model predicted experimental results reasonably well. Therefore, it could be used to simulate abnormal conditions to develop procedures for safe operations

  5. Safety analysis for push-mode and rotary-mode core sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milliken, N.J.; Geschke, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    This safety analysis analyzes using the push-mode core sampling truck in the push-mode and the rotary-mode core sampling trucks in both the push- and rotary-modes to retrieve core samples that, once taken and analyzed, will yield waste characterization data for the hazardous waste tanks at the Hanford Site. Operation of the core sampling trucks in both the push- and rotary-modes was reviewed to determine whether the release of radioactive materials could occur during operation. It was concluded that there are three credible scenarios: a sample spill outside of the tank, a steam release event, and an unfiltered release to the environment during continuous exhauster operation. The probability of a sample spill was found to be 10 -4 /event, the probability of a steam release event was determined to fall in the unlikely range (10 -2 /event to 10 -4 /event), and the probability of an unfiltered release was calculated to be 5 x 10 -3 /year. Typically, events with probabilities of 10 -6 /event or less are not considered to be risk significant, and the consequences usually are not analyzed. The three accident scenarios were analyzed to calculate the dose consequences. It was determined that the steam release event is the bounding accident. The onsite and offsite dose consequences for this event are calculated to be 0.24 Sv (24 rem) and 3.2 x 10 -4 Sv (32 mrem), respectively. These consequences are below the risk acceptance guidelines for an unlikely event, as established in WHC-CM-4-46, Nonreactor Facility Safety Analysis Manual. With the design features and the use of the controls presented in Section 8.0, this operation represents a minimal risk

  6. Tank 241-SY-101 push mode core sampling and analysis plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CONNER, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for push mode core samples from tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101). It is written in accordance with Data Quality Objective to Support Resolution of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue (Bauer 1998), Low Activity Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives (Wiemers and Miller 1997 and DOE 1998), Data Quality Objectives for TWRS Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T is an Appropriate Feed Source for Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X (Certa 1998), and the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (Dukelow et al. 1995). The Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis document (Brown et al. 1998) indicates that these issues apply to tank SY-101 for this sampling event. Brown et al. also identifies high-level waste, regulatory, pretreatment and disposal issues as applicable issues for this tank. However, these issues will not be addressed via this sampling event

  7. Crosshole investigations - physical properties of core samples from boreholes F1 and F2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnusson, K.A.; Carlsten, S.; Olsson, O.

    1987-06-01

    The geology and physical properties have been studied of roughly 100 core samples from the boreholes F1 and F2 drilled at the Crosshole site, located at the 360 m level in the Stripa mine. The granitic rock has been divided into two classes: Fracture zones (also called major units) and a rock mass which is relatively undeformed. Samples from the major units have lower resistivity, higher porosity and dielectric constant than the samples from the less deformed rock mass. The electrical properties of the core samples have been measured over a frequency interval ranging from 1 Hz to 70 MHz. The conductivity of the samples increases with frequency, approximately with the frequency raised to the power 0.38. The dielectric constant decreases with frequency but is essentially constant above 3 MHz. These results show that the Hanai-Bruggeman equation can be used to describe the electrical bulk properties of the Stripa granite. The electrical conductivity of the samples is well correlated to the water content of the samples. The granite has a small contents of electrically conductive minerals which could influence the electrical bulk properties. (orig.)

  8. Engineering task plan for the development, fabrication and installation of rotary mode core sample truck bellows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Rotary Mode Core Sampling Trucks (RMSCTs) currently use a multi-sectioned bellows between the grapple box and the quill rod to compensate for drill head motion and to provide a path for purge gas. The current bellows, which is detailed on drawing H-2-690059, is expensive to procure, has a lengthy procurement cycle, and is prone to failure. Therefore, a task has been identified to design, fabricate, and install a replacement bellows. This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) is the management plan document for accomplishing the identified tasks. Any changes in scope of the ETP shall require formal direction by the Characterization Engineering manager. This document shall also be considered the work planning document for developmental control per Development Control Requirements (HNF 1999a). This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) is the management plan document for accomplishing the design, fabrication, and installation of a replacement bellows assembly for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling Trucks 3 and 4 (RMCST)

  9. HYACE - a novel autoclave coring equipment for systematic offshore gashydrate sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, H.; Hohnberg, H.J.; Reinelt, R. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Schiffs- und Meerestechnik, Fachgebiet Maritime Technik

    1997-12-31

    HYACE, the acronym for hydrate autoclave coring equipment system, is a research and development project sponsored by the European Union`s Marine Science and Technology Programme MAST. The project was to have started in the fourth quarter of 1997 and is to last 30 months. The main activities of the project will be in the development and prototype testing of an innovative down-hole controlled autoclave coring system. This system will be designed to sample marine sediments at extended down-hole conditions maintaining as many parameters constant as possible. In general terms, the main aim of the project is to contribute to systematic ground truthing of a necessarily ephemeral phenomenon of growing global significance: sampling and analysis of gas hydrates in their natural environment. (MSK)

  10. Tank 241-AY-101 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AY-101. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AY-101 required to satisfy ''Data Quality Objectives For RPP Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T Is An Appropriate Feed Source For High-Level Waste Feed Batch X(HLW DQO)' (Nguyen 1999a), ''Data Quality Objectives For TWRS Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T Is An Appropriate Feed Source For Low-Activity Waste Feed Butch X (LAW DQO) (Nguyen 1999b)'', ''Low Activity Waste and High-Level Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives (L and H DQO)'' (Patello et al. 1999), and ''Characterization Data Needs for Development, Design, and Operation of Retrieval Equipment Developed through the Data Quality Objective Process (Equipment DQO)'' (Bloom 1996). Special instructions regarding support to the LAW and HLW DQOs are provided by Baldwin (1999). Push mode core samples will be obtained from risers 15G and 150 to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory will extrude core samples; composite the liquids and solids; perform chemical analyses on composite and segment samples; archive half-segment samples; and provide sub-samples to the Process Chemistry Laboratory. The Process Chemistry Laboratory will prepare test plans and perform process tests to evaluate the behavior of the 241-AY-101 waste undergoing the retrieval and treatment scenarios defined in the applicable DQOs. Requirements for analyses of samples originating in the process tests will be documented in the corresponding test plans and are not within the scope of this SAP

  11. Operability test report for core sample truck number one flammable gas modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report primarily consists of the original test procedure used for the Operability Testing of the flammable gas modifications to Core Sample Truck No. One. Included are exceptions, resolutions, comments, and test results. This report consists of the original, completed, test procedure used for the Operability Testing of the flammable gas modifications to the Push Mode Core Sample Truck No. 1. Prior to the Acceptance/Operability test the truck No. 1 operations procedure (TO-080-503) was revised to be more consistent with the other core sample truck procedures and to include operational steps/instructions for the SR weather cover pressurization system. A draft copy of the operations procedure was used to perform the Operability Test Procedure (OTP). A Document Acceptance Review Form is included with this report (last page) indicating the draft status of the operations procedure during the OTP. During the OTP 11 test exceptions were encountered. Of these exceptions four were determined to affect Acceptance Criteria as listed in the OTP, Section 4.7 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

  12. Gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoir systems in the offshore of India: Results of the India National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Collett, Timothy S.; Vishwanath, K.; Shukla, K.M.; Nagalingam, J.; Lall, M.V.; Yamada, Y; Schultheiss, P.; Holland, M.

    2016-01-01

    The India National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition 02 (NGHP-02) was conducted from 3-March-2015 to 28-July-2015 off the eastern coast of India using the deepwater drilling vessel Chikyu. The primary goal of this expedition was to explore for highly saturated gas hydrate occurrences in sand reservoirs that would become targets for future production tests. The first two months of the expedition were dedicated to logging-whiledrilling (LWD) operations, with a total of 25 holes drilled and logged. The next three months were dedicated to coring operations at 10 of the most promising sites. With a total of five months of continuous field operations, the expedition was the most comprehensive dedicated gas hydrate investigation ever undertaken.

  13. Tank 241-AY-101 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AY-101. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AY-101 required to satisfy Data Quality Objectives For RPP Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T Is An Appropriate Feed Source For High-Level Waste Feed Batch X(HLW DQO) (Nguyen 1999a), Data Quality Objectives For TWRS Privatization Phase I : Confirm Tank T Is An Appropriate Feed Source For Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X (LAW DQO) (Nguyen 1999b), Low Activity Waste and High-Level Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives (L and H DQO) (Patello et al. 1999), and Characterization Data Needs for Development, Design, and Operation of Retrieval Equipment Developed through the Data Quality Objective Process (Equipment DQO) (Bloom 1996). Special instructions regarding support to the LAW and HLW DQOs are provided by Baldwin (1999). Push mode core samples will be obtained from risers 15G and 150 to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory will extrude core samples; composite the liquids and solids; perform chemical analyses on composite and segment samples; archive half-segment samples; and provide subsamples to the Process Chemistry Laboratory. The Process Chemistry Laboratory will prepare test plans and perform process tests to evaluate the behavior of the 241-AY-101 waste undergoing the retrieval and treatment scenarios defined in the applicable DQOs. Requirements for analyses of samples originating in the process tests will be documented in the corresponding test plans and are not within the scope of this SAP

  14. High-level core sample x-ray imaging at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, J.R.; Keye, J.K.

    1995-01-01

    Waste tank sampling of radioactive high-level waste is required for continued operations, waste characterization, and site safety. Hanford Site Tank farms consist of 28 double-shell and 149 single-shell underground storage tanks. The single shell tanks are out-of-service and no longer receive liquid waste. Core samples of salt cake and sludge waste are remotely obtained using truck-mounted, core drill platforms. Samples are recovered from tanks through a 2.25 inch (in.) drill pipe in 26-in. steel tubes, 1.5 in. diameter. Drilling parameters vary with different waste types. Because sample recovery has been marginal and inadequate at times, a system was needed to provide drill truck operators with real-time feedback about the physical conditions of the sample and the percent recovery, prior to making nuclear assay measurements and characterizations at the analytical laboratory. Westinghouse hanford Company conducted proof-of -principal radiographic testing to verify the feasibility of a proposed imaging system

  15. Ferrocyanide Safety Program: Data interpretation report for tank 241-T-107 core samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, L.M.; Valenzuela, B.D.

    1994-08-01

    Between November 1992 and March 1993, three core samples were obtained from tank 241-T-107. Analyses were performed on these core samples to support the Ferrocyanide Safety Program and the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Ecology et al. 1994) Milestone M-10-00. This document summarizes and evaluates those analytical results that are pertinent to the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue. This document compares the analytical results with the data requirements for ferrocyanide tanks as documented in Data Requirements of the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue Developed Through the Data Quality Objectives Process (Meacham et al. 1994) and provides an assessment of the safety condition of the tank. Analytes not listed in the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) document (Meacham et al. 1994) or not pertinent to the Ferrocyanide Safety Issue are not discussed in this report. Complete documentation of the analytical results can be found in the data package for the tank 241-T-107 cores (Svancara and Pool 1993). A more complete evaluation of the analytical results and an estimate of the tank inventory will be provided in a forthcoming tank characterization report for tank 241-T-107

  16. Tank 241-AZ-102 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RASMUSSEN, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AZ-102. The purpose of this sampling event is to obtain information about the characteristics of the contents of 241-AZ-102 required to satisfy the Data Quality Objectives For TWRS Privatization Phase I : Confirm Tank TIS An Appropriate Feed Source For High-Level Waste Feed Batch X(HLW DQO) (Nguyen 1999a), Data Quality Objectives For TWRS Privatization Phase 1: Confirm Tank TIS An Appropriate Feed Source For Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X (LAW DQO) (Nguyen 1999b), Low Activity Waste and High Level Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives (L and H DQO) (Patello et al. 1999) and Characterization Data Needs for Development, Design, and Operation of Retrieval Equipment Developed through the Data Quality Objective Process (Equipment DQO) (Bloom 1996). The Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis document (Brown et al. 1998) indicates that these issues, except the Equipment DQO apply to tank 241-AZ-102 for this sampling event. The Equipment DQO is applied for shear strength measurements of the solids segments only. Poppiti (1999) requires additional americium-241 analyses of the sludge segments. Brown et al. (1998) also identify safety screening, regulatory issues and provision of samples to the Privatization Contractor(s) as applicable issues for this tank. However, these issues will not be addressed via this sampling event. Reynolds et al. (1999) concluded that information from previous sampling events was sufficient to satisfy the safety screening requirements for tank 241-AZ-102. Push mode core samples will be obtained from risers 15C and 24A to provide sufficient material for the chemical analyses and tests required to satisfy these data quality objectives. The 222-S Laboratory will extrude core samples, composite the liquids and solids, perform chemical analyses

  17. The use of gamma ray computed tomography to investigate soil compaction due to core sampling devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, Luiz F.; Arthur, Robson C.J.; Correchel, Vladia; Bacchi, Osny O.S.; Reichardt, Klaus; Brasil, Rene P. Camponez do

    2004-01-01

    Compaction processes can influence soil physical properties such as soil density, porosity, pore size distribution, and processes like soil water and nutrient movements, root system distribution, and others. Soil porosity modification has important consequences like alterations in results of soil water retention curves. These alterations may cause differences in soil water storage calculations and matrix potential values, which are utilized in irrigation management systems. Because of this, soil-sampling techniques should avoid alterations of sample structure. In this work soil sample compaction caused by core sampling devices was investigated using the gamma ray computed tomography technique. A first generation tomograph with fixed source-detector arrangement and translation/rotational movements of the sample was utilized to obtain the images. The radioactive source is 241 Am, with an activity of 3.7 GBq, and the detector consists of a 3 in. x 3 in. NaI(Tl) scintillation crystal coupled to a photomultiplier tube. Soil samples were taken from an experimental field utilizing cylinders 4.0 cm high and 2.6 cm in diameter. Based on image analyses it was possible to detect compacted regions in all samples next to the cylinder wall due to the sampling system. Tomographic unit profiles of the sample permitted to identify higher values of soil density for deeper regions of the sample, and it was possible to determine the average densities and thickness of these layers. Tomographic analyses showed to be a very useful tool for soil compaction characterization and presented many advantages in relation to traditional methods. (author)

  18. Colloid and phosphorus leaching from undisturbed soil cores sampled along a natural clay gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Møldrup, Per; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2011-01-01

    correlated to the accumulated outflow and was described as a diffusion controlled process, using ¾(accumulated outflow). The mass of leached particles was positively correlated to the clay content as well as to water-dispersible colloids. Particulate phosphorus (P) was linearly correlated to concentration......The presence of strongly sorbing compounds in groundwater and tile drains can be a result of colloid-facilitated transport. Colloid and phosphorus leaching from macropores in undisturbed soil cores sampled across a natural clay gradient at Aarup, Denmark, were studied. The aim of the study...... was to correlate easily measurable soil properties, such as clay content and water-dispersible colloids, to colloid and phosphorus leaching. The clay contents across the gradient ranged from 0.11 to 0.23 kg kgj1. Irrigating with artificial rainwater, all samples showed a high first flush of colloids and phosphorus...

  19. Ecological risk evaluation of sediment core samples, Lake Tortum (Erzurum, NE Turkey using environmental indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Kaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the vertical distribution of heavy metals in a 72 cm-long core sample from Lake Tortum in order to shed light on the implications of potential ecological risks. Analysis was based on the use of environmental indices such as the Integrated Pollution Load Index (PLI and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PER. Results reveal that, except for Pb, Mn and Hg, the lowest concentrations of heavy metals occur at a core depth of between 2 cm and 20 cm for Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe, As, Cd, Cr and Al. The highest concentration was found at sampling intervals of 36 cm and 50 cm, with the exception of Pb, Mn, Hg and Ni. The PLI values from bottom to top are less than 1 while the level with the nearest value to the background value lies at a depth between 24 cm and 26 cm. The PER index results suggest a low ecological risk level for Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Mn, Fe, As, Cr, and Al; however, Cd and Hg constitute an ecological threat to the lake ecosystem.

  20. Engineering task plan for rotary mode core sampling exhausters CAM high radiation interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) system is primarily made up of the Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks (RMCST) and the RMCS Exhausters. During RMCS operations an Exhauster is connected to a tank riser and withdraws gases from the tank dome vapor space at approximately 200 Standard Cubic Feet per Minute (SCFM). The gases are passed through two High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters before passing out the exhaust stack to the atmosphere. A Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) monitors the exhaust gases in the exhaust stack for beta particle and gamma radiation. The CAM has a high radiation alarm output and a detector fail alarm output. The CAM alarms are currently connected to the data logger only. The CAM alarms require operator response per procedure LMHC 1998 but no automatic functions are initiated by the CAM alarms. Currently, there are three events that can cause an automatic shut down of the Exhauster. These are, Low Tank Pressure, Highnow Stack Flow and High HEPA Filter Differential Pressure (DP)

  1. Characterization of tuyere-level core-drill coke samples from blast furnace operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Dong; N. Paterson; S.G. Kazarian; D.R. Dugwell; R. Kandiyoti [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-12-15

    A suite of tuyere-level coke samples have been withdrawn from a working blast furnace during coal injection, using the core-drilling technique. The samples have been characterized by size exclusion chromatography (SEC), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-RS), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. The 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) extracts of the cokes sampled from the 'bosh', the rear of the 'bird's nest', and the 'dead man' zones were found by SEC to contain heavy soot-like materials (ca. 10{sup 7}-10{sup 8} apparent mass units). In contrast, NMP extracts of cokes taken from the raceway and the front of the 'bird's nest' only contained a small amount of material of relatively lower apparent molecular mass (up to ca. 10{sup 5} u). Since the feed coke contained no materials extractable by the present method, the soot-like materials are thought to have formed during the reactions of volatile matter released from the injectant coal, probably via dehydrogenation and repolymerization of the tars. The Raman spectra of the NMP-extracted core-drilled coke samples showed variations reflecting their temperature histories. Area ratios of D-band to G-band decreased as the exposure temperature increased, while intensity ratios of D to G band and those of 2D to G bands increased with temperature. The graphitic (G), defect (D), and random (R) fractions of the carbon structure of the cokes were also derived from the Raman spectra. The R fractions decreased with increasing temperature, whereas G fractions increased, while the D fractions showed a more complex variation with temperature. These data appear to give clues regarding the graphitization mechanism of tuyere-level cokes in the blast furnace. 41 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. XPS and EPXMA investigation and chemical speciation of aerosol samples formed in LWR core melting experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moers, H.; Jenett, H.; Kaufmann, R.; Klewe-Nebenius, H.; Pfennig, G.; Ache, H.J.

    1985-09-01

    Aerosol samples consisting of fission products and elements of light water reactor structural materials were collected during simulating in a laboratory scale the heat-up phase of a core melt accident. The aerosol particles were formed in a steam atmosphere at temperatures between 1200 and 1900 0 C of the melting charge. The investigation of the samples by use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) permitted the chemical speciation of the detected aerosol constituents silver, cadmium, indium, tellurium, iodine, and cesium. A comparison of the elemental analysis results obtained from XPS with those achieved from electron probe X-ray micro analysis (EPXMA) revealed that aerosol particle surface and aerosol particle bulk are principally composed of the same elements and that these compositions vary with release temperature. In addition, quantitative differences between the composition of surface and bulk have only been observed for those aerosol samples which were collected at higher melting charge temperatures. In order to obtain direct information on chemical species below the surface selected samples were argon ion bombarded. Changes in composition and chemistry were monitored by XPS, and the results were interpreted in light of the effects, which were observed when appropriate standard samples were sputtered. (orig.) [de

  3. Fault rocks from the SAFOD core samples : implications for weakening at shallow depths along the San Andreas Fault, California

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holdsworth, R.E.; van Diggelen, E.W.E.; Spiers, C.J.; Bresser, J.H.P. de; Walker, R.J.; Bown, L.

    2011-01-01

    The drilling of a deep borehole across the actively creeping Parkfield segment of the San Andreas Fault Zone (SAFZ), California, and collection of core materials permit direct geological study of fault zone processes at 2–3 km depth. The three drill cores sample both host and fault rocks and pass

  4. Geochemical porosity values obtained in core samples from different clay-rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Argillaceous formations of low permeability are considered in many countries as potential host rocks for the disposal of high level radioactive wastes (HLRW). In order to determine their suitability for waste disposal, evaluations of the hydro-geochemistry and transport mechanisms from such geologic formations to the biosphere must be undertaken. One of the key questions about radionuclide diffusion and retention is to know the chemistry and chemical reactions and sorption processes that will occur in the rock and their effects on radionuclide mobility. In this context, the knowledge of the pore water chemistry is essential for performance assessment purposes. This information allows to establish a reliable model for the main water-rock interactions, which control the physico-chemical parameters and the chemistry of the major elements of the system. An important issue in order to model the pore water chemistry in clayey media is to determine the respective volume accessible to cations and anions, i.e, the amount of water actually available for chemical reactions/solute transport. This amount is usually referred as accessible porosity or geochemical porosity. By using the anion inventories, i.e. the anion content obtained from aqueous leaching, and assuming that all Cl - , Br - and SO4 2- leached in the aqueous extracts originates from pore water, the concentration of a conservative ion can be converted into the real pore water concentration if the accessible porosity is known. In this work, the accessible porosity or geochemical porosity has been determined in core samples belonging to four different formations: Boom Clay from Hades URL (Belgium, BE), Opalinus Clay from Mont Terri (Switzerland, CH), and Callovo-Oxfordian argillite from Bure URL (France, FR). The geochemical or chloride porosity was defined as the ratio between the pore water volume containing Cl-bearing pore water and the total volume of a sample

  5. Neutron activation analysis of core and drill cutting samples from geothermal well drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    Samples of sandstones and shales were analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis for a total of 30 elements. Three irradiation and five counting periods were employed. Solutions and National Bureau of Standards Reference Materials were used for comparison. The samples were obtained from drill cuttings (with a few core samples) from drillings in the Salton Sea geothermal field of California. These determinations form part of a major study to establish elemental variation as a function of mineral variation as depth and temperature in the well vary. The overall goal is to examine mineral alteration and/or element migration under typical geothermal conditions. The techniques involve typical compromises between maximizing precision for individual element determinations and the amount of time and effort that can be expended, as it is desired to examine large numbers of samples. With the limitations imposed by the reactor flux available at the U.C.Irvine TRIGA reactor, the detectors available, and time factors, most precisions are acceptable for geological comparison purposes. Some additional measurements were made by delayed-neutron counting methods to compare with uranium determinations made by conventional instrumental neutron activation analysis methods. (author)

  6. Chemical and X-ray diffraction analysis on selected samples from the TMI-2 reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleykamp, H.; Pejsa, R.

    1991-05-01

    Selected samples from different positions of the damaged TMI-2 reactor core were investigated by X-ray microanalysis and X-ray diffraction. The measurements yield the following resolidified phases after cooling: Cd and In depleted Ag absorber material, intermetallic Zr-steel compounds, fully oxidized Zircaloy, UO 2 -ZrO 2 solid solutions and their decomposed phases, and Fe-Al-Cr-Zr spinels. The composition of the phases and their lattice parameters as well as the eutectic and monotectic character can serve as indicators of local temperatures of the core. The reaction sequences are estimated from the heterogeneous equilibria of these phases. The main conclusions are: (1) Liquefaction onset is locally possible by Inconel-Zircaloy and steel-Zircaloy reactions of spacers and absorber guide tubes at 930deg C. However, increased rates of dissolution occur above 1200deg C. (2) UO 2 dissolution in the Inconel-steel-Zircaloy melt starts at 1300deg C with increased rates above 1900deg C. (3) Fuel temperatures in the core centre are increased above 2550deg C, liquid (U,Zr)O 2 is generated. (4) Square UO 2 particles are reprecipitated from the Incoloy-steel-Zircaloy-UO 2 melt during cooling, the remaining metallic melt is oxygen poor; two types of intermetallic phases are formed. (5) Oxidized Fe and Zr and Al 2 O 3 from burnable absorber react to spinels which form a low melting eutectic with the fuel at 1500deg C. The spinel acts as lubricant for fuel transport to the lower reactor plenum above 1500deg C. (6) Ruthenium (Ru-106) is dissolved in the steel phase, antimony (Sb-125) in the α-Ag absorber during liquefaction. (7) Oxidation of the Zircaloy-steel phases takes place mainly in the reflood stage 3 of the accident scenario. (orig.) [de

  7. System design specification for rotary mode core sample trucks No. 2, 3, and 4 programmable logic controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowell, J.L.; Akers, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The system this document describes controls several functions of the Core Sample Truck(s) used to obtain nuclear waste samples from various underground storage tanks at Hanford. The system will monitor the sampling process and provide alarms and other feedback to insure the sampling process is performed within the prescribed operating envelope. The intended audience for this document is anyone associated with rotary or push mode core sampling. This document describes the Alarm and Control logic installed on Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks (RMCST) number-sign 2, 3, and 4. It is intended to define the particular requirements of the RMCST alarm and control operation (not defined elsewhere) sufficiently for detailed design to implement on a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

  8. Bayesian methods for the combination of core sampling data with historical models for tank characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    York, J.C.; Remund, K.M.; Chen, G.; Simpson, B.C.; Brown, T.M.

    1995-07-01

    A wide variety of information is available on the contents of the nuclear waste tanks at the Hanford site. This report describes an attempt to combine several sources of information using a Bayesian statistical approach. This methodology allows the combination of multiple disparate information sources. After each source of information is summarized in terms of a probability distribution function (pdf), Bayes' theorem is applied to combine them. This approach has been applied to characterizing tanks B-110, B-111, and B-201. These tanks were chosen for their simple waste matrices: B-110 and B-111 contain mostly 2C waste, and B-201 contains mostly 224 waste. Additionally,, the results of this analysis axe used to make predictions for tank T-111 (which contains both 2C and 224 waste). These predictions are compared to the estimates based on core samples from tank T-111

  9. Towards an integrated petrophysical tool for multiphase flow properties of core samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenormand, R. [Institut Francais du Petrole, Rueil Malmaison (France)

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the first use of an Integrated Petrophysical Tool (IPT) on reservoir rock samples. The IPT simultaneously measures the following petrophysical properties: (1) Complete capillary pressure cycle: primary drainage, spontaneous and forced imbibitions, secondary drainage (the cycle leads to the wettability of the core by using the USBM index); End-points and parts of the relative permeability curves; Formation factor and resistivity index. The IPT is based on the steady-state injection of one fluid through the sample placed in a Hassler cell. The experiment leading to the whole Pc cycle on two reservoir sandstones consists of about 30 steps at various oil or water flow rates. It takes about four weeks and is operated at room conditions. Relative permeabilities are in line with standard steady-state measurements. Capillary pressures are in accordance with standard centrifuge measurements. There is no comparison for the resistivity index, but the results are in agreement with literature data. However, the accurate determination of saturation remains the main difficulty and some improvements are proposed. In conclusion, the Integrated Petrophysical Tool is as accurate as standard methods and has the advantage of providing the various parameters on the same sample and during a single experiment. The FIT is easy to use and can be automated. In addition, it can be operated in reservoir conditions.

  10. ANALYSIS OF TANK 28F SALTCAKE CORE SAMPLES FTF-456 - 467

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, C; Daniel McCabe, D; Tommy Edwards, T; Ralph Nichols, R

    2007-02-28

    Twelve LM-75 core samplers from Tank 28F sampling were received by SRNL for saltcake characterization. Of these, nine samplers contained mixtures of free liquid and saltcake, two contained only liquid, and one was empty. The saltcake contents generally appeared wet. A summary of the major tasks performed in this work are as follows: (1) Individual saltcake segments were extruded from the samplers and separated into saltcake and free liquid portions. (2) Free liquids were analyzed to estimate the amount of traced drill-string fluid contained in the samples. (3) The saltcake from each individual segment was homogenized, followed by analysis in duplicate. The analysis used more cost-effective and bounding radiochemical analyses rather than using the full Saltstone WAC suite. (4) A composite was created using an approximately equal percentage of each segment's saltcake contents. Supernatant liquid formed upon creation of the composite was decanted prior to use of the composite, but the composite was not drained. (5) A dissolution test was performed on the sample by contacting the composite with water at a 4:1 mass ratio of water to salt. The resulting soluble and insoluble fractions were analyzed. Analysis focused on a large subset of the Saltstone WAC constituents.

  11. Gamma ray spectrometry results from core samples collected for RESUME 95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, D.C.W.; Allyson, J.D.; Toivonen, H.; Honkamaa, T.

    1997-01-01

    Field sampling of an airfield at Vesivehmaa, near Vaeaeksy, Finland (Area I) was carried out between 26-29 May 1995, to establish the radionuclide deposition and inventory of Chernobyl derived 137 Cs, and natural radionuclides. The objective was to establish a common calibration site for in-situ and airborne gamma spectrometers, for Exercise RESUME 95 conducted in August 1995. The report presents the sampling details, handling and treatment. The analyses are discussed with particular emphasis given to 137 Ca, 134 Cs, 40 K, 214 Bi and 208 radionuclides, and the quantification of their respective deposition and inventories. The results have been used to estimate the effective concentrations of nuclides at the calibration site for in-situ and airborne gamma spectrometry, and the depth distribution. For 137 Cs the weighted mean activity per unit area takes on values of 50.7±5.2 kBq m -2 at 1 m ground clearance, 51.1±6.9 kBq m -2 at 50 m height and 47.9±8.5 kBq m -2 at 100 m. The similarity of these values confirms the suitability of the Vesivehmaa site for comparison of in-situ and airborne results despite variations of a factor of two between results from individual cores. The mean α/ρ value for 137 Cs in Area I is 0.77±0.10 cm 2 g -1 (relaxation mass per unit area, β 1.31±0.15 gcm -2 ). Additional soil sampling across parts of Area II (a 6x3 km area selected for mapping Chernobyl deposition) was carried out. The mean level of 137 Cs activity from these samples was 92.4±63 kBq m -2 , a sample taken near Laihansuo showing the largest value obtained at 172 kBq m -2 . (EG)

  12. A Review of Inflammatory Processes of the Breast with a Focus on Diagnosis in Core Biopsy Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy M. D’Alfonso

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory and reactive lesions of the breast are relatively uncommon among benign breast lesions and can be the source of an abnormality on imaging. Such lesions can simulate a malignant process, based on both clinical and radiographic findings, and core biopsy is often performed to rule out malignancy. Furthermore, some inflammatory processes can mimic carcinoma or other malignancy microscopically, and vice versa. Diagnostic difficulty may arise due to the small and fragmented sample of a core biopsy. This review will focus on the pertinent clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features of the more commonly encountered inflammatory lesions of the breast that can be characterized in a core biopsy sample. These include fat necrosis, mammary duct ectasia, granulomatous lobular mastitis, diabetic mastopathy, and abscess. The microscopic differential diagnoses for these lesions when seen in a core biopsy sample will be discussed.

  13. A Review of Inflammatory Processes of the Breast with a Focus on Diagnosis in Core Biopsy Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alfonso, Timothy M; Ginter, Paula S; Shin, Sandra J

    2015-07-01

    Inflammatory and reactive lesions of the breast are relatively uncommon among benign breast lesions and can be the source of an abnormality on imaging. Such lesions can simulate a malignant process, based on both clinical and radiographic findings, and core biopsy is often performed to rule out malignancy. Furthermore, some inflammatory processes can mimic carcinoma or other malignancy microscopically, and vice versa. Diagnostic difficulty may arise due to the small and fragmented sample of a core biopsy. This review will focus on the pertinent clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic features of the more commonly encountered inflammatory lesions of the breast that can be characterized in a core biopsy sample. These include fat necrosis, mammary duct ectasia, granulomatous lobular mastitis, diabetic mastopathy, and abscess. The microscopic differential diagnoses for these lesions when seen in a core biopsy sample will be discussed.

  14. Summary of petrophysical analysis of Olkiluoto. Core samples 1990-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, E.; Oehman, I.; Paulamaeki, S.; Saeaevuori, H.; Vuoriainen, S.; Aaltonen, I.

    2009-04-01

    Posiva prepares for disposal of spent nuclear fuel in deep geological repository at Olkiluoto, Eurajoki. This is in accordance of the application filed in 1999, the Decision in Principle of the State Council in 2000, and ratification by the Parliament in 2001.The site characterization has included comprehensive geological, hydrological and geophysical investigations airborne, on ground and in drillholes since 1988. Petrophysical analysis has been carried out to enhance knowledge on physical properties in rock mass. Also the large scale geophysical interpretations will essentially benefit on this knowledge. This report is associated with and covering the 2005-2008 sampling campaign (932 samples), but also pre-existing results (506 samples from 1990 - 2004) are discussed in the report. Data has been acquired from non-broken core samples, and of representative locations of lithological units. Samples have been taken at 10-30 m interval from all core sections. Selecting the samples and analysis has been carried out for different purposes during campaigns. Altogether there are 1438 samples from drillholes OL-KR1 - OL-KR39 and ONK-PH01-PH07. Petrophysical measurements included density, susceptibility and remanence (partly oriented), resistivity, IP value (frequency effect), P-wave velocity and porosity. Sample data was analyzed for distributions and mutual relations. Petrophysical signatures of different parameters were assessed by lithology. Mineral composition and texture will affect to petrophysical results. Deformation and alteration cause an overprint to lithology specific values. In petrophysical sense, granite pegmatite is distinguished from all other rock types. It is of rather high resistivity and P-wave velocity, and low density and susceptibility. Other distinct lithological unit is mafic gneisses. They are described by high density and Pwave velocity, and also increased susceptibility, IP value and resistivity. The tonaliticgranodioritic- granitic gneiss

  15. A New Method of Stress Measurement Based upon Elastic Deformation of Core Sample with Stress Relief by Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, T.; Funato, A.; Tamagawa, T.; Tezuka, K.; Yabe, Y.; Abe, S.; Ishida, A.; Ogasawara, H.

    2017-12-01

    When rock is cored at depth by drilling, anisotropic expansion occurs with the relief of anisotropic rock stresses, resulting in a sinusoidal variation of core diameter with a period of 180 deg. in the core roll angle. The circumferential variation of core diameter is given theoretically as a function of rock stresses. These new findings can lead various ideas to estimate the rock stress from circumferential variation of core diameter measured after the core retrieving. In the simplest case when a single core sample is only available, the difference between the maximum and minimum components of rock stress in a plane perpendicular to the drilled hole can be estimated from the maximum and minimum core diameters (see the detail in, Funato and Ito, IJRMMS, 2017). The advantages of this method include, (i) much easier measurement operation than those in other in-situ or in-lab estimation methods, and (ii) applicability in high stress environment where stress measurements need pressure for packers or pumping system for the hydro-fracturing methods higher than their tolerance levels. We have successfully tested the method at deep seismogenic zones in South African gold mines, and we are going to apply it to boreholes collared at 3 km depth and intersecting a M5.5 rupture plane several hundred meters below the mine workings in the ICDP project of "Drilling into Seismogenic zones of M2.0 - M5.5 earthquakes in deep South African gold mines" (DSeis) (e.g., http://www.icdp-online.org/projects/world/africa/orkney-s-africa/details/). If several core samples with different orientation are available, all of three principal components of 3D rock stress can be estimated. To realize this, we should have several boreholes drilled in different directions in a rock mass where the stress field is considered to be uniform. It is commonly carried out to dill boreholes in different directions from a mine gallery. Even in a deep borehole drilled vertically from the ground surface, the

  16. Low-energy absorption and luminescence of higher plant photosystem II core samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Joseph L.; Smith, Paul J.; Pace, Ron J.; Krausz, Elmars

    2007-01-01

    The charge-separating state of PSII has been recently assigned as a homogeneously broadened band peaking at 705 nm. The possibility of observing emission due to luminescence from the charge-separating state was investigated. Emission from the charge-separating state is predicted to be both broad and substantially Stokes shifted. Our PSII cores show an easily observable and broad emission peaking near 735 nm when excited at 707 nm and beyond for temperatures below 100 K as well as the well-known F685 and F695 nm emission when excited at 633 nm. However, the 735 nm emission bears a close correspondence to that previously reported for the light harvesting pigment of photosystem I (PSI), LHCI-730, and we attribute our observed emission to a minor contamination of our sample with this protein. High sensitivity circular dichroism (CD) spectra establish that LHCI and/or PSI contamination of our samples does not contribute significantly to the absorption seen in the 700-730 nm region. Furthermore, systematic illumination-induced absorption changes seen in this region are shown to quantitatively track with charge separation and the subsequent secondary acceptor plastoquinone (Q A ) acceptor anion formation. These results confirm that absorption in the 700-730 nm region is associated with the reaction centre of active PSII

  17. Triaxial testing system for pressure core analysis using image processing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, J.; Masui, A.; Tenma, N.; Nagao, J.

    2013-11-01

    In this study, a newly developed innovative triaxial testing system to investigate strength, deformation behavior, and/or permeability of gas hydrate bearing-sediments in deep sea is described. Transport of the pressure core from the storage chamber to the interior of the sealing sleeve of a triaxial cell without depressurization was achieved. An image processing technique was used to capture the motion and local deformation of a specimen in a transparent acrylic triaxial pressure cell and digital photographs were obtained at each strain level during the compression test. The material strength was successfully measured and the failure mode was evaluated under high confining and pore water pressures.

  18. Gamma ray spectrometry results from core samples collected for RESUME 95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, D.C.W.; Allyson, J.D. [SURRC, East Kilbride, Scotland (United Kingdom); Toivonen, H.; Honkamaa, T. [STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Field sampling of an airfield at Vesivehmaa, near Vaeaeksy, Finland (Area I) was carried out between 26-29 May 1995, to establish the radionuclide deposition and inventory of Chernobyl derived {sup 137}Cs, and natural radionuclides. The objective was to establish a common calibration site for in-situ and airborne gamma spectrometers, for Exercise RESUME 95 conducted in August 1995. The report presents the sampling details, handling and treatment. The analyses are discussed with particular emphasis given to {sup 137}Ca, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 208} radionuclides, and the quantification of their respective deposition and inventories. The results have been used to estimate the effective concentrations of nuclides at the calibration site for in-situ and airborne gamma spectrometry, and the depth distribution. For {sup 137}Cs the weighted mean activity per unit area takes on values of 50.7{+-}5.2 kBq m{sup -2} at 1 m ground clearance, 51.1{+-}6.9 kBq m{sup -2} at 50 m height and 47.9{+-}8.5 kBq m{sup -2} at 100 m. The similarity of these values confirms the suitability of the Vesivehmaa site for comparison of in-situ and airborne results despite variations of a factor of two between results from individual cores. The mean {alpha}/{rho} value for {sup 137}Cs in Area I is 0.77{+-}0.10 cm{sup 2}g{sup -1} (relaxation mass per unit area, {beta} 1.31{+-}0.15 gcm{sup -2}). Additional soil sampling across parts of Area II (a 6x3 km area selected for mapping Chernobyl deposition) was carried out. The mean level of {sup 137}Cs activity from these samples was 92.4{+-}63 kBq m{sup -2}, a sample taken near Laihansuo showing the largest value obtained at 172 kBq m{sup -2}. (EG). 17 refs.

  19. Gamma ray spectrometry results from core samples collected for RESUME 95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, D C.W.; Allyson, J D [SURRC, East Kilbride, Scotland (United Kingdom); Toivonen, H; Honkamaa, T [STUK, Helsinki (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Field sampling of an airfield at Vesivehmaa, near Vaeaeksy, Finland (Area I) was carried out between 26-29 May 1995, to establish the radionuclide deposition and inventory of Chernobyl derived {sup 137}Cs, and natural radionuclides. The objective was to establish a common calibration site for in-situ and airborne gamma spectrometers, for Exercise RESUME 95 conducted in August 1995. The report presents the sampling details, handling and treatment. The analyses are discussed with particular emphasis given to {sup 137}Ca, {sup 134}Cs, {sup 40}K, {sup 214}Bi and {sup 208} radionuclides, and the quantification of their respective deposition and inventories. The results have been used to estimate the effective concentrations of nuclides at the calibration site for in-situ and airborne gamma spectrometry, and the depth distribution. For {sup 137}Cs the weighted mean activity per unit area takes on values of 50.7{+-}5.2 kBq m{sup -2} at 1 m ground clearance, 51.1{+-}6.9 kBq m{sup -2} at 50 m height and 47.9{+-}8.5 kBq m{sup -2} at 100 m. The similarity of these values confirms the suitability of the Vesivehmaa site for comparison of in-situ and airborne results despite variations of a factor of two between results from individual cores. The mean {alpha}/{rho} value for {sup 137}Cs in Area I is 0.77{+-}0.10 cm{sup 2}g{sup -1} (relaxation mass per unit area, {beta} 1.31{+-}0.15 gcm{sup -2}). Additional soil sampling across parts of Area II (a 6x3 km area selected for mapping Chernobyl deposition) was carried out. The mean level of {sup 137}Cs activity from these samples was 92.4{+-}63 kBq m{sup -2}, a sample taken near Laihansuo showing the largest value obtained at 172 kBq m{sup -2}. (EG). 17 refs.

  20. Engineering task plan for upgrades to the leveling jacks on core sample trucks number 3 and 4; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KOSTELNIK, A.J.

    1999-01-01

    Characterizing the waste in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site is accomplished by obtaining a representative core sample for analysis. Core sampling is one of the numerous techniques that have been developed for use given the environmental and field conditions at the Hanford Site. Core sampling is currently accomplished using either Push Mode Core Sample Truck No.1 or; Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks No.2, 3 or 4. Past analysis (WHC 1994) has indicated that the Core Sample Truck (CST) leveling jacks are structurally inadequate when lateral loads are applied. WHC 1994 identifies many areas where failure could occur. All these failures are based on exceeding the allowable stresses listed in the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) code. The mode of failure is for the outrigger attachments to the truck frame to fail resulting in dropping of the CST and possible overturning (Ref. Ziada and Hundal, 1996). Out of level deployment of the truck can exceed the code allowable stresses in the structure. Calculations have been performed to establish limits for maintaining the truck level when lifting. The calculations and the associated limits are included in appendix A. The need for future operations of the CSTS is limited. Sampling is expected to be complete in FY-2001. Since there is limited time at risk for continued use of the CSTS with the leveling controls without correcting the structural problems, there are several design changes that could give incremental improvements to the operational safety of the CSTS with limited impact on available operating time. The improvements focus on making the truck easier to control during lifting and leveling. Not all of the tasks identified in this ETP need to be performed. Each task alone can improve the safety. This engineering task plan is the management plan document for implementing the necessary additional structural analysis. Any additional changes to meet requirements of standing orders shall require a

  1. Testing to expand the rotary-mode core sampling system operating envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witwer, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    Rotary sampling using the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System (RMCSS) is constrained by what is referred to as the ''Operating Envelope''. The Operating Envelop defines the maximum downward force, maximum rotational speed and minimum purge gas flow allowed during operation of the RMCSS. The original values of 1170 lb. down force, 55 RPM rotational speed, and 30 SCFM nitrogen purge gas were determined during original envelope testing. This envelope was determined by observing the temperature rise on the bitface while drilling into waste simulants. The maximum temperature in single-shell tanks (SSTS) is considered to be approximately 9O C and the critical drill bit temperature, which is the temperature at which an exothermic reaction could be initiated in the tank waste, was previously determined to be 150 C. Thus, the drill bit temperature increase was limited to 60 C. Thermal properties of these simulants approximated typical properties of waste tank saltcake. Later, more detailed envelope testing which used a pumice block simulant, showed a notably higher temperature rise while drilling. This pumice material, which simulated a ''worst case'' foreign object embedded in the waste, has lower thermal conductivity and lower thermal diffusivity than earlier simulants. These properties caused a slower heat transfer in the pumice than in the previous simulants and consequently a higher temperature rise. The maximum downward force was subsequently reduced to 750 lb (at a maximum 55 RPM and minimum 30 SCFM purge gas flow) which was the maximum value at which the drill bit could be operated and still remain below the 60 C temperature rise

  2. Test Plan for Rotary Mode Core Sample Truck Grapple Hoist Level Wind System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-12-09

    A Grapple Hoist Assembly is currently used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling Trucks (RMCSTs) to actuate the sampler and retrieve the pintle rod during sampling operations. The hoist assembly includes a driven drum approximately two inches wide and six inches in diameter that rotates to pay out or reel in the 5/32-in. cable The current Grapple Hoist Assembly, detailed on drawing H-2-690057, is prone to ''bird nesting'' the cable on the drum. ''Bird nesting'' is a condition in which the cable does not wind onto the drum in a uniformly layered manner, but winds in a random fashion where the cable essentially ''piles up'' inappropriately on the drum and, on some occasions, winds on the drum drive shaft. A system to help control this ''bird nesting'' problem has been designed as an addition to the existing components of the Grapple Hoist Assembly. The new design consists of a mechanism that is timed with, and driven by, the shaft that drives the drum. This mechanism traverses back and forth across the width of the drum to lay the cable on the drum in a uniformly layered manner. This test plan establishes the acceptance criteria, test procedure and test conditions It also describes the test apparatus necessary to verify the adequacy of the level wind system design. The test is defined as qualification testing (LMHC 1999b) and as such will be performed at conditions beyond the parameters that the Grapple Hoist Assembly is allowed to operate by the Safety Equipment List (SEL)(LMHC 1998).

  3. Test Plan for Rotary Mode Core Sample Truck Grapple Hoist Level Wind System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    A Grapple Hoist Assembly is currently used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling Trucks (RMCSTs) to actuate the sampler and retrieve the pintle rod during sampling operations. The hoist assembly includes a driven drum approximately two inches wide and six inches in diameter that rotates to pay out or reel in the 5/32-in. cable. The current Grapple Hoist Assembly, detailed on drawing H-2-690057, is prone to ''bird nesting'' the cable on the drum. ''Bird nesting'' is a condition in which the cable does not wind onto the drum in a uniformly layered manner, but winds in a random fashion where the cable essentially ''piles up'' inappropriately on the drum and, on some occasions, winds on the drum drive shaft. A system to help control this ''bird nesting'' problem has been designed as an addition to the existing components of the Grapple Hoist Assembly. The new design consists of a mechanism that is timed with, and driven by, the shaft that drives the drum. This mechanism traverses back and forth across the width of the drum to lay the cable on the drum in a uniformly layered manner. This test plan establishes the acceptance criteria, test procedure and test conditions. It also describes the test apparatus necessary to verify the adequacy of the level wind system design. The test is defined as qualification testing (LMHC 1999b) and as such will be performed at conditions beyond the parameters that the Grapple Hoist Assembly is allowed to operate by the Safety Equipment List

  4. Test Plan for Rotary Mode Core Sample Truck Grapple Hoist Level Wind System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    A Grapple Hoist Assembly is currently used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling Trucks (RMCSTs) to actuate the sampler and retrieve the pintle rod during sampling operations. The hoist assembly includes a driven drum approximately two inches wide and six inches in diameter that rotates to pay out or reel in the 5/32-in. cable The current Grapple Hoist Assembly, detailed on drawing H-2-690057, is prone to ''bird nesting'' the cable on the drum. ''Bird nesting'' is a condition in which the cable does not wind onto the drum in a uniformly layered manner, but winds in a random fashion where the cable essentially ''piles up'' inappropriately on the drum and, on some occasions, winds on the drum drive shaft. A system to help control this ''bird nesting'' problem has been designed as an addition to the existing components of the Grapple Hoist Assembly. The new design consists of a mechanism that is timed with, and driven by, the shaft that drives the drum. This mechanism traverses back and forth across the width of the drum to lay the cable on the drum in a uniformly layered manner. This test plan establishes the acceptance criteria, test procedure and test conditions It also describes the test apparatus necessary to verify the adequacy of the level wind system design. The test is defined as qualification testing (LMHC 1999b) and as such will be performed at conditions beyond the parameters that the Grapple Hoist Assembly is allowed to operate by the Safety Equipment List (SEL)(LMHC 1998)

  5. Sampling strategy to develop a core collection of Uruguayan maize landraces based on morphological traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malosetti, M.; Abadie, T.

    2001-01-01

    Core collections were suggested to improve germplasm utilization. A core collection is a subset chosen to represent the diversity of a collection with a minimum of redundancies. Because diversity is distributed between and within groups with different degrees of organization, an adequate

  6. Design review report for rotary mode core sample truck (RMCST) modifications for flammable gas tanks, preliminary design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1996-02-01

    This report documents the completion of a preliminary design review for the Rotary Mode Core Sample Truck (RMCST) modifications for flammable gas tanks. The RMCST modifications are intended to support core sampling operations in waste tanks requiring flammable gas controls. The objective of this review was to validate basic design assumptions and concepts to support a path forward leading to a final design. The conclusion reached by the review committee was that the design was acceptable and efforts should continue toward a final design review

  7. TMI-2 [Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station] fuel canister and core sample handling equipment used in INEL hot cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Shurtliff, W.T.; Lynch, R.J.; Croft, K.M.; Whitmill, L.J.; Allen, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the specialized remote handling equipment developed and used at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to handle samples obtained from the core of the damaged Unit 2 reactor at Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station (TM-2). Samples of the core were removed, placed in TMI-2 fuel canisters, and transported to the INEL. Those samples will be examined as part of the analysis of the TMI-2 accident. The equipment described herein was designed for removing sample materials from the fuel canisters, assisting with initial examination, and processing samples in preparation for detailed examinations. The more complex equipment used microprocessor remote controls with electric motor drives providing the required force and motion capabilities. The remaining components were unpowered and manipulator assisted

  8. Active AirCore Sampling: Constraining Point Sources of Methane and Other Gases with Fixed Wing Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, J. D.; Sweeney, C.; Tans, P. P.; Newberger, T.; Higgs, J. A.; Wolter, S.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate estimates of point source gas emissions are essential for reconciling top-down and bottom-up greenhouse gas measurements, but sampling such sources is challenging. Remote sensing methods are limited by resolution and cloud cover; aircraft methods are limited by air traffic control clearances, and the need to properly determine boundary layer height. A new sampling approach leverages the ability of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) to measure all the way to the surface near the source of emissions, improving sample resolution, and reducing the need to characterize a wide downstream swath, or measure to the full height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The "Active-AirCore" sampler, currently under development, will fly on a fixed wing UAS in Class G airspace, spiraling from the surface to 1200 ft AGL around point sources such as leaking oil wells to measure methane, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. The sampler collects a 100-meter long sample "core" of air in an 1/8" passivated stainless steel tube. This "core" is run on a high-precision instrument shortly after the UAS is recovered. Sample values are mapped to a specific geographic location by cross-referencing GPS and flow/pressure metadata, and fluxes are quantified by applying Gauss's theorem to the data, mapped onto the spatial "cylinder" circumscribed by the UAS. The AirCore-Active builds off the sampling ability and analytical approach of the related AirCore sampler, which profiles the atmosphere passively using a balloon launch platform, but will add an active pumping capability needed for near-surface horizontal sampling applications. Here, we show design elements, laboratory and field test results for methane, describe the overall goals of the mission, and discuss how the platform can be adapted, with minimal effort, to measure other gas species.

  9. Tank Vapor Sampling and Analysis Data Package for Tank 241-Z-361 Sampled 09/22/1999 and 09/27/1999, During Sludge Core Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VISWANATH, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the September 22 and 27, 1999, headspace vapor sampling of Hanford Site Tank 241-2-361 during sludge core removal. The Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) sampling team collected the samples and Waste Management Laboratory (WML) analyzed the samples in accordance with the requirements specified in the 241-2361 Sludge Characterization Sampling and Analysis Plan, (SAP), HNF-4371/Rev. 1, (Babcock and Wilcox Hanford Corporation, 1999). Six SUMMA(trademark) canister samples were collected on each day (1 ambient field blank and 5 tank vapor samples collected when each core segment was removed). The samples were radiologically released on September 28 and October 4, 1999, and received at the laboratory on September 29 and October 6, 1999. Target analytes were not detected at concentrations greater than their notification limits as specified in the SAP. Analytical results for the target analytes and tentatively identified compounds (TICs) are presented in Section 2.2.2 starting on page 2B-7. Three compounds identified for analysis in the SAP were analyzed as TICs. The discussion of this modification is presented in Section 2.2.1.2

  10. Thermal property and density measurements of samples taken from drilling cores from potential geologic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagedrost, J.F.; Capps, W.

    1983-12-01

    Density, steady-state conductivity, enthalpy, specific heat, heat capacity, thermal diffusivity and linear thermal expansion were measured on 59 materials from core drill samples of several geologic media, including rock salt, basalt, and other associated rocks from 7 potential sites for nuclear waste isolation. The measurements were conducted from or near to room temperature up to 500 0 C, or to lower temperatures if limited by specimen cracking or fracturing. Ample documentation establishes the reliability of the property measurement methods and the accuracy of the results. Thermal expansions of salts reached 2.2 to 2.8 percent at 500 0 C. Associated rocks were from 0.6 to 1.6 percent. Basalts were close to 0.3 percent at 500 0 C. Specific heats of salts varied from 0.213 to 0.233 cal g -1 C -1 , and basalts averaged 0.239 cal g -1 C -1 . Thermal conductivities of salts at 50 0 C were from 0.022 to 0.046 wcm -1 C -1 , and at 500 0 C, from 0.012 to 0.027 wcm -1 C -1 . Basalts conductivities ranged from 0.020 to 0.022 wcm -1 C -1 at 100 0 C and 0.016 to 0.018 at 500 0 C. There were no obvious conductivity trends relative to source location. Room temperature densities of salts were from 2.14 to 2.29 gcm -3 , and basalts, from 2.83 to 2.90 gcm -3 . The extreme friability of some materials made specimen fabrication difficult. 21 references, 17 figures, 28 tables

  11. Tank 241-AZ-102 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AZ-102

  12. Tank 241-AZ-102 Privatization Push Mode Core Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RASMUSSEN, J.H.

    2000-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for samples obtained from tank 241-AZ-102

  13. Design Review Report for formal review of safety class features of exhauster system for rotary mode core sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANICEK, G.P.

    2000-01-01

    Report documenting Formal Design Review conducted on portable exhausters used to support rotary mode core sampling of Hanford underground radioactive waste tanks with focus on Safety Class design features and control requirements for flammable gas environment operation and air discharge permitting compliance

  14. Design Review Report for formal review of safety class features of exhauster system for rotary mode core sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JANICEK, G.P.

    2000-06-08

    Report documenting Formal Design Review conducted on portable exhausters used to support rotary mode core sampling of Hanford underground radioactive waste tanks with focus on Safety Class design features and control requirements for flammable gas environment operation and air discharge permitting compliance.

  15. Engineering task plan for the annual revision of the rotary mode core sampling system safety equipment list

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    This Engineering Task Plan addresses an effort to provide an update to the RMCS Systems 3 and 4 SEL and DCM in order to incorporate the changes to the authorization basis implemented by HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, Rev. 0 (Draft), Addendum 5 , Safety Analysis for Rotary Mode Core Sampling. Responsibilities, task description, cost estimate, and schedule are presented

  16. National emission standards for hazardous air pollutants application for approval to construct rotary mode core-sampling truck and exhauster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    Characterization of wastes in the underground single-shell tanks and double-shell tanks on the Hanford Site is crucial in developing the final disposal options for the waste and closure strategy for the Hanford Site. Additionally, characterization of tank waste is important for the waste tank safety programs. The Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (also referred to as the Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00 requires the obtaining and analyzing of at least two samples from each single-shell tank, and Milestone M-10-13 specifically requires the ability to sample hard saltcake. Existing equipment does not allow sampling of all single-shell tanks within established tank safety limits. Consequently, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office has developed a rotary mode core-sampling system that uses nitrogen gas to cool and clear the drill bit. A rotary mode core-sampling truck will be used on approximately 80 single-shell tanks which contain saltcake wastes, and will provide crucial information on the contents of the tanks. This application is a request for approval to construct and operate the rotary mode core-sampling truck and exhauster in the 200 East and 200 West Area Tank Farms of the Hanford Site. This request is being made pursuant to 40 CFR 61, Subpart H

  17. Preliminary stratigraphic and petrologic characterization of core samples from USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, A.C.; Carroll, P.R.

    1981-11-01

    Tuffs of the Nevada Test Site are currently under investigation to determine their potential for long-term storage of radioactive waste. As part of this program, hole USW-G1 was drilled to a depth of 6000 ft below the surface, in the central part of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Petrographic study of the USW-G1 core is presented in this report and shows the tuffs (which generally were variably welded ash flows) are partly recrystallized to a variety of secondary minerals. The important alteration products are zeolites (heulandite, clinoptilolite, mordenite and analcime), smectite clays with minor interstratified illite, albite, micas, potassium feldspar, and various forms of silica. Iijima's zeolite zones I through IV of burial metamorphism can be recognized in the core. Zeolites are first observed at about the 1300-ft depth, and the high-temperature boundary of zeolite stability in this core occurs at about 4350 ft. Analcime persists, either metastably or as a retrograde mineral, deeper in the core. The oxidation state of Fe-Ti oxide minerals, through most of the core, increases as the degree of welding decreases, but towards the bottom of the hole, reducing conditions generally prevail. Four stratigraphic units transected by the core may be potentially favorable sites for a waste repository. These four units, in order of increasing depth in the core, are (1) the lower cooling unit of the Topopah Spring Member, (2) cooling unit II of the Bullfrog Member, (3) the upper part of the Tram tuff, and (4) the Lithic-rich tuff

  18. Preliminary stratigraphic and petrologic characterization of core samples from USW-G1, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, A.C.; Carroll, P.R. (eds.)

    1981-11-01

    Tuffs of the Nevada Test Site are currently under investigation to determine their potential for long-term storage of radioactive waste. As part of this program, hole USW-G1 was drilled to a depth of 6000 ft below the surface, in the central part of the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Petrographic study of the USW-G1 core is presented in this report and shows the tuffs (which generally were variably welded ash flows) are partly recrystallized to a variety of secondary minerals. The important alteration products are zeolites (heulandite, clinoptilolite, mordenite and analcime), smectite clays with minor interstratified illite, albite, micas, potassium feldspar, and various forms of silica. Iijima`s zeolite zones I through IV of burial metamorphism can be recognized in the core. Zeolites are first observed at about the 1300-ft depth, and the high-temperature boundary of zeolite stability in this core occurs at about 4350 ft. Analcime persists, either metastably or as a retrograde mineral, deeper in the core. The oxidation state of Fe-Ti oxide minerals, through most of the core, increases as the degree of welding decreases, but towards the bottom of the hole, reducing conditions generally prevail. Four stratigraphic units transected by the core may be potentially favorable sites for a waste repository. These four units, in order of increasing depth in the core, are (1) the lower cooling unit of the Topopah Spring Member, (2) cooling unit II of the Bullfrog Member, (3) the upper part of the Tram tuff, and (4) the Lithic-rich tuff.

  19. Neutron activation analysis of sediment core samples of Lake Erhai in southern China and a Salt Lake in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Shinozuka, Yoshitsugu; Miura, Masahiro; Moriyasu, Yuki

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research is in the verification of the hypothesis that the long-lived nuclide ratio of Th/Sc in the deposit sample dug up in the lake with the hinterland of the granite quality is the index of a past change of precipitation and of the event such as earthquakes. As a preceding step the relation between an environmental change and a climate change was studied by the measuring result of the ratio of Th/Sc by the neutron activation analysis about the digging core sample of the Nepalese Katmandu basin (For the past 700,000 years) and the core sample (For 40,000 years and 8,000 years of the past) in Lake Biwa. (H. Katsuta)

  20. The pxarCore Library - Technical Documentation, Reference Manual, and Sample Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Spannagel, Simon; Perrey, Hanno Christopher

    2015-01-01

    This document describes the pxarCore library as of version 2.7, a versatile cross-platform library to program and read out devices featuring PSI46-type readout chips (ROCs) via the PSI digital test beoard (DTB). The design principles and features are presented together with an overview over possible configurations and use cases. The pxarCore library is built as flexible hardware interface and is capable of programming and reading out various combinations of ROCs. Most of the DTB firmware complexity is abstracted to allow users to address the attached devices via a simple yet versatile interface.

  1. Development of the RANCOR Rotary-Percussive Coring System for Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Gale; Indyk, Stephen; Zacny, Kris

    2014-01-01

    A RANCOR drill was designed to fit a Mars Exploration Rover (MER) class vehicle. The low mass of 3 kg was achieved by using the same actuator for three functions: rotation, percussions, and core break-off. Initial testing of the drill exposed an unexpected behavior of an off-the-shelf sprag clutch used to couple and decouple rotary-percussive function from the core break off function. Failure of the sprag was due to the vibration induced during percussive drilling. The sprag clutch would back drive in conditions where it was expected to hold position. Although this did not affect the performance of the drill, it nevertheless reduced the quality of the cores produced. Ultimately, the sprag clutch was replaced with a custom ratchet system that allowed for some angular displacement without advancing in either direction. Replacing the sprag with the ratchet improved the collected core quality. Also, premature failure of a 300-series stainless steel percussion spring was observed. The 300-series percussion spring was ultimately replaced with a music wire spring based on performances of previously designed rotary-percussive drill systems.

  2. A new CF-IRMS system for quantifying stable isotopes of carbon monoxide from ice cores and small air samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a new analysis technique for stable isotope ratios (δ13C and δ18O of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO from ice core samples. The technique is an online cryogenic vacuum extraction followed by continuous-flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (CF-IRMS; it can also be used with small air samples. The CO extraction system includes two multi-loop cryogenic cleanup traps, a chemical oxidant for oxidation to CO2, a cryogenic collection trap, a cryofocusing unit, gas chromatography purification, and subsequent injection into a Finnigan Delta Plus IRMS. Analytical precision of 0.2‰ (±1δ for δ13C and 0.6‰ (±1δ for δ18O can be obtained for 100 mL (STP air samples with CO mixing ratios ranging from 60 ppbv to 140 ppbv (~268–625 pmol CO. Six South Pole ice core samples from depths ranging from 133 m to 177 m were processed for CO isotope analysis after wet extraction. To our knowledge, this is the first measurement of stable isotopes of CO in ice core air.

  3. Biostratigraphic analysis of core samples from wells drilled in the Devonian shale interval of the Appalachian and Illinois Basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S.J.; Zielinski, R.E.

    1978-07-14

    A palynological investigation was performed on 55 samples of core material from four wells drilled in the Devonian Shale interval of the Appalachian and Illinois Basins. Using a combination of spores and acritarchs, it was possible to divide the Middle Devonian from the Upper Devonian and to make subdivisions within the Middle and Upper Devonian. The age of the palynomorphs encountered in this study is Upper Devonian.

  4. A safety equipment list for rotary mode core sampling systems operation in single shell flammable gas tanks; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMALLEY, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document identifies all interim safety equipment to be used for rotary mode core sampling of single-shell flammable gas tanks utilizing Rotary Mode Core Sampling systems (RMCS). This document provides the safety equipment for RMCS trucks HO-68K-4600, HO-68K-4647, trucks three and four respectively, and associated equipment. It is not intended to replace or supersede WHC-SD-WM-SEL-023, (Kelly 1991), or WHC-SD-WM-SEL-032, (Corbett 1994), which classifies 80-68K-4344 and HO-68K-4345 respectively. The term ''safety equipment'' refers to safety class (SC) and safety significant (SS) equipment, where equipment refers to structures, systems and components (SSC's). The identification of safety equipment in this document is based on the credited design safety features and analysis contained in the Authorization Basis (AB) for rotary mode core sampling operations in single-shell flammable gas tanks. This is an interim safety classification since the AB is interim. This document will be updated to reflect the final RMCS equipment safety classification designations upon completion of a final AB which will be implemented with the release of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

  5. Synthesis, characterization and nitrite ion sensing performance of reclaimable composite samples through a core-shell structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiao; Yuqing, Zhao; Cui, Jiantao; Zheng, Qian; Bo, Wang

    2018-02-01

    The following paper reported and discussed a nitrite ion optical sensing platform based on a core-shell structure, using superamagnetic nanoparticles as the core, a silica molecular sieve MCM-41 as the shell and two rhodamine derivatives as probe, respectively. This superamagnetic core made this sensing platform reclaimable after finishing nitrite ion sensing procedure. This sensing platform was carefully characterized by means of electron microscopy images, porous structure analysis, magnetic response, IR spectra and thermal stability analysis. Detailed analysis suggested that the emission of these composite samples was quenchable by nitrite ion, showing emission turn off effect. A static sensing mechanism based on an additive reaction between chemosensors and nitrite ion was proposed. These composite samples followed Demas quenching equation against different nitrite ion concentrations. Limit of detection value was obtained as low as 0.4 μM. It was found that, after being quenched by nitrite ion, these composite samples could be reclaimed and recovered by sulphamic acid, confirming their recyclability.

  6. A safety equipment list for rotary mode core sampling systems operation in single shell flammable gas tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SMALLEY, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    This document identifies all interim safety equipment to be used for rotary mode core sampling of single-shell flammable gas tanks utilizing Rotary Mode Core Sampling systems (RMCS). This document provides the safety equipment for RMCS trucks HO-68K-4600, HO-68K-4647, trucks three and four respectively, and associated equipment. It is not intended to replace or supersede WHC-SD-WM-SEL-023, (Kelly 1991), or WHC-SD-WM-SEL-032, (Corbett 1994), which classifies 80-68K-4344 and HO-68K-4345 respectively. The term ''safety equipment'' refers to safety class (SC) and safety significant (SS) equipment, where equipment refers to structures, systems and components (SSC's). The identification of safety equipment in this document is based on the credited design safety features and analysis contained in the Authorization Basis (AB) for rotary mode core sampling operations in single-shell flammable gas tanks. This is an interim safety classification since the AB is interim. This document will be updated to reflect the final RMCS equipment safety classification designations upon completion of a final AB which will be implemented with the release of the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

  7. Nondestructive continuous physical property measurements of core samples recovered from hole B, Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Tetsuro; Yeh, En-Chao; Lin, Weiren; Sone, Hiroki; Mishima, Toshiaki; Soh, Wonn; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Matsubayashi, Osamu; Aoike, Kan; Ito, Hisao; Kinoshita, Masataka; Murayama, Masafumi; Song, Sheng-Rong; Ma, Kuo-Fong; Hung, Jih-Hao; Wang, Chien-Ying; Tsai, Yi-Ben; Kondo, Tomomi; Nishimura, Masahiro; Moriya, Soichi; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Fujiki, Toru; Maeda, Lena; Muraki, Hiroaki; Kuramoto, Toshikatsu; Sugiyama, Kazuhiro; Sugawara, Toshikatsu

    2007-07-01

    The Taiwan Chelungpu-Fault Drilling Project was undertaken in 2002 to investigate the faulting mechanism of the 1999 Mw 7.6 Taiwan Chi-Chi earthquake. Hole B penetrated the Chelungpu fault, and core samples were recovered from between 948.42- and 1352.60-m depth. Three major zones, designated FZB1136 (fault zone at 1136-m depth in hole B), FZB1194, and FZB1243, were recognized in the core samples as active fault zones within the Chelungpu fault. Nondestructive continuous physical property measurements, conducted on all core samples, revealed that the three major fault zones were characterized by low gamma ray attenuation (GRA) densities and high magnetic susceptibilities. Extensive fracturing and cracks within the fault zones and/or loss of atoms with high atomic number, but not a measurement artifact, might have caused the low GRA densities, whereas the high magnetic susceptibility values might have resulted from the formation of magnetic minerals from paramagnetic minerals by frictional heating. Minor fault zones were characterized by low GRA densities and no change in magnetic susceptibility, and the latter may indicate that these minor zones experienced relatively low frictional heating. Magnetic susceptibility in a fault zone may be key to the determination that frictional heating occurred during an earthquake on the fault.

  8. Data precision of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning of discrete samples with the ITRAX XRF core-scanner exemplified on loess-paleosol samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profe, Jörn; Ohlendorf, Christian

    2017-04-01

    XRF-scanning is the state-of-the-art technique for geochemical analyses in marine and lacustrine sedimentology for more than a decade. However, little attention has been paid to data precision and technical limitations so far. Using homogenized, dried and powdered samples (certified geochemical reference standards and samples from a lithologically-contrasting loess-paleosol sequence) minimizes many adverse effects that influence the XRF-signal when analyzing wet sediment cores. This allows the investigation of data precision under ideal conditions and documents a new application of the XRF core-scanner technology at the same time. Reliable interpretations of XRF results require data precision evaluation of single elements as a function of X-ray tube, measurement time, sample compaction and quality of peak fitting. Ten-fold measurement of each sample constitutes data precision. Data precision of XRF measurements theoretically obeys Poisson statistics. Fe and Ca exhibit largest deviations from Poisson statistics. The same elements show the least mean relative standard deviations in the range from 0.5% to 1%. This represents the technical limit of data precision achievable by the installed detector. Measurement times ≥ 30 s reveal mean relative standard deviations below 4% for most elements. The quality of peak fitting is only relevant for elements with overlapping fluorescence lines such as Ba, Ti and Mn or for elements with low concentrations such as Y, for example. Differences in sample compaction are marginal and do not change mean relative standard deviation considerably. Data precision is in the range reported for geochemical reference standards measured by conventional techniques. Therefore, XRF scanning of discrete samples provide a cost- and time-efficient alternative to conventional multi-element analyses. As best trade-off between economical operation and data quality, we recommend a measurement time of 30 s resulting in a total scan time of 30 minutes

  9. Ice age aerosol content from east Antarctic ice core samples and past wind strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, J.R.; Briat, M.; Royer, A.

    1981-01-01

    The possible link between the aerosol content from the 905 deep Dome C ice core (East Antartica) which spans some 32,000 yr (Lorius et al. Nature; 280:644 (1979)) and climate, is considered. No evidence of major global or local volcanic activity was found though large marine and continental inputs (respectively 5 and 20 times higher than present) were observed at the end of the last Glacial stage. It is considered that they reflect glacial age climate with stronger atmospheric circulation, enhanced aridity and faster aerosol transport towards the Antarctic continent. (U.K.)

  10. The Importance of Mars Samples in Constraining the Geological and Geophysical Processes on Mars and the Nature of its Crust, Mantle, and Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    iMOST Team; Herd, C. D. K.; Ammannito, E.; Anand, M.; Debaille, V.; Hallis, L. J.; McCubbin, F. M.; Schmitz, N.; Usui, T.; Weiss, B. P.; Altieri, F.; Amelin, Y.; Beaty, D. W.; Benning, L. G.; Bishop, J. L.; Borg, L. E.; Boucher, D.; Brucato, J. R.; Busemann, H.; Campbell, K. A.; Carrier, B. L.; Czaja, A. D.; Des Marais, D. J.; Dixon, M.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Farmer, J. D.; Fernandez-Remolar, D. C.; Fogarty, J.; Glavin, D. P.; Goreva, Y. S.; Grady, M. M.; Harrington, A. D.; Hausrath, E. M.; Horgan, B.; Humayun, M.; Kleine, T.; Kleinhenz, J.; Mangold, N.; Mackelprang, R.; Mayhew, L. E.; McCoy, J. T.; McLennan, S. M.; McSween, H. Y.; Moser, D. E.; Moynier, F.; Mustard, J. F.; Niles, P. B.; Ori, G. G.; Raulin, F.; Rettberg, P.; Rucker, M. A.; Sefton-Nash, E.; Sephton, M. A.; Shaheen, R.; Shuster, D. L.; Siljestrom, S.; Smith, C. L.; Spry, J. A.; Steele, A.; Swindle, T. D.; ten Kate, I. L.; Tosca, N. J.; Van Kranendonk, M. J.; Wadhwa, M.; Werner, S. C.; Westall, F.; Wheeler, R. M.; Zipfel, J.; Zorzano, M. P.

    2018-04-01

    We present the main sample types from any potential Mars Sample Return landing site that would be required to constrain the geological and geophysical processes on Mars, including the origin and nature of its crust, mantle, and core.

  11. Tanks 3F and 2F Saltcake Core and Supernate Sample Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MARTINO, CHRISTOPHERJ

    2004-01-01

    In support of Low-Curie Salt (LCS) process validation at the Savannah River Site (SRS), Liquid Waste Disposition (LWD) has undertaken a program of tank waste characterization, including salt sampling. As part of this initiative, they sampled the surface of the saltcake in Tank 3F and Tank 2F using approximately 12-inch long sample tubes. A series of three saltcake samples were taken of the upper crust in Tank 3F and a single saltcake sample was taken from the bottom of a liquid-filled well in Tank 2F. In addition to analysis of the solid saltcake samples, the liquid contained in the Tank 3F samples and a separate supernate sample from Tank 2F were studied. The primary objective of the characterization is to gather information that will be useful to the selection and processing of the next waste tanks. Most important is the determination of the 137Cs concentration and liquid retention properties of Tank 3F and Tank 2F saltcake to enable projection of drained, dissolved salt composition. Additional information will aid in refining the waste characterization system (WCS) and could assist the eventual salt treatment or processing

  12. Final report on the sampling and analysis of sediment cores from the L-Area oil and chemical basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-08-01

    Nine vibracores were collected in the L-Area oil and chemical basin (904-83G) during late March and early April 1985. These cores were collected for analysis of the sludge on the basin floor and the underlying sediment. Several different field and laboratory analyses were performed on each three inch segment of all the cores. These included: (1) Sediment characterization; (2) Percent moisture; (3) Dry weight; (4) Spectral gamma analysis; (5) Gross alpha and beta analysis. Detailed chemical analysis were measured on selected intervals of 2 cores (LBC-5 and 6) for complete chemical characterization of the sediments. This sampling program was conducted to provide information so that a closure plan for the basin could be developed. This report describes the methods employed during the project and provide a hard copy of the analytical results from the sample analyses. Included in the appendices are copies of all field and laboratory notes taken during the project and copies of the gas chromatograms for the petroleum hydrocarbon analysis. All chemical results were also submitted on a 5-inch floppy disk.

  13. Mineralogic and petrologic investigation of post-test core samples from the Spent Fuel Test - Climax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryerson, F.J.; Beiriger, J.

    1985-02-01

    We have characterized a suite of samples taken subsequent to the end of the Spent Fuel Test - Climax by petrographic and microanalytical techniques and determined their mineral assemblage, modal properties, and mineral chemistry. The samples were obtained immediately adjacent to the canister borehole at a variety of depths and positions within the canister drift, as well as radially outward from each canister hole. This method of sampling allows variations in post-test mineralogic properties to be evaluated on the basis of (1) depth along a particular canister hole and (2) position within the canister drift, with respect to the heat and radiation sources, and with respect to the pre - test samples. In no case did we find any significant correlation between the mineralogical properties and variables listed above. In short, the Spent Fuel Test - Climax has produced no identifiable mineralogical response in the Climax quartz monzonite. 12 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Two-dimensional T2 distribution mapping in rock core plugs with optimal k-space sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dan; Balcom, Bruce J

    2012-07-01

    Spin-echo single point imaging has been employed for 1D T(2) distribution mapping, but a simple extension to 2D is challenging since the time increase is n fold, where n is the number of pixels in the second dimension. Nevertheless 2D T(2) mapping in fluid saturated rock core plugs is highly desirable because the bedding plane structure in rocks often results in different pore properties within the sample. The acquisition time can be improved by undersampling k-space. The cylindrical shape of rock core plugs yields well defined intensity distributions in k-space that may be efficiently determined by new k-space sampling patterns that are developed in this work. These patterns acquire 22.2% and 11.7% of the k-space data points. Companion density images may be employed, in a keyhole imaging sense, to improve image quality. T(2) weighted images are fit to extract T(2) distributions, pixel by pixel, employing an inverse Laplace transform. Images reconstructed with compressed sensing, with similar acceleration factors, are also presented. The results show that restricted k-space sampling, in this application, provides high quality results. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Laboratory measurements of the seismic velocities and other petrophysical properties of the Outokumpu deep drill core samples, eastern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbra, Tiiu; Karlqvist, Ronnie; Lassila, Ilkka; Høgström, Edward; Pesonen, Lauri J.

    2011-01-01

    Petrophysical, in particular seismic velocity, measurements of the Outokumpu deep drill core (depth 2.5 km) have been carried out to characterize the geophysical nature of the Paleoproterozoic crustal section of eastern Finland and to find lithological and geophysical interpretations to the distinct crustal reflectors as observed in seismic surveys. The results show that different lithological units can be identified based on the petrophysical data. The density of the samples remained nearly constant throughout the drilled section. Only diopside-tremolite skarns and black schists exhibit higher densities. The samples are dominated by the paramagnetic behaviour with occasional ferromagnetic signature caused by serpentinitic rocks. Large variations in seismic velocities, both at ambient pressure and under in situ crustal conditions are observed. The porosity of the samples, which is extremely low, is either intrinsic by nature or caused by decompaction related to fracturing during the core retrieval. It is noteworthy that these microfractures have dramatically lowered the VP and VS values. From the measured velocities and density data we have calculated the seismic impedances, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratios for the lithological units of the Outokumpu section and from these data the reflection coefficients for the major lithological boundaries, evident in the surveyed section, were determined. The data show that the strong and distinct reflections visible in wide-angle seismic surveys are caused by interfaces between diopside-tremolite skarn and either serpentinites, mica schist or black schist.

  16. OPERATION OF A PUBLIC GEOLOGIC CORE AND SAMPLE REPOSITORY IN HOUSTON TEXAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott W. Tinker

    2003-06-01

    In the spring of 2002, the Department of Energy provided an initial 1-year grant to the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) at The University of Texas at Austin (UT). The grant covered the one-year operational expenses of a worldclass core and cuttings facility located in Houston, Texas, that BP America donated to the BEG. The DOE investment of $300,000, matched by a $75,000 UT contribution, provided critical first-year funds that were heavily leveraged by the BP gift of $7.0 million in facilities and cash. DOE also provided a one-month extension and grant of $30,000 for the month of May 2003. A 5-year plan to grow a permanent endowment in order to manage the facility in perpetuity is well under way and on schedule. The facility, named the Houston Research Center, represents an ideal model for a strong Federal, university, and private partnership to accomplish a national good. This report summarizes the activities supported by the initial DOE grant during the first 13 months of operation and provides insight into the activities and needs of the facility in the second year of operation.

  17. Per tree estimates with n-tree distance sampling: an application to increment core data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas B. Lynch; Robert F. Wittwer

    2002-01-01

    Per tree estimates using the n trees nearest a point can be obtained by using a ratio of per unit area estimates from n-tree distance sampling. This ratio was used to estimate average age by d.b.h. classes for cottonwood trees (Populus deltoides Bartr. ex Marsh.) on the Cimarron National Grassland. Increment...

  18. Frictional properties of JFAST core samples and implications for slow earthquakes at the Tohoku subduction zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawai, Michiyo; Niemeijer, André R.; Hirose, Takehiro; Spiers, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    Slow earthquakes occur in the shallow (<20 km deep) part of the Tohoku subduction zone. To understand how frictional properties of the plate boundary fault affect the generation of these slow earthquakes, we conducted friction experiments using borehole samples retrieved from the plate boundary

  19. A method for combined Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic analysis of <10 mg dust samples: implication for ice core science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujvari, Gabor; Wegner, Wencke; Klötzli, Urs

    2017-04-01

    Aeolian mineral dust particles below the size of 10-20 μm often experience longer distance transport in the atmosphere, and thus Aeolian dust is considered an important tracer of large-scale atmospheric circulation. Since ice core dust is purely Aeolian in origin, discrimination of its potential source region(s) can contribute to a better understanding of past dust activity and climatic/environmental causes. Furthermore, ice core dust source information provides critical experimental constraints for model simulations of past atmospheric circulation patterns [1,2]. However, to identify dust sources in past dust archives such as ice cores, the mineralogy and geochemistry of the wind-blown dust material must be characterized. While the amount of dust in marine cores or common terrestrial archives is sufficient for different types of analyses and even for multiple repeat measurements, dust content in ice cores is usually extremely low even for the peak dusty periods such as the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) (5-8 mg dust/kg ice; [3]). Since the most powerful dust fingerprinting methods, such as REE composition and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic analyses are destructive there is a clear need to establish sequential separation techniques of Sr, Nd, Pb and other REEs to get the most information out of small (5-10 mg) dust samples recovered from ice cores. Although Hf isotopes have recently been added as a robust tool of aerosol/dust source discrimination (e.g. [4,5,6,7]), precise Hf isotopic measurements of small (reliable 176Hf/177Hf (and also 87Sr/86Sr, 143Nd/144Nd) ratios. Along with the standards 50, 10 and 5 mg aliquots of the fine (affected by acid treatment and these signatures are extremely stable both within run (0.000008 variability for the three aliquots, i.e. 0.15 ɛNd unit) and between runs of different laboratories (0.00006, ca 1 ɛNd unit). Hf isotopic compositions varied within 1 (NUS) and 5 ɛHf units (BEI) between the three aliquots, but the BEI sample always gave more

  20. Radioactive disequilibria in mineralised drill core samples from the Bjoerklund uranium occurence, northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smellie, J.A.T.

    1982-12-01

    Forming the basis of a pilot study to investigate the natural mobility of uranium and its daughter products within the geological environment, a series of six samples, chosen from two mineralised fracture zones at depths of 100-130m within a homogeneous leucocratic granite, were examined mineralogically and isotopically to establish the presence or absence of radioactive equilibrium that may indicate recent rock/water interaction processes (i.e. during the last 0.5 m.y.). The results show clear evidence of radioactive disequilibrium, and hence recent rock/water interaction, in four of the six samples. Some is attributable mostly to solution-solid 234 U recoil gain (weakly mineralised zones adjacent to the main mineralisation) and others to solid-solution 234 U recoil loss (moderate to highly mineralised zones). The richer type of impregnation mineralisation indicates apparent radioactive equilibrium. The absence of significant 238 U loss in the samples helps to underline the reducing conditions prevalent within open fracture systems at these depths. This has meant that uraninite, now found in fractured rock at about 100m depth, has been chemically stable in its environment for most, if not all, of its 1750 m.y. existence, including the last 0.5 m.y. when it has been closest to the atmosphere. This could indicate that spent nuclear fuel, which essentially is crystalline UO 2 , and comparable to uraninite once the main fission products have decayed, would also have been stable in this environment for similar periods of time. (Author)

  1. Interstitial water studies on small core samples, Deep Sea Drilling Project, Leg 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheim, F. T.; Chan, K.M.; Sayles, F.L.

    1970-01-01

    Leg 5 samples fall into two categories with respect to interstitial water composition: 1) rapidly deposited terrigenous or appreciably terrigenous deposits, such as in Hole 35 (western Escanaba trough, off Cape Mendocino, California); and, 2) slowly deposited pelagic clays and biogenic muds and oozes. Interstitial waters in the former show modest to slight variations in chloride and sodium, but drastic changes in non-conservative ions such as magnesium and sulfate. The pelagic deposits show only relatively minor changes in both conservative and non-conservative pore fluid constituents. As was pointed out in earlier Leg Reports, it is believed that much of the variation in chloride in pore fluids within individual holes is attributable to the manipulation of samples on board ship and in the laboratory. On the other hand, the scatter in sodium is due in part to analytical error (on the order of 2 to 3 per cent, in terms of a standard deviation), and it probably accounts for most of the discrepancies in total anion and cation balance. All constituents reported here, with the exception of bulk water content, were analyzed on water samples which were sealed in plastic tubes aboard ship and were subsequently opened and divided into weighed aliquots in the laboratory. Analytical methods follow the atomic absorption, wet chemical and emission spectrochemical techniques briefly summarized in previous reports, e.g. Manheim et al., 1969, and Chan and Manheim, 1970. The authors acknowledge assistance from W. Sunda, D. Kerr, C. Lawson and H. Richards, and thank D. Spencer, P. Brewer and E. Degens for allowing the use of equipment and laboratory facilities.

  2. Estimates of the hydrologic impact of drilling water on core samples taken from partially saturated densely welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscheck, T.A.; Nitao, J.J.

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this work is to determine the extent to which drill water might be expected to be imbibed by core samples taken from densely welded tuff. In a related experimental study conducted in G-Tunnel, drill water imbibition by the core samples was observed to be minimal. Calculations were carried out with the TOUGH code with the intent of corroborating the imbibition observations. Due to the absence of hydrologic data pertaining directly to G-Tunnel welded tuff, it was necessary to apply data from a similar formation. Because the moisture retention curve was not available for imbibition conditions, the drainage curve was applied to the model. The poor agreement between the observed and calculated imbibition data is attributed primarily to the inappropriateness of the drainage curve. Also significant is the value of absolute permeability (k) assumed in the model. Provided that the semi-log plot of the drainage and imbibition moisture retention curves are parallel within the saturation range of interest, a simple relationship exists between the moisture retention curve, k, and porosity (/phi/) which are assumed in the model and their actual values. If k and /phi/ are known, we define the hysteresis factor λ to be the ratio of the imbibition and drainage suction pressures for any saturation within the range of interest. If k and /phi/ are unknown, λ also accounts for the uncertainties in their values. Both the experimental and modeling studies show that drill water imbibition by the core has a minimal effect on its saturation state. 22 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Investigation of porosity and pore structure adjacent to fractures by PMMA method. Samples taken from drill cores at Olkiluoto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siitari-Kauppi, M.; Ikonen, J.; Kauppi, L.; Lindberg, A.

    2010-10-01

    The porosity, pore structure and micro fracturing of 18 rock cores from drill holes OLKR4, OL-KR11, OL-KR13, OL-KR14, OL-KR15, OL-KR20 and OL-KR25. The porosity was investigated by the C-14-PMMA autoradiographic method. The main focus was to analyse the changes in porosity and mineralogy adjacent to the typical fractures in the bedrock of Olkiluoto as a mean of porosity profiles. The method makes it possible to study the spatial distribution of the pore space in rock, and the heterogeneity of rock matrices is revealed at the sub micrometre to the centimetre scale. Subsequent autoradiography and digital image analysis make it possible to analyse features limited in size by the range of C-14 beta radiation. The description of the method was given in Posiva working report 2009-03. The samples for this work were chosen in April 2008. The C-14-PMMA method involves the impregnation of centimetre-scale rock cores with C-14 labelled methylmethacrylate (C-14-MMA) in a vacuum, irradiation polymerisation, autoradiography and optical densitometry using digital image-processing techniques. Impregnation with C-14-MMA, a labelled low-molecular-weight and lowviscosity monomer which wets the silicate surfaces well and which can be fixed by polymerisation provides information about the accessible pore space in crystalline rock that cannot be obtained using other methods. The microscopy analyses for mineral identification were done for every PMMA impregnated sample in Geological Survey of Finland. The total porosities of the studied rock cores varied between 0.1 % and 8 %. However, spatially the porosities of 30 - 40 % were determined for the minerals that were strongly altered. The porosity changes were observed adjacent to the fracture surfaces forming from a few to several millimetres porous zones. The heterogeneity of the porosity patterns adjacent to the fracture surfaces was abundant due to mineral alteration. (orig.)

  4. The influence of coring method on the preservation of sedimentary and biogeochemical features when sampling soft-bottom, shallow coastal environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogg, Andrew O.M.; Attard, Karl M.; Stahl, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    It is frequently assumed that taking samples of soft marine sediments using surface-based gravity coring equipment causes minimal disruption to their sedimentological, biogeochemical, and biological condition. This assumption was evaluated by examining the potential disturbances caused when...... resuspension or compression during gravity coring. Using SCUBA for shallow-water soft-sediment sampling permits steady and controlled core-tube insertion and extraction, and more measured retrieval of the cores to the surface; this probably accounts for the observed differences. Whereas benthic lander......-based in situ measurement would be the preferred method for analyzing sediment parameters in detail in this type of environment, SCUBA-based sampling offers a more accurate alternative to surface-based gravity coring....

  5. Deep permeability of the San Andreas Fault from San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) core samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Carolyn A.; Lockner, David A.; Moore, Diane E.; Hickman, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) scientific borehole near Parkfield, California crosses two actively creeping shear zones at a depth of 2.7 km. Core samples retrieved from these active strands consist of a foliated, Mg-clay-rich gouge containing porphyroclasts of serpentinite and sedimentary rock. The adjacent damage zone and country rocks are comprised of variably deformed, fine-grained sandstones, siltstones, and mudstones. We conducted laboratory tests to measure the permeability of representative samples from each structural unit at effective confining pressures, Pe up to the maximum estimated in situ Pe of 120 MPa. Permeability values of intact samples adjacent to the creeping strands ranged from 10−18 to 10−21 m2 at Pe = 10 MPa and decreased with applied confining pressure to 10−20–10−22 m2 at 120 MPa. Values for intact foliated gouge samples (10−21–6 × 10−23 m2 over the same pressure range) were distinctly lower than those for the surrounding rocks due to their fine-grained, clay-rich character. Permeability of both intact and crushed-and-sieved foliated gouge measured during shearing at Pe ≥ 70 MPa ranged from 2 to 4 × 10−22 m2 in the direction perpendicular to shearing and was largely insensitive to shear displacement out to a maximum displacement of 10 mm. The weak, actively-deforming foliated gouge zones have ultra-low permeability, making the active strands of the San Andreas Fault effective barriers to cross-fault fluid flow. The low matrix permeability of the San Andreas Fault creeping zones and adjacent rock combined with observations of abundant fractures in the core over a range of scales suggests that fluid flow outside of the actively-deforming gouge zones is probably fracture dominated.

  6. Preliminary biological sampling of GT3 and BT1 cores and the microbial community dynamics of existing subsurface wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, E. A.; Stamps, B. W.; Rempfert, K. R.; Ellison, E. T.; Nothaft, D. B.; Boyd, E. S.; Templeton, A. S.; Spear, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface microbial life is poorly understood but potentially very important to the search for life on other planets as well as increasing our understanding of Earth's geobiological processes. Fluids and rocks of actively serpentinizing subsurface environments are a recent target of biological study due to their apparent ubiquity across the solar system. Areas of serpentinization can contain high concentrations of molecular hydrogen, H2, that can serve as the dominant fuel source for subsurface microbiota. Working with the Oman Drilling Project, DNA and RNA were extracted from fluids of seven alkaline wells and two rock cores from drill sites GT3 and BT1 within the Samail ophiolite. DNA and cDNA (produced via reverse transcription from the recovered RNA) were sequenced using universal primers to identify microbial life across all three domains. Alkaline subsurface fluids support a microbial community that changes with pH and host-rock type. In peridotite with pH values of >11, wells NSHQ 14 and WAB 71 have high relative abundances of Meiothermus, Methanobacterium, the family Nitrospiraceae, and multiple types of the class Dehalococcoidia. While also hosted in peridotite but at pH 8.5, wells WAB 104 and 105 have a distinct, more diverse microbial community. This increased variance in community make-up is seen in wells that sit near/at the contact of gabbro and peridotite formations as well. Core results indicate both sampled rock types host a very low biomass environment subject to multiple sources of contamination during the drilling process. Suggestions for contaminant reduction, such as having core handlers wear nitrile gloves and flame-sterilizing the outer surfaces of core rounds for biological sampling, would have minimal impact to overall ODP coreflow and maximize the ability to better understand in situ microbiota in this low-biomass serpentinizing subsurface environment. While DNA extraction was successful with gram amounts of crushed rock, much can be

  7. Toxic air pollutants notice of construction for rotary mode core sampling systems three and four and modification system two

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyekman, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) approved the construction and operation of Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) System Two on November 22, 1993 (NOC-93-04). This approval supported the characterization of waste in the single-shell tanks (SSTS) and double-shell tanks (DSTS) on the Hanford Site. The waste tank characterization sampling and analysis effort is vital to the safe operations of the Hanford Site tank farms, and the timely collection of the information necessary to support retrieval, pretreatment, disposal planning, and final closure strategy. This is based on the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 93-05 Implementation Plan (DOE-RL-94-001), US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) proposed the expedited construction and operation of two additional RMCS systems to support characterization of waste stored in SSTs and DSTS. RMCS currently is scheduled for approximately 50 (active or passively ventilated) of the 149 SSTs in the 200 East and 200 West Areas. If necessary, the RMCS will be used to sample other tanks currently not scheduled, subject to the requirements of this document and any applicable Ecology approval order. The typical components of the RMCS systems are shown in Figure 1. It should be noted that the Flammable Gas Detector cart is not being used during RMCS at this time. RMCS is scheduled for approximately 40 tanks that are not actively ventilated. These tanks operate at atmospheric pressure with passive (breather) high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The RMCS system uses nitrogen gas to cool and purge the drill bit assembly. Without the use of a portable ventilation system, the additional gas from RMCS might unsafely pressurize tanks that are not actively ventilated. The RMCS system also will generate aerosols and dust in the tank vapor head space. HEPA filters will be required on the portable exhauster during rotary mode core drilling to control radionuclide

  8. Student Wellbeing at a University in Post-Apartheid South Africa: A Comparison with a British University Sample Using the GP-CORE Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Charles; Campbell, Megan

    2014-01-01

    This article provides GP-CORE norms for a South African university sample, which are compared to published data obtained from a United Kingdom university sample. The measure appears to be both reliable and valid for this multilingual and multicultural South African sample. The profiles of the psychological distress reported by white South African…

  9. Concentration of Antifouling Biocides and Metals in Sediment Core Samples in the Northern Part of Hiroshima Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noritaka Tsunemasa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of Ot alternative antifoulants in sediment is the focus of this research. Much research had been done on surface sediment, but in this report, the accumulation in the sediment core was studied. The Ot alternative antifoulants, Diuron, Sea-Nine211, and Irgarol 1051, and the latter’s degradation product, M1, were investigated in five samples from the northern part of Hiroshima Bay. Ot compounds (tributyltin (TBT and triphenyltin (TPT were also investigated for comparison. In addition, metal (Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn levels and chronology were measured to better understand what happens after accumulation on the sea floor. It was discovered that Ot alternative antifoulant accumulation characteristics in sediment were like Ot compounds, with the concentration in the sediment core being much higher than surface sediment. The concentration in sediment seems to have been affected by the regulation of Ot compounds in 1990, due to the concentration of Ot alternative antifoulants and Ot compounds at the survey point in front of the dock, showing an increase from almost the same layer after the regulation.

  10. Effects of Re-heating Tissue Samples to Core Body Temperature on High-Velocity Ballistic Projectile-tissue Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Caitlin; Henneberg, Maciej; Wachsberger, Christian; Maiden, Nicholas; Kumaratilake, Jaliya

    2017-11-01

    Damage produced by high-speed projectiles on organic tissue will depend on the physical properties of the tissues. Conditioning organic tissue samples to human core body temperature (37°C) prior to conducting ballistic experiments enables their behavior to closely mimic that of living tissues. To minimize autolytic changes after death, the tissues are refrigerated soon after their removal from the body and re-heated to 37°C prior to testing. This research investigates whether heating 50-mm-cube samples of porcine liver, kidney, and heart to 37°C for varying durations (maximum 7 h) can affect the penetration response of a high-speed, steel sphere projectile. Longer conditioning times for heart and liver resulted in a slight loss of velocity/energy of the projectile, but the reverse effect occurred for the kidney. Possible reasons for these trends include autolytic changes causing softening (heart and liver) and dehydration causing an increase in density (kidney). © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. Current status of restoration work for obstacle and upper core structure in reactor vessel of experimental fast reactor 'JOYO'. Recovery of MARICO-2 sample part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashida, Takashi; Ito, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    At Joyo reactor MK-III core in May 2007, due to the design deficiencies of the disconnect mechanism of the holding part and the sample part of the experimental apparatus with instrumentation lines (MARICO-2), a disconnect failure incident occurred in the sample part after irradiation test. The deformation of the sample part due to this failure incurred its interference with the lower surface of reactor core upper structure and the holddown axis body. By this, the operating range of the rotary plug was restricted, leading to the partial inhibition of the fuel exchange function that precluded the access to 1/4 of the assemblies of the reactor core. In face of restoration work, the preparation for restoration such the exchange of upper core structure, and the recovery of MARICO-2 sample part are under way. The following items are introduced here: (1) summary of restoration work and overall process of restoration work, (2) recovery operation of MARICO-2 sample part, (3) exchange of the upper core structure that was conducted this year, and (4) results of recovery of MARIKO-2 sample part. (A.O.)

  12. Revised South China Sea spreading history based on macrostructure analysis of IODP Expedition 349 core samples and geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z.; Ding, W.; Zhao, X.; Qiu, N.; Lin, J.; Li, C.

    2017-12-01

    In Internaltional Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 349, four sites were drilled and cored successfully in the South China Sea (SCS). Three of them are close to the central spreading ridge (Sites U1431, U1433 and U1434), and one (Site U1435) is located on an outer rise,,providingsignificant information on the spreading history of the SCS.In order to constrain the spreading historymore accurately with the core results, we analyzed the identifiable macrostructures (over 300 fractures, veins and slickensides)from all the consolidated samples of these four drill sites. Then we made a retrograde reconstruction of the SCS spreading history with the constraints of the estimated fractures and veins, post-spreading volcanism,seismic interpretation, as well as free-air gravity and magnetic anomaly and topography analysis. Our study indicates that the spreading of the SCS experienced at least one ridge jump event and two events of ridge orientation and spreading direction adjustment, which mademagnetic anomaly orientation, ridge positionand facture zone directionskeep changing in the South China Sea. During the last spreading stage, the spreading direction was north-southward but lasted for a very short time period. The oceanic crust is wider in the eastern SCS and tapers out toward west.Due to the subductionof SCS beneath the Philippine Sea plate, the seafloor began to develop new fractures:the NWW-to EW-trending R' shear faults and the NE-trending P faultsbecame dominant faults and controlled the eruption of post-drift volcanism.

  13. Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. Appendix C: Samples of Student Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This document presents writing samples that have been annotated to illustrate the criteria required to meet the Common Core State Standards for particular types of writing--argument, informative/explanatory text, and narrative--in a given grade. Each of the samples exhibits at least the level of quality required to meet the Writing standards for…

  14. THE CORES OF THE Fe Kα LINES IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: AN EXTENDED CHANDRA HIGH ENERGY GRATING SAMPLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, X. W.; Wang, J. X.; Yaqoob, T.

    2010-01-01

    We extend the study of the core of the Fe Kα emission line at ∼6.4 keV in Seyfert galaxies reported by Yaqoob and Padmanabhan using a larger sample observed by the Chandra high-energy grating (HEG). The sample consists of 82 observations of 36 unique sources with z H 23 cm -2 ) Seyfert galaxies to date. From an empirical and uniform analysis, we present measurements of the Fe Kα line centroid energy, flux, equivalent width (EW), and intrinsic width (FWHM). The Fe Kα line is detected in 33 sources, and its centroid energy is constrained in 32 sources. In 27 sources, the statistical quality of the data is good enough to yield measurements of the FWHM. We find that the distribution in the line centroid energy is strongly peaked around the value for neutral Fe, with over 80% of the observations giving values in the range 6.38-6.43 keV. Including statistical errors, 30 out of 32 sources (∼94%) have a line centroid energy in the range 6.35-6.47 keV. The mean EW, among the observations in which a non-zero lower limit could be measured, was 53 ± 3 eV. The mean FWHM from the subsample of 27 sources was 2060 ± 230 km s -1 . The mean EW and FWHM are somewhat higher when multiple observations for a given source are averaged. From a comparison with the Hβ optical emission-line widths (or, for one source, Brα), we find that there is no universal location of the Fe Kα line-emitting region relative to the optical broad-line region (BLR). In general, a given source may have contributions to the Fe Kα line flux from parsec-scale distances from the putative black hole, down to matter a factor ∼2 closer to the black hole than the BLR. We confirm the presence of the X-ray Baldwin effect, an anti-correlation between the Fe Kα line EW and X-ray continuum luminosity. The HEG data have enabled isolation of this effect to the narrow core of the Fe Kα line.

  15. Preparation and characterisation of core-shell CNTs@MIPs nanocomposites and selective removal of estrone from water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruixia; Su, Xiaoqian; He, Xiwen; Chen, Langxing; Zhang, Yukui

    2011-01-15

    This paper reports the preparation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) functionalized with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for advanced removal of estrone. CNTs@Est-MIPs nanocomposites with a well-defined core-shell structure were obtained using a semi-covalent imprinting strategy, which employed a thermally reversible covalent bond at the surface of silica-coated CNTs for a large-scale production. The morphology and structure of the products were characterised by transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The adsorption properties were demonstrated by equilibrium rebinding experiments and Scatchard analysis. The results demonstrate that the imprinted nanocomposites possess favourable selectivity, high capacity and fast kinetics for template molecule uptake, yielding an adsorption capacity of 113.5 μmol/g. The synthetic process is quite simple, and the different batches of synthesized CNTs@Est-MIPs nanocomposites showed good reproducibility in template binding. The feasibility of removing estrogenic compounds from environmental water using the CNTs@Est-MIPs nanocomposites was demonstrated using water samples spiked with estrone. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A safety assessment of rotary mode core sampling in flammable gas single shell tanks: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, R.E.

    1996-04-15

    This safety assessment (SA) addresses each of the required elements associated with the installation, operation, and removal of a rotary-mode core sampling (RMCS) device in flammable-gas single-shell tanks (SSTs). The RMCS operations are needed in order to retrieve waste samples from SSTs with hard layers of waste for which push-mode sampling is not adequate for sampling. In this SA, potential hazards associated with the proposed action were identified and evaluated systematically. Several potential accident cases that could result in radiological or toxicological gas releases were identified and analyzed and their consequences assessed. Administrative controls, procedures and design changes required to eliminate or reduce the potential of hazards were identified. The accidents were analyzed under nine categories, four of which were burn scenarios. In SSTS, burn accidents result in unacceptable consequences because of a potential dome collapse. The accidents in which an aboveground burn propagates into the dome space were shown to be in the ``beyond extremely unlikely`` frequency category. Given the unknown nature of the gas-release behavior in the SSTS, a number of design changes and administrative controls were implemented to achieve these low frequencies. Likewise, drill string fires and dome space fires were shown to be very low frequency accidents by taking credit for the design changes, controls, and available experimental and analytical data. However, a number of Bureau of Mines (BOM) tests must be completed before some of the burn accidents can be dismissed with high confidence. Under the category of waste fires, the possibility of igniting the entrapped gases and the waste itself were analyzed. Experiments are being conducted at the BOM to demonstrate that the drill bit is not capable of igniting the trapped gas in the waste. Laboratory testing and thermal analysis demonstrated that, under normal operating conditions, the drill bit will not create high

  17. A safety assessment of rotary mode core sampling in flammable gas single shell tanks: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    This safety assessment (SA) addresses each of the required elements associated with the installation, operation, and removal of a rotary-mode core sampling (RMCS) device in flammable-gas single-shell tanks (SSTs). The RMCS operations are needed in order to retrieve waste samples from SSTs with hard layers of waste for which push-mode sampling is not adequate for sampling. In this SA, potential hazards associated with the proposed action were identified and evaluated systematically. Several potential accident cases that could result in radiological or toxicological gas releases were identified and analyzed and their consequences assessed. Administrative controls, procedures and design changes required to eliminate or reduce the potential of hazards were identified. The accidents were analyzed under nine categories, four of which were burn scenarios. In SSTS, burn accidents result in unacceptable consequences because of a potential dome collapse. The accidents in which an aboveground burn propagates into the dome space were shown to be in the ''beyond extremely unlikely'' frequency category. Given the unknown nature of the gas-release behavior in the SSTS, a number of design changes and administrative controls were implemented to achieve these low frequencies. Likewise, drill string fires and dome space fires were shown to be very low frequency accidents by taking credit for the design changes, controls, and available experimental and analytical data. However, a number of Bureau of Mines (BOM) tests must be completed before some of the burn accidents can be dismissed with high confidence. Under the category of waste fires, the possibility of igniting the entrapped gases and the waste itself were analyzed. Experiments are being conducted at the BOM to demonstrate that the drill bit is not capable of igniting the trapped gas in the waste. Laboratory testing and thermal analysis demonstrated that, under normal operating conditions, the drill bit will not create high

  18. Capillary ion chromatography with on-column focusing for ultra-trace analysis of methanesulfonate and inorganic anions in limited volume Antarctic ice core samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Estrella Sanz; Poynter, Sam; Curran, Mark; Haddad, Paul R; Shellie, Robert A; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett

    2015-08-28

    Preservation of ionic species within Antarctic ice yields a unique proxy record of the Earth's climate history. Studies have been focused until now on two proxies: the ionic components of sea salt aerosol and methanesulfonic acid. Measurement of the all of the major ionic species in ice core samples is typically carried out by ion chromatography. Former methods, whilst providing suitable detection limits, have been based upon off-column preconcentration techniques, requiring larger sample volumes, with potential for sample contamination and/or carryover. Here, a new capillary ion chromatography based analytical method has been developed for quantitative analysis of limited volume Antarctic ice core samples. The developed analytical protocol applies capillary ion chromatography (with suppressed conductivity detection) and direct on-column sample injection and focusing, thus eliminating the requirement for off-column sample preconcentration. This limits the total sample volume needed to 300μL per analysis, allowing for triplicate sample analysis with Application to composite ice-core samples is demonstrated, with coupling of the capillary ion chromatograph to high resolution mass spectrometry used to confirm the presence and purity of the observed methanesulfonate peak. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The WAIS Melt Monitor: An automated ice core melting system for meltwater sample handling and the collection of high resolution microparticle size distribution data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, D. J.; Koffman, B. G.; Kreutz, K. J.; Hamilton, G. S.

    2010-12-01

    Paleoclimate data are often extracted from ice cores by careful geochemical analysis of meltwater samples. The analysis of the microparticles found in ice cores can also yield unique clues about atmospheric dust loading and transport, dust provenance and past environmental conditions. Determination of microparticle concentration, size distribution and chemical makeup as a function of depth is especially difficult because the particle size measurement either consumes or contaminates the meltwater, preventing further geochemical analysis. Here we describe a microcontroller-based ice core melting system which allows the collection of separate microparticle and chemistry samples from the same depth intervals in the ice core, while logging and accurately depth-tagging real-time electrical conductivity and particle size distribution data. This system was designed specifically to support microparticle analysis of the WAIS Divide WDC06A deep ice core, but many of the subsystems are applicable to more general ice core melting operations. Major system components include: a rotary encoder to measure ice core melt displacement with 0.1 millimeter accuracy, a meltwater tracking system to assign core depths to conductivity, particle and sample vial data, an optical debubbler level control system to protect the Abakus laser particle counter from damage due to air bubbles, a Rabbit 3700 microcontroller which communicates with a host PC, collects encoder and optical sensor data and autonomously operates Gilson peristaltic pumps and fraction collectors to provide automatic sample handling, melt monitor control software operating on a standard PC allowing the user to control and view the status of the system, data logging software operating on the same PC to collect data from the melting, electrical conductivity and microparticle measurement systems. Because microparticle samples can easily be contaminated, we use optical air bubble sensors and high resolution ice core density

  20. Development of a standard data base for FBR core nuclear design (XIII). Analysis of small sample reactivity experiments at ZPPR-9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Wakaei; Fukushima, Manabu; Ishikawa, Makoto

    2000-09-01

    A comprehensive study to evaluate and accumulate the abundant results of fast reactor physics is now in progress at O-arai Engineering Center to improve analytical methods and prediction accuracy of nuclear design for large fast breeder cores such as future commercial FBRs. The present report summarizes the analytical results of sample reactivity experiments at ZPPR-9 core, which has not been evaluated by the latest analytical method yet. The intention of the work is to extend and further generalize the standard data base for FBR core nuclear design. The analytical results of the sample reactivity experiments (samples: PU-30, U-6, DU-6, SS-1 and B-1) at ZPPR-9 core in JUPITER series, with the latest nuclear data library JENDL-3.2 and the analytical method which was established by the JUPITER analysis, can be concluded as follows: The region-averaged final C/E values generally agreed with unity within 5% differences at the inner core region. However, the C/E values of every sample showed the radial space-dependency increasing from center to core edge, especially the discrepancy of B-1 was the largest by 10%. Next, the influence of the present analytical results for the ZPPR-9 sample reactivity to the cross-section adjustment was evaluated. The reference case was a unified cross-section set ADJ98 based on the recent JUPITER analysis. As a conclusion, the present analytical results have sufficient physical consistency with other JUPITER data, and possess qualification as a part of the standard data base for FBR nuclear design. (author)

  1. Stratospheric Air Sub-sampler (SAS) and its application to analysis of Delta O-17(CO2) from small air samples collected with an AirCore

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mrozek, Dorota Janina; van der Veen, Carina; Hofmann, Magdalena E. G.; Chen, Huilin; Kivi, Rigel; Heikkinen, Pauli; Rockmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We present the set-up and a scientific application of the Stratospheric Air Sub-sampler (SAS), a device to collect and to store the vertical profile of air collected with an AirCore (Karion et al., 2010) in numerous sub-samples for later analysis in the laboratory. The SAS described here is a 20m

  2. AirCore-HR: a high-resolution column sampling to enhance the vertical description of CH4 and CO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Membrive

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An original and innovative sampling system called AirCore was presented by NOAA in 2010 (Karion et al., 2010. It consists of a long (>  100 m and narrow (<  1 cm stainless steel tube that can retain a profile of atmospheric air. The captured air sample has then to be analyzed with a gas analyzer for trace mole fraction. In this study, we introduce a new AirCore aiming to improve resolution along the vertical with the objectives to (i better capture the vertical distribution of CO2 and CH4, (ii provide a tool to compare AirCores and validate the estimated vertical resolution achieved by AirCores. This (high-resolution AirCore-HR consists of a 300 m tube, combining 200 m of 0.125 in. (3.175 mm tube and a 100 m of 0.25 in. (6.35 mm tube. This new configuration allows us to achieve a vertical resolution of 300 m up to 15 km and better than 500 m up to 22 km (if analysis of the retained sample is performed within 3 h. The AirCore-HR was flown for the first time during the annual StratoScience campaign from CNES in August 2014 from Timmins (Ontario, Canada. High-resolution vertical profiles of CO2 and CH4 up to 25 km were successfully retrieved. These profiles revealed well-defined transport structures in the troposphere (also seen in CAMS-ECMWF high-resolution forecasts of CO2 and CH4 profiles and captured the decrease of CO2 and CH4 in the stratosphere. The multi-instrument gondola also carried two other low-resolution AirCore-GUF that allowed us to perform direct comparisons and study the underlying processing method used to convert the sample of air to greenhouse gases vertical profiles. In particular, degrading the AirCore-HR derived profiles to the low resolution of AirCore-GUF yields an excellent match between both sets of CH4 profiles and shows a good consistency in terms of vertical structures. This fully validates the theoretical vertical resolution achievable by AirCores. Concerning CO2 although a

  3. Attempt of groundwater dating using the drilled rock core. 1. Development of the rock sampling method for measurement of noble gases dissolved in interstitial water in rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahara, Yasunori

    2002-01-01

    Groundwater dating in low permeable rock is very difficult and impracticable, because we take a very long time to collect groundwater sample in a borehole and have to invest much fund in production of the in-situ groundwater sampler and in operation of it. If we can directly measure noble gases dissolved in interstitial groundwater in rock core, we have a big merit to estimate groundwater resident time easy. In this study, we designed and produced a high vacuum container to let dissolved noble gases diffuse until reaching in equilibrium, and we made a handling manual of the rock core into the container and a procedure to vacuum out air from the sealed container. We compared data sets of noble gas concentration obtained from rock cores and groundwater sample collected from boreholes in-situ. The measured rocks are pumice-tuff rock, mud rock and hornfels, which have their permeabilities of 10 -6 cm/s, 10 -9 cm/s and 10 -11 cm/s, respectively. Consequently, we evaluated the rock core method is better than the in-situ groundwater sampling method for low permeable rock. (author)

  4. Determination of three-dimensional stress orientations in the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD) hole-1: A preliminary result by anelastic strain recovery measurements of core samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, J.; Lin, W.; Wang, L.; Tang, Z.; Sun, D.; Gao, L.; Wang, W.

    2010-12-01

    A great and destructive earthquake (Ms 8.0; Mw 7.9), Wunchuan earthquake struck on the Longmen Shan foreland trust zone in Sichuan province, China on 12 May 2008 (Xu et al., 2008; Episodes, Vol.31, pp.291-301). As a rapid response scientific drilling project, Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD) started on 6 November 2008 shorter than a half of year from the date of earthquake main shock. The first pilot borehole (hole-1) has been drilled to the target depth (measured depth 1201 m MD, vertical depth 1179 m) at Hongkou, Dujianyan, Sichuan and passed through the main fault of the earthquake around 589 m MD. We are trying to determine three dimensional in-situ stress states in the WFSD boreholes by a core-based method, anelastic strain recovery (ASR) method (Lin et al., 2006; Tectonophysics, Vol4.26, pp.221-238). This method has been applied in several scientific drilling projects (TCDP: Lin et al., 2007; TAO, Vol.18, pp.379-393; NanTtoSEIZE: Byrne et al., 2009; GRL, Vol.36, L23310). These applications confirm the validity of using the ASR technique in determining in situ stresses by using drilled cores. We collected total 15 core samples in a depth range from 340 m MD to 1180 m MD, approximately for ASR measurements. Anelastic normal strains, measured every ten minutes in nine directions, including six independent directions, were used to calculate the anelastic strain tensors. The data of the ASR tests conducted at hole-1 is still undergoing analysis. As a tentative perspective, more than 10 core samples showed coherent strain recovery over one - two weeks. However, 2 or 3 core samples cannot be re-orientated to the global system. It means that we cannot rink the stress orientation determined by the core samples to geological structure. Unfortunately, a few core samples showed irregular strain recovery and were not analyzed further. The preliminary results of ASR tests at hole-1 show the stress orientations and stress regime changes a lot with the

  5. Methane Recycling During Burial of Methane Hydrate-Bearing Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, K.; Flemings, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    We quantitatively investigate the integral processes of methane hydrate formation from local microbial methane generation, burial of methane hydrate with sedimentation, and methane recycling at the base of the hydrate stability zone (BHSZ) with a multiphase multicomponent numerical model. Methane recycling happens in cycles, and there is not a steady state. Each cycle starts with free gas accumulation from hydrate dissociation below the BHSZ. This free gas flows upward under buoyancy, elevates the hydrate saturation and capillary entry pressure at the BHSZ, and this prevents more free gas flowing in. Later as this layer with elevated hydrate saturation is buried and dissociated, the large amount of free gas newly released and accumulated below rapidly intrudes into the hydrate stability zone, drives rapid hydrate formation and creates three-phase (gas, liquid and hydrate) equilibrium above the BHSZ. The gas front retreats to below the BHSZ until all the free gas is depleted. The shallowest depth that the free gas reaches in one cycle moves toward seafloor as more and more methane is accumulated to the BHSZ with time. More methane is stored above the BHSZ in the form of concentrated hydrate in sediments with relatively uniform pore throat, and/or with greater compressibility. It is more difficult to initiate methane recycling in passive continental margins where the sedimentation rate is low, and in sediments with low organic matter content and/or methanogenesis reaction rate. The presence of a permeable layer can store methane for significant periods of time without recycling. In a 2D system where the seafloor dips rapidly, the updip gas flow along the BHSZ transports more methane toward topographic highs where methane gas and elevated hydrate saturation intrude deeper into the hydrate stability zone within one cycle. This could lead to intermittent gas venting at seafloor at the topographic highs. This study provides insights on many phenomenon associated with methane recycling, such as the formation of free gas zone, concentrated hydrate zone, bottom simulating reflector, and overpressured zone around the BHSZ, and gas venting at seafloor.

  6. Maximum Recoverable Gas from Hydrate Bearing Sediments by Depressurization

    KAUST Repository

    Terzariol, Marco; Goldsztein, G.; Santamarina, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    financial analyses; results highlight the need for innovative production strategies in order to make hydrate accumulations an economically-viable energy resource. Horizontal directional drilling and multi-wellpoint seafloor dewatering installations may lead

  7. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  8. Side core lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Ya A

    1982-01-01

    A side core lifter is proposed which contains a housing with guide slits and a removable core lifter with side projections on the support section connected to the core receiver. In order to preserve the structure of the rock in the core sample by means of guaranteeing rectilinear movement of the core lifter in the rock, the support and core receiver sections are hinged. The device is equipped with a spring for angular shift in the core-reception part.

  9. Sampling and analysis plan for the gunite and associated tanks interim remedial action, wall coring and scraping at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan documents the procedures for collecting and analyzing wall core and wall scraping samples from the Gunite and Associated Tanks. These activities are being conducted to support the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act at the gunite and associated tanks interim remedial action at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. The sampling and analysis activities will be performed in concert with sludge retrieval and sluicing of the tanks. Wall scraping and/or wall core samples will be collected from each quadrant in each tank by using a scraping sampler and/or a coring drill deployed by the Houdini robot vehicle. Each sample will be labeled, transported to the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory, and analyzed for physical and radiological characteristics, including total activity, gross alpha, gross beta, radioactive strontium and cesium, and other alpha- and gamma-emitting radionuclides. The data quality objectives process, based on US Environmental Protection Agency guidance, was applied to identify the objectives of this sampling and analysis. The results of the analysis will be used to (1) validate predictions of a strontium concrete diffusion model, (2) estimate the amount of radioactivity remaining in the tank shells, (3) provide information to correlate with measurements taken by the Gunite Tank Isotope Mapping Probe and the Characterization End Effector, and (4) estimate the performance of the wall cleaning system. This revision eliminates wall-scraping samples from all tanks, except Tank W-3. The Tank W-3 experience indicated that the wall scrapper does not collect sufficient material for analysis

  10. Results of submerged sediment core sampling and analysis on Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake: July 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Friday, G.P.

    1996-06-01

    Sediment cores from shallow and deep water locations in Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake were collected and analyzed in 1995 for radioactive and nonradioactive constituents. This core analysis was conducted to develop a defensible characterization of contaminants found in the sediments of Par Pond, Pond C, and L Lake. Mercury was the only nonradiological constituent with a nonestimated quantity that was detected above the U.S Environmental Protection Agency Region IV potential contaminants of concern screening criteria. It was detected at a depth of 0.3--0.6 meters (1.0--2.0 feet) at one location in L Lake. Cesium-137, promethium-146, plutonium-238, and zirconium-95 had significantly higher concentrations in Par Pond sediments than in sediments from the reference sites. Cobalt-60, cesium-137, plutonium-238, plutonium-239/240, and strontium-90 had significantly higher concentrations in L-Lake sediments than sediments from the reference sites

  11. Hydro-mechanical properties of pressure core sediments recovered from the Krishna-Godavari Basin during India's National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition NGHP-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, J.; Oshima, M.; Kida, M.; Kato, A.; Konno, Y.; Jin, Y.; Waite, W. F.; Jang, J.; Kumar, P.; Tenma, N.

    2017-12-01

    Pressure coring and analysis technology allows for gas hydrate to be recovered from the deep seabed, transferred to the laboratory and characterized while continuously maintaining gas hydrate stability. For this study, dozens of hydrate-bearing pressure core sediment subsections recovered from the Krishna-Godavari Basin during India's National Gas Hydrate Program Expedition NGHP-02 were tested with Pressure Core Non-destructive Analysis Tools (PNATs) through a collaboration between Japan and India. PNATs, originally developed by AIST as a part of the Japanese National hydrate research program (MH21, funded by METI) conducted permeability, compression and consolidation tests under various effective stress conditions, including the in situ stress state estimated from downhole bulk density measurements. At the in situ effective stress, gas hydrate-bearing sediments had an effective permeability range of 0.01-10mD even at pore-space hydrate saturations above 60%. Permeability increased by 10 to 100 times after hydrate dissociation at the same effective stress, but these post-dissociation gains were erased when effective stress was increased from in situ values ( 1 MPa) to 10MPa in a simulation of the depressurization method for methane extraction from hydrate. Vertical-to-horizontal permeability anisotropy was also investigated. First-ever multi-stage loading tests and strain-rate alternation compression tests were successfully conducted for evaluating sediment strengthening dependence on the rate and magnitude of effective confining stress changes. In addition, oedometer tests were performed up to 40MPa of consolidation stress to simulate the depressurization method in ultra-deep sea environments. Consolidation curves measured with and without gas hydrate were investigated over a wide range of effective confining stresses. Compression curves for gas hydrate-bearing sediments were convex downward due to high hydrate saturations. Consolidation tests show that

  12. The Mediating Role of Maximizer Decision Makin g Approach in Core Self - Evaluations and Entrepreneurial Persona lity Relationship: Konya Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Arslan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A lot of effort has been put to increase the number of entrepreneurs, the engines of the countries’ economic progress, and to promote entrepreneurship. In this regard, within the recent years in particular, studies, based on psychology and personality relationship are done to understand the entrepreneurial personality. To contribute to this topic and after searching the relevant literature, variables that might predict entrepreneurship have been incorporated into the model. It has been argued that one ofhese theories, core self-evaluations, may determine the entrepreneurial personality by enhancing their self-perceptions and awareness regarding their skills to utilize the opportunities. Moreover, it has also been investigated if the maximizer decision- making, one of the cognitive psychology theories, play a role as a mediator. Core self-evaluations account for 72% of the variance on entrepreneurship; but when maximizer decision-making is added, the amount of variance decreased to 65%. It may assumed to be an important result that entrepreneurial personality and maximizer decision-making cannot co-exist when the negative but statistical significant relationship between maximizer decision-making and core self-evaluations are considered

  13. Engineering task plan for the development, fabrication and installation of rotary mode core sample truck grapple hoist box level wind system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    This Engineering Task Plan is to design, generate fabrication drawings, fabricate, test, and install the grapple hoist level wind system for Rotary Mode Core Sample Trucks (RMCST) 3 and 4. Deliverables will include generating fabrication drawings, fabrication of one level wind system, updating fabrication drawings as required, and installation of level wind systems on RMCST 3 or 4. The installation of the level wind systems will be done during a preventive maintenance outage

  14. High-resolution delineation of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in a dipping, fractured mudstone: depth- and strata-dependent spatial variability from rock-core sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Lacombe, Pierre J.

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of rock-core sampling and chlorinated volatile organic compound (CVOC) analysis at five coreholes, with hydraulic and water-quality monitoring and a detailed hydrogeologic framework, was used to characterize the fine-scale distribution of CVOCs in dipping, fractured mudstones of the Lockatong Formation of Triassic age, of the Newark Basin in West Trenton, New Jersey. From these results, a refined conceptual model for more than 55 years of migration of CVOCs and depth- and strata-dependent rock-matrix contamination was developed. Industrial use of trichloroethene (TCE) at the former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) from 1953 to 1995 resulted in dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) TCE and dissolved TCE and related breakdown products, including other CVOCs, in underlying mudstones. Shallow highly weathered and fractured strata overlie unweathered, gently dipping, fractured strata that become progressively less fractured with depth. The unweathered lithology includes black highly fractured (fissile) carbon-rich strata, gray mildly fractured thinly layered (laminated) strata, and light-gray weakly fractured massive strata. CVOC concentrations in water samples pumped from the shallow weathered and highly fractured strata remain elevated near residual DNAPL TCE, but dilution by uncontaminated recharge, and other natural and engineered attenuation processes, have substantially reduced concentrations along flow paths removed from sources and residual DNAPL. CVOCs also were detected in most rock-core samples in source areas in shallow wells. In many locations, lower aqueous concentrations, compared to rock core concentrations, suggest that CVOCs are presently back-diffusing from the rock matrix. Below the weathered and highly fractured strata, and to depths of at least 50 meters (m), groundwater flow and contaminant transport is primarily in bedding-plane-oriented fractures in thin fissile high-carbon strata, and in fractured, laminated strata of the gently

  15. A core invasiveness gene signature reflects epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition but not metastatic potential in breast cancer cell lines and tissue samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Marsan

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Metastases remain the primary cause of cancer-related death. The acquisition of invasive tumour cell behaviour is thought to be a cornerstone of the metastatic cascade. Therefore, gene signatures related to invasiveness could aid in stratifying patients according to their prognostic profile. In the present study we aimed at identifying an invasiveness gene signature and investigated its biological relevance in breast cancer. METHODS & RESULTS: We collected a set of published gene signatures related to cell motility and invasion. Using this collection, we identified 16 genes that were represented at a higher frequency than observed by coincidence, hereafter named the core invasiveness gene signature. Principal component analysis showed that these overrepresented genes were able to segregate invasive and non-invasive breast cancer cell lines, outperforming sets of 16 randomly selected genes (all P<0.001. When applied onto additional data sets, the expression of the core invasiveness gene signature was significantly elevated in cell lines forced to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The link between core invasiveness gene expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition was also confirmed in a dataset consisting of 2420 human breast cancer samples. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that CIG expression is not associated with a shorter distant metastasis free survival interval (HR = 0.956, 95%C.I. = 0.896-1.019, P = 0.186. DISCUSSION: These data demonstrate that we have identified a set of core invasiveness genes, the expression of which is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cell lines and in human tissue samples. Despite the connection between epithelial-mesenchymal transition and invasive tumour cell behaviour, we were unable to demonstrate a link between the core invasiveness gene signature and enhanced metastatic potential.

  16. Impedance imaging in core analysis. Imaging of phase distributions in samples of natural cores of North Sea chalk containing conducting as well as non-conducting fluids. Part: 1-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laursen, S. [DTU, Inst. for Kemi (Denmark)] Moeller Nielsen, C. [DTU, Inst. for Energiteknik (Denmark)

    1997-12-31

    The present report documents the efforts to develop an impedance method for determining the distribution of the water saturation in a chalk core sample. Measurement of this distribution during a displacement process will make it possible to make numerical simulations of the process which may in turn reveal important rock parameters. The impedance method is one among other methods to determine saturation profiles in a research programme on rock parameters with participants from Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, DTU, and Danmarks og Groenlands Geologiske Undersoegelse, GEUS. The other methods investigated are nmr-scanning and {gamma}-logging. (au)

  17. Mono-, di- and trimethylated homologues of isoprenoid tetraether lipid cores in archaea and environmental samples: mass spectrometric identification and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappy, Chris; Barillà, Daniela; Chong, James; Hodgson, Dominic; Morgan, Hugh; Suleman, Muhammad; Tan, Christine; Yao, Peng; Keely, Brendan

    2015-12-01

    Higher homologues of widely reported C(86) isoprenoid diglycerol tetraether lipid cores, containing 0-6 cyclopentyl rings, have been identified in (hyper)thermophilic archaea, representing up to 21% of total tetraether lipids in the cells. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry confirms that the additional carbon atoms in the C(87-88) homologues are located in the etherified chains. Structures identified include dialkyl and monoalkyl ('H-shaped') tetraethers containing C(40-42) or C(81-82) hydrocarbons, respectively, many representing novel compounds. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of hydrocarbons released from the lipid cores by ether cleavage suggests that the C(40) chains are biphytanes and the C(41) chains 13-methylbiphytanes. Multiple isomers, having different chain combinations, were recognised among the dialkyl lipids. Methylated tetraethers are produced by Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus in varying proportions depending on growth conditions, suggesting that methylation may be an adaptive mechanism to regulate cellular function. The detection of methylated lipids in Pyrobaculum sp. AQ1.S2 and Sulfolobus acidocaldarius represents the first reported occurrences in Crenarchaeota. Soils and aquatic sediments from geographically distinct mesotemperate environments that were screened for homologues contained monomethylated tetraethers, with di- and trimethylated structures being detected occasionally. The structural diversity and range of occurrences of the C(87-89) tetraethers highlight their potential as complementary biomarkers for archaea in natural environments. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Fast neutron (14 MeV) attenuation analysis in saturated core samples and its application in well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin Attarzadeh; Mohammad Kamal Ghassem Al Askari; Tagy Bayat

    2009-01-01

    To introduce the application of nuclear logging, it is appropriate to provide a motivation for the use of nuclear measurement techniques in well logging. Importance aspects of the geological sciences are for instance grain and porosity structure and porosity volume of the rocks, as well as the transport properties of a fluid in the porous media. Nuclear measurements are, as a rule non-intrusive. Namely, a measurement does not destroy the sample, and it does not interfere with the process to be measured. Also, non- intrusive measurements are often much faster than the radiation methods, and can also be applied in field measurements. A common type of nuclear measurement employs neutron irradiation. It is powerful technique for geophysical analysis. In this research we illustrate the detail of this technique and it's applications to well logging and oil industry. Experiments have been performed to investigate the possibilities of using neutron attenuation measurements to determine water and oil content of rock sample. A beam of 14 MeV neutrons produced by a 150 KV neutron generator was attenuated by different samples and subsequently detected with plastic scintillators NE102 (Fast counter). Each sample was saturated with water and oil. The difference in neutron attenuation between dry and wet samples was compared with the fluid content determined by mass balance of the sample. In this experiment we were able to determine 3% of humidity in standard sample model (SiO 2 ) and estimate porosity in geological samples when saturated with different fluids. (Author)

  19. Core lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlov, N G; Edel' man, Ya A

    1981-02-15

    A core lifter is suggested which contains a housing, core-clamping elements installed in the housing depressions in the form of semirings with projections on the outer surface restricting the rotation of the semirings in the housing depressions. In order to improve the strength and reliability of the core lifter, the semirings have a variable transverse section formed from the outside by the surface of the rotation body of the inner arc of the semiring aroung the rotation axis and from the inner a cylindrical surface which is concentric to the outer arc of the semiring. The core-clamping elements made in this manner have the possibility of freely rotating in the housing depressions under their own weight and from contact with the core sample. These semirings do not have weakened sections, have sufficient strength, are inserted into the limited ring section of the housing of the core lifter without reduction in its through opening and this improve the reliability of the core lifter in operation.

  20. BWRVIP-123, Revision 1NP: BWR Vessel and Internals Project Removal and Analysis of Material Samples from Core Shroud and Top Guide at Susquehanna Unit 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, D.; Haertel, T.; Lindberg, J.; Oliver, B.; Greenwood, L.

    2005-01-01

    Fast and thermal fluence were determined by a laboratory analysis of the samples. Fluence in the upper regions of the shroud (between the H1 and H2 welds) was substantially lower than that in the belt line region (near the H4 weld). Fluence in the top guide was significantly higher than fluence on the core shroud. As expected, helium concentrations were highest in regions where fluence was highest. Estimates of the initial boron concentration were similar to measurements made on materials removed from other reactors. A technical justification evaluated the acceptability of the sampling process with respect to structural consequences of material removal and to increased cracking susceptibility due to the as-left condition. It was determined that the sampling process was acceptable on both counts

  1. Comparison of Mother, Father, and Teacher Reports of ADHD Core Symptoms in a Sample of Child Psychiatric Outpatients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollie, Henrik; Larsson, Bo; Mørch, Willy-Tore

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of adding father ratings to mother and teacher ratings in the assessment of ADHD symptoms in children. Method: The ADHD Rating Scale-IV, the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Teacher Report Form were filled out by all three informants for a sample of 48 clinically referred children (79% boys) aged 6 to 15 (M…

  2. Impedance imaging in core analysis. Imaging of phase distributions in samples of natural cores of North Sea chalk containing conducting as well as non-conducting fluids. Part 1: Development of prototype measurement cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller Nielsen, C. [DTU, Inst. for Kemi (Denmark); Lauersen, S. [DTU, Lab. for Energiteknik (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    To make reservoir simulations it is necessary to know such parameter functions as the capillary pressure curve, relative permeabilities etc. These are difficult to measure in chalk by means of traditional techniques because of the low permeability. In the present approach a displacement process is studied in detail and computer simulation with reservoir simulators can be used to determine parameter functions. To do this, however, it is necessary to know the developments of saturation profiles during the experiment. Different methods are tested in the programme. NMR-scanning and {gamma}-logging are methods where straight rays penetrate the sample and are partly absorbed. In electric current imaging an electric field is induced in the sample and detected at the surface. There are several benefits of this method compared with the others: There are no special safety requirements in contrast to work with radiation; No expensive and limited available equipment is needed unlike NMR; There are no intrinsic procedures slowing the method. There are, however, also drawbacks: Making measurements on a core sample implies the application of a large number of minute electrodes. To do this an implementation has to be derived from scratch; The inverse problem, i.e. the determination of the field inside the sample from surface measurements, is more difficult than the inverse problem of straight ray absorption. In the present report the development of an experimental technique is described. In part II of the report the interpretation of the experimental results will be discussed. (EG) 21 refs.

  3. The Effect of Temperature and Injection Rate during Water Flooding Using Carbonate Core Samples: An Experimental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Ahmadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In many reservoirs, after water flooding, a large volume of oil is still left behind. Hot water injection is the most basic type of thermal recovery which increase recovery by improved sweep efficiency and thermal expansion of crude.In the present work, the effects of injection rate and the temperature of the injected water were surveyed by using core flooding apparatus. Water flooding was performed at different rates (0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 cc/min and temperatures (20 and 90 °C, and the reservoir temperature was about 63 °C. Oil recovery during hot water injection was more than water injection. Moreover, it was concluded that at injection rates of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 cc/min breakthrough time in hot water injection occurred 10 min later in comparison to water injection. The results showed that higher oil recovery and longer breakthrough time were obtained as a result of reducing injection rate. In the first 50 minutes, the oil recovery at injection rates of 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 cc/min was 27.5, 34, and 46% respectively. It was found that at the beginning of injection, thermal and non-thermal injection recovery factors are approximately equal. Moreover, according to the results, recovery factor at the lowest rate in hot water (T=90 °C and q=0.2 cc/min is the best condition to obtain the highest recovery.

  4. Potential bacterial core species associated with digital dermatitis in cattle herds identified by molecular profiling of interdigital skin samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss Nielsen, Martin; Strube, Mikael Lenz; Isbrand, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    of different molecular methods. Deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene variable regions V1–V2 showed that Treponema, Mycoplasma, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas were the genera best differentiating the DD samples from the controls. Additional deep sequencing analysis of the most abundant genus, Treponema...... in the epidermal lesions and were present in only a subset of samples. RT-qPCR analysis showed that treponemes were also actively expressing a panel of virulence factors at the site of infection. Our results further support the hypothesis that species belonging to the genus Treponema are major pathogens of DD...... and also provide sufficient clues to motivate additional research into the role of M. fermentans, F. necrophorum and P. levii in the etiology of DD....

  5. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  6. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions.

  7. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.; Elliott, M.L.

    1996-10-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs were established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste was performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property ,models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions

  8. Comparison of simulants to actual neutralized current acid waste: Process and product testing of three NCAW core samples from Tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, E.V.; Tingey, J.M.

    1996-04-01

    A vitrification plant is planned to process the high-level waste (HLW) solids from Hanford Site tanks into canistered glass logs for disposal in a national repository. Programs have been established within the Pacific Northwest Laboratory Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) Project to test and model simulated waste to support design, feed processability, operations, permitting, safety, and waste-form qualification. Parallel testing with actual radioactive waste is being performed on a laboratory-scale to confirm the validity of using simulants and glass property models developed from simulants. Laboratory-scale testing has been completed on three radioactive core samples from tanks 101-AZ and 102-AZ containing neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), which is one of the first waste types to be processed in the high-level waste vitrification plant under a privatization scenario. Properties of the radioactive waste measured during process and product testing were compared to simulant properties and model predictions to confirm the validity of simulant and glass property models work. This report includes results from the three NCAW core samples, comparable results from slurry and glass simulants, and comparisons to glass property model predictions

  9. Oskarshamn site investigation. Hydrogeochemical monitoring programme for core and percussion drilled boreholes 2009. Summary of ground water chemistry results from spring and autumn sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regander, Claes; Bergman, Bo (Sweco Environment AB (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    This report summarises the results obtained in 2009 from the hydrogeochemical monitoring programme for core and percussion drilled boreholes. During 2009 groundwater sampling has been performed in monitored (permanently installed) boreholes in two sampling periods, spring (May-June), and autumn (October-November). Both in spring and autumn groundwater sampling was carried out in the following 12 sections; HLX28:2, HLX35:2, HLX37:1, HLX39:1, KLX08:4, KLX10:2, KLX10:5, KLX12A:2, KLX15A:3, KLX15A:6, KLX18A:3, KLX19A:3. The programme started in 2005 and since then water sampling has been performed twice every year. The objective of the hydrogeochemical monitoring programme is to determine the groundwater composition in selected sections chosen for this purpose. In 2009 the sampling of core drilled borehole sections has been conducted in time series, where each borehole section has been sampled at seven occasions. Percussion drilled borehole sections has been sampled at three occasions. The final sample in each section was taken when the electric conductivity had reached a stable level. Obtained results from the activities presented here include groundwater chemistry data in accordance with SKB chemistry class 5 including options and SKB chemistry reduced class 5. SKB chemistry reduced class 5 includes analysis of pH, electric conductivity, alkalinity, density, drill water (uranine), major cations (Chapter 5.4), F-, Br-, Cl-, SO{sub 4}2-, Fe(II)/Fe(tot), HS-, DOC, TOC and the isotopes delta2H, delta18O and 3H. Options for SKB chemistry class 5 include even lanthanoids and other trace elements, As, In, I, environmental metals, NH{sub 4}+, nutrient salts and the isotopes delta34S, delta37Cl, 87Sr/86Sr, 10B/11B, delta13C, 226Ra, 222Rn, 238U, 234U, 230Th and 232Th. All data from the activity are stored in the SICADA database

  10. Sensitivity of hepatitis C virus core antigen and antibody combination assays in a global panel of window period samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laperche, Syria; Nubling, C. Micha; Stramer, Susan L.; Brojer, Ewa; Grabarczyk, Piotr; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi; Kalibatas, Vytenis; El Elkyabi, Magdy; Moftah, Faten; Girault, Annie; van Drimmelen, Harry; Busch, Michael P.; Lelie, Nico

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hepatitis C virus (HCV) antigen and antibody combination assays have been launched as a cost-effective alternative to nucleic acid testing (NAT) for reducing the antibody-negative window period (WP). Later, a HCV antigen chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) became available. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS A panel composed of 337 HCV NAT–yield samples that were characterized for viral load (VL) and genotype was used to compare the sensitivity of two combination enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (Monolisa, Bio-Rad; and Murex, formerly Abbott) and a HCV antigen CLIA (Abbott). Analytic sensitivity was compared with HCV RNA detection using Ultrio (Grifols) by testing serial dilutions of 10 genotype (gt)1 to gt4 samples. RESULTS HCV antigen CLIA detected 92.4% of samples, whereas Monolisa and Murex detected 38.3 and 47.5%, respectively. In the HCV RNA VL range of 105 to 107 IU/mL, Monolisa and Murex detected 38% to 56% of gt1, 85% to 78% of gt2, and 21% to 37% of gt3. The overall geometric mean 50% limit of detection (range) of Ultrio on gt1 to gt4 dilution series was 3.5 (1.2–7.7) copies/mL, compared to 3.3 × 106 (4.4 × 105-2.7 × 107), 3.4 × 106 (2.2 × 105–4.2 × 107), and 2728 (415–7243) copies/mL for Monolisa, Murex, and HCV antigen CLIA, respectively. CONCLUSION Analytical sensitivity of NAT was on average 1 million- and 780-fold higher than combination assays and HCV antigen CLIA, respectively. Relative sensitivities of combination assays differed for genotypes with Murex being more sensitive for gt1 and gt3 and Monolisa more sensitive for gt2. Although being less sensitive than NAT, combination assays could be considered in resource-limited settings since they detect 38% to 47% of seronegative WP donations. PMID:26013970

  11. Mineralogic and petrologic investigation of pre-test core samples from the spent fuel test-climax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryerson, F.J.; Qualheim, B.J.

    1983-12-01

    Pre-test samples obtained from just inside the perimeter of the canister emplacement holes of the Spent Fuel Test-Climax have been characterized by petrographic and microanalytical techniques. The primary quartz monzonite has undergone various degrees of hydrothermal alteration as a result of natural processes. Alteration is most apparent on primary plagioclase and biotite. The most common secondary phases on plagioclase are muscovite and calcite, while the most common secondary phases on biotite are epidote and chlorite. The major alteration zones encountered are localized along filled fractures, i.e. veins. The thickness and mineralogy of the alteration zones can be correlated with the vein mineralogy, becoming wider and more complex mineralogically when the veins contain calcite. 7 references, 10 figures, 4 tables

  12. Major- and trace elements in grain size fractions of the Apollo-17 core of the drilled sample 74001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraehenbuehl, U.; Gunten, H.R. von; Jost, D.; Meyer, G.; Wegmueller, F.

    1980-01-01

    Two layers of a drill sample were examined, one from a depth of 38 cm and the other from 58 cm depth. Neutron activation analysis was used for one group of elements, and radiochemical analysis for another. Over a range of grain size from 36 to 450 μm, the trace elements U, Co, and La were found to uniformly distributed, as was iron. The top layer consistently showed a 5-8% higher content. The volatile trace elements Ge and Cd were found to be enriched in the smaller grain sizes. This contradicts previous assumptions of an enrichment of the more volatile elements in top layers owing to more rapid cooling of volcanic eruptions. (R.S.)

  13. Sr-Nd-Hf Isotopic Analysis of <10 mg Dust Samples: Implications for Ice Core Dust Source Fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ujvari, Gabor; Wegner, Wencke; Klötzli, Urs

    2018-01-01

    Combined Sr‐Nd‐Hf isotopic data of two reference materials (AGV‐1/BCR2) and 50, 10, and 5 mg aliquots of carbonate‐free fine grain (isotopic...... compositions (ICs) demonstrate that robust isotopic ratios can be obtained from 5 to 10 mg size rock samples using the ion exchange/mass spectrometry techniques applied. While 87Sr/86Sr ratios of dust aluminosilicate fractions are affected by even small changes in pretreatments, Nd isotopic ratios are found...... to be insensitive to acid leaching, grain‐size or weathering effects. However, the Nd isotopic tracer is sometimes inconclusive in dust source fingerprinting (BEI and NUS both close to ɛNd(0) –10). Hafnium isotopic values (

  14. University of TX Bureau of Economic Geology's Core Research Centers: The Time is Right for Registering Physical Samples and Assigning IGSN's - Workflows, Stumbling Blocks, and Successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, A.; DeJarnett, B. B.

    2016-12-01

    The University Of Texas Bureau Of Economic Geology (BEG) serves as the geological survey for Texas and operates three geological sample repositories that house well over 2 million boxes of geological samples (cores and cuttings) and an abundant amount of geoscience data (geophysical logs, thin sections, geochemical analyses, etc.). Material is accessible and searchable online, and it is publically available to the geological community for research and education. Patrons access information about our collection by using our online core and log database (SQL format). BEG is currently undertaking a large project to: 1) improve the internal accuracy of metadata associated with the collection; 2) enhance the capabilities of the database for both BEG curators and researchers as well as our external patrons; and 3) ensure easy and efficient navigation for patrons through our online portal. As BEG undertakes this project, BEG is in the early stages of planning to export the metadata for its collection into SESAR (System for Earth Sample Registration) and have IGSN's (International GeoSample Numbers) assigned to its samples. Education regarding the value of IGSN's and an external registry (SESAR) has been crucial to receiving management support for the project because the concept and potential benefits of registering samples in a registry outside of the institution were not well-known prior to this project. Potential benefits such as increases in discoverability, repository recognition in publications, and interoperability were presented. The project was well-received by management, and BEG fully supports the effort to register our physical samples with SESAR. Since BEG is only in the initial phase of this project, any stumbling blocks, workflow issues, successes/failures, etc. can only be predicted at this point, but by mid-December, BEG expects to have several concrete issues to present in the session. Currently, our most pressing issue involves establishing the most

  15. Drilling, Coring and Sampling Using Piezoelectric Actuated Mechanisms: From the USDC to a Piezo-Rotary-Hammer Drill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2012-01-01

    NASA exploration missions are increasingly including sampling tasks but with the growth in engineering experience (particularly, Phoenix Scout and MSL) it is now very much recognized that planetary drilling poses many challenges. The difficulties grow significantly with the hardness of sampled material, the depth of drilling and the harshness of the environmental conditions. To address the requirements for samplers that could be operated at the conditions of the various bodies in the solar system, a number of piezoelectric actuated drills and corers were developed by the Advanced Technologies Group of JPL. The basic configuration that was conceived in 1998 is known as the Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC), and it operates as a percussive mechanism. This drill requires as low preload as 10N (important for operation at low gravity) allowing to operate with as low-mass device as 400g, use an average power as low as 2- 3W and drill rocks as hard as basalt. A key feature of this drilling mechanism is the use of a free-mass to convert the ultrasonic vibrations generated by piezoelectric stack to sonic impacts on the bit. Using the versatile capabilities f the USDC led to the development of many configurations and device sizes. Significant improvement of the penetration rate was achieved by augmenting the hammering action by rotation and use of a fluted bit to remove cuttings. To reach meters deep in ice a wireline drill was developed called the Ultrasonic/Sonic Gopher and it was demonstrated in 2005 to penetrate about 2-m deep at Antarctica. Jointly with Honeybee Robotics, this mechanism is currently being modified to incorporate rotation and inchworm operation forming Auto-Gopher to reach meters deep in rocks. To take advantage of the ability of piezoelectric actuators to operate over a wide temperatures range, piezoelectric actuated drills were developed and demonstrated to operate at as cold as -200oC and as hot as 500oC. In this paper, the developed mechanisms

  16. Comparison of mother, father, and teacher reports of ADHD core symptoms in a sample of child psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollie, Henrik; Larsson, Bo; Mørch, Willy-Tore

    2013-11-01

    To explore the significance of adding father ratings to mother and teacher ratings in the assessment of ADHD symptoms in children. The ADHD Rating Scale-IV, the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Teacher Report Form were filled out by all three informants for a sample of 48 clinically referred children (79% boys) aged 6 to 15 (M = 10.1) years. Correspondence between father and teacher reports on ADHD-specific symptoms (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = .38) exceeded that between mothers and teachers (ICC = .23). Fathers rated their children as having fewer problems than did mothers and teachers on Total scale scores and the Inattention subscale of the ADHD Rating Scale-IV. Mother ratings were more sensitive to an ADHD diagnosis, whereas father ratings better predicted an ADHD diagnosis requiring the two-setting criterion. The choice of parent informant and informant combination had a considerable impact on parent-teacher concordance and estimates of ADHD symptoms and subtypes in the child.

  17. High-precision dual-inlet IRMS measurements of the stable isotopes of CO2 and the N2O / CO2 ratio from polar ice core samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Bauska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An important constraint on mechanisms of past carbon cycle variability is provided by the stable isotopic composition of carbon in atmospheric carbon dioxide (δ13C-CO2 trapped in polar ice cores, but obtaining very precise measurements has proven to be a significant analytical challenge. Here we describe a new technique to determine the δ13C of CO2 at very high precision, as well as measuring the CO2 and N2O mixing ratios. In this method, ancient air is extracted from relatively large ice samples (~400 g with a dry-extraction "ice grater" device. The liberated air is cryogenically purified to a CO2 and N2O mixture and analyzed with a microvolume-equipped dual-inlet IRMS (Thermo MAT 253. The reproducibility of the method, based on replicate analysis of ice core samples, is 0.02‰ for δ13C-CO2 and 2 ppm and 4 ppb for the CO2 and N2O mixing ratios, respectively (1σ pooled standard deviation. Our experiments show that minimizing water vapor pressure in the extraction vessel by housing the grating apparatus in a ultralow-temperature freezer (−60 °C improves the precision and decreases the experimental blank of the method to −0.07 ± 0.04‰. We describe techniques for accurate calibration of small samples and the application of a mass-spectrometric method based on source fragmentation for reconstructing the N2O history of the atmosphere. The oxygen isotopic composition of CO2 is also investigated, confirming previous observations of oxygen exchange between gaseous CO2 and solid H2O within the ice archive. These data offer a possible constraint on oxygen isotopic fractionation during H2O and CO2 exchange below the H2O bulk melting temperature.

  18. Elastic anisotropy of core samples from the Taiwan Chelungpu Fault Drilling Project (TCDP): direct 3-D measurements and weak anisotropy approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Laurent; David, Christian; Špaček, Petr; Wong, Teng-Fong; Fortin, Jérôme; Song, Sheng Rong

    2012-01-01

    The study of seismic anisotropy has become a powerful tool to decipher rock physics attributes in reservoirs or in complex tectonic settings. We compare direct 3-D measurements of P-wave velocity in 132 different directions on spherical rock samples to the prediction of the approximate model proposed by Louis et al. based on a tensorial approach. The data set includes measurements on dry spheres under confining pressure ranging from 5 to 200 MPa for three sandstones retrieved at a depth of 850, 1365 and 1394 metres in TCDP hole A (Taiwan Chelungpu Fault Drilling Project). As long as the P-wave velocity anisotropy is weak, we show that the predictions of the approximate model are in good agreement with the measurements. As the tensorial method is designed to work with cylindrical samples cored in three orthogonal directions, a significant gain both in the number of measurements involved and in sample preparation is achieved compared to measurements on spheres. We analysed the pressure dependence of the velocity field and show that as the confining pressure is raised the velocity increases, the anisotropy decreases but remains significant even at high pressure, and the shape of the ellipsoid representing the velocity (or elastic) fabric evolves from elongated to planar. These observations can be accounted for by considering the existence of both isotropic and anisotropic crack distributions and their evolution with applied pressure.

  19. Dependence of Core and Extended Flux on Core Dominance ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Based on two extragalactic radio source samples, the core dominance parameter is calculated, and the correlations between the core/extended flux density and core dominance parameter are investi- gated. When the core dominance parameter is lower than unity, it is linearly correlated with the core flux density, ...

  20. Summary of micrographic analysis of selected core samples from Well ER-20-6n number 1 in support of matrix diffusion testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    ER-20-6number s ign1 was cored to determine fracture and lithologic properties proximal to the BULLION test cavity. Selected samples from ER-20-6number s ign1 were subjected to matrix and/or fracture diffusion experiments to assess solute movement in this environment. Micrographic analysis of these samples suggests that the similarity in bulk chemical composition results in very similar mineral assemblages forming along natural fractures. These samples are all part of the mafic-poor Calico Hills Formation and exhibit fracture-coating mineral assemblages dominated by mixed illite/smectite clay and illite, with local opaline silica (2,236 and 2, 812 feet), and zeolite (at 2,236 feet). Based on this small sample population, the magnitude to which secondary phases have formed on fracture surfaces bears an apparently inverse relationship to the competency of the host lithology, reflected by variations in the degree of fracturing and the development of secondary phases on fracture surfaces. In the flow breccia at 2,851 feet, thinly developed, localized coatings are developed along persistent open fracture apertures in this competent rock type. Fractures in the devitrified lava from 2,812 feet are irregular, and locally blocked by secondary mineral phases. Natural fractures on the zeolitized tuff from 2,236 feet are discontinuous and irregular and typically obstructed with secondary mineral phases. There are also a second set of clean fractures in the 2,236 foot sample which lack secondary mineral phases and are interpreted to have been induced by the BULLION test. Based on these results, it is expected that matrix diffusion will be enhanced in samples where potentially transmissive fractures exhibit the greatest degree of obstruction (2,236>2,812=2,835>2,851). It is unclear what influence the induced fractures observed at 2,236 feet may have on diffusion given the lack of knowledge on their extent. It is assumed that the bulk matrix diffusion characteristics of the

  1. The Brief Core Schema Scales (BCSS): psychometric properties and associations with paranoia and grandiosity in non-clinical and psychosis samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, David; Freeman, Daniel; Smith, Ben; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Bebbington, Paul; Bashforth, Hannah; Coker, Sian; Hodgekins, Joanne; Gracie, Alison; Dunn, Graham; Garety, Philippa

    2006-06-01

    Traditional instruments that measure self-esteem may not relate directly to the schema construct as outlined in recent cognitive models. The Brief Core Schema Scales (BCSS) aim to provide a theoretically coherent self-report assessment of schemata concerning self and others in psychosis. The scales assess four dimensions of self and other evaluation: negative-self, positive-self, negative-other, positive-other. We analysed the psychometric properties of the BCSS using a sample of 754 students recruited by email and 252 people with psychosis recruited as part of a trial of cognitive therapy. We report the internal consistency, stability and the factor structure of the scale, and the association of the BCSS with measures of self-esteem and with symptoms of paranoia and grandiosity. The BCSS have good psychometric properties and have more independence from mood than the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Schedule. People with chronic psychosis reported extreme negative evaluations of both self and others on these scales, but their levels of self-esteem and positive evaluations of self and others were similar to the student sample. Extreme negative evaluations of self and others appear to be characteristic of the appraisals of people with chronic psychosis, and are associated with symptoms of grandiosity and paranoia in the non-clinical population. The BCSS may provide a more useful measure of schemata about self and others than traditional measures of self-esteem.

  2. Core-shell Fe3O4 polydopamine nanoparticles as sorbent for magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction of copper from food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Emre; Tokalıoğlu, Şerife; Patat, Şaban

    2018-10-15

    In the present study, core-shell Fe 3 O 4 polydopamine nanoparticles were synthesized and used for the first time as an adsorbent for the vortex assisted magnetic dispersive solid phase extraction of copper from food samples. After elution, copper in the solutions was determined by FAAS. The adsorbent was characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, and zeta potential measurements. Various parameters affecting the magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction were evaluated. The optimum pH and magnetic adsorbent amount were found to be 5 and 40 mg, respectively. Elution was made by 3 mL of 2 mol L -1 HNO 3 .The major advantage of the method is the fast equilibration during adsorption without the need for vortexing or shaking. The preconcentration factor and detection limit of the method were found to be 150 and 0.22 mg L -1 , respectively. The precision (as RSD%) and adsorption capacity of the method were 3.7% and 28 mg g -1 , respectively. The method was successfully verified by analyzing four certified reference materials (SPS-WW1 Batch 114 Wastewater, TMDA-53.3 Lake water, BCR-482 Lichen and 1573a Tomato Leaves) and by addition/recovery tests of copper standard solution in organic baby food, muesli, macaroni, honey, and milk samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sampling in the Snow: High School Winter Field Experiences Provide Relevant, Real World Connections Between Scientific Practices and Disciplinary Core Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, E. W.; Burakowski, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    For much of the northern United States, the months surrounding the winter solstice are times of increased darkness, low temperatures, and frozen landscapes. It's a time when many high school science educators, who otherwise would venture outside with their classes, hunker down and are wary of the outdoors. However, a plethora of learning opportunities lies just beyond the classroom. Working collaboratively, a high school science teacher and a snow scientist have developed multiple activities to engage students in the scientific process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting the winter world using snow data to (1) learn about the insulative properties of snow, and (2) to learn about the role of snow cover on winter climate through its reflective properties while participating in a volunteer network that collects snow depth, albedo (reflectivity), and density data. These outdoor field-based snow investigations incorporate Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and disciplinary core ideas, including ESS2.C: The roles of water in Earth's surface processes and ESS2.D: Weather and Climate. Additionally, the lesson plans presented address Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in Mathematics, including the creation and analysis of bar graphs and time series plots (CCSS.Math.HSS-ID.A.1) and xy scatter plots (CCSS.Math.HSS-ID.B.6). High school students participating in the 2013/2014 snow sampling season described their outdoor learning experience as "authentic" and "hands-on" as compared to traditional class indoors. They emphasized that learning outdoors was essential to their understanding of underlying content and concepts because they "learn through actual experience."

  4. Mesures de contraintes in-situ. Méthode de relaxation des carottes Measuring in-Situ Stresses. Relaxation Method with Core Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perreau P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article, on se propose de présenter les premiers résultats de l'étude de la méthode d'évaluation des contraintes par mesure de déformations différées d'une carotte après son extraction. Le travail correspondant a été réalisé dans le cadre du projet ARTEP Fracturation hydraulique . Les principes de cette méthode et les quelques éléments d'interprétation récemment publiés dans la littérature sont exposés dans un premier temps. Les résultats de deux campagnes de mesures sur deux puits de la SNEA-P (Soudron, novembre 1985 et Lanot, juillet 1986 sont ensuite présentés. Ces essais ont mis en évidence que les déformations différées d'une carotte dues au relachement des contraintes sont effectivement mesurables. Cependant, une interprétation quantitative de ces mesures nécessite une amélioration des conditions expérimentales (stabilisation thermique, stabilisation de l'état de saturation. This article describes the first results of research on a method of evaluating stresses by measuring the differred deformations of a core sample after it has been extracted. The corresponding research was done within the framework of an ARTEP project on Hydraulic Fracturing . The principles of this method and several interpretation aspects published recently in the literature are described in the first part. Then the results of two measurement campaigns using two SNEA-P wells (Soudron in November 1985 and Lanot in July 1986 are described. These tests revealed that the differed deformations of a core sample due to the relaxing of stresses can effectively be measured. However, a quantitative interpretation of these measurements requires an improvement to be made in the experimental conditions (thermal stabilization, stabilization of the state of saturation.

  5. Geochemistry of core samples of the Tiva Canyon Tuff from drill hole UE-25 NRG number-sign 3, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, Z.E.; Futa, K.

    1996-01-01

    The Tiva Canyon Tuff of Miocene age is composed of crystal-poor, high-silica rhyolite overlain by a crystal-rich zone that is gradational in composition from high-silica rhyolite to quartz latite. Each of these zones is divided into subzones that have distinctive physical, mineralogical, and geochemical features.Accurate identification of these subzones and their contacts is essential for detailed mapping and correlation both at the surface and in the subsurface in drill holes and in the exploratory studies facility (ESF). This report presents analyses of potassium (K), calcium (Ca), titanium (Ti), rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr), yttrium (Y), zirconium (Zr), niobium (Nb), barium (Ba), lanthanum (La), and cerium (Ce) in core samples of the Tiva Canyon Tuff from drill hole UE-25 NRG number-sign 3. The concentrations of most of these elements are remarkably constant throughout the high-silica rhyolite, but at its upper contact with the crystal-rich zone, Ti, Zr, Ba, Ca, Sr, La, Ce, and K begin to increase progressively through the crystal-rich zone. In contrast, Rb and Nb decrease, and Y remains essentially constant. Initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios are relatively uniform in the high-silica rhyolite with a mean value of 0.7117, whereas initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios decrease upward in the quartz latite to values as low as 0.7090

  6. Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography separations of pharmaceutical samples using dual Fused-Core columns in the 2nd dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Anthony J; Ma, Lianjia

    2009-02-27

    This paper focuses on the application of RPLC x RPLC to pharmaceutical analysis and addresses the specific problem of separating co-eluting impurities/degradation products that maybe "hidden" within the peak envelope of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and thus may escape detection by conventional methods. A comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatograph (LC x LC) was constructed from commercially available HPLC equipment. This system utilizes two independently configurable 2nd dimension binary pumping systems to deliver independent flow rates, gradient profiles and mobile phase compositions to dual Fused-Core secondary columns. Very fast gradient separations (30s total cycle time) were achieved at ambient temperature without excessive backpressure and without compromising optimal 1st dimension sampling rates. The operation of the interface is demonstrated for the analysis of a 1mg/ml standard mixture containing 0.05% of a minor component. The practicality of using RPLC x RPLC for the analysis of actual co-eluting pharmaceutical degradation products, by exploiting pH-induced changes in selectivity, is also demonstrated using a three component mixture. This mixture (an API, an oxidation product of the API at 1.0%, w/w, and a photo degradant of the API at 0.5%, w/w) was used to assess the stability indicating nature of an established LC method for analysis of the API.

  7. Preparation of magnetic core mesoporous shell microspheres with C18-modified interior pore-walls for fast extraction and analysis of phthalates in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongbo; Huang, Danni; Fu, Chinfai; Wei, Biwen; Yu, Wenjia; Deng, Chunhui; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2011-09-16

    In this study, core-shell magnetic mesoporous microspheres with C18-functionalized interior pore-walls were synthesized through coating Fe(3)O(4) microspheres with a mesoporous inorganic-organic hybrid layer with a n-octadecyltriethoxysilane (C18TES) and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as the silica source and cetyltrimethylammonia bromide (CTAB) as a template. The obtained C18-functionalized Fe(3)O(4)@mSiO(2) microspheres possess numerous C18 groups anchored in the interior pore-walls, large surface area (274.7 m(2)/g, high magnetization (40.8 emu/g) and superparamagnetism, uniform mesopores (4.1 nm), which makes them ideal absorbents for simple, fast, and efficient extraction and enrichment of hydrophobic organic compounds in water samples. Several kinds of phthalates were used as the model hydrophobic organic compounds to systematically evaluate the performance of the C18-functionalized Fe(3)O(4)@mSiO(2) microspheres in extracting hydrophobic molecules by using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Various parameters, including eluting solvent, the amounts of absorbents, extraction time and elution time were optimized. Hydrophobic extraction was performed in the interior pore of magnetic mesoporous microspheres, and the materials had the anti-interference ability to macromolecular proteins, which was also investigated in the work. Under the optimized conditions, C18-functionalized Fe(3)O(4)@mSiO(2) microspheres were successfully used to analyze the real water samples. The results indicated that this novel method was fast, convenient and efficient for the target compounds and could avoid being interfered by macromolecules. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Heterogeneity of PTEN and ERG expression in prostate cancer on core needle biopsies: implications for cancer risk stratification and biomarker sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Rajal B; Bentley, James; Jeffery, Zach; DeMarzo, Angelo M

    2015-05-01

    ERG and PTEN biomarkers are increasingly being analyzed on prostate core biopsies (NBXs); ERG as a marker of clonality and number of separately arising tumor foci and PTEN for prognostic information. Yet, in patients with multiple biopsy cores positive for cancer (PCa), there is no standardized approach for interrogation of these biomarkers in terms of the number of positive cores to evaluate. A total of 194 NBX cases containing more than one positive core with cancer were evaluated for ERG overexpression and PTEN loss by immunostaining (immunohistochemistry) of all positive cores. ERG overexpression or PTEN loss in at least one cancer core was present in 111 (57%) and 69 (36%) cases respectively. ERG overexpression was significantly associated with PTEN loss (P < .0001), and PTEN loss was associated with a high Gleason score (P < .0001). Inter- and intra-tumor core staining heterogeneity for ERG overexpression occurred in 42% and 5% cases and for PTEN loss both intra- and inter-tumor core heterogeneity was 68%. PTEN staining was highly discordant between PCa sites regardless of laterality. When the Gleason score was non-uniform across PCa sites, the combination of cores showing the highest Gleason score and largest tumor volume provided the best representation of ERG overexpression (92%) and PTEN loss (98%). When grades were uniform across cancer sites, the highest tumor volume core was generally representative of ERG overexpression (90%) but was less representative for PTEN loss (76%). Our results suggest that knowledge of this heterogeneity is critical for developing optimal yet cost-effective strategies to identify these underlying molecular abnormalities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Diagnostic accuracy of 22/25-gauge core needle in endoscopic ultrasound-guided sampling: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyoung-Chul; Kang, Hyun; Lee, Jae Young; Choi, Geun Joo; Choi, Jung Sik

    2016-11-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided core needle aspiration with that of standard fine-needle aspiration by systematic review and meta-analysis. Studies using 22/25-gauge core needles, irrespective of comparison with standard fine needles, were comprehensively reviewed. Pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and summary receiver operating characteristic curves for the diagnosis of malignancy were used to estimate the overall diagnostic efficiency. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and DOR of the core needle for the diagnosis of malignancy were 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 0.90), 0.99 (95% CI, 0.96 to 1), and 167.37 (95% CI, 65.77 to 425.91), respectively. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and DOR of the standard needle were 0.84 (95% CI, 0.79 to 0.88), 1 (95% CI, 0.97 to 1), and 130.14 (95% CI, 34.00 to 495.35), respectively. The area under the curve of core and standard needle in the diagnosis of malignancy was 0.974 and 0.955, respectively. The core and standard needle were comparable in terms of pancreatic malignancy diagnosis. There was no significant difference in procurement of optimal histologic cores between core and standard needles (risk ratio [RR], 0.545; 95% CI, 0.187 to 1.589). The number of needle passes for diagnosis was significantly lower with the core needle (standardized mean difference, -0.72; 95% CI, -1.02 to -0.41). There were no significant differences in overall complications (RR, 1.26; 95% CI, 0.34 to 4.62) and technical failure (RR, 5.07; 95% CI, 0.68 to 37.64). Core and standard needles were comparable in terms of diagnostic accuracy, technical performance, and safety profile.

  10. Proteomics Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Proteomics Core is the central resource for mass spectrometry based proteomics within the NHLBI. The Core staff help collaborators design proteomics experiments in a...

  11. An automated setup to measure paleoatmospheric δ13C-CH4, δ15N-N2O and δ18O-N2O in one ice core sample

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperlich, P.; Buizert, C.; Jenk, T.M.; Sapart, C.J.; Prokopiou, M.; Röckmann, T.; Blunier, T.

    2013-01-01

    Air bubbles in ice core samples represent the only opportunity to study the isotopic variability of paleoatmospheric CH4 and N2O. The highest possible precision in isotope measurements is required to maximize the resolving power for CH4 and N2O sink and source reconstructions. We present a new setup

  12. Reaction of Topopah Spring tuff with J-13 water at 1500C: samples from drill cores USW G-1, USW GU-3, USW G-4, and UE-25h No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.

    1985-01-01

    Samples of Topopah Spring tuff selected from vertical drill holes USW G-1, GU-3, and G-4, and from the horizontal air-drilled hole at Fran Ridge were reacted with J-13 water at 150 0 C. The primary purpose of these experiments was to compare the resulting solution chemistries to estimate the degree of homogeneity that might be expected in thermally affected ground water in a potential nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The second purpose was to relate data obtained from welded devitrified Topopah Spring tuff collected from the potential repository depth to that previously obtained using outcrop samples. The results show very similar aqueous phase chemistries for all samples after reaction for times up to 70 days. The largest difference in final solution concentrations was for silica in one of the samples from Fran Ridge. All vertical drill core samples gave results for silica that were in agreement to within +-6 ppM and indicated solubility controlled by cristobalite. The results for reaction at 150 0 C are in agreement with those obtained in previous experiments using surface outcrop samples from Fran Ridge. The major difference between the drill core results and the outcrop samples is found in the data for room-temperature rinse solutions. The outcrop samples show relatively large amounts of soluble salts that can be easily removed at room temperature. The data for room-temperature rinsing of drill core samples show no significant quantities of readily soluble salts. This result is particularly significant for the samples from the air-drilled hole at Fran Ridge, since drilling fluid that might have removed soluble salts was not used in the portion of the hole from which the samples were obtained. This result strongly suggests that the presence of soluble salts is a surface evaporation phenomenon, and that such materials are unlikely to be present at the depth of the repository

  13. Core Hunter 3: flexible core subset selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beukelaer, Herman; Davenport, Guy F; Fack, Veerle

    2018-05-31

    Core collections provide genebank curators and plant breeders a way to reduce size of their collections and populations, while minimizing impact on genetic diversity and allele frequency. Many methods have been proposed to generate core collections, often using distance metrics to quantify the similarity of two accessions, based on genetic marker data or phenotypic traits. Core Hunter is a multi-purpose core subset selection tool that uses local search algorithms to generate subsets relying on one or more metrics, including several distance metrics and allelic richness. In version 3 of Core Hunter (CH3) we have incorporated two new, improved methods for summarizing distances to quantify diversity or representativeness of the core collection. A comparison of CH3 and Core Hunter 2 (CH2) showed that these new metrics can be effectively optimized with less complex algorithms, as compared to those used in CH2. CH3 is more effective at maximizing the improved diversity metric than CH2, still ensures a high average and minimum distance, and is faster for large datasets. Using CH3, a simple stochastic hill-climber is able to find highly diverse core collections, and the more advanced parallel tempering algorithm further increases the quality of the core and further reduces variability across independent samples. We also evaluate the ability of CH3 to simultaneously maximize diversity, and either representativeness or allelic richness, and compare the results with those of the GDOpt and SimEli methods. CH3 can sample equally representative cores as GDOpt, which was specifically designed for this purpose, and is able to construct cores that are simultaneously more diverse, and either are more representative or have higher allelic richness, than those obtained by SimEli. In version 3, Core Hunter has been updated to include two new core subset selection metrics that construct cores for representativeness or diversity, with improved performance. It combines and outperforms the

  14. Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study, wall coring and scraping in Tanks W-3 and W-4 (North Tank Farm), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This plan documents the procedures for collecting and analyzing wall core and wall scraping samples from Tanks W-3 and W-4 in the North Tank Farm. This is in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Treatability Study of the Gunite and Associated Tanks at ORNL. The sampling and analysis will be in concert with sludge retrieval and sluicing of the tanks. Wall scraping and wall core samples will be collected from each quadrant in each tank by using a scraping sampler and a coring drill deployed by the Houdini robot vehicle. Each sample will be labeled, transported to the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory and analyzed for physical/radiological characteristics, including total activity, gross alpha, gross beta, radioactive Sr + Cs, and other alpha and gamma emitting radionuclides. The Data Quality Objectives process, based on US EPA guidance (EPA QA/G-4, Sept. 1994), was applied to identify the objectives of this sampling and analysis. Results of the analysis will be used to validate predictions of a Sr concrete diffusion model, estimate the amount of radioactivity remaining in the tank shells, provide information to correlate with measurements taken by the Gunite Tank Isotope Mapping Probe and the Characterization End Effector, and estimate the performance of the wall cleaning system

  15. Visible-near infrared point spectrometry of drill core samples from Río Tinto, Spain: results from the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Brad; Brown, Adrian J; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    Sampling of subsurface rock may be required to detect evidence of past biological activity on Mars. The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) utilized the Río Tinto region, Spain, as a Mars analog site to test dry drilling technologies specific to Mars that retrieve subsurface rock for biological analysis. This work examines the usefulness of visible-near infrared (VNIR) (450-1000 nm) point spectrometry to characterize ferric iron minerals in core material retrieved during a simulated Mars drilling mission. VNIR spectrometry can indicate the presence of aqueously precipitated ferric iron minerals and, thus, determine whether biological analysis of retrieved rock is warranted. Core spectra obtained during the mission with T1 (893-897 nm) and T2 (644-652 nm) features indicate goethite-dominated samples, while relatively lower wavelength T1 (832-880 nm) features indicate hematite. Hematite/goethite molar ratios varied from 0 to 1.4, and within the 880-898 nm range, T1 features were used to estimate hematite/goethite molar ratios. Post-mission X-ray analysis detected phyllosilicates, which indicates that examining beyond the VNIR (e.g., shortwave infrared, 1000-2500 nm) will enhance the detection of other minerals formed by aqueous processes. Despite the limited spectral range of VNIR point spectrometry utilized in the MARTE Mars drilling simulation project, ferric iron minerals could be identified in retrieved core material, and their distribution served to direct core subsampling for biological analysis.

  16. A new set-up for simultaneous high-precision measurements of CO2, δ13C-CO2 and δ18O-CO2 on small ice core samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenk, Theo Manuel; Rubino, Mauro; Etheridge, David; Ciobanu, Viorela Gabriela; Blunier, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Palaeoatmospheric records of carbon dioxide and its stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) obtained from polar ice cores provide important constraints on the natural variability of the carbon cycle. However, the measurements are both analytically challenging and time-consuming; thus only data exist from a limited number of sampling sites and time periods. Additional analytical resources with high analytical precision and throughput are thus desirable to extend the existing datasets. Moreover, consistent measurements derived by independent laboratories and a variety of analytical systems help to further increase confidence in the global CO2 palaeo-reconstructions. Here, we describe our new set-up for simultaneous measurements of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios and atmospheric δ13C and δ18O-CO2 in air extracted from ice core samples. The centrepiece of the system is a newly designed needle cracker for the mechanical release of air entrapped in ice core samples of 8-13 g operated at -45 °C. The small sample size allows for high resolution and replicate sampling schemes. In our method, CO2 is cryogenically and chromatographically separated from the bulk air and its isotopic composition subsequently determined by continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). In combination with thermal conductivity measurement of the bulk air, the CO2 mixing ratio is calculated. The analytical precision determined from standard air sample measurements over ice is ±1.9 ppm for CO2 and ±0.09 ‰ for δ13C. In a laboratory intercomparison study with CSIRO (Aspendale, Australia), good agreement between CO2 and δ13C results is found for Law Dome ice core samples. Replicate analysis of these samples resulted in a pooled standard deviation of 2.0 ppm for CO2 and 0.11 ‰ for δ13C. These numbers are good, though they are rather conservative estimates of the overall analytical precision achieved for single ice sample measurements. Facilitated by the small sample requirement

  17. THE GROWTH OF COOL CORES AND EVOLUTION OF COOLING PROPERTIES IN A SAMPLE OF 83 GALAXY CLUSTERS AT 0.3 < z < 1.2 SELECTED FROM THE SPT-SZ SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, M.; Bautz, M. W. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Vikhlinin, A.; Stalder, B.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bayliss, M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Haan, T. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Lin, H. W. [Caddo Parish Magnet High School, Shrevport, LA 71101 (United States); Aird, K. A. [University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Bocquet, S.; Desai, S. [Department of Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany); Brodwin, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Cho, H. M. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Clocchiatti, A., E-mail: mcdonald@space.mit.edu [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrosifica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica (Chile); and others

    2013-09-01

    We present first results on the cooling properties derived from Chandra X-ray observations of 83 high-redshift (0.3 < z < 1.2) massive galaxy clusters selected by their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich signature in the South Pole Telescope data. We measure each cluster's central cooling time, central entropy, and mass deposition rate, and compare these properties to those for local cluster samples. We find no significant evolution from z {approx} 0 to z {approx} 1 in the distribution of these properties, suggesting that cooling in cluster cores is stable over long periods of time. We also find that the average cool core entropy profile in the inner {approx}100 kpc has not changed dramatically since z {approx} 1, implying that feedback must be providing nearly constant energy injection to maintain the observed ''entropy floor'' at {approx}10 keV cm{sup 2}. While the cooling properties appear roughly constant over long periods of time, we observe strong evolution in the gas density profile, with the normalized central density ({rho}{sub g,0}/{rho}{sub crit}) increasing by an order of magnitude from z {approx} 1 to z {approx} 0. When using metrics defined by the inner surface brightness profile of clusters, we find an apparent lack of classical, cuspy, cool-core clusters at z > 0.75, consistent with earlier reports for clusters at z > 0.5 using similar definitions. Our measurements indicate that cool cores have been steadily growing over the 8 Gyr spanned by our sample, consistent with a constant, {approx}150 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} cooling flow that is unable to cool below entropies of 10 keV cm{sup 2} and, instead, accumulates in the cluster center. We estimate that cool cores began to assemble in these massive systems at z{sub cool}=1.0{sup +1.0}{sub -0.2}, which represents the first constraints on the onset of cooling in galaxy cluster cores. At high redshift (z {approx}> 0.75), galaxy clusters may be classified as ''cooling flows

  18. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    formation comprised of coarse, large-grain sand in ice. Results with this core showed that the viscosity of the drilling fluid must also be carefully controlled. When coarse sand was being cored, the core barrel became stuck because the drilling fluid was not viscous enough to completely remove the large grains of sand. These tests were very valuable to the project by showing the difficulties in coring permafrost or hydrates in a laboratory environment (as opposed to a field environment where drilling costs are much higher and the potential loss of equipment greater). Among the conclusions reached from these simulated hydrate coring tests are the following: Frozen hydrate core samples can be recovered successfully; A spring-finger core catcher works best for catching hydrate cores; Drilling fluid can erode the core and reduces its diameter, making it more difficult to capture the core; Mud must be designed with proper viscosity to lift larger cuttings; and The bottom 6 inches of core may need to be drilled dry to capture the core successfully.

  19. Sample descriptions and geophysical logs for cored well BP-3-USGS, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Alamosa County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Skipp, Gary L.; Thomas, Jonathan V.; Davis, Joshua K.; Benson, Mary Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The BP-3-USGS well was drilled at the southwestern corner of Great Sand Dunes National Park in the San Luis Valley, south-central Colorado, 68 feet (ft, 20.7 meters [m]) southwest of the National Park Service’s boundary-piezometer (BP) well 3. BP-3-USGS is located at latitude 37°43ʹ18.06ʺN. and longitude 105°43ʹ39.30ʺW., at an elevation of 7,549 ft (2,301 m). The well was drilled through poorly consolidated sediments to a depth of 326 ft (99.4 m) in September 2009. Water began flowing from the well after penetrating a clay-rich layer that was first intercepted at a depth of 119 ft (36.3 m). The base of this layer, at an elevation of 7,415 ft (2,260 m) above sea level, likely marks the top of a regional confined aquifer recognized throughout much of the San Luis Valley. Approximately 69 ft (21 m) of core was recovered (about 21 percent), almost exclusively from clay-rich zones. Coarser grained fractions were collected from mud extruded from the core barrel or captured from upwelling drilling fluids. Natural gamma-ray, full waveform sonic, density, neutron, resistivity, spontaneous potential, and induction logs were acquired. The well is now plugged and abandoned.

  20. A study of uranium series disequilibrium in core profiles and mineral separates from the samples of Lac du Bonnet granite from the URL site, Pinawa, Manitoba, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanovich, M.; Longworth, G.; Wilkins, M.A.; Hasler, S.E.

    1987-12-01

    Uranium series disequilibrium measurements of actinide activities and activity ratios have been used to study the geochemical history of Lac du Bonnet granite, from the URL site, Pinawa, Canada. Measurements on core profiles between fractured surfaces and the parent rock show that the granite underwent high temperature events several million years ago, followed by more recent low temperature events within the last million years. The main locations for the rock/water interaction and exchange of actinides are the fracture surfaces. The results of similar measurements on separated mineral phases show that the 'soft' minerals such as biotite and feldspar are more vulnerable to weathering than the 'hard' accessory minerals such as zircon. (author)

  1. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2008-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  2. Transformer core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehendale, A.; Hagedoorn, Wouter; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2010-01-01

    A transformer core includes a stack of a plurality of planar core plates of a magnetically permeable material, which plates each consist of a first and a second sub-part that together enclose at least one opening. The sub-parts can be fitted together via contact faces that are located on either side

  3. Windscale pile core surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, R.F.; Mathews, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    The two Windscale Piles were closed down, defueled as far as possible and mothballed for thirty years following a fire in the core of Pile 1 in 1957 resulting from the spontaneous release of stored Wigner energy in the graphite moderator. Decommissioning of the reactors commenced in 1987 and has reached the stage where the condition of both cores needs to be determined. To this end, non-intrusive and intrusive surveys and sampling of the cores have been planned and partly implemented. The objectives for each Pile differ slightly. The location and quantity of fuel remaining in the damaged core of Pile 1 needed to be established, whereas the removal of all fuel from Pile 2 needed to be confirmed. In Pile 1, the possible existence of a void in the core is to be explored and in Pile 2, the level of Wigner energy remaining required to be quantified. Levels of radioactivity in both cores needed to be measured. The planning of the surveys is described including strategy, design, safety case preparation and the remote handling and viewing equipment required to carry out the inspection, sampling and monitoring work. The results from the completed non-intrusive survey of Pile 2 are summarised. They confirm that the core is empty and the graphite is in good condition. The survey of Pile 1 has just started. (UK)

  4. TMI-2 core debris analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.A.; Carlson, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    One of the ongoing examination tasks for the damaged TMI-2 reactor is analysis of samples of debris obtained from the debris bed presently at the top of the core. This paper summarizes the results reported in the TMI-2 Core Debris Grab Sample Examination and Analysis Report, which will be available early in 1986. The sampling and analysis procedures are presented, and information is provided on the key results as they relate to the present core condition, peak temperatures during the transient, temperature history, chemical interactions, and core relocation. The results are then summarized

  5. Synthesis of core-shell molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres by precipitation polymerization for the inline molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction of thiabendazole from citrus fruits and orange juice samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahona, Francisco; Turiel, Esther; Cormack, Peter A G; Martín-Esteban, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer microspheres with narrow particle size distributions and core-shell morphology by a two-step precipitation polymerization procedure is described. Polydivinylbenzene (poly DVB-80) core particles were used as seed particles in the production of molecularly imprinted polymer shells by copolymerization of divinylbenzene-80 with methacrylic acid in the presence of thiabendazole (TBZ) and an appropriate porogen. Thereafter, polymer particles were packed into refillable stainless steel HPLC columns used in the development of an inline molecularly imprinted SPE method for the determination of TBZ in citrus fruits and orange juice samples. Under optimized chromatographic conditions, recoveries of TBZ within the range 81.1-106.4%, depending upon the sample, were obtained, with RSDs lower than 10%. This novel method permits the unequivocal determination of TBZ in the samples under study, according to the maximum residue levels allowed within Europe, in less than 20 min and without any need for a clean-up step in the analytical protocol. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. Appendix B: Text Exemplars and Sample Performance Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The text samples presented in this document primarily serve to exemplify the level of complexity and quality that the Standards require all students in a given grade band to engage with. Additionally, they are suggestive of the breadth of texts that students should encounter in the text types required by the Standards. The choices should serve as…

  7. Analytical Results for 35 Mine-Waste Tailings Cores and Six Bed-Sediment Samples, and An Estimate of the Volume of Contaminated Material at Buckeye Meadow on Upper Basin Creek, Northern Jefferson County, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, David L.; Church, Stan E.; Finney, Christopher J.

    1999-01-01

    Metal-mining related wastes in the Boulder River basin study area in northern Jefferson County, Montana have been implicated in their detrimental effects on water quality with regard to acid-generation and toxic-metal solubilization. Flotation-mill tailings in the meadow below the Buckeye mine, hereafter referred to as the Buckeye mill-tailings site, have been identified as significant contributors to water quality degradation of Basin Creek, Montana. Basin Creek is one of three tributaries to the Boulder River in the study area; bed sediments and waters draining from the Buckeye mine have also been implicated. Geochemical analysis of 35 tailings cores and six bed-sediment samples was undertaken to determine the concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Pb,and Zn present in these materials. These elements are environmentally significant, in that they can be toxic to fish and/or the invertebrate organisms that constitute their food. A suite of one-inch cores of dispersed flotation-mill tailings and underlying premining material was taken from a large, flat area north of Basin Creek near the site of the Buckeye mine. Thirty-five core samples were taken and divided into 204 subsamples. The samples were analyzed by ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) using a mixed-acid digestion. Results of the core analyses show that the elements listed above are present at moderate to very high concentrations (arsenic to 63,000 ppm, silver to 290 ppm, cadmium to 370 ppm, copper to 4,800 ppm, lead to 93,000 ppm, and zinc to 23,000 ppm). Volume calculations indicate that an estimated 8,400 metric tons of contaminated material are present at the site. Six bed-sediment samples were also subjected to the mixed-acid total digestion, and a warm (50°C) 2M HCl-1% H2O2 leach and analyzed by ICP-AES. Results indicate that bed sediments of Basin Creek are only slightly impacted by past mining above the Buckeye-Enterprise complex, moderately impacted at the upper (eastern

  8. Ground Penetrating Radar, Magnetic and Compositional Analysis of Sediment Cores and Surface Samples: The Relationships Between Lacustrine Sediments and Holocene Lake- Level and Climate Change at Deming Lake, Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, R.; Lascu, I.; Plank, C.

    2007-12-01

    Deming Lake is a small (Deming. Cores were sampled continuously at a 1-2 cm resolution and sediment composition (in terms of percent organic matter, carbonate material, and minerogenic residue) was determined via loss on ignition (LOI). Isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) were used as proxies of magnetic mineral concentration and grain size. Four lithostratigraphic units were identified and correlated between cores based on these analyses. Changes in GPR facies corroborate the correlation between the two shallow cores. In order to inform our interpretation of down-core variations in magnetic properties and LOI values in terms of variations in lake depth, a suite of over 70 modern sediment samples were collected from the basin and analyzed. LOI compositional variability across the basin was high, with no clear trends related to depth or distance from shore. A sharp decrease in minerogenic content was observed at depths consistent with a predicted wave-base of 0.5 m, but aside from this trend it appears the steep slopes of much of the basin promote gravity driven slumping and mixing of sediments at depth. In the profundal sediments IRM values are routinely 5% higher than in the slope and littoral environments, while ARM/IRM ratios indicate an increase in magnetic grain size with water depth. We infer that an increase in coarse organic material in the shallow-water cores of Deming records a period of aridity (associated with a decrease lake-level less than 2m based on GPR profiles) and/or increased water clarity during the regionally expansive mid-Holocene dry period. We do not see clear evidence of late-Holocene lake level change of a significant magnitude (i.e. >1m). While remanence measurements (especially IRM) often correlate with the LOI residue, interference in the IRM resulting from the dissolution of magnetic minerals casts uncertainty into the reliability of our magnetic measurements as a signal of climate

  9. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azekura, Kazuo; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1992-01-01

    In a BWR type reactor, a great number of pipes (spectral shift pipes) are disposed in the reactor core. Moderators having a small moderating cross section (heavy water) are circulated in the spectral shift pipes to suppress the excess reactivity while increasing the conversion ratio at an initial stage of the operation cycle. After the intermediate stage of the operation cycle in which the reactor core reactivity is lowered, reactivity is increased by circulating moderators having a great moderating cross section (light water) to extend the taken up burnup degree. Further, neutron absorbers such as boron are mixed to the moderator in the spectral shift pipe to control the concentration thereof. With such a constitution, control rods and driving mechanisms are no more necessary, to simplify the structure of the reactor core. This can increase the fuel conversion ratio and control great excess reactivity. Accordingly, a nuclear reactor core of high conversion and high burnup degree can be attained. (I.N.)

  10. Ice Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, atmospheric trace gases, and other aspects of climate and environment derived from ice cores drilled on glaciers and ice...

  11. [The new eubacterium Roseomonas baikalica sp. nov. isolated from core samples collected by deep-hole drilling of the bottom of Lake Baĭkal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, I S; Pechurkina, N I; Morozova, O V; Riabchikova, E I; Belikov, S I; Puchkova, L I; Emel'ianova, E K; Torok, T; Repin, V E

    2007-01-01

    Microbiological analysis of samples of sedimentary rocks from various eras of the geological history of the Baikal rift has enabled us to isolate a large number of microorganisms that can be classified into new, previously undescribed species. The present work deals with the identification and study of the morphological, biochemical, and physiological properties of one such strain, Che 82, isolated from sample C-29 of 3.4-3.5 Ma-old sedimentary rocks taken at a drilling depth of 146.74 m. As a result of our investigations, strain Che 82 is described as a new bacterial species, Roseomonas baikalica sp. nov., belonging to the genus Roseomonas within the family Methylobacteriaceae, class Alphaproteobacteria.

  12. Rb-Sr systematics in drill core samples of the Eye-Dashwa Lakes pluton at the whole rock and mineral scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, Z.E.; Futa, K.; Kamineni, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-one whole-rock samples from boreholes ATK-1 and ATK-6 define a precise Rb-Sr isochron with an age of 2637 ± 33 Ma and initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr intercept, IR(Sr), of 0.70144 ± 0.00006. An internal mineral isochron for ATC-1 (991-997) and biotites from ATK-1 (35.63) and ATK-1 (3.84) give younger ages of 2541 ± 14 Ma 2574 ± 25 Ma, and 2534 ± 25 Ma, respectively. Data for samples from fracture zones scatter but correlate around an isochron of 2281 ± 153 Ma. The internal isochron and biotite ages record cooling below about 300 C due to uplift and erosion. The younger age, 2281 ± 153 Ma, records an episode or episodes of brittle failure at relatively high crustal levels. These fractures provided pathways for infiltration of water, which facilitated the mineralogical alteration

  13. Thermal Expansivity Between 150 and 800°C of Hydrothermally Altered Conduit Dyke Samples from USDP-4 Drill Core (Mt Unzen, Shimabara, Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, T. I.; Hess, K. U.; Vasseur, J.; Wadsworth, F. B.; Gilg, H. A.; Nakada, S.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2017-12-01

    When hot magma intrudes the crust, the surrounding rocks expand. Similarly, the cooling magma contracts. The expansion and contraction of these multiphase materials is not simple and often requires empirical constraint. Therefore, we constrained the thermal expansivity of Unzen dome and conduit samples using a NETZSCH® DIL 402C. Following experiments, those samples were scanned using a Phoenix v|tome|x m to observe the cracks that may have developed during the heating and cooling. The dome samples do not show petrological or chemical signs of alteration. However, the alteration of the conduit dykes is represented by the occurrence of the main secondary phases such as chlorite, sulfides, carbonates, R1 (Reichweite parameter) illite-smectite, and kaolinite. These alteration products indicate an (I) early weak to moderate argillic magmatic alteration, and a (II) second stage weak to moderate propylitic hydrothermal alteration. The linear thermal expansion coefficient aL of the dome material is K-1 between 150° and 800°C and shows a sharp peak of up to K-1 around the alpha-beta-quartz-transition ( 573°C). In contrast, aL of the hydrothermally altered conduit samples starts to increase around 180° and reaches K-1 at 400°C. We interpret this effect as being due to the water content of the kaolinite and the R1 illite-smectite, which induces larger expansions per degree temperature change. Furthermore, the altered conduit samples show a more pronounced increases of aL between 500 and 650°C of up to peaks at K-1, which is generated by the breakdown of chlorite, iron-rich dolomite solid solutions, calcite, and pyrite. We use a 1D conductive model of heat transfer to explore how the country rock around the Unzen conduit zone would heat up after intrusion. In turn, we convert these temperature profiles to thermal stress profiles, assuming the edifice is largely undeformable. We show that these high linear thermal expansion coefficients of the hydrothermally altered

  14. An automated GC-C-GC-IRMS setup to measure palaeoatmospheric δ13C-CH4, δ15N-N2O and δ18O-N2O in one ice core sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sperlich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Air bubbles in ice core samples represent the only opportunity to study the mixing ratio and isotopic variability of palaeoatmospheric CH4 and N2O. The highest possible precision in isotope measurements is required to maximize the resolving power for CH4 and N2O sink and source reconstructions. We present a new setup to measure δ13C-CH4, δ15N-N2O and δ18O-N2O isotope ratios in one ice core sample and with one single IRMS instrument, with a precision of 0.09, 0.6 and 0.7‰, respectively, as determined on 0.6–1.6 nmol CH4 and 0.25–0.6 nmol N2O. The isotope ratios are referenced to the VPDB scale (δ13C-CH4, the N2-air scale (δ15N-N2O and the VSMOW scale (δ18O-N2O. Ice core samples of 200–500 g are melted while the air is constantly extracted to minimize gas dissolution. A helium carrier gas flow transports the sample through the analytical system. We introduce a new gold catalyst to oxidize CO to CO2 in the air sample. CH4 and N2O are then separated from N2, O2, Ar and CO2 before they get pre-concentrated and separated by gas chromatography. A combustion unit is required for δ13C-CH4 analysis, which is equipped with a constant oxygen supply as well as a post-combustion trap and a post-combustion GC column (GC-C-GC-IRMS. The post-combustion trap and the second GC column in the GC-C-GC-IRMS combination prevent Kr and N2O interferences during the isotopic analysis of CH4-derived CO2. These steps increase the time for δ13C-CH4 measurements, which is used to measure δ15N-N2O and δ18O-N2O first and then δ13C-CH4. The analytical time is adjusted to ensure stable conditions in the ion source before each sample gas enters the IRMS, thereby improving the precision achieved for measurements of CH4 and N2O on the same IRMS. The precision of our measurements is comparable to or better than that of recently published systems. Our setup is calibrated by analysing multiple reference gases that were injected over bubble-free ice samples. We show

  15. Iowa Geologic Sampling Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Point locations of geologic samples/files in the IGS repository. Types of samples include well cuttings, outcrop samples, cores, drillers logs, measured sections,...

  16. Determination of Organophosphorous Pesticides in Environmental Water Samples Using Surface-Engineered C18 Functionalized Silica-Coated Core-Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles-Based Extraction Coupled with GC-MS/MS Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Neha; Kumari, Supriya; Nair, Kishore; Alam, Samsul; Raza, Syed K

    2017-05-01

    The present paper depicts a novel method based on magnetic SPE (MSPE) for the determination of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) such as phorate, malathion, and chlorpyrifos in environmental water samples. In this study, C18 functionalized silica-coated core-shell iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were used as a surface-engineered magnetic sorbent for the selective extraction of pesticides from aqueous samples, followed by GC-MS and GC-tandem MS analysis for confirmative determination of the analytes. Various important method parameters, including quantity of MNP adsorbent, volume of sample, effective time for extraction, nature of the desorbing solvent, and pH of the aqueous sample, were investigated and optimized to obtain maximum method performance. Under the optimized instrumental analysis conditions, good linearity (r2 value ≥0.994) was achieved at the concentration range of 0.5-500 μg/L. Recoveries were in the range of 79.2-96.3 and 80.4-97.5% in selective-ion monitoring and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) modes, respectively, at the spiking concentrations of 1, 5, and 10 μg/L. MRM mode showed better sensitivity, selectivity, and low-level detection (0.5 μg/L) of analytes. The novel MSPE method is a simple, cheap, rapid, and eco-friendly method for the determination of OPs in environmental water samples.

  17. Chemistry of Selected Core Samples, Concentrate, Tailings, and Tailings Pond Waters: Pea Ridge Iron (-Lanthanide-Gold) Deposit, Washington County, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauch, Richard I.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Seeger, Cheryl M.; Budahn, James R.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    The Minerals at Risk and for Emerging Technologies Project of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program is examining potential sources of lanthanide elements (rare earth elements) as part of its objective to provide up-to-date geologic information regarding mineral commodities likely to have increased demand in the near term. As part of the examination effort, a short visit was made to the Pea Ridge iron (-lanthanide-gold) deposit, Washington County, Missouri in October 2008. The deposit, currently owned by Wings Enterprises, Inc. of St. Louis, Missouri (Wings), contains concentrations of lanthanides that may be economic as a primary product or as a byproduct of iron ore production. This report tabulates the results of chemical analyses of the Pea Ridge samples and compares rare earth elements contents for world class lanthanide deposits with those of the Pea Ridge deposit. The data presented for the Pea Ridge deposit are preliminary and include some company data that have not been verified by the USGS or by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of Geology and Land Survey (DGLS), Geological Survey Program (MGS). The inclusion of company data is for comparative purposes only and does not imply an endorsement by either the USGS or MGS.

  18. Determining Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene deglaciation of the Baltic Ice Lake through sedimentological core sample analysis of IODP Site M0064

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A. L.; Passchier, S.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the deglaciation history of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet (SIS) within the Baltic Sea's Hanö Bay from the Late Pleistocene to the Holocene using samples from International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Site M0064. The research aims to understand how the speed of deglaciation influences Baltic Ice Lake (BIL) drainage patterns and relative sea level changes on a high-resolution timescale. Glacial history of the SIS has been studied through glacial till analysis, surface exposure dating, and modeling, encompassing its most recent deglaciation 20-14ka BP, and suggests ice retreated from the project site 16.7ka BP. Between 17 and 14ka BP global sea level rose 4 meters per century, accompanied by a dramatic increase in atmospheric carbon. This period of rapid sea level rise and global warming is a valuable analog for understanding the Earth's current and projected climate. This project uses particle size analysis to better understand the late-glacial depositional environment in Hanö Bay, and ICP-OES geochemical analysis for evidence pertaining to changing sediment provenance and bottom water oxygenation in the BIL. Diamicton is present between 47 and 9 mbsf in Hole M0064D. At 8 mbsf, the sediment exhibits a prominent upward transition from well-laminated cm-scale grey to more thinly laminated reddish brown rhythmites. With calculated Al/Ti ratios, we find that there is not much provenance change in the sequence, however we see fluctuations in Mn/Al ratios, implying shifts in sediment color may be chemical, possibly indicating redox changes in the water column during sediment deposition. Although we find that particle size in the varve sequence does not change, this factor may be driving chemical fluctuations in the diamicton. These results increase the understanding of ice retreat, paleocirculation and relative sea level changes in the Baltic Sea at the onset of the last deglaciation.

  19. Reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Tetsuaki; Nomura, Teiji; Tokunaga, Kensuke; Okuda, Shin-ichi

    1990-01-01

    Fuel assemblies in the portions where the gradient of fast neutron fluxes between two opposing faces of a channel box is great are kept loaded at the outermost peripheral position of the reactor core also in the second operation cycle in the order to prevent interference between a control rod and the channel box due to bending deformation of the channel box. Further, the fuel assemblies in the second row from the outer most periphery in the first operation cycle are also kept loaded at the second row in the second operation cycle. Since the gradient of the fast neutrons in the reactor core is especially great at the outer circumference of the reactor core, the channel box at the outer circumference is bent such that the surface facing to the center of the reactor core is convexed and the channel box in the second row is also bent to the identical direction, the insertion of the control rod is not interfered. Further, if the positions for the fuels at the outermost periphery and the fuels in the second row are not altered in the second operation cycle, the gaps are not reduced to prevent the interference between the control rod and the channel box. (N.H.)

  20. Complexity of nearshore strontium-to-calcium ratio variability in a core sample of the massive coral Siderastrea siderea obtained in Coral Bay, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Christopher D.; Kuffner, Ilsa B.; Hickey, T. Don; Morrison, Jennifer M.; Flannery, Jennifer A.

    2013-01-01

    Strontium-to-calcium ratios (Sr/Ca) were measured on the skeletal matrix of a core sample from a colony of the massive coral Siderastrea siderea collected in Coral Bay, St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. Strontium and calcium are incorporated into the coral skeleton during the precipitation of aragonite by the coral polyps and their ratio is highly temperature dependent. The robustness of this temperature dependence makes Sr/Ca a reliable proxy for sea surface temperature (SST). Details presented from the St. John S. siderea core indicate that terrestrial inputs of sediment and freshwater can disrupt the chemical balance and subsequently complicate the utility of Sr/Ca in reconstructing historical SST. An approximately 44-year-long record of Sr/Ca shows that an annual SST signal is recorded but with an increasing Sr/Ca trend from 1980 to present, which is likely the result of runoff from the mountainous terrain of St. John. The overwhelming influence of the terrestrial fingerprint on local seawater chemistry makes utilizing Sr/Ca as a SST proxy in nearshore environments very difficult.

  1. A constitutive mechanical model for gas hydrate bearing sediments incorporating inelastic mechanisms

    KAUST Repository

    Sá nchez, Marcelo; Gai, Xuerui; Santamarina, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    , hydrates dissociate and move from the solid to the gas phase. Hydrate dissociation is accompanied by significant changes in sediment structure and strongly affects its mechanical behavior (e.g., sediment stiffenss, strength and dilatancy). The mechanical

  2. Electrical anisotropy of gas hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Anne E.; Anderson, Barbara I.; Rasmus, John; Sun, Keli; Li, Qiming; Collett, Timothy S.; Goldberg, David S.

    2012-01-01

    We present new results and interpretations of the electricalanisotropy and reservoir architecture in gashydrate-bearingsands using logging data collected during the Gulf of MexicoGasHydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II. We focus specifically on sandreservoirs in Hole Alaminos Canyon 21 A (AC21-A), Hole Green Canyon 955 H (GC955-H) and Hole Walker Ridge 313 H (WR313-H). Using a new logging-while-drilling directional resistivity tool and a one-dimensional inversion developed by Schlumberger, we resolve the resistivity of the current flowing parallel to the bedding, R| and the resistivity of the current flowing perpendicular to the bedding, R|. We find the sandreservoir in Hole AC21-A to be relatively isotropic, with R| and R| values close to 2 Ω m. In contrast, the gashydrate-bearingsandreservoirs in Holes GC955-H and WR313-H are highly anisotropic. In these reservoirs, R| is between 2 and 30 Ω m, and R| is generally an order of magnitude higher. Using Schlumberger's WebMI models, we were able to replicate multiple resistivity measurements and determine the formation resistivity the gashydrate-bearingsandreservoir in Hole WR313-H. The results showed that gashydrate saturations within a single reservoir unit are highly variable. For example, the sand units in Hole WR313-H contain thin layers (on the order of 10-100 cm) with varying gashydrate saturations between 15 and 95%. Our combined modeling results clearly indicate that the gashydrate-bearingsandreservoirs in Holes GC955-H and WR313-H are highly anisotropic due to varying saturations of gashydrate forming in thin layers within larger sand units.

  3. Methane sources in gas hydrate-bearing cold seeps: Evidence from radiocarbon and stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, J.W.; Bauer, J.E.; Canuel, E.A.; Grabowski, K.S.; Knies, D.L.; Mitchell, C.S.; Whiticar, Michael J.; Coffin, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    Fossil methane from the large and dynamic marine gas hydrate reservoir has the potential to influence oceanic and atmospheric carbon pools. However, natural radiocarbon (14C) measurements of gas hydrate methane have been extremely limited, and their use as a source and process indicator has not yet been systematically established. In this study, gas hydrate-bound and dissolved methane recovered from six geologically and geographically distinct high-gas-flux cold seeps was found to be 98 to 100% fossil based on its 14C content. Given this prevalence of fossil methane and the small contribution of gas hydrate (??? 1%) to the present-day atmospheric methane flux, non-fossil contributions of gas hydrate methane to the atmosphere are not likely to be quantitatively significant. This conclusion is consistent with contemporary atmospheric methane budget calculations. In combination with ??13C- and ??D-methane measurements, we also determine the extent to which the low, but detectable, amounts of 14C (~ 1-2% modern carbon, pMC) in methane from two cold seeps might reflect in situ production from near-seafloor sediment organic carbon (SOC). A 14C mass balance approach using fossil methane and 14C-enriched SOC suggests that as much as 8 to 29% of hydrate-associated methane carbon may originate from SOC contained within the upper 6??m of sediment. These findings validate the assumption of a predominantly fossil carbon source for marine gas hydrate, but also indicate that structural gas hydrate from at least certain cold seeps contains a component of methane produced during decomposition of non-fossil organic matter in near-surface sediment.

  4. Faulting of gas-hydrate-bearing marine sediments - contribution to permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, William P.; Holbrook, W.S.; Drury, Rebecca; Gettrust, Joseph; Hutchinson, Deborah; Booth, James; Taylor, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Extensive faulting is observed in sediments containing high concentrations of methane hydrate off the southeastern coast of the United States. Faults that break the sea floor show evidence of both extension and shortening; mud diapirs are also present. The zone of recent faulting apparently extends from the ocean floor down to the base of gas-hydrate stability. We infer that the faulting resulted from excess pore pressure in gas trapped beneath the gas hydrate-beating layer and/or weakening and mobilization of sediments in the region just below the gas-hydrate stability zone. In addition to the zone of surface faults, we identified two buried zones of faulting, that may have similar origins. Subsurface faulted zones appear to act as gas traps.

  5. TMI-2 core examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbins, R.R.; MacDonald, P.E.; Owen, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    The examination of the damaged core at the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor is structured to address the following safety issues: fission product release, transport, and deposition; core coolability; containment integrity; and recriticality during severe accidents; as well as zircaloy cladding ballooning and oxidation during so-called design basis accidents. The numbers of TMI-2 components or samples to be examined, the priority of each examination, the safety issue addressed by each examination, the principal examination techniques to be employed, and the data to be obtained and the principal uses of the data are discussed in this paper

  6. TMI-2 core bore acquisition summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolman, E.L.; Smith, R.P.; Martin, M.R.; McCardell, R.K.; Broughton, J.M.

    1986-09-01

    Core bore samples were obtained from the severely damaged TMI-2 core during July and August, 1986. A description of the TMI-2 core bore drilling unit used to obtain samples; a summary and discussion of the data from the ten core bore segments which were obtained; and the initial results of analysis and evaluation of these data are presented in this report. The impact of the major findings relative to our understanding of the accident scenario is also discussed

  7. Core BPEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallwyl, Tim; Højsgaard, Espen

    The Web Services Business Process Execution Language (WS-BPEL) is a language for expressing business process behaviour based on web services. The language is intentionally not minimal but provides a rich set of constructs, allows omission of constructs by relying on defaults, and supports language......, does not allow omissions, and does not contain ignorable elements. We do so by identifying syntactic sugar, including default values, and ignorable elements in WS-BPEL. The analysis results in a translation from the full language to the core subset. Thus, we reduce the effort needed for working...

  8. Magnetic solid phase extraction using ionic liquid-coated core-shell magnetic nanoparticles followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for determination of Rhodamine B in food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jieping; Zhu, Xiashi

    2016-06-01

    Three hydrophobic ionic liquids (ILs) (1-butyl-3-methylimidazole hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM]PF6), 1-hexyl-3-methyl-imidazole hexafluoro-phosphate ([HMIM]PF6), and 1-octyl-3-methylimidazole hexafluorophosphate ([OMIM]PF6)) were used to coat Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with core-shell structures to prepare magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) agents (Fe3O4@SiO2@IL). A novel method of MSPE coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the separation/analysis of Rhodamine B was then established. The results showed that Rhodamine B was adsorbed rapidly on Fe3O4@SiO2@[OMIM]PF6 and was released using ethanol. Under optimal conditions, the pre-concentration factor for the proposed method was 25. The linear range, limit of detection (LOD), correlation coefficient (R), and relative standard deviation (RSD) were found to be 0.50-150.00 μgL(-1), 0.08 μgL(-1), 0.9999, and 0.51% (n=3, c=10.00 μgL(-1)), respectively. The Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs could be re-used up to 10 times. The method was successfully applied to the determination of Rhodamine B in food samples. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Core calculations of JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, Yoshiharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    In material testing reactors like the JMTR (Japan Material Testing Reactor) of 50 MW in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of irradiated samples show complex distributions. It is necessary to assess the neutron flux and neutron energy spectra of an irradiation field by carrying out the nuclear calculation of the core for every operation cycle. In order to advance core calculation, in the JMTR, the application of MCNP to the assessment of core reactivity and neutron flux and spectra has been investigated. In this study, in order to reduce the time for calculation and variance, the comparison of the results of the calculations by the use of K code and fixed source and the use of Weight Window were investigated. As to the calculation method, the modeling of the total JMTR core, the conditions for calculation and the adopted variance reduction technique are explained. The results of calculation are shown. Significant difference was not observed in the results of neutron flux calculations according to the difference of the modeling of fuel region in the calculations by K code and fixed source. The method of assessing the results of neutron flux calculation is described. (K.I.)

  10. Development and application of the capacity to make tests of dynamic displacement in samples of oil well drilling cores; Desarrollo y aplicacion de la capacidad para realizar pruebas de desplazamiento dinamico en muestras de nucleos de perforacion de pozos petroleros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras L, Enrique; Garcia M, Pablo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In the Laboratory of Deposits of the Gerencia de Geotermia of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) the capacity has been developed to make tests of dynamic oil displacement by means of gas or brine injection in samples of oil well drilling cores. Also the methodologies to interpret the results of these tests in terms of dynamics and the efficiency of the oil recovery in terms of the relative permeability have been developed. These capacities represent a very important contribution towards the improvement of the insufficiency that exists in the country to make the large amount of tests of dynamic displacement that demand the different Actives of PEMEX Exploration and Production (PEP), since they satisfy their necessities of data on which the activities of design and implementation of the most suitable techniques for the hydrocarbon recovery of the oil deposits lean. In the present work these capacities are described and some examples are presented of the results that have been obtained from their application in special studies of drilling cores, which have been recently made in the Laboratory of Deposits of the IIE for diverse Actives of PEP exploitation. [Spanish] En el laboratorio de yacimientos de la Gerencia de Geotermia del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) se ha desarrollado la capacidad de realizar pruebas de desplazamiento dinamico de aceite mediante inyeccion de salmuera o de gases en muestras de nucleos de perforacion de pozos petroleros. Tambien se han desarrollado las metodologias para interpretar los resultados de estas pruebas en terminos de la dinamica y la eficiencia de la recuperacion de aceite y en terminos de la permeabilidades relativas. Estas capacidades representan una contribucion muy importante hacia el mejoramiento de la insuficiencia que existe en el pais para realizar la gran cantidad de pruebas de desplazamiento dinamico que demandan los diferentes activos de explotacion de PEMEX Exploracion y Produccion (PEP), ya

  11. Amostragem de acessos introduzidos e melhorados para composição de uma coleção núcleo de milho Sampling of introduced and improved access to composition of a core collection of corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Rodrigues Coimbra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Visando a amostragem de acessos para comporem uma coleção núcleo de milho, foram amostrados acessos introduzidos e melhorados da Coleção Ativa de Germoplasma da Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, localizada em Sete Lagoas, MG. A estratégia de amostragem utilizada foi baseada em análise multivariada, sendo adotada intensidade de amostragem de 20%. A estratificação dos acesos introduzidos foi realizada principalmente de acordo com o país de origem, local de avaliação e tipo de grão. Para os acessos melhorados considerou-se principalmente o tipo de grão e a instituição responsável pela realização do melhoramento do acesso. Verificou-se a necessidade de se realizar a caracterização e avaliação de muitos acessos introduzidos e melhorados. Foi possível observar a existência de variabilidade genética entre os acessos introduzidos e melhorados. As características altura de planta e peso de mil grãos foram as que mais contribuíram para a discriminação dos genótipos. A utilização combinada do método de Tocher tendo como medida de dissimilaridade a distância euclidiana invertida e a análise de dispersão gráfica com base nos três primeiros componentes principais foi eficiente. Foi possível a amostragem de acessos para comporem uma coleção núcleo de milho com base em análise multivariada a partir de dados de caracterização e avaliação.Aiming at the selection of accessions to compose a core collection of maize, were sampled access introduced and improved of Active Germplasm Bank at Embrapa Milho e Sorgo, located in Sete Lagoas, MG, Brazil. The sampling strategy was based in multivariate analysis, and adopted a sampling rate of 20% of accesses. Stratification of introduced accessions was in according with the country of origin, place of assessment and type of grain. For improved access was considered mainly the type of grain and the institution responsible for improvement of access. There is a need to perform the

  12. TMI-2 core boring machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, K.M.; Helbert, H.J.; Laney, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    An important and essential aspect of the TMI-2 defueling effort is to determine what occurred in the core region during the accident. Remote cameras and probes only portray a portion of the overall picture. What lies beneath the rubble bed and solidified sublayer is, as yet, unknown. This paper discusses the TMI-2 Core Boring Machine, which has been developed to drill into the damaged core of the TMI-2 reactor and extract stratified samples of the core. This machine, its unique support structure, positioning and leveling systems, and specially designed drill bits, combine to provide a unique mechanical system. In addition, the machine is controlled by a microprocessor; which actually controls the drilling operation, allowing relatively inexperienced operators to drill the core samples. A data acquisition system is data integral with the controlling system and collects data relative to system conditions and monitored parameters during drilling. Data obtained during the actual drilling operations are collected in a data base which will be used for actual mapping of the core region, identifying materials and stratification levels that are present

  13. Animal MRI Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Animal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Core develops and optimizes MRI methods for cardiovascular imaging of mice and rats. The Core provides imaging expertise,...

  14. k-core covers and the core

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez-Rodriguez, E.; Borm, Peter; Estevez-Fernandez, A.; Fiestras-Janeiro, G.; Mosquera, M.A.

    This paper extends the notion of individual minimal rights for a transferable utility game (TU-game) to coalitional minimal rights using minimal balanced families of a specific type, thus defining a corresponding minimal rights game. It is shown that the core of a TU-game coincides with the core of

  15. Apparatus for measurement of tree core density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blincow, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus is described for direct measurement of the density of a core sample from a tree. A radiation source and detector with a receptacle for the core therebetween, an integrator unit for the detector output, and an indicating meter driven by the integrator unit are described

  16. Understanding core conductor fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, D E

    2011-01-01

    ESD Association standard test method ANSI/ESD STM2.1 - Garments (STM2.1), provides electrical resistance test procedures that are applicable for materials and garments that have surface conductive or surface dissipative properties. As has been reported in other papers over the past several years 1 fabrics are now used in many industries for electrostatic control purposes that do not have surface conductive properties and therefore cannot be evaluated using the procedures in STM2.1 2 . A study was conducted to compare surface conductive fabrics with samples of core conductor fibre based fabrics in order to determine differences and similarities with regards to various electrostatic properties. This work will be used to establish a new work item proposal within WG-2, Garments, in the ESD Association Standards Committee in the USA.

  17. Cores to the rescue: how old cores enable new science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, E.; Noren, A. J.; Brady, K.

    2016-12-01

    The value of archiving scientific specimens and collections for the purpose of enabling further research using new analytical techniques, resolving conflicting results, or repurposing them for entirely new research, is often discussed in abstract terms. We all agree that samples with adequate metadata ought to be archived systematically for easy access, for a long time and stored under optimal conditions. And yet, as storage space fills, there is a temptation to cull the collection, or when a researcher retires, to discard the collection unless the researcher manages to make his or her own arrangement for the collection to be accessioned elsewhere. Nobody has done anything with these samples in over 20 years! Who would want them? It turns out that plenty of us do want them, if we know how to find them and if they have sufficient metadata to assess past work and suitability for new analyses. The LacCore collection holds over 33 km of core from >6700 sites in diverse geographic locations worldwide with samples collected as early as 1950s. From these materials, there are many examples to illustrate the scientific value of archiving geologic samples. One example that benefitted Ito personally were cores from Lakes Mirabad and Zeribar, Iran, acquired in 1963 by Herb Wright and his associates. Several doctoral and postdoctoral students generated and published paleoecological reconstructions based on cladocerans, diatoms, pollen or plant macrofossils, mostly between 1963 and 1967. The cores were resampled in 1990s by a student being jointly advised by Wright and Ito for oxygen isotope analysis of endogenic calcite. The results were profitably compared with pollen and the results published in 2001 and 2006. From 1979 until very recently, visiting Iran for fieldwork was not pallowed for US scientists. Other examples will be given to further illustrate the power of archived samples to advance science.

  18. Bottom sample taker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbarenko, O V; Slonimskiy, L D

    1982-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of the samples taken during offshore exploration from benthic sediments, the proposed design of the sample taker has a device which makes it possible to regulate the depth of submersion of the core lifter. For this purpose the upper part of the core lifter has an inner delimiting ring, and within the core lifter there is a piston suspended on a cable. The position of the piston in relation to the core lifter is previously assigned depending on the compactness of the benthic sediments and is fixed by tension of the cable which is held by a clamp in the cover of the core taker housing. When lowered to the bottom, the core taker is released, and under the influence of hydrostatic pressure of sea water, it enters the sediments. The magnitude of penetration is limited by the distance between the piston and the stopping ring. The piston also guarantees better preservation of the sample when the instrument is lifted to the surface.

  19. Sample-taking apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanov, Y I; Ismailov, R A; Orazov, A

    1980-10-07

    The invention refers to the equipment for testing water-bearing levels in loose rocks. Its purpose is to simultaneously remove with the rock sample a separate fluid sample from the assigned interval. The sample-taking apparatus contains a core lifter which can be submerged into the casting string with housing and front endpiece in the form of a rod with a piston which covers the cavity of the core lifter, as well as mechanism for fixing and moving the endpiece within the core lifter cavity. The device differs from the known similar devices because the upper part of the housing of the core lifter is equipped with a filter and mobile casting which covers the filter. In this case the casing is connected to the endpiece rod and the endpiece is installed with the possibility of movement which is limited with fixing in the upper position and in the extreme upper position it divides the core lifter cavity into two parts, filter settling tank and core-receiving cavity.

  20. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the University of Minnesota National Lacustrine Core Repository (LacCore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Lacustrine Core Repository (LacCore), operated by the University of Minnesota is a partner in the Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples...

  1. Reactor core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.

    1976-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: concepts of reactor physics; neutron diffusion; core heat transfer; reactivity; reactor operation; variables of core management; computer code modules; alternative reactor concepts; methods of optimization; general system aspects. (U.K.)

  2. Nuclear reactor core catcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor core catcher is described for containing debris resulting from an accident causing core meltdown and which incorporates a method of cooling the debris by the circulation of a liquid coolant. (U.K.)

  3. Seismic core shroud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri, A.; Mullooly, J.F.

    1981-01-01

    A core shroud is provided, comprising: a coolant boundary, following the shape of the core boundary, for channeling the coolant through the fuel assemblies; a cylindrical band positioned inside the core barrel and surrounding the coolant boundary; and support members extending from the coolant boundary to the band, for transferring load from the coolant boundary to the band. The shroud may be assembled in parts using automated welding techniques, and it may be adjusted to fit the reactor core easily

  4. Core Values | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Core Values Core Values NREL's core values are rooted in a safe and supportive work environment guide our everyday actions and efforts: Safe and supportive work environment Respect for the rights physical and social environment Integrity Maintain the highest standard of ethics, honesty, and integrity

  5. Sidewall coring shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Ya A; Konstantinov, L P; Martyshin, A N

    1966-12-12

    A sidewall coring shell consists of a housing and a detachable core catcher. The core lifter is provided with projections, the ends of which are situated in another plane, along the longitudinal axis of the lifter. The chamber has corresponding projections.

  6. Reactor water sampling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamaki, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a reactor water sampling device for sampling reactor water in an in-core monitor (neutron measuring tube) housing in a BWR type reactor. The upper end portion of a drain pipe of the reactor water sampling device is attached detachably to an in-core monitor flange. A push-up rod is inserted in the drain pipe vertically movably. A sampling vessel and a vacuum pump are connected to the lower end of the drain pipe. A vacuum pump is operated to depressurize the inside of the device and move the push-up rod upwardly. Reactor water in the in-core monitor housing flows between the drain pipe and the push-up rod and flows into the sampling vessel. With such a constitution, reactor water in the in-core monitor housing can be sampled rapidly with neither opening the lid of the reactor pressure vessel nor being in contact with air. Accordingly, operator's exposure dose can be reduced. (I.N.)

  7. Rotary core drills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1967-11-30

    The design of a rotary core drill is described. Primary consideration is given to the following component parts of the drill: the inner and outer tube, the core bit, an adapter, and the core lifter. The adapter has the form of a downward-converging sleeve and is mounted to the lower end of the inner tube. The lifter, extending from the adapter, is split along each side so that it can be held open to permit movement of a core. It is possible to grip a core by allowing the lifter to assume a closed position.

  8. Examination of Hydrate Formation Methods: Trying to Create Representative Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneafsey, T.J.; Rees, E.V.L.; Nakagawa, S.; Kwon, T.-H.

    2011-04-01

    Forming representative gas hydrate-bearing laboratory samples is important so that the properties of these materials may be measured, while controlling the composition and other variables. Natural samples are rare, and have often experienced pressure and temperature changes that may affect the property to be measured [Waite et al., 2008]. Forming methane hydrate samples in the laboratory has been done a number of ways, each having advantages and disadvantages. The ice-to-hydrate method [Stern et al., 1996], contacts melting ice with methane at the appropriate pressure to form hydrate. The hydrate can then be crushed and mixed with mineral grains under controlled conditions, and then compacted to create laboratory samples of methane hydrate in a mineral medium. The hydrate in these samples will be part of the load-bearing frame of the medium. In the excess gas method [Handa and Stupin, 1992], water is distributed throughout a mineral medium (e.g. packed moist sand, drained sand, moistened silica gel, other porous media) and the mixture is brought to hydrate-stable conditions (chilled and pressurized with gas), allowing hydrate to form. This method typically produces grain-cementing hydrate from pendular water in sand [Waite et al., 2004]. In the dissolved gas method [Tohidi et al., 2002], water with sufficient dissolved guest molecules is brought to hydrate-stable conditions where hydrate forms. In the laboratory, this is can be done by pre-dissolving the gas of interest in water and then introducing it to the sample under the appropriate conditions. With this method, it is easier to form hydrate from more soluble gases such as carbon dioxide. It is thought that this method more closely simulates the way most natural gas hydrate has formed. Laboratory implementation, however, is difficult, and sample formation is prohibitively time consuming [Minagawa et al., 2005; Spangenberg and Kulenkampff, 2005]. In another version of this technique, a specified quantity of gas

  9. Hydro-geomechanical behaviour of gas-hydrate bearing soils during gas production through depressurization and CO2 injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deusner, C.; Gupta, S.; Kossel, E.; Bigalke, N.; Haeckel, M.

    2015-12-01

    Results from recent field trials suggest that natural gas could be produced from marine gas hydrate reservoirs at compatible yields and rates. It appears, from a current perspective, that gas production would essentially be based on depressurization and, when facing suitable conditions, be assisted by local thermal stimulation or gas hydrate conversion after injection of CO2-rich fluids. Both field trials, onshore in the Alaska permafrost and in the Nankai Trough offshore Japan, were accompanied by different technical issues, the most striking problems resulting from un-predicted geomechanical behaviour, sediment destabilization and catastrophic sand production. So far, there is a lack of experimental data which could help to understand relevant mechanisms and triggers for potential soil failure in gas hydrate production, to guide model development for simulation of soil behaviour in large-scale production, and to identify processes which drive or, further, mitigate sand production. We use high-pressure flow-through systems in combination with different online and in situ monitoring tools (e.g. Raman microscopy, MRI) to simulate relevant gas hydrate production scenarios. Key components for soil mechanical studies are triaxial systems with ERT (Electric resistivity tomography) and high-resolution local strain analysis. Sand production control and management is studied in a novel hollow-cylinder-type triaxial setup with a miniaturized borehole which allows fluid and particle transport at different fluid injection and flow conditions. Further, the development of a large-scale high-pressure flow-through triaxial test system equipped with μ-CT is ongoing. We will present results from high-pressure flow-through experiments on gas production through depressurization and injection of CO2-rich fluids. Experimental data are used to develop and parametrize numerical models which can simulate coupled process dynamics during gas-hydrate formation and gas production.

  10. Parametric study of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sand, silt, and clay sediments: 1. Electromagnetic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.Y.; Santamarina, J.C.; Ruppel, C.

    2010-01-01

    The marked decrease in bulk electrical conductivity of sediments in the presence of gas hydrates has been used to interpret borehole electrical resistivity logs and, to a lesser extent, the results of controlled source electromagnetic surveys to constrain the spatial distribution and predicted concentration of gas hydrate in natural settings. Until now, an exhaustive laboratory data set that could be used to assess the impact of gas hydrate on the electromagnetic properties of different soils (sand, silt, and clay) at different effective stress and with different saturations of hydrate has been lacking. The laboratory results reported here are obtained using a standard geotechnical cell and the hydrate-formed tetrahydrofuran (THF), a liquid that is fully miscible in water and able to produce closely controlled saturations of hydrate from dissolved phase. Both permittivity and electrical conductivity are good indicators of the volume fraction of free water in the sediment, which is in turn dependent on hydrate saturation. Permittivity in the microwave frequency range is particularly predictive of free water content since it is barely affected by ionic concentration, pore structure, and surface conduction. Electrical conductivity (or resistivity) is less reliable for constraining water content or hydrate saturation: In addition to fluid-filled porosity, other factors, such as the ionic concentration of the pore fluid and possibly other conduction effects (e.g., surface conduction in high specific surface soils having low conductivity pore fluid), also influence electrical conductivity.

  11. Hydrocarbon formation core protection and and transportation apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus for transporting core samples includes an outer tube having an open end and a cover removably mounted to the open end; a core tube slidable into and out ofthe outer tube when the cover is removed from the outer tube; and a stabilizing structure between the core tube and the outer tube,

  12. Development and optimization of a novel sample preparation method cored on functionalized nanofibers mat-solid-phase extraction for the simultaneous efficient extraction of illegal anionic and cationic dyes in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Feifei; Jian, Ningge; Qian, Liangliang; Cao, Weixin; Xu, Qian; Li, Jian

    2017-09-01

    A simple and efficient three-step sample preparation method was developed and optimized for the simultaneous analysis of illegal anionic and cationic dyes (acid orange 7, metanil yellow, auramine-O, and chrysoidine) in food samples. A novel solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure based on nanofibers mat (NFsM) was proposed after solvent extraction and freeze-salting out purification. The preferred SPE sorbent was selected from five functionalized NFsMs by orthogonal experimental design, and the optimization of SPE parameters was achieved through response surface methodology (RSM) based on the Box-Behnken design (BBD). Under the optimal conditions, the target analytes could be completely adsorbed by polypyrrole-functionalized polyacrylonitrile NFsM (PPy/PAN NFsM), and the eluent was directly analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). The limits of detection (LODs) were between 0.002 and 0.01 mg kg -1 , and satisfactory linearity with correlation coefficients (R > 0.99) for each dye in all samples was achieved. Compared with the Chinese standard method and the published methods, the proposed method was simplified greatly with much lower requirement of sorbent (5.0 mg) and organic solvent (2.8 mL) and higher sample preparation speed (10 min/sample), while higher recovery (83.6-116.5%) and precision (RSDs < 7.1%) were obtained. With this developed method, we have successfully detected illegal ionic dyes in three common representative foods: yellow croaker, soybean products, and chili seasonings. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of the process of the three-step sample preparation.

  13. Enhanced conformational sampling using enveloping distribution sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhixiong; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2013-10-14

    To lessen the problem of insufficient conformational sampling in biomolecular simulations is still a major challenge in computational biochemistry. In this article, an application of the method of enveloping distribution sampling (EDS) is proposed that addresses this challenge and its sampling efficiency is demonstrated in simulations of a hexa-β-peptide whose conformational equilibrium encompasses two different helical folds, i.e., a right-handed 2.7(10∕12)-helix and a left-handed 3(14)-helix, separated by a high energy barrier. Standard MD simulations of this peptide using the GROMOS 53A6 force field did not reach convergence of the free enthalpy difference between the two helices even after 500 ns of simulation time. The use of soft-core non-bonded interactions in the centre of the peptide did enhance the number of transitions between the helices, but at the same time led to neglect of relevant helical configurations. In the simulations of a two-state EDS reference Hamiltonian that envelops both the physical peptide and the soft-core peptide, sampling of the conformational space of the physical peptide ensures that physically relevant conformations can be visited, and sampling of the conformational space of the soft-core peptide helps to enhance the transitions between the two helices. The EDS simulations sampled many more transitions between the two helices and showed much faster convergence of the relative free enthalpy of the two helices compared with the standard MD simulations with only a slightly larger computational effort to determine optimized EDS parameters. Combined with various methods to smoothen the potential energy surface, the proposed EDS application will be a powerful technique to enhance the sampling efficiency in biomolecular simulations.

  14. The core paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, G. C.; Higgins, G. H.

    1973-01-01

    Rebuttal of suggestions from various critics attempting to provide an escape from the seeming paradox originated by Higgins and Kennedy's (1971) proposed possibility that the liquid in the outer core was thermally stably stratified and that this stratification might prove a powerful inhibitor to circulation of the outer core fluid of the kind postulated for the generation of the earth's magnetic field. These suggestions are examined and shown to provide no reasonable escape from the core paradox.

  15. Nuclear reactor core flow baffling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berringer, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    A flow baffling arrangement is disclosed for the core of a nuclear reactor. A plurality of core formers are aligned with the grids of the core fuel assemblies such that the high pressure drop areas in the core are at the same elevations as the high pressure drop areas about the core periphery. The arrangement minimizes core bypass flow, maintains cooling of the structure surrounding the core, and allows the utilization of alternative beneficial components such as neutron reflectors positioned near the core

  16. Sediment Core Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation and expertise for physical and geoacoustic characterization of marine sediments.DESCRIPTION: The multisensor core logger measures...

  17. Can Psychiatric Rehabilitation Be Core to CORE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Marjorie F.; Gill, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, we seek to determine whether psychiatric rehabilitation principles and practices have been more fully incorporated into the Council on Rehabilitation Education (CORE) standards, the extent to which they are covered in four rehabilitation counseling "foundations" textbooks, and how they are reflected in the…

  18. PWR core design calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trkov, A.; Ravnik, M.; Zeleznik, N.

    1992-01-01

    Functional description of the programme package Cord-2 for PWR core design calculations is presented. Programme package is briefly described. Use of the package and calculational procedures for typical core design problems are treated. Comparison of main results with experimental values is presented as part of the verification process. (author) [sl

  19. Replaceable LMFBR core components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, E.A.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1976-01-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding material and component performance in the high temperature, fast neutron environment of the LMFBR. Current data have provided strong assurance that the initial core component lifetime objectives of FFTF and CRBR can be met. At the same time, this knowledge translates directly into the need for improved core designs that utilize improved materials and advanced fuels required to meet objectives of low doubling times and extended core component lifetimes. An industrial base for the manufacture of quality core components has been developed in the US, and all procurements for the first two core equivalents for FFTF will be completed this year. However, the problem of fabricating recycled plutonium while dramatically reducing fabrication costs, minimizing personnel exposure, and protecting public health and safety must be addressed

  20. Lunar Core and Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Boggs, D. H.; Ratcliff, J. T.

    2004-01-01

    Variations in rotation and orientation of the Moon are sensitive to solid-body tidal dissipation, dissipation due to relative motion at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and tidal Love number k2 [1,2]. There is weaker sensitivity to flattening of the core-mantle boundary (CMB) [2,3,4] and fluid core moment of inertia [1]. Accurate Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) measurements of the distance from observatories on the Earth to four retroreflector arrays on the Moon are sensitive to lunar rotation and orientation variations and tidal displacements. Past solutions using the LLR data have given results for dissipation due to solid-body tides and fluid core [1] plus Love number [1-5]. Detection of CMB flattening, which in the past has been marginal but improving [3,4,5], now seems significant. Direct detection of the core moment has not yet been achieved.

  1. Internal core tightener

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Snyder, H.J. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    An internal core tightener is disclosed which is a linear actuated (vertical actuation motion) expanding device utilizing a minimum of moving parts to perform the lateral tightening function. The key features are: (1) large contact areas to transmit loads during reactor operation; (2) actuation cam surfaces loaded only during clamping and unclamping operation; (3) separation of the parts and internal operation involved in the holding function from those involved in the actuation function; and (4) preloaded pads with compliant travel at each face of the hexagonal assembly at the two clamping planes to accommodate thermal expansion and irradiation induced swelling. The latter feature enables use of a ''fixed'' outer core boundary, and thus eliminates the uncertainty in gross core dimensions, and potential for rapid core reactivity changes as a result of core dimensional change. 5 claims, 12 drawing figures

  2. Test plan for core drilling ignitability testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witwer, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this testing is to determine if ignition occurs while core drilling in a flammable gas environment. Drilling parameters are chosen so as to provide bounding conditions for the core sampling environment. If ignition does not occur under the conditions set forth in this test, then a satisfactory level of confidence will be obtained which would allow field operations under the normal drilling conditions

  3. Earth's inner core: Innermost inner core or hemispherical variations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lythgoe, K. H.; Deuss, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/412396610; Rudge, J. F.; Neufeld, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    The structure of Earth's deep inner core has important implications for core evolution, since it is thought to be related to the early stages of core formation. Previous studies have suggested that there exists an innermost inner core with distinct anisotropy relative to the rest of the inner core.

  4. Korrelasjon mellom core styrke, core stabilitet og utholdende styrke i core

    OpenAIRE

    Berg-Olsen, Andrea Marie; Fugelsøy, Eivor; Maurstad, Ann-Louise

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med studien var å se hvilke korrelasjon det er mellom core styrke, core stabilitet og utholdende styrke i core. Testingen bestod av tre hoveddeler hvor vi testet core styrke, core stabilitet og utholdende styrke i core. Innenfor core styrke og utholdende styrke i core ble tre ulike tester utført. Ved måling av core stabilitet ble det gjennomført kun en test. I core styrke ble isometrisk abdominal fleksjon, isometrisk rygg ekstensjon og isometrisk lateral fleksjon testet. Sit-ups p...

  5. Sampling and examination methods used for TMI-2 samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, A.W.; Akers, D.W.; McIsaac, C.V.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the sampling and examination techniques that were used in the collection and analysis of TMI-2 samples. Samples ranging from auxiliary building air to core debris were collected and analyzed. Handling of the larger samples and many of the smaller samples had to be done remotely and many standard laboratory analytical techniques were modified to accommodate the extremely high radiation fields associated with these samples. The TMI-2 samples presented unique problems with sampling and the laboratory analysis of prior molten fuel debris. 14 refs., 8 figs

  6. Core shroud corner joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Charles B.; Forsyth, David R.

    2013-09-10

    A core shroud is provided, which includes a number of planar members, a number of unitary corners, and a number of subassemblies each comprising a combination of the planar members and the unitary corners. Each unitary corner comprises a unitary extrusion including a first planar portion and a second planar portion disposed perpendicularly with respect to the first planar portion. At least one of the subassemblies comprises a plurality of the unitary corners disposed side-by-side in an alternating opposing relationship. A plurality of the subassemblies can be combined to form a quarter perimeter segment of the core shroud. Four quarter perimeter segments join together to form the core shroud.

  7. IGCSE core mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Wall, Terry

    2013-01-01

    Give your core level students the support and framework they require to get their best grades with this book dedicated to the core level content of the revised syllabus and written specifically to ensure a more appropriate pace. This title has been written for Core content of the revised Cambridge IGCSE Mathematics (0580) syllabus for first teaching from 2013. ? Gives students the practice they require to deepen their understanding through plenty of practice questions. ? Consolidates learning with unique digital resources on the CD, included free with every book. We are working with Cambridge

  8. Heterogeneous gas core reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz, N.J.; Dugan, E.T.

    1983-01-01

    A heterogeneous gas core nuclear reactor is disclosed comprising a core barrel provided interiorly with an array of moderator-containing tubes and being otherwise filled with a fissile and/or fertile gaseous fuel medium. The fuel medium may be flowed through the chamber and through an external circuit in which heat is extracted. The moderator may be a fluid which is flowed through the tubes and through an external circuit in which heat is extracted. The moderator may be a solid which may be cooled by a fluid flowing within the tubes and through an external heat extraction circuit. The core barrel is surrounded by moderator/coolant material. Fissionable blanket material may be disposed inwardly or outwardly of the core barrel

  9. iPSC Core

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC) Core was created in 2011 to accelerate stem cell research in the NHLBI by providing investigators consultation, technical...

  10. Core Flight Software

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Core Flight Software (CFS) project purpose is to analyze applicability, and evolve and extend the reusability of the CFS system originally developed by...

  11. PWR degraded core analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1982-04-01

    A review is presented of the various phenomena involved in degraded core accidents and the ensuing transport of fission products from the fuel to the primary circuit and the containment. The dominant accident sequences found in the PWR risk studies published to date are briefly described. Then chapters deal with the following topics: the condition and behaviour of water reactor fuel during normal operation and at the commencement of degraded core accidents; the generation of hydrogen from the Zircaloy-steam and the steel-steam reactions; the way in which the core deforms and finally melts following loss of coolant; debris relocation analysis; containment integrity; fission product behaviour during a degraded core accident. (U.K.)

  12. Restraint system for core elements of a reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Class, G.

    1975-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor, a core element bundle formed of a plurality of side-by-side arranged core elements is surrounded by restraining elements that exert a radially inwardly directly restraining force generating friction forces between the core elements in a restraining plane that is transverse to the core element axes. The adjoining core elements are in rolling contact with one another in the restraining plane by virtue of rolling-type bearing elements supported in the core elements. (Official Gazette)

  13. Heterogeneous gas core reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, K.I.

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary investigations of a heterogeneous gas core reactor (HGCR) concept suggest that this potential power reactor offers distinct advantages over other existing or conceptual reactor power plants. One of the most favorable features of the HGCR is the flexibility of the power producing system which allows it to be efficiently designed to conform to a desired optimum condition without major conceptual changes. The arrangement of bundles of moderator/coolant channels in a fissionable gas or mixture of gases makes a truly heterogeneous nuclear reactor core. It is this full heterogeneity for a gas-fueled reactor core which accounts for the novelty of the heterogeneous gas core reactor concept and leads to noted significant advantages over previous gas core systems with respect to neutron and fuel economy, power density, and heat transfer characteristics. The purpose of this work is to provide an insight into the design, operating characteristics, and safety of a heterogeneous gas core reactor system. The studies consist mainly of neutronic, energetic and kinetic analyses of the power producing and conversion systems as a preliminary assessment of the heterogeneous gas core reactor concept and basic design. The results of the conducted research indicate a high potential for the heterogeneous gas core reactor system as an electrical power generating unit (either large or small), with an overall efficiency as high as 40 to 45%. The HGCR system is found to be stable and safe, under the conditions imposed upon the analyses conducted in this work, due to the inherent safety of ann expanding gaseous fuel and the intrinsic feedback effects of the gas and water coolant

  14. FBR type reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamiya, Tadashi; Kawashima, Katsuyuki; Fujimura, Koji; Murakami, Tomoko.

    1995-01-01

    Neutron reflectors are disposed at the periphery of a reactor core fuel region and a blanket region, and a neutron shielding region is disposed at the periphery of them. The neutron reflector has a hollow duct structure having a sealed upper portion, a lower portion opened to cooling water, in which a gas and coolants separately sealed in the inside thereof. A driving pressure of a primary recycling pump is lowered upon reduction of coolant flow rate, then the liquid level of coolants in the neutron reflector is lowered due to imbalance between the driving pressure and a gas pressure, so that coolants having an effect as a reflector are eliminated from the outer circumference of the reactor core. Therefore, the amount of neutrons leaking from the reactor core is increased, and negative reactivity is charged to the reactor core. The negative reactivity of the neutron reflector is made greater than a power compensation reactivity. Since this enables reactor scram by using an inherent performance of the reactor core, the reactor core safety of an LMFBR-type reactor can be improved. (I.N.)

  15. The earths innermost core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, J.N.

    1989-01-01

    A new earth model is advanced with a solid innermost core at the centre of the Earth where elements heavier than iron, over and above what can be retained in solution in the iron core, are collected. The innermost core is separated from the solid iron-nickel core by a shell of liquid copper. The innermost core has a natural vibration measured on the earth's surface as the long period 26 seconds microseisms. The earth was formed initially as a liquid sphere with a relatively thin solid crust above the Byerly discontinuity. The trace elements that entered the innermost core amounted to only 0.925 ppm of the molten mass. Gravitational differentiation must have led to the separation of an explosive thickness of pure 235 U causing a fission explosion that could expel beyond the Roche limit a crustal scab which would form the centre piece of the moon. A reservoir of helium floats on the liquid copper. A small proportion of helium-3, a relic of the ancient fission explosion present there will spell the exciting magnetic field. The field is stable for thousands of years because of the presence of large quantity of helium-4 which accounts for most of the gaseous collisions that will not disturb the atomic spin of helium-3 atoms. This field is prone to sudden reversals after long periods of stability. (author). 14 refs

  16. Early-type galaxy core phase densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlberg, R. G.; Hartwick, F. D. A.

    2014-01-01

    Early-type galaxies have projected central density brightness profile logarithmic slopes, γ', ranging from about 0 to 1. We show that γ' is strongly correlated, r = 0.83, with the coarse grain phase density of the galaxy core, Q 0 ≡ ρ/σ 3 . The luminosity-γ' correlation is much weaker, r = –0.51. Q 0 also serves to separate the distribution of steep core profiles, γ' > 0.5, from shallow profiles, γ' < 0.3, although there are many galaxies of intermediate slope, at intermediate Q 0 , in a volume-limited sample. The transition phase density separating the two profile types is approximately 0.003 M ☉ pc –3 km –3 s 3 , which is also where the relation between Q 0 and core mass shows a change in slope, the rotation rate of the central part of the galaxy increases, and the ratio of the black hole to core mass increases. These relations are considered relative to the globular cluster inspiral core buildup and binary black hole core scouring mechanisms for core creation and evolution. Mass-enhanced globular cluster inspiral models have quantitative predictions that are supported by data, but no single model yet completely explains the correlations.

  17. Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes and their uranium favorability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coney, P.J.; Reynolds, S.J.

    1980-11-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a descriptive body of knowledge on Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes including their lithologic and structural characteristics, their distribution within the Cordillera, and their evolutionary history and tectonic setting. The occurrence of uranium in the context of possibility for uranium concentration is also examined. This volume contains appendices of the following: annotated bibliography of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; annotated bibliography of the uranium favorability of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; uranium occurrences in the Cordilleran metamorphic core complex belt; and geology, uranium favorability, uranium occurrences and tectonic maps of individual Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; and locations, lithologic descriptions, petrographic information and analytical data for geochemical samples

  18. Core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkhareif Ryadh M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper constructs and analyzes core inflation indicators for Saudi Arabia for the period of March 2012 to May 2014 using two alternative approaches: the exclusion method (ex food and housing/rent and the statistical method. The findings of the analysis suggest that the ex food and housing/ rent inflation is more volatile than the overall CPI inflation over the sample period. In contrast, the statistical core inflation is relatively more stable and less volatile. Moreover, the ex food and housing/rent inflation is only weakly correlated with headline inflation, whereas the statistical core inflation exhibits a stronger correlation. This combination of lower volatility and higher correlation with headline inflation makes the statistical method a much better choice for policymakers. From a monetary policy standpoint, using a bundle of core inflation measures, including both properly constructed exclusion and statistical methods, is more desirable, especially when variation across measures is widespread, as is the case in Saudi Arabia.

  19. Boat sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citanovic, M.; Bezlaj, H.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation describes essential boat sampling activities: on site boat sampling process optimization and qualification; boat sampling of base material (beltline region); boat sampling of weld material (weld No. 4); problems accompanied with weld crown varieties, RPV shell inner radius tolerance, local corrosion pitting and water clarity. The equipment used for boat sampling is described too. 7 pictures

  20. Graph sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L.-C.; Patone, M.

    2017-01-01

    We synthesise the existing theory of graph sampling. We propose a formal definition of sampling in finite graphs, and provide a classification of potential graph parameters. We develop a general approach of Horvitz–Thompson estimation to T-stage snowball sampling, and present various reformulations of some common network sampling methods in the literature in terms of the outlined graph sampling theory.

  1. Apollo rocks, fines and soil cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allton, J.; Bevill, T.

    Apollo rocks and soils not only established basic lunar properties and ground truth for global remote sensing, they also provided important lessons for planetary protection (Adv. Space Res ., 1998, v. 22, no. 3 pp. 373-382). The six Apollo missions returned 2196 samples weighing 381.7 kg, comprised of rocks, fines, soil cores and 2 gas samples. By examining which samples were allocated for scientific investigations, information was obtained on usefulness of sampling strategy, sampling devices and containers, sample types and diversity, and on size of sample needed by various disciplines. Diversity was increased by using rakes to gather small rocks on the Moon and by removing fragments >1 mm from soils by sieving in the laboratory. Breccias and soil cores are diverse internally. Per unit weight these samples were more often allocated for research. Apollo investigators became adept at wringing information from very small sample sizes. By pushing the analytical limits, the main concern was adequate size for representative sampling. Typical allocations for trace element analyses were 750 mg for rocks, 300 mg for fines and 70 mg for core subsamples. Age-dating and isotope systematics allocations were typically 1 g for rocks and fines, but only 10% of that amount for core depth subsamples. Historically, allocations for organics and microbiology were 4 g (10% for cores). Modern allocations for biomarker detection are 100mg. Other disciplines supported have been cosmogenic nuclides, rock and soil petrology, sedimentary volatiles, reflectance, magnetics, and biohazard studies . Highly applicable to future sample return missions was the Apollo experience with organic contamination, estimated to be from 1 to 5 ng/g sample for Apollo 11 (Simonheit &Flory, 1970; Apollo 11, 12 &13 Organic contamination Monitoring History, U.C. Berkeley; Burlingame et al., 1970, Apollo 11 LSC , pp. 1779-1792). Eleven sources of contaminants, of which 7 are applicable to robotic missions, were

  2. Cerenkov fiber sampling calorimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrington, K.; Kefford, D.; Kennedy, J.; Pisani, R.; Sanzeni, C.; Segall, K.; Wall, D.; Winn, D.R.; Carey, R.; Dye, S.; Miller, J.; Sulak, L.; Worstell, W.; Efremenko, Y.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Savin, A.; Shmakov, K.; Tarkovsky, E.

    1994-01-01

    Clear optical fibers were used as a Cerenkov sampling media in Pb (electromagnetic) and Cu (hadron) absorbers in spaghetti calorimeters, for high rate and high radiation dose experiments, such as the forward region of high energy colliders. The fiber axes were aligned close to the direction of the incident particles (1 degree--7 degree). The 7 λ deep hadron tower contained 2.8% by volume 1.5 mm diameter core clear plastic fibers. The 27 radiation length deep electromagnetic towers had packing fractions of 6.8% and 7.2% of 1 mm diameter core quartz fibers as the active Cerenkov sampling medium. The energy resolution on electrons and pions, energy response, pulse shapes and angular studies are presented

  3. STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY OF CORES WITHIN INFRARED DARK CLOUDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, E. T.; Jackson, J. M.; Rathborne, J. M.; Simon, R.

    2009-01-01

    Infrared Dark Clouds (IRDCs) contain compact cores which probably host the early stages of high-mass star formation. Many of these cores contain regions of extended, enhanced 4.5 μm emission, the so-called 'green fuzzies', which indicate shocked gas. Many cores also contain 24 μm emission, presumably from heated dust which indicates embedded protostars. Because 'green fuzzies' and 24 μm point sources both indicate star formation, we have developed an algorithm to identify star-forming cores within IRDCs by searching for the simultaneous presence of these two distinct indicators. We employ this algorithm on a sample of 190 cores found toward IRDCs, and classify the cores as 'active' if they contain a green fuzzy coincident with an embedded 24 μm source, and as 'quiescent' if they contain neither IR signature. We hypothesize that the 'quiescent' cores represent the earliest 'preprotostellar' (starless) core phase, before the development of a warm protostar, and that the 'active' cores represent a later phase, after the development of a protostar. We test this idea by comparing the sizes, densities, and maser activity of the 'active' and 'quiescent' cores. We find that, on average, 'active' cores have smaller sizes, higher densities, and more pronounced water and methanol maser activity than the 'quiescent' cores. This is expected if the 'quiescent' cores are in an earlier evolutionary state than the 'active' cores. The masses of 'active' cores suggest that they may be forming high-mass stars. The highest mass 'quiescent' cores are excellent candidates for the elusive high-mass starless cores.

  4. Reactor core control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Hiroki

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a reactor core control device, in which switching from a manual operation to an automatic operation, and the control for the parameter of an automatic operation device are facilitated. Namely, the hysteresis of the control for the operation parameter by an manual operation input means is stored. The hysteresis of the control for the operation parameter is collected. The state of the reactor core simulated by an operation control to which the collected operation parameters are manually inputted is determined as an input of the reactor core state to the automatic input means. The record of operation upon manual operation is stored as a hysteresis of control for the operation parameter, but the hysteresis information is not only the result of manual operation of the operation parameter. This is results of operation conducted by a skilled operator who judge the state of the reactor core to be optimum. Accordingly, it involves information relevant to the reactor core state. Then, it is considered that the optimum automatic operation is not deviated greatly from the manual operation. (I.S.)

  5. The PWR cores management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barral, J.C.; Rippert, D.; Johner, J.

    2000-01-01

    During the meeting of the 25 january 2000, organized by the SFEN, scientists and plant operators in the domain of the PWR debated on the PWR cores management. The five first papers propose general and economic information on the PWR and also the fast neutron reactors chains in the electric power market: statistics on the electric power industry, nuclear plant unit management, the ITER project and the future of the thermonuclear fusion, the treasurer's and chairman's reports. A second part offers more technical papers concerning the PWR cores management: performance and optimization, in service load planning, the cores management in the other countries, impacts on the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  6. Molten core retention assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampe, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    Molten fuel produced in a core overheating accident is caught by a molten core retention assembly consisting of a horizontal baffle plate having a plurality of openings therein, heat exchange tubes having flow holes near the top thereof mounted in the openings, and a cylindrical imperforate baffle attached to the plate and surrounding the tubes. The baffle assembly is supported from the core support plate of the reactor by a plurality of hanger rods which are welded to radial beams passing under the baffle plate and intermittently welded thereto. Preferably the upper end of the cylindrical baffle terminates in an outwardly facing lip to which are welded a plurality of bearings having slots therein adapted to accept the hanger rods

  7. Core status computing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To calculate power distribution, flow rate and the like in the reactor core with high accuracy in a BWR type reactor. Constitution: Total flow rate signals, traverse incore probe (TIP) signals as the neutron detector signals, thermal power signals and pressure signals are inputted into a process computer, where the power distribution and the flow rate distribution in the reactor core are calculated. A function generator connected to the process computer calculates the absolute flow rate passing through optional fuel assemblies using, as variables, flow rate signals from the introduction part for fuel assembly flow rate signals, data signals from the introduction part for the geometrical configuration data at the flow rate measuring site of fuel assemblies, total flow rate signals for the reactor core and the signals from the process computer. Numerical values thus obtained are given to the process computer as correction signals to perform correction for the experimental data. (Moriyama, K.)

  8. Superconducting tin core fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  9. LMFBR core design analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, M.; Yang, J.C.; Yoh, K.C.; Suk, S.D.; Soh, D.S.; Kim, Y.M.

    1980-01-01

    The design parameters of a commercial-scale fast breeder reactor which is currently under construction by regeneration of these data is preliminary analyzed. The analysis of nuclear and thermal characteristics as well as safety features of this reactor is emphasized. And the evaluation of the initial core mentioned in the system description is carried out in the areas of its kinetics and control system, and, at the same time, the flow distribution of sodium and temperature distribution of the initial FBR core system are calculated. (KAERI INIS Section)

  10. Nuclear core catchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, M.P.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Heylmun, N.F.

    1976-01-01

    A receptacle is described for taking the molten fragments of a nuclear reactor during a reactor core fusion accident. The receptacle is placed under the reactor. It includes at least one receptacle for the reactor core fragments, with a dome shaped part to distribute the molten fragments and at least one outside layer of alumina bricks around the dome. The characteristic of this receptacle is that the outer layer of bricks contains neutron poison rods which pass through the bricks and protrude in relation to them [fr

  11. Organizing Core Tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen

    has remained much the same within the last 10 years. However, how the core task has been organized has changed considerable under the influence of various “organizing devices”. The paper focusses on how organizing devices such as risk assessment, output-focus, effect orientation, and treatment...... projects influence the organization of core tasks within the tax administration. The paper shows that the organizational transformations based on the use of these devices have had consequences both for the overall collection of revenue and for the employees’ feeling of “making a difference”. All in all...

  12. GREEN CORE HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NECULAI Oana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Green Core House is a construction concept with low environmental impact, having as main central element a greenhouse. The greenhouse has the innovative role to use the biomass energy provided by plants to save energy. Although it is the central piece, the greenhouse is not the most innovative part of the Green Core House, but the whole building ensemble because it integrates many other sustainable systems as "waste purification systems", "transparent photovoltaic panels" or "double skin façades".

  13. PWR core design calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trkov, A; Ravnik, M; Zeleznik, N [Inst. Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1992-07-01

    Functional description of the programme package Cord-2 for PWR core design calculations is presented. Programme package is briefly described. Use of the package and calculational procedures for typical core design problems are treated. Comparison of main results with experimental values is presented as part of the verification process. (author) [Slovenian] Opisali smo programski paket CORD-2, ki se uporablja pri projektnih izracunih sredice pri upravljanju tlacnovodnega reaktorja. Prikazana je uporaba paketa in racunskih postopkov za tipicne probleme, ki nastopajo pri projektiranju sredice. Primerjava glavnih rezultatov z eksperimentalnimi vrednostmi je predstavljena kot del preveritvenega procesa. (author)

  14. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  15. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An analytical method of estimating the mass of a stellar iron core, just prior to core collapse, is described in this paper. The method employed depends, in part, upon an estimate of the true relativistic mass increase experienced by electrons within a highly compressed iron core, just prior to core collapse, and is significantly ...

  16. Core Requirements for the Economics Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkus, Marie; Perry, John J.; Johnson, Bruce K.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors are the first to describe the core economics curriculum requirements for economics majors at all American colleges and universities, as opposed to a sample of institutions. Not surprisingly, principles of economics is nearly universally required and implemented as a two-semester course in 85 percent of economics major…

  17. Ensemble Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiuyuan; Van Roy, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Thompson sampling has emerged as an effective heuristic for a broad range of online decision problems. In its basic form, the algorithm requires computing and sampling from a posterior distribution over models, which is tractable only for simple special cases. This paper develops ensemble sampling, which aims to approximate Thompson sampling while maintaining tractability even in the face of complex models such as neural networks. Ensemble sampling dramatically expands on the range of applica...

  18. Sampling of Reactor Pressure Vessel and Core Internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberhaeuser, R.

    2011-01-01

    Decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear power plants is a growing business, as a huge number of plants built in the 1970s have now reached their lifetime. It is well known that dismantling a nuclear power plant means an extraordinary expense for the owner respectively operator. Besides the dismantling works, the disposal of activated components and other nuclear waste is very expensive. Moreover, the fact that, in most countries, final disposal facilities are not available yet implies the need for interim storage on-site in specially built facilities. It can be concluded that a special attention is paid on producing a minimal radioactive waste volume. For this, optimized dismantling and packaging concepts have to be developed. The challenge is a fair balance between the obtainment of optimized packing and on the other side the fulfillment of stringent regulations set by the authorities and the storage requirements. The basis of a well-founded, optimized dismantling and packaging concept must always be the detailed knowledge of the radiological condition of the component to be dismantled. In the best case a 3- dimensional activation model contributes to this basis.

  19. Nuclear core baffling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, F.W. Jr.; Silverblatt, B.L.; Knight, C.B.; Berringer, R.T.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus for baffling the flow of reactor coolant fluid into and about the core of a nuclear reactor is described. The apparatus includes a plurality of longitudinally aligned baffle plates with mating surfaces that allow longitudinal growth with temperature increases while alleviating both leakage through the aligned plates and stresses on the components supporting the plates

  20. The Uncommon Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohler, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This author contends that the United States neglects creativity in its education system. To see this, he states, one may look at the Common Core State Standards. If one searches the English Language Arts and Literacy standards for the words "creative," "innovative," and "original"--and any associated terms, one will…

  1. Utah's New Mathematics Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Office of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Utah has adopted more rigorous mathematics standards known as the Utah Mathematics Core Standards. They are the foundation of the mathematics curriculum for the State of Utah. The standards include the skills and understanding students need to succeed in college and careers. They include rigorous content and application of knowledge and reflect…

  2. Some Core Contested Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-01-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and…

  3. Reactor core structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashinakagawa, Emiko; Sato, Kanemitsu.

    1992-01-01

    Taking notice on the fact that Fe based alloys and Ni based alloys are corrosion resistant in a special atmosphere of a nuclear reactor, Fe or Ni based alloys are applied to reactor core structural components such as fuel cladding tubes, fuel channels, spacers, etc. On the other hand, the neutron absorption cross section of zirconium is 0.18 barn while that of iron is 2.52 barn and that of nickel is 4.6 barn, which amounts to 14 to 25 times compared with that of zirconium. Accordingly, if the reactor core structural components are constituted by the Fe or Ni based alloys, neutron economy is lowered. Since it is desirable that neutrons contribute to uranium fission with least absorption to the reactor core structural components, the reactor core structural components are constituted with the Fe or Ni based alloys of good corrosion resistance only at a portion in contact with reactor water, that is, at a surface portion, while the main body is constituted with zircalloy in the present invention. Accordingly, corrosion resistnace can be kept while keeping small neutron absorption cross section. (T.M.)

  4. Investigation of EAS cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaulov S.B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of nuclear-electromagnetic cascade models in air in the late forties have shown informational content of the study of cores of extensive air showers (EAS. These investigations were the main goal in different experiments which were carried out over many years by a variety of methods. Outcomes of such investigations obtained in the HADRON experiment using an X-ray emulsion chamber (XREC as a core detector are considered. The Ne spectrum of EAS associated with γ-ray families, spectra of γ-rays (hadrons in EAS cores and the Ne dependence of the muon number, ⟨Nμ⟩, in EAS with γ-ray families are obtained for the first time at energies of 1015–1017 eV with this method. A number of new effects were observed, namely, an abnormal scaling violation in hadron spectra which are fundamentally different from model predictions, an excess of muon number in EAS associated with γ-ray families, and the penetrating component in EAS cores. It is supposed that the abnormal behavior of γ-ray spectra and Ne dependence of the muon number are explained by the emergence of a penetrating component in the 1st PCR spectrum ‘knee’ range. Nuclear and astrophysical explanations of the origin of the penetrating component are discussed. The necessity of considering the contribution of a single close cosmic-ray source to explain the PCR spectrum in the knee range is noted.

  5. Plutonium cores of zenith

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barclay, F R; Cameron, I R; Drageset, A; Freemantle, R G; Wilson, D J

    1965-03-15

    The report describes a series of experiments carried out with plutonium fuel in the heated zero power reactor ZENITH, with the aim of testing current theoretical methods, with particular reference to excess reactivity, temperature coefficients, differential spectrum and reaction rate distributions. Two cores of widely different fissile/moderator atom ratios were loaded in order to test the theory under significantly varied spectrum conditions.

  6. Core damage risk indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szikszai, T.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to show a method for the fast recalculation of the PSA. To avoid the information loose, it is necessary to simplify the PSA models, or at least reorganize them. The method, introduced in this document, require that preparation, so we try to show, how to do that. This document is an introduction. This is the starting point of the work related to the development of the risk indicators. In the future, with the application of this method, we are going to show an everyday use of the PSA results to produce the indicators of the core damage risk. There are two different indicators of the plant safety performance, related to the core damage risk. The first is the core damage frequency indicator (CDFI), and the second is the core damage probability indicator (CDPI). Of course, we cannot describe all of the possible ways to use these indicators, rather we will try to introduce the requirements to establish such an indicator system and the calculation process

  7. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Ken.

    1989-01-01

    In PWR type reactors, a cooling water spray portion of emergency core cooling pipelines incorporated into pipelines on high temperature side is protruded to the inside of an upper plenum. Upon rupture of primary pipelines, pressure in a pressure vessel is abruptly reduced to generate a great amount of steams in the reactor core, which are discharged at a high flow rate into the primary pipelines on high temperature side. However, since the inside of the upper plenum has a larger area and the steam flow is slow, as compared with that of the pipelines on the high temperature side, ECCS water can surely be supplied into the reactor core to promote the re-flooding of the reactor core and effectively cool the reactor. Since the nuclear reactor can effectively be cooled to enable the promotion of pressure reduction and effective supply of coolants during the period of pressure reduction upon LOCA, the capacity of the pressure accumulation vessel can be decreased. Further, the re-flooding time for the reactor is shortened to provide an effect contributing to the improvement of the safety and the reduction of the cost. (N.H.)

  8. Inflation targeting and core inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Julie Smith

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the interaction of core inflation and inflation targeting as a monetary policy regime. Interest in core inflation has grown because of inflation targeting. Core inflation is defined in numerous ways giving rise to many potential measures; this paper defines core inflation as the best forecaster of inflation. A cross-country study finds before the start of inflation targeting, but not after, core inflation differs between non-inflation targeters and inflation targeters. Thr...

  9. Three Types of Earth's Inner Core Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, D.; Wen, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Earth's inner core boundary (ICB) is the site where the liquid outer core solidifies and the solid inner core grows. Thus, the fine-scale structure of the ICB is important for our understanding of the thermo-compositional state of the Earth's core. In this study, we collect a large set of seismic records with high-quality pre-critical PKiKP and PcP phase pairs, recorded by two dense seismic arrays, Hi-net in Japan and USArray in US. This dataset samples the ICB regions beneath East Asia, Mexico and the Bering Sea. We use differential travel times, amplitude ratios and waveform differences between PKiKP and PcP phases to constrain fine-scale structure of the ICB. The sampled ICB can be grouped into three types based on their seismic characteristics: (1) a simple ICB with a flat and sharp boundary, (2) a bumpy ICB with topographic height changes of 10 km, and (3) a localized mushy ICB with laterally varying thicknesses of 4-8 km. The laterally varying fine-scale structure of the ICB indicates existence of complex small-scale forces at the surface and a laterally varying solidification process of the inner core due to lateral variation of thermo-compositional condition near the ICB.

  10. CORE annual report 2006; CORE Jahresbericht 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gut, A

    2007-04-15

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE in 2006. The six main areas of work during the period 2004 - 2007 are examined, including a review of the SFOE's energy research programme, a road-map for the way towards the realisation of a 2000-watt society, the formulation of an energy research concept for 2008 - 2011, international co-operation, the dissemination of information and the assessment of existing and new instruments. International activities and Switzerland's involvement in energy research within the framework of the International Energy Agency IEA are discussed. New and existing projects are listed and the work done at the Competence Centre for Energy and Mobility noted. The Swiss Technology Award 2007 is presented. Information supplied to interested bodies to help improve knowledge on research work being done and to help make discussions on future energy supply more objective is discussed.

  11. 216-Day report for Tank 241-C-111, cores 58 and 59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    Three core samples from tank C-111, and a field blank, were received by the 222-S laboratories. Cores 58, 59, and the field blank were analyzed in accordance with plans. A hot cell blank was analyzed at the direction of the hot cell chemist. No sample results exceeded the notification limits. Core 60 was not analyzed

  12. Ice cores and palaeoclimate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krogh Andersen, K.; Ditlevsen, P.; Steffensen, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Ice cores from Greenland give testimony of a highly variable climate during the last glacial period. Dramatic climate warmings of 15 to 25 deg. C for the annual average temperature in less than a human lifetime have been documented. Several questions arise: Why is the Holocene so stable? Is climatic instability only a property of glacial periods? What is the mechanism behind the sudden climate changes? Are the increased temperatures in the past century man-made? And what happens in the future? The ice core community tries to attack some of these problems. The NGRIP ice core currently being drilled is analysed in very high detail, allowing for a very precise dating of climate events. It will be possible to study some of the fast changes on a year by year basis and from this we expect to find clues to the sequence of events during rapid changes. New techniques are hoped to allow for detection of annual layers as far back as 100,000 years and thus a much improved time scale over past climate changes. It is also hoped to find ice from the Eemian period. If the Eemian layers confirm the GRIP sequence, the Eemian was actually climatically unstable just as the glacial period. This would mean that the stability of the Holocene is unique. It would also mean, that if human made global warming indeed occurs, we could jeopardize the Holocene stability and create an unstable 'Eemian situation' which ultimately could start an ice age. Currenlty mankind is changing the composition of the atmosphere. Ice cores document significant increases in greenhouse gases, and due to increased emissions of sulfuric and nitric acid from fossil fuel burning, combustion engines and agriculture, modern Greenland snow is 3 - 5 times more acidic than pre-industrial snow (Mayewski et al., 1986). However, the magnitude and abruptness of the temperature changes of the past century do not exceed the magnitude of natural variability. It is from the ice core perspective thus not possible to attribute the

  13. Laser sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatenko, A A; Revina, E I

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to the major advances in laser sampling. The advantages and drawbacks of the technique are considered. Specific features of combinations of laser sampling with various instrumental analytical methods, primarily inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, are discussed. Examples of practical implementation of hybrid methods involving laser sampling as well as corresponding analytical characteristics are presented. The bibliography includes 78 references

  14. Dutch Dyslexia in Adulthood: Core Features and Variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekebrede, Judith; van der Leij, Aryan; Plakas, Anna; Share, David; Morfidi, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the phonological core deficit hypothesis among Dutch dyslexic adults and also evaluated the pattern of individual differences among dyslexics predicted by the phonological-core variable-orthographic differences (PCVOD) model (van der Leij & Morfidi, 2006) in a sample of 57 control adults and 56 dyslexic adults. It was…

  15. Praying Mantis Bending Core Breakoff and Retention Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Lindermann, Randel A.

    2011-01-01

    Sampling cores requires the controlled breakoff of the core at a known location with respect to the drill end. An additional problem is designing a mechanism that can be implemented at a small scale, yet is robust and versatile enough to be used for a variety of core samples. The new design consists of a set of tubes (a drill tube, an outer tube, and an inner tube) and means of sliding the inner and outer tubes axially relative to each other. Additionally, a sample tube can be housed inside the inner tube for storing the sample. The inner tube fits inside the outer tube, which fits inside the drill tube. The inner and outer tubes can move axially relative to each other. The inner tube presents two lamellae with two opposing grabbing teeth and one pushing tooth. The pushing tooth is offset axially from the grabbing teeth. The teeth can move radially and their motion is controlled by the outer tube. The outer tube presents two lamellae with radial extrusions to control the inner tube lamellae motion. In breaking the core, the mechanism creates two support points (the grabbing teeth and the bit tip) and one push point. The core is broken in bending. The grabbing teeth can also act as a core retention mechanism. The praying mantis that is disclosed herein is an active core breaking/retention mechanism that requires only one additional actuator other than the drilling actuator. It can break cores that are attached to the borehole bottom as

  16. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  17. Emergency core cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzaki, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Akihiro.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To improve core cooling effect by making the operation region for a plurality of water injection pumps more broader. Constitution: An emergency reactor core cooling device actuated upon failure of recycling pipe ways is adapted to be fed with cooling water through a thermal sleeve by way of a plurality of water injection pump from pool water in a condensate storage tank and a pressure suppression chamber as water feed source. Exhaust pipes and suction pipes of each of the pumps are connected by way of switching valves and the valves are switched so that the pumps are set to a series operation if the pressure in the pressure vessel is high and the pumps are set to a parallel operation if the pressure in the pressure vessel is low. (Furukawa, Y.)

  18. Birefringent hollow core fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, John

    2007-01-01

    Hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF), fabricated according to a nominally non-birefringent design, shows a degree of un-controlled birefringence or polarization mode dispersion far in excess of conventional non polarization maintaining fibers. This can degrade the output pulse in many...... applications, and places emphasis on the development of polarization maintaining (PM) HC-PCF. The polarization cross-coupling characteristics of PM HC-PCF are very different from those of conventional PM fibers. The former fibers have the advantage of suffering far less from stress-field fluctuations...... and an increased overlap between the polarization modes at the glass interfaces. The interplay between these effects leads to a wavelength for optimum polarization maintenance, lambda(PM), which is detuned from the wavelength of highest birefringence. By a suitable fiber design involving antiresonance of the core...

  19. Plasma core reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latham, T.S.; Rodgers, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical and experimental investigations are being conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of fissioning uranium plasma core reactors and to characterize space and terrestrial applications for such reactors. Uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) fuel is injected into core cavities and confined away from the surface by argon buffer gas injected tangentially from the peripheral walls. Power, in the form of thermal radiation emitted from the high-temperature nuclear fuel, is transmitted through fused-silica transparent walls to working fluids which flow in axial channels embedded in segments of the cavity walls. Radiant heat transfer calculations were performed for a six-cavity reactor configuration; each cavity is approximately 1 m in diameter by 4.35 m in length. Axial working fluid channels are located along a fraction of each cavity peripheral wall

  20. Reactor core cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Masahiro.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To safely and effectively cool down the reactor core after it has been shut down but is still hot due to after-heat. Constitution: Since the coolant extraction nozzle is situated at a location higher than the coolant injection nozzle, the coolant sprayed from the nozzle, is free from sucking immediately from the extraction nozzle and is therefore used effectively to cool the reactor core. As all the portions from the top to the bottom of the reactor are cooled simultaneously, the efficiency of the reactor cooling process is increased. Since the coolant extraction nozzle can be installed at a point considerably higher than the coolant injection nozzle, the distance from the coolant surface to the point of the coolant extraction nozzle can be made large, preventing cavitation near the coolant extraction nozzle. Therefore, without increasing the capacity of the heat exchanger, the reactor can be cooled down after a shutdown safely and efficiently. (Kawakami, Y.)

  1. Updated procedures for using drill cores and cuttings at the Lithologic Core Storage Library, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Mary K.V.; Davis, Linda C.; Bartholomay, Roy C.

    2018-01-30

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office, established the Lithologic Core Storage Library at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The facility was established to consolidate, catalog, and permanently store nonradioactive drill cores and cuttings from subsurface investigations conducted at the INL, and to provide a location for researchers to examine, sample, and test these materials.The facility is open by appointment to researchers for examination, sampling, and testing of cores and cuttings. This report describes the facility and cores and cuttings stored at the facility. Descriptions of cores and cuttings include the corehole names, corehole locations, and depth intervals available.Most cores and cuttings stored at the facility were drilled at or near the INL, on the eastern Snake River Plain; however, two cores drilled on the western Snake River Plain are stored for comparative studies. Basalt, rhyolite, sedimentary interbeds, and surficial sediments compose most cores and cuttings, most of which are continuous from land surface to their total depth. The deepest continuously drilled core stored at the facility was drilled to 5,000 feet below land surface. This report describes procedures and researchers' responsibilities for access to the facility and for examination, sampling, and return of materials.

  2. Some core contested concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomsky, Noam

    2015-02-01

    Core concepts of language are highly contested. In some cases this is legitimate: real empirical and conceptual issues arise. In other cases, it seems that controversies are based on misunderstanding. A number of crucial cases are reviewed, and an approach to language is outlined that appears to have strong conceptual and empirical motivation, and to lead to conclusions about a number of significant issues that differ from some conventional beliefs.

  3. Schumpeter's core works revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2012-01-01

    This paper organises Schumpeter’s core books in three groups: the programmatic duology,the evolutionaryeconomic duology,and the socioeconomic synthesis. By analysing these groups and their interconnections from the viewpoint of modern evolutionaryeconomics,the paper summarises resolved problems a...... and points at remaining challenges. Its analyses are based on distinctions between microevolution and macroevolution, between economic evolution and socioeconomic coevolution, and between Schumpeter’s three major evolutionary models (called Mark I, Mark II and Mark III)....

  4. BWR type reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatemichi, Shin-ichiro.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To eliminate the variation in the power distribution of a BWR type reactor core in the axial direction even if the flow rate is increased or decreased by providing a difference in the void coefficient between the upper part and the lower parts of the reactor core, and increasing the void coefficient at the lower part of the reactor core. Constitution: The void coefficient of the lower region from the center to the lower part along the axial direction of a nuclear fuel assembly is increased to decrease the dependence on the flow rate of the axial power distribution of the nuclear fuel assembly. That is, a water/fuel ratio is varied, the water in non-boiled region is increased or the neutron spectrum is varied so as to vary the void coefficient. In order to exemplify it, the rate of the internal pellets of the fuel rod of the nuclear fuel assembly or the shape of the channel box is varied. Accordingly, the power does not considerably vary even if the flow rate is altered since the power is varied in the power operation. (Yoshihara, H.)

  5. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Masaki.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To actuate an automatic pressure down system (ADS) and a low pressure emergency core cooling system (ECCS) upon water level reduction of a nuclear reactor other than loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). Constitution: ADS in a BWR type reactor is disposed for reducing the pressure in a reactor container thereby enabling coolant injection from a low pressure ECCS upon LOCA. That is, ADS has been actuated by AND signal for a reactor water level low signal and a dry well pressure high signal. In the present invention, ADS can be actuated further also by AND signal of the reactor water level low signal, the high pressure ECCS and not-operation signal of reactor isolation cooling system. In such an emergency core cooling system thus constituted, ADS operates in the same manner as usual upon LOCA and, further, ADS is operated also upon loss of feedwater accident in the reactor pressure vessel in the case where there is a necessity for actuating the low pressure ECCS, although other high pressure ECCS and reactor isolation cooling system are not operated. Accordingly, it is possible to improve the reliability upon reactor core accident and mitigate the operator burden. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. Continuous greenhouse gas measurements from ice cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stowasser, Christopher

    Ice cores offer the unique possibility to study the history of past atmospheric greenhouse gases over the last 800,000 years, since past atmospheric air is trapped in bubbles in the ice. Since the 1950s, paleo-scientists have developed a variety of techniques to extract the trapped air from...... individual ice core samples, and to measure the mixing ratio of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide in the extracted air. The discrete measurements have become highly accurate and reproducible, but require relatively large amounts of ice per measured species and are both time......-consuming and labor-intensive. This PhD thesis presents the development of a new method for measurements of greenhouse gas mixing ratios from ice cores based on a melting device of a continuous flow analysis (CFA) system. The coupling to a CFA melting device enables time-efficient measurements of high resolution...

  7. Hanford coring bit temperature monitor development testing results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, D.

    1995-05-01

    Instrumentation which directly monitors the temperature of a coring bit used to retrieve core samples of high level nuclear waste stored in tanks at Hanford was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. Monitoring the temperature of the coring bit is desired to enhance the safety of the coring operations. A unique application of mature technologies was used to accomplish the measurement. This report documents the results of development testing performed at Sandia to assure the instrumentation will withstand the severe environments present in the waste tanks

  8. TMI-2 core-examination program: INEL facilities readiness study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, T.B.

    1983-02-01

    This report reviews the capability and readiness of remote handling facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to receive, and store the TMI-2 core, and to examine and analyze TMI-2 core samples. To accomplish these objectives, the facilities must be able to receive commercial casks, unload canisters from the casks, store the canisters, open the canisters, handle the fuel debris and assemblies, and perform various examinations. The report identifies documentation, including core information, necessary to INEL before receiving the entire TMI-2 core. Also identified are prerequisites to INEL's receipt of the first canister: costs, schedules, and a preliminary project plan for the tasks

  9. Subduction zone earthquake probably triggered submarine hydrocarbon seepage offshore Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, David; José M., Mogollón; Michael, Strasser; Thomas, Pape; Gerhard, Bohrmann; Noemi, Fekete; Volkhard, Spiess; Sabine, Kasten

    2014-05-01

    Seepage of methane-dominated hydrocarbons is heterogeneous in space and time, and trigger mechanisms of episodic seep events are not well constrained. It is generally found that free hydrocarbon gas entering the local gas hydrate stability field in marine sediments is sequestered in gas hydrates. In this manner, gas hydrates can act as a buffer for carbon transport from the sediment into the ocean. However, the efficiency of gas hydrate-bearing sediments for retaining hydrocarbons may be corrupted: Hypothesized mechanisms include critical gas/fluid pressures beneath gas hydrate-bearing sediments, implying that these are susceptible to mechanical failure and subsequent gas release. Although gas hydrates often occur in seismically active regions, e.g., subduction zones, the role of earthquakes as potential triggers of hydrocarbon transport through gas hydrate-bearing sediments has hardly been explored. Based on a recent publication (Fischer et al., 2013), we present geochemical and transport/reaction-modelling data suggesting a substantial increase in upward gas flux and hydrocarbon emission into the water column following a major earthquake that occurred near the study sites in 1945. Calculating the formation time of authigenic barite enrichments identified in two sediment cores obtained from an anticlinal structure called "Nascent Ridge", we find they formed 38-91 years before sampling, which corresponds well to the time elapsed since the earthquake (62 years). Furthermore, applying a numerical model, we show that the local sulfate/methane transition zone shifted upward by several meters due to the increased methane flux and simulated sulfate profiles very closely match measured ones in a comparable time frame of 50-70 years. We thus propose a causal relation between the earthquake and the amplified gas flux and present reflection seismic data supporting our hypothesis that co-seismic ground shaking induced mechanical fracturing of gas hydrate-bearing sediments

  10. Soil sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunati, G.U.; Banfi, C.; Pasturenzi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This study attempts to survey the problems associated with techniques and strategies of soil sampling. Keeping in mind the well defined objectives of a sampling campaign, the aim was to highlight the most important aspect of representativeness of samples as a function of the available resources. Particular emphasis was given to the techniques and particularly to a description of the many types of samplers which are in use. The procedures and techniques employed during the investigations following the Seveso accident are described. (orig.)

  11. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research....

  12. Molten salt reactors: reactor cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    In this critical analysis of the MSBR I project are examined the problems concerning the reactor core. Advantages of breeding depend essentially upon solutions to technological problems like continuous reprocessing or graphite behavior under neutron irradiation. Graphite deformation, moderator unloading, control rods and core instrumentation require more studies. Neutronics of the core, influence of core geometry and salt composition, fuel evolution, and thermohydraulics are reviewed [fr

  13. WNP-2 core model upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golightly, C.E.; Ravindranath, T.K.; Belblidia, L.A.; O'Farrell, D.; Andersen, P.S.

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes the core model upgrade of the WNP-2 training simulator and the reasons for the upgrade. The core model as well as the interface with the rest of the simulator are briefly described . The paper also describes the procedure that will be used by WNP-2 to update the simulator core data after future core reloads. Results from the fully integrated simulator are presented. (author)

  14. On-line core monitoring with CORE MASTER / PRESTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, S.O.; Borresen, S.; Ovrum, S.

    1986-01-01

    Advanced calculational tools are instrumental in improving reactor plant capacity factors and fuel utilization. The computer code package CORE MASTER is an integrated system designed to achieve this objective. The system covers all main activities in the area of in-core fuel management for boiling water reactors; design, operation support, and on-line core monitoring. CORE MASTER operates on a common data base, which defines the reactor and documents the operating history of the core and of all fuel bundles ever used

  15. Family and infant characteristics associated with timing of core and non-core food introduction in early childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Schrempft, Stephanie; van Jaarsveld, Cornelia H.M.; Fisher, Abigail; Wardle, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify family and infant characteristics associated with timing of introduction of two food types: core foods (nutrient-dense) and non-core foods (nutrient-poor) in a population-based sample of mothers and infants. Method Participants were 1861 mothers and infants from the Gemini twin birth cohort (one child per family). Family and infant characteristics were assessed when the infants were around 8 months old. Timing of introducing core and non-core foods was assessed at 8 and ...

  16. Highly efficient fluorescence sensing with hollow core photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smolka, Stephan; Barth, Michael; Benson, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    We investigate hollow core photonic crystal fibers for ultra-sensitive fluorescence detection by selectively infiltrating the central hole with fluorophores. Dye concentrations down to 10(-9) M can be detected using only nanoliter sample volumes.......We investigate hollow core photonic crystal fibers for ultra-sensitive fluorescence detection by selectively infiltrating the central hole with fluorophores. Dye concentrations down to 10(-9) M can be detected using only nanoliter sample volumes....

  17. Hollow-Core Fiber Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lin (Inventor); Tjoelker, Robert L. (Inventor); Burt, Eric A. (Inventor); Huang, Shouhua (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Hollow-core capillary discharge lamps on the millimeter or sub-millimeter scale are provided. The hollow-core capillary discharge lamps achieve an increased light intensity ratio between 194 millimeters (useful) and 254 millimeters (useless) light than conventional lamps. The capillary discharge lamps may include a cone to increase light output. Hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) may also be used.

  18. Dual-core Itanium Processor

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Intel’s first dual-core Itanium processor, code-named "Montecito" is a major release of Intel's Itanium 2 Processor Family, which implements the Intel Itanium architecture on a dual-core processor with two cores per die (integrated circuit). Itanium 2 is much more powerful than its predecessor. It has lower power consumption and thermal dissipation.

  19. Maximum stellar iron core mass

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    60, No. 3. — journal of. March 2003 physics pp. 415–422. Maximum stellar iron core mass. F W GIACOBBE. Chicago Research Center/American Air Liquide ... iron core compression due to the weight of non-ferrous matter overlying the iron cores within large .... thermal equilibrium velocities will tend to be non-relativistic.

  20. Core TuLiP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czenko, M.R.; Etalle, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    We propose CoreTuLiP - the core of a trust management language based on Logic Programming. CoreTuLiP is based on a subset of moded logic programming, but enjoys the features of TM languages such as RT; in particular clauses are issued by different authorities and stored in a distributed manner. We

  1. Sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Sample preparation prior to HPLC analysis is certainly one of the most important steps to consider in trace or ultratrace analysis. For many years scientists have tried to simplify the sample preparation process. It is rarely possible to inject a neat liquid sample or a sample where preparation may not be any more complex than dissolution of the sample in a given solvent. The last process alone can remove insoluble materials, which is especially helpful with the samples in complex matrices if other interactions do not affect extraction. Here, it is very likely a large number of components will not dissolve and are, therefore, eliminated by a simple filtration process. In most cases, the process of sample preparation is not as simple as dissolution of the component interest. At times, enrichment is necessary, that is, the component of interest is present in very large volume or mass of material. It needs to be concentrated in some manner so a small volume of the concentrated or enriched sample can be injected into HPLC. 88 refs

  2. Sampling Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  3. Automated Core Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Yoko; Aiyoshi, Eitaro

    2005-01-01

    Multistate searching methods are a subfield of distributed artificial intelligence that aims to provide both principles for construction of complex systems involving multiple states and mechanisms for coordination of independent agents' actions. This paper proposes a multistate searching algorithm with reinforcement learning for the automatic core design of a boiling water reactor. The characteristics of this algorithm are that the coupling structure and the coupling operation suitable for the assigned problem are assumed and an optimal solution is obtained by mutual interference in multistate transitions using multiagents. Calculations in an actual plant confirmed that the proposed algorithm increased the convergence ability of the optimization process

  4. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known....... The first part concerns time series analysis of ice core data obtained from the Greenland Ice Sheet. We analyze parts of the time series where DO-events occur using the so-called transfer operator and compare the results with time series from a simple model capable of switching by either undergoing...

  5. Nuclear reactor core assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxi, C.B.

    1978-01-01

    The object of the present invention is to provide a fast reactor core assembly design for use with a fluid coolant such as liquid sodium or carbon monoxide incorporating a method of increasing the percentage of coolant flow though the blanket elements relative to the total coolant flow through the blanket and fuel elements during shutdown conditions without using moving parts. It is claimed that deterioration due to reactor radiation or temperature conditions is avoided and ready modification or replacement is possible. (U.K.)

  6. Reload core safety verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetlik, M.; Minarcin, M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a brief look at the process of reload core safety evaluation and verification in Slovak Republic. It gives an overview of experimental verification of selected nuclear parameters in the course of physics testing during reactor start-up. The comparison of IAEA recommendations and testing procedures at Slovak and European nuclear power plants of similar design is included. An introduction of two level criteria for evaluation of tests represents an effort to formulate the relation between safety evaluation and measured values (Authors)

  7. RB reactor benchmark cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.

    1998-01-01

    A selected set of the RB reactor benchmark cores is presented in this paper. The first results of validation of the well-known Monte Carlo MCNP TM code and adjoining neutron cross section libraries are given. They confirm the idea for the proposal of the new U-D 2 O criticality benchmark system and support the intention to include this system in the next edition of the recent OECD/NEA Project: International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Experiment, in near future. (author)

  8. Environmental sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puckett, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental Sampling (ES) is a technology option that can have application in transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The basic process is to take a sample from the environment, e.g., soil, water, vegetation, or dust and debris from a surface, and through very careful sample preparation and analysis, determine the types, elemental concentration, and isotopic composition of actinides in the sample. The sample is prepared and the analysis performed in a clean chemistry laboratory (CCL). This ES capability is part of the IAEA Strengthened Safeguards System. Such a Laboratory is planned to be built by JAERI at Tokai and will give Japan an intrinsic ES capability. This paper presents options for the use of ES as a transparency measure for nuclear nonproliferation

  9. Water born pollutants sampling using porous suction samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The common standard method of sampling water born pollutants in the vadoze zone is core sampling and it is followed by extraction of pore fluid. This method does not allow sampling at the same location next time and again later on. There is an alternative approach for sampling fluids (water born pollutants) from both saturated and unsaturated regions of vadose zone using porous suction samplers. There are three types of porous suction samplers, vacuum-operated, pressure-vacuum lysimeters, high pressure vacuum samples. The suction samples are operated in the range of 0-70 centi bars and usually consist of ceramic and polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE). The operation range of PTFE is higher than ceramic cups. These samplers are well suited for in situ and repeated sampling form the same location. This paper discusses the physical properties and operating condition of such samplers to the utilized under our environmental sampling. (author)

  10. How cores grow by pebble accretion. I. Direct core growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, M. G.; Vazan, A.; Ormel, C. W.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Planet formation by pebble accretion is an alternative to planetesimal-driven core accretion. In this scenario, planets grow by the accretion of cm- to m-sized pebbles instead of km-sized planetesimals. One of the main differences with planetesimal-driven core accretion is the increased thermal ablation experienced by pebbles. This can provide early enrichment to the planet's envelope, which influences its subsequent evolution and changes the process of core growth. Aims: We aim to predict core masses and envelope compositions of planets that form by pebble accretion and compare mass deposition of pebbles to planetesimals. Specifically, we calculate the core mass where pebbles completely evaporate and are absorbed before reaching the core, which signifies the end of direct core growth. Methods: We model the early growth of a protoplanet by calculating the structure of its envelope, taking into account the fate of impacting pebbles or planetesimals. The region where high-Z material can exist in vapor form is determined by the temperature-dependent vapor pressure. We include enrichment effects by locally modifying the mean molecular weight of the envelope. Results: In the pebble case, three phases of core growth can be identified. In the first phase (Mcore mixes outwards, slowing core growth. In the third phase (Mcore > 0.5M⊕), the high-Z inner region expands outwards, absorbing an increasing fraction of the ablated material as vapor. Rainout ends before the core mass reaches 0.6 M⊕, terminating direct core growth. In the case of icy H2O pebbles, this happens before 0.1 M⊕. Conclusions: Our results indicate that pebble accretion can directly form rocky cores up to only 0.6 M⊕, and is unable to form similarly sized icy cores. Subsequent core growth can proceed indirectly when the planet cools, provided it is able to retain its high-Z material.

  11. Rolling-Tooth Core Breakoff and Retention Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bickler, Donald B.; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Hudson, Nicolas H.

    2011-01-01

    Sampling cores requires the controlled breakoff of the core at a known location with respect to the drill end. An additional problem is designing a mechanism that can be implemented at a small scale that is robust and versatile enough to be used for a variety of core samples. This design consists of a set of tubes (a drill tube and an inner tube) and a rolling element (rolling tooth). An additional tube can be used as a sample tube. The drill tube and the inner tube have longitudinal holes with the axes offset from the axis of each tube. The two eccentricities are equal. The inner tube fits inside the drill tube, and the sample tube fits inside the inner tube. While drilling, the two tubes are positioned relative to each other such that the sample tube is aligned with the drill tube axis and core. The drill tube includes teeth and flutes for cuttings removal. The inner tube includes, at the base, the rolling element implemented as a wheel on a shaft in an eccentric slot. An additional slot in the inner tube and a pin in the drill tube limit the relative motion of the two tubes. While drilling, the drill assembly rotates relative to the core and forces the rolling tooth to stay hidden in the slot along the inner tube wall. When the drilling depth has been reached, the drill bit assembly is rotated in the opposite direction, and the rolling tooth is engaged and penetrates into the core. Depending on the strength of the created core, the rolling tooth can score, lock the inner tube relative to the core, start the eccentric motion of the inner tube, and break the core. The tooth and the relative position of the two tubes can act as a core catcher or core-retention mechanism as well. The design was made to fit the core and hole parameters produced by an existing bit; the parts were fabricated and a series of demonstration tests were performed. This invention is potentially applicable to sample return and in situ missions to planets such as Mars and Venus, to moons such

  12. TMI-2 core examination plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.E.; MacDonald, P.E.; Hobbins, R.R.; Ploggr, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The Three Mile Island (TMI-2) core examination is divided into four stages: (1) before removing the head; (2) before removing the plenum; (3) during defueling; and (4) offsite examinations. Core examinations recommended during the first three stages are primarily devoted to documenting the post-accident condition of the core. The detailed analysis of core damage structures will be performed during offsite examinations at government and commercial hot cell facilities. The primary objectives of these examinations are to enhance the understanding of the degraded core accident sequence, to develop the technical bases for reactor regulations, and to improve LWR design and operation

  13. Monitoring an electric cable core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.; Marris, A.

    1984-01-01

    A method of, and apparatus for, continuously monitoring an advancing core having a continuous covering comprises directing X-ray radiation laterally towards the advancing covered core; continuously forming an X-ray image pattern of the advancing covered core and translating the image pattern into a visible image pattern; continuously transforming the visible pattern into a digital bit pattern; and processing the digital bit pattern using a microprocessor with interfacing electronics to provide an image profile of the advancing covered core and/or to provide analogue and/or digital signals indicative of the overall diameter and eccentricity of the covered core and of the thickness of the covering. (author)

  14. Winning Cores in Parity Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Steen

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the novel notion of winning cores in parity games and develop a deterministic polynomial-time under-approximation algorithm for solving parity games based on winning core approximation. Underlying this algorithm are a number properties about winning cores which are interesting...... in their own right. In particular, we show that the winning core and the winning region for a player in a parity game are equivalently empty. Moreover, the winning core contains all fatal attractors but is not necessarily a dominion itself. Experimental results are very positive both with respect to quality...

  15. Initial charge reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyono, Takeshi

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To effectivity burn fuels and improve the economical performance in an inital charge reactor core of BWR type reactors or the likes. Constitution: In a reactor core constituted with a plurality of fuel assemblies which are to be partially replaced upon fuel replacement, the density of the fissionable materials and the moderator - fuel ratio of a fuel assembly is set corresponding to the period till that fuel assembly is replaced, in which the density of the nuclear fissionable materials is lowered and the moderator - fuel ratio is increased for the fuel assembly with a shorter period from the fueling to the fuel exchange and, while on the other hand, the density of the fissionable materials is increased and the moderator - fuel ratio is decreased for the fuel assembly with a longer period from the fueling to the replacement. Accordingly, since the moderator - fuel ratio is increased for the fuel assembly to be replaced in a shorter period, the neutrons moderating effect is increased to increase the reactivity. (Horiuchi, T.)

  16. Statistical core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelkers, E.; Heller, A.S.; Farnsworth, D.A.; Kearfott, K.J.

    1978-01-01

    The report describes the statistical analysis of DNBR thermal-hydraulic margin of a 3800 MWt, 205-FA core under design overpower conditions. The analysis used LYNX-generated data at predetermined values of the input variables whose uncertainties were to be statistically combined. LYNX data were used to construct an efficient response surface model in the region of interest; the statistical analysis was accomplished through the evaluation of core reliability; utilizing propagation of the uncertainty distributions of the inputs. The response surface model was implemented in both the analytical error propagation and Monte Carlo Techniques. The basic structural units relating to the acceptance criteria are fuel pins. Therefore, the statistical population of pins with minimum DNBR values smaller than specified values is determined. The specified values are designated relative to the most probable and maximum design DNBR values on the power limiting pin used in present design analysis, so that gains over the present design criteria could be assessed for specified probabilistic acceptance criteria. The results are equivalent to gains ranging from 1.2 to 4.8 percent of rated power dependent on the acceptance criterion. The corresponding acceptance criteria range from 95 percent confidence that no pin will be in DNB to 99.9 percent of the pins, which are expected to avoid DNB

  17. Nuclear reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Jun-ichi; Aoyama, Motoo; Ishibashi, Yoko; Mochida, Takaaki; Haikawa, Katsumasa; Yamanaka, Akihiro.

    1995-01-01

    A reactor core is radially divided into an inner region, an outer region and an outermost region. As a fuel, three kinds of fuels, namely, a high enrichment degree fuel at 3.4%, a middle enrichment degree fuel at 2.3% and a low enrichment degree at 1.1% of a fuel average enrichment degree of fission product are used. Each of the fuels is bisected to upper and lower portions at an axial center thereof. The difference of average enrichment degrees between upper and lower portions is 0.1% for the high enrichment degree fuel, 0.3% for the middle enrichment degree fuel and 0.2% for the low enrichment degree fuel. In addition, the composition of fuels in each of radial regions comprises 100% of the low enrichment degree fuels in the outermost region, 91% of the higher enrichment degree fuels and 9% of the middle enrichment degree fuels in the outer region, and 34% of the high enrichment degree fuels and 30% of the middle enrichment degree fuels in the inner region. With such a constitution, fuel economy can be improved while maintaining the thermal margin in an initially loaded reactor core of a BWR type reactor. (I.N.)

  18. Spherical sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Freeden, Willi; Schreiner, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This book presents, in a consistent and unified overview, results and developments in the field of today´s spherical sampling, particularly arising in mathematical geosciences. Although the book often refers to original contributions, the authors made them accessible to (graduate) students and scientists not only from mathematics but also from geosciences and geoengineering. Building a library of topics in spherical sampling theory it shows how advances in this theory lead to new discoveries in mathematical, geodetic, geophysical as well as other scientific branches like neuro-medicine. A must-to-read for everybody working in the area of spherical sampling.

  19. Models of the earth's core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1981-01-01

    Combined inferences from seismology, high-pressure experiment and theory, geomagnetism, fluid dynamics, and current views of terrestrial planetary evolution lead to models of the earth's core with five basic properties. These are that core formation was contemporaneous with earth accretion; the core is not in chemical equilibrium with the mantle; the outer core is a fluid iron alloy containing significant quantities of lighter elements and is probably almost adiabatic and compositionally uniform; the more iron-rich inner solid core is a consequence of partial freezing of the outer core, and the energy release from this process sustains the earth's magnetic field; and the thermodynamic properties of the core are well constrained by the application of liquid-state theory to seismic and labroatory data.

  20. Fluidic sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper covers the development of the fluidic sampler and its testing in a fluidic transfer system. The major findings of this paper are as follows. Fluidic jet samples can dependably produce unbiased samples of acceptable volume. The fluidic transfer system with a fluidic sampler in-line will transfer water to a net lift of 37.2--39.9 feet at an average ratio of 0.02--0.05 gpm (77--192 cc/min). The fluidic sample system circulation rate compares very favorably with the normal 0.016--0.026 gpm (60--100 cc/min) circulation rate that is commonly produced for this lift and solution with the jet-assisted airlift sample system that is normally used at ICPP. The volume of the sample taken with a fluidic sampler is dependant on the motive pressure to the fluidic sampler, the sample bottle size and on the fluidic sampler jet characteristics. The fluidic sampler should be supplied with fluid having the motive pressure of the 140--150 percent of the peak vacuum producing motive pressure for the jet in the sampler. Fluidic transfer systems should be operated by emptying a full pumping chamber to nearly empty or empty during the pumping cycle, this maximizes the solution transfer rate

  1. Dating sediment cores from Hudson River marshes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robideau, R.; Bopp, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    There are several methods for determining sediment accumulation rates in the Hudson River estuary. One involves the analysis of the concentration of certain radionuclides in sediment core sections. Radionuclides occur in the Hudson River as a result of: natural sources, fallout from nuclear weapons testing and low level aqueous releases from the Indian Point Nuclear Power Facility. The following radionuclides have been studied in the authors work: Cesium-137, which is derived from global fallout that started in the 1950's and has peaked in 1963. Beryllium-7, a natural radionuclide with a 53 day half-life and found associated with very recently deposited sediments. Another useful natural radionuclide is Lead-210 derived from the decay of Radon-222 in the atmosphere. Lead-210 has a half-life of 22 years and can be used to date sediments up to about 100 years old. In the Hudson River, Cobalt-60 is a marker for Indian Point Nuclear Reactor discharges. The author's research involved taking sediment core samples from four sites in the Hudson River Estuarine Research Reserve areas. These core samples were sectioned, dried, ground and analyzed for the presence of radionuclides by the method of gamma-ray spectroscopy. The strength of each current pulse is proportional to the energy level of the gamma ray absorbed. Since different radionuclides produce gamma rays of different energies, several radionuclides can be analyzed simultaneously in each of the samples. The data obtained from this research will be compared to earlier work to obtain a complete chronology of sediment deposition in these Reserve areas of the river. Core samples may then by analyzed for the presence of PCB's, heavy metals and other pollutants such as pesticides to construct a pollution history of the river

  2. CHARACTERIZING AND MODELING FERRITE-CORE PROBES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabbagh, Harold A.; Murphy, R. Kim; Sabbagh, Elias H.; Aldrin, John C.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we accurately and carefully characterize a ferrite-core probe that is widely used for aircraft inspections. The characterization starts with the development of a model that can be executed using the proprietary volume-integral code, VIC-3D(c), and then the model is fitted to measured multifrequency impedance data taken with the probe in freespace and over samples of a titanium alloy and aluminum. Excellent results are achieved, and will be discussed.

  3. Ice core carbonyl sulfide measurements from a new South Pole ice core (SPICECORE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, M.; Nicewonger, M. R.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2017-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is the most abundant sulfur gas in the troposphere with a present-day mixing ratio of about 500 ppt. Direct and indirect emissions from the oceans are the predominant sources of atmospheric COS. The primary removal mechanism is uptake by terrestrial plants during photosynthesis. Because plants do not respire COS, atmospheric COS levels are linked to terrestrial gross primary productivity (GPP). Ancient air trapped in polar ice cores has been used to reconstruct COS records of the past atmosphere, which can be used to infer past GPP variability and potential changes in oceanic COS emission. We are currently analyzing samples from a newly drilled intermediate depth ice core from South Pole, Antarctica (SPICECORE). This core is advantageous for studying COS because the cold temperatures of South Pole ice lead to very slow rates of in situ loss due to hydrolysis. One hundred and eighty-four bubbly ice core samples have been analyzed to date with gas ages ranging from about 9.2 thousand (733 m depth) to 75 years (126 m depth) before present. After a 2% correction for gravitational enrichment in the firn, the mean COS mixing ratio for the data set is 312±15 ppt (±1s), with the data set median also equal to 312 ppt. The only significant long-term trend in the record is a 5-10% increase in COS during the last 2-3 thousand years of the Holocene. The SPICECORE data agree with previously published ice core COS records from other Antarctic sites during times of overlap, confirming earlier estimates of COS loss rates to in situ hydrolysis in ice cores. Antarctic ice core data place strict constraints on the COS mixing ratio and its range of variability in the southern hemisphere atmosphere during the last several millennia. Implications for the atmospheric COS budget will be discussed.

  4. Waves in the core and mechanical core-mantle interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jault, D.; Finlay, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This Chapter focuses on time-dependent uid motions in the core interior, which can beconstrained by observations of the Earth's magnetic eld, on timescales which are shortcompared to the magnetic diusion time. This dynamics is strongly inuenced by the Earth's rapid rotation, which rigidies...... the motions in the direction parallel to the Earth'srotation axis. This property accounts for the signicance of the core-mantle topography.In addition, the stiening of the uid in the direction parallel to the rotation axis gives riseto a magnetic diusion layer attached to the core-mantle boundary, which would...... otherwisebe dispersed by Alfven waves. This Chapter complements the descriptions of large-scaleow in the core (8.04), of turbulence in the core (8.06) and of core-mantle interactions(8.12), which can all be found in this volume. We rely on basic magnetohydrodynamictheory, including the derivation...

  5. Analytical Chemistry Core Capability Assessment - Preliminary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, Mary E.; Farish, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of 'core capability' can be nebulous one. Even at a fairly specific level, where core capability equals maintaining essential services, it is highly dependent upon the perspective of the requestor. Samples are submitted to analytical services because the requesters do not have the capability to conduct adequate analyses themselves. Some requests are for general chemical information in support of R and D, process control, or process improvement. Many analyses, however, are part of a product certification package and must comply with higher-level customer quality assurance requirements. So which services are essential to that customer - just those for product certification? Does the customer also (indirectly) need services that support process control and improvement? And what is the timeframe? Capability is often expressed in terms of the currently utilized procedures, and most programmatic customers can only plan a few years out, at best. But should core capability consider the long term where new technologies, aging facilities, and personnel replacements must be considered? These questions, and a multitude of others, explain why attempts to gain long-term consensus on the definition of core capability have consistently failed. This preliminary report will not try to define core capability for any specific program or set of programs. Instead, it will try to address the underlying concerns that drive the desire to determine core capability. Essentially, programmatic customers want to be able to call upon analytical chemistry services to provide all the assays they need, and they don't want to pay for analytical chemistry services they don't currently use (or use infrequently). This report will focus on explaining how the current analytical capabilities and methods evolved to serve a variety of needs with a focus on why some analytes have multiple analytical techniques, and what determines the infrastructure for these analyses. This information will be

  6. Core cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeppner, G.

    1980-01-01

    The reactor cooling system transports the heat liberated in the reactor core to the component - heat exchanger, steam generator or turbine - where the energy is removed. This basic task can be performed with a variety of coolants circulating in appropriately designed cooling systems. The choice of any one system is governed by principles of economics and natural policies, the design is determined by the laws of nuclear physics, thermal-hydraulics and by the requirement of reliability and public safety. PWR- and BWR- reactors today generate the bulk of nuclear energy. Their primary cooling systems are discussed under the following aspects: 1. General design, nuclear physics constraints, energy transfer, hydraulics, thermodynamics. 2. Design and performance under conditions of steady state and mild transients; control systems. 3. Design and performance under conditions of severe transients and loss of coolant accidents; safety systems. (orig./RW)

  7. The true 'core' splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallerbach, J.

    1978-01-01

    Massive unemployment and the fear of a barred future put at present the unions and civil initiative to the apparent alternatives; securing work places or securing life and future. How the 'atomic fight' is fought and its result can have considerable consequences for our society. This volume presents a dialogue: Firstly the situation and environment must be understood giving rise to the controversial arguments. Reports, analyses and interviews are presented on this as basic structure for the future discussion. The quality and direction of the technical progress are dealt with in the core of the discussion. Is atomic technology acceptable. Who should decide and whom does it serve. What is progress going to look like anyway. (orig.) [de

  8. Emergency core cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubokoya, Takashi; Okataku, Yasukuni.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To maintain the fuel soundness upon loss of primary coolant accidents in a pressure tube type nuclear reactor by injecting cooling heavy water at an early stage, to suppress the temperature of fuel cans at a lower level. Constitution: When a thermometer detects the temperature rise and a pressure gauge detects that the pressure for the primary coolants is reduced slightly from that in the normal operation upon loss of coolant accidents in the vicinity of the primary coolant circuit, heavy water is caused to flow in the heavy water feed pipeway by a controller. This enables to inject the heavy water into the reactor core in a short time upon loss of the primary coolant accidents to suppress the temperature rise in the fuel can thereby maintain the fuel soundness. (Moriyama, K.)

  9. The core and cosmopolitans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlander, Linus; Frederiksen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Users often interact and help each other solve problems in communities, but few scholars have explored how these relationships provide opportunities to innovate. We analyze the extent to which people positioned within the core of a community as well as people that are cosmopolitans positioned...... across multiple external communities affect innovation. Using a multimethod approach, including a survey, a complete database of interactions in an online community, content coding of interactions and contributions, and 36 interviews, we specify the types of positions that have the strongest effect...... on innovation. Our study shows that dispositional explanations for user innovation should be complemented by a relational view that emphasizes how these communities differ from other organizations, the types of behaviors this enables, and the effects on innovation....

  10. Adult educators' core competences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    ” requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students’ prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator’s reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence......Abstract Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators’ required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural...... environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or “core...

  11. CORE annual report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gut, A.

    2007-04-01

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE in 2006. The six main areas of work during the period 2004 - 2007 are examined, including a review of the SFOE's energy research programme, a road-map for the way towards the realisation of a 2000-watt society, the formulation of an energy research concept for 2008 - 2011, international co-operation, the dissemination of information and the assessment of existing and new instruments. International activities and Switzerland's involvement in energy research within the framework of the International Energy Agency IEA are discussed. New and existing projects are listed and the work done at the Competence Centre for Energy and Mobility noted. The Swiss Technology Award 2007 is presented. Information supplied to interested bodies to help improve knowledge on research work being done and to help make discussions on future energy supply more objective is discussed

  12. Nuclear reactor core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prescott, R F

    1974-07-11

    The core of the fast neutron reactor consisting, among other components, of fuel elements enriched in plutonium is divided into modules. Each module contains a bundle of four or six elongated components (fuel elements and control rods). In the arrangement with four components, one is kept rigid while the other three are elastically yielding inclined towards the center and lean against the rigid component. In the modules with six pieces, each component is elastically yielding inclined towards a central cavity. In this way, they form a circular arc. A control rod may be placed in the cavity. In order to counteract a relative lateral movement, the outer surfaces of the components which have hexagonal cross-sections have interlocking bearing cushions. The bearing cushions consist of keyway-type ribs or grooves with the wedges or ribs gripping in the grooves of the neighbouring components. In addition, the ribs have oblique entering surfaces.

  13. IRIS core criticality calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jecmenica, R.; Trontl, K.; Pevec, D.; Grgic, D.

    2003-01-01

    Three-dimensional Monte Carlo computer code KENO-VI of CSAS26 sequence of SCALE-4.4 code system was applied for pin-by-pin calculations of the effective multiplication factor for the first cycle IRIS reactor core. The effective multiplication factors obtained by the above mentioned Monte Carlo calculations using 27-group ENDF/B-IV library and 238-group ENDF/B-V library have been compared with the effective multiplication factors achieved by HELIOS/NESTLE, CASMO/SIMULATE, and modified CORD-2 nodal calculations. The results of Monte Carlo calculations are found to be in good agreement with the results obtained by the nodal codes. The discrepancies in effective multiplication factor are typically within 1%. (author)

  14. Um mundo de cores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Artz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A pintura de Elis Artz é feita com muita alma e transborda alegria. A vitalidade de seu trabalho transparece nas cores fortes e nos traços simples e harmoniosos. Confira o trabalho da artista nesta edição da Revista Jangada. ELIS by ELIS Descobri meu talento artístisco e criativo há uns 25 anos. Nasci no Brasil e me mudei para os EUA 10 anos atrás por puro amor. Embora seja psicóloga de formação, o meu apreço pela pintura só cresceu e, com o passar dos anos, a paixão pelas tintas me direcionou a fazer cursos com artistas brasileiros renomados. Já morando nos EUA e com essa grande paixão adormecida, durante anos, decidi me entregar para as cores que sempre me trouxeram alegria e cor para os meus dias. Embora muitas de minhas pinturas tenham ido para minha família e amigos no Brasil, vendi inúmeras outras pelo país através de exposições em galerias de arte. Em 2014, fui uma das artistas em destaque no MTD ART nos Estados Unidos. Minha obra estava dentro de cada ônibus das cidades de Champaign e Urbana e exposta em destaque na Estação de Trem. Em maio de 2015, tive o prazer de ter outro trabalho meu nos outdoors da cidade, destacando a minha tela 'Frida' o ano inteiro e de expor em conjunto com alguns artistas locais no final de outubro. Desde então, tenho pintado cada vez mais e me interessado em divulgar o meu trabalho. E, como diria um amigo meu "Elis, você me mostrou que a vida não é só preto no branco". Ele estava certo.

  15. Growth outside the core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zook, Chris; Allen, James

    2003-12-01

    Growth in an adjacent market is tougher than it looks; three-quarters of the time, the effort fails. But companies can change those odds dramatically. Results from a five-year study of corporate growth conducted by Bain & Company reveal that adjacency expansion succeeds only when built around strong core businesses that have the potential to become market leaders. And the best place to look for adjacency opportunities is inside a company's strongest customers. The study also found that the most successful companies were able to consistently, profitably outgrow their rivals by developing a formula for pushing out the boundaries of their core businesses in predictable, repeatable ways. Companies use their repeatability formulas to expand into any number of adjacencies. Some companies make repeated geographic moves, as Vodafone has done in expanding from one geographic market to another over the past 13 years, building revenues from $1 billion in 1990 to $48 billion in 2003. Others apply a superior business model to new segments. Dell, for example, has repeatedly adapted its direct-to-customer model to new customer segments and new product categories. In other cases, companies develop hybrid approaches. Nike executed a series of different types of adjacency moves: it expanded into adjacent customer segments, introduced new products, developed new distribution channels, and then moved into adjacent geographic markets. The successful repeaters in the study had two common characteristics. First, they were extraordinarily disciplined, applying rigorous screens before they made an adjacency move. This discipline paid off in the form of learning curve benefits, increased speed, and lower complexity. And second, in almost all cases, they developed their repeatable formulas by studying their customers and their customers' economics very, very carefully.

  16. Core catcher for nuclear reactor core meltdown containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, M.J.; Bowman, F.L.

    1978-01-01

    A bed of graphite particles is placed beneath a nuclear reactor core outside the pressure vessel but within the containment building to catch the core debris in the event of failure of the emergency core cooling system. Spray cooling of the debris and graphite particles together with draining and flooding of coolant fluid of the graphite bed is provided to prevent debris slump-through to the bottom of the bed

  17. DENSE CORES IN THE PIPE NEBULA: AN IMPROVED CORE MASS FUNCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathborne, J. M.; Lada, C. J.; Muench, A. A.; Alves, J. F.; Kainulainen, J.; Lombardi, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we derive an improved core mass function (CMF) for the Pipe Nebula from a detailed comparison between measurements of visual extinction and molecular-line emission. We have compiled a refined sample of 201 dense cores toward the Pipe Nebula using a two-dimensional threshold identification algorithm informed by recent simulations of dense core populations. Measurements of radial velocities using complimentary C 18 O (1-0) observations enable us to cull out from this sample those 43 extinction peaks that are either not associated with dense gas or are not physically associated with the Pipe Nebula. Moreover, we use the derived C 18 O central velocities to differentiate between single cores with internal structure and blends of two or more physically distinct cores, superposed along the same line of sight. We then are able to produce a more robust dense core sample for future follow-up studies and a more reliable CMF than was possible previously. We confirm earlier indications that the CMF for the Pipe Nebula departs from a single power-law-like form with a break or knee at M ∼ 2.7 ± 1.3 M sun . Moreover, we also confirm that the CMF exhibits a similar shape to the stellar initial mass function (IMF), but is scaled to higher masses by a factor of ∼4.5. We interpret this difference in scaling to be a measure of the star formation efficiency (22% ± 8%). This supports earlier suggestions that the stellar IMF may originate more or less directly from the CMF.

  18. Sulfur in Earth's Mantle and Its Behavior During Core Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Nancy L.; Righter,Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The density of Earth's outer core requires that about 5-10% of the outer core be composed of elements lighter than Fe-Ni; proposed choices for the "light element" component of Earth's core include H, C, O, Si, S, and combinations of these elements [e.g. 1]. Though samples of Earth's core are not available, mantle samples contain elemental signatures left behind from the formation of Earth's core. The abundances of siderophile (metal-loving) elements in Earth's mantle have been used to gain insight into the early accretion and differentiation history of Earth, the process by which the core and mantle formed, and the composition of the core [e.g. 2-4]. Similarly, the abundance of potential light elements in Earth's mantle could also provide constraints on Earth's evolution and core composition. The S abundance in Earth's mantle is 250 ( 50) ppm [5]. It has been suggested that 250 ppm S is too high to be due to equilibrium core formation in a high pressure, high temperature magma ocean on early Earth and that the addition of S to the mantle from the subsequent accretion of a late veneer is consequently required [6]. However, this earlier work of Li and Agee [6] did not parameterize the metalsilicate partitioning behavior of S as a function of thermodynamic variables, limiting the different pressure and temperature conditions during core formation that could be explored. Here, the question of explaining the mantle abundance of S is revisited, through parameterizing existing metal-silicate partitioning data for S and applying the parameterization to core formation in Earth.

  19. CORES AND THE KINEMATICS OF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, Tod R.

    2012-01-01

    I have combined the Emsellem et al. ATLAS 3D rotation measures of a large sample of early-type galaxies with Hubble Space Telescope based classifications of their central structure to characterize the rotation velocities of galaxies with cores. 'Core galaxies' rotate slowly, while 'power-law galaxies' (galaxies that lack cores) rotate rapidly, confirming the analysis of Faber et al. Significantly, the amplitude of rotation sharply discriminates between the two types in the –19 > M V > –22 domain over which the two types coexist. The slow rotation in the small set of core galaxies with M V > –20, in particular, brings them into concordance with the more massive core galaxies. The ATLAS 3D 'fast-rotating' and 'slow-rotating' early-type galaxies are essentially the same as power-law and core galaxies, respectively, or the Kormendy and Bender two families of elliptical galaxies based on rotation, isophote shape, and central structure. The ATLAS 3D fast rotators do include roughly half of the core galaxies, but their rotation amplitudes are always at the lower boundary of that subset. Essentially, all core galaxies have ATLAS 3D rotation amplitudes λ R e /2 ≤0.25, while all galaxies with λ R e /2 >0.25 and figure eccentricity >0.2 lack cores. Both figure rotation and the central structure of early-type galaxies should be used together to separate systems that appear to have formed from 'wet' versus 'dry' mergers.

  20. AGR core safety assessment methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLachlan, N.; Reed, J.; Metcalfe, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    To demonstrate the safety of its gas-cooled graphite-moderated AGR reactors, nuclear safety assessments of the cores are based upon a methodology which demonstrates no component failures, geometrical stability of the structure and material properties bounded by a database. All AGRs continue to meet these three criteria. However, predictions of future core behaviour indicate that the safety case methodology will eventually need to be modified to deal with new phenomena. A new approach to the safety assessment of the cores is currently under development, which can take account of these factors while at the same time providing the same level of protection for the cores. This approach will be based on the functionality of the core: unhindered movement of control rods, continued adequate cooling of the fuel and the core, continued ability to charge and discharge fuel. (author). 5 figs

  1. Development and Integration of Professional Core Values Among Practicing Clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Patricia Quinn; Guenther, Lee Ann; Wainwright, Susan F

    2016-09-01

    The physical therapy profession has adopted professional core values, which define expected values for its members, and developed a self-assessment tool with sample behaviors for each of the 7 core values. However, evidence related to the integration of these core values into practice is limited. The aims of this study were: (1) to gain insight into physical therapists' development of professional core values and (2) to gain insight into participants' integration of professional core values into clinical practice. A qualitative design permitted in-depth exploration of the development and integration of the American Physical Therapy Association's professional core values into physical therapist practice. Twenty practicing physical therapists were purposefully selected to explore the role of varied professional, postprofessional, and continuing education experiences related to exposure to professional values. The Core Values Self-Assessment and résumé sort served as prompts for reflection via semistructured interviews. Three themes were identified: (1) personal values were the foundation for developing professional values, which were further shaped by academic and clinical experiences, (2) core values were integrated into practice independent of practice setting and varied career paths, and (3) participants described the following professional core values as well integrated into their practice: integrity, compassion/caring, and accountability. Social responsibility was an area consistently identified as not being integrated into their practice. The Core Values Self-Assessment tool is a consensus-based document developed through a Delphi process. Future studies to establish reliability and construct validity of the tool may be warranted. Gaining an in-depth understanding of how practicing clinicians incorporate professional core values into clinical practice may shed light on the relationship between core values mastery and its impact on patient care. Findings may

  2. Overview of core disruptive accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchaterre, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    An overview of the analysis of core-disruptive accidents is given. These analyses are for the purpose of understanding and predicting fast reactor behavior in severe low probability accident conditions, to establish the consequences of such conditions and to provide a basis for evaluating consequence limiting design features. The methods are used to analyze core-disruptive accidents from initiating event to complete core disruption, the effects of the accident on reactor structures and the resulting radiological consequences are described

  3. Drilling history of core hole DB-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diediker, L.D.; Ledgerwood, R.K.

    1980-09-01

    This core hole was drilled to obtain hydrologic and chemical data on the permeable zones of the Saddle Mountains and Wanapum Formations. These data were obtained by testing the zones that were penetrated during drilling. This testing-as-drilled method reduced the potential problems of interflow and water contamination. This report summarizes the drilling and coring operations; geologic logging, hydrologic testing, and geophysical logging activities; and cementing operations of DB-15 during drilling. The successful completion of DB-15 demonstrated that hydrologic testing can be conducted during core drilling operations. More reliable head measurements and uncontaminated representative water samples from isolated permeable zones, which have not been exposed to potential open borehole cross-flow and head equilibration problems, were benefits derived from the testing-as-drilled method. Disadvantages of the technique were a longer time to complete the borehole caused by time required for testing and increased drilling costs due to rig standby time during testing. Extension of the testing-as-drilled method to the drilling of future core holes is recommended. An evaluation should be made of the required hydrologic data and expected borehole stratigraphy before and during drilling to allow uninterrupted drilling in zones of low permeability that can be tested after drilling is complete

  4. Coupling between core and cladding modes in a helical core fiber with large core offset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napiorkowski, Maciej; Urbanczyk, Waclaw

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the effect of resonant coupling between core and cladding modes in a helical core fiber with large core offset using the fully vectorial method based on the transformation optics formalism. Our study revealed that the resonant couplings to lower order cladding modes predicted by perturbative methods and observed experimentally in fibers with small core offsets are in fact prohibited for larger core offsets. This effect is related to the lack of phase matching caused by elongation of the optical path of the fundamental modes in the helical core. Moreover, strong couplings to the cladding modes of the azimuthal modal number much higher than predicted by perturbative methods may be observed for large core offsets, as the core offset introduces higher order angular harmonics in the field distribution of the fundamental modes. Finally, in contrast to previous studies, we demonstrate the existence of spectrally broad polarization sensitive couplings to the cladding modes suggesting that helical core fibers with large core offsets may be used as broadband circular polarizers. (paper)

  5. Sampling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loughran, R.J.; Wallbrink, P.J.; Walling, D.E.; Appleby, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Methods for the collection of soil samples to determine levels of 137 Cs and other fallout radionuclides, such as excess 210 Pb and 7 Be, will depend on the purposes (aims) of the project, site and soil characteristics, analytical capacity, the total number of samples that can be analysed and the sample mass required. The latter two will depend partly on detector type and capabilities. A variety of field methods have been developed for different field conditions and circumstances over the past twenty years, many of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of 137 Cs in erosion studies has been widely developed, while the application of fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be is still developing. Although it is possible to measure these nuclides simultaneously, it is common for experiments to designed around the use of 137 Cs along. Caesium studies typically involve comparison of the inventories found at eroded or sedimentation sites with that of a 'reference' site. An accurate characterization of the depth distribution of these fallout nuclides is often required in order to apply and/or calibrate the conversion models. However, depending on the tracer involved, the depth distribution, and thus the sampling resolution required to define it, differs. For example, a depth resolution of 1 cm is often adequate when using 137 Cs. However, fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be commonly has very strong surface maxima that decrease exponentially with depth, and fine depth increments are required at or close to the soil surface. Consequently, different depth incremental sampling methods are required when using different fallout radionuclides. Geomorphic investigations also frequently require determination of the depth-distribution of fallout nuclides on slopes and depositional sites as well as their total inventories

  6. TMI-2 core debris analytical methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.W.; Cook, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    A series of six grab samples was taken from the debris bed of the TMI-2 core in early September 1983. Five of these samples were sent to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for analysis. Presented is the analysis strategy for the samples and some of the data obtained from the early stages of examination of the samples (i.e., particle size-analysis, gamma spectrometry results, and fissile/fertile material analysis)

  7. Models of the earth's core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    The combination of seismology, high pressure experiment and theory, geomagnetism, fluid dynamics, and current views of terrestrial planetary evolution lead to strong constraints on core models. The synthesis presented here is devoted to the defense of the following properties: (1) core formation was contemporaneous with earth accretion; (2) the outer, liquid core is predominately iron but cannot be purely iron; (3) the inner core-outer core boundary represents a thermodynamic equilibrium between a liquid alloys and a predominanately iron solid; (4) thermodynamic and transport properties of outer core can be estimated from liquid-state theories; and (5) the outer core is probably adiabatic and uniform in composition. None of these propositions are universally accepted by geophysicists. But, the intent of this paper is to present a coherent picture which explains most of the data with the fewest ad hoc assumptions. Areas in which future progress is both essential and likely are geo- and cosmochronology, seismological determinations of core structure, fluid dynamics of the core and mantle, and condensed matter physics

  8. Wire core reactor for NTP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The development of the wire core system for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) that took place from 1963 to 1965 is discussed. A wire core consists of a fuel wire with spacer wires. It's an annular flow core having a central control rod. There are actually four of these, with beryllium solid reflectors on both ends and all the way around. Much of the information on the concept is given in viewgraph form. Viewgraphs are presented on design details of the wire core, the engine design, engine weight vs. thrust, a technique used to fabricate the wire fuel element, and axial temperature distribution

  9. Nuclear reactor with several cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swars, H.

    1977-01-01

    Several sodium-cooled cores in separate vessels with removable closures are placed in a common reactor tank. Each individual vessel is protected against the consequences of an accident in the relevant core. Maintenance devices and inlet and outlet pipes for the coolant are also arranged within the reactor tank. The individual vessels are all enclosed by coolant in a way that in case of emergency cooling or refuelling each core can be continued to be cooled by means of the coolant loops of the other cores. (HP) [de

  10. Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Technology Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The UCLA-DOE Biochemistry Instrumentation Core Facility provides the UCLA biochemistry community with easy access to sophisticated instrumentation for a wide variety...

  11. Core barrel inner tube lifter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffers, J P

    1968-07-16

    A core drill with means for selectively lifting a core barrel inner tube consists of a lifting means connected to the core barrel inner tube assembly. It has a closable passage to permit drilling fluid normally to pass through it. The lifting means has a normally downward facing surface and a means to direct drilling fluid pressure against that surface so that on closure of the passage to fluid flow, the pressure of the drilling fluid is caused to act selectively on it. This causes the lifting means to rise and lift the core barrel. (7 claims)

  12. Meltdown reactor core cooling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Tsuyoshi.

    1992-01-01

    The meltdown reactor core cooling facility comprises a meltdown reactor core cooling tank, a cooling water storage tank situates at a position higher than the meltdown reactor core cooling tank, an upper pipeline connecting the upper portions of the both of the tanks and a lower pipeline connecting the lower portions of them. Upon occurrence of reactor core meltdown, a high temperature meltdown reactor core is dropped on the cooling tank to partially melt the tank and form a hole, from which cooling water is flown out. Since the water source of the cooling water is the cooling water storage tank, a great amount of cooling water is further dropped and supplied and the reactor core is submerged and cooled by natural convection for a long period of time. Further, when the lump of the meltdown reactor core is small and the perforated hole of the meltdown reactor cooling tank is small, cooling water is boiled by the high temperature lump intruding into the meltdown reactor core cooling tank and blown out from the upper pipeline to the cooling water storage tank to supply cooling water from the lower pipeline to the meltdown reactor core cooling tank. Since it is constituted only with simple static facilities, the facility can be simplified to attain improvement of reliability. (N.H.)

  13. Fort St. Vrain core performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEachern, D.W.; Brown, J.R.; Heller, R.A.; Franek, W.J.

    1977-07-01

    The Fort St. Vrain High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor core performance has been evaluated during the startup testing phase of the reactor operation. The reactor is graphite moderated, helium cooled, and uses coated particle fuel and on-line flow control to each of the 37 refueling regions. Principal objectives of startup testing were to determine: core and control system reactivity, radial power distribution, flow control capability, and initial fission product release. Information from the core demonstrates that Technical Specifications are being met, performance of the core and fuel is as expected, flow and reactivity control are predictable and simple for the operator to carry out

  14. Characterizing the Core via K-Core Covers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanchez, S.M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Estevez, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper extends the notion of individual minimal rights for a transferable utility game (TU-game) to coalitional minimal rights using minimal balanced families of a specific type, thus defining a corresponding minimal rights game. It is shown that the core of a TU-game coincides with the core of

  15. Adult educators' core competences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-06-01

    Which competences do professional adult educators need? This research note discusses the topic from a comparative perspective, finding that adult educators' required competences are wide-ranging, heterogeneous and complex. They are subject to context in terms of national and cultural environment as well as the kind of adult education concerned (e.g. basic education, work-related education etc.). However, it seems that it is possible to identify certain competence requirements which transcend national, cultural and functional boundaries. This research note summarises these common or "core" requirements, organising them into four thematic subcategories: (1) communicating subject knowledge; (2) taking students' prior learning into account; (3) supporting a learning environment; and (4) the adult educator's reflection on his or her own performance. At the end of his analysis of different competence profiles, the author notes that adult educators' ability to train adult learners in a way which then enables them to apply and use what they have learned in practice (thus performing knowledge transfer) still seems to be overlooked.

  16. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Kenji; Oikawa, Hirohide.

    1990-01-01

    The device according to this invention can ensure cooling water required for emerency core cooling upon emergence such as abnormally, for example, loss of coolant accident, without using dynamic equipments such as a centrifugal pump or large-scaled tank. The device comprises a pressure accumulation tank containing a high pressure nitrogen gas and cooling water inside, a condensate storage tank, a pressure suppression pool and a jet stream pump. In this device there are disposed a pipeline for guiding cooling water in the pressure accumulation tank as a jetting water to a jetting stream pump, a pipeline for guiding cooling water stored in the condensate storage tank and the pressure suppression pool as pumped water to the jetting pump and, further, a pipeline for guiding the discharged water from the jet stream pump which is a mixed stream of pumped water and jetting water into the reactor pressure vessel. In this constitution, a sufficient amount of water ranging from relatively high pressure to low pressure can be supplied into the reactor pressure vessel, without increasing the size of the pressure accumulation tank. (I.S.)

  17. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Akira; Kobayashi, Masahide.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To enable a stable operation of an emergency core cooling system by preventing the system from the automatic stopping at an abnormally high level of the reactor water during its operation. Constitution: A pump flow rate signal and a reactor water level signal are used and, when the reactor water level is increased to a predetermined level, the pump flow rate is controlled by the reactor water level signal instead of the flow rate signal. Specifically, when the reactor water level is gradually increased by the water injection from the pump and exceeds a setting signal for the water level, the water level deviation signal acts as a demand signal for the decrease in the flow rate of the pump and the output signal from the water level controller is also decreased depending on the control constant. At a certain point, the output signal from the water level controller becomes smaller than the output signal from the flow rate controller. Thus, the output signal from the water level controller is outputted as the output signal for the lower level preference device. In this way, the reactor water level and the pump flow rate can be controlled within a range not exceeding the predetermined pump flow rate. (Horiuchi, T.)

  18. Emergency core cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Nobuaki.

    1993-01-01

    A reactor comprises a static emergency reactor core cooling system having an automatic depressurization system and a gravitationally dropping type water injection system and a container cooling system by an isolation condenser. A depressurization pipeline of the automatic depressurization system connected to a reactor pressure vessel branches in the midway. The branched depressurizing pipelines are extended into an upper dry well and a lower dry well, in which depressurization valves are disposed at the top end portions of the pipelines respectively. If loss-of-coolant accidents should occur, the depressurization valve of the automatic depressurization system is actuated by lowering of water level in the pressure vessel. This causes nitrogen gases in the upper and the lower dry wells to transfer together with discharged steams effectively to a suppression pool passing through a bent tube. Accordingly, the gravitationally dropping type water injection system can be actuated faster. Further, subsequent cooling for the reactor vessel can be ensured sufficiently by the isolation condenser. (I.N.)

  19. Necrosome core machinery: MLKL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yu; He, Wenyan; Sun, Liming

    2016-06-01

    In the study of regulated cell death, the rapidly expanding field of regulated necrosis, in particular necroptosis, has been drawing much attention. The signaling of necroptosis represents a sophisticated form of a death pathway. Anti-caspase mechanisms (e.g., using inhibitors of caspases, or genetic ablation of caspase-8) switch cell fate from apoptosis to necroptosis. The initial extracellular death signals regulate RIP1 and RIP3 kinase activation. The RIP3-associated death complex assembly is necessary and sufficient to initiate necroptosis. MLKL was initially identified as an essential mediator of RIP1/RIP3 kinase-initiated necroptosis. Recent studies on the signal transduction using chemical tools and biomarkers support the idea that MLKL is able to make more functional sense for the core machinery of the necroptosis death complex, called the necrosome, to connect to the necroptosis execution. The experimental data available now have pointed that the activated MLKL forms membrane-disrupting pores causing membrane leakage, which extends the prototypical concept of morphological and biochemical events following necroptosis happening in vivo. The key role of MLKL in necroptosis signaling thus sheds light on the logic underlying this unique "membrane-explosive" cell death pathway. In this review, we provide the general concepts and strategies that underlie signal transduction of this form of cell death, and then focus specifically on the role of MLKL in necroptosis.

  20. Core reilforced braided composite armour as a substitute to steel in concrete reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Fangueiro, Raúl; Sousa, Guilherme José Miranda de; Araújo, Mário Duarte de; Pereira, C. Gonilho; Jalali, Said

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the work that is being done at the University of Minho concerning the development of brainded rods concrete reinforcement. Several samples of core reinforced braided fabrics have been produced varying the type of braided fabric (core reinforced and hybrid), the linear density of the core reinforcing yarns and the type of braiding structure (with or without ribs). The tensile properties of braided fabrics has also been analysed. Core reinforced braided composites rods were ...