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Sample records for hydratase fh gene

  1. The FH mutation database: an online database of fumarate hydratase mutations involved in the MCUL (HLRCC tumor syndrome and congenital fumarase deficiency

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    Tomlinson Ian PM

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fumarate hydratase (HGNC approved gene symbol – FH, also known as fumarase, is an enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, involved in fundamental cellular energy production. First described by Zinn et al in 1986, deficiency of FH results in early onset, severe encephalopathy. In 2002, the Multiple Leiomyoma Consortium identified heterozygous germline mutations of FH in patients with multiple cutaneous and uterine leiomyomas, (MCUL: OMIM 150800. In some families renal cell cancer also forms a component of the complex and as such has been described as hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC: OMIM 605839. The identification of FH as a tumor suppressor was an unexpected finding and following the identification of subunits of succinate dehydrogenase in 2000 and 2001, was only the second description of the involvement of an enzyme of intermediary metabolism in tumorigenesis. Description The FH mutation database is a part of the TCA cycle gene mutation database (formerly the succinate dehydrogenase gene mutation database and is based on the Leiden Open (source Variation Database (LOVD system. The variants included in the database were derived from the published literature and annotated to conform to current mutation nomenclature. The FH database applies HGVS nomenclature guidelines, and will assist researchers in applying these guidelines when directly submitting new sequence variants online. Since the first molecular characterization of an FH mutation by Bourgeron et al in 1994, a series of reports of both FH deficiency patients and patients with MCUL/HLRRC have described 107 variants, of which 93 are thought to be pathogenic. The most common type of mutation is missense (57%, followed by frameshifts & nonsense (27%, and diverse deletions, insertions and duplications. Here we introduce an online database detailing all reported FH sequence variants. Conclusion The FH mutation database strives to systematically

  2. Nitrile Hydratase Genes Are Present in Multiple Eukaryotic Supergroups

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    Marron, Alan O.; Akam, Michael; Walker, Giselle

    2012-01-01

    Background Nitrile hydratases are enzymes involved in the conversion of nitrile-containing compounds into ammonia and organic acids. Although they are widespread in prokaryotes, nitrile hydratases have only been reported in two eukaryotes: the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis and the stramenopile Aureococcus anophagefferens. The nitrile hydratase gene in M. brevicollis was believed to have arisen by lateral gene transfer from a prokaryote, and is a fusion of beta and alpha nitrile hydratase subunits. Only the alpha subunit has been reported in A. anophagefferens. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report the detection of nitrile hydratase genes in five eukaryotic supergroups: opisthokonts, amoebozoa, archaeplastids, CCTH and SAR. Beta-alpha subunit fusion genes are found in the choanoflagellates, ichthyosporeans, apusozoans, haptophytes, rhizarians and stramenopiles, and potentially also in the amoebozoans. An individual alpha subunit is found in a dinoflagellate and an individual beta subunit is found in a haptophyte. Phylogenetic analyses recover a clade of eukaryotic-type nitrile hydratases in the Opisthokonta, Amoebozoa, SAR and CCTH; this is supported by analyses of introns and gene architecture. Two nitrile hydratase sequences from an animal and a plant resolve in the prokaryotic nitrile hydratase clade. Conclusions/Significance The evidence presented here demonstrates that nitrile hydratase genes are present in multiple eukaryotic supergroups, suggesting that a subunit fusion gene was present in the last common ancestor of all eukaryotes. The absence of nitrile hydratase from several sequenced species indicates that subunits were lost in multiple eukaryotic taxa. The presence of nitrile hydratases in many other eukaryotic groups is unresolved due to insufficient data and taxon sampling. The retention and expression of the gene in distantly related eukaryotic species suggests that it plays an important metabolic role. The novel family of eukaryotic

  3. Distinct expression profile in fumarate-hydratase-deficient uterine fibroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanharanta, S; Pollard, PJ; Lehtonen, HJ

    2006-01-01

    Defects in mitochondrial enzymes predispose to severe developmental defects as well as tumorigenesis. Heterozygous germline mutations in the nuclear gene encoding fumarate hydratase (FH), an enzyme catalyzing the hydration of fumarate in the Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle, cause hereditary...

  4. Distinct expression profile in fumarate-hydratase-deficient uterine fibroids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanharanta, S; Pollard, PJ; Lehtonen, HJ

    2006-01-01

    Defects in mitochondrial enzymes predispose to severe developmental defects as well as tumorigenesis. Heterozygous germline mutations in the nuclear gene encoding fumarate hydratase (FH), an enzyme catalyzing the hydration of fumarate in the Krebs tricarboxylic acid cycle, cause hereditary...... leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer; yet the connection between disruption of mitochondrial metabolic pathways and neoplasia remains to be discovered. We have used an expression microarray approach for studying differences in global gene expression pattern caused by mutations in FH. Seven uterine fibroids...... carrying FH mutations were compared with 15 fibroids with wild-type FH. The two groups showed markedly different expression profiles, and multiple differentially expressed genes were detected. The most significant increase in FH mutants was seen in the expression of carbohydrate metabolism- and glycolysis...

  5. Expression control of nitrile hydratase and amidase genes in Rhodococcus erythropolis and substrate specificities of the enzymes.

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    Rucká, Lenka; Volkova, Olga; Pavlík, Adam; Kaplan, Ondřej; Kracík, Martin; Nešvera, Jan; Martínková, Ludmila; Pátek, Miroslav

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial amidases and nitrile hydratases can be used for the synthesis of various intermediates and products in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries and for the bioremediation of toxic pollutants. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of the amidase and nitrile hydratase genes of Rhodococcus erythropolis and test the stereospecific nitrile hydratase and amidase activities on chiral cyanohydrins. The nucleotide sequences of the gene clusters containing the oxd (aldoxime dehydratase), ami (amidase), nha1, nha2 (subunits of the nitrile hydratase), nhr1, nhr2, nhr3 and nhr4 (putative regulatory proteins) genes of two R. erythropolis strains, A4 and CCM2595, were determined. All genes of both of the clusters are transcribed in the same direction. RT-PCR analysis, primer extension and promoter fusions with the gfp reporter gene showed that the ami, nha1 and nha2 genes of R. erythropolis A4 form an operon transcribed from the Pami promoter and an internal Pnha promoter. The activity of Pami was found to be weakly induced when the cells grew in the presence of acetonitrile, whereas the Pnha promoter was moderately induced by both the acetonitrile or acetamide used instead of the inorganic nitrogen source. However, R. erythropolis A4 cells showed no increase in amidase and nitrile hydratase activities in the presence of acetamide or acetonitrile in the medium. R. erythropolis A4 nitrile hydratase and amidase were found to be effective at hydrolysing cyanohydrins and 2-hydroxyamides, respectively.

  6. Identification and characterization of an oleate hydratase-encoding gene from Bifidobacterium breve

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    O'Connell, Kerry Joan; Motherway, Mary O'Connell; Hennessey, Alan A; Brodhun, Florian; Ross, R Paul; Feussner, Ivo; Stanton, Catherine; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2013-01-01

    Bifidobacteria are common commensals of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. Previous studies have suggested that a bifidobacterial myosin cross reactive antigen (MCRA) protein plays a role in bacterial stress tolerance, while this protein has also been linked to the biosynthesis of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in bifidobacteria. In order to increase our understanding on the role of MCRA in bifidobacteria we created and analyzed an insertion mutant of the MCRA-encoding gene of B. breve NCFB 2258. Our results demonstrate that the MCRA protein of B. breve NCFB 2258 does not appear to play a role in CLA production, yet is an oleate hydratase, which contributes to bifidobacterial solvent stress protection. PMID:23851389

  7. Real-time PCR detection of Fe-type nitrile hydratase genes from environmental isolates suggests horizontal gene transfer between multiple genera.

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    Coffey, Lee; Owens, Erica; Tambling, Karen; O'Neill, David; O'Connor, Laura; O'Reilly, Catherine

    2010-11-01

    Nitriles are widespread in the environment as a result of biological and industrial activity. Nitrile hydratases catalyse the hydration of nitriles to the corresponding amide and are often associated with amidases, which catalyze the conversion of amides to the corresponding acids. Nitrile hydratases have potential as biocatalysts in bioremediation and biotransformation applications, and several successful examples demonstrate the advantages. In this work a real-time PCR assay was designed for the detection of Fe-type nitrile hydratase genes from environmental isolates purified from nitrile-enriched soils and seaweeds. Specific PCR primers were also designed for amplification and sequencing of the genes. Identical or highly homologous nitrile hydratase genes were detected from isolates of numerous genera from geographically diverse sites, as were numerous novel genes. The genes were also detected from isolates of genera not previously reported to harbour nitrile hydratases. The results provide further evidence that many bacteria have acquired the genes via horizontal gene transfer. The real-time PCR assay should prove useful in searching for nitrile hydratases that could have novel substrate specificities and therefore potential in industrial applications.

  8. Self-subunit swapping occurs in another gene type of cobalt nitrile hydratase.

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    Yi Liu

    Full Text Available Self-subunit swapping is one of the post-translational maturation of the cobalt-containing nitrile hydratase (Co-NHase family of enzymes. All of these NHases possess a gene organization of , which allows the activator protein to easily form a mediatory complex with the α-subunit of the NHase after translation. Here, we discovered that the incorporation of cobalt into another type of Co-NHase, with a gene organization of , was also dependent on self-subunit swapping. We successfully isolated a recombinant NHase activator protein (P14K of Pseudomonas putida NRRL-18668 by adding a Strep-tag N-terminal to the P14K gene. P14K was found to form a complex [α(StrepP14K(2] with the α-subunit of the NHase. The incorporation of cobalt into the NHase of P. putida was confirmed to be dependent on the α-subunit substitution between the cobalt-containing α(StrepP14K(2 and the cobalt-free NHase. Cobalt was inserted into cobalt-free α(StrepP14K(2 but not into cobalt-free NHase, suggesting that P14K functions not only as a self-subunit swapping chaperone but also as a metallochaperone. In addition, NHase from P. putida was also expressed by a mutant gene that was designed with a order. Our findings expand the general features of self-subunit swapping maturation.

  9. Self-Subunit Swapping Occurs in Another Gene Type of Cobalt Nitrile Hydratase

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    Xia, Yuanyuan; Cui, Youtian; Kobayashi, Michihiko; Zhou, Zhemin

    2012-01-01

    Self-subunit swapping is one of the post-translational maturation of the cobalt-containing nitrile hydratase (Co-NHase) family of enzymes. All of these NHases possess a gene organization of , which allows the activator protein to easily form a mediatory complex with the α-subunit of the NHase after translation. Here, we discovered that the incorporation of cobalt into another type of Co-NHase, with a gene organization of , was also dependent on self-subunit swapping. We successfully isolated a recombinant NHase activator protein (P14K) of Pseudomonas putida NRRL-18668 by adding a Strep-tag N-terminal to the P14K gene. P14K was found to form a complex [α(StrepP14K)2] with the α-subunit of the NHase. The incorporation of cobalt into the NHase of P. putida was confirmed to be dependent on the α-subunit substitution between the cobalt-containing α(StrepP14K)2 and the cobalt-free NHase. Cobalt was inserted into cobalt-free α(StrepP14K)2 but not into cobalt-free NHase, suggesting that P14K functions not only as a self-subunit swapping chaperone but also as a metallochaperone. In addition, NHase from P. putida was also expressed by a mutant gene that was designed with a order. Our findings expand the general features of self-subunit swapping maturation. PMID:23226397

  10. Modeling tumor predisposing FH mutations in yeast: effects on fumarase activity, growth phenotype and gene expression profile.

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    Kokko, Antti; Ylisaukko-Oja, Sanna S K; Kiuru, Maija; Takatalo, Maarit S; Salmikangas, Paula; Tuimala, Jarno; Arango, Diego; Karhu, Auli; Aaltonen, Lauri A; Jäntti, Jussi

    2006-03-15

    Heterozygous mutations in the fumarase (FH) gene cause the tumor predisposition syndrome hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (MIM 605839). While most families segregate a benign phenotype of multiple leiomyomas, others display a phenotype with early-onset renal cancer and leiomyosarcoma. Modifier genes may play a role in this, but an alternative explanation is simple genotype-phenotype association. FH mutations predisposing to cancer appear to be truncating or in fully conserved amino acids, suggesting that mutations severely affecting FH activity might predispose to malignancy. In the present study, we analyzed 2 conserved fumarase mutations in yeast. H153R has been described in 3 cancer predisposition families; whereas all 3 reported K187R families have displayed the benign phenotype. Examining H153R and K187R should clarify whether cancer-related FH mutations differ from their benign phenotype-associated counterparts. Yeast strains containing the 2 mutations, and knockout and wild type (WT) references, were created and the growth phenotypes studied on selected carbon sources to assess mitochondrial function. Additionally, Fum1 protein production and activity were measured, and the strains were subjected to transcriptional profiling. On nonfermentable lactate medium, the fumarase knockout strains did not grow, whereas the mutants showed no differences, as compared to WT yeast. Although both mutant strains produced fumarase, a considerable decrease in enzyme activity was seen in mutants with respect to WT. Transcription of the majority of Krebs cycle enzymes was downregulated in response to mutations in fumarase. In conclusion, both mutants displayed some, albeit greatly reduced, fumarase activity. This activity was sufficient to support normal growth on nonfermentable carbon source, unlike the deletion phenotype, demonstrating the significance of the residual activity. The findings support the hypothesis that modifier gene(s), rather than phenotype

  11. Gene cloning of an efficiency oleate hydratase from Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens for polyunsaturated fatty acids and its application in the conversion of plant oils to 10-hydroxy fatty acids.

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    Kang, Woo-Ri; Seo, Min-Ju; Shin, Kyung-Chul; Park, Jin-Byung; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2017-01-01

    Hydroxy fatty acids are used as precursors of lactones and dicarboxylic acids, as starting materials of polymers, and as additives in coatings and paintings. Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens efficiently converts cis-9 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to 10-hydroxy fatty acids. However, gene encoding enzyme involved in this conversion has not been identified to date. We purified a putative fatty acid double-bond hydratase from S. nitritireducens by ultrafiltration and HiPrep DEAE FF and Resource Q ion exchange chromatographies. Peptide sequences of the purified enzyme were obtained by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Sequence of the partial gene encoding this putative fatty acid double-bond hydratase was determined by degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based on the peptide sequences. The remaining gene sequence was identified by rapid amplification of cDNA ends using cDNA of S. nitritireducens as a template, and the full-length gene was cloned subsequently. The expressed enzyme was identified as an oleate hydratase by determining its kinetic parameters toward unsaturated fatty acids. S. nitritireducens oleate hydratase showed higher activity toward PUFAs compared with other available oleate hydratases. This suggested that the enzyme could be used effectively to convert plant oils to 10-hydroxy fatty acids because these oils contained unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid (OA) and linoleic acid (LA) and PUFAs such as α-linolenic acid and/or γ-linolenic acid. The enzyme converted soybean oil and perilla seed oil hydrolyzates containing 10 mM total unsaturated fatty acids, including OA, LA, and ALA, to 8.87 and 8.70 mM total 10-hydroxy fatty acids, respectively, in 240 min. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the biotechnological conversion of PUFA-containing oils to hydroxy fatty acids. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 74-82. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A cancer-predisposing "hot spot" mutation of the fumarase gene creates a dominant negative protein.

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    Lorenzato, Annalisa; Olivero, Martina; Perro, Mario; Brière, Jean Jacques; Rustin, Pierre; Di Renzo, Maria Flavia

    2008-02-15

    The Fumarase (Fumarate Hydratase, FH) is a tumor suppressor gene whose germline heterozygous mutations predispose to hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC). The FH gene encodes an enzyme of the Krebs cycle, functioning as a homotetramer and catalyzing the hydration of fumarate to malate. Among the numerous FH mutations reported so far, the R190H missense mutation is the most frequent in HLRCC patients. Here we show the functional analyses of the R190H, in comparison to the better characterized E319Q mutation. We first expressed wild-type and mutated proteins in FH deficient human skin fibroblasts, using lentiviral vectors. The wild-type transgene was able to restore the FH enzymatic activity in cells, while the R190H- and E319Q-FH were not. More interestingly, when the same transgenes were expressed in normal, FH-proficient cells, only the R190H-FH reduced the endogenous FH enzymatic activity. By enforcing the expression of equal amount of wild-type and R190H-FH in the same cell, we showed that the mutated FH protein directly inhibited enzymatic activity by nearly abrogating the FH homotetramer formation. These data demonstrate the dominant negative effect of the R190H missense mutation in the FH gene and suggest that the FH tumor-suppressing activity might be impaired in cells carrying a heterozygous mutation. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. A role for cytosolic fumarate hydratase in urea cycle metabolism and renal neoplasia.

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    Adam, Julie; Yang, Ming; Bauerschmidt, Christina; Kitagawa, Mitsuhiro; O'Flaherty, Linda; Maheswaran, Pratheesh; Özkan, Gizem; Sahgal, Natasha; Baban, Dilair; Kato, Keiko; Saito, Kaori; Iino, Keiko; Igarashi, Kaori; Stratford, Michael; Pugh, Christopher; Tennant, Daniel A; Ludwig, Christian; Davies, Benjamin; Ratcliffe, Peter J; El-Bahrawy, Mona; Ashrafian, Houman; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Pollard, Patrick J

    2013-05-30

    The identification of mutated metabolic enzymes in hereditary cancer syndromes has established a direct link between metabolic dysregulation and cancer. Mutations in the Krebs cycle enzyme, fumarate hydratase (FH), predispose affected individuals to leiomyomas, renal cysts, and cancers, though the respective pathogenic roles of mitochondrial and cytosolic FH isoforms remain undefined. On the basis of comprehensive metabolomic analyses, we demonstrate that FH1-deficient cells and tissues exhibit defects in the urea cycle/arginine metabolism. Remarkably, transgenic re-expression of cytosolic FH ameliorated both renal cyst development and urea cycle defects associated with renal-specific FH1 deletion in mice. Furthermore, acute arginine depletion significantly reduced the viability of FH1-deficient cells in comparison to controls. Our findings highlight the importance of extramitochondrial metabolic pathways in FH-associated oncogenesis and the urea cycle/arginine metabolism as a potential therapeutic target.

  14. A Role for Cytosolic Fumarate Hydratase in Urea Cycle Metabolism and Renal Neoplasia

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    Julie Adam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The identification of mutated metabolic enzymes in hereditary cancer syndromes has established a direct link between metabolic dysregulation and cancer. Mutations in the Krebs cycle enzyme, fumarate hydratase (FH, predispose affected individuals to leiomyomas, renal cysts, and cancers, though the respective pathogenic roles of mitochondrial and cytosolic FH isoforms remain undefined. On the basis of comprehensive metabolomic analyses, we demonstrate that FH1-deficient cells and tissues exhibit defects in the urea cycle/arginine metabolism. Remarkably, transgenic re-expression of cytosolic FH ameliorated both renal cyst development and urea cycle defects associated with renal-specific FH1 deletion in mice. Furthermore, acute arginine depletion significantly reduced the viability of FH1-deficient cells in comparison to controls. Our findings highlight the importance of extramitochondrial metabolic pathways in FH-associated oncogenesis and the urea cycle/arginine metabolism as a potential therapeutic target.

  15. Fumarate hydratase inactivation in renal tumors: HIF1α, NRF2, and "cryptic targets" of transcription factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aikseng Ooi; Kyle A.Furge

    2012-01-01

    Biallelic inactivation of fumarate hydratase (FH) causes type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC2),uterine fibroids,and cutaneous leimyomas,a condition known as hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC).The most direct effect of FH inactivation is intracellular fumarate accumulation.A majority of studies on FH inactivation over the past decade have focused on the theory that intracellular fumarate stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1A) through competitive inhibition of HIF prolyl hydroxylases.Recently,a competing theory that intracellular fumarate activates nuclear factor (erythroidderived 2)-like 2 (NRF2) through post-translational modification of its negative regulator.Kelch-like ECH- associated protein 1 (KEAP1) has emerged from a computational modeling study and mouse model studies.This review dissects the origin of these two governing theories and highlights the presence of chromatin-structure-regulated targets of transcription factors,which we refer to as "cryptic targets" of transcription factors.One such cryptic target is heme oxygenase Ⅰ (HMOX1),the expression of which is known to be modulated by the gene product of SWI/SNF-related,matrix-associated,actin-dependent regulator of chromatin,subfamily a,member 4 (SMARCA4,also known as BRG1).

  16. F/H Lab

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    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The F/H Laboratory is the largest of the eight laboratories within the SRS Analytical Area Project with over 100,000 square feet of floor space, 20,000 square foot...

  17. The aconitate hydratase family from Citrus

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    Cercos Manuel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on citrus fruit ripening has received considerable attention because of the importance of citrus fruits for the human diet. Organic acids are among the main determinants of taste and organoleptic quality of fruits and hence the control of fruit acidity loss has a strong economical relevance. In citrus, organic acids accumulate in the juice sac cells of developing fruits and are catabolized thereafter during ripening. Aconitase, that transforms citrate to isocitrate, is the first step of citric acid catabolism and a major component of the citrate utilization machinery. In this work, the citrus aconitase gene family was first characterized and a phylogenetic analysis was then carried out in order to understand the evolutionary history of this family in plants. Gene expression analyses of the citrus aconitase family were subsequently performed in several acidic and acidless genotypes to elucidate their involvement in acid homeostasis. Results Analysis of 460,000 citrus ESTs, followed by sequencing of complete cDNA clones, identified in citrus 3 transcription units coding for putatively active aconitate hydratase proteins, named as CcAco1, CcAco2 and CcAco3. A phylogenetic study carried on the Aco family in 14 plant species, shows the presence of 5 Aco subfamilies, and that the ancestor of monocot and dicot species shared at least one Aco gene. Real-time RT-PCR expression analyses of the three aconitase citrus genes were performed in pulp tissues along fruit development in acidic and acidless citrus varieties such as mandarins, oranges and lemons. While CcAco3 expression was always low, CcAco1 and CcAco2 genes were generally induced during the rapid phase of fruit growth along with the maximum in acidity and the beginning of the acid reduction. Two exceptions to this general pattern were found: 1 Clemenules mandarin failed inducing CcAco2 although acid levels were rapidly reduced; and 2 the acidless "Sucreña" orange

  18. Effects of naturally occurring missense mutations and G525V in the hydratase domain of human d-bifunctional protein on hydratase activity

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    Shirou Tsuchida

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available d-bifunctional protein (d-BP deficiency is thought to lead to severe lipid metabolism disorders. To investigate the effect of naturally occurring missense mutations in the hydratase domain in d-BP, we constructed several d-BP hydratase variants and measured their activities. Missense mutations at sites whose conservation rates among 30 eukaryotes were < 70% did not affect hydratase activity. We predicted that missense mutations of highly conserved amino acids would markedly reduce activity. However, R562H and R562L, naturally occurring missense mutations of highly conserved amino acids, did not reduce activity. This result suggests that a missense mutation in a highly conserved amino acid does not always lead to severe lipid metabolism disorders. We also investigated the effect of G525V, which had been found in a mildly symptomatic patient with d-BP deficiency who was heterozygous for G525 and G658X. G525V markedly reduced hydratase activity. We had predicted that heterozygous G525V and G658X would lead to severely disordered lipid metabolism. However, the symptoms were inconsistent with this prediction. Characterizing mutations in the d-BP gene and the symptoms of d-BP deficiency may require pleiotropy, not only in vitro, studies.

  19. The glycolytic shift in fumarate-hydratase-deficient kidney cancer lowers AMPK levels, increases anabolic propensities and lowers cellular iron levels

    KAUST Repository

    Tong, Winghang

    2011-09-01

    Inactivation of the TCA cycle enzyme, fumarate hydratase (FH), drives a metabolic shift to aerobic glycolysis in FH-deficient kidney tumors and cell lines from patients with hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell cancer (HLRCC), resulting in decreased levels of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) and p53 tumor suppressor, and activation of the anabolic factors, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ribosomal protein S6. Reduced AMPK levels lead to diminished expression of the DMT1 iron transporter, and the resulting cytosolic iron deficiency activates the iron regulatory proteins, IRP1 and IRP2, and increases expression of the hypoxia inducible factor HIF-1α, but not HIF-2α. Silencing of HIF-1α or activation of AMPK diminishes invasive activities, indicating that alterations of HIF-1α and AMPK contribute to the oncogenic growth of FH-deficient cells. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  20. Cascade screening for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH)

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    R.M. Ned (Renée); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractFamilial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by abnormally high concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in the blood, which predisposes affected persons to premature coronary heart disease (CHD) and death. FH is one of the most co

  1. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of nitrile hydratase gene of mutant 4D strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous PA 34 in E. coli.

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    Pratush, Amit; Seth, Amit; Bhalla, T C

    2012-10-01

    The NHase encoding gene of mutant 4D was isolated by PCR amplification. The NHase gene of mutant 4D was successfully cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli by using Ek/LIC Duet cloning kits (Novagen). For the active expression of the NHase gene, the co-expression of small cobalt transporter gene (P-protein gene) has also been co-expressed with NHase gene E. coli. The nucleotide sequence of this NHase gene revealed high homology with the H-NHase of Rhodococcus rhodochrous J1. The recombinant E. coli cells showed higher NHase activity (5.9 U/mg dcw) as compared to the wild (4.1 U/mg dcw) whereas it is less than the mutant strain (8.4 U/mg dcw). Addition of cobalt ion in Luria-Bertani medium is needed up to a very small concentration (0.4 mM) for NHase activity. The recombinant E. coli exhibited maximum NHase activity at 6 h of incubation and was purified with a yield of 56 % with specific activity of 37.1 U/mg protein.

  2. Biochemical characterization and FAD-binding analysis of oleate hydratase from Macrococcus caseolyticus.

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    Joo, Young-Chul; Jeong, Ki-Woong; Yeom, Soo-Jin; Kim, Yeong-Su; Kim, Yangmee; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2012-03-01

    A putative fatty acid hydratase gene from Macrococcus caseolyticus was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme was a 68 kDa dimer with a molecular mass of 136 kDa. The enzymatic products formed from fatty acid substrates by the putative enzyme were isolated with high purity (>99%) by solvent fractional crystallization at low temperature. After the identification by GC-MS, the purified hydroxy fatty acids were used as standards to quantitatively determine specific activities and kinetic parameters for fatty acids as substrates. Among the fatty acids evaluated, specific activity and catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) were highest for oleic acid, indicating that the putative fatty acid hydratase was an oleate hydratase. Hydration occurred only for cis-9-double and cis-12-double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids without any trans-configurations. The maximum activity for oleate hydration was observed at pH 6.5 and 25 °C with 2% (v/v) ethanol and 0.2 mM FAD. Without FAD, all catalytic activity was abolished. Thus, the oleate hydratase is an FAD-dependent enzyme. The residues G29, G31, S34, E50, and E56, which are conserved in the FAD-binding motif of fatty acid hydratases (GXGXXG((A/S))X((15-21))E((D))), were selected by alignment, and the spectral properties and kinetic parameters of their alanine-substituted variants were analyzed. Among the five variants, G29A, G31A, and E56A showed no interaction with FAD and exhibited no activity. These results indicate that G29, G31, and E56 are essential for FAD-binding.

  3. Metabolic reprogramming for producing energy and reducing power in fumarate hydratase null cells from hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell carcinoma.

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    Youfeng Yang

    Full Text Available Fumarate hydratase (FH-deficient kidney cancer undergoes metabolic remodeling, with changes in mitochondrial respiration, glucose, and glutamine metabolism. These changes represent multiple biochemical adaptations in glucose and fatty acid metabolism that supports malignant proliferation. However, the metabolic linkages between altered mitochondrial function, nucleotide biosynthesis and NADPH production required for proliferation and survival have not been elucidated. To characterize the alterations in glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the pentose phosphate pathways (PPP that either generate NADPH (oxidative or do not (non-oxidative, we utilized [U-(13C]-glucose, [U-(13C,(15N]-glutamine, and [1,2- (13C2]-glucose tracers with mass spectrometry and NMR detection to track these pathways, and measured the oxygen consumption rate (OCR and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR of growing cell lines. This metabolic reprogramming in the FH null cells was compared to cells in which FH has been restored. The FH null cells showed a substantial metabolic reorganization of their intracellular metabolic fluxes to fulfill their high ATP demand, as observed by a high rate of glucose uptake, increased glucose turnover via glycolysis, high production of glucose-derived lactate, and low entry of glucose carbon into the Krebs cycle. Despite the truncation of the Krebs cycle associated with inactivation of fumarate hydratase, there was a small but persistent level of mitochondrial respiration, which was coupled to ATP production from oxidation of glutamine-derived α-ketoglutarate through to fumarate. [1,2- (13C2]-glucose tracer experiments demonstrated that the oxidative branch of PPP initiated by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity is preferentially utilized for ribose production (56-66% that produces increased amounts of ribose necessary for growth and NADPH. Increased NADPH is required to drive reductive carboxylation of α-ketoglutarate and fatty acid

  4. Metabolic reprogramming for producing energy and reducing power in fumarate hydratase null cells from hereditary leiomyomatosis renal cell carcinoma.

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    Yang, Youfeng; Lane, Andrew N; Ricketts, Christopher J; Sourbier, Carole; Wei, Ming-Hui; Shuch, Brian; Pike, Lisa; Wu, Min; Rouault, Tracey A; Boros, Laszlo G; Fan, Teresa W-M; Linehan, W Marston

    2013-01-01

    Fumarate hydratase (FH)-deficient kidney cancer undergoes metabolic remodeling, with changes in mitochondrial respiration, glucose, and glutamine metabolism. These changes represent multiple biochemical adaptations in glucose and fatty acid metabolism that supports malignant proliferation. However, the metabolic linkages between altered mitochondrial function, nucleotide biosynthesis and NADPH production required for proliferation and survival have not been elucidated. To characterize the alterations in glycolysis, the Krebs cycle and the pentose phosphate pathways (PPP) that either generate NADPH (oxidative) or do not (non-oxidative), we utilized [U-(13)C]-glucose, [U-(13)C,(15)N]-glutamine, and [1,2- (13)C2]-glucose tracers with mass spectrometry and NMR detection to track these pathways, and measured the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extracellular acidification rate (ECAR) of growing cell lines. This metabolic reprogramming in the FH null cells was compared to cells in which FH has been restored. The FH null cells showed a substantial metabolic reorganization of their intracellular metabolic fluxes to fulfill their high ATP demand, as observed by a high rate of glucose uptake, increased glucose turnover via glycolysis, high production of glucose-derived lactate, and low entry of glucose carbon into the Krebs cycle. Despite the truncation of the Krebs cycle associated with inactivation of fumarate hydratase, there was a small but persistent level of mitochondrial respiration, which was coupled to ATP production from oxidation of glutamine-derived α-ketoglutarate through to fumarate. [1,2- (13)C2]-glucose tracer experiments demonstrated that the oxidative branch of PPP initiated by glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity is preferentially utilized for ribose production (56-66%) that produces increased amounts of ribose necessary for growth and NADPH. Increased NADPH is required to drive reductive carboxylation of α-ketoglutarate and fatty acid synthesis

  5. FH535 inhibited migration and growth of breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Joji; Dorchak, Jesse; Lehman, John R; Clancy, Rebecca; Luo, Chunqing; Chen, Yaqin; Somiari, Stella; Ellsworth, Rachel E; Hu, Hai; Mural, Richard J; Shriver, Craig D

    2012-01-01

    There is substantial evidence indicating that the WNT signaling pathway is activated in various cancer cell types including breast cancer. Previous studies reported that FH535, a small molecule inhibitor of the WNT signaling pathway, decreased growth of cancer cells but not normal fibroblasts, suggesting this pathway plays a role in tumor progression and metastasis. In this study, we tested FH535 as a potential inhibitor for malignant phenotypes of breast cancer cells including migration, invasion, and growth. FH535 significantly inhibited growth, migration, and invasion of triple negative (TN) breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB231 and HCC38) in vitro. We demonstrate that FH535 was a potent growth inhibitor for TN breast cancer cell lines (HCC38 and MDA-MB-231) but not for other, non-TN breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D or SK-Br3) when cultured in three dimensional (3D) type I collagen gels. Western blotting analyses suggest that treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with FH535 markedly inhibited the expression of NEDD9 but not activations of FAK, Src, or downstream targets such as p38 and Erk1/2. We demonstrated that NEDD9 was specifically associated with CSPG4 but not with β1 integrin or CD44 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Analyses of gene expression profiles in breast cancer tissues suggest that CSPG4 expression is higher in Basal-type breast cancers, many of which are TN, than any other subtypes. These results suggest not only a mechanism for migration and invasion involving the canonical WNT-signaling pathways but also novel strategies for treating patients who develop TN breast cancer.

  6. FH535 inhibited migration and growth of breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joji Iida

    Full Text Available There is substantial evidence indicating that the WNT signaling pathway is activated in various cancer cell types including breast cancer. Previous studies reported that FH535, a small molecule inhibitor of the WNT signaling pathway, decreased growth of cancer cells but not normal fibroblasts, suggesting this pathway plays a role in tumor progression and metastasis. In this study, we tested FH535 as a potential inhibitor for malignant phenotypes of breast cancer cells including migration, invasion, and growth. FH535 significantly inhibited growth, migration, and invasion of triple negative (TN breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB231 and HCC38 in vitro. We demonstrate that FH535 was a potent growth inhibitor for TN breast cancer cell lines (HCC38 and MDA-MB-231 but not for other, non-TN breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D or SK-Br3 when cultured in three dimensional (3D type I collagen gels. Western blotting analyses suggest that treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with FH535 markedly inhibited the expression of NEDD9 but not activations of FAK, Src, or downstream targets such as p38 and Erk1/2. We demonstrated that NEDD9 was specifically associated with CSPG4 but not with β1 integrin or CD44 in MDA-MB-231 cells. Analyses of gene expression profiles in breast cancer tissues suggest that CSPG4 expression is higher in Basal-type breast cancers, many of which are TN, than any other subtypes. These results suggest not only a mechanism for migration and invasion involving the canonical WNT-signaling pathways but also novel strategies for treating patients who develop TN breast cancer.

  7. Unveiling of novel regio-selective fatty acid double bond hydratases from Lactobacillus acidophilus involved in the selective oxyfunctionalization of mono- and di-hydroxy fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Oh, Hye-Jin; Park, Chul-Soon; Hong, Seung-Hye; Park, Ji-Young; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is the first time demonstration of cis-12 regio-selective linoleate double-bond hydratase. Hydroxylation of fatty acids, abundant feedstock in nature, is an emerging alternative route for many petroleum replaceable products thorough hydroxy fatty acids, carboxylic acids, and lactones. However, chemical route for selective hydroxylation is still quite challenging owing to low selectivity and many environmental concerns. Hydroxylation of fatty acids by hydroxy fatty acid forming enzymes is an important route for selective biocatalytic oxyfunctionalization of fatty acids. Therefore, novel fatty acid hydroxylation enzymes should be discovered. The two hydratase genes of Lactobacillus acidophilus were identified by genomic analysis, and the expressed two recombinant hydratases were identified as cis-9 and cis-12 double-bond selective linoleate hydratases by in vitro functional validation, including the identification of products and the determination of regio-selectivity, substrate specificity, and kinetic parameters. The two different linoleate hydratases were the involved enzymes in the 10,13-dihydroxyoctadecanoic acid biosynthesis. Linoleate 13-hydratase (LHT-13) selectively converted 10 mM linoleic acid to 13S-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid with high titer (8.1 mM) and yield (81%). Our study will expand knowledge for microbial fatty acid-hydroxylation enzymes and facilitate the designed production of the regio-selective hydroxy fatty acids for useful chemicals from polyunsaturated fatty acid feedstocks.

  8. Rapid isolation of pure Complement Factor H from serum for functional studies by the use of a monoclonal antibody that discriminates FH from all the other isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra, Silvia; Clivio, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Several mutations have been identified in the gene coding for Complement Factor H (FH) from patients with atypical Hemolytic Uraemic Syndrome (aHUS), Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis (MPGN). These data allow for a precise description of the structural changes affecting FH, but a simple test for specifically assessing FH function routinely is not yet of common use. We have produced and characterised a monoclonal antibody (5H5) which discriminates between FH and the smaller FH-like 1 and FH-related proteins and show here that it specifically binds to FH without detecting the smaller isoforms. We therefore used this mAb for a quick, one-step micro-purification of FH directly from control sera and showed that this affinity chromatography procedure is not disruptive of its cofactor function. We also developed a modified sheep erythrocytes haemolysis test using our antibody and affinity-purified FH. These tests can be used in conjunction for assessing the function of FH purified from patients affected by FH-related diseases. Moreover we used this mAb to develop a FH-specific ELISA test.

  9. Biochemical characterization of the carotenoid 1,2-hydratases (CrtC) from Rubrivivax gelatinosus and Thiocapsa roseopersicina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiseni, A.; Arends, I.W.C.E.; Otten, L.G.

    2011-01-01

    Two carotenoid 1,2-hydratase (CrtC) genes from the photosynthetic bacteria Rubrivivax gelatinosus and Thiocapsa roseopersicina were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli in an active form and purified by affinity chromatography. The biochemical properties of the recombinant enzymes and their subs

  10. [Atypical leiomyoma in a patient with cutaneous leiomyomatosis and mutation of the enzyme fumarate hydratase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Komáromy, Angélica; Arias-Palomo, Dolores; Tardío, Juan C; Freites-Martínez, Azael; Borbujo, Jesús

    2016-03-01

    We report the case of a 56 year-old male with an atypical leiomyoma in the context of a cutaneous leiomyomatosis and a family history of uterine leiomyomatosis. The genetic study revealed a mutation in the gene for the enzyme fumarate hydratase, but he has not had any renal malignancy so far. Atypical leiomyoma is a rare tumor that usually presents as a single lesion and is exceptional in patients with cutaneous leiomyomatosis. The relation between fumarate hydratase enzyme mutations with multiple leiomyomas, uterine leiomyomatosis and an increased risk of developing kidney cancer is widely known. However, the role of these mutations in the development of atypical leiomyomas is still impossible to clarify given the few cases reported in the literature.

  11. Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH) and homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH): a phenotypic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisciotta, Livia; Priore Oliva, Claudio; Pes, Giovanni Mario; Di Scala, Lilla; Bellocchio, Antonella; Fresa, Raffaele; Cantafora, Alfredo; Arca, Marcello; Calandra, Sebastiano; Bertolini, Stefano

    2006-10-01

    Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH) is a rare disorder, due to complete loss of function of an adaptor protein (ARH protein) required for receptor-mediated hepatic uptake of LDL. ARH is a phenocopy of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH) due to mutations in LDL receptor (LDLR) gene; however, previous studies suggested that ARH phenotype is less severe than that of HoFH. To test this hypothesis we compared 42 HoFH and 42 ARH patients. LDLR and ARH genes were analysed by Southern blotting and sequencing. LDLR activity was measured in cultured fibroblasts. In ARH plasma LDL cholestrol (LDL-C) level (14.25+/-2.29 mmol/L) was lower than in receptor-negative HoFH (21.38+/-3.56 mmol/L) but similar to that found in receptor-defective HoFH (15.52+/-2.39 mmol/L). The risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) was 9-fold lower in ARH patients. No ARH patients FH. The CAD prevalence was or tended to be lower in ARH also in the 21-40 (45% versus 86%) and 41-60 (78% versus 100%) age groups. Heterozygous ARH carriers showed higher level of LDL-C (+17%) than non-carrier family members. In conclusion the clinical phenotype of ARH is milder than that of receptor-negative HoFH and resembles that observed in receptor-defective HoFH.

  12. Characterization of Linoleate 10-Hydratase of Lactobacillus plantarum and Novel Antifungal Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan Y.; Liang, Nuan Y.; Curtis, Jonathan M.; Gänzle, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacilli convert linoleic acid to the antifungal compound 10-hydroxy-12-octadecenoic acid (10-HOE) by linoleate 10-hydratase (10-LAH). However, the effect of this conversion on cellular membrane physiology and properties of the cell surface have not been demonstrated. Moreover, Lactobacillus plantarum produces 13-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (13-HOE) in addition to 10-HOE, but the antifungal activity of 13-HOE was unknown. Phylogenetic analyses conducted in this study did not differentiate between 10-LAH and linoleate 13-hydratase (13-LAH). Thus, linoleate hydratases (LAHs) must be characterized through their differences in their activities of linoleate conversion. Four genes encoding putative LAHs from lactobacilli were cloned, heterologous expressed, purified and identified as FAD-dependent 10-LAH. The unsaturated fatty acid substrates stimulated the growth of lactobacilli. We also investigated the role of 10-LAH in ethanol tolerance, membrane fluidity and hydrophobicity of cell surfaces in lactobacilli by disruption of lah. Compared with the L. plantarum lah deficient strain, 10-LAH in wild-type strain did not exert effect on cell survival and membrane fluidity under ethanol stress, but influenced the cell surface hydrophobicity. Moreover, deletion of 10-LAH in L. plantarum facilitated purification of 13-HOE and demonstration of its antifungal activity against Penicillium roqueforti and Aspergillus niger. PMID:27757104

  13. A Robust Acquisition Scheme for FH Signal in Adverse Environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Ding Chen; Shao-Qian Li; Yu-Fan Cheng; Gang Wu

    2009-01-01

    Both partial-band jamming and multi- tone jamming have severe effect on the acquisition of frequency-hopping (FH) signal in adverse environments. In this paper, an anti-jamming FH signal acquisition scheme based on cognitive correlation process is proposed to boost the robustness of acquisition. The main idea of this scheme is to utilize a priori knowledge of FH speed and FH pattern to distinguish jamming signal from received signal. Furthermore, theoretic analysis on detection probability and false probability is given to demonstrate the robust performance of the FH signal acquisition method compared with conventional acquisition scheme without any prior information on FH speed and pattern in adverse environments.

  14. Germline fumarate hydratase mutations in patients with ovarian mucinous cystadenoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ylisaukko-oja, Sanna K.; Cybulski, Cezary; Lehtonen, Rainer;

    2006-01-01

    analyzed for somatic FH mutations. Two patients diagnosed with ovarian mucinous cystadenoma (two out of 33, 6%) were found to be FH germline mutation carriers. One of the changes was a novel mutation (Ala231Thr) and the other one (435insAAA) was previously described in FH deficiency families. These results...

  15. Formin homology 1 (OsFH1) regulates submergence-dependent root hair development in rice plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Liu, Jingmiao; Han, Chang-Deok

    2013-08-01

    By using a forward genetic approach, a formin homology 1 gene (OsFH1) was identified as a critical regulator of rice root hair development. The phenotypic effect of OsFH1 on root hair development was verified by using three independent mutants, one point mutation and two T-DNA insertions. The study showed that OsFH1 is required for the elongation of root-hairs. However, Osfh1 exhibited growth defect of root hairs only when roots were grown submerged in solution. To understand how OsFH1 impinges on plant responses to root submergence, the growth responses of Osfh1 root hairs to anoxia, carbohydrate supplementation and exogenous hormones (auxin and ethylene) and nutrients (Fe and Pi) were examined. However, none of these treatments rescued the growth defects of Osfhl1 root hairs. This study demonstrates that OsFH1 could be involved in preventing submergence-induced inhibition of root hair growth.

  16. Adipose-Specific Deficiency of Fumarate Hydratase in Mice Protects Against Obesity, Hepatic Steatosis, and Insulin Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Wu, Jiang W; Wang, Shu P; Severi, Ilenia; Sartini, Loris; Frizzell, Norma; Cinti, Saverio; Yang, Gongshe; Mitchell, Grant A

    2016-11-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with impaired mitochondrial function in adipose tissue. To study the effects of primary deficiency of mitochondrial energy metabolism in fat, we generated mice with adipose-specific deficiency of fumarate hydratase (FH), an integral Krebs cycle enzyme (AFHKO mice). AFHKO mice have severe ultrastructural abnormalities of mitochondria, ATP depletion in white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue, low WAT mass with small adipocytes, and impaired thermogenesis with large unilocular brown adipocytes. AFHKO mice are strongly protected against obesity, insulin resistance, and fatty liver despite aging and high-fat feeding. AFHKO white adipocytes showed normal lipolysis but low triglyceride synthesis. ATP depletion in normal white adipocytes by mitochondrial toxins also decreased triglyceride synthesis, proportionally to ATP depletion, suggesting that reduced triglyceride synthesis may result nonspecifically from adipocyte energy deficiency. At thermoneutrality, protection from insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis was diminished. Taken together, the results show that under the cold stress of regular animal room conditions, adipocyte-specific FH deficiency in mice causes mitochondrial energy depletion in adipose tissues and protects from obesity, hepatic steatosis, and insulin resistance, suggesting that in cold-stressed animals, mitochondrial function in adipose tissue is a determinant of fat mass and insulin sensitivity. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  17. Effect of ezetimibe coadministered with statins in genotype-confirmed heterozygous FH patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisciotta, Livia; Fasano, Tommaso; Bellocchio, Antonella; Bocchi, Letizia; Sallo, Raffaella; Fresa, Raffaele; Colangeli, Isabella; Cantafora, Alfredo; Calandra, Sebastiano; Bertolini, Stefano

    2007-10-01

    We investigated the effect of statins and statins plus ezetimibe in 65 FH heterozygotes carrying LDLR-defective or LDLR-negative mutations as well as the effect of ezetimibe monotherapy in 50 hypercholesterolemic (HCH) patients intolerant to statins. PCSK9 and NPC1L1 genes were analysed to assess the role of genetic variants in response to therapy. In FH patients combined therapy reduced LDL-C by 57%, irrespective of the type of LDLR mutation. The additional decrease of plasma LDL-C induced by ezetimibe showed wide inter-individual variability (from -39% to -4.7%) and was negatively correlated with percent LDL-C decrease due to statin alone (r=-0.713, PG polymorphism (L272L) in hyper-responders, an observation confirmed also in FH patients hyper-responders to ezetimibe. In both FH and HCH patients, the G allele carriers tended to have a higher LDL-C reduction in response to ezetimibe. These observations suggest that in FH heterozygotes LDL-C reduction following combined therapy reflects a complex interplay between hepatic synthesis and intestinal absorption of cholesterol.

  18. 子载波FH-OFDM系统仿真

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志国; 张元铜; 梅顺良

    2010-01-01

    文章结合OFDM与FH两者的特点,分析了两种FH-OFDM通信系统模型,并给出了子载波FH-OFDM系统的公式.在此基础上,利用Matlab对子载波FH-OFDM进行了仿真,并对仿真结果进行了分析,结果表明子载波FH-OFDM具有更好的误码性能和更强的抗多径干扰能力.

  19. Michael hydratase alcohol dehydrogenase or just alcohol dehydrogenase?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resch, V.A.; Jin, J.; Chen, B.S.; Hanefeld, U.

    2014-01-01

    The Michael hydratase – alcohol dehydrogenase (MhyADH) from Alicycliphilus denitrificans was previously identified as a bi-functional enzyme performing a hydration of α,β-unsaturated ketones and subsequent oxidation of the formed alcohols. The investigations of the bi-functionality were based on a

  20. The Application of Nitrile Hydratases in Organic Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Pelt, S.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrile hydratases (NHases, E.C. 4.2.1.84) catalyse the transformation of nitriles into the corresponding amides and were first discovered 30 years ago in studies on the microbial degradation of toxic cyano-group-containing compounds. The use of NHases in synthetic chemistry is especially

  1. Michael hydratase alcohol dehydrogenase or just alcohol dehydrogenase?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Resch, V.A.; Jin, J.; Chen, B.S.; Hanefeld, U.

    2014-01-01

    The Michael hydratase – alcohol dehydrogenase (MhyADH) from Alicycliphilus denitrificans was previously identified as a bi-functional enzyme performing a hydration of α,β-unsaturated ketones and subsequent oxidation of the formed alcohols. The investigations of the bi-functionality were based on a s

  2. Accumulation of Krebs cycle intermediates and over-expression of HIF1alpha in tumours which result from germline FH and SDH mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, P J; Brière, J J; Alam, N A; Barwell, J; Barclay, E; Wortham, N C; Hunt, T; Mitchell, M; Olpin, S; Moat, S J; Hargreaves, I P; Heales, S J; Chung, Y L; Griffiths, J R; Dalgleish, A; McGrath, J A; Gleeson, M J; Hodgson, S V; Poulsom, R; Rustin, P; Tomlinson, I P M

    2005-08-01

    The nuclear-encoded Krebs cycle enzymes, fumarate hydratase (FH) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDHB, -C and -D), act as tumour suppressors. Germline mutations in FH predispose individuals to leiomyomas and renal cell cancer (HLRCC), whereas mutations in SDH cause paragangliomas and phaeochromocytomas (HPGL). In this study, we have shown that FH-deficient cells and tumours accumulate fumarate and, to a lesser extent, succinate. SDH-deficient tumours principally accumulate succinate. In situ analyses showed that these tumours also have over-expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha (HIF1alpha), activation of HIF1alphatargets (such as vascular endothelial growth factor) and high microvessel density. We found no evidence of increased reactive oxygen species in our cells. Our data provide in vivo evidence to support the hypothesis that increased succinate and/or fumarate causes stabilization of HIF1alpha a plausible mechanism, inhibition of HIF prolyl hydroxylases, has previously been suggested by in vitro studies. The basic mechanism of tumorigenesis in HPGL and HLRCC is likely to be pseudo-hypoxic drive, just as it is in von Hippel-Lindau syndrome.

  3. Biochemical characterization of the carotenoid 1,2-hydratases (CrtC) from Rubrivivax gelatinosus and Thiocapsa roseopersicina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiseni, Aida; Arends, Isabel W C E; Otten, Linda G

    2011-08-01

    Two carotenoid 1,2-hydratase (CrtC) genes from the photosynthetic bacteria Rubrivivax gelatinosus and Thiocapsa roseopersicina were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli in an active form and purified by affinity chromatography. The biochemical properties of the recombinant enzymes and their substrate specificities were studied. The purified CrtCs catalyze cofactor independently the conversion of lycopene to 1-HO- and 1,1'-(HO)(2)-lycopene. The optimal pH and temperature for hydratase activity was 8.0 and 30°C, respectively. The apparent K (m) and V (max) values obtained for the hydration of lycopene were 24 μM and 0.31 nmol h(-1) mg(-1) for RgCrtC and 9.5 μM and 0.15 nmol h(-1) mg(-1) for TrCrtC, respectively. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed two protein bands of 44 and 38 kDa for TrCrtC, which indicate protein processing. Both hydratases are also able to convert the unnatural substrate geranylgeraniol (C20 substrate), which functionally resembles the natural substrate lycopene.

  4. Expansion of ribosomally produced natural products: a nitrile hydratase- and Nif11-related precursor family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Douglas A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new family of natural products has been described in which cysteine, serine and threonine from ribosomally-produced peptides are converted to thiazoles, oxazoles and methyloxazoles, respectively. These metabolites and their biosynthetic gene clusters are now referred to as thiazole/oxazole-modified microcins (TOMM. As exemplified by microcin B17 and streptolysin S, TOMM precursors contain an N-terminal leader sequence and C-terminal core peptide. The leader sequence contains binding sites for the posttranslational modifying enzymes which subsequently act upon the core peptide. TOMM peptides are small and highly variable, frequently missed by gene-finders and occasionally situated far from the thiazole/oxazole forming genes. Thus, locating a substrate for a particular TOMM pathway can be a challenging endeavor. Results Examination of candidate TOMM precursors has revealed a subclass with an uncharacteristically long leader sequence closely related to the enzyme nitrile hydratase. Members of this nitrile hydratase leader peptide (NHLP family lack the metal-binding residues required for catalysis. Instead, NHLP sequences display the classic Gly-Gly cleavage motif and have C-terminal regions rich in heterocyclizable residues. The NHLP family exhibits a correlated species distribution and local clustering with an ABC transport system. This study also provides evidence that a separate family, annotated as Nif11 nitrogen-fixing proteins, can serve as natural product precursors (N11P, but not always of the TOMM variety. Indeed, a number of cyanobacterial genomes show extensive N11P paralogous expansion, such as Nostoc, Prochlorococcus and Cyanothece, which replace the TOMM cluster with lanthionine biosynthetic machinery. Conclusions This study has united numerous TOMM gene clusters with their cognate substrates. These results suggest that two large protein families, the nitrile hydratases and Nif11, have been retailored for

  5. A novel carotenoid 1,2-hydratase (CruF) from two species of the non-photosynthetic bacterium Deinococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zongtao; Shen, Shaochuan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Hu; Hu, Yaping; Jiao, Jiandong; Ma, Tingting; Tian, Bing; Hua, Yuejin

    2009-08-01

    A novel carotenoid 1,2-hydratase (CruF) responsible for the C-1',2' hydration of gamma-carotene was identified in the non-photosynthetic bacteria Deinococcus radiodurans R1 and Deinococcus geothermalis DSM 11300. Gene expression and disruption experiments demonstrated that dr0091 and dgeo2309 encode CruF in D. radiodurans and D. geothermalis, respectively. Their homologues were also found in the genomes of cyanobacteria, and exhibited little homology to the hydroxyneurosporene synthase (CrtC) proteins found mainly in photosynthetic bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CruF homologues form a separate family, which is evolutionarily distant from the known CrtC family.

  6. Substitution, cooperative, and solvent effects on π pnicogen bonds in the FH(2)P and FH(2)As complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xiu-Lin; Li, Ran; Li, Qing-Zhong; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Wen-Zuo; Cheng, Jian-Bo

    2012-09-01

    Ab initio calculations have been carried out to study the substitution effect on the π pnicogen bond in ZH(2)P-C(2)HM (Z = H, H(3)C, NC, F; M = H, CH(3), Li) dimer, cooperative effect of the π pnicogen bond and hydrogen bond in XH-FH(2)Y-C(2)H(4) (X = HO, NC, F; Y = P and As) trimer, and solvent effect on the π pnicogen bond in FH(2)P-C(2)H(2), FH(2)P-C(2)H(4), FH(2)As-C(2)H(2), and FH(2)As-C(2)H(4) dimers. The interaction energy of π pnicogen bond increases in magnitude from -1.51 kcal mol(-1) in H(3)P-C(2)H(2) dimer to -7.53 kcal mol(-1) in FH(2)P-C(2)HLi dimer at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level. The π pnicogen bond is enhanced by 12-30 % due to the presence of hydrogen bond in the trimer. The π pnicogen bond is also enhanced in solvents. The natural bond orbital analysis and symmetry adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) were used to unveil the source of substitution, cooperative, and solvent effects.

  7. Characterisation of nitrilase and nitrile hydratase biocatalytic systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brady, D

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available and Nagasawa 2000). Other compounds commercially produced using nitrilase bioca- talysts are (R)-mandelic acid and (R)-3-chloromandelic acid (Mitsubishi Rayon Co). Although few commercial processes that utilise nitrilase and nitrile hydratase exist... acid (HClO4) eluent at pH 2, 0.6 ml/min flow rate, Waters 625 LC pump, and a Waters 486 UV detector. The Chiracel OD column (Daicel, Japan) was used for determination of methyl ester derivatives of mandelic acid, and Chiracel OB-H was used...

  8. Production of 13S-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid from linoleic acid by whole recombinant cells expressing linoleate 13-hydratase from Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Young; Lee, Seon-Hwa; Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Park, Jin-Byung; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2015-08-20

    Linoleate 13-hydratase from Lactobacillus acidophilus LMG 11470 converted linoleic acid to hydroxyl fatty acid, which was identified as 13S-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (13-HOD) by GC-MS and NMR. The expression of linoleate 13-hydratase gene in Escherichia coli was maximized by using pACYC plasmid and super optimal broth with catabolite repression (SOC) medium containing 40mM Mg(2+). To optimize induction conditions, recombinant cells were cultivated at 37°C, 1mM isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside was added at 2h, and the culture was further incubated at 16°C for 18h. Recombinant cells expressing linoleate 13-hydratase from L. acidophilus were obtained under the optimized expression conditions and used for 13-HOD production from linoleic acid. The optimal reaction conditions were pH 6.0, 40°C, 0.25% (v/v) Tween 40, 25gl(-1) cells, and 100gl(-1) linoleic acid, and under these conditions, whole recombinant cells produced 79gl(-1) 13-HOD for 3h with a conversion yield of 79% (w/w), a volumetric productivity of 26.3gl(-1)h(-1), and a specific productivity of 1.05g g-cells(-1)h(-1). To the best of our knowledge, the recombinant cells produced hydroxy fatty acid with the highest concentration and productivity reported so far.

  9. FH3, a domain found in formins, targets the fission yeast formin Fus1 to the projection tip during conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, J; Nielsen, O; Egel, R;

    1998-01-01

    of the late G2 cells in a vegetatively growing population. Expression of both FH3-GFP fusions also affected cytokinesis. Overexpression of the spindle pole body component Sad1 altered the distribution of both Sad1 and the FH3-GFP domain. Together these data suggest that proteins at multiple sites can interact...... is required for conjugation, and is localized to the projection tip in cells of mating pairs. We replaced genomic fus1+ with green fluorescent protein (GFP)- tagged versions that lacked either the FH1, FH2, or FH3 domain. Deletion of any FH domain essentially abolished mating. FH3, but neither FH1 nor FH2...

  10. Stereochemical Consequences of Vinylpyruvate Hydratase-Catalyzed Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William H; Stack, Tyler M M; Taylor, Stephanie M; Burks, Elizabeth A; Whitman, Christian P

    2016-07-26

    A stereochemical analysis has been carried out on two vinylpyruvate hydratases (VPH), which convert 2-hydroxy-2,4-pentadienoate to 2-keto-4S-hydroxypentanoate in meta-fission pathways. Bacterial strains with this pathway can use aromatic compounds as sole sources of energy and carbon. The analysis was carried out using the 5-methyl and 5-chloro derivatives of 2-hydroxy-2,4-pentadienoate with the enzymes from Pseudomonas putida mt-2 (Pp) and Leptothrix cholodnii SP-6 (Lc). In both organisms, VPH is in a complex with the preceding enzyme in the pathway, 4-oxalocrotonate decarboxylase (4-OD). In D2O, a deuteron is incorporated stereospecifically at the C-3 and C-5 positions of product by both Pp and Lc enzymes. Accordingly, the complexes generate (3S,5S)-3,5-[di-D]-2-keto-4S-hydroxyhexanoate and (3S,5R)-3,5-[di-D]-2-keto-4R-hydroxy-5-chloropentanoate (4R and 5R due to a priority numbering change). The substitution at C-5 (CH3 or Cl) or the source of the enzyme (Pp or Lc) does not change the stereochemical outcome. One mechanism that can account for the results is the ketonization of the 5-substituted dienol to the α,β-unsaturated ketone (placing a deuteron at C-5 in D2O), followed by the conjugate addition of water (placing a deuteron at C-3). The stereochemical outcome for VPH (from Pp and Lc) is the same as that reported for a related enzyme, 2-oxo-hept-4-ene-1,7-dioate hydratase, from Escherichia coli C. The combined observations suggest similar mechanisms for these three enzymes that could possibly be common to this group of enzymes.

  11. Roots of angiosperm formins: The evolutionary history of plant FH2 domain-containing proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žárský Viktor

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shuffling of modular protein domains is an important source of evolutionary innovation. Formins are a family of actin-organizing proteins that share a conserved FH2 domain but their overall domain architecture differs dramatically between opisthokonts (metazoans and fungi and plants. We performed a phylogenomic analysis of formins in most eukaryotic kingdoms, aiming to reconstruct an evolutionary scenario that may have produced the current diversity of domain combinations with focus on the origin of the angiosperm formin architectures. Results The Rho GTPase-binding domain (GBD/FH3 reported from opisthokont and Dictyostelium formins was found in all lineages except plants, suggesting its ancestral character. Instead, mosses and vascular plants possess the two formin classes known from angiosperms: membrane-anchored Class I formins and Class II formins carrying a PTEN-like domain. PTEN-related domains were found also in stramenopile formins, where they have been probably acquired independently rather than by horizontal transfer, following a burst of domain rearrangements in the chromalveolate lineage. A novel RhoGAP-related domain was identified in some algal, moss and lycophyte (but not angiosperm formins that define a specific branch (Class III of the formin family. Conclusion We propose a scenario where formins underwent multiple domain rearrangements in several eukaryotic lineages, especially plants and chromalveolates. In plants this replaced GBD/FH3 by a probably inactive RhoGAP-like domain, preserving a formin-mediated association between (membrane-anchored Rho GTPases and the actin cytoskeleton. Subsequent amplification of formin genes, possibly coincident with the expansion of plants to dry land, was followed by acquisition of alternative membrane attachment mechanisms present in extant Class I and Class II formins, allowing later loss of the RhoGAP-like domain-containing formins in angiosperms.

  12. High-level expression in Corynebacterium glutamicum of nitrile hydratase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous for acrylamide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mi-Suk; Han, Sang-Soo; Kim, Mi-Young; Kim, Bu-Youn; Huh, Jong-Pil; Kim, Hak-Sung; Lee, Jin-Ho

    2014-05-01

    The nhhBAG gene of Rhodococcus rhodochrous M33 that encodes nitrile hydratase (NHase), converting acrylonitrile into acrylamide, was cloned and expressed in Corynebacterium glutamicum under the control of an ilvC promoter. The specific enzyme activity in recombinant C. glutamicum cells was about 13.6 μmol/min/mg dry cell weight (DCW). To overexpress the NHase, five types of plasmid variants were constructed by introducing mutations into 80 nucleotides near the translational initiation region (TIR) of nhhB. Of them, pNBM4 with seven mutations showed the highest NHase activity, exhibiting higher expression levels of NhhB and NhhA than wild-type pNBW33, mainly owing to decreased secondary-structure stability and an introduction of a conserved Shine-Dalgarno sequence in the translational initiation region. In a fed-batch culture of recombinant Corynebacterium cells harboring pNBM4, the cell density reached 53.4 g DCW/L within 18 h, and the specific and total enzyme activities were estimated to be 37.3 μmol/min/mg DCW and 1,992 μmol/min/mL, respectively. The use of recombinant Corynebacterium cells for the production of acrylamide from acrylonitrile resulted in a conversion yield of 93 % and a final acrylamide concentration of 42.5 % within 6 h when the total amount of fed acrylonitrile was 456 g.

  13. H CANYON PROCESSING IN CORRELATION WITH FH ANALYTICAL LABS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinheimer, E.

    2012-08-06

    Management of radioactive chemical waste can be a complicated business. H Canyon and F/H Analytical Labs are two facilities present at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC that are at the forefront. In fact H Canyon is the only large-scale radiochemical processing facility in the United States and this processing is only enhanced by the aid given from F/H Analytical Labs. As H Canyon processes incoming materials, F/H Labs provide support through a variety of chemical analyses. Necessary checks of the chemical makeup, processing, and accountability of the samples taken from H Canyon process tanks are performed at the labs along with further checks on waste leaving the canyon after processing. Used nuclear material taken in by the canyon is actually not waste. Only a small portion of the radioactive material itself is actually consumed in nuclear reactors. As a result various radioactive elements such as Uranium, Plutonium and Neptunium are commonly found in waste and may be useful to recover. Specific processing is needed to allow for separation of these products from the waste. This is H Canyon's specialty. Furthermore, H Canyon has the capacity to initiate the process for weapons-grade nuclear material to be converted into nuclear fuel. This is one of the main campaigns being set up for the fall of 2012. Once usable material is separated and purified of impurities such as fission products, it can be converted to an oxide and ultimately turned into commercial fuel. The processing of weapons-grade material for commercial fuel is important in the necessary disposition of plutonium. Another processing campaign to start in the fall in H Canyon involves the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel for disposal in improved containment units. The importance of this campaign involves the proper disposal of nuclear waste in order to ensure the safety and well-being of future generations and the environment. As processing proceeds in the fall, H Canyon will have a substantial

  14. Identification of catalytically important residues of the carotenoid 1,2-hydratases from Rubrivivax gelatinosus and Thiocapsa roseopersicina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiseni, A.; Otten, L.G.; Arends, I.W.C.E.

    2015-01-01

    Carotenoid 1,2-hydratases (CrtC) catalyze the selective addition of water to an isolated carbon–carbon double bond. Although their involvement in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway is well understood, little is known about the mechanism by which these hydratases transform carotenoids such as lycope

  15. 家族性高胆固醇血症(FH)致病基因的研究进展%Research progress of genetic causes of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨

    2012-01-01

    家族性高胆固醇血症( familial hypercholesterolemia,FH)的临床特征为血总胆固醇升高,尤其是低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(low density lipoprotein cholesterol,LDL-c)升高,沉积于组织,形成皮肤或肌腱黄色瘤,导致动脉粥样硬化甚至早发冠心病.FH的发病机制为LDL受体(LDL receptor,LDLR)或apoB基因突变引起LDL受体途径功能缺陷,主要为常染色体显性遗传疾患,具有基因剂量效应;部分患者为常染色体隐性遗传,机制为LDL受体衔接蛋白1(LDL receptor adaptor protein 1,LDLRAP1)失功能型突变,导致LDL内化活性降低.罕见的人类枯草溶菌素转化酶9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9,PCSK9)发生功能型突变也可引起严重的FH表型.PCSK9通过降解LDLR蛋白间接下调LDL受体途径,其失功能突变可致血浆LDL水平下降.因此PCSK9是目前降脂药物的研究热点.%Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by raised serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels, which result in excess deposition of cholesterol in tissues, and then lead to atherosclerosis and premature coronary heart disease. The mutations of LDL receptor or apoB play main roles in this disease. FH results from defects in the uptake and degradation of LDL via the LDL receptor pathway. FH is primarily an autosomal dominant disorder with a gene-dosage effect. An autosomal recessive form of FH caused by loss-of-function mutations in LDL receptor adaptor protein 1 (LDLRAP1), which encodes a protein required for internalization of the LDL receptor ( LDLR). Rare gain-of-function mutations in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) cosegregate with hypercholesterolemia, and one mutation is associated with a particularly severe FH phenotype. Expression of PCSK9 normally down-regulates the LDLR pathway by indirectly causing degradation of LDLR protein, and loss-of-function mutations in PCSK9 result in low plasma LDL levels. Thus,PCSK9 is an

  16. Enoyl-CoA hydratase mediates polyhydroxyalkanoate mobilization in Haloferax mediterranei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guiming; Cai, Shuangfeng; Hou, Jing; Zhao, Dahe; Han, Jing; Zhou, Jian; Xiang, Hua

    2016-04-07

    Although polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) accumulation and mobilization are one of the most general mechanisms for haloarchaea to adapt to the hypersaline environments with changeable carbon sources, the PHA mobilization pathways are still not clear for any haloarchaea. In this study, the functions of five putative (R)-specific enoyl-CoA hydratases (R-ECHs) in Haloferax mediterranei, named PhaJ1 to PhaJ5, respectively, were thoroughly investigated. Through gene deletion and complementation, we demonstrated that only certain of these ECHs had a slight contribution to poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) biosynthesis. But significantly, PhaJ1, the only R-ECH that is associated with PHA granules, was shown to be involved in PHA mobilization in this haloarchaeon. PhaJ1 catalyzes the dehydration of (R)-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA, the common product of PHA degradation, to enoyl-CoA, the intermediate of the β-oxidation cycle, thus could link PHA mobilization to β-oxidation pathway in H. mediterranei. This linkage was further indicated from the up-regulation of the key genes of β-oxidation under the PHA mobilization condition, as well as the obvious inhibition of PHA degradation upon inhibition of the β-oxidation pathway. Interestingly, 96% of phaJ-containing haloarchaeal species possess both phaC (encoding PHA synthase) and the full set genes of β-oxidation, implying that the mobilization of carbon storage in PHA through the β-oxidation cycle would be general in haloarchaea.

  17. An adaptive rate algorithm for FH/BFSK signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Gordon L.; Mark, Jon W.; Blake, Ian F.

    1988-12-01

    The authors present a feedback rate control technique for FH/BFSK (frequency-hop/binary phase-shift keying) signaling over a jammed flat-flat fading channel. An algorithm is developed for tracking the channel fade level, dynamically adjusting the transmitted data rate, and mitigating the effects of partial-band noise jamming. Simulation studies indicate that improvements of about 2 dB can be obtained in the coded performance with the proposed adaptive rate system, when compared to a nonadaptive system operating over the same communication medium with identical power and bandwidth resources.

  18. UBSS and blind parameters estimation algorithms for synchronous or thogonal FH signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weihong Fu; Yongqiang Hei; Xiaohui Li

    2014-01-01

    By using the sparsity of frequency hopping (FH) signals, an underdetermined blind source separation (UBSS) algorithm is presented. Firstly, the short time Fourier transform (STFT) is per-formed on the mixed signals. Then, the mixing matrix, hopping frequencies, hopping instants and the hooping rate can be esti-mated by the K-means clustering algorithm. With the estimated mixing matrix, the directions of arrival (DOA) of source signals can be obtained. Then, the FH signals are sorted and the FH pattern is obtained. Final y, the shortest path algorithm is adopted to recover the time domain signals. Simulation results show that the correla-tion coefficient between the estimated FH signal and the source signal is above 0.9 when the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is higher than 0 dB and hopping parameters of multiple FH signals in the synchronous orthogonal FH network can be accurately estimated and sorted under the underdetermined conditions.

  19. Fusion tags for protein solubility, purification and immunogenicity in Escherichia coli: The novel Fh8 system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia eCosta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Proteins are now widely produced in diverse microbial cell factories. The Escherichia coli is still the dominant host for recombinant protein production but, as a bacterial cell, it also has its issues: the aggregation of foreign proteins into insoluble inclusion bodies is perhaps the main limiting factor of the E. coli expression system. Conversely, E. coli benefits of cost, ease of use and scale make it essential to design new approaches directed for improved recombinant protein production in this host cell.With the aid of genetic and protein engineering novel tailored-made strategies can be designed to suit user or process requirements. Gene fusion technology has been widely used for the improvement of soluble protein production and/or purification in E. coli, and for increasing peptide’s immunogenicity as well. New fusion partners are constantly emerging and complementing the traditional solutions, as for instance, the Fh8 fusion tag that has been recently studied and ranked among the best solubility enhancer partners. In this review, we provide an overview of current strategies to improve recombinant protein production in E. coli, including the key factors for successful protein production, highlighting soluble protein production, and a comprehensive summary of the latest available and traditionally-used gene fusion technologies. A special emphasis is given to the recently discovered Fh8 fusion system that can be used for soluble protein production, purification and immunogenicity in E. coli. The number of existing fusion tags will probably increase in the next few years, and efforts should be taken to better understand how fusion tags act in E. coli. This knowledge will undoubtedly drive the development of new tailored-made tools for protein production in this bacterial system.

  20. Purification, characterization, and cloning of a bifunctional molybdoenzyme with hydratase and alcohol dehydrogenase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, J.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Pinkse, M.W.H.; Hanefeld, U.

    2010-01-01

    A bifunctional hydratase/alcohol dehydrogenase was isolated from the cyclohexanol degrading bacterium Alicycliphilus denitrificans DSMZ 14773. The enzyme catalyzes the addition of water to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and the subsequent alcohol oxidation. The purified enzyme showed three

  1. Purification, characterization, and cloning of a bifunctional molybdoenzyme with hydratase and alcohol dehydrogenase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, J.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Pinkse, M.W.H.; Hanefeld, U.

    2010-01-01

    A bifunctional hydratase/alcohol dehydrogenase was isolated from the cyclohexanol degrading bacterium Alicycliphilus denitrificans DSMZ 14773. The enzyme catalyzes the addition of water to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and the subsequent alcohol oxidation. The purified enzyme showed three subun

  2. An Arabidopsis Class Ⅱ Formin, AtFH19, Nucleates Actin Assembly, Binds to the Barbed End of Actin Filaments, and Antagonizes the Effect of AtFH1 on Actin Dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiyan Zheng; Haibo Xin; Jinxing Lin; Chun-Ming Liu; Shanjin Huang

    2012-01-01

    Formin is a major protein responsible for regulating the nucleation of actin filaments,and as such,it permits the cell to control where and when to assemble actin arrays.It is encoded by a multigene family comprising 21 members in Arabidopsis thaliana.The Arabidopsis formins can be separated into two phylogenetically-distinct classes:there are 11 class Ⅰ formins and 10 class Ⅱ formins.Significant questions remain unanswered regarding the molecular mechanism of actin nucleation and elongation stimulated by each formin isovariant,and how the different isovariants coordinate to regulate actin dynamics in cells.Here,we characterize a class Ⅱ formin,AtFH19,biochemically.We found that AtFH19 retains all general properties of the formin family,including nucleation and barbed end capping activity.It can also generate actin filaments from a pool of actin monomers bound to profilin.However,both the nucleation and barbed end capping activities of AtFH19 are less efficient compared to those of another well-characterized formin,AtFH1.Interestingly,AtFH19 FH1FH2 competes with AtFH1 FH1FH2 in binding actin filament barbed ends,and inhibits the effect of AtFH1 FH1FH2 on actin.We thus propose a mechanism in which two quantitatively different formins coordinate to regulate actin dynamics by competing for actin filament barbed ends.

  3. [Effects of nitriles and amides on the growth and the nitrile hydratase activity of the Rhodococcus sp. strain gt1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, A Iu; Kuznetsova, M V; Ovechkina, G V; Kozlov, S V; Maksimova, Iu G; Demakov, V A

    2003-01-01

    Effects of some nitriles and amides, as well as glucose and ammonium, on the growth and the nitrile hydratase (EC 4.2.1.84) activity of the Rhodococcus sp. strain gt1 isolated from soil were studied. The activity of nitrile hydratase mainly depended on carbon and nitrogen supply to cells. The activity of nitrile hydratase was high in the presence of glucose and ammonium at medium concentrations and decreased at concentrations of glucose more than 0.3%. Saturated unsubstituted aliphatic nitriles and amides were found to be a good source of nitrogen and carbon. However, the presence of nitriles and amides in the medium was not absolutely necessary for the expression of the activity of nitrile hydratase isolated from the Rhodococcus sp. strain gt1.

  4. Integrated guidance on the care of familial hypercholesterolaemia from the International FH Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Gerald F; Gidding, Samuel; Wierzbicki, Anthony S; Toth, Peter P; Alonso, Rodrigo; Brown, W Virgil; Bruckert, Eric; Defesche, Joep; Lin, Khoo Kah; Livingston, Michael; Mata, Pedro; Parhofer, Klaus G; Raal, Frederick J; Santos, Raul D; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Simpson, William G; Sullivan, David R; Susekov, Andrey V; Tomlinson, Brian; Wiegman, Albert; Yamashita, Shizuya; Kastelein, John J P

    2015-07-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a dominantly inherited disorder present from birth that markedly elevates plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and causes premature coronary heart disease. There are at least 20 million people with FH worldwide, but the majority remains undetected and current treatment is often suboptimal.To address this major gap in coronary prevention we present, from an international perspective, consensus-based guidance on the care of FH. The guidance was generated from seminars and workshops held at an international symposium. The recommendations focus on the detection, diagnosis, assessment and management of FH in adults and children, and set guidelines for clinical purposes. They also refer to best practice for cascade screening and risk notifying and testing families for FH, including use of genetic testing. Guidance on treatment is based on risk stratification, management of non-cholesterol risk factors and safe and effective use of LDL lowering therapies. Recommendations are given on lipoprotein apheresis. The use of emerging therapies for FH is also foreshadowed.This international guidance acknowledges evidence gaps, but aims to make the best use of contemporary practice and technology to achieve the best outcomes for the care of FH. It should accordingly be employed to inform clinical judgment and be adjusted for country-specific and local healthcare needs and resources.

  5. Integrated guidance on the care of familial hypercholesterolemia from the International FH Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Gerald F; Gidding, Samuel; Wierzbicki, Anthony S; Toth, Peter P; Alonso, Rodrigo; Brown, W Virgil; Bruckert, Eric; Defesche, Joep; Lin, Khoo Kah; Livingston, Michael; Mata, Pedro; Parhofer, Klaus G; Raal, Frederick J; Santos, Raul D; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Simpson, William G; Sullivan, David R; Susekov, Andrey V; Tomlinson, Brian; Wiegman, Albert; Yamashita, Shizuya; Kastelein, John J P

    2014-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a dominantly inherited disorder present from birth that markedly elevates plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and causes premature coronary heart disease. There are at least 20 million people with FH worldwide, but the majority remains undetected, and current treatment is often suboptimal. To address this major gap in coronary prevention we present, from an international perspective, consensus-based guidance on the care of FH. The guidance was generated from seminars and workshops held at an international symposium. The recommendations focus on the detection, diagnosis, assessment, and management of FH in adults and children and set guidelines for clinical purposes. They also refer to best practice for cascade screening and risk notifying and testing families for FH, including use of genetic testing. Guidance on treatment is based on risk stratification, management of noncholesterol risk factors, and the safe and effective use of low-density lipoprotein-lowering therapies. Recommendations are given on lipoprotein apheresis. The use of emerging therapies for FH is also foreshadowed. This international guidance acknowledges evidence gaps but aims to make the best use of contemporary practice and technology to achieve the best outcomes for the care of FH. It should accordingly be used to inform clinical judgment and be adjusted for country-specific and local healthcare needs and resources.

  6. The bacterial catabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Characterization of three hydratase-aldolase-catalyzed reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake A. LeVieux

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are highly toxic, pervasive environmental pollutants with mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic properties. There is interest in exploiting the nutritional capabilities of microbes to remove PAHs from various environments including those impacted by improper disposal or spills. Although there is a considerable body of literature on PAH degradation, the substrates and products for many of the enzymes have never been identified and many proposed activities have never been confirmed. This is particularly true for high molecular weight PAHs (e.g., phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. As a result, pathways for the degradation of these compounds are proposed to follow one elucidated for naphthalene with limited experimental verification. In this pathway, ring fission produces a species that can undergo a non-enzymatic cyclization reaction. An isomerase opens the ring and catalyzes a cis to trans double bond isomerization. The resulting product is the substrate for a hydratase-aldolase, which catalyzes the addition of water to the double bond of an α,β-unsaturated ketone, followed by a retro-aldol cleavage. Initial kinetic and mechanistic studies of the hydratase-aldolase in the naphthalene pathway (designated NahE and two hydratase-aldolases in the phenanthrene pathway (PhdG and PhdJ have been completed. Crystallographic work on two of the enzymes (NahE and PhdJ provides a rudimentary picture of the mechanism and a platform for future work to identify the structural basis for catalysis and the individual specificities of these hydratase-aldolases.

  7. An Aeroplysinin-1 Specific Nitrile Hydratase Isolated from the Marine Sponge Aplysina cavernicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Proksch

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A nitrile hydratase (NHase that specifically accepts the nitrile aeroplysinin-1 (1 as a substrate and converts it into the dienone amide verongiaquinol (7 was isolated, partially purified and characterized from the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina cavernicola; although it is currently not known whether the enzyme is of sponge origin or produced by its symbiotic microorganisms. The formation of aeroplysinin-1 and of the corresponding dienone amide is part of the chemical defence system of A. cavernicola. The latter two compounds that show strong antibiotic activity originate from brominated isoxazoline alkaloids that are thought to protect the sponges from invasion of bacterial pathogens. The sponge was shown to contain at least two NHases as two excised protein bands from a non denaturating Blue Native gel showed nitrile hydratase activity, which was not observed for control samples. The enzymes were shown to be manganese dependent, although cobalt and nickel ions were also able to recover the activity of the nitrile hydratases. The temperature and pH optimum of the studied enzymes were found at 41 °C and pH 7.8. The enzymes showed high substrate specificity towards the physiological substrate aeroplysinin-1 (1 since none of the substrate analogues that were prepared either by partial or by total synthesis were converted in an in vitro assay. Moreover de-novo sequencing by mass spectrometry was employed to obtain information about the primary structure of the studied NHases, which did not reveal any homology to known NHases.

  8. An Aeroplysinin-1 Specific Nitrile Hydratase Isolated from the Marine Sponge Aplysina cavernicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowicz, Bartosz; Hanekop, Nils; Schmitt, Lutz; Proksch, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A nitrile hydratase (NHase) that specifically accepts the nitrile aeroplysinin-1 (1) as a substrate and converts it into the dienone amide verongiaquinol (7) was isolated, partially purified and characterized from the Mediterranean sponge Aplysina cavernicola; although it is currently not known whether the enzyme is of sponge origin or produced by its symbiotic microorganisms. The formation of aeroplysinin-1 and of the corresponding dienone amide is part of the chemical defence system of A. cavernicola. The latter two compounds that show strong antibiotic activity originate from brominated isoxazoline alkaloids that are thought to protect the sponges from invasion of bacterial pathogens. The sponge was shown to contain at least two NHases as two excised protein bands from a non denaturating Blue Native gel showed nitrile hydratase activity, which was not observed for control samples. The enzymes were shown to be manganese dependent, although cobalt and nickel ions were also able to recover the activity of the nitrile hydratases. The temperature and pH optimum of the studied enzymes were found at 41 °C and pH 7.8. The enzymes showed high substrate specificity towards the physiological substrate aeroplysinin-1 (1) since none of the substrate analogues that were prepared either by partial or by total synthesis were converted in an in vitro assay. Moreover de-novo sequencing by mass spectrometry was employed to obtain information about the primary structure of the studied NHases, which did not reveal any homology to known NHases. PMID:23966036

  9. Ferrous and ferric ions-based high-throughput screening strategy for nitrile hydratase and amidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhi-Jian; Zheng, Ren-Chao; Lei, Li-Hua; Zheng, Yu-Guo; Shen, Yin-Chu

    2011-06-01

    Rapid and direct screening of nitrile-converting enzymes is of great importance in the development of industrial biocatalytic process for pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals. In this paper, a combination of ferrous and ferric ions was used to establish a novel colorimetric screening method for nitrile hydratase and amidase with α-amino nitriles and α-amino amides as substrates, respectively. Ferrous and ferric ions reacted sequentially with the cyanide dissociated spontaneously from α-amino nitrile solution, forming a characteristic deep blue precipitate. They were also sensitive to weak basicity due to the presence of amino amide, resulting in a yellow precipitate. When amino amide was further hydrolyzed to amino acid, it gave a light yellow solution. Mechanisms of color changes were further proposed. Using this method, two isolates with nitrile hydratase activity towards 2-amino-2,3-dimethyl butyronitrile, one strain capable of hydrating 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethyl phosphiny) butyronitrile and another microbe exhibiting amidase activity against 2-amino-4-methylsulfanyl butyrlamide were obtained from soil samples and culture collections of our laboratory. Versatility of this method enabled it the first direct and inexpensive high-throughput screening system for both nitrile hydratase and amidase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer presenting as metastatic kidney cancer at 18 years of age : implications for surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Spaendonck-Zwarts, Karin Y.; Badeloe, Sadhanna; Oosting, Sjoukje F.; Hovenga, Sjoerd; Semmelink, Harry J. F.; van Moorselaar, R. Jeroen A.; van Waesberghe, Jan Hein; Mensenkamp, Arjen R.; Menko, Fred H.

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skin piloleiomyomas, uterine leiomyomas and papillary type 2 renal cancer caused by germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Previously, we proposed renal imaging for FH mutation

  11. Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer presenting as metastatic kidney cancer at 18 years of age: implications for surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaendonck-Zwarts, K.Y. van; Badeloe, S.; Oosting, S.F.; Hovenga, S.; Semmelink, H.J.; Moorselaar, R.J. van; Waesberghe, J.H. van; Mensenkamp, A.R.; Menko, F.H.

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer (HLRCC) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by skin piloleiomyomas, uterine leiomyomas and papillary type 2 renal cancer caused by germline mutations in the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Previously, we proposed renal imaging for FH mutation

  12. Interaction of formin FH2 with skeletal muscle actin. EPR and DSC studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupi, Tünde; Gróf, Pál; Nyitrai, Miklós; Belágyi, József

    2013-10-01

    Formins are highly conserved proteins that are essential in the formation and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. The formin homology 2 (FH2) domain is responsible for actin binding and acts as an important nucleating factor in eukaryotic cells. In this work EPR and DSC were used to investigate the properties of the mDia1-FH2 formin fragment and its interaction with actin. MDia1-FH2 was labeled with a maleimide spin probe (MSL). EPR results suggested that the MSL was attached to a single SH group in the FH2. In DSC and temperature-dependent EPR experiments we observed that mDia1-FH2 has a flexible structure and observed a major temperature-induced conformational change at 41 °C. The results also confirmed the previous observation obtained by fluorescence methods that formin binding can destabilize the structure of actin filaments. In the EPR experiments the intermolecular connection between the monomers of formin dimers proved to be flexible. Considering the complex molecular mechanisms underlying the cellular roles of formins this internal flexibility of the dimers is probably important for manifestation of their biological functions.

  13. Proteomic analysis of Fasciola hepatica excretory and secretory products (FhESPs) involved in interacting with host PBMCs and cytokines by shotgun LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Huang, Si-Yang; Yue, Dong-Mei; Wang, Jin-Lei; Wang, Yujian; Li, Xiangrui; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2017-02-01

    Fasciola hepatica is a helminth parasite with a worldwide distribution, which can cause chronic liver disease, fasciolosis, leading to economic losses in the livestock and public health in many countries. Control is mostly reliant on the use of drugs, and as a result, drug resistance has now emerged. The identification of F. hepatica genes involved in interaction between the parasite and host immune system is utmost important to elucidate the evasion mechanisms of the parasite and develop more effective strategies against fasciolosis. In this study, we aimed to identify molecules in F. hepatica excretory and secretory products (FhESPs) interacting with the host peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), Th1-like cytokines (IL2 and IFN-γ), and Th17-like cytokines (IL17) by Co-IP combined with tandem mass spectrometry. The results showed that 14, 16, and 9 proteins in FhESPs could bind with IL2, IL17, and IFN-γ, respectively, which indicated that adult F. hepatica may evade the host immune responses through directly interplaying with cytokines. In addition, nine proteins in FhESPs could adhere to PBMCs. Our findings provided potential targets as immuno-regulators, and will be helpful to elucidate the molecular basis of host-parasite interactions and search for new potential proteins as vaccine and drug target candidates.

  14. Dynamical resonance in F+H2 chemical reaction and rotational excitation effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XueMing; XIE DaiQian; ZHANG DongHui

    2007-01-01

    Reaction resonance is a frontier topic in chemical dynamics research, and it is also essential to the understanding of mechanisms of elementary chemical reactions. This short article describes an important development in the frontier of research. Experimental evidence of reaction resonance has been detected in a full quantum state resolved reactive scattering study of the F+H2 reaction. Highly accurate full quantum scattering theoretical modeling shows that the reaction resonance is caused by two Feshbach resonance states. Further studies show that quantum interference is present between the two resonance states for the forward scattering product. This study is a significant step forward in our understanding of chemical reaction resonance in the benchmark F+H2 system. Further experimental studies on the effect of H2 rotational excitation on dynamical resonance have been carried out. Dynamical resonance in the F+H2 (j = 1) reaction has also been observed.

  15. 3-Methylglutaconyl-Coenzyme-A Hydratase Deficiency and the Development of Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spergel, Craig D.; Milko, Mariya; Edwards, Christopher; Steinhoff, Jeff P.

    2014-01-01

    A 25-year-old Canadian male with a history of 3-methylglutaconyl-coenzyme-A hydratase deficiency, also known as 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type I, a very rare inborn error of metabolism, presented with respiratory distress, nausea, vomiting and signs of multisystem organ failure due to a suspected underlying infectious process. An electrocardiogram revealed bilateral atrial enlargement and an elevated brain natriuretic peptide on the initial laboratory studies, which prompted a more thorough cardiac workup. The transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a dilated cardiomyopathy with severe systolic dysfunction. The deficient enzyme present in this patient is involved in the pathway of leucine catabolism and is particularly important in various tissues for energy production and sterol synthesis. The dilated cardiomyopathy in this patient possibly had a variety of potential mechanisms including: a mitochondrial myopathy due to the deficiency of this enzyme leading to a defect in energy production inside cardiac myocytes; or a direct toxicity from 3-methylglutaconic acid (3-MGA) and its toxic metabolites; or a cardiac dysfunction due to a variety of other potential mechanisms. In conclusion, this patient’s clinical presentation suggested that 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency could cause a severe dilated cardiomyopathy and heart failure.

  16. 4-Oxalocrotonate tautomerase, its homologue YwhB, and active vinylpyruvate hydratase : Synthesis and evaluation of 2-fluoro substrate analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, William H; Wang, Susan C; Stanley, Thanuja M; Czerwinski, Robert M; Almrud, Jeffrey J; Poelarends, Gerrit J; Murzin, Alexey G; Whitman, Christian P

    2004-01-01

    A series of 2-fluoro-4-alkene and 2-fluoro-4-alkyne substrate analogues were synthesized and examined as potential inhibitors of three enzymes: 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) and vinylpyruvate hydratase (VPH) from the catechol meta-fission pathway and a closely related 4-OT homologue found in B

  17. 4-Oxalocrotonate tautomerase, its homologue YwhB, and active vinylpyruvate hydratase : Synthesis and evaluation of 2-fluoro substrate analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, William H; Wang, Susan C; Stanley, Thanuja M; Czerwinski, Robert M; Almrud, Jeffrey J; Poelarends, Gerrit J; Murzin, Alexey G; Whitman, Christian P

    2004-01-01

    A series of 2-fluoro-4-alkene and 2-fluoro-4-alkyne substrate analogues were synthesized and examined as potential inhibitors of three enzymes: 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) and vinylpyruvate hydratase (VPH) from the catechol meta-fission pathway and a closely related 4-OT homologue found in B

  18. 2-haloacrylate hydratase, a new class of flavoenzyme that catalyzes the addition of water to the substrate for dehalogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowafy, Amr M; Kurihara, Tatsuo; Kurata, Atsushi; Uemura, Tadashi; Esaki, Nobuyoshi

    2010-09-01

    Enzymes catalyzing the conversion of organohalogen compounds are useful in the chemical industry and environmental technology. Here we report the occurrence of a new reduced flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) (FADH(2))-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the removal of a halogen atom from an unsaturated aliphatic organohalogen compound by the addition of a water molecule to the substrate. A soil bacterium, Pseudomonas sp. strain YL, inducibly produced a protein named Caa67(YL) when the cells were grown on 2-chloroacrylate (2-CAA). The caa67(YL) gene encoded a protein of 547 amino acid residues (M(r) of 59,301), which shared weak but significant sequence similarity with various flavoenzymes and contained a nucleotide-binding motif. We found that 2-CAA is converted into pyruvate when the reaction was carried out with purified Caa67(YL) in the presence of FAD and a reducing agent [NAD(P)H or sodium dithionite] under anaerobic conditions. The reducing agent was not stoichiometrically consumed during this reaction, suggesting that FADH(2) is conserved by regeneration in the catalytic cycle. When the reaction was carried out in the presence of H(2)(18)O, [(18)O]pyruvate was produced. These results indicate that Caa67(YL) catalyzes the hydration of 2-CAA to form 2-chloro-2-hydroxypropionate, which is chemically unstable and probably spontaneously dechlorinated to form pyruvate. 2-Bromoacrylate, but not other 2-CAA analogs such as acrylate and methacrylate, served as the substrate of Caa67(YL). Thus, we named this new enzyme 2-haloacrylate hydratase. The enzyme is very unusual in that it requires the reduced form of FAD for hydration, which involves no net change in the redox state of the coenzyme or substrate.

  19. Structure reveals regulatory mechanisms of a MaoC-like hydratase from Phytophthora capsici involved in biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huizheng Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs have attracted increasing attention as "green plastic" due to their biodegradable, biocompatible, thermoplastic, and mechanical properties, and considerable research has been undertaken to develop low cost/high efficiency processes for the production of PHAs. MaoC-like hydratase (MaoC, which belongs to (R-hydratase involved in linking the β-oxidation and the PHA biosynthetic pathways, has been identified recently. Understanding the regulatory mechanisms of (R-hydratase catalysis is critical for efficient production of PHAs that promise synthesis an environment-friendly plastic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have determined the crystal structure of a new MaoC recognized from Phytophthora capsici. The crystal structure of the enzyme was solved at 2.00 Å resolution. The structure shows that MaoC has a canonical (R-hydratase fold with an N-domain and a C-domain. Supporting its dimerization observed in structure, MaoC forms a stable homodimer in solution. Mutations that disrupt the dimeric MaoC result in a complete loss of activity toward crotonyl-CoA, indicating that dimerization is required for the enzymatic activity of MaoC. Importantly, structure comparison reveals that a loop unique to MaoC interacts with an α-helix that harbors the catalytic residues of MaoC. Deletion of the loop enhances the enzymatic activity of MaoC, suggesting its inhibitory role in regulating the activity of MaoC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data in our study reveal the regulatory mechanism of an (R-hydratase, providing information on enzyme engineering to produce low cost PHAs.

  20. LR11/SorLA links triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to risk of developing cardiovascular disease in FH patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vongpromek, Ranitha; Bujo, Hideaki; Hoekstra, Menno; Schneider, Wolfgang J.; van der Zee, Leonie; Schinkel, Arend F.L.; Korporaal, Suzanne J; Dik, Willem A.; Ebinuma, Hiroyuki; Jiang, Meizi; Verhoeven, Adrie J.M.; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Mulder, Monique T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, whether an individual heterozygous FH patient will develop CVD depends on other genetic- and environmental risk factors as well. LDL receptor-related protein with 11 ligand

  1. Class FH sunflower seeds (Helianthus annuus) as an energy/protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The digestible energy (DE) content of milled and whole class FH sunflower seed (SS) was determined in a digestion trial and ... that SS can be used effectively as a protein/energy source in diets for early weaned piglets. ..... Supplement 4.

  2. A qualitative study of patients' perceptions of the value of molecular diagnosis for familial hypercholesterolemia (FH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallowell, Nina; Jenkins, Nicholas; Douglas, Margaret; Walker, Simon; Finnie, Robert; Porteous, Mary; Lawton, Julia

    2017-01-01

    For many years, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), an inherited disorder, has been diagnosed using phenotypic features plus family history of early onset cardiovascular disease (CVD), and has been successfully treated using statin therapy. DNA testing is now available and this has been incorporated into familial cascade screening programmes in many parts of Europe. Little is known about patients' perceptions of the value of undergoing molecular diagnosis for FH. In-depth interviews were carried out with patients (n = 38) being treated for FH who were the first in their family to undergo DNA testing for FH. Data were analysed thematically. While interviewees regarded DNA testing as an unexceptional event, it was seen as a positive innovation because it confirmed that their family carried a particular disorder, offered an aetiological explanation for their hypercholesterolemia and provided information about their own and family members' future risks. From the patient perspective, the main benefit of molecular diagnosis lies in its ability to provide information which allows (younger) family members to access genetic screening and, thus, timely treatment. The implications for future developments in genetic services and the need to investigate further the provision of molecular testing in mainstream specialties are briefly discussed.

  3. Nitrile Hydratase and Amidase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous Hydrolyze Acrylic Fibers and Granular Polyacrylonitriles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauber, M. M.; Cavaco-Paulo, A.; Robra, K.-H.; Gübitz, G. M.

    2000-01-01

    Rhodococcus rhodochrous NCIMB 11216 produced nitrile hydratase (320 nkat mg of protein−1) and amidase activity (38.4 nkat mg of protein−1) when grown on a medium containing propionitrile. These enzymes were able to hydrolyze nitrile groups of both granular polyacrylonitriles (PAN) and acrylic fibers. Nitrile groups of PAN40 (molecular mass, 40 kDa) and PAN190 (molecular mass, 190 kDa) were converted into the corresponding carbonic acids to 1.8 and 1.0%, respectively. In contrast, surfacial nitrile groups of acrylic fibers were only converted to the corresponding amides. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed that 16% of the surfacial nitrile groups were hydrolyzed by the R. rhodochrous enzymes. Due to the enzymatic modification, the acrylic fibers became more hydrophilic and thus, adsorption of dyes was enhanced. This was indicated by a 15% increase in the staining level (K/S value) for C.I. Basic Blue 9. PMID:10742253

  4. Biological characteristics and the application in pharmacology study of FH/ Wjd rats%FH/Wjd大鼠的生物学特性及其在药理学研究中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李语玲; 梁建辉

    2012-01-01

    The Fawn-Hooded (FH/Wjd) rat is one of the FH inbred strain. Considered as an ideal animal model for the study of heavy drinking, the FH/Wjd rats exhibit several characteristics , including excessive voluntary intake of alcohol (>5g· kg-1 · d ) , high preference to ethanol ( >65% ) , significant alcohol deprivation reaction, as well as easily established operational self-αdministration drinking behavior. Furthermore, the hypo-function of 5-HT in the central nervous system makes the FH/Wjd rats behave quite specially in animal behavioral tests . For example, the FH/Wjd rats show noticeable immobility in the forced swimming test, similar to features in the depression ani -mal model. Thus, the FH/Wjd rats can serve as an animal model for studies on depression.%Fawn-Hooded(FH/Wjd)大鼠是一种近交系大鼠,属于 FH大鼠中的一个亚系,具备饮酒量大(>5g·kg-1·d-1)和酒精偏爱度高(>65%)的特点,存在明显的酒精剥夺效 应,并可在短期内建立操作性自身饮酒行为,是一种理想的先天性嗜酒动物模型.此外,FH/Wjd大鼠中枢神经系统5-羟色胺(5-hydroxytryptamine,5-HT)功能低下,在强迫游泳实验中,FH/Wjd大鼠的行为绝望表现明显.因此,可以作为研究抑郁症的动物模型.

  5. AtFH8 Is Involved in Root Development under Effect of Low-Dose Latrunculin B in Dividing Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-Hua Xue; Chun-Qing Guo; Fei Du; Quan-Long Lu; Chuan-Mao Zhang; Hai-Yun Ren

    2011-01-01

    Formins have been paid much attention for their potent nucleating activity. However,the connection between the in vivo functions of AtFHs (Arabidopsis thaliana formin homologs) and their effects on actin organization is poorly understood. In this study,we characterized the bundling activity of AtFH8 in vitro and in vivo. Biochemical analysis showed that AtFH8(FH1FH2) could form dimers and bundle preformed actin filaments or induce stellar structures during actin polymerization. Expression of truncated forms of AtFH8 and immunolocalization analysis showed that AtFH8 localized primarily to nuclear envelope in interphase and to the new cell wall after cytokinesis,depending primarily on its N-terminal transmembrane domain. GUS histochemical staining showed AtFH8 was predominantly expressed in Arabidopsis root meristem,vasculature,and outgrowth points of lateral roots. The primary root growth and lateral root initiation of atfh8 could be decreased by latrunculin B (LatB). Analysis of the number of dividing cells in Arabidopsis root tips showed that much fewer dividing cells in Lat B-treated atfh8 plants than wild-type plants,which indicates that AtFH8 was involved in cell division. Actin cytoskeleton in root meristem of atfh8-1 was more sensitive to LatB treatment than that of wild-type. Altogether,our results indicate that AtFH8 is an actin filament nucleator and bundler that functions in cell division and root development.

  6. Familial Hypercholesterolemia: The Lipids or the Genes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemer Georges M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH is a common cause of premature cardiovascular disease and is often undiagnosed in young people. Although the disease is diagnosed clinically by high LDL cholesterol levels and family history, to date there are no single internationally accepted criteria for the diagnosis of FH. Several genes have been shown to be involved in FH; yet determining the implications of the different mutations on the phenotype remains a hard task. The polygenetic nature of FH is being enhanced by the discovery of new genes that serve as modifiers. Nevertheless, the picture is still unclear and many unknown genes contributing to the phenotype are most likely involved. Because of this evolving polygenetic nature, the diagnosis of FH by genetic testing is hampered by its cost and effectiveness. In this review, we reconsider the clinical versus genetic nomenclature of FH in the literature. After we describe each of the genetic causes of FH, we summarize the known correlation with phenotypic measures so far for each genetic defect. We then discuss studies from different populations on the genetic and clinical diagnoses of FH to draw helpful conclusions on cost-effectiveness and suggestions for diagnosis.

  7. Heterologous expression, purification, and enzymatic characterization of the acyclic carotenoid 1,2-hydratase from Rubrivivax gelatinosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Sabine; Mazet, Andreas; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2003-06-01

    The carotenoid 1,2-hydratase CrtC from Rubrivivax gelatinosus has been expressed in Escherichia coli in an active form and purified by affinity chromatography. The enzyme catalyzes the conversion of various acyclic carotenes including 1-hydroxy derivatives. This broad substrate specificity reflects the participation of CrtC in 1'-HO-spheroidene and in spirilloxanthin biosynthesis. Enzyme kinetic studies including the determination of substrate specificity constants indicate that among the alternative biosynthetic routes to 1'-HO-spheroidene the one via spheroidene is the dominating pathway. In contrast to CrtC from Rvi. gelatinosus, the equivalent enzyme from Rhodobacter capsulatus, a closely related bacterium which lacks the biosynthetic branch to spirilloxanthin and accumulates spheroidene instead of substantial amounts of 1'-HO-spheroidene, is extremely poor in converting 1-HO-carotenoids. The individual catalytic properties of both carotenoid 1,2-hydratases reflect the in situ carotenogenic pathways in both purple photosynthetic bacteria.

  8. Ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces of the F(-)(H2O) complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarchik, Eugene; Toffoli, Daniele; Christiansen, Ove; Bowman, Joel M

    2014-02-05

    We present full-dimensional, ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces for the F(-)(H2O) complex. The potential surface is a permutationally invariant fit to 16,114 coupled-cluster single double (triple)/aVTZ energies, while the dipole surface is a covariant fit to 11,395 CCSD(T)/aVTZ dipole moments. Vibrational self-consistent field/vibrational configuration interaction (VSCF/VCI) calculations of energies and the IR-spectrum are presented both for F(-)(H2O) and for the deuterated analog, F(-)(D2O). A one-dimensional calculation of the splitting of the ground state, due to equivalent double-well global minima, is also reported.

  9. Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH in Germany: an epidemiological survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walzer S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available S Walzer,1 K Travers,2 S Rieder,3 E Erazo-Fischer,3 D Matusiewicz41MArS Market Access and Pricing Strategy UG (hb, Weil am Rhein, Germany; 2United Biosource Corporation, Lexington, USA; 3Alcimed GmbH, Cologne, Germany; 4Institute for Health Care Management and Research, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, GermanyIntroduction: In Europe a disease is recognized as rare if less than 1 in 2000 people suffer from the specific disease. In patients with familial homozygous hypercholesterolemia (HoFH the accumulation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C leads to generalized atherosclerosis due to an insufficient functioning of the LDL-C receptors. Patients die early sometimes even in the mid-30s, from myocardial infarction or stroke. For the German population, insufficient epidemiological evidence exists.Methods: A systematic literature search in EMBASE and Medline was performed in conjunction with a targeted manual search for epidemiological HoFH studies. Additionally a nationwide survey was conducted in Germany in all identified apheresis- and lipid centers. The purpose of the survey was the validation of the systematic literature search results based on empirical (practice data.Results: In total 961 publications were found, 874 were excluded based on pre-defined exclusion criteria leaving only 87 for further review. After review of the identified abstracts (n = 87 23 publications were identified as epidemiological studies. Only one publication was found which reported a prevalence of 1:1,000,000. The qualitative survey among 187 physicians in Germany also revealed a low prevalence: 95 HoFH patients were identified in 35 centers.Conclusion: The estimated frequency of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia patients in Germany is around 95 (1:860,000 and the disease should be recognized as rare according to the definition of the European Medical Agency.Keywords: epidemiology, homozygous

  10. Performance Analysis of Wireless Mobile Radio Hybrid(DS/FH) Spread Spectrum Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余晓刚; 王华; 匡镜明

    2004-01-01

    By the flexible redefinition of frequency-occupation and frequency-collision event, the frequency-collision probability of hybrid(DS/FH) spread spectrum network is analyzed. This probability is based on the simultaneous transmission number threshold and is discussed in synchronous and asynchronous circumstances respectively. And then, the network throughput based on the packet correct reception probability is analyzed. Two models which have finite and infinite population respectively is discussed. At last, the numerical results are given.

  11. Functional characterization of a fatty acid double-bond hydratase from Lactobacillus plantarum and its interaction with biosynthetic membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Anaya, Joana; Hernández-Santoyo, Alejandra

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogenation of linoleic acid and other polyunsaturated fatty acids is a detoxification mechanism that is present in the Lactobacillus genus of lactic bacteria. The first stage in this multi-step process is hydration of the substrate with formation of 10-hydroxy-9-cis-octadecenoic acid due to fatty-acid hydratase activity that has been detected only in the membrane-associated cell fraction; however, its interaction with the cell membrane is unknown. To provide information in this respect we characterized the homotrimeric 64.7 kDa-native protein from Lactobacillus plantarum; afterwards, it was reconstituted in proteoliposomes and analyzed by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The results showed that hydratase is an extrinsic-membrane protein and hence, the enzymatic reaction occurs at the periphery of the cell. This location may be advantageous in the detoxifying process since the toxic linoleic acid molecule can be bound to hydratase and converted to non-toxic 10-hydroxy-9-cis-octadecenoic acid before it reaches cell membrane. Additionally, we propose that the interaction with membrane periphery occurs through electrostatic contacts. Finally, the structural model of L. plantarum hydratase was constructed based on the amino acid sequence and hence, the putative binding sites with linoleic acid were identified: site 1, located in an external hydrophobic pocket at the C-terminus of the protein and site 2, located at the core and in contact with a FAD molecule. Interestingly, it was found that the linoleic acid molecule arranges around a methionine residue in both sites (Met154 and Met81, respectively) that acts as a rigid pole, thus playing a key role in binding unsaturated fatty acids.

  12. Fire Hydrants, FH valve, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Box Elder County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Fire Hydrants dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'FH valve'....

  13. The Fe-type nitrile hydratase from Comamonas testosteroni Ni1 does not require an activator accessory protein for expression in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Misty L; Martinez, Salette; Gumataotao, Natalie; Bornscheuer, Uwe; Liu, Dali; Holz, Richard C

    2012-08-03

    We report herein the functional expression of an Fe-type nitrile hydratase (NHase) without the co-expression of an activator protein or the Escherichia coli chaperone proteins GroES/EL. Soluble protein was obtained when the α- and β-subunit genes of the Fe-type NHase Comamonas testosteroni Ni1 (CtNHase) were synthesized with optimized E. coli codon usage and co-expressed. As a control, the Fe-type NHase from Rhodococcus equi TG328-2 (ReNHase) was expressed with (ReNHase(+Act)) and without (ReNHase(-Act)) its activator protein, establishing that expression of a fully functional, metallated ReNHase enzyme requires the co-expression of its activator protein, similar to all other Fe-type NHase enzymes reported to date, whereas the CtNHase does not. The X-ray crystal structure of CtNHase was determined to 2.4Å resolution revealing an αβ heterodimer, similar to other Fe-type NHase enzymes, except for two important differences. First, two His residues reside in the CtNHase active site that are not observed in other Fe-type NHase enzymes and second, the active site Fe(III) ion resides at the bottom of a wide solvent exposed channel. The solvent exposed active site, along with the two active site histidine residues, are hypothesized to play a role in iron incorporation in the absence of an activator protein.

  14. The Fe-type nitrile hydratase from Comamonas testosteroni Ni1 does not require an activator accessory protein for expression in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Misty L.; Martinez, Salette; Gumataotao, Natalie; Bornscheuer, Uwe; Liu, Dali; Holz, Richard C. (Loyola); (Greifswald)

    2012-10-10

    We report herein the functional expression of an Fe-type nitrile hydratase (NHase) without the co-expression of an activator protein or the Escherichia coli chaperone proteins GroES/EL. Soluble protein was obtained when the {alpha}- and {beta}-subunit genes of the Fe-type NHase Comamonas testosteroni Ni1 (CtNHase) were synthesized with optimized E. coli codon usage and co-expressed. As a control, the Fe-type NHase from Rhodococcus equi TG328-2 (ReNHase) was expressed with (ReNHase{sup +Act}) and without (ReNHase{sup -Act}) its activator protein, establishing that expression of a fully functional, metallated ReNHase enzyme requires the co-expression of its activator protein, similar to all other Fe-type NHase enzymes reported to date, whereas the CtNHase does not. The X-ray crystal structure of CtNHase was determined to 2.4 {angstrom} resolution revealing an {alpha}{beta} heterodimer, similar to other Fe-type NHase enzymes, except for two important differences. First, two His residues reside in the CtNHase active site that are not observed in other Fe-type NHase enzymes and second, the active site Fe(III) ion resides at the bottom of a wide solvent exposed channel. The solvent exposed active site, along with the two active site histidine residues, are hypothesized to play a role in iron incorporation in the absence of an activator protein.

  15. Stereochemical conversion of C3-vinyl group to 1-hydroxyethyl group in bacteriochlorophyll c by the hydratases BchF and BchV: adaptation of green sulfur bacteria to limited-light environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Jiro; Teramura, Misato; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Tsukatani, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Ken; Tamiaki, Hitoshi

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthetic green sulfur bacteria inhabit anaerobic environments with very low-light conditions. To adapt to such environments, these bacteria have evolved efficient light-harvesting antenna complexes called as chlorosomes, which comprise self-aggregated bacteriochlorophyll c in the model green sulfur, bacterium Chlorobaculum tepidum. The pigment possess a hydroxy group at the C3(1) position that produces a chiral center with R- or S-stereochemistry and the C3(1) -hydroxy group serves as a connecting moiety for the self-aggregation. Chlorobaculum tepidum carries the two possible homologous genes for C3-vinyl hydratase, bchF and bchV. In the present study, we constructed deletion mutants of each of these genes. Pigment analyses of the bchF-inactivated mutant, which still has BchV as a sole hydratase, showed higher ratios of S-epimeric bacteriochlorophyll c than the wild-type strain. The heightened prevalence of S-stereoisomers in the mutant was more remarkable at lower light intensities and caused a red shift of the chlorosomal Qy absorption band leading to advantages for light-energy transfer. In contrast, the bchV-mutant possessing only BchF showed a significant decrease of the S-epimers and accumulations of C3-vinyl BChl c species. As trans- criptional level of bchV was upregulated at lower light intensity, the Chlorobaculum tepidum adapted to low-light environments by control of the bchV transcription. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Microbiology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Cyanide hydratases and cyanide dihydratases: emerging tools in the biodegradation and biodetection of cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínková, Ludmila; Veselá, Alicja Barbara; Rinágelová, Anna; Chmátal, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to summarize the current knowledge of the enzymes which are involved in the hydrolysis of cyanide, i.e., cyanide hydratases (CHTs; EC 4.2.1.66) and cyanide dihydratases (CynD; EC 3.5.5.1). CHTs are probably exclusively produced by filamentous fungi and widely occur in these organisms; in contrast, CynDs were only found in a few bacterial genera. CHTs differ from CynDs in their reaction products (formamide vs. formic acid and ammonia, respectively). Several CHTs were also found to transform nitriles but with lower relative activities compared to HCN. Mutants of CynDs and CHTs were constructed to study the structure-activity relationships in these enzymes or to improve their catalytic properties. The effect of the C-terminal part of the protein on the enzyme activity was determined by constructing the corresponding deletion mutants. CynDs are less active at alkaline pH than CHTs. To improve its bioremediation potential, CynD from Bacillus pumilus was engineered by directed evolution combined with site-directed mutagenesis, and its operation at pH 10 was thus enabled. Some of the enzymes have been tested for their potential to eliminate cyanide from cyanide-containing wastewaters. CynDs were also used to construct cyanide biosensors.

  17. Mechanism of tungsten-dependent acetylene hydratase from quantum chemical calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Rong-Zhen; Yu, Jian-Guo; Himo, Fahmi

    2010-01-01

    Acetylene hydratase is a tungsten-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the nonredox hydration of acetylene to acetaldehyde. Density functional theory calculations are used to elucidate the reaction mechanism of this enzyme with a large model of the active site devised on the basis of the native X-ray crystal structure. Based on the calculations, we propose a new mechanism in which the acetylene substrate first displaces the W-coordinated water molecule, and then undergoes a nucleophilic attack by the water molecule assisted by an ionized Asp13 residue at the active site. This is followed by proton transfer from Asp13 to the newly formed vinyl anion intermediate. In the subsequent isomerization, Asp13 shuttles a proton from the hydroxyl group of the vinyl alcohol to the α-carbon. Asp13 is thus a key player in the mechanism, but also W is directly involved in the reaction by binding and activating acetylene and providing electrostatic stabilization to the transition states and intermediates. Several other mechanisms are also considered but the energetic barriers are found to be very high, ruling out these possibilities. PMID:21149684

  18. Discovery of acetylene hydratase activity of the iron-sulphur protein IspH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Span, Ingrid; Wang, Ke; Wang, Weixue; Zhang, Yonghui; Bacher, Adelbert; Eisenreich, Wolfgang; Li, Kai; Schulz, Charles; Oldfield, Eric; Groll, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The final step of the methylerythritol phosphate isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway is catalysed by the iron-sulphur enzyme IspH, producing the universal precursors of terpenes: isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. Here we report an unforeseen reaction discovered during the investigation of the interaction of IspH with acetylene inhibitors by X-ray crystallography, Mößbauer, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In addition to its role as a 2H(+)/2e(-) reductase, IspH can hydrate acetylenes to aldehydes and ketones via anti-Markovnikov/Markovnikov addition. The reactions only occur with the oxidised protein and proceed via η(1)-O-enolate intermediates. One of these is characterized crystallographically and contains a C4 ligand oxygen bound to the unique, fourth iron in the 4Fe-4S cluster: this intermediate subsequently hydrolyzes to produce an aldehyde product. This unexpected side to IspH reactivity is of interest in the context of the mechanism of action of other acetylene hydratases, as well as in the design of antiinfectives targeting IspH.

  19. FH Tulsa-1 and -2: Two unique alleles for familial hypercholesterolemia presenting in an affected two-year-old African-American male

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackett, P.R.; Altmiller, D.H. [Univ. of Oklahoma Health Services Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Jelley, D. [Childrens Medical Center, Tulsa, OK (United States); Wilson, D.P. [Driscoll Children`s Hospital, Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

    1995-11-20

    A two-year-old African American boy presented with cutaneous xanthomata and extreme hypercholesterolemia. Subsequent studies revealed that the LDL-cholesterol was 1,001 mg/dl and apoB 507 mg/dl. LDL-receptor activity was almost undetectable, which is compatible with the finding of two newly described defective alleles on exon 4 of the LDL-receptor gene coding for part of the ligand-binding domain. One allele contained a 21 base-pair insertion from codon 200 to 207 whereas the other had a point mutation at codon 207. The rarity of genes for FH reported in individuals of African ancestry is discussed. 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Analysis of a MULE-cyanide hydratase gene fusion in Verticillium dahliae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genome of the phytopathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae encodes numerous Class II “cut-and-paste” transposable elements, including those of a small group of MULE transposons. We have previously identified a fusion event between a MULE transposon sequence and sequence encoding a cyanide hydrata...

  1. Fault tree analysis of the F&H Canyon Exhaust Systems at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, J.M.; Marshall, K.M.

    1993-10-01

    The Canyon Exhaust System (CES) for the F&H Canyon chemical Separations Facilities are considered safety class items (SCIs). SCIs are defined in DOE Order 6430.1A as systems, components, and structures, including portions of process systems, whose failure could adversely affect the environment or safety and health of the public. As such, any modification to SCIs must be carefully reviewed for impact to safety. During the last year, the Savannah River Technology Center of WSRC has been requested to perform two major evolutions on the Canyon Exhaust Systems. These evaluations include an Upgrade to Canyon Exhaust System (UCES) Project for both F&H Areas and a Backfit analysis for a standby diesel generator in F-Area. The purpose of the first evaluation was to evaluate the impact of cost reduction options on the UCES reliability. The purpose of the second analysis was to provide justification for not upgrading an existing standby diesel generator to meet current safety class standards.

  2. The integration of cyanide hydratase and tyrosinase catalysts enables effective degradation of cyanide and phenol in coking wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínková, Ludmila; Chmátal, Martin

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to design an effective method for the bioremediation of coking wastewaters, specifically for the concurrent elimination of their highly toxic components - cyanide and phenols. Almost full degradation of free cyanide (0.32-20 mM; 8.3-520 mg L(-1)) in the model and the real coking wastewaters was achieved by using a recombinant cyanide hydratase in the first step. The removal of cyanide, a strong inhibitor of tyrosinase, enabled an effective degradation of phenols by this enzyme in the second step. Phenol (16.5 mM, 1,552 mg L(-1)) was completely removed from a real coking wastewater within 20 h and cresols (5.0 mM, 540 mg L(-1)) were removed by 66% under the same conditions. The integration of cyanide hydratase and tyrosinase open up new possibilities for the bioremediation of wastewaters with complex pollution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Enzyme-substrate binding landscapes in the process of nitrile biodegradation mediated by nitrile hydratase and amidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zeng, Zhuotong; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Xuanming; Chen, Ming; Liu, Lifeng; Liu, Zhifeng; Xie, Gengxin

    2013-08-01

    The continuing discharge of nitriles in various industrial processes has caused serious environmental consequences of nitrile pollution. Microorganisms possess several nitrile-degrading pathways by direct interactions of nitriles with nitrile-degrading enzymes. However, these interactions are largely unknown and difficult to experimentally determine but important for interpretation of nitrile metabolisms and design of nitrile-degrading enzymes with better nitrile-converting activity. Here, we undertook a molecular modeling study of enzyme-substrate binding modes in the bi-enzyme pathway for degradation of nitrile to acid. Docking results showed that the top substrates having favorable interactions with nitrile hydratase from Rhodococcus erythropolis AJ270 (ReNHase), nitrile hydratase from Pseudonocardia thermophila JCM 3095 (PtNHase), and amidase from Rhodococcus sp. N-771 (RhAmidase) were benzonitrile, 3-cyanopyridine, and L-methioninamide, respectively. We further analyzed the interactional profiles of these top poses with corresponding enzymes, showing that specific residues within the enzyme's binding pockets formed diverse contacts with substrates. This information on binding landscapes and interactional profiles is of great importance for the design of nitrile-degrading enzyme mutants with better oxidation activity toward nitriles or amides in the process of pollutant treatments.

  4. Characterization of Diverse Subvariants of the Meningococcal Factor H (fH) Binding Protein for Their Ability To Bind fH, To Mediate Serum Resistance, and To Induce Bactericidal Antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.L. Seib; B. Brunelli; B. Brogioni; E. Palumbo; S. Bambini; A. Muzzi; F. Dimarcello; S. Marchi; A. van den Ende; B. Aricó; S. Savino; M. Scarselli; M. Comanducci; R. Rappuoli; M.M. Giuliani; M. Pizza

    2011-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a commensal of the human nasopharynx but is also a major cause of septicemia and meningitis. The meningococcal factor H binding protein (fHbp) binds human factor H (fH), enabling down-regulation of complement activation on the bacterial surface. fHbp is a component of two s

  5. Characterization of a disease-causing Glu119-Lys mutation in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene in two Danish families with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, H K; Jensen, T G; Jensen, L G

    1994-01-01

    Mutations in the gene for the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL receptor) cause the autosomal dominant inherited disease familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). In 15 Danish patients with heterozygous FH we have screened exon 4 of the LDL receptor gene for point mutations and small rearrangements...

  6. Study of the Glutaminase Inhibitor CB-839 in Solid Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-18

    Solid Tumors; Triple-Negative Breast Cancer; Non Small Cell Lung Cancer; Renal Cell Carcinoma; Mesothelioma; Fumarate Hydratase (FH)-Deficient Tumors; Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH)-Deficient Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GIST); Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH)-Deficient Non-gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors; Tumors Harboring Isocitrate Dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) and IDH2 Mutations; Tumors Harboring Amplifications in the cMyc Gene

  7. LR11/SorLA links triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to risk of developing cardiovascular disease in FH patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongpromek, Ranitha; Bujo, Hideaki; Hoekstra, Menno; Schneider, Wolfgang J; van der Zee, Leonie; Schinkel, Arend F L; Korporaal, Suzanne J A; Dik, Willem A; Ebinuma, Hiroyuki; Jiang, Meizi; Verhoeven, Adrie J M; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Mulder, Monique T

    2015-12-01

    Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, whether an individual heterozygous FH patient will develop CVD depends on other genetic- and environmental risk factors as well. LDL receptor-related protein with 11 ligand binding repeat (LR11) and its soluble form (sLR11) play a role in the progression of atherosclerosis. We investigated the involvement of LR11 and sLR11 in CVD development in FH patients and in LDLR deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice. In statin-treated asymptomatic male heterozygous FH subjects, plasma sLR11 levels correlated with carotid intima-media thickness. Increased plasma sLR11 levels were found in Ldlr(-/-) and also in wild-type mice exclusively after high-fat feeding. Hepatic LR11 mRNA levels, however, were higher in chow-fed Ldlr(-/-) in comparison with wild-type mice and were further increased after a high fat diet. Similar results were obtained with Apoe(-/-) mice, but not with wild-type mice. LR11 mRNA and protein levels and release of sLR11 from cultured HepG2 and aortic smooth muscle cells were upregulated by postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRL). Overexpression of human LR11 in CHO cells resulted in increased binding and association of 12I-labeled TGRL, but not of 12I-labeled LDL. Our data strongly suggest an involvement of LR11 in mediating the harmful effects of a high-fat diet on CVD progression. Elevated sLR11 levels may increase the CVD risk especially in subjects with delayed clearance of triglyceride-rich remnants, such as in FH patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. FH-OWA Operator and Its Application in Fuzzy Multiple Attribute Decision Making%FH-OWA算子及其在模糊多属性决策中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁鑫; 裴道武

    2015-01-01

    现实中,绝大多数的决策是模糊决策,而决策结果很大程度上取决于聚合算子的选取。为了使信息聚合更加科学合理,研究了H-OWA算子(Heronian ordered weighted averaging operator)。鉴于H-OWA算子的优点和局限性,提出了基于三角模糊数的FH-OWA算子(fuzzy Heronian ordered weighted averaging operator),并研究了其幂等性、单调性、有界性及交替性。最后,将FH-OWA算子应用于模糊多属性决策中,并与原文献进行了比较和分析,结果表明FH-OWA算子在信息聚合时侧重所有决策者意见的“一致性”,而不是个别专家的权威性。%In reality, most of the decision making is fuzzy decision making, and the result depends largely on the selection of aggregation operators. In order to be more scientific and reasonable in the decision making process, this paper studies the Heronian ordered weighted averaging operator (H-OWA). In view of the advantages and limitations of H-OWA operator, this paper proposes a new fuzzy Heronian ordered weighted averaging operator (FH-OWA) based on triangle fuzzy numbers and proves its properties, such as commutativity, idempotency, boundedness and alternating. Finally, by applying the FH-OWA operator to a fuzzy multiple attribute decision making problem and compared with the original literature, the results show that the FH-OWA operator places strong emphasis on the“consistency”of all decision-makers’opinions rather than some individual experts’authority.

  9. Aldol reactions of the trans-o-hydroxybenzylidenepyruvate hydratase-aldolase (tHBP-HA) from Pseudomonas fluorescens N3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sello, Guido; Di Gennaro, Patrizia

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, a recombinant trans-o-hydroxybenzylidenepyruvate hydratase-aldolase (tHBP-HA) of Pseudomonas fluorescens N3 was used as a new catalyst for aldol condensation reactions. The reaction of some aldehydes with a different electronic activation catalyzed by tHBP-HA is presented and discussed together with some hints on the product structure. The enzyme is strictly pyruvate-dependent but uses different aldehydes as acceptors. The structure of the products is highly dependent on the electronic characteristics of the aldehyde. The results are interesting for both their synthetic importance and the mechanism of the formation of the products. Not only the products obtained and the recognition power are reported, but also some characteristics of its mechanism are analyzed. The results clearly show that the enzyme is efficiently prepared, purified, and stored, that it recognizes many different substrates, and that the products depend on the substrate electronic nature.

  10. Enzymatic hydrolysis of nitriles by an engineered nitrile hydratase (papain Gln19Glu) in aqueous-organic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versari, Andrea; Ménard, Robert; Lortie, Robert

    2002-07-05

    A mutant of the cysteine protease papain, displaying nitrile hydratase and amidase activities, was expressed in Pichia pastoris and used for the hydrolysis of peptide nitriles in aqueous-organic media. The rate of hydrolysis of these nitriles is lowered by increasing acetone concentration. This is caused by an increase of the Michaelis constant, and a variation of Vmax proportional to the amount of water in the mixture. The hydrolysis of the amide is less affected by the increase in co-solvent, which results in lower accumulation of this intermediate product. With the peptide nitrile tested, high nitrile concentrations could be used to promote the production of the amide and prevent its hydrolysis to the acid by diminishing the relative rate of amide hydrolysis. A number of non-peptidyl nitriles were also tested as potential substrates but activity was detected for only one compound with structural resemblance to peptide nitriles.

  11. The first example of a nitrile hydratase model complex that reversibly binds nitriles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jason; Jackson, Henry L; Schweitzer, Dirk; Rittenberg, Durrell K; Leavy, Tanya M; Kaminsky, Werner; Scarrow, Robert C; Kovacs, Julie A

    2002-09-25

    Nitrile hydratase (NHase) is an iron-containing metalloenzyme that converts nitriles to amides. The mechanism by which this biochemical reaction occurs is unknown. One mechanism that has been proposed involves nucleophilic attack of an Fe-bound nitrile by water (or hydroxide). Reported herein is a five-coordinate model compound ([Fe(III)(S(2)(Me2)N(3)(Et,Pr))](+)) containing Fe(III) in an environment resembling that of NHase, which reversibly binds a variety of nitriles, alcohols, amines, and thiocyanate. XAS shows that five-coordinate [Fe(III)(S(2)(Me2)N(3)(Et,Pr))](+) reacts with both methanol and acetonitrile to afford a six-coordinate solvent-bound complex. Competitive binding studies demonstrate that MeCN preferentially binds over ROH, suggesting that nitriles would be capable of displacing the H(2)O coordinated to the iron site of NHase. Thermodynamic parameters were determined for acetonitrile (DeltaH = -6.2(+/-0.2) kcal/mol, DeltaS = -29.4(+/-0.8) eu), benzonitrile (-4.2(+/-0.6) kcal/mol, DeltaS = -18(+/-3) eu), and pyridine (DeltaH = -8(+/-1) kcal/mol, DeltaS = -41(+/-6) eu) binding to [Fe(III)(S(2)(Me2)N(3)(Et,Pr))](+) using variable-temperature electronic absorption spectroscopy. Ligand exchange kinetics were examined for acetonitrile, iso-propylnitrile, benzonitrile, and 4-tert-butylpyridine using (13)C NMR line-broadening analysis, at a variety of temperatures. Activation parameters for ligand exchange were determined to be DeltaH(+ +) = 7.1(+/-0.8) kcal/mol, DeltaS(+ +) = -10(+/-1) eu (acetonitrile), DeltaH(+ +) = 5.4(+/-0.6) kcal/mol, DeltaS(+ +) = -17(+/-2) eu (iso-propionitrile), DeltaH(+ +) = 4.9(+/-0.8) kcal/mol, DeltaS(+ +) = -20(+/-3) eu (benzonitrile), and DeltaH(+ +) = 4.7(+/-1.4) kcal/mol DeltaS(+ +) = -18(+/-2) eu (4-tert-butylpyridine). The thermodynamic parameters for pyridine binding to a related complex, [Fe(III)(S(2)(Me2)N(3)(Pr,Pr))](+) (DeltaH = -5.9(+/-0.8) kcal/mol, DeltaS = -24(+/-3) eu), are also reported, as well as kinetic

  12. The First Example of a Nitrile Hydratase Model Complex that Reversibly Binds Nitriles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jason; Jackson, Henry L.; Schweitzer, Dirk; Rittenberg, Durrell K.; Leavy, Tanya M.; Kaminsky, Werner; Scarrow, Robert C.; Kovacs, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrile hydratase (NHase) is an iron-containing metalloenzyme that converts nitriles to amides. The mechanism by which this biochemical reaction occurs is unknown. One mechanism that has been proposed involves nucleophilic attack of an Fe-bound nitrile by water (or hydroxide). Reported herein is a five-coordinate model compound ([FeIII(S2Me2N3(Et,Pr))]+) containing Fe(III) in an environment resembling that of NHase, which reversibly binds a variety of nitriles, alcohols, amines, and thiocyanate. XAS shows that five-coordinate [FeIII(S2Me2N3(Et,Pr))]+ reacts with both methanol and acetonitrile to afford a six-coordinate solvent-bound complex. Competitive binding studies demonstrate that MeCN preferentially binds over ROH, suggesting that nitriles would be capable of displacing the H2O coordinated to the iron site of NHase. Thermodynamic parameters were determined for acetonitrile (ΔH = −6.2(±0.2) kcal/mol, ΔS = −29.4(±0.8) eu), benzonitrile (−4.2(±0.6) kcal/mol, ΔS = −18(±3) eu), and pyridine (ΔH = −8(±1) kcal/mol, ΔS = −41(±6) eu) binding to [FeIII(S2Me2N3(Et,Pr))]+ using variable-temperature electronic absorption spectroscopy. Ligand exchange kinetics were examined for acetonitrile, iso-propylnitrile, benzonitrile, and 4-tert-butylpyridine using 13C NMR line-broadening analysis, at a variety of temperatures. Activation parameters for ligand exchange were determined to be ΔH‡ = 7.1(±0.8) kcal/mol, ΔS‡ = −10(±1) eu (acetonitrile), ΔH‡ = 5.4(±0.6) kcal/mol, ΔS‡ = −17(±2) eu (iso-propionitrile), ΔH‡ = 4.9(±0.8) kcal/mol, ΔS‡ = −20(±3) eu (benzonitrile), and ΔH‡ = 4.7(±1.4) kcal/mol ΔS‡ = −18(±2) eu (4-tert-butylpyridine). The thermodynamic parameters for pyridine binding to a related complex, [FeIII(S2Me2N3(Pr,Pr))]+ (ΔH = −5.9(±0.8) kcal/mol, ΔS = −24(±3) eu), are also reported, as well as kinetic parameters for 4-tert-butylpyridine exchange (ΔH‡ = 3.1(±0.8) kcal/mol, ΔS‡)−25(±3) eu

  13. ESS-FH: Enhanced Security Scheme for Fast Handover in Hierarchical Mobile IPv6

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ilsun; Lee, Jong-Hyouk; Sakurai, Kouichi; Hori, Yoshiaki

    Fast Handover for Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (F-HMIPv6) that combines advantages of Fast Handover for Mobile IPv6 (FMIPv6) and Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) achieves the superior performance in terms of handover latency and signaling overhead compared with previously developed mobility protocols. However, without being secured, F-HMIPv6 is vulnerable to various security threats. In 2007, Kang and Park proposed a security scheme, which is seamlessly integrated into F-HMIPv6. In this paper, we reveal that Kang-Park's scheme cannot defend against the Denial of Service (DoS) and redirect attacks while largely relying on the group key. Then, we propose an Enhanced Security Scheme for F-HMIPv6 (ESS-FH) that achieves the strong key exchange and the key independence as well as addresses the weaknesses of Kang-Park's scheme. More importantly, it enables fast handover between different MAP domains. The proposed scheme is formally verified based on BAN-logic, and its handover latency is analyzed and compared with that of Kang-Park's scheme.

  14. Waste characterization for the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility in support of waste certification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.F.

    1994-10-17

    The Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) procedures define the rules concerning packages of solid Low Level Waste (LLW) that are sent to the E-area vaults (EAV). The WACs tabulate the quantities of 22 radionuclides that require manifesting in waste packages destined for each type of vault. These quantities are called the Package Administrative Criteria (PAC). If a waste package exceeds the PAC for any radionuclide in a given vault, then specific permission is needed to send to that vault. To avoid reporting insignificant quantities of the 22 listed radionuclides, the WAC defines the Minimum Reportable Quantity (MRQ) of each radionuclide as 1/1000th of the PAC. If a waste package contains less than the MRQ of a particular radionuclide, then the package`s manifest will list that radionuclide as zero. At least one radionuclide has to be reported, even if all are below the MRQ. The WAC requires that the waste no be ``hazardous`` as defined by SCDHEC/EPA regulations and also lists several miscellaneous physical/chemical requirements for the packages. This report evaluates the solid wastes generated within the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) for potential impacts on waste certification.

  15. Adjuvant-enhanced antibody and cellular responses to inclusion bodies expressing FhSAP2 correlates with protection of mice to Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Francheska; Espino, Ana M

    2016-01-01

    Fasciola hepatica saposin-like protein-2 (FhSAP2) is a protein differentially expressed in various developmental stages of F. hepatica. Recombinant FhSAP2 has demonstrated the induction of partial protection in mice and rabbits when it is administered subcutaneously (SC) in Freund's adjuvant. Because FhSAP2 is overexpressed in bacteria in the form of inclusion bodies (IBs), we isolated IBs expressing FhSAP2 and tested their immunogenicity when administered SC in mice emulsified in two different adjuvants: QS-21 and Montanide TM ISA720. Animals received three injections containing 20 μg of protein two weeks apart and 4 weeks after the third injection, mice were infected with 10 F. hepatica metacercariae by oral route. The percentages of protection induced by FhSAP2-IBs were estimated to be between 60.0 and 62.5% when compared with adjuvant-vaccinated, infected controls. By determining the levels of IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies and IL-4 and IFNγ cytokines in the serum of experimental animals, it was found that both Th1 and Th2 immune responses were significantly increased in the FhSAP2-IBs vaccinated groups compared with the adjuvant-vaccinated, infected control groups. The adjuvant-vaccinated groups had significantly lower IgG1 to IgG2a ratios and lower IL-4 to IFNγ ratios than the FhSAP2-IBs vaccinated animals, which is indicative of higher levels of Th2 immune responses. Irrespective to the adjuvant used, animals vaccinated with FhSAP2-IBs exhibited significantly higher survival percentage and less liver damage than the adjuvant-control groups. This study suggests that FhSAP2 has potential as vaccine against F. hepatica and that the protection elicited by this molecule could be linked to a mechanism driven by the CD4-Th1 cells.

  16. [Effect of melaxen and valdoxan on free radical processes intensity, aconitate hydratase activity and citrate content in rats tissues under hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbenko, M V; Popova, T N; Shul'gin, K K; Popov, S S; Agarkov, A A

    2014-01-01

    The influence of melaxen and valdoxan on the biochemiluminescence parameters, aconitate hydratase activity and citrate level in rats heart and liver during development of experimental hyperthyroidism has been investigated. Administration of these substances promoted a decrease of biochemiluminescence parameters, which had been increased in tissues of rats in response to the development of oxidative stress under hyperthyroidism. Aconitate hydratase activity and citrate concentration in rats liver and heart, growing at pathological conditions, changed towards control value after administration of the drugs correcting melatonin level. The results indicate the positive effect of valdoxan and melaxen on oxidative status of the organism under the development of experimental hyperthyroidism that is associated with antioxidant action of melatonin.

  17. Suppressor screen and phenotype analyses revealed an emerging role of the Monofunctional peroxisomal enoyl-CoA hydratase 2 in compensated cell enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mana eKatano

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficient use of seed nutrient reserves is crucial for germination and establishment of plant seedlings. Mobilizing seed oil reserves in Arabidopsis involves β-oxidation, the glyoxylate cycle, and gluconeogenesis, which provide essential energy and the carbon skeletons needed to sustain seedling growth until photoautotrophy is acquired. We demonstrated that H+-PPase activity is required for gluconeogenesis. Lack of H+-PPase in fugu5 mutants increases cytosolic pyrophosphate (PPi levels, which partially reduces sucrose synthesis de novo and inhibits cell division. In contrast, post-mitotic cell expansion in cotyledons was unusually enhanced, a phenotype called compensation. Therefore, it appears that PPi inhibits several cellular functions, including cell cycling, to trigger compensated cell enlargement (CCE. Here, we mutagenized fugu5-1 seeds with 12C6+ heavy-ion irradiation and screened mutations that restrain CCE to gain insight into the genetic pathway(s involved in CCE. We isolated A#3-1, in which cell size was severely reduced, but cell number remained similar to that of original fugu5-1. Moreover, cell number decreased in A#3-1 single mutant (A#3-1sm, similar to that of fugu5-1, but cell size was almost equal to that of the wild type. Surprisingly, A#3-1 mutation did not affect CCE in other compensation exhibiting mutant backgrounds, such as an3-4 and fugu2-1/fas1-6. Subsequent map-based cloning combined with genome sequencing and HRM curve analysis identified enoyl-CoA hydratase 2 (ECH2 as the causal gene of A#3-1. The above phenotypes were consistently observed in the ech2-1 allele and supplying sucrose restored the morphological and cellular phenotypes in fugu5-1, ech2-1, A#3-1sm, fugu5-1 ech2-1 and A#3-1;fugu5-1. Taken together, these results suggest that defects in either H+-PPase or ECH2 compromise cell proliferation due to defects in mobilizing stored lipids. In contrast, ECH2 alone likely promotes CCE during the post-mitotic cell

  18. Stanol ester margarine alone and with simvastatin lowers serum cholesterol in families with familial hypercholesterolemia caused by the FH-North Karelia mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuorio, A F; Gylling, H; Turtola, H; Kontula, K; Ketonen, P; Miettinen, T A

    2000-02-01

    In heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are already elevated at birth. Premature coronary heart disease occurs in approximately 30% of heterozygous untreated adult patients. Accordingly, to retard development of atherosclerosis, preventive measures for lowering cholesterol should be started even in childhood. To this end, 19 FH families consumed dietary stanol ester for 3 months. Stanol ester margarine lowers the serum cholesterol level by inhibiting cholesterol absorption. Each individual in the study replaced part of his or her daily dietary fat with 25 g of 80% rapeseed oil margarine containing stanol esters (2.24 g/d stanols, mainly sitostanol). The families who consumed this margarine for 12 weeks included 24 children, aged 3 to 13 years, with the North Karelia variant of FH (FH-NK), 4 FH-NK parents, and 16 healthy family members, and a separate group of 12 FH-NK adults who consumed the margarine for 6 weeks and who were on simvastatin therapy (20 or 40 mg/d). Fat-soluble vitamins were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and cholesterol precursor sterols (indexes of cholesterol synthesis) and cholestanol and plant sterols (indexes of cholesterol absorption efficiency) were assayed by gas-liquid chromatography. No side effects occurred. Serum LDL cholesterol levels were reduced by 18% (P<0.001), 11%, 12% (P<0.001), and 20% (P<0.001) in the 4 groups, respectively. The serum campesterol-to-cholesterol ratios fell by 31% (P<0.001), 29%, 23% (P<0.001), and 36% (P<0.001), respectively, suggesting that cholesterol absorption efficiency was inhibited. Serum lathosterol ratios were elevated by 38% (P<0.001), 11%, 15% (P<0.001), and 19% (P<0.001), respectively, suggesting that cholesterol synthesis was compensatorily upregulated. The FH-NK children increased their serum lathosterol ratio more than did the FH-NK adults treated with stanol ester margarine and simvastatin (P<0.01). In the FH

  19. Effects of Follower Jamming to FH Communication%跟踪干扰对跳频通信性能影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全厚德; 闫云斌; 崔佩璋

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the follower jamming and the jamming ellipse are analyzed. After studying the jamming ellipse and combining the mathematical model of FH signal, the mathematical model of follower jamming is built. The MFSK modulation was be adopted to the FH system,and then the performance of FH-MFSK system under the follower jamming is analyzed. The simulation results show that, when the FH-MFSK system is jammed by the follower jamming, the bit error rate (BER) of FH-MFSK communication system is bigger, and the anti-jamming performance of FH-MFSK system is degradation, and the anti-jamming performance of follower jamming in the FH-MFSK system is increased obviously, when the MFSK modulation is adopted. Finally, the anti-jamming measures of follower jamming are proposed.%针对跳频通信中跟踪干扰的问题,分析了跟踪干扰及其对应的干扰椭圆,结合跳频信号的数学模型建立了跟踪干扰的数学模型;在调制方式为MFSK的情况下,给出了跟踪干扰对FH-MFSK通信系统的误码率性能.仿真结果表明,当跳频通信系统遭受跟踪干扰时,系统的误码率升高,抗干扰性能下降明显,而采用多进制频移键控调制可以提高系统的抗跟踪干扰能力;最后给出了抗跟踪干扰的一些措施.

  20. Antibacterial efficacy of Nisin, Pediocin 34 and Enterocin FH99 against Listeria monocytogenes and cross resistance of its bacteriocin resistant variants to common food preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Antilisterial efficiency of three bacteriocins, viz, Nisin, Pediocin 34 and Enterocin FH99 was tested individually and in combination against Listeria mononcytogenes ATCC 53135. A greater antibacterial effect was observed when the bacteriocins were combined in pairs, indicating that the use of more than one LAB bacteriocin in combination have a higher antibacterial action than when used individually. Variants of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 53135 resistant to Nisin, Pediocin 34 and Enterocin FH99 were developed. Bacteriocin cross-resistance of wild type and their corresponding resistant variants were assessed and results showed that resistance to a bacteriocin may extend to other bacteriocins within the same class. Resistance to Pediocin 34 conferred cross resistance to Enterocin FH 99 but not to Nisin. Similarly resistance to Enterocin FH99 conferred cross resistance to Pediocin 34 but not to Nisin. Also, the sensitivity of Nisin, Pediocin 34 and Enterocin FH99 resistant variants of Listeria monocytogenes to low pH, salt, sodium nitrite, and potassium sorbate was assayed in broth and compared to the parental wild-type strain. The Nisin, Pediocin 34 and Enterocin FH99 resistant variants did not have intrinsic resistance to low pH, sodium chloride, potassium sorbate, or sodium nitrite. In no case were the bacteriocin resistant Listeria monocytogenes variants examined were more resistant to inhibitors than the parental strains.

  1. Enhancement of thermo-stability and product tolerance of Pseudomonas putida nitrile hydratase by fusing with self-assembling peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Cui, Wenjing; Liu, Zhongmei; Cui, Youtian; Xia, Yuanyuan; Kobayashi, Michihiko; Zhou, Zhemin

    2014-09-01

    Self-assembling amphipathic peptides (SAPs) are the peptides that can spontaneously assemble into ordered nanostructures. It has been reported that the attachment of SAPs to the N- or C-terminus of an enzyme can benefit the thermo-stability of the enzyme. Here, we discovered that the thermo-stability and product tolerance of nitrile hydratase (NHase) were enhanced by fusing with two of the SAPs (EAK16 and ELK16). When the ELK16 was fused to the N-terminus of β-subunit, the resultant NHase (SAP-NHase-2) became an active inclusion body; EAK16 fused NHase in the N-terminus of β-subunit (SAP-NHase-1) and ELK16 fused NHase in the C-terminus of β-subunit (SAP-NHase-10) did not affect NHase solubility. Compared with the deactivation of the wild-type NHase after 30 min incubation at 50°C, SAP-NHase-1, SAP-NHase-2 and SAP-NHase-10 retained 45%, 30% and 50% activity; after treatment in the buffer containing 10% acrylamide, the wild-type retained 30% activity, while SAP-NHase-1, SAP-NHase-2 and SAP-NHase-10 retained 52%, 42% and 55% activity. These SAP-NHases with enhanced thermo-stability and product tolerance would be helpful for further industrial applications of the NHase.

  2. Nitrile hydratase of Rhodococcus erythropolis: characterization of the enzyme and the use of whole cells for biotransformation of nitriles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamble, Ashwini L; Banoth, Linga; Meena, Vachan Singh; Singh, Amit; Chisti, Yusuf; Banerjee, U C

    2013-08-01

    The intracellular cobalt-type nitrile hydratase was purified from the bacterium Rhodococcuserythropolis. The pure enzyme consisted of two subunits of 29 and 30 kDa. The molecular weight of the native enzyme was estimated to be 65 kDa. At 25 °C the enzyme had a half-life of 25 h. The Michaelis-Menten constants Km and vmax for the enzyme were 0.624 mM and 5.12 μmol/min/mg, respectively, using 3-cyanopyridine as the substrate. The enzyme-containing freely-suspended bacterial cells and the cells immobilized within alginate beads were evaluated for converting the various nitriles to amides. In a packed bed reactor, alginate beads (2 % alginate; 3 mm bead diameter) containing 200 mg/mL of cells, achieved a conversion of >90 % for benzonitrile and 4-cyanopyridine in 38 h (25 °C, pH 7.0) at a feed substrate concentration of 100 mM. The beads could be reused for up to six reaction cycles.

  3. Towards Structural-Functional Mimics of Acetylene Hydratase: Reversible Activation of Acetylene using a Biomimetic Tungsten Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peschel, Lydia M; Belaj, Ferdinand; Mösch-Zanetti, Nadia C

    2015-10-26

    The synthesis and characterization of a biomimetic system that can reversibly bind acetylene (ethyne) is reported. The system has been designed to mimic catalytic intermediates of the tungstoenzyme acetylene hydratase. The thiophenyloxazoline ligand S-Phoz (2-(4',4'-dimethyloxazolin-2'-yl)thiophenolate) is used to generate a bioinspired donor environment around the W center, facilitating the stabilization of W-acetylene adducts. The featured complexes [W(C2 H2 )(CO)(S-Phoz)2 ] (2) and [WO(C2 H2 )(S-Phoz)2 ] (3) are extremely rare from a synthetic and structural point of view as very little is known about W-C2 H2 adducts. Upon exposure to visible light, 3 can release C2 H2 from its coordination sphere to yield the 14-electron species [WO(S-Phoz)2 ] (4). Under light-exclusion 4 re-activates C2 H2 making this the first fully characterized system for the reversible activation of acetylene.

  4. Traditional uses, botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Guo, Rixin; Zhou, Guohong; Zhou, Xidan; Kou, Zhenzhen; Sui, Feng; Li, Chun; Tang, Liying; Wang, Zhuju

    2016-07-21

    Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine known as Sanqi or Tianqi in China. This plant, which is distributed primarily in the southwest of China, has wide-ranging pharmacological effects and can be used to treat cardiovascular diseases, pain, inflammation and trauma as well as internal and external bleeding due to injury. This paper provides up-to-date information on investigations of this plant, including its botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. The possible uses and perspectives for future investigation of this plant are also discussed. The relevant information on Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen was collected from numerous resources, including classic books about Chinese herbal medicine, and scientific databases, including Pubmed, SciFinder, ACS, Ebsco, Elsevier, Taylor, Wiley and CNKI. More than 200 chemical compounds have been isolated from Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen, including saponins, flavonoids and cyclopeptides. The plant has pharmacological effects on the cardiovascular system, immune system as well as anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, haemostatic and anti-tumour activities, etc. Panax notoginseng is a valuable traditional Chinese medical herb with multiple pharmacological effects. This review summarizes the botany, ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of P. notoginseng, and presents the constituents and their corresponding chemical structures found in P. notoginseng comprehensively for the first time. Future research into its phytochemistry of bio-active components should be performed by using bioactivity-guided isolation strategies. Further work on elucidation of the structure-function relationship among saponins, understanding of multi-target network pharmacology of P. notoginseng, as well as developing its new clinical usage and comprehensive utilize will enhance the therapeutic potentials of P. notoginseng. Copyright © 2016

  5. Generation of iPSC line iPSC-FH2.1 in hypoxic conditions from human foreskin fibroblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Questa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human foreskin fibroblasts were used to generate the iPSC line iPSC-FH2.1 using the EF1a-hSTEMCCA-loxP vector expressing OCT4, SOX2, c-MYC and KLF4, in 5% O2 culture conditions. Stemness was confirmed, as was pluripotency both in vivo and in vitro, in normoxia and hypoxia. Human Embryonic Stem Cell (hESC line WA-09 and reprogrammed fibroblast primary culture HFF-FM were used as controls.

  6. 肝片吸虫 Fh8明显增强 STEC 的 Stx1可溶性表达及 Stx1单克隆抗体制备%Fasciola hepatica 8 Significantly Enhances Soluble Expression of Stx1 from STEC and Stx1 Monoclonal Antibody Preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪寒; 张碧成; 张强; 汪伟; 何孔旺

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin 1 (Stx1 ),AB5 pentamers protein,is one of major virulent factors of Shiga Toxin-produ-cing Escherichia coli (STEC).The N-terminal fragment of Stx1 A subunit encodes a signal peptide,and its C-termi-nal amino acid sequences presents high hydrophobicity and low immunogenicity by bioinformatics software analysis, and these features lead to expression failure and inclusion of target protein.In this study,our aim is to clone stx1 gene and express soluble protein for development of monoclonal antibodies against Stx1 A.The 21 0 bp of Fh8 gene from Fasciola hepatica was cloned into pCold Ⅰ with Nde Ⅰ and Xho Ⅰ,and the middle fragment between 73 -759 ntof stx1A subunit was amplified,fused with Fh8 gene to construct recombinant strain of BL21 (DE3)/pColdⅠ-Fh8-stx1.His-Fh8-stx1A was immunized Balb /c mice to prepare positive hybridomas and monoclonal antibodies by Sp2 /0 cell fusion screening.We successfully constructed a recombinant plasmid pCold Ⅰ-Fh8-stx1a,expressed His-Fh8-Stx1 A in prokaryotic cells in soluble form.Three stably secreting anti-Stx1 A monoclonal antibodies (McAb)of hybridoma cell lines were developed,one of them was used to prepare high titer ascites.Western Blot assay showed ascites after purified are able to react with recombinant His-Fh8-Stx1 A and Shiga toxin 1 crude ex-tract.We successfully prepared soluble Stx1 A protein with good antigenicity,and three monoclonal antibodies with high titers,these will lay substantial foundation for future study,i.e.developing sandwich ELISA and colloidal gold test strip to detect STEC.%志贺毒素1(Shiga toxin 1,Stx1),系五聚体蛋白,是产志贺毒素性大肠杆菌(Shiga Toxin-producing Escherichia coli,STEC)主要的毒素因子,但 Stx1体外极不易可溶性表达,旨在克隆和表达志贺毒素1(Shiga toxin 1,Stx1)A 亚基,体外获得可溶性表达的 Stx1,以研制单克隆抗体。生物信息学软件分析 Stx1 A 亚基氨基酸序列,Stx1 A1

  7. Electronic Structure Theory Study of the Microsolvated F(-)(H2O) + CH3I SN2 Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiaxu; Yang, Li; Sheng, Li

    2016-05-26

    The potential energy profile of microhydrated fluorine ion reaction with methyl iodine has been characterized by extensive electronic structure calculations. Both hydrogen-bonded F(-)(H2O)---HCH2I and ion-dipole F(-)(H2O)---CH3I complexes are formed for the reaction entrance and the PES in vicinity of these complexes is very flat, which may have important implications for the reaction dynamics. The water molecule remains on the fluorine side until the reactive system goes to the SN2 saddle point. It can easily move to the iodine side with little barrier, but in a nonsynchronous reaction path after the dynamical bottleneck to the reaction, which supports the previous prediction for microsolvated SN2 systems. The influence of solvating water molecule on the reaction mechanism is probed by comparing with the influence of the nonsolvated analogue and other microsolvated SN2 systems. Taking the CCSD(T) single-point calculations based on MP2-optimized geometries as benchmark, the DFT functionals B97-1 and B3LYP are found to better characterize the potential energy profile for the title reaction and are recommended as the preferred methods for the direct dynamics simulations to uncover the dynamic behaviors.

  8. Isolation and characterization of Aconitate hydratase 4 (Aco4) from soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aconitase catalyzes the reversible isomerization of two tricarboxylic acids citrate and isocitrate during the Krebs cycle. Five aconitase genes namely Aco1, Aco2, Aco3, Aco4 and Aco5 have been identified in soybean. Previously, Aco4 was mapped on chromosome 11. The purpose of this investigation was ...

  9. Studies on Fermentation Conditions of Antagonistic Actinomyle Fh-chib against Botrytis cinerea%番茄灰霉病菌拮抗基因工程菌株Fh-chib培养条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩文霞; 李伟泽; 陈立; 陈五岭

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to identify the pathogen to cause citrus tristeza disease in Anyue County of Sichuan Province.[Method]The complete nucleotide sequence of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) coat protein (CP) was determined by using RT-PCR, cloning and sequencing techniques.[Result]Eighteen CTV isolates (22.2%) were collected in a total of 81 field citrus samples in Anyue, Sichuan province. Se quence comparison and phylogenetic tree of 18 CTV isolates and other CTV isolates indicated that citrus tristeza disease in Anyue was caused by CTV. These diseases belonged to five groups, and the genetic relationship between CTV was complicated.[Conclusion]The research pro vides theoretical basis for the prevention and control of CTV in Anyue area.%[目的]筛选番茄灰霉病菌拮抗基因工程菌株Fh-chib的最佳培养条件.[方法]在单因素试验的基础上,采用正交试验设计对番茄灰霉病菌拮抗菌株Fh-chib的最佳培养条件(碳源、氮源和无机盐)进行了研究.[结果]工程菌株Fh-chib的最佳培养基配方为0.50%葡萄糖、1.00%蔗糖、1.00%酵母膏、1.50%麸皮、1.00%黄豆饼粉、0.03% MgSO4和0.40% CaCI2.各个因素对发酵液抑菌活性影响的主次顺序为:葡萄糖>蔗糖> CaCI2>黄豆饼粉>酵母膏>麸皮>MgSO4.[结论]为该菌株的工业化生产奠定了基础.

  10. Kinetic effects of sulfur oxidation on catalytic nitrile hydration: nitrile hydratase insights from bioinspired ruthenium(II) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Davinder; Nguyen, Tho N; Grapperhaus, Craig A

    2014-12-01

    Kinetic investigations inspired by the metalloenzyme nitrile hydratase were performed on a series of ruthenium(II) complexes to determine the effect of sulfur oxidation on catalytic nitrile hydration. The rate of benzonitrile hydration was quantified as a function of catalyst, nitrile, and water concentrations. Precatalysts L(n)RuPPh3 (n = 1-3; L(1) = 4,7-bis(2'-methyl-2'-mercapto-propyl)-1-thia-4,7-diazacyclononane; L(2) = 4-(2'-methyl-2'-sulfinatopropyl)-7-(2'-methyl-2'-mercapto-propyl)-1-thia-4,7-diazacyclononane; L(3) = 4-(2'-methyl-2'-sulfinatopropyl)-7-(2'-methyl-2'-sulfenato-propyl)-1-thia-4,7-diazacyclononane) were activated by substitution of triphenylphosphine with substrate in hot dimethylformamide solution. Rate measurements are consistent with a dynamic equilibrium between inactive aqua (L(n)Ru-OH2) and active nitrile (L(n)Ru-NCR) derivatives with K = 21 ± 1, 9 ± 0.9, and 23 ± 3 for L(1) to L(3), respectively. Subsequent hydration of the L(n)Ru-NCR intermediate yields the amide product with measured hydration rate constants (k's) of 0.37 ± 0.01, 0.82 ± 0.07, and 1.59 ± 0.12 M(-1) h(-1) for L(1) to L(3), respectively. Temperature dependent studies reveal that sulfur oxidation lowers the enthalpic barrier by 27 kJ/mol, but increases the entropic barrier by 65 J/(mol K). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations (B3LYP/LanL2DZ (Ru); 6-31G(d) (all other atoms)) support a nitrile bound catalytic cycle with lowering of the reaction barrier as a consequence of sulfur oxidation through enhanced nitrile binding and attack of the water nucleophile through a highly organized transition state.

  11. Gene fusion detection in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded benign fibrous histiocytomas using fluorescence in situ hybridization and RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Charles; Hofvander, Jakob; Nilsson, Jenny; Magnusson, Linda; Domanski, Henryk A; Gisselsson, David; Tayebwa, Johnbosco; Doyle, Leona A; Fletcher, Christopher D M; Mertens, Fredrik

    2015-09-01

    Benign fibrous histiocytomas (FH) can be subdivided into several morphological and clinical subgroups. Recently, gene fusions involving either one of two protein kinase C genes (PRKCB and PRKCD) or the ALK gene were described in FH. We here wanted to evaluate the frequency of PRKCB and PRKCD gene fusions in FH. Using interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on sections from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumors, 36 cases could be analyzed. PRKCB or PRKCD rearrangements were seen in five tumors: 1/7 regular, 0/3 aneurysmal, 0/6 cellular, 2/7 epithelioid, 0/1 atypical, 2/10 deep, and 0/2 metastatic lesions. We also evaluated the status of the ALK gene in selected cases, finding rearrangements in 3/7 epithelioid and 0/1 atypical lesions. To assess the gene fusion status of FH further, deep sequencing of RNA (RNA-Seq) was performed on FFPE tissue from eight cases with unknown gene fusion status, as well as on two FH and six soft tissue sarcomas with known gene fusions; of the latter eight positive controls, the expected fusion transcript was found in all but one, while 2/8 FH with unknown genetic status showed fusion transcripts, including a novel KIRREL/PRKCA chimera. Thus, also a third member of the PRKC family is involved in FH tumorigenesis. We conclude that gene fusions involving PRKC genes occur in several morphological (regular, cellular, aneurysmal, epithelioid) and clinical (cutaneous, deep) subsets of FH, but they seem to account for only a minority of the cases. In epithelioid lesions, however, rearrangements of PRKC or ALK were seen, as mutually exclusive events, in the majority (5/7) of cases. Finally, the study also shows that RNA-Seq is a promising tool for identifying gene fusions in FFPE tissues.

  12. The immune modulatory peptide FhHDM-1 secreted by the helminth Fasciola hepatica prevents NLRP3 inflammasome activation by inhibiting endolysosomal acidification in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Raquel; To, Joyce; Lund, Maria E; Pinar, Anita; Mansell, Ashley; Robinson, Mark W; O'Brien, Bronwyn A; Dalton, John P; Donnelly, Sheila

    2017-01-01

    The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multimeric protein complex that controls the production of IL-1β, a cytokine that influences the development of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Helminth parasites secrete molecules that interact with innate immune cells, modulating their activity to ultimately determine the phenotype of differentiated T cells, thus creating an immune environment that is conducive to sustaining chronic infection. We show that one of these molecules, FhHDM-1, a cathelicidin-like peptide secreted by the helminth parasite, Fasciola hepatica, inhibits the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome resulting in reduced secretion of IL-1β by macrophages. FhHDM-1 had no effect on the synthesis of pro-IL-1β. Rather, the inhibitory effect was associated with the capacity of the peptide to prevent acidification of the endolysosome. The activation of cathepsin B protease by lysosomal destabilization was prevented in FhHDM-1-treated macrophages. By contrast, peptide derivatives of FhHDM-1 that did not alter the lysosomal pH did not inhibit secretion of IL-1β. We propose a novel immune modulatory strategy used by F. hepatica, whereby secretion of the FhHDM-1 peptide impairs the activation of NLRP3 by lysosomal cathepsin B protease, which prevents the downstream production of IL-1β and the development of protective T helper 1 type immune responses that are detrimental to parasite survival.-Alvarado, R., To, J., Lund, M. E., Pinar, A., Mansell, A., Robinson, M. W., O'Brien, B. A., Dalton, J. P., Donnelly, S. The immune modulatory peptide FhHDM-1 secreted by the helminth Fasciola hepatica prevents NLRP3 inflammasome activation by inhibiting endolysosomal acidification in macrophages. © FASEB.

  13. A forkhead gene related to HNF-3beta is required for gastrulation and axis formation in the ascidian embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, C L; Jeffery, W R

    1997-09-01

    We have isolated a member of the HNF-3/forkhead gene family in ascidians as a means to determine the role of winged-helix genes in chordate development. The MocuFH1 gene, isolated from a Molgula oculata cDNA library, exhibits a forkhead DNA-binding domain most similar to zebrafish axial and rodent HNF-3beta. MocuFH1 is a single copy gene but there is at least one other related forkhead gene in the M. oculata genome. The MocuFH1 gene is expressed in the presumptive endoderm, mesenchyme and notochord cells beginning during the late cleavage stages. During gastrulation, MocuFH1 expression occurs in the prospective endoderm cells, which invaginate at the vegetal pole, and in the presumptive notochord and mesenchyme cells, which involute over the anterior and lateral lips of the blastopore, respectively. However, this gene is not expressed in the presumptive muscle cells, which involute over the posterior lip of the blastopore. MocuFH1 expression continues in the same cell lineages during neurulation and axis formation, however, during the tailbud stage, MocuFH1 is also expressed in ventral cells of the brain and spinal cord. The functional role of the MocuFH1 gene was studied using antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs), which transiently reduce MocuFH1 transcript levels during gastrulation. Embryos treated with antisense ODNs cleave normally and initiate gastrulation. However, gastrulation is incomplete, some of the endoderm and notochord cells do not enter the embryo and undergo subsequent movements, and axis formation is abnormal. In contrast, the prospective muscle cells, which do not express MocuFH1, undergo involution and later express muscle actin and acetylcholinesterase, markers of muscle cell differentiation. The results suggest that MocuFH1 is required for morphogenetic movements of the endoderm and notochord precursor cells during gastrulation and axis formation. The effects of inhibiting MocuFH1 expression on embryonic axis formation in ascidians are

  14. Enzymatic hydration activity assessed by selective spectrophotometric detection of alcohols: a novel screening assay using oleate hydratase as a model enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiseni, Aida; Medici, Rosario; Arends, Isabel W C E; Otten, Linda G

    2014-06-01

    Hydroxy fatty acids (HFAs) are high-added-value compounds, which are incorporated in polymers, lubricants, emulsifiers and stabilizers and have potential medicinal use. In nature, HFAs are regio-specifically synthesized by several enzymes, including P450 monooxygenases, lipoxygenases, hydratases, 12-hydroxylases, and diol synthases. The growing demand for HFAs warrants the development of simple and efficient analytical methods that enable high-throughput detection of the hydroxylated product in the presence of its unsaturated precursor. Herein a novel high-throughput assay for the detection of alcohols is described using oleate hydratase (OHase, EC 4.2.1.53) from Elizabethkingia meningoseptica as the model enzyme. The developed assay is based on the selective spectrophotometric detection of alkyl nitrites formed upon the reaction between the hydroxyl group and nitrous acid. The assay proved to discriminate between unsaturated fatty acids as well as small cyclic and acyclic unsaturated alkenes and their corresponding alcohols. Lower detection limits were 1.5-3 mM with excellent Z'-factors. Enzymatic reactions using OHase with oleic acid resulted in somewhat lower Z-factors for various enzyme preparations. This small scale assay can enable fast discovery of new microorganisms or improved enzymes from mutant libraries and will be useful for biocatalytic strategies involving fatty acid (de)hydrating enzymes.

  15. Myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA) protein from Bifidobacterium breve is a FAD-dependent fatty acid hydratase which has a function in stress protection

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rosberg-Cody, Eva

    2011-02-17

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine the catalytic activity and physiological role of myosin-cross-reactive antigen (MCRA) from Bifidobacterium breve NCIMB 702258. MCRA from B. breve NCIMB 702258 was cloned, sequenced and expressed in heterologous hosts (Lactococcus and Corynebacterium) and the recombinant proteins assessed for enzymatic activity against fatty acid substrates. Results MCRA catalysed the conversion of palmitoleic, oleic and linoleic acids to the corresponding 10-hydroxy fatty acids, but shorter chain fatty acids were not used as substrates, while the presence of trans-double bonds and double bonds beyond the position C12 abolished hydratase activity. The hydroxy fatty acids produced were not metabolised further. We also found that heterologous Lactococcus and Corynebacterium expressing MCRA accumulated increasing amounts of 10-HOA and 10-HOE in the culture medium. Furthermore, the heterologous cultures exhibited less sensitivity to heat and solvent stresses compared to corresponding controls. Conclusions MCRA protein in B. breve can be classified as a FAD-containing double bond hydratase, within the carbon-oxygen lyase family, which may be catalysing the first step in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) production, and this protein has an additional function in bacterial stress protection.

  16. Interacting resonances in the F+H2 reaction revisited: complex terms, Riemann surfaces, and angular distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolovski, D; Sen, S K; Aquilanti, V; Cavalli, S; De Fazio, D

    2007-02-28

    We study the effect of overlapping resonances on the angular distributions of the reaction F+H2(v=0,j=0)-->HF(v=2,j=0)+H in the collision energy range from 5 to 65 meV, i.e., under the reaction barrier. Reactive scattering calculations were performed using the hyperquantization algorithm on the potential energy surface of Stark and Werner [J. Chem. Phys. 104, 6515 (1996)]. The positions of the Regge and complex energy poles are obtained by Pade reconstruction of the scattering matrix element. The Sturmian theory is invoked to relate the Regge and complex energy terms. For two interacting resonances, a two-sheet Riemann surface is contracted and inverted. The semiclassical complex angular momentum analysis is used to decompose the scattering amplitude into the direct and resonance contributions.

  17. Effect of growth media on cell envelope composition and nitrile hydratase stability in Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain DAP 96253.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Trudy-Ann; Crow, Sidney A; Pierce, George E

    2012-11-01

    Rhodococcus is an important industrial microorganism that possesses diverse metabolic capabilities; it also has a cell envelope, composed of an outer layer of mycolic acids and glycolipids. Selected Rhodococcus species when induced are capable of transforming nitriles to the corresponding amide by the enzyme nitrile hydratase (NHase), and subsequently to the corresponding acid via an amidase. This nitrile biochemistry has generated interest in using the rhodococci as biocatalysts. It was hypothesized that altering sugars in the growth medium might impact cell envelope components and have effects on NHase. When the primary carbon source in growth media was changed from glucose to fructose, maltose, or maltodextrin, the NHase activity increased. Cells grown in the presence of maltose and maltodextrin showed the highest activities against propionitrile, 197 and 202 units/mg cdw, respectively. Stability of NHase was also affected as cells grown in the presence of maltose and maltodextrin retained more NHase activity at 55 °C (45 and 23 %, respectively) than cells grown in the presence of glucose or fructose (19 and 10 %, respectively). Supplementation of trehalose in the growth media resulted in increased NHase stability at 55 °C, as cells grown in the presence of glucose retained 40 % NHase activity as opposed to 19 % without the presence of trehalose. Changes in cell envelope components, such mycolic acids and glycolipids, were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC), respectively. Changing sugars and the addition of inducing components for NHase, such as cobalt and urea in growth media, resulted in changes in mycolic acid profiles. Mycolic acid content increased 5 times when cobalt and urea were added to media with glucose. Glycolipids levels were also affected by the changes in sugars and addition of inducing components. This research demonstrates that carbohydrate selection impacts NHase activity and

  18. Use of Metallopeptide Based Mimics Demonstrates That the Metalloprotein Nitrile Hydratase Requires Two Oxidized Cysteinates for Catalytic Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shearer, J.; Callan, P; Amie, J

    2010-01-01

    Nitrile hydratases (NHases) are non-heme Fe{sup III} or non-corrin Co{sup III} containing metalloenzymes that possess an N{sub 2}S{sub 3} ligand environment with nitrogen donors derived from amidates and sulfur donors derived from cysteinates. A closely related enzyme is thiocyanate hydrolase (SCNase), which possesses a nearly identical active-site coordination environment as CoNHase. These enzymes are redox inactive and perform hydrolytic reactions; SCNase hydrolyzes thiocyanate anions while NHase converts nitriles into amides. Herein an active CoNHase metallopeptide mimic, [Co{sup III}NHase-m1] (NHase-m1 = AcNH-CCDLP-CGVYD-PA-COOH), that contains Co{sup III} in a similar N{sub 2}S{sub 3} coordination environment as CoNHase is reported. [Co{sup III}NHase-m1] was characterized by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), gel-permeation chromatography (GPC), Co K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (Co-S: 2.21 {angstrom}; Co-N: 1.93 {angstrom}), vibrational, and optical spectroscopies. We find that [Co{sup III}NHase-m1] will perform the catalytic conversion of acrylonitrile into acrylamide with up to 58 turnovers observed after 18 h at 25 C (pH 8.0). FTIR data used in concert with calculated vibrational data (mPWPW91/aug-cc-TZVPP) demonstrates that the active form of [Co{sup III}NHase-m1] has a ligated SO{sub 2} (? = 1091 cm{sup -1}) moiety and a ligated protonated SO(H) (? = 928 cm{sup -1}) moiety; when only one oxygenated cysteinate ligand (i.e., a mono-SO{sub 2} coordination motif) or the bis-SO{sub 2} coordination motif are found within [Co{sup III}NHase-m1] no catalytic activity is observed. Calculations of the thermodynamics of ligand exchange (B3LYP/aug-cc-TZVPP) suggest that the reason for this is that the SO{sub 2}/SO(H) equatorial ligand motif promotes both water dissociation from the Co{sup III}-center and nitrile coordination to the Co{sup III}-center. In contrast, the under- or overoxidized motifs will either strongly favor a five coordinate Co

  19. FhCaBP2: a Fasciola hepatica calcium-binding protein with EF-hand and dynein light chain domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Charlotte M; Timson, David J

    2015-09-01

    FhCaBP2 is a Fasciola hepatica protein which belongs to a family of helminth calcium-binding proteins which combine an N-terminal domain containing two EF-hand motifs and a C-terminal dynein light chain-like (DLC-like) domain. Its predicted structure showed two globular domains joined by a flexible linker. Recombinant FhCaBP2 interacted reversibly with calcium and manganese ions, but not with magnesium, barium, strontium, copper (II), colbalt (II), iron (II), nickel, lead or potassium ions. Cadmium (II) ions appeared to bind non-site-specifically and destabilize the protein. Interaction with either calcium or magnesium ions results in a conformational change in which the protein's surface becomes more hydrophobic. The EF-hand domain alone was able to interact with calcium and manganese ions; the DLC-like domain was not. Alteration of a residue (Asp-58 to Ala) in the second EF-hand motif in this domain abolished ion-binding activity. This suggests that the second EF-hand is the one responsible for ion-binding. FhCaBP2 homodimerizes and the extent of dimerization was not affected by calcium ions or by the aspartate to alanine substitution in the second EF-hand. The isolated EF-hand and DLC-like domains are both capable of homodimerization. FhCaBP2 interacted with the calmodulin antagonists trifluoperazine, chlorpromazine, thiamylal and W7. Interestingly, while chlorpromazine and thiamylal interacted with the EF-hand domain (as expected), trifluoperazine and W7 bound to the DLC-like domain. Overall, FhCaBP2 has distinct biochemical properties compared with other members of this protein family from Fasciola hepatica, a fact which supports the hypothesis that these proteins have different physiological roles.

  20. Characteristics of alcohol-preferring behavior in FH/Wjd rats%先天性嗜酒大鼠的饮酒行为特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景丽; 张振华; 王卫平; 张敏; 罗娟; 陈锋; Andrew J LAWRENCE; 梁建辉

    2009-01-01

    目的 系统考察先天性嗜酒(FH/Wjd)大鼠嗜酒的行为特性.方法 采用双瓶(5%或10%乙醇和自来水)自由选择的方法 ,观察FH/Wjd大鼠的饮酒量、饮水量和乙醇偏爱率,并进一步探讨FH/Wjd大鼠饮酒的昼夜差异性;在乙醇剥夺实验中,研究乙醇剥夺24 h对FH/Wjd大鼠饮酒量和乙醇偏爱率的影响;选用固定比率(FR1)实验程序,探讨FH/Wjd大鼠操作性自身饮酒的行为特点.结果 在双瓶自由选择饮酒实验中,给予5%乙醇,大鼠的饮酒量为(4.3±0.2)g·kg-1·d-1,饮水量为(20.1±2.3)g·kg-1·d-1,乙醇偏爱率为(82.9±2.0)%;给予10%乙醇,大鼠的饮酒量为(6.4± 0.2)g·kg-1·d-1,饮水量为(37.2±2.7)g·kg-1·d-1,乙醇偏爱率为(69.2±2.0)%,与5%乙醇相比较,饮酒量和饮水量显著增大,但乙醇偏爱率明显降低.FH/Wjd大鼠的饮酒行为呈明显的昼夜节律,夜间饮酒量和乙醇偏爱率均显著高于白天,夜间饮水量虽呈增加趋势,但差异无显著性.FH/Wjd大鼠乙醇剥夺24 h,再次给酒后1 h的饮酒量增加37.7%,乙醇偏爱率增加22.1%;再次给酒后24 h的饮酒量增加15.6%,乙醇偏爱率存在增高趋势,但差异无显著性.FH/Wjd大鼠操作性自身饮酒行为训练13 d后, 连续测试3 d, 操作性饮酒行为的偏爱率为49%~64%.结论 FH/Wjd大鼠具有饮酒量大和乙醇偏爱率高的特点,存在明显的乙醇剥夺效应,并可在短期内建立操作性自身饮酒行为,是一种理想的先天嗜酒动物模型.

  1. 一种提高跳频系统密钥量的新方法%Novel method of enhancing the key amount for FH systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈斐; 宋铁成; 叶芝慧; 刘彤; 夏玮玮

    2004-01-01

    基于信息论原理, 提出了一种非等间隔跳频系统的方案, 针对不允许频谱重叠系统和允许频谱重叠系统, 分别给出了实现方法并对其安全性能进行了理论分析. 首先给出了跳频系统的绝对密钥量和相对密钥量、等间隔和非等间隔跳频系统等定义; 然后分析了等间隔和非等间隔跳频系统的绝对密钥量和相对密钥量, 从而看出在计算机技术和集成电路设计技术得到飞速发展的情况下, 跳频系统的绝对密钥量已变成制约其保密性和安全性的关键; 理论分析和实例计算可以看出, 采用非等间隔跳频后其绝对密钥量有大幅度提高, 特别是允许频谱重叠的系统, 比等间隔跳频系统提高了2个数量级以上.%Based on the principle of information theory, a novel scheme of unequal-interval frequency-hopping (FH) systems is proposed. For cases of spectrum overlapping systems and non-overlapping systems, the implementation methods are presented and the security performances are discussed theoretically. Firstly, the definitions of absolute and relative key amounts of FH systems, equal-interval and unequal-interval FH systems are given. Then, the absolute key amount and relative key amount are analyzed for equal-interval and unequal-interval FH systems. The results indicate that the absolute key amount has become the key point in improving the security and secrecy of FH systems, especially in today's epoch of highly developed computer science and IC design technology. Theoretical analysis and practical examples show that the absolute key amount of unequal-interval FH systems is generally over two orders larger than that of equal-interval ones when spectrum overlapping is allowable. Therefore, there is great superiority in enhancing the security and secrecy for the scheme mentioned.

  2. Novel TRAIL sensitizer Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in Huh7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji-Yong; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Ju; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Jun, Soo Young; Lee, Jae-Hye; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Choi, SangHo; Saloura, Vassiliki; Park, Choon Gil; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Nam-Soon

    2016-04-01

    TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand) is a promising anti-cancer drug target that selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells. However, many cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Therefore, reversing TRAIL resistance is an important step for the development of effective TRAIL-based anti-cancer therapies. We previously reported that knockdown of the TOR signaling pathway regulator-like (TIPRL) protein caused TRAIL-induced apoptosis by activation of the MKK7-c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) pathway through disruption of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction. Here, we identified Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg (TO) as a novel TRAIL sensitizer from a set of 500 natural products using an ELISA system and validated its activity by GST pull-down analysis. Furthermore, combination treatment of Huh7 cells with TRAIL and TO resulted in TRAIL-induced apoptosis mediated through inhibition of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction and subsequent activation of MKK7-JNK phosphorylation. Interestingly, HPLC analysis identified chicoric acid as a major component of the TO extract, and combination treatment with chicoric acid and TRAIL induced TRAIL-induced cell apoptosis via JNK activation due to inhibition of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction. Our results suggest that TO plays an important role in TRAIL-induced apoptosis, and further functional studies are warranted to confirm the importance of TO as a novel TRAIL sensitizer for cancer therapy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. A Self-assembled Fluoride-Water Cyclic Cluster of $[F(H_2O)]_4^{4-}$ in a Molecular Box

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, Md Alamgir; Pramanik, Avijit; Wong, Bryan M; Haque, Syed A; Powell, Douglas R

    2013-01-01

    We present an unprecedented fluoride-water cyclic cluster of $[F(H_2O)]_4^{4-}$ assembled in a cuboid-shaped molecular box formed by two large macrocycles. Structural characterization reveals that the $[F(H_2O)]_4^{4-}$ is assembled by strong H-bonding interactions (OH...F = 2.684(3) to 2.724(3) {\\AA}), where a fluoride anion plays the topological role of a water molecule in the classical cyclic water octamer. The interaction of fluoride was further confirmed by $^{19}$F NMR and $^1$H NMR spectroscopies, indicating the encapsulation of the anionic species within the cavity in solution. High level DFT calculations and Bader topological analyses fully support the crystallographic results, demonstrating that the bonding arrangement in the fluoride-water cluster arises from the unique geometry of the host.

  4. 基于Baker变换的混沌跳频序列的实现%The implement of chaotic FH sequences based on Baker transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘良才; 俞柏峰; 易丹

    2001-01-01

    本文基于Baker变换的分段线性混沌映射,利用DSP实现了一种混沌跳频序列。并对该混沌跳频序列的平衡性,跳频间隔和最大汉明相关性,从数值模拟与硬件实现上进行了比较分析。实验结果与数值模拟结果相一致,具有良好的性能,适合于跳频通信。最后,还与其他混沌序列进行了比较,证明该方法是可行的,也适合于直扩系统。%Based on piecewise-linear chaotic map of Baker transform,thispaper p r oposes a method to implement chaotic frequency-hopping(FH)sequences by using DS P processor.This paper also analyzes the balance,the FH distance and the maxim um Hamming correlation of this FH sequences in both numerical analysis and experim ent.The results show that the experiment's results are accordance with the nume r ical analysis's results.The sequences have excellent properties and are suitabl e for FH system.Finally,this paper proves that the method is feasible by compar in g with some other chaotic sequences.The sequences also are suitable for DS/SS system.

  5. The molecular basis of familial hypercholesterolemia in Lebanon: spectrum of LDLR mutations and role of PCSK9 as a modifier gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abifadel, Marianne; Rabès, Jean-Pierre; Jambart, Sélim; Halaby, Georges; Gannagé-Yared, Marie-Hélène; Sarkis, Antoine; Beaino, Ghada; Varret, Mathilde; Salem, Nabiha; Corbani, Sandra; Aydénian, Hermine; Junien, Claudine; Munnich, Arnold; Boileau, Catherine

    2009-07-01

    Autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH), a major risk for coronary heart disease, is associated with mutations in the genes encoding the low-density lipoproteins receptor (LDLR), its ligand apolipoprotein B (APOB) or PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilin Kexin 9). Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) caused by mutation in the LDLR gene is the most frequent form of ADH. The incidence of FH is particularly high in the Lebanese population presumably as a result of a founder effect. In this study we characterize the spectrum of the mutations causing FH in Lebanon: we confirm the very high frequency of the LDLR p.Cys681X mutation that accounts for 81.5 % of the FH Lebanese probands recruited and identify other less frequent mutations in the LDLR. Finally, we show that the p.Leu21dup, an in frame insertion of one leucine to the stretch of 9 leucines in exon 1 of PCSK9, known to be associated with lower LDL-cholesterol levels in general populations, is also associated with a reduction of LDL-cholesterol levels in FH patients sharing the p.C681X mutation in the LDLR. Thus, by studying for the first time the impact of PCSK9 polymorphism on LDL-cholesterol levels of FH patients carrying a same LDLR mutation, we show that PCSK9 might constitute a modifier gene in familial hypercholesterolemia.

  6. Study on the mutation breeding of β-glucanase from Asp. Niger FH1%黑曲酶β-葡聚糖酶菌株诱变选育研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺小贤; 陈合; 齐香君; 赵敏

    2005-01-01

    以黑曲霉(Aspergillus niger)FH1为出发菌株,采用物理与化学相结合的方法,诱变选育出一株β-葡聚糖酶活性较高的菌株FH12.对该菌株进行摇瓶发酵条件的实验,酶活比出发菌株提高2.23倍.

  7. Catalytic Mechanism of Nitrile Hydratase Proposed by Time-resolved X-ray Crystallography Using a Novel Substrate, tert-Butylisonitrile*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Koichi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Kayoko; Noguchi, Takumi; Yohda, Masafumi; Odaka, Masafumi

    2008-01-01

    Nitrile hydratases (NHases) have an unusual iron or cobalt catalytic center with two oxidized cysteine ligands, cysteine-sulfinic acid and cysteine-sulfenic acid, catalyzing the hydration of nitriles to amides. Recently, we found that the NHase of Rhodococcus erythropolis N771 exhibited an additional catalytic activity, converting tert-butylisonitrile (tBuNC) to tert-butylamine. Taking advantage of the slow reactivity of tBuNC and the photoreactivity of nitrosylated NHase, we present the first structural evidence for the catalytic mechanism of NHase with time-resolved x-ray crystallography. By monitoring the reaction with attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the product from the isonitrile carbon was identified as a CO molecule. Crystals of nitrosylated inactive NHase were soaked with tBuNC. The catalytic reaction was initiated by photo-induced denitrosylation and stopped by flash cooling. tBuNC was first trapped at the hydrophobic pocket above the iron center and then coordinated to the iron ion at 120 min. At 440 min, the electron density of tBuNC was significantly altered, and a new electron density was observed near the isonitrile carbon as well as the sulfenate oxygen of αCys114. These results demonstrate that the substrate was coordinated to the iron and then attacked by a solvent molecule activated by αCys114-SOH. PMID:18948265

  8. [Intensity of apoptotic processes, aconitate hydratase activity and citrate level in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated steatohepatitis under application of epifamin at basic therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, S S; Pashkov, A N; Agarkov, A A; Shulgin, K K

    2015-01-01

    DNA fragmentation, caspase-1 and caspase-3, aconitate hydratase (AH) activities, and citrate content have been investigated in the blood of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by steatohepatitis. These indicators of apoptotic processes intensity and oxidative stress development were estimated after basic treatment and a combined therapy including epifamin. Before treatment DNA fragmentation blood leukocytes, decrease of AH activity and increase of caspases activities in the serum of patients were detected. Treatment with epifamin provided more pronounced changes in the investigated parameters towards control values as compared to basis therapy. Epifamin caused a positive effect on the citrate content in the serum of patients. Epifamin inclusion to the basic therapy was accompanied by a more pronounced changes towards the normal values of such biochemical parameters as ALT, AST, b-lipoproteins, cholesterol, fasting glucose and postprandial glucose levels. All these changes may be obviously attributed to epifamin-induced correction of the melatonin level and manifestation of adaptogenic properties and antioxidant effects of the hormone.

  9. Prestaciones de una modulación FH-MFSK como técnica de múltiple acceso en comunicaciones móviles

    OpenAIRE

    Agustí Comes, Ramon; Junyent Giralt, Gabriel; Casadevall Palacio, Fernando José

    1983-01-01

    En esta comunicación presentamos una modulación en banda ensanchada FH-MFSK (Frequency Hopping - Multiple Frequency Shift Keying) apta para utilizarse en comunicaciones militares móviles como técnica de múltiple acceso. Establecemos también cual es el número de usuarios que pueden compartir la banda de frecuencias disponible según un modo de acceso aleatorio y suponiendo una estadística de Rayleigh para los desvanecimientos rápidos de la señal recibida. Finalmente, mostramos resultados para e...

  10. Cloning and Sequence Analysing of GST Gene of Fasciola hepatica Isolated from Sheep%绵羊肝片吸虫谷胱甘肽硫转移酶基因的克隆与序列分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉旭华; 闻晓波; 王春仁; 刘娣; 孙中武; 李晓娟; 王密

    2012-01-01

    本研究扩增肝片吸虫(Fasciola hepatica,Fh)谷胱甘肽硫转移酶(GST)基因,并进行同源性分析.根据GenBank发表的部分Fh GST基因序列设计并合成一对特异性引物,利用RT-PCR方法扩增出Fh GST基因完整的开放阅读框(open reading frame,ORF),测定序列,使用分子生物学软件进行同源性分析.获得Fh GST基因全长682 bp,编码218个氨基酸,与澳大利亚分离的肝片吸虫GST同源性较高,与大片吸虫和卫氏并殖吸虫的GST也有较高的同源性.不同虫株GST基因具有较高的同源性,因此Fh GST蛋白不适合用作诊断抗原,但由于其存在交叉反应,GST基因作为分子疫苗的候选基因具有重要意义.肝片吸虫GST基因的克隆,为进一步研究GST蛋白的功能和作用奠定了基础.%The glutathione S-transferase gene of Fasciola he pat tea was amplified and its homology was analyzed. According to the published genomic sequence of Fh GST in GenBank, a pair of primers was designed and the open reading frame of GST gene of Fasciola he pat tea was amplified by RT-PCR. The homology of GST gene was analyzed by molecular biological soft. The PCR analysis results showed that the Fh GST gene was 682 bp, and encoded 218 amino acid. It indicated that the Fh GST gene was highly homologous with Fasciola hepatica isolated from Australia, Fasciola gigantica and Paragonimus xvestermani. Because of the high homology of the GST gene of different parasite, it could not be used in diagnosis assay with Fh GST protein, but could be used in gene vaccine. The clone of Fh GST gene had advantages to investigate the function and effect of GST protein.

  11. Functional analysis of low-density lipoprotein receptor in homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia patients with novel 1439 C→T mutation of low-density lipoprotein receptor gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jie; JIANG Zhi-sheng; WANG Lu-ya; LIU Shu; XIA Jun-hui; YONG Qiang; DU Lan-ping; PAN Xiao-dong; XUE Hong; CHEN Bao-sheng

    2008-01-01

    Background Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), caused by low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDL-R) gene mutations, is associated with increased risk of premature coronary heart disease. Until now, limited molecular data concerning FH are available in China. The present study described the clinical profiles and cell biological defects of a Chinese FH kindred with novel LDL-R gene mutation.Methods The patient's LDL-R gene coding region was sequenced. The patient's lymphocytes were isolated and the LDL-R expression, binding and up-take functions were observed by immunohistochemistry staining and flow cytometry detection. The patient's heart and the major large vessels were detected by vessel ultrasound examination and myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI).Results The patient's LDL-R expression, LDL binding and up-take functions were significantly lower than normal control (39%, 63% and 76% respectively). A novel homozygous 1439 C→T mutation of the LDL-R gene was detected in the patient and his family. ECG showed atypical angina pectoris. Echocardiogram showed stenosis of the coronary artery and calcification of the aortic valve and its root. Blood vessel ultrasound examination showed the thickness of large vessel intima, and the vessel lumen was narrowed by 71%. MPI showed ischemic changes.Conclusions The LDL-R synthesis dysfunction of FH patients leads to arterial stenosis and calcification, which are the major phenotype of the clinical disorder. The mutation of the LDL-R gene is determined. These data increase the mutational spectrum of FH in China.

  12. The rulB gene of plasmid pWW0 is a hotspot for the site-specific insertion of integron-like elements found in the chromosomes of environmental Pseudomonas fluorescens group bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Glenn; Bosma, Hester; Studholme, David; Arnold, Dawn L; Jackson, Robert W; Pickup, Roger W

    2014-08-01

    The rulAB operon of Pseudomonas spp. confers fitness traits on the host and has been suggested to be a hotspot for insertion of mobile elements that carry avirulence genes. Here, for the first time, we show that rulB on plasmid pWW0 is a hotspot for the active site-specific integration of related integron-like elements (ILEs) found in six environmental pseudomonads (strains FH1-FH6). Integration into rulB on pWW0 occurred at position 6488 generating a 3 bp direct repeat. ILEs from FH1 and FH5 were 9403 bp in length and contained eight open reading frames (ORFs), while the ILE from FH4 was 16 233 bp in length and contained 16 ORFs. In all three ILEs, the first 5.1 kb (containing ORFs 1-4) were structurally conserved and contained three predicted site-specific recombinases/integrases and a tetR homologue. Downstream of these resided ORFs of the 'variable side' with structural and sequence similarity to those encoding survival traits on the fitness enhancing plasmid pGRT1 (ILE(FH1) and ILE(FH5)) and the NR-II virulence region of genomic island PAGI-5 (ILE(FH4)). Collectively, these ILEs share features with the previously described type III protein secretion system effector ILEs and are considered important to host survival and transfer of fitness enhancing and (a)virulence genes between bacteria.

  13. 转发干扰下DS/FH混合扩频测控信号检测性能%Detection Performance of DS/FH Hybrid Signals for TT & C under Repeater Jamming*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文革; 路伟涛; 卞燕山; 洪家财

    2013-01-01

    Studying the performance deterioration of DS/FH signals for TT&C(Telemetry Tracking&Command) in interfered environment is of great importance to this novel system. Expressions for probability of detection and false alarming of DS/FH(Direct Spread/Frequency Hopping)signals for TT&C under repeater jamming are de-duced. The probability of false alarming,PSLR(Peak Side lobe Level Ratio)and Correlation Coefficient are simulated and analyzed with different configuration of DS(Direct Spread)and FH(Frequency Hopping)spread-ing gain based on Matlab/Simulink. It is concluded that victim′s receiver is suffered“deception jamming”as long as relative delay time is less than frequency hop duration,which denotes correctness of deduce and offers references for following work.

  14. Biological monitoring of Upper Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Plant, Aiken County, South Carolina. Final report on macroinvertebrate stream assessments for F/H area ETF effluent discharge, July 1987--February 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1991-10-01

    In anticipation of the fall 1988 start up of effluent discharges into Upper Three Creek by the F/H Area Effluent Treatment Facility of the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, a two and one half year biological study was initiated in June 1987. Upper Three Runs Creek is an intensively studied fourth order stream known for its high species richness. Designed to assess the potential impact of F?H area effluent on the creek, the study includes qualitative and quantitative macroinvertebrate stream surveys at five sites, chronic toxicity testing of the effluent, water chemistry and bioaccumulation analysis. This final report presents the results of both pre-operational and post-operational qualitative and quantitative (artificial substrate) macroinvertebrate studies. Six quantitative and three qualitative studies were conducted prior to the initial release of the F/H ETF effluent and five quantitative and two qualitative studies were conducted post-operationally.

  15. Lethal neonatal case and review of primary short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (SCEH) deficiency associated with secondary lymphocyte pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoyan, Jirair K; Yang, Samuel P; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Jack, Rhona M; Miron, Alexander; Grahame, George; DeBrosse, Suzanne D; Hoppel, Charles L; Kerr, Douglas S; Wanders, Ronald J A

    2017-04-01

    Mutations in ECHS1 result in short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (SCEH) deficiency which mainly affects the catabolism of various amino acids, particularly valine. We describe a case compound heterozygous for ECHS1 mutations c.836T>C (novel) and c.8C>A identified by whole exome sequencing of proband and parents. SCEH deficiency was confirmed with very low SCEH activity in fibroblasts and nearly absent immunoreactivity of SCEH. The patient had a severe neonatal course with elevated blood and cerebrospinal fluid lactate and pyruvate concentrations, high plasma alanine and slightly low plasma cystine. 2-Methyl-2,3-dihydroxybutyric acid was markedly elevated as were metabolites of the three branched-chain α-ketoacids on urine organic acids analysis. These urine metabolites notably decreased when lactic acidosis decreased in blood. Lymphocyte pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activity was deficient, but PDC and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex activities in cultured fibroblasts were normal. Oxidative phosphorylation analysis on intact digitonin-permeabilized fibroblasts was suggestive of slightly reduced PDC activity relative to control range in mitochondria. We reviewed 16 other cases with mutations in ECHS1 where PDC activity was also assayed in order to determine how common and generalized secondary PDC deficiency is associated with primary SCEH deficiency. For reasons that remain unexplained, we find that about half of cases with primary SCEH deficiency also exhibit secondary PDC deficiency. The patient died on day-of-life 39, prior to establishing his diagnosis, highlighting the importance of early and rapid neonatal diagnosis because of possible adverse effects of certain therapeutic interventions, such as administration of ketogenic diet, in this disorder. There is a need for better understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and phenotypic variability in this relatively recently discovered disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Mutations in low-density lipoprotein receptor gene as a cause of hypercholesterolemia in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chih-Yang; Wu, Yi-Chi; Jenq, Shwu-Fen; Jap, Tjin-Shing

    2005-08-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait that has been associated with more than 920 different mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene. To characterize LDLR gene mutations in the Chinese of Han descent with FH, we isolated genomic DNA from peripheral blood samples of 20 affected subjects and 50 healthy subjects with no family history of hypercholesterolemia. We used polymerase chain reaction and long polymerase chain reaction to amplify the 18 coding exons and the minimal promoter of the LDLR gene, and subjected amplicons to direct sequence analysis. We identified 6 mutations in LDLR gene, including heterozygous missense mutations I420T (ATC-->ACC), C660W (TGC-->TGG), H562Y (CAC-->TAC), and A606T (GCC-->ACC), and a heterozygous and a homozygous mutation in codon P664L (CCG-->CTG) as well as a homozygous large deletion of exons 6 to 8. The FH homozygotes manifested generalized xanthomatosis. One of the mutations we identified (C660W) was novel. In conclusion, we identified 5 missense mutations and 1 large deletion in LDLR gene, including 1 novel mutation in Han Chinese with FH in Taiwan.

  17. Analysis of low-density lipoprotein receptor gene mutations in a Chinese patient with clinically homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹守春; 王绿娅; 秦彦文; 蔺洁; 吴邦俊; 刘舒; 潘晓冬; 杜兰平; 陈保生

    2003-01-01

    Objective To screen the point mutation of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) gene in Chinese familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients, characterize the relationship between the genotype and the phenotype and discuss the molecular pathological mechanism of FH. Methods A patient with clinical phenotype of homozygous FH and her parents were investigated for mutations in the promoter and all eighteen exons of the LDL-R gene. Screening was carried out using Touch-down PCR and direct DNA sequencing; multiple alignment analysis by DNASIS 2.5 was used to find base alteration, and the LDL-R gene mutation database was searched to identify the alteration. In addition, the apolipoprotein B gene (apo B) was screened for known mutations (R3500Q) that cause familial defective apo B100 (FDB) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).Results Two new heterozygous mutations in exons 4 and 9 of the LDL-R gene were identified in the proband (C122Y and T383I) as well as her parents. Both of the mutations have not been published in the LDL-R gene mutation database. No mutation of apo B100 (R3500Q) was observed. Conclusion Two new mutations (C112Y and T383I) were found in the LDL-R gene, which may result in FH and may be particularly pathogenetic genotypes in Chinese people.

  18. Concerted interaction between pnicogen and halogen bonds in XCl-FH2P-NH3 (X=F, OH, CN, NC, and FCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing-Zhong; Li, Ran; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Li, Wen-Zuo; Cheng, Jian-Bo

    2012-04-10

    We analyze the interplay between pnicogen-bonding and halogen-bonding interactions in the XCl-FH(2)P-NH(3) (X=F, OH, CN, NC, and FCC) complex at the MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ level. Synergetic effects are observed when pnicogen and halogen bonds coexist in the same complex. These effects are studied in terms of geometric and energetic features of the complexes. Natural bond orbital theory and Bader's theory of "atoms in molecules" are used to characterize the interactions and analyze their enhancement with varying electron density at critical points and orbital interactions. The physical nature of the interactions and the mechanism of the synergetic effects are studied using symmetry-adapted perturbation theory. By taking advantage of all the aforementioned computational methods, the present study examines how both interactions mutually influence each other.

  19. Use of scaled external correlation, a double many-body expansion, and variational transition state theory to calibrate a potential energy surface for FH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Gillian C.; Steckler, Rozeanne; Varandas, Antonio J. C.; Truhlar, Donald G.; Schwenke, David W.

    1991-01-01

    New ab initio results and a double many-body expansion formalism have been used to parameterize a new FH2 potential energy surface with improved properties near the saddle point and in the region of long-range attraction. The functional form of the new surface includes dispersion forces by a double many-body expansion. Stationary point properties for the new surface are calculated along with the product-valley barrier maxima of vibrationally adiabatic potential curves for F + H2 - HF(nu-prime = 3) + H, F + HD - HF(nu-prime = 3) + D, and F + D2 - DF(nu-prime = 4) + D. The new surface should prove useful for studying the effect on dynamics of a low, early barrier with a wide, flat bend potential.

  20. Evaluation of the immune response of male and female rats vaccinated with cDNA encoding a cysteine proteinase of Fasciola hepatica (FhPcW1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesołowska, Agnieszka; Norbury, Luke J; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Jedlina, Luiza; Jaros, Sławomir; Zawistowska-Deniziak, Anna; Zygner, Wojciech; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2013-06-01

    Not only do males and females of many species vary in their responses to certain parasitic infections, but also to treatments such as vaccines. However, there are very few studies investigating differences among sexes following vaccination and infection. Here we demonstrate that female Sprague-Dawley rats vaccinated with cDNA encoding a recently discovered cysteine proteinase of Fasciola hepatica (FhPcW1) develop considerably lower liver fluke burdens after F. hepatica infection than their male counterparts. This is accompanied by differences in the course of their immune responses which involve different eosinophil and monocyte responses throughout the study as well as humoral responses. It is evident that host gender influences the outcome of parasitic infections after vaccination and research on both sexes should be considered when developing new treatments against parasites.

  1. Production of δ-decalactone from linoleic acid via 13-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid intermediate by one-pot reaction using linoleate 13-hydratase and whole Yarrowia lipolytica cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Woo-Ri; Seo, Min-Ju; An, Jung-Ung; Shin, Kyung-Chul; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2016-05-01

    To produce δ-decalactone from linoleic acid by one-pot reaction using linoleate 13-hydratase with supplementation with whole Yarrowia lipolytica cells. Whole Y. lipolytica cells at 25 g l(-1) produced1.9 g l(-1) δ-decalactone from 7.5 g 13-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid l(-1) at pH 7.5 and 30 °C for 21 h. Linoleate 13-hydratase from Lactobacillus acidophilus at 3.5 g l(-1) with supplementation with 25 g Y. lipolytica cells l(-1) in one pot at 3 h produced 1.9 g l(-1) δ-decalactone from 10 g linoleic acid l(-1) via 13-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid intermediate at pH 7.5 and 30°C after 18 h, with a molar conversion yield of 31 % and productivity of 106 mg l(-1) h(-1). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first production of δ-decalactone using unsaturated fatty acid.

  2. Dating the origin of hepatitis B virus reveals higher substitution rate and adaptation on the branch leading to F/H genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Angelis, Konstantinos; Magiorkinis, Gkikas; Kostaki, Evangelia; Ho, Simon Y W; Hatzakis, Angelos

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of hepatitis B virus (HBV), particularly its origins and evolutionary timescale, has been the subject of debate. Three major scenarios have been proposed, variously placing the origin of HBV in humans and great apes from some million years to only a few thousand years ago (ka). To compare these scenarios, we analyzed 105 full-length HBV genome sequences from all major genotypes sampled globally. We found a high correlation between the demographic histories of HBV and humans, as well as coincidence in the times of origin of specific subgenotypes with human migrations giving rise to their host indigenous populations. Together with phylogenetic evidence, this suggests that HBV has co-expanded with modern humans. Based on the co-expansion, we conducted a Bayesian dating analysis to estimate a precise evolutionary timescale for HBV. Five calibrations were used at the origins of F/H genotypes, D4, C3 and B6 from respective indigenous populations in the Pacific and Arctic and A5 from Haiti. The estimated time for the origin of HBV was 34.1ka (95% highest posterior density interval 27.6-41.3ka), coinciding with the dispersal of modern non-African humans. Our study, the first to use full-length HBV sequences, places a precise timescale on the HBV epidemic and also shows that the "branching paradox" of the more divergent genotypes F/H from Amerindians is due to an accelerated substitution rate, probably driven by positive selection. This may explain previously observed differences in the natural history of HBV between genotypes F1 and A2, B1, and D. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. R353Q polymorphism in the factor VII gene and cardiovascular risk in Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Jiménez Francisco

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH is a genetic disorder characterized by a high risk of cardiovascular disease. Certain polymorphisms of the factor VII gene have been associated with the development of coronary artery disease and there is a known association between factor VII levels and polymorphic variants in this gene. To date, no study has evaluated the association between factor VII and coronary artery disease in patients with FH. Results This case-control study comprised 720 patients (546 with FH and 174 controls. We determined the prevalence and allele frequencies of the R353Q polymorphism of factor VII, the plasma levels of factor VII antigen (FVII Ag and whether they could be predictive factors for cardiovascular risk. 75% (410 of the patients with FH were RR, 23% (127 RQ and 1.6% (9 QQ; in the control group 75.3% (131 were RR, 21.3% (37 RQ and 3.4% (6 QQ (p = 0.32. No statistically significant associations were observed in the distribution of genotypes and allele frequencies between case (FH and control groups. Nor did we find differences when we evaluated the relationship between the R353Q polymorphism and cardiovascular risk (including coronary disease, ischemic stroke and peripheral arterial disease, either in the univariate analysis or after adjustment for sex, age, arterial hypertension, body mass index, xanthomas, diabetes, smoking, HDLc and LDLc and lipid-lowering treatment. The FVII Ag concentrations behaved in a similar fashion, with no differences for the interaction between controls and those with FH (RR vs. RQ/QQ; p = 0.96. In the subgroup of patients with FH no association was found among cardiovascular disease, genotype and FVII Ag levels (RR vs. RQ/QQ; p = 0.97. Conclusions Our study did not find a direct relationship between cardiovascular risk in patients with Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia, the R353Q polymorphism of factor VII and FVII Ag levels.

  4. Detection of a novel mutation Y468X in exon 10 of the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene causing heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia among French Canadians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, P.; Simard, J.; Moorjani, S. [Laval Univ., Quebec (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is caused by mutations in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene and characterized by raised plasma LDL-cholesterol (C) and premature coronary heart disease. FH has higher frequency among French Canadians (FC) in northeastern Quebec than in most other populations, 1:154 vs. 1:500. In FC, five mutations account for all the mutant alleles in homozygous FH and 81% in heterozygous FH; thus 19% are uncharacterized at the molecular level. We investigated the possibility of additional mutations(s), and direct sequencing of asymmetric PCR fragments showed a novel mutation (468 stop-codon) in the heterozygous form in exon 10 of the LDL receptor gene. This mutation results from cytosine to guanine transversion, converting codon 468 (TAC) encoding tyrosine into TAG stop-codon (Y468X). This nonsense mutation will result in a truncated protein shortened by 371 amino acids which will be rapidly degraded. However, we did not ascertain the functional aspects. We rather assessed its effects on the extent of elevation of LDL-C in heterozygous FH children. The Y468X mutation resulted in raised LDL-C levels which were comparable to subjects with a non-functional `null` allele due to deletion of the promoter region and exon 1 (237{plus_minus}49 vs. 248 {plus_minus}41 mg/dl; mean{plus_minus}SD, p<0.05). The relative frequency of the Y468X mutation in a cohort of 343 children suspected for FH is 4.1% and it ranks number 4 in term of its prevalence. High frequency of FH among FC is attributed to a founder effect due to a high prevalence of one mutation; it is suggested that this novel mutation with low prevalence may be of later entry in this population.

  5. Nitrile-synthesizing enzyme: Gene cloning, overexpression and application for the production of useful compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Kumano, Takuto; Takizawa, Yuko; Shimizu, Sakayu; Kobayashi, Michihiko

    2016-01-01

    One of the nitrile-synthesizing enzymes, β-cyano-L-alanine synthase, catalyzes β-cyano-L-alanine (β-CNAla) from potassium cyanide and O-acetyl-L-serine or L-cysteine. We have identified this enzyme from Pseudomonas ovalis No. 111. In this study, we cloned the β-CNAla synthase gene and expressed it in Escherichia coli and Rhodococcus rhodochrous. Furthermore, we carried out co-expression of β-CNAla synthase with nitrilase or nitrile hydratases in order to synthesize aspartic acid and asparagin...

  6. Part I. Cobalt thiolate complexes modeling the active site of cobalt nitrile hydratase. Part II. Formation of inorganic nanoparticles on protein scaffolding in Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Irene Yuk Man

    Part I. A series of novel cobalt dithiolate complexes with mixed imine/amine ligand systems is presented here as electronic and structural models for the active site in the bacterial enzyme class, nitrile hydratase (NHase). Pentadentate cobalt(II) complexes with S2N 3 ligand environments are first studied as precursors to the more relevant cobalt(III) complexes. Adjustment of the backbone length by removal of a methylene group increases the reactivity of the system; whereas reduction of the two backbone imine bonds to allow free rotation about those bonds may decrease reactivity. Reactivity change due to the replacement of the backbone amine proton with a more sterically challenging methyl group is not yet clear. Upon oxidation, the monocationic pentadentate cobalt(III) complex, 1b, shows promising reactivity similar to that of NHase. The metal's open coordination site allows reversible binding of the endogenous, monoanionic ligands, N 3- and NCS-. Oxygenation of the thiolate sulfur atoms by exposure to O2 and H2O 2 produces sulfenate and sulfinate ligands in complex 8, which resembles the crystal structure of "deactivated" Fe NHase. However, its lack of reactivity argues against the oxygenated enzyme structure as the active form. Six-coordinate cobalt(III) complexes with S2N4 amine/amine ligand systems are also presented as analogues of previously reported iron(III) compounds, which mimic the spectroscopic properties of Fe NHase. The cobalt complexes do not seem to similarly model Co NHase. However, the S = 0 cobalt(III) center can be spectroscopically silent and difficult to detect, making comparison with synthetic models using common techniques hard. Part II. Dodecameric Escherichia coli glutamine synthetase mutant, E165C, stacks along its six-fold axis to produce tubular nanostructures in the presence of some divalent metal ions, as does the wild type enzyme. The centrally located, engineered Cys-165 residues appear to bind to various species and may serve as

  7. Incidental diagnosis of HLRCC following investigation for Asperger Syndrome: actionable and actioned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Bich-Thu; Savarirayan, Ravi; Winship, Ingrid

    2016-01-01

    Incidental findings are inevitable as clinical research and practice transitions from a single gene approach to a genomic approach. A novel deletion of the Fumarate Hydratase (FH) gene was identified in a 22 year old male who underwent a molecular karyotype as part of an autism spectrum disorder research project. This unexpected result implies a predisposition to Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Cancer (HLRCC), a rare, autosomal dominant condition and has unforeseen implications for him and his family. We review the typical features and management of HLRCC and discuss the challenges that face health professionals, as genetic testing advances and becomes more accessible.

  8. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  9. [EFFECTS OF MELATONIN ON THE ACONITATE HYDRATASE ACTIVITY, CONTENT OF LIPID PEROXIDATION PRODUCTS AND SOME NON-ENZYMATIC ANTIOXIDANTS IN THE BLOOD OF PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS COMPLICATED BY STEATOHEPATITIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, S S; Pashkov, A N; Shul'gin, K K

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated by steatohepatitis is accompanied by a decrease in aconitate hydratase activity, increase in the content of diene conjugates, decrease in the concentration of α-tocopherol, and change in the citrate level in the blood serum of patients, which is evidence of the development of oxidative stress as a result of the intensification of free radical oxidation of biosubstrates and decreasing degree of antioxidant defense of the organism. Combined therapy with melaxen provided a more significant change of the investigated parameters toward the norm (on the average by 36%, p 0.05) in comparison with basic treatment. This result was evidently associated with implementation of the antioxidant effect of melatonin, the level of which is corrected under the action of the drug employed.

  10. The Drosophila hnRNP F/H Homolog Glorund Uses Two Distinct RNA-Binding Modes to Diversify Target Recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamayo, Joel V.; Teramoto, Takamasa; Chatterjee, Seema; Hall, Traci M. Tanaka; Gavis, Elizabeth R.

    2017-04-01

    The Drosophila hnRNP F/H homolog, Glorund (Glo), regulates nanos mRNA translation by interacting with a structured UA-rich motif in the nanos 3' untranslated region. Glo regulates additional RNAs, however, and mammalian homologs bind G-tract sequences to regulate alternative splicing, suggesting that Glo also recognizes G-tract RNA. To gain insight into how Glo recognizes both structured UA-rich and G-tract RNAs, we used mutational analysis guided by crystal structures of Glo’s RNA-binding domains and identified two discrete RNA-binding surfaces that allow Glo to recognize both RNA motifs. By engineering Glo variants that favor a single RNA-binding mode, we show that a subset of Glo’s functions in vivo is mediated solely by the G-tract binding mode, whereas regulation of nanos requires both recognition modes. Our findings suggest a molecular mechanism for the evolution of dual RNA motif recognition in Glo that may be applied to understanding the functional diversity of other RNA-binding proteins.

  11. Episomal Nonviral Gene Therapy Vectors Slow Progression of Atherosclerosis in a Model of Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alastair G Kerr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH is a life-threatening genetic disorder characterized by elevated levels of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-cholesterol. Current attempts at gene therapy for FH have been limited by the use of strong heterologous promoters which lack genomic DNA elements essential for regulated expression. Here, we have combined a minigene vector expressing the human LDLR cDNA from a 10 kb native human LDLR locus genomic DNA promoter element, with an efficient miRNA targeting 3-hydroxy-3-methylgutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr, to further enhance LDLR expression. We show that the combined vector suppresses endogenous Hmgcr transcripts in vivo, leading to an increase in LDLR transgene expression. In a diet-induced Ldlr-/- mouse model of FH, we show that administration of the combined vector reduces atherogenic plasma lipids by ≃32%. Finally, we demonstrate that our episomal nonviral vectors are able to reduce atherosclerosis by ≃40% after 12 weeks in vivo. Taken together, the vector system we describe exploits the normal cellular regulation of the LDLR to provide prolonged expression of LDLR through targeted knockdown of Hmgcr. This novel gene therapy system could act alone, or in synergy with current therapies that modulate intracellular cholesterol, such as statins, greatly enhancing its therapeutic application for FH.

  12. [New mutations in low-density lipoprotein receptor gene in familial hypercholesterolemia patients from Petrozavodsk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarova, T Yu; Golovina, A S; Grudinina, N A; Zakharova, F M; Korneva, V A; Lipovetsky, B M; Serebrenitskaya, M P; Konstantinov, V O; Vasilyev, V B; Mandelshtam, M Yu

    2013-06-01

    Using an automated fluorescent single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the entire coding region, promoter zone, and exon-intron junctions of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene, we examined 80 DNA samples of patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) from Petrozavodsk. We revealed mutations that might cause FH in five probands, including FH-North Karelia (c.925-931del7) mutation and four previously unknown mutations. These novel mutations included a transversion (c.618T>G (p.S206R), one nucleotide insertion c.195_196insT (p.FsV66:D129X), a complex gene rearrangement c.192del10/ins8 (p.FsS65:D129X), and a single nucleotide deletion c.2191delG (p.FsV731:V736X). Three out of four novel mutations produce an open reading frame shift and the premature termination of translation. An analysis of the cDNA sequence of the LDL receptor showed that this might result in the formation of a transmembrane-domain-deficient receptor that is unable to bind and internalize the ligand. Our results suggest the absence of a strong founder effect associated with FH in the Petrozavodsk population.

  13. High quality draft genome sequence of Olivibacter sitiensis type strain (AW-6(T)), a diphenol degrader with genes involved in the catechol pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Lapidus, Alla; Han, James; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja; Fasseas, Constantinos; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2014-06-15

    Olivibacter sitiensis Ntougias et al. 2007 is a member of the family Sphingobacteriaceae, phylum Bacteroidetes. Members of the genus Olivibacter are phylogenetically diverse and of significant interest. They occur in diverse habitats, such as rhizosphere and contaminated soils, viscous wastes, composts, biofilter clean-up facilities on contaminated sites and cave environments, and they are involved in the degradation of complex and toxic compounds. Here we describe the features of O. sitiensis AW-6(T), together with the permanent-draft genome sequence and annotation. The organism was sequenced under the Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project at the DOE Joint Genome Institute and is the first genome sequence of a species within the genus Olivibacter. The genome is 5,053,571 bp long and is comprised of 110 scaffolds with an average GC content of 44.61%. Of the 4,565 genes predicted, 4,501 were protein-coding genes and 64 were RNA genes. Most protein-coding genes (68.52%) were assigned to a putative function. The identification of 2-keto-4-pentenoate hydratase/2-oxohepta-3-ene-1,7-dioic acid hydratase-coding genes indicates involvement of this organism in the catechol catabolic pathway. In addition, genes encoding for β-1,4-xylanases and β-1,4-xylosidases reveal the xylanolytic action of O. sitiensis.

  14. High quality draft genome sequence of Olivibacter sitiensis type strain (AW-6T), a diphenol degrader with genes involved in the catechol pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Lapidus, Alla; Han, James; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja; Fasseas, Constantinos; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Zervakis, Georgios I.

    2014-01-01

    Olivibacter sitiensis Ntougias et al. 2007 is a member of the family Sphingobacteriaceae, phylum Bacteroidetes. Members of the genus Olivibacter are phylogenetically diverse and of significant interest. They occur in diverse habitats, such as rhizosphere and contaminated soils, viscous wastes, composts, biofilter clean-up facilities on contaminated sites and cave environments, and they are involved in the degradation of complex and toxic compounds. Here we describe the features of O. sitiensis AW-6T, together with the permanent-draft genome sequence and annotation. The organism was sequenced under the Genomic Encyclopedia for Bacteria and Archaea (GEBA) project at the DOE Joint Genome Institute and is the first genome sequence of a species within the genus Olivibacter. The genome is 5,053,571 bp long and is comprised of 110 scaffolds with an average GC content of 44.61%. Of the 4,565 genes predicted, 4,501 were protein-coding genes and 64 were RNA genes. Most protein-coding genes (68.52%) were assigned to a putative function. The identification of 2-keto-4-pentenoate hydratase/2-oxohepta-3-ene-1,7-dioic acid hydratase-coding genes indicates involvement of this organism in the catechol catabolic pathway. In addition, genes encoding for β-1,4-xylanases and β-1,4-xylosidases reveal the xylanolytic action of O. sitiensis. PMID:25197463

  15. Differentially expressed genes in human peripheral blood as potential markers for statin response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Hong-Hee; Kim, Suk Ran; Bang, Oh Young; Lee, Sang-Chol; Huh, Wooseong; Ko, Jae-Wook; Kim, Hyung-Gun; McLeod, Howard L; O'Connell, Thomas M; Kim, Jong-Won; Lee, Soo-Youn

    2012-02-01

    There is a considerable inter-individual variation in response to statin therapy and one third of patients do not meet their treatment goals. We aimed to identify differentially expressed genes that might be involved in the effects of statin treatment and to suggest potential markers to guide statin therapy. Forty-six healthy Korean subjects received atorvastatin; their whole-genome expression profiles in peripheral blood were analyzed before and after atorvastatin administration in relation with changes in lipid profiles. The expression patterns of the differentially expressed genes were also compared with the data of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients and controls. Pairwise comparison analyses revealed differentially expressed genes involved in diverse biological processes and molecular functions related with immune responses. Atorvastain mainly affected antigen binding, immune or inflammatory response including interleukin pathways. Similar expression patterns of the genes were observed in patients with FH and controls. The Charcol-Leyden crystal (CLC), CCR2, CX3CR1, LRRN3, FOS, LDLR, HLA-DRB1, ERMN, and TCN1 genes were significantly associated with cholesterol levels or statin response. Interestingly, the CLC gene, which was significantly altered by atorvastatin administration and differentially expressed between FH patients and controls, showed much bigger change in high-responsive group than in low-responsive group. We identified differentially expressed genes that might be involved in mechanisms underlying the known pleiotropic effects of atorvastatin, baseline cholesterol levels, and drug response. Our findings suggest CLC as a new candidate marker for statin response, and further validation is needed.

  16. Effects of intronic mutations in the LDLR gene on pre-mRNA splicing: Comparison of wet-lab and bioinformatics analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O.L. Holla; S. Nakken; M. Mattingsdal; T. Ranheim; K.E. Berge; J.C. Defesche; T.P. Leren

    2009-01-01

    Screening for mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene has identified more than 1000 mutations as the cause of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). In addition, numerous intronic mutations with uncertain effects on pre-mRNA splicing have also been identified. In this study, we ha

  17. NH4F/H3PO4体系中阳极氧化法制备TiO2纳米管阵列%Fabrication of TiO2 Nanotube Arrays via Electrochemical Anodization in NH4F/H3PO4 Electrolyte Solution System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李纲; 刘中清; 王磊; 卢静; 张昭

    2009-01-01

    以价廉的Ni板代替常用的Pt片为阴极,纯钛为阳极,采用电化学阳极氧化法在NH4F-H3PO4体系中制备出TiO2纳米管阵列.详细研究了制备参数(溶液酸度、氟离子浓度、外加电压和氧化时间)对所获纳米管阵列形貌的影响.采用场发射扫描电镜(FE-SEM)和X射线衍射(XRD)对样品的形貌和晶相结构进行了表征.在最优化的条件下,可以获得形貌规整、表面干净、有序的TiO2纳米管阵列.纳米管阵列的平均管径为60 nm.管长约530 nm.采用阳极氧化法制备的纳米管阵列是非晶态的.经400℃热处理2 h后,可以转变为锐钛矿相.实验结果还发现,经过热处理后,纳米管阵列变得更为有序,管径扩大至约95 nm.%TiO2 nanotube arrays were fabricated by anodization of titanium in aqueous electrolyte solution of NH4F+H3PO4 using a Nickel sheet of low cost as cathode instead of conventionally used noble Platinum. The effects of preparation parameters, i.e., concentration of H3PO4 and F-, applied voltage and anodization time, on the morphology of as-prepared nanotube arrays were systematically studied. Field emission scanning electron microscope(FE-SEM) and X-ray dittraction(XRD) analysis were carried out to characterize the morphology and structure of the samples. The results showed that the self-ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays with an average pore size of 60 nm and a length of 530 nm could be obtained under optimum conditions. The as-prepared nanotube arrays were amorphous and transformed to an anatase crystal structure after being annealed at 400 ℃ for 2 h. It was also found that the freshly-prepared nanotube arrays got more ordered after calcination, with a pore size of ca. 95 nm.

  18. Research of Applying DS/FH Hybrid Spread-spectrum Communication in Mine Mobile Communication System%DS/FH混合扩频通信应用于矿井移动通信系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢艳辉; 孙福文

    2009-01-01

    矿井移动通信系统是矿井安全生产、抢险救灾的重要保障.为了提高矿井移动通信系统的可靠性和稳定性,文章提出将DS/FH混合扩频技术应用于矿井移动通信系统的方案,从理论上对DS/FH混合扩频技术进行了详细分析,在此基础上,基于Systemview建立了通信系统的仿真模型.仿真结果和系统的误码率特性分析证明了DS/FH混合扩频技术应用的可行性,为矿井移动通信的发展提供了重要的理论依据.%Mine mobile communication system is the important guarantee of mine safety production and emergency rescue and disaster relief. In order to improve the reliability and stability of mine mobile communication system, the paper put forward a scheme of applying DS/FH hybrid spread-spectrum communication in mine mobile communication system and theoretically made detailed analysis on DS/FH hybrid spread-spectrum communication technology. On the basis of the theory analysis, simulation model of the communication system was established based on Systemview. The simulation result and BER characteristics analysis proved the application feasibility of DS/FH hybrid spread-spectrum communication technology, which provides important theory basis for development of mine mobile communication.

  19. Degradation of the neonicotinoid insecticide acetamiprid via the N-carbamoylimine derivate (IM-1-2) mediated by the nitrile hydratase of the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Ensifer meliloti CGMCC 7333.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ling-Yan; Zhang, Long-Jiang; Sun, Shi-Lei; Ge, Feng; Mao, Shi-Yun; Ma, Yuan; Liu, Zhong-Hua; Dai, Yi-Jun; Yuan, Sheng

    2014-10-15

    The metabolism of the widely used neonicotinoid insecticide acetamiprid (ACE) has been extensively studied in plants, animals, soils, and microbes. However, hydration of the N-cyanoimine group in ACE to the N-carbamoylimine derivate (IM-1-2) by purified microbes, the enzyme responsible for this biotransformation, and further degradation of IM-1-2 have not been studied. The present study used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine that the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Ensifer meliloti CGMCC 7333 transforms ACE to IM-1-2. CGMCC 7333 cells degraded 65.1% of ACE in 96 h, with a half-life of 2.6 days. Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) overexpressing the nitrile hydratase (NHase) from CGMCC 7333 and purified NHase converted ACE to IM-1-2 with degradation ratios of 97.1% in 100 min and 93.9% in 120 min, respectively. Interestingly, IM-1-2 was not further degraded by CGMCC 7333, whereas it was spontaneously hydrolyzed at the N-carbamoylimine group to the derivate ACE-NH, which was further converted to the derivative ACE-NH2. Then, ACE-NH2 was cleaved to the major metabolite IM-1-4. IM-1-2 showed significantly lower insecticidal activity than ACE against the aphid Aphis craccivora Koch. The present findings will improve the understanding of the environmental fate of ACE and the corresponding enzymatic mechanisms of degradation.

  20. Inducing Expression and Reaction Characteristic of Nitrile Hydratase from Rhodococcus sp. SHZ-1%Rhodococcus sp.SHZ-1腈水合酶的诱导表达和稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王超; 张根林; 徐小琳; 李春

    2007-01-01

    Inducing expression and the reaction characteristic of nitrile hydratase (NHase) from Rhodococcus sp.SHZ-1 were investigated. The results showed that the expression of NHase was greatly enhanced with the cooperation of acrylonitrile and ammonium chloride as inducer in the medium and the specific activity of NHase was increased of 44%. Then the temperature, pH, concentration of acrylonitrile and acrylamide were evaluated, which affected the activity and reaction characteristic of NHase. It was found that the temperature and concentration of acrylamide were the most important factors for the catalyzation of NHase. The optimal catalysis temperature of NHase from Rhodococcus sp. SHZ-1 was 30℃, and the activation energy of the hydration of NHase was 90.2kJ·mol-1 in the temperature range from 5℃ to 30℃. Km of NHase was 0.095mol.L-1 using acrylonitrile(AN)as substrate, and NHase activity was inhibited seriously when acrylonitrile concentration was up to 40g·L-1, the substrate inhibition constant Ki is 0.283mol·L-1. Moreover, the NHase from Rhodococcus sp. SHZ-1 had very strong tolerance to acrylamide, in which the final concentration of acrylamide reached to 642g·L-1 and the residual activity of NHase still maintained 8.6% of the initial enzyme activity.

  1. LDLR-Gene therapy for familial hypercholesterolaemia: problems, progress, and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery diseases (CAD) inflict a heavy economical and social burden on most populations and contribute significantly to their morbidity and mortality rates. Low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) associated familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most frequent Mendelian disorder and is a major risk factor for the development of CAD. To date there is no cure for FH. The primary goal of clinical management is to control hypercholesterolaemia in order to decrease the risk of atherosclerosis and to prevent CAD. Permanent phenotypic correction with single administration of a gene therapeutic vector is a goal still needing to be achieved. The first ex vivo clinical trial of gene therapy in FH was conducted nearly 18 years ago. Patients who had inherited LDLR gene mutations were subjected to an aggressive surgical intervention involving partial hepatectomy to obtain the patient's own hepatocytes for ex vivo gene transfer with a replication deficient LDLR-retroviral vector. After successful re-infusion of transduced cells through a catheter placed in the inferior mesenteric vein at the time of liver resection, only low-level expression of the transferred LDLR gene was observed in the five patients enrolled in the trial. In contrast, full reversal of hypercholesterolaemia was later demonstrated in in vivo preclinical studies using LDLR-adenovirus mediated gene transfer. However, the high efficiency of cell division independent gene transfer by adenovirus vectors is limited by their short-term persistence due to episomal maintenance and the cytotoxicity of these highly immunogenic viruses. Novel long-term persisting vectors derived from adeno-associated viruses and lentiviruses, are now available and investigations are underway to determine their safety and efficiency in preparation for clinical application for a variety of diseases. Several novel non-viral based therapies have also been developed recently to lower LDL-C serum levels in FH patients. This article

  2. 丙烯酰胺转化菌的分离筛选及其产酶条件%Screening of acrylamide bioconversion bacterium and of its nitrile hydratase producing conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙先锋; 沈旭丰; 吕小明; 周飞

    2009-01-01

    A strain T3, which has the better ability of acrylamide bioconversion, was isolated from activated sludge in wastewater treatment system at an acrylic fiber factory. T3 is primarily identified as Rhodococcus sp. according to its mor-phological observation. The process conditions producing nitrile hydratase for T3 were investigated. The results indicated that optimal conditions are initial medium pH 7. 5, culture temperature 35℃ and culture time 72h; And the study also showed that 0. 05g/L Co2+ is very important to improving enzyme activity. Under the optimum fermentation conditions, the enzyme activity of T3 cell culture fluid may reaches its maximum value 128.3U/mg, which increased by 55. 1% than before.%从腈纶厂污水处理系统的活性污泥中分离和筛选到一株丙烯酰胺转化菌.经初步鉴定,菌株T3属于红球菌属(Rlwdococcus sp.).对菌株T3产生腈水合酶的最适条件进行研究,结果表明,该菌株的最适产酶条件为培养基初始pH值7.5,培养温度35℃,培养时间72h,同时加入0.05g/L Co2+也会明显提高酶活性.在最适产酶条件下,菌株,13培养液的最高比酶活可达128.3U/mg,比优化前提高55.1%.

  3. Nitrile-synthesizing enzyme: Gene cloning, overexpression and application for the production of useful compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumano, Takuto; Takizawa, Yuko; Shimizu, Sakayu; Kobayashi, Michihiko

    2016-09-12

    One of the nitrile-synthesizing enzymes, β-cyano-L-alanine synthase, catalyzes β-cyano-L-alanine (β-CNAla) from potassium cyanide and O-acetyl-L-serine or L-cysteine. We have identified this enzyme from Pseudomonas ovalis No. 111. In this study, we cloned the β-CNAla synthase gene and expressed it in Escherichia coli and Rhodococcus rhodochrous. Furthermore, we carried out co-expression of β-CNAla synthase with nitrilase or nitrile hydratases in order to synthesize aspartic acid and asparagine from KCN and O-acetyl-L-serine. This strategy can be used for the synthesis of labeled amino acids by using a carbon-labeled KCN as a substrate, resulting in an application for positron emission tomography.

  4. Structure and mechanism of a nonhaem-iron SAM-dependent C-methyltransferase and its engineering to a hydratase and an O-methyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao-Wei; Liu, Yu-Chen; Hsu, Ning-Shian; Huang, Chuen-Jiuan; Lyu, Syue-Yi; Chan, Hsiu-Chien; Chang, Chin-Yuan; Yeh, Hsien-Wei; Lin, Kuan-Hung; Wu, Chang-Jer; Tsai, Ming-Daw; Li, Tsung-Lin

    2014-06-01

    In biological systems, methylation is most commonly performed by methyltransferases (MTs) using the electrophilic methyl source S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) via the S(N)2 mechanism. (2S,3S)-β-Methylphenylalanine, a nonproteinogenic amino acid, is a building unit of the glycopeptide antibiotic mannopeptimycin. The gene product of mppJ from the mannopeptimycin-biosynthetic gene cluster is the MT that methylates the benzylic C atom of phenylpyruvate (Ppy) to give βMePpy. Although the benzylic C atom of Ppy is acidic, how its nucleophilicity is further enhanced to become an acceptor for C-methylation has not conclusively been determined. Here, a structural approach is used to address the mechanism of MppJ and to engineer it for new functions. The purified MppJ displays a turquoise colour, implying the presence of a metal ion. The crystal structures reveal MppJ to be the first ferric ion SAM-dependent MT. An additional four structures of binary and ternary complexes illustrate the molecular mechanism for the metal ion-dependent methyltransfer reaction. Overall, MppJ has a nonhaem iron centre that bind, orients and activates the α-ketoacid substrate and has developed a sandwiched bi-water device to avoid the formation of the unwanted reactive oxo-iron(IV) species during the C-methylation reaction. This discovery further prompted the conversion of the MT into a structurally/functionally unrelated new enzyme. Through stepwise mutagenesis and manipulation of coordination chemistry, MppJ was engineered to perform both Lewis acid-assisted hydration and/or O-methyltransfer reactions to give stereospecific new compounds. This process was validated by six crystal structures. The results reported in this study will facilitate the development and design of new biocatalysts for difficult-to-synthesize biochemicals.

  5. Peroxisomal multifunctional enzyme type 2 from the fruitfly: dehydrogenase and hydratase act as separate entities, as revealed by structure and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haataja, Tatu J K; Koski, M Kristian; Hiltunen, J Kalervo; Glumoff, Tuomo

    2011-05-01

    All of the peroxisomal β-oxidation pathways characterized thus far house at least one MFE (multifunctional enzyme) catalysing two out of four reactions of the spiral. MFE type 2 proteins from various species display great variation in domain composition and predicted substrate preference. The gene CG3415 encodes for Drosophila melanogaster MFE-2 (DmMFE-2), complements the Saccharomyces cerevisiae MFE-2 deletion strain, and the recombinant protein displays both MFE-2 enzymatic activities in vitro. The resolved crystal structure is the first one for a full-length MFE-2 revealing the assembly of domains, and the data can also be transferred to structure-function studies for other MFE-2 proteins. The structure explains the necessity of dimerization. The lack of substrate channelling is proposed based on both the structural features, as well as by the fact that hydration and dehydrogenation activities of MFE-2, if produced as separate enzymes, are equally efficient in catalysis as the full-length MFE-2.

  6. Gene expression profiling reveals multiple toxicity endpoints induced by hepatotoxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Qihong; Jin Xidong; Gaillard, Elias T.; Knight, Brian L.; Pack, Franklin D.; Stoltz, James H.; Jayadev, Supriya; Blanchard, Kerry T

    2004-05-18

    Microarray technology continues to gain increased acceptance in the drug development process, particularly at the stage of toxicology and safety assessment. In the current study, microarrays were used to investigate gene expression changes associated with hepatotoxicity, the most commonly reported clinical liability with pharmaceutical agents. Acetaminophen, methotrexate, methapyrilene, furan and phenytoin were used as benchmark compounds capable of inducing specific but different types of hepatotoxicity. The goal of the work was to define gene expression profiles capable of distinguishing the different subtypes of hepatotoxicity. Sprague-Dawley rats were orally dosed with acetaminophen (single dose, 4500 mg/kg for 6, 24 and 72 h), methotrexate (1 mg/kg per day for 1, 7 and 14 days), methapyrilene (100 mg/kg per day for 3 and 7 days), furan (40 mg/kg per day for 1, 3, 7 and 14 days) or phenytoin (300 mg/kg per day for 14 days). Hepatic gene expression was assessed using toxicology-specific gene arrays containing 684 target genes or expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Principal component analysis (PCA) of gene expression data was able to provide a clear distinction of each compound, suggesting that gene expression data can be used to discern different hepatotoxic agents and toxicity endpoints. Gene expression data were applied to the multiplicity-adjusted permutation test and significantly changed genes were categorized and correlated to hepatotoxic endpoints. Repression of enzymes involved in lipid oxidation (acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, medium chain, enoyl CoA hydratase, very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase) were associated with microvesicular lipidosis. Likewise, subsets of genes associated with hepatotocellular necrosis, inflammation, hepatitis, bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis have been identified. The current study illustrates that expression profiling can be used to: (1) distinguish different hepatotoxic endpoints; (2) predict the development of toxic endpoints; and

  7. IDENTIFICATION OF POLYMORPHISM OF FSH BETA-SUBUNIT GENE AS SPERM QUALITY MARKER IN BALI CATTLE USING PCR-RFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B.L. Ishak

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of study was to identify the association of FSH beta-subunit gene polymorphisms withsperm quality traits. A total of 470 samples of normal mature bull from several breeds were used forpopulation study and 127 bulls from National and Regional AI centre of Indonesia for association study.To amplify, a PCR-RFLP method was used and digested with Pst1 restriction enzyme. The allelefrequency of the A and B in Bali cattle were (0.000 and (1.000, respectively. The absence of otherallele A suggested that the Bali cattle was monomorphic, while Brahman, FH, Simmental and Limousinewere polymorphic. The highest observed heterozygosity were found in Limousine (0.318 and thehighest expected heterozygosity were in Simmental (0.420. The higher incident of percentage of spermabnormalities were found in Simmental, Limousin, Brahman compared to Bali and FH. Among all typesof sperm abnormalities, the abaxial and microcephalus were found in highest number.

  8. GenBank blastx search result: AK059236 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK059236 001-024-F01 AB016078.1 Rhodococcus sp. N-771 genes for nitrile hydratase r...egulator 2 and 1, amidase, nitrile hydratase alpha and beta subunits and nitrile hydratase activator, complete cds.|BCT BCT 8e-18 +3 ...

  9. GenBank blastx search result: AK243402 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243402 J100064O18 AB016078.1 AB016078 Rhodococcus sp. N-771 genes for nitrile hyd...ratase regulator 2 and 1, amidase, nitrile hydratase alpha and beta subunits and nitrile hydratase activator, complete cds. BCT 1e-27 1 ...

  10. Sleeping Beauty Transposon Vectors in Liver-directed Gene Delivery of LDLR and VLDLR for Gene Therapy of Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, Tytteli A K; Kurkipuro, Jere; Heikura, Tommi; Vuorio, Taina; Hytönen, Elisa; Izsvák, Zsuzsanna; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2016-03-01

    Plasmid-based Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon vectors were developed and used to deliver genes for low-density lipoprotein and very-low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR and VLDLR, respectively) or lacZ reporter into liver of an LDLR-deficient mouse model of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). SB transposase, SB100x, was used to integrate the therapeutic transposons into mice livers for evaluating the feasibility of the vectors in reducing high blood cholesterol and the progression of atherosclerosis. Hydrodynamic gene delivery of transposon-VLDLR into the livers of the mice resulted in initial 17-19% reductions in plasma cholesterol, and at the later time points, in a significant stabilization of the cholesterol level for the 6.5-month duration of the study compared to the control mice. Transposon-LDLR-treated animals also demonstrated a trend of stabilization in the cholesterol levels in the long term. Vector-treated mice had slightly less lipid accumulation in the liver and reduced aortic atherosclerosis. Clinical chemistry and histological analyses revealed normal liver function and morphology comparable to that of the controls during the follow-up with no safety issues regarding the vector type, transgenes, or the gene transfer method. The study demonstrates the safety and potential benefits of the SB transposon vectors in the treatment of FH.

  11. Genetic Variations at ABCG5/G8 Genes Modulate Plasma Lipids Concentrations in Patients with Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Rios, A; Perez-Martinez, P; Fuentes, F; Mata, P; Lopez-Miranda, J; Alonso, R; Rodriguez, F; Garcia-Olid, A; Ruano, J; Ordovas, JM; Perez-Jimenez, F

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association of four common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at ABCG5 (i7892A>G, i18429C>T, Gln604GluC>G, i11836G>A) and five at ABCG8 (5U145T>G, Tyr54CysA>G, Asp19HisG>C, i14222T>C, and Thr400LysG>T) with plasma lipids concentrations and to explore the interaction between those SNPs and smoking in patients with FH. Methods and Results ABCG5/G8 SNPs were genotyped in 500 subjects with genetic diagnosis of FH. Carriers of the minor A allele at the ABCG5_i11836G>A SNP displayed significantly higher HDL-C concentrations (P=0.023) than G/G subjects. In addition, carriers of the minor G allele at the ABCG5_Gln604GluC>G SNP had significantly lower VLDL-C (P=0.011) and lower TG (P=0.017) concentrations than homozygous C/C. Interestingly, a significant gene-smoking interaction was found, in which carriers of the minor alleles at ABCG5 (i7892A>G, i18429C>T, i11836G>A) SNPs displayed significantly lower HDL-C, higher TC and higher TG respectively, only in smokers. On the other hand, non-smokers carriers of the minor alleles at ABCG5 (i18429C>T and Gln604GluC>G) SNPs had significantly lower TG concentrations (P=0.012 and P=0.035) compared with homozygous for the major allele. Conclusions Our data support the notion that ABCG5/G8 genetic variants modulate plasma lipids concentrations in patients with FH and confirm that this effect could be influenced by smoking. Therefore, these results suggest that gene-environmental interactions can affect the clinical phenotype of FH. PMID:20172523

  12. A novel mutation in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 gene leads to familial hypercholesterolemia in a Chinese family

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jie; JIANG Zhi-sheng; WANG Lu-ya; LIU Shu; WANG Xu-min; YONG Qiang; YANG Ya; DU Lan-ping; PAN Xiao-dong; WANG Xu

    2010-01-01

    Background Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal disorder associated with elevated plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels leading to premature coronary heart disease (CHD). As a result of long-term hyperlipemia, FH patients will present endarterium thickening and atherosclerosis. In the present study we scanned the related gene of a clinically diagnosed autosomal genetic hypercholesterolemia family for the possible mutations and established eukaryotic expression vector of mutation of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) gene with gene recombination technique to investigate the contributions of the variation on low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) metabolism and function alternation.Methods Mutation detection was conducted for LDL-R, apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) and PCSK9 gene with nucleotide sequencing in a Chinese FH family. The full-length cDNA of wild type PCSK9 gene (WT-PCSK9) was obtained from Bel-7402. Site mutagenesis was used to establish the recombinant eukaryotic expression vector carrying pathogenic type of PCSK9 gene and the inserted fragment was sequenced. With the blank vector as control, liposome transfection method was used to transfect the Bel-7402 cells with recombinant plasmid. The expression of LDL-R mRNA was examined by RT-PCR. PCSK9 and the expression of LDL-R protein were determined by Western blotting. Results The G→T mutation at the 918 nucleotide of PCSK9 gene resulted in the substitution of the arginine by a serine at the codon 306 of exon 6. After sequencing, it was confirmed that the inserted fragment of established expression vector had correct size and sequence and the mutant was highly expressed in Bel-7402 cells. There was no significant variation in the levels of LDL-R mRNA. LDL-R mature protein was decreased by 57% after the cells were transfected by WT-PCSK9 plasmid. Mature LDL-R was significantly decreased by 12% after the cells were transfected by R306S mutant as evidenced by gray scale

  13. Neonization method for stopping, mean excitation energy, straggling, and for total and differential ionization cross sections of CH4, NH3, H2O and FH by impact of heavy projectiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanari, C. C.; Miraglia, J. E.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a neonization method to deal with molecules composed by hydrides of the second row of the periodic table of elements: CH4, NH3, OH2 and FH. This method describes these ten-electron molecules as dressed atoms in a pseudo-spherical potential. We test it by covering most of the inelastic collisional magnitudes of experimental interest: ionization cross sections (total, single and double differential), stopping power, energy-loss straggling and mean excitation energy. To this end, the neonization method has been treated with different collisional formalisms, such as the continuum-distorted-wave-eikonal-initial-state, the first order Born, and the shell-wise local plasma approximations. We show that the present model reproduces the different empirical values with high reliability in the intermediate to high-energy region. We also include the expansion of the spherical wave functions in terms of Slater-type orbitals and the analytic expression for the spherical potentials. This makes it possible in the future to tackle present neonization strategy with other collisional models.

  14. Analysis of sequence variations in low-density lipoprotein receptor gene among Malaysian patients with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khateeb, Alyaa; Zahri, Mohd K; Mohamed, Mohd S; Sasongko, Teguh H; Ibrahim, Suhairi; Yusof, Zurkurnai; Zilfalil, Bin A

    2011-03-19

    Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic disorder mainly caused by defects in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene. Few and limited analyses of familial hypercholesterolemia have been performed in Malaysia, and the underlying mutations therefore remain largely unknown.We studied a group of 154 unrelated FH patients from a northern area of Malaysia (Kelantan). The promoter region and exons 2-15 of the LDLR gene were screened by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography to detect short deletions and nucleotide substitutions, and by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to detect large rearrangements. A total of 29 gene sequence variants were reported in 117(76.0%) of the studied subjects. Eight different mutations (1 large rearrangement, 1 short deletion, 5 missense mutations, and 1 splice site mutation), and 21 variants. Eight gene sequence variants were reported for the first time and they were noticed in familial hypercholesterolemic patients, but not in controls (p.Asp100Asp, p.Asp139His, p.Arg471Gly, c.1705+117 T>G, c.1186+41T>A, 1705+112C>G, Dup exon 12 and p.Trp666ProfsX45). The incidence of the p.Arg471Gly variant was 11%. Patients with pathogenic mutations were younger, had significantly higher incidences of cardiovascular disease, xanthomas, and family history of hyperlipidemia, together with significantly higher total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels than patients with non-pathogenic variants. Twenty-nine gene sequence variants occurred among FH patients; those with predicted pathogenicity were associated with higher incidences of cardiovascular diseases, tendon xanthomas, and higher total and low density lipoprotein levels compared to the rest. These results provide preliminary information on the mutation spectrum of this gene among patients with FH in Malaysia.

  15. Analysis of sequence variations in low-density lipoprotein receptor gene among Malaysian patients with familial hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusof Zurkurnai

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic disorder mainly caused by defects in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene. Few and limited analyses of familial hypercholesterolemia have been performed in Malaysia, and the underlying mutations therefore remain largely unknown. We studied a group of 154 unrelated FH patients from a northern area of Malaysia (Kelantan. The promoter region and exons 2-15 of the LDLR gene were screened by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography to detect short deletions and nucleotide substitutions, and by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to detect large rearrangements. Results A total of 29 gene sequence variants were reported in 117(76.0% of the studied subjects. Eight different mutations (1 large rearrangement, 1 short deletion, 5 missense mutations, and 1 splice site mutation, and 21 variants. Eight gene sequence variants were reported for the first time and they were noticed in familial hypercholesterolemic patients, but not in controls (p.Asp100Asp, p.Asp139His, p.Arg471Gly, c.1705+117 T>G, c.1186+41T>A, 1705+112C>G, Dup exon 12 and p.Trp666ProfsX45. The incidence of the p.Arg471Gly variant was 11%. Patients with pathogenic mutations were younger, had significantly higher incidences of cardiovascular disease, xanthomas, and family history of hyperlipidemia, together with significantly higher total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein levels than patients with non-pathogenic variants. Conclusions Twenty-nine gene sequence variants occurred among FH patients; those with predicted pathogenicity were associated with higher incidences of cardiovascular diseases, tendon xanthomas, and higher total and low density lipoprotein levels compared to the rest. These results provide preliminary information on the mutation spectrum of this gene among patients with FH in Malaysia.

  16. "FAMILIAL DEFECTIVE APOLIPORROTEIN B 100: FREQUENCY OF R3500Q MUTATION OF APOLIPOROTEIN B GENE IN IRANIAN HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC PATIENTS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fard-Esfahani

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Familial defective apolipoprotein (apo B 100 (FDB causes early-onset coronary heart diseases (CHD. It is produced by R3500Q mutation of the apoB gene resulting in decreased binding of LDL to LDL receptor. We screened the apo B gene for R3500Q mutation in 130 hypercholesterolemic patients, among whom 30 patients met criteria of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH. The prevalence of R3500Q allele in this patient population was 0%. To obtain better estimation of mutation frequency, a broad survey is needed.

  17. SAJAA JA Marfan' (Converte.fh9

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studio G5

    dominant condition, with variable expression. The pathology is related to ... maintenance with isoflurane, while breathing spontaneously via a face mask. The procedure .... syndrome: clinical report and review of the literature. Clin. Dysmorphol.

  18. Mutational analysis of the LDL receptor and APOB genes in Mexican individuals with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaca, Gerardo; Vàzquez, Alejandra; Magaña, Marìa Teresa; Ramìrez, Marìa Lourdes; Dàvalos, Ingrid P; Martìnez, Esperanza; Marìn, Bertha; Carrillo, Gabriela

    2011-10-01

    The goal of this project was to identify families with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolemia (ADH) to facilitate early detection and treatment and to provide genetic counselling as well as to approximate the mutational diversity of ADH in Mexico. Mutational analysis of the LDLR and APOB genes in 62 index cases with a clinical and/or biochemical diagnosis of ADH was performed. Twenty-five mutations (24 LDLR, 1 APOB) were identified in 38 index cases. A total of 162 individuals with ADH were identified using familial segregation analysis performed in 269 relatives of the index cases. In addition, a novel PCSK9 mutation, c.1850 C>A (p.Ala617Asp), was detected. The LDLR mutations showed the following characteristics: (1) four mutations are novel: c.695 -1G>T, c.1034_1035insA, c.1586 G>A, c.2264_2273del; (2) the most common mutations were c.682 G>A (FH-Mexico), c.1055 G>A (FH-Mexico 2), and c.1090 T>C (FH-Mexico 3); (3) five mutations were identified in 3 or more apparently unrelated probands; (4) three mutations were observed in a true homozygous state; and (5) four index cases were compound heterozygous, and one was a carrier of two mutations in the same allele. These results suggest that, in Mexico, ADH exhibits allelic heterogeneity with 5 relatively common LDLR mutations and that mutations in the APOB gene are not a common cause of ADH. This knowledge is important for the genotype-phenotype correlation and for optimising both cholesterol lowering therapies and mutational analysis protocols. In addition, these data contribute to the understanding of the molecular basis of ADH in Mexico.

  19. Genes and Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  20. The color of a Dalmatian's spots: Linkage evidence to support the TYRP1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strain George M

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The distinctive coat pattern of a Dalmatian is the result of the interaction of several loci. While the encoded function of these genes is not fully understood, it is known the Piebald, Ticking, and Flecking loci interact to produce the Dalmatian's classic pigmented spots on a white background. The color of the pigmented spots in purebred Dalmatians can either be black or liver, but the locus responsible for color determination is unknown. Studies have been conducted to determine the underlying genes involved in coat color determination in the dog, e.g., in the Labrador Retriever, but none to date have addressed black versus liver in the Dalmatian. Results A genome scan was conducted in a multi-generational kindred of Dalmatians segregating black and liver spot color. Linkage analysis was performed using a total of 113 polymorphic microsatellite markers from the kindred. Linkage was found between spot color and a single microsatellite marker, FH2319 (LOD = 12.5 on chromosome 11. Conclusion The TYRP1 (Brown locus is located at position 50.1 Mb on chromosome 11, which is approximately 0.4 Mb from marker FH2319. Given the recent characterization of TYRP1 genetic variations in the dog and the linkage evidence reported here, TYRP1 is likely responsible for the spot color variation of black versus liver seen in the Dalmatian.

  1. EFFECT OF FSH β-SUB UNIT AND FSHR GENES POLYMORPHISMS ON SUPEROVULATORY RESPONSE TRAITS

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    E. Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH is a pituitary expressed glycoprotein hormone that regulatesreproduction in mammals which composed of α and β-sub unit. The β-sub unit dictates its bindingspecificity with their receptor (FSHR. This study aimed to identify polymorphism of FSH β-sub unitand FSHR genes, and its effect to superovulatory response traits on superovulated cows. Study was doneon 32 cows including Angus, Friesian Holstein (FH, Limousin, Simmental and Brahman in CipelangLivestock Embryo Center. Cows used have been treated superovulation and mated by artificialinsemination. Superovulation response (SR, ovulation rate (OR, fertilization percentage (FP andviable transfer embryo percentage (VP were analyzed to investigate the effect of FSH β-sub unit andFSHR polymorphism. Allele frequency of FSH β-sub unit|PstI and FSH|AluI were opposite withinspecies. Mostly B allele and C allele for FSH β-sub unit and FSHR respectively have a high number inBos taurus species while those were in contrast in Bos indicus species. The highest heterozygosity wasfound in FH cattle (0.250 for FSH β-sub unit and Brahman (0.333 for FSHR. Significant effect was found between FSHR gene polymorphism with ovulation rate where CC genotype was higher (P<0.05than CG and GG genotypes.

  2. Transcription factor control of growth rate dependent genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A three factor design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fazio, Alessandro; Jewett, Michael Christopher; Daran-Lapujade, Pascale;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Characterization of cellular growth is central to understanding living systems. Here, we applied a three-factor design to study the relationship between specific growth rate and genome-wide gene expression in 36 steady-state chemostat cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The three...... factors we considered were specific growth rate, nutrient limitation, and oxygen availability. Results: We identified 268 growth rate dependent genes, independent of nutrient limitation and oxygen availability. The transcriptional response was used to identify key areas in metabolism around which m...... transcription factor target sets, transcription factors that coordinate balanced growth were also identified. Our analysis shows that FhII, Rap1, and Sfp1, regulating protein biosynthesis, have significantly enriched target sets for genes up-regulated with increasing growth rate. Cell cycle regulators...

  3. Gene expression profiling of valvular interstitial cells in Rapacz familial hypercholesterolemic swine

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    Ana M. Porras

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapacz familial hypercholesterolemic (RFH swine is a well-established model of human FH, a highly prevalent hereditary disease associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease and calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD. However, while these animals have been used extensively for the study of atherosclerosis, the heart valves from RFH swine have not previously been examined. We report the analysis of valvular interstitial cell gene expression in adult (two year old and juvenile (three months old RFH and WT swine by microarray analysis via the Affymetrix Porcine Genome Array (GEO #: GSE53997. Principal component and hierarchical clustering analysis revealed grouping and almost no variability between the RFH juvenile and WT juvenile groups. Additionally, only 21 genes were found differentially expressed between these two experimental groups whereas over 900 genes were differentially expressed when comparing either RFH or WT juvenile swine to RFH adults.

  4. ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN POLYMORPHISM OF GROWTH HORMONE GENE WITH MILK PRODUCTION, FAT AND PROTEIN CONTENT IN FRIESIAN HOLSTEIN CATTLE

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    T. Hartatik

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to determine the associations between polymorphism of the bovine growth hormone (GH gene (Leu/Val and milk production of Friesian Holstein Cattle. A total of 62 cows which consist of two Friesian Holstein cattle groups (from New Zealand=19 heads and Australia=43 heads were used for the research. We performed the Polymerase Chain Reaction and followed by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism using AluI restriction enzyme. The genotype was observed base on the target gene GH 211 bp in the part of intron 4 and exon 5 of growth hormone gene. The frequencies of genotypes LL were found higher than genotype LV in both groups. Friesian Holstein cattle from New Zealand showed the genotype LL and LV as 84% and 16%, respectively. Friesian Holstein cattle from Australia show the genotype LL and LV as 79% and 21%, respectively. The association between Leu/Val polymorphism on milk production, fat and protein content in both groups did not show the significant effect. Base on two groups of the origin of cattle, the result showed the significant different on fat and protein content of milk. Fat and protein contents of milk were higher in breed of FH imported from Australia compared to those in breed of FH imported from New Zailand.

  5. Clinical expression in heterozygotes of two frequent low density lipoprotein receptor gene mutations in the French Canadian population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, M.; Minnich, A.; Davignon, J. [Clinical Research Institute of Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Five mutations in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (R) gene account for approximately 83% of cases of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (hFH) in French Canadians in Quebec. The two most prevalent mutations are a >10kb deletion (10kb) of the promoter region resulting in a null allele (60.5% of cases) and a trp{sub 66}{r_arrow}gly missense mutation in exon 3 (ex3) resulting in a binding-defective R (11.7%). We have compared the phenotypic expression of these two mutations in 427 10kb hFH patients, 239 women (age 37.5 {plus_minus} 14.2 years) and 188 men (33.7 {plus_minus} 11.7) and 69 ex3 hFH patients, 42 women (40.6 {plus_minus} 14.3) and 27 men (36.8 {plus_minus}13.2). All data were analyzed separately for women and men. Tendon xanthomas were more prevalent in the 10kb (women 63%, men 68%) than in the ex3 patients (48%,48%). Total and LDL cholesterol were significantly higher in the 10kb patients with than without xanthomas but similar in ex3 patients. There were no significant differences in plasma lipoprotein concentrations between 10kb and ex3 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) or between 10kb and ex3 patients without CAD. Among men with CAD, those with 10kb were significantly younger than those with ex3 (39.6 {plus_minus} 9.8, n=93 and 46.4 {plus_minus} 7.0, n=9, respectively). In both sexes, high plasma lipoprotein concentrations conferred an increased risk of CAD in 10kb but not in ex3 patients. Thus, as in homozygotes (previous study), the >10kb deletion is associated with more severe expression of FH than is the exon 3 mutation, although the plasma lipoprotein concentrations are not significantly different between the 10kb and ex3 heterozygotes. Since in homozygotes plasma cholesterol levels in 10kb are 60% higher than in ex3 patients, these observations suggest that the expression of the normal LDL-R allele compensates for the lack of a second allele in 10kb heterozygotes.

  6. Effect of Carthami Tinctorii Fructus Herbal-acupuncture Solution(CTF-HAS on Gene Expression in HepG2 carcinomar cells by Proteomic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kyung-min

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : It has long been known about the osteogenic effect of CTF-HAS on bone tissues. However, it has not been determined the effect of CTF-HAS on cancer cells. The purpose of this study is to screen the CTF-HAS mediated differentially expressed genes in cancer cells such as HepG2 hepatoma cells lines. Methods : CTF-HAS was prepared by boiling and stored at -70℃ until use. For proteomic analysis, total protein was analyzed by 2D gel electrophoresis and Q-TOF mass spectrometer. Results : In proteomic analysis, three spots were identified by 2D-gel electrophoresis and Q-TOF analysis. One down-regulated protein was heat shock 70kDa protein 5 and up-regulated proteins were chaperonin and 2-phospho -pyruvate-hydratase α-enolase by 1.5mg/㎖ of CTF-HAS. Discussion : Proteomic ananlysis approach were performed to screen the differential expression genes. The screened genes will be used for the better understanding in therapeutic effect of CTF-HAS on cancer field.

  7. Allele-specific expression of the low density lipoprotein receptor gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnich, A.; Lussier-Cacan, S.; Roy, M. [Clincial Research Institute of Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Approximately 60% of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) in French Canadians is due to a > 10 kb deletion of the promoter region of the gene encoding the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDL-R), allowing determination of the influence of a single LDL-R allele on phenotypic expression of FH. Normal allele haplotypes of approximately 250 heterozygotes were determined with 7 RFLPs. In vitro maximal LDL-R activity of blood lymphocytes from a subset of approximately 150 heterozygotes, measured by immunocytofluorometry, was significantly higher (20 to 30%) in subjects with LDL-R normal allele haplotype G (n=11), and O (n=7) compared to the most frequent haplotype F (n=43), while no differences were observed among F, E (n=11), and the 2 other most prevalent haplotypes (n=43). LDL-R mRNA in these lymphocytes was significantly elevated 2.3-, 1.7-, and 1.8- fold, in G, O, and E, respectively, compared to F, while no significant differences were apparent between F and the other two most frequent haplotyes. Large interindividual variability in lymphocyte LDL-R mRNA levels and activity was observed even among subjects with the same LDL-R normal allele haplotype. However, maximally induced lymphocyte LDL-R mRNA levels correlated poorly with levels measured in freshly isolated cells (n=14). Relative to haplotype F (n=47 women (W), 39 men (M)), mean plasma LDL cholesterol levels adjusted for age and apolipoprotein E genotype were 5-10% lower in men and women with haplotypes G (n=16 W, 12 M) and O (n=8 W, 6 M), and 20% lower in 7 W with haplotype E. These results suggest that (1) normal LDL-R allele haplotype G and O may contain sequence variations which confer relatively high gene expression and (2) environmental and genetic influences other than the LDL-R gene contribute substantially to variability in LDL-R expression and plasma LDL cholesterol levels in French Canadian FH heterozygotes.

  8. Studying Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Studying Genes Studying Genes Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area Other Fact Sheets What are genes? Genes are segments of DNA that contain instructions ...

  9. New contributions to the study of common double mutants in the human LDL receptor gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedor, M. Teresa; Cenarro, Ana; Tejedor, Diego; Stef, Marianne; Palacios, Lourdes; de Castro, Isabel; García-Otín, Ángel L.; Monteagudo, Luis V.; Civeira, Fernando; Pocovi, Miguel

    2011-11-01

    Variations in the gene encoding the low-density lipoprotein receptor ( LDLR) can cause familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), one of the most common inherited metabolic disorders in humans. The functional effects of the p.Gln92Glu and p.Asn564His alterations are predicted as benign, but the c.313 + 1G>C and p.Lys799_Phe801del changes are believed to cause disease. Although p.Gln92Glu and c.313 + 1G>C have been observed only in Spain, p.Asn564His and p.Lys799_Phe801del are widespread in Western Europe. In order to estimate the ages ( t generations) of these four variants of the gene, to determine their possible origin and to consider the influence of age and selective pressure on their spread, we analyzed 86 healthy individuals and 126 FH patients in Spain. Most of the FH patients investigated carried two of these four LDLR variants simultaneously, while only one patient carried three of them simultaneously. Haplotype analyses were based on five LDLR SNPs: c.81T>C, c.1413G>A, c.1725C>T, c.1959T>C and c.2232G>A. The results suggest that p.Gln92Glu and c.313 + 1G>C arose at about the same time (99 and 103 generations ago, respectively) in the CACTG haplotype and that p.Asn564His and p.Lys799_Phe801del appeared in the CGCCG haplotype and might be slightly more recent variations (92 and 95 generations ago, respectively). Low selective pressures could explain the maintenance of these variants in spite of their ages. The origin of p.Gln92Glu and c.313 + 1G>C appears to be in Spain whereas p.Asn564His and p.Lys799_Phe801del could have been introduced in Spain by Celtic migrations in the seventh to fifth centuries BC.

  10. 家族性高胆固醇血症低密度脂蛋白受体基因突变的研究%Analysis of the low density lipoprotein receptor(LDLR)gene mutations in children with familial hypercholesterolemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬青; 李燕; 衡万杰; 王家锦; 穆莹

    2001-01-01

    目的分析中国儿童家族性高胆固醇血症低密度脂蛋白受体基因突变,并建立筛查该基因突变的方法。方法以一家两患儿及其父母的基因组DNA为模板,用聚合酶链反应(PCR)扩增该基因的启动子和全部18个外显子。用温度梯度凝胶电泳(TGGE)分析检测PCR产物,对电泳结果异常者进行DNA测序。结果平行TGGE发现,两患儿第13外显子存在一纯合突变,其父母此外显子存在杂合突变。DNA测序证实两患儿第13外显子发生Ala606→Thr纯合错义突变,其父母均为此Ala606→Thr杂合突变。结论此家系家族性高胆固醇血症患者的LDL受体基因存在Ala606→Thr突变。TGGE结合DNA测序法的建立可用于本症的基因诊断。%Objective Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), an autosomaldominant disorder caused by mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene, is closely associated with premature development of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we applied a gene screening method and investigated LDLR gene mutations in children with familial hypercholesterolemia in China. Methods The proband, a 14-year-old girl, was given a clinical diagnosis of FH based on a markedly increased concentration of plasma cholesterol(15.4 mmol/L ), presence of tendon xanthomata. The proband′s sister, who was 12 years old, also presented the same clinical manifestation. However, their parents had had no clinical signs of FH. Genomic DNA were extracted from the two children and their parents in the family. Promoter region and all of the 18 exons of LDLR gene including the intron-exon boundary were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and were analyzed by Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE). The PCR products show abnormal patterns by TGGE were sequenced directly. ResultsA homozygous mutation at exon 13 of the proband was found by parallel TGGE. Homozygous and heterozygous mutations were also found in the family by

  11. Immunoglobulin genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honjo, T. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Alt, F.W. (Columbia Univ., Dobbs Ferry, NY (USA). Hudson Labs.); Rabbitts, T.H. (Medical Research Council, Cambridge (UK))

    1989-01-01

    This book reports on the structure, function, and expression of the genes encoding antibodies in normal and neoplastic cells. Topics covered are: B Cells; Organization and rearrangement of immunoglobin genes; Immunoglobin genes in disease; Immunoglobin gene expression; and Immunoglobin-related genes.

  12. Reevaluation of the Correlation between Angiotensinogen Gene M235T Polymorphism and Familial Essential Hypertension Using MS-PCR Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective Using mutagenically separated allele-specific polymerase-chain-reaction (MS-PCR) technique to determine the correlation between angiotensinogen gene M235T (Ag TM235T) polymorphism and the onset of familial essential hypertension in the population from Jiangsu and Anhui Provinces. Methods (1) Establish and compare the optimal reaction system of PCR-RFLP and MS-PCR technique to detect AgTM235T polymorphism. (2) All subjects were divided into four groups: 62 patients with both hypertension and familial background (FH), 32 normal persons who had familial background (FNH), 26 persons in control group (N) and 10 patients with hypertension but without familial background (NFH group). The genotype of all subjects was determined by MS-PCR technique.Results (1) The frequency of T allele in PCR-RFLP was 0.5, much lower than 0.95 in MS-PCR, which was demonstrated by DNA sequencing. (2) The TT-genotype and the frequency of T allele (TT/T) in FH and FNH groups were much higher than those in N and NFH groups (0.581/0.766 and 0.563/0.766 vs 0.346/0.577 and 0.40/0.550, P<0.005). (3) Persons developing hypertension in FNH group were much younger than other three groups (28.07±9.72 , P<0.025). Conclusion (1) Compared with PCR-RFLP, MS-PCR is a rapid, simple and reliable technique for detection gene polymorphism of Ag TM25T. (2) In Jiangsu and Anhui area, the present study confirms the observation of a higher frequency of the 235T allele of the angiotensinogen gene in hypertension and identifies individuals with family history. Concerning of the age, we might speculate that the AgTM235T polymorphism is only associated with familial essential hypertension.

  13. MYOSTATIN GENE ANALYSIS IN THE FIRST GENERATION OF THE BELGIAN BLUE CATTLE IN INDONESIA

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    P. P. Agung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to identify the variations of the myostatin and also to evaluate the existence of genetic marker for “double muscling” (11-bp deletion in the third exon of the myostatin gene in the first generation of Belgian Blue cattle in Indonesia using the Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP and the sequencing analysis. A total of 8 DNA samples belonged to Karya Anugerah Rumpin (KAR Farm were used in the Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP and the sequencing analysis. There were 3 allele types of myostatin gene based on the SSCP analysis. The Belgian Blue sire has type A allele. The Simmental, Wagyu, SO x BX, Charolais, and the PO cattle have the type B allele, while the Belgian Blue x FH and the Belgian Blue x SO have the type C allele (heterozygous. There are 11-bp deletion in the third exon myostatin gene for the Belgian Blue sire based on the sequencing analysis. The myostatin gene in the Belgian Blue F1 generation individual was heterozygous. This study provides scientific evidence that the 11-bp deletion in the third exon of myostatin gene in the Belgian Blue sire was inherited to its F1 generation (male and female.

  14. Molecular characterization of Fasciola hepatica from Sardinia based on sequence analysis of genomic and mitochondrial gene markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjallah, Sarra; Ben Slimane, Badreddine; Piras, Cristina Maria; Amor, Nabil; Garippa, Giovanni; Merella, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate for the first time the genetic diversity of samples identified morphologically as Fasciola hepatica (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda: Digenea) (n=66) from sheep and cattle from two localities of Sardinia and to compare them with available data from other localities by partial sequences of the first (ITS-1), the 5.8S, and second (ITS-2) Internal Transcribed Spacers (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit I (ND1) genes. Comparison of the sequences from Sardinia with sequences of Fasciola spp. from GenBank confirmed that all samples belong to the species F. hepatica. The nucleotide sequencing of ITS rDNA showed no nucleotide variation in the ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2 rDNA sequences among all Sardinian samples, comparing with two ITS-2 haplotypes in standard F. hepatica, showing a substitution C/T in 20 position 859, reported previously from Tunisia, Algeria, Australia, Uruguay and Spain. The present study shows that in Sardinian sheep and cattle there is the most frequent haplotype (FhITS-H1) of F. hepatica species from South Europe. Considering NDI sequences, the phylogenetic trees showed reliable grouping among the haplotypes of F. hepatica from Sardinia and the mitochondrial lineage I, including the main N1 haplotype, observed previously from Europe (Russia, Belarus, Ukraine and Bulgaria), Armenia, West Africa (Nigeria), America (Uruguay and USA), Asia (Turkey, Japan, and China), Georgia, Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Australia. Furthermore, common haplotypes FhCOI-H1 and FhCOI-H2 of F. hepatica from Sardinia also corresponded mostly to the first lineage including the main C1 haplotype reported previously from Eastern European and Western Asian populations, they belonged just to a phylogenically distinguishable clade, as F. hepatica from Australia, France, Turkey, Uruguay, Russia, Armenia, Ukraine, Belarus

  15. Differential proteome and gene expression for testis of mice exposed to carbon ion radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Li, Hongyan

    Objective To investigate the effect and mechanism of high linear energy transfer (LET) carbon ion irradiation (CIR) on reproduction in the testis of male Swiss Webster mice, and assess the risk associated with space environment. Methods Male mice underwent whole-body irradiation with CIR (0.5, 1 and 4Gy), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF) analysis was used to determine the alteration in protein expression in 2-DE (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis) gels of testes caused by irradiation after 7, 14 days. Results 15 differentially expressed proteins, such as glucose-regulated protein(GRP78), aconitate hydratase-mitochondrial precursor (ACO), pyruvate kinase isozymes M1/M2 (PKM1/M2), glutathione-S-transferaseA3 (GSTA3), glutathione S-transferase Pi 1 (GSTP1), Cu/Zn super-oxide dismutase (SOD1), Peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (Pin1) and Heat shock 70 kDa protein 4L (HSPa4L), were identified and these proteins were mainly involved in energy supply, the endoplasmic reticulum, cell proliferation, cell cycle, antioxidant capacity and mitochondrial respiration, which play important roles in the inhibition of testicular function in response to CIR. Furthermore, we confirmed the relationship between transcription of mRNA and the abundance of proteins. Conclusion The findings of the present study demonstrated that these proteins may lead to new insights into the molecular mechanism of CIR toxicity, and suggested that the gene expression response to CIR involves diverse regulatory mechanisms from transcription of mRNA to the formation of functional proteins. These data also may provide a scientific basis for protecting astronauts and space traveler’s health and safety.

  16. Heterologous production of two unusual acyclic carotenoids, 1,1'-dihydroxy-3,4-didehydrolycopene and 1-hydroxy-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydrolycopene by combination of the crtC and crtD genes from Rhodobacter and Rubrivivax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Sabine; Takaichi, Shinichi; Sandmann, Gerhard

    2002-07-17

    Acyclic hydroxy carotenoids were produced from lycopene and 3,4-didehydrolycopene in Escherichia coli by combining different carotenogenic genes including the carotene hydratase gene crtC and the carotene 3,4-desaturase gene crtD. The genes originated either from Rhodobacter species or Rubrivivax gelatinosus. It was shown that the product of crtD from Rubrivivax unlike the one from Rhodobacter is able to convert 1-HO-3,4-didehydrolycopene to 1-HO-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydrolycopene (=3,4,3',4'-tetradehydro-1,2-dihydro-psi,psi-caroten-1-ol). Thus, only when the desaturase from Rubrivivax is expressed can this novel carotenoid be obtained. In the presence of crtC from Rubrivivax, another carotenoid 1,1'-(HO)(2)-3,4-didehydrolycopene (=3,4-didehydrolycopene-1,2,1',2'-tetrahydro-psi,psi-caroten-1,1'-diol) not found in a non-transgenic organism before is formed in E. coli. Its accumulation under these conditions and its absence when crtC from Rubrivivax is replaced by the corresponding gene from Rhodobacter is discussed. The function of the different crtC and crtD genes in the pathway leading to the individual carotenoids is outlined. Since 1,1'-(HO)(2)-3,4-didehydrolycopene could not be produced in substantial amounts and 1-HO-3,4,3',4'-tetradehydrolycopene has not been described before, their structural characteristics were determined for the definite assignment of their identity. This included spectral properties, determination of relative molecular mass as well as the number of hydroxy groups by mass spectroscopy and NMR spectroscopy for 1,1'-(HO)(2)-3,4-didehydrolycopene.

  17. http://www.aulamedica.es/fh/pdf/1129.pdf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. López-Sepúlveda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the safety profile of telaprevir (TLV and boceprevir (BOC with each other and with those described in clinical trials (CT. Material and methods: Retrospective multicenter observational study. Variables collected: age, sex, type of patient (naive, nonresponder or recurrent, fibroscan, Hb nadir, neutrophil and platelet count, presence of rash, anorectal discomfort, number of patients treated with erythropoiesis stimulating factors (EPO and colony stimulating factors granulocyte (G-CSF. Results: BOC vs CT: anemia (56.5% vs. 49%., Thrombocytopenia (56.5% vs 32%, p = 0.023. neutropenia (17.4% vs. 29.5%. Use of EPO (13% vs 43%;. p = 0.008, pruritus (13% vs. 21.1%, rash (16.1% vs. 8.7%, anorectal discomfort (4.3% vs. 0%, p = 0.0001, dysgeusia (47.8% vs. 37%. TLV vs. CT: anemia (51.2% vs. 32%, p = 0.014, neutropenia (2.3 vs 3.6%, thrombocytopenia (41.9% vs. 27.4%, p = 0.05, pruritus (39.5% vs 47, rash (16.3% vs 55%, P <0.001, anorectal discomfort (39.5% vs 26%, dysgeusia (14% vs. 9.5%. BOC vs TLV: anemia (56.5% vs 51.2%, neutropenia (17.4% vs 2.3%, thrombocytopenia (56.5% vs 41.9%, rash (8.7% vs 16.3%, pruritus (39.5% vs 13% and anorectal discomfort (4.3% vs 39.5%, P = 0.006, dysgeusia (14% vs 47.8%, P = 0.007, EPO (13% vs. 25.6%. GCSF was used for a patient treated with TLV. Conclusions: 1. BOC and TLV have shown a worse safety profile for anemia, thrombocytopenia and anorectal discomfort than those described in CT. 2. As in CT, anemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were more common with BOC. Patients treated with TLV experienced more pruritus, rash and anorectal discomfort.

  18. http://www.aulamedica.es/fh/pdf/7860.pdf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Haro Márquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To assess adherence and beliefs about long-term medicines for other chronic conditions among HIV-infected patients as well as to evaluate their relationship. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted from may to july 2014 in HIV-infected patients treated with antiretroviral treatment (ART and ≥1 long-term medicines for other chronic diseases. The variables analysed in the study were demographics: sex, age, education, employment status, living situation; clinical: mode of transmission, HIV plasma viral load ,T-CD4+, CDC classification; and pharmacotherapeutics: type of ART, adherence to long-term medicines for other chronic conditions using the 4-item Morisky Medication Adherence (MMAS Scale. MMAS scores were dichotomised into adherent/non-adherent. The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaires (BMQ was used to assess patients’ beliefs about the long-term medicines. The BMQ-Specific has two scales (necessity and concern with five questions each that uses a 5-point Likert scale. Internal consistency within BMQ scales was measured with Cronbach’s and their association with adherence was assessed with t-Student tests, using SPSS 20.0. Results: We included 126 patients (80.4% male, mean age 49.0}8.3. The mean of long-term medicines was 2.9}2.0. The percentage of non-adherent patients was 54.0%. 63.5% of patients had AIDS, that showed statistically significant relationship with non-adherence. Concerns were negatively related to self-reported adherence (14.6}5.7 vs. 12.1}6.1; p=0.019. No relationship between adherence and necessity was found (17.3}5.6 vs. 18.8}4.4; p=0.188. Internal consistency for BMQ-Specific was high (Cronbach’s =0.724. Conclusion: Higher concerns are associated with higher self-reported adherence to long-term medicines in HIV infected-patients

  19. http://www.aulamedica.es/fh/pdf/8547.pdf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Damas Fuentes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: To analyze the latex content of drugs in hospital formulary and establish possible therapeutic alternatives. Methods: All drugs susceptible of having latex were selected and written information was obtained from manufacturers. A therapeutic alternative was found for each of them, if possible. Results: Written information from manufacturer was obtained for 605 (97.9% and from label information for 8 of 632 selected drugs. For 43.9% of not safe drugs (total 57 on patients with latex allergy, a therapeutic alternative was found in hospital formulary. Conclusions: Knowing drugs having latex improve the prescription security, while the therapeutic alternatives chart eases the validation. The published data updates the scarce and variable information for patients and healthcare professionals.

  20. http://www.aulamedica.es/fh/pdf/10518.pdf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta García-Queiruga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the level of adherence to treatment with imatinib in patients with chronic myeloid leukaemia and its association with therapeutic response. Materials and methods: Study conducted on October, 2013 – March, 2014, including patients diagnosed with Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia on treatment with imatinib in the hospital. Therapeutic adherence was assessed through the standard Morisky-Green Questionnaire and the medication dispensing record. Those patients who did not complete 6 months of treatment and/or did not complete the questionnaire were excluded. Therapeutic response was assessed following clinical guidelines. The descriptive analysis of variables and correlation was conducted through Pearsons’s Chi-Square Test. Results: The study included 31 patients. When assessing the level of association between response variables and therapeutic adherence: 1. The highest molecular response was reached by 68.4% of those patients with high adherence, and by 75% of those patients with intermediate adherence. 2. Complete molecular response was achieved by 57.9% of patients with high adherence, and by 58.3% of patients with intermediate adherence. No statistically significant differences were found in response variables between patients with high and intermediate therapeutic adherence. No association was observed between level of adherence and therapeutic response. Conclusions: We cannot confirm that a different level of therapeutic adherence might have an impact on response to imatinib, though this should be taken into account in cases of therapeutic failure or sub-optimal response

  1. http://www.aulamedica.es/fh/pdf/10689.pdf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta García-Queiruga

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available p>Purpose: To present the requirements, development, structure and results of an electronic interconsultation platform (e-Interconsultation for communication between primary and hospital care. Method: A working group was created and set out its purposes, working schedule, software requirements, the structure of the electronic platform, validation procedure, and its implementation. Once the software had been developed and validated and training sessions were conducted, the electronicplatform was launched in June 2015. Results: After 1 year of operation, a total of 321 electronic interconsultations had been made, 110 of which were referrals from hospital care to primary care in addition to 211 from primary to hospital care. The validation of prescriptions and the need for drug monitoring in primary care are among main reasons for consultation. Conclusions: The e-Interconsultation platform is a valid, efficient and user-friendly mean of consultation or patient referrals between both healthcare levels.

  2. Pre-sowing Seed Treatment with 24-Epibrassinolide Ameliorates Pesticide Stress in Brassica juncea L. through the Modulation of Stress Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaiz Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was designed to assess the effects of seed soaking with 24-epibrassinolide (EBR on the physiology of Brassica juncea L. seedlings grown under imidacloprid (IMI toxicity. Application of EBR increased the length of seedlings, dry weight, and pigment contents, polyphenols, total phenols and organic acids under IMI toxicity. The expression of genes coding key enzymes of pigment, phenols, polyphenols and organic acid biosynthetic pathways was also studied including CHLASE (chlorophyllase, PSY (phytoene synthase, CHS (chalcone synthase and PAL (phenylalanine ammonialyase, CS (citrate synthase, SUCLG1 (succinyl Co-A ligase,, SDH (succinate dehydrogenase, FH (fumarate hydratase, MS (malate synthase. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that IMI application regressed negatively on seedling length, dry weight and total chlorophyll content. However, EBR seed treatment regressed positively on all of the parameters studied. Moreover, interaction between IMI and EBR showed positive regression for growth parameters, content of pigments, total polyphenol, total phenol and malate, and expression of PSY and PAL. Negative interactions were noticed for the contents of fumarate, succinate and citrate, and expression of CHS and all genes studied related to organic acid metabolism. In conclusion, EBR enhanced the growth and contents of all studied metabolites by regulating the gene expression of B. juncea seedlings under IMI stress.

  3. Value of serum phosphopyruvate hydratase protein for the diagnosis of cerebral injuries in patients with brain malignant tumor%血清磷酸丙酮酸水合酶检测在颅内恶性肿瘤患者放射性脑损伤诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜丽莉; 韩存芝; 荆结线; 赵先文; 田保国

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the value of serum phosphopyruvate hydratase PH protein for the diagnosis of cerebral injuries in patients with brain malignant tumor.Methods Serum PH protein levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 56 patients with brain malignant tumor. Compare the differences among the status of cerebral injuries.And compare the differences among the patients with general with different radiotherapy methods 32 cases,three dimensional conformal radiothrapy 24 cases,and different peritumoral brain edema levels (cmild 18 cases, moderate ao cases severe 30 cases). Results Before radiotherapy the levels of serum PH protein in patients and the health control were (4.12±0.56),(4.66±0.62)μg/L,no significant differece(P>0.05).And there was also no significant difference between the before and after radiotherapy for the cerebroma,the levels were(7.84±0.72) μg/L,(t=3.89,P=0.001 ).The PH levels of general radiation therapy and three dimensional comformal radiotherapy were (13.59±0.92),(6.14±0.52)μg/L.There was cignificant difference(P=0.002) After radiotherapy,The levels of serum PH protein of the different dropsical degree,mild,moderate and severe were(4.47:±0.55),(6.17±0.62),(15.21±0.86) μg/L, respectively,showing significant difference (F=15.61,P=0.0001). The therapies influenced the serum PH levels (P<0.05)Conclusion High levels of serum PH protein are associated with severe cerebral injuries in brain malignant tumor.So high serum PH level may serve as an progressive predictor of the injury.%目的 研究血清磷酸丙酮酸水合酶(PH)在颅内恶性肿瘤患者放射性脑损伤早期诊断中的作用.方法 采用酶联免疫吸附试验检测56例颅内恶性肿瘤患者(脑转移瘤26例,脑肿瘤30例)在接受放射性治疗前、后的血清PH水平,比较其差异.同时比较颅内恶性肿瘤患者不同放疗方案(普通放疗组32例,三维适形放疗组24例)、瘤周水肿程度(轻度18例,中度20例,重度18

  4. Genomic characterization of large rearrangements of the LDLR gene in Czech patients with familial hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fajkus Jiří

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the LDLR gene are the most frequent cause of Familial hypercholesterolemia, an autosomal dominant disease characterised by elevated concentrations of LDL in blood plasma. In many populations, large genomic rearrangements account for approximately 10% of mutations in the LDLR gene. Methods DNA diagnostics of large genomic rearrangements was based on Multiple Ligation dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA. Subsequent analyses of deletion and duplication breakpoints were performed using long-range PCR, PCR, and DNA sequencing. Results In set of 1441 unrelated FH patients, large genomic rearrangements were found in 37 probands. Eight different types of rearrangements were detected, from them 6 types were novel, not described so far. In all rearrangements, we characterized their exact extent and breakpoint sequences. Conclusions Sequence analysis of deletion and duplication breakpoints indicates that intrachromatid non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR between Alu elements is involved in 6 events, while a non-homologous end joining (NHEJ is implicated in 2 rearrangements. Our study thus describes for the first time NHEJ as a mechanism involved in genomic rearrangements in the LDLR gene.

  5. The methylcitric acid pathway in Ralstonia eutropha: new genes identified involved in propionate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brämer, C O; Steinbüchel, A

    2001-08-01

    From Ralstonia eutropha HF39 null-allele mutants were created by Tn5 mutagenesis and by homologous recombination which were impaired in growth on propionic acid and levulinic acid. From the molecular, physiological and enzymic analysis of these mutants it was concluded that in this bacterium propionic acid is metabolized via the methylcitric acid pathway. The genes encoding enzymes of this pathway are organized in a cluster in the order prpR, prpB, prpC, acnM, ORF5 and prpD, with prpR transcribed divergently from the other genes. (i) prpC encodes a 2-methylcitric acid synthase (42720 Da) as shown by the measurement of the respective enzyme activity, complementation of a prpC mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and high sequence similarity. (ii) For the translational product of acnM the function of a 2-methyl-cis-aconitic acid hydratase (94726 Da) is proposed. This protein and also the ORF5 translational product are essential for growth on propionic acid, as revealed by the propionic-acid-negative phenotype of Tn5-insertion mutants, and are required for the conversion of 2-methylcitric acid into 2-methylisocitric acid as shown by the accumulation of the latter, which could be purified as its calcium salt from the supernatants of these mutants. In contrast, inactivation of prpD did not block the ability of the cell to use propionic acid as carbon and energy source, as shown by the propionic acid phenotype of a null-allele mutant. It is therefore unlikely that prpD from R. eutropha encodes a 2-methyl-cis-aconitic acid dehydratase as proposed recently for the homologous prpD gene from S. enterica. (iii) The translational product of prpB encodes 2-methylisocitric acid lyase (32314 Da) as revealed by measurement of the respective enzyme activity and by demonstrating accumulation of methylisocitric acid in the supernatant of a prpB null-allele mutant. (iv) The expression of prpC and probably also of the other enzymes is regulated and is induced during

  6. Gene-load score of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is associated with coronary heart disease in familial hypercholesterolaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B. van der Net (Jeroen); J. van Etten (Jeroen); M. Yazdanpanah (Mojgan); G.M. Dallinga-Thie (Geesje); J.J.P. Kastelein (John); J.C. Defesche (Joep); R.P. Koopmans (Richard); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAims: Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is characterized by premature coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the incidence of CHD varies considerably among FH patients. Genetic variation in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and the adrenalin/noradrenalin system may be of

  7. Gene therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005147 CNHK200-hA-a gene-viral therapeutic system and its antitumor effect on lung cancer. WANG Wei-guo(王伟国),et al. Viral & Gene Ther Center, Eastern Hepatobilli Surg Instit 2nd Milit Univ, Shanghai 200438. Chin J Oncol,2005:27(2):69-72. Objective: To develop a novel vector system, which combines the advantages of the gene therapy,

  8. Mutation G805R in the transmembrane domain of the LDL receptor gene causes familial hypercholesterolemia by inducing ectodomain cleavage of the LDL receptor in the endoplasmic reticulum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea Bismo Strøm

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 1700 mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR gene have been found to cause familial hypercholesterolemia (FH. These are commonly divided into five classes based upon their effects on the structure and function of the LDLR. However, little is known about the mechanism by which mutations in the transmembrane domain of the LDLR gene cause FH. We have studied how the transmembrane mutation G805R affects the function of the LDLR. Based upon Western blot analyses of transfected HepG2 cells, mutation G805R reduced the amounts of the 120 kDa precursor LDLR in the endoplasmic reticulum. This led to reduced amounts of the mature 160 kDa LDLR at the cell surface. However, significant amounts of a secreted 140 kDa G805R-LDLR ectodomain fragment was observed in the culture media. Treatment of the cells with the metalloproteinase inhibitor batimastat largely restored the amounts of the 120 and 160 kDa forms in cell lysates, and prevented secretion of the 140 kDa ectodomain fragment. Together, these data indicate that a metalloproteinase cleaved the ectodomain of the 120 kDa precursor G805R-LDLR in the endoplasmic reticulum. It was the presence of the polar Arg805 and not the lack of Gly805 which led to ectodomain cleavage. Arg805 also prevented γ-secretase cleavage within the transmembrane domain. It is conceivable that introducing a charged residue within the hydrophobic membrane lipid bilayer, results in less efficient incorporation of the 120 kDa G805R-LDLR in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and makes it a substrate for metalloproteinase cleavage.

  9. Trichoderma genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Pamela [Los Altos, CA; Goedegebuur, Frits [Vlaardingen, NL; Van Solingen, Pieter [Naaldwijk, NL; Ward, Michael [San Francisco, CA

    2012-06-19

    Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry.

  10. Identification and characterization of a novel fumarase gene by metagenome expression cloning from marine microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Xian-Lai

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fumarase catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumarate to L-malate and is a key enzyme in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle and in amino acid metabolism. Fumarase is also used for the industrial production of L-malate from the substrate fumarate. Thermostable and high-activity fumarases from organisms that inhabit extreme environments may have great potential in industry, biotechnology, and basic research. The marine environment is highly complex and considered one of the main reservoirs of microbial diversity on the planet. However, most of the microorganisms are inaccessible in nature and are not easily cultivated in the laboratory. Metagenomic approaches provide a powerful tool to isolate and identify enzymes with novel biocatalytic activities for various biotechnological applications. Results A plasmid metagenomic library was constructed from uncultivated marine microorganisms within marine water samples. Through sequence-based screening of the DNA library, a gene encoding a novel fumarase (named FumF was isolated. Amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the FumF protein shared the greatest homology with Class II fumarate hydratases from Bacteroides sp. 2_1_33B and Parabacteroides distasonis ATCC 8503 (26% identical and 43% similar. The putative fumarase gene was subcloned into pETBlue-2 vector and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3pLysS. The recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity. Functional characterization by high performance liquid chromatography confirmed that the recombinant FumF protein catalyzed the hydration of fumarate to form L-malate. The maximum activity for FumF protein occurred at pH 8.5 and 55°C in 5 mM Mg2+. The enzyme showed higher affinity and catalytic efficiency under optimal reaction conditions: Km= 0.48 mM, Vmax = 827 μM/min/mg, and kcat/Km = 1900 mM/s. Conclusions We isolated a novel fumarase gene, fumF, from a sequence-based screen of a plasmid metagenomic library from uncultivated

  11. Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Barb; Takeya, Ryan; Vitelli, Francesca; Swanson, Xin

    2017-03-14

    Gene therapy refers to a rapidly growing field of medicine in which genes are introduced into the body to treat or prevent diseases. Although a variety of methods can be used to deliver the genetic materials into the target cells and tissues, modified viral vectors represent one of the more common delivery routes because of its transduction efficiency for therapeutic genes. Since the introduction of gene therapy concept in the 1970s, the field has advanced considerably with notable clinical successes being demonstrated in many clinical indications in which no standard treatment options are currently available. It is anticipated that the clinical success the field observed in recent years can drive requirements for more scalable, robust, cost effective, and regulatory-compliant manufacturing processes. This review provides a brief overview of the current manufacturing technologies for viral vectors production, drawing attention to the common upstream and downstream production process platform that is applicable across various classes of viral vectors and their unique manufacturing challenges as compared to other biologics. In addition, a case study of an industry-scale cGMP production of an AAV-based gene therapy product performed at 2,000 L-scale is presented. The experience and lessons learned from this largest viral gene therapy vector production run conducted to date as discussed and highlighted in this review should contribute to future development of commercial viable scalable processes for vial gene therapies.

  12. Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or improve your body's ability to fight disease. Gene therapy holds promise for treating a wide range of diseases, such as cancer, cystic fibrosis, heart disease, diabetes, hemophilia and AIDS. Researchers are still studying how and ...

  13. Genes V.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewin, B.

    1994-12-31

    This fifth edition book encompasses a wide range of topics covering 1,272 pages. The book is arranged into nine parts with a total of 36 chapters. These nine parts include Introduction; DNA as a Store of Information; Translation; Constructing Cells; Control of Prokaryotypic Gene Expression; Perpetuation of DNA; Organization of the Eukaryotypic Genome; Eukaryotypic Transcription and RNA Processing; The Dynamic Genome; and Genes in Development.

  14. Nuclear ARRB1 induces pseudohypoxia and cellular metabolism reprogramming in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecchini, Vincent; Madhu, Basetti; Russell, Roslin; Pértega-Gomes, Nelma; Warren, Anne; Gaude, Edoardo; Borlido, Joana; Stark, Rory; Ireland-Zecchini, Heather; Rao, Roheet; Scott, Helen; Boren, Joan; Massie, Charlie; Asim, Mohammad; Brindle, Kevin; Griffiths, John; Frezza, Christian; Neal, David E; Mills, Ian G

    2014-01-01

    Tumour cells sustain their high proliferation rate through metabolic reprogramming, whereby cellular metabolism shifts from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, even under normal oxygen levels. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1A (HIF1A) is a major regulator of this process, but its activation under normoxic conditions, termed pseudohypoxia, is not well documented. Here, using an integrative approach combining the first genome-wide mapping of chromatin binding for an endocytic adaptor, ARRB1, both in vitro and in vivo with gene expression profiling, we demonstrate that nuclear ARRB1 contributes to this metabolic shift in prostate cancer cells via regulation of HIF1A transcriptional activity under normoxic conditions through regulation of succinate dehydrogenase A (SDHA) and fumarate hydratase (FH) expression. ARRB1-induced pseudohypoxia may facilitate adaptation of cancer cells to growth in the harsh conditions that are frequently encountered within solid tumours. Our study is the first example of an endocytic adaptor protein regulating metabolic pathways. It implicates ARRB1 as a potential tumour promoter in prostate cancer and highlights the importance of metabolic alterations in prostate cancer. PMID:24837709

  15. 肝片吸虫抗原基因的克隆与筛选%CLONING AND SCREENING OF ANTIGEN GENE OF FASCIOLA HEPATICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张西玉; 徐恒; 吴峰; 郑莉

    2000-01-01

    提取肝片吸虫总RNA,经oligo(dT)-纤维素柱分离得到mRNA,反转录合成cDNA后,连接Eco RI人工合成接头,酶切后克隆到表达型质粒载体pGEX-1λT,转化大肠杆菌JM107菌株构建肝片吸虫cDNA文库(文库大小约为2.1×105).用免疫印迹筛选出5个阳性克隆,分别命名为:pFH2,pFH4,pFH16,pFH21和pFH29.其中pFH21印迹信号最强.Eco RI酶切pFH21显示:插入片段大小约为1.0kb.重组子pFH21经SDS-PAGE电泳显示:表达有一个重组蛋白,分子量约为48kD.

  16. Evaluation of gene expression cassettes and production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) with a fine modulated monomer composition by using it in Cupriavidus necator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikawa, Hisashi; Matsumoto, Keiji

    2016-10-28

    Cupriavidus necator has attracted much attention as a platform for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) and other useful materials. Therefore, an appropriate modulation of gene expression is needed for producing the desired materials effectively. However, there is insufficient information on the genetic engineering techniques required for this in C. necator. We found that the disruption of a potential ribosome binding site (RBS) in the phaC1 gene in C. necator caused a small decrease in the PhaC1 expression level. We applied this result to finely regulate the expression of other genes. Several gene expression cassettes were constructed by combining three Escherichia coli derived promoters (PlacUV5, Ptrc and Ptrp) to the potential RBS of phaC1 or its disruptant, respectively. Their expression levels were then determined via a lacZ reporter assay in C. necator strains. The promoter strengths were both ranked similarly for the cells that were cultured with fructose or palm kernel oil as a sole carbon source (Ptrc ≥ PlacUV5 > Ptrp), both of which were much stronger than the phaC1 promoter. The disruption of RBS had minute attenuation effect on the expression level of these expression cassettes with E. coli promoters. Furthermore, they were used to finely regulate the (R)-3-hydroxyhexanoate (3HHx) monomer ratio in the production of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate] (PHBHHx) via R-specific enoyl-CoA hydratases (PhaJs). The 3HHx composition in PHBHHx is crucial because it defines the thermal and mechanical properties of the resulting plastic material. The C. necator mutant strains, whose PhaJ expression was controlled under the gene expression cassettes, could be used to produce PHBHHx with various 3HHx compositions in the same culture conditions. We constructed and evaluated several gene expression cassettes consisting of promoters and RBSs that finely regulate transcription and translation. These were then applied to finely modulate the

  17. DREB genes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unipar

    2015-03-12

    Mar 12, 2015 ... to AP2/ERF family, dehydration-responsive element-binding protein (DREB) genes, (CitsERF01 to ... Protein sequences of DREB subfamilies belonging to group I, .... position 37, and it was present in consensus in all protein.

  18. Additive effect of mutations in LDLR and PCSK9 genes on the phenotype of familial hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisciotta, Livia; Priore Oliva, Claudio; Cefalù, Angelo Baldassare; Noto, Davide; Bellocchio, Antonella; Fresa, Raffaele; Cantafora, Alfredo; Patel, Dilip; Averna, Maurizio; Tarugi, Patrizia; Calandra, Sebastiano; Bertolini, Stefano

    2006-06-01

    Patients homozygous or compound heterozygous for LDLR mutations or double heterozygous for LDLR and apo B R3500Q mutation have higher LDL-C levels, more extensive xanthomatosis and more severe premature coronary disease (pCAD) than simple heterozygotes for mutations in either these genes or for missense mutations in PCSK9 gene. It is not known whether combined mutations in LDLR and PKCS9 are associated with such a severe phenotype. We sequenced Apo B and PCSK9 genes in two patients with the clinical diagnosis of homozygous FH who were heterozygous for LDLR gene mutations. Proband Z.P. (LDL-C 13.39 mmol/L and pCAD) was heterozygous for an LDLR mutation (p.E228K) inherited from her father (LDL-C 8.07 mmol/L) and a PCSK9 mutation (p.R496W) from her mother (LDL-C 5.58 mmol/L). Proband L.R. and her sister (LDL-C 11.51 and 10.47 mmol/L, xanthomatosis and carotid atherosclerosis) were heterozygous for an LDLR mutation (p.Y419X) inherited from their mother (LDL-C 6.54 mmol/L) and a PCSK9 mutation (p.N425S) probably from their deceased father. The LDL-C levels in double heterozygotes of these two families were 56 and 44% higher than those found in simple heterozygotes for the two LDLR mutations, respectively. The two PCSK9 mutations are novel and were not found in 110 controls and 80 patients with co-dominant hypercholesterolemia. These observations indicate that rare missense mutations of PCSK9 may worsen the clinical phenotype of patients carrying LDLR mutations.

  19. Amine-synthesizing enzyme N-substituted formamide deformylase: Screening, purification, characterization, and gene cloning

    OpenAIRE

    Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Yoshiteru; Goda, Masahiko; Higashibata, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Michihiko

    2004-01-01

    N-substituted formamide was produced through the hydration of an isonitrile by isonitrile hydratase in the isonitrile metabolism. The former compound was further degraded by a microorganism, strain F164, which was isolated from soil through an acclimatization culture. The N-substituted formamide-degrading microorganism was identified as Arthrobacter pascens. The microbial degradation was found to proceed through an enzymatic reaction, the N-substituted formamide being hydrolyzed to yield the ...

  20. 3-Methylglutaconic aciduria—lessons from 50 genes and 977 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wortmann, Saskia B; Kluijtmans, Leo A J; Rodenburg, Richard J;

    2013-01-01

    Elevated urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid is considered rare in patients suspected of a metabolic disorder. In 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase deficiency (mutations in AUH), it derives from leucine degradation. In all other disorders with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria the origin...... with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria (e.g. organic acidurias, urea cycle disorders, haematological and neuromuscular disorders). In the patient cohort with genetically proven mitochondrial disorders 11 % presented 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. It was more frequently seen in ATPase related disorders...

  1. Less pronounced response to exercise in healthy relatives to type 2 diabetic subjects compared with controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, C; Elgzyri, T; Ström, K; Almgren, P; Parikh, H; Dekker Nitert, Marloes; Rönn, T; Manderson Koivula, Fiona; Ling, C; Tornberg, Å B; Wollmer, P; Eriksson, K F; Groop, L; Hansson, O

    2015-11-01

    Healthy first-degree relatives with heredity of type 2 diabetes (FH+) are known to have metabolic inflexibility compared with subjects without heredity for diabetes (FH-). In this study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that FH+ individuals have an impaired response to exercise compared with FH-. Sixteen FH+ and 19 FH- insulin-sensitive men similar in age, peak oxygen consumption (V̇o2 peak), and body mass index completed an exercise intervention with heart rate monitored during exercise for 7 mo. Before and after the exercise intervention, the participants underwent a physical examination and tests for glucose tolerance and exercise capacity, and muscle biopsies were taken for expression analysis. The participants attended, on average, 39 training sessions during the intervention and spent 18.8 MJ on exercise. V̇o2 peak/kg increased by 14%, and the participants lost 1.2 kg of weight and 3 cm waist circumference. Given that the FH+ group expended 61% more energy during the intervention, we used regression analysis to analyze the response in the FH+ and FH- groups separately. Exercise volume had a significant effect on V̇o2 peak, weight, and waist circumference in the FH- group, but not in the FH+ group. After exercise, expression of genes involved in metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and cellular respiration increased more in the FH- compared with the FH+ group. This suggests that healthy, insulin-sensitive FH+ and FH- participants with similar age, V̇o2 peak, and body mass index may respond differently to an exercise intervention. The FH+ background might limit muscle adaptation to exercise, which may contribute to the increased susceptibility to type 2 diabetes in FH+ individuals.

  2. Endothelial Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    8217Department of Surgery, Division of Oncology , and 2Department of BRCA-l and BRCA-2 (breast cancer susceptibility genes), Pathology, University of...Suppression subtractive hybridization re- Cancer: principles and practice of oncology . Philadelphia: Lippincott- vealed an RNA sequence (GenBank accession...Lippman ME. Cancer of the breast: molecular biology angiogenesis in sarcomas and carcinomas. Clin Cancer Res 1999;5: of breast cancer. In: DeVita VT

  3. Gene Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston K. Mazandu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide coverage and biological relevance of the Gene Ontology (GO, confirmed through its successful use in protein function prediction, have led to the growth in its popularity. In order to exploit the extent of biological knowledge that GO offers in describing genes or groups of genes, there is a need for an efficient, scalable similarity measure for GO terms and GO-annotated proteins. While several GO similarity measures exist, none adequately addresses all issues surrounding the design and usage of the ontology. We introduce a new metric for measuring the distance between two GO terms using the intrinsic topology of the GO-DAG, thus enabling the measurement of functional similarities between proteins based on their GO annotations. We assess the performance of this metric using a ROC analysis on human protein-protein interaction datasets and correlation coefficient analysis on the selected set of protein pairs from the CESSM online tool. This metric achieves good performance compared to the existing annotation-based GO measures. We used this new metric to assess functional similarity between orthologues, and show that it is effective at determining whether orthologues are annotated with similar functions and identifying cases where annotation is inconsistent between orthologues.

  4. Gene doping: gene delivery for olympic victory

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    With one recently recommended gene therapy in Europe and a number of other gene therapy treatments now proving effective in clinical trials it is feasible that the same technologies will soon be adopted in the world of sport by unscrupulous athletes and their trainers in so called ‘gene doping’. In this article an overview of the successful gene therapy clinical trials is provided and the potential targets for gene doping are highlighted. Depending on whether a doping gene product is secreted...

  5. Novel and recurrent LDLR gene mutations in Pakistani hypercholesterolemia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, W.; Ajmal, M.; Sadeque, A.; Whittall, R.A.; Rafiq, S.; Putt, W.; Khawaja, A.; Imtiaz, F.; Ahmed, N.; Azam, M.; Humphries, S.E.; Qamar, R.

    2012-01-01

    The majority of patients with the autosomal dominant disorder familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) carry novel mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) that is involved in cholesterol regulation. In different populations the spectrum of mutations identified is quite different and to da

  6. Isolation of the phe-operon from G. stearothermophilus comprising the phenol degradative meta-pathway genes and a novel transcriptional regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiss Monika

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geobacillus stearothermophilus is able to utilize phenol as a sole carbon source. A DNA fragment encoding a phenol hydroxylase catalyzing the first step in the meta-pathway has been isolated previously. Based on these findings a PCR-based DNA walk was performed initially to isolate a catechol 2,3-dioxygenase for biosensoric applications but was continued to elucidate the organisation of the genes encoding the proteins for the metabolization of phenol. Results A 20.2 kb DNA fragment was isolated as a result of the DNA walk. Fifteen open reading frames residing on a low-copy megaplasmid were identified. Eleven genes are co-transcribed in one polycistronic mRNA as shown by reverse transcription-PCR. Ten genes encode proteins, that are directly linked with the meta-cleavage pathway. The deduced amino acid sequences display similarities to a two-component phenol hydroxylase, a catechol 2,3-dioxygenase, a 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase, a 2-oxopent-4-dienoate hydratase, a 4-oxalocrotonate decarboxylase, a 4-hydroxy-2-oxovalerate aldolase, an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, a plant-type ferredoxin involved in the reactivation of extradiol dioxygenases and a novel regulatory protein. The only enzymes missing for the complete mineralization of phenol are a 2-hydroxymuconic acid-6-semialdehyde hydrolase and/or 2-hydroxymuconic acid-6-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Conclusion Research on the bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds on a sub-cellular level has been more intensively studied in gram-negative organisms than in gram-positive bacteria. Especially regulatory mechanisms in gram-positive (thermophilic prokaryotes remain mostly unknown. We isolated the first complete sequence of an operon from a thermophilic bacterium encoding the meta-pathway genes and analyzed the genetic organization. Moreover, the first transcriptional regulator of the phenol metabolism in gram-positive bacteria was identified. This is a first step to elucidate

  7. GeneEd -- A Genetics Educational Resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Javascript on. Feature: Genetics 101 GeneEd — A Genetics Educational Resource Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table of Contents Science ... The Hereditary Material of Life / GeneEd — A Genetics Educational Resource / Using The Genetics Home Reference Website / Understanding the ...

  8. Targeted Exome Sequencing of Krebs Cycle Genes Reveals Candidate Cancer-Predisposing Mutations in Pheochromocytomas and Paragangliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remacha, Laura; Comino-Méndez, Iñaki; Richter, Susan; Contreras, Laura; Currás-Freixes, María; Pita, Guillermo; Letón, Rocío; Galarreta, Antonio; Torres-Pérez, Rafael; Honrado, Emiliano; Jiménez, Scherezade; Maestre, Lorena; Moran, Sebastian; Esteller, Manel; Satrústegui, Jorgina; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Robledo, Mercedes; Cascón, Alberto

    2017-07-18

    Purpose: Mutations in Krebs cycle genes are frequently found in patients with pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas. Disruption of SDH, FH or MDH2 enzymatic activities lead to accumulation of specific metabolites, which give rise to epigenetic changes in the genome that cause a characteristic hypermethylated phenotype. Tumors showing this phenotype, but no alterations in the known predisposing genes, could harbor mutations in other Krebs cycle genes.Experimental Design: We used downregulation and methylation of RBP1, as a marker of a hypermethylation phenotype, to select eleven pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas for targeted exome sequencing of a panel of Krebs cycle-related genes. Methylation profiling, metabolite assessment and additional analyses were also performed in selected cases.Results: One of the 11 tumors was found to carry a known cancer-predisposing somatic mutation in IDH1. A variant in GOT2, c.357A>T, found in a patient with multiple tumors, was associated with higher tumor mRNA and protein expression levels, increased GOT2 enzymatic activity in lymphoblastic cells, and altered metabolite ratios both in tumors and in GOT2 knockdown HeLa cells transfected with the variant. Array methylation-based analysis uncovered a somatic epigenetic mutation in SDHC in a patient with multiple pheochromocytomas and a gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Finally, a truncating germline IDH3B mutation was found in a patient with a single paraganglioma showing an altered α-ketoglutarate/isocitrate ratio.Conclusions: This study further attests to the relevance of the Krebs cycle in the development of PCC and PGL, and points to a potential role of other metabolic enzymes involved in metabolite exchange between mitochondria and cytosol. Clin Cancer Res; 1-10. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Genome-wide identification of gene expression in the epididymis of infertile rat induced by alpha-chlorohydrin using oligonucleotide microarray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Shu-wu; ZHU Yan; MA Li; LI Zhi-ling; GUI You-lun; LU Ying-ying; ZHAO Zhi-fang; CAO Lin

    2008-01-01

    general functions of the down or up regulated epididymal genes by chlorhydrin with the GeneSpring gene ontology(GO) analysis, which are involved in macromolecular metabolism and transport, primary metabolism process, cell metabolism, biological process regulation, immunology regulation, ion combination, hydratase and oxidoreductase activity. Among all the different expressed genes, we analyzed and screened the down-regulated genes associated with glucose, lipid, protein and other energy metabolism, which are considered as the major ACH action targets. Simultaneously, the up-regulated genes by chlorhydrin were detected and their characters of negative regulated sperm maturation and fertility analyzed, which are apoptosis and immune-related genes and not reported before. Conclusions We established male infertile rat model with ACH(10 mg·kg-1·d-1, po, 10 days) through evaluating changes of sperm motility and morphology, mating index, fertility index and pregnancy index. Simultaneously, the ACH didn' t affect the major androgen (T and DHT) metabolism and sexual ability, which is considered as the best way for male contraception. Then we determined the down-regulated epididymal genes relation to substance metabolism, which can affect the epididymal sperm maturation and presumed the major antifertility targets by ACH. Further more, we found and analyzed the epididymal up-regulated genes associated with apoptosis and immune functions, which maybe the new possible sites of action by ACH and other male antifertility agents.

  10. Special Issue: Gene Conversion in Duplicated Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Innan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gene conversion is an outcome of recombination, causing non-reciprocal transfer of a DNA fragment. Several decades later than the discovery of crossing over, gene conversion was first recognized in fungi when non-Mendelian allelic distortion was observed. Gene conversion occurs when a double-strand break is repaired by using homologous sequences in the genome. In meiosis, there is a strong preference to use the orthologous region (allelic gene conversion, which causes non-Mendelian allelic distortion, but paralogous or duplicated regions can also be used for the repair (inter-locus gene conversion, also referred to as non-allelic and ectopic gene conversion. The focus of this special issue is the latter, interlocus gene conversion; the rate is lower than allelic gene conversion but it has more impact on phenotype because more drastic changes in DNA sequence are involved.

  11. Principles of gene therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mammen Biju; Ramakrishnan T; Sudhakar Uma; Vijayalakshmi

    2007-01-01

    Genes are specific sequences of bases that encode instructions to make proteins. When genes are altered so that encoded proteins are unable to carry out their normal functions, genetic disorders can result. Gene therapy is designed to introduce genetic material into cells to compensate for abnormal genes or to make a beneficial protein. This article reviews the fundamentals in gene therapy and its various modes of administration with an insight into the role of gene therapy in Periodontics an...

  12. Organization of immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonegawa, S; Brack, C; Hozumi, N; Pirrotta, V

    1978-01-01

    The nucleotide-sequence determination of a cloned, embryonic Vlambda gene directly demonstrated that V genes are separate from a corresponding C gene in embryonic cells. Analysis by restriction enzymes of total cellular DNA from various sources strongly suggested that the two separate immunoglobulin genes become continuous during differentiation of B lymphocytes. There seems to be a strict correlation between the joining event and activation of the joined genes. Cloning of more immunoglobulin genes from embryo and plasma cells will not only provide direct demonstration of such a gene-joining event but also help in the elucidation of a possible relationship of the event to gene activation mechanisms.

  13. 肝片吸虫GST真核表达载体构建及重组蛋白活性分析%Construction on eukaryotic expression plasmid of Fasciola hepatica GST gene and analysis on recombinant protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冉旭华; 闻晓波; 王春仁; 刘娣; 孙中武; 李晓娟; 王密

    2011-01-01

    目的 构建肝片吸虫谷胱甘肽S-转移酶(GST)的真核表达载体,研究重组蛋白的免疫原性.方法 以构建好的重组质粒pET30a-FhGST为模板,利用PCR技术扩增肝片吸虫谷胱甘肽S-转移酶基因(GST),连接真核表达载体pEGFP-N1,构建重组质粒pEGFP-GST,转染Hela细胞,荧光显微镜下观察绿色荧光,Western blotting检测重组蛋白表达情况.结果 重组质粒pEGFP-GST在Hela细胞中获得了表达,Western blotting结果表明真核表达质粒表达的重组蛋白能与自然感染肝片吸虫的山羊阳性血清发生特异性反应.结论 肝片吸虫GST真核表达载体构建成功,真核表达产物可与自然感染的山羊阳性血清发生特异性反应,具有生物学活性,可做为分子疫苗的候选进行进一步的研究.%In this research, we constructed eukaryotic expression plasmid of Fasciola hepatica GST gene and analyzed the immunogenicity of recombinant protein. The glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene of F. hepatica played the importanty protective role against the worms infection. In this research,GST was amplified by PCR from the pET30a-FhGST, and then inserted into pEGFP-Nl vector to construct recombinant plasmids pEGFP-GST. The recombinant plasmid pEGFP-GST was transfected into Hela cells and fluorescent signal was detected by fluorescence microscope. Western blotting analysis was done to analysze immunogenicity of recombinant protein. And the results demonstrated that eukaryotic expression plasmid of Fasciola hepatica GST gene was constructed successfully. Recombinant protein could be specifically recognized by goat serum infected by Fasciola hepatica, which proving its immunoreactivity. It's suggested that the eukaryotic expression plasmid might be used as gene vaccine in further research.

  14. Gene doping: gene delivery for olympic victory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, David

    2013-08-01

    With one recently recommended gene therapy in Europe and a number of other gene therapy treatments now proving effective in clinical trials it is feasible that the same technologies will soon be adopted in the world of sport by unscrupulous athletes and their trainers in so called 'gene doping'. In this article an overview of the successful gene therapy clinical trials is provided and the potential targets for gene doping are highlighted. Depending on whether a doping gene product is secreted from the engineered cells or is retained locally to, or inside engineered cells will, to some extent, determine the likelihood of detection. It is clear that effective gene delivery technologies now exist and it is important that detection and prevention plans are in place.

  15. Gene Cluster Statistics with Gene Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Dannie

    2009-01-01

    Identifying genomic regions that descended from a common ancestor is important for understanding the function and evolution of genomes. In distantly related genomes, clusters of homologous gene pairs are evidence of candidate homologous regions. Demonstrating the statistical significance of such “gene clusters” is an essential component of comparative genomic analyses. However, currently there are no practical statistical tests for gene clusters that model the influence of the number of homologs in each gene family on cluster significance. In this work, we demonstrate empirically that failure to incorporate gene family size in gene cluster statistics results in overestimation of significance, leading to incorrect conclusions. We further present novel analytical methods for estimating gene cluster significance that take gene family size into account. Our methods do not require complete genome data and are suitable for testing individual clusters found in local regions, such as contigs in an unfinished assembly. We consider pairs of regions drawn from the same genome (paralogous clusters), as well as regions drawn from two different genomes (orthologous clusters). Determining cluster significance under general models of gene family size is computationally intractable. By assuming that all gene families are of equal size, we obtain analytical expressions that allow fast approximation of cluster probabilities. We evaluate the accuracy of this approximation by comparing the resulting gene cluster probabilities with cluster probabilities obtained by simulating a realistic, power-law distributed model of gene family size, with parameters inferred from genomic data. Surprisingly, despite the simplicity of the underlying assumption, our method accurately approximates the true cluster probabilities. It slightly overestimates these probabilities, yielding a conservative test. We present additional simulation results indicating the best choice of parameter values for data

  16. Lateral gene transfer, rearrangement, reconciliation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patterson, M.D.; Szollosi, G.; Daubin, V.; Tannier, E.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Models of ancestral gene order reconstruction have progressively integrated different evolutionary patterns and processes such as unequal gene content, gene duplications, and implicitly sequence evolution via reconciled gene trees. These models have so far ignored lateral gene transfer,

  17. Implementation and development of portal authentication technology base on FH-AC system%基于FH-AC系统Portal认证的实现与开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴迪

    2015-01-01

    随着当今移动互联网的快速发展,WiFi设备成为人们生活当中不可缺少的组成部分,而传统的无线网络在接入稳定性和安全性方面有待进一步提高。为了解决上述问题,设计了基于FH⁃AC系统的Portal认证系统。该系统通过对原有Portal协议进行改进并且采用Socket/HTTP通信和CHAP认证技术等一系列技术来提升系统性能,使整个系统在使用过程中能够更快更稳定地接入当前无线网络,其系统安全性也得到进一步的提升。%With the rapid development of mobile Internet,WiFi equipments have already been a necessary part of every⁃one’s life. However,the traditional wireless network needs to be improved in terms of stability and security access. In order to solving these problems,Portal authentication system based on FH⁃AC system was designed. The system performance was en⁃hanced by improving the original Portal protocol,and using Socket/Http communications and CHAP authentication technology. The whole system is made to be accessed to the current wireless network more fast and more stably. Moreover,the system securi⁃ty has also been further improved.

  18. Structure of FH Sequence in Satelite FH Communication%卫星跳频通信中一种跳频序列的构造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马世旺; 陆锐敏; 邹攀红

    2015-01-01

    跳频序列的设计是跳频通信的关键技术之一,采用直接式算法构造跳频序列,使用m序列对4分段Tent映射产生的序列进行重新排列.仿真结果表明,相对于直接采用4分段Tent映射产生的跳频序列,构造的跳频序列在保持均衡性和复杂度的条件下对独立性、汉明相关性、平均跳频间隔等方面的性能都有不同程度的提升,其中独立性的性能提升尤为突出.

  19. Gene doping in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Mehmet; Ozer Unal, Durisehvar

    2004-01-01

    Gene or cell doping is defined by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as "the non-therapeutic use of genes, genetic elements and/or cells that have the capacity to enhance athletic performance". New research in genetics and genomics will be used not only to diagnose and treat disease, but also to attempt to enhance human performance. In recent years, gene therapy has shown progress and positive results that have highlighted the potential misuse of this technology and the debate of 'gene doping'. Gene therapies developed for the treatment of diseases such as anaemia (the gene for erythropoietin), muscular dystrophy (the gene for insulin-like growth factor-1) and peripheral vascular diseases (the gene for vascular endothelial growth factor) are potential doping methods. With progress in gene technology, many other genes with this potential will be discovered. For this reason, it is important to develop timely legal regulations and to research the field of gene doping in order to develop methods of detection. To protect the health of athletes and to ensure equal competitive conditions, the International Olympic Committee, WADA and International Sports Federations have accepted performance-enhancing substances and methods as being doping, and have forbidden them. Nevertheless, the desire to win causes athletes to misuse these drugs and methods. This paper reviews the current status of gene doping and candidate performance enhancement genes, and also the use of gene therapy in sports medicine and ethics of genetic enhancement.

  20. Human Gene Therapy: Genes without Frontiers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the latest advancements and setbacks in human gene therapy to provide reference material for biology teachers to use in their science classes. Focuses on basic concepts such as recombinant DNA technology, and provides examples of human gene therapy such as severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome, familial hypercholesterolemia, and…

  1. Improving lipoprotein profiles by liver-directed gene transfer of low density lipoprotein receptor gene in hypercholesterolaemia mice

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HAILONG OU; QINGHAI ZHANG; JIA ZENG

    2016-06-01

    The defect of low density lipoprotein receptor disturbs cholesterol metabolism and causes familial hypercholesterolaemia(FH). In this study, we directly delivered exogenousLdlrgene into the liver of FH model mice (Ldlr − / −) by lentiviral genetransfer system. The results showed that theLdlrgene controlled by hepatocyte-specific human thyroxine-binding globulin(TBG) promoter successfully and exclusively expressed in livers. We found that, although, the content of high density lipopro-tein in serum was not significantly affected by theLdlrgene expression, the serum low density lipoprotein level was reducedby 46%, associated with a 30% and 28% decrease in triglyceride and total cholesterol, respectively, compared to uninjectedLdlr − / −mice. Moreover, the TBG directed expression ofLdlrsignificantly decreased the lipid accumulation in liver andreduced plaque burden in aorta (32%). Our results indicated that the hepatocyte-specific expression ofLdlrgene strikinglylowered serum lipid levels and resulted in amelioration of hypercholesterolaemia.

  2. Genes and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient Health Information News media interested in covering ... One of the most common birth defects is hearing loss or deafness (congenital), which can affect as many ...

  3. Essential Bacillus subtilis genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, K.; Ehrlich, S.D.; Albertini, A.

    2003-01-01

    To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximate to4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were...... predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential genes were categorized in relatively few domains of cell metabolism, with about half involved in information processing, one-fifth involved in the synthesis of cell envelope and the determination of cell shape and division, and one-tenth related...... to cell energetics. Only 4% of essential genes encode unknown functions. Most essential genes are present throughout a wide range of Bacteria, and almost 70% can also be found in Archaea and Eucarya. However, essential genes related to cell envelope, shape, division, and respiration tend to be lost from...

  4. Cochlear Gene Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to highlight recent advances in cochlear gene therapy over the past several years. Cochlear gene therapy has undergone tremendous advances over the past decade. Beginning with some groundbreaking work in 2005 documenting hair cell regeneration using virallymediated delivery of the mouse atonal 1 gene, gene therapy is now being explored as a possible treatment for a variety of causes of hearing loss.

  5. Discovering genes underlying QTL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanavichit, Apichart [Kasetsart University, Kamphaengsaen, Nakorn Pathom (Thailand)

    2002-02-01

    A map-based approach has allowed scientists to discover few genes at a time. In addition, the reproductive barrier between cultivated rice and wild relatives has prevented us from utilizing the germ plasm by a map-based approach. Most genetic traits important to agriculture or human diseases are manifested as observable, quantitative phenotypes called Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). In many instances, the complexity of the phenotype/genotype interaction and the general lack of clearly identifiable gene products render the direct molecular cloning approach ineffective, thus additional strategies like genome mapping are required to identify the QTL in question. Genome mapping requires no prior knowledge of the gene function, but utilizes statistical methods to identify the most likely gene location. To completely characterize genes of interest, the initially mapped region of a gene location will have to be narrowed down to a size that is suitable for cloning and sequencing. Strategies for gene identification within the critical region have to be applied after the sequencing of a potentially large clone or set of clones that contains this gene(s). Tremendous success of positional cloning has been shown for cloning many genes responsible for human diseases, including cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy as well as plant disease resistance genes. Genome and QTL mapping, positional cloning: the pre-genomics era, comparative approaches to gene identification, and positional cloning: the genomics era are discussed in the report. (M. Suetake)

  6. Reading and Generalist Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Claire M. A.; Meaburn, Emma L.; Harlaar, Nicole; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Twin-study research suggests that many (but not all) of the same genes contribute to genetic influence on diverse learning abilities and disabilities, a hypothesis called "generalist genes". This generalist genes hypothesis was tested using a set of 10 DNA markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) found to be associated with early reading…

  7. Development of functional genomic tools in trematodes: RNA interference and luciferase reporter gene activity in Fasciola hepatica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rinaldi

    Full Text Available The growing availability of sequence information from diverse parasites through genomic and transcriptomic projects offer new opportunities for the identification of key mediators in the parasite-host interaction. Functional genomics approaches and methods for the manipulation of genes are essential tools for deciphering the roles of genes and to identify new intervention targets in parasites. Exciting advances in functional genomics for parasitic helminths are starting to occur, with transgene expression and RNA interference (RNAi reported in several species of nematodes, but the area is still in its infancy in flatworms, with reports in just three species. While advancing in model organisms, there is a need to rapidly extend these technologies to other parasites responsible for several chronic diseases of humans and cattle. In order to extend these approaches to less well studied parasitic worms, we developed a test method for the presence of a viable RNAi pathway by silencing the exogenous reporter gene, firefly luciferase (fLUC. We established the method in the human blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni and then confirmed its utility in the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica. We transformed newly excysted juveniles of F. hepatica by electroporation with mRNA of fLUC and three hours later were able to detect luciferase enzyme activity, concentrated mainly in the digestive ceca. Subsequently, we tested the presence of an active RNAi pathway in F. hepatica by knocking down the exogenous luciferase activity by introduction into the transformed parasites of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA specific for fLUC. In addition, we tested the RNAi pathway targeting an endogenous F. hepatica gene encoding leucine aminopeptidase (FhLAP, and observed a significant reduction in specific mRNA levels. In summary, these studies demonstrated the utility of RNAi targeting reporter fLUC as a reporter gene assay to establish the presence of an intact RNAi pathway in helminth

  8. New Approaches in Detection and Treatment of Familial Hypercholesterolemia

    OpenAIRE

    Hartgers, Merel L.; Ray, Kausik K.; Hovingh, G. Kees

    2015-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder that clinically leads to increased low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. As a consequence, FH patients are at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Mutations are found in genes coding for the LDLR, apoB, and PCSK9, although FH cannot be ruled out in the absence of a mutation in one of these genes. It is pivotal to diagnose FH at an early age, since lipid lowering results in a decreased risk of car...

  9. Familial hypercholesterolemia in St-Petersburg: the known and novel mutations found in the low density lipoprotein receptor gene in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, Faina M; Damgaard, Dorte; Mandelshtam, Michail Y; Golubkov, Valery I; Nissen, Peter H; Nilsen, Gitte G; Stenderup, Anette; Lipovetsky, Boris M; Konstantinov, Vladimir O; Denisenko, Alexander D; Vasilyev, Vadim B; Faergeman, Ole

    2005-02-08

    Familial hypercholesterolemia is a human monogenic disease caused by population-specific mutations in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene. Despite thirteen different mutations of the LDL receptor gene were reported from Russia prior to 2003, the whole spectrum of disease-causing gene alterations in this country is poorly known and requires further investigation provided by the current study. Forty-five patients with clinical diagnosis of FH were tested for the apolipoprotein B (apoB) mutation R3500Q by restriction fragment length analysis. After exclusion of R3500Q mutation high-sensitive fluorescent single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and automatic DNA sequencing were used to search for mutations in the LDL receptor gene. We found twenty one rare sequence variations of the LDL receptor gene. Nineteen were probably pathogenic mutations, and two (P518P, T705I) were considered as neutral ones. Among the mutations likely to be pathogenic, eight were novel (c.670-671insG, C249X, c.936-940del5, c.1291-1331del41, W422X, c.1855-1856insA, D601N, C646S), and eleven (Q12X, IVS3+1G>A, c.651-653del3, E207X, c.925-931del7, C308Y, L380H, c.1302delG, IVS9+1G>A, V776M, V806I) have already been described in other populations. None of the patients had the R3500Q mutation in the apoB gene. Nineteen pathogenic mutations in the LDL receptor gene in 23 probands were identified. Two mutations c.925-931del7 and L380H are shared by St.-Petersburg population with neighbouring Finland and several other mutations with Norway, Sweden or Denmark, i.e. countries from the Baltic Sea region. Only four mutations (c.313+1G>A, c.651-653del3, C308Y and W422X) were recurrent as all those were found in two unrelated families. By this study the number of known mutations in the LDL receptor gene in St.-Petersburg area was increased nearly threefold. Analysis of all 34 low density lipoprotein receptor gene mutations found in St.-Petersburg argues against strong founder

  10. Familial hypercholesterolemia in St.-Petersburg: the known and novel mutations found in the low density lipoprotein receptor gene in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov Vladimir O

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Familial hypercholesterolemia is a human monogenic disease caused by population-specific mutations in the low density lipoprotein (LDL receptor gene. Despite thirteen different mutations of the LDL receptor gene were reported from Russia prior to 2003, the whole spectrum of disease-causing gene alterations in this country is poorly known and requires further investigation provided by the current study. Methods Forty-five patients with clinical diagnosis of FH were tested for the apolipoprotein B (apoB mutation R3500Q by restriction fragment length analysis. After exclusion of R3500Q mutation high-sensitive fluorescent single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP analysis and automatic DNA sequencing were used to search for mutations in the LDL receptor gene. Results We found twenty one rare sequence variations of the LDL receptor gene. Nineteen were probably pathogenic mutations, and two (P518P, T705I were considered as neutral ones. Among the mutations likely to be pathogenic, eight were novel (c.670-671insG, C249X, c.936-940del5, c.1291-1331del41, W422X, c.1855-1856insA, D601N, C646S, and eleven (Q12X, IVS3+1G>A, c.651-653del3, E207X, c.925-931del7, C308Y, L380H, c.1302delG, IVS9+1G>A, V776M, V806I have already been described in other populations. None of the patients had the R3500Q mutation in the apoB gene. Conclusions Nineteen pathogenic mutations in the LDL receptor gene in 23 probands were identified. Two mutations c.925-931del7 and L380H are shared by St.-Petersburg population with neighbouring Finland and several other mutations with Norway, Sweden or Denmark, i.e. countries from the Baltic Sea region. Only four mutations (c.313+1G>A, c.651-653del3, C308Y and W422X were recurrent as all those were found in two unrelated families. By this study the number of known mutations in the LDL receptor gene in St.-Petersburg area was increased nearly threefold. Analysis of all 34 low density lipoprotein receptor gene

  11. Journey from Jumping Genes to Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whartenby, Katharine A

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapy for cancer is a still evolving approach that resulted from a long history of studies into genetic modification of organisms. The fascination with manipulating gene products has spanned hundreds if not thousands of years, beginning with observations of the hereditary nature of traits in plants and culminating to date in the alteration of genetic makeup in humans via modern technology. From early discoveries noting the potential for natural mobility of genetic material to the culmination of clinical trials in a variety of disease, gene transfer has had an eventful and sometimes tumultuous course. Within the present review is a brief history of the biology of gene transfer, how it came to be applied to genetic diseases, and its early applications to cancer therapies. Some of the different types of methods used to modify cells, the theories behind the approaches, and some of the limitations encountered along the way are reviewed.

  12. Gene conversion in human rearranged immunoglobulin genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlow, John M; Stott, David I

    2006-07-01

    Over the past 20 years, many DNA sequences have been published suggesting that all or part of the V(H) segment of a rearranged immunoglobulin gene may be replaced in vivo. Two different mechanisms appear to be operating. One of these is very similar to primary V(D)J recombination, involving the RAG proteins acting upon recombination signal sequences, and this has recently been proven to occur. Other sequences, many of which show partial V(H) replacements with no addition of untemplated nucleotides at the V(H)-V(H) joint, have been proposed to occur by an unusual RAG-mediated recombination with the formation of hybrid (coding-to-signal) joints. These appear to occur in cells already undergoing somatic hypermutation in which, some authors are convinced, RAG genes are silenced. We recently proposed that the latter type of V(H) replacement might occur by homologous recombination initiated by the activity of AID (activation-induced cytidine deaminase), which is essential for somatic hypermutation and gene conversion. The latter has been observed in other species, but not in human Ig genes, so far. In this paper, we present a new analysis of sequences published as examples of the second type of rearrangement. This not only shows that AID recognition motifs occur in recombination regions but also that some sequences show replacement of central sections by a sequence from another gene, similar to gene conversion in the immunoglobulin genes of other species. These observations support the proposal that this type of rearrangement is likely to be AID-mediated rather than RAG-mediated and is consistent with gene conversion.

  13. Gene therapy in periodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available GENES are made of DNA - the code of life. They are made up of two types of base pair from different number of hydrogen bonds AT, GC which can be turned into instruction. Everyone inherits genes from their parents and passes them on in turn to their children. Every person′s genes are different, and the changes in sequence determine the inherited differences between each of us. Some changes, usually in a single gene, may cause serious diseases. Gene therapy is ′the use of genes as medicine′. It involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working gene copy into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. Thus it may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favorably modify the clinical course of a condition. It has a promising era in the field of periodontics. Gene therapy has been used as a mode of tissue engineering in periodontics. The tissue engineering approach reconstructs the natural target tissue by combining four elements namely: Scaffold, signaling molecules, cells and blood supply and thus can help in the reconstruction of damaged periodontium including cementum, gingival, periodontal ligament and bone.

  14. Regulated Gene Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breger, Ludivine; Wettergren, Erika Elgstrand; Quintino, Luis; Lundberg, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy represents a promising approach for the treatment of monogenic and multifactorial neurological disorders. It can be used to replace a missing gene and mutated gene or downregulate a causal gene. Despite the versatility of gene therapy, one of the main limitations lies in the irreversibility of the process: once delivered to target cells, the gene of interest is constitutively expressed and cannot be removed. Therefore, efficient, safe and long-term gene modification requires a system allowing fine control of transgene expression.Different systems have been developed over the past decades to regulate transgene expression after in vivo delivery, either at transcriptional or post-translational levels. The purpose of this chapter is to give an overview on current regulatory system used in the context of gene therapy for neurological disorders. Systems using external regulation of transgenes using antibiotics are commonly used to control either gene expression using tetracycline-controlled transcription or protein levels using destabilizing domain technology. Alternatively, specific promoters of genes that are regulated by disease mechanisms, increasing expression as the disease progresses or decreasing expression as disease regresses, are also examined. Overall, this chapter discusses advantages and drawbacks of current molecular methods for regulated gene therapy in the central nervous system.

  15. Gene therapy: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Indu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy "the use of genes as medicine" involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working copy of a gene into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. The technique may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favorably modify the clinical course of a condition. The objective of gene therapy is to introduce new genetic material into target cells while causing no damage to the surrounding healthy cells and tissues, hence the treatment related morbidity is decreased. The delivery system includes a vector that delivers a therapeutic gene into the patient′s target cell. Functional proteins are created from the therapeutic gene causing the cell to return to a normal stage. The vectors used in gene therapy can be viral and non-viral. Gene therapy, an emerging field of biomedicine, is still at infancy and much research remains to be done before this approach to the treatment of condition will realize its full potential.

  16. Gene therapy in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Singh, Nidhi; Saluja, Mini

    2013-03-01

    GENES are made of DNA - the code of life. They are made up of two types of base pair from different number of hydrogen bonds AT, GC which can be turned into instruction. Everyone inherits genes from their parents and passes them on in turn to their children. Every person's genes are different, and the changes in sequence determine the inherited differences between each of us. Some changes, usually in a single gene, may cause serious diseases. Gene therapy is 'the use of genes as medicine'. It involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working gene copy into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. Thus it may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favorably modify the clinical course of a condition. It has a promising era in the field of periodontics. Gene therapy has been used as a mode of tissue engineering in periodontics. The tissue engineering approach reconstructs the natural target tissue by combining four elements namely: Scaffold, signaling molecules, cells and blood supply and thus can help in the reconstruction of damaged periodontium including cementum, gingival, periodontal ligament and bone.

  17. Comprehensive Molecular Characterization of Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linehan, W. Marston; Spellman, Paul T.; Ricketts, Christopher J.; Creighton, Chad J.; Fei, Suzanne S.; Davis, Caleb; Wheeler, David A.; Murray, Bradley A.; Schmidt, Laura; Vocke, Cathy D.; Peto, Myron; Al Mamun, Abu Amar M.; Shinbrot, Eve; Sethi, Anurag; Brooks, Samira; Rathmell, W. Kimryn; Brooks, Angela N.; Hoadley, Katherine A.; Robertson, A. Gordon; Brooks, Denise; Bowlby, Reanne; Sadeghi, Sara; Shen, Hui; Weisenberger, Daniel J.; Bootwalla, Moiz; Baylin, Stephen B.; Laird, Peter W.; Cherniack, Andrew D.; Saksena, Gordon; Haake, Scott; Li, Jun; Liang, Han; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B.; Akbani, Rehan; Leiserson, Mark D.M.; Raphael, Benjamin J.; Anur, Pavana; Bottaro, Donald; Albiges, Laurence; Barnabas, Nandita; Choueiri, Toni K.; Czerniak, Bogdan; Godwin, Andrew K.; Hakimi, A. Ari; Ho, Thai; Hsieh, James; Ittmann, Michael; Kim, William Y.; Krishnan, Bhavani; Merino, Maria J.; Mills Shaw, Kenna R.; Reuter, Victor E.; Reznik, Ed; Shelley, Carl Simon; Shuch, Brian; Signoretti, Sabina; Srinivasan, Ramaprasad; Tamboli, Pheroze; Thomas, George; Tickoo, Satish; Burnett, Kenneth; Crain, Daniel; Gardner, Johanna; Lau, Kevin; Mallery, David; Morris, Scott; Paulauskis, Joseph D.; Penny, Robert J.; Shelton, Candace; Shelton, W. Troy; Sherman, Mark; Thompson, Eric; Yena, Peggy; Avedon, Melissa T.; Bowen, Jay; Gastier-Foster, Julie M.; Gerken, Mark; Leraas, Kristen M.; Lichtenberg, Tara M.; Ramirez, Nilsa C.; Santos, Tracie; Wise, Lisa; Zmuda, Erik; Demchok, John A.; Felau, Ina; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Sheth, Margi; Sofia, Heidi J.; Tarnuzzer, Roy; Wang, Zhining; Yang, Liming; Zenklusen, Jean C.; Zhang, Jiashan (Julia); Ayala, Brenda; Baboud, Julien; Chudamani, Sudha; Liu, Jia; Lolla, Laxmi; Naresh, Rashi; Pihl, Todd; Sun, Qiang; Wan, Yunhu; Wu, Ye; Ally, Adrian; Balasundaram, Miruna; Balu, Saianand; Beroukhim, Rameen; Bodenheimer, Tom; Buhay, Christian; Butterfield, Yaron S.N.; Carlsen, Rebecca; Carter, Scott L.; Chao, Hsu; Chuah, Eric; Clarke, Amanda; Covington, Kyle R.; Dahdouli, Mahmoud; Dewal, Ninad; Dhalla, Noreen; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Drummond, Jennifer; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Guin, Ranabir; Hale, Walker; Hawes, Alicia; Hayes, D. Neil; Holt, Robert A.; Hoyle, Alan P.; Jefferys, Stuart R.; Jones, Steven J.M.; Jones, Corbin D.; Kalra, Divya; Kovar, Christie; Lewis, Lora; Li, Jie; Ma, Yussanne; Marra, Marco A.; Mayo, Michael; Meng, Shaowu; Meyerson, Matthew; Mieczkowski, Piotr A.; Moore, Richard A.; Morton, Donna; Mose, Lisle E.; Mungall, Andrew J.; Muzny, Donna; Parker, Joel S.; Perou, Charles M.; Roach, Jeffrey; Schein, Jacqueline E.; Schumacher, Steven E.; Shi, Yan; Simons, Janae V.; Sipahimalani, Payal; Skelly, Tara; Soloway, Matthew G.; Sougnez, Carrie; Tam, Angela; Tan, Donghui; Thiessen, Nina; Veluvolu, Umadevi; Wang, Min; Wilkerson, Matthew D.; Wong, Tina; Wu, Junyuan; Xi, Liu; Zhou, Jane; Bedford, Jason; Chen, Fengju; Fu, Yao; Gerstein, Mark; Haussler, David; Kasaian, Katayoon; Lai, Phillip; Ling, Shiyun; Radenbaugh, Amie; Van Den Berg, David; Weinstein, John N.; Zhu, Jingchun; Albert, Monique; Alexopoulou, Iakovina; Andersen, Jeremiah J; Auman, J. Todd; Bartlett, John; Bastacky, Sheldon; Bergsten, Julie; Blute, Michael L.; Boice, Lori; Bollag, Roni J.; Boyd, Jeff; Castle, Erik; Chen, Ying-Bei; Cheville, John C.; Curley, Erin; Davies, Benjamin; DeVolk, April; Dhir, Rajiv; Dike, Laura; Eckman, John; Engel, Jay; Harr, Jodi; Hrebinko, Ronald; Huang, Mei; Huelsenbeck-Dill, Lori; Iacocca, Mary; Jacobs, Bruce; Lobis, Michael; Maranchie, Jodi K.; McMeekin, Scott; Myers, Jerome; Nelson, Joel; Parfitt, Jeremy; Parwani, Anil; Petrelli, Nicholas; Rabeno, Brenda; Roy, Somak; Salner, Andrew L.; Slaton, Joel; Stanton, Melissa; Thompson, R. Houston; Thorne, Leigh; Tucker, Kelinda; Weinberger, Paul M.; Winemiller, Cythnia; Zach, Leigh Anne; Zuna, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Background Papillary renal cell carcinoma, accounting for 15% of renal cell carcinoma, is a heterogeneous disease consisting of different types of renal cancer, including tumors with indolent, multifocal presentation and solitary tumors with an aggressive, highly lethal phenotype. Little is known about the genetic basis of sporadic papillary renal cell carcinoma; no effective forms of therapy for advanced disease exist. Methods We performed comprehensive molecular characterization utilizing whole-exome sequencing, copy number, mRNA, microRNA, methylation and proteomic analyses of 161 primary papillary renal cell carcinomas. Results Type 1 and Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinomas were found to be different types of renal cancer characterized by specific genetic alterations, with Type 2 further classified into three individual subgroups based on molecular differences that influenced patient survival. MET alterations were associated with Type 1 tumors, whereas Type 2 tumors were characterized by CDKN2A silencing, SETD2 mutations, TFE3 fusions, and increased expression of the NRF2-ARE pathway. A CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) was found in a distinct subset of Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma characterized by poor survival and mutation of the fumarate hydratase (FH) gene. Conclusions Type 1 and Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinomas are clinically and biologically distinct. Alterations in the MET pathway are associated with Type 1 and activation of the NRF2-ARE pathway with Type 2; CDKN2A loss and CIMP in Type 2 convey a poor prognosis. Furthermore, Type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma consists of at least 3 subtypes based upon molecular and phenotypic features. PMID:26536169

  18. Cyanobacterial signature genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Kirt A; Siefert, Janet L; Yerrapragada, Sailaja; Lu, Yue; McNeill, Thomas Z; Moreno, Pedro A; Weinstock, George M; Widger, William R; Fox, George E

    2003-01-01

    A comparison of 8 cyanobacterial genomes reveals that there are 181 shared genes that do not have obvious orthologs in other bacteria. These signature genes define aspects of the genotype that are uniquely cyanobacterial. Approximately 25% of these genes have been associated with some function. These signature genes may or may not be involved in photosynthesis but likely they will be in many cases. In addition, several examples of widely conserved gene order involving two or more signature genes were observed. This suggests there may be regulatory processes that have been preserved throughout the long history of the cyanobacterial phenotype. The results presented here will be especially useful because they identify which of the many genes of unassigned function are likely to be of the greatest interest.

  19. Sudden cardiac death in young adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maiken K; Nissen, Peter H; Kristensen, Ingrid B;

    2012-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder that may lead to premature coronary heart disease (CHD) and sudden cardiac death (SCD). Mutations in the LDLR or APOB genes cause FH. We have screened the LDLR and the ligand-binding region of APOB genes in 52 cases of SCD. Deceased patients...... premature CHD and SCD....

  20. Regeneration of F. hepatica Protective antigenic gene Transgenic Alfalfa Plants by Agrobacterium Mediated Gene Transfer%肝片吸虫抗原基因转基因苜蓿再生的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎万奎; 陈幼竹; 周宇; 徐恒

    2003-01-01

    用直接转化法,将构建有肝片吸虫保护性抗原基因FH3的植物表达载体pBI121-FH3,导入感受态的根瘤农杆菌EHA105;以重组的根瘤农杆菌为介导,用叶盘法转化苜蓿外植体,筛选得到抗Kan转化外植体;抗性外植体通过诱导丛生芽和诱导生根,再生出完整植株.提取植株总DNA进行Southern blot,结果表明,FH3基因已经整合入苜蓿基因组中.

  1. Production of D-malate by maleate hydratase from Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der M.J.

    1994-01-01

    The biological activity of a chiral compound with respect to its pharmaceutical and agrochemical activity, flavour and taste can vary dramatically for the different enantiomers. Especially when using chiral compounds for pharmaceutical or agrochemical applications, the presence of the "wrong" stereo

  2. Biotransformation of benzonitrile herbicides via the nitrile hydratase-amidase pathway in rhodococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veselá, Alicja B; Pelantová, Helena; Sulc, Miroslav; Macková, Martina; Lovecká, Petra; Thimová, Markéta; Pasquarelli, Fabrizia; Pičmanová, Martina; Pátek, Miroslav; Bhalla, Tek Chand; Martínková, Ludmila

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the ability of rhodococci to transform 3,5-dichloro-4-hydroxybenzonitrile (chloroxynil), 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile (bromoxynil), 3,5-diiodo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile (ioxynil) and 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (dichlobenil); to identify the products and determine their acute toxicities. Rhodococcus erythropolis A4 and Rhodococcus rhodochrous PA-34 converted benzonitrile herbicides into amides, but only the former strain was able to hydrolyze 2,6-dichlorobenzamide into 2,6-dichlorobenzoic acid, and produced also more of the carboxylic acids from the other herbicides compared to strain PA-34. Transformation of nitriles into amides decreased acute toxicities for chloroxynil and dichlobenil, but increased them for bromoxynil and ioxynil. The amides inhibited root growth in Lactuca sativa less than the nitriles but more than the acids. The conversion of the nitrile group may be the first step in the mineralization of benzonitrile herbicides but cannot be itself considered to be a detoxification.

  3. Primetime for Learning Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    Learning genes in mature neurons are uniquely suited to respond rapidly to specific environmental stimuli. Expression of individual learning genes, therefore, requires regulatory mechanisms that have the flexibility to respond with transcriptional activation or repression to select appropriate physiological and behavioral responses. Among the mechanisms that equip genes to respond adaptively are bivalent domains. These are specific histone modifications localized to gene promoters that are characteristic of both gene activation and repression, and have been studied primarily for developmental genes in embryonic stem cells. In this review, studies of the epigenetic regulation of learning genes in neurons, particularly the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF), by methylation/demethylation and chromatin modifications in the context of learning and memory will be highlighted. Because of the unique function of learning genes in the mature brain, it is proposed that bivalent domains are a characteristic feature of the chromatin landscape surrounding their promoters. This allows them to be “poised” for rapid response to activate or repress gene expression depending on environmental stimuli. PMID:28208656

  4. Primetime for Learning Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, Joyce

    2017-02-11

    Learning genes in mature neurons are uniquely suited to respond rapidly to specific environmental stimuli. Expression of individual learning genes, therefore, requires regulatory mechanisms that have the flexibility to respond with transcriptional activation or repression to select appropriate physiological and behavioral responses. Among the mechanisms that equip genes to respond adaptively are bivalent domains. These are specific histone modifications localized to gene promoters that are characteristic of both gene activation and repression, and have been studied primarily for developmental genes in embryonic stem cells. In this review, studies of the epigenetic regulation of learning genes in neurons, particularly the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene (BDNF), by methylation/demethylation and chromatin modifications in the context of learning and memory will be highlighted. Because of the unique function of learning genes in the mature brain, it is proposed that bivalent domains are a characteristic feature of the chromatin landscape surrounding their promoters. This allows them to be "poised" for rapid response to activate or repress gene expression depending on environmental stimuli.

  5. Analysis of the transcriptome of Panax notoginseng root uncovers putative triterpene saponin-biosynthetic genes and genetic markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Hongmei

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Panax notoginseng (Burk F.H. Chen is important medicinal plant of the Araliacease family. Triterpene saponins are the bioactive constituents in P. notoginseng. However, available genomic information regarding this plant is limited. Moreover, details of triterpene saponin biosynthesis in the Panax species are largely unknown. Results Using the 454 pyrosequencing technology, a one-quarter GS FLX titanium run resulted in 188,185 reads with an average length of 410 bases for P. notoginseng root. These reads were processed and assembled by 454 GS De Novo Assembler software into 30,852 unique sequences. A total of 70.2% of unique sequences were annotated by Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST similarity searches against public sequence databases. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG assignment discovered 41 unique sequences representing 11 genes involved in triterpene saponin backbone biosynthesis in the 454-EST dataset. In particular, the transcript encoding dammarenediol synthase (DS, which is the first committed enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of major triterpene saponins, is highly expressed in the root of four-year-old P. notoginseng. It is worth emphasizing that the candidate cytochrome P450 (Pn02132 and Pn00158 and UDP-glycosyltransferase (Pn00082 gene most likely to be involved in hydroxylation or glycosylation of aglycones for triterpene saponin biosynthesis were discovered from 174 cytochrome P450s and 242 glycosyltransferases by phylogenetic analysis, respectively. Putative transcription factors were detected in 906 unique sequences, including Myb, homeobox, WRKY, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH, and other family proteins. Additionally, a total of 2,772 simple sequence repeat (SSR were identified from 2,361 unique sequences, of which, di-nucleotide motifs were the most abundant motif. Conclusion This study is the first to present a large-scale EST dataset for P. notoginseng root acquired by next

  6. An Ontology of Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Masuya, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a gene was established in the era of classical genetics and is now essential for life science for elucidating the molecular basis of the coding of genetic information necessary to realize the body of an organism and its biological functions. However, an ontology fully representing multiple aspects of a gene is still not available. In this study, we dissected the biological and ontological definitions of bearers of genetic information, including genes and alleles. Based on this ...

  7. Placental gene therapy

    OpenAIRE

    David, A. L.; Ashcroft, R

    2009-01-01

    Gene therapy uses genetic material as a drug delivery vehicle to express therapeutic proteins. Placental gene therapy may be useful for correction of two important obstetric conditions, foetal growth restriction and pre-eclampsia in which there is a failure of the physiological trophoblast remodelling of the uterine spiral arteries in early pregnancy. The patient in this scenario is the foetus. Placental gene therapy might be justifiable when: there is reasonable certainty that the foetus wil...

  8. GenBank blastx search result: AK243510 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243510 J100075B22 AF013216.1 AF013216 Myxococcus xanthus Dog (dog), isocitrate lyase (icl), Mls (mls), Ufo... (ufo), fumarate hydratase (fhy), and proteosome major subunit (clpP) genes, complete cds; and acyl-CoA oxidase (aco) gene, partial cds. BCT 2e-87 1 ...

  9. GenBank blastn search result: AK241214 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241214 J065122P06 AF013216.1 AF013216 Myxococcus xanthus Dog (dog), isocitrate lyase (icl), Mls (mls), Ufo... (ufo), fumarate hydratase (fhy), and proteosome major subunit (clpP) genes, complete cds; and acyl-CoA oxidase (aco) gene, partial cds. BCT 8e-18 1 -1 ...

  10. GenBank blastx search result: AK241214 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK241214 J065122P06 AF013216.1 AF013216 Myxococcus xanthus Dog (dog), isocitrate lyase (icl), Mls (mls), Ufo... (ufo), fumarate hydratase (fhy), and proteosome major subunit (clpP) genes, complete cds; and acyl-CoA oxidase (aco) gene, partial cds. BCT 1e-151 1 ...

  11. GenBank blastx search result: AK243527 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK243527 J100075P16 AF013216.1 AF013216 Myxococcus xanthus Dog (dog), isocitrate lyase (icl), Mls (mls), Ufo... (ufo), fumarate hydratase (fhy), and proteosome major subunit (clpP) genes, complete cds; and acyl-CoA oxidase (aco) gene, partial cds. BCT 1e-143 1 ...

  12. GenBank blastx search result: AK287540 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK287540 J065011K01 AF013216.1 AF013216 Myxococcus xanthus Dog (dog), isocitrate lyase (icl), Mls (mls), Ufo... (ufo), fumarate hydratase (fhy), and proteosome major subunit (clpP) genes, complete cds; and acyl-CoA oxidase (aco) gene, partial cds. BCT 0.0 0 ...

  13. Antisense gene silencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels T; Nielsen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    Since the first reports that double-stranded RNAs can efficiently silence gene expression in C. elegans, the technology of RNA interference (RNAi) has been intensively exploited as an experimental tool to study gene function. With the subsequent discovery that RNAi could also be applied to mammal......Since the first reports that double-stranded RNAs can efficiently silence gene expression in C. elegans, the technology of RNA interference (RNAi) has been intensively exploited as an experimental tool to study gene function. With the subsequent discovery that RNAi could also be applied...

  14. History of gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Thomas; Parker, Nigel; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2013-08-10

    Two decades after the initial gene therapy trials and more than 1700 approved clinical trials worldwide we not only have gained much new information and knowledge regarding gene therapy in general, but also learned to understand the concern that has persisted in society. Despite the setbacks gene therapy has faced, success stories have increasingly emerged. Examples for these are the positive recommendation for a gene therapy product (Glybera) by the EMA for approval in the European Union and the positive trials for the treatment of ADA deficiency, SCID-X1 and adrenoleukodystrophy. Nevertheless, our knowledge continues to grow and during the course of time more safety data has become available that helps us to develop better gene therapy approaches. Also, with the increased understanding of molecular medicine, we have been able to develop more specific and efficient gene transfer vectors which are now producing clinical results. In this review, we will take a historical view and highlight some of the milestones that had an important impact on the development of gene therapy. We will also discuss briefly the safety and ethical aspects of gene therapy and address some concerns that have been connected with gene therapy as an important therapeutic modality.

  15. Delivery Systems in Gene Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Hu; Anas El-Aneed; Cui Guohui

    2005-01-01

    1 Gene therapy Gene therapy includes the treatment of both genetically based and infectious diseases by introducing genetic materials which have therapeutic effects[1~3]. In its simplest terms, a wild type gene (which is non-functional in the cell leading to disease development) is introduced into the somatic cell lacking this gene to restore the normal gene function in this cell. Many gene therapy strategies, however, utilize genes to destroy specific cells.

  16. Gene promoters dictate histone occupancy within genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Roberto; Erickson, Benjamin; Zhang, Lian; Kim, Hyunmin; Valiquett, Elan; Bentley, David

    2013-10-01

    Spt6 is a transcriptional elongation factor and histone chaperone that reassembles transcribed chromatin. Genome-wide H3 mapping showed that Spt6 preferentially maintains nucleosomes within the first 500 bases of genes and helps define nucleosome-depleted regions in 5' and 3' flanking sequences. In Spt6-depleted cells, H3 loss at 5' ends correlates with reduced pol II density suggesting enhanced transcription elongation. Consistent with its 'Suppressor of Ty' (Spt) phenotype, Spt6 inactivation caused localized H3 eviction over 1-2 nucleosomes at 5' ends of Ty elements. H3 displacement differed between genes driven by promoters with 'open'/DPN and 'closed'/OPN chromatin conformations with similar pol II densities. More eviction occurred on genes with 'closed' promoters, associated with 'noisy' transcription. Moreover, swapping of 'open' and 'closed' promoters showed that they can specify distinct downstream patterns of histone eviction/deposition. These observations suggest a novel function for promoters in dictating histone dynamics within genes possibly through effects on transcriptional bursting or elongation rate.

  17. Smart Genes, Stupid Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randerson, Sherman; Mahadeva, Madhu N.

    1983-01-01

    Because many people still believe that specific, identifiable genes dictate the level of human intelligence and that the number/quality of these genes can be evaluated, presents evidence from human genetics (related to nervous system development) to counter this view. Also disputes erroneous assumptions made in "heritability studies" of human…

  18. XLMR genes: update 2000.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chiurazzi, P.; Hamel, B.C.J.; Neri, G.

    2001-01-01

    This is the sixth edition of the catalogue of XLMR genes, ie X-linked genes whose malfunctioning causes mental retardation. The cloning era is not yet concluded, actually much remains to be done to account for the 202 XLMR conditions listed in this update. Many of these may eventually prove to be du

  19. SAJAA MarApr 19-24 Con.fh9

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studio G5

    rocuronium for fast and safe tracheal intubation (similar to succinylcholine). ... The distance chin-thyroid was > 60 mm, the distance chin-hyoid. > 40 mm ..... 4 Baykara N, Solak M, Toker K. Predicting recovery from deep neuromuscular block by ...

  20. Treatability studies on F/H Area ``hot spot`` groundwater composite. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibler, J.P.

    1993-08-30

    The data found in this report were collected from laboratory experiments that were conducted to characterize the ``hot spot`` groundwater before and after pH adjustment, to describe the settling behavior and particle size of the precipitates resulting from pH adjustment, and to compare several methods of pH adjustment. Although Decontamination Factors (DFs) for all precipitating agents are similar, the best settling characteristics and most manageable precipitate were produced when 25 ppM Al{sup 3+} was introduced as Al{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and pH adjustment was made from 6--8 with NaOH. The resulting precipitate will not be a hazardous secondary waste.

  1. Performance of Adaptive Antennas in FH-GSM Using Conventional Beamforming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Preben Elgaard; Leth-Espensen, P; Zetterberg, P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the performance of adaptive antennas in a 1/3 reuse frequency hopping GSM network using conventional beamforming. It mainly focuses on C/I improvement for the purpose of capacity enhancement. The performance evaluation has been conducted by means of network computer simulations...... for low azimuth spread values. For large values of azimuth spread (relative to the antenna beamwidth), the performance gain is reduced significantly. For an azimuth spread of 10 degrees-12 degrees, which has been measured in urban macro-cellular environments, the C/I gain for M = 8 is reduced to approx. 5...

  2. Angewandte Forschung an Fachhochschulen im Verbund mit der Wirtschaft (FH3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulicke, Marianne; Zimmermann, Ann; Kroll, Henning;

    2008-01-01

    Toothed whales use echolocation to locate and track prey. Most knowledge of toothed whale echolocation stems from studies on trained animals, and little is known about how toothed whales regulate and use their biosonar systems in the wild. Recent research suggests that an automatic gain control m...

  3. A steady tracking technology adopted to fast FH/BPSK signal under satellite channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, SuLi; Lou, Zhigang; Wang, XiDuo; Xia, ShuangZhi

    2015-07-01

    In order to survive under the conditions with great jamming and interference, fast frequency hopped signal are employed in satellite communication system. This paper discusses the nonlinear phases induced by the equipment and atmosphere, and their influence on the FFH/BPSK tracking loop. Two methods are developed including compensating phase which is based on channel estimation and compensating Doppler frequency based on velocity normalization. Simulation results for a real circuit with proper parameters shows that the degradation due to the demodulation of frequency-hopped is only a fraction of one dB in an AWGN environment under satellite channel.

  4. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1FH5H-1F8TH [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sequence>YCARD----AMDYW ure>EEEEE---- > H 1F8TH YCASYDDYTWFTYW ...>EEEEE EEE > ATOM 2442 CA TYR H 91 35.896 -66.234 42....H 1F8TH ITYSG-STGYN ...>EE -EEEEE> ATOM 2104 CA ILE H 51 40.678 -5

  5. Growth performance of FH male calves fed milk replacer made of local ingredients for veal production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wina

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The research was designed to evaluate the local feedstuff to be used in milk replacer (MP and its utilization for veal production . Fifteen male calves of the Friesian Holstein breed, 5-6 weeks old were used in the experiment lasting for 8 weeks. The treatments were (i commercial milk replacer (SPK, (ii local (SPL-1 and (iii mixture ofSPK and SPL-1 (SPKL. The amount of dry matter offerred is 3 % of live weight each and was given twice daily (in the morning and late afternoon . Elephant grass (0 .5 kg was offerred at noon . The observed parameters were average daily gain (ADG, dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP intake, carcass percentage, weight of carcass components, physical and chemical characteristics of meat. The results show that feed consumptions were 1,981, 1,613 and 1,050 g1day and ADGs were 897,496 and 73 g for treatments SPK, SPKL and SPL, respectively . Carcass percentage was 56.84 and 58 .76% with protein content was 87 .47 and 84 .78% for treatments SPK and SPKL, respectively . The benefit per head of calf was higher when fed mixture of local and commercial MP than fed only commercial MP but the benefit per day was higher when fed commercial MP than mixture of local and commercial. In conclusion, a cheaper milk replacer with less milk protein content resulting in a lower gain but higher benefit per head of calf than a commercial milk replacer containing high milk protein content

  6. FLUOR HANFORD (FH) MAKES CLEANUP A REALITY IN NEARLY 11 YEARS AT HANFORD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GERBER, M.S.

    2007-05-24

    For nearly 11 years, Fluor Hanford has been busy cleaning up the legacy of nuclear weapons production at one of the Department of Energy's (DOE'S) major sites in the United States. As prime nuclear waste cleanup contractor at the vast Hanford Site in southeastern Washington state, Fluor Hanford has changed the face of cleanup. Fluor beginning on October 1, 1996, Hanford Site cleanup was primarily a ''paper exercise.'' The Tri-Party Agreement, officially called the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order - the edict governing cleanup among the DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Washington state - was just seven years old. Milestones mandated in the agreement up until then had required mainly waste characterization, reporting, and planning, with actual waste remediation activities off in the future. Real work, accessing waste ''in the field'' - or more literally in huge underground tanks, decaying spent fuel POO{approx}{approx}S, groundwater, hundreds of contaminated facilities, solid waste burial grounds, and liquid waste disposal sites -began in earnest under Fluor Hanford. The fruits of labors initiated, completed and/or underway by Fluor Hanford can today be seen across the site. Spent nuclear fuel is buttoned up in secure, dry containers stored away from regional water resources, reactive plutonium scraps are packaged in approved containers, transuranic (TRU) solid waste is being retrieved from burial trenches and shipped offsite for permanent disposal, contaminated facilities are being demolished, contaminated groundwater is being pumped out of aquifers at record rates, and many other inventive solutions are being applied to Hanford's most intransigent nuclear wastes. (TRU) waste contains more than 100 nanocuries per gram, and contains isotopes higher than uranium on the Periodic Table of the Elements. (A nanocurie is one-billionth of a curie.) At the same time, Fluor Hanford has dramatically improved safety records, and cost effectively maintained and streamlined infrastructure and equipment that is impossibly old and in many cases ''extinct'' in terms of spare parts and vendor support. The story of Fluor's achievements at the Hanford Site - the oldest and most productive plutonium site in the world - is both inspiring and instructive.

  7. Glaucoma Genes and Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggs, Janey L

    2015-01-01

    Genetic studies have yielded important genes contributing to both early-onset and adult-onset forms of glaucoma. The proteins encoded by the current collection of glaucoma genes participate in a broad range of cellular processes and biological systems. Approximately half the glaucoma-related genes function in the extracellular matrix, however proteins involved in cytokine signaling, lipid metabolism, membrane biology, regulation of cell division, autophagy, and ocular development also contribute to the disease pathogenesis. While the function of these proteins in health and disease are not completely understood, recent studies are providing insight into underlying disease mechanisms, a critical step toward the development of gene-based therapies. In this review, genes known to cause early-onset glaucoma or contribute to adult-onset glaucoma are organized according to the cell processes or biological systems that are impacted by the function of the disease-related protein product.

  8. Analysis of mutations causing familial hypercholesterolaemia in black South African patients of different ancestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U K Ibe

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH is usually caused by mutations in three genes (LDLR, APOB and PCSK9. Objective. To identify the spectrum of FH-causing mutations in black South African (SA patients. Methods. DNA samples of 16 unrelated South African FH patients with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, tendon xanthomas and corneal arcus (3 clinically homozygous FH and 13 heterozygous FH of ethnic African origin were screened for mutations in the LDLR (coding region, promoter and intron/exon boundaries, APOB (part of exon 26 and PCSK9 genes (exon 7, using high-resolution melting. Results. Eight LDLR mutations were identified, for an overall detection rate of 8/19 predicted FH-causing alleles (42.1%. The previously reported six base pair deletion p.(D47_G48del was found in two patients, and two novel variants (c.1187-25T>C and c.1664T>G p.(L555R were found, both predicted to be pathogenic using in silico web-based predictive algorithms. No pathogenic variants in APOB or PCSK9 were found. Conclusions. These findings contribute to the knowledge of allelic heterogeneity in the spectrum of FH-causing mutations in black SA patients, signifying their ancestral diversity. The relatively low overall detection rate may reflect locus heterogeneity of the FH phenotype in black SA FH patients.

  9. Gene therapy for hemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, M K; Evens, H; VandenDriessche, T

    2013-06-01

    Hemophilia A and B are X-linked monogenic disorders resulting from deficiencies of factor VIII and FIX, respectively. Purified clotting factor concentrates are currently intravenously administered to treat hemophilia, but this treatment is non-curative. Therefore, gene-based therapies for hemophilia have been developed to achieve sustained high levels of clotting factor expression to correct the clinical phenotype. Over the past two decades, different types of viral and non-viral gene delivery systems have been explored for hemophilia gene therapy research with a variety of target cells, particularly hepatocytes, hematopoietic stem cells, skeletal muscle cells, and endothelial cells. Lentiviral and adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors are among the most promising vectors for hemophilia gene therapy. In preclinical hemophilia A and B animal models, the bleeding phenotype was corrected with these vectors. Some of these promising preclinical results prompted clinical translation to patients suffering from a severe hemophilic phenotype. These patients receiving gene therapy with AAV vectors showed long-term expression of therapeutic FIX levels, which is a major step forwards in this field. Nevertheless, the levels were insufficient to prevent trauma or injury-induced bleeding episodes. Another challenge that remains is the possible immune destruction of gene-modified cells by effector T cells, which are directed against the AAV vector antigens. It is therefore important to continuously improve the current gene therapy approaches to ultimately establish a real cure for hemophilia. © 2013 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  10. Gene amplification in carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimari Bizari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene amplification increases the number of genes in a genome and can give rise to karyotype abnormalities called double minutes (DM and homogeneously staining regions (HSR, both of which have been widely observed in human tumors but are also known to play a major role during embryonic development due to the fact that they are responsible for the programmed increase of gene expression. The etiology of gene amplification during carcinogenesis is not yet completely understood but can be considered a result of genetic instability. Gene amplification leads to an increase in protein expression and provides a selective advantage during cell growth. Oncogenes such as CCND1, c-MET, c-MYC, ERBB2, EGFR and MDM2 are amplified in human tumors and can be associated with increased expression of their respective proteins or not. In general, gene amplification is associated with more aggressive tumors, metastases, resistance to chemotherapy and a decrease in the period during which the patient stays free of the disease. This review discusses the major role of gene amplification in the progression of carcinomas, formation of genetic markers and as possible therapeutic targets for the development of drugs for the treatment of some types of tumors.

  11. Antisense gene silencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Troels T; Nielsen, Jørgen E

    2013-01-01

    Since the first reports that double-stranded RNAs can efficiently silence gene expression in C. elegans, the technology of RNA interference (RNAi) has been intensively exploited as an experimental tool to study gene function. With the subsequent discovery that RNAi could also be applied...... to mammalian cells, the technology of RNAi expanded from being a valuable experimental tool to being an applicable method for gene-specific therapeutic regulation, and much effort has been put into further refinement of the technique. This review will focus on how RNAi has developed over the years and how...

  12. Gene Therapy of Cancerous Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Valenčáková, A.; Dziaková, A.; Hatalová, E.

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapy of cancerous diseases provides new means of curing patients with oncologic illnesses. There are several approaches in treating cancer by gene therapy. Most commonly used methods are: cancer immunogene therapy, suicide gene therapy, application of tumor-suppressor genes, antiangiogenic therapy, mesenchymal stem cells used as vectors, gene directed enzyme/prodrug therapy and bacteria used as anti-cancer agents. Cancer gene immunotherapy uses several immunologic agents for the purp...

  13. "Bad genes" & criminal responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Tapia, María Isabel; Obsuth, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The genetics of the accused is trying to break into the courts. To date several candidate genes have been put forward and their links to antisocial behavior have been examined and documented with some consistency. In this paper, we focus on the so called "warrior gene", or the low-activity allele of the MAOA gene, which has been most consistently related to human behavior and specifically to violence and antisocial behavior. In preparing this paper we had two objectives. First, to summarize and analyze the current scientific evidence, in order to gain an in depth understanding of the state of the issue and determine whether a dominant line of generally accepted scientific knowledge in this field can be asserted. Second, to derive conclusions and put forward recommendations related to the use of genetic information, specifically the presence of the low-activity genotype of the MAOA gene, in modulation of criminal responsibility in European and US courts.

  14. Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene Expression Omnibus is a public functional genomics data repository supporting MIAME-compliant submissions of array- and sequence-based data. Tools are provided...

  15. Gene therapy in ophthalmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthra, Satagopan; Kumaramanickavel, Govindasamy

    2009-09-01

    It has been more than a year since ophthalmologists and scientists under Dr. Robin Ali's team at the Moorsfield Eye Hospital and the Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, successfully treated patients with a severely blinding disease, Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA) using gene therapy. This success does not look to be transient, and this achievement in gene replacement therapy clinical trial for LCA has instilled hope in numerous families with patients suffering from this and similar retinal degenerative diseases, for whom restoration of lost vision has remained a distant dream so far. The encouragement that this success has given is expected to also lead to start of clinical trials for other blinding ocular diseases for which gene therapy experiments at the laboratory and animal levels have been successful. This article reviews the various studies that have led to the understanding of gene therapy outcomes in human ocular diseases and attempts to provide a brief sketch of successful clinical trials.

  16. Gene therapy for hemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hortelano, G; Chang, P L

    2000-01-01

    Hemophilia A and B are X-linked genetic disorders caused by deficiency of the coagulation factors VIII and IX, respectively. Because of the health hazards and costs of current product replacement therapy, much effort is devoted to the development of gene therapy for these disorders. Approaches to gene therapy for the hemophilias include: ex vivo gene therapy in which cells from the intended recipients are explanted, genetically modified to secrete Factor VIII or IX, and reimplanted into the donor; in vivo gene therapy in which Factor VIII or IX encoding vectors are directly injected into the recipient; and non-autologous gene therapy in which universal cell lines engineered to secrete Factor VIII or IX are enclosed in immuno-protective devices before implantation into recipients. Research into these approaches is aided by the many murine and canine models available. While problems of achieving high and sustained levels of factor delivery, and issues related to efficacy, safety and cost are still to be resolved, progress in gene therapy for the hemophilias has been encouraging and is likely to reach human clinical trial in the foreseeable future.

  17. Evidence for homosexuality gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pool, R.

    1993-07-16

    A genetic analysis of 40 pairs of homosexual brothers has uncovered a region on the X chromosome that appears to contain a gene or genes for homosexuality. When analyzing the pedigrees of homosexual males, the researcheres found evidence that the trait has a higher likelihood of being passed through maternal genes. This led them to search the X chromosome for genes predisposing to homosexuality. The researchers examined the X chromosomes of pairs of homosexual brothers for regions of DNA that most or all had in common. Of the 40 sets of brothers, 33 shared a set of five markers in the q28 region of the long arm of the X chromosome. The linkage has a LOD score of 4.0, which translates into a 99.5% certainty that there is a gene or genes in this area that predispose males to homosexuality. The chief researcher warns, however, that this one site cannot explain all instances of homosexuality, since there were some cases where the trait seemed to be passed paternally. And even among those brothers where there was no evidence that the trait was passed paternally, seven sets of brothers did not share the Xq28 markers. It seems likely that homosexuality arises from a variety of causes.

  18. Gene-gene, gene-environment, gene-nutrient interactionsand single nucleotide polymorphisms of inflammatorycytokines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation plays a significant role in the etiologyof type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The rise in thepro-inflammatory cytokines is the essential step inglucotoxicity and lipotoxicity induced mitochondrialinjury, oxidative stress and beta cell apoptosis inT2DM. Among the recognized markers are interleukin(IL)-6, IL-1, IL-10, IL-18, tissue necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α), C-reactive protein, resistin, adiponectin, tissueplasminogen activator, fibrinogen and heptoglobins.Diabetes mellitus has firm genetic and very strongenvironmental influence; exhibiting a polygenic modeof inheritance. Many single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) in various genes including those of pro and antiinflammatorycytokines have been reported as a riskfor T2DM. Not all the SNPs have been confirmed byunifying results in different studies and wide variationshave been reported in various ethnic groups. Theinter-ethnic variations can be explained by the factthat gene expression may be regulated by gene-gene,gene-environment and gene-nutrient interactions. Thisreview highlights the impact of these interactions ondetermining the role of single nucleotide polymorphismof IL-6, TNF-α, resistin and adiponectin in pathogenesisof T2DM.

  19. Construction of eukaryotic expression plasmid of Fasciola hepatica CatL gene and biological activity analysis of recombinant protein%肝片吸虫组织蛋白酶L真核表达载体构建及重组蛋白活性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻晓波; 冉旭华; 王春仁; 宋佰芬; 魏晓曼; 李晓娟; 王密; 苗艳

    2013-01-01

    In this research we constructed eukaryotic expression plasmid expressing Fasciola hepalica cathepsin L-like proteases (CatL) and analyzed the immunogenicity of recombinant protein. CatL gene was amplified by PCR with the template of recombinant pET30a-FhCatL plasmid and cloned into pEGFP-Nl vector to construct recombinant plasmids pEGFP-Nl-CatL. The recombinant plasmid pEGFP-Nl-CatL was transfected into HeLa cells and fluorescent signal was detected by fluorescence microscope. The immunogenicity of recombinant protein identified by western blotting demonstrated that the recombinant protein specifically reacted with serum from goat infected by Fasciola hepalica and showed robust immunoreactivity. The eukaryotic expression plasmid may be a potential gene vaccine or diagnose preparations in further study.%目的 构建肝片吸虫组织蛋白酶L(CatL)的真核表达载体,研究重组蛋白的生物学活性.方法 以构建好的重组质粒pET30a-FhCatL为模板,利用PCR技术扩增肝片吸虫组织蛋白酶L基因(catL),连接真核表达载体pEGFP-N1,构建重组质粒pEGFP-N1-CatL,转染HeLa细胞,荧光显微镜下观察绿色荧光,Western blotting检测重组蛋白表达情况.结果 重组质粒pEGFP-N1-CatL在HeLa细胞中获得了表达,Western blotting结果表明真核表达质粒表达的重组蛋白能与自然感染肝片吸虫的山羊阳性血清发生特异性反应.结论 肝片吸虫CatL真核表达载体构建成功,真核表达产物可与自然感染的山羊阳性血清发生特异性反应,具有免疫反应性,可做为分子疫苗的候选和诊断抗原进行进一步的研究.

  20. Extreme phenotypes in hypercholesterolemia : From genotype to therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjouke, B.

    2017-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited disorder of cholesterol metabolism, resulting in increased LDL-cholesterol levels and, as a consequence, an increased risk for coronary heart disease. Recently, many causal FH mutations in different genes have been identified and advances in genetic

  1. Cholesterol Levels in Genetically Determined Familial Hypercholesterolaemia in Russian Karelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Korneva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH is a rare disease that tends to be diagnosed lately. In Russia, the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of the disease are not well defined. We investigated 102 patients with definite FH. In 52 of these patients (50.9% genetic analysis was performed, revealing pathogenic mutations of the low density lipoprotein (LDL receptor gene in 22 patients. We report here five mutations of the LDL receptor gene found in the Karelian FH sample for the first time. The detection rate of mutations in definite FH patients was 42.3%. Two groups of patients with a definite diagnosis of FH according to the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network criteria were compared: the first group had putatively functionally important LDL receptor gene mutations, while in the second group LDL receptor gene mutations were excluded by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Total and LDL cholesterol levels were higher in the group with LDL receptor mutations compared to the mutation-free population. The frequency of mutations in patients with LDL cholesterol > 6.5 mmol/L was more than 3 times higher than that in patients with LDL < 6.5 mmol/L. Total and LDL cholesterol levels and the frequency of coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction were higher in the group with definite FH compared to groups with probable and possible FH. Cholesterol figures in FH patients of different age and sex from the Karelian population were comparable.

  2. Identification of four soybean reference genes for gene expression normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene expression analysis requires the use of reference genes stably expressed independently of specific tissues or environmental conditions. Housekeeping genes (e.g., actin, tubulin, ribosomal, polyubiquitin and elongation factor 1-alpha) are commonly used as reference genes with the assumption tha...

  3. The Mycoplasma hominis vaa gene displays a mosaic gene structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Thomas; Emmersen, Jeppe M. G.; Jensen, Lise T.;

    1998-01-01

    Mycoplasma hominis contains a variable adherence-associated (vaa) gene. To classify variants of the vaa genes, we examined 42 M. hominis isolated by PCR, DNA sequencing and immunoblotting. This uncovered the existence of five gene categories. Comparison of the gene types revealed a modular compos...

  4. Hox genes and study of Hox genes in crustacean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Lin; CHEN Zhijuan; XU Mingyu; LIN Shengguo; WANG Lu

    2004-01-01

    Homeobox genes have been discovered in many species. These genes are known to play a major role in specifying regional identity along the anterior-posterior axis of animals from a wide range of phyla.The products of the homeotic genes are a set of evolutionarily conserved transcription factors that control elaborate developmental processes and specify cell fates in metazoans. Crustacean, presenting a variety of body plans not encountered in any other class or phylum of the Metazoa, has been shown to possess a single set of homologous Hox genes like insect. The ancestral crustacean Hox gene complex comprised ten genes: eight homologous to the hometic Hox genes and two related to nonhomeotic genes presented within the insect Hox complexes. The crustacean in particular exhibits an abundant diversity segment specialization and tagmosis. This morphological diversity relates to the Hox genes. In crustacean body plan, different Hox genes control different segments and tagmosis.

  5. Entrez Gene: gene-centered information at NCBI

    OpenAIRE

    Maglott, Donna; Ostell, Jim; Pruitt, Kim D; Tatusova, Tatiana

    2006-01-01

    Entrez Gene () is NCBI's database for gene-specific information. Entrez Gene includes records from genomes that have been completely sequenced, that have an active research community to contribute gene-specific information or that are scheduled for intense sequence analysis. The content of Entrez Gene represents the result of both curation and automated integration of data from NCBI's Reference Sequence project (RefSeq), from collaborating model organism databases and from other databases wit...

  6. Gene therapy for brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, K; Engelhard, H H

    2000-09-01

    "Gene therapy" can be defined as the transfer of genetic material into a patient's cells for therapeutic purposes. To date, a diverse and creative assortment of treatment strategies utilizing gene therapy have been devised, including gene transfer for modulating the immune system, enzyme prodrug ("suicide gene") therapy, oncolytic therapy, replacement/therapeutic gene transfer, and antisense therapy. For malignant glioma, gene-directed prodrug therapy using the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene was the first gene therapy attempted clinically. A variety of different strategies have now been pursued experimentally and in clinical trials. Although, to date, gene therapy for brain tumors has been found to be reasonably safe, concerns still exist regarding issues related to viral delivery, transduction efficiency, potential pathologic response of the brain, and treatment efficacy. Improved viral vectors are being sought, and potential use of gene therapy in combination with other treatments is being investigated.

  7. Introns in higher plant genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The intron is an important component of eukaryotic gene. Extensive studies have been conducted to get a better understanding of its structure and function. This paper presents a brief review of the structure and function of introns in higher plant genes. It is shown that higher plant introns possess structural properties shared by all eukaryotic introns, however, they also exhibit a striking degree of diversity. The process of intron splicing in higher plant genes involves interaction between multiple cis-acting elements and trans-acting factors, such as 5′ splicing site, 3′ splicing site and many protein factors. The process of intron splicing is an important level at which gene expression is regulated. Especially alternative splicing of intron can regulate time and space of gene expression. In addition, some introns in higher plant genes also regulate gene expression by affecting the pattern of gene expression, enhancing the level of gene expression and driving the gene expression.

  8. Gene therapy prospects--intranasal delivery of therapeutic genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolska, Karolina; Stachurska, Anna; Hajdukiewicz, Karolina; Małecki, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    Gene therapy is recognized to be a novel method for the treatment of various disorders. Gene therapy strategies involve gene manipulation on broad biological processes responsible for the spreading of diseases. Cancer, monogenic diseases, vascular and infectious diseases are the main targets of gene therapy. In order to obtain valuable experimental and clinical results, sufficient gene transfer methods are required. Therapeutic genes can be administered into target tissues via gene carriers commonly defined as vectors. The retroviral, adenoviral and adeno-associated virus based vectors are most frequently used in the clinic. So far, gene preparations may be administered directly into target organs or by intravenous, intramuscular, intratumor or intranasal injections. It is common knowledge that the number of gene therapy clinical trials has rapidly increased. However, some limitations such as transfection efficiency and stable and long-term gene expression are still not resolved. Consequently, great effort is focused on the evaluation of new strategies of gene delivery. There are many expectations associated with intranasal delivery of gene preparations for the treatment of diseases. Intranasal delivery of therapeutic genes is regarded as one of the most promising forms of pulmonary gene therapy research. Gene therapy based on inhalation of gene preparations offers an alternative way for the treatment of patients suffering from such lung diseases as cystic fibrosis, alpha-1-antitrypsin defect, or cancer. Experimental and first clinical trials based on plasmid vectors or recombinant viruses have revealed that gene preparations can effectively deliver therapeutic or marker genes to the cells of the respiratory tract. The noninvasive intranasal delivery of gene preparations or conventional drugs seems to be very encouraging, although basic scientific research still has to continue.

  9. FunGene: the Functional Gene Pipeline and Repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan A. Fish

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ribosomal RNA genes have become the standard molecular markers for microbial community analysis for good reasons, including universal occurrence in cellular organisms, availability of large databases, and ease of rRNA gene region amplification and analysis. As markers, however, rRNA genes have some significant limitations. The rRNA genes are often present in multiple copies, unlike most protein-coding genes. The slow rate of change in rRNA genes means that multiple species sometimes share identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, while many more species share identical sequences in the short 16S rRNA regions commonly analyzed. In addition, the genes involved in many important processes are not distributed in a phylogenetically coherent manner, potentially due to gene loss or horizontal gene transfer.While rRNA genes remain the most commonly used markers, key genes in ecologically important pathways, e.g., those involved in carbon and nitrogen cycling, can provide important insights into community composition and function not obtainable through rRNA analysis. However, working with ecofunctional gene data requires some tools beyond those required for rRNA analysis. To address this, our Functional Gene Pipeline and Repository (FunGene; http://fungene.cme.msu.edu/ offers databases of many common ecofunctional genes and proteins, as well as integrated tools that allow researchers to browse these collections and choose subsets for further analysis, build phylogenetic trees, test primers and probes for coverage, and download aligned sequences. Additional FunGene tools are specialized to process coding gene amplicon data. For example, FrameBot produces frameshift-corrected protein and DNA sequences from raw reads while finding the most closely related protein reference sequence. These tools can help provide better insight into microbial communities by directly studying key genes involved in important ecological processes.

  10. Gene decay in archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. J. van Passel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The gene-dense chromosomes of archaea and bacteria were long thought to be devoid of pseudogenes, but with the massive increase in available genome sequences, whole genome comparisons between closely related species have identified mutations that have rendered numerous genes inactive. Comparative analyses of sequenced archaeal genomes revealed numerous pseudogenes, which can constitute up to 8.6% of the annotated coding sequences in some genomes. The largest proportion of pseudogenes is created by gene truncations, followed by frameshift mutations. Within archaeal genomes, large numbers of pseudogenes contain more than one inactivating mutation, suggesting that pseudogenes are deleted from the genome more slowly in archaea than in bacteria. Although archaea seem to retain pseudogenes longer than do bacteria, most archaeal genomes have unique repertoires of pseudogenes.

  11. A review on microcephaly genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to summarize the recent findings regarding microcephaly genes. We have discussed the molecular genetics studies of microcephaly genes including a comprehensive appraisal of the seven mapped loci (MCPH1–MCPH7, their corresponding genes and protein products of the genes, their likely role in normal brain development and the details of the mutations reported in these genes.

  12. Gene therapy for skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorell, Emily; Nguyen, Ngon; Lane, Alfred; Siprashvili, Zurab

    2014-04-01

    The skin possesses qualities that make it desirable for gene therapy, and studies have focused on gene therapy for multiple cutaneous diseases. Gene therapy uses a vector to introduce genetic material into cells to alter gene expression, negating a pathological process. This can be accomplished with a variety of viral vectors or nonviral administrations. Although results are promising, there are several potential pitfalls that must be addressed to improve the safety profile to make gene therapy widely available clinically.

  13. Gene Therapy for Skin Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The skin possesses qualities that make it desirable for gene therapy, and studies have focused on gene therapy for multiple cutaneous diseases. Gene therapy uses a vector to introduce genetic material into cells to alter gene expression, negating a pathological process. This can be accomplished with a variety of viral vectors or nonviral administrations. Although results are promising, there are several potential pitfalls that must be addressed to improve the safety profile to make gene thera...

  14. Correlating Expression Data with Gene Function Using Gene Ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU,Qi; DENG,Yong; WANG,Chuan; SHI,Tie-Liu; LI,Yi-Xue

    2006-01-01

    Clustering is perhaps one of the most widely used tools for microarray data analysis. Proposed roles for genes of unknown function are inferred from clusters of genes similarity expressed across many biological conditions.However, whether function annotation by similarity metrics is reliable or not and to what extent the similarity in gene expression patterns is useful for annotation of gene functions, has not been evaluated. This paper made a comprehensive research on the correlation between the similarity of expression data and of gene functions using Gene Ontology. It has been found that although the similarity in expression patterns and the similarity in gene functions are significantly dependent on each other, this association is rather weak. In addition, among the three categories of Gene Ontology, the similarity of expression data is more useful for cellular component annotation than for biological process and molecular function. The results presented are interesting for the gene functions prediction research area.

  15. The gene tree delusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Mark S; Gatesy, John

    2016-01-01

    Higher-level relationships among placental mammals are mostly resolved, but several polytomies remain contentious. Song et al. (2012) claimed to have resolved three of these using shortcut coalescence methods (MP-EST, STAR) and further concluded that these methods, which assume no within-locus recombination, are required to unravel deep-level phylogenetic problems that have stymied concatenation. Here, we reanalyze Song et al.'s (2012) data and leverage these re-analyses to explore key issues in systematics including the recombination ratchet, gene tree stoichiometry, the proportion of gene tree incongruence that results from deep coalescence versus other factors, and simulations that compare the performance of coalescence and concatenation methods in species tree estimation. Song et al. (2012) reported an average locus length of 3.1 kb for the 447 protein-coding genes in their phylogenomic dataset, but the true mean length of these loci (start codon to stop codon) is 139.6 kb. Empirical estimates of recombination breakpoints in primates, coupled with consideration of the recombination ratchet, suggest that individual coalescence genes (c-genes) approach ∼12 bp or less for Song et al.'s (2012) dataset, three to four orders of magnitude shorter than the c-genes reported by these authors. This result has general implications for the application of coalescence methods in species tree estimation. We contend that it is illogical to apply coalescence methods to complete protein-coding sequences. Such analyses amalgamate c-genes with different evolutionary histories (i.e., exons separated by >100,000 bp), distort true gene tree stoichiometry that is required for accurate species tree inference, and contradict the central rationale for applying coalescence methods to difficult phylogenetic problems. In addition, Song et al.'s (2012) dataset of 447 genes includes 21 loci with switched taxonomic names, eight duplicated loci, 26 loci with non-homologous sequences that are

  16. Neighboring Genes Show Correlated Evolution in Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian, Avazeh T.; Hurst, Laurence D.

    2015-01-01

    When considering the evolution of a gene’s expression profile, we commonly assume that this is unaffected by its genomic neighborhood. This is, however, in contrast to what we know about the lack of autonomy between neighboring genes in gene expression profiles in extant taxa. Indeed, in all eukaryotic genomes genes of similar expression-profile tend to cluster, reflecting chromatin level dynamics. Does it follow that if a gene increases expression in a particular lineage then the genomic neighbors will also increase in their expression or is gene expression evolution autonomous? To address this here we consider evolution of human gene expression since the human-chimp common ancestor, allowing for both variation in estimation of current expression level and error in Bayesian estimation of the ancestral state. We find that in all tissues and both sexes, the change in gene expression of a focal gene on average predicts the change in gene expression of neighbors. The effect is highly pronounced in the immediate vicinity (genes increasing their expression in humans tend to avoid nuclear lamina domains and be enriched for the gene activator 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, we conclude that, most probably owing to chromatin level control of gene expression, a change in gene expression of one gene likely affects the expression evolution of neighbors, what we term expression piggybacking, an analog of hitchhiking. PMID:25743543

  17. Influence of family history of dementia in the development and progression of late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarabino, Daniela; Gambina, Giuseppe; Broggio, Elisabetta; Pelliccia, Franca; Corbo, Rosa Maria

    2016-03-01

    Family history of dementia (FH) is a recognized risk factor for developing late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). We asked whether having FH increases AD risk and influences disease severity (age at onset and cognitive impairment) in 420 AD patients and 109 controls with (FH+) or without (FH-). The relationships of APOE and other AD risk genes with FH were analyzed as well. The proportion of APOE e4 allele carriers was higher among the FH+ than the FH- AD patients (49.6% vs. 38.9%; P = 0.04). The distribution of the risk genotypes of nine AD susceptibility genes previously examined (CHAT, CYP17, CYP19, ESR1, FSHR, P53, P73, P21, PPARG) did not differ between the FH+ and the FH- AD patients, indicating that none contributed significantly to familial clustering of disease. FH was associated with an increased AD risk (odds ratio [OR] 2.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-5.09; P = 0.002) independent of carrying the APOE e4 allele (OR 2.61, 95%CI 1.53-4.44; P = 0.0004). Having a first-degree relative or a parent with dementia was significantly associated with AD risk (OR 2.9, 95%CI 1.3-6.4; P = 0.009 and OR 2.7, 95%CI 1.1-6.2; P = 0.02) but having a sibling with dementia was not (OR 1.7, 95%CI 0.2 to 14.7; P = 0.6). Among the FH+ AD patients, having one or both parents affected seemed to raise the risk of earlier onset age (P = 0.02) and greater cognitive impairment (P = 0.02) than having only an affected sibling, whereas having two or more affected relatives did not. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Lipoprotein apheresis and new therapies for severe familial hypercholesterolemia in adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Michael M; Bell, Damon A; Hooper, Amanda J; Watts, Gerald F; Burnett, John R

    2014-06-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), the most common and severe monogenic form of hypercholesterolemia, is an autosomal co-dominant disease characterized by an increased plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol concentration and premature coronary heart disease (CHD). The clinical phenotype depends on the gene involved and severity of mutation (or mutations) present. Patients with homozygous or compound heterozygous FH have severe hypercholesterolemia (LDL-cholesterol >13 mmol/L) due to a gene dosing effect and without treatment have accelerated atherosclerotic CHD from birth, and frequently die of CHD before age 30. Cholesterol-lowering therapies have been shown to reduce both mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events in individuals with FH. Lipoprotein apheresis concomitant with lipid-lowering therapy is the treatment of choice for homozygous FH. This article describes the rationale and role of lipoprotein apheresis in the treatment of severe FH and outlines the recent advances in new pharmacotherapies for this condition.

  19. Searching for speciation genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Benjamin George; Côté, Isabelle M; Emerson, Brent C

    2011-01-01

    Closely related species that show clear phenotypic divergence, but without obvious geographic barriers, can provide opportunities to study how diversification can occur when opportunities for allopatric speciation are limited. We examined genetic divergence in the coral reef fish genus Hypoplectr...... evidence for genes that may be associated with colour morphotype in the genus Hypoplectrus....

  20. Gene therapy in ophthalmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satagopan Uthra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been more than a year since ophthalmologists and scientists under Dr. Robin Ali′s team at the Moorsfield Eye Hospital and the Institute of Ophthalmology, University College London, successfully treated patients with a severely blinding disease, Leber′s congenital amaurosis (LCA using gene therapy. This success does not look to be transient, and this achievement in gene replacement therapy clinical trial for LCA has instilled hope in numerous families with patients suffering from this and similar retinal degenerative diseases, for whom restoration of lost vision has remained a distant dream so far. The encouragement that this success has given is expected to also lead to start of clinical trials for other blinding ocular diseases for which gene therapy experiments at the laboratory and animal levels have been successful. This article reviews the various studies that have led to the understanding of gene therapy outcomes in human ocular diseases and attempts to provide a brief sketch of successful clinical trials.

  1. Old genes experience stronger translational selection than young genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hongyan; Ma, Lina; Wang, Guangyu; Li, Mengwei; Zhang, Zhang

    2016-09-15

    Selection on synonymous codon usage for translation efficiency and/or accuracy has been identified as a widespread mechanism in many living organisms. However, it remains unknown whether translational selection associates closely with gene age and acts differentially on genes with different evolutionary ages. To address this issue, here we investigate the strength of translational selection acting on different aged genes in human. Our results show that old genes present stronger translational selection than young genes, demonstrating that translational selection correlates positively with gene age. We further explore the difference of translational selection in duplicates vs. singletons and in housekeeping vs. tissue-specific genes. We find that translational selection acts comparably in old singletons and old duplicates and stronger translational selection in old genes is contributed primarily by housekeeping genes. For young genes, contrastingly, singletons experience stronger translational selection than duplicates, presumably due to redundant function of duplicated genes during their early evolutionary stage. Taken together, our results indicate that translational selection acting on a gene would not be constant during all stages of evolution, associating closely with gene age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Genes2FANs: connecting genes through functional association networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannenfelser Ruth

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein-protein, cell signaling, metabolic, and transcriptional interaction networks are useful for identifying connections between lists of experimentally identified genes/proteins. However, besides physical or co-expression interactions there are many ways in which pairs of genes, or their protein products, can be associated. By systematically incorporating knowledge on shared properties of genes from diverse sources to build functional association networks (FANs, researchers may be able to identify additional functional interactions between groups of genes that are not readily apparent. Results Genes2FANs is a web based tool and a database that utilizes 14 carefully constructed FANs and a large-scale protein-protein interaction (PPI network to build subnetworks that connect lists of human and mouse genes. The FANs are created from mammalian gene set libraries where mouse genes are converted to their human orthologs. The tool takes as input a list of human or mouse Entrez gene symbols to produce a subnetwork and a ranked list of intermediate genes that are used to connect the query input list. In addition, users can enter any PubMed search term and then the system automatically converts the returned results to gene lists using GeneRIF. This gene list is then used as input to generate a subnetwork from the user’s PubMed query. As a case study, we applied Genes2FANs to connect disease genes from 90 well-studied disorders. We find an inverse correlation between the counts of links connecting disease genes through PPI and links connecting diseases genes through FANs, separating diseases into two categories. Conclusions Genes2FANs is a useful tool for interpreting the relationships between gene/protein lists in the context of their various functions and networks. Combining functional association interactions with physical PPIs can be useful for revealing new biology and help form hypotheses for further experimentation. Our

  3. Industrial scale gene synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notka, Frank; Liss, Michael; Wagner, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    The most recent developments in the area of deep DNA sequencing and downstream quantitative and functional analysis are rapidly adding a new dimension to understanding biochemical pathways and metabolic interdependencies. These increasing insights pave the way to designing new strategies that address public needs, including environmental applications and therapeutic inventions, or novel cell factories for sustainable and reconcilable energy or chemicals sources. Adding yet another level is building upon nonnaturally occurring networks and pathways. Recent developments in synthetic biology have created economic and reliable options for designing and synthesizing genes, operons, and eventually complete genomes. Meanwhile, high-throughput design and synthesis of extremely comprehensive DNA sequences have evolved into an enabling technology already indispensable in various life science sectors today. Here, we describe the industrial perspective of modern gene synthesis and its relationship with synthetic biology. Gene synthesis contributed significantly to the emergence of synthetic biology by not only providing the genetic material in high quality and quantity but also enabling its assembly, according to engineering design principles, in a standardized format. Synthetic biology on the other hand, added the need for assembling complex circuits and large complexes, thus fostering the development of appropriate methods and expanding the scope of applications. Synthetic biology has also stimulated interdisciplinary collaboration as well as integration of the broader public by addressing socioeconomic, philosophical, ethical, political, and legal opportunities and concerns. The demand-driven technological achievements of gene synthesis and the implemented processes are exemplified by an industrial setting of large-scale gene synthesis, describing production from order to delivery.

  4. DETECTING LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN RECEPTOR MUTANT GENE OF RABBIT BY PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Many factors playi mportant roles inthe devel-opment of human atherosclerotic lesions,the lead-ing risk factor for atherosclerosis is familial hyper-cholesterolaemia(FH)[1-2].FHis a genetic diseasecharacterized by a deficiency of receptors for lowdensity lipoprotein(LDL)on the plas malemma ofendothelial cells,a high level of serum LDL,andearly development of atherosclerosis[3].WatanabeHeritable Hyperlipidaemic(WHHL)rabbits withunprovoked hypercholesterolaemia,increased bloodlevel of LDL,pronounced atheroscl...

  5. Endovascular Gene Delivery from a Stent Platform: Gene- Eluting Stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishbein, Ilia; Chorny, Michael; Adamo, Richard F; Forbes, Scott P; Corrales, Ricardo A; Alferiev, Ivan S; Levy, Robert J

    A synergistic impact of research in the fields of post-angioplasty restenosis, drug-eluting stents and vascular gene therapy over the past 15 years has shaped the concept of gene-eluting stents. Gene-eluting stents hold promise of overcoming some biological and technical problems inherent to drug-eluting stent technology. As the field of gene-eluting stents matures it becomes evident that all three main design modules of a gene-eluting stent: a therapeutic transgene, a vector and a delivery system are equally important for accomplishing sustained inhibition of neointimal formation in arteries treated with gene delivery stents. This review summarizes prior work on stent-based gene delivery and discusses the main optimization strategies required to move the field of gene-eluting stents to clinical translation.

  6. Tumor-specific gene expression patterns with gene expression profiles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Xiaogang; LI Yingxin; LI Jiangeng; GONG Daoxiong; WANG Jinlian

    2006-01-01

    Gene expression profiles of 14 common tumors and their counterpart normal tissues were analyzed with machine learning methods to address the problem of selection of tumor-specific genes and analysis of their differential expressions in tumor tissues. First, a variation of the Relief algorithm, "RFE_Relief algorithm" was proposed to learn the relations between genes and tissue types. Then, a support vector machine was employed to find the gene subset with the best classification performance for distinguishing cancerous tissues and their counterparts. After tissue-specific genes were removed, cross validation experiments were employed to demonstrate the common deregulated expressions of the selected gene in tumor tissues. The results indicate the existence of a specific expression fingerprint of these genes that is shared in different tumor tissues, and the hallmarks of the expression patterns of these genes in cancerous tissues are summarized at the end of this paper.

  7. Entrez Gene: gene-centered information at NCBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglott, Donna; Ostell, Jim; Pruitt, Kim D; Tatusova, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Entrez Gene (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene) is National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)'s database for gene-specific information. Entrez Gene maintains records from genomes which have been completely sequenced, which have an active research community to submit gene-specific information, or which are scheduled for intense sequence analysis. The content represents the integration of curation and automated processing from NCBI's Reference Sequence project (RefSeq), collaborating model organism databases, consortia such as Gene Ontology and other databases within NCBI. Records in Entrez Gene are assigned unique, stable and tracked integers as identifiers. The content (nomenclature, genomic location, gene products and their attributes, markers, phenotypes and links to citations, sequences, variation details, maps, expression, homologs, protein domains and external databases) is available via interactive browsing through NCBI's Entrez system, via NCBI's Entrez programming utilities (E-Utilities) and for bulk transfer by FTP.

  8. Gene set analysis for longitudinal gene expression data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piepho Hans-Peter

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene set analysis (GSA has become a successful tool to interpret gene expression profiles in terms of biological functions, molecular pathways, or genomic locations. GSA performs statistical tests for independent microarray samples at the level of gene sets rather than individual genes. Nowadays, an increasing number of microarray studies are conducted to explore the dynamic changes of gene expression in a variety of species and biological scenarios. In these longitudinal studies, gene expression is repeatedly measured over time such that a GSA needs to take into account the within-gene correlations in addition to possible between-gene correlations. Results We provide a robust nonparametric approach to compare the expressions of longitudinally measured sets of genes under multiple treatments or experimental conditions. The limiting distributions of our statistics are derived when the number of genes goes to infinity while the number of replications can be small. When the number of genes in a gene set is small, we recommend permutation tests based on our nonparametric test statistics to achieve reliable type I error and better power while incorporating unknown correlations between and within-genes. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method has a greater power than other methods for various data distributions and heteroscedastic correlation structures. This method was used for an IL-2 stimulation study and significantly altered gene sets were identified. Conclusions The simulation study and the real data application showed that the proposed gene set analysis provides a promising tool for longitudinal microarray analysis. R scripts for simulating longitudinal data and calculating the nonparametric statistics are posted on the North Dakota INBRE website http://ndinbre.org/programs/bioinformatics.php. Raw microarray data is available in Gene Expression Omnibus (National Center for Biotechnology Information with

  9. Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Odelta; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. This infection is associated with several health consequences, including cervical and prostate cancers and HIV acquisition. Gene expression analysis has been facilitated because of available genome sequences and large-scale transcriptomes in T. vaginalis, particularly using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), one of the most used methods for molecular studies. Reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been performed for T. vaginalis. In this study, the transcripts of nine candidate reference genes were quantified using qRT-PCR under different cultivation conditions, and the stability of these genes was compared using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The most stable reference genes were α-tubulin, actin and DNATopII, and, conversely, the widely used T. vaginalis reference genes GAPDH and β-tubulin were less stable. The PFOR gene was used to validate the reliability of the use of these candidate reference genes. As expected, the PFOR gene was upregulated when the trophozoites were cultivated with ferrous ammonium sulfate when the DNATopII, α-tubulin and actin genes were used as normalizing gene. By contrast, the PFOR gene was downregulated when the GAPDH gene was used as an internal control, leading to misinterpretation of the data. These results provide an important starting point for reference gene selection and gene expression analysis with qRT-PCR studies of T. vaginalis.

  10. Dominance from the perspective of gene-gene and gene-chemical interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladki, Arkadiusz; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Kaczanowski, Szymon

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we used genetic interaction (GI) and gene-chemical interaction (GCI) data to compare mutations with different dominance phenotypes. Our analysis focused primarily on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where haploinsufficient genes (HI; genes with dominant loss-of-function mutations) were found to be participating in gene expression processes, namely, the translation and regulation of gene transcription. Non-ribosomal HI genes (mainly regulators of gene transcription) were found to have more GIs and GCIs than haplosufficient (HS) genes. Several properties seem to lead to the enrichment of interactions, most notably, the following: importance, pleiotropy, gene expression level and gene expression variation. Importantly, after these properties were appropriately considered in the analysis, the correlation between dominance and GI/GCI degrees was still observed. Strikingly, for the GCIs of heterozygous strains, haploinsufficiency was the only property significantly correlated with the number of GCIs. We found ribosomal HI genes to be depleted in GIs/GCIs. This finding can be explained by their high variation in gene expression under different genetic backgrounds and environmental conditions. We observed the same distributions of GIs among non-ribosomal HI, ribosomal HI and HS genes in three other species: Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Drosophila melanogaster and Homo sapiens. One potentially interesting exception was the lack of significant differences in the degree of GIs between non-ribosomal HI and HS genes in Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

  11. Gene-gene interaction between tuberculosis candidate genes in a South African population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Erika; van der Merwe, Lize; van Helden, Paul D; Hoal, Eileen G

    2011-02-01

    In a complex disease such as tuberculosis (TB) it is increasingly evident that gene-gene interactions play a far more important role in an individual's susceptibility to develop the disease than single polymorphisms on their own, as one gene can enhance or hinder the expression of another gene. Gene-gene interaction analysis is a new approach to elucidate susceptibility to TB. The possibility of gene-gene interactions was assessed, focusing on 11 polymorphisms in nine genes (DC-SIGN, IFN-γ, IFNGR1, IL-8, IL-1Ra, MBL, NRAMP1, RANTES, and SP-D) that have been associated with TB, some repeatedly. An optimal model, which best describes and predicts TB case-control status, was constructed. Significant interactions were detected between eight pairs of variants. The models fitted the observed data extremely well, with p activation is greatly enhanced by IFN-γ and IFN-γ response elements that are present in the human NRAMP1 promoter region, providing further evidence for their interaction. This study enabled us to test the theory that disease outcome may be due to interaction of several gene effects. With eight instances of statistically significant gene-gene interactions, the importance of epistasis is clearly identifiable in this study. Methods for studying gene-gene interactions are based on a multilocus and multigene approach, consistent with the nature of complex-trait diseases, and may provide the paradigm for future genetic studies of TB.

  12. Gene doping in modern sport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAREK SAWCZUK

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The subject of this paper is gene doping, which should be understood as "he non-therapeutic use of cells, genes, genetic elements, or of the modulation of gene expression, having the capacity to improve athletic performance". The authors of this work, based on the review of literature and previous research, make an attempt at wider characterization of gene doping and the discussion of related potential threats.Methods: This is a comprehensive survey of literature on the latest applications of molecular biology in medicine. The analysis involves a dozen scientific databases examined in order to find genes used in gene therapy and potentially useful in gene doping. Results: The obtained results enable better recognition of gene doping and indicate genes used in medicine that could be used in gene doping. This paper describes potential effects of their use and associated risk, and predicts the possible developments of gene doping in the future. Conclusion: Gene doping is undoubtedly a part of modern sport. Although WADA included gene doping on the list of banned methods as early as 2004, as previously stated above, it has not managed to develop efficient methods of detection.

  13. [Gene pool and gene geography of the USSR population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychkov, Iu G; Balanovskaia, E V

    1992-01-01

    Gene pool and gene geography are discussed from the point of view of their conceptual history beginning from the original concept of A.S. Serebrovskiĭ (1928). Difference between the present-day gene geography and gene geography of gene pool is accentuated: the former only represents a portion of the latter. Historical and territorial integrity of the USSR population gene pool, in conjunction with its huge diversity, is the main problem being analysed by various means of computerized genetic cartography. Coupled with the gene frequency mapping, following methods were also used: mapping of average heterozygosity, of interpopulation differentiation, of principal component scores and mapping of geographical trend for each mapped genetic parameter. The work is based on 100 allelic genes and haplotypes from 30 independent loci studied on the average in 225 local populations. Statistical analysis of gene geographical maps is based on 3975 nodes of regular cartographic net for the USSR territory. The wind rose of systematic changes in the USSR gene pool has three main geographic orientations: W-E, SW-NE and S-N. At the same time, there are only two main systematic forces of gene pool evolution: the force of social history with predominant W-E orientation and the force of natural history with predominant S-N orientation of their actions. The heterozygosity level of gene pool declines strictly in accordance with the resultant in the SW-NE direction.

  14. Immunotherapy and gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Elizabeth

    2004-02-01

    The Immunotherapy and Gene Therapy meeting of the Academy of Medical Sciences reviewed the state-of-the-art and translational prospects for therapeutic interventions aimed at killing tumor cells, correcting genetic defects and developing vaccines for chronic infections. Crucial basic science concepts and information about dendritic cells, the structure and function of T-cell receptors, and manipulation of the immune response by cytokine antagonists and peptides were presented. This information underpins vaccine design and delivery, as well as attempts to immunomodulate autoimmune disease. Results from studies using anticancer DNA vaccines, which include appropriate signals for both the innate and adaptive immune response, were presented in several talks. The vaccines incorporated helper epitopes and cancer target epitopes such as immunoglobulin idiotypes (for lymphomas and myelomas), melanoma-associated antigens (for melanoma and other solid tumors) and minor histocompatibility antigens (for leukemia). The results of using vaccines employing similar principles and designed to reduce viral load in HIV/AIDS patients were also presented. The introduction of suicide genes incorporating the bacterial enzyme nitroreductase gene (ntr) targeted at tumor cells prior to administration of the prodrug CB-1954, converted by ntr into a toxic alkylating agent, was discussed against the background of clinical trials and improved suicide gene design. The introduction into hematopoietic stem cells of missing genes for the common gamma-chain, deficiency of which causes severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), used similar retroviral transduction. The outcome of treating six SCID patients in the UK, and ten in France was successful immune reconstitution in the majority of patients, but in two of the French cases a complication of lymphoproliferative disease due to insertional mutagenesis was observed. The adoptive transfer of T-cells specific for minor histocompatibility antigens (for

  15. SOX genes: architects of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, H M; Walter, M A

    1996-07-01

    Development in higher organisms involves complex genetic regulation at the molecular level. The emerging picture of development control includes several families of master regulatory genes which can affect the expression of down-stream target genes in developmental cascade pathways. One new family of such development regulators is the SOX gene family. The SOX genes are named for a shared motif called the SRY box a region homologous to the DNA-binding domain of SRY, the mammalian sex determining gene. Like SRY, SOX genes play important roles in chordate development. At least a dozen human SOX genes have been identified and partially characterized (Tables 1 and 2). Mutations in SOX9 have recently been linked to campomelic dysplasia and autosomal sex reversal, and other SOX genes may also be associated with human disease.

  16. Brains, genes, and primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Callaway, Edward M; Caddick, Sarah J; Churchland, Patricia; Feng, Guoping; Homanics, Gregg E; Lee, Kuo-Fen; Leopold, David A; Miller, Cory T; Mitchell, Jude F; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat; Moutri, Alysson R; Movshon, J Anthony; Okano, Hideyuki; Reynolds, John H; Ringach, Dario; Sejnowski, Terrence J; Silva, Afonso C; Strick, Peter L; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Feng

    2015-05-06

    One of the great strengths of the mouse model is the wide array of genetic tools that have been developed. Striking examples include methods for directed modification of the genome, and for regulated expression or inactivation of genes. Within neuroscience, it is now routine to express reporter genes, neuronal activity indicators, and opsins in specific neuronal types in the mouse. However, there are considerable anatomical, physiological, cognitive, and behavioral differences between the mouse and the human that, in some areas of inquiry, limit the degree to which insights derived from the mouse can be applied to understanding human neurobiology. Several recent advances have now brought into reach the goal of applying these tools to understanding the primate brain. Here we describe these advances, consider their potential to advance our understanding of the human brain and brain disorders, discuss bioethical considerations, and describe what will be needed to move forward.

  17. Alphaviruses in Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lundstrom

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Alphaviruses are enveloped single stranded RNA viruses, which as gene therapy vectors provide high-level transient gene expression. Semliki Forest virus (SFV, Sindbis virus (SIN and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE virus have been engineered as efficient replication-deficient and -competent expression vectors. Alphavirus vectors have frequently been used as vehicles for tumor vaccine generation. Moreover, SFV and SIN vectors have been applied for intratumoral injections in animals implanted with tumor xenografts. SIN vectors have demonstrated natural tumor targeting, which might permit systemic vector administration. Another approach for systemic delivery of SFV has been to encapsulate replication-deficient viral particles in liposomes, which can provide passive targeting to tumors and allow repeated administration without host immune responses. This approach has demonstrated safe delivery of encapsulated SFV particles to melanoma and kidney carcinoma patients in a phase I trial. Finally, the prominent neurotropism of alphaviruses make them attractive for the treatment of CNS-related diseases.

  18. Gene Disease Diagnostic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国亮; 张腾飞; 程京; 周玉祥; 刘诚迅; 金国藩; 邬敏贤; 严瑛白; 杨蓉

    2002-01-01

    Binary optics, where the optical element can be fabricated on a thin glass plate with micro-ion-etching film layer, has been widely applied in recent years. A novel optical scanning system for gene disease diagnostics described in this paper has four kinds of optical devices, including beam splitters, an array lens, an array filter and detection arrays. A software was developed to design the binary optics system using an iterative method. Two beam splitters were designed and fabricated, which can divide a beam into a 9×9 array or into a 13×13 array. The beam splitters have good diffraction efficiencies (>70%) and an even energy distribution. The gene disease diagnostic system is a portable biochip and binary optics technology. The binary optical devices in the non-confocal scanning system can raise the fluorescence detection sensitivity of the micro-array hybrid biochip.

  19. Gene therapy for mucopolysaccharidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Katherine P; Haskins, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are due to deficiencies in activities of lysosomal enzymes that degrade glycosaminoglycans. Some attempts at gene therapy for MPS in animal models have involved intravenous injection of vectors derived from an adeno-associated virus (AAV), adenovirus, retrovirus or a plasmid, which primarily results in expression in liver and secretion of the relevant enzyme into blood. Most vectors can correct disease in liver and spleen, although correction in other organs including the brain requires high enzyme activity in the blood. Alternative approaches are to transduce hematopoietic stem cells, or to inject a vector locally into difficult-to-reach sites such as the brain. Gene therapy holds great promise for providing a long-lasting therapeutic effect for MPS if safety issues can be resolved. PMID:17727324

  20. Gene Porter Bridwell

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Gene Porter Bridwell served as the director of the Marshall Space Flight Center from January 6, 1994 until February 3, 1996, when he retired from NASA after thirty-four years service. Bridwell, a Marshall employee since 1962, had been Marshall's Space Shuttle Projects Office Director and Space Station Redesign Team deputy manager. Under Bridwell, Marshall worked to develop its role as a Center of Excellence for propulsion and for providing access to space.

  1. Gene Porter Bridwell

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Gene Porter Bridwell served as the director of the Marshall Space Flight Center from January 6, 1994 until February 3, 1996, when he retired from NASA after thirty-four years service. Bridwell, a Marshall employee since 1962, had been Marshall's Space Shuttle Projects Office Director and Space Station Redesign Team deputy manager. Under Bridwell, Marshall worked to develop its role as a Center of Excellence for propulsion and for providing access to space.

  2. Epigenetics: beyond genes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fossey, A

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available to neighbouring euchromatic genes, known as position effect variegation and can be transmitted through mitosis, forming the basis of epigenetic inheritance from one cell generation to another; creating cellular memory (Brzeski and Jerzmanowski, 2004... life form, supports meiosis that produces haploid male and female spores and initiates the gametophytic generation. Gametogenesis and subsequent fertilisation take place when gametophytic and sporophytic structures interact. The product...

  3. PRRT2 gene mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Alice R.; Bhatia, Kailash P.; Stamelou, Maria; Dale, Russell C.; Kurian, Manju A.; Schneider, Susanne A.; Wali, G.M.; Counihan, Tim; Schapira, Anthony H.; Spacey, Sian D.; Valente, Enza-Maria; Silveira-Moriyama, Laura; Teive, Hélio A.G.; Raskin, Salmo; Sander, Josemir W.; Lees, Andrew; Warner, Tom; Kullmann, Dimitri M.; Wood, Nicholas W.; Hanna, Michael

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The proline-rich transmembrane protein (PRRT2) gene was recently identified using exome sequencing as the cause of autosomal dominant paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) with or without infantile convulsions (IC) (PKD/IC syndrome). Episodic neurologic disorders, such as epilepsy, migraine, and paroxysmal movement disorders, often coexist and are thought to have a shared channel-related etiology. To investigate further the frequency, spectrum, and phenotype of PRRT2 mutations, we analyzed this gene in 3 large series of episodic neurologic disorders with PKD/IC, episodic ataxia (EA), and hemiplegic migraine (HM). Methods: The PRRT2 gene was sequenced in 58 family probands/sporadic individuals with PKD/IC, 182 with EA, 128 with HM, and 475 UK and 96 Asian controls. Results: PRRT2 genetic mutations were identified in 28 out of 58 individuals with PKD/IC (48%), 1/182 individuals with EA, and 1/128 individuals with HM. A number of loss-of-function and coding missense mutations were identified; the most common mutation found was the p.R217Pfs*8 insertion. Males were more frequently affected than females (ratio 52:32). There was a high proportion of PRRT2 mutations found in families and sporadic cases with PKD associated with migraine or HM (10 out of 28). One family had EA with HM and another large family had typical HM alone. Conclusions: This work expands the phenotype of mutations in the PRRT2 gene to include the frequent occurrence of migraine and HM with PKD/IC, and the association of mutations with EA and HM and with familial HM alone. We have also extended the PRRT2 mutation type and frequency in PKD and other episodic neurologic disorders. PMID:23077024

  4. Gene therapy in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chang-tai; Guo Xue-gang; Pan Bo-rong

    2003-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction We have reviewed the gene therapy in gastrointestinal diseases[1]. Gastric cancer is common in China[2~20] ,and its early diagnosis andtreatment are still difficult up to now[13~36]. The expression of anexogenous gene introduced by gene therapy into patients with gliomascan be monitored non- invasively by positron- emission tomography[4]. In recent years, gene study in cancer is a hotspot, and great progress hasbeen achieved[33~41].

  5. Gene therapy for gastric diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Fumoto, Shintaro; Nishi, Junya; Nakamura, Junzo; Nishida, Koyo

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy for gastric cancer and gastric ulcer is a rationalized strategy since various genes correlate with these diseases. Since gene expressions in non-target tissues/cells cause side effects, a selective gene delivery system targeted to the stomach and/or cancer must be developed. The route of vector transfer (direct injection, systemic, intraperitoneal, gastric serosal surface and oral administration) is an important issue which can determine efficacy and safety. Strategies for cancer...

  6. Genealogy and gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmuson, Marianne

    2008-02-01

    Heredity can be followed in persons or in genes. Persons can be identified only a few generations back, but simplified models indicate that universal ancestors to all now living persons have occurred in the past. Genetic variability can be characterized as variants of DNA sequences. Data are available only from living persons, but from the pattern of variation gene trees can be inferred by means of coalescence models. The merging of lines backwards in time leads to a MRCA (most recent common ancestor). The time and place of living for this inferred person can give insights in human evolutionary history. Demographic processes are incorporated in the model, but since culture and customs are known to influence demography the models used ought to be tested against available genealogy. The Icelandic data base offers a possibility to do so and points to some discrepancies. Mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome patterns give a rather consistent view of human evolutionary history during the latest 100 000 years but the earlier epochs of human evolution demand gene trees with longer branches. The results of such studies reveal as yet unsolved problems about the sources of our genome.

  7. Gene-gene and gene-environmental interactions of childhood asthma: a multifactor dimension reduction approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Wei Su

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The importance of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions on asthma is well documented in literature, but a systematic analysis on the interaction between various genetic and environmental factors is still lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a population-based, case-control study comprised of seventh-grade children from 14 Taiwanese communities. A total of 235 asthmatic cases and 1,310 non-asthmatic controls were selected for DNA collection and genotyping. We examined the gene-gene and gene-environment interactions between 17 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidative, inflammatory and obesity-related genes, and childhood asthma. Environmental exposures and disease status were obtained from parental questionnaires. The model-free and non-parametrical multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR method was used for the analysis. A three-way gene-gene interaction was elucidated between the gene coding glutathione S-transferase P (GSTP1, the gene coding interleukin-4 receptor alpha chain (IL4Ra and the gene coding insulin induced gene 2 (INSIG2 on the risk of lifetime asthma. The testing-balanced accuracy on asthma was 57.83% with a cross-validation consistency of 10 out of 10. The interaction of preterm birth and indoor dampness had the highest training-balanced accuracy at 59.09%. Indoor dampness also interacted with many genes, including IL13, beta-2 adrenergic receptor (ADRB2, signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6. We also used likelihood ratio tests for interaction and chi-square tests to validate our results and all tests showed statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of this study suggest that GSTP1, INSIG2 and IL4Ra may influence the lifetime asthma susceptibility through gene-gene interactions in schoolchildren. Home dampness combined with each one of the genes STAT6, IL13 and ADRB2 could raise the asthma risk.

  8. Gene therapy of cancer and development of therapeutic target gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Min; Kwon, Hee Chung

    1998-04-01

    We applied HSV-tk/GCV strategy to orthotopic rat hepatoma model and showed anticancer effects of hepatoma. The increased expression of Lac Z gene after adenovirus-mediated gene delivery throughout hepatic artery was thought that is increased the possibility of gene therapy for curing hepatoma. With the construction of kGLP-laboratory, it is possible to produce a good quantity and quality of adenovirus in lage-scale production and purification of adenovirus vector. Also, the analysis of hepatoma related genes by PCR-LOH could be used for the diagnosis of patients and the development of therapeutic gene.

  9. Independent Gene Discovery and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsule, Vrushalee; Coric, Dijana; Delancy, Russell; Dunham, Heather; Melancon, Caleb; Thompson, Dennis; Toms, Jamie; White, Ashley; Shultz, Jeffry

    2010-01-01

    A clear understanding of basic gene structure is critical when teaching molecular genetics, the central dogma and the biological sciences. We sought to create a gene-based teaching project to improve students' understanding of gene structure and to integrate this into a research project that can be implemented by instructors at the secondary level…

  10. Compositional gradients in Gramineae genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wang, Jun; Tao, Lin

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we describe a property of Gramineae genes, and perhaps all monocot genes, that is not observed in eudicot genes. Along the direction of transcription, beginning at the junction of the 5'-UTR and the coding region, there are gradients in GC content, codon usage, and amino-acid usage...

  11. Decationized polyplexes for gene delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Novo, L.; Mastrobattista, E.; Nostrum, van C.F.; Lammers, T.G.G.M.; Hennink, W.E.

    2015-01-01

    Gene therapy has received much attention in the field of drug delivery. Synthetic, nonviral gene delivery systems have gained increasing attention as vectors for gene therapy mainly due to a favorable immunogenicity profile and ease of manufacturing as compared to viral vectors. The great majority o

  12. Ascidian gene-expression profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffery, William R.

    2002-01-01

    With the advent of gene-expression profiling, a large number of genes can now be investigated simultaneously during critical stages of development. This approach will be particularly informative in studies of ascidians, basal chordates whose genomes and embryology are uniquely suited for mapping developmental gene networks.

  13. New Approaches in Detection and Treatment of Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartgers, Merel L; Ray, Kausik K; Hovingh, G Kees

    2015-12-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder that clinically leads to increased low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. As a consequence, FH patients are at high risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Mutations are found in genes coding for the LDLR, apoB, and PCSK9, although FH cannot be ruled out in the absence of a mutation in one of these genes. It is pivotal to diagnose FH at an early age, since lipid lowering results in a decreased risk of cardiovascular complications especially if initiated early, but unfortunately FH is largely underdiagnosed. While a number of clinical criteria are available, identification of a pathogenic mutation in any of the three aforementioned genes is seen by many as a way to establish a definitive diagnosis of FH. It should be remembered that clinical treatment is based on LDL-C levels and not solely on presence or absence of genetic mutations as LDL-C is what drives risk. Traditionally, mutation detection has been done by means of dideoxy sequencing. However, novel molecular testing methods are gradually being introduced. These next generation sequencing-based methods are likely to be applied on broader scale once their efficacy and effect on cost are being established. Statins are the first-line therapy of choice for FH patients as they have been proven to reduce CVD risk across a range of conditions including hypercholesterolemia (though not specifically tested in FH). However, in a significant proportion of FH patients LDL-C goals are not met, despite the use of maximal statin doses and additional lipid-lowering therapies. This underlines the need for additional therapies, and inhibition of PCSK9 and CETP is among the most promising new therapeutic options. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of the latest information about the definition, diagnosis, screening, and current and novel therapies for FH.

  14. Gene electrotransfer in clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehl, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Electroporation is increasingly being used for delivery of chemotherapy to tumors. Likewise, gene delivery by electroporation is rapidly gaining momentum for both vaccination purposes and for delivery of genes coding for other therapeutic molecules, such as chronic diseases or cancer. This chapte...... describes how gene therapy may be performed using electric pulses to enhance uptake and expression.......Electroporation is increasingly being used for delivery of chemotherapy to tumors. Likewise, gene delivery by electroporation is rapidly gaining momentum for both vaccination purposes and for delivery of genes coding for other therapeutic molecules, such as chronic diseases or cancer. This chapter...

  15. Gene therapy of liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruben Hernandez-Alcoceba; Bruno Sangro; Jesus Prieto

    2006-01-01

    The application of gene transfer technologies to the treatment of cancer has led to the development of new experimental approaches like gene directed enzyme/prodrug therapy (GDEPT), inhibition of oncogenes and restoration of tumor-suppressor genes. In addition,gene therapy has a big impact on other fields like cancer immunotherapy, anti-angiogenic therapy and virotherapy.These strategies are being evaluated for the treatment of primary and metastatic liver cancer and some of them have reached clinical phases. We present a review on the basis and the actual status of gene therapy approaches applied to liver cancer.

  16. Classifying genes to the correct Gene Ontology Slim term in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using neighbouring genes with classification learning

    OpenAIRE

    Tsatsoulis Costas; Amthauer Heather A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that gene location and surrounding genes influence the functionality of genes in the eukaryotic genome. Knowing the Gene Ontology Slim terms associated with a gene gives us insight into a gene's functionality by informing us how its gene product behaves in a cellular context using three different ontologies: molecular function, biological process, and cellular component. In this study, we analyzed if we could classify a gene in Saccharomyces ce...

  17. Gene finding in novel genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korf Ian

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational gene prediction continues to be an important problem, especially for genomes with little experimental data. Results I introduce the SNAP gene finder which has been designed to be easily adaptable to a variety of genomes. In novel genomes without an appropriate gene finder, I demonstrate that employing a foreign gene finder can produce highly inaccurate results, and that the most compatible parameters may not come from the nearest phylogenetic neighbor. I find that foreign gene finders are more usefully employed to bootstrap parameter estimation and that the resulting parameters can be highly accurate. Conclusion Since gene prediction is sensitive to species-specific parameters, every genome needs a dedicated gene finder.

  18. Segregation of a latent high adiposity phenotype in families with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus implicates rare obesity-susceptibility genetic variants with large effects in diabetes-related obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur B Jenkins

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We recently reported significantly greater weight gain in non-diabetic healthy subjects with a 1(st degree family history (FH+ of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM than in a matched control group without such history (FH- during voluntary overfeeding, implying co-inheritance of susceptibilities to T2DM and obesity. We have estimated the extent and mode of inheritance of susceptibility to increased adiposity in FH+. METHODS: Normoglycaemic participants were categorised either FH+ (≥1 1(st degree relative with T2DM, 50 F/30 M, age 45 ± 14 (SD yr or FH- (71F/51M, age 43 ± 14 yr. Log-transformed anthropometric measurements (height, hip and waist circumferences and lean, bone and fat mass (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry data were analysed by rotated Factor Analysis. The age- and gender-adjusted distributions of indices of adiposity in FH+ were assessed by fits to a bimodal model and by relative risk ratios (RR, FH+/FH- and interpreted in a purely genetic model of FH effects. RESULTS: The two orthogonal factors extracted, interpretable as Frame and Adiposity accounted for 80% of the variance in the input data. FH+ was associated with significantly higher Adiposity scores (p<0.01 without affecting Frame scores. Adiposity scores in FH+ conformed to a bimodal normal distribution, consistent with dominant expression of major susceptibility genes with 59% (95% CI 40%, 74% of individuals under the higher mode. Calculated risk allele frequencies were 0.09 (0.02, 0.23 in FH-, 0.36 (0.22, 0.48 in FH+ and 0.62 (0.36, 0.88 in unobserved T2DM-affected family members. CONCLUSIONS: The segregation of Adiposity in T2DM-affected families is consistent with dominant expression of rare risk variants with major effects, which are expressed in over half of FH+ and which can account for most T2DM-associated obesity in our population. The calculated risk allele frequency in FH- suggests that rare genetic variants could also account for a substantial fraction

  19. GeneDistiller--distilling candidate genes from linkage intervals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Seelow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Linkage studies often yield intervals containing several hundred positional candidate genes. Different manual or automatic approaches exist for the determination of the gene most likely to cause the disease. While the manual search is very flexible and takes advantage of the researchers' background knowledge and intuition, it may be very cumbersome to collect and study the relevant data. Automatic solutions on the other hand usually focus on certain models, remain "black boxes" and do not offer the same degree of flexibility. METHODOLOGY: We have developed a web-based application that combines the advantages of both approaches. Information from various data sources such as gene-phenotype associations, gene expression patterns and protein-protein interactions was integrated into a central database. Researchers can select which information for the genes within a candidate interval or for single genes shall be displayed. Genes can also interactively be filtered, sorted and prioritised according to criteria derived from the background knowledge and preconception of the disease under scrutiny. CONCLUSIONS: GeneDistiller provides knowledge-driven, fully interactive and intuitive access to multiple data sources. It displays maximum relevant information, while saving the user from drowning in the flood of data. A typical query takes less than two seconds, thus allowing an interactive and explorative approach to the hunt for the candidate gene. ACCESS: GeneDistiller can be freely accessed at http://www.genedistiller.org.

  20. RANGE: Gene Transfer of Reversibly Controlled Polycistronic Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwei Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We developed a single vector recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV expression system for spatial and reversible control of polycistronic gene expression. Our approach (i integrates the advantages of the tetracycline (Tet-controlled transcriptional silencer tTSKid and the self-cleaving 2A peptide bridge, (ii combines essential regulatory components as an autoregulatory loop, (iii simplifies the gene delivery scheme, and (iv regulates multiple genes in a synchronized manner. Controlled by an upstream Tet-responsive element (TRE, both the ubiquitous chicken β-actin promoter (CAG and the neuron-specific synapsin-1 promoter (Syn could regulate expression of tTSKid together with two 2A-linked reporter genes. Transduction in vitro exhibited maximally 50-fold regulation by doxycycline (Dox. Determined by gene delivery method as well as promoter, highly specific tissues were transduced in vivo. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI visualized reversible “ON/OFF” gene switches over repeated “Doxy-Cycling” in living mice. Thus, the reversible rAAV-mediated N-cistronic gene expression system, termed RANGE, may serve as a versatile tool to achieve reversible polycistronic gene regulation for the study of gene function as well as gene therapy.

  1. RANGE: Gene Transfer of Reversibly Controlled Polycistronic Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiwei; Cao, Liji; Luo, Chonglin; Ditzel, Désirée Aw; Peter, Jörg; Sprengel, Rolf

    2013-04-09

    We developed a single vector recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) expression system for spatial and reversible control of polycistronic gene expression. Our approach (i) integrates the advantages of the tetracycline (Tet)-controlled transcriptional silencer tTS(Kid) and the self-cleaving 2A peptide bridge, (ii) combines essential regulatory components as an autoregulatory loop, (iii) simplifies the gene delivery scheme, and (iv) regulates multiple genes in a synchronized manner. Controlled by an upstream Tet-responsive element (TRE), both the ubiquitous chicken β-actin promoter (CAG) and the neuron-specific synapsin-1 promoter (Syn) could regulate expression of tTS(Kid) together with two 2A-linked reporter genes. Transduction in vitro exhibited maximally 50-fold regulation by doxycycline (Dox). Determined by gene delivery method as well as promoter, highly specific tissues were transduced in vivo. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) visualized reversible "ON/OFF" gene switches over repeated "Doxy-Cycling" in living mice. Thus, the reversible rAAV-mediated N-cistronic gene expression system, termed RANGE, may serve as a versatile tool to achieve reversible polycistronic gene regulation for the study of gene function as well as gene therapy.Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids (2013) 2, e85; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.15; published online 9 April 2013.

  2. Genes, Children and Pediatricians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Correia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A male newborn, presenting hipotonia and posterior parietal bossing, developed, in the first 12 hours of life, refusal to feed and hypoglycaemia. A cranial ultrasound, skull X-ray and CT scan revealed an occipital and parietal fracture with an underlying haematoma and extensive extracranial soft-tissue swelling. He was submitted to surgical drainage. After 24 hours: new intracerebral bleeding. At the age of two-months he presented abnormal skin and sparse kinky hair. Serum copper and caeruloplasmin levels were below the normal range. Molecular diagnosis of Menkes disease was made by the identification of a new mutation in ATP7A gene.

  3. MUTATIONS IN CALMODULIN GENES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an isolated polynucleotide encoding at least a part of calmodulin and an isolated polypeptide comprising at least a part of a calmodulin protein, wherein the polynucleotide and the polypeptide comprise at least one mutation associated with a cardiac disorder. The ...... the binding of calmodulin to ryanodine receptor 2 and use of such compound in a treatment of an individual having a cardiac disorder. The invention further provides a kit that can be used to detect specific mutations in calmodulin encoding genes....

  4. MUTATIONS IN CALMODULIN GENES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to an isolated polynucleotide encoding at least a part of calmodulin and an isolated polypeptide comprising at least a part of a calmodulin protein, wherein the polynucleotide and the polypeptide comprise at least one mutation associated with a cardiac disorder...... the binding of calmodulin to ryanodine receptor 2 and use of such compound in a treatment of an individual having a cardiac disorder. The invention further provides a kit that can be used to detect specific mutations in calmodulin encoding genes....

  5. Genes and Disease: Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US); 1998-. Genes and Disease [Internet]. Show details National Center for ... 45K) PDF version of this title (3.8M) Gene sequence Genome view see gene locations Entrez Gene ...

  6. Familial hypercholesterolemia in the danish general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Marianne; Watts, Gerald F; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2012-01-01

    receptor (LDLR) and apolipoprotein B (APOB) genes. Objective: We employed this tool to investigate the prevalence of FH and the associations between FH and coronary artery disease and cholesterol-lowering medication in the Copenhagen General Population Study. Setting: The study was of an unselected......, community-based population comprising 69,016 participants. Main Outcome Measures: FH (definite/probable) was defined as a Dutch Lipid Clinic Network score higher than 5. Coronary artery disease was myocardial infarction or angina pectoris. Results: The prevalence of FH was 0.73% (one in 137.......8-13.8). Conclusion: The prevalence of FH appears to be higher than commonly perceived in a general population of white Danish individuals, with at least half of affected subjects not receiving cholesterol-lowering medication. The very high risk of coronary artery disease irrespective of use of medication reflects...

  7. Immune responses in rats and sheep induced by a DNA vaccine containing the phosphoglycerate kinase gene of Fasciola hepatica and liver fluke infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesołowska, Agnieszka; Zawistowska-Deniziak, Anna; Norbury, Luke J; Wilkowski, Przemysław; Januszkiewicz, Kamil; Pyziel, Anna M; Zygner, Wojciech; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2016-03-01

    Immune responses of rats and sheep following vaccination with cDNA encoding phosphoglycerate kinase of Fasciola hepatica (cDNA-FhPGK/pCMV) and F. hepatica infection were investigated in the present study. cDNA-FhPGK/pCMV vaccinated female Sprague-Dawley rats were better protected by vaccination than their male counterparts - 48% reduction in fluke burden for females and no protection for males when compared with appropriate infection control groups. Moreover, male rats developed marked leukocytosis during the study with higher neutrophil, eosinophil and monocyte responses than females. Additionally, dynamics of eosinophil and monocyte responses varied between sexes. Increased titres of anti-FhPGK IgG1 and IgG2a correlated with the protective effect of vaccination that was observed among female rats. In the case of male sheep, no differences in worm burdens and in the course of the immune response were observed following vaccination. Titres of specific antibodies detected were low, and cellular responses were not significant. Apparently, sheep immune responses induced by cDNA-FhPGK/pCMV vaccination are not effective at controlling F. hepatica infection. Poor immunogenicity of DNA vaccines in large animals is still a major obstacle of this technology that has to be overcome.

  8. Family history of Type 1 diabetes affects insulin secretion in patients with 'Type 2' diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, V M; Andersen, M K; Isomaa, B; Tuomi, T

    2013-05-01

    The aim was to evaluate the impact of family history of diabetes on the phenotype of patients diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes and the frequency of susceptibility genotypes. Patients with Type 2 diabetes with family history for both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes (FH(MIX, n) = 196) or Type 2 diabetes only (FH(T2), n = 139) matched for age, sex, BMI and age at diagnosis, underwent an oral glucose tolerance test and a combined glucagon test and insulin tolerance test. Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies and major Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes susceptibility gene variants were analysed. Patients were stratified into groups according to family history or GAD antibody positivity (GADA+, GADA-) or a combination of these (GADA+/FH(MIX), GADA+/FH(T2), GADA-/FH(MIX), GADA-/FH(T2)). Compared with other patients, those with FH(MIX) more often had GAD antibodies (14.3 vs. 4.3%, P = 0.003), and those with both FH(MIX) and GAD antibodies had the highest frequency of insulin deficiency (stimulated serum C-peptide insulin deficiency. A family history for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes was associated with higher prevalence of GAD antibodies and HLA-DQB1 risk genotypes than a family history of type 2 diabetes only, and was associated with earlier and more severe development of insulin deficiency, which was only partially explained by GAD antibodies and HLA. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

  9. Alcoholism: genes and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oroszi, Gabor; Goldman, David

    2004-12-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing/remitting disease that is frequently unrecognized and untreated, in part because of the partial efficacy of treatment. Only approximately one-third of patients remain abstinent and one-third have fully relapsed 1 year after withdrawal from alcohol, with treated patients doing substantially better than untreated [1]. The partial effectiveness of strategies for prevention and treatment, and variation in clinical course and side effects, represent a challenge and an opportunity to better understand the neurobiology of addiction. The strong heritability of alcoholism suggests the existence of inherited functional variants of genes that alter the metabolism of alcohol and variants of other genes that alter the neurobiologies of reward, executive cognitive function, anxiety/dysphoria, and neuronal plasticity. Each of these neurobiologies has been identified as a critical domain in the addictions. Functional alleles that alter alcoholism-related intermediate phenotypes include common alcohol dehydrogenase 1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 variants that cause the aversive flushing reaction; catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met leading to differences in three aspects of neurobiology: executive cognitive function, stress/anxiety response, and opioid function; opioid receptor micro1 (OPRM1) Asn40Asp, which may serve as a gatekeeper molecule in the action of naltrexone, a drug used in alcoholism treatment; and HTTLPR, which alters serotonin transporter function and appears to affect stress response and anxiety/dysphoria, which are factors relevant to initial vulnerability, the process of addiction, and relapse.

  10. Tetraspanin genes in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Vandepoele, Klaas; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke

    2012-07-01

    Tetraspanins represent a four-transmembrane protein superfamily with a conserved structure and amino acid residues that are present in mammals, insects, fungi and plants. Tetraspanins interact with each other or with other membrane proteins to form tetraspanin-enriched microdomains that play important roles in development, pathogenesis and immune responses via facilitating cell-cell adhesion and fusion, ligand binding and intracellular trafficking. Here, we emphasize evolutionary aspects within the plant kingdom based on genomic sequence information. A phylogenetic tree based on 155 tetraspanin genes of 11 plant species revealed ancient and fast evolving clades. Tetraspanins were only present in multicellular plants, were often duplicated in the plant genomes and predicted by the electronic Fluorescent Pictograph for gene expression analysis to be either functionally redundant or divergent. Tetraspanins contain a large extracellular loop with conserved cysteines that provide the binding sites for the interactions. The Arabidopsis thaliana TETRASPANIN1/TORNADO2/EKEKO has a function in leaf and root patterning and TETRASPANIN3 was identified in the plasmodesmatal proteome, suggesting a role in cell-cell communication during plant development.

  11. Improvements to cardiovascular gene ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovering, Ruth C; Dimmer, Emily C; Talmud, Philippa J

    2009-07-01

    Gene Ontology (GO) provides a controlled vocabulary to describe the attributes of genes and gene products in any organism. Although one might initially wonder what relevance a 'controlled vocabulary' might have for cardiovascular science, such a resource is proving highly useful for researchers investigating complex cardiovascular disease phenotypes as well as those interpreting results from high-throughput methodologies. GO enables the current functional knowledge of individual genes to be used to annotate genomic or proteomic datasets. In this way, the GO data provides a very effective way of linking biological knowledge with the analysis of the large datasets of post-genomics research. Consequently, users of high-throughput methodologies such as expression arrays or proteomics will be the main beneficiaries of such annotation sets. However, as GO annotations increase in quality and quantity, groups using small-scale approaches will gradually begin to benefit too. For example, genome wide association scans for coronary heart disease are identifying novel genes, with previously unknown connections to cardiovascular processes, and the comprehensive annotation of these novel genes might provide clues to their cardiovascular link. At least 4000 genes, to date, have been implicated in cardiovascular processes and an initiative is underway to focus on annotating these genes for the benefit of the cardiovascular community. In this article we review the current uses of Gene Ontology annotation to highlight why Gene Ontology should be of interest to all those involved in cardiovascular research.

  12. Chromatin analysis of occluded genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hyun; Gaetz, Jedidiah; Bugarija, Branimir; Fernandes, Croydon J.; Snyder, Gregory E.; Bush, Eliot C.; Lahn, Bruce T.

    2009-01-01

    We recently described two opposing states of transcriptional competency. One is termed ‘competent’ whereby a gene is capable of responding to trans-acting transcription factors of the cell, such that it is active if appropriate transcriptional activators are present, though it can also be silent if activators are absent or repressors are present. The other is termed ‘occluded’ whereby a gene is silenced by cis-acting, chromatin-based mechanisms in a manner that blocks it from responding to trans-acting factors, such that it is silent even when activators are present in the cellular milieu. We proposed that gene occlusion is a mechanism by which differentiated cells stably maintain their phenotypic identities. Here, we describe chromatin analysis of occluded genes. We found that DNA methylation plays a causal role in maintaining occlusion for a subset of occluded genes. We further examined a variety of other chromatin marks typically associated with transcriptional silencing, including histone variants, covalent histone modifications and chromatin-associated proteins. Surprisingly, we found that although many of these marks are robustly linked to silent genes (which include both occluded genes and genes that are competent but silent), none is linked specifically to occluded genes. Although the observation does not rule out a possible causal role of these chromatin marks in occlusion, it does suggest that these marks might be secondary effect rather than primary cause of the silent state in many genes. PMID:19380460

  13. Identification of genes and gene products necessary for bacterial bioluminescence.

    OpenAIRE

    Engebrecht, J; Silverman, M.

    1984-01-01

    Expression of luminescence in Escherichia coli was recently achieved by cloning genes from the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri. One DNA fragment on a hybrid plasmid encoded regulatory functions and enzymatic activities necessary for light production. We report the results of a genetic analysis to identify the luminescence genes (lux) that reside on this recombinant plasmid. lux gene mutations were generated by hydroxylamine treatment, and these mutations were ordered on a linear map by compl...

  14. GENE MUTATIONS, GENETIC DISEASE AND PHARMACOGENETIC GENES DISORDER

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell mutation is able to create genetic variance in a cell population and can induce cancer and tumor when gene mutations took place at repressor gene in controlling cell cycles such as p53 gene. Whereas germline cell mutation can cause genetic disease such as sickle cell anemia, breast cancer, thalassemia, parkinson’s as well as defect of biochemical pathway that influence drug-receptor interaction, which has negative effect and lead to hospitalized of patient. Most of reports mentio...

  15. PROAPOPTOTIC FUNCTION OF FHIT GENE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Zhe-fu; HAN De-min; ZHANG Luo; ZHANG Wei

    2006-01-01

    Tumor suppressor gene plays an important role in maintaining the homeostasis between cell loss and growth. Fragile in maintaining the homeostasis between cell loss and growth. Fragile histidine triad (FHIT) gene found recently was studied in a deep going way; it becomes the focus as a result of its roleof ep going way; it becomes the focus as a result of its roleof anti-tumor in human various type of tissue. Due to the high efficiency of FHIT gene benefiting the anti-tumor, it is proposed gh efficiency of FHIT gene benefiting the anti-tumor, it is proposed as a candidate of tumor suppressor gene though there are several opposite opinions.several opposite opinions. We stress the summary of some properties of FHIT gene on proapoptosis according to the published data which showed gene on proapoptosis according to the published data which showed the stronger proapoptotic function of FHIT gene; the apoptosis induced by FHIT depends on the expression level and status of ene; the apoptosis induced by FHIT depends on the expression level and status of FHIT; and FHIT gene can alternate the cell cycling properties and reduce the tumorigenic potential; the apoptotic process e can alternate the cell cycling properties and reduce the tumorigenic potential; the apoptotic process induced by FHIT has no relation to p53 gene. In a ward, in consideration of its multiple functions against malignancies, FHIT in consideration of its multiple functions against malignancies, FHIT gene deserves attention and exploration as a selective target for searching the mechanism of tumorigenesis and clinical et for searching the mechanism of tumorigenesis and clinical therapeutic applications in further.le histidine triad (FHIT) gene; Apoptosis; Tumorigenesis; Tumor suppressor gene deserves attention and exploration as a selective target for searching the mechanism of tumorigenesis and clinical therapeutic applications in further.

  16. Regulation of gene expression by Goodwin's loop with many genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sielewiesiuk, Jan; Łopaciuk, Agata

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a simple analysis of a long Goodwin's loop containing many genes. The genes form a closed series. The rate of transcription of any gene is up or down regulated by theprotein product of the preceding gene. We describe the loop with a system of ordinary differential equations of order s. Oscillatory solutions of the system are possible at the odd number of repressions and any number of inductions if the product of all Hill's coefficients, related to both repressions and inductions, is larger than:

  17. Gene: a gene-centered information resource at NCBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Garth R; Hem, Vichet; Katz, Kenneth S; Ovetsky, Michael; Wallin, Craig; Ermolaeva, Olga; Tolstoy, Igor; Tatusova, Tatiana; Pruitt, Kim D; Maglott, Donna R; Murphy, Terence D

    2015-01-01

    The National Center for Biotechnology Information's (NCBI) Gene database (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene) integrates gene-specific information from multiple data sources. NCBI Reference Sequence (RefSeq) genomes for viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes are the primary foundation for Gene records in that they form the critical association between sequence and a tracked gene upon which additional functional and descriptive content is anchored. Additional content is integrated based on the genomic location and RefSeq transcript and protein sequence data. The content of a Gene record represents the integration of curation and automated processing from RefSeq, collaborating model organism databases, consortia such as Gene Ontology, and other databases within NCBI. Records in Gene are assigned unique, tracked integers as identifiers. The content (citations, nomenclature, genomic location, gene products and their attributes, phenotypes, sequences, interactions, variation details, maps, expression, homologs, protein domains and external databases) is available via interactive browsing through NCBI's Entrez system, via NCBI's Entrez programming utilities (E-Utilities and Entrez Direct) and for bulk transfer by FTP.

  18. Gene expression analysis identifies global gene dosage sensitivity in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fehrmann, Rudolf S. N.; Karjalainen, Juha M.; Krajewska, Malgorzata;

    2015-01-01

    expression. We reanalyzed 77,840 expression profiles and observed a limited set of 'transcriptional components' that describe well-known biology, explain the vast majority of variation in gene expression and enable us to predict the biological function of genes. On correcting expression profiles...... for these components, we observed that the residual expression levels (in 'functional genomic mRNA' profiling) correlated strongly with copy number. DNA copy number correlated positively with expression levels for 99% of all abundantly expressed human genes, indicating global gene dosage sensitivity. By applying...

  19. PDMAEMA based gene delivery materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Agarwal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gene transfection is the transfer of genetic material like DNA into cells. Cationic polymers which form nanocomplexes with DNA, so-called non-viral gene vectors, are a highly promising platform for efficient gene transfection. Despite intensive research efforts and some of the on-going clinical trials on gene transfection, none of the existing cationic polymer systems are generally acceptable for human gene therapy. Since the process of gene transfection is complex and puts different challenges and demands on the delivery system, there is a strong requirement for the design and development of a multifunctional system in a simple way. This review will discuss recent efforts in design, synthesis, and performance of poly(2-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (PDMAEMA nanocomplexes with DNA.

  20. Gene targeting with retroviral vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.; Bernstein, A. (Toronto Univ., ON (Canada))

    1989-04-01

    The authors have designed and constructed integration-defective retroviral vectors to explore their potential for gene targeting in mammalian cells. Two nonoverlapping deletion mutants of the bacterial neomycin resistance (neo) gene were used to detect homologous recombination events between viral and chromosomal sequences. Stable neo gene correction events were selected at a frequency of approximately 1 G418/sup r/ cell per 3 x 10/sup 6/ infected cells. Analysis of the functional neo gene in independent targeted cell clones indicated that unintegrated retroviral linear DNA recombined with the target by gene conversion for variable distances into regions of nonhomology. In addition, transient neo gene correction events which were associated with the complete loss of the chromosomal target sequences were observed. These results demonstrated that retroviral vectors can recombine with homologous chromosomal sequences in rodent and human cells.

  1. Brief isoflurane anaesthesia affects differential gene expression, gene ontology and gene networks in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, Damon A; Galley, Helen F; Moura, Alessandro P S; Webster, Nigel R

    2017-01-15

    Much is still unknown about the mechanisms of effects of even brief anaesthesia on the brain and previous studies have simply compared differential expression profiles with and without anaesthesia. We hypothesised that network analysis, in addition to the traditional differential gene expression and ontology analysis, would enable identification of the effects of anaesthesia on interactions between genes. Rats (n=10 per group) were randomised to anaesthesia with isoflurane in oxygen or oxygen only for 15min, and 6h later brains were removed. Differential gene expression and gene ontology analysis of microarray data was performed. Standard clustering techniques and principal component analysis with Bayesian rules were used along with social network analysis methods, to quantitatively model and describe the gene networks. Anaesthesia had marked effects on genes in the brain with differential regulation of 416 probe sets by at least 2 fold. Gene ontology analysis showed 23 genes were functionally related to the anaesthesia and of these, 12 were involved with neurotransmitter release, transport and secretion. Gene network analysis revealed much greater connectivity in genes from brains from anaesthetised rats compared to controls. Other importance measures were also altered after anaesthesia; median [range] closeness centrality (shortest path) was lower in anaesthetized animals (0.07 [0-0.30]) than controls (0.39 [0.30-0.53], pgenes after anaesthesia and suggests future targets for investigation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. How eukaryotic genes are transcribed

    OpenAIRE

    Venters, Bryan J; Pugh, B. Franklin

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of eukaryotic gene expression is far more complex than one might have imagined thirty years ago. However, progress towards understanding gene regulatory mechanisms has been rapid and comprehensive, which has made the integration of detailed observations into broadly connected concepts a challenge. This review attempts to integrate the following concepts: 1) a well-defined organization of nucleosomes and modification states at most genes, 2) regulatory networks of sequence-specific ...

  3. Gene set analysis for GWAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debrabant, Birgit; Soerensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We discuss the use of modified Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistics in the context of gene set analysis and review corresponding null and alternative hypotheses. Especially, we show that, when enhancing the impact of highly significant genes in the calculation of the test statistic...... parameter and the genesis and distribution of the gene-level statistics, and illustrate the effects of differential weighting in a real-life example....

  4. Gene and genome parameters of mammalian liver circadian genes (LCGs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Wu

    Full Text Available The mammalian circadian system controls various physiology processes and behavior responses by regulating thousands of circadian genes with rhythmic expressions. In this study, we redefined circadian-regulated genes based on published results in the mouse liver and compared them with other gene groups defined relative to circadian regulations, especially the non-circadian-regulated genes expressed in liver at multiple molecular levels from gene position to protein expression based on integrative analyses of different datasets from the literature. Based on the intra-tissue analysis, the liver circadian genes or LCGs show unique features when compared to other gene groups. First, LCGs in general have less neighboring genes and larger in both genomic and 3'-UTR lengths but shorter in CDS (coding sequence lengths. Second, LCGs have higher mRNA and protein abundance, higher temporal expression variations, and shorter mRNA half-life. Third, more than 60% of LCGs form major co-expression clusters centered in four temporal windows: dawn, day, dusk, and night. In addition, larger and smaller LCGs are found mainly expressed in the day and night temporal windows, respectively, and we believe that LCGs are well-partitioned into the gene expression regulatory network that takes advantage of gene size, expression constraint, and chromosomal architecture. Based on inter-tissue analysis, more than half of LCGs are ubiquitously expressed in multiple tissues but only show rhythmical expression in one or limited number of tissues. LCGs show at least three-fold lower expression variations across the temporal windows than those among different tissues, and this observation suggests that temporal expression variations regulated by the circadian system is relatively subtle as compared with the tissue expression variations formed during development. Taken together, we suggest that the circadian system selects gene parameters in a cost effective way to improve tissue

  5. Testing for gene-gene interaction with AMMI models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhdadi, Amina; Dubé, Marie-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown that many common diseases are influenced by multiple genes and their interactions. There is currently a strong interest in testing for association between combinations of these genes and disease, in particular because genes that affect the risk of disease only in the presence of another genetic variant may not be detected in marginal analysis. In this paper we propose the use of additive main effect and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) models to detect and to quantify gene-gene interaction effects for a quantitative trait. The objective of the present research is to demonstrate the practical advantages of these models to describe complex interaction between two unlinked loci. Although gene-gene interactions have often been defined as a deviance from additive genetic effects, the residual term has generally not been appropriately treated. The AMMI models allow for the analysis of a two way factorial data structure and combine the analysis of variance of the two main genotype effects with a principal component analysis of the residual multiplicative interaction. The AMMI models for gene-gene interaction presented here allow for the testing of non additivity between the two loci, and also describe how their interaction structure fits the existing non-additivity. Moreover, these models can be used to identify the specific two genotypes combinations that contribute to the significant gene-gene interaction. We describe the use of the biplot to display the structure of the interaction and evaluate the performance of the AMMI and the special cases of the AMMI previously described by Tukey and Mandel with simulated data sets. Our simulated study showed that the AMMI model is as powerful as general linear models when the interaction is not modeled in the presence of marginal effects. However, in the presence of pure epitasis, i.e. in the absence of marginal effects, the AMMI method was not found to be superior to other tested regression methods.

  6. Introduction: Cancer Gene Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Constructing, evaluating, and interpreting gene networks generally sits within the broader field of systems biology, which continues to emerge rapidly, particular with respect to its application to understanding the complexity of signaling in the context of cancer biology. For the purposes of this volume, we take a broad definition of systems biology. Considering an organism or disease within an organism as a system, systems biology is the study of the integrated and coordinated interactions of the network(s) of genes, their variants both natural and mutated (e.g., polymorphisms, rearrangements, alternate splicing, mutations), their proteins and isoforms, and the organic and inorganic molecules with which they interact, to execute the biochemical reactions (e.g., as enzymes, substrates, products) that reflect the function of that system. Central to systems biology, and perhaps the only approach that can effectively manage the complexity of such systems, is the building of quantitative multiscale predictive models. The predictions of the models can vary substantially depending on the nature of the model and its inputoutput relationships. For example, a model may predict the outcome of a specific molecular reaction(s), a cellular phenotype (e.g., alive, dead, growth arrest, proliferation, and motility), a change in the respective prevalence of cell or subpopulations, a patient or patient subgroup outcome(s). Such models necessarily require computers. Computational modeling can be thought of as using machine learning and related tools to integrate the very high dimensional data generated from modern, high throughput omics technologies including genomics (next generation sequencing), transcriptomics (gene expression microarrays; RNAseq), metabolomics and proteomics (ultra high performance liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry), and "subomic" technologies to study the kinome, methylome, and others. Mathematical modeling can be thought of as the use of ordinary

  7. Genes, evolution and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Thomas J

    2014-11-01

    I argue that the g factor meets the fundamental criteria of a scientific construct more fully than any other conception of intelligence. I briefly discuss the evidence regarding the relationship of brain size to intelligence. A review of a large body of evidence demonstrates that there is a g factor in a wide range of species and that, in the species studied, it relates to brain size and is heritable. These findings suggest that many species have evolved a general-purpose mechanism (a general biological intelligence) for dealing with the environments in which they evolved. In spite of numerous studies with considerable statistical power, we know of very few genes that influence g and the effects are very small. Nevertheless, g appears to be highly polygenic. Given the complexity of the human brain, it is not surprising that that one of its primary faculties-intelligence-is best explained by the near infinitesimal model of quantitative genetics.

  8. Gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuck, Stephen B; McCaffery, Jeanne M

    2014-01-01

    With the advent of increasingly accessible technologies for typing genetic variation, studies of gene-environment (G×E) interactions have proliferated in psychological research. Among the aims of such studies are testing developmental hypotheses and models of the etiology of behavioral disorders, defining boundaries of genetic and environmental influences, and identifying individuals most susceptible to risk exposures or most amenable to preventive and therapeutic interventions. This research also coincides with the emergence of unanticipated difficulties in detecting genetic variants of direct association with behavioral traits and disorders, which may be obscured if genetic effects are expressed only in predisposing environments. In this essay we consider these and other rationales for positing G×E interactions, review conceptual models meant to inform G×E interpretations from a psychological perspective, discuss points of common critique to which G×E research is vulnerable, and address the role of the environment in G×E interactions.

  9. Angiogenin gene polymorphism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongli Wang; Dongsheng Fan; Yingshuang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenin is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Here, we se-quenced the coding region of the angiogenin gene in genomic DNA from 207 patients with type 2 diabetes mel itus (129 diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients and 78 diabetic non-neuropathy pa-tients) and 268 healthy controls. Al subjects were from the Han population of northern China. No mutations were found. We then compared the genotype and allele frequencies of the angiogenin synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism rs11701 between the diabetic peripheral neuropathy patients and controls, and between the diabetic neuropathy and non-neuropathy patients, using a case-control design. We detected no statistical y significant genetic associations. Angiogenin may not be associated with genetic susceptibility to diabetic peripheral neuropathy in the Han population of northern China.

  10. Gene therapy in the cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Rajiv R; Sharma, Ajay; Netto, Marcelo V; Sinha, Sunilima; Wilson, Steven E

    2005-09-01

    Technological advances in the field of gene therapy has prompted more than three hundred phase I and phase II gene-based clinical trials for the treatment of cancer, AIDS, macular degeneration, cardiovascular, and other monogenic diseases. Besides treating diseases, gene transfer technology has been utilized for the development of preventive and therapeutic vaccines for malaria, tuberculosis, hepatitis A, B and C viruses, AIDS, and influenza. The potential therapeutic applications of gene transfer technology are enormous. The cornea is an excellent candidate for gene therapy because of its accessibility and immune-privileged nature. In the last two decades, various viral vectors, such as adeno, adeno-associated, retro, lenti, and herpes simplex, as well as non-viral methods, were examined for introducing DNA into corneal cells in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo. Most of these studies used fluorescent or non-fluorescent marker genes to track the level and duration of transgene expression in corneal cells. However, limited studies were directed to evaluate prospects of gene-based interventions for corneal diseases or disorders such as allograft rejection, laser-induced post-operative haze, herpes simplex keratitis, and wound healing in animal models. We will review the successes and obstacles impeding gene therapy approaches used for delivering genes into the cornea.

  11. TCA Cycle Defects and Cancer: When Metabolism Tunes Redox State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Cardaci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inborn defects of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle enzymes have been known for more than twenty years. Until recently, only recessive mutations were described which, although resulted in severe multisystem syndromes, did not predispose to cancer onset. In the last ten years, a causal role in carcinogenesis has been documented for inherited and acquired alterations in three TCA cycle enzymes, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, fumarate hydratase (FH, and isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH, pointing towards metabolic alterations as the underlying hallmark of cancer. This paper summarizes the neoplastic alterations of the TCA cycle enzymes focusing on the generation of pseudohypoxic phenotype and the alteration of epigenetic homeostasis as the main tumor-promoting effects of the TCA cycle affecting defects. Moreover, we debate on the ability of these mutations to affect cellular redox state and to promote carcinogenesis by impacting on redox biology.

  12. A systems approach to predict oncometabolites via context-specific genome-scale metabolic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojung Nam

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Altered metabolism in cancer cells has been viewed as a passive response required for a malignant transformation. However, this view has changed through the recently described metabolic oncogenic factors: mutated isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDH, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH, and fumarate hydratase (FH that produce oncometabolites that competitively inhibit epigenetic regulation. In this study, we demonstrate in silico predictions of oncometabolites that have the potential to dysregulate epigenetic controls in nine types of cancer by incorporating massive scale genetic mutation information (collected from more than 1,700 cancer genomes, expression profiling data, and deploying Recon 2 to reconstruct context-specific genome-scale metabolic models. Our analysis predicted 15 compounds and 24 substructures of potential oncometabolites that could result from the loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations of metabolic enzymes, respectively. These results suggest a substantial potential for discovering unidentified oncometabolites in various forms of cancers.

  13. Are TMEM genes potential candidate genes for panic disorder?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Noomi O; Buttenschøn, Henriette Nørmølle; Hedemand, Anne

    2014-01-01

    We analysed single nucleotide polymorphisms in two transmembrane genes (TMEM98 and TMEM132E) in panic disorder (PD) patients and control individuals from the Faroe Islands, Denmark and Germany. The genes encode single-pass membrane proteins and are located within chromosome 17q11.2-q12...

  14. Gene-gene Interaction Analyses for Atrial Fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Honghuang; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Smith, Albert V; Arking, Dan E; Barnard, John; Bartz, Traci M; Lunetta, Kathryn L; Lohman, Kurt; Kleber, Marcus E; Lubitz, Steven A; Geelhoed, Bastiaan; Trompet, Stella; Niemeijer, Maartje N; Kacprowski, Tim; Chasman, Daniel I; Klarin, Derek; Sinner, Moritz F; Waldenberger, Melanie; Meitinger, Thomas; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Chen, Lin Y; Smith, Jonathan D; Van Wagoner, David R; Rotter, Jerome I; Psaty, Bruce M; Xie, Zhijun; Hendricks, Audrey E; Ding, Jingzhong; Delgado, Graciela E; Verweij, Niek; van der Harst, Pim; Macfarlane, Peter W; Ford, Ian; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André; Heeringa, Jan; Franco, Oscar H; Kors, Jan A; Weiss, Stefan; Völzke, Henry; Rose, Lynda M; Natarajan, Pradeep; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kääb, Stefan; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Alonso, Alvaro; Chung, Mina K; Heckbert, Susan R; Benjamin, Emelia J; Liu, Yongmei; März, Winfried; Rienstra, Michiel; Jukema, J Wouter; Stricker, Bruno H; Dörr, Marcus; Albert, Christine M; Ellinor, Patrick T

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a heritable disease that affects more than thirty million individuals worldwide. Extensive efforts have been devoted to the study of genetic determinants of AF. The objective of our study is to examine the effect of gene-gene interaction on AF susceptibility. We performed

  15. Gene-gene Interaction Analyses for Atrial Fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Lin (Honghuang); M. Mueller-Nurasyid; A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); D.E. Arking (Dan); J. Barnard (John); T.M. Bartz (Traci M.); K.L. Lunetta (Kathryn); K. Lohman (Kurt); M.E. Kleber (Marcus); S.A. Lubitz (Steven); Geelhoed, B. (Bastiaan); S. Trompet (Stella); M.N. Niemeijer (Maartje); T. Kacprowski (Tim); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); Klarin, D. (Derek); M.F. Sinner (Moritz); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); T. Meitinger (Thomas); T.B. Harris (Tamara); Launer, L.J. (Lenore J.); E.Z. Soliman (Elsayed Z.); L. Chen (Lin); J.D. Smith (Jonathan); D.R. van Wagoner (David); Rotter, J.I. (Jerome I.); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); Xie, Z. (Zhijun); A.E. Hendricks (Audrey E.); Ding, J. (Jingzhong); G.E. Delgado (Graciela E.); N. Verweij (Niek); P. van der Harst (Pim); P.W. MacFarlane (Peter); I. Ford (Ian); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J. Heeringa (Jan); O.H. Franco (Oscar); J.A. Kors (Jan); Weiss, S. (Stefan); H. Völzke (Henry); L.M. Rose (Lynda); Natarajan, P. (Pradeep); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); S. Kääb (Stefan); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); A. Alonso (Alvaro); M.K. Chung (Mina); S.R. Heckbert (Susan); E.J. Benjamin (Emelia); Y. Liu (Yongmei); W. März (Winfried); S.A. Rienstra; J.W. Jukema (Jan Wouter); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); M. Dörr (Marcus); C.M. Albert (Christine); P.T. Ellinor (Patrick)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAtrial fibrillation (AF) is a heritable disease that affects more than thirty million individuals worldwide. Extensive efforts have been devoted to the study of genetic determinants of AF. The objective of our study is to examine the effect of gene-gene interaction on AF susceptibility.

  16. ДОСЛІДЖЕННЯ ХІМІЧНИХ ПЕРЕТВОРЕНЬ У ВУГЛЕВОДНЕВОМУ СКЛАДІ РОБОЧОЇ РІДИНИ «ГІДРОНІКОЙЛ» FH-51

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.М. Соловйов

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available  Подано результати дослідження структурно-групового складу зразків товарної і після нальоту 3600 год авіаційної гідравлічної рідини «Гідронікойл» FH-51 методами дистиляції та рідинної хроматографії. Отримані результати досліджень показали наявність перебігу процесів термоокиснювальної деструкції вуглеводнів, що спричиняє суттєве зниження якості робочої рідини і погіршення її експлуатаційних властивостей. Підтверджено, що наявну систему контролю якості гідравлічних рідин науково не обґрунтовано і вона не забезпечує сучасних високих вимог до збереження експлуатаційної якості робочої рідини для гідравлічної системи літака. Актуальним постає завдання удосконалення існуючої системи  контролю якості гідравлічних рідин під час експлуатації.

  17. Classifying genes to the correct Gene Ontology Slim term in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using neighbouring genes with classification learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsoulis Costas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that gene location and surrounding genes influence the functionality of genes in the eukaryotic genome. Knowing the Gene Ontology Slim terms associated with a gene gives us insight into a gene's functionality by informing us how its gene product behaves in a cellular context using three different ontologies: molecular function, biological process, and cellular component. In this study, we analyzed if we could classify a gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to its correct Gene Ontology Slim term using information about its location in the genome and information from its nearest-neighbouring genes using classification learning. Results We performed experiments to establish that the MultiBoostAB algorithm using the J48 classifier could correctly classify Gene Ontology Slim terms of a gene given information regarding the gene's location and information from its nearest-neighbouring genes for training. Different neighbourhood sizes were examined to determine how many nearest neighbours should be included around each gene to provide better classification rules. Our results show that by just incorporating neighbour information from each gene's two-nearest neighbours, the percentage of correctly classified genes to their correct Gene Ontology Slim term for each ontology reaches over 80% with high accuracy (reflected in F-measures over 0.80 of the classification rules produced. Conclusions We confirmed that in classifying genes to their correct Gene Ontology Slim term, the inclusion of neighbour information from those genes is beneficial. Knowing the location of a gene and the Gene Ontology Slim information from neighbouring genes gives us insight into that gene's functionality. This benefit is seen by just including information from a gene's two-nearest neighbouring genes.

  18. Classifying genes to the correct Gene Ontology Slim term in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using neighbouring genes with classification learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amthauer, Heather A; Tsatsoulis, Costas

    2010-05-28

    There is increasing evidence that gene location and surrounding genes influence the functionality of genes in the eukaryotic genome. Knowing the Gene Ontology Slim terms associated with a gene gives us insight into a gene's functionality by informing us how its gene product behaves in a cellular context using three different ontologies: molecular function, biological process, and cellular component. In this study, we analyzed if we could classify a gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to its correct Gene Ontology Slim term using information about its location in the genome and information from its nearest-neighbouring genes using classification learning. We performed experiments to establish that the MultiBoostAB algorithm using the J48 classifier could correctly classify Gene Ontology Slim terms of a gene given information regarding the gene's location and information from its nearest-neighbouring genes for training. Different neighbourhood sizes were examined to determine how many nearest neighbours should be included around each gene to provide better classification rules. Our results show that by just incorporating neighbour information from each gene's two-nearest neighbours, the percentage of correctly classified genes to their correct Gene Ontology Slim term for each ontology reaches over 80% with high accuracy (reflected in F-measures over 0.80) of the classification rules produced. We confirmed that in classifying genes to their correct Gene Ontology Slim term, the inclusion of neighbour information from those genes is beneficial. Knowing the location of a gene and the Gene Ontology Slim information from neighbouring genes gives us insight into that gene's functionality. This benefit is seen by just including information from a gene's two-nearest neighbouring genes.

  19. Molecular characterization of Iranian patients with possible familial hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, E; Shayesteh, F; Asadi Mobarakeh, S; Roghani Dehkordi, F; Ghatreh Samani, K; Hashemzadeh Chaleshtori, M

    2011-07-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal dominant disorder of lipoprotein metabolism caused mainly by mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and apolipoprotein B 100 (APOB) genes. Until now, the molecular basis of FH has been demonstrated in detail in many populations, but there is still very limited Molecular data concerning FH in Iran. The aim of this study was to characterize the LDLR and APOB gene mutations in an Iranian population. A total of 30 non-related Iranian possible FH subjects were studied. Diagnosis of FH was based on the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network diagnostic criteria. All samples were initially tested for three common APOB gene mutations including R3500Q, R3500 W and R3531C using PCR-RFLP assay. Subsequently, promoter and coding region of the LDLR gene was screened by PCR-SSCP analysis and positive results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Four previously reported polymorphisms 1413G > A, 1725C > T, 1773T > C and 2140 + 5G > A were found in ~17% (5/30) of population studied. Moreover, no variation was found in APOB gene. Our data indicated that LDLR and APOB gene mutations have not contribution to possible FH in Iranian population studied here. However, we examined three common APOB mutations and LDLR in only 30 patients, and to determine the role of these genes in developing FH in Iran, more FH samples and populations needed to be investigated for the mutations of the related genes.

  20. On meme--gene coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, L; Holland, O; Blackmore, S

    2000-01-01

    In this article we examine the effects of the emergence of a new replicator, memes, on the evolution of a pre-existing replicator, genes. Using a version of the NKCS model we examine the effects of increasing the rate of meme evolution in relation to the rate of gene evolution, for various degrees of interdependence between the two replicators. That is, the effects of memes' (suggested) more rapid rate of evolution in comparison to that of genes is investigated using a tunable model of coevolution. It is found that, for almost any degree of interdependence between the two replicators, as the rate of meme evolution increases, a phase transition-like dynamic occurs under which memes have a significantly detrimental effect on the evolution of genes, quickly resulting in the cessation of effective gene evolution. Conversely, the memes experience a sharp increase in benefit from increasing their rate of evolution. We then examine the effects of enabling genes to reduce the percentage of gene-detrimental evolutionary steps taken by memes. Here a critical region emerges as the comparative rate of meme evolution increases, such that if genes cannot effectively select memes a high percentage of the time, they suffer from meme evolution as if they had almost no selective capability.

  1. Susceptibility Genes in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Ban

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD are complex diseases which are caused by an interaction between susceptibility genes and environmental triggers. Genetic susceptibility in combination with external factors (e.g. dietary iodine is believed to initiate the autoimmune response to thyroid antigens. Abundant epidemiological data, including family and twin studies, point to a strong genetic influence on the development of AITD. Various techniques have been employed to identify the genes contributing to the etiology of AITD, including candidate gene analysis and whole genome screening. These studies have enabled the identification of several loci (genetic regions that are linked with AITD, and in some of these loci, putative AITD susceptibility genes have been identified. Some of these genes/loci are unique to Graves' disease (GD and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT and some are common to both the diseases, indicating that there is a shared genetic susceptibility to GD and HT. The putative GD and HT susceptibility genes include both immune modifying genes (e.g. HLA, CTLA-4 and thyroid specific genes (e.g. TSHR, Tg. Most likely, these loci interact and their interactions may influence disease phenotype and severity.

  2. The flow of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misteli, Tom

    2004-03-01

    Gene expression is a highly interconnected multistep process. A recent meeting in Iguazu Falls, Argentina, highlighted the need to uncover both the molecular details of each single step as well as the mechanisms of coordination among processes in order to fully understand the expression of genes.

  3. Phytochrome-regulated Gene Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter H. Quail

    2007-01-01

    Identification of all genes involved in the phytochrome (phy)-mediated responses of plants to their light environment is an important goal in providing an overall understanding of light-regulated growth and development. This article highlights and integrates the central findings of two recent comprehensive studies in Arabidopsis that have identified the genome-wide set of phy-regulated genes that respond rapidly to red-light signals upon first exposure of dark-grown seedlings, and have tested the functional relevance to normal seedling photomorphogenesis of an initial subset of these genes. The data: (a) reveal considerable complexity in the channeling of the light signals through the different phy-family members (phyA to phyE) to responsive genes; (b) identify a diversity of transcription-factor-encoding genes as major early, if not primary, targets of phy signaling, and, therefore, as potentially important regulators in the transcriptional-network hierarchy; and (c) identify auxin-related genes as the dominant class among rapidly-regulated, hormone-related genes. However, reverse-genetic functional profiling of a selected subset of these genes reveals that only a limited fraction are necessary for optimal phy-induced seedling deetiolation.

  4. Candidate genes for behavioural ecology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fitzpatrick, M.J.; Ben-Sahar, Y.; Smid, H.M.; Vet, L.E.M.; Robinson, G.E.; Sokolowski, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    In spite of millions of years of evolutionary divergence, the conservation of gene function is common across distant lineages. As such, genes that are known to influence behaviour in one organism are likely to influence similar behaviours in other organisms. Recent studies of the evolution of behavi

  5. Candidate gene prioritization with Endeavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tranchevent, Léon-Charles; Ardeshirdavani, Amin; ElShal, Sarah; Alcaide, Daniel; Aerts, Jan; Auboeuf, Didier; Moreau, Yves

    2016-07-08

    Genomic studies and high-throughput experiments often produce large lists of candidate genes among which only a small fraction are truly relevant to the disease, phenotype or biological process of interest. Gene prioritization tackles this problem by ranking candidate genes by profiling candidates across multiple genomic data sources and integrating this heterogeneous information into a global ranking. We describe an extended version of our gene prioritization method, Endeavour, now available for six species and integrating 75 data sources. The performance (Area Under the Curve) of Endeavour on cross-validation benchmarks using 'gold standard' gene sets varies from 88% (for human phenotypes) to 95% (for worm gene function). In addition, we have also validated our approach using a time-stamped benchmark derived from the Human Phenotype Ontology, which provides a setting close to prospective validation. With this benchmark, using 3854 novel gene-phenotype associations, we observe a performance of 82%. Altogether, our results indicate that this extended version of Endeavour efficiently prioritizes candidate genes. The Endeavour web server is freely available at https://endeavour.esat.kuleuven.be/.

  6. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  7. Nonviral Vectors for Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baoum, Abdulgader Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The development of nonviral vectors for safe and efficient gene delivery has been gaining considerable attention recently. An ideal nonviral vector must protect the gene against degradation by nuclease in the extracellular matrix, internalize the plasma membrane, escape from the endosomal compartment, unpackage the gene at some point and have no detrimental effects. In comparison to viruses, nonviral vectors are relatively easy to synthesize, less immunogenic, low in cost, and have no limitation in the size of a gene that can be delivered. Significant progress has been made in the basic science and applications of various nonviral gene delivery vectors; however, the majority of nonviral approaches are still inefficient and often toxic. To this end, two nonviral gene delivery systems using either biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide- co-glycolide) (PLG) nanoparticles or cell penetrating peptide (CPP) complexes have been designed and studied using A549 human lung epithelial cells. PLG nanoparticles were optimized for gene delivery by varying particle surface chemistry using different coating materials that adsorb to the particle surface during formation. A variety of cationic coating materials were studied and compared to more conventional surfactants used for PLG nanoparticle fabrication. Nanoparticles (˜200 nm) efficiently encapsulated plasmids encoding for luciferase (80-90%) and slowly released the same for two weeks. After a delay, moderate levels of gene expression appeared at day 5 for certain positively charged PLG particles and gene expression was maintained for at least two weeks. In contrast, gene expression mediated by polyethyleneimine (PEI) ended at day 5. PLG particles were also significantly less cytotoxic than PEI suggesting the use of these vehicles for localized, sustained gene delivery to the pulmonary epithelium. On the other hand, a more simple method to synthesize 50-200 nm complexes capable of high transfection efficiency or high gene knockdown was

  8. Delivery systems for gene therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant Mali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure of DNA was unraveled by Watson and Crick in 1953, and two decades later Arber, Nathans and Smith discovered DNA restriction enzymes, which led to the rapid growth in the field of recombinant DNA technology. From expressing cloned genes in bacteria to expressing foreign DNA in transgenic animals, DNA is now slated to be used as a therapeutic agent to replace defective genes in patients suffering from genetic disorders or to kill tumor cells in cancer patients. Gene therapy provides modern medicine with new perspectives that were unthinkable two decades ago. Progress in molecular biology and especially, molecular medicine is now changing the basics of clinical medicine. A variety of viral and non-viral possibilities are available for basic and clinical research. This review summarizes the delivery routes and methods for gene transfer used in gene therapy.

  9. Function analysis of unknown genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, A.

    2002-01-01

      This thesis entitled "Function analysis of unknown genes" presents the use of proteome analysis for the characterisation of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) genes and their products (proteins especially those of unknown function). This study illustrates that proteome analysis can be used...... to describe different aspects of molecular biology of the cell, to study changes that occur in the cell due to overexpression or deletion of a gene and to identify various protein modifications. The biological questions and the results of the described studies show the diversity of the information that can...... genes and proteins. It reports the first global proteome database collecting 36 yeast single gene deletion mutants and selecting over 650 differences between analysed mutants and the wild type strain. The obtained results show that two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry based proteome...

  10. Nanoparticles for retinal gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Shannon M; Naash, Muna I

    2010-09-01

    Ocular gene therapy is becoming a well-established field. Viral gene therapies for the treatment of Leber's congentinal amaurosis (LCA) are in clinical trials, and many other gene therapy approaches are being rapidly developed for application to diverse ophthalmic pathologies. Of late, development of non-viral gene therapies has been an area of intense focus and one technology, polymer-compacted DNA nanoparticles, is especially promising. However, development of pharmaceutically and clinically viable therapeutics depends not only on having an effective and safe vector but also on a practical treatment strategy. Inherited retinal pathologies are caused by mutations in over 220 genes, some of which contain over 200 individual disease-causing mutations, which are individually very rare. This review will focus on both the progress and future of nanoparticles and also on what will be required to make them relevant ocular pharmaceutics. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Gene targeting in malaria parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménard, R; Janse, C

    1997-10-01

    Gene targeting, which permits alteration of a chosen gene in a predetermined way by homologous recombination, is an emerging technology in malaria research. Soon after the development of techniques for stable transformation of red blood cell stages of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei, genes of interest were disrupted in the two species. The main limitations of gene targeting in malaria parasites result from the intracellular growth and slow replication of these parasites. On the other hand, the technology is facilitated by the very high rate of homologous recombination following transformation with targeting constructs (approximately 100%). Here, we describe (i) the vector design and the type of mutation that may be generated in a target locus, (ii) the selection and screening strategies that can be used to identify clones with the desired modification, and (iii) the protocol that was used for disrupting the circumsporozoite protein (CS) and thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) genes of P. berghei.

  12. Gene expression profiling: can we identify the right target genes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Loyd

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling allows the simultaneous monitoring of the transcriptional behaviour of thousands of genes, which may potentially be involved in disease development. Several studies have been performed in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, which aim to define genetic links to the disease in an attempt to improve the current understanding of the underlying pathogenesis of the disease and target pathways for intervention. Expression profiling has shown a clear difference in gene expression between IPF and normal lung tissue, and has identified a wide range of candidate genes, including those known to encode for proteins involved in extracellular matrix formation and degradation, growth factors and chemokines. Recently, familial pulmonary fibrosis cohorts have been examined in an attempt to detect specific genetic mutations associated with IPF. To date, these studies have identified families in which IPF is associated with mutations in the gene encoding surfactant protein C, or with mutations in genes encoding components of telomerase. Although rare and clearly not responsible for the disease in all individuals, the nature of these mutations highlight the importance of the alveolar epithelium in disease pathogenesis and demonstrate the potential for gene expression profiling in helping to advance the current understanding of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  13. Genes, Economics, and Happiness *

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Christakis, Nicholas A.; Fowler, James H.; Frey, Bruno S.

    2012-01-01

    We explore the influence of genetic variation on subjective well-being by employing a twin design and genetic association study. In a nationally-representative twin sample, we first show that about 33% of the variation in life satisfaction is explained by genetic variation. Although previous studies have shown that baseline happiness is significantly heritable, little research has considered molecular genetic associations with subjective well-being. We study the relationship between a functional polymorphism on the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and life satisfaction. We initially find that individuals with the longer, transcriptionally more efficient variant of this genotype report greater life satisfaction (n=2,545, p=0.012). However, our replication attempts on independent samples produce mixed results indicating that more work needs to be done to better understand the relationship between this genotype and subjective well-being. This work has implications for how economists think about the determinants of utility, and the extent to which exogenous shocks might affect individual well-being. PMID:24349601

  14. Genes, Economics, and Happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Christakis, Nicholas A; Fowler, James H; Frey, Bruno S

    2012-11-01

    We explore the influence of genetic variation on subjective well-being by employing a twin design and genetic association study. In a nationally-representative twin sample, we first show that about 33% of the variation in life satisfaction is explained by genetic variation. Although previous studies have shown that baseline happiness is significantly heritable, little research has considered molecular genetic associations with subjective well-being. We study the relationship between a functional polymorphism on the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and life satisfaction. We initially find that individuals with the longer, transcriptionally more efficient variant of this genotype report greater life satisfaction (n=2,545, p=0.012). However, our replication attempts on independent samples produce mixed results indicating that more work needs to be done to better understand the relationship between this genotype and subjective well-being. This work has implications for how economists think about the determinants of utility, and the extent to which exogenous shocks might affect individual well-being.

  15. Gene Prediction Using Multinomial Probit Regression with Bayesian Gene Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Wang

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A critical issue for the construction of genetic regulatory networks is the identification of network topology from data. In the context of deterministic and probabilistic Boolean networks, as well as their extension to multilevel quantization, this issue is related to the more general problem of expression prediction in which we want to find small subsets of genes to be used as predictors of target genes. Given some maximum number of predictors to be used, a full search of all possible predictor sets is combinatorially prohibitive except for small predictors sets, and even then, may require supercomputing. Hence, suboptimal approaches to finding predictor sets and network topologies are desirable. This paper considers Bayesian variable selection for prediction using a multinomial probit regression model with data augmentation to turn the multinomial problem into a sequence of smoothing problems. There are multiple regression equations and we want to select the same strongest genes for all regression equations to constitute a target predictor set or, in the context of a genetic network, the dependency set for the target. The probit regressor is approximated as a linear combination of the genes and a Gibbs sampler is employed to find the strongest genes. Numerical techniques to speed up the computation are discussed. After finding the strongest genes, we predict the target gene based on the strongest genes, with the coefficient of determination being used to measure predictor accuracy. Using malignant melanoma microarray data, we compare two predictor models, the estimated probit regressors themselves and the optimal full-logic predictor based on the selected strongest genes, and we compare these to optimal prediction without feature selection.

  16. Therapeutic genes for anti-HIV/AIDS gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovolenta, Chiara; Porcellini, Simona; Alberici, Luca

    2013-01-01

    The multiple therapeutic approaches developed so far to cope HIV-1 infection, such as anti-retroviral drugs, germicides and several attempts of therapeutic vaccination have provided significant amelioration in terms of life-quality and survival rate of AIDS patients. Nevertheless, no approach has demonstrated efficacy in eradicating this lethal, if untreated, infection. The curative power of gene therapy has been proven for the treatment of monogenic immunodeficiensies, where permanent gene modification of host cells is sufficient to correct the defect for life-time. No doubt, a similar concept is not applicable for gene therapy of infectious immunodeficiensies as AIDS, where there is not a single gene to be corrected; rather engineered cells must gain immunotherapeutic or antiviral features to grant either short- or long-term efficacy mostly by acquisition of antiviral genes or payloads. Anti-HIV/AIDS gene therapy is one of the most promising strategy, although challenging, to eradicate HIV-1 infection. In fact, genetic modification of hematopoietic stem cells with one or multiple therapeutic genes is expected to originate blood cell progenies resistant to viral infection and thereby able to prevail on infected unprotected cells. Ultimately, protected cells will re-establish a functional immune system able to control HIV-1 replication. More than hundred gene therapy clinical trials against AIDS employing different viral vectors and transgenes have been approved or are currently ongoing worldwide. This review will overview anti-HIV-1 infection gene therapy field evaluating strength and weakness of the transgenes and payloads used in the past and of those potentially exploitable in the future.

  17. Progress of gene targeting in mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Gene targeting is a powerful approach of study- ing the genefunction in vivo. Specific genetic modifications, including simple gene disruption, point mutations, large chromosomal deletions and rearrangements, targeted incor- poration of foreign genes, could be introduced into the mouse genome by gene targeting. Recent studies make it possible to do the gene targeting with temporal and spatial control.

  18. Human Lacrimal Gland Gene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aakalu, Vinay Kumar; Parameswaran, Sowmya; Maienschein-Cline, Mark; Bahroos, Neil; Shah, Dhara; Ali, Marwan; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2017-01-01

    Background The study of human lacrimal gland biology and development is limited. Lacrimal gland tissue is damaged or poorly functional in a number of disease states including dry eye disease. Development of cell based therapies for lacrimal gland diseases requires a better understanding of the gene expression and signaling pathways in lacrimal gland. Differential gene expression analysis between lacrimal gland and other embryologically similar tissues may be helpful in furthering our understanding of lacrimal gland development. Methods We performed global gene expression analysis of human lacrimal gland tissue using Affymetrix ® gene expression arrays. Primary data from our laboratory was compared with datasets available in the NLM GEO database for other surface ectodermal tissues including salivary gland, skin, conjunctiva and corneal epithelium. Results The analysis revealed statistically significant difference in the gene expression of lacrimal gland tissue compared to other ectodermal tissues. The lacrimal gland specific, cell surface secretory protein encoding genes and critical signaling pathways which distinguish lacrimal gland from other ectodermal tissues are described. Conclusions Differential gene expression in human lacrimal gland compared with other ectodermal tissue types revealed interesting patterns which may serve as the basis for future studies in directed differentiation among other areas. PMID:28081151

  19. Comprehensive resource: Skeletal gene database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, L; Ho, N C; Park, S S; Powell, J; Francomano, C A

    2001-01-01

    The Skeletal Gene Database (SGD) is an integrated resource that provides comprehensive information about bone-related genes, mRNA, and proteins expressed in human and mouse, with rich links to numerous other electronic tools. SGD contains expressed sequence tag (EST) data from all the skeletal-related cDNA libraries that are available to the public. It supplies the query/data access analytic tools for users to search and compare each gene expressed in skeletal tissue(s). The results derived from EST tissue expression profiling will allow users to get the data on the mRNA copy numbers of each gene expressed in each tissue and its normalized value. From the SGD, researchers can obtain information regarding the name, symbol, size, exon/intron number, chromosomal location, LocusLink, and related disease (if any is known) of each gene. This electronic compendium also furnishes information on the protein of the corresponding gene including the protein size (amino acid number and molecular weight). It provides swift and ready access to other useful databases including OMIM, UniGene and PUBMED. The data will be updated regularly in step with current and future research, thereby providing what we hope will serve as a highly useful source of information and a powerful analytic tool to the scientific community.

  20. GENES IN SPORT AND DOPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Pokrywka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Genes control biological processes such as muscle production of energy, mitochondria biogenesis, bone formation erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, vasodilation, neurogenesis, etc. DNA profiling for athletes reveals genetic variations that may be associated with endurance ability, muscle performance and power exercise, tendon susceptibility to injuries and psychological aptitude. Already, over 200 genes relating to physical performance have been identified by several research groups. Athletes’ genotyping is developing as a tool for the formulation of personalized training and nutritional programmes to optimize sport training as well as for the prediction of exercise-related injuries. On the other hand, development of molecular technology and gene therapy creates a risk of non-therapeutic use of cells, genes and genetic elements to improve athletic performance. Therefore, the World Anti-Doping Agency decided to include prohibition of gene doping within their World Anti-Doping Code in 2003. In this review article, we will provide a current overview of genes for use in athletes’ genotyping and gene doping possibilities, including their development and detection techniques.

  1. Approaches for skeletal gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyibizi, Christopher; Wallach, Corey J; Mi, Zhibao; Robbins, Paul D

    2002-01-01

    The role of gene therapy in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders continues to be an active area of research. As the etiology of many musculoskeletal diseases becomes increasingly understood, advances in cellular and gene therapy maybe applied to their potential treatment This review focuses on current investigational strategies to treat osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). OI is a varied group of genetic disorders that result in the diminished integrity of connective tissues as a result of alterations in the genes that encode for either the pro alpha1 or pro alpha2 component of type I collagen. Because most forms of OI result from dominant negative mutations, isolated gene replacement therapy is not a logical treatment option. The combined use of genetic manipulation and cellular transplantation, however, may provide a means to overcome this obstacle. This article describes the recent laboratory and clinical advances in cell therapy, highlights potential techniques being investigated to suppress the expression of the mutant allele with antisense gene therapy, and attempts to deliver collagen genes to bone cells. The challenges that the investigators face in their quest for the skeletal gene therapy are also discussed.

  2. Linking Genes to Cardiovascular Diseases: Gene Action and Gene-Environment Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasipoularides, Ares

    2015-12-01

    A unique myocardial characteristic is its ability to grow/remodel in order to adapt; this is determined partly by genes and partly by the environment and the milieu intérieur. In the "post-genomic" era, a need is emerging to elucidate the physiologic functions of myocardial genes, as well as potential adaptive and maladaptive modulations induced by environmental/epigenetic factors. Genome sequencing and analysis advances have become exponential lately, with escalation of our knowledge concerning sometimes controversial genetic underpinnings of cardiovascular diseases. Current technologies can identify candidate genes variously involved in diverse normal/abnormal morphomechanical phenotypes, and offer insights into multiple genetic factors implicated in complex cardiovascular syndromes. The expression profiles of thousands of genes are regularly ascertained under diverse conditions. Global analyses of gene expression levels are useful for cataloging genes and correlated phenotypes, and for elucidating the role of genes in maladies. Comparative expression of gene networks coupled to complex disorders can contribute insights as to how "modifier genes" influence the expressed phenotypes. Increasingly, a more comprehensive and detailed systematic understanding of genetic abnormalities underlying, for example, various genetic cardiomyopathies is emerging. Implementing genomic findings in cardiology practice may well lead directly to better diagnosing and therapeutics. There is currently evolving a strong appreciation for the value of studying gene anomalies, and doing so in a non-disjointed, cohesive manner. However, it is challenging for many-practitioners and investigators-to comprehend, interpret, and utilize the clinically increasingly accessible and affordable cardiovascular genomics studies. This survey addresses the need for fundamental understanding in this vital area.

  3. Cells and methods for producing fatty alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F.; Youngquist, Tyler J.

    2017-07-18

    Recombinant cells and methods for improved yield of fatty alcohols. The recombinant cells harbor a recombinant thioesterase gene, a recombinant acyl-CoA synthetase gene, and a recombinant acyl-CoA reductase gene. In addition, a gene product from one or more of an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene, an enoyl-CoA hydratase gene, a 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene, and a 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase gene in the recombinant cells is functionally deleted. Culturing the recombinant cells produces fatty alcohols at high yields.

  4. Viral vectors for gene transfer: current status of gene therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilbronn, Regine; Weger, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Gene therapy for the correction of inherited or acquired disease has gained increasing importance in recent years. Successful treatment of children suffering from severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) was achieved using retrovirus vectors for gene transfer. Encouraging improvements of vision were reported in a genetic eye disorder (LCA) leading to early childhood blindness. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors were used for gene transfer in these trials. This chapter gives an overview of the design and delivery of viral vectors for the transport of a therapeutic gene into a target cell or tissue. The construction and production of retrovirus, lentivirus, and AAV vectors are covered. The focus is on production methods suitable for biopharmaceutical upscaling and for downstream processing. Quality control measures and biological safety considerations for the use of vectors in clinical trials are discussed.

  5. [Pathogenicity and pneumococcal capsular genes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, E; García, P; López, R

    1994-01-01

    Pneumococci remain to be one of the most prominent human pathogens. Increasing efforts are being dedicated to the development of improved vaccines with wider specificity. Since a clear understanding of the genetics of capsular types in Streptococcus pneumoniae is missing, our efforts are oriented to characterize, at the molecular level, the genes involved in capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis. We have cloned and sequenced a chromosomal DNA fragment of a clinical isolate of type 3 pneumococcus and showed that it contains a type 3 specific gene as well as genes common to other serotypes.

  6. Panspermia and horizontal gene transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klyce, Brig

    2009-08-01

    Evidence that extremophiles are hardy and ubiquitous is helping to make panspermia a respectable theory. But even if life on Earth originally came from space, biologists assume that the subsequent evolution of life is still governed by the darwinian paradigm. In this review we show how panspermia could amend darwinism and point to a cosmic source for, not only extremophiles but, all of life. This version of panspermia can be called "strong panspermia." To support this theory we will discuss recent evidence pertaining to horizontal gene transfer, viruses, genes apparently older than the Earthly evolution of the features they encode, and primate-specific genes without identifiable precursors.

  7. The Gene Ontology (GO) project in 2006

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO) project (http://www.geneontology.org) develops and uses a set of structured, controlled vocabularies for community use in annotating genes, gene products and sequences (also see http://song.sourceforge.net...

  8. The Gene Ontology project in 2008

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    The Gene Ontology (GO) project (http://www.geneontology.org/) provides a set of structured, controlled vocabularies for community use in annotating genes, gene products and sequences (also see http://www.sequenceontology.org...

  9. Integrating Gene Ontology and Blast to predict gene functions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Cheng-gang; MO Zhi-hong

    2007-01-01

    A GoBlast system was built to predict gene function by integrating Blast search and Gene Ontology (GO) annotations together. The operation system was based on Debian Linux 3.1, with Apache as the web server and Mysql database as the data storage system. FASTA files with GO annotations were taken as the sequence source for blast alignment, which were formatted by wu-formatdb program. The GoBlast system includes three Bioperl modules in Perl: a data input module, a data process module and a data output module. A GoBlast query starts with an amino acid or nucleotide sequence. It ends with an output in an html page, presenting high scoring gene products which are of a high homology to the queried sequence and listing associated GO terms beside respective gene poducts. A simple click on a GO term leads to the detailed explanation of the specific gene function. This avails gene function prediction by Blast. GoBlast can be a very useful tool for functional genome research and is available for free at http://bioq.org/goblast.

  10. Gene function prediction based on the Gene Ontology hierarchical structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liangxi; Lin, Hongfei; Hu, Yuncui; Wang, Jian; Yang, Zhihao

    2014-01-01

    The information of the Gene Ontology annotation is helpful in the explanation of life science phenomena, and can provide great support for the research of the biomedical field. The use of the Gene Ontology is gradually affecting the way people store and understand bioinformatic data. To facilitate the prediction of gene functions with the aid of text mining methods and existing resources, we transform it into a multi-label top-down classification problem and develop a method that uses the hierarchical relationships in the Gene Ontology structure to relieve the quantitative imbalance of positive and negative training samples. Meanwhile the method enhances the discriminating ability of classifiers by retaining and highlighting the key training samples. Additionally, the top-down classifier based on a tree structure takes the relationship of target classes into consideration and thus solves the incompatibility between the classification results and the Gene Ontology structure. Our experiment on the Gene Ontology annotation corpus achieves an F-value performance of 50.7% (precision: 52.7% recall: 48.9%). The experimental results demonstrate that when the size of training set is small, it can be expanded via topological propagation of associated documents between the parent and child nodes in the tree structure. The top-down classification model applies to the set of texts in an ontology structure or with a hierarchical relationship.

  11. How eukaryotic genes are transcribed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venters, Bryan J; Pugh, B Franklin

    2009-06-01

    Regulation of eukaryotic gene expression is far more complex than one might have imagined 30 years ago. However, progress towards understanding gene regulatory mechanisms has been rapid and comprehensive, which has made the integration of detailed observations into broadly connected concepts a challenge. This review attempts to integrate the following concepts: (1) a well-defined organization of nucleosomes and modification states at most genes; (2) regulatory networks of sequence-specific transcription factors; (3) chromatin remodeling coupled to promoter assembly of the general transcription factors and RNA polymerase II; and (4) phosphorylation states of RNA polymerase II coupled to chromatin modification states during transcription. The wealth of new insights arising from the tools of biochemistry, genomics, cell biology, and genetics is providing a remarkable view into the mechanics of gene regulation.

  12. Gene Variants Reduce Opioid Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold Medicines Steroids (Anabolic) Synthetic Cannabinoids (K2/Spice) Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts) Tobacco/Nicotine ... variant of the gene for the μ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) with a decreased risk for addiction to ...

  13. Gene therapy in ocular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Vijay

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy is a novel form of drug delivery that enlists the synthetic machinery of the patient′s cells to produce a therapeutic agent. Genes may be delivered into cells in vitro or in vivo utilising viral or non-viral vectors. Recent technical advances have led to the demonstration of the molecular basis of various ocular diseases. Ocular disorders with the greatest potential for benefit of gene therapy include hereditary diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa, tumours such as retinoblastoma or melanoma, and acquired proliferative and neovascular retinal disorders. Gene transfer into ocular tissues has been demonstrated with growing functional success and may develop into a new therapeutic tool for clinical ophthalmology in future.

  14. Plant gene technology: social considerations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 3 (3), pp. 156-158 ... The genetic modification of plants by gene technology is of immense potential benefits, but there may ... this modern age. ... advantages over the current rate of food production and.

  15. Genes That Influence Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influence Blood Pressure Gene Linked to Optimism and Self-Esteem Designing New Diabetes Drugs Connect with Us Subscribe to get NIH Research Matters by email RSS Feed Facebook Email us Mailing Address: NIH Research Matters Bldg. ...

  16. MADS-box gene evolution - structure and transcription patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Bo; Pedersen, Louise Buchholt; Skipper, Martin;

    2002-01-01

    Mads-box genes, ABC model, Evolution, Phylogeny, Transcription patterns, Gene structure, Conserved motifs......Mads-box genes, ABC model, Evolution, Phylogeny, Transcription patterns, Gene structure, Conserved motifs...

  17. The evolution of resistance gene in plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BEN Haiyan; LIU Xuemin; LI Lijun; LIU Li

    2007-01-01

    Resistance genes enable plants to fight against plant pathogens. Plant resistance genes (R gene) are organized complexly in genome. Some resistance gene sequence data enable an insight into R gene structure and gene evolution. Some sites like Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR) are of specific interest since homologous recombination can happen. Crossing over, transposon insertion and excision and mutation can produce new specificity. Three models explaining R gene evolution were discussed. More information needed for dissection of R gene evolution though some step can be inferred from genetic and sequence analysis.

  18. The Insect SNMP Gene Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    B 1 ( b o v ) Clade 3 - SNMPs Clade 2 Clade 1 CD36 Insect (Holometabola) CD36 Gene family Holometabola Phylogeny (11 Orders) Tribolium castaneum...melanogaster genes (see Nichols and Vogt, 2008). Bootstrap support (1000 replicates) is indicated for the major clades. B. Phylogeny of holometabolous...A. aegypti eggs were graciously provided by Mark Brown (University of Georgia, Department of Entomology) and raised on a larval diet (pond fish food

  19. Rice's Salt Tolerance Gene Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ In cooperation with US colleagues, CAS researchers have made significant progress in their studies into functional genes for key agronomic traits by cloning SKC1, a salt-tolerant functional gene of rice and making clear its biological functions and mechanisms. This pioneering work,which was reported in the Oct. issue of Nature Genetics (37:1141-1146), is believed to hold promise to increase the output of the crop plant in this country.

  20. Genes de defensa en plantas

    OpenAIRE

    Carbonero Zalduegui, Pilar; García Olmedo, Francisco

    1994-01-01

    Se revisan los avances realizados en la caracterización de los genes que codifican para ciertas familias de proteínas vegetales que son tóxicas o inhibitorias frente a insectos, hongos y bacterias. La caracterización incluye el estudio in vitro de las propiedades de las proteínas purificadas y la experimentación in vivo con plantas transgénicas que expresan los genes correspondientes.

  1. Gene mutations in hepatocellular adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raft, Marie B; Jørgensen, Ernö N; Vainer, Ben

    2015-01-01

    is associated with bi-allelic mutations in the TCF1 gene and morphologically has marked steatosis. β-catenin activating HCA has increased activity of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and is associated with possible malignant transformation. Inflammatory HCA is characterized by an oncogene-induced inflammation due....... This review offers an overview of the reported gene mutations associated with hepatocellular adenomas together with a discussion of the diagnostic and prognostic value....

  2. Diseño y realización de un emisor-receptor FH-MFSK (II)

    OpenAIRE

    Agustí Comes, Ramon

    1988-01-01

    En este artículo se describen las principales características de un emisor-receptor que utiliza una técnica de saltos de frecuencia a gran velocidad con SAW dispersivos. Se introduce un recuperador de sincronismo de salto que utiliza un control automático de probabilidad de falsa alarma para combatir la incertidumbre en el valor de la potencia de las señales interferentes recibidas. Peer Reviewed

  3. Diseño y realización de un emisor-receptor FH-MFSK (I)

    OpenAIRE

    Agustí Comes, Ramon

    1988-01-01

    En este artículo se describen las principales características de un emisor-receptor que utiliza una técnica de saltos de frecuencia a gran velocidad: con SAW dispersivos. Se introduce un recuperador de sincronismo de salto que utiliza un control automático de probabilidad de falsa alarma para combatir la incertidumbre en el valor de la potencia de las señales interferentes recibidas. Peer Reviewed

  4. 短波CHESS跳频系统的性能分析%The Performance Analysis of HF CHESS FH System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忠英; 姚富强

    2000-01-01

    以提高短波数据传输速率为主要目的的CHESS系统及技术目前受到普遍关注.先介绍了CHESS系统,对其核心技术--差分跳频的原理、相应G函数跳频图案的性能进行了研究,并对其性能进行了检验,得出了一些有益的结论.

  5. Chaotic FH sequences based on baker transform%基于Baker变换的混沌跳频序列

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘良才; 易丹

    2000-01-01

    基于Baker变换,采用一类分段线性混沌映射,提出了一种混沌跳频序列的产生方法.从理论上分析了该混沌跳频序列的平衡性,跳频间隔和最大汉明相关性,并进行了数值模拟.结果表明:理论分析与数值模拟结果一致,该序列具有良好的性能.

  6. Immunoglobulin genes of the turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magadán-Mompó, Susana; Sánchez-Espinel, Christian; Gambón-Deza, Francisco

    2013-03-01

    The availability of reptile genomes for the use of the scientific community is an exceptional opportunity to study the evolution of immunoglobulin genes. The genome of Chrysemys picta bellii and Pelodiscus sinensis is the first one that has been reported for turtles. The scanning for immunoglobulin genes resulted in the presence of a complex locus for the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH). This IGH locus in both turtles contains genes for 13 isotypes in C. picta bellii and 17 in P. sinensis. These correspond with one immunoglobulin M, one immunoglobulin D, several immunoglobulins Y (six in C. picta bellii and eight in P. sinensis), and several immunoglobulins that are similar to immunoglobulin D2 (five in C. picta belli and seven in P. sinensis) that was previously described in Eublepharis macularius. It is worthy to note that IGHD2 are placed in an inverted transcriptional orientation and present sequences for two immunoglobulin domains that are similar to bird IgA domains. Furthermore, its phylogenetic analysis allows us to consider about the presence of IGHA gene in a primitive reptile, so we would be dealing with the memory of the gene that originated from the bird IGHA. In summary, we provide a clear picture of the immunoglobulins present in a turtle, whose analysis supports the idea that turtles emerged from the evolutionary line from the differentiation of birds and the presence of the IGHA gene present in a common ancestor.

  7. Gene expression in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Christensen, Lise Lotte; Olesen, Sanne Harder

    2002-01-01

    Understanding molecular alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed to define new biomarkers and treatment targets. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to monitor gene expression of about 6,800 known genes and 35,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) on five pools (four to six samples in each p...... with a high frequency of loss of heterozygosity. The genes and ESTs presented in this study encode new potential tumor markers as well as potential novel therapeutic targets for prevention or therapy of CRC.......Understanding molecular alterations in colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed to define new biomarkers and treatment targets. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to monitor gene expression of about 6,800 known genes and 35,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) on five pools (four to six samples in each...... pool) of total RNA from left-sided sporadic colorectal carcinomas. We compared normal tissue to carcinoma tissue from Dukes' stages A-D (noninvasive to distant metastasis) and identified 908 known genes and 4,155 ESTs that changed remarkably from normal to tumor tissue. Based on intensive filtering 226...

  8. Gene Polymorphisms in Chronic Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marja L. Laine

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to conduct a review of the literature for gene polymorphisms associated with chronic periodontitis (CP susceptibility. A comprehensive search of the literature in English was performed using the keywords: periodontitis, periodontal disease, combined with the words genes, mutation, or polymorphism. Candidate gene polymorphism studies with a case-control design and reported genotype frequencies in CP patients were searched and reviewed. There is growing evidence that polymorphisms in the IL1, IL6, IL10, vitamin D receptor, and CD14 genes may be associated with CP in certain populations. However, carriage rates of the rare (-allele of any polymorphism varied considerably among studies and most of the studies appeared under-powered and did not correct for other risk factors. Larger cohorts, well-defined phenotypes, control for other risk factors, and analysis of multiple genes and polymorphisms within the same pathway are needed to get a more comprehensive insight into the contribution of gene polymorphisms in CP.

  9. Homologous gene replacement in Physarum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burland, T.G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Pallotta, D. [Laval Univ., Quebec (Canada)

    1995-01-01

    The protist Physarum polycephalum is useful for analysis of several aspects of cellular and developmental biology. To expand the opportunities for experimental analysis of this organism, we have developed a method for gene replacement. We transformed Physarum amoebae with plasmid DNA carrying a mutant allele, ardD{Delta}1, of the ardD actin gene; ardD{Delta}1 mutates the critical carboxy-terminal region of the gene product. Because ardD is not expressed in the amoeba, replacement of ardD{sup +} with ardD{Delta}1 should not be lethal for this cell type. Transformants were obtained only when linear plasmid DNA was used. Most transformants carried one copy of ardD{Delta}1 in addition to ardD{sup +}, but in two (5%), ardD{sup +} was replaced by a single copy of ardD{Delta}1. This is the first example of homologous gene replacement in Physarum. ardD{Delta}1 was stably maintained in the genome through growth, development and meiosis. We found no effect of ardD{Delta}l on viability, growth, or development of any of the various cell types of Physarum. Thus, the carboxy-terminal region of the ardD product appears not to perform a unique essential role in growth or development. Nevertheless, this method for homologous gene replacement can be applied to analyze the function of any cloned gene. 38 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Cationic Bolaamphiphiles for Gene Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Amelia Li Min; Lim, Alisa Xue Ling; Zhu, Yiting; Yang, Yi Yan; Khan, Majad

    2014-05-01

    Advances in medical research have shed light on the genetic cause of many human diseases. Gene therapy is a promising approach which can be used to deliver therapeutic genes to treat genetic diseases at its most fundamental level. In general, nonviral vectors are preferred due to reduced risk of immune response, but they are also commonly associated with low transfection efficiency and high cytotoxicity. In contrast to viral vectors, nonviral vectors do not have a natural mechanism to overcome extra- and intracellular barriers when delivering the therapeutic gene into cell. Hence, its design has been increasingly complex to meet challenges faced in targeting of, penetration of and expression in a specific host cell in achieving more satisfactory transfection efficiency. Flexibility in design of the vector is desirable, to enable a careful and controlled manipulation of its properties and functions. This can be met by the use of bolaamphiphile, a special class of lipid. Unlike conventional lipids, bolaamphiphiles can form asymmetric complexes with the therapeutic gene. The advantage of having an asymmetric complex lies in the different purposes served by the interior and exterior of the complex. More effective gene encapsulation within the interior of the complex can be achieved without triggering greater aggregation of serum proteins with the exterior, potentially overcoming one of the great hurdles faced by conventional single-head cationic lipids. In this review, we will look into the physiochemical considerations as well as the biological aspects of a bolaamphiphile-based gene delivery system.

  11. Origin and evolution of new genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin; YANG Shuang; PENG Lixin; CHEN Hong; WANG Wen

    2004-01-01

    Organisms have variable genome sizes andcontain different numbers of genes. This difference demonstrates that new gene origination is a fundamental process in evolutionary biology. Though the study of the origination of new genes dated back more than half a century ago, it is not until the 1990s when the first young genejingwei was found that empirical investigation of the molecular mechanisms of origination of new genes became possible. In the recent years,several young genes were identified and the studies on these genes have greatly enriched the knowledge of this field. Yet more details in a general picture of new genes origination are to be clarified. We have developed a systematic approach to searching for young genes at the genomic level, in the hope to summarize a general pattern of the origination and evolution of new genes, such as the rate of new gene appearance, impact of new genes on their host genomes, etc.

  12. Aphids acquired symbiotic genes via lateral gene transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakabachi Atsushi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aphids possess bacteriocytes, which are cells specifically differentiated to harbour the obligate mutualist Buchnera aphidicola (γ-Proteobacteria. Buchnera has lost many of the genes that appear to be essential for bacterial life. From the bacteriocyte of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, we previously identified two clusters of expressed sequence tags that display similarity only to bacterial genes. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that they are encoded in the aphid genome. In this study, in order to assess the possibility of lateral gene transfer, we determined the full-length sequences of these transcripts, and performed detailed structural and phylogenetic analyses. We further examined their expression levels in the bacteriocyte using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Results Sequence similarity searches demonstrated that these fully sequenced transcripts are significantly similar to the bacterial genes ldcA (product, LD-carboxypeptidase and rlpA (product, rare lipoprotein A, respectively. Buchnera lacks these genes, whereas many other bacteria, including Escherichia coli, a close relative of Buchnera, possess both ldcA and rlpA. Molecular phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that the aphid ldcA was derived from a rickettsial bacterium closely related to the extant Wolbachia spp. (α-Proteobacteria, Rickettsiales, which are intracellular symbionts of various lineages of arthropods. The evolutionary origin of rlpA was not fully resolved, but it was clearly demonstrated that its double-ψ β-barrel domain is of bacterial origin. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that ldcA and rlpA are expressed 11.6 and 154-fold higher in the bacteriocyte than in the whole body, respectively. LdcA is an enzyme required for recycling murein (peptidoglycan, which is a component of the bacterial cell wall. As Buchnera possesses a cell wall composed of murein but lacks ldcA, a high level of expression of the aphid ldcA in the

  13. Newer Gene Editing Technologies toward HIV Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Premlata Shankar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the great success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in ameliorating the course of HIV infection, alternative therapeutic approaches are being pursued because of practical problems associated with life-long therapy. The eradication of HIV in the so-called “Berlin patient” who received a bone marrow transplant from a CCR5-negative donor has rekindled interest in genome engineering strategies to achieve the same effect. Precise gene editing within the cells is now a realistic possibility with recent advances in understanding the DNA repair mechanisms, DNA interaction with transcription factors and bacterial defense mechanisms. Within the past few years, four novel technologies have emerged that can be engineered for recognition of specific DNA target sequences to enable site-specific gene editing: Homing Endonuclease, ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9 system. The most recent CRISPR/Cas9 system uses a short stretch of complementary RNA bound to Cas9 nuclease to recognize and cleave target DNA, as opposed to the previous technologies that use DNA binding motifs of either zinc finger proteins or transcription activator-like effector molecules fused to an endonuclease to mediate sequence-specific DNA cleavage. Unlike RNA interference, which requires the continued presence of effector moieties to maintain gene silencing, the newer technologies allow permanent disruption of the targeted gene after a single treatment. Here, we review the applications, limitations and future prospects of novel gene-editing strategies for use as HIV therapy.

  14. Sequencing and Gene Expression Analysis of Leishmania tropica LACK Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nour Hammoudeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania Homologue of receptors for Activated C Kinase (LACK antigen is a 36-kDa protein, which provokes a very early immune response against Leishmania infection. There are several reports on the expression of LACK through different life-cycle stages of genus Leishmania, but only a few of them have focused on L.tropica.The present study provides details of the cloning, DNA sequencing and gene expression of LACK in this parasite species. First, several local isolates of Leishmania parasites were typed in our laboratory using PCR technique to verify of Leishmania parasite species. After that, LACK gene was amplified and cloned into a vector for sequencing. Finally, the expression of this molecule in logarithmic and stationary growth phase promastigotes, as well as in amastigotes, was evaluated by Reverse Transcription-PCR (RT-PCR technique.The typing result confirmed that all our local isolates belong to L.tropica. LACK gene sequence was determined and high similarity was observed with the sequences of other Leishmania species. Furthermore, the expression of LACK gene in both promastigotes and amastigotes forms was confirmed.Overall, the data set the stage for future studies of the properties and immune role of LACK gene products.

  15. The biology of novel animal genes: Mouse APEX gene knockout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacInnes, M.; Altherr, M.R.; Ludwig, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Pedersen, R.; Mold, C. [Univ. of California, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The controlled breeding of novel genes into mice, including the gene knockout (KO), or conversely by adding back transgenes provide powerful genetic technologies that together suffice to determine in large part the biological role(s) of novel genes. Inbred mouse remains the best understood and most useful mammalian experimental system available for tackling the biology of novel genes. The major mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease (APE), is involved in a key step in the repair of spontaneous and induced AP sites in DNA. Efficient repair of these lesions is imperative to prevent the stable incorporation of mutations into the cellular genome which may lead to cell death or transformation. Loss or modulation of base excison repair activity in vivo may elevate the spontaneous mutation rate in cells, and may lead to a substantial increase in the incidence of cancer. Despite extensive biochemical analysis, however, the significance of these individual APE functions in vivo has not been elucidated. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells heterozygous for a deletion mutation in APE have been generated and whole animals containing the APE mutation have been derived from these ES cells. Animals homozygous for the APE null mutation die early in gestation, underscoring the biological significance of this DNA repair gene.

  16. Newer gene editing technologies toward HIV gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, N; Yi, Guohua; Dang, Ying; Shankar, Premlata

    2013-11-14

    Despite the great success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in ameliorating the course of HIV infection, alternative therapeutic approaches are being pursued because of practical problems associated with life-long therapy. The eradication of HIV in the so-called "Berlin patient" who received a bone marrow transplant from a CCR5-negative donor has rekindled interest in genome engineering strategies to achieve the same effect. Precise gene editing within the cells is now a realistic possibility with recent advances in understanding the DNA repair mechanisms, DNA interaction with transcription factors and bacterial defense mechanisms. Within the past few years, four novel technologies have emerged that can be engineered for recognition of specific DNA target sequences to enable site-specific gene editing: Homing Endonuclease, ZFN, TALEN, and CRISPR/Cas9 system. The most recent CRISPR/Cas9 system uses a short stretch of complementary RNA bound to Cas9 nuclease to recognize and cleave target DNA, as opposed to the previous technologies that use DNA binding motifs of either zinc finger proteins or transcription activator-like effector molecules fused to an endonuclease to mediate sequence-specific DNA cleavage. Unlike RNA interference, which requires the continued presence of effector moieties to maintain gene silencing, the newer technologies allow permanent disruption of the targeted gene after a single treatment. Here, we review the applications, limitations and future prospects of novel gene-editing strategies for use as HIV therapy.

  17. [Developments in gene delivery vectors for ocular gene therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabou, Hanen; Dalkara, Deniz

    2015-05-01

    Gene therapy is quickly becoming a reality applicable in the clinic for inherited retinal diseases. Its remarkable success in safety and efficacy, in clinical trials for Leber's congenital amaurosis (LCA) type II generated significant interest and opened up possibilities for a new era of retinal gene therapies. Success in these clinical trials was mainly due to the favorable characteristics of the retina as a target organ. The eye offers several advantages as it is readily accessible and has some degree of immune privilege making it suitable for application of viral vectors. The viral vectors most frequently used for retinal gene delivery are lentivirus, adenovirus and adeno-associated virus (AAV). Here we will discuss the use of these viral vectors in retinal gene delivery with a strong focus on favorable properties of AAV. Thanks to its small size, AAV diffuses well in the inter-neural matrix making it suitable for applications in neural retina. Building on this initial clinical success with LCA II, we have now many opportunities to extend this proof-of-concept to other retinal diseases using AAV as a vector. This article will discuss what are some of the most imminent cellular targets for such therapies and the AAV toolkit that has been built to target these cells successfully. We will also discuss some of the challenges that we face in translating AAV-based gene therapies to the clinic. © 2015 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  18. Reduced rates of gene loss, gene silencing, and gene mutation in Dnmt1-deficient embryonic stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, M.F.; van Amerongen, R.; Nijjar, T.; Cuppen, E.; Jones, P.A.; Laird, P.W.

    2001-01-01

    Tumor suppressor gene inactivation is a crucial event in oncogenesis. Gene inactivation mechanisms include events resulting in loss of heterozygosity (LOH), gene mutation, and transcriptional silencing. The contribution of each of these different pathways varies among tumor suppressor genes and by c

  19. Characterizing gene-gene interactions in a statistical epistasis network of twelve candidate genes for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Rishika; Hu, Ting; Moore, Jason H; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings have reemphasized the importance of epistasis, or gene-gene interactions, as a contributing factor to the unexplained heritability of obesity. Network-based methods such as statistical epistasis networks (SEN), present an intuitive framework to address the computational challenge of studying pairwise interactions between thousands of genetic variants. In this study, we aimed to analyze pairwise interactions that are associated with Body Mass Index (BMI) between SNPs from twelve genes robustly associated with obesity (BDNF, ETV5, FAIM2, FTO, GNPDA2, KCTD15, MC4R, MTCH2, NEGR1, SEC16B, SH2B1, and TMEM18). We used information gain measures to identify all SNP-SNP interactions among and between these genes that were related to obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m(2)) within the Framingham Heart Study Cohort; interactions exceeding a certain threshold were used to build an SEN. We also quantified whether interactions tend to occur more between SNPs from the same gene (dyadicity) or between SNPs from different genes (heterophilicity). We identified a highly connected SEN of 709 SNPs and 1241 SNP-SNP interactions. Combining the SEN framework with dyadicity and heterophilicity analyses, we found 1 dyadic gene (TMEM18, P-value = 0.047) and 3 heterophilic genes (KCTD15, P-value = 0.045; SH2B1, P-value = 0.003; and TMEM18, P-value = 0.001). We also identified a lncRNA SNP (rs4358154) as a key node within the SEN using multiple network measures. This study presents an analytical framework to characterize the global landscape of genetic interactions from genome-wide arrays and also to discover nodes of potential biological significance within the identified network.

  20. Combining Hierarchical and Associative Gene Ontology Relations with Textual Evidence in Estimating Gene and Gene Product Similarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Posse, Christian; Gopalan, Banu; Riensche, Roderick M.; Beagley, Nathaniel; Baddeley, Bob L.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2007-03-01

    Gene and gene product similarity is a fundamental diagnostic measure in analyzing biological data and constructing predictive models for functional genomics. With the rising influence of the Gene Ontology, two complementary approaches have emerged where the similarity between two genes or gene products is obtained by comparing Gene Ontology (GO) annotations associated with the genes or gene products. One approach captures GO-based similarity in terms of hierarchical relations within each gene subontology. The other approach identifies GO-based similarity in terms of associative relations across the three gene subontologies. We propose a novel methodology where the two approaches can be merged with ensuing benefits in coverage and accuracy, and demonstrate that further improvements can be obtained by integrating textual evidence extracted from relevant biomedical literature.

  1. Gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle after gene electrotransfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Zibert, John R; Gissel, Hanne;

    2007-01-01

    with the control muscles. Most interestingly, no changes in the expression of proteins involved in inflammatory responses or muscle regeneration was detected, indicating limited muscle damage and regeneration. Histological analysis revealed structural changes with loss of cell integrity and striation pattern......BACKGROUND: Gene transfer by electroporation (DNA electrotransfer) to muscle results in high level long term transgenic expression, showing great promise for treatment of e.g. protein deficiency syndromes. However little is known about the effects of DNA electrotransfer on muscle fibres. We have......) followed by a long low voltage pulse (LV, 100 V/cm, 400 ms); a pulse combination optimised for efficient and safe gene transfer. Muscles were transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and excised at 4 hours, 48 hours or 3 weeks after treatment. RESULTS: Differentially expressed genes were...

  2. Imaging reporter gene for monitoring gene therapy; Imagerie par gene rapporteur: un atout pour la therapie genique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beco, V. de; Baillet, G.; Tamgac, F.; Tofighi, M.; Weinmann, P.; Vergote, J.; Moretti, J.L. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Avicenne, Service Central de Medecine Nucleaire et Biophysique, UPRES 2360, 93 - Bobigny (France); Tamgac, G. [Univetsite d' Uludag, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Bursa (Turkey)

    2002-06-01

    Scintigraphic images can be obtained to document gene function at cellular level. This approach is presented here and the use of a reporter gene to monitor gene therapy is described. Two main ways are presented: either the use of a reporter gene coding for an enzyme the action of which will be monitored by radiolabeled pro-drug, or a cellular receptor gene, the action of which is documented by a radio labeled cognate receptor ligand. (author)

  3. COGNATE: comparative gene annotation characterizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbrandt, Jeanne; Misof, Bernhard; Niehuis, Oliver

    2017-07-17

    The comparison of gene and genome structures across species has the potential to reveal major trends of genome evolution. However, such a comparative approach is currently hampered by a lack of standardization (e.g., Elliott TA, Gregory TR, Philos Trans Royal Soc B: Biol Sci 370:20140331, 2015). For example, testing the hypothesis that the total amount of coding sequences is a reliable measure of potential proteome diversity (Wang M, Kurland CG, Caetano-Anollés G, PNAS 108:11954, 2011) requires the application of standardized definitions of coding sequence and genes to create both comparable and comprehensive data sets and corresponding summary statistics. However, such standard definitions either do not exist or are not consistently applied. These circumstances call for a standard at the descriptive level using a minimum of parameters as well as an undeviating use of standardized terms, and for software that infers the required data under these strict definitions. The acquisition of a comprehensive, descriptive, and standardized set of parameters and summary statistics for genome publications and further analyses can thus greatly benefit from the availability of an easy to use standard tool. We developed a new open-source command-line tool, COGNATE (Comparative Gene Annotation Characterizer), which uses a given genome assembly and its annotation of protein-coding genes for a detailed description of the respective gene and genome structure parameters. Additionally, we revised the standard definitions of gene and genome structures and provide the definitions used by COGNATE as a working draft suggestion for further reference. Complete parameter lists and summary statistics are inferred using this set of definitions to allow down-stream analyses and to provide an overview of the genome and gene repertoire characteristics. COGNATE is written in Perl and freely available at the ZFMK homepage ( https://www.zfmk.de/en/COGNATE ) and on github ( https

  4. Analysis of Duplicate Genes in Soybean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.M. Cai; K.J. Van; M.Y. Kim; S.H. Lee

    2007-01-01

    @@ Gene duplication is a major determinant of the size and gene complement of eukaryotic genomes (Lockton and Gaut, 2005). There are a number of different ways in which duplicate genes can arise (Sankoff, 2001), but the most spectacular method of gene duplication may be whole genome duplication via polyploidization.

  5. Synthetic promoter libraries- tuning of gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Karin; Mijakovic, Ivan; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2006-01-01

    The study of gene function often requires changing the expression of a gene and evaluating the consequences. In principle, the expression of any given gene can be modulated in a quasi-continuum of discrete expression levels but the traditional approaches are usually limited to two extremes: gene ...

  6. Deregulated genes in sporadic vestibular schwannomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Helweg-Larsen, Rehannah Holga Andrea; Stangerup, Sven-Eric;

    2010-01-01

    In search of genes associated with vestibular schwannoma tumorigenesis, this study examines the gene expression in human vestibular nerve versus vestibular schwannoma tissue samples using microarray technology.......In search of genes associated with vestibular schwannoma tumorigenesis, this study examines the gene expression in human vestibular nerve versus vestibular schwannoma tissue samples using microarray technology....

  7. Deregulated genes in sporadic vestibular schwannomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Helweg-Larsen, Rehannah Holga Andrea; Stangerup, Sven-Eric

    2010-01-01

    In search of genes associated with vestibular schwannoma tumorigenesis, this study examines the gene expression in human vestibular nerve versus vestibular schwannoma tissue samples using microarray technology.......In search of genes associated with vestibular schwannoma tumorigenesis, this study examines the gene expression in human vestibular nerve versus vestibular schwannoma tissue samples using microarray technology....

  8. Gene Therapy Applications in Gastroenterology and Hepatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine H Wu

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Advantages and disadvantages of viral vectors and nonviral vectors for gene delivery to digestive organs are reviewed. Advances in systems for the introduction of new gene expression are described, including self-deleting retroviral transfer vectors, chimeric viruses and chimeric oligonucleotides. Systems for inhibition of gene expression are discussed, including antisense oligonucleotides, ribozymes and dominant-negative genes.

  9. Using GenePattern for Gene Expression Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Heidi; Liberzon, Arthur; Reich, Michael; Mesirov, Jill P.

    2013-01-01

    The abundance of genomic data now available in biomedical research has stimulated the development of sophisticated statistical methods for interpreting the data, and of special visualization tools for displaying the results in a concise and meaningful manner. However, biologists often find these methods and tools difficult to understand and use correctly. GenePattern is a freely available software package that addresses this issue by providing more than 100 analysis and visualization tools for genomic research in a comprehensive user-friendly environment for users at all levels of computational experience and sophistication. This unit demonstrates how to prepare and analyze microarray data in GenePattern. PMID:18551415

  10. The KCNE genes in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a candidate gene study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedley, Paula L; Haundrup, Ole; Andersen, Paal S

    2011-01-01

    The gene family KCNE1-5, which encode modulating β-subunits of several repolarising K+-ion channels, has been associated with genetic cardiac diseases such as long QT syndrome, atrial fibrillation and Brugada syndrome. The minK peptide, encoded by KCNE1, is attached to the Z-disc of the sarcomere...... as well as the T-tubules of the sarcolemma. It has been suggested that minK forms part of an "electro-mechanical feed-back" which links cardiomyocyte stretching to changes in ion channel function. We examined whether mutations in KCNE genes were associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), a genetic...

  11. Gene replacement in Penicillium roqueforti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goarin, Anne; Silar, Philippe; Malagnac, Fabienne

    2015-05-01

    Most cheese-making filamentous fungi lack suitable molecular tools to improve their biotechnology potential. Penicillium roqueforti, a species of high industrial importance, would benefit from functional data yielded by molecular genetic approaches. This work provides the first example of gene replacement by homologous recombination in P. roqueforti, demonstrating that knockout experiments can be performed in this fungus. To do so, we improved the existing transformation method to integrate transgenes into P. roqueforti genome. In the meantime, we cloned the PrNiaD gene, which encodes a NADPH-dependent nitrate reductase that reduces nitrate to nitrite. Then, we performed a deletion of the PrNiaD gene from P. roqueforti strain AGO. The ΔPrNiaD mutant strain is more resistant to chlorate-containing medium than the wild-type strain, but did not grow on nitrate-containing medium. Because genomic data are now available, we believe that generating selective deletions of candidate genes will be a key step to open the way for a comprehensive exploration of gene function in P. roqueforti.

  12. Gene Ontology Consortium: going forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO; http://www.geneontology.org) is a community-based bioinformatics resource that supplies information about gene product function using ontologies to represent biological knowledge. Here we describe improvements and expansions to several branches of the ontology, as well as updates that have allowed us to more efficiently disseminate the GO and capture feedback from the research community. The Gene Ontology Consortium (GOC) has expanded areas of the ontology such as cilia-related terms, cell-cycle terms and multicellular organism processes. We have also implemented new tools for generating ontology terms based on a set of logical rules making use of templates, and we have made efforts to increase our use of logical definitions. The GOC has a new and improved web site summarizing new developments and documentation, serving as a portal to GO data. Users can perform GO enrichment analysis, and search the GO for terms, annotations to gene products, and associated metadata across multiple species using the all-new AmiGO 2 browser. We encourage and welcome the input of the research community in all biological areas in our continued effort to improve the Gene Ontology. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  13. Gene Ontology Consortium: going forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO; http://www.geneontology.org) is a community-based bioinformatics resource that supplies information about gene product function using ontologies to represent biological knowledge. Here we describe improvements and expansions to several branches of the ontology, as well as updates that have allowed us to more efficiently disseminate the GO and capture feedback from the research community. The Gene Ontology Consortium (GOC) has expanded areas of the ontology such as cilia-related terms, cell-cycle terms and multicellular organism processes. We have also implemented new tools for generating ontology terms based on a set of logical rules making use of templates, and we have made efforts to increase our use of logical definitions. The GOC has a new and improved web site summarizing new developments and documentation, serving as a portal to GO data. Users can perform GO enrichment analysis, and search the GO for terms, annotations to gene products, and associated metadata across multiple species using the all-new AmiGO 2 browser. We encourage and welcome the input of the research community in all biological areas in our continued effort to improve the Gene Ontology. PMID:25428369

  14. Clock Genes in Glia Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi-Castañeda, Donají

    2016-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are periodic patterns in biological processes that allow the organisms to anticipate changes in the environment. These rhythms are driven by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian clock in vertebrates. At a molecular level, circadian rhythms are regulated by the so-called clock genes, which oscillate in a periodic manner. The protein products of clock genes are transcription factors that control their own and other genes’ transcription, collectively known as “clock-controlled genes.” Several brain regions other than the SCN express circadian rhythms of clock genes, including the amygdala, the olfactory bulb, the retina, and the cerebellum. Glia cells in these structures are expected to participate in rhythmicity. However, only certain types of glia cells may be called “glial clocks,” since they express PER-based circadian oscillators, which depend of the SCN for their synchronization. This contribution summarizes the current information about clock genes in glia cells, their plausible role as oscillators and their medical implications. PMID:27666286

  15. Melatonin Receptor Genes in Vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Dong Yin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR family. Three genes for melatonin receptors have been cloned. The MT1 (or Mel1a or MTNR1A and MT2 (or Mel1b or MTNR1B receptor subtypes are present in humans and other mammals, while an additional melatonin receptor subtype, Mel1c (or MTNR1C, has been identified in fish, amphibians and birds. Another melatonin related orphan receptor, GPR50, which does not bind melatonin, is found exclusively in mammals. The hormone melatonin is secreted primarily by the pineal gland, with highest levels occurring during the dark period of a circadian cycle. This hormone acts systemically in numerous organs. In the brain, it is involved in the regulation of various neural and endocrine processes, and it readjusts the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. This article reviews recent studies of gene organization, expression, evolution and mutations of melatonin receptor genes of vertebrates. Gene polymorphisms reveal that numerous mutations are associated with diseases and disorders. The phylogenetic analysis of receptor genes indicates that GPR50 is an outgroup to all other melatonin receptor sequences. GPR50 may have separated from a melatonin receptor ancestor before the split between MTNR1C and the MTNR1A/B ancestor.

  16. An encyclopedia of mouse genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, M; Hillier, L; Kucaba, T; Allen, M; Barstead, R; Beck, C; Blistain, A; Bonaldo, M; Bowers, Y; Bowles, L; Cardenas, M; Chamberlain, A; Chappell, J; Clifton, S; Favello, A; Geisel, S; Gibbons, M; Harvey, N; Hill, F; Jackson, Y; Kohn, S; Lennon, G; Mardis, E; Martin, J; Mila, L; McCann, R; Morales, R; Pape, D; Person, B; Prange, C; Ritter, E; Soares, M; Schurk, R; Shin, T; Steptoe, M; Swaller, T; Theising, B; Underwood, K; Wylie, T; Yount, T; Wilson, R; Waterston, R

    1999-02-01

    The laboratory mouse is the premier model system for studies of mammalian development due to the powerful classical genetic analysis possible (see also the Jackson Laboratory web site, http://www.jax.org/) and the ever-expanding collection of molecular tools. To enhance the utility of the mouse system, we initiated a program to generate a large database of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) that can provide rapid access to genes. Of particular significance was the possibility that cDNA libraries could be prepared from very early stages of development, a situation unrealized in human EST projects. We report here the development of a comprehensive database of ESTs for the mouse. The project, initiated in March 1996, has focused on 5' end sequences from directionally cloned, oligo-dT primed cDNA libraries. As of 23 October 1998, 352,040 sequences had been generated, annotated and deposited in dbEST, where they comprised 93% of the total ESTs available for mouse. EST data are versatile and have been applied to gene identification, comparative sequence analysis, comparative gene mapping and candidate disease gene identification, genome sequence annotation, microarray development and the development of gene-based map resources.

  17. Molecular Studies on Preproinsulin Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabir Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin plays an important role in maintaining the blood glucose level of the body. The β-cells of pancreas produce insulin in the form of precursor that is preproinsulin. The gene of preproinsulin provides an interesting system for addressing question related to molecular evolution. Recombinant DNA technology has made it possible to isolate and sequence the chromosomal genes coding for unique protein products. Although preproinsulin of various organism has been isolated and cloned, but there is no report from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis that is our major livestock. The genomic DNA of buffalo was isolated using Laura-Lee-Boodram method. The part of preproinsulin gene (596bp and 520bp using BPPI-UPS and bpiful_F as forward and BC1-C as reverse primer was amplified. Cloning of amplified fragments of gene were performed in pCR 2.1 vector. Positive clones were screened on the basis of blue white selection. The band obtained on 596bp and 520bp after colony PCR confirmed the successful cloning of preproinsulin gene in pCR 2.1 vector.

  18. Emerging LDL therapies: Mipomersen-antisense oligonucleotide therapy in the management of hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Peter P

    2013-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is characterized by severe elevations in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and poses considerable treatment challenges. Substantive LDL-C reductions are difficult to achieve with standard therapies, and many patients with FH do not tolerate currently available lipid-lowering medications. Mipomersen is an antisense oligonucleotide injectable drug that was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of homozygous FH. It is complementary in sequence to a segment of the human apolipoprotein (Apo) B-100 messenger RNA and specifically binds to it, blocking translation of the gene product. Reducing the production of Apo B-100 reduces hepatic production of very low-density lipoprotein, consequently decreasing circulating levels of atherogenic very low-density lipoprotein remnants, intermediate-density lipoproteins, LDL, and lipoprotein(a) particles. Results from a pivotal trial conducted in patients with homozygous FH, and supporting trials in patients with heterozygous FH with coronary artery disease (CAD) (LDL-C ≥ 100 mg/dL, triglycerides 100 mg/dL in homozygous FH and severe hypercholesterolemia populations. The main on-treatment adverse events were mild-to-moderate injection site reactions and flu-like symptoms. Available data regarding the efficacy, safety and tolerability of mipomersen, including results at up to 104 weeks of therapy, support the use of mipomersen for the treatment of FH. Copyright © 2013 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 6th Hellenic Congress in Athens, of the Hellenic Atherosclerosis Society, on the 04-06 December 2014 Novel Pharmacologic Treatments of Familial Hypercholesterolaemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athyros, VG

    2015-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is the most common inherited monogenic lipid disorder. It is caused by mutations of genes related to low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors, apolipoprotein B or proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). Homozygous FH (HoFH; 1/400,000 births) is treated by LDL apheresis. Recently lomitapide has been used for the treatment of HoFH as a monotherapy or in addition to LDL apheresis. Heterozygous FH (HeFH), 1/250-1/200 births, is associated with an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The main treatment for HeFH has been high doses of high intensity statins plus ezetimibe. However, this is not usually enough to attain LDL-C targets, especially in those with overt CVD or equivalents (LDL-C goal ofevolocumab and alirocumab). These antibodies have been shown in phase II and III trials to be safe and to produce reductions in LDL-C levels by around 60% either as monotherapy or on top of optimal therapy with statins and ezetimibe. These antibodies are administered subcutaneously every 2 weeks with an automatic device. Anti-PCSK9 antibodies are expected to be licensed soon (? in 2015) and are considered by many as “the statins of the 21st century”. PMID:26664657

  20. Comparative genomic analysis of eutherian kallikrein genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Premzl

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study made attempts to update and revise eutherian kallikrein genes implicated in major physiological and pathological processes and in medical molecular diagnostics. Using eutherian comparative genomic analysis protocol and free available genomic sequence assemblies, the tests of reliability of eutherian public genomic sequences annotated most comprehensive curated third party data gene data set of eutherian kallikrein genes including 121 complete coding sequences among 335 potential coding sequences. The present analysis first described 13 major gene clusters of eutherian kallikrein genes, and explained their differential gene expansion patterns. One updated classification and nomenclature of eutherian kallikrein genes was proposed, as new framework of future experiments.