WorldWideScience

Sample records for hydrangea plant named

  1. Anti-malarial activity of leaf-extract of hydrangea macrophylla, a common Japanese plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamei K

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available To find a new anti-malarial medicine derived from natural resources, we examined the leaves of 13 common Japanese plants in vitro. Among them, a leaf-extract of Hydrangea macrophylla, a common Japanese flower, inhibited the parasitic growth of Plasmodium falciparum. The IC50 of Hydrangea macrophylla leaf extract to Plasmodium falciparum was 0.18 microg/ml. The IC50 to NIH 3T3-3 cells, from a normal mouse cell line, was 7.2 microg/ml. Thus, selective toxicity was 40. For the in vivo test, we inoculated Plasmodium berghei, a rodent malaria parasite, to ddY mice and administered the leaf-extract of Hydrangea macrophylla (3.6 mg/0.2 ml orally 3 times a day for 3 days. Malaria parasites did not appear in the blood of in the treated mice, but they did appear in the control group on day 3 or 4 after inoculation with the parasites. When leaf extract was administered to 5 mice 2 times a day for 3 days, malaria parasites did not appear in 4 of the mice but did appear in 1 mouse. In addition, the leaf-extract was administered orally 3 times a day for 3 days to Plasmodium berghei infected mice with a parasitemia of 2.7%. In the latter group, malaria parasites disappeared on day 3 after initiating the treatment, but they appeared again after day 5 or 6. Although we could not cure the mice entirely, we confirmed that the Hydrangea macrophylla leaf extract did contain an anti-malarial substance that can be administered orally.

  2. On Plant Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colton, Ronald W.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the scientific and common names of numerous plants and the satisfaction children derive from mastering them. Includes drawings which illustrate the connections between plant structures and their names. (MA)

  3. The names of plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gledhill, D

    2008-01-01

    ... of Plant Names, this book is in two parts. The first part has been written as an account of the way in which the naming of plants has changed with time and why the changes were necessary. It has not been the writer's intention to dwell upon the more fascinating aspects of common names but rather to progress from these to the situation which exists to...

  4. Willow plant name 'Preble'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2014-06-10

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.(Salix sachalinensis.times.Salix miyabeana) named `Preble`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing 29% more woody biomass than the average of three current production cultivars (Salix.times.dasyclados `SV1` (unpatented), Salix sachalinensis `SX61` (unpatented), and Salix miyabeana `SX64` (unpatented)) when grown in the same field for the same length of time (three growing seasons after coppice) in two different trials in Constableville, N.Y. and Middlebury, Vt. `Preble` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested repeatedly after two to four years of growth. `Preble` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  5. Plant names and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter updates one of the same title from Edition 12 of Stearn’s Introductory Biology published in 2011. It reviews binomial nomenclature, discusses three codes of plant nomenclature (the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants...

  6. [Chemical constituents from Hydrangea paniculata].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jing; Yang, Jingzhi; Li, Chuangjun; Zhang, Dongming

    2010-11-01

    In order to study the chemical constituents of the plant of Hydrangea paniculata and provide reference for the study of the bioactive substances, we isolated nine compounds from the dried branches of H. paniculata. Their structures were determined by application of spectroscopic (NMR, MS) and chemical methods. These compounds were identified as skimmin (1), isotachioside (2), 8-methoxy-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy coumarin glycoside (3), scopolin (4), 1-(alpha-L-rhamnosyl-(1 --> 6) -O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy) - 3, 4, 5-trimethoxybenzene (5), apiosylskimmin (6), umbelliferone (7), scopoletin (8), 7-hydroxy-8-methoxycoumarin (9). Compounds 1 - 7 were isolated from H. paniculata for the first time.

  7. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie

  8. A new flavonol glycoside from Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Seringe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei

    2010-01-01

    A new kaempferol glycoside, named kaempferol 3-O-[6"-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-6'"-O-α-L-rhamnopy ranosyl-2""-O-α-L-rharnnopyranosyl]-β-D-glucopyranoside, was isolated from Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb.) Seringe. Its structure was established by spectroscopic techniques including MS, IR, UV, and 2D NMR.

  9. Index to scientific plant names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis-Kruseman, van M.J.

    1955-01-01

    Families and higher taxa have been entered under their name. Suprageneric epithets have been entered under the family name to which they belong preceded by the indication of their rank (tribes, e.g.).

  10. Index to scientific plant names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1993-01-01

    Suprageneric epithets have been entered under the family name to which they belong preceded by the indication of their rank (subfamily, tribe, etc.). Infrageneric epithets have been entered immediately under the generic name to which they belong, preceeded by the indication of their rank (subgenus,

  11. Index to scientific plant names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1996-01-01

    Suprageneric epithets have been entered under the family name to which they belong preceded by the indication of their rank (subfamily, tribe, etc.)- Infrageneric epithets have been entered immediately under the generic name to which they belong, preceded by the indication of their rank (subgenus, s

  12. Index to scientific plant names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis-Kruseman, van M.J.

    1948-01-01

    Suprageneric epiphels have been entered under the family name to which they belong preceded by the indication of their rank (tribes, e.g.). Supraspecific epithets have been entered under the generic name to which they belong preceded by the indication of their rank (sections, series).

  13. Index to scientific plant names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1997-01-01

    Suprageneric epithets have been entered under the family name to which they belong preceded by the indication of their rank (subfamily, tribe, etc.). Infrageneric epithets have been entered immediately under the generic name to which they belong, preceded by the indication of their rank (subgenus, s

  14. Plants and geographical names in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargonja, Hrvoje; Daković, Branko; Alegro, Antun

    2008-09-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to present some general observations, regularities and insights into a complex relationship between plants and people through symbolic systems like geographical names on the territory of Croatia. The basic sources of data for this research were maps from atlas of Croatia of the scale 1:100000. Five groups of maps or areas were selected in order to represent main Croatian phytogeographic regions. A selection of toponyms from each of the map was made in which the name for a plant in Croatian language was recognized (phytotoponyms). Results showed that of all plant names recognized in geographical names the most represented are trees, and among them birch and oak the most. Furthermore, an attempt was made to explain the presence of the most represented plant species in the phytotoponyms in the light of general phytogeographical and sociocultural differences and similarities of comparing areas. The findings confirm an expectation that the genera of climazonal vegetation of particular area are the most represented among the phytotoponyms. Nevertheless, there are ample examples where representation of a plant name in the names of human environment can only be ascribed to ethno-linguistic and socio-cultural motives. Despite the reductionist character of applied methodology, this research also points out some advantages of this approach for ethnobotanic and ethnolinguistic studies of greater areas of human environment.

  15. Global Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Distinct Aluminum-Tolerance Pathways in the Al-Accumulating Species Hydrangea macrophylla and Marker Identification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Chen

    Full Text Available Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla is a well known Al-accumulating plant, showing a high level of aluminum (Al tolerance and accumulation. Although the physiological mechanisms for detoxification of Al and the roles of Al in blue hydrangea sepals have been reported, the molecular mechanisms of Al tolerance and accumulation are poorly understood in hydrangea. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide transcriptome analysis of Al-response genes in the roots and leaves of hydrangea by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq. The assembly of hydrangea transcriptome provides a rich source for gene identification and mining molecular markers, including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and simple sequence repeat (SSR. A total of 401,215 transcripts with an average length of 810.77 bp were assembled, generating 256,127 unigenes. After annotation, 4,287 genes in the roots and 730 genes in the leaves were up-regulated by Al exposure, while 236 genes in the roots and 719 genes in the leaves were down-regulated, respectively. Many transporters, including MATE and ABC families, were involved in the process of Al-citrate complex transporting from the roots in hydrangea. A plasma membrane Al uptake transporter, Nramp aluminum transporter was up-regulated in roots and leaves under Al stress, indicating it may play an important role in Al tolerance by reducing the level of toxic Al. Although the exact roles of these candidate genes remain to be examined, these results provide a platform for further functional analysis of the process of detoxification of Al in hydrangea.

  16. Willow plant name 'Preble'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2014-06-10

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.(Salix sachalinensis.times.Salix miyabeana) named `Preble`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing 29% more woody biomass than the average of three current production cultivars (Salix.times.dasyclados `SV1` (unpatented), Salix sachalinensis `SX61` (unpatented), and Salix miyabeana `SX64` (unpatented)) when grown in the same field for the same length of time (three growing seasons after coppice) in two different trials in Constableville, N.Y. and Middlebury, Vt. `Preble` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested repeatedly after two to four years of growth. `Preble` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  17. [Proposal for standardized authors' name citing in original plant Latin name listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Min-Jian; Tian, Mei

    2014-05-01

    In 2010, Chinese Pharmacopoeia Committee officially enacted Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition). The Volume 1 of the pharmacopoeia is comprised of the medicinal materials and the decoction pieces, the essential oils and extracts of medicinal plants, prescription preparations and single preparation, etc., which not only provides Latin names of Chinese medicinal materials, also provided Latin names of the original medicinal plants to effectively control the quality of Chinese medicinal materials. In order to raise awareness of correctly citation and maintain the authority and standardization of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, this paper briefly describes abbreviations rules of authors' name of plant scientific name according to the 'International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, ICBN'. Through comparing with the rules of ICBN, 'Flora of China' (Chinese edition and English edition), and authority international plant catalogue databases, the authors made statistic and analysis of the non-standard cited authors' names phenomena of the original plant scientific names recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition), and the revision suggestions are proposed.

  18. Solving the Mystery of Plant Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardiney, Robert

    1986-01-01

    Details how the study of wildflower names provides clues to their history, use, or appearance and ties in with other disciplines such as religion, linguistics, medicine, and history. Cites seven references. (NEC)

  19. The taxonomic name resolution service: an online tool for automated standardization of plant names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyle Brad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The digitization of biodiversity data is leading to the widespread application of taxon names that are superfluous, ambiguous or incorrect, resulting in mismatched records and inflated species numbers. The ultimate consequences of misspelled names and bad taxonomy are erroneous scientific conclusions and faulty policy decisions. The lack of tools for correcting this ‘names problem’ has become a fundamental obstacle to integrating disparate data sources and advancing the progress of biodiversity science. Results The TNRS, or Taxonomic Name Resolution Service, is an online application for automated and user-supervised standardization of plant scientific names. The TNRS builds upon and extends existing open-source applications for name parsing and fuzzy matching. Names are standardized against multiple reference taxonomies, including the Missouri Botanical Garden's Tropicos database. Capable of processing thousands of names in a single operation, the TNRS parses and corrects misspelled names and authorities, standardizes variant spellings, and converts nomenclatural synonyms to accepted names. Family names can be included to increase match accuracy and resolve many types of homonyms. Partial matching of higher taxa combined with extraction of annotations, accession numbers and morphospecies allows the TNRS to standardize taxonomy across a broad range of active and legacy datasets. Conclusions We show how the TNRS can resolve many forms of taxonomic semantic heterogeneity, correct spelling errors and eliminate spurious names. As a result, the TNRS can aid the integration of disparate biological datasets. Although the TNRS was developed to aid in standardizing plant names, its underlying algorithms and design can be extended to all organisms and nomenclatural codes. The TNRS is accessible via a web interface at http://tnrs.iplantcollaborative.org/ and as a RESTful web service and application programming interface. Source code

  20. The taxonomic name resolution service: an online tool for automated standardization of plant names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Brad; Hopkins, Nicole; Lu, Zhenyuan; Raygoza Garay, Juan Antonio; Mozzherin, Dmitry; Rees, Tony; Matasci, Naim; Narro, Martha L; Piel, William H; McKay, Sheldon J; Lowry, Sonya; Freeland, Chris; Peet, Robert K; Enquist, Brian J

    2013-01-16

    The digitization of biodiversity data is leading to the widespread application of taxon names that are superfluous, ambiguous or incorrect, resulting in mismatched records and inflated species numbers. The ultimate consequences of misspelled names and bad taxonomy are erroneous scientific conclusions and faulty policy decisions. The lack of tools for correcting this 'names problem' has become a fundamental obstacle to integrating disparate data sources and advancing the progress of biodiversity science. The TNRS, or Taxonomic Name Resolution Service, is an online application for automated and user-supervised standardization of plant scientific names. The TNRS builds upon and extends existing open-source applications for name parsing and fuzzy matching. Names are standardized against multiple reference taxonomies, including the Missouri Botanical Garden's Tropicos database. Capable of processing thousands of names in a single operation, the TNRS parses and corrects misspelled names and authorities, standardizes variant spellings, and converts nomenclatural synonyms to accepted names. Family names can be included to increase match accuracy and resolve many types of homonyms. Partial matching of higher taxa combined with extraction of annotations, accession numbers and morphospecies allows the TNRS to standardize taxonomy across a broad range of active and legacy datasets. We show how the TNRS can resolve many forms of taxonomic semantic heterogeneity, correct spelling errors and eliminate spurious names. As a result, the TNRS can aid the integration of disparate biological datasets. Although the TNRS was developed to aid in standardizing plant names, its underlying algorithms and design can be extended to all organisms and nomenclatural codes. The TNRS is accessible via a web interface at http://tnrs.iplantcollaborative.org/ and as a RESTful web service and application programming interface. Source code is available at https://github.com/iPlantCollaborativeOpenSource/TNRS/.

  1. Effect of nitrogen rate and irrigation frequency on plant growth and nutrient uptake of container-grown Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Merritt’s Supreme’

    Science.gov (United States)

    The production of high quality container-grown nursery plants requires adequate but not excessive nutrients and water during production. Given the knowledge that N is the most important nutrient element for plant growth and that it is often the limiting factor, nursery growers tend to apply high lev...

  2. What every chemist should know about plant names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, Roy Hubertus Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Chemists screen plants for their constituents on a daily basis, and the data gathered is of importance to a wide range of fields such as medicine, evolutionary biology and ecology. However, the use of this data is sometimes impeded by incorrect citation of the species names. In this Viewpoint, I explain why chemists should be aware of the essentials of plant naming, and describe some easy quality checks that can be performed to avoid errors being perpetuated.

  3. Anthroponyms in Finno-Permic Compound Plant Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Brodsky

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With reference to Finno-Permic languages (a branch of Finno-Ugric languages excluding Ugric languages, the article analyses compound names of plants (phytonyms containing Permic languages, which, inter alia, can be explained by the incompleteness of collected data. Most of phytonyms with anthroponymic elements are attested in the Finnish and Estonian languages, while in the other Finno-Permic languages such attestations are rare. The anthroponyms appearing in names of plants are divided into two groups: a personal names of Biblical origin (e.g. Finnish Aapraham, Aatam, Jeesus, Maaria, b other anthroponyms. In the first group, the most numerous are Balto-Fennic phytonyms with the names Johannes and Maria and their national variants. The name Johannes (Finnish Juhannus, Estonian Jaan is most often present in the names of herbaceous plants flourishing in the period of celebration of Saint John’s Eve. Traditionally, this feast is associated with numerous rites and customs in which some plants play a significant role. An interesting formal feature of Balto-Fennic deanthroponymic compound names of plants is alliteration, i.e. repetition of identical or similar sound clusters in the beginning of each part of the word, as in Finnish liisanlilukka ‘stone bramble,’ simonsien’ ‘chanterelle, girolle’.

  4. [Old English plant names from the linguistic and lexicographic viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Hans; Krischke, Ulrike

    2004-01-01

    Roughly 1350 Old English plant names have come down to us; this is a relatively large number considering that the attested Old English vocabulary comprises ca. 24 000 words. The plant names are not only interesting for botanists, historians of medicine and many others, but also for philologists and linguists; among other aspects they can investigate their etymology, their morphology (including word-formation) and their meaning and motivation. Practically all Old English texts where plant names occur have been edited (including glosses and glossaries), the names have been listed in the Old English dictionaries, and some specific studies have been devoted to them. Nevertheless no comprehensive systematic analysis of their linguistic structure has been made. Ulrike Krischke is preparing such an analysis. A proper dictionary of the Old English plant names is also a desideratum, especially since the Old English dictionaries available and in progress normally do not deal with morphological and semantic aspects, and many do not provide etymological information. A plant-name dictionary concentrating on this information is being prepared by Hans Sauer and Ulrike Krischke. In our article here, we sketch the state of the art (ch. 1), we deal with some problems of the analysis of Old English plant names (ch. 2), e.g. the delimitation of the word-field plant names, the identification of the plants, errors and problematic spellings in the manuscripts. In ch. 3 we sketch the etymological structure according to chronological layers (Indo-European, Germanic, West-Germanic, Old English) as well as according to the distinction between native words and loan-words; in the latter category, we also mention loan-formations based on Latin models. In ch. 4 we survey the morphological aspects (simplex vs. complex words); among the complex nouns, compounds are by far the largest group (and among those, the noun + noun compounds), but there are also a few suffix formations. We also briefly

  5. Some adaptational peculiarities of introduced species of the genus Hydrangea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kuchma

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Among studied the Hydrangea L. genus the species, which most adapted to the environment of steppe conditions, were developed. H. cinerea Stall. and H. bretschneider Dipp. are recommended for use in laying out of parks, etc.

  6. One fungus, one name promotes progressive plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Michael J; De Beer, Z Wilhelm; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Brenda D; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Lombard, Lorenzo; Crous, Pedro W

    2012-08-01

    The robust and reliable identification of fungi underpins virtually every element of plant pathology, from disease diagnosis to studies of biology, management/control, quarantine and, even more recently, comparative genomics. Most plant diseases are caused by fungi, typically pleomorphic organisms, for which the taxonomy and, in particular, a dual nomenclature system have frustrated and confused practitioners of plant pathology. The emergence of DNA sequencing has revealed cryptic taxa and revolutionized our understanding of relationships in the fungi. The impacts on plant pathology at every level are already immense and will continue to grow rapidly as new DNA sequencing technologies continue to emerge. DNA sequence comparisons, used to resolve a dual nomenclature problem for the first time only 19 years ago, have made it possible to approach a natural classification for the fungi and to abandon the confusing dual nomenclature system. The journey to a one fungus, one name taxonomic reality has been long and arduous, but its time has come. This will inevitably have a positive impact on plant pathology, plant pathologists and future students of this hugely important discipline on which the world depends for food security and plant health in general. This contemporary review highlights the problems of a dual nomenclature, especially its impact on plant pathogenic fungi, and charts the road to a one fungus, one name system that is rapidly drawing near. © 2011 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Micropropagation and Tissue Culture of Hydrangea macrophylla for Mutagenesis, Ploidy Manipulation, and Possible Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have established parameters for efficient in vitro germination of open pollinated seeds from 17 Hydrangea macrophylla and 2 Hydrangea paniculata cultivars. All tested hydrangea seed had a confirmed light requirement for germination to occur, and contrary to some prior reports, we discovered that ...

  8. Shoot organogenesis in leaf explants of Hydrangea macrophylla ‘Hyd1’ and assessing genetic stability of regenerants using ISSR markers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Huang, L.L.; Reinhoud, P.; Jongsma, M.A.; Wang, C.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time, an in vitro regeneration protocol of Hydrangea macrophylla 'Hyd1' was developed. Effects of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on shoot regeneration were investigated jointly with selecting optimal basal media and cefotaxime concentrations. The highest frequency of shoot or

  9. The bear in Eurasian plant names: motivations and models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolosova, Valeria; Svanberg, Ingvar; Kalle, Raivo; Strecker, Lisa; Özkan, Ayşe Mine Gençler; Pieroni, Andrea; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Molnár, Zsolt; Papp, Nora; Łuczaj, Łukasz; Dimitrova, Dessislava; Šeškauskaitė, Daiva; Roper, Jonathan; Hajdari, Avni; Sõukand, Renata

    2017-02-21

    Ethnolinguistic studies are important for understanding an ethnic group's ideas on the world, expressed in its language. Comparing corresponding aspects of such knowledge might help clarify problems of origin for certain concepts and words, e.g. whether they form common heritage, have an independent origin, are borrowings, or calques. The current study was conducted on the material in Slavonic, Baltic, Germanic, Romance, Finno-Ugrian, Turkic and Albanian languages. The bear was chosen as being a large, dangerous animal, important in traditional culture, whose name is widely reflected in folk plant names. The phytonyms for comparison were mostly obtained from dictionaries and other publications, and supplemented with data from databases, the co-authors' field data, and archival sources (dialect and folklore materials). More than 1200 phytonym use records (combinations of a local name and a meaning) for 364 plant and fungal taxa were recorded to help find out the reasoning behind bear-nomination in various languages, as well as differences and similarities between the patterns among them. Among the most common taxa with bear-related phytonyms were Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng., Heracleum sphondylium L., Acanthus mollis L., and Allium ursinum L., with Latin loan translation contributing a high proportion of the phytonyms. Some plants have many and various bear-related phytonyms, while others have only one or two bear names. Features like form and/or surface generated the richest pool of names, while such features as colour seemed to provoke rather few associations with bears. The unevenness of bear phytonyms in the chosen languages was not related to the size of the language nor the present occurence of the Brown Bear in the region. However, this may, at least to certain extent, be related to the amount of the historical ethnolinguistic research done on the selected languages.

  10. Vernacular Names and Toba Knowledge of the Plant World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez, Gustavo J.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors explore the perception of plants by the Toba of Rio Bermejito (Central Chaco, Argentina by analyzing the vernacular names of Toba phytonymy. After adopting an interdisciplinary approach to the subject that combines contributions from the fields of linguistics and ethnobotany, the authors present a corpus of names and a discussion of the morpho-syntactic processes and semantic relations that are involved in the Toba naming of the species of plants. They found that the nomenclature makes reference to distinctive features and physiological or environmental aspects of the species, together with reference to their function in Toba culture. In addition, the list of plant names reveals characteristic properties of the world of hunters and gatherers; for instance, the high frequency in the list of names related to morphological aspects that call to mind the animal world as well. The analysis provides evidence of the depth and keenness of the Toba in observing and understanding their natural environment.

    A partir del análisis de las denominaciones vernáculas en la fitonimia toba, este trabajo aborda la percepción y el conocimiento del entorno vegetal entre los tobas del río Bermejito (Chaco Central, Argentina. Desde una perspectiva interdisciplinar que combina los aportes de la lingüistica y la etnobotánica, se presenta el corpus de nombres documentado y se estudian los procesos morfosintácticos y las relaciones semánticas que intervienen en la denominación de las especies vegetales. Entre los aspectos analizados, la nomenclatura revela referencias a características distintivas y a aspectos fisiológicos o ecológicos de las especies, así como a su uso o función para la cultura. Asimismo, las denominaciones ponen de manifiesto atributos característicos de los pueblos cazadoresrecolectores, como lo demuestra la gran proporción de nombres que apelan a caracteres morfológicos por similitud con el mundo animal. El an

  11. The Ability of A-Level Students to Name Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebbington, Anne

    2005-01-01

    The ability of A level students to recognise and name common wild flowers was shown to be very poor. Trainee teachers performed little better and nearly a third of the practising A-level biology teachers tested were able to name only three or fewer wild flowers. Although opportunities exist at primary level for children to learn about the…

  12. On streamlining the Ukrainian names of plants. Information 4. Taxonomic diversity and species names for the genus Fragaria L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Меженський

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Reviewing a history of formation and current state of the national nomenclature and streamlining the Ukrainian scientific species names for the genus Fragaria L. Results. Controversial attitudes towards the use of names «sunytsi» (= garden strawberry and «polunytsi» (= hill strawberry are inherently present in the Ukrainian nomenclature of the genus Fragaria L. The Ukrainian scientific names of species of this group of plants should be brought into line with the generic name “Sunytsi” in plural. Nothogeneric name x Fragophora Mezhenskyj (= Dasiphora Rafin. x Fragaria L. is proposed. Conclusions. In a professional environment it is necessary to use only scientific names of species of the genus Fragaria – Sunytsi (= garden strawberry that is used in plural in Ukrainian. Concerning garden strawberry, in every day life and popular literature the usage of a derivative sunytsia (in Ukrainian in singular as well as polunytsia, polunytsi (in Ukrainian may be permissible.

  13. One fungus, one name promotes progressive plant pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingfield, M.J.; Beer, de Z.W.; Slippers, B.; Wingfield, B.D.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    The robust and reliable identification of fungi underpins virtually every element of plant pathology, from disease diagnosis to studies of biology, management/control, quarantine and, even more recently, comparative genomics. Most plant diseases are caused by fungi, typically pleomorphic organisms,

  14. One fungus, one name promotes progressive plant pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingfield, M.J.; De Beer, Z.W.; Slippers, B.; Wingfield, B.D.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    The robust and reliable identification of fungi underpins virtually every element of plant pathology, from disease diagnosis to studies of biology, management/control, quarantine and, even more recently, comparative genomics. Most plant diseases are caused by fungi, typically pleomorphic organisms,

  15. One fungus, one name promotes progressive plant pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingfield, M.J.; Beer, de Z.W.; Slippers, B.; Wingfield, B.D.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    The robust and reliable identification of fungi underpins virtually every element of plant pathology, from disease diagnosis to studies of biology, management/control, quarantine and, even more recently, comparative genomics. Most plant diseases are caused by fungi, typically pleomorphic organisms,

  16. One fungus, one name promotes progressive plant pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingfield, M.J.; De Beer, Z.W.; Slippers, B.; Wingfield, B.D.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Lombard, L.; Crous, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    The robust and reliable identification of fungi underpins virtually every element of plant pathology, from disease diagnosis to studies of biology, management/control, quarantine and, even more recently, comparative genomics. Most plant diseases are caused by fungi, typically pleomorphic organisms,

  17. Proposals for conservation of some generic names of Malaysian plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1948-01-01

    Though the list of nomina generica conservanda must be kept as small as possible, both the spirit of the rules and wish of all taxonomists is to aim at stabilizing nomenclature. In general the number of new combinations necessary through the digging up of an old name or the discovery of the identity

  18. Green synthesis of Pd nanoparticles at Apricot kernel shell substrate using Salvia hydrangea extract: Catalytic activity for reduction of organic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Bahar; Bordbar, Maryam; Nasrollahzadeh, Mahmoud

    2017-03-15

    For the first time the extract of the plant of Salvia hydrangea was used to green synthesis of Pd nanoparticles (NPs) supported on Apricot kernel shell as an environmentally benign support. The Pd NPs/Apricot kernel shell as an effective catalyst was prepared through reduction of Pd(2+) ions using Salvia hydrangea extract as the reducing and capping agent and Pd NPs immobilization on Apricot kernel shell surface in the absence of any stabilizer or surfactant. According to FT-IR analysis, the hydroxyl groups of phenolics in Salvia hydrangea extract as bioreductant agents are directly responsible for the reduction of Pd(2+) ions and formation of Pd NPs. The as-prepared catalyst was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-Vis spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), Elemental mapping, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and transmittance electron microscopy (TEM). The synthesized catalyst was used in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), Methyl Orange (MO), Methylene Blue (MB), Rhodamine B (RhB), and Congo Red (CR) at room temperature. The Pd NPs/Apricot kernel shell showed excellent catalytic activity in the reduction of these organic dyes. In addition, it was found that Pd NPs/Apricot kernel shell can be recovered and reused several times without significant loss of catalytic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Local plant names reveal that enslaved Africans recognized substantial parts of the New World flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Tinde R; van 't Klooster, Charlotte I E A; Quiroz, Diana; Towns, Alexandra M; Ruysschaert, Sofie; van den Berg, Margot

    2014-12-16

    How did the forced migration of nearly 11 million enslaved Africans to the Americas influence their knowledge of plants? Vernacular plant names give insight into the process of species recognition, acquisition of new knowledge, and replacement of African species with American ones. This study traces the origin of 2,350 Afro-Surinamese (Sranantongo and Maroon) plant names to those plant names used by local Amerindians, Europeans, and related groups in West and Central Africa. We compared vernacular names from herbarium collections, literature, and recent ethnobotanical fieldwork in Suriname, Ghana, Benin, and Gabon. A strong correspondence in sound, structure, and meaning among Afro-Surinamese vernaculars and their equivalents in other languages for botanically related taxa was considered as evidence for a shared origin. Although 65% of the Afro-Surinamese plant names contained European lexical items, enslaved Africans have recognized a substantial part of the neotropical flora. Twenty percent of the Sranantongo and 43% of the Maroon plant names strongly resemble names currently used in diverse African languages for related taxa, represent translations of African ones, or directly refer to an Old World origin. The acquisition of new ethnobotanical knowledge is captured in vernaculars derived from Amerindian languages and the invention of new names for neotropical plants from African lexical terms. Plant names that combine African, Amerindian, and European words reflect a creolization process that merged ethnobotanical skills from diverse geographical and cultural sources into new Afro-American knowledge systems. Our study confirms the role of Africans as significant agents of environmental knowledge in the New World.

  20. Identifying and naming plant-pathogenic fungi: past, present, and future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Hawksworth, D.L.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Scientific names are crucial in communicating knowledge about fungi. In plant pathology, they link information regarding the biology, host range, distribution, and potential risk. Our understanding of fungal biodiversity and fungal systematics has undergone an exponential leap, incorporating genomic

  1. Local plant names reveal that enslaved Africans recognized substantial parts of the New World flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Andel, T.; van ‘t Klooster, C. I. E. A.; Quiroz, D.; Towns, A.M.; Ruysschaert, S.; van den Berg, M.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/407978208

    2014-01-01

    How did the forced migration of nearly 11 million enslaved Africans to the Americas influence their knowledge of plants? Vernacular plant names give insight into the process of species recognition, acquisition of new knowledge, and replacement of African species with American ones. This study traces

  2. Local plant names reveal that enslaved Africans recognized substantial parts of the New World flora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Andel, T.; van ‘t Klooster, C. I. E. A.; Quiroz, D.; Towns, A.M.; Ruysschaert, S.; van den Berg, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    How did the forced migration of nearly 11 million enslaved Africans to the Americas influence their knowledge of plants? Vernacular plant names give insight into the process of species recognition, acquisition of new knowledge, and replacement of African species with American ones. This study traces

  3. Information on plant foods in eBASIS: what is in a correct botanical scientific name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilegaard, K; Eriksen, F D; Soerensen, M; Gry, J

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents the plant information included in the eBASIS (BioActive Substances in Foods Information System) database on composition and biological activity of selected bioactive compounds from European plant/mushroom foods with putative beneficial and/or toxic effects. The European Food Information Resource (EuroFIR)-NETTOX Plant List (2007) presents scientific and vernacular names in 15 European languages for around 325 major European plant/mushroom foods and also for different parts of these foods. This list and its predecessor, the NETTOX List of Food Plants, have been used by national food authorities and within the European Union for consideration of plants and mushrooms that have been used to a significant degree up to 1997 and are therefore not covered by the novel food regulation (European Parliament and Council of the European Union, 1997). The species and the plant part studied are insufficiently characterised in many scientific papers. This paper informs about the naming of plants and mushrooms as an aid for scientists who are not botanists or mycologists themselves. Knowledge on scientific names used, including synonyms, may also be important for finding all relevant papers when searching the literature. In many cases, vernacular/trivial names in, for example, English do not uniquely identify the species. Finally, recommendations are given to assist researchers and reviewers of papers dealing with botanical/mycological information.

  4. Information on plant foods in eBASIS: what is in a correct botanical scientific name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Kirsten; Eriksen, Folmer Damsted; Sørensen, Marten

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the plant information included in the eBASIS (BioActive Substances in Foods Information System) database on composition and biological activity of selected bioactive compounds from European plant/mushroom foods with putative beneficial and/or toxic effects. The European Food...... Information Resource (EuroFIR)-NETTOX Plant List (2007) presents scientific and vernacular names in 15 European languages for around 325 major European plant/mushroom foods and also for different parts of these foods. This list and its predecessor, the NETTOX List of Food Plants, have been used by national...... food authorities and within the European Union for consideration of plants and mushrooms that have been used to a significant degree up to 1997 and are therefore not covered by the novel food regulation (European Parliament and Council of the European Union, 1997). The species and the plant part...

  5. New taxa, new records and name changes for southern African plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. de Wet

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations to the inventory of about 24 000 species and infraspecific taxa of bryophytes and vascular plants in southern Africa are reported for the year 1988. The inventory, as currently maintained in the Taxon component of the PRECIS system, contains the accepted name for each taxon, synonyms previously in use as accepted names during the past half-century, and literature references necessary to identify species in each genus and to establish the synonymy. The inventory is updated as new research affecting plant classification in southern Africa is published. During 1988 there were 744 alterations, affecting about 3% of the total number of taxa.

  6. New taxa, new records and name changes for southern African plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gibbs Russell

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations to the inventory of about 24 000 species and infraspecific taxa of bryophytes and vascular plants in southern Africa are reported for the year 1987. The inventory, as presently maintained in the Taxon component of the PRECIS system, contains the accepted name for each taxon, synonyms previously in use as accepted names during the past half-century, and literature references necessary to identify species in each genus and to establish the synonymy. The inventory is updated as new research affecting plant classification in southern Africa is published. During 1987 there were 678 alterations, representing about 2,8% of the total number of taxa.a

  7. Does the name really matter? The importance of botanical nomenclature and plant taxonomy in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Bradley C; Balick, Michael J

    2014-03-28

    Medical research on plant-derived compounds requires a breadth of expertise from field to laboratory and clinical skills. Too often basic botanical skills are evidently lacking, especially with respect to plant taxonomy and botanical nomenclature. Binomial and familial names, synonyms and author citations are often misconstrued. The correct botanical name, linked to a vouchered specimen, is the sine qua non of phytomedical research. Without the unique identifier of a proper binomial, research cannot accurately be linked to the existing literature. Perhaps more significant, is the ambiguity of species determinations that ensues of from poor taxonomic practices. This uncertainty, not surprisingly, obstructs reproducibility of results-the cornerstone of science. Based on our combined six decades of experience with medicinal plants, we discuss the problems of inaccurate taxonomy and botanical nomenclature in biomedical research. This problems appear all too frequently in manuscripts and grant applications that we review and they extend to the published literature. We also review the literature on the importance of taxonomy in other disciplines that relate to medicinal plant research. In most cases, questions regarding orthography, synonymy, author citations, and current family designations of most plant binomials can be resolved using widely-available online databases and other electronic resources. Some complex problems require consultation with a professional plant taxonomist, which also is important for accurate identification of voucher specimens. Researchers should provide the currently accepted binomial and complete author citation, provide relevant synonyms, and employ the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III family name. Taxonomy is a vital adjunct not only to plant-medicine research but to virtually every field of science. Medicinal plant researchers can increase the precision and utility of their investigations by following sound practices with respect to botanical

  8. On "officinalis" the names of plants as one enduring history of therapeutic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2010-12-01

    The officina was the building, usually an out-building, in medieval monasteries where medical monks prepared medicaments and pharmaceutical preparations to heal the sick. Dried extracts, infusions, decoctions, tinctures and distillates were prepared therein. Often the officina was attached to the medicinal or herbal gardens, also enclosed within the monastery precinct. When Linnaeus invented the binomial system of nomenclature, he gave the specific name "officinalis", to dozens of herbs and plants whose medical use had been established in preceding millennia. In the 1735 (1st Edition) of his Systema Naturae, he acknowledged the historical traditions of healing by naming scores of plants with the species designator, "officinalis", as a generic qualifier. Literally "from the officina", the species name "officinalis" thus embodied the history of many centuries of medicinal use and health lore.

  9. INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF POLYPHENOLIC EXTRACTS OF BETULA PENDULA, SALIVA HYDRANGEA AND CRATAEGUS CURVISEPALA, AS WELL AS VITAMIN C, ON THE EXTENT OF GLYCOSYLATION OF ALBUMIN, INSULIN AND HEMOGLOBIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEDIGHEH ASGARY

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine diseases spreading rapidly in the world. Diabetes complications are classified to acute and chronic. Non-enzymatic glycosylation of all body proteins, such as hemoglobin, albumin is the main cause of pathogenesis in chronic complications of diabetes. As glycosylation reaction of proteins is an oxidative reaction it seems that antioxidants, such as vitamin C, inhibit the reaction and, therefore, chronic complications of diabetes. In the present study inhibitory effects of polyphenolic extracts of Betula pendula, Saliva hydrangea and Crataegus curvisepala, as well as vitamin C, on the extent of glycosylation of albumin, insulin and hemoglobin was investigated. Methods: Polyphenolic extracts of the mentioned plants were prepared in three different concentrations; 3.6, 1.8, and 0.9 mg/ml also vitamin C solutions were prepared in 5 concentrations: 0.5, 5, 10, 50 and 500 µg/ml. Results: The highest extent of glycosylation inhibition of albumin and insulin was due to S.hydrangea by 100% and 97% respectively, and that of hemoglobin was due to a.pendula, by 80%. Vitamin C in its highest concentration inhibit glycosylation of insulin, albumin and hemoglobin by 100%, 93%, and 58% respectively (P < 0.05. Discussion: Based on the findings, it seems that these plants prevent chronic complications of diabetes.

  10. New combinations of plant-associated fungi resulting from the change to one name for fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Amy Y; Allen, W Cavan; Castlebury, Lisa A

    2016-06-01

    In advancing to one scientific name for each fungus species, a number of name changes are required especially for plant-associated fungi. These include species names that are not in the correct genus. For example, the generic name Elsinoë is used for fungi causing scab diseases but a number of these species were described in the asexually typified genus Sphaceloma and must be placed in Elsinoë. In other cases species names were determined to be unrelated to the type species of the genus in which they are currently placed and are placed in a more appropriate genus. For each new name the history, rationale and importance of the name is discussed. The following new combinations are made: Acanthohelicospora aurea, A. scopula, Bifusella ahmadii, Botryobasidium capitatum, B. rubiginosum, Colletotrichum magnum, Crandallia acuminata, C. antarctica, Elsinoë arachadis, E. freyliniae, E. necator, E. perseae, E. poinsettiae, E. punicae, Entyloma gibbum, Harknessia farinosa, Passalora alocasiae, Protoventuria veronicae, Pseudocercosporella ranunculi, Psiloglonium stygium, Ramularia pseudomaculiformis, Seimatosporium tostum, Thielaviopsis radicicola combs. nov., and Venturia effusa.

  11. A Rose by Any Other Name: Plant Identification Knowledge & Socio-Demographics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Beth S; Inger, Richard; Gaston, Kevin J

    2016-01-01

    Concern has been expressed over societal losses of plant species identification skills. These losses have potential implications for engagement with conservation issues, gaining human wellbeing benefits from biodiversity (such as those resulting from nature-based recreational activities), and early warning of the spread of problematic species. However, understanding of the prevailing level of species identification skills, and of its key drivers, remains poor. Here, we explore socio-demographic factors influencing plant identification knowledge and ability to classify plants as native or non-native, employing a novel method of using real physical plants, rather than photographs or illustrations. We conducted face-to-face surveys at three different sites chosen to capture respondents with a range of socio-demographic circumstances, in Cornwall, UK. We found that survey participants correctly identified c.60% of common plant species, were significantly worse at naming non-native than native plants, and that less than 20% of people recognised Japanese knotweed Fallopia japonica, which is a widespread high profile invasive non-native in the study region. Success at naming plants was higher if participants were female, a member of at least one environmental, conservation or gardening organisation, in an older age group (than the base category of 18-29 years), or a resident (rather than visitor) of the study area. Understanding patterns of variation in plant identification knowledge can inform the development of education and engagement strategies, for example, by targeting sectors of society where knowledge is lowest. Furthermore, greater understanding of general levels of identification of problematic invasive non-native plants can guide awareness and education campaigns to mitigate their impacts.

  12. Relationship between the Names of People and Enterprises with Plant Origin with Phytotoponyms in Five Croatian Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindik, Joško; Carić, Tonko

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the first and last names of people (FN and LN), enterprises (EN) (with plants'species roots in their names) and phytotoponyms (PT) in five Croatian regions are analyzed, in their relationships. The goals of the study were: to determine the correlations between FN, LN, EN and PT; to determine the latent structure of these variables; to forecast number of PT (criterion) on the base of predictors (FN, LN, EN); to determine grouping of the places (within certain regions) as cases by two plants' categorizations; to determine grouping of the plants as cases by regions. We have analyzed 15 places, grouped in five regions, with 39 different plant species. The results revealed that the only principal component highly positively correlated with the variables last name and office name, while the projections for the variables first name (moderate high) and phytotoponyms (low size) were negative. Prediction of the criteria phytotoponyms is satisfactorily good, using three predictors: last name, first name and the office name. First cluster analysis revealed that phytotoponyms are mostly related with trees and deciduous plants, while names are related with trees, deciduous and herbaceous plants. Second cluster analysis obtained clear distinction between regions in dominant PTs, based on certain plants' names. The results indicate clear association between phytotoponyms and names of people.

  13. An update on Hydrangea macrophylla genomics progress using next generation sequencing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrangea macrophylla was in cultivation in Japan and China long before it was introduced to England and France in the late 19th to early 20th century. Modern breeding work began in Europe in the early 1900’s, resulting in the development of over 300 cultivars prior to the beginning of the second Wo...

  14. [Textual research on the Chinese names of three medicinal plants from Chaenomeles Lindl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hua-sheng; Wang, De-qun

    2009-07-01

    Mugua was commonly used Chinese Materia Medica in past generations, the original plant of that is the same as the Chenomeles speciosa (Sweet) Nakai from the Rosaceae family; Mingzha in ancient times was misunderstood as and mixed with Mugua used as a herb, which comes from Ch. sinensis (Thouin) Kochne; Tiegenghaitang was used, as an ornamental flower before the Qing dynasty, the original plant of that corresponds with Ch. japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. In the attached images of Zhiwumingshitukao of the Qing dynasty, the name of Mugua was transposed. It has affected Japanese and some Chinese scholars in succession, which lead to the confused situation that mistook Mugua as the Chinese name of Ch. sinensis (Thouin) Kochne as well as Tiegenghaitang as the Chinese name of Ch. speciosa (Sweet) Nakai in current literature. It is proposed that it be decided to change the Chinese name of Ch. sinensis (Thouin)Koehne to Mugua, Ch. sinensis (Thouin) Koehne to Mingzha as well as Ch. japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. to Tiegenghaitang.

  15. What is in a name? The need for accurate scientific nomenclature for plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Diego; Allkin, Robert; Obón, Concepción; Alcaraz, Francisco; Verpoorte, Rob; Heinrich, Michael

    2014-03-28

    To avoid ambiguities and error, ethnopharmacological and any other research on plants requires precise and appropriate use of botanical scientific nomenclature. This paper explores problems and impacts of ambiguous or erroneous use of botanical scientific nomenclature in ethnopharmacological studies. It suggests how the frequency and impact of such errors can be reduced. We assessed 214 articles published in the three first volumes of the Journal of Ethnopharmacology in 2012: 140(1) to 141 (3) and 214 articles in Phytomedicine (2012-2013): 19 (5) to 20 (7). Amongst the articles reviewed 308 articles cited plant names incorrectly. Among the articles studied 9178 Latin scientific names were cited and 3445 were incorrect in some respect. Simple principles applied in a systematic way and used together with open-access reference resources could help authors, referees and editors of ethnopharmacological, phytochemical, toxicological and clinical studies to reduce ambiguity about the identity and name of the species involved and thus significantly improve the quality of the final publication. We have identified a series of key steps needed to solve the taxonomic ambiguities and errors. Aside from reinforcing existing policies, journals will have to implement better tools to ensure the proper authentication of materials. The new electronic publishing environments offer novel ways to develop such botanical-taxonomic tools. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Influência de diferentes tipos de estacas e substratos na propagação assexuada de hortênsia [Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb. Ser.] Influence of different types of stem cuttings and substrates on the asexual reproduction of hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb. Ser.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petterson Baptista da Luz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A hortênsia (Hydrangea macrophylla é um arbusto semilenhoso de 1,0 a 2,5 m de altura, de folhagem e florescimento decorativos, muito utilizados como flor de vaso e planta para paisagismo. Conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de estudar o enraizamento de estacas de três partes da planta: apical, mediana e basal; em três tipos de substratos: terra, areia e vermiculita, para a formação de mudas. As estacas foram retiradas das plantas matrizes e divididas em segmentos apical, mediano e basal, os quais foram colocados para enraizar em bandejas de isopor, nos substratos areia, terra e vermiculita, em estufa com nebulização. As estacas que apresentaram melhor qualidade de raízes foram as originadas da parte basal do ramo, sendo que o melhor enraizamento foi observado nas estacas colocadas em areia. As estacas obtidas de diferentes partes da planta não se diferenciaram quanto à porcentagem de enraizamento e quanto ao número de brotos formados. Já os substratos que proporcionaram o maior número de brotações foram a areia e a terra. Algumas estacas apresentaram formação de flores, ocorrendo com maior freqüência nas estacas apicais, sem efeito dos substratos. A areia foi o substrato que proporcionou os melhores resultados quanto à qualidade das raízes e porcentagem de enraizamento. O substrato terra foi superior apenas para o número de brotos por estaca, porém não diferenciou estatisticamente da areia. Mudas formadas de estaca da parte basal da planta se mostraram com qualidade superior.The Hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla is a semi-ligneous shrub measuring 1.0m to 2.5m in height with decorative foliage and flat-topped or rounded clusters of white, pink, or blue flowers widely used as vase or pot flower as well as landscaping plant. The objective of this research work was to study the rooting of stem cuttings obtained from three different parts of the plant: apical, median and basal portions of the stems, in three different

  17. Rhizosphere effects of PAH-contaminated soil phytoremediation using a special plant named Fire Phoenix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Xiao, Nan; Wei, Shuhe; Zhao, Lixing; An, Jing

    2014-03-01

    The rhizosphere effect of a special phytoremediating species known as Fire Phoenix on the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated, including changes of the enzymatic activity and microbial communities in rhizosphere soil. The study showed that the degradation rate of Σ8PAHs by Fire Phoenix was up to 99.40% after a 150-day culture. The activity of dehydrogenase (DHO), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) increased greatly, especially after a 60-day culture, followed by a gradual reduction with an increase in the planting time. The activity of these enzymes was strongly correlated to the higher degradation performance of Fire Phoenix growing in PAH-contaminated soils, although it was also affected by the basic characteristics of the plant species itself, such as the excessive, fibrous root systems, strong disease resistance, drought resistance, heat resistance, and resistance to barren soil. The activity of polyphenoloxidase (PPO) decreased during the whole growing period in this study, and the degradation rate of Σ8PAHs in the rhizosphere soil after having planted Fire Phoenix plants had a significant (R(2)=0.947) negative correlation with the change in the activity of PPO. Using an analysis of the microbial communities, the results indicated that the structure of microorganisms in the rhizosphere soil could be changed by planting Fire Phoenix plants, namely, there was an increase in microbial diversity compared with the unplanted soil. In addition, the primary advantage of Fire Phoenix was to promote the growth of flora genus Gordonia sp. as the major bacteria that can effectively degrade PAHs.

  18. Cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity, total flavonoid and phenolic contents of Salvia urmiensis Bunge and Salvia hydrangea DC. ex Benth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.B. Bahadori

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Salvia species are important because of their medicinal, traditional and economical uses. They are used traditionally for treatment of several diseases. The genus Salvia is represented in the Iranian flora by 61 species of which, 17 are endemic.  In the present study, the phytochemical and biological effects of two Iranian Salvia species have been evaluated. Methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS radicals scavenging activities of extracts of Salvia urmiensis Bunge and Salvia hydrangeawere evaluated. Total flavonoid and phenolic contents and brine shrimp lethality potential of the extracts were also determined. Results: Compared to podophyllotoxin (LC50 =42 µg/mL, the ethyl acetate extract of S. hydrangea demonstrated a significant cytotoxicity (LC50=36 µg/mL. The ethyl acetate extract of S. urmiensis was found to have significant antioxidant properties with IC50 value of 10.0±0.2 µg/mL. All tested extracts showed moderate to high flavonoid and phenolic contents. Conclusion: Findings showed that these plants contain important metabolites and could be suggested for discovery of biologically active natural compounds.

  19. Indigenous knowledge for plant species diversity: a case study of wild plants' folk names used by the Mongolians in Ejina desert area, Inner Mongolia, P. R. China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyolt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Folk names of plants are the roots of traditional plant biodiversity knowledge. This paper mainly records and analyses the wild plant folk names of the Mongolians in the Ejina desert area based on a field survey for collection and identification of voucher specimens. The results show that a total of 121 folk names of local plants have correspondence with 93 scientific species which belong to 26 families and 70 genera. The correspondence between plants' Mongol folk names and scientific species may be classified as one to one correspondence, multitude to one correspondence and one to multitude correspondence. The Ejina Mongolian plant folk names were formed on the basis of observations and an understanding of the wild plants growing in their desert environment. The high correspondence between folk names and scientific names shows the scientific meaning of folk botanical nomenclature and classification. It is very useful to take an inventory of biodiversity, especially among the rapid rural appraisal (RRA in studying biodiversity at the community level.

  20. Indigenous knowledge for plant species diversity: a case study of wild plants' folk names used by the Mongolians in Ejina desert area, Inner Mongolia, P. R. China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasbagan; Soyolt

    2008-01-16

    Folk names of plants are the roots of traditional plant biodiversity knowledge. This paper mainly records and analyses the wild plant folk names of the Mongolians in the Ejina desert area based on a field survey for collection and identification of voucher specimens. The results show that a total of 121 folk names of local plants have correspondence with 93 scientific species which belong to 26 families and 70 genera. The correspondence between plants' Mongol folk names and scientific species may be classified as one to one correspondence, multitude to one correspondence and one to multitude correspondence. The Ejina Mongolian plant folk names were formed on the basis of observations and an understanding of the wild plants growing in their desert environment. The high correspondence between folk names and scientific names shows the scientific meaning of folk botanical nomenclature and classification. It is very useful to take an inventory of biodiversity, especially among the rapid rural appraisal (RRA) in studying biodiversity at the community level.

  1. The Legitimate Name of a Fungal Plant Pathogen and the Ethics of Publication in the Era of Traceability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Paolo; Visentin, Ivan; Valentino, Danila; Tamietti, Giacomo; Cardinale, Francesca

    2017-04-01

    When more scientists describe independently the same species under different valid Latin names, a case of synonymy occurs. In such a case, the international nomenclature rules stipulate that the first name to appear on a peer-reviewed publication has priority over the others. Based on a recent episode involving priority determination between two competing names of the same fungal plant pathogen, this letter wishes to open a discussion on the ethics of scientific publications and points out the necessity of a correct management of the information provided through personal communications, whose traceability would prevent their fraudulent or accidental manipulation.

  2. What Plants and Animals Do Early Childhood and Primary Students' Name? Where Do They See Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Patricia; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2011-01-01

    Children from England and the United States of America have a basic similar knowledge of plants and animals, which they observe during their everyday life. Nine children of ages 4, 6, 8, and 10 years, in each country, were asked to free-list plants and animals. Afterwards, they were interviewed individually about the plants and animals they listed…

  3. What Plants and Animals Do Early Childhood and Primary Students' Name? Where Do They See Them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Patricia; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2011-01-01

    Children from England and the United States of America have a basic similar knowledge of plants and animals, which they observe during their everyday life. Nine children of ages 4, 6, 8, and 10 years, in each country, were asked to free-list plants and animals. Afterwards, they were interviewed individually about the plants and animals they listed…

  4. Medicinal plant uses and names from the herbarium of Francesc Bolòs (1773-1844).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras, Airy; Garnatje, Teresa; Ibáñez, Neus; López-Pujol, Jordi; Nualart, Neus; Vallès, Joan

    2017-05-23

    Ethnobotany takes into account past uses to be projected into the present and future. Most current ethnobotanical research is focused, especially in industrialised countries, on obtaining information of plant uses from elderly people. Historical ethnobotany is less cultivated, although papers have demonstrated its interest. Particularly poor, but potentially very relevant, is the attention paid to historical herbaria as a source of data on useful plants. Bearing this in mind, we studied the herbarium of the Catalan pharmacist and naturalist Francesc Bolòs (1773-1844), which contains information on medicinal uses and folk names, with the aim of establishing a catalogue of plants and uses and tracing them through old and contemporary literature. The ca. 6000 plant specimens of this herbarium were investigated to assess those including plant uses and names. These taxa have been thoroughly revised. The data have been tabulated, their biogeographic profile, possible endemic or threatened status, or invasive behaviour have been assessed, and the content regarding medicinal uses, as well as folk names, has been studied. The medicinal terms used have been interpreted as per current days' medicine. The popular names and uses have been compared with those appearing in a certain number of works published from 11th to 20th centuries in the territories covered by the herbarium and with all the data collected in 20th and 21st centuries in an extensive database on Catalan ethnobotany. A total of 385 plant specimens (381 taxa) have been detected bearing medicinal use and folk names information. We collected data on 1107 reports of plant medicinal properties (in Latin), 32 indications of toxicity, nine reports of food use, and 123, 302 and 318 popular plant names in Catalan, Spanish and French, respectively. The most quoted systems are digestive, skin and subcutaneous tissue (plus traumatic troubles) and genitourinary. Relatively high degrees of coincidence of plant names and uses

  5. A RHOse by any other name: a comparative analysis of animal and plant Rho GTPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembu, Tore; Winge, Per; Bones, Atle Magnar; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2006-05-01

    Rho GTPases are molecular switches that act as key regulators of a many cellular processes, including cell movement, morphogenesis, host defense, cell division and gene expression. Rho GTPases are found in all eukaryotic kingdoms. Plants lack clear homologs to conventional Rho GTPases found in yeast and animals; instead, they have over time developed a unique subfamily, ROPs, also known as RAC. The origin of ROP-like proteins appears to precede the appearance of land plants. This review aims to discuss the evolution of ROP/RAC and to compare plant ROP and animal Rho GTPases, focusing on similarities and differences in regulation of the GTPases and their downstream effectors.

  6. New taxa, new records and name changes for southern African plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gibbs Russell

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available Alterations for the year 1986 to the inventory maintained in PRECIS are reported for bryophytes, pteridophytes and monocotyledons, and for a few dicotyledons. For the cryptogams and monocots there are 77 newly described species or infraspecific taxa, 27 names brought back into use, and nine species newly reported for southern Africa, resulting in 113 additions to the total list of species. Five species were removed because they were mistakenly recorded from the area. Seventy-five names have gone into synonymy, there are 52 new combinations, and there are 35 orthographic corrections, resulting in 237 alterations to the list of species. The total of 355 additions, deletions and alterations represents about 5% of the total species and infraspecific taxa for the cryptogams and monocots.

  7. New taxa, new records and name changes for southern African plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. C. de Wet

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Additions and alterations to the inventory of about 26 000 plant taxa in southern Africa are reported for the period from February 1990 to February 1991. In this period a total of 1 080 alterations have been recorded. These changes result from the continual surveying of taxonomic literature received by the library of the National Botanical Institute.

  8. Environ: E00612 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00612 Hydrangea root Crude drug Hydrangea aspera [TAX:185767], Hydrangea strigosa, Hydrange...a [TAX:23109] Saxifragaceae (saxifrage family) Hydrangea aspera, Hydrangea strigosa root Crude drug...s [BR:br08305] Dicot plants: others Saxifragaceae (saxifrage family) E00612 Hydrangea root ...

  9. Hydrangea-like magneto-fluorescent nanoparticles through thiol-inducing assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shun; Zhang, Junjun; Song, Shaokun; Xiong, Chuanxi; Dong, Lijie

    2017-01-01

    Magneto-fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs), recognized as an emerging class of materials, have drawn much attention because of their potential applications. Due to surface functionalization and thiol-metal bonds, a simple method has been put forward for fabricating hydrangea-like magneto-fluorescent Fe3O4-SH@QD NPs, through assembling thiol-modified Fe3O4 NPs with sub-size multi-layer core/shell CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs. After a refined but controllable silane hydrolysis process, thiol-modified Fe3O4 was fabricated, resulting in Fe3O4-SH@QD NPs with QDs, while preventing the quenching of the QDs. As a result, the core Fe3O4 NPs were 18 nm in diameter, while the scattered CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs were 7 nm in diameter. The resultant magneto-fluorescent Fe3O4-SH@QD NPs exhibit efficient fluorescence, superparamagnetism at room temperature, and rapid response to the external field, which make them ideal candidates for difunctional probes in MRI and bio-labels, targeting and photodynamic therapy, and cell tracking and separation.

  10. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Hydrangea-Like F-Doped Titania Microspheres for the Photocatalytic Degradation of Carbamazepine under UV and Visible Light Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miaomiao Ye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrangea-like F-doped TiO2 microspheres have been synthesized on a large scale by a simple hydrothermal process using potassium titanium oxalate as the titanium source, ammonium fluoride and hydrogen peroxide as the etchant. The photocatalytic activities were evaluated using carbamazepine as the target organic molecule under UV and visible light irradiation. Structural characterization indicates that the hydrangea-like TiO2 microspheres, with an average diameter of 2.80 μm, are composed of numerous anatase TiO2 petals. Moreover, it is found that both the NH4F and H2O2 dosages have important effects on the formation of the hydrangea-like structures. In addition, photocatalytic experiments show that the hydrangea-like TiO2 microspheres calcined at 500°C exhibit high photocatalytic efficiency under both UV and visible light irradiation. The enhanced photocatalytic activity can be attributed to the successful fluorine doping, good crystallinity, and the unique nanostructures.

  11. Geographic Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the United States Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board of Geographic Names, provides...

  12. What's in a Name: Differential Labelling of Plant and Animal Photographs in Two Nationally Syndicated Elementary Science Textbook Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link-Perez, Melanie A.; Dollo, Vanessa H.; Weber, Kirk M.; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated plant and animal photographs in elementary science textbooks to discern whether there were disparities in the number of plant and animal photographs or in how those photographs were labelled. We examined the Life Science sections of two nationally syndicated (USA) textbook series. For each text, we identified the…

  13. What's in a Name: Differential Labelling of Plant and Animal Photographs in Two Nationally Syndicated Elementary Science Textbook Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link-Perez, Melanie A.; Dollo, Vanessa H.; Weber, Kirk M.; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated plant and animal photographs in elementary science textbooks to discern whether there were disparities in the number of plant and animal photographs or in how those photographs were labelled. We examined the Life Science sections of two nationally syndicated (USA) textbook series. For each text, we identified the…

  14. Cardamine occulta, the correct species name for invasive Asian plants previously classified as C. flexuosa, and its occurrence in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhold, Karol; Šlenker, Marek; Kudoh, Hiroshi; Zozomová-Lihová, Judita

    2016-01-01

    The nomenclature of Eastern Asian populations traditionally assigned to Cardamine flexuosa has remained unresolved since 2006, when they were found to be distinct from the European species Cardamine flexuosa. Apart from the informal designation "Asian Cardamine flexuosa", this taxon has also been reported under the names Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis or Cardamine hamiltonii. Here we determine its correct species name to be Cardamine occulta and present a nomenclatural survey of all relevant species names. A lectotype and epitype for Cardamine occulta and a neotype for the illegitimate name Cardamine debilis (replaced by Cardamine flexuosa subsp. debilis and Cardamine hamiltonii) are designated here. Cardamine occulta is a polyploid weed that most likely originated in Eastern Asia, but it has also been introduced to other continents, including Europe. Here data is presented on the first records of this invasive species in European countries. The first known record for Europe was made in Spain in 1993, and since then its occurrence has been reported from a number of European countries and regions as growing in irrigated anthropogenic habitats, such as paddy fields or flower beds, and exceptionally also in natural communities such as lake shores.

  15. Sewerage Treatment Plants, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Sewerage Treatment Plants dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  16. Armazenamento refrigerado de três cultivares de hortênsia cultivadas em vaso Three potted hydrangea cultivars storaged in low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Sonego

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria. RS, no período de agosto de 1993 a janeiro de 1995. Os objetivos foram verificar o efeito do armazenamento a 2°C sobre a duração do cultivo da hortênsia - Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb. Ser. e fornecer subsídios para o desenvolvimento da cultura da hortênsia, através da caracterização fenométrica das cultivares disponíveis na região. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições, constituído por um esquema bifatorial 6x3, cujos tratamentos constaram de seis períodos de armazenamento a frio (zero, duas, três, quatro, cinco e seis semanas, em câmara frigorífica a 2°C e três cultivares de hortênsia (Rústica, Branca e Decorativa. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam que as cultivares Rústica e Decorativa mostraram-se indiferentes ao armazenamento a 2°C, enquanto que a cultivar Branca atrasou o florescimento, em cerca de dois meses. Por sua vez. as três cultivares possuem potencial para a produção em vasos e são caracterizadas pelas diferenças de diâmetro da inflorescência, ciclo de florescimento e ciclo total da cultura.The experiment was conducted at the Department of Fitotecnia, in the Federal University of Santa Maria, RS, from August 1993 to January 1995. The purposes were to verify the effect of cold storage in the lenght of cultivation of hydrangea - Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb. Ser, and to obtain informations on the development of the hydrangea culture, through the fenometric characterization of the cultivars available in the region. It was conducted in completely randomized design, with five replications. The experiment was a 6 x 3 bifactorial whose treatments were six cold storage periods (zero, two, three, four, five and six weeks in a cold chamber in a temperature of 2°C and three hydrangea cultivars (cv. Rustic, White and Decorative. The results showed no influence of the 2°C storage

  17. Ethnobotany of Heracleum persicum Desf. ex Fisch., an invasive species in Norway, or how plant names, uses, and other traditions evolve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Torbjørn

    2013-06-24

    Heracleum persicum was introduced to Norway as an ornamental in the 1830's. Towards the end of the 19th century, it started spreading outside gardens, later to become a frequent sight in the major towns and settlements of North Norway - and a veritable pest plant. During the last 100 years or so, a substantial ethnobotanical tradition related to the species has evolved, demonstrating that folk knowledge is not only forgotten and lost, but also charting new terrain. This survey is based on data extracted from all relevant publications, including botanical literature, travel accounts, newspaper notes, etc., as far as they have come to my attention. In addition, information on vernacular names and various uses of the H. persicum in Norway has been extracted from my own, substantial archive of interviews, questionnaires, and correspondence related to the ethnobotany of Norway. Where extant, H. persicum tends to be known to everyone, even by city dwellers who otherwise generally neglect plants. People tend to love or hate it, and in Tromsø, the largest town of northern Norway, the species has become more or less emblematic of the city. Both here and in other areas of northern Norway, it is referred to by a variety of vernacular names, partly borrowed from other species, partly derived from the Latin genus name, and partly coined for this species only. In the latter group, tromsøpalme ('the palm of Tromsø') has proved by far the most popular invention. It was seemingly first used (and coined) by German soldiers during the World War II occupation of Norway, but now largely replaces other vernacular names. The plant is still popular with children, who frequently play in and with it, whereas adults have been more prone to speculate on its origins - and how to get rid of it. Salt is the most popular "herbicide" for this purpose. Over the years, H. persicum has accumulated at least twenty different vernacular names in Norway, and a variety of other traditions. By necessity

  18. Hydrangeas-like Bi2WO6: facile synthesis, visible-light driven photocatalysis and theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongtao; Liu, Fangfang; Li, Xiaohui; Li, Fenfen; Sui, Xiaomei

    2012-08-01

    Hydrangeas-like Bi2WO6 powders were synthesized successfully by salt-ultrasonic assisted hydrothermal process, which were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-Vis DRS), respectively. Bi, W and O elements were contained in the product, which could be tested by EDS. The crystal structure of the catalyst was orthorhombic phase (JCPDS card no.73-1126). And the band gap was estimated to be 2.56 eV from the onset of UV-Vis absorption spectra of the catalyst. In addition, the photocatalytic activities of the products were investigated on the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB). It demonstrated that photocatalysts exhibited excellent visible-light driven photocatalytic performance. And the target residue was less than 1% in 20 min under Xenon lamp irradiation. First-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) were used to explore the electronic and optical properties of Bi2WO6. And the theoretical calculations could illustrate the photocatalytic performance of Bi2WO6 powders under visible light irradiation.

  19. A common registration-to-publication automated pipeline for nomenclatural acts for higher plants (International Plant Names Index, IPNI), fungi (Index Fungorum, MycoBank) and animals (ZooBank).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penev, Lyubomir; Paton, Alan; Nicolson, Nicola; Kirk, Paul; Pyle, Richard L; Whitton, Robert; Georgiev, Teodor; Barker, Christine; Hopkins, Christopher; Robert, Vincent; Biserkov, Jordan; Stoev, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Collaborative effort among four lead indexes of taxon names and nomenclatural acts (International Plant Name Index (IPNI), Index Fungorum, MycoBank and ZooBank) and the journals PhytoKeys, MycoKeys and ZooKeys to create an automated, pre-publication, registration workflow, based on a server-to-server, XML request/response model. The registration model for ZooBank uses the TaxPub schema, which is an extension to the Journal Tag Publishing Suite (JATS) of the National Library of Medicine (NLM). The indexing or registration model of IPNI and Index Fungorum will use the Taxonomic Concept Transfer Schema (TCS) as a basic standard for the workflow. Other journals and publishers who intend to implement automated, pre-publication, registration of taxon names and nomenclatural acts can also use the open sample XML formats and links to schemas and relevant information published in the paper.

  20. Naming a phantom – the quest to find the identity of Ulluchu, an unidentified ceremonial plant of the Moche culture in Northern Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bussmann Rainer W

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The botanical identification of Ulluchu, an iconic fruit frequently depicted in the art of the pre-Columbian Moche culture that flourished from A.D. 100–800 on the Peruvian north coast, has eluded scientists since its documentation in ceramics in the 1930s. Moche fine-line drawings of Ulluchu normally depict seed-pods or seeds floating in the air in sacrificial scenes, associated with runners and messengers or intoxicated priests. It is a grooved, comma-shaped fruit with an enlarged calyx found mainly in fine-line scenes painted on Moche ceramics. The term first appeared without linguistic explanation in the work of pioneer Moche scholar Rafael Larco Hoyle, and the identification of the plant was seen as the largest remaining challenge in current archaebotany at the Peruvian North coast. The name Ulluchu seems to have been coined by Larco. According to his description, the name originated in the Virú River valley, and is supposedly of Mochica origin. However, there is no linguistic evidence that such a term indeed existed in the Mochica or Yunga language. We conclude that Ulluchu can be identified as a group of species of the genus Guarea (Meliaceae based on morphological characteristics. In addition, the chemical composition of the plant's compounds supports the thesis that it was used in a sacrificial context to improve the extraction of blood from sacrificial victims. We also suggest that a ground preparation of Guarea seeds, when inhaled, may have been used as a hallucinogen. However, more detailed phytochemical research is needed to corroborate the latter hypothesis.

  1. Sensitivity of the modelled deposition of Caesium-137 from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant to the wet deposition parameterisation in NAME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leadbetter, Susan J; Hort, Matthew C; Jones, Andrew R; Webster, Helen N; Draxler, Roland R

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an investigation into the impact of different meteorological data sets and different wet scavenging coefficients on the model predictions of radionuclide deposits following the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant in March 2011. Three separate operational meteorological data sets, the UK Met Office global meteorology, the ECMWF global meteorology and the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) mesoscale meteorology as well as radar rainfall analyses from JMA were all used as inputs to the UK Met Office's dispersion model NAME (the Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment). The model predictions of Caesium-137 deposits based on these meteorological models all showed good agreement with observations of deposits made in eastern Japan with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.44 to 0.80. Unexpectedly the NAME run using radar rainfall data had a lower correlation coefficient (R = 0.66), when compared to observations, than the run using the JMA mesoscale model rainfall (R = 0.76) or the run using ECMWF met data (R = 0.80). Additionally the impact of modifying the wet scavenging coefficients used in the parameterisation of wet deposition was investigated. The results showed that modifying the scavenging parameters had a similar impact to modifying the driving meteorology on the rank calculated from comparing the modelled and observed deposition. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric...

  3. 八仙花水培营养液的筛选试验%Studies on Nutrient Solution of Hydroponic Hydrangea macrophylla

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程永生; 石关顺; 向松; 彭尽晖

    2011-01-01

    以八仙花为试验材料,选用5种通用型营养液进行筛选试验,结果表明,不同营养液处理对八仙花植株生长发育和开花性状的影响不同,综合考虑各营养液对八仙花生长发育和开花性状各项指标的影响,认为处理Ⅲ(日本园试配方)较适合八仙花的生长.%Five kinds of nutrient solution for hydroponic Hydrangea macrophylla were screened through experiments, the results showed that different nutrient solution treatments had different influences on the growth, development and flowering traits of H. macrophylla, among them treatment Ⅲ (Japanese garden test formula) was more suitable for the growth of H. macrophylla.

  4. On the Conjunction of China-Vietnam Border Hydrangea Culture and the National Fitness Program%中越边境绣球文化与全民健身的契合及发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林峰; 王成科

    2013-01-01

    With a long history, hydrangea culture has rich content and sound foundation in the boarder area of China and Vietnam. To develop hydrangea culture in National Fitness Program being carried out has great significance to improve the health level of boarder area people, to improve their spirit conditions and inherit their ethnic sports culture.%  绣球文化历史悠久,内容丰富,在中越边境地区具有广泛的群众基础。在全民健身计划实施的过程中发展绣球运动,对提高中越边境各族人民健康水平、提高民族精神面貌与少数民族体育文化传承有着重要社会意义。

  5. A without-prejudice list of generic names of fungi for protection under the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Paul M; Stalpers, Joost A; Braun, Uwe; Crous, Pedro W; Hansen, Karen; Hawksworth, David L; Hyde, Kevin D; Lücking, Robert; Lumbsch, Thorsten H; Rossman, Amy Y; Seifert, Keith A; Stadler, Mark

    2013-12-01

    As a first step towards the production of a List of Protected Generic Names for Fungi, a without-prejudice list is presented here as a basis for future discussion and the production of a List for formal adoption. We include 6995 generic names out of the 17072 validly published names proposed for fungi and invite comments from all interested mycologists by 31 March 2014. The selection of names for inclusion takes note of recent major publications on different groups of fungi, and further the decisions reached so far by international working groups concerned with particular families or genera. Changes will be sought in the Code to provide for this and lists at other ranks to be protected against any competing unlisted names, and to permit the inclusion of names of lichen-forming fungi. A revised draft will be made available for further discussion at the 10(th) International Mycological Congress in Bangkok in August 2014. A schedule is suggested for the steps needed to produce a list for adoption by the International Botanical Congress in August 2017. This initiative provides mycologists with an opportunity to place nomenclature at the generic level on a more secure and stable base.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of some Iranian medicinal plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti Abdollah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts of eight plant species which are endemic in Iran. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts of eight Iranian traditional plants, including Hypericum scabrum, Myrtus communis, Pistachia atlantica, Arnebia euchroma, Salvia hydrangea, Satureja bachtiarica, Thymus daenensis and Kelussia odoratissima, were investigated against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans by agar disc diffusion and serial dilution assays. Most of the extracts showed a relatively high antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria and fungi. Of the plants studied, the most active extracts were those obtained from the essential oils of M. communis and T. daenensis. The MIC values for active extract and essential oil ranged between 0.039 and 10 mg/ml. It can be said that the extract and essential oil of some medicinal plants could be used as natural antimicrobial agents in food preservation. .

  7. Comparative photosynthetic characteristics of differentHydrangea L. varieties%绣球属品种间光合特性的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞秀明; 孙强; 姚红军; 王焱

    2016-01-01

    To compare the photosynthetic capacities of different varieties ofHydrangea L., gas exchange and chlorophyll lfuorescence characteristics and chlorophyll contents in the leaves of 9 varieties were investigated. The results show that the photosynthetic rates and chlorophyll lfuorescence characteristics related to light utili-zation efifciency and chlorophyll contents were higher in the leaves of ‘Zorro’ and ‘Lemon Web’, while these parameters were much lower in ‘Murasaki kobai’, ‘Annabelle’, ‘Honger’ and ‘Forever Summer’. Inversely, the lowest non-photochemical quenching was observed in the leaves of ‘Zorro’ and ‘Lemon Web’, however, this parameter was relatively higher in ‘Murasaki kobai’ and ‘Annabelle’. Through a comprehensive reference of these parameters, photosynthetic capacities of ‘Zorro’ and ‘LemonWeb’ were stronger, which are Hydrangea species suitable for being cultivated under high light intensity, whereas photosynthetic capacities of ‘Murasaki-kobai’, ‘Honger’ and ‘Annabelle’ were relatively lower. ‘Honger’ is favorable for cultivation under low light condition due to its strong shade-tolerance.%为比较绣球属(Hydrangea)不同栽培品种的光合特性,以9个绣球属品种为试材,对其气体交换、叶绿素荧光及叶片叶绿素含量进行研究。结果表明,‘Zorro’和‘Lemon Web’叶片的光合速率、反映光能利用率的叶绿素荧光指标和相对叶绿素含量高,而在‘Murasaki kobai’、‘贝拉安娜’、‘红额’和‘无尽夏’中较低;相反地,‘Zorro’和‘Lemon Web’叶片非光化学淬灭均小于其他品种,而这些指标在‘Murasaki kobai’和‘贝拉安娜’中较大。综合参考这些指标,‘Zorro’和‘Lemon Web’叶片的光能利用能力较强,是适合光下栽培的耐强光性绣球品种,而‘Murasaki kobai’、‘红额’和‘贝拉安娜’叶片的光合能力较弱,‘红

  8. Translation and Transliteration of Plant names in Ḥunayn b. Iḥsāq´s and Iṣṭifān b. Bāsil´s Arabic version of Dioscorides, De materia medica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Touwaide, Alain

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Arabic translation of De materia medica by the Greek author Dioscorides (1st century A.D., particularly the rendering of plant names, which were sometimes properly translated and sometimes transliterated from the Greek. According to a traditional interpretation, the transliteration strategy was used by the translators when they did not know the exact Arabic equivalent of the plant names. I re-examine this interpretation here taking into account the role of plant names in the Greek text and the Andalusian works of botanical lexicography. As a result, I propose to interpret transliterations as a mean used by translators to keep visible the structure of the work, in which plant names played a certain role.

    Este artículo se ocupa de la traducción árabe del texto griego del tratado De materia medica de Dioscórides (siglo I, especialmente de los fitónimos que, en unos casos, fueron traducidos al árabe y, en otros, transliterados del griego. Según la interpretación tradicional, la transliteración era una estrategia utilizada por los traductores cuando no conocían el equivalente exacto árabe de los nombres de las plantas. Se propone en este trabajo una revisión de esta interpretación, teniendo en cuenta el importante papel que los nombres de las plantas desempeñan en el texto griego, así como en las obras de los lexicógrafos y botánicos andalusíes, llegando a la conclusión de que las transliteraciones eran una técnica utilizada por los traductores para mantener visible la estructura general de la obra de Dioscórides, basada en gran parte en la nomenclatura de las plantas.

  9. Facile synthesis of hydrangea flower-like hierarchical gold nanostructures with tunable surface topographies for single-particle surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, C. Y.; Zhou, N.; Yang, B. Y.; Yang, Y. J.; Wang, L. H.

    2015-10-01

    The physicochemical properties of noble metal nanocrystals depend strongly on their size and shape, and it is becoming clear that the design and facile synthesis of particular nanostructures with tailored shape and size is especially important. Herein a novel class of hydrangea flower-like hierarchical gold nanostructures with tunable surface topographies and optical properties are prepared for the first time by a facile, one-pot, seedless synthesis using ascorbic acid (AA) to reduce hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl4) in the presence of (1-hexadecyl)trimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). The morphologies of the synthesized gold nanoflowers are controlled and fine-tuned by varying the synthetic conditions such as the concentration of reagents and the growth temperature. Due to their unique hierarchical three-dimensional (3D) structures with rich hot spots, these gold nanoflowers exhibit an efficient performance in single-particle surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The work stands out as an interesting approach for anisotropic particle synthesis and morphological control, and the proposed novel, hierarchical gold nanoflowers have a number of exciting potential applications in SERS-based sensors.The physicochemical properties of noble metal nanocrystals depend strongly on their size and shape, and it is becoming clear that the design and facile synthesis of particular nanostructures with tailored shape and size is especially important. Herein a novel class of hydrangea flower-like hierarchical gold nanostructures with tunable surface topographies and optical properties are prepared for the first time by a facile, one-pot, seedless synthesis using ascorbic acid (AA) to reduce hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl4) in the presence of (1-hexadecyl)trimethylammonium chloride (CTAC). The morphologies of the synthesized gold nanoflowers are controlled and fine-tuned by varying the synthetic conditions such as the concentration of reagents and the growth temperature. Due to

  10. 药用植物拉丁学名中采用湖北地名为种加词的探究%Probe into Specific Epithet in the Scientific Name of Medicinal Plants by Using Place Names from Hubei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱忠华; 肖梦媛; 任德全; 罗超; 寿华

    2016-01-01

    通过对我国的《中国植物志》及中国自然标本馆等文献调研,整理和统计药用植物拉丁学名的种加词,采用湖北地区的地理名称拉丁化处理的词,从而了解与重视湖北地区的药用植物资源,并对今后湖北地区药用植物资源的开发、保护与利用提供借鉴。%Through the literature research of Flora of Republicae Popublaris Sinicae and the Chinese Field herbarium etc,the paper tries to collect and analyze Specific Epithet of scientific name of Medici-nal Plants for Using Place Names from Hubei Province processed by Latin words.On the other hand, it emphasizes to understand and pay attention to medicinal plant resources of Hubei province.Mean-while,it is essential to sustain the future development of medicinal plant resources in Hubei province. Finally,the paper advocates the protection and wise use for medical resources.

  11. What's in a Name

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Sarah B.; Albanese, Judith; Karp, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    Historically, some baby names have been more popular during a specific time span, whereas other names are considered timeless. The Internet article, "How to Tell Someone's Age When All You Know Is Her Name" (Silver and McCann 2014), describes the phenomenon of the rise and fall of name popularity, which served as a catalyst for the…

  12. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  13. Film Name Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师晓晓

    2014-01-01

    <正>1.Introduction A good translation of the name should convey the information of the film and attract the audience’s desire for going to the cinema.Translation of film names should have business,information,culture,aesthetic features,while a short eye-catching name aims to leave the audience an unforgettable impression.This thesis discusses the translation of English film names from the aspects of the importance of English film name translation,principles for translating English film names and methods of English film name translation.

  14. Incorporating hydrangea-like titanium dioxide light scatterer with high dye-loading on the photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Chen; Tang, Bing-Hong; Lu, Yen-Wei; Yu, Wan-Chin; Lin, Lu-Yin; Wu, Ren-Jang

    2016-07-01

    The light scattering layer is significant for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to harvest incident light more efficiently and excite larger amounts of electrons. Hydrangea-like TiO2 (Hsbnd TiO2) and coral-like TiO2 (Csbnd TiO2) nanostructures are synthesized via a hydrothermal method without using templates. Both of the nanostructures are applied as the light scattering layer for DSSCs with the commercial P90 TiO2 nanoparticles as the dye-adsorbed underlayer in the photoanodes. The DSSC with Hsbnd TiO2 as the light scattering layer achieves a higher light-to-electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 7.50% than those of 6.70% and 6.61% for the cells with Csbnd TiO2 and commercial TiO2 as the light scattering layer, and of 6.41% for the DSSC without a light scattering layer in its photoanode, mainly due to the enhanced photocurrent density through the abundant dye adsorption coupled with the inherent light scattering ability for the former case. The results indicate that not only the importance of the light scattering layer in the photoanode but the morphology of the nanostructure composed of the light scattering layer plays great roles on the light scattering and the dye-adsorbing capabilities. The incident photon-to-current efficiency the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements are also applied to analyze the electrochemical performance of the resulting DSSCs.

  15. Total Coumarins from Hydrangea paniculata Protect against Cisplatin-Induced Acute Kidney Damage in Mice by Suppressing Renal Inflammation and Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Ma; Jingzhi, Yang; Dongjie, Wang; Dongming, Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Aim. Hydrangea paniculata (HP) Sieb. is a medical herb which is widely distributed in southern China, and current study is to evaluate renal protective effect of aqueous extract of HP by cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in animal model and its underlying mechanisms. Materials and Methods. HP extract was prepared and the major ingredients were coumarin glycosides. AKI mouse models were established by single i.p. injection of 20 mg/kg cisplatin, and HP was orally administrated for total five times. The renal biochemical functions, pathological staining, kidney oxidative stress, and inflammatory status were measured. Apoptosis of tubular cells and infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils were also tested. Results. HP administration could improve the renal function by decreasing concentration of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine and attenuates renal oxidative stress and tubular pathological injury and apoptosis; further research demonstrated that HP could inhibit the overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines and regulate caspase and BCL-2 family proteins. HP also reduced renal infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils, and its effect might be by downregulating phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and stat3 signaling pathway. Conclusions. This present study suggests that HP could ameliorate cisplatin induced kidney damage by antioxidation and suppressing renal inflammation and tubular cell apoptosis.

  16. Marine Place Names

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the geographic place names for features in the U.S territorial waters and outer continental shelf. These names can be used to find or define a...

  17. Naming as Strategic Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmeltz, Line; Kjeldsen, Anna Karina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a framework for understanding corporate name change as strategic communication. From a corporate branding perspective, the choice of a new name can be seen as a wish to stand out from a group of similar organizations. Conversely, from an institutional perspective, name change....... Second, it offers practical support to organizations, private as well as public, who find themselves in a situation where changing the name of the organization could be a way to reach either communicative or organizational goals....

  18. Naming the extrasolar planets

    CERN Document Server

    Lyra, W

    2009-01-01

    Extrasolar planets are not named and are referred to only by their assigned scientific designation. The reason given by the IAU to not name the planets is that it is considered impractical as planets are expected to be common. I advance some reasons as to why this logic is flawed, and suggest names for the 403 extrasolar planet candidates known as of Oct 2009, based on the continued tradition of names from Roman-Greek mythology.

  19. Analysing Java Identifier Names

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Identifier names are the principal means of recording and communicating ideas in source code and are a significant source of information for software developers and maintainers, and the tools that support their work. This research aims to increase understanding of identifier name content types - words, abbreviations, etc. - and phrasal structures - noun phrases, verb phrases, etc. - by improving techniques for the analysis of identifier names. The techniques and knowledge acquired can be appl...

  20. Hepatoprotective Role of Hydrangea macrophylla against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Mitochondrial-Dependent Oxidative Stress via the Inhibition of MAPK/Caspase-3 Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rashedunnabi Akanda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 has been recognized as a worldwide health concern. Hydrangea macrophylla (HM is used as traditional Chinese medicine possessing antioxidant activities. The study was performed to investigate the therapeutic role and underlying molecular mechanism of HM on NaAsO2-induced toxicity in human liver cancer (HepG2 cells and liver in mice. The hepatoprotective role of HM in HepG2 cells was assessed by using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-Yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT, reactive oxygen species (ROS, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assays. Histopathology, lipid peroxidation, serum biochemistry, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR and Western blot analyses were performed to determine the protective role of HM against NaAsO2 intoxication in liver tissue. In this study, we found that co-treatment with HM significantly attenuated the NaAsO2-induced cell viability loss, intracellular ROS, and LDH release in HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Hepatic histopathology, lipid peroxidation, and the serum biochemical parameters alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST were notably improved by HM. HM effectively downregulated the both gene and protein expression level of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascade. Moreover, HM well-regulated the Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax/B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2 ratio, remarkably suppressed the release of cytochrome c, and blocked the expression of the post-apoptotic transcription factor caspase-3. Therefore, our study provides new insights into the hepatoprotective role of HM through its reduction in apoptosis, which likely involves in the modulation of MAPK/caspase-3 signaling pathways.

  1. Naming the Ethological Subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Etienne S

    2016-03-01

    Argument In recent decades, through the work of Jane Goodall and other ethologists, the practice of giving personal names to nonhuman animals who are the subjects of scientific research has become associated with claims about animal personhood and scientific objectivity. While critics argue that such naming practices predispose the researcher toward anthropomorphism, supporters suggest that it sensitizes the researcher to individual differences and social relations. Both critics and supporters agree that naming tends to be associated with the recognition of individual animal rights. The history of the naming of research animals since the late nineteenth century shows, however, that the practice has served a variety of purposes, most of which have raised few ethical or epistemological concerns. Names have been used to identify research animals who play dual roles as pets, workers, or patients, to enhance their market value, and to facilitate their identification in the field. The multifaceted history of naming suggests both that the use of personal names by Goodall and others is less of a radical break with previous practices than it might first appear to be and that the use of personal names to recognize the individuality, sentience, or rights of nonhuman animals faces inherent limits and contradictions.

  2. Your Name Is What?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AARON; A.; VESSUP

    2009-01-01

    country singer Johnny Cash was famous for his song Boy Named Sue that topped the charts back in the early 1970s. The song tells of a father who gave his son a girl’s name to help harden him for life. This was the excuse of

  3. The Name Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley, Sharon J.

    Described is a game which provides a method for teaching students to locate cities and towns on a map. Students are provided with a list of descriptive phrases which stand for the name of a city, e.g., hot weather town (Summerville, Georgia); a chocolate candy bar (Hershey, Pennsylvania). Using a map, students must then try to find the name of a…

  4. Directory of awardee names

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-07-01

    Standardization of grant and contract awardee names has been an area of concern since the development of the Department`s Procurement and Assistance Data System (PADS). A joint effort was begun in 1983 by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and the Office of Procurement and Assistance Management/Information Systems and Analysis Division to develop a means for providing uniformity of awardee names. As a result of this effort, a method of assigning vendor identification codes to each unique awardee name, division, city, and state combination was developed and is maintained by OSTI. Changes to vendor identification codes or awardee names contained in PADS can be made only by OSTI. Awardee names in the Directory indicate that the awardee has had a prime contract (excluding purchase orders of $10,000 or less) with, or a financial assistance award from, the Department. Award status--active, inactive, or retired--is not shown. The Directory is in alphabetic sequence based on awardee name and reflects the OSTI-assigned vendor identification code to the right of the name. A vendor identification code is assigned to each unique awardee name, division, city, and state (for place of performance). The same vendor identification code is used for awards throughout the Department.

  5. Which ornamental plant species effectively remove benzene from indoor air?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Ju; Mu, Yu-Jing; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Ding, Hui; Crystal Arens, Nan

    Phytoremediation—using plants to remove toxins—is an attractive and cost effective way to improve indoor air quality. This study screened ornamental plants for their ability to remove volatile organic compounds from air by fumigating 73 plant species with 150 ppb benzene, an important indoor air pollutant that poses a risk to human health. The 10 species found to be most effective at removing benzene from air were fumigated for two more days (8 h per day) to quantify their benzene removal capacity. Crassula portulacea, Hydrangea macrophylla, Cymbidium Golden Elf., Ficus microcarpa var. fuyuensis, Dendranthema morifolium, Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis, Dieffenbachia amoena cv. Tropic Snow; Spathiphyllum Supreme; Nephrolepis exaltata cv. Bostoniensis; Dracaena deremensis cv. Variegata emerged as the species with the greatest capacity to remove benzene from indoor air.

  6. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  7. "Name" that Animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a texture and pattern project. Students started by doing an outline contour drawing of an animal. With the outline drawn, the students then write one of their names to fit "inside" the animal.

  8. Recommending Given Names

    CERN Document Server

    Mitzlaff, Folke

    2013-01-01

    All over the world, future parents are facing the task of finding a suitable given name for their child. This choice is influenced by different factors, such as the social context, language, cultural background and especially personal taste. Although this task is omnipresent, little research has been conducted on the analysis and application of interrelations among given names from a data mining perspective. The present work tackles the problem of recommending given names, by firstly mining for inter-name relatedness in data from the Social Web. Based on these results, the name search engine "Nameling" was built, which attracted more than 35,000 users within less than six months, underpinning the relevance of the underlying recommendation task. The accruing usage data is then used for evaluating different state-of-the-art recommendation systems, as well our new \\NR algorithm which we adopted from our previous work on folksonomies and which yields the best results, considering the trade-off between prediction ...

  9. La diversité naturelle des espèces ligneuses en tant que source de plantes ornementales et utilitaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena De Belder

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural diversity of woody species as a source of ornamental plants.The collection of the Kalmthout Arboretum contains 4 000 plants, representing 170 généra of woody plants and 240 généra of herbaceous plants. An additional 6 000 plants are kept on the site of Hemelrijk, in Essen. The material originated partly from other institutions but also from collecting trips in Japan, South and North Corea, Russia and China. A part of thèse introductions was evaluated or used for hybridizing with a view to produce woody plant cultivars of ornamental value, especially in the généra Hamamelis, Hydrangea, Prunus, Malus, Pyrus and Rhododendron. A large number of thèse new cultivars are now grown in commercial nurseries in Europe, North America and Japan.

  10. Women's Name Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorence, Patricia J.

    1976-01-01

    The reasoning of the Wisconsin Supreme Court in In re Petition of Kruzel is examined in which the court held that a woman's name does not automatically change to that of her husband's upon marriage. The impact of this ruling is discussed, including the constitutional implications of administrative regulations concerning a woman using her husband's…

  11. Naming in Programming,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    aesthetic issues. A good name *evokes a distinctive picture in a person’s head, and one can can be an art critic. But there is another, more formulable...lengths considerably shorter. Abbreviations tend not to be just random deletions of letters: letters on the end go first, then vowels go before

  12. Names For Free

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouillard, Nicolas; Bernardy, Jean-Philippe

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel technique to represent names and binders in Haskell. The dynamic (run-time) representation is based on de Bruijn indices, but it features an interface to write and manipulate variables conviently, using Haskell-level lambdas and variables. The key idea is to use rich types...

  13. Measuring name system health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casalicchio, Emiliano; Caselli, M.; Coletta, Alessio; Di Blasi, Salvatore; Fovino, Igor Nai; Butts, Jonathan; Shenoi, Sujeet

    2012-01-01

    Modern critical infrastructure assets are exposed to security threats arising from their use of IP networks and the Domain Name System (DNS). This paper focuses on the health of DNS. Indeed, due to the increased reliance on the Internet, the degradation of DNS could have significant consequences for

  14. Measuring name system health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casalicchio, Emiliano; Caselli, Marco; Coletta, Alessio; Di Blasi, Salvatore; Fovino, Igor Nai; Butts, Jonathan; Shenoi, Sujeet

    2012-01-01

    Modern critical infrastructure assets are exposed to security threats arising from their use of IP networks and the Domain Name System (DNS). This paper focuses on the health of DNS. Indeed, due to the increased reliance on the Internet, the degradation of DNS could have significant consequences for

  15. Theriocide: Naming Animal Killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers Beirne

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I recommend ‘theriocide’ as the name for those diverse human actions that cause the deaths of animals. Like the killing of one human by another, theriocide may be socially acceptable or unacceptable, legal or illegal. It may be intentional or unintentional and may involve active maltreatment or passive neglect. Theriocide may occur one-on-one, in small groups or in large-scale social institutions. The numerous and sometimes intersecting sites of theriocide include intensive rearing regimes; hunting and fishing; trafficking; vivisection; militarism; pollution; and human-induced climate change. If the killing of animals by humans is as harmful to them as homicide is to humans, then the proper naming of such deaths offers a remedy, however small, to the extensive privileging of human lives over those of other animals. Inevitably, the essay leads to a shocking question: Is theriocide murder?

  16. No Name: Paul Celan’s Poetics of Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Eemeli Salminen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Name is a powerful sign, and name-giving is also calling one intolanguage. Name identifies, summons and subjects. Paul Celan wasfamiliar with all these uses of name and addresses them in his poeticsand poetry. This article will discuss how poetry like Celan’s, which is heavily influenced by so many philosophical readings, could form a critique of naming,on a poetical basis towards philosophical concepts that underline problematics of name-giving in poetic text in particular.

  17. Branding a business name

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulatović Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of globalization, international businesses, as well as competitive markets imposed the companies (large ones, as well as the others to position in the required market. Making profit, which is the basic aim of every company, in such market environment can only be achieved by demonstrating distinct characteristics of a company, the characteristics which distinguish it from others with the same or similar activities. Historical and analysis of the current market have shown that being recognizable in the multitude of similar companies is a huge challenge, but also one of the main preconditions for successful operations. The moment a company is registered it acquires a specific identity primarily owing to its business name, which distinguishes it from other companies during that first period. Practically at the same time, the company starts creating its image or goodwill by means of several distinctive ways. One of them is branding business name or corporate branding. However, apart from large benefits, companies may also have big difficulties and risks in the same process as well.

  18. Socioeconomic determinants of first names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloothooft, G.; Onland, D.

    2011-01-01

    Modern naming practices in the Netherlands between 1982 and 2005 were studied on the basis of 1409 popular first names, divided into fourteen name groups determined by the common preferences of parents for the names involved. Socioeconomic variables such as family income, parents' level of education

  19. Statistical distribution of Chinese names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jin-Zhong; Chen Qing-Hua; Wang You-Gui

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the statistical characteristics of Chinese surnames,first names and full names based on a credible sample.The distribution of Chinese surnames,unlike that in any other countries,shows an exponential pattern in the top part and a power-law pattern in the tail part.The distributions of Chinese first names and full names have the characteristics of a power law with different exponents.Finally,the interrelation of the first name and the surname is demonstrated by using a computer simulation and an exhibition of the name network.Chinese people take the surname into account when they choose a first name for somebody.

  20. History of NAMES Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, Lev

    2013-03-01

    Franco-Russian NAMES Seminars are held for the purpose of reviewing and discussing actual developments in the field of materials science by researchers from Russia and from the Lorraine Region of France. In more precise terms, as set down by the organizers of the seminar (the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys and the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine), the mission of the seminars is as follows: the development of scientific and academic contacts, giving a new impulse to joint fundamental research and technology transfer the development and consolidation of scientific, technical and business collaboration between the regions of Russia and Lorraine through direct contact between the universities, institutes and companies involved The first Seminar took place on 27-29 October 2004, at the Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine (on the premises of the Ecole Européenne d'Ingénieurs en Génie des Matériaux, Nancy, France). The number, variety and quality of the oral presentations given and posters exhibited at the first Seminar were of high international standard. 30 oral presentations were given and 72 posters were presented by 19 participants from five universities and three institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences participants from 11 laboratories of three universities from the Lorraine region three industrial companies, including the European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company—EADS, and ANVAR (Agence Nationale de Valorisation de la Recherche) From 2005 onwards, it was decided to organize the Seminar every other year. The second Seminar convened on the occasion of the 75th Anniversary of the Moscow Institute of Steel and Alloys on 10-12 November 2005 in Moscow, Russia. The seminar demonstrated the efficiency of the scientific partnership founded between the research groups of Russia and France during the first Seminar. High productivity of the Franco-Russian scientific cooperation on the basis of the Research-Educational Franco

  1. The National Map - geographic names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Lou; Carswell, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about the official names for places, features, and areas in the 50 States, the District of Columbia, the territories and outlying areas of the United States, including Antarctica. It is the geographic names component of The National Map. The BGN maintains working relationships with State names authorities to cooperate in achieving the standardization of geographic names. The GNIS contains records on more than 2 million geographic names in the United States - from populated places, schools, reservoirs, and parks to streams, valleys, springs, ridges, and every feature type except roads and highways. Entries include information such as the federally-recognized name and variant names and spellings for the feature; former names; the status of the name as determined by the BGN; county or counties in which each named feature is located; geographic coordinates that locate the approximate center of an aerial feature or the mouth and source of a linear feature, such as a stream; name of the cell of the USGS topographic map or maps on which the feature may appear; elevation figures derived from the National Elevation Dataset; bibliographic code for the source of the name; BGN decision dates and historical information are available for some features. Data from the GNIS are used for emergency preparedness, mapmaking, local and regional planning, service delivery routing, marketing, site selection, environmental analysis, genealogical research, and other applications.

  2. No Name,No Game

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    China vows to protect minors from online game addictions and other Internet scams with a real-name registration system online gamers of all ages in Chinacan forget about completing quests or shooting virtual enemies without registering their real names

  3. Armenian Names of Sky Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, A. M.; Farmanyan, S. V.; Mikayelyan, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    The work is devoted to the correction and recovery of the Armenian names of the sky constellations, as they were forgotten or distorted during the Soviet years, mainly due to the translation from Russian. A total of 34 constellation names have been corrected. A brief overview of the history of the division of the sky into constellations and their naming is also given. At the end, the list of all 88 constellations is given with the names in Latin, English, Russian and Armenian.

  4. Plant Communities of Rough Rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Linda

    A unit of study on plants grown in the Navajo community of Rough Rock, Arizona, is presented in sketches providing the common Navajo name for the plant, a literal English translation, the English name of the plant, and the Latin name. A brief description of each plant includes where the plant grows, how the Navajos use the plant, and the color and…

  5. Interference in Joint Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambi, Chiara; Van de Cavey, Joris; Pickering, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    In 4 experiments we showed that picture naming latencies are affected by beliefs about the task concurrently performed by another speaker. Participants took longer to name pictures when they believed that their partner concurrently named pictures than when they believed their partner was silent (Experiments 1 and 4) or concurrently categorized the…

  6. Can You Say My Name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo T.

    Whereas brand name research has focused on the semantic meaning or sounds of names, processing fluency lends further support to the idea that meaning goes beyond semantics. Extant research has shown that phonological fluency, i.e., the ease or difficulty with which people pronounce names, can...

  7. Can You Say My Name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erz, Antonia; Christensen, Bo T.

    affect their judgments of people and objects. We extend this research by investigating the effect of phonological fluency on recognition and recall of novel non-word brand names in three laboratory experiments. The results provide us with a more fine-grained idea of fluency effects on memory of non......Whereas brand name research has focused on the semantic meaning or sounds of names, processing fluency lends further support to the idea that meaning goes beyond semantics. Extant research has shown that phonological fluency, i.e., the ease or difficulty with which people pronounce names, can......-word brand names....

  8. GEOGRAPHIC NAMES INFORMATION SYSTEM (GNIS) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN), contains information about physical and cultural geographic features in the United States and associated areas, both current and historical, but not including roads and highways. The database also contains geographic names in Antarctica. The database holds the Federally recognized name of each feature and defines the location of the feature by state, county, USGS topographic map, and geographic coordinates. Other feature attributes include names or spellings other than the official name, feature designations, feature class, historical and descriptive information, and for some categories of features the geometric boundaries. The database assigns a unique feature identifier, a random number, that is a key for accessing, integrating, or reconciling GNIS data with other data sets. The GNIS is our Nation's official repository of domestic geographic feature names information.

  9. On the generic name Passerina Vieillot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1910-01-01

    One of these days I accidentally met with a description of a plant from the Pyrenees by Mr. Ramond under the name of Passerina nivalis ; this paper has been published in „Bulletin des sciences par la Société philomatique, n° 41, Paris, Thermidor an 8 de la République (1792)”. Of course the Snow-bunt

  10. On the generic name Passerina Vieillot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1910-01-01

    One of these days I accidentally met with a description of a plant from the Pyrenees by Mr. Ramond under the name of Passerina nivalis ; this paper has been published in „Bulletin des sciences par la Société philomatique, n° 41, Paris, Thermidor an 8 de la République (1792)”. Of course the Snow-bunt

  11. Dictionary of minor planet names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz D

    1997-01-01

    Until recently, minor planet name citations were scattered in the astronomical literature, and the origin of many names remained obscure In 1988 the IAU Commission 20 established a study group to elucidate the meanings of asteroid names Later on the author continued in collecting and indexing all new relevant data This book contains the names, and their meanings, of all - as yet 5252 - named minor planets It informs about the discoverers as well as the circumstances of the discovery of all 7041 minor planets that were numbered up to June 1996 In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, the collection provides a most interesting historical insight into the work of those astronomers who over two centuries vested their affinities in a rich and colourful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to more prosaic constructions This third, revised and enlarged edition comprises about 40% more information than was provided with the first one of 1992

  12. Geographic names of the Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; ,; ,; ,; Alberts, Fred G.

    1995-01-01

    This gazetteer contains 12,710 names approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names and the Secretary of the Interior for features in Antarctica and the area extending northward to the Antarctic Convergence. Included in this geographic area, the Antarctic region, are the off-lying South Shetland Islands, the South Orkney Islands, the South Sandwich Islands, South Georgia, Bouvetøya, Heard Island, and the Balleny Islands. These names have been approved for use by U.S. Government agencies. Their use by the Antarctic specialist and the public is highly recommended for the sake of accuracy and uniformity. This publication, which supersedes previous Board gazetteers or lists for the area, contains names approved as recently as December 1994. The basic name coverage of this gazetteer corresponds to that of maps at the scale of 1:250,000 or larger for coastal Antarctica, the off-lying islands, and isolated mountains and ranges of the continent. Much of the interior of Antarctica is a featureless ice plateau. That area has been mapped at a smaller scale and is nearly devoid of toponyms. All of the names are for natural features, such as mountains, glaciers, peninsulas, capes, bays, islands, and subglacial entities. The names of scientific stations have not been listed alphabetically, but they may appear in the texts of some decisions. For the names of submarine features, reference should be made to the Gazetteer of Undersea Features, 4th edition, U.S. Board on Geographic Names, 1990.

  13. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    through using mathematical names for the numbers such as one-ten-one for 11 and five-ten-six for 56. The project combines the renaming of numbers with supporting the teaching with the new number names. Our hypothesis is that Danish children have more difficulties learning and working with numbers, because...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  14. 16 CFR 18.2 - Deception through use of names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... distribution of an industry product, it is an unfair or deceptive act or practice for any industry member to... a generally recognized and well-established common name, it is an unfair or deceptive act or... section the Commission give consideration to the use of plant names listed in such works as Checklist...

  15. Fast-growing willow shrub named `Canastota`

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2007-05-15

    A distinct male cultivar of Salix sachalinensis.times.S. miyabeana named `Canastota`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing greater than 2.7-fold more woody biomass than its female parent (Salix sachalinensis `SX61`), 28% greater woody biomass yield than its male parent (Salix miyabeana `SX64`), and 20% greater woody biomass yield than a standard production cultivar, Salix dasyclados `SV1` when grown in the same field for the same length of time (two growing seasons after coppice) in Tully, N.Y. `Canastota` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested after two to four years of growth. This harvest cycle can be repeated several times. `Canastota` displays a low incidence of rust disease or damage by willow sawfly.

  16. Fast-growing shrub willow named `Owasco`

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2007-07-03

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.Salix miyabeana named `Owasco`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing greater than 49% more woody biomass than one of its parents (`SX64`) and 39% more biomass than a current production cultivar (`SV1`). `Otisco` produced greater than 2.7-fold more stem biomass than two other current production cultivars, `SX67` and `SX61`. `Owasco` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested after two to four years of growth. This harvest cycle can be repeated several times. The stem biomass can be chipped and burned as a source of renewable energy, generating heat and/or electricity. `Owasco` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  17. Fast-growing willow shrub named `Otisco`

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2007-09-11

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.S. miyabeana named `Otisco`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing greater than 42% more woody biomass than one of its parents (`SX64`) and 33% more biomass than a current production cultivar (`SV1`). `Otisco` produced greater than 2.5-fold more stem biomass than two other current production cultivars, `SX67` and `SX61`. `Otisco` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested after two to four years of growth. This harvest cycle can be repeated several times. The stem biomass can be chipped and burned as a source of renewable energy, generating heat and/or electricity. `Otisco` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  18. Fast-growing willow shrub named `Oneida`

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2007-05-01

    A distinct male cultivar of Salix purpurea.times.S. miyabeana named `Oneida`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing 2.7-times greater woody biomass than one of its parents (`SX67`) and greater than 36% more biomass than current production cultivars (`SV1` and `SX64`). `Oneida` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested after two to four years of growth. This harvest cycle can be repeated several times. The stem biomass can be chipped and burned as a source of renewable energy, generating heat and/or electricity. `Oneida` displays a low incidence of rust disease or damage by beetles or sawflies.

  19. Fast-growing willow shrub named `Millbrook`

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P [Marcellus, NY; Kopp, Richard F [Marietta, NY; Smart, Lawrence B [Geneva, NY; Volk, Timothy A [Syracuse, NY

    2007-04-24

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix purpurea.times.Salix miyabeana named `Millbrook`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing 9% more woody biomass than one of its parents (`SX64`) and 2% more biomass than a current production cultivar (`SV1`). `Millbrook` produced greater than 2-fold more stem biomass than two other current production cultivars, `SX67` and `SX61`. `Millbrook` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested after two to four years of growth. This harvest cycle can be repeated several times. The stem biomass can be chipped and burned as a source of renewable energy, generating heat and/or electricity. `Millbrook` displays a low incidence of rust disease.

  20. Search for new type of PPARγ agonist-like anti-diabetic compounds from medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Hisashi; Nakamura, Seikou; Yoshikawa, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    Potent ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) such as thiazolidinediones (pioglitazone, troglitazone, etc.) improve insulin sensitivity by increasing the levels of adiponectin, an important adipocytokine associated with insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. Several constituents from medicinal plants were recently reported to show PPARγ agonist-like activity in 3T3-L1 cells, but did not show agonistic activity at the receptor site different from thiazolidinediones. Our recent studies on PPARγ agonist-like constituents, such as hydrangenol and hydrangeic acid from the processed leaves of Hydrangea macrophylla var. thunbergii, piperlonguminine and retrofractamide A from the fruit of Piper chaba, and tetramethylkaempferol and pentamethylquercetin from the rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora, are reviewed.

  1. Rongsheng names 400000DWT VLOC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On July 9th,China's largest privately-run shipbuilder China Rongsheng Heavy Industries Group Holdings Limited held a naming and launching ceremony of the first newbuilding of 12 very large ore carriers (VLOC) ordered by Brazil's Vale in 2008 with a contract value of $1.6bn in total. China's first 400000 DWT VLOC naming and launching ceremony was held at the shipyard of China Rongsheng.The 400000-dwt VLOC named Vale China and launched on Saturday will be delivered to Vale by August or Spetember.

  2. Asteroid named after CAS scientist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ An asteroid has been named after CAS astronomy historian XI Zezong with the approval of the International Minor Planet Nomenclature Committee (IMPNC), announced China's National Astronomical Observatories at CAS (NAOC) on 17 August.

  3. Named Entity Recognition for IDEAL

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Qianzhou; Zhang, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    This project explored how to apply Named Entity Recognition to large Twitter and web page datasets to extract useful entities such as people, organization, location, and date. In addition, this NER utility has been scaled to the MapReduce framework on the Hadoop cluster. A schema and software allow this to be integrated with IDEAL. The term “Named Entity”, which was first introduced by Grishman and Sundheim, is widely used in Natural Language Processing (NLP). The researchers were focusing...

  4. Dvina is a Russian Name

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamill P. Volsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The note gives a brief review of the most known versions of the origin of the name Dvina and provides some arguments in favour of its Russian origin. The author offers two versions of the Russian origin of Dvina. The first one brings the name into correlation with the dialectal word dvina attested in Smolensk Region with the meaning ‘a lot, a great amount of something’. The second one, which the author considers more plausible, suggests an etymological link between the river name Dvina and the Russian numeral dva ‘two’. This second version is supported, firstly, by the physical geographic characteristics of the Northern Dvina River formed by the confluence of two other big rivers — the Sukhona and the Yug. Secondly, in the dialects of the Russian North there exists a common noun dvina designating different “double” objects: ‘twins’, ‘uterine brother’, ‘double distilled wine’. The appellative word dvina corresponds to the structural and word-formational rules of the Russian language and is present in the microtoponymy of the Russian North. The author does not rule out that the name of the Western Dvina may have originated from the old Russian word dvina since it may be a secondary name derived from Dvina, the name of the lake at the head of the Western Dvina River.

  5. Sewerage Treatment Plants, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Sewerage Treatment Plants dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2011. It is described...

  6. Estudo fitoquímico de Hydrangea sp. por meio de métodos clássicos de análise por espectroscopia no ultravioleta visível (UV-Vis e cromatografia em coluna e em papel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiele BERNARDI

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A investigação fitoquímica é um tema que pode ser abordado por diversas áreas da ciência. A Hydrangea sp., também conhecida com hortensia, é um planta ornamental muito conhecida por possuir flavonoides, compostos antioxidantes, que interagem com íons alumínio no solo, alterando as cores das sépalas das flores. Este trabalho teve como objetivo extrair clorofila das folhas de Hydrangea sp. utilizando três solventes (diclorometano, acetona e solução aquosa de acetona, 80 %. Os dados indicaram que além de extrair clorofila, também há fortes evidências espectroscópicas da presença dos carotenoides β-caroteno e/ou luteína e licopeno. Assim, o método utilizado pode ser aplicado em aulas práticas para explicar que: i As folhas são verdes pela presença do pigmento clorofila; ii no entanto, elas não contém apenas clorofila em sua constituição; também possuem pigmentos amarelos e avermelhados; e iii ao envelhecer, as folhas perdem a coloração verde, há pela quebra da ressonância do anel porfirínico da clorofila e, consequentemente, as outras cores presentes no vegetal tornam-se predominantes.

  7. Dictionary of Minor Planet Names

    CERN Document Server

    Schmadel, Lutz

    2012-01-01

    The quantity of numbered minor planets has now well exceeded a quarter million. The new sixth edition of the Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, which is the IAU’s official reference work for the field, now covers more than 17,000 named minor planets. In addition to being of practical value for identification purposes, the Dictionary of Minor Planet Names provides authoritative information on the basis of the rich and colorful variety of ingenious names, from heavenly goddesses to artists, from scientists to Nobel laureates, from historical or political figures to ordinary women and men, from mountains to buildings, as well as a variety of compound terms and curiosities. This sixth edition of the Dictionary of Minor Planet Names has grown by more than 7,000 entries compared to the fifth edition and by more than 2,000 compared to the fifth edition, including its two addenda published in 2006 and 2009. In addition, there are many  corrections, revisions and updates to the entries published in earlier editions....

  8. Botanical name changes – nuisance or a quest for precision?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce G. Cook

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the need for the seemingly regular changes to plant names applied to many tropical forage species, it is necessary to be aware of the rules that govern botanical nomenclature.  The binomial naming system, first proposed in 1753, is governed by rules defined in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN.  These rules have been strengthened as necessary over the years in the interest of providing practitioners with plant names that are unique for each species, and presented in an hierarchical format that shows the evolutionary relationships between plants.  This paper includes a table of name changes accepted by the USDA Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN for species used in tropical forage research and development over the last half century.  The need to use legitimate plant names is emphasized and suggestions are made on how practitioners might best deal with the changes.Keywords: Taxonomy, nomenclature, tropical forages.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(334-40

  9. Proposal to consistently apply the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP) to names of the oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria), including those validly published under the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN)/International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants (ICN), and proposal to change Principle 2 of the ICNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinevich, Alexander V

    2015-03-01

    This taxonomic note was motivated by the recent proposal [Oren & Garrity (2014) Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 64, 309-310] to exclude the oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria (cyanobacteria) from the wording of General Consideration 5 of the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP), which entails unilateral coverage of these prokaryotes by the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN; formerly the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, ICBN). On the basis of key viewpoints, approaches and rules in the systematics, taxonomy and nomenclature of prokaryotes it is reciprocally proposed to apply the ICNP to names of cyanobacteria including those validly published under the ICBN/ICN. For this purpose, a change to Principle 2 of the ICNP is proposed to enable validation of cyanobacterial names published under the ICBN/ICN rules. © 2015 IUMS.

  10. Names Will Never Hurt Me?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma-Joshi, Manju; Baker, Cynthia J.; Tanaka, Connie

    2004-01-01

    In this article, Manju Varma-Joshi, Cynthia Baker, and Connie Tanaka examine the impact of racialized name-calling on a group of twenty-six "visible minority" youth from New Brunswick, Canada. Through one-on-one interviews and focus groups, the authors compare views held by visible minority students and their parents to the views of…

  11. Rectification of two generic names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büttikofer, J.

    1896-01-01

    I am sorry to say that amongst the new generic names, occurring in my recent paper on the genus Pycnonotus and some allied Genera (N. L. M. XVII), Centrolophus and Gymnocrotaphus are already preoccupied among the Fishes, the first being used by Lacépède, the second by Günther. I propose, therefore,

  12. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...

  13. Jewish Name Magyarization in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás Farkas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the surname changes of the Jews as formal acts which served as a means of assimilation, and which resulted in a characteristic phenomenon of the history of Jewish communities as well as of the surrounding society of the majority. Surname changes as the sign of forming cultural and national identities were used for an individual crossing of a conceptual borderline between ‘they’ and ‘us’ in nineteenth- and twentieth-century Hungarian society. The paper is based on research in different fields of scholarly studies, applying multi- and interdisciplinary standpoints. It focuses on the Name Magyarization process, but also makes comparisons with the name changes of the Jews in other countries. It applies different sources to investigate the social, historical, cultural and ideological background, context and the characteristics of the nominal assimilation of the Jews. It analyzes their names as ethnic symbols, and presents the reasons that made the surname changes so typical for them. It presents the assimilation process of Jewish persons and their personal names in general, and the history of their surname changes in Hungary. The characteristic features of the surnames chosen and their typical motivations are also analyzed, in comparison with those of the non-Jews in the country.

  14. Sound Naming in Neurodegenerative Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Maggie L.; Brambati, Simona M.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Miller, Bruce L.; Johnson, Julene K.

    2010-01-01

    Modern cognitive neuroscientific theories and empirical evidence suggest that brain structures involved in movement may be related to action-related semantic knowledge. To test this hypothesis, we examined the naming of environmental sounds in patients with corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), two…

  15. Sound Naming in Neurodegenerative Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Maggie L.; Brambati, Simona M.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Miller, Bruce L.; Johnson, Julene K.

    2010-01-01

    Modern cognitive neuroscientific theories and empirical evidence suggest that brain structures involved in movement may be related to action-related semantic knowledge. To test this hypothesis, we examined the naming of environmental sounds in patients with corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), two…

  16. How Hurricanes Get Their Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梅荐

    2000-01-01

    The first people who gave names to hurricanes were those who knew them best the people of Puerto Rico. The small island of Puerto Rico is in the West Indies, off the coast of Florida. This is where all the hurricanes begin that strike the east coast of the United States.

  17. Nomina dubia and available names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, R V

    1980-01-01

    The availability or non-availability of a name is a question of historical fact. A name once made available under the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature can be rendered unavailable only by use of the plenary powers of the Commission. The question whether a name is a nomen dubium or not is a matter of taxonomic judgement. The difficulty with the Sarcocystinae discussed by Frenkel et al. (1979) stems from the fact that, under the present provisions of the Code, it is not possible to designate for the species concerned types that will serve any useful function. The Commission is now considering changes to the Code proposed to remedy this defect in a general, legislative way. It will not, as a matter of general practice, entertain proposals for the suppression of names merely because they are considered to be nomina dubia. The application submitted by Professor Frenkel and his collegaues will nevertheless be published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature so that the Commission can, if necessary, deliver a ruling on it before the new edition of the Code has appeared.

  18. In the Name of Love

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Anders; Muhr, Sara Louise

    and desire, where love makes you want to preserve the moment, whereas desire is "the opposite of normal conduct (...) anything that suggests erotic excess always implies disorder" (Bataille, 1986:170). In the name of love, let's remember desire! References Bataille, G. (1986). Erotism - Death and Sensuality...

  19. Sewerage Pumping Stations, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Sewerage Pumping Stations dataset current as of 2011. File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer...

  20. "What's Your Name?": Names, Naming Practices, and Contextualized Selves of Young Korean American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Kyunghwa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how young Korean American children and the adults around these children perform naming practices and what these practices mean to the children. As part of a large ethnographic study on Korean American children's peer culture in a heritage language school in the United States, data were collected by observing 11 prekindergarten…

  1. "What's Your Name?": Names, Naming Practices, and Contextualized Selves of Young Korean American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Kyunghwa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how young Korean American children and the adults around these children perform naming practices and what these practices mean to the children. As part of a large ethnographic study on Korean American children's peer culture in a heritage language school in the United States, data were collected by observing 11 prekindergarten…

  2. 27 CFR 5.34 - Brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand names. 5.34 Section... Spirits § 5.34 Brand names. (a) Misleading brand names. No label shall contain any brand name, which... officer finds that such brand name (when appropriately qualified if required) conveys no...

  3. 27 CFR 7.23 - Brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand names. 7.23 Section... Beverages § 7.23 Brand names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if not sold under a brand name, then the name of the person required to appear on the brand label shall be deemed...

  4. Santa Claus ’Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    寒冰

    2005-01-01

    A ustria—Christkind Belgium and the N etherlands—N oel Saint Nicholas C hristkind and Black Pete Brazil—Papa;N oel D enm ark—Julinisse England—Father Christm as Finland—O ld M an C hristm asFrance—Pere N oel or le Petit Germ any—K riss Kringle Christkind or Saint N icholas Italy—B efana Japan—Santa K urohsu M exico—Three Kings Poland—Star M an or W ise M en Spain—Three Kings R ussia—B asbouschka ?Santa Claus ’Names@寒冰

  5. Team names of the NBA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The entry of Yao Ming into the National Basketball Association has created millions of new NBA fans in China.Although teams such as the Rockets and the Lakers have become well known in Chi- na,very few Chinese fans know the stories behind the NBA’s team names. The NBA is divided into the Eastern and Western Conferences.The two conferences are split a- long the Mississippi River,which is the traditional East-West dividing line in the United States.

  6. The Myths behind Flower Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白杰

    2014-01-01

    The Greek term for flower is Chloris. It is derived from the name of the Chloris, the goddess of vegetation, in Greek mythology, reasonably so, if we consider the great number of mythological tales linked to flowers of the Greek flowers. The use of flowers was widespread in Greece from time immemorial, since flowers are so important to us from the moment we are born. Flowers play an important role in mythology. As they morph from bud to bloom to faded and wilted petals, they assume various meanings linked to youth, life and death. They are associated with goddesses and legends, and are often attributed with certain powers and symbolism.

  7. Securing the Domain Name System

    OpenAIRE

    Massey, Daniel; Denning, Dorothy E.

    2009-01-01

    The article of record as published may be located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/MSP.2009.121 The Domain Name System (DNS) is a critical part of the Internet infrastructure. Virtually every Internet application depends on some form of DNS data, yet access to and the reliability of that data aren't assured. DNS attacks and abuses, meanwhile, are increasingly common and sophisticated. Part of the problem is that security wasn't a major goal of the original DNS design. The DNS community has...

  8. Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric, File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is incomplete. Contains electric trans lines, electric substations, sewer plants, sewer pumpstations, water plants, water tanks http://www.harfordcountymd.gov/gis/Index.cfm, Published in 2011, 1:9600 (1in=800ft) scale, Harford County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Transmission Lines or Poles, Electric dataset, published at 1:9600 (1in=800ft) scale as of 2011. It is described as 'File name = UTILITIES - PARTIAL Data is...

  9. Rehabilitation of memory for people's names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milders, M.V.; Deelman, B.G.; Berg, I.J.

    1998-01-01

    In a training study, memory-impaired patients were taught strategies to improve the learning of new names and the retrieval of familiar people's names. To improve new name learning, the patients were encouraged to give more meaning to a person's name, without requiring an explicit association betwee

  10. Rehabilitation of memory for people's names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milders, M.V.; Deelman, B.G.; Berg, I.J.

    In a training study, memory-impaired patients were taught strategies to improve the learning of new names and the retrieval of familiar people's names. To improve new name learning, the patients were encouraged to give more meaning to a person's name, without requiring an explicit association

  11. Medieval Karelian Calendar Names: A Cognitive Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kyurshunova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on calendar personal names recorded in the 15–17th centuries Russian and Swedish manuscripts written in Karelia. Revealing the cognitive potential of this historical stratum of names, the author analyzes the frequency of full (official and modified forms of calendar names, the regional peculiarities of their linguistic adaptation, their ethnolinguisitic and social status, as well as the functioning of calendar names in the regional onomastic system. The analysis shows that the calendar onomasticon holds the leading positions, which reflects important axiological and mental shifts in the people’s culture. The list of most frequent Christian names of the region generally coincides with the onomastic data related to other Russian territories of the same period. The conservation of the name nomenclature is due to family traditions, namely, to familial practices of naming. However, the adaptation and distribution of names display some regional features, particularly in the frequency of different groups of anthroponyms. The peripheral situation of the region and the presence of Balto-Fennic population which adapted the Russian calendar athroponymicon determined the “conservatism” of the calendar names nomenclature: for naming, they selected the names which were better adapted and more extensively used among Russians. The formation of modified names depended mostly on the morphemic structure of the Russian language, regional features being relatively insignificant. The frequency of modified forms of names correlates with the genre of the manuscript and the scribe’s arbitrariness.

  12. ISTA List of Stablized Plant Names, ed. 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed-testing laboratories determine the quality of seed lots in national and international seed commerce. Those services most commonly requested include purity analysis, noxious-weed seed detection, and viability tests. Rigorous procedures for performing various tests on specific crops have been est...

  13. Color Naming Experiment in Mongolian Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandin-Erdene Osorjamaa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous researches on color terms and names in many languages. In Mongolian language there are few doctoral theses on color naming. Cross cultural studies of color naming have demonstrated Semantic relevance in French and Mongolian color name Gerlee Sh. (2000; Comparisons of color naming across English and Mongolian Uranchimeg B. (2004; Semantic comparison between Russian and Mongolian idioms Enhdelger O. (1996; across symbolism Dulam S. (2007 and few others. Also a few articles on color naming by some Mongolian scholars are Tsevel, Ya. (1947, Baldan, L. (1979, Bazarragchaa, M. (1997 and others. Color naming studies are not sufficiently studied in Modern Mongolian. Our research is considered to be the first intended research on color naming in Modern Mongolian, because it is one part of Ph.D dissertation on color naming. There are two color naming categories in Mongolian, basic color terms and non- basic color terms. There are seven basic color terms in Mongolian. This paper aims to consider how Mongolian color names are derived from basic colors by using psycholinguistics associative experiment. It maintains the students and researchers to acquire the specific understanding of the differences and similarities of color naming in Mongolian and  English languages from the psycho-linguistic aspect. Keywords: modern Mongolian, basic color terms, non-basic color terms, associative experiment, signal word, response word, color naming

  14. Evolution of popularity in given names

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Mi Jin; Yi, Il Gu; Baek, Seung Ki; Kim, Beom Jun

    2015-01-01

    An individual's identity in a human society is specified by his or her name. Differently from family names, usually inherited from fathers, a given name for a child is often chosen at the parents' disposal. However, their decision cannot be made in a vacuum but affected by social conventions and trends. Furthermore, such social pressure changes in time, as new names gain popularity while some other names are gradually forgotten. In this paper, we investigate how popularity of given names has evolved over the last century by using datasets collected in Korea, the province of Quebec in Canada, and the United States. In each of these countries, the average popularity of given names exhibits typical patterns of rise and fall with a time scale of about one generation. We also observe that notable changes of diversity in given names signal major social changes.

  15. Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    particular ship names. Secretaries also routinely receive formal suggestions for ship names from concerned citizens, active and retired service members...were named for battles, but one (CG-51) was named for Thomas S . Gates, a former Secretary of the Navy and Secretary of Defense. 13 Department of the...been chosen and announced by the Secretary of the Navy, under the direction of the President and in accordance with rules prescribed by Congress

  16. WEB BASED TRANSLATION OF CHINESE ORGANIZATION NAME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Muyun; Liu Daxin; Zhao Tiejun; Qi Haoliang; Lin Kaiming

    2009-01-01

    A web-based translation method for Chinese organization name is proposed. After analyzing the structure of Chinese organization name, the methods of bilingual query formulation and maximum entropy based translation re-ranking are suggested to retrieve the English translation from the web via public search engine. The experiments on Chinese university names demonstrate the validness of this approach.

  17. Towards intuitive naming in the future internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooren, P.A.; Keesmaat, N.W.; Norp, A.H.J.; Deventer, M.O. van

    2010-01-01

    The main naming system in the Internet today, DNS, is based on globally unique, hierarchically structured domain names. It does not match the names people use in everyday life. This should change in the Future Internet, if it is to live up to its promise of seamless integration into people's

  18. What’s in a Name?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The process behind naming a Chinese baby has many variations,but with so many people and few name choices,parents are looking for new options Names are very important to the Chinese. When a baby is born, or evenbeforebirth, choosing

  19. Once more the generic name Passerina Vieillot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van E.D.

    1910-01-01

    The note on the generic name of the Snow-bunting by Dr. E. Hartert in this part of our periodical gives me cause to revert to the subject of my note on the generic name Passerina Vieillot and to state here, that I stand to what I have said about the rejection of this name in Zoology (Notes Leyden Mu

  20. “SPR”: The right name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prölss, Gerd

    I believe it is worthwhile to continue the discussion on a new name for the Solar-Planetary Relations section of AGU. At stake is not only a section name but the name of an entire research discipline. The following comments are in response to the alternate suggestions made by J. S. Horwitz and J. W. Chamberlain.

  1. On Sociolinguistic Theoretical Basis of Brand Name

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹海洋; 司宇婷

    2015-01-01

    Brand names are the offspring of highly development of market economics, and play a crucial role in modern society. This paper discusses the soci-olinguistic theoretical basis of brand name. Attention should be paid to the cultural factors of brand naming, including customs and manners, religious beliefs, ethics, regional culture and so on.

  2. An MEG study of picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levelt, W.J.M.; Praamstra, P.; Meyer, A.S.; Helenius, P.I.; Salmelin, R.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to relate a psycholinguistic processing model of picture naming to the dynamics of cortical activation during picture naming. The activation was recorded from eight Dutch subjects with a whole-head neuromagnetometer. The processing model, based on extensive naming

  3. On Strong Memes in Brand Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳

    2014-01-01

    Based on the memetics and through a large number of examples, this paper expounds several effective methods to cre-ate strong brand name memes. It’s hoped that this paper will offer brand name designers some useful advice on how to create suc-cessful brand name memes.

  4. 27 CFR 4.33 - Brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Brand names. 4.33 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.33 Brand names. (a) General. The product shall bear a brand name, except that if not sold under a brand...

  5. ZOONYMS IN AMERICAN FOOTBALL TEAMS’ NAMES

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Using zoonyms is one of the main ways of naming American football teams. Implicit qualitative features of the zoonym’s meaning motivate to choose a name of this or that animal. Zoonyms in the teams’ names are a result of self-estimation act. With the help of zoonyms footballers try to present themselves as a strong, competitive and successful team

  6. Plant Growth Regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Louis G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)

  7. Official Naming in Hå, Klepp and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Særheim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Toponyms localize, reflect and give information about historical traditions and various phenomena in an area. They form part of the local heritage and culture. The relationship between place names, heritage and identity is often underlined in guidelines regarding official naming of streets and roads. In what way is heritage and local identity reflected in the road names of the three municipalities Hå, Klepp and Time (Southwest-Norway, and how is the special character of this area expressed in the names? More than half of the official road names in the three municipalities are either identical with a local toponym, or they consist of a word for ‘road’ and a local toponym (or an appellative describing the location. This shows that there is a strong commitment to base the official naming on local tradition and thus contribute to identity. Quite a few elements from the dialect, e.g. special pronunciation, grammatical forms or local words, appear in the names, especially in the road names from Hå, reflecting that the names are part of the local culture, and due to the fact that the dialect is unique. Consistency is a challenge, however; the same word is sometimes spelled in different ways in different names. It appears that, with some exceptions, cultural heritage and local tradition have been preferred principles and guidelines with regard to naming of roads in the three municipalities, due to a consciousness that heritage and tradition create identity.

  8. Trade name and trademark versus domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmila Pokorná

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet domains have become an integral part of our lives, so one can easily understand that during their use, conflicts can arise, whose participants will search for rules enabling resolution of conflicts. Since the domain name is a replacement of the computer IP address, in the technical sense of the word, this does not concern for domain names a commercial name or brand, because it primarily does not belong to a person in the legal sense of the word and does not serve for its individualization. The average user regularly affiliates domain names with a person offering goods or services on the relevant Website. Domain names used by entrepreneurs in their business activity are often chosen so that the second-level domain (SLD would use words that form the trade name of corporations formed of trading companies. This fact brings domain names close to such designations that serve the individualization of persons or products, especially the trademarks and the commercial name. Domains can come into conflict with the rights to designations, especially trademarks and commercial names. Court practice is resolving these conflicts using rules for unfair competition, or rules for protection of commercial names and trademarks, but it is not ruled out that in the future, special legal regulation of domain names could be established.

  9. Asymptotic properties of restricted naming games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacherjee, Biplab; Datta, Amitava; Manna, S. S.

    2017-07-01

    Asymptotic properties of the symmetric and asymmetric naming games have been studied under some restrictions in a community of agents. In one version, the vocabulary sizes of the agents are restricted to finite capacities. In this case, compared to the original naming games, the dynamics takes much longer time for achieving the consensus. In the second version, the symmetric game starts with a limited number of distinct names distributed among the agents. Three different quantities are measured for a quantitative comparison, namely, the maximum value of the total number of names in the community, the time at which the community attains the maximal number of names, and the global convergence time. Using an extensive numerical study, the entire set of three power law exponents characterizing these quantities are estimated for both the versions which are observed to be distinctly different from their counter parts of the original naming games.

  10. “Russian Field” in Advertising Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana P. Romanova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with commercial names having reference to the cultural space of Russia. Their connotative meaning includes a ‘Russian ethno-cultural marker’ (REM actualized in the advertising discourse by a multi-coded text constituted by an integrated complex of semantic, stylistic, and symbolic verbal and visual signs. The article analyzes the verbal means of expression of the REM in commercial naming: lexical, semantic, and stylistic features of the names; national precedent phenomena reflected by the words designating elements of Russian spiritual and material culture; notions of Russian history; ethnonyms; culture-specific vocabulary; archaic words; precedent personal names and toponyms; Russian colloquial expressions. The author also analyzes graphic elements and models of commercial names formation as supplementary REM actualizers. The article focuses on three major functions of REM-names: informational, phatic, and connotative functions, outlining their spheres of use in commercial discourse, particularly in the commercial naming of Russian state enterprises and brands and in labeling exported goods and services. The Russian ethnically marked names represent an open, dynamically developing system which can be represented as a field structure whose center is constituted by commercial names including ethnonyms, culture-specific vocabulary and words designating national precedent phenomena, and the periphery by all Russian names.

  11. UniTree Name Server internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mecozzi, D.; Minton, J.

    1996-01-01

    The UniTree Name Server (UNS) is one of several servers which make up the UniTree storage system. The Name Server is responsible for mapping names to capabilities Names are generally human readable ASCII strings of any length. Capabilities are unique 256-bit identifiers that point to files, directories, or symbolic links. The Name Server implements a UNIX style hierarchical directory structure to facilitate name-to-capability mapping. The principal task of the Name Server is to manage the directories which make up the UniTree directory structure. The principle clients of the Name Server are the FTP Daemon, NFS and a few UniTree utility routines. However, the Name Server is a generalized server and will accept messages from any client. The purpose of this paper is to describe the internal workings of the UniTree Name Server. In cases where it seems appropriate, the motivation for a particular choice of algorithm as description of the algorithm itself will be given.

  12. Toward an integrated system of clade names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Kevin

    2007-12-01

    Although the proposition that higher taxa should correspond to clades is widely accepted, current nomenclature does not distinguish clearly between different clades in nested series. In particular, the same name is often applied to a total clade, its crown clade, and clades originating with various nodes, branches, and apomorphies in between. An integrated system of clade names is described based on categories of clades defined with respect to lineages that have survived to the present time. In this system, the most widely known names are applied to crown clades, the names of total clades are formed by adding a standard prefix to the names of the corresponding crowns, and the names of apomorphy clades describe the specific apomorphies with which they originated. Relative to traditional approaches, this integrated approach to naming clades is both more precise concerning the associations of names with particular clades and more efficient with regard to the cognitive effort required to recognize the names of corresponding crown and total clades. It also seems preferable to five alternatives that could be used to make the same distinctions. The integrated system of clade names has several advantages, including the facilitation of communication among biologists who study distantly related clades, promoting a broader conceptualization of the origins of distinctive clades of extant organisms and emphasizing the continuous nature of evolution.

  13. Amerindian names of Colombian palms (Palmae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marmolejo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A glossary of 1276 Amerindian names or name variants of palms is presented, representing at least 121 species in 64 aboriginal languages of Colombia. The species with documented names in the largest number of languages are Bactris gasipaes, Oenocarpus bataua, Mauritia flexuosa,Euterpe precatoria, andAstrocaryum chambira, which are five of the most used palms in South America. The languages with the largest number of named species are uitoto (48, tikuna (47, muinane (43, siona (34, sikuani (31 and miraña (30. These figures reflect the detailed studies carried out with these ethnic groups, besides the palm diversity of their territories and their knowledge about it. The names are presented in three separate lists –arranged by species, by language, and a global list of names that includes references for each individual record.

  14. Personal Names and Identity in Literary Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedicta Windt-Val

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to show the close connection between a person's given name and their feeling of identity and self. This connection is very important - it has even been stated that the parents' choice of name for their child will have an influence on the development of the personality of the child. Moreover, personal names and place names are some of the most important tools of the author in the creation of credible characters placed in a literary universe that gives the impression of being authentic. Many authors from different countries have related their view of the significance of names and naming, not only as a source of information for the reader, but also as an important part of making the characters real to the authors themselves during the process of writing.

  15. Naming in the Distributed Operating System ZGL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛行; 孙钟秀

    1991-01-01

    In this paper,the naming scheme used in the heterogeneous distributed operating system ZGL is described and some of the representative techniques utilized in current distributed operating systems are examined.It is believed that the partitioning of the name space into manyn local name spaces and one global shared name space allows the ZGL system to satisfy each workstation's demand for local autonomy and still be able to facilitate transparent resource sharing.By the division of the system into clusters and the use of a combined centralized-distributed naming mechanism,the system is able to avoid both the bottleneck problem caused by a single centralized name server for the whole system and the performance degradation due to a full distributed scheme.

  16. English Translation of Chinese Personal Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐洁

    2008-01-01

    This paper talks about the translation of personal names from Chinese into English, which is complicated by different factors, including orthographic, phonetic, geographic and social ones. To translate personal names appropriately, a wide range of knowledge is required. Although translation machine is more often used nowadays, it cannot take place of person in the end. Several types of name translation will be talked about in this paper.

  17. Thoughts about the Name of Our Discipline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Jacqueline; Aronowitz, Teri; AbuFannouneh, AbdulMuhsen; Al Usta, Maysa'; Fraley, Hannah E; Howlett, Mary Susan L; Mtengezo, Jasintha Titani; Muchira, James Muturi; Nava, Adrianna; Thapa, Saurja; Zhang, Yuqing

    2015-10-01

    This essay addresses the name of our discipline. Discussion of the use of the term, nursology, focuses on the origin of the term, its use as a name for our discipline and its use as a research method and a practice methodology. Advantages and disadvantages of nursology as the name for our discipline are gleaned from PhD program students' responses to a question posed by Reed (1997).

  18. Gorlin-Goltz: what's in a name?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, T

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes the clinical features of two very distinct syndromes with similar names: Gorlin-Goltz and Goltz-Gorlin Syndromes. A case report is presented that highlights the differences between these syndromes. To avoid errors in diagnosis because of the similarity in names, the authors caution that, based on additional information now available, the preferred names should be Focal Dermal Hypoplasia syndrome for Goltz-Gorlin syndrome and Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma syndrome for Gorlin-Goltz syndrome.

  19. ZOONYMS IN AMERICAN FOOTBALL TEAMS’ NAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moravij A. O.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Using zoonyms is one of the main ways of naming American football teams. Implicit qualitative features of the zoonym’s meaning motivate to choose a name of this or that animal. Zoonyms in the teams’ names are a result of self-estimation act. With the help of zoonyms footballers try to present themselves as a strong, competitive and successful team

  20. Chinese multi-document personal name disambiguation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to determining whether an interested personal name across documents refers to the same entity. Firstly, three vectors for each text are formed: the personal name Boolean vectors denoting whether a personal name occurs in the text, the biographical word Boolean vector representing title, occupation and so forth, and the feature vector with real values. Then, by combining a heuristic strategy based on Boolean vectors with an agglomerative clustering algorithm based on feature vectors, it seeks to resolve multi-document personal name coreference. Experimental results show that this approach achieves a good performance by testing on "Wang Gang" corpus.

  1. What's in a Screen Name? Attractiveness of Different Types of Screen Names Used by Online Daters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica T. Whitty

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined whether different types of screen names offer advantages when it comes to attracting a partner on dating sites. In the pilot study, we conducted a content analysis of real screen names to develop a typology of screen names. In the main study, we explored whether the typology predicted online daters' ratings of names, and compared the types of names that appealed to men and to women. Men more than women were attracted to screen names that indicated physical attractiveness, and women more than men were attracted to screen names that indicated intelligence or were neutral. Similarly, men more than women were motivated to contact screen names which indicated physical attractiveness and women more than men were more motivated to contact screen names which indicated intellectual characteristics or were neutral. These findings indicate that different types of screen names may elicit different reactions.

  2. Scale insect species names combined with the genus name Chermes Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D J

    2015-01-01

    Species names in the scale insects that have been combined with the genus name Chermes Linnaeus, 1758, are listed. This list supplements a list published already for the Sternorrhyncha but that was restricted to names of species that had been described originally in the genus. The present list includes, in addition, all species names in the scale insects that have been combined with the name Chermes. 

  3. Fast-growing willow shrub named `Tully Champion`

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2007-08-28

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.S. miyabeana named `Tully Champion`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing greater than 25% more woody biomass than two current production clones (Salix dasyclados `SV1` and Salix miyabeana `SX64`), more than 2.5-fold greater biomass than one of its parents (Salix miyabeana `SX67`), and nearly 3-fold more biomass than another production clone (Salix sacchalinensis, `SX61`) when grown in the same field for the same length of time (two growing seasons after coppice) in Tully, N.Y. `Tully Champion` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested repeatedly after two to four years of growth. `Tully Champion` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  4. Fast-growing willow shrub named `Fish Creek`

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2007-05-08

    A distinct male cultivar of Salix purpurea named `Fish Creek`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing greater than 30% more woody biomass than either of its parents (`94001` and `94006`) and 20% more biomass than a current production cultivar (`SV1`). `Fish Creek` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested after two to four years of growth. This harvest cycle can be repeated several times. The stem biomass can be chipped and burned as a source of renewable energy, generating heat and/or electricity. `Fish Creek` displays a low incidence of rust disease or damage by beetles or sawflies.

  5. Retrieval opportunities while multitasking improve name recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helder, Elizabeth; Shaughnessy, John J

    2008-11-01

    In two experiments we tested whether providing retrieval opportunities while people were multitasking would improve memory for names. College students (n=195) in Experiment 1 did addition problems and intermittently were "introduced" to 12 face-name pairs to learn. For half the names students were given three within-list retrieval opportunities. Name recall (cued with the faces) was tested either immediately or after 24 hours. Retrieval opportunities improved name recall with both immediate and delayed tests. Experiment 2 more closely resembled the multitasking required in a real-life social situation. College students (n=98) viewed a videotape and were asked to learn the names of 12 dormitory residents who were introduced during an ongoing conversation. Retrieval opportunities were provided for 8 of the 12 residents by having them appear three additional times in the video without repeating their names. Retrieval opportunities improved name recall, but the effect was much smaller than in Experiment 1. The present research demonstrates that distributed retrieval can be effective when people are multitasking including when the multitasking involves a conversation.

  6. The Topography of Names and Places.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morehead, Joe

    1999-01-01

    Discusses geographic naming with Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology. Highlights include the Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) online database; United States Geological Survey (USGS) national mapping information; the USGS-Microsoft connection; and panoramic maps and the small LizardTech company. (AEF)

  7. Matatti’s generic names for fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donk, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    The generic names for fungi used by Maratti in his ‘Flora romana’ must be accepted as validly published. Notes are given on the validly re-published names. Of these Agaricum and Coralloides may cause some difficulties. Conservation of Fomes (Fr.) Fr. against Agaricum [Mich.] Maratti is proposed. To

  8. The Private Legal Governance of Domain Names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2016-01-01

    This chapter evaluates the performance of the special private tribunals or panels such as the UDRP which have been developed within complicated systems of self- and co-regulation such as ICANN to decide disputes over domain names. It uses two different dispute resolution models viz. the UDRP (WIPO......) and the Danish Complaints Board for Internet Domain Names (the Board) to discuss how and to what extent the domain name system balances interests between trademark owners and other users of domain names and secures the rule of law (legal certainty and predictability) with a special focus on cases where...... trademarks are used as (parts of) domain names to express criticism of the trademark holder or the trademark itself (e.g. “TMsucks.com” / “lorteTM.dk”)....

  9. The Private Legal Governance of Domain Names

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This article evaluates the performance of the special private tribunals or panels such as the UDRP which have been developed within complicated systems of self- and co-regulation such as ICANN to decide disputes over domain names. It uses two different dispute resolution models viz....... the UDRP (WIPO) and the Danish Complaints Board for Internet Domain Names (the Board) to discuss how and to what extent the domain name system balances interests between trademark owners and other users of domain names and secures the rule of law (legal certainty and predictability) with a special focus...... on cases where trademarks are used as (parts of) domain names to express criticism of the trademark holder or the trademark itself (e.g. “TMsucks.com” / “lorteTM.dk”). The article is part of a research project on “User Generated Law” and uses the methodologies developed as part of this. It is scheduled...

  10. NOTES ON SOME PREOCCUPIED NAMES IN ARTHROPODA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Christian F. Kammerer

    2006-01-01

    New replacement names for the preoccupied mite genera Absentia Huang, 2001 and Venilia Kuznetsov, 1979 are proposed (Huangiella nom. nov. and Kuznetsovia nom. nov. , respectively. ). Fourteen further new replacement names are proposed for additional preoccupied generic names in the Arthropoda. These names are: Vailimia nom. nov. , Millidgella nom. nov., and Nolavia nom. nov. in Araneae, Vadumasonium nom. nov. in Hymenoptera, Gridellia nom. nov.,Vanstaronia nom. nov. and Veraniella nom. nov. in Coleoptera, Poletaevega nom. nov. in Trilobita, Vandelia nom. nov.in Isopoda, Gandoa nom. nov. and Vanuachela nom. nov. in Decapoda, and Crasquinia nom. nov. , Oertlia nom. nov. ,and Soleaua nom. nov. in Ostracoda. Additionally, one new annelid replacement name, Omodeodrilus nom. nov., is proposed.

  11. Learning the Students' Names: Does it Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2014-01-01

    A key factor in successful teaching and learning is the relationship between the students and the teacher. A simple approach nurturing this relationship is learning the students' names. This is often suggested in the literature, but seems rarely practised. Substantial reports in the literature...... positive and the students felt more secure; the relations between the students and the teacher was improved; the students were encouraged to learn each others' names; and they found I was professional and committed. Im sum, learning the students' names matters....... on the effect of learning the students' names are sparse. Against this background, this paper reports on a method for learning all the students' names and two studies of the effect, based on my use of the method in my teaching. The two survey studies were carried in 2011 and in 2014. A survey was in the first...

  12. HMM based Korean Named Entity Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Gyu Hwang

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a named entity recognition model for Korean Language. Named entity recognition is an essential and important process of Question Answering and Information Extraction system. This paper proposes a HMM based named entity recognition using compound word construction principles. In Korean, above 60% of NE (Named-Entity is a compound word. This compound word may be consisted of proper noun, common noun, or bound noun, etc. There is an intercontextual relationship among nouns which consists NE. NE and surrounding words of NE have a contextual relationship. For considering these relationships, we classified nouns into 4 word classes (Independent Entity, Constituent Entity, Adjacent Entity, Not an Entity. With this classification, our system gets contextual and lexical information by stochastic based machine leaning method from a NE labeled training data. Experimental result shows that this approach is better approach than rulebased in the Korean named-entity recognition.

  13. The Development of Plant Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, John G.

    1985-01-01

    Examines major lines of thought leading to what is meant by plant biotechnology, namely, the application of existing techniques of plant organ, tissue, and cell culture, plant molecular biology, and genetic engineering to the improvement of plants and of plant productivity for the benefit of man. (JN)

  14. [Where will Chinese medicine disease names go?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhan-Qing

    2013-06-01

    The statistical survey of "Clinical Articles", one column of Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine (24 volumes in total) showed that, of the 151 academic exploration on diseases, Western disease (WM) names were used in 145 articles, constituting 96.03% of the entire column. Obviously, Chinese medicine (CM) disease names were not basically used by CM physicians. Taking Chinese Internal Medicine (2nd edition), a national textbook for students in CM universities, as an example, we could find that the use of disease names was in a chaos logically, disease, syndrome, and symptom were not used clearly. In the general knowledge part, when mentioning a disease, the book sometimes used "disease", sometimes "disease-syndrome". In the classified parts, some diseases were simply named as "A or B syndrome", and when talking about a specific disease, it referred to the symptom-based disease as a kind of "disease-syndrome". Throughout the whole book, the disease names named after symptoms or heavily colored by symptoms amounted to 31, accounting for 59.6% of the listed 52 common diseases. In clinical practices, using CM disease names ran the risk of making wrong diagnosis or failing to diagnose patients in time, and therefore, leading to improper treatment or loss of treatment time. For critical diseases, these names can't reveal the serious situations and help to get rid of possible dangers. For chronic diseases, using these names can't lead to early recognition and prevention of diseases. Considering that CM disease names can't go with clinical practices, and lag behind the development of integrative medicine, the author suggested that we should borrow as many WM disease names as possible in CM, because when compared with CM, WM has a much clearer and more objective knowledge of the location, cause, mechanisms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. The classification and naming of diseases in WM is the result of negotiation of WHO and its member countries

  15. Internet Naming and Discovery Architecture and Economics

    CERN Document Server

    Khoury, Joud S

    2013-01-01

    Naming is an integral building block within data networks and systems and is becoming ever more important as complex data-centric usage models emerge. Internet Naming and Discovery is timely in developing a unified model for studying the topic of naming and discovery. It details the architectural and economic tools needed for designing naming and discovery schemes within the broader context of internetwork architecture.   Readers will find in this book a historic overview of the Internet and a comprehensive survey of the literature, followed by and an in-depth examination of naming and discovery. Specific topics covered include: ·         formal definitions of name, address, identifier, locator, binding, routing, discovery, mapping, and resolution; ·         a discussion of the properties of names and bindings, along with illustrative case studies; ·         taxonomy that helps in organizing the solution space, and more importantly in identifying new avenues for contributing to the...

  16. Pen- Name in Persian and Arabic Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Khodayar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pen-name (Takhalloss is one of the main features of Persian poetry. It has been a matter of concern among many of Persian language geography poets in the orient at least up to the Mashrouteh era. Pen-name has been promoted among the other Muslim nations throuph Persian poetry. Although it is not as famous in the Arab nations as in the Persian speaking nations, it is known as “Alqab-o-shoara” among the Arab nations and, through this way, it has affected the poetrical wealth of the Arabic poets.   The Present paper, using description-analystic approach, compares the pen-names of Persian and Arabic poets under the title of “pen-names” and investigates their features in both cultures. The main research question is: What are the similarities and differences of poetic-names, in Persian and Arabic poets in terms of the type of name, position and importance? The results showed that Pseudonym by its amazing expansion in Persian poetry has also influenced Arabic poetry. In addition to the factors affecting in the choice of pen-names (like pseudonym, pen-name, nickname..., sometimes such external factors as events, commends, community benefactors and climate, as well as internal factors including the poets’ inner beliefs are associated too. .

  17. Lessons learned from moving to one scientific name for fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Amy Y

    2014-06-01

    With the changes implemented in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, fungi may no longer have more than one scientific name. Although determining which scientific name to use is based on the principle of priority, situations exist in which applying a strict principle of priority does not contribute to the nomenclatural stability of fungi, thus exceptions can be made to this principle. Examples are presented showing how the single scientific name is determined at both the generic and specific level. In addition procedures are outlined for making exceptions to this rule. Considerable progress has been made in determining which genus to use for major groups of fungi. Interested scientists are invited to participate in the process of moving to one scientific name for fungi by contacting members dealing with specific groups of fungi as listed on the website of the International Commission for the Taxonomy of Fungi (http://www.fungaltaxonomy.org/subcommissions). A new combination of Clonostachys is also made.

  18. 民国《云阳县志·方言》植物类名物词命名取象探析%An Analysis on the Naming Mechanism of Plant-type Entity Nouns in Dialect of Yunyang County Annals in Public of China Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡继明; 杨晓叶

    2012-01-01

      文章对民国云阳方言41个植物类名物词命名取象的依据以及命名取象的规律进行了探讨,认为植物类名物词的命名取象是有规律的,在形体、性态、颜色、功用、气味、质地、滋味等八大类取象名素中,往往是视觉感知优先,在视觉感知中又以形体为先,在形体感知中以形状为优;而性态以空间为先,习性次之;颜色和功用在这八大类取象名素中同样具有重要地位。说明人们对客观事物的感知绝大部分是来源于视觉。%  This paper analyzes the naming mechanism for 41 plant-type entity nouns in Dialect of Yunyang County Annals. It is thought that the nomination has certain rules in terms of eight elements such as form, gender, color, function, smell, texture, taste and integration, with visual perception enjoying priority. And in visual perception, form comes first;and for form, shape is preferred;for gender, space is preferred, and habits follows;Among the eight elements, color and function play an equally important role. It concludes that vision constitutes the majority of people's perceiving the objective world.

  19. Origin names of gochu, kimchi, and bibimbap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Jeong Yang

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Gochu, kimchi, and bibimbap have thousands of years of history and have been called with pure Korean name words. It was only that they were recorded in the form of hanja during the time written Korean was undervalued where people insisted borrowing Chinese characters to write despite written Korean being available. Thus, gocho (苦椒, chimchae (沈菜, and koldonban (滑董飯 are not the origin names. The pure Korean names used even by the people back then are the actual ones: gochyo (고쵸, dimchae (딤, and bubuimbap (부뷤밥.

  20. Changing the Family Name by Administrative Means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duret Nicu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Roman law, changing the name was possible except for the case in which this changewould have been fraudulent. This possibility was kept also in the Middle Age but with some restrictions:the handicraftsmen were not allowed to change their name when it served as a factory brand, the notarycould not change his name without having an authorization, and neither could he change his normalsignature. Gradually, the monarchy increased its control in this matter, tending to transform a socialinstitution into a police one.

  1. What’s in a Name? – Consequences of Naming Non-Human Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkfelt, Sune

    2011-01-01

    The act of naming is among the most basic actions of language. Indeed, it is naming something that enables us to communicate about it in specific terms, whether the object named is human or non-human, animate or inanimate. However, naming is not as uncomplicated as we may usually think and names...... have consequences for the way we think about animals (human and non-human), peoples, species, places, things etc. Through a blend of history, philosophy and representational theory—and using examples from, among other things, the Bible, Martin Luther, colonialism/imperialism and contemporary ways...... of keeping and regarding non-human animals—this paper attempts to trace the importance of (both specific and generic) naming to our relationships with the non-human. It explores this topic from the naming of the animals in Genesis to the names given and used by scientists, keepers of companion animals, media...

  2. How name descriptiveness impacts proper name learning in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogler, Kethera A; James, Lori E; Crandall, Elizabeth A

    2010-09-01

    To elucidate the impact of name descriptiveness and aging on learning new names, 26 young and 26 healthy older participants learned visibly-descriptive (e.g., Lengthy for a giraffe), psychologically-descriptive (e.g., Classy), and non-descriptive (e.g., Sam) proper names for previously-unknown cartoon characters. More visibly-descriptive names were learned than psychologically- or non-descriptive names, which did not differ from each other. There was also a differential benefit for older adults when the name was visibly-descriptive of the referent, such that older adults learned visibly-descriptive names as well as young adults but there were substantial age-related deficits in learning psychologically- and non-descriptive names.

  3. Gene Name Thesaurus - Gene Name Thesaurus | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ts Curators who have expertize in biological research edit gene names found in various databases and article...tabases. 2. The curators who have expertise in biological research confirm the name variation for genes and

  4. Indicizzare concetti e/o named entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pino Buizza

    2011-10-01

    Questo contributo è stato presentato col titolo Indexing concepts and/or named entities all'11th ISKO Conference, Paradigms and conceptual systems in knowledge organization, Roma, 23-26 febbraio 2010, non pubblicato negli atti, e qui leggermente ampliato.

  5. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Admin Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  6. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Antarctica Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  7. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Hydrography Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  8. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Hydrography Lines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  9. 46 CFR 169.665 - Name plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Electrical Electrical Installations Operating at Potentials of Less Than 50 Volts on Vessels of Less Than 100 Gross Tons § 169.665 Name plates. Each generator, motor and other major item f power equipment must...

  10. Names in Neo-Punic inscriptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeling, Karel

    1984-01-01

    This study examines the names in neo-punic inscriptions. It tries to combine the studies from Benz and others, to give the reader a rather complete view of the Phoenician and Punic inscriptions. ... Zie: Introduction

  11. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Community Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  12. Geographic Place Names, Published in unknown, SWGRC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Geographic Place Names dataset as of unknown. Data by this publisher are often provided in Geographic coordinate system; in a Not Sure projection; The extent...

  13. Listing of awardee names: Active awards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This catalog/directory presents DOE`s procurement and assistance data system, arranged according to awardee name, bin, completion date, description of work, division, vendor ID, city, state, congressional district, contract value, obligations to date, P/S.

  14. Factors affecting the retrieval of famous names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Isabel Pavão; Loureiro, Clara; Rodrigues, Susana; Dias, Beatriz; Slade, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Tests of famous faces are used to study language and memory. Yet, the effect of stimulus properties on performance has not been fully investigated. To identify factors influencing proper name retrieval and to probe stimulus-specific parameters within proper name lexicon, we analysed the results obtained by 300 healthy participants on a test of famous faces that includes 74 personalities. A factor analysis yielded five main factors that were characterized by language (national or foreign names), epoch of peak popularity (current, recent or past) and occupation (politicians, entertainment and sports) of the personalities. Multiple regression analysis showed that participants' education, age and gender accounted for 10-32% of the variance in factor scores. These results indicate that there are variables of the stimulus and participants' that must be taken into account in proper name testing and in designing tests aimed to differentiate age-associated difficulties from cognitive decline.

  15. Dushan Boroyevich named American Electric Power Professor

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2006-01-01

    Dushan Boroyevich, professor of electrical engineering in the College of Engineering at Virginia Tech, was named the American Electric Power Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering by the Virginia Tech Board of Visitors during the board's quarterly meeting June 12.

  16. VT E911 road name geocoder

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — VT E911 road name geocoder. VCGI, in collaboration with the VT E911 Board, has created a suite of geocoding services that can be used to batch geocode addresses...

  17. Talk on Chinese brand name translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹文文

    2009-01-01

    A brand is shown by a name , a word , a sign , a symbol , a design or a combination of them. Brand-naming itself represents a strategically important issue and may determine the success or failure of a product.Along with the globalization of world economy, especially with China's entry into the World Trade Organization, more and more Chinese have realized the importance of good brand names and international brand names in promoting sales and cultivating markets. The essay attempts to make some study on the topic. In the first part, the essay talks about cultural difference. In the second part, it suggests some appropriate principles to guide the translation. In the third part, the essay provides some flexibly used methods to deal with the problems in translation.

  18. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Landform Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  19. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Historical Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  20. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Transportation Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  1. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Cultural Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  2. Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  3. GNIS: Geographic Names Information Systems - All features

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) actively seeks data from and partnerships with Government agencies at all levels and other interested organizations....

  4. The Translation of Chinese Dish Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚佳文

    2015-01-01

    The traditional food of a nation reflects its historical and cultural characteristics This thesis begins with an introduction to the translation situation of Chinese dish names and its existing problem nowadays, and proceeds to the translation principles and tactics for English translation of the names of Chinese dishes, based on Eugene A. Nida’ s Functional Equivalence, with an aim to improve translation efficiency and promote cross-cultural communication, and promoting Chinese food culture throughout the globe.

  5. The naming of minor planets: multicultural relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Jean-Claude

    2011-06-01

    To date, among the hundred or so minor planets we discovered with various instruments around the world, twenty of these objects have been definitively numbered and named. We have choosen the names according to our centers of interest. In honouring people in domains as varied as astronomy, astronautics, music, paleontology, comic strips, . . . we had the opportunity of establishing fruitful relationships with a large horizon of cultures. It was also a good opportunity for the diffusion of astronomy towards other communities.

  6. Domain Name Server Security (DNSSEC) Protocol Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    was a 10-year effort to promote adoption of the DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC), a method of cryptography securing domain name system ( DNS ) lookups...DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED i 1. SUMMARY The DNSSEC Deployment Initiative was a 10-year effort to promote adoption of the DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC), a...method of cryptographically securing domain name system ( DNS ) lookups. This paper describes the latter five years of the Initiative’s work, which

  7. Between Ethnic and English Names: Name Choice for Transnational Chinese Students in a US Academic Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Wenhao

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how transnational Chinese students negotiate identity options through name choice while studying in the US. Name choice can discursively index membership in various communities. Drawing on theories of heteroglossia (Bakhtin, 1981) and community of practices (Lave and Wenger, 1991), this study examines how name choice becomes…

  8. What is in a name? : Mutual fund flows when managers have foreign-sounding names

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, A.; Niessen-Ruenzi, A.; Spalt, O.G.

    2015-01-01

    We show that name-induced stereotypes affect the investment choices of U.S. mutual fund investors. Managers with foreign-sounding names have about 10% lower annual fund flows, and this effect is stronger among funds with investor clienteles more likely to be suspicious of foreigners. Foreign-named m

  9. Named entity recognition in Slovene text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Štajner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach and an implementation of a named entity extractor for Slovene language, based on a machine learning approach. It is designed as a supervised algorithm based on Conditional Random Fields and is trained on the ssj500k annotated corpus of Slovene. The corpus, which is available under a Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA licence, is annotated with morphosyntactic tags, as well as named entities for people, locations, organisations, and miscellaneous names. The paper discusses the influence of morphosyntactic tags, lexicons and conjunctions of features of neighbouring words. An important contribution of this investigation is that morphosyntactic tags benefit named entity extraction. Using all the best-performing features the recognizer reaches a precision of 74% and a recall of 72%, having stronger performance on personal and geographical named entities, followed by organizations, but performs poorly on the miscellaneous entities, since this class is very diverse and consequently difficult to predict. A major contribution of the paper is also showing the benefits of splitting the class of miscellaneous entities into organizations and other entities, which in turn improves performance even on personal and organizational names. The software, developed in this research is freely available under the Apache 2.0 licence at http://ailab.ijs.si/~tadej/slner.zip, while development versions are available at https://github.com/tadejs/slner.

  10. Public Naming of Planets and Planetary Satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Montmerle, T; Cheung, Sze-leung; Christensen, L L; Etangs, A Lecavelier des; Liu, Xiaowei; Lubowich, D; Mamajek, E; Schulz, R; Valsecchi, G; Williams, G; Williams, R

    2016-01-01

    While one of the IAU's missions is to "serve as the internationally recognized authority for assigning designations to celestial bodies and surface features on them", the participation of the public in the naming of celestial objects has been a little-known, but decade-long tradition of the IAU. While reiterating its opposition to having the public pay to give a name to an exoplanet, the IAU Executive Committee nonetheless recognized the right of organizations to invite public, international exoplanet naming or voting campaigns. To this end, clear selection rules were to be defined by the IAU, inviting mutual collaboration, the goal being to sanction the campaign and officially approve the resulting names, for the sake of boosting the public's interest in astronomy and at the same time reaffirm the authority of the IAU. In no way were these names supposed to supersede the designations in use by professional astronomers. Since the field of exoplanet research was still "virgin" for naming but is now becoming sc...

  11. User Name Alias Extraction in Emails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijuan Yin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Finding out user identity information from emails is one of the important research topics in email mining. Most approaches extract an email user’s name only from the header of an email, but there are often many name information appearing in the body of emails, and those names are usually more suitable for representing the sender’s or recipient’s identity. This paper focuses on the problem of extracting email users’ name aliases in the body of plain-text emails. After locating and extracting salutation and signature blocks from email bodies, we can identify the potential aliases in the salutation and signature lines, which can be directly associated with the corresponding email address in email headers, by using named entity recognition(NER tools. However the identified aliases may be half-baked or there are still some potential aliases that can’t be correctly identified. So we propose a novel approach to efficiently and accurately extract aliases in the salutation and signature lines based on name boundary word template built on the characteristics of alias neighboring words. Results on the public subset of the Enron corpus indicate that the approaches presented in this paper can efficiently extract user’s aliases from email bodies.

  12. Integrating various resources for gene name normalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuncui Hu

    Full Text Available The recognition and normalization of gene mentions in biomedical literature are crucial steps in biomedical text mining. We present a system for extracting gene names from biomedical literature and normalizing them to gene identifiers in databases. The system consists of four major components: gene name recognition, entity mapping, disambiguation and filtering. The first component is a gene name recognizer based on dictionary matching and semi-supervised learning, which utilizes the co-occurrence information of a large amount of unlabeled MEDLINE abstracts to enhance feature representation of gene named entities. In the stage of entity mapping, we combine the strategies of exact match and approximate match to establish linkage between gene names in the context and the EntrezGene database. For the gene names that map to more than one database identifiers, we develop a disambiguation method based on semantic similarity derived from the Gene Ontology and MEDLINE abstracts. To remove the noise produced in the previous steps, we design a filtering method based on the confidence scores in the dictionary used for NER. The system is able to adjust the trade-off between precision and recall based on the result of filtering. It achieves an F-measure of 83% (precision: 82.5% recall: 83.5% on BioCreative II Gene Normalization (GN dataset, which is comparable to the current state-of-the-art.

  13. What’s in a Name?—Consequences of Naming Non-Human Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sune Borkfelt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The act of naming is among the most basic actions of language. Indeed, it is naming something that enables us to communicate about it in specific terms, whether the object named is human or non-human, animate or inanimate. However, naming is not as uncomplicated as we may usually think and names have consequences for the way we think about animals (human and non-human, peoples, species, places, things etc. Through a blend of history, philosophy and representational theory—and using examples from, among other things, the Bible, Martin Luther, colonialism/imperialism and contemporary ways of keeping and regarding non-human animals—this paper attempts to trace the importance of (both specific and generic naming to our relationships with the non-human. It explores this topic from the naming of the animals in Genesis to the names given and used by scientists, keepers of companion animals, media etc. in our societies today, and asks the question of what the consequences of naming non-human animals are for us, for the beings named and for the power relations between our species and the non-human species and individuals we name.

  14. Naming Countermeasures of Administrative Division in Sight of Chinese Naming View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, R. C.

    2015-06-01

    Although some progresses have been made after nearly 30 years of research and practice of administrative division renaming in China, there are still many problems which have not been really resolved. Moreover, with the beginning of the second place name census across China, scientific and standard administrative division naming countermeasures are of even more importance. In this paper, the problems in present administrative division naming were analyzed, and the basic characters and principles of traditional Chinese noun naming as well as five taboos in Chinese place naming were described by analyzing the theory of Chinese naming concept. Based on the characters above, principles of administrative division renaming and naming conceptions of administrative division were further discussed and analyzed.

  15. International Assistance in Naming Craters on Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, H. M.; Edmonds, J.; Hallau, K.; Hirshon, B.; Goldstein, J.; Hamel, J.; Hamel, S.; Solomon, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    NASA's robotic MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft made history in March 2011 by becoming the first to orbit Mercury. During the mission, MESSENGER acquired more than 250,000 images and made many other kinds of measurements. Names are often given to surface features that are of special scientific interest, such as craters. To draw international attention to the achievements of the spacecraft and engineers and scientists who made the MESSENGER mission a success, the MESSENGER Education and Public Outreach (EPO) Team initiated a Name a Crater on Mercury Competition.Five craters of particular geological interest were chosen by the science team. In accordance with International Astronomical Union (IAU) rules for Mercury, impact craters are named in honor of those who have made outstanding or fundamental contributions to the arts and humanities. He or she must have been recognized as a historically significant figure in the arts for at least 50 years and deceased for the last three years. We were particularly interested in entries honoring people from nations and cultural groups underrepresented in the current list of crater names. From more than 3600 entries received from around the world, the EPO team was able to reduce the number of entries to about 1200 names of 583 different artists who met the contest eligibility criteria. Next, the proposed individuals were divided into five artistic field groups and distributed to experts in that respective field. Each expert reviewed approximately100 artists with their biographical information. They narrowed down their list to a top ten, then to a top five by applying a rubric. The final selection was based on the reviewer lists and scores, with at least three finalist names selected from each artistic field. Of the 17 finalists provided to the IAU, the following names were selected: Carolan crater, Enheduanna crater, Karsh crater, Kulthum crater, and Rivera crater. For more

  16. The Names of God in Jewish Mysticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Burmistrov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the names of God and their role in the creation and existence of the world, as well as the practice of their veneration constitute an essential part of Judaism in general, and are elaborated in detail in Jewish mysticism. In Kabbalah, an idea of the creative power of the Tetragrammaton (the ineff able four-letter Name and other names occupies an especially prominent place. It is based on the idea of linguistic mysticism conveyed in the Jewish mystical treatise Sefer Yetzirah (“Book of Creation”, 3–6 centuries AD.. According to this ancient text, the creation of the world is seen as a linguistic process in which the Hebrew letters are thought of as both the creative forces and the material of which the world is created. The article analyses the main features of the symbolism of the divine names in medieval Kabbalah. We have identifi ed two main areas in the understanding of the divine names, peculiar to the two main schools of classical medieval Kabbalah — theosophical (theurgic and ecstatic (prophetic. The ideas of these schools are considered according to the works of two prominent kabbalists of the 13th c. — Joseph Gikatilla and Abraham Abulafi a. In the fi rst of these schools, knowing the names of God leads to the actualization of the latent mystical forces and results in a transformation and reintegration of our world and the world of the divine. This process, in turn, is understood as having an eschatological and messianic signifi cance. Abraham Abulafi a elaborated sophisticated practices of combining the divine names aimed at transforming the adept’s consciousness, its purifi cation and development of special mental abilities. At the end of the mystical path the practitioner achieves the state of prophecy and eventually merges with the Divine.

  17. Diagnostics of subtropical plants functional state by cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oksana Belous

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an application example of statistical methods for data analysis on diagnosis of the adaptive capacity of subtropical plants varieties. We depicted selection indicators and basic physiological parameters that were defined as diagnostic. We used evaluation on a set of parameters of water regime, there are: determination of water deficit of the leaves, determining the fractional composition of water and detection parameters of the concentration of cell sap (CCS (for tea culture flushes. These settings are characterized by high liability and high responsiveness to the effects of many abiotic factors that determined the particular care in the selection of plant material for analysis and consideration of the impact on sustainability. On the basis of the experimental data calculated the coefficients of pair correlation between climatic factors and used physiological indicators. The result was a selection of physiological and biochemical indicators proposed to assess the adaptability and included in the basis of methodical recommendations on diagnostics of the functional state of the studied cultures. Analysis of complex studies involving a large number of indicators is quite difficult, especially does not allow to quickly identify the similarity of new varieties for their adaptive responses to adverse factors, and, therefore, to set general requirements to conditions of cultivation. Use of cluster analysis suggests that in the analysis of only quantitative data; define a set of variables used to assess varieties (and the more sampling, the more accurate the clustering will happen, be sure to ascertain the measure of similarity (or difference between objects. It is shown that the identification of diagnostic features, which are subjected to statistical processing, impact the accuracy of the varieties classification. Selection in result of the mono-clusters analysis (variety tea Kolhida; hazelnut Lombardsky red; variety kiwi Monty

  18. Standardizing Naming Conventions in Radiation Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santanam, Lakshmi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hurkmans, Coen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mutic, Sasa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Vliet-Vroegindeweij, Corine van [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Brame, Scott; Straube, William [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Galvin, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Tripuraneni, Prabhakar [Department of Radiation Oncology, Scripps Clinic, LaJolla, CA (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Bosch, Walter, E-mail: wbosch@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Advanced Technology Consortium, Image-guided Therapy QA Center, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to report on the development of a standardized target and organ-at-risk naming convention for use in radiation therapy and to present the nomenclature for structure naming for interinstitutional data sharing, clinical trial repositories, integrated multi-institutional collaborative databases, and quality control centers. This taxonomy should also enable improved plan benchmarking between clinical institutions and vendors and facilitation of automated treatment plan quality control. Materials and Methods: The Advanced Technology Consortium, Washington University in St. Louis, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Dutch Radiation Oncology Society, and the Clinical Trials RT QA Harmonization Group collaborated in creating this new naming convention. The International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements guidelines have been used to create standardized nomenclature for target volumes (clinical target volume, internal target volume, planning target volume, etc.), organs at risk, and planning organ-at-risk volumes in radiation therapy. The nomenclature also includes rules for specifying laterality and margins for various structures. The naming rules distinguish tumor and nodal planning target volumes, with correspondence to their respective tumor/nodal clinical target volumes. It also provides rules for basic structure naming, as well as an option for more detailed names. Names of nonstandard structures used mainly for plan optimization or evaluation (rings, islands of dose avoidance, islands where additional dose is needed [dose painting]) are identified separately. Results: In addition to its use in 16 ongoing Radiation Therapy Oncology Group advanced technology clinical trial protocols and several new European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer protocols, a pilot version of this naming convention has been evaluated using patient data sets with varying treatment sites. All structures in these data sets were

  19. SNAD: sequence name annotation-based designer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbalenya Alexander E

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing diversity of biological data is tagged with unique identifiers (UIDs associated with polynucleotides and proteins to ensure efficient computer-mediated data storage, maintenance, and processing. These identifiers, which are not informative for most people, are often substituted by biologically meaningful names in various presentations to facilitate utilization and dissemination of sequence-based knowledge. This substitution is commonly done manually that may be a tedious exercise prone to mistakes and omissions. Results Here we introduce SNAD (Sequence Name Annotation-based Designer that mediates automatic conversion of sequence UIDs (associated with multiple alignment or phylogenetic tree, or supplied as plain text list into biologically meaningful names and acronyms. This conversion is directed by precompiled or user-defined templates that exploit wealth of annotation available in cognate entries of external databases. Using examples, we demonstrate how this tool can be used to generate names for practical purposes, particularly in virology. Conclusion A tool for controllable annotation-based conversion of sequence UIDs into biologically meaningful names and acronyms has been developed and placed into service, fostering links between quality of sequence annotation, and efficiency of communication and knowledge dissemination among researchers.

  20. Named Entity Recognition Using Web Document Corpus

    CERN Document Server

    Karaa, Wahiba Ben Abdessalem

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a named entity recognition approach in textual corpus. This Named Entity (NE) can be a named: location, person, organization, date, time, etc., characterized by instances. A NE is found in texts accompanied by contexts: words that are left or right of the NE. The work mainly aims at identifying contexts inducing the NE's nature. As such, The occurrence of the word "President" in a text, means that this word or context may be followed by the name of a president as President "Obama". Likewise, a word preceded by the string "footballer" induces that this is the name of a footballer. NE recognition may be viewed as a classification method, where every word is assigned to a NE class, regarding the context. The aim of this study is then to identify and classify the contexts that are most relevant to recognize a NE, those which are frequently found with the NE. A learning approach using training corpus: web documents, constructed from learning examples is then suggested. Frequency representatio...

  1. Photon: New light on an old name

    CERN Document Server

    Kragh, Helge

    2014-01-01

    After G. N. Lewis (1875-1946) proposed the term "photon" in 1916, many physicists adopted it as a more apt name for Einstein's light quantum. However, Lewis' photon was a concept of a very different kind, something few physicists knew or cared about. It turns out that Lewis' name was not quite the neologism that it usually has been assumed to be. The same name was proposed twice before 1926, and in both cases in connection with the study of visual perception and stimulus. Priority belongs to the American physicist and psychologist L. T. Troland (1889-1932), who coined the word in 1916, and five years later it was independently introduced by the Irish physicist J. Joly (1857-1933). Neither of the two versions of "photon" was well known and they were soon forgotten.

  2. Tagging Named Entities in Croatian Tweets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krešimir Baksa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Named entity extraction tools designed for recognizing named entities in texts written in standard language (e.g., news stories or legal texts have been shown to be inadequate for user-generated textual content (e.g., tweets, forum posts. In this work, we propose a supervised approach to named entity recognition and classification for Croatian tweets. We compare two sequence labelling models: a hidden Markov model (HMM and conditional random fields (CRF. Our experiments reveal that CRF is the best model for the task, achieving a very good performance of over 87% micro-averaged F1 score. We analyse the contributions of different feature groups and influence of the training set size on the performance of the CRF model.

  3. Nematode parasite genes: what's in a name?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Robin N; Wolstenholme, Adrian J; Neveu, Cédric; Dent, Joseph A

    2010-07-01

    The central theme of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet is that names are meaningless, artificial constructs, detached from any underlying reality. By contrast, we argue that a well chosen gene name can concisely convey a wealth of relevant biological information. A consistent nomenclature adds transparency that can have a real impact on our understanding of gene function. Currently, genes in parasitic nematodes are often named ad hoc, leading to confusion that can be resolved by adherence to a nomenclature standard adapted from Caenorhabditis elegans. We demonstrate this with ligand-gated ion-channels and propose that the flood of genome data and differences between parasites and the free living C. elegans will require modification of the standard.

  4. Learning the Students' Names: Does it Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    2014-01-01

    A key factor in successful teaching and learning is the relationship between the students and the teacher. A simple approach nurturing this relationship is learning the students' names. This is often suggested in the literature, but seems rarely practised. Substantial reports in the literature...... on the effect of learning the students' names are sparse. Against this background, this paper reports on a method for learning all the students' names and two studies of the effect, based on my use of the method in my teaching. The two survey studies were carried in 2011 and in 2014. A survey was in the first...... sent to 50 students and I received 18 answers (38%). The second survey was sent to 86 students and I received 48 answers (56%). These figures provides a good indication.The answers showed a marked positive effect: the students felt welcome, accepted and respected; the learning environment was more...

  5. English Shop Signs and Brand Names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemaseh Bagheri Sanjareh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    The present study tries to investigate the people’s attitude to the use of English words in TV commercials, brand-naming and shop signs in Iran and specifically in Tehran where due to the fact that it is the capital, more English might be used for the sake of foreigners. The widespread use of English shop signs and English brand names for recently produced goodsdrove the researchers to investigate peoples’ attitude as consumers from two aspects of age and education. To reach the research goal, a questionnaire was devised and distributed to 100 people at random selection probing their attitudes while considering two factors of age and education. The result of the research will mostly benefit sociolinguists and business marketers.

    Keywords: age, education, advertising, brand-naming, shop signs, globalization

  6. Automatic Recognition of Object Names in Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnin, C.; Lesteven, S.; Derriere, S.; Oberto, A.

    2008-08-01

    SIMBAD is a database of astronomical objects that provides (among other things) their bibliographic references in a large number of journals. Currently, these references have to be entered manually by librarians who read each paper. To cope with the increasing number of papers, CDS develops a tool to assist the librarians in their work, taking advantage of the Dictionary of Nomenclature of Celestial Objects, which keeps track of object acronyms and of their origin. The program searches for object names directly in PDF documents by comparing the words with all the formats stored in the Dictionary of Nomenclature. It also searches for variable star names based on constellation names and for a large list of usual names such as Aldebaran or the Crab. Object names found in the documents often correspond to several astronomical objects. The system retrieves all possible matches, displays them with their object type given by SIMBAD, and lets the librarian make the final choice. The bibliographic reference can then be automatically added to the object identifiers in the database. Besides, the systematic usage of the Dictionary of Nomenclature, which is updated manually, permitted to automatically check it and to detect errors and inconsistencies. Last but not least, the program collects some additional information such as the position of the object names in the document (in the title, subtitle, abstract, table, figure caption...) and their number of occurrences. In the future, this will permit to calculate the 'weight' of an object in a reference and to provide SIMBAD users with an important new information, which will help them to find the most relevant papers in the object reference list.

  7. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad; Abdullatif Al-Johar, B.

    2016-07-01

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora.

  8. Disposition of two names in Almeidea (Rutaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Groppo; BRUNIERA, Carla P

    2010-01-01

    Examination of type specimens at the P herbarium showed that Almeidea longifolia A. St.-Hil. (Rutaceae) is an illegitimate substitute name for A. affinis A. St.-Hil. The latter name is proposed here as a heterotypic synonym of A. rubra A. St.-Hil.O estudo dos tipos nomenclatórios no herbário P mostrou que Almeidea longifolia A. St.-Hil. (Rutaceae) é um nome substituto ilegítimo de Almeidea affinis A. St.-Hil., e este último nome é aqui considerado sinônimo heterotípico de A. rubra A. St.-Hil....

  9. On English Culture from the Perspective of English Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    索微微

    2013-01-01

    Personal names reflect splendid cultures from different perspectives and culture is also restricted the choice of names. English personal names are studied in this paper in order to reveal the culture information reflected in names.

  10. On identifying name equivalences in digital libraries. Name equivalence, Surname matching, Author identification, Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dror G. Feitelson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The services provided by digital libraries can be much improved by correctly identifying variants of the same name. For example, this will allow for better retrieval of all the works by a certain author. We focus on variants caused by abbreviations of first names, and show that significant achievements are possible by simple lexical analysis and comparison of names. This is done in two steps: first a pairwise matching of names is performed, and then these are used to find cliques of equivalent names. However, these steps can each be performed in a variety of ways. We therefore conduct an experimental analysis using two real datasets to find which approaches actually work well in practice. Interestingly, this depends on the size of the repository, as larger repositories may have many more similar names.

  11. Apparatus Named After Our Academic Ancestors, III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2014-09-01

    My academic ancestors in physics have called on me once more to tell you about the apparatus that they devised, and that many of you have used in your demonstrations and labs. This article is about apparatus named after François Arago, Heinrich Helmholtz, Leon Foucault, and James Watt.

  12. The "Brand Name" Research University Goes Global

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    This paper traces attempts by two "brand-name" research universities to transnationalise: the US-based Johns Hopkins University, and the University of New South Wales from Australia. Both endeavours were located in, and supported by, Singapore, a city-state with knowledge economy aspirations. The paper explores the globalisation of the…

  13. Naming Speed in Dyslexia and Dyscalculia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willburger, Edith; Fussenegger, Barbara; Moll, Kristina; Wood, Guilherme; Landerl, Karin

    2008-01-01

    In four carefully selected samples of 8- to 10-year old children with dyslexia (but age adequate arithmetic skills), dyscalculia (but age adequate reading skills), dyslexia/dyscalculia and controls a domain-general deficit in rapid automatized naming (RAN) was found for both dyslexia groups. Dyscalculic children exhibited a domain-specific deficit…

  14. Hurricane names: A bunch of hot air?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Smith

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that female-named hurricanes are deadlier because people do not take them seriously. However, this conclusion is based on a questionable statistical analysis of a narrowly defined data set. The reported relationship is not robust in that it is not confirmed by a straightforward analysis of more inclusive data or different data.

  15. Bilingual Object Naming: A Connectionist Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shin-Yi; Zinszer, Benjamin D.; Malt, Barbara C.; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of object naming often differ between languages, but bilingual speakers develop convergent naming patterns in their two languages that are distinct from those of monolingual speakers of each language. This convergence appears to reflect interactions between lexical representations for the two languages. In this study, we developed a self-organizing connectionist model to simulate semantic convergence in the bilingual lexicon and investigate the mechanisms underlying this semantic convergence. We examined the similarity of patterns in the simulated data to empirical data from past research, and we identified how semantic convergence was manifested in the simulated bilingual lexical knowledge. Furthermore, we created impaired models in which components of the network were removed so as to examine the importance of the relevant components on bilingual object naming. Our results demonstrate that connections between two languages’ lexicons can be established through the simultaneous activations of related words in the two languages. These connections between languages allow the outputs of their lexicons to become more similar, that is, to converge. Our model provides a basis for future computational studies of how various input variables may affect bilingual naming patterns. PMID:27242575

  16. Perseverant Responding in Children's Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Josephine; Vitkovitch, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    Two groups of children were given pictures of animals to name as quickly as they could. The groups comprised 40 nursery aged children (mean age 3 ; 11) and 40 Year 2 children (mean age 6 ; 9) attending primary school in London. The 30 animals were presented one by one, on cards, and any errors made by the children were noted. Consistent with a…

  17. 32 CFR 635.6 - Name checks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... military police records may be released under the provisions of AR 340-21 to authorized personnel for valid... with AR 340-21. (b) Checks will be accomplished by a review of the COPS MPRS. Information will be... police reports filed worldwide. Authorized users of COPS MPRS can conduct name checks for...

  18. Generic drug names and social welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Félix; Feldman, Roger

    2013-06-01

    This article studies how well International Nonproprietary Names (INNs), the "generic" names for pharmaceuticals, address the problems of imperfect information. Left in private hands, the identification of medicines leads to confusion and errors. Developed in the 1950s by the World Health Organization, INNs are a common, global, scientific nomenclature designed to overcome this failure. Taking stock after sixty years, we argue that the contribution of INNs to social welfare is paramount. They enhance public health by reducing errors and improving patient safety. They also contribute to economic efficiency by creating transparency as the foundation of competitive generic drug markets, reducing transaction costs, and favoring trade. The law in most countries requires manufacturers to designate pharmaceuticals with INNs in labeling and advertising. Generic substitution is also permitted or mandatory in many countries. But not all the benefits of INNs are fully realized because prescribers may not use them. We advocate strong incentives or even legally binding provisions to extend the use of INNs by prescribing physicians and dispensing pharmacists, but we do not recommend replacing brand names entirely with INNs. Instead, we propose dual use of brand names and INNs in prescribing, as in drug labeling.

  19. Rapid Naming Speed and Chinese Character Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chen-Huei; Georgiou, George K.; Parrila, Rauno

    2008-01-01

    We examined the relationship between rapid naming speed (RAN) and Chinese character recognition accuracy and fluency. Sixty-three grade 2 and 54 grade 4 Taiwanese children were administered four RAN tasks (colors, digits, Zhu-Yin-Fu-Hao, characters), and two character recognition tasks. RAN tasks accounted for more reading variance in grade 4 than…

  20. Named entity normalization in user generated content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jijkoun, V.; Khalid, M.A.; Marx, M.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Named entity recognition is important for semantically oriented retrieval tasks, such as question answering, entity retrieval, biomedical retrieval, trend detection, and event and entity tracking. In many of these tasks it is important to be able to accurately normalize the recognized entities, i.e.

  1. The "Brand Name" Research University Goes Global

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Ravinder

    2009-01-01

    This paper traces attempts by two "brand-name" research universities to transnationalise: the US-based Johns Hopkins University, and the University of New South Wales from Australia. Both endeavours were located in, and supported by, Singapore, a city-state with knowledge economy aspirations. The paper explores the globalisation of the research…

  2. Apparatus Named after Our Academic Ancestors, III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    My academic ancestors in physics have called on me once more to tell you about the apparatus that they devised, and that many of you have used in your demonstrations and labs. This article is about apparatus named after François Arago, Heinrich Helmholtz, Leon Foucault, and James Watt.

  3. Names, Nicknames, and Titles in Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantas, Andrei

    1994-01-01

    Considers the problems related to the translation of names, nicknames, and titles. Discusses the general challenges requiring extensive cultural background, along with special challenges revealing an author's subjective intentions in the form of humor, invention, allusion, or distortion. Provides a method for dealing with such translational…

  4. PS, SL and LHC Auditoria change names

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Following the replacement of the PS, SL and LHC Divisions by the AB and AT Divisions, the Auditoria are also changing their names. PS Auditorium is renamed AB Meyrin SL Auditorium is renamed AB Prévessin LHC Auditorium is renamed AT

  5. Implementing XML Schema Naming and Design Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubell, Joshua [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Morris, Katherine [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Harvey, Betty [Electronic Commerce Connection, Inc.

    2006-08-01

    We are building a methodology and tool kit for encoding XML schema Naming and Design Rules (NDRs) in a computer-interpretable fashion, enabling automated rule enforcement and improving schema quality. Through our experience implementing rules from various NDR specifications, we discuss some issues and offer practical guidance to organizations grappling with NDR development.

  6. Measuring the global domain name system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casalicchio, E.; Caselli, M.; Coletta, A.; Shen, Xuemin

    2013-01-01

    The Internet is a worldwide distributed critical infrastructure, and it is composed of many vital components. While IP routing is the most important service, today the Domain Name System can be classified as the second most important, and has been defined as a critical infrastructure as well. DNS en

  7. Smart by name, smart by nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, J. F. V.

    2000-06-01

    Animals and plants have evolved a large variety of reliable and relatively simple mechanisms. Complexity is an emergent property. Using modern analytical techniques of molecular and materials science we can understand many of these mechanisms and incorporate them into our own technology, The examples chosen are insect mechanoreceptors, fibrous elastic materials, hydratable gels contained within stiff membranes for producing high forces, turgor and spring mechanisms in plants, leaf origami, the nematocyst, rip-stop skin, self-designing trees and wound healing in plants.

  8. Consistency of Repeated Naming in Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Galletta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background People with mild aphasia and healthy elderly often exhibit similar impairments on language tests of word retrieval. However, variable practice effects in object naming by three individuals with aphasia compared to young and elderly adults have been reported (Wingfield et al. 2006. Wingfield et al. (2006 found that naming of the same pictures of objects over five trials demonstrated decreasing response latencies over repeated trials for both older and younger adults, but not for individuals with aphasia. In fact, among their three participants with aphasia, response latencies in the consecutive trials differed considerably. The authors suggested that different underlying processes may be involved in word retrieval for people with aphasia compared to adults without brain injuries. In our study we aimed to further consider the effect of practice on both object and action naming in individuals with mild aphasia. Method One woman with anomic aphasia (age 38 years; WAB Aphasia Quotient = 88 and one healthy woman (age 25 years participated. Both were native English speakers and reported 18 years of formal education. Participants were tested individually, with a set of 27 object pictures and a set of 27 action pictures presented one at a time on a computer screen. The participants were instructed to name each picture as quickly as possible as soon as each picture appeared on the screen. There were 10 trials of each set of pictures, with different random orders for each trial. The order of presentation of the object and action picture sets alternated across participants. Naming responses were recorded to computer sound files for later measurements of response latencies. A brief tone was presented simultaneous with the picture onset, allowing later measurement of response latencies from the onset of picture presentation to the onset of the participant’s correct response. Results Our findings resembled those reported in Wingfield et al. (2006

  9. Cognitive abilities and creating metaphorical names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanesyan, Marina O.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive processing of metaphor creation has been insufficiently investigated. Creating metaphors requires the ability to work in a fantastic, impossible context, using symbolic and associative means to express oneís thoughts. It has been shown recently that intelligence plays an important role in the creation of metaphors, but it is not the main factor in determining their success. The present research explores the roles of conceptual abilities, categorical abilities, and flexibility (as the factor creativity in metaphor creation. Participants (n = 38 young adults were asked to come up with names for three photos, without any special instruction to create metaphors. To classify conceptual abilities we used ìConceptual Synthesisî (M. A. Kholodnaya, 2012; to measure categorical ability we used the subtest ìSimilaritiesî (D. Wechsler, 1955; to identify the role of creativity in the metaphor process we used the test of ìUnusual Usesî (J. P. Guilford, 1960. The creation of complex metaphorical names was associated with a tendency to create highly organized mental structures and to retain them within the general semantic context (r = 0.344, p < 0.05. The tendency to create single-level situational connections was associated with a tendency to give specific names to photos (r = 0.475, p < 0.01. Photographic images proved out to be fruitful stimuli to investigate the processing of visual information. We developed a preliminary classification of names: 1 concrete; 2 situational; 3 abstract; 4 metaphorical (M1 and M2. We identified two types of metaphorical names — perceptual and complex metaphors — that relate to conceptual abilities in different ways. It is inaccurate to speak about a general concept of ìmetaphorical abilitiesî; we should differentiate the psychological mechanisms that lie at their base.

  10. What's in a Name? Interlocutors dynamically update expectations about shared names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney Marie Gegg-Harrison

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to refer using a name, speakers must know that their addressee knows about the link between the name and the intended referent. In cases where speakers and addressees learned names together, speakers are adept at using names only when their addressee knows them. But speakers do not always share such learning experience with their conversational partners. In these situations, what information guides speakers’ choice of referring expression? A speaker who is uncertain about a names’ common ground (CG status often uses a name and description together. This N+D form allows speakers to demonstrate knowledge of a name, and could provide, even in the absence of miscommunication, useful evidence to the addressee regarding the speaker’s knowledge. In cases where knowledge of one name is associated with knowledge of other names, could provide indirect evidence regarding knowledge of other names that could support generalizations used to update beliefs about CG. Using data explanation approaches to language processing as a guiding framework, we predict that interlocutors can use their partner’s choice of referring expression, in particular their use of an N+D form, to generate more accurate beliefs regarding their partner’s knowledge of other names. In Experiment 1, we find that domain experts are able to use their partner’s referring expression choices to generate more accurate estimates of CG. In Experiment 2, we find that interlocutors are able to infer from a partner’s use of an N+D form which other names that partner is likely to know or not know. Our results suggest that interlocutors can use the information conveyed in their partner’s choice of referring expression to make generalizations that contribute to more accurate beliefs about what is shared with their partner, and further, that models of CG for reference need to account not just for the status of referents, but the status of means of referring to those referents.

  11. The List of Available Names (LAN): A new generation for stable taxonomic names in zoology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A; Fautin, Daphne Gail; Michel, Ellinor

    2016-01-01

    The List of Available Names in Zoology (LAN) is an inventory of names with specific scope in time and content, presented and approved in parts, and constituted as a cumulative index of names available for use in zoological nomenclature. It was defined in Article 79 in the fourth edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. The LAN is likely to gain importance with the development of the online Official Registry for Zoological Nomenclature (ZooBank) as it is potentially a source of many nomenclaturally certified names. Article 79 describes the deliberative process for adding large numbers of names to the LAN simultaneously, detailing steps and chronology for submission of a candidate Part to the LAN and consideration of a candidate Part by the public and Commission, but it is largely mute about the contents of a candidate Part. It does make clear that a name within the scope of a Part but not on the LAN has no nomenclatural standing, even if it had previously been considered available, thereby preventing long-forgotten names from displacing accepted ones and the accumulation of nomina dubia. Thus, for taxa on the LAN, nomenclatural archaeology - the resurrecting of old unused names to replace by priority names in current usage - will not be worthwhile. Beyond that, it has been unclear if Article 79 is intended to document every available name known within the scope of the Part, or if its intention is to pare the inventory of available names within the scope of the Part. Consideration by the Commission and two committees to deal with the LAN have defined steps to implement Article 79 with the latter intent. Procedures for consideration of a candidate Part are defined in a manual, published as an appendix in this volume.

  12. Lectotypification of names of Himalayan Brassicaceae taxa currently placed in the genus Cardamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Marhold

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Lectotypes of twenty-eight names of taxa currently recognized or synonymized in Cardamine are designated as part of the work on the account of the genus for the Pan-Himalayan Flora. Among them, the previous first-step lectotypification of the name C. calthifolia is finalized. In cases when specimen images are available online, stable identifiers for specimens, other permanent links, or links via JSTOR Global Plants are provided.

  13. Lectotypification of names of Himalayan Brassicaceae taxa currently placed in the genus Cardamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhold, Karol; Kempa, Matúš; Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan A

    2015-01-01

    Lectotypes of twenty-eight names of taxa currently recognized or synonymized in Cardamine are designated as part of the work on the account of the genus for the Pan-Himalayan Flora. Among them, the previous first-step lectotypification of the name Cardaminecalthifolia is finalized. In cases when specimen images are available online, stable identifiers for specimens, other permanent links, or links via JSTOR Global Plants are provided.

  14. Name Writing Ability Not Length of Name Is Predictive of Future Academic Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copping, Lee T.; Cramman, Helen; Gott, Sarah; Gray, Helen; Tymms, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Performance Indicators in Primary Schools On Entry Baseline assessment for pupils starting school includes an item which aims to assess how well a pupil writes his or her own name. There is some debate regarding the utility of this measure, on the grounds that name length may constitute bias. Purpose, method and design: The…

  15. Action naming in anomic aphasic speakers : Effects of instrumentality and name relation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkers, R.; Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.

    Many studies reveal effects of verb type on verb retrieval, mainly in agrammatic aphasic speakers. In the current study, two factors that might play a role in action naming in anomic aphasic speakers were considered: the conceptual factor instrumentality and the lexical factor name relation to a

  16. Science, names giving and names calling: Change NDM-1 to PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ajai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A journal editor recently apologised for publishing a 2010 paper in which authors designated an enzyme as New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1 and its related gene blaNDM-1 after a city, New Delhi. This name had raised an outcry in India, with health authorities, media and medical practitioners demanding New Delhi be dropped from the name. The name was actually first given in another 2009 paper, whose corresponding author remains the same as the 2010 paper. There is a tradition of eponymous names in science. But those found derogatory to races, groups, cities, and countries have been changed. For example, "Mongolism" was changed to Down′s syndrome; "Australia" antigen to HBsAg; "Mexican" Swine flu to H1N1; "GRID" (Gay Related Immune Deficiency and 4H-Disease (Haitians, Homosexuals, Haemophiliacs and Heroin Users Disease to AIDS. It is necessary that NDM-1 also be changed to a name based on scientific characteristics. NDM-1 must be changed to PCM (plasmid-encoding carbapenem-resistant metallo-β-lactamase. It is also necessary to review the tradition of naming organisms, diseases, genes, etc. after cities, countries and races. Often, such names giving amounts to names calling. It needs to be discarded by scientists in all new names giving from now on. "Geographical" and "racial" names giving must be replaced by "scientific" names giving. Journal editors must ensure that such scientific names giving is laid down as standard guideline in paper submissions. All such names still in currency need to be phased out by replacing them with names based on scientific characteristics, or in honour of their pioneering scientist/s or institutions. The lead author of the above 2010 paper has said he was not consulted about the final draft and did not agree with the conclusions of the paper. To ensure that corresponding authors do not ride roughshod over co-authors, and lead and other authors do not backtrack on papers, editors must ensure written

  17. Science, names giving and names calling: Change NDM-1 to PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R Singh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A journal editor recently apologised for publishing a 2010 paper in which authors designated an enzyme as New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1 and its related gene blaNDM-1 after a city, New Delhi. This name had raised an outcry in India, with health authorities, media and medical practitioners demanding New Delhi be dropped from the name. The name was actually first given in another 2009 paper, whose corresponding author remains the same as the 2010 paper. There is a tradition of eponymous names in science. But those found derogatory to races, groups, cities, and countries have been changed. For example, "Mongolism" was changed to Down's syndrome; "Australia" antigen to HBsAg; "Mexican" Swine flu to H1N1; "GRID" (Gay Related Immune Deficiency and 4H-Disease (Haitians, Homosexuals, Haemophiliacs and Heroin Users Disease to AIDS. It is necessary that NDM-1 also be changed to a name based on scientific characteristics. NDM-1 must be changed to PCM (plasmid-encoding carbapenemase-resistant metallo-β-lactamase. It is also necessary to review the tradition of naming organisms, diseases, genes, etc. after cities, countries and races. Often, such names giving amounts to names calling. It needs to be discarded by scientists in all new names giving from now on. "Geographical" and "racial" names giving must be replaced by "scientific" names giving. Journal editors must ensure that such scientific names giving is laid down as standard guideline in paper submissions. All such names still in currency need to be phased out by replacing them with names based on scientific characteristics, or in honour of their pioneering scientist/s or institutions. The lead author of the above 2010 paper has said he was not consulted about the final draft and did not agree with the conclusions of the paper. To ensure that corresponding authors do not ride roughshod over co-authors, and lead and other authors do not backtrack on papers, editors must ensure written

  18. Science, Names Giving and Names Calling: Change NDM-1 to PCM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajai R

    2011-01-01

    A journal editor recently apologised for publishing a 2010 paper in which authors designated an enzyme as New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase-1 (NDM-1) and its related gene bla(NDM-1) after a city, New Delhi. This name had raised an outcry in India, with health authorities, media and medical practitioners demanding New Delhi be dropped from the name. The name was actually first given in another 2009 paper, whose corresponding author remains the same as the 2010 paper. There is a tradition of eponymous names in science. But those found derogatory to races, groups, cities, and countries have been changed. For example, "Mongolism" was changed to Down's syndrome; "Australia" antigen to HBsAg; "Mexican" Swine flu to H1N1; "GRID" (Gay Related Immune Deficiency) and 4H-Disease (Haitians, Homosexuals, Haemophiliacs and Heroin Users Disease) to AIDS. It is necessary that NDM-1 also be changed to a name based on scientific characteristics. NDM-1 must be changed to PCM (plasmid-encoding carbapenem-resistant metallo-β-lactamase). It is also necessary to review the tradition of naming organisms, diseases, genes, etc. after cities, countries and races. Often, such names giving amounts to names calling. It needs to be discarded by scientists in all new names giving from now on. "Geographical" and "racial" names giving must be replaced by "scientific" names giving. Journal editors must ensure that such scientific names giving is laid down as standard guideline in paper submissions. All such names still in currency need to be phased out by replacing them with names based on scientific characteristics, or in honour of their pioneering scientist/s or institutions. The lead author of the above 2010 paper has said he was not consulted about the final draft and did not agree with the conclusions of the paper. To ensure that corresponding authors do not ride roughshod over co-authors, and lead and other authors do not backtrack on papers, editors must ensure written concurrence of all

  19. Clinical Psychopharmacology Update: What's in a Name? Confusion Prompts Change for Vortioxetine's Brand Name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Thomas J; Tobin, Mary L

    2016-09-01

    Similar names between two unrelated drugs have led the FDA to issue warnings about and now approve a name change for vortioxetine, which was branded as Brintellix® until recently. While the trade name had been screened prior to the product's launch, the FDA received numerous reports of prescribing and dispensing errors, specifically with regard to the anti-coagulant drug Brilinta® (ticagrelor). Starting 1 June 2016, vortioxetine will be marketed under the name Trintellix™ in an effort to reduce confusion. Clinicians are advised that while the name and National Drug Code number with this product will change, it will retain the same formulation, indication, and dosage information. To the extent possible, clinicians can and should take actions to identify and reduce potential medication errors in prescriptions, especially when using electronic records and e-prescription systems.

  20. Family-Group Names In Coleoptera (Insecta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Bouchard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names: Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. n. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae, Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae, Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae, Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae, Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. n. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae, Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. n. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae, Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. n. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae; Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein syn. n. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae, Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy syn. n. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae, Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein syn. n. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae, Sclerastes Gistel, 1856 (type species

  1. Botanical Gardens and Collecting of Plants in the Light of the Metamorphosis of Botanical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Unetič

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the late 18th and early 19th century, the collecting of exotic plants became a fashion that took hold of European courts, and was followed by many noblemen, intellectuals, gardeners and others. It was not only popular to grow new plants in gardens, collecting them in herbaria or illustrating and enumerating them in catalogues, but was also important to develop botanical knowledge to enable the owners of the plants to use and present them. In Carniola we can observe this interest in botany in the cases of Baron Joseph Erberg, Barons Žiga and Karl Zois, Jesuit Gabriel Gruber as well as many others. Baron Erberg's activity is recorded in archives which include lively correspondence concerning plant collecting, the exchange and purchase of plants and other botanical matters. So we can see that among plant lovers in Carniola foreign plants such as pelargonium, agave and hydrangea were popular and that they had a special role in gardens devoted especially to exotic plants. The collecting of exotic plants is not just a phenomenon of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries but can be traced back to early civilisations such the Assyrians and ancient Chinese and was also notable in a the 16th and 17th centuries with their cabinets of curiosities. But studying the botanical collection of exotic and new (or newly defined plants gardens of the late 18th and early 19th centuries shows us that although we can recognize some of the old “habits” in the process of collecting (collecting of rare, fascinating plants or collecting plants to demonstrate imperial power the social changes in the 18th century left their trace also in this aspect of human activity. Thus we can understand plant collecting of this time as a decline and metamorphosis of the former natural cabinets of curiosities. In botanical gardens of the late 18th and early 19th century we see the development of science of botany, the rise of the amateur botanist, a different perception of nature

  2. Taxonomic names, metadata, and the Semantic Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic D. M. Page

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Life Science Identifiers (LSIDs offer an attractive solution to the problem of globally unique identifiers for digital objects in biology. However, I suggest that in the context of taxonomic names, the most compelling benefit of adopting these identifiers comes from the metadata associated with each LSID. By using existing vocabularies wherever possible, and using a simple vocabulary for taxonomy-specific concepts we can quickly capture the essential information about a taxonomic name in the Resource Description Framework (RDF format. This opens up the prospect of using technologies developed for the Semantic Web to add ``taxonomic intelligence" to biodiversity databases. This essay explores some of these ideas in the context of providing a taxonomic framework for the phylogenetic database TreeBASE.

  3. Recognising and Interpreting Named Temporal Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brucato, Matteo; Derczynski, Leon; Llorens, Hectjor

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a new class of temporal expression – named temporal expressions – and methods for recognising and interpreting its members. The commonest temporal expressions typically contain date and time words, like April or hours. Research into recognising and interpreting these typical...... expressions is mature in many languages. However, there is a class of expressions that are less typical, very varied, and difficult to automatically interpret. These indicate dates and times, but are harder to detect because they often do not contain time words and are not used frequently enough to appear...... in conventional temporally-annotated corpora – for example Michaelmas or Vasant Panchami. UsingWikipedia and linked data, we automatically construct a resource of English named temporal expressions, and use it to extract training examples from a large corpus. These examples are then used to train and evaluate...

  4. Cross domains Arabic named entity recognition system

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ahmari, S. Saad

    2016-07-11

    Named Entity Recognition (NER) plays an important role in many Natural Language Processing (NLP) applications such as; Information Extraction (IE), Question Answering (QA), Text Clustering, Text Summarization and Word Sense Disambiguation. This paper presents the development and implementation of domain independent system to recognize three types of Arabic named entities. The system works based on a set of domain independent grammar-rules along with Arabic part of speech tagger in addition to gazetteers and lists of trigger words. The experimental results shown, that the system performed as good as other systems with better results in some cases of cross-domains corpora. © (2016) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

  5. Allionrs Aloe names (Asphodelaceae: nomenclature and typification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gugliemone

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The taxa belonging to the genus Aloe published in Synopsis methodica stirpium horti regii taurinensis (Allioni 1760 and in Auctarium ad synopsim meihodicam stirpium horti regii taurinensis (Allioni 1773 were examined. The protologues of Aloe maculata All. and A. verrucosospinosa All. are analysed and lectotypes designated. The homonymy of A. succotrina All. w ith A. succotrina Weston (1770 is recognized, and the lectotype o f this last name designated. Epitypes are selected to fix the application of all three names. Short differential diagnoses o f the three species are given and their distribution ranges discussed; distribution maps based on specimens held in the South African National Herbarium (PRE, KwaZulu-Natal Herbarium (NH. Compton Herbarium (NBG and the South African Museum Collection (SAM held in NBG are provided.

  6. Allionrs Aloe names (Asphodelaceae: nomenclature and typification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gugliemone

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The taxa belonging to the genus Aloe published in Synopsis methodica stirpium horti regii taurinensis (Allioni 1760 and in Auctarium ad synopsim meihodicam stirpium horti regii taurinensis (Allioni 1773 were examined. The protologues of Aloe maculata All. and A. verrucosospinosa All. are analysed and lectotypes designated. The homonymy of A. succotrina All. w ith A. succotrina Weston (1770 is recognized, and the lectotype o f this last name designated. Epitypes are selected to fix the application of all three names. Short differential diagnoses o f the three species are given and their distribution ranges discussed; distribution maps based on specimens held in the South African National Herbarium (PRE, KwaZulu-Natal Herbarium (NH. Compton Herbarium (NBG and the South African Museum Collection (SAM held in NBG are provided.

  7. Identifying Proper Names Based on Association Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The issue of proper names recognition in Chinese text was discussed. An automatic approach based on association analysis to extract rules from corpus was presented. The method tries to discover rules relevant to external evidence by association analysis, without additional manual effort. These rules can be used to recognize the proper nouns in Chinese texts. The experimental result shows that our method is practical in some applications.Moreover, the method is language independent.

  8. Naming the Mystery: An Augustinian Ideal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Fitzgerald

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article, by noticing Augustine’s constant questioning, shows that he often talks about not knowing and about his need for God’s help to know more. It is therefore better to see how he identifies the mystery than to focus on his answers, because he too recognizes his limits. His intellectual prowess can be seen more clearly when he “names the mystery” than by thinking that he has solved it.

  9. Usable Security For Named Data Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yingdi

    2016-01-01

    Named Data Networking (NDN) is a proposed Internet architecture, which changes the network communication model from “speaking to a host” to “retrieving data from network”. Such data-centric communication model requires a data-centric security model, which secures data directly rather than authenticating the host where data is retrieved from and securing the channel through which data is delivered, so that data can be safely distributed into arbitrary untrusted storage and retrieved over untru...

  10. Navy Ship Names: Background for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-23

    direction of the President and in accordance with rules prescribed by Congress. For most of the 19th century, U.S. law included language explicitly...in Defense Acquisition : Background and Issues for Congress, by Ronald O’Rourke and Moshe Schwartz. 25 Department of the Navy, A Report on Policies...submarine SSN-793 was being named for Oregon stated that the previous USS Oregon “was a battleship best known for its roles in the Spanish American War

  11. Exploring historical trends using taxonomic name metadata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schenk Ryan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Authority and year information have been attached to taxonomic names since Linnaean times. The systematic structure of taxonomic nomenclature facilitates the ability to develop tools that can be used to explore historical trends that may be associated with taxonomy. Results From the over 10.7 million taxonomic names that are part of the uBio system 4, approximately 3 million names were identified to have taxonomic authority information from the years 1750 to 2004. A pipe-delimited file was then generated, organized according to a Linnaean hierarchy and by years from 1750 to 2004, and imported into an Excel workbook. A series of macros were developed to create an Excel-based tool and a complementary Web site to explore the taxonomic data. A cursory and speculative analysis of the data reveals observable trends that may be attributable to significant events that are of both taxonomic (e.g., publishing of key monographs and societal importance (e.g., world wars. The findings also help quantify the number of taxonomic descriptions that may be made available through digitization initiatives. Conclusion Temporal organization of taxonomic data can be used to identify interesting biological epochs relative to historically significant events and ongoing efforts. We have developed an Excel workbook and complementary Web site that enables one to explore taxonomic trends for Linnaean taxonomic groupings, from Kingdoms to Families.

  12. Naming asteroids for the popularisation of astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, O. A.

    2008-06-01

    We give a detailed description of how the naming of asteroids was used as a prize in competitions run by educational institutions and museums. There were two events, one in Venezuela and one in Brazil, which used this as an attractive alternative method for the popularisation of astronomy. The first competition, named Bautizo Espacial (Space Baptism), consisted of scientific stories written by high school students. The second, called Grande Desafio (Big Challenge), was a competition where teams of students were challenged to design and build prototype equipment to fight forest fires. Nationally, both events received wide publicity through newspapers, radio, TV and web pages, reaching many people in both countries. As part of both the events, several activities promoting the public knowledge of astronomy were held. The asteroids that were named in these competitions are just some of the many discovered in a search programme developed by the Group of Theoretical Astrophysics of University of Los Andes in Mérida, Venezuela (Grupo de Astrofisica Teórica de la Universidad de Los Andes) as a mainstream research programme. Finally, Asteroids for the Popularisation of Astronomy has been formally proposed to the IAU as a worldwide programme during the celebration of the International Year of Astronomy in 2009 (IYA2009).

  13. Exploring historical trends using taxonomic name metadata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Indra Neil; Schenk, Ryan; Norton, Catherine N

    2008-05-13

    Authority and year information have been attached to taxonomic names since Linnaean times. The systematic structure of taxonomic nomenclature facilitates the ability to develop tools that can be used to explore historical trends that may be associated with taxonomy. From the over 10.7 million taxonomic names that are part of the uBio system 4, approximately 3 million names were identified to have taxonomic authority information from the years 1750 to 2004. A pipe-delimited file was then generated, organized according to a Linnaean hierarchy and by years from 1750 to 2004, and imported into an Excel workbook. A series of macros were developed to create an Excel-based tool and a complementary Web site to explore the taxonomic data. A cursory and speculative analysis of the data reveals observable trends that may be attributable to significant events that are of both taxonomic (e.g., publishing of key monographs) and societal importance (e.g., world wars). The findings also help quantify the number of taxonomic descriptions that may be made available through digitization initiatives. Temporal organization of taxonomic data can be used to identify interesting biological epochs relative to historically significant events and ongoing efforts. We have developed an Excel workbook and complementary Web site that enables one to explore taxonomic trends for Linnaean taxonomic groupings, from Kingdoms to Families.

  14. Hibiscus plant named `Sahara Sunset` U.S. Plant Patent 21,765

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Sahara Sunset' is a new and distinct cultivar of Hibiscus, botanically known as Hibiscus acetosella. The new Hibiscus was originated in Poplarville, Miss. and is a product of a mutation induction program. The parent of the present new cultivar is an unknown Hibiscus acetosella Wels. Ex Hiern seedli...

  15. 76 FR 44572 - Plants for Planting Whose Importation Is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... include the names of the taxa. For taxa of plants for planting that are hosts of quarantine pests, the list will include the names of the taxa, the foreign places from which the taxa's importation is not... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plants for Planting Whose Importation Is Not Authorized...

  16. 78 FR 26316 - Plants for Planting Whose Importation is Not Authorized Pending Pest Risk Analysis; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... quarantine pests, the list will include the names of the taxa. For taxa of plants for planting that are hosts of quarantine pests, the list will include the names of the taxa, the foreign places from which the...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plants for Planting Whose Importation is...

  17. NameClarifier: A Visual Analytics System for Author Name Disambiguation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qiaomu; Wu, Tongshuang; Yang, Haiyan; Wu, Yanhong; Qu, Huamin; Cui, Weiwei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visual analytics system called NameClarifier to interactively disambiguate author names in publications by keeping humans in the loop. Specifically, NameClarifier quantifies and visualizes the similarities between ambiguous names and those that have been confirmed in digital libraries. The similarities are calculated using three key factors, namely, co-authorships, publication venues, and temporal information. Our system estimates all possible allocations, and then provides visual cues to users to help them validate every ambiguous case. By looping users in the disambiguation process, our system can achieve more reliable results than general data mining models for highly ambiguous cases. In addition, once an ambiguous case is resolved, the result is instantly added back to our system and serves as additional cues for all the remaining unidentified names. In this way, we open up the black box in traditional disambiguation processes, and help intuitively and comprehensively explain why the corresponding classifications should hold. We conducted two use cases and an expert review to demonstrate the effectiveness of NameClarifier.

  18. The multilingual naming test in Alzheimer's disease: clues to the origin of naming impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Iva; Salmon, David P; Gollan, Tamar H

    2013-03-01

    The current study explored the picture naming performance of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). First, we evaluated the utility of the multilingual naming test (MINT; Gollan et al., 2011), which was designed to assess naming skills in speakers of multiple languages, for detecting naming impairments in monolingual AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). If the MINT were sensitive to linguistic impairment in AD, using it in clinical practice might have advantages over using tests exclusively designed for English monolinguals. We found that the MINT can be used with both monolinguals and bilinguals: A 32-item subset of the MINT is best for distinguishing monolingual patients from controls, while the full MINT is best for assessing degree of bilingualism and language dominance in bilinguals. We then investigated the cognitive mechanisms underlying naming impairment in AD. To this end, we explored which MINT item characteristics best predicted performance differences between monolingual patients and controls. We found that contextual diversity and imageability, but not word frequency (nor words’ number of senses), contributed unique variance to explaining naming impairments in AD. These findings suggest a semantic component to the naming impairment in AD (modulated by names’ semantic richness and network size).

  19. What Name Signs Can Tell Us about Deaf Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindess, Anna

    1990-01-01

    Twenty deaf adults were interviewed about their use of name signs. Results revealed underlying cultural values expressed in name signs, and also provided practical information about the making and bestowing of name signs, changing one's name sign, and evolution in the name sign system. (Author/CB)

  20. Lectotypification of the Linnaean name Bosea yervamora (Amaranthaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iamonico, Duilio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The typification of the name Bosea yervamora L. (Amaranthaceae is discussed under the light of historical knowledge of Canarian plants in Linnean herbaria. An illustration from Sloane is designated as the lectotype. A specimen from BM-SL (Sloane collection is designated as typotype.Se discute sobre la tipificación del nombre Bosea yervamora L. (Amaranthaceae a la luz del conocimiento histórico sobre el origen de las plantas canarias conservadas en los herbarios linneanos. Se designa como lectotipo una iconografía incluida en un trabajo de Hans Sloane. Un pliego conservado en el herbario BM-SL (colección de H. Sloane es designado como tipotipo.

  1. Lectotypification of Cavanilles' names in Solanum (Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapp, Sandra

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Lectotypes are confirmed or designated here for the 13 names coined by Antonio José Cavanilles that were either described, or today are recognised as, members of the large genus Solanum (Solanaceae: Solanum betaceum, S. elaeagnifolium, S. fructotecto, S. lanceolatum, S. lentum, S. parviflorum, S. phyllanthum, S. pinnatum, S. pomiferum, S. pygmaeum, S. triquetrum, Triguera ambrosiaca and T. inodora. A brief introduction assesses the importance of Cavanilles to the botany of his time, and identifies difficulties in lectotypifying names coined by him. The currently accepted name for each taxon is given. Each typification is accompanied by a discussion of the reasoning behind the choice of specimen, and all lectotypes are illustrated.Se confirman o designan los lectótipos de 13 nombres de Antonio José Cavanilles que o bien fueron descritos dentro del género Solanum (Solanaceae o son actualmente reconocidos como parte del mismo: Solanum betaceum, S. elaeagnifolium, S. fructo- tecto, S. lanceolatum, S. lentum, S. parviflorum, S. phyllanthum, S. pinnatum, S. pomiferum, S. pygmaeum, S. triquetrum, Triguera ambrosiaca y T. inodora. Se incluye una breve introducción explicando la importancia de Cavanilles para la botánica de su tiempo, así como las dificultades que entraña lectotipificar las especies de este autor. Se indica el nombre aceptado para cada especie. Las tipificaciones se acompañan de una discusión, explicando la elección de los especímenes. Todos los lectótipos están ilustrados.

  2. Star names their lore and meaning

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Richard H

    1963-01-01

    Here is an unusual book for anyone who appreciates the beauty and wonder of the stars. Solidly based upon years of thorough research into astronomical writings and observations of the ancient Chinese, Arabic, Euphrates, Hellenic, and Roman civilizations, it is an informative, non-technical excursion into the vast heritage of folklore and history associated with the heavenly bodies. From his studies of the writings of scores of ancient astronomers, the author has come up with a fascinating history of the names various cultures have given the constellations, the literary and folkloristic uses

  3. Computer Fiction: ``A Logic Named Joe''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, David; Swedin, Eric

    The bulk of Science Fiction (SF) has not predicted the most influential computer technologies of the late 20th century. This paper begins with an exception entitled “A Logic Named Joe” and its accurate description of the contemporary environment of PCs and the World Wide Web. It then proposes the possible historical and cultural value of SF in techno-scientific development - more specifically computer development - in both the U.S. and Finland, and argues that social science approaches to understanding technoscience should take SF into account when describing those communities of practice.

  4. ISO Abbreviations for Names of Polymeric Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jarm

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of abbreviations for the names of polymers is practical and economic in written and spoken language. Taking into consideration the several hundreds of polymers appearing in literature annually, some of them having complicated structures, it is almost impossible to derive a systematic and unique abbreviation to polymer structures. Therefore, IUPAC has taken over the well-established ISO list of abbreviated terms (about 120 items mainly selected on the basis of the scale of production. The presented ISO nomenclature is not necessarily in accord with IUPAC recommendations.

  5. Names will never hurt me: racially distinct names and identity in the undergraduate classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Gigi

    2008-09-01

    Recent researchers (Fryer Jr., R.G., Levitt, S.D., 2004. The causes and consequences of distinctly black names. Quarterly Journal of Economics 119 (3); Figlio, D.N., 2003. Names, expectations, and black children's achievement. Working Paper; Bertrand, M., Mullainathan, S., 2004. Are Emily and George more employable than Lakisha and Jamal? A field experiment on labor market discrimination. American Economic Review 94 (4); Hess, G., Aura, S., 2004. What's in a name? Working Paper) have shown that people with racially identifiable names tend to have worse economic outcomes, and have tried to explain why. This paper extends this recent literature by deepening the psychological underpinnings of possible answers to this question in the context of undergraduate grades. Using a rich student-level administrative data set, I explore the effects on performance of both first and last name racial identifiability. I test for the presence of effects from either black or Asian names due to differential teacher expectations (Figlio, 2003), conventional teacher discrimination (Bertrand and Mullainathan, 2004), or differences in unobserved ability or racial identity that are correlated with name type and directly affect performance (Fryer and Levitt, 2004; Hess and Aura, 2004). A conceptual and empirical distinction is drawn in the paper between unobserved ability effects and racial identity effects. Name type is found to have little direct influence on performance via any channel. Mild evidence suggests that racial identity may be salient in predicting undergraduate grades. The paper contributes to the literatures in social effects, discrimination, and the burgeoning subfield of economics and identity.

  6. What's in a Name? Sound Symbolism and Gender in First Names.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Sidhu

    Full Text Available Although the arbitrariness of language has been considered one of its defining features, studies have demonstrated that certain phonemes tend to be associated with certain kinds of meaning. A well-known example is the Bouba/Kiki effect, in which nonwords like bouba are associated with round shapes while nonwords like kiki are associated with sharp shapes. These sound symbolic associations have thus far been limited to nonwords. Here we tested whether or not the Bouba/Kiki effect extends to existing lexical stimuli; in particular, real first names. We found that the roundness/sharpness of the phonemes in first names impacted whether the names were associated with round or sharp shapes in the form of character silhouettes (Experiments 1a and 1b. We also observed an association between femaleness and round shapes, and maleness and sharp shapes. We next investigated whether this association would extend to the features of language and found the proportion of round-sounding phonemes was related to name gender (Analysis of Category Norms. Finally, we investigated whether sound symbolic associations for first names would be observed for other abstract properties; in particular, personality traits (Experiment 2. We found that adjectives previously judged to be either descriptive of a figuratively 'round' or a 'sharp' personality were associated with names containing either round- or sharp-sounding phonemes, respectively. These results demonstrate that sound symbolic associations extend to existing lexical stimuli, providing a new example of non-arbitrary mappings between form and meaning.

  7. What's in a Name? Sound Symbolism and Gender in First Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, David M; Pexman, Penny M

    2015-01-01

    Although the arbitrariness of language has been considered one of its defining features, studies have demonstrated that certain phonemes tend to be associated with certain kinds of meaning. A well-known example is the Bouba/Kiki effect, in which nonwords like bouba are associated with round shapes while nonwords like kiki are associated with sharp shapes. These sound symbolic associations have thus far been limited to nonwords. Here we tested whether or not the Bouba/Kiki effect extends to existing lexical stimuli; in particular, real first names. We found that the roundness/sharpness of the phonemes in first names impacted whether the names were associated with round or sharp shapes in the form of character silhouettes (Experiments 1a and 1b). We also observed an association between femaleness and round shapes, and maleness and sharp shapes. We next investigated whether this association would extend to the features of language and found the proportion of round-sounding phonemes was related to name gender (Analysis of Category Norms). Finally, we investigated whether sound symbolic associations for first names would be observed for other abstract properties; in particular, personality traits (Experiment 2). We found that adjectives previously judged to be either descriptive of a figuratively 'round' or a 'sharp' personality were associated with names containing either round- or sharp-sounding phonemes, respectively. These results demonstrate that sound symbolic associations extend to existing lexical stimuli, providing a new example of non-arbitrary mappings between form and meaning.

  8. The Folklore of Naming: Using Oral Tradition to Teach Writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Elizabeth Radin

    1984-01-01

    Students like to use their own names as the basis of writing projects because of their strong feelings and firsthand experiences with names, the folklore of names, and because they appreciate having their lives brought into the classroom. (CRH)

  9. Undersea Feature Place Names as of June 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — There are approximately 5100 undersea features with names approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) currently in the Geographic Names Data Base...

  10. Actively learning object names across ambiguous situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachergis, George; Yu, Chen; Shiffrin, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows that people can use the co-occurrence of words and objects in ambiguous situations (i.e., containing multiple words and objects) to learn word meanings during a brief passive training period (Yu & Smith, 2007). However, learners in the world are not completely passive but can affect how their environment is structured by moving their heads, eyes, and even objects. These actions can indicate attention to a language teacher, who may then be more likely to name the attended objects. Using a novel active learning paradigm in which learners choose which four objects they would like to see named on each successive trial, this study asks whether active learning is superior to passive learning in a cross-situational word learning context. Finding that learners perform better in active learning, we investigate the strategies and discover that most learners use immediate repetition to disambiguate pairings. Unexpectedly, we find that learners who repeat only one pair per trial--an easy way to infer this pair-perform worse than those who repeat multiple pairs per trial. Using a working memory extension to an associative model of word learning with uncertainty and familiarity biases, we investigate individual differences that correlate with these assorted strategies. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  11. Cross correlations of the American baby names

    CERN Document Server

    Barucca, Paolo; Marinari, Enzo; Parisi, Giorgio; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

    2014-01-01

    The quantitative description of cultural evolution is a challenging task. The most difficult part of the problem is probably to find the appropriate measurable quantities that can make more quantitative such evasive concepts as, for example, dynamics of cultural movements, behavior patterns and traditions of the people. A strategy to tackle this issue is to observe particular features of human activities, i.e. cultural traits, such as names given to newborns. We study the names of babies born in the United States of America from 1910 to 2012. Our analysis shows that groups of different correlated states naturally emerge in different epochs, and we are able to follow and decrypt their evolution. While these groups of states are stable across many decades, a sudden reorganization occurs in the last part of the twentieth century. We think that this kind of quantitative analysis can be possibly extended to other cultural traits: although databases covering more than one century (as the one we used) are rare, the ...

  12. MARKED PERSONAL NAMES: AN ANTROPONIMIC STUDY OF BALINESE STUDENTS’ NAMES IN DENPASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Iwan Indrawan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to account for the Marked Balinese Students’ Personal Names. Four research problems are studied, namely (1 the criteria used to distinguish the marked names (NDMBmk and the unmarked ones (NDMTBmk, (2 the functions of the markedness, (3 the factors that influence it, and (4 the ideologies that operate behind it. The markedness of personal names reflect a relation between the arbitrariness in language uses and the extralinguistic factors influencing it. In the context of Balinese, the tradition, legal practices, and the globalisation may affect the arbitrariness. In order to determine NDMBmk, criteria of markedness was constructed. According to the criteria, structurally, NDMBmk consist of at least five elements, as Anak Agung Arim Kasunu Arya Penarungan. Behaviorally, they may consist of names not derived from Balinese and/or Sanskrit, such as Giovani on I Gede Adeyaka Giovani, adopt a foreign spelling system as Chrisna on Ni Putu Chrisna Wulandari, or use no markers of Balinese ethnics or caste as Yunisari Wira Putri. Out of 698 sampled names, NDMBmk are found 54. Besides denoting, the marked elements also function to distinguish personal identities, to shape the existence of the name holder, to connote particular perception, and to reflect the changing era. The factors influencing the markedness are the need to express something new, a wish to acculturate, to raise status or keep a distance socially, and to demonstrate a linguistic expertise, or when seeing from the concept of imagery, the factors are the imagery on something new and on social status or distancing. The ideologies behind the phenomenon are globalist, nationalist, and the casteless-Balinese.

  13. Proposals to conserve the names Balansia claviceps against Ephelis mexicana,……,and Tolypocladium inflatum against Cordyceps subsessilis (Ascomycota: Sordariomycetes: Hypocreales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the course of updating the scientific names of plant-associated fungi in the U.S. National Fungus Collections Databases to conform with the requirement of one scientific name for each fungal species, several scientific names currently in use were identified that should be changed to the oldest ep...

  14. EPONYMY BASED ON NAMES OF COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Kovács

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As is generally defined, eponymy, one of the word-formation processes refers to the derivation of a name of a city, country, era, institution, or other place or thing from that of a person such as sandwich, wellington, mackintosh or cardigan. Eponymy can be classified in several ways, some refer to foods (Pizza Margaritha, diseases (Alzheimer disease, places (Washington, scientific laws (Archimedes’s principle and sport terms (Axel jump, whereas others indicate trademarks, brand names (aspirin, prizes, awards (Nobel Prize, inventions (Rubic’s Cube, ideologies (Darwinism, colleges, universities (Stanford University and companies (Ford. The present paper discusses eponyms which denote companies based on the name of their founder(s (e.g. Porsche, Siemens, Gucci, Campari, Cadbury, McDonald’s and Walt Disney, etc. by revealing what kind of a metonymic relationship is manifested in them. Cognitive linguists, such as Lakoff and Johnson (1980, Radden and Kövecses (1999 and Kövecses (2002 state that metonymy is essentially a conceptual phenomenon, in which one conceptual entity, the vehicle, provides mental access to another conceptual entity, the target, within the same idealized cognitive model. In fact, metonymy is part of our everyday way of thinking, and is grounded in experience. Common metonymies include PRODUCER FOR PRODUCT (Pass me the Shakespeare on the top shelf., PLACE FOR EVENT (Iraq nearly cost Tony Blair the premiership, PLACE FOR INSTITUTION (Downing Street refused comment., PART FOR THE WHOLE (She’s not just a pretty face., WHOLE FOR THE PART (England beat Australia in the 2003 Rugby World Cup final. and EFFECT FOR CAUSE (He has a long face.. Following the cognitive approach to metonyms, I tentatively suggest that the metonymy PRODUCER FOR THE PRODUCT can be observed in the case of car makes, products of famous fashion houses, cosmetics and drinks as is illustrated by examples like He’s bought a Ferrari. I ate a McDonald or

  15. Brand Suicide? Memory and Liking of Negative Brand Names.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Guest

    Full Text Available Negative brand names are surprisingly common in the marketplace (e.g., Poison perfume; Hell pizza, and Monster energy drink, yet their effects on consumer behavior are currently unknown. Three studies investigated the effects of negative brand name valence on brand name memory and liking of a branded product. Study 1 demonstrates that relative to non-negative brand names, negative brand names and their associated logos are better recognised. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that negative valence of a brand name tends to have a detrimental influence on product evaluation with evaluations worsening as negative valence increases. However, evaluation is also dependent on brand name arousal, with high arousal brand names resulting in more positive evaluations, such that moderately negative brand names are equally as attractive as some non-negative brand names. Study 3 shows evidence for affective habituation, whereby the effects of negative valence reduce with repeated exposures to some classes of negative brand name.

  16. SUPERVISED ALIAS NAME VALIDATION USING STATISTICAL SIMILARITY COEFFICIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suruliandi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Alias name is the surnames for a known name. Extracting and validating alias names is an interesting research topic in language processing and has a number of Natural language processing applications like Information extraction, Information retrieval, Sentimental analysis, Question and answering. Alias name validation involves the process of validating whether a name is alias name or not. In this work, seven statistical similarity coefficients were used as features in classifier to validate alias names. For each name-alias pair, seven statistical similarity coefficient values were calculated and used as features to train a classifier. The trained classifier is then employed to classify whether a name-alias pair is valid or not. Experiments were conducted using Indian name-alias data that has data for 15 persons containing 35 name-alias pairs. Results show that SVM classifier with Radial Basis Function Kernel outperforms all the other classifiers in terms of overall accuracy.

  17. Brand Suicide? Memory and Liking of Negative Brand Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Duncan; Estes, Zachary; Gibbert, Michael; Mazursky, David

    2016-01-01

    Negative brand names are surprisingly common in the marketplace (e.g., Poison perfume; Hell pizza, and Monster energy drink), yet their effects on consumer behavior are currently unknown. Three studies investigated the effects of negative brand name valence on brand name memory and liking of a branded product. Study 1 demonstrates that relative to non-negative brand names, negative brand names and their associated logos are better recognised. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that negative valence of a brand name tends to have a detrimental influence on product evaluation with evaluations worsening as negative valence increases. However, evaluation is also dependent on brand name arousal, with high arousal brand names resulting in more positive evaluations, such that moderately negative brand names are equally as attractive as some non-negative brand names. Study 3 shows evidence for affective habituation, whereby the effects of negative valence reduce with repeated exposures to some classes of negative brand name. PMID:27023872

  18. Brand Suicide? Memory and Liking of Negative Brand Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Duncan; Estes, Zachary; Gibbert, Michael; Mazursky, David

    2016-01-01

    Negative brand names are surprisingly common in the marketplace (e.g., Poison perfume; Hell pizza, and Monster energy drink), yet their effects on consumer behavior are currently unknown. Three studies investigated the effects of negative brand name valence on brand name memory and liking of a branded product. Study 1 demonstrates that relative to non-negative brand names, negative brand names and their associated logos are better recognised. Studies 2 and 3 demonstrate that negative valence of a brand name tends to have a detrimental influence on product evaluation with evaluations worsening as negative valence increases. However, evaluation is also dependent on brand name arousal, with high arousal brand names resulting in more positive evaluations, such that moderately negative brand names are equally as attractive as some non-negative brand names. Study 3 shows evidence for affective habituation, whereby the effects of negative valence reduce with repeated exposures to some classes of negative brand name.

  19. Conflicts in A Streetcar Named Desire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    禹雪含

    2014-01-01

    A conflict is a disagreement, struggle, controversy or fight which usually provides the plot for a story. It is the promi-nent element of a work and the basis for everything else included in the work of literature. In the drama A Streetcar Named Desire of Tennessee Williams, several kinds of conflicts are proficiently and artistically revealed. This paper touches on different kinds of conflicts, including those between fantasy and reality, female and male, desire and death, the exterior and inner world, the south and the north. Conflicts are of great literary importance in this play. Firstly, they function to propel the plot and create an over-arching tension. Secondly, they are used to represent themes which are applied to greater contexts. Thirdly, conflicts go through the whole play and make it a united whole.

  20. Hue discrimination, unique hues and naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachy, Romain; Dias, Jérôme; Alleysson, David; Bonnardel, Valérie

    2012-02-01

    The hue discrimination curve (HDC) that characterizes performances over the entire hue circle was determined by using sinusoidally modulated spectral power distributions of 1.5 c/300 nm with fixed amplitude and twelve reference phases. To investigate relationship between hue discrimination and appearance, observers further performed a free color naming and unique hue tasks. The HDC consistently displayed two minima and two maxima; discrimination is optimal at the yellow/orange and blue/magenta boundaries and pessimal in green and in the extra-spectral magenta colors. A linear model based on Müller zone theory correctly predicts a periodical profile but with a phase-opponency (minima/maxima at 180° apart) which is inconsistent with the empirical HDC's profile.

  1. Computer Security: in the name of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    This summer, the American/Canadian dating website Ashley Madison was successfully compromised by a group of hackers (see here) who subsequently published tons of confidential information: addresses, dates of birth, e-mail addresses, ethnicities, genders, names, passwords, payment histories, phone numbers, security questions, sexual preferences, usernames and website activity.   Initially, these attackers blackmailed Ashley Madison and requested that the service be shut down. Later, however, they just made their stolen data public on the Internet. More than 30 million unique e-mail addresses – a hallelujah for miscreants. What can they do with this data? One possibility is blackmailing the people whose e-mail addresses were exposed by threatening to tell their spouses (“Pay me X bitcoins or I will tell your spouse that you are looking for a date!”). Another is targeting those people who have registered with their company e-...

  2. A naming convention for atmospheric organic aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, B. N.; Donahue, N. M.; Robinson, A. L.; Pandis, S. N.

    2014-06-01

    While the field of atmospheric organic aerosol scientific research has experienced thorough and insightful progress over the last half century, this progress has been accompanied by the evolution of a communicative and detailed yet, at times, complex and inconsistent language. The menagerie of detailed classification that now exists to describe organic compounds in our atmosphere reflects the wealth of observational techniques now at our disposal as well as the rich information provided by state-of-the-science instrumentation. However, the nomenclature in place to communicate these scientific gains is growing disjointed to the point that effective communication within the scientific community and to the public may be sacrificed. We propose standardizing a naming convention for organic aerosol classification that is relevant to laboratory studies, ambient observations, atmospheric models, and various stakeholders for air-quality problems. Because a critical aspect of this effort is to directly translate the essence of complex physico-chemical phenomena to a much broader, policy-oriented audience, we recommend a framework that maximizes comprehension among scientists and non-scientists alike. For example, to classify volatility, it relies on straightforward alphabetic terms (e.g., semivolatile, SV; intermediate volatility, IV; etc.) rather than possibly ambiguous numeric indices. This framework classifies organic material as primary or secondary pollutants and distinguishes among fundamental features important for science and policy questions including emission source, chemical phase, and volatility. Also useful is the addition of an alphabetic suffix identifying the volatility of the organic material or its precursor for when emission occurred. With this framework, we hope to introduce into the community a consistent connection between common notation for the general public and detailed nomenclature for highly specialized discussion. In so doing, we try to maintain

  3. Some Lithuanian ethnobotanical taxa: a linguistic view on Thorn Apple and related plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šeškauskaitė Daiva

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The perception and use of plants correspond with common plant names. The study of plant names may give insight into historical and recent use of plants. Methods Plant names in dictionaries and folklore have been evaluated. A etymological analysis of the names is provided. Onomasiological and semasiological aspects have been considered. Therefore, species named with names related to each other have been selected. Results Plant names containing the stem dag- or deg- may belong to either of two categories: incenses or thorny plants. Plants named in durn- have been in use as psychopharmaca. The name rymo points not to Rome but to the use of plants as anodyne or psychopharmaca.

  4. Using a voice to put a name to a face: the psycholinguistics of proper name comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Dale J; Jackson, Laura; Phillips, Isobel

    2014-02-01

    We propose that hearing a proper name (e.g., Kevin) in a particular voice serves as a compound memory cue that directly activates representations of a mutually known target person, often permitting reference resolution without any complex computation of shared knowledge. In a referential communication study, pairs of friends played a communication game, in which we monitored the eyes of one friend (the addressee) while he or she sought to identify the target person, in a set of four photos, on the basis of a name spoken aloud. When the name was spoken by a friend, addressees rapidly identified the target person, and this facilitation was independent of whether the friend was articulating a message he or she had designed versus one from a third party with whom the target person was not shared. Our findings suggest that the comprehension system takes advantage of regularities in the environment to minimize effortful computation about who knows what.

  5. Recommended conservation of the names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, and seven other names included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Request for an opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Mogens

    2001-01-01

    With reference to the first Principle of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria, which emphasizes stability of names, it is proposed that the original names Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus rattus, Streptococcus cricetus, Erwinia ananas, Eubacterium tarantellus, Lactobacillus sake......, Nitrosococcus oceanus, Pseudomonas betle, Rickettsia canada and Streptomyces rangoon, all included in the Approved Lists of Bacterial Names, be conserved. Request for an Opinion...

  6. Register of names and types in Poaceae: a computerized index for southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gibbs Russell

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available For each name based on or applied to southern African grasses the following data is recorded: name, author, place and date of publication, basionym, cross-reference to other genera, and type specimens. The data is entered into a computer file for sorting in the following ways: by name alphabetically, by place of publication, by genus or by collector of the type specimen. The lists thus produced are directly useful for taxonomic study, and will also be the basis for efforts by staff of the Botanical Research Institute, Pretoria, to acquire copies of all original descriptions and photographs of all type specimens. The methods for compiling the Register worked out for Poaceae can be applied to registers of names in other plant families.

  7. Naming Lunar Mare Basalts: Quo Vadimus Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, G.

    1999-01-01

    Nearly a decade ago, I noted that the nomenclature of lunar mare basalts was inconsistent, complicated, and arcane. I suggested that this reflected both the limitations of our understanding of the basalts, and the piecemeal progression made in lunar science by the nature of the Apollo missions. Although the word "classification" is commonly attached to various schemes of mare basalt nomenclature, there is still no classification of mare basalts that has any fundamental grounding. We remain basically at a classification of the first kind in the terms of Shand; that is, things have names. Quoting John Stuart Mill, Shand discussed classification of the second kind: "The ends of scientific classification are best answered when the objects are formed into groups respecting which a greater number of propositions can be made, and those propositions more important than could be made respecting any other groups into which the same things could be distributed." Here I repeat some of the main contents of my discussion from a decade ago, and add a further discussion based on events of the last decade. A necessary first step of sample studies that aims to understand lunar mare basalt processes is to associate samples with one another as members of the same igneous event, such as a single eruption lava flow, or differentiation event. This has been fairly successful, and discrete suites have been identified at all mare sites, members that are eruptively related to each other but not to members of other suites. These eruptive members have been given site-specific labels, e.g., Luna24 VLT, Apollo 11 hi-K, A12 olivine basalts, and Apollo 15 Green Glass C. This is classification of the first kind, but is not a useful classification of any other kind. At a minimum, a classification is inclusive (all objects have a place) and exclusive (all objects have only one place). The answer to "How should rocks be classified?" is far from trivial, for it demands a fundamental choice about nature

  8. What's in a Name? Honoring Students' Cultural Identities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavigan, Karen

    2010-01-01

    A name is one of the first things one learns about people. Many times the first word a young child learns is his or her name. Furthermore, names often serve as an indicator of a person's cultural identity. Unfortunately, for many English Language Learners (ELLs) and other students who immigrate to America, a name can be an embarrassment rather…

  9. Children's Evaluative Stereotypes of Masculine, Feminine, and Androgynous First Names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Philip G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined children's evaluative stereotypes of masculine, feminine, and androgynous first names. Attractive and unattractive masculine, feminine, and androgynous first names were presented to 50 primary school children. The gender-typed names were attributed to the appropriate sex; the androgynous names were repeated and attributed to…

  10. 27 CFR 40.91 - Change in individual name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in individual name. 40.91 Section 40.91 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Changes in Name § 40.91 Change in individual name. Where there is a change in the name of an...

  11. 27 CFR 44.101 - Change in individual name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in individual name... Warehouse Proprietors Changes in Name § 44.101 Change in individual name. Where there is a change in the name of an individual operating as an export warehouse proprietor he shall, within 30 days of...

  12. Is visual attention automatically attracted to one's own name?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundesen, C; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Houmann, K J;

    1997-01-01

    Subjects were presented with briefly exposed visual displays of words that were common first names with a length of four to six letters. In the main experiment, each display consisted of four words: two names shown in red and two shown in white. The subject's task was to report the red names (tar......, visual attention was not automatically attracted by the subject's own name....

  13. 48 CFR 52.211-6 - Brand name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 52....211-6 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 11.107(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (AUG 1999) (a) If an item in this solicitation is identified as “brand name or equal,”...

  14. VLT Unit Telescopes Named at Paranal Inauguration

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    General, speeches were delivered by the President of the ESO Council and the President of Chile. The speakers praised the great achievement of bringing the very complex, high-technology VLT project this far so successfully and also the wonderful new opportunities for front-line research with this new facility. This would not have been possible without excellent cooperation between the many parties to this project, individuals as well as research institutes, companies and governments, all working towards a common goal. The ceremony was concluded with a discourse on "Understanding the Universe" by Physics Nobel Prize winner, Professor Carlo Rubbia, former Director of CERN. At the end of the day, the President of the ESO Council, the ESO Director General and the Heads of Delegations had the opportunity to witness an observing session with the UT1 from the VLT Control Room. The 300 other guests followed this event via internal video broadcast. Mapuche names for the Unit Telescopes It had long been ESO's intention to provide "real" names to the four VLT Unit Telescopes, to replace the current, somewhat dry and technical designations as UT1 to UT4. Four meaningful names of objects in the sky in the Mapuche language were chosen. This indigeneous people lives mostly in the area south of Santiago de Chile. An essay contest was arranged in this connection among schoolchildren of the Chilean II Region of which Antofagasta is the capital to write about the implications of these names. It drew many excellent entries dealing with the rich cultural heritage of ESO's host country. The jury was unanimous in its choice of the winning essay. This was submitted by 17-year old Jorssy Albanez Castilla from Chuquicamata near the city of Calama. She received the prize, an amateur telescope, during the Paranal Inauguration. Henceforth, the four Unit Telescopes will be known as ANTU (UT1; pronounced an-too ; The Sun), KUEYEN (UT2; qua-yen , like in "quake"; The Moon), MELIPAL (UT3; me-li-pal ; The

  15. A flu by any other name: why the World Health Organization should adopt the World Meteorological Association's storm naming system as a model for naming emerging infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Rebecca; Bruls, Sand; Busch, Vincent; Wilson, Kumanan; Hershfield, Larry; Keelan, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the factors that contributed to the use of different names for H1N1 by diverse actors in the early stages of the pandemic of 2009 and discusses the implications of inconsistent naming practices for the public's understanding of the virus and the credibility of scientists and health authorities. The authors propose a naming protocol for novel variants modeled after the World Meteorological Association's practice for naming weather events, a model that would enable accurate transmission of technical information among experts and provide a stable name for public use, even in the context of incomplete or changing scientific understanding of the nature of the pathogen.

  16. Survey of poisonous plants in Southern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some verbal reports also indicate the presence of plant species, which are .... morphological similarity of the plants and/or vernacular names), and ..... animals and occasionally foes. Although an ... mRNA resulting in cell death. Symptoms.

  17. Loren Pope Touted "No Name" Colleges in a Brand-Name World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Eric

    2008-01-01

    This article profiles Loren Pope, a college consultant and a former education editor at "The New York Times" who touted "no name" colleges and called the nation's most famous university, Harvard University, a rip-off. In his influential book "Colleges That Change Lives" (Penguin, 1996), Mr. Pope profiled 40 institutions--most of them small…

  18. Orthographic Characteristics Speed Hindi Word Naming but Slow Urdu Naming: Evidence from Hindi/Urdu Biliterates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Chaitra; Vaid, Jyotsna; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Chen, Hsin-Chin

    2011-01-01

    Two primed naming experiments tested the orthographic depth hypothesis in skilled biliterate readers of Hindi and Urdu. These languages are very similar on the spoken level but differ greatly in script; Hindi is a highly transparent script, whereas Urdu is more opaque. It was accordingly hypothesized that form-based priming would be greater for…

  19. Changing name: changing prospects for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingdon, D; Taylor, L; Ma, K; Kinoshita, Y

    2013-12-01

    Names matter! Schizophrenia has negative associations which impede individual recovery and induce societal and self-stigmatization. Alternatives have been proposed and are worthy of debate; changes made in Japan have generally been considered successful. The group of 'schizophrenia and other psychoses' could be further differentiated based on the major social factors identified, i.e. drug misuse and the effects of severe childhood trauma. The use of appropriate International Classification of Diseases (ICD) coding and definitions could usefully differentiate these groups - the former is a drug-induced psychosis and the latter frequently presents as comorbid schizophrenia and borderline personality disorder (often attracting a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder). The current established differentiation between early onset ('stress-sensitive' - 'Kraepelinian' schizophrenia) and later onset (DSM5 delusional disorder, i.e. with 'non-bizarreness' criterion removed) psychosis may also be worthy of further investigation to establish validity and reliability. Psychosocially descriptive terms have been found to be more acceptable to patients and perceived as less stigmatizing by others. Subgroups of psychosis with greater homogeneity would benefit research, clinical and therapeutic practice and public understanding, attitudes and behaviour.

  20. Re-naming D Double Prime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Benjamin F.

    1999-01-01

    "Knowledge about the dynamics of the D double prime region is a key to unlock some fundamental mysteries of the Earth heat engine which governs a wide range of global geophysical processes from tectonics to geodynamo." This benign sentence makes complete sense to many geophysicists. But for many others, it makes sense all except the odd nomenclature "D double prime". One knows about the crust, upper and lower mantle, outer and inner core, but where is the D double prime region? What meaning does it try to convey? Where is D prime region, or D, or A, B, C regions for that matter, and are there higher-order primes? How does such an odd name come about anyway? D double prime, or more "simply" D", is a generic designation given to the thin shell, about 200 km thick, of the lowermost mantle just above the core-mantle boundary inside the Earth. Incidentally, whether D" is "simpler" than "D double prime" depends on whether you are pronouncing it or writing/typing it; and D" can be confusing to readers in distinguishing quotation marks (such as in the above sentences) and second derivatives, and to word processors in spelling check and indexing.

  1. A public health physician named Walter Leser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Guilherme Arantes; Bonfim, José Ruben de Alcântara

    2015-09-01

    A brief review of the career of the public health physician Walter Sidney Pereira Leser, who died in 2004 aged 94. Self-taught, from his 1933 doctoral thesis he became a country reference in the field of statistics and epidemiology, with dozens of studies and supervisions. In the clinical field he is one of the founders of Fleury Laboratory, and participates in the creation of CREMESP. As an academic, Leser was a professor at the Escola de Sociologia e Política de São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina e Faculdade de Farmácia e Odontologia da USP. Also, Leser introduced objective tests in the college entrance examination, and led the creation of CESCEM and Carlos Chagas Foundation. In the Escola Paulista de Medicina he created the first Preventive Medicine Department of the country. As a public official, he was secretary of the State Department of Health of São Paulo between 1967 and 1971 and between 1975 and 1979, responsible for extensive reforms and innovations. Among the most remembered, the creation of sanitary medical career. Throughout this legacy, he lent his name to the "Medal of Honor and Merit Public Health Management" of the State of São Paulo.

  2. Anatomical eponyms - unloved names in medical terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdan, F; Dworzański, W; Cendrowska-Pinkosz, M; Burdan, M; Dworzańska, A

    2016-01-01

    Uniform international terminology is a fundamental issue of medicine. Names of various organs or structures have developed since early human history. The first proper anatomical books were written by Hippocrates, Aristotle and Galen. For this reason the modern terms originated from Latin or Greek. In a modern time the terminology was improved in particular by Vasalius, Fabricius and Harvey. Presently each known structure has internationally approved term that is explained in anatomical or histological terminology. However, some elements received eponyms, terms that incorporate the surname of the people that usually describe them for the first time or studied them (e.g., circle of Willis, follicle of Graff, fossa of Sylvious, foramen of Monro, Adamkiewicz artery). Literature and historical hero also influenced medical vocabulary (e.g. Achilles tendon and Atlas). According to various scientists, all the eponyms bring colour to medicine, embed medical traditions and culture to our history but lack accuracy, lead of confusion, and hamper scientific discussion. The current article presents a wide list of the anatomical eponyms with their proper anatomical term or description according to international anatomical terminology. However, since different eponyms are used in various countries, the list could be expanded.

  3. Sarcocystinae: nomina dubia and available names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, J K; Heydorn, A O; Mehlhorn, H; Rommel, M

    1979-02-28

    Examination of the original descriptions of the species of Sarcocystis in cattle, sheep, and swine, and of isosporid oocysts shed sporulated by dogs, cats, man, and other carnivores, has shown that it is not possible in most instances to identify unambiguously recently recognized taxa. The original descriptions are insufficient, and because no type specimens exist, could apply to two or more of the presently recognized taxa. We consider the following nomina dubia: Sarcocystis hirsuta S. miescheriana S. tenella S. cruzi S. bertrami Isospora bigemina (S. bigemina) I. hominis (S. hominis) I. buteonis (Frenkelia buteonis) Because the former type species, Sarcocystis miescheriana, is an indeterminate nomen dubium, we are proposing S. muris as the new type species. Historically, it was the first species described clearly and unambiguously even in the light of present knowledge, and the stages of its life cycle are probably completely known; it was the second species to be named. Old and recent descriptions are reviewed, and definitions are proposed for the following taxa: S. bovifelis S. bovicanis S. bovihominis S. ovifelis S. ovicanis S. muris (type species) S. suihominis S. suicanis S. equicanis Frenkelia microti F. glareoli for which neotypes will be prepared and deposited with designated institutions and curators. A new subfamily, Cystoisosporinae, is created.

  4. A Discrete Model for Color Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Boi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to associate labels to colors is very natural for human beings. Though, this apparently simple task hides very complex and still unsolved problems, spreading over many different disciplines ranging from neurophysiology to psychology and imaging. In this paper, we propose a discrete model for computational color categorization and naming. Starting from the 424 color specimens of the OSA-UCS set, we propose a fuzzy partitioning of the color space. Each of the 11 basic color categories identified by Berlin and Kay is modeled as a fuzzy set whose membership function is implicitly defined by fitting the model to the results of an ad hoc psychophysical experiment (Experiment 1. Each OSA-UCS sample is represented by a feature vector whose components are the memberships to the different categories. The discrete model consists of a three-dimensional Delaunay triangulation of the CIELAB color space which associates each OSA-UCS sample to a vertex of a 3D tetrahedron. Linear interpolation is used to estimate the membership values of any other point in the color space. Model validation is performed both directly, through the comparison of the predicted membership values to the subjective counterparts, as evaluated via another psychophysical test (Experiment 2, and indirectly, through the investigation of its exploitability for image segmentation. The model has proved to be successful in both cases, providing an estimation of the membership values in good agreement with the subjective measures as well as a semantically meaningful color-based segmentation map.

  5. A Survey of Pen Name (Takhallos in Sonnets (Ghazals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Ahmadipour

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   The pen name of poet appears in the end of the poem and it is spread from the end of Mogul period. Although before this period, some poets write their pen name in the final verse of the poem too. The literary Restoration Period poets follow Hafiz and saadi in Lyrics. they wanted to imitate their great teachers exactly. so they imitate these two poets in their pen name.   Mostly, the pen name is written in the final verse of the Sonnet, but some time, the poet write the pen name in the previous to last verse of Sonnet because of praising someone else or putting allegory in the final verse. Rarely poet didn't use his pen name in the poem, because of not finishing the poem or the poet did not want to use his name next to the praised name, sometimes they use pronoun "I" instead of their pen name. In this study, also we investigate the point of view in pen name amphibology in pen name, adjectives of pen name, and contents that use with it.   Also in this study pen name in sonnet (Ghazals of the literary Restoration Period are compared with pen name in hafiz and saadi Ghazals, so that the special manners of pen name applications in Lyrics of these two great master sonnet poets identified and the degree of imitation of others get in hand.

  6. Improved Vocabulary Production after Naming Therapy in Aphasia: Can Gains in Picture Naming Generalise to Connected Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matt Lambon

    2009-01-01

    Background: Naming accuracy for nouns and verbs in aphasia can vary across different elicitation contexts, for example, simple picture naming, composite picture description, narratives, and conversation. For some people with aphasia, naming may be more accurate to simple pictures as opposed to naming in spontaneous, connected speech; for others,…

  7. Improved Vocabulary Production after Naming Therapy in Aphasia: Can Gains in Picture Naming Generalise to Connected Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matt Lambon

    2009-01-01

    Background: Naming accuracy for nouns and verbs in aphasia can vary across different elicitation contexts, for example, simple picture naming, composite picture description, narratives, and conversation. For some people with aphasia, naming may be more accurate to simple pictures as opposed to naming in spontaneous, connected speech; for others,…

  8. How to deal with nomenclatoral ambiguities of trivial names for natural products?--a clarifying case study exemplified for "corymbosin".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramabharathi, Vatsavaya; Schuehly, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Many names of plant secondary compounds that have been isolated and identified in the course of phytochemical investigations are based either on the vernacular or Latin names of the source plants, are constructed according to rules of chemical nomenclature, or consist of in-between forms. Trivial names, based on the specific epithets of biological organisms, occasionally create confusion because such epithets are used in numerous combinations and, therefore, could potentially be used when naming chemical entities from radically different sources. Such an example of ambiguous naming is represented with the case of corymbosin, a name that was assigned to two chemically distinct compounds that were isolated and reported simultaneously in 1967 from two different spermatophyte taxa: a terpene glucoside from Turbina corymbosa and a flavone from Webera corymbosa. The flavone is more widespread and has been reported so far from 15 taxa, whereas the glucoside has thus far only been isolated from the original source species. Furthermore, glycosides named corymbosins K1-K4 were isolated in 2006 from Knoxia corymbosa. This article emphasizes the need to adhere to strict principles when naming secondary constituents and suggests that a practice should be applied that is similar to the application of the priority rules used in botanical nomenclature for homonyms. The use of the trivial name, corymbosin, should be applied only to the more widespread tricetin-7,3',4',5'-tetramethyl ether by rules of conservation.

  9. Meeting Mr Davis vs Mr Davin: effects of name frequency on learning proper names in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Lori E; Fogler, Kethera A

    2007-05-01

    Two theoretical frameworks relevant to proper name learning in ageing make competing predictions about the effects of name frequency. Under an inhibition model, common (high-frequency; HF) proper names will be harder to learn and remember than rare (low-frequency; LF) names, whereas under a transmission deficit model, HF names will have the advantage. Young adults (ages 18-31) and two groups of healthy older adults (ages 60-74 and 75-89) learned HF (e.g., Davis) and LF (e.g., Davin) surnames in association with new faces. Young adults recalled more names than older or oldest adults, and participants of all ages recalled more HF than LF names. There was no interaction between age and name frequency: The difference favouring HF names was similar in magnitude across age groups. All evidence runs contrary to the inhibitory model's prediction that interference makes learning HF names difficult.

  10. Naming taxa from cladograms: a cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Alain

    2007-02-01

    The recent publication of a new hypothesis of cladistic relationships among American frogs referred to the genus Rana, accompanied by a new taxonomy and a new nomenclature of this group [Hillis D.M., Wilcox, T.P., 2005. Phylogeny of the New World true frogs (Rana). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 34, 299-314], draws attention to the problems posed by the use of a "double nomenclature", following both the rules of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (designated here as "onomatophore-based nomenclature") and the rules of the draft Phylocode (designated here as "definition-based nomenclature"). These two nomenclatural systems, which rely upon widely different theoretical bases, are incompatible, and the latter cannot be viewed as a "modification" of the former. Accordingly, scientific names (nomina) following both systems should be clearly distinguished in scientific publications. Onomatophore-based nomina should continue to be written as they have been for about 250 years, whereas definition-based nomina should be written in a specific way, e.g., Lithobates. The combined use of both nomenclatural systems for the same taxonomy in the same paper requires good knowledge and careful respect of the rules of the Code regarding availability, allocation and validity of nomina. As shown by this example, not doing so may result in various problems, in particular in publishing nomina nuda or in using nomenclatural ranks invalid under the current Code. Attention is drawn to the fact that new nomina published without diagnostic characters are not available under the Code, and that the latter currently forbids the use of more than two ranks (subgenus and "aggregate of species") between the ranks genus and species.

  11. Ubiquitous place names Standardization and study in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan F. Lauder

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Place names play a vital role in human society. Names exist in all languages and place names are an indispensible part of international communication. This has been acknowledged by the establishment of the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN. One of UNGEGN’s tasks is to coordinate international efforts on the proper use of place names. Indonesia supports this effort and through its National Geospatial Agency (BIG. Place names are also of interest as an object of study in themselves. Academic studies into place names are found in linguistics, onomastics, philosophy and a number of other academic disciplines. This article looks at these two dimensions of place names, standardization efforts under the auspices of international and national bodies, and academic studies of names, with particular reference to the situation in Indonesia.

  12. The Power of a Good Name

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Armstrong Williams; 刘盼选

    1996-01-01

    此文的开头就是一则感人的故事。Armstrong Williams 16岁那年父亲叫他去赊购物品,开始他觉得丢脸,心中不悦。不料,因其父在乡里名声极佳,老板便十分“赏脸”地赊给了他。并对在场的人说;This here is one of JamesWillaims′s sons.言者无意,听者有心。Armstrong Williams 砰然心动,顿感:Those three words(即 James Williams′s son)had opened a door to an adult′srespect and trust.从此,他信奉 A good name is better than riches(—英谚),现在他已是美国报刊辛迪加(syndicate)的专栏作家及电台/视访谈节目主持人。 人的最起码的精神当局“自尊”。作者对今日美国“世民日下”直言不讳:Do-ing drugs,abusing alcohol,stealing.getting a young woman pregnant out ofwedlock—today,none of these behaviors are the deep embarrassment theyshould be.此文披露:今日美国1/3的婴儿的母亲为未婚者!其根源何在?作者认为:Many of today′s kids have failed because theif sense of shame has failed. 文章首尾呼应。当文末再现 After all,I was James Williams′s son…的时候,读者的心情在肃然中必有几许亮色。 文章最值得玩味的词是——decent。它出现了两次。

  13. ARABIC PERSON NAMES RECOGNITION BY USING A RULE BASED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Aboaoga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Name Entity Recognition is very important task in many natural language processing applications such as; Machine Translation, Question Answering, Information Extraction, Text Summarization, Semantic Applications and Word Sense Disambiguation. Rule-based approach is one of the techniques that are used for named entity recognition to identify the named entities such as a person names, location names and organization names. The recent rule-based methods have been applied to recognize the person names in political domain. They ignored the recognition of other named entity types such as locations and organizations. We have used the rule based approach for recognizing the named entity type (person names for Arabic. We have developed four rules for identifying the person names depending on the position of name. We have used an in-house Arabic corpus collected from newspaper achieves. The evaluation method that compares the results of the system with the manually annotated text has been applied in order to compute precision, recall and f-measure. In the experiment of this study, the average f-measure for recognizing person names are (92.66, 92.04 and 90.43% in sport, economic and politic domain respectively. The experimental results showed that our rule-based method achieved the highest f-measure values in sport domain comparing with political and economic domains.

  14. Slovenian proper names designing living beings and geographical proper names, in tourist brochures and informative booklets translated into French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Paternoster

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses French translations of Slovenian proper names in tourist bro chures and booklets published by the Slovenian Tourist Board and the Government of the Republic of Slovenia, Public Relations and Promotion Office. We analysed the names of living beings (the group of names was expected to be less numerous and above all geographical proper names. While we did not notice any bigger problems when translating proper names of living beings, the same can be said for one word geographical proper names. The opposite holds true for multiword geographical proper names. As we believe that tourist brochures play an important role in representing the coun try abroad, we would expect translators be given more detailed guidelines as far as trans lation of proper names is concerned. We hope that the present article brings forth the hard nuts of translating proper names in a manner to encourage the creation of such guidelines.

  15. Isolepis levynsiana, a New Name for Cyperus tenellus (Cyperaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muthama Muasya, A.; Simpson, D.A.; Smets, E.

    2007-01-01

    The recently published name Isolepis tenella (L. f) Muasya & D. A. Simpson is illegitimate, because there exists an earlier homonym. A new name, I. levynsiana Muasya & D. A. Simpson, is proposed for Cyperus tenellus.

  16. Improving Named Entity Disambiguation by Iteratively Enhancing Certainty of Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, M. B.; Keulen, M. van

    2011-01-01

    Named entity extraction and disambiguation have received much attention in recent years. Typical fields addressing these topics are information retrieval, natural language processing, and semantic web. This paper addresses two problems with named entity extraction and disambiguation. First, almost n

  17. Recognizing the emotional valence of names: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Zhu, Zude; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Hagoort, Peter; Yang, Yufang

    2013-04-01

    Unlike common nouns, person names refer to unique entities and generally have a referring function. We used event-related potentials to investigate the time course of identifying the emotional meaning of nouns and names. The emotional valence of names and nouns were manipulated separately. The results show early N1 effects in response to emotional valence only for nouns. This might reflect automatic attention directed towards emotional stimuli. The absence of such an effect for names supports the notion that the emotional meaning carried by names is accessed after word recognition and person identification. In addition, both names with negative valence and emotional nouns elicited late positive effects, which have been associated with evaluation of emotional significance. This positive effect started earlier for nouns than for names, but with similar durations. Our results suggest that distinct neural systems are involved in the retrieval of names' and nouns' emotional meaning.

  18. Improving Named Entity Disambiguation by Iteratively Enhancing Certainty of Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, Mena Badieh; van Keulen, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    Named entity extraction and disambiguation have received much attention in recent years. Typical fields addressing these topics are information retrieval, natural language processing, and semantic web. This paper addresses two problems with named entity extraction and disambiguation. First, almost

  19. Named Entity Extraction and Disambiguation from an Uncertainty Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, M. B.; Keulen, M. van

    2011-01-01

    Named entity extraction and disambiguation have received much attention in recent years. Typical fields addressing these topics are information retrieval, natural language processing, and semantic web. This work addresses two problems with named entity extraction and disambiguation. First, almost no

  20. Getting To Know You: Activities for Learning Names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Debra J.

    1998-01-01

    Learning names is vital to the enjoyment and productivity of a group. Presents four games to help campers learn each others' names. Sidebar presents three additional teambuilding activities and ice breakers. (TD)

  1. The Brand Names Translation of Cosmetics Under Intercultural Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤恒

    2015-01-01

    The brand names translation of cosmetics is directly related to the sales of the products and the success of the enterprises.Cultural difference is a key factor in the brand names translation.Therefore,this essay mainly discusses the brand names translation of cosmetics from the perspective of intercultural communication.

  2. 46 CFR 160.056-6 - Name plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Name plate. 160.056-6 Section 160.056-6 Shipping COAST...: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Rescue Boat § 160.056-6 Name plate. (a) Each rescue boat shall have permanently fitted at the transom a metal name plate, galvanically compatible with the hull...

  3. How Does Using Object Names Influence Visual Recognition Memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richler, Jennifer J.; Palmeri, Thomas J.; Gauthier, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Two recent lines of research suggest that explicitly naming objects at study influences subsequent memory for those objects at test. Lupyan (2008) suggested that naming "impairs" memory by a representational shift of stored representations of named objects toward the prototype (labeling effect). MacLeod, Gopie, Hourihan, Neary, and Ozubko (2010)…

  4. 27 CFR 41.220 - Change in individual name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Change in individual name. 41.220 Section 41.220 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... Change in individual name. Where there is a change in the name of an individual operating as an...

  5. Identity of Hitherto doubtful specific names in European Nepticulidae (Lepidoptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieukerken, van E.J.; Johansson, R.

    1987-01-01

    The identity of hitherto doubtful specific names in Nepticulidae has been established on the basis of type material where possible, or after a critical reexamination of the original descriptions. In addition a few previously synonymized names have been reevaluated. The identity of 17 names could be

  6. 17 CFR 270.35d-1 - Investment company names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Investment company names. 270... (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT COMPANY ACT OF 1940 § 270.35d-1 Investment company names. (a... words “United States” or “U.S. government.” (2) Names suggesting investment in certain investments...

  7. Task choice and semantic interference in picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piai, V.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Schriefers, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from dual-task performance indicates that speakers prefer not to select simultaneous responses in picture naming and another unrelated task, suggesting a response selection bottleneck in naming. In particular, when participants respond to tones with a manual response and name pictures with

  8. Task choice and semantic interference in picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piai, V.; Roelofs, A.P.A.; Schriefers, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from dual-task performance indicates that speakers prefer not to select simultaneous responses in picture naming and another unrelated task, suggesting a response selection bottleneck in naming. In particular, when participants respond to tones with a manual response and name pictures with

  9. 14 CFR 119.9 - Use of business names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of business names. 119.9 Section 119.9... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS General § 119.9 Use of business names. (a) A certificate holder under this part may not operate an aircraft under part 121 or part 135 of this chapter using a business name other than a...

  10. 48 CFR 452.211-70 - Brand Name or Equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand Name or Equal. 452... FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 452.211-70 Brand Name or Equal. As prescribed in 411.171, insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (NOV...

  11. 48 CFR 411.170 - Brand name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 411... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Selecting and Developing Requirements Documents 411.170 Brand name or equal. (a) A “brand name or equal” purchase description shall include the following type...

  12. 77 FR 189 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Brand-Name Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ...-AK55 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Brand-Name Specifications AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD... brand-name specifications. DATES: Effective Date: February 2, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr... of Management and Budget (OMB) memoranda and policies on the use of brand- name specifications....

  13. 48 CFR 1852.210-70 - Brand name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Brand name or equal. 1852... 1852.210-70 Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 1810.011-70(a), insert the following provision: Brand Name or Equal (DEC 1988) (a) As used in this provision, “brand name” means identification of...

  14. 48 CFR 852.211-73 - Brand name or equal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brand name or equal. 852... Brand name or equal. As prescribed in 811.104-71, insert the following clause: Brand Name or Equal (JAN 2008) (Note: As used in this clause, the term “brand name” includes identification of products by...

  15. The Existing Problems in the Translation of Chinese Dish Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易高燕

    2009-01-01

    China has a long rich history of dietary culture, and with the increasing communication with other countries and cultures, it is of great significance to translate the Chinese dish names and food with accuracy and efficiency. In this easy, the writer discusses some existing problems in the translation of Chinese dish names, and put forward several useful methods in translating Chinese dish names.

  16. Indexing concepts and/or named entities Indicizzare concetti e/o named entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pino Buizza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    A partire da un punto di vista semantico più che morfologico, l'articolo è focalizzato il problema del significato dei nomi propri, con contributi della filosofia del linguaggio e della linguistica semantica. Sono indagate le entità individuali: il loro isolamento all’interno della rete di soggetti e la relazione esemplificativa, il trattamento nelle classificazioni. Le profonde diversità rilevate fra concetti e entità denominate suggeriscono di dichiararle esplicitamente da un punto di vista teorico e di adottare dispositivi che diano risultati unitari ma chiaramente distinguibili nei sistemi di recupero dell’informazione.  
    Questo contributo è stato presentato col titolo Indexing concepts and/or named entities all'11th ISKO Conference, Paradigms and conceptual systems in knowledge organization, Roma, 23-26 febbraio 2010, non pubblicato negli atti, e qui leggermente ampliato.

    Starting from a semantic rather than form a morphological point of view, the essay examines the problem of the meaning of proper names, with contributions coming from the philosophy of language and the semantic linguistics. Individual entities are explored: the way they are isolated in the thread of subjects, the illustrative relation, and the classification treatment. The deep differences between concepts and called entities suggest to declare them specifically in a theoretical way, and to adopt devices that lead to uniform but noticeable results in information retrieval systems.
    This article has been discussed as "Indexing concepts and/or named entities" to the 11th ISKO Conference, Paradigms and conceptual systems in knowledge organization, Rome, 23-26 February 2010, here extended since it is not published in the conference proceedings.

  17. Inventing and naming America:  Place and Place Names in Vladimir Nabokov’s Lolita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Manolescu-Oancea

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the afterword to Lolita, Nabokov claimed that in this book he had to invent both Lolita and America after having invented Europe in his previous fiction. This paper focuses precisely on the various ways in which Nabokov “invented” America in his best-known novel. This invention is first of all the result of the author’s evolving stance on the complexity of what he called “average ‘reality’” in his works. Through a survey of Nabokov’s statements on the choice and role of place in the forewords to his Russian works and in his critical texts, I show that Lolita is indeed considered by Nabokov to be a “recreation” of American reality, to a much greater extent than his Russian works had been recreations of a given milieu. I take the metaphor of the “crazy quilt” mentioned in Lolita to suggest complexity, chromatic exuberance, hybridity. The invention of America is also the result of a process of naming. Place names will be examined, not only those which make up Quilty’s “cryptogrammic paperchase”, but also Humbert’s choice of place names. The problem of referentiality is discussed and the way recent criticism has dealt with it. Finally, the interplay between one and many is emphasized, the way in which the diversity of the “crazy quilt” is counterbalanced by the uniqueness of the mastermind having produced it. The American motto “From many make one” could be reinterpreted as “From one make many”.

  18. Temperature-dependent growth of Botrytis cinerea isolates from potted plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J A; Gómez-Bellot, M J; Bañón, S

    2009-01-01

    Botrytis cinereo is a common aggressive saprophyte fungus which also invades injured plant tissues, causing Botrytis blight (Grey mould) in many ornamental plants, including potted flowering plants. Several B. cinerea isolates from potted plants (Pelargonium x hortorum, Lantana camara, Lonicera japonica, Hydrangea macrophylla, and Cyclamen persicum) affected by Botrytis blight in the south of Spain were studied and identified by PCR. The isolates showed phenotypic differences between them, as previously reported by the authors. In this work we demonstrate that these isolates show different temperature-dependent growth phenomena, expressed as mycelial growth rates, conidiation (measured as the number of conidia per colony and time of appearance), mass of both aerial and submerged mycelia, and sclerotia production. Growth rates were assessed from differences in colony area and mass of both aerial and submerged mycelium growing in potato dextrose agar culture medium (PDA). Three temperatures were used to measure these variables (6, 16, and 26 degrees C) and to establish the differences among isolates by modelling the effects of temperature on the growth variables. B. cinerea showed a high degree of phenotypic variability and differences in its growth kinetics, depending on temperature and isolate in question. The isolate from P. x hortorum showed the greatest conidiation although this process did not depend on the temperatures assayed. The growth rate of the isolates from P. x hortorum was the highest. The growth rates in all the isolates were determined and the growth kinetics could be fitted to a typical equation of fungi growing on solid culture medium. The isolate from P. x hortorum was the most vigorous, while the least vigorous was the isolate from L. japonica. A relationship between mycelial growth rate, conidiation and aerial mycelium could be established. A temperature of 26 degrees C accelerated sclerotia production, but only in the isolate from C. persicum

  19. Database Description - PGDBj Registered plant list, Marker list, QTL list, Plant DB link & Genome analysis methods | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d and funding Name: Database Integration Coordination Program (FY2011-FY2013) Integration of plant databases...ency (JST) Reference(s) Article title: Plant Genome DataBase Japan (PGDBj): A Portal Website for the Integ...ration of Plant Genome-Related Databases Author name(s): Erika Asamizu, Hisako Ichi

  20. Ethnobotanical survey of toxic plants and plant parts in Ogun State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adediwura A Fred-Jaiyesimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several plants considered toxic are sometimes identified in traditional medicinal recipes. This study identified and inventoried the plants and plant parts identified as toxic in targeted local government areas of Ogun State, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: By administering tested questionnaires, information on the poisonous or toxic plants, poisonous parts, poisonous effects, modes of poisoning, and antidotes was obtained. Results and Conclusion: Ninety-two species belonging to 43 families were identified as toxic plants and these were mainly members of the Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae families. The botanical names, poisonous parts, common names, vernacular names, modes of poisoning, antidotes, and poisonous effects are presented in a table.

  1. Datziinae as a new subfamily name for the unavailable name Protopsychodinae Stebner et al., 2015, (Diptera: Psychodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frauke Stebner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper a new subfamily of Psychodidae was inadequately named Protopsychodinae. This nomenclatural act cannot be considered as a valid name under ICZN regulations because the subfamily name is not based on the type genus Datzia Stebner et al., 2015, and furthermore the fossil genus Protopsychoda Azar et al., 1999 was originally described under the subfamily Psychodinae. Therefore, the new family-group name Datziinae is herein proposed.

  2. Research on Chinese place name recognition based on kernel classifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ying; WANG Xiao-long; LIU Bing-quan; WANG Hui

    2007-01-01

    A SVMs (Support Vector Machines) based method to identify Chinese place names is presented. In our approach, place name candidate is located according to a rational forming assumption, then SVMs based identification strategy is used to distinguish whether one candidate is true place name or not. Referring to linguistic knowledge, basic semanteme of a contextual word and frequency information of words inside place name candidate are selected as features in our methodology. So dimension in the feature space is reduced dramatically and processing procedure is performed more efficiently. Result of open testing on unregistered place names achieves F-measure 83. 25 in 8. 17 million words news based on this project.

  3. Name Stanislaus (Stanisław in Slavic Onomastic Tradition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszek Sowa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available St. Stanislaus, bishop and martyr, is one of the few saints of the Church bearing a traditional Slavic name. It belongs to an Indo-European Anthroponomastic system as a compound name whose components represent a pattern inherited from the period of the Indo-European community. This is a fortune-telling name (a nomen-omen given to a child on a wish of the parents, who wanted him to be famous (Polish ‘slawa’ means ‘fame’- Today, in our Christian culture, in choosing a name for the child we consider the following: 1 the child ‘brought’ his/her name (i.e. is given the name of the day’s patron; this is the gist of our ‘nameday’, 2 a family tradition, 3 respect for the grandfather or father (grandmother, mother, 4 fashion. Today’s anthroponomastic system in Slavic languages (except Bulgarian has grown cold leaving us unable to acquire precise understanding of the meaning of the name. Besides, nowadays names only denote, they do not mean anything. Compound Slavic names refer in their structure to names from other groups of the Indo-European community and are closely linked with a nation’s spiritual culture and appropriate ultimate and instrumental values. In Indo-European languages a different number of lexical components is used in names as their first or second part: in Old Indian - 865; in Old Persian and Median - 43; in Greek - 1015; in the Celtic group - 336; the German one - 1800 and in the Slavic group - 220. The most numerous in Old Polish anthroponomastics were names with the component slaw. As the first component - slaw appears in 4 names, and as the second, in 100. This component has appeared from times immemorial in Indian, Avestan, Greek and Illyrian names. Name Stanislaus is known in all Slavic countries, while its feminine form only in Polish, Bulgarian, Serb and Croatian. In Poland it has been in use since very old times up to now. Numerous surnames and names of places derive from it. The popularity of the name

  4. An Algorithm for Variable-Length Proper-Name Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James L. Dolby

    1970-12-01

    Full Text Available Viable on-line search systems require reasonable capabilities to automatically detect (and hopefully correct variations between request format and stored format. An important requirement is the solution of the problem of matching proper names, not only because both input specifications and storage specifications are subject to error, but also because various transliteration schemes exist and can provide variant proper name forms in the same data base. This paper reviews several proper name matching schemes and provides an updated version of these schemes which tests out nicely on the proper name equivalence classes of a suburban telephone book. An appendix lists the corpus of names used for algorithm test.

  5. The Time Course of Name Retrieval during Multiple-Object Naming: Evidence from Extrafoveal-on-Foveal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malpass, Debra; Meyer, Antje S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the study was to examine whether speakers naming pairs of objects would retrieve the names of the objects in parallel or in sequence. To this end, we recorded the speakers' eye movements and determined whether the difficulty of retrieving the name of the 2nd object affected the duration of the gazes to the 1st object. Two experiments,…

  6. Name-writing proficiency, not length of name, is associated with preschool children’s emergent literacy skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The goals of this study were twofold: first, to examine whether preschool children’s name-writing proficiency differentiated them on other emergent reading and writing tasks, and second, to examine the effect of name length on preschool children’s emergent literacy skills including alphabet knowledge and spelling. In study 1, a range of emergent literacy tasks was administered to 296 preschool children aged 4–5 years. The more advanced name writers outperformed the less advanced name writers on all emergent literacy measures. Furthermore, children with longer names did not show superior performance compared to children with shorter names. In study 2, four measures of alphabet knowledge and spelling were administered to 104 preschool children. Once again, the more advanced name writers outperformed the less advanced name writers on the alphabet knowledge and spelling measures. Results indicated that having longer names did not translate into an advantage on the alphabet knowledge and spelling tasks. Name writing proficiency, not length of name appears to be associated with preschool children’s developing emergent literacy skills. Name writing reflects knowledge of some letters rather than a broader knowledge of letters that may be needed to support early spelling. PMID:22523450

  7. New Trends in Name-Giving in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Sakallı

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The author gives a brief review of traditional customs of name-giving in Turkey and analyses some recent trends. The observations are based on 1270 Turkish names collected from the author’s students and reflecting naming practices in Turkey over last several decades. The data has been collected randomly regardless of social, regional, religious or ethnic backgrounds, all names being accompanied by the indication of the age of their bearers. The collected data were categorized into three groups: commemorative names, desiderata names and fortuitous names. This categorization shows the distribution of Turkish names and the changes in the stock of personal names over the years. The traditional name-giving customs are still observed in Turkey, however, new trends are becoming more prominent in the country. The author explains the changes with reference to social evolution which incites young educated parents, most of whom are university graduates living in urban areas and having only one child, to adopt new strategies of name-giving testifying their increasing individualism and weakening ties with traditions.

  8. Robust hybrid name disambiguation framework for large databases

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Jia

    2013-10-26

    In many databases, science bibliography database for example, name attribute is the most commonly chosen identifier to identify entities. However, names are often ambiguous and not always unique which cause problems in many fields. Name disambiguation is a non-trivial task in data management that aims to properly distinguish different entities which share the same name, particularly for large databases like digital libraries, as only limited information can be used to identify authors\\' name. In digital libraries, ambiguous author names occur due to the existence of multiple authors with the same name or different name variations for the same person. Also known as name disambiguation, most of the previous works to solve this issue often employ hierarchical clustering approaches based on information inside the citation records, e.g. co-authors and publication titles. In this paper, we focus on proposing a robust hybrid name disambiguation framework that is not only applicable for digital libraries but also can be easily extended to other application based on different data sources. We propose a web pages genre identification component to identify the genre of a web page, e.g. whether the page is a personal homepage. In addition, we propose a re-clustering model based on multidimensional scaling that can further improve the performance of name disambiguation. We evaluated our approach on known corpora, and the favorable experiment results indicated that our proposed framework is feasible. © 2013 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

  9. Humorous Names in the Light of Incongruity Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Rutkowski

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the humorous function of proper names in the light of incongruity theory. It aims at proving that, although names are often defined as pragmatically “transparent,” they may possess some humorous value due to semantic and pragmatic shifts resulting from the disturbance of ordinary patterns of proper names identification and interpretation. After a brief introduction, the author discusses different variants of incongruity theory as resented in the works by Victor Raskin and Thomas C. Veatch as well as their possible application to the study of humorous names. The second part of the paper provides an analysis of the humorous effects of proper names which includes anthroponyms, toponyms, trade names, football team names and names in literature. The first section of this part concentrates on names in which humour is unintentional and seems to be induced by the context, while the second section focuses on names which are intentionally humourous, i.e. supposed to amuse from the moment of their creation. The author argues that the incongruity theory can provide a useful framework for the study of the different mechanisms responsible of the semantic shifts which determine the variation of pragmatic values of proper names.

  10. The NAME 2004 Field Campaign and Modeling Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Wayne; Ahijevych, Dave; Amador, Jorge; Barros, Ana; Berbery, E. Hugo; Caetano, Ernesto; Carbone, Richard; Ciesielski, Paul; Cifelli, Rob; Cortez-Vazquez, Miguel; Douglas, Art; Douglas, Michael; Emmanuel, Gus; Fairall, Chris; Gochis, David; Gutzler, David; Jackson, Thomas; Johnson, Richard; King, Clark; Lang, Timothy; Lee, Myong-In; Lettenmaier, Dennis; Lobato, Rene; Magaña, Victor; Meiten, Jose; Mo, Kingtse; Nesbitt, Stephen; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco; Pytlak, Erik; Rogers, Peter; Rutledge, Steven; Schemm, Jae; Schubert, Siegfried; White, Allen; Williams, Christopher; Wood, Andrew; Zamora, Robert; Zhang, Chidong

    2006-01-01

    The North American Monsoon Experiment (NAME) is an internationally coordinated process study aimed at determining the sources and limits of predictability of warm-season precipitation over North America. The scientific objectives of NAME are to promote a better understanding and more realistic simulation of warm-season convective processes in complex terrain, intraseasonal variability of the monsoon, and the response of the warm-season atmospheric circulation and precipitation patterns to slowly varying, potentially predictable surface boundary conditions.During the summer of 2004, the NAME community implemented an international (United States, Mexico, Central America), multiagency (NOAA, NASA, NSF, USDA) field experiment called NAME 2004. This article presents early results from the NAME 2004 campaign and describes how the NAME modeling community will leverage the NAME 2004 data to accelerate improvements in warm-season precipitation forecasts for North America.

  11. People with easier to pronounce names promote truthiness of claims.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryn J Newman

    Full Text Available When people make judgments about the truth of a claim, related but nonprobative information rapidly leads them to believe the claim--an effect called "truthiness". Would the pronounceability of others' names also influence the truthiness of claims attributed to them? We replicated previous work by asking subjects to evaluate people's names on a positive dimension, and extended that work by asking subjects to rate those names on negative dimensions. Then we addressed a novel theoretical issue by asking subjects to read that same list of names, and judge the truth of claims attributed to them. Across all experiments, easily pronounced names trumped difficult names. Moreover, the effect of pronounceability produced truthiness for claims attributed to those names. Our findings are a new instantiation of truthiness, and extend research on the truth effect as well as persuasion by showing that subjective, tangential properties such as ease of processing can matter when people evaluate information attributed to a source.

  12. Acquisition of Vernacular Place Names from Web Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twaroch, Florian A.; Jones, Christopher B.; Abdelmoty, Alia I.

    Vernacular place names are names that are commonly in use to refer to geographical places. For purposes of effective information retrieval, the spatial extent associated with these names should reflect peoples perception of the place, even though this may differ sometimes from the administrative definition of the same place name. Due to their informal nature, vernacular place names are hard to capture, but methods to acquire and define vernacular place names are of great benefit to search engines and all kinds of information services that deal with geographic data. This paper discusses the acquisition of vernacular use of place names from web sources and their representation as surface models derived by kernel density estimators. We show that various web sources containing user created geographic information and business data can be used to represent neighbourhoods in Cardiff, UK. The resulting representations can differ in their spatial extent from administrative definitions. The chapter closes with an outlook on future research questions.

  13. The function of +CA suffix in the place names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Gedizli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The etymological approach generally draws attention to the research on the name of the places in Turkey. Words in Turkish always use the latest addition on narrative and meaning structure. As some additions are used as both meaning and narrative structure, they may refer according to grammar. In this article, by an unorthodox approach, names of the places that +CA suffix name passes are mentioned and the function of this suffix on the names of the places that is effective on finding out the meaning of the name of places is pointed. At the same time, the feature of +CA suffix being derivational affix are showed by the names of the places. The names of the places that are seen in Istanbul, Sakarya, Kocaeli and Düzce provinces form the research material.

  14. Improving the Quality of Published Chemical Names with Nomenclature Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot A. Eller

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the use of organic systematic nomenclature in scientific literature, its quality, and computerized methods for its improvement. Criteria for classification of systematic names in terms of quality/correctness are discussed and applied to a sample set of several hundred names extracted from the literature. The same structures are named with three popular state-of-the-art nomenclature programs – AutoNom 2000, ChemDraw 10.0, and ACD/Name 9.0. When comparing the results, all nomenclature tools show a significantly better performance than 'average chemists'. One program allows the generation not only of IUPAC names but also of CAS-like index names that are compared with the officially registered names. The scope and limitations of nomenclature software are discussed and a comparison of the programs' actual capabilities is given.

  15. Effects of navigated TMS on object and action naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Hernandez-Pavon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS has been used to induce speech disturbances and to affect speech performance during different naming tasks. Lately, repetitive navigated TMS (nTMS has been used for non-invasive mapping of cortical speech-related areas. Different naming tasks may give different information that can be useful for presurgical evaluation. We studied the sensitivity of object and action naming tasks to nTMS and compared the distributions of cortical sites where nTMS produced naming errors. Eight healthy subjects named pictures of objects and actions during repetitive nTMS delivered to semi-random left-hemispheric sites. Subject-validated image stacks were obtained in the baseline naming of all pictures before nTMS. Thereafter, nTMS pulse trains were delivered while the subjects were naming the images of objects or actions. The sessions were video-recorded for offline analysis. Naming during nTMS was compared with the baseline performance. The nTMS-induced naming errors were categorized by error type and location. nTMS produced no-response errors, phonological paraphasias, and semantic paraphasias. In seven out of eight subjects, nTMS produced more errors during object than action naming. Both intrasubject and intersubject analysis showed that object naming was significantly more sensitive to nTMS. When the number of errors was compared according to a given area, nTMS to postcentral gyrus induced more errors during object than action naming. Object naming is apparently more easily disrupted by TMS than action naming. Different stimulus types can be useful for locating different aspects of speech functions. This provides new possibilities in both basic and clinical research of cortical speech representations.

  16. PENGATURAN PASSING OFF DALAM PENGGUNAAN DOMAIN NAME TERKAIT DENGAN MEREK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herti Yunita Putri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In cyber world we often hear about domain name’s term. Domain name is a unique name to identify the server computer’s name like a web server or email server on a computer network or Internet. Passing off also make causes confusion in using merk from a famous brand or merk on the goods and services. Selected domain name in the internet media often creates the similar domain name with the other parties. This similar domain name are often used by people who are not responsible to take advantages of the domain name for themself. This can be caused by the presence of competition from Internet media business. This things called passing off. This research is a normative juridical research with a qualitative analysis. The legal materials include primary legal, secondary law and tertiary legal materials. Collection technique applied is literary study. Legal materials were analyzed to see the argument implementation of the definition of merk, the definition of domain name, definition of passing off, passing off in use related by merk and domain name and the rules of law in Indonesia related by merk, domain name and passing off. Big wishes in the future it can assist as a basic reference and legal considerations which are useful in Indonesian law practice. There are two passing off related to the merk and domain name, called Crybersquatting and Tiposquatting. Domain name rules are not regulated clearly in merk regulation named Act No. 15 of 2001. It regulated in PP 24 Year 1993 about The Class List of Goods or Services In Merk, Telecommunications are included in the goods or services in merk. Domain name are regulated in UDRP (Uniform Dispute Resolution Policy with competent institutions called ICANN (Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. Dalam dunia maya (cyber world, kita sering mendengar istilah domain name. Domain name adalah nama unik yang diberikan untuk mengidentifikasi nama server komputer seperti web server atau email server di

  17. Semantic Web Compatible Names and Descriptions for Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Wilson, N.; McGuinness, D. L.

    2012-12-01

    Modern scientific names are critical for understanding the biological literature and provide a valuable way to understand evolutionary relationships. To validly publish a name, a description is required to separate the described group of organisms from those described by other names at the same level of the taxonomic hierarchy. The frequent revision of descriptions due to new evolutionary evidence has lead to situations where a single given scientific name may over time have multiple descriptions associated with it and a given published description may apply to multiple scientific names. Because of these many-to-many relationships between scientific names and descriptions, the usage of scientific names as a proxy for descriptions is inevitably ambiguous. Another issue lies in the fact that the precise application of scientific names often requires careful microscopic work, or increasingly, genetic sequencing, as scientific names are focused on the evolutionary relatedness between and within named groups such as species, genera, families, etc. This is problematic to many audiences, especially field biologists, who often do not have access to the instruments and tools required to make identifications on a microscopic or genetic basis. To better connect scientific names to descriptions and find a more convenient way to support computer assisted identification, we proposed the Semantic Vernacular System, a novel naming system that creates named, machine-interpretable descriptions for groups of organisms, and is compatible with the Semantic Web. Unlike the evolutionary relationship based scientific naming system, it emphasizes the observable features of organisms. By independently naming the descriptions composed of sets of observational features, as well as maintaining connections to scientific names, it preserves the observational data used to identify organisms. The system is designed to support a peer-review mechanism for creating new names, and uses a controlled

  18. Naming Speed of Adolescents and Young Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Differences in Alphanumeric Versus Color/Object Naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whipple, Brittany D; Nelson, Jason M

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the performance of adolescents and young adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Reading Disorder (RD), and ADHD/RD on measures of alphanumeric and nonalphanumeric naming speed and the relationship between naming speed and academic achievement. The sample (N = 203) included students aged 17-28 years diagnosed with ADHD (n = 83), RD (n = 71), or ADHD/RD (n = 49). Individuals with ADHD performed significantly faster on measures of alphanumeric naming compared with RD and comorbid groups and, within group, demonstrated significantly quicker naming of letters/digits compared with colors/objects. Both alphanumeric rapid naming scores and processing speed scores variably predicted academic achievement scores across groups, whereas nonalphanumeric rapid naming only predicted reading comprehension scores within the ADHD group. Results support findings that older individuals with ADHD show relative weakness in rapid naming of objects and colors. Implications of these findings in regard to assessment of older individuals for ADHD are discussed.

  19. Improved vocabulary production after naming therapy in aphasia: can gains in picture naming generalize to connected speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matt Lambon

    2009-01-01

    Naming accuracy for nouns and verbs in aphasia can vary across different elicitation contexts, for example, simple picture naming, composite picture description, narratives, and conversation. For some people with aphasia, naming may be more accurate to simple pictures as opposed to naming in spontaneous, connected speech; for others, the opposite pattern may be evident. These differences have, in some instances, been related to word class (for example, noun or verb) as well as aphasia subtype. Given that the aim of picture-naming therapies is to improve word-finding in general, these differences in naming accuracy across contexts may have important implications for the potential functional benefits of picture-naming therapies. This study aimed to explore single-word therapy for both nouns and verbs, and to answer the following questions. (1) To what extent does an increase in naming accuracy after picture-naming therapy (for both nouns and verbs) predict accurate naming of the same items in less constrained spontaneous connected speech tasks such as composite picture description and retelling of a narrative? (2) Does the word class targeted in therapy (verb or noun) dictate whether there is 'carry-over' of the therapy item to connected speech tasks? (3) Does the speed at which the picture is named after therapy predict whether it will also be used appropriately in connected speech tasks? Seven participants with aphasia of varying degrees of severity and subtype took part in ten therapy sessions over five weeks. A set of potentially useful items was collected from control participant accounts of the Cookie Theft Picture Description and the Cinderella Story from the Quantitative Production Analysis. Twenty-four of these words (twelve verbs and twelve nouns) were collated for each participant, on the basis that they had failed to name them in either simple picture naming or connected speech tasks (picture-supported narrative and unsupported retelling of a narrative

  20. Translation of Brand Names Based on Adaptation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄莉

    2013-01-01

    This paper, from the perspective of Verschueren’s adaptation theory, explores how a translator should adapt to the properties of products, different language customs, and consumers’psychology during the translation of brand names. First, a gen-eral introduction is made on adaptation theory. Then, the application of adaptation theory in brand name translation is illustrated. Finally it is found that adaptation theory is very helpful for the translation of brand names.

  1. Naming of new elements(IUPAC Recommendations 2002)

    OpenAIRE

    W. H. Koppenol

    2017-01-01

    A procedure is proposed to name new elements. After the discovery of a new element is established by a joint IUPAC­IUPAP Working Group, the discoverers are invited to propose a name and a symbol to the IUPAC Inorganic Chemistry Division. Elements can be named after a mythological concept, a mineral, a place or country, a property, or a scientist. After examination and acceptance by the Inorganic Chemistry Division, the proposal follows the accepted IUPAC procedure and is then submitted to the...

  2. Cannibalism and the Applicablity on Brand Name Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓娟

    2014-01-01

    Good brand name translation involves knowledge and expertise from many disciplines, such as linguistics, translation studies, marketing, aesthetics, psychology, law, etc. It is really an interdisciplinary practice that requires strenuous research and ex-perience. In addition, the research methodology thereof is also quite problematic. This paper aims at bringing a latest translation theory-cannibalism into brand name translation and test its applicability in brand name translation practice.

  3. Response variability in rapid automatized naming predicts reading comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Li, James J.; Cutting, Laurie E.; Ryan, Matthew; Zilioli, Monica; DENCKLA, MARTHA B.; MAHONE, E. MARK

    2009-01-01

    A total of 37 children ages 8 to 14 years, screened for word-reading difficulties (23 with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD; 14 controls) completed oral reading and rapid automatized naming (RAN) tests. RAN trials were segmented into pause and articulation time and intraindividual variability. There were no group differences on reading or RAN variables. Color- and letter-naming pause times and number-naming articulation time were significant predictors of reading fluency. In con...

  4. Humorous Names in the Light of Incongruity Theory

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The article addresses the humorous function of proper names in the light of incongruity theory. It aims at proving that, although names are often defined as pragmatically “transparent,” they may possess some humorous value due to semantic and pragmatic shifts resulting from the disturbance of ordinary patterns of proper names identification and interpretation. After a brief introduction, the author discusses different variants of incongruity theory as resented in the works by Victor Raskin an...

  5. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NUMBER NAMES AND NUMBER CONCEPTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Different countries have different names for numbers. These names are often related in a regular way to the base-10 place value system used for writing numbers as digits. However, in several languages, this regularity breaks down (e.g., between 10 and 20), and there is limited knowledge of how...... the regularity or irregularity of number naming affects children’s formation of number concepts and arithmetic performance. We investigate this issue by reviewing relevant literature and undertaking a design research project addressing the specific irregularities of the Danish number names. In this project...

  6. Urbanonymic Design: On the Naming of City Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Golomidova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the problems of naming and renaming of municipal facilities: streets, squares, parks, public gardens, etc. The author’s reflections rest upon her personal experience as a member of the Facilities Naming Committee of the city of Ekaterinburg. The article seeks to suggest a new approach to the solution of controversial issues of naming city facilities based on territory branding and city image design and promotion concepts. Place names are thus considered as an important informational and communicational resource of creation of a city’s image which means that the naming of concrete city facilities should rely on a holistic urbanonymic conception defining basic features of the city’s identity and ordering themes to be reflected in names. The author argues that the rational long-term urbanonymic policy implies the existence of a consistent image-making strategy. In this case the process of naming and its results could be characterized in terms of ‘urbanonymic design’ considering the naming of city facilities as a part of the construction of the city’s identity. The policy of official naming of city-owned assets must then meet the following requirements: proportionality, functionality, orientation capacity, semantic transparency, harmonicity, which constitute the most significant principles of construction of an urbanonymic system.

  7. Landscape Analysis of Geographical Names in Hubei Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixi Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Hubei Province is the hub of communications in central China, which directly determines its strategic position in the country’s development. Additionally, Hubei Province is well-known for its diverse landforms, including mountains, hills, mounds and plains. This area is called “The Province of Thousand Lakes” due to the abundance of water resources. Geographical names are exclusive names given to physical or anthropogenic geographic entities at specific spatial locations and are important signs by which humans understand natural and human activities. In this study, geographic information systems (GIS technology is adopted to establish a geodatabase of geographical names with particular characteristics in Hubei Province and extract certain geomorphologic and environmental factors. We carry out landscape analysis of mountain-related geographical names and water-related geographical names respectively. In the end, we calculate the information entropy of geographical names of each county to describe the diversity and inhomogeneity of place names in Hubei province. Our study demonstrates that geographical names represent responses to the cultural landscape and physical environment. The geographical names are more interesting in specific landscapes, such as mountains and rivers.

  8. Zero Translation on Brand Names in IT Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄一可

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of economic globalization, an increasing number of software, applications and electronic products have entered China's market and the translation of their brand name draws more public attention. Based on the analysis of brand names of software, applications and products of Apple Inc., This pa-per argues that zero translation adopted in the brand names in IT industry is the main important and optimal translation method. The case and practice of Apple Inc. In the translation of brand name provides some implications to China's IT industry.

  9. The Social Name-Letter Effect on Online Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kooti, Farshad; Magno, Gabriel; Weber, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    The Name-Letter Effect states that people have a preference for brands, places, and even jobs that start with the same letter as their own first name. So Sam might like Snickers and live in Seattle. We use social network data from Twitter and Google+ to replicate this effect in a new environment. We find limited to no support for the Name-Letter Effect on social networks. We do, however, find a very robust Same-Name Effect where, say, Michaels would be more likely to link to other Michaels th...

  10. Are Orthotrichum and Dorcadion (Orthotrichaceae, Bryophyta heterotypic generic names?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plášek Vítězslav

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The generic name Dorcadion Adans. ex Lindb. is a superfluous and illegitimate name for Orthotrichum Hedw. The new generic name Dorcadionella Plášek, Sawicki & Ochyra is proposed for a segregate of Orthotrichum which comprises species with superficial stomata that are always monoicous and only occasionally produce gemmae on leaves. Dorcadionella affinis (Schrad. ex Brid. Plášek, Sawicki & Ochyra is selected as a type of this new generic name. The genus Dorcadionella consists of 63 species and one variety that have a worldwide distribution. Traditionally, they were all placed in Orthotrichum and the relevant transfers to the new genus are effected in the present account.

  11. QHNS: QoS-aware Hierarchical Name System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuhong Lin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Naming and name resolution mapping are playing extremely important roles in Internet applications. Currently, naming is constructed by the combination of the location of host and the location of resource in the host, and name resolution mapping system is constructed by a tree-like domain name system (DNS. To overcome the shortcomings of DNS, such as not supporting data migration and replication, vulnerable to Denial of Service (DoS attacks and not supporting quality of service (QoS, researchers have proposed a DHT-based flat structure to achieve naming and name resolution mapping. This system deals with the shortcomings of DNS above very well except supporting QoS, but it introduces a new problem that the resolution time cost is so large that users often can not tolerate this long delay. In this paper, we present an improved structure called QoS-aware Hierarchical Name System (QHNS by combining the advantages of DNS and DHT. The architecture of QHNS is a two-layer’s structure, namely top-layer which maintains the global information and bottom-layer which maintains local information. Owning to the location information, the resolution delay is greatly reduced while the shortcomings of DNS have been eliminated. And this design can also can do well with the shortcomings of the above two approaches that they can not provide QoS. Finally, theoretical analysis and numerical experiments show that our system is feasible in the practical use.

  12. Inferring cultural regions from correlation networks of given baby names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorski, Mateusz; Krawczyk, Małgorzata J.; Kułakowski, Krzysztof; Kwapień, Jarosław; Ausloos, Marcel

    2016-03-01

    We report investigations on the statistical characteristics of the baby names given between 1910 and 2010 in the United States of America. For each year, the 100 most frequent names in the USA are sorted out. For these names, the correlations between the names profiles are calculated for all pairs of states (minus Hawaii and Alaska). The correlations are used to form a weighted network which is found to vary mildly in time. In fact, the structure of communities in the network remains quite stable till about 1980. The goal is that the calculated structure approximately reproduces the usually accepted geopolitical regions: the Northeast, the South, and the "Midwest + West" as the third one. Furthermore, the dataset reveals that the name distribution satisfies the Zipf law, separately for each state and each year, i.e. the name frequency f ∝r-α, where r is the name rank. Between 1920 and 1980, the exponent α is the largest one for the set of states classified as 'the South', but the smallest one for the set of states classified as "Midwest + West". Our interpretation is that the pool of selected names was quite narrow in the Southern states. The data is compared with some related statistics of names in Belgium, a country also with different regions, but having quite a different scale than the USA. There, the Zipf exponent is low for young people and for the Brussels citizens.

  13. LINGUOCREATIVITY IN THE ASPECT OF THE NAMING EXAMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana P. Sokolova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article features the results of the linguocreative activity on coining trademarks and service marks, company names, trade names as well as urbanonyms in the aspect of the naming examination — a new type of the linguistic examination which is only taking shape at the interface between onomastics, linguistics and jurisprudence. The analysis of the trade marks’ data in the Federal Institute of Industrial Property shows that the names originality is achieved due to creative naming units based on: 1. lexical and phonetic play on the typical structural-semantic models in naming (“Parad kotlet”, “Babushka Moroz”; 2. semantic derivation (“Ledoed”, “Konfetti”; 3. incorporation (“MOLOKOFE”, “MOLOKOLA”; 4. graphicsation (“DereWnya”, “PARAD”, “ViPushka”, “KuMiR”. The spelling puns are often used in company names creation by means of abbreviation and conflation: OOO “ChTD”, OOO”PAN’KI”, OOO “Slabo Da”. Quasionymisation (often with gfaphogibridisation is widely used to create trademarks and trade names. We should note that quasianthroponyms are more common (“Kolbaskin i Ogurchikov”, “Uletov i Ko”, “OKOROKOV”, “Molokoff”, “NaruzhkiN”, “Ot Povarenycha”, “Dyadyushka Plintus”, then quasitoponyms (“Kolyaskino”, “MolokoVO!”, “Bekonovo”. To understand the distinctiveness of the verbal or combined name (trade mark, company name, trade name as well as to find the similarities of disputed naming units we should avoid using controversial and interpreted in various ways the term “fanciful” and apply linguocreative analysis tools. The naming examination of the creative urbanonyms allows to find offending and scandalous names (“Ulichnye yaitsa”, “Bukhni”, “Kill Bill”, as well as pseudo foreign ergonyms (“Carlo Pazolini”, “Francesco Donni” which mislead the consumers. The forensic analysis on Intellectual Property rights has revealed the

  14. Name Authority Challenges for Indexing and Abstracting Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Beaubien Bennett

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - This analysis explores alternative methods for managing author name changes in Indexing and Abstarcting (I&A databases. A searcher may retrieve incomplete or inaccurate results when the database provides no or faulty assistance in linking author name variations. Methods - The article includes an analysis of current name authority practices in I&A databases and of selected research into name disambiguation models applied to authorship of articles. Results - Several potential solutiona are in production or in development. MathSciNet has developed an authority file. The method is largely machine-based but it involves time-consuming manual intervention that might not scale up to larger or more multidisciplinary databases. The use of standard numbers for authors has been proposed. Solutions in practice include author-managed registration records and linking among several authority files. Information science and computer science researchers are developing models to automate processes for name disambiguation, shifting focus from authority control to access control. Successful models use metadata beyond the author name alone, such as co-authors, author affiliation, jornal name or keywords. Social netowrks may provide additional data to support disamibguation models. Conclusion - The traditional objective of name authority files is to determine precisely when name variations belong to the same individual. Manually-maintained authority files have served library catalogues reasonably well, but the burden of upkeep has made them ill-suited to managing the volume of items and authors in all but the smallest I&A databases. To meet the access needs of the 21st century, both catalogues and I&A databases may need to implement options that present a high degree of probability that items have been authored by the same individual, rather than options that provide high precision with the expense of manual maintenance. Striving for name disambiguation

  15. Metacognitive awareness of the associative deficit for words and names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Jane M; Williams, Helen L; Usubalieva, Asira; Kilb, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Older adults have considerable impairment in associative recognition despite minimal age differences in item recognition. The magnitude of this associative deficit varies by type of stimuli, strategy utilization, and other mediators and moderators ( Old & Naveh-Benjamin, 2008 , Psychology and Aging, 23, 104-118). Name pair stimuli have not been used to test the associative deficit hypothesis (ADH), although tests using name-face stimuli support the ADH. Additionally, metacognitive awareness of the ADH has not been investigated. We tested the ADH with word and name pair stimuli, and predicted that age-related associative deficits would be larger for words than names because names, unlike most common nouns, lack certain semantic properties that could be used to bind pairs of names together. Results supported the ADH for words but not names: Younger and older adults recognized equivalently fewer names on the associative test relative to the item test. As predicted, self-efficacy was higher for younger than older adults. Surprisingly, self-efficacy for the associative test was higher than for the item test but post-test estimates of performance success (postdictions) were higher for the item test than for the associative test, suggesting sensitivity by participants to different task demands in the item and associative tests following recognition attempts. Metacognitive accuracy was better for words than names and for the item test than associative test, and equivalent between age groups. Overall, participants overestimated their name recognition abilities. Our findings extend support for the ADH to a conceptually important and ecologically valid domain (names) and provide new data on metacognitive aspects of the ADH.

  16. WHAT’S IN A NAME: The Amateur‘s View of Good Practices in Naming an Online Educational Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. ROSZKOWSKI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Branding is considered to be particularly important in the marketing of online educational programs. A critical step to establishing the brand is naming the product appropriately. To this end, one can secure the services of professionals or rely on a do-it-yourself approach. The research reported here aimed to identify the features that non-professionals (graduate students consider to be important in the name for an online educational product, and to compare these to the recommendations made by naming professionals (as reported in the literature. A survey directed at current and prospective graduate students at a traditional university asked about the desirability of 16 characteristics in the name of a new line of online courses. The six characteristics that were deemed most critical are (in order of importance: self-explanatory, memorable, easy to pronounce, has appealing associations, suggests/hints at the key features, and short. These are the same features that professionals in the business of creating new product names generally consider as best practices in creating a name. The results show that contrary to the concerns expressed by some practitioners in the naming industry, college-educated individuals who do not create names for a living nonetheless demonstrate an awareness and appreciation for the features of a good name in an Internet-based course delivery system.

  17. ArcGIS Tool: Inserts file name into attribute table

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This ArcGIS model inserts a file name into a feature class attribute table. The tool allows an user to identify features by a field that reference the name of the...

  18. 14 CFR 294.31 - Use of business name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of business name. 294.31 Section 294.31 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS CANADIAN CHARTER AIR TAXI OPERATORS General Rules for Registrants § 294.31 Use of business name...

  19. 40 CFR 721.2825 - Alkyl ester (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl ester (generic name). 721.2825... Substances § 721.2825 Alkyl ester (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance alkyl ester (PMN P-84-968) is subject to reporting under this...

  20. On the generic name of the Snow-Buntings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartert, Ernst

    1910-01-01

    In the “Notes from the Leyden Museum” Vol. XXXII, n°. 1, p. 32, Dr. E. D. van Oort published a note about the generic name of the “Snow-Buntings”, and came to the conclusion, that Plectrophenax of Stejneger (1882) had to be accepted as the name for this genus. This conclusion, I am sorry to say, is

  1. 75 FR 12445 - Name Change of Two DHS Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... TREASURY 19 CFR Chapters I and IV Name Change of Two DHS Components AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border... Enforcement changed to U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE). This final rule revises two chapter headings in title 19 of the Code of Federal Regulations to reflect the name changes for those two...

  2. The name of the -ose: An editorial on carbohydrate nomenclature

    Science.gov (United States)

    What’s in a name? The term "sugar" is usually applied to the monosaccharides, disaccharides, and lower oligosaccharides, although "carbohydrate" ("hydrate de carbone") was originally used only for monosaccharides, because their composition can be expressed as Cn(H2O)n. Historically, sugars were name...

  3. Giving Voice to Crow Country: The Crow Place Name Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Carrie Moran

    2000-01-01

    Little Big Horn College (Montana) General Studies instructor, Timothy McCleary, has worked with Crow tribal elders to document Crow place names across Montana and to chronicle the many stories behind the names. A database (available at www.lbhc.cc.mt.us/crownames) contains interview material and GIS maps of over 500 locations. (PGS)

  4. 40 CFR 721.5900 - Trisubstituted phenol (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trisubstituted phenol (generic name... Substances § 721.5900 Trisubstituted phenol (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance trisubstituted phenol (PMN P-85-605) is subject...

  5. Elements--A Card Game of Chemical Names and Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Hicks, O'Dell; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Elements" is a competitive card game designed to help middle school students recognize and correlate the names and symbols of the most significant chemical elements. Each student is required to construct his or her own decks of playing cards--one with the names of the chemical elements and one with their corresponding symbols--and compete against…

  6. [Anatomical names of foramina and canales in skeleton].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikano, S; Yamashita, Y

    1998-03-01

    Latin anatomical names of Foramina and Canales in skeleton were analyzed and compared with Japanese anatomical names for better understanding of the structures of the human body and for possible revision in the future. The conclusions were as follows: 1. In general, short tunnels were called Foramina (singular: Foramen), and long tunnels Canales (singular: Canalis). 2. One end of Canalis was sometimes called Foramen. In this case, Canalis and Foramen were usually modified by the same words. 3. Each name of Foramina contained the word which means form, state, absolute size, region of existence, one of the contents or function of Foramina. 4. Each name of Canales contained the word which means region of existence, one of the contents or function of Canales. 5. Some names of Foramina and Canales that were supposed to mean the region of existence meant one of the contents of the structures. 6. As for Latin anatomical names, the relation between words were relatively clear by the proper use of noun, adjective, nominative, and genitive. 7. Since different Chinese characters were sometimes pronounced similarly in Japanese anatomical names, different structures might be confused. 8. It seemed that some Japanese anatomical names needed partial correction.

  7. 40 CFR 721.5350 - Substituted nitrile (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted nitrile (generic name... Substances § 721.5350 Substituted nitrile (generic name). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted nitrile (PMN P-83...

  8. Brand name changes help health care providers win market recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesling, G

    1993-01-01

    As the healthcare industry continues to recognize the strategic implications of branding, more providers will undertake an identity change to better position themselves in competitive markets. The paper examines specific healthcare branding decisions, the reasons prompting brand name decisions and the marketing implications for a change in brand name.

  9. Name that Contraceptive! A Game for the Human Sexuality Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Martha S.

    2010-01-01

    There are many contraceptive choices available to people today. Learning about them can be dry, but the game "Name that Contraceptive!" can be a fun and interactive way to review, remember, and retain the details about contraceptive options. Name that Contraceptive is a card game in which students "bid" on the number of clues it will take them to…

  10. 75 FR 68972 - New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor's Name

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 510 New Animal Drugs; Change of Sponsor's Name... (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect a change of sponsor's name from North American Nutrition Companies, Inc., to Provimi North America, Inc. DATES: This rule is effective November 10,...

  11. Personal Names in Children's Speech: The Process of Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina R. Dobrova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the process of children’s understanding of the differences between proper and common names. The author emphasizes the role of the anthropocentric approach to personal names, especially when it is based on the study of the ontogenetic development of linguistic capacity focusing on the mechanisms of the formation of mental patterns of proper names, in particular — of personal names, and of their special linguistic status as (relatively “strict” designators. Analyzing recordings of children’s spontaneous speech and experimental data, the author argues that the study of the early stages of personal names acquisition, in comparison with the acquisition of common nouns, highlights such significant features of a child’s developing mind as the ability to distinguish between identifying and generalizing linguistic signs, to construct hyponym/hyperonym relations going from individual to the most generalized designations (from personal name to common nouns of different kinds, including relative, completely depending on the reference point, and reciprocal ones, e. g. kinship terms. Additionally, the author shows that the anthropocentric approach emphasizes such properties of personal names as their coreferentiality, relativity and their capacity to act as semiotic shifters as far as the choice of the form of a name depends on the social relations between the speaker and his addressee and their respective positions in the social hierarchy.

  12. 19 CFR 134.45 - Approved markings of country name.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Method and Location of Marking Imported Articles § 134.45 Approved markings of country name. (a) Language. (1) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, the markings required by this part shall include the full English name of the country...

  13. How two word-trained dogs integrate pointing and naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grassmann, Susanne; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Two word-trained dogs were presented with acts of reference in which a human pointed, named objects, or simultaneously did both. The question was whether these dogs would assume co-reference of pointing and naming and thus pick the pointed-to object. Results show that the dogs did indeed assume co-r

  14. The Naming Practice in Akoose: Deviation from Cultural Stereotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Ekanjume-Ilongo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bakossi names are generally inherited and are a strong bond for the cultural identity of the people. However, recent developments reveal that Bakossi names are losing their cultural values and identities which can make one to conclude that they are under threat. This is due to the fact that the so-called modern Bakossi people no longer follow the norms prescribed for naming by the traditionalists of old. The impact of the change from the traditionalists to so-call modernists, as seen in Bakossi naming practice nowadays, leads to the questioning of the Bakossi identity. Under this background, this paper looks at the function of names in constructing the Bakossi identity and especially how this is achieved following the historical and cultural background of the Bakossi naming practice. The paper demonstrates that the traditional naming practice has undergone some drastic change. It shows that the Bakossi names no longer stand for the cultural identity and succession of family members as once it was the case.

  15. 40 CFR 721.7500 - Nitrate polyether polyol (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nitrate polyether polyol (generic name... Substances § 721.7500 Nitrate polyether polyol (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance nitrate polyether polyol (PMN P88-2540)...

  16. Elements--A Card Game of Chemical Names and Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Hicks, O'Dell; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Elements" is a competitive card game designed to help middle school students recognize and correlate the names and symbols of the most significant chemical elements. Each student is required to construct his or her own decks of playing cards--one with the names of the chemical elements and one with their corresponding symbols--and compete against…

  17. Name Changes for Fungi of Medical Importance, 2012 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, David W

    2017-01-01

    This article lists proposed new or revised species names and classification changes associated with fungi of medical importance for the years 2012 through 2015. While many of the revised names listed have been widely adopted without further discussion, some may take longer to achieve more general usage. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Learning people's names following severe closed-head injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milders, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    Although problems remembering people's names rank highly among the subjective complaints of patients with closed-head injuries, very few studies have examined their memory for people's names by objective measurements. An experiment is reported in which patients with severe closed-head injuries and n

  19. Short-Form Philadelphia Naming Test: Rationale and Empirical Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Grant M.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To create two matched short forms of the Philadelphia Naming Test (PNT; Roach, Schwartz, Martin, Grewal, & Brecher, 1996) that yield similar results to the PNT for measuring anomia. Method: In Study 1, archived naming data from 94 individuals with aphasia were used to identify which PNT items should be included in the short forms. The 2…

  20. A global reference model of the domain name system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koc, Y.; Jamakovic, A.; Gijsen, B.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    The domain name system (DNS) is a crucial component of the Internet. At this time, the DNS is facing major changes such as the introduction of DNSSEC and Internationalized Domain Name extensions (IDNs), the adoption of IPv6 and the upcoming extension of new generic top-level domains. These changes c

  1. Slavonic Names in Greek and Roman Antiquities. Onomastica, Number 37.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiroff, G.

    Listed in this pamphlet are 22 place and personal names of Slavic origin which appear in Greek and Roman documents. Following a brief introduction in which the criteria for selection of these names is given, a section discusses the inconsistent systems of transliteration employed by classical authors. Then, the actual annotated listing of names…

  2. Predicting naming latencies for action pictures: Dutch norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zeshu; Roelofs, Ardi; Meyer, Antje S

    2014-03-01

    The present study provides Dutch norms for age of acquisition, familiarity, imageability, image agreement, visual complexity, word frequency, and word length (in syllables) for 124 line drawings of actions. Ratings were obtained from 117 Dutch participants. Word frequency was determined on the basis of the SUBTLEX-NL corpus (Keuleers, Brysbaert, & New, Behavior Research Methods, 42, 643-650, 2010). For 104 of the pictures, naming latencies and name agreement were determined in a separate naming experiment with 74 native speakers of Dutch. The Dutch norms closely corresponded to the norms for British English. Multiple regression analysis showed that age of acquisition, imageability, image agreement, visual complexity, and name agreement were significant predictors of naming latencies, whereas word frequency and word length were not. Combined with the results of a principal-component analysis, these findings suggest that variables influencing the processes of conceptual preparation and lexical selection affect latencies more strongly than do variables influencing word-form encoding.

  3. A normative study of acronyms and acronym naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izura, Cristina; Playfoot, David

    2012-09-01

    Acronyms are an idiosyncratic part of our everyday vocabulary. Research in word processing has used acronyms as a tool to answer fundamental questions such as the nature of the word superiority effect (WSE) or which is the best way to account for word-reading processes. In this study, acronym naming was assessed by looking at the influence that a number of variables known to affect mainstream word processing has had in acronym naming. The nature of the effect of these factors on acronym naming was examined using a multilevel regression analysis. First, 146 acronyms were described in terms of their age of acquisition, bigram and trigram frequencies, imageability, number of orthographic neighbors, frequency, orthographic and phonological length, print-to-pronunciation patterns, and voicing characteristics. Naming times were influenced by lexical and sublexical factors, indicating that acronym naming is a complex process affected by more variables than those previously considered.

  4. Populating a multilingual ontology of proper names from open sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Savary

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Even if proper names play a central role in natural language processing (NLP applications they are still under-represented in lexicons, annotated corpora, and other resources dedicated to text processing.  One of the main challenges is both the prevalence and the dynamicity of proper names. At the same time, large and regularly-updated knowledge sources containing partially-structured data, such as Wikipedia or GeoNames, are publicly available and contain large numbers of proper names. We present a method for a semi-automatic enrichment of Prolexbase, an existing multilingual ontology of proper names dedicated to natural language processing, with data extracted from these open sources in three languages: Polish, English and French. Fine-grained data extraction and integration procedures allow the user to enrich previous contents of Prolexbase with new incoming data. All data are manually validated and available under an open licence.

  5. BioNames: linking taxonomy, texts, and trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Roderic D M

    2013-01-01

    BioNames is a web database of taxonomic names for animals, linked to the primary literature and, wherever possible, to phylogenetic trees. It aims to provide a taxonomic "dashboard" where at a glance we can see a summary of the taxonomic and phylogenetic information we have for a given taxon and hence provide a quick answer to the basic question "what is this taxon?" BioNames combines classifications from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and GenBank, images from the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL), animal names from the Index of Organism Names (ION), and bibliographic data from multiple sources including the Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL) and CrossRef. The user interface includes display of full text articles, interactive timelines of taxonomic publications, and zoomable phylogenies. It is available at http://bionames.org.

  6. Naming abilities: Differentiation between objects and verbs in aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Carmen Spezzano

    Full Text Available Abstract Cognitive Neuropsychology aims to understand the processing mechanisms of normal and injured brain, by means of functional architectural models of information processing. Naming is one of the most important abilities in linguistic processing. Naming of different semantic and grammatical categories differ in their lexical properties and have distinct neuroanatomical substrates. We reviewed literature data on the differences between nouns and verbs in aphasic subjects reported by scientific publications in the form of indexed articles. Studies on naming abilities tended to emphasize the differentiation between nouns and verbs both in their lexical properties and neuroanatomical substrates. Functional neuroimaging studies have improved the state of knowledge regarding category-specific naming abilities, but further studies on different types of aphasia and the use of naming abilities in different contexts are warranted.

  7. Roman digit naming: evidence for a semantic route.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyck, Wouter; Lagrou, Evelyne; Gevers, Wim; Fias, Wim

    2008-01-01

    Earlier research with monolinguals and bilinguals showed that numbers may be named through both a semantic and a phonological route, depending on the number's language and format (Arabic or verbal), task demands, and naming language. The present study investigated the importance of the semantic route for the processing of a third representation of magnitude, namely Roman digits. Using an interference paradigm, we showed that the processing of Roman target digits is influenced by Arabic digit distractors, both in a naming task and a parity judgment task. Roman digits were processed faster if the target and distractor were of the same magnitude. If this was not the case, processing speed slowed down as the numerical distance between target and distractor increased. This strongly suggests that semantic access is mandatory when naming Roman digits. Implications are discussed for the number processing domain and for models of translation in bilinguals.

  8. BioNames: linking taxonomy, texts, and trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderic D.M. Page

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BioNames is a web database of taxonomic names for animals, linked to the primary literature and, wherever possible, to phylogenetic trees. It aims to provide a taxonomic “dashboard” where at a glance we can see a summary of the taxonomic and phylogenetic information we have for a given taxon and hence provide a quick answer to the basic question “what is this taxon?” BioNames combines classifications from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF and GenBank, images from the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL, animal names from the Index of Organism Names (ION, and bibliographic data from multiple sources including the Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL and CrossRef. The user interface includes display of full text articles, interactive timelines of taxonomic publications, and zoomable phylogenies. It is available at http://bionames.org.

  9. Phonaesthemes and sound symbolism in Swedish brand names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Abelin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the prevalence of sound symbolism in Swedish brand names. A general principle of brand name design is that effective names should be distinctive, recognizable, easy to pronounce and meaningful. Much money is invested in designing powerful brand names, where the emotional impact of the names on consumers is also relevant and it is important to avoid negative connotations. Customers prefer brand names, which say something about the product, as this reduces product uncertainty (Klink, 2001. Therefore, consumers might prefer sound symbolic names. It has been shown that people associate the sounds of the nonsense words maluma and takete with round and angular shapes, respectively. By extension, more complex shapes and textures might activate words containing certain sounds. This study focuses on semantic dimensions expected to be relevant to product names, such as mobility, consistency, texture and shape. These dimensions are related to the senses of sight, hearing and touch and are also interesting from a cognitive linguistic perspective. Cross-modal assessment and priming experiments with pictures and written words were performed and the results analysed in relation to brand name databases and to sound symbolic sound combinations in Swedish (Abelin, 1999. The results show that brand names virtually never contain pejorative, i.e. depreciatory, consonant clusters, and that certain sounds and sound combinations are overrepresented in certain content categories. Assessment tests show correlations between pictured objects and phoneme combinations in newly created words (non-words. The priming experiment shows that object images prime newly created words as expected, based on the presence of compatible consonant clusters.

  10. One Fungus, One Name: Defining the Genus Fusarium in a Scientifically Robust Way That Preserves Longstanding Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiser, David M.; Aoki, Takayuki; Bacon, Charles W.;

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, we advocate recognizing the genus Fusarium as the sole name for a group that includes virtually all Fusarium species of importance in plant pathology, mycotoxicology, medicine, and basic research. This phylogenetically guided circumscription will free scientists from any obligatio...

  11. One fungus, one name: defining the genus Fusarium in a scientifically robust way that preserves longstanding use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geiser, D.M.; et al., [Unknown; de Hoog, G.S.

    2013-01-01

    In this letter, we advocate recognizing the genus Fusarium as the sole name for a group that includes virtually all Fusarium species of importance in plant pathology, mycotoxicology, medicine, and basic research. This phylogenetically guided circumscription will free scientists from any obligation

  12. Scale insect species names that have been combined with the genus name Dactylopius Costa (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Douglas J; Ben-Dov, Yair

    2015-01-01

    The genus Dactylopius is the only genus at present in the family Dactylopiidae. Since the name Dactylopius was proposed in 1829, however, numerous other species names belonging to different families of scale insects have been combined with it and these are also listed. The present status and the family placement are also given for each species.

  13. The Restructuring of Christian Personal Names in the Pre-National Period: Names ending in -a, -ija (-‘ja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina M. Ganzhina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article opens a series of publications analyzing the derivation within a regional system of Christian personal name forms in the Pre-National period. With reference to the anthroponyms recorded in 16-17th centuries Tver business documents, the author focuses on the ways of structural changes of the full forms of male Christian personal names in everyday communication. The object of analysis in the first article of the series is one paradigmatic class of full Christian personal names, namely those ending in -a, -ija (-‘ja. In the real communication, the stock of full popular and informal forms of names as well as (and even to a greater degree of qualitative forms was not homogeneous, being represented by numerous different phonetic and morphological variants due to fictitious segmentations and formal changes of the anthroponymic stems. The author reveals word-formation mechanisms which enabled foreign personal names to integrate into the onomastic system of the Russian language and caused many colloquial forms of names with formally modified (truncated, lengthened or rearranged pseudo-morphemes to emerge. The structural rearrangements and formally determined associative correlations in the anthroponymic word-formation eliminated differences between full and qualitative forms because both of them could include the same elements. The structural rearrangements of names were accompanied by phonetic changes. These varieties, both morphological and phonetic, create the unique anthroponymic pattern of any region.

  14. Effects of indole-3-acetic acid on Botrytis cinerea isolates obtained from potted plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J A; Valdés, R; Gómez-Bellot, M J; Bañón, S

    2011-01-01

    We study the growth of different isolates of Botrytis cinerea collected from potted plants which were affected by Botrytis blight in southern Spain during recent years. These isolates, which show widely phenotypic differences when grown in vitro, are differentially affected by growth temperature, gibberellic acid applications and paclobutrazol, an efficient plant growth retardant and fungicide at the same time. In this work, we have evaluated the effect of the auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) dose (0, 1, 10, and 100 mg/plate) on the growth of the collection of B. cinerea isolates obtained from the following potted plants: Cyclamen persicum, Hydrangea macrophylla, Lantona camara, and Lonicera japonica. B. cinerea produces indolacetic acid, but so far the precise biosynthetic pathway and some effects on this fungal species are still unclear, although recent studies have revealed an antifungal activity of IAA on several fungi, including B. cinerea isolated from harvested fruits. Mycelial growth curves and growth rates assessed from difference in colony areas during the both linear and deceleration phase, conidiation (measured as time of appearance), conidia length (microm), and sclerotia production (number/plate) were evaluated in the isolates, which were grown at 26 degrees C on Petri dishes containing potato dextrose agar for up to 35 days. Mycelial growth curves fitted a typical kinetic equation of fungi grown on solid media. B. cinerea isolates showed a high degree of variability in their growth kinetics, depending on the isolate and auxin dose. This plant growth substance delayed mycelial growth during the linear phase in an isolate-dependent manner, thus isolates from C. persicum, H. macrophylla and L. camara were more affected by IAA than L. japonica. On the other hand, 100 mg of IAA was the critical dose to significantly reduce the growth rate in all isolates and to promote brown-striped hyphae development, especially in isolate from C. persicum. 10 and 100 mg

  15. Finding trends and statistical patterns in name mentions in news

    CERN Document Server

    Jayin, Abigail Mae C

    2015-01-01

    We extract the individual names of persons mentioned in news reports from a Philippine-based daily in the English language from 2010-2012. Names are extracted using a learning algorithm that filters adjacent capitalized words and runs it through a database of non-names grown through training. The number of mentions of individual names shows strong temporal fluctuations, indicative of the nature of "hot" trends and issues in society. Despite these strong variations, however, we observe stable rank-frequency distributions across different years in the form of power-laws with scaling exponents \\alpha = 0.7, reminiscent of the Zipf's law observed in lexical (i.e. non-name) words. Additionally, we observe that the adjusted frequency for each rank, or the frequency divided by the number of unique names having the same rank, shows a distribution with dual scaling behavior, with the higher-ranked names preserving the \\alpha exponent and the lower-ranked ones showing a power-law exponent \\alpha' = 2.9. We reproduced t...

  16. Naming in young children: a dumb attentional mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L B; Jones, S S; Landau, B

    1996-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that young children selectively attend to some object properties and ignore others when generalizing a newly learned object name. Moreover, the specific properties children attend to depend on the stimulus and task context. The present study tested an attentional account: that children's feature selection in name generalization is guided by non-strategic attentional processes that are minimally influenced by new conceptual information presented in the task. Four experiments presented 3-year-old children and adults with novel artifacts consisting of distinctive base objects with appended parts. In a Name condition, subjects were asked whether test objects had the same name as the exemplar. In a Similarity condition, subjects made similarity judgments for the same objects. Subjects in two experiments were shown a function for either the base object or the parts. Both adults' naming and similarity judgments were influenced by the functional information. Children's similarity judgments were also influenced by the functions. However, children's naming was immune to influence from information about function. Instead, children's feature selection in naming was shifted only by changes in the relative salience of base objects and parts. The results are consistent with the idea that dumb attentional processes are responsible for young children's smart generalizations of novel words to new instances. Potential mechanisms to explain these findings are discussed.

  17. Timed written picture naming in 14 European languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Mark; Nottbusch, Guido; Alves, Rui A; Arfé, Barbara; Chanquoy, Lucile; Chukharev-Hudilainen, Evgeny; Dimakos, Ioannis; Fidalgo, Raquel; Hyönä, Jukka; Jóhannesson, Ómar I; Madjarov, George; Pauly, Dennis N; Uppstad, Per Henning; van Waes, Luuk; Vernon, Michael; Wengelin, Åsa

    2017-05-24

    We describe the Multilanguage Written Picture Naming Dataset. This gives trial-level data and time and agreement norms for written naming of the 260 pictures of everyday objects that compose the colorized Snodgrass and Vanderwart picture set (Rossion & Pourtois in Perception, 33, 217-236, 2004). Adult participants gave keyboarded responses in their first language under controlled experimental conditions (N = 1,274, with subsamples responding in Bulgarian, Dutch, English, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Icelandic, Italian, Norwegian, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, and Swedish). We measured the time to initiate a response (RT) and interkeypress intervals, and calculated measures of name and spelling agreement. There was a tendency across all languages for quicker RTs to pictures with higher familiarity, image agreement, and name frequency, and with higher name agreement. Effects of spelling agreement and effects on output rates after writing onset were present in some, but not all, languages. Written naming therefore shows name retrieval effects that are similar to those found in speech, but our findings suggest the need for cross-language comparisons as we seek to understand the orthographic retrieval and/or assembly processes that are specific to written output.

  18. The English-Slovene language contact: borrowing of personal names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Sicherl

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to shed some light on the growing tendency of Slovene native speakers towards borrowing English personal names when naming new-born children. Some historical overview of the borrowing of English personal names into Slovene is given, starting with lists compiled from 1931 onwards, established from the data supplied by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia (SURS. The phenomenon of borrowing personal names is discussed from the point of view of pragmatic borrowing as advocated by G. Andersen (2014, taking into account the traditional distinction between necessary loans on the one hand and luxury loans on the other. The article illustrates how in the case of personal names, ‘exoticisms’ (e.g. Alex, Liam, Kevin, Kim, Ian, Vanessa, Adrian, Ella, Emma, Patrick, Nick, Alan, Lucas, listed among the most popular 200 first names in the 2001–2013 period compete with name forms that have been adapted and nativised long ago (e.g. Patrik, or are currently being introduced for the first time into Slovene. In these recent borrowings, the foreign forms undergo some adaptation, but at the same time, unlike other anglicisms, show the tendency to resist complete adaptation, particularly in terms of spelling and pronunciation. Such pragmatically borrowed items carry significant sociolinguistic signals about the borrowers’ attitudes, and these are briefly commented on.

  19. Letter-case information and the identification of brand names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Manuel; Jiménez, María; Talero, Fernanda; López-Cañada, Soraya

    2015-02-01

    A central tenet of most current models of visual-word recognition is that lexical units are activated on the basis of case-invariant abstract letter representations. Here, we examined this assumption by using a unique type of words: brand names. The rationale of the experiments is that brand names are archetypically printed either in lowercase (e.g., adidas) or uppercase (e.g., IKEA). This allows us to present the brand names in their standard or non-standard case configuration (e.g., adidas, IKEA vs. ADIDAS, ikea, respectively). We conducted two experiments with a brand-decision task ('is it a brand name?'): a single-presentation experiment and a masked priming experiment. Results in the single-presentation experiment revealed faster identification times of brand names in their standard case configuration than in their non-standard case configuration (i.e., adidas faster than ADIDAS; IKEA faster than ikea). In the masked priming experiment, we found faster identification times of brand names when they were preceded by an identity prime that matched its standard case configuration than when it did not (i.e., faster response times to adidas-adidas than to ADIDAS-adidas). Taken together, the present findings strongly suggest that letter-case information forms part of a brand name's graphemic information, thus posing some limits to current models of visual-word recognition.

  20. Inferring cultural regions from correlation networks of given baby names

    CERN Document Server

    Pomorski, Mateusz; Kulakowski, Krzysztof; Kwapien, Jaroslaw; Ausloos, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    We report investigations on the statistical characteristics of the baby names given between 1910 and 2010 in the United States of America. For each year, the 100 most frequent names in the USA are sorted out. For these names, the correlations between the names profiles are calculated for all pairs of states (minus Hawaii and Alaska). The correlations are used to form a weighted network which is found to vary mildly in time. In fact, the structure of communities in the network remains quite stable till about 1980. The goal is that the calculated structure approximately reproduces the usually accepted geopolitical regions: the North East, the South, and the "Midwest + West" as the third one. Furthermore, the dataset reveals that the name distribution satisfies the Zipf law, separately for each state and each year, i.e. the name frequency $f\\propto r^{-\\alpha}$, where r is the name rank. Between 1920 and 1980, the exponent alpha is the largest one for the set of states classified as 'the South', but the smallest...

  1. A Standardized Reference Data Set for Vertebrate Taxon Name Resolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula F Zermoglio

    Full Text Available Taxonomic names associated with digitized biocollections labels have flooded into repositories such as GBIF, iDigBio and VertNet. The names on these labels are often misspelled, out of date, or present other problems, as they were often captured only once during accessioning of specimens, or have a history of label changes without clear provenance. Before records are reliably usable in research, it is critical that these issues be addressed. However, still missing is an assessment of the scope of the problem, the effort needed to solve it, and a way to improve effectiveness of tools developed to aid the process. We present a carefully human-vetted analysis of 1000 verbatim scientific names taken at random from those published via the data aggregator VertNet, providing the first rigorously reviewed, reference validation data set. In addition to characterizing formatting problems, human vetting focused on detecting misspelling, synonymy, and the incorrect use of Darwin Core. Our results reveal a sobering view of the challenge ahead, as less than 47% of name strings were found to be currently valid. More optimistically, nearly 97% of name combinations could be resolved to a currently valid name, suggesting that computer-aided approaches may provide feasible means to improve digitized content. Finally, we associated names back to biocollections records and fit logistic models to test potential drivers of issues. A set of candidate variables (geographic region, year collected, higher-level clade, and the institutional digitally accessible data volume and their 2-way interactions all predict the probability of records having taxon name issues, based on model selection approaches. We strongly encourage further experiments to use this reference data set as a means to compare automated or computer-aided taxon name tools for their ability to resolve and improve the existing wealth of legacy data.

  2. A Standardized Reference Data Set for Vertebrate Taxon Name Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zermoglio, Paula F; Guralnick, Robert P; Wieczorek, John R

    2016-01-01

    Taxonomic names associated with digitized biocollections labels have flooded into repositories such as GBIF, iDigBio and VertNet. The names on these labels are often misspelled, out of date, or present other problems, as they were often captured only once during accessioning of specimens, or have a history of label changes without clear provenance. Before records are reliably usable in research, it is critical that these issues be addressed. However, still missing is an assessment of the scope of the problem, the effort needed to solve it, and a way to improve effectiveness of tools developed to aid the process. We present a carefully human-vetted analysis of 1000 verbatim scientific names taken at random from those published via the data aggregator VertNet, providing the first rigorously reviewed, reference validation data set. In addition to characterizing formatting problems, human vetting focused on detecting misspelling, synonymy, and the incorrect use of Darwin Core. Our results reveal a sobering view of the challenge ahead, as less than 47% of name strings were found to be currently valid. More optimistically, nearly 97% of name combinations could be resolved to a currently valid name, suggesting that computer-aided approaches may provide feasible means to improve digitized content. Finally, we associated names back to biocollections records and fit logistic models to test potential drivers of issues. A set of candidate variables (geographic region, year collected, higher-level clade, and the institutional digitally accessible data volume) and their 2-way interactions all predict the probability of records having taxon name issues, based on model selection approaches. We strongly encourage further experiments to use this reference data set as a means to compare automated or computer-aided taxon name tools for their ability to resolve and improve the existing wealth of legacy data.

  3. Chemotherapy as language: sound symbolism in cancer medication names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Gregory A; Glinert, Lewis H

    2008-04-01

    The concept of sound symbolism proposes that even the tiniest sounds comprising a word may suggest the qualities of the object which that word represents. Cancer-related medication names, which are likely to be charged with emotional meaning for patients, might be expected to contain such sound-symbolic associations. We analyzed the sounds in the names of 60 frequently-used cancer-related medications, focusing on the medications' trade names as well as the names (trade or generic) commonly used in the clinic. We assessed the frequency of common voiced consonants (/b/, /d/, /g/, /v/, /z/; thought to be associated with slowness and heaviness) and voiceless consonants (/p/, /t/, /k/, /f/, /s/; thought to be associated with fastness and lightness), and compared them to what would be expected in standard American English using a reference dataset. A Fisher's exact test for independence showed the chemotherapy consonantal frequencies to be significantly different from standard English (p=0.009 for trade; p<0.001 for "common usage"). For the trade names, the majority of the voiceless consonants were significantly increased compared to standard English; this effect was more pronounced with the "common usage" names (for the group, O/E=1.62; 95% CI [1.37, 1.89]). Hormonal and targeted therapy trade names showed the greatest frequency of voiceless consonants (for the group, O/E=1.76; 95% CI [1.20, 2.49]). Our results suggest that taken together, the names of chemotherapy medications contain an increased frequency of certain sounds associated with lightness, smallness and fastness. This finding raises important questions about the possible role of the names of medications in the experiences of cancer patients and providers.

  4. Exploration history and place names of northern East Greenland: Colophon, abstract, introduction, official place names in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Higgins, Anthony K.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The first recorded landing by Europeans on the coast of northern East Greenland (north of 69°N was that of William Scoresby Jr., a British whaler, in 1822. This volume includes a chronological summary of the pioneer 19th century exploration voyages made by British, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish, French and German expeditions – all of whom reported that the region had previously been occupied by the Inuit or Eskimo; also included are brief outlines of the increasing number of government and privately sponsored expeditions throughout the 20th century, whose objectives included cartography, geology, zoology, botany, trapping and the ascent of the highest mountain summits. In 1934 the Place Name Committee for Greenland was established, the tasks of which included a review of all place names hitherto recorded on published maps of Greenland, their formal adoption in danicised form, and the approval or rejection of new name proposals. In northern East Greenland, by far the largest numbers of new place names were those proposed by scientists associated with Lauge Koch’s geological expeditions that lasted from 1926 until 1958. This volume records the location and origin of more than 3000 officially approved place names as well as about 2650 unapproved names.The author’s interest in the exploration history and place names of northern East Greenland started in 1968, when the Geological Survey of Greenland initiated a major five-year geological mapping programme in the Scoresby Sund region. Systematic compilation of names began about 1970, initially with the names given by William Scoresby Jr., and subsequently broadened in scope to include the names proposed by all expeditions to northern East Greenland. The author has participated in 16 summer mapping expeditions with the Survey to northern East Greenland. Publication of this volume represents the culmination of a lifetime working in the Arctic.

  5. Cornus × elwinortonii and Cornus × rutgersensis (Cornaceae, new names for two artificially produced hybrids of big-bracted dogwoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Mattera

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Big-bracted dogwoods (Cornus sp. are well-known plants in North America and eastern Asia where they occur as wild, generally spring-flowering understory trees. They are also popular ornamental landscape plants, and many economically important cultivars are propagated and sold across North America, Europe, and Asia. Starting in the late 1960s, Elwin Orton of Rutgers University in New Jersey (USA utilized three geographically disjunct species of dogwoods, C. florida (eastern North America, C. nuttallii (western North America, and C. kousa (East Asia, in an extensive interspecific hybridization program. He was successful in developing the first-ever interspecific F1 hybrids of these species, several of which have become staple items in the ornamental nursery trade due to their enhanced ornamental qualities and resistance to diseases. The original F1 plants are still alive at Rutgers University. While they have been available for decades in horticultural commerce, the interspecific hybrid crosses were never formally described and their scientific hybrid names were never published. For the C. kousa × C. florida hybrids, the name Cornus ‘rutgersensis’ has been used on occasion in the horticultural trade, but without proper citation and description. Here, it is formally named Cornus × rutgersensis Mattera, T. Molnar, & Struwe, hybr. nov. For the C. kousa × C. nuttallii hybrids, no previous name has been used, and it is hereby named Cornus × elwinortonii Mattera, T. Molnar, & Struwe, hybr. nov. The need for providing scientific names for commonly used horticultural hybrids is discussed. Holotype material for both hybrid names was collected from the original F1 hybrids for full documentation, typification, and description. The comparative intermediate development of leaves, inflorescence structures, and fruit types of the hybrids and their parents is discussed and illustrated. Etymology, phenology, and cultivation aspects of these hybrids and

  6. Nei Liansheng: A One-hundred-year Brand Name

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangPei

    2005-01-01

    Nei Liansheng is a well-known shoe brand name. In the reign of Emperor Xianfeng of the Qing Dynasty (1851-1862), a poor farmer's child named Zhao Ting went to the capital to apprentice in a shoe shop. In three years, Zhao mastered skills to make shoes and managed the shop well. A general appreciated Zhao's skills and integrity so much that he gave a thousand liang of silver to help Zhao open his own shoe shop. In 1853, Zhao set up his shoe shop and named it Nei Liansheng.

  7. Dynamics of fashion: The case of given names

    CERN Document Server

    Zanette, Damian H

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the social mechanisms that shape the popularity rise and fall of the names given to newborn babies. During the initial stage, popularity increases by imitation. As the people with the same name grow in number, however, its usage is inhibited and eventually decays. This process mirrors the dynamics of fashion fads. An activator-inhibitor dynamical model for the interplay of the population bearing a name and the expecting couples wishing to give it to their children provides a satisfactory explanation of historical data from the Canadian province of Quebec during the twentieth century.

  8. A further note on the scientific name of Bullocks’ Oriole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesser, R. Terry

    2015-01-01

    Chesser (2013) intended to introduce a justified emendation to Icterus bullockii under Article 32.5.1 of the Code (ICZN 1999), because the name honors both William Bullock, Sr., and William Bullock, Jr. However, the correction bullockorum is "incorrect" and therefore is an unjustified emendation (Article 33.2.3). Under the assumption that the name Bullock was latinized (cf. Article 31.1.1) to Bullockius (bullocki– + the nominative case ending –us) and therefore that the name bullockii comprises the stem bullocki– + the genitive case ending –i, the justified correction bullockiorum is required.

  9. Plant-Based Diets Score Big for Healthy Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162874.html Plant-Based Diets Score Big for Healthy Weight Loss ... row, U.S. News & World Report has named the plant-based eating plan as the best choice overall, ...

  10. Typification of some species names in Elaphoglossum section Polytrichia (Dryopteridaceae from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Bittencourt Matos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The fern genus Elaphoglossum has received a great deal of attention in Brazil over the last two centuries. Nevertheless, many of the early names remain inadequately typified. In this paper, the nomenclature of some Brazilian species of Elaphoglossum sect. Polytrichia is discussed under the rules and recommendations of the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants. Lectotypes are designated for the following names: Acrostichum amplissimum Fée; A. apodum Kaulf. var. sprucei Baker; A. glaziovii Fée; A. lindbergii Mett. ex Kuhn; A. prestonii Baker; Elaphoglossum spannagelii Rosenst.; and Elaphoglossum ulei H. Christ. Most of these types were collected in Brazil during the 19th century and are now preserved in several European herbaria.

  11. Resolving place names in Amdo and Kham: A gazetteer for the Hengduan Mountains region of Southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Susan L.KELLEY

    2006-01-01

    Perhaps no region on earth presents such a confusing array of place names as does the area made up of the former provinces of Kham and Amdo in historic Tibet (Xizang). Within these areas, cities, towns, villages, mountains, lakes and other geographic features have at least two names applied to them, one Tibetan, the other Chinese. Overlying this indigenous nomenclature are the names applied by outsiders, mostly Europeans, each of whom used their native language to transliterate the names they heard or read from Tibetan or Chinese script, and names in the languages of other ethnic minorities who live within the area. Adding to the confusion are the conflicting "standards" for transliterating Tibetan and Chinese names. To resolve the inconsistencies and uncertainties of place names in this region, a multilingual gazetteer and thesaurus was prepared. The gazetteer-thesaurus was compiled to be used as a tool for correlating the often radically different names assigned to a single place or feature and to provide the geographic coordinates for each. The impetus for this project was the need to assign geographic coordinates to plant specimens collected in the area since the latter part of the 19th century up until the advent and widespread use of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers in the 1990s. Georeferencing specimens is necessary for plotting the historical distribution of species and for more completely understanding the information contained on specimen labels. Knowing the distribution of plants is important for answering phylogenetic questions, determining local and widespread biogeographical patterns, identifying areas of unusually high diversity or endemism, and determining areas in need of special protection. The value of such a gazetteer, however, extends well beyond the field of botany. It is intended to be of use to anyone with a desire to know the nomenclatural history of places in the area and for pinpointing with a fair degree of accuracy the location

  12. The Restructuring of Christian Personal Names in the Pre-National Period: Names Ending in *-ŏ (-ъ, -о

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina M. Ganzhina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article continues a series of publications analyzing the derivation within a regional system of Christian personal name forms in the pre-national period. With reference to the anthroponyms recorded in 16–17th centuries Tver business documents, the author focuses on the ways of structural changes of the full forms of male Christian personal names in everyday communication. The second article of the series deals with one paradigmatic class of full Christian personal names, specifically those ending in -ъ, -o. In real communication, the stock of full popular forms of names was not homogeneous, being represented by numerous different phonetic and morphological variants due to rebracketing and formal changes of the anthroponymic stems. The author reveals word-formational mechanisms which enabled foreign personal names to integrate into the onomastic system of the Russian language and resulted in numerous colloquial forms of names with formally modified (truncated, lengthened or rearranged pseudomorphemes to emerge. The structural rearrangements and formally determined associative correlations in the anthroponymic word-formation sometimes eliminated differences between full and “qualitative” forms because both of them could include the same elements. The structural rearrangements of names were accompanied by phonetic changes. These varieties, both morphological and phonetic, created a unique anthroponymic “pattern” of the region.

  13. Named Entity Recognition Based on A Machine Learning Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available For the recruitment information in Web pages, a novel unified model for named entity recognition is proposed in this study. The models provide a simple statistical framework to incorporate a wide variety of linguistic knowledge and statistical models in a unified way. In our approach, firstly, Multi-Rules are built for a better representation of the named entity, in order to emphasize the specific semantics and term space in the named entity. Then an optimal algorithm of the hierarchically structured DSTCRFs is performed, in order to pick out the structure attributes of the named entity from the recruitment knowledge and optimize the efficiency of the training. The experimental results showed that the accuracy rate has been significantly improved and the complexity of sample training has been decreased.

  14. Taxon names of the Tricladida maricola (Platyhelminthes): additions and emendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluys, Ronald; Kawakatsu, Masaharu

    1995-01-01

    We formally correct the spelling of several taxon names of marine planarians. The authorship and date of publication are given for all current higher taxa (from the rank of subfamily and higher) in the Tricladida Maricola.

  15. Categories of Emotion names in Web retrieved texts

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, Sergey; Perlovsky, Leonid I

    2012-01-01

    The categorization of emotion names, i.e., the grouping of emotion words that have similar emotional connotations together, is a key tool of Social Psychology used to explore people's knowledge about emotions. Without exception, the studies following that research line were based on the gauging of the perceived similarity between emotion names by the participants of the experiments. Here we propose and examine a new approach to study the categories of emotion names - the similarities between target emotion names are obtained by comparing the contexts in which they appear in texts retrieved from the World Wide Web. This comparison does not account for any explicit semantic information; it simply counts the number of common words or lexical items used in the contexts. This procedure allows us to write the entries of the similarity matrix as dot products in a linear vector space of contexts. The properties of this matrix were then explored using Multidimensional Scaling Analysis and Hierarchical Clustering. Our ...

  16. How to Name and Classify Your Phage: An Informal Guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien Adriaenssens

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With this informal guide, we try to assist both new and experienced phage researchers through two important stages that follow phage discovery; that is, naming and classification. Providing an appropriate name for a bacteriophage is not as trivial as it sounds, and the effects might be long-lasting in databases and in official taxon names. Phage classification is the responsibility of the Bacterial and Archaeal Viruses Subcommittee (BAVS of the International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV. While the BAVS aims at providing a holistic approach to phage taxonomy, for individual researchers who have isolated and sequenced a new phage, this can be a little overwhelming. We are now providing these researchers with an informal guide to phage naming and classification, taking a “bottom-up” approach from the phage isolate level.

  17. Proliferative multifocal leukoplakia better name that proliferative verrucous leukoplakia

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre-Urizar Jose M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In this letter I propose the name "Proliferative Multifocal Leukoplakia" with the goal of reducing under-diagnosis of this disease, improve the early diagnosis, try to make an early therapy and control, and prevent its malignant transformation.

  18. 76 FR 60808 - Notice; Adoption of Operational Name for Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... to adopt an operational name in order to ensure greater recognition and transparency as a federal... powerful brand identity, to better convey its employment mission, and to link participating nonprofit...

  19. GNIS: Geographic Names Information Systems - All features (2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The Geographic Names Information System (GNIS) is the Federal standard for geographic nomenclature. The U.S. Geological Survey developed the GNIS for the U.S. Board...

  20. Official naming of the 1977 maars, south shore, Becharof Lake

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In preparing for a reply to your memo of July 15, 1993, regarding the naming of the Ukinrek Maars following their emplacement in 1977, I once again contacted the...